Doina BUTIURCĂ Inga DRUŢĂ Attila IMRE
TERMINOLOGY AND TRANSLATION STUDIES PLURILINGUAL TERMINOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE
“Petru Maior” University, Tg.-Mureş, The Faculty of sciences and letters
The Institute of Philology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chişinău
Faculty of Technical and Human sciences, Tg.-Mureş
TERMINOLOGY AND TRANSLATION STUDIES NATIONS AND NATIONAL PLURILINGUAL TERMINOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF MINORITIES IN THE EUROPEAN INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE EUROPEAN UNION Editors: Doina BUTIURCĂ Inga DRUŢĂ Edited by BARNA BODÓ Attila IMRE
Scientia Kiadó Publishing House Kolozsvár·2011 2011 Cluj-Napoca�2009
The book was published with the support of: Project Terminologia plurilingvă şi Dicţionarul poliglot de termeni (Code: WE_PN-II-ID-WE-2011-009), IDEI Programme, Exploring Workshops of UEFIsCDI, Romania sC.MIlKPACT sRl, Tg.-Mureş sapientia Foundation Publisher-in-chief: prof. univ. dr. zoltán Kása Readers: prof. univ.dr./cercet. şt. I. Ioana VINTIlĂ-RĂDUlEsCU, Academia Română, Bucureşti prof. univ. dr. Angela BIDU-VRĂNCEANU, Universitatea Bucureşti The studies in this volume express the views of the authors, who are entirely responsible for the content of their work. Series cover: Dénes Miklósi
Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României BUTIURCĂ, Doina Terminology and translation studies / Doina Butiurcă, Inga Druţă, Attila Imre. - Cluj-Napoca : scientia, 2011 Bibliogr. IsBN 978-973-1970-63-9 I. Druţă, Inga II. Imre, Attila 81
TABLE OF Contents
Editorial Note Notă editorială A szerkesztők előszava Foreword Cuvânt-înainte
9 11 13 15 17
I. LINGUISTICS AND TERMINOLOGY
Bidu-Vrănceanu, Angela Rolul lingvisticii în terminologie
Toma, Cristina-Alice Terminologie discursive et termes migrateurs
Museanu, Elena Peculiarities of Textual Analysis in the Economic Terminology
Bahnaru, Vasile Dimitrie Cantemir, pionier al internaţionalizării terminologiei româneşti
Druţă, Inga – Popa, Viorica Dificultăţi de echivalare a unor termeni în discursul didactic actual
Vieru, Lidia Dificultăţi în utilizarea termenilor cromatici
Vlas, Mariana Terminologia în domeniul turismului. Istoric şi aplicativitate
Butiurcă, Doina Levels of Analysis of Metaphor Terminology
Table of Contens
Cristina, Rusu-Marian – Claudia, Rusu-Marian – Butiurcă, Doina Conceptual Metaphor – Model and Mental Construct
II. TERMINOGRAPHY VS. LEXICOGRAPHY The problem of “definition” in plurilingual/ bilingual dictionaries
Liliana, Alic Définition terminographique vs définition lexicographique
Imre Attila Szótárszerkesztés és terminológiai adatbázisok
Caraiman, Carmen D. – Medrea, Nicoleta A Lexicographic Approach to the English-Romanian/ Romanian-English Legal Dictionaries and Glossaries Existing on the Romanian Book Market
Săpoiu, Camelia Definiţiile şi rolul lor în terminologia medicală
Rus, Maria-Laura Annotations on Lexical Innovations
III. PLURILINGUAL TERMINOLOGY. TRANSLATION AND EQUIVALENCE
Enache, Eugenia Traduction et terminologie
Bozedean, Corina Les ambiguïtés terminologiques dans la traduction spécialisée: le cas de quelques termes économiques
Table of Contens
Sárosi-Márdirosz, Krisztina-Mária Limbajul juridic şi traducerea
Benő, Attila – Rácz, Lilla Translation and Modal Meanings
Imre, Attila A Practical Approach to Translating Modal Verbs. The Case of need 235 Năznean, Adrian Training as a Medical Translator
Năznean, Andreea The Role of Translation in Teaching a Foreign Language
Gál, Noémi The Effects of the EU’s Language Policy on Revitalizing Endangered Languages
Nagy, Imola-Katalin Terminology Issues and Guidelines for Teaching English for Specific Purposes
Kovács, Gabriella ESP for Horticulture – Needs Analysis and Genre Analysis
Nagy, Sándor-István Mai bun decât originalul – Jobb, mint az eredeti
Balázs, Melinda Explicitation Strategies in the Translation of Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights
Nagy-Szilveszter, Orsolya Herztier – Aspecte ale traducerii literare
Table of Contens
Chirilă, Alina-Elena Carmen Sylva als Übersetzerin Im Rahamen Der Fin De Siècle Literatur
Han, Bianca-Oana The Culture Specific Element – A Mark of the National Feature
Szaló Réka Drámatechnikák a nyelvoktatásban
About the authors/ Despre autori/ A szerzőkről
Publications in the Workshop Series
The present volume is the result of a selection of papers presented during an exploring Workshop financed by a national programme (Planul Naţional de Cercetare, dezvoltare şi inovare 2007-2013, PNII Program IDEI, PN-II-ID-WE-2011–09) and the First International Symposium of Terminology at “Petru Maior” University of Tîrgu-Mureş, Romania. The Workshop is the first fundamental action of the Inter-University Research Project entitled “Plurilingual Terminology and Polyglot Dictionary of Terms”, proposed by “Petru Maior” University of Tîrgu-Mureş, the Faculty of Sciences and Letters. The Workshop has been carried out in collaboration with the Institute of Philology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chişinău (Institutul de Filologie al Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei, Centrul de Terminologie, Cooperation Programme Nr. 3785/02.11.2010) and Sapientia University, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences, Tîrgu-Mureş (Sapientia EMTE, Marosvásárhelyi Műszaki és Humántudományok Kar, Cooperation Programme Nr. 720/12.10.2010). Many reserchers, teachers, university lecturers and professors have presented their papers, as well as translators and Ph.D. candidates from prestigious universities in Romania (Bucharest, Iaşi) and abroad. Outstanding researchers of linguistics and terminology from Bucharest, Braşov and Cluj-Napoca have been accompanied by young researchers activating in Belgium, Hungary, France and terminologists from the Centre of Terminology within the Institute of Philology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chişinău. We tend to think that the presentations and papers illustrate an exploring interdisciplinary topic, whose complexity is determined by the interference of various linguistic fields, such as lexicology, linguistics and translation studies, combined with terminology, terminography and other sciences (medicine, economy, exact sciences, human sciences) in the context of European plurilinguism.
