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MАNIOС.оrg Bibliothèque Schoelcher Conseil général de la Martinique


MANIOC.org Bibliothèque Schoelcher

Conseil g é n é r a l de la Martinique


MАNIOС.оrg Bibliothèque Schoelcher

Conseil général de la

Martinique


MАNIOС.оrg Bibliothèque Schoelcher

Conseil g é n é r a l de la Martinique


MАNIOС.оrg Bibliothèque Schoelcher

Conseil général de la

Martinique


NARRATIVE

OF A

VISIT

TO T H EW E S T

I n

1 8 4 0

INDIES,

a n d 1841.

BY

GEORGE

TRUMAN,

JOHN

JACKSON,

A N D THOS. B. L O N G S T R E T H .

PHILADELPHIA: M E R R I H E W A N D THOMPSON, P R I N T E R S . No. 7 Carter's Alley. 1844.


PREFACE. T H E following n a r r a t i v e h a s b e e n extracted from notes t a k e n d u r i n g a visit to t h e W e s t I n d i e s in 1 8 4 0 and

1841.

It m a y b e p r o p e r to r e m a r k that this visit w a s altogether of a religious character, and w a s not u n 足 d e r t a k e n with a n y view to elicit information as to t h e results of E m a n c i p a t i o n in the British I s l a n d s . A g r e e a b l y to the order of t h e Society of F r i e n d s of w h i c h w e are m e m b e r s , o u r c o n c e r n to visit those Islands w a s o p e n e d before t h e m e e t i n g s to w h i c h w e b e l o n g , and h a v i n g t h e a p p r o b a t i o n a n d u n i t y thereof, w e obtained the n e c e s s a r y certificates to appoint m e e t i n g s w i t h the p e o p l e w h e r e our lot should be cast.

I n p u r s u i n g this prospect, o p p o r 足

tunities v e r y frequently o c c u r r e d a m o n g the various classes of society with w h o m w e m i n g l e d , in w h i c h w e w e r e witnesses of t h e effects p r o d u c e d u p o n b o t h the e m a n c i p a t e d laborers and their

former

m a s t e r s , b y that act of justice a n d m e r c y w h i c h re足 stored to eight h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d b o n d m e n their just rights. T o be p r e s e n t a m o n g a p e o p l e j u s t released from b o n d a g e , and not to ascertain s o m e facts, or m a k e s o m e enquiries as to their well-being, w o u l d ex足 hibit m u c h indifference to their situation.


4

PREFACE.

Most of the facts h e r e i n stated in reference there­ to, w e r e voluntarily related to u s b y t h e P l a n t e r s a n d o t h e r s , w h o a p p e a r e d desirous to furnish cor­ rect accounts r e s p e c t i n g t h e operation of t h e s y s t e m of free labor, a n d to show the a d v a n ­ t a g e s and benefits it conferred u p o n all classes of society. It w a s evident to us that E m a n c i ­ pation w a s a b l e s s i n g to b o t h m a s t e r and s l a v e . T h e m a s t e r h a s e x p e r i e n c e d a d e c r e a s e of t h e w e i g h t of responsibility,—necessarily r e s t i n g u p o n h i m , — t h e stimulant of w a g e s relieves h i m from t h e n e c e s s i t y of forcing t h e laborer, as formerly, to to his u n r e q u i t e d toil. T h e laborer discovers that now his t e m p o r a l comforts are increased, and t h u s t h e strongest e n c o u r a g e m e n t is given to his i n d u s t r y , while in the moral and social relations of life, a most h a p p y c h a n g e in m a n y particulars h a s r e s u l t e d from it. If t h e statements do not a p p e a r to exhibit so fully as m a y be desired the statistical details, it should be r e m e m b e r e d that the object of the visit in s o m e m e a s u r e p r e c l u d e d further investigation. It m a y b e considered important b y some to h a v e it clearly p r o v e d that the m a s t e r w a s in no c a s e a loser b y this c h a n g e . T h e s t a n d a r d b y w h i c h w e a r e to j u d g e of t h e p r o p r i e t y or justice of W e s t I n d i a e m a n c i p a t i o n , is not the d e g r e e of p e c u n i a r y a d v a n t a g e w h i c h m a y be realized b y t h e P l a n t e r or p r o p e r t y holder, b u t t h e benefits r e s u l t i n g to


PREFACE.

5

the g r e a t e r n u m b e r , t h e a g g r e g a t e a m o u n t of ad­ v a n t a g e realized b y all. T h e P l a n t e r s and land-holders a r e b u t few in c o m p a r i s o n to t h e eight h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , w h o , in t h e transition from slavery to freedom, h a v e h a d s e c u r e d to t h e m t h e p r i v i l e g e of devoting their m e n t a l and physical e n e r g i e s in t h e p u r s u i t of that h a p p i n e s s to w h i c h all are equally entitled. O n e t h i n g is evident, the abolition of S l a v e r y in t h e B r i t i s h W e s t Indies, at one time so fearfully d r e a d e d b y m a n y , as t h e b e g i n n i n g of insubordi­ nation a n d f o r e r u n n e r of ruin, has b e e n accom­ plished w i t h o u t a single instance of t u m u l t or dis­ turbance. T h i s g r e a t e x p e r i m e n t h a s p r o v e d the safety of the m e a s u r e .

It h a s s h o w n that t h e p e a c e of so­

ciety is m o r e easily p r e s e r v e d , and h a s g r e a t e r se­ c u r i t y , w h e r e t h e rights of all are r e s p e c t e d , t h a n u n d e r the s y s t e m of S l a v e r y w h i c h p r e c e d e d it. It h a s o p e n e d sources of intellectual i m p r o v e m e n t to t h o u s a n d s , w h i c h h a d b e e n closed to t h e m in their former condition, and p e r h a p s the most stri­ k i n g feature of its results, is the a m p l e solution it h a s furnished to the question, " are liberated slaves c o m p e t e n t to t a k e c a r e of and p r o v i d e for t h e m ­ selves ?” T h i s i m p o r t a n t question, involving the welfare of millions of the h u m a n r a c e , has b e e n fairly a n s w e r e d in the affirmative b y the fact, that while the P l a n 1*


6

PREFACE.

ters and slave o w n e r s of t h e W e s t I n d i e s received from the G o v e r n m e n t t w e n t y millions of p o u n d s sterling as a c o m p e n s a t i o n for their s l a v e s , t h e slaves t h e m s e l v e s , i n s t e a d of d e m a n d i n g an e q u i ­ v a l e n t for their past services, either from t h e g o ­ v e r n m e n t or their m a s t e r s , w e r e willing to t a k e s i m p l y t h e boon of freedom, to commence the world with little or nothing beforehand, and to depend solely upon their own industry for the support of themselves and their families. I n o u r interviews w i t h t h e colored p e o p l e of t h e W e s t I n d i e s , a n d the opportunities w e h a d of ex­ a m i n i n g m a n y of their schools, a n d w i t n e s s i n g t h e p r o g r e s s m a d e b y the children in their studies, w e b e c a m e satisfied t h a t , with t h e s a m e a d v a n t a g e s , t h e y s h o w a c a p a c i t y e q u a l in e v e r y respect to that of the whites for m e n t a l i m p r o v e m e n t , a n d for all t h e m o r a l excellencies w h i c h give d i g n i t y a n d t r u e respectability to the h u m a n c h a r a c t e r . Most p e r s o n s w h o have v e n t u r e d to decide w h a t the m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l capabilities of t h e African r a c e a r e , h a v e not t a k e n into consideration t h e cir­ cumstances by which they have been surrounded, both in their o w n c o u n t r y a n d a b r o a d , n o r h a v e t h e y p l a c e d a j u s t estimate u p o n those individual cases w h e r e t h e y h a v e e x h i b i t e d talents, w h i c h w o u l d be considered e m i n e n t in a n y civilized so­ ciety. If w e refer to the past, w e m a y trace t h r o u g h o u t


PREFACE.

7

the history of m a n y n a t i o n s , a series of events r e ­ q u i r i n g t h e lapse of a g e s fully to unfold t h e m , before these nations r e a c h e d their p r e s e n t intellectual position. E v e n after the introduction of Christianity a m o n g t h e nations of E u r o p e , a t h o u s a n d y e a r s rolled on, a n d t h e g r e a t m a s s of the p e o p l e r e m a i n e d involved in t h e g l o o m of intellectual d a r k n e s s , a n d gross m o r a l d e p r a v i t y ; and a l t h o u g h this m e n t a l n i g h t w a s frequently illuminated b y t h e light w h i c h b r o k e forth, t h r o u g h individual m i n d s , that s e e m e d

to

h a v e outstripped the a g e in w h i c h t h e y lived, y e t t h e civilization of t h e w h o l e m a s s of t h e p e o p l e w a s t a r d y in its p r o g r e s s ; one t h i n g w a s w a n t i n g — m e n did not fully realize t h e principles of freedom. It is to b e h o p e d that the e m a n c i p a t i o n of t h e slaves in t h e W e s t I n d i e s and the efforts n o w b e i n g m a d e to improve their condition, b y a g e n e r a l ed­ ucation of their offspring, is one link in the g r e a t c h a i n of events that will elevate the African race to a h i g h e r standing a m o n g the nations of the e a r t h . I n o u r interviews w i t h t h e poor a n d illiterate p e o p l e of these I s l a n d s , w e w e r e frequently m a d e sensible that m a n y of t h e m h a v e a clear p e r c e p t i o n of the duties and obligations of Christianity, and a l t h o u g h complaints w e r e s o m e t i m e s m a d e b y their religious t e a c h e r s , that t h e y could not u n d e r s t a n d t h e m y s t e r i e s of p o p u l a r t h e o l o g y — y e t t h e y could readily c o m p r e h e n d t h e religion that w a s t a u g h t


PREFACE.