Publicăm (parţial) în volumul de faţă comunicările prezentate în cadrul Workshop-ului exploratoriu ( finanţat prin Planul Naţional de Cercetare, dezvoltare şi inovare 2007-2013, PNII Program IDEI, Subprogram “Workshop-uri Exploratorii”,Identificator: PN-II-ID-WE-2011—3) şi a Simpozionului cu participare internaţională, ediţia I. Workshop-ul este prima acţiune fundamentală a Proiectului de Cercetare interuniversitară, ,,Terminologie plurilingvă şi Dicţionar poliglot de termeni”, propus de Universitatea ,,Petru Maior”din Tîrgu-Mureş, Facultatea de Ştiinţe şi Litere (cf. Protocol de colaborare nr.3785/02.11.2010), şi realizat în colaborare cu Institutul de Filologie al Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei (Centrul de Terminologie), Chişinău, şi cu Universitatea Sapientia, Cluj-Napoca, prin Facultatea de Ştiinţe Tehnice şi Umaniste, Tîrgu-Mureş (cf. Protocol de Colaborare nr.720/12.10.2010). Au susţinut comunicări şi prelegeri cercetători, cadre didactice din învăţământul universitar şi preuniversitar, traducători, doctoranzi de la Universităţi de prestigiu din ţară (Bucureşti, Iaşi) şi din străinătate (Franţa). Li s-au alăturat personalităţi din domeniul lingvisticii şi terminologiei (Bucureşti), lingvişti de prestigiu (Bucureşti, Braşov, Cluj), tineri cercetători care îşi desfăşoară activitatea în alte ţări (Belgia, Ungaria, Franţa), terminologi din cadrul Centrului de Terminologie al Institutului de Filologie al Academiei de Ştiinţe a Molodovei. Comunicările ilustrează o temă exploratorie interdisciplinară a cărei complexitate este determinată de interferenţa mai multor domenii lingvistice (lexicologie, lingvistică, traductologie) cu domeniul terminologiei, terminografiei şi al diferitelor ştiinţe (ştiinţe exacte, medicină, economie, ştiinţe umaniste) în contextul plurilingvismului european.
A szerkesztők előszava
Jelen kötet válogatott műhelytanulmányokat tartalmaz, melyek a 2007–2013-as Román Nemzeti Kutatás- Fejlesztés és Innovációs Program pályázata keretében (PNII Program IDEI, „Workshop-uri Exploratorii” alprogram, azonosító: PN-II-ID-WE-2011–3), valamint az első nemzetközi Terminológiai Konferencia keretében hangzottak el a marosvásárhelyi „Petru-Maior” Egyetemen 2011-ben. A Plurilingvális terminológia és Többnyelvű terminológiai szótár Műhely az egyetemek közötti Kutatásprogram első lépését fémjelzi, melynek kezdeményezője a marosvásárhelyi „Petru-Maior” Egyetem Bölcsész- és Tudományok Kara. Együttműködési szerződéseket írt alá mind a kisinyói székhelyű Moldovai Tudományos Akadémia Filológiai Intézetével (Iktatószám: 3785/2010.11.02.), mind pedig a a Sapientia EMTE marosvásárhelyi Műszaki- és Humántudományok Karával (Iktatószám: 720/2010.10.12.) Ennek eredményeként előadásokat és bemutatókat tartottak romániai közép- és felsőoktatási intézmények képviselői, fordítók, elismert romániai és külföldi egyetemek doktoranduszai (Bukarest, Jászvásár, Franciaország). Természetesen jelen voltak tekintélyes nyelvészek, terminológusok az ország híres egyetemi központjaiból is (Bukarest, Brassó, Kolozsvár), de külföldi intézmények fiatal kutatói is (Belgium, Franciaország, Magyarország), valamint a kisinyói Terminológiai Központ képviselői is (Moldovai Tudományos Akadémia Filológiai Intézete) és a Sapientia EMTE marosvásárhelyi Műszaki és Humántudományok Kar több oktatója is. A bemutatott tanulmányok kísérleti interdiszciplinaritás jellegűek, hiszen több nyelvészeti ág interferenciájáról van szó: lexikológia, traduktológia, terminológia, terminográfia, de más tudományágak is megjelennek az európai plurilingvizmus jegyében (egzakt tudományok, orvostudomány, vagy akár gazdaságtan). Kellemes és hasznos olvasást kívánunk!
Europe has become more and more diverse from the cultural point of view. Consequently, the intercultural dialogue plays a growingly important role in promoting European identity and citizenship. The European Chart of Plurilingualism of 2005, elaborated in Paris, is dedicated precisely to this ideal of plurilingualism, and its Romanian translation is considered to be among the official versions. In the chapter from the Chart entitled Plurilingualism, cultural diversity and scientific progress, based around the idea that “plurilingualism is an essential element of the scientific innovation,” we are made aware of the fact that “in the scientific domain, using the lingua franca […] must be limited to the international change […]. In parallel, different national languages ought to be preserved as scientific languages, sustained and strongly applied within national scientific activities. ” Professor Ph.D. Ioana Vintilă-Rădulescu “Iorgu Iordan – Al. Rosetti” Institute of Linguistics Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania
The contemporary society represents a multilingual community, in which highly cultural languages have evolved along centuries. Europe intends to value this linguistic and cultural inheritance, since the respect for the linguistic diversity constitutes a fundamental value of the European Union. According to the Lisbon Treaty (2007), the European Union protects its cultural and linguistic diversity and watches over the preservation and development of the European cultural patrimony. An increased attention ought to be given to the development of the linguistic means facilitating specialised communication, mainly terminology. The technological process implies alterations in the forms and means of specialised com munication, which are becoming more and more complex and arouse the interest of the economic domain. The cultural dimension of globalisation sets the issue of the relation between culture and economic capitalisation. We can witness a process of democratisation of culture and globalisation of certain culturally marked products. The integration of the elements of
material and spiritual culture and their competition to the native ones is achieved at both cultural and economic levels. Technical and scientific terminology supports this aspect, contributing to the integration of the national culture to the world structures under the competitive conditions. Considering things from this perspective, we salute the initiative of organising an exploratory workshop and symposium focusing upon pluriÂ lingual terminology and the utility of the present volume is of undoubted value. Professor Ph.D. Hab. Irina CONDREA Head of the Department of Romanian Language State University of Moldavia
Europa a devenit tot mai diversă sub aspect cultural. Ca urmare, dialogul intercultural joacă un rol din ce în ce mai important în promovarea identităţii şi a cetăţeniei europene. Acest dialog nu poate fi conceput în afara plurilingvismului, căruia îi este consacrată Carta europeană a plurilingvismului, a cărei elaborare a fost decisă la Paris în anul 2005 şi a cărei traducere în limba română se numără printre versiunile ei oficiale. În capitolul din Cartă intitulat Plurilingvismul, diversitatea culturală şi progresul ştiinþific, care are la bază ideea că „plurilingvismul este un element esenţial al inovaţiei ştiinţifice”, se arată că „în domeniul ştiinţific, utilizarea unei lingua franca […] trebuie să se limiteze la schimbul internaţional […]. În paralel, diferitele limbi naţionale trebuie păstrate ca limbi ştiinţifice, încurajate şi, în cadrul activităţii ştiinţifice naţionale, aplicate din plin.” În această direcþie, terminologia, în special cea plurilingvă, şi traductologia au de jucat un rol foarte important. Este meritul excelentei echipe de editori de a fi făcut din volumul de faþă expresia unui proiect emblematic la nivel naţional în acest sens, aşa cum au fost şi atelierul explorator şi simpozionul ale căror lucrări le reflectă. Prof. univ. dr. Ioana Vintilă-Rădulescu Institutul de Lingvistică „Iorgu Iordan – Al. Rosetti” din Bucureşti al Academiei Române
Societatea contemporană reprezintă o comunitate multilingvă, în care limbi de mare cultură au evoluat de-a lungul secolelor.Europa unită îşi propune să valorifice această moştenire lingvistică şi culturală, întrucât respectul pentru diversitatea lingvistică constituie o valoare fundamentală a Uniunii Europene. Conform Tratatului de la Lisabona (decembrie 2007), Uniunea Europeană protejează diversitatea sa cultură şi lingvistică şi veghează asupra conservării şi dezvoltării patrimoniului cultural european.Dezvoltarea mijloacelor lingvistice care facilitează comunicarea specializată, în special a terminologiei, trebuie să benefecieze de o atenţie sporită. Progresul tehnologic implică modificări ale formelor şi mijloacelor de comunicare
specializată, care devin tot mai complexe şi suscită tot mai mult interesul sferei economice. Dimensiunea culturală a globalizării pune problema relaţiei dintre cultură şi rentabilitate economică.Suntem martorii unui proces de democratizare a culturii şi de globalizare a anumitor produse marcate cultural.Integrarea elementelor de cultură materială şi spirituală, dar şi competiţia lor cu cele autohtone, se realizează atât în plan cultural, cât şi în plan economic.Terminologia ştiinţifică şi tehnică constituie un exemplu sub acest aspect, contribuind la integrarea culturii naţionale în structuri mondiale în condiţiile concurenţei. Din această perspectivă, este salutară iniţiativa organizării unui workshop exploratoriu, a unor Simpozioane etc ce au în centrul atenţiei terminologia plurilingvă, iar utilitatea volumului care înglobează lucrările prezentate este indiscutabilă. dr. hab. prof. univ. Irina CONDREA, şefa Catedrei de limba română, Universitatea de Stat din Moldova
Drámatechnikák a nyelvoktatásban
Liliana ALIC Definition in Teminography vs Definition in Lexicography This article aims to study an important aspect of a terminographer’s work, namely the way a definition is conceived. Definitions vary, according to the specialist who deals with their conception: the terminographer or the lexicographer. Lexicography uses semasiology while terminography uses onomasiology to define terms. We wish to insist upon the unit each of the two domains chooses to deal with, because this very aspect makes the difference between lexicography and terminography. A lexicographer deals with one-word terms, while a terminologist may have to deal with concepts expressed in compound words. A language for special purposes often deals with collocations, which are identified by the terminographer. If terminology and terminography are interdisciplinary sciences, a terminagrapher’s work involves cooperation between specialists from various fields of activity who are needed to validate the terms. The two approaches, despite their differences, complete each other in their common goal to create inventories of terms for special or general use.
Vasile BAHNARU Dimitrie Cantemir – a pioneer of internationalizing Romanian terminology Until Dimitrie Cantemir, Romanian terminology from different fields had been in an incipient state of establishment, having been influenced largely by terminology systems from old Slavic (with small exception, of course, shown mainly in the literary variant from Moldova, which had experienced a certain Latin interaction through the Polish language, while the Muntenia variant had been under the influence of Bulgarian and Serbian). As someone familiar with classical languages (Greek and Latin), Dimitrie Cantemir came to the conclusion that the main source for developing scientific terminology are Greek, Latin and Neo-Latin languages, with his works Istoria ieroglifică and Divanul being conclusive in this train of thought.
Melinda BALÁZS Explicitation Strategies in the Translation of Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights Explicitation is considered an inherent feature of the process of translation irrespective of the languages involved. Other potential translation universals include disambiguation, simplification, use of conventional grammar, etc. Since translations are regarded as having a language of their own, the study of translation universals enables us to find out more about this ‘third code.’ My presentation is aimed at investigating how explicitation is realized in two different translations of Emily Brontë’s classic novel, Wuthering Heights.
Attila BENŐ – Lilla RÁCZ Translation and modal meanings In the article we present the translation of English modal meanings in Hungarian source texts. We have analyzed English and Hungarian law and literal text from that point of view. The differences show the slight change or modification of modal meanings. The study presents the forms of modification of modal values in translation, and emphasizes that the differences are often rooted in the different modal categories at word level of Hungarian and English. Sometimes the modal meaning differences at syntax level can change the meaning of a whole passage of a text. The analyses show that modal meanings are meta-information in the translation, which need extra attention during the translation activity.
Angela BIDU-VRĂNCEANU The role of linguistics in terminology Terminology as a scientific interdisciplinary discipline has experienced remarkable development in the last decades. One can distinguish cognitive terminology studies (“internal”) from those representing descriptive linguistic terminology (“external”). The latter are divided depending on the methods used to describe a given terminology. Romanian studies support both lexical and textual perspectives through the relationship between dictionaries and texts, with different results depending on the terminology studied.
Corina BOZEDEAN Les ambiguïtés terminologiques dans la traduction spécialisée : le cas de quelques termes économiques Les ambiguïtés terminologiques que le traducteur rencontre dans la traduction spécialisée sont loin d’être éclairées par les dictionnaires ou les glossaires bilingues ou monolingues du domaine. C’est pourquoi dans le passage d’un terme d’une langue à l’autre, le traducteur doit maîtriser à la fois des connaissances linguistiques et extra-linguistiques. Or, l’hétérogénéité des textes à traduire sur le marché du travail, empêche souvent le traducteur de se spécialiser dans un seul domaine. Dans ce contexte, les ressources terminologiques devraient montrer une plus grande adéquation aux exigences de la traduction spécialisée, en éclaircissant plus précisément certains aspects terminologiques fondamentaux, dont celui de la synonymie, qui peut occasionner des confusions. Tel est le cas des termes « frais », « dépenses », « charges » ou bien « taxes » et « droits », dont l’étroite parenté rend difficile leur choix correct dans la traduction.
Doina BUTIURCĂ Levels of analysis of the terminological metaphor In the context of the relationship between language and terminology, the research proposes a concise analysis of the functions of the terminological metaphor by correlating it to the functions of the language (referential, denominative, denotative, etc.) and the field of cognitivism (the informational function). Other aspects of the research: the motivation of the terminological metaphor, the transparency of conceptualization, the coherence that the conceptual model confers to a given terminology/or a given field, etc. The application is accomplished by the study of the source field (the Greek and the Roman house/elements/principles/equivalence of attributes) and the target field (NA, Virology, and Rheumatology) from the medical terminology.
Carmen D. CARAIMAN – Nicoleta MEDREA A Lexicographic Approach to the English-Romanian/ Romanian-English Legal Dictionaries and Glossaries Existing On the Romanian Book Market The goal of the study is to highlight the main methods used by the authors to create legal dictionaries and glossaries in English-Romanian and Romanian-English available on the book market today. Specialists and those interested in studying the content and structure of such dictionaries will notice the low number of works on the Romanian market compared to, for example, the field of economics. Furthermore, one may find the terms included to be insufficient, their structures simple. Our study shall analyze both the criteria the authors of the dictionaries used to select the terms, as well as their structure (phonetic transcription, contextualization, identifying countable/uncountable nouns, denoting special plural forms, references to synonyms or another term from the dictionary to eliminate ambiguities, etc.).
Alina-Elena CHIRILĂ Carmen Sylva as a translator in the context of Fin de siècle literature As a German-born princess and the first Romanian queen, Carmen Sylva – as she was known under her literary pseudonym – is a cultural link between German culture and the still-maturing Romanian one. As such, Carmen Sylva’s literary work is of course extremely important and her work as a translator must, by all means, be mentioned. This work aims to analyze Carmen Sylva as a translator – of mostly Romanian folk poetry – and to correctly categorize her literary work, especially since she wrote in the stormy literary era at the turn of the century – also known as Fin de siècle or Decadence.
Inga DRUŢĂ – Viorica POPA Difficulties in assimilating certain terms in the current didactic discourse There are changes in all human fields of activity, and once these happen, lexical and semantic innovations appear. Specialized languages, over time, decant; specialists make a rigorous selection of terms necessary
for their work, loanwords are adapted or assimilated, while rebarbative terms fall into desuetude. The current didactic parlance has borrowed from certain international and other specialized languages a series of loanwords that give it a modern aspect, yet which, in the initial phase of borrowing, frequently shows semantic and phonetic difficulties. English and French loanwords are especially problematic, as these are generally written differently than they are pronounced (“fortunate” cases such as grant, master or item are somewhat rarer). The paper shall discuss a series of current concepts from the field in question and their terminological equivalents.
Eugenia ENACHE Translation and terminology The goal of this article is to emphasize the reasons why translation and terminology are connected as well as the close relationship between translator and terminologist, working together to achieve a good comprehension of a text and an efficient communication. Focussed on translation, terminology aims to establish equivalences between various languages which can contribute to enhance the quality of the translation. For a translator, terminology helps translating contents from one language to another; a translator must have a good knowledge of terminology in order to achieve a good and reliable translation in various fields of human activity. The translator must also have a good knowledge of the structure of each language, of the way concepts are expressed. All this is a good indicator of the quality and of various abilities of a specialized translator.
Noémi GÁL The effects of the EU’s language policy on revitalizing endangered languages The revitalization of endangered languages has recently become a very popular topic in sociolinguistic research. As it is an extremely complex phenomenon, very many factors influence its outcomes. In my presentation I aim to outline the general linguistic context of the EU, as well as its possible effects on revitalizing endangered or potentially endangered languages, with a special regard to a few case-studies.
Bianca-Oana HAN The Culture Specific Element – A Mark of the National Feature The present article intends to shed light upon certain aspects regarding the literary translation from Romanian into English, focusing upon the issues implied by the intercultural and interlinguistic transfer of those terms that preserve the local and national atmosphere, thus constituting the specific of a language, the so-called ‘culture specific elements,’ CSEs.
Attila IMRE A Practical Approach to Translating Modal Verbs The paper deals with a rather problematic issue, namely the translation of a few English modal verbs into non-Indo-European languages, such as Romanian or Hungarian. The research starts from a database containing more than 1,000 sentences with modal verbs in three languages, which is then fed into the translation memory and term base of the MemoQ translation environment.
Dictionaries and Term Bases The “global village” of the 21st century is becoming more and more technical, so it is difficult to find the place and role of published material. The article focuses on the importance of term bases, including their value and quality in an age when almost everything is downloadable. The second part of the article enlists several types of dictionary, including regular, printed, specialized and cultural ones as well.
Gabriella KOVÁCS ESP for Horticulture Needs Analysis and Genre Analysis The necessity of ESP courses in higher education has become obvious and imperative since Romania became member of the European Union. A thorough needs analysis was conducted involving horticulture students
and colleagues from Sapientia University (TĂŽrgu-MureĹ&#x;, Romania), and other professionals with work experience, in order to determine what genres are the students more likely to encounter in the future, what sort of tasks they have to be able to perform in their profession. Specialized texts used by horticulturists belonging to different genres were gathered. A part of them has been analyzed from the following viewpoints: their specific structure; the communicative functions expressing specialized meanings; means of creating cohesion; expressing rhetorical functions; cognitive processes. The needs analysis and genre analysis are of great help in deciding what kind of tasks and activities can best prepare the students for their future profession.
Elena MUSEANU Peculiarities of textual analysis in the economic terminology The analysis starts from the premise of the differential partial behavior of terms in various types of economic discourse â€“ scientific and environment related (in the economic press of wide circulation). Examples considered concern the preservation of the hard core of the specialized meaning and the conceptual-semantic effects triggered by contextual combinations in different types of texts.
Imola-Katalin NAGY Terminology Issues and Guidelines for Teaching English for Specific Purposes This paper deals with some aspects of foreign language teaching, with a special emphasis on the so-called ESP (English for Specific Purposes). Our aim is to cover some aspects of teaching English for professional purposes. After a short historical overview of language teaching methods and theories, we focus on some of the linguistic peculiarities of English for medicine, English for advertising, English for the media, English for medicine, etc. Finally, we intend to approach the use of role-plays and simulation in the teaching of English for different professions.
Sándor István NAGY Living History The research takes account of several aspects of translation based on the experience gained within the Romanian-Hungarian translation course of our department, which has been carried out in cooperation with the Romanian Language and Literature Department of the University. Beside the translations of literary texts, the study notably focuses on works with historical content. Starting from the edifying examples of the historical text – related to the history of Transylvania, our goal is to present several linguistic characteristics that are specific to the process of translation from the Romanian language into Hungarian.
Orsolya NAGY-SZILVESZTER Herztier – Aspects of Literary Translation Literary translation is not just a simple transposal of a discourse from a language into another, it is a form of creation, an embodiment of intercultural dialogue. The translator involved in the translation of literary texts has to confront a multitude of decisions in the process of recreating a literary work in another language and culture. This paper aims at highlighting and analysing several aspects of translating a literary text into the target language, focusing on examples drawn from Herta Müller’s novel entitled Herztier, its translation into Romanian by Nora Iuga – Animalul inimii – and into Hungarian by Nádori Lídia – Szívjószág.
Adrian NĂZNEAN Training as a medical translator With the constantly growing number of medical articles, translators have to permanently keep up to date with the linguistic changes. Translators are thus faced with problems ranging from the lack of exact correspondents to borrowings. This article aims to focus on some of the particularities and difficulties that medical texts in the field of orthopaedics, histology and pathology can have and to analyse some of the strategies that can be successfully applied in translating such articles.
Andreea NĂZNEAN The role of translation in teaching a foreign language This article aims at presenting different arguments for and against translation in teaching a foreign language. It also recommends translation as one of many possibilities of relating English to students’ own languages. It also considers the different uses and roles of translation and bilingualism for different stages of learning and for different purposes. My intention is also to suggest ways in which translation might be incorporated into textbooks and curriculum development.
Maria-Laura RUS Annotations on Lexical innovations Vocabulary is the most susceptible compartment of language to be subjected to different changes. The lexical units that were subject to these changes of form and/or meaning, representing lexical innovations, can be underlined in so far as they are seen diachronically, because once generalized, they become historical categories. The changes in vocabulary determine its quantitative growth, based on words and variants that already exist in language or adaptation and endorsement of words, forms, meanings from other languages. The paper presents different linguistic phenomena that lexical innovations are based on: lexical analogy, hypercorrectness, popular etymology, contamination. Illustrative examples for each of these phenomena are brought into our discussion.
Claudia RUSU-MARIAN – Cristina RUSU-MARIAN – Doina BUTIURCĂ The Conceptual Metaphor – Mental Model and Construct The study proposes to define the status of the conceptual metaphor from a contrastive perspective. Shaping the scientific concepts in the base of a metaphorical model cannot be separated from the domain of logic. The conceptual metaphor has a cognitive function. Selecting the database for the transfer complies with the objective factors allowing a more efficient exploitation of the ontological, through generalisation/
abstraction: the equivalences, the stability of rapports among the domains, the dependence of the “locutor” on the mental stereotypes, the tendency to reflect the traits of the phenomenon in conditions of conceptual transparency etc. The process of metaphorisation is not carried out at random, but respecting certain logical patterns.
Camelia SĂPOIU Definitions and their role in medical terminology The present work is a short study of metalexicography aiming to analyze the types of alternative definitions of medical terms registered in DEX and in DEXI. On the other hand, hyponymy studied concerning lexicographical definition is an interesting aspect of linguistics. Hyponymy and also hypernymy are exploited for the wording of the lexicographical definitions and these become the main lexicographical manner for defining the medical terms in dictionaries of general language.
Krisztina-Mária SÁROSI-MÁRDIROSZ Legal language and translation A general characteristic of law is that this scientific domain is manifested through texts forming a whole. Hence the translator’s obligation to maintain the consistency of legal language in translations and/or in equivalence. In our research we propose to emphasize all the elements that help maintain a relative coherence of the domain (contracting parties, imprisonment, etc.), but also that of the special terminology: the use of expressions that function as codes which cannot be replaced with the elements of another semiotic system – as they are the segments of natural language; the correct use of phraseological expressions with a terminological value, the maintenance of the existing terminology – especially in legal and official texts, etc. We will not neglect the difficulties the translator faces in proper application of the specialized language (the poverty or even lack of terminological resources, the conventional nature of forms, the culture and the need to create).
Réka SZALÓ Drama techniques in language teaching The aim of the present research is organizing and performing a comprehensive and comparative survey among different groups of students learning English as foreign language at different level and through different methods. Our objective is to monitor the effects of an alternative teaching method- in our case educational drama-, to observe its effect on students’ achievement, their self-knowledge, communication and emotional intelligence.
Cristina-Alice TOMA Discursive terminology and migrating terms Traditional terminology studies the term as a concept, while modern linguistic terminology considers the term, from a semasiologic point of view, as a lexeme. Consequently, a contradiction arises between, on the one hand, the univocal semantic term, his mono reference, and terminological polysemia on the other hand. In this article, by taking the example of mathematics, we propose a solution to the above-mentioned “conflict” via discursive terminology, which gives a new interpretation to the results of lexical terminology. The meaning is associated with the conceptual property and each concept has a specific representation and a conceptual structure.
Lidia VIERU Difficulties of translating certain chromatic terms The question of colours has always concerned both humanists and scientists, being a social question as well, as people do not live alone but in society. The analysis of the special vocabulary demonstrates the importance of the chromatic terms used and defined in a different way than in the general vocabulary. The domain of chromatic terminology is less explored, that is the reason for the emergence of many translation and spelling problems. Colour terminology from the grammatical point of view is part of the class of the adjective, constituting from variable and invariable adjectives. The invariable adjective colour names are
less numerous than the variable ones. Their number, insignificant in the older corpora, is growing in the modern language through more or less wide-spread neologisms. The greatest difficulties appear in using invariable adjectives denoting simple, mixed or nuanced colours. The paper inventories a number of difficult cases in the domain and also proposes solutions.
Mariana VLAS Touristic terminology: dynamics, influences, trends Tourism used to represent mainly an opportunity to travel and have fun. Today it is defined as a socioeconomic phenomenon, and it has become one of the largest most profitable sectors of the economy, with a significant inventory of terminology. The speed with which it has spread and become international, together with an increasing development of the tourist industry, offers an instructive illustration of the linguistic evolution of the given domain, within which the general phenomena, such as word formation, the evolution of meanings, lexical borrowing, syntactic computation, the interference of registers, etc., are manifested.
Drámatechnikák a nyelvoktatásban
About the authors/ Despre autori/ A szerzőkről l
Liliana ALIC, Ph.D. Associate professor at Transilvania University of Braºov, Romania; competences: textual linguistics, discourse analysis, translation studies; she published 10 studies and articles, 3 books (single author) and 1 book (co-author); member of the Lexicology, Terminology, Translation network. Vasile BAHNARU, Ph.D. Professor hab. and scientific researcher I., director of The Institute of Philology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova; competence: linguist, terminologist, dictionaries author; he has a valuable contribution to solving theoretical problems in the area of semasiology and special terminology; Activities of a public interest: chief-editor of “Buletinul Institutului de Lingvistica”, “Revista de lingvistica si stiinta literara”, edited by the Institute of Philology, Chişinău; president of the Scientific Council of ASM Institute of Philology. Melinda BALÁZS Assistant lecturer at Sapientia University Tîrgu-Mureş (where she is a seminar instructor for the specialization Translation and Interpreting Studies) and authorized translator for English and French. Her international experience includes a translation traineeship at the DirectorateGeneral for Translation of the European Parliament, Luxembourg. At present, she is a doctoral student at “Babeş-Bolyai” University Cluj-Napoca and her domain of research is translation studies. Attila BENŐ, Ph.D. Associate professor at “Babeş-Bolyai” University Cluj-Napoca (Faculty of Letteres; competences: linguistics, specialist in sociolinguistics, contactology and translation theory. Published volumes: Nyelvi kapcsolatok, nyelvi dominanciák az erdélyi régióban (Linguistic Contacts in Transilvania, co-author: János Péntek, 2003); A kölcsönszó jelentésvilága (Semantics
About the authors/ Despre autori/ A szerzőkről
of Lexical Borrowings, 2004), Contactology (Linguistic Contactology lingvistică, 2008); Román–magyar kulturális szótár (Romanian-Hungarian Cultural Dictionary, editor-in chief, 2009). Angela BIDU-VRĂNCEANU, Ph.D. Professor at University of Bucharest; distinguished personality of the Romanian culture; competence: specialist in semantics, linguist, terminologist, Ph.D. adviser; she is part of REALITER pan-Latin termi nology network; she has published over 100 studies in the country and abroad; 14 volumes (as single author or in collaboration); international collaboration: studies and researches, grants, REALITER terminology projects (as a director, coordinator, consultant professor); since 1997 she has been the editor of Analele Universitaţii of Bucharest, the series of Language and Literature; she is a member of the editorial board of Revue Roumaine de linguistique; she won the Romanian Academy Prize for the volume “Modele de structurare semantica.” Corina BOZEDEAN Assistant lecturer at “Petru Maior” University of Tîrgu-Mureş and a Ph.D. Candidate at Cergy-Pontoise University with the Ph.D. thesis: L’imaginaire du minéral dans l’œuvre d’Henry Bauchau. She is interested in the issue of the imaginary and in literary and specialized translations from and into French/ Italian/ Romanian. She is the author of several translations in Romanian, French and Italian (Leçons sur la théorie du droit, Imprimeries Réunies, Lausanne, 2007; L’Education européenne des fonctionnaires publics, University Publisher in Miskolc, 2008 ; Dimensiuni ale subiectului. Alteritate, relaţionare, transcendenţă, Galaxia Gutenberg, 2010). She is also the author of several articles published in academic journals in Romania, Belgium and France. Doina BUTIURCĂ, Ph.D. Associate professor at “Petru Maior” University of Tîrgu-Mureº; competency domains: linguistic anthropology, applied linguistics, terminology; she published 40 studies in Romania and abroad, 9 books (single author or in collaboration); member of the Pan Latin terminology network REALITER; international collaborative, REALITER terminology projects (project manager, member of the research project crew).
About the authors/ Despre autori/ A szerzőkről
Carmen D. CARAIMAN, Ph.D. Assistant professor at “Nicolae Titulescu” University of Bucharest. She is a member of the Faculty of Social and Administrative Sciences and she has been teaching Legal English to Law and Public Administration students for 11 years. She has published several articles and books as single author – Concise Oxford Lingua English - Romanian Dictionary, Educational Center, Oxford University Press, Bucharest, 2009, or as a coauthor - Dicþionar de ecologie ºi mediu înconjurător, 2001 (coord. Irina Nistor, translators: Liliana Anton, Carmen D. Caraiman). Alina-Elena CHIRILĂ Ph.D. student at “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University in Iaşi. Her Doctoral Thesis focuses on the various issues of the 19th century mass literature as illustrated in Germany. Competences: German language and literature, mass literature and trivial literature from an intercultural perspective. Inga DRUŢĂ, Ph.D. Associate professor and researcher at the Institute of Philology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chişinău; competence: terminology; he has published over 20 studies in the country and abroad, including one monograph, one dictionary and one textbook; international collabo ration: Member of the Commission for the computerization of the Ro manian language of the Romanian Academy; Member of TERMROM National Association of Terminology, Bucharest; Member of REALITER International association. Eugenia ENACHE, Ph.D. Associate professor at “Petru Maior” University of Tîrgu-Mures, Roma nia; competences: French and Francophone language and literature, translation studies; she published various studies: 6 books (single author and co-author); professional sessions: IUFM Versailles, city of Cergy, France (2005/2008); Haute Ecole Charlemange, Liège (2007), Belgium; member in professional associations: The Romanian Association of French Teachers, The Association of Francophone University Departments and the Romance Linguistic Society. Noémi GÁL, Ph.D. Studied at “Babeş-Bolyai” University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Letters, BA in English and Hungarian language and literature (2003), with an MA in Irish
About the authors/ Despre autori/ A szerzőkről
Studies (2004), and a Ph.D. in sociolinguistics (2008). Her main domain of research is the revitalization of endangered languages. Guest lecturer at Sapientia University, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences Tîrgu-Mureş. Bianca-Oana HAN, Ph.D. Assistant lecturer at “Petru Maior” University of Tîrgu-Mureş; competence: English language and literature, applied linguistics, traductology; she published studies in specialised journals and in collective volumes in the country and abroad, 1 volume (single author). Attila IMRE, Ph.D. Assistant professor at Sapientia University, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences Tîrgu-Mureş; published several articles home and abroad as well as 2 volumes as single author; project coordinator on translating English modal verbs into Romanian and Hungarian by means of translation environments; certified MemoQ trainer; competences: comparative EnglishRomanian-Hungarian studies, cognitive linguistics, translation studies. Gabriella KOVÁCS Assistant lecturer at Sapientia University, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences Tîrgu-Mureş; Ph.D. candidate; competences: language exam preparation, English for Specific Purposes. Nicoleta MEDREA, Ph.D. Assistant professor at “Petru Maior” University of Tîrgu-Mureş. She is a member of the Law and Public Administration Department of The Faculty of Economics, Law and Administrative Sciences. She has published several articles on different topics such as British Literature, British Culture and Civilization and Legal English. She is a member of ESSE and RAAS - English professional associations. She has acquired thorough knowledge of Legal English by teaching legal terminology to Law and Public Administration students for 11 years, as well as by translating and revising articles published in Curentul Juridic, a law journal where she functions as a member of the editorial board. Elena MUSEANU, Ph.D. Assistant professor at Romanian – American University, Faculty of Domestic and International Business, Banking and Finance. She received her Ph.D. in Linguistics from University of Bucharest (coord. Professor
About the authors/ Despre autori/ A szerzőkről
Angela Bidu-Vrănceanu, Ph.D.); She has since published more than 20 articles in international and national scientific journals, author and coauthor of 7 books. She is a Realiter member (PanLatin Network of Terminology); international research collaborations: terminology projects, REALITER; Specializations and certificates (enumeration): PREPARING STUDENTS FOR BEC VANTAGE, British Council and Cambridge University, ESOL Examinations; Certificate of Attendance – PREPARING STUDENTS FOR ESP, British Council and Cambridge University, ESOL Examinations; Certificate of Attendance – PREPARING STUDENTS FOR BEC HIGHER, British Council and Cambridge University, ESOL Examinations; Certificate of Attendance – FIRST REGIONAL TEACHER TRAINING CONFERENCE FOR BULGARIAN AND ROMANIAN TEACHERS OF ENGLISH, Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria, British Council and Cambridge University, ESOL Examinations; Certificate of Attendance – PREPARING STUDENTS FOR THE IELTS EXAM, British Council and Cambridge University, ESOL Examinations. Imola-Katalin NAGY, Ph.D. Assistant lecturer at Sapientia University, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences Tîrgu-Mureş; single author of more volumes on English grammar and English language exams. Sándor István NAGY Lecturer at Eötvös Loránd University Budapest; Faculty of Letters, Foreign Languages Department, Hungary; guest lecturer at “BabeşBolyai” University Cluj-Napoca and Sapientia University Tîrgu-Mureş; compentences: theory and practice of translation and interpretation from Romanian to Hungarian; linguistics (theory and practice of synonymy); history of Transylvania between 1938-1945; editor of volumes in the field of translation; co-author of Enciclopedia traducătorilor de literatură beletristică în limba maghiară 1945-2010 (forthcoming); preparing his Ph.D. thesis at ELTE University, Hungary: Tîrgu-Mureş during the Second World War. Orsolya NAGY-SZILVESZTER Assistant lecturer at the Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences of Sapientia University, Tîrgu-Mureş, Department of Applied Social Sciences; Ph.D. student at “Babeş-Bolyai” University, Cluj-Napoca.
About the authors/ Despre autori/ A szerzőkről
Adrian NĂZNEAN Assistant lecturer at the Department of Foreign Languages, The University and Medicine and Pharmacy of Tîrgu-Mureş, teaching medical English, as well as Romanian to foreign students. Different courses in education and in integrating technology in teaching foreign languages, associate teacher at Unirea National College, Tîrgu-Mureş. Numerous scientific events and published papers (Challenges in Translating Medical Texts; Pragmatic Approaches to Medical Translation; The Computerised ESP Teacher and the Medical Students) in national and international confe rences and symposia. He is currently a Ph.D. student at Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iaşi, with a doctoral thesis in the translation of medical articles. Co-author of two volumes on Gender studies, numerous translations of medical articles published in PubMed or Patología Revista latinoamericana. Andreea NĂZNEAN Ph.D. student at “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Iaşi; German-English teacher at Unirea National College in Tîrgu-Mureş; coordinator of projects and educational programs; participation in scientific events, conferences and symposia; published articles: Pedagogic Translation in the Foreign Language Classroom, in International Symposium Research, Education and Development, Risoprint Publishing House Cluj-Napoca, 2010, Learner-focused Curriculum Design for EMP and Translation Competence and Its Acquisition, Criza valorilor şi valorile crizei în domeniul limbilor şi literaturilor moderne, Alpha Publishing House, Iasi, 2010 (collaboration), Task-based learning in education and The Status of Islamic Women and Romanian in The Proceedings of the International Conference “European Integration between Tradition and Modernity”, 3rd edition, University Press “Petru Maior” Tîrgu-Mureş , 2009, the article Sexuality, society and feminism. Woman as a cultural icon published in the collection Studies, Gender Studies, volume of essays and articles, Volume I, University Press “Petru Maior” Tîrgu-Mureş, the articles Representations of Women in Advertising and Media and Femininity, Fashion and Work published in Gender Studies, Volume II, a collection of essays and articles, University Press “Petru Maior” Tîrgu-Mureş. Viorica POPA, Ph.D. Associate professor at “Alecu Russo” State University of Bălţi, The Department of Romanian Language; competences: general linguistics,
About the authors/ Despre autori/ A szerzőkről
compared linguistics, grammar, Romanian language history, orthography, sociolinguistics; she has published articles and studies in the country and abroad. Lilla RÁCZ Student at the Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences of Sapientia University, Tîrgu-Mureş, Department of Applied Social Sciences, Translators and Interpreters; member of a research group on translating English modal verbs into Romanian and Hungarian. Maria-Laura RUS, Ph.D. Assistant lecturer at “Petru Maior” University of Tîrgu-Mures; domain of competence: contemporary Romanian language; translator; she published over 20 articles in the competence domain in national and international magazines. Claudia RUSU-MARIAN Competence: psychology and social sciences: also interested in conceptual metaphors in psychology. Cristina RUSU-MARIAN Ph.D. candidate, University of Piteşti, competence: specialist in mathe matics and informatics; also interested in conceptual metaphors. Camelia SĂPOIU Ph.D. candidate, The Doctoral School of the Faculty of Letters, University of Bucharest (Ph.D. adviser: professor Angela Bidu-Vrănceanu). Krisztina-Mária SÁROSI-MÁRDIROSZ, Ph.D. Assistant professor at the Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences of Sapientia University, Tîrgu-Mureş, collaborator of the Szabó T. Attila Linguistic Institute in Cluj-Napoca and official translator licensed by the Romanian Ministry of Justice. Main field of research: the translation of legal and official texts. Co-redactor of special dictionaries: HungarianRomanian Dictionary of Administrative Language, Hungarian-Romanian Dictionary of Educational Terminology and author of articles in the field of specialized translation.
About the authors/ Despre autori/ A szerzőkről
Réka SZALÓ Assistant lecturer at the Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences of Sapientia University, Tîrgu-Mureş; finished her Ph.D. studies, working on her thesis, researching Foreign Language Teaching through Drama; MA degree in Irish Studies; competence: new teaching methods and alternative teaching techniques. Cristina-Alice TOMA, Ph.D. Assistant professor at University of Bucharest and Free University of Brussels, one of the young personalities of Romanian linguistics, holds Ph.D. titles obtained at University of Bucharest (2005, Supervisor prof. univ. dr. Bidu-Vranceanu Angela) and University of Geneva (2010, Supervisor Emilio Manzotti PO). She has published over 50 articles and studies in Romanian and international journals, as well as authored or coauthored 7 books. A member of the PanLatin network of terminology REALITER and several linguistic associations (TERMILAT, TERMROM, RITerm, SSL, SBL), Dr. TOMA is an active member of several groups of scientific research and discussions (CLTA, GRAL, Terminometro, HDG), and also participates at various international collaboration and research studies (as director or member). Lidia VIERU, Ph.D. Scientific researcher at The Institute of Philology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chişinău; scientific competence: terminologist (economy, finance, education, industry, etc.); has published studies and articles in journals in Chisinau, is the author and co-author of specialized works, of bilingual and multilingual Dictionaries (Financial-banking dictionary, Russian- Romanian- French- English), etc. ; responsibilities: Secretary of the commission for regulating onomastics and the national terminology of the Institute of Philology of the Academy of Sciences. Mariana VLAS, Ph.D. Scientific researcher at The Institute of Philology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chişinău; competence: lexicography, terminology, translation studies, holding seminars on translation and terminology.
Drámatechnikák a nyelvoktatásban
PUBLICATIONS IN THE WORKSHOP SERIES
ALBERT-LŐRINCZ ENIKŐ (SZERK.) Fekete éden. A 2000. november 26-án és 2001. november 15-én Kolozsváron megtartott Drogfórum című konferenciák előadásai. Kolozsvár. 2003. MÓCSY ILDIKÓ–NÉDA TAMÁS (SZERK.) Környezettudományi konferencia. 2005. március 17–18. Kolozsvár. 2006. GAGYI JÓZSEF (SZERK.) Emlékezet és kommunikáció. Narratívák az egyéni, a társas és a közösségi identitás teremtésében. 2004. március 19–20. Marosvásárhely. 2007. ELEK SÁNDOR (SZERK.) Agrárpolitika – vidékfejlesztés. Csíkszereda, 2007. PAP LEVENTE–TAPODI ZSUZSA (SZERK.) Közösség, kultúra, identitás. Válogatás a Kultusz, Kultúra, Identitás (Csíkszereda, 2003. szeptember 26–28.), Közösség és Idegenek (Csíkszereda, 2005. szeptember 14–16.) című konferenciák előadásaiból. Csíkszereda, 2008. BODÓ BARNA–TONK MÁRTON (SZERK.) Nations and National Minorities in the European Union. 2008. március 27–29. Kolozsvár. 2009. CSATA ANDREA–ELEK SÁNDOR (SZERK.) Gazdaságpolitika – vidékpolitika. Az európai uniós tagság kihívásai Székelyföldön. Csíkszereda. 2009. DOMOKOS JÓZSEF (SZERK.) MACRo2010. Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Recent Achievements in Mechatronics, Automation, Computer Science and Robotics. Marosvásárhely. 2010. KOVÁCS RÉKA ROZÁLIA Egymást segítve hogyan segíthetünk? Erőforrás–Együttműködés– Eredmény. Marosvásárhely. 2010.
ÁRMEÁN OTÍLIA–GAGI JÓZSEF Új média és kommunikatív magatartás. 2008. február 29. – március 1. Marosvásárhely. 2011. TAPODI ZSUZSA – PAP LEVENTE Tükörben. Imagológiai tanulmányok. Csíkszereda. 2011.
Drรกmatechnikรกk a nyelvoktatรกsban
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Published on Jan 15, 2012
The present volume is the result of a selection of papers presented during an exploring Workshop financed by a national programme (Planul Na...