8

in J u d e a , and s u c h as w a s w e l c o m e d b y the un足 l e a r n e d fishermen of G a l i l e e . O u r labor a m o n g t h e m w a s not to enforce out足 w a r d forms or abstract opinions, as the essentials of religion, b u t to e n c o u r a g e t h e m to cultivate a n d c h e r i s h those v i r t u o u s feelings w h i c h t h e C r e a t o r himself h a t h i m p l a n t e d in the soul, a n d w h i c h c a n alone elevate a n d i m p r o v e the h u m a n m i n d .

In

this h u m b l e e n d e a v o u r , w e h a v e felt the r e w a r d of p e a c e , a n d h a v e h a d t h e satisfaction to believe that o u r mission to this long n e g l e c t e d p e o p l e w a s r e 足 ceived a n d a p p r e c i a t e d b y m a n y , in w h o s e h e a r t s h a d often b e e n h e a r d the l a n g u a g e , " s h o w us t h e w a y to Z i o n . "


NARRATIVE.

THE

VOYAGE.

W e embarked at N e w York, on board the s h i p S o u t h e r n e r , C a p t a i n T i b b i t t s , b o u n d to S a n t a C r u z , St. T h o m a s a n d J a m a i c a , o n t h e m o r n i n g of E l e v e n t h m o n t h 1 9 t h , 1 8 4 0 . W e h a d a b o u t t w e n t y - f i v e p a s s e n g e r s in c o m 足 p a n y , m o s t of w h o m w e r e i n v a l i d s , s e e k i n g a climate w h e r e they m i g h t escape the severities of a N o r t h A m e r i c a n w i n t e r . T h e p a r t i n g of these from their friends a n d relatives p r o d u c e d some saddening sensations. A s n o w h a v i n g fallen t h e d a y p r e v i o u s to o u r departure, every thing presented a wintry ap足 p e a r a n c e . H a v i n g a good breeze from N . W . w e soon passed t h e N a r r o w s , a n d before d a r k our noble ship w a s riding upon the rough w a v e s of t h e A t l a n t i c . D u r i n g t h e first t w o d a y s of the v o y a g e w e experienced a h e a v y sea, in c o n s e q u e n c e of w h i c h , m o s t of t h e p a s s e n g e r s suffered e x c e e d i n g l y f r o m s e a - s i c k n e s s . On First-day the 22d, w e h a d passed the Gulf stream, the ocean became calm, and the . w e a t h e r w a s mild a n d pleasant as a s u m m e r m o r n i n g . A t o u r r e q u e s t a m e e t i n g for D i v i n e w o r s h i p w a s held, w h i c h w a s a t t e n d e d b y all


10

N A R R A T I V E OF

t h e p a s s e n g e r s w h o h a d sufficiently r e c o v e r e d from the sea-sickness. * Isolated as w e w e r e u p o n the ocean, the oc­ c a s i o n s e e m e d to d e m a n d t h a t w e s h o u l d forget t h o s e s e c t i o n a l p r e j u d i c e s a n d feelings w h i c h f o r m t h e b a r r i e r s b e t w e e n different p r o f e s s o r s of r e l i g i o n , a n d h a v e a t e n d e n c y to s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e l o v e of G o d , a n d e n d e a v o r t o r e a l i z e t h e t r u t h of t h e S c r i p t u r e d e c l a r a t i o n , " O n e is y o u r m a s t e r , e v e n C h r i s t , a n d all y e a r e b r e ­ t h r e n . " W e w e r e f a v o r e d to e n j o y a c o m ­ f o r t a b l e m e e t i n g t o g e t h e r , a n d a w o r d of e n c o u ­ r a g e m e n t w a s g i v e n to s o m e , w h o s e d e c l i n i n g h e a l t h w a r n e d t h e m t h a t t h e p e r i o d of t h e i r dissolution w a s d r a w i n g nigh. On the 23d, w e encountered a h e a v y gale. T h e w a v e s rose high, occasionally s w e e p i n g o v e r t h e d e c k of t h e v e s s e l , t h u s r e n d e r i n g a n y p o s i t i o n u n s a f e w i t h o u t a r o p e , or s o m e t h i n g to w h i c h w e c o u l d c l i n g for s e c u r i t y . T h e storm a n d tempest h a v e their appointed office, a n d t h e i r b o u n d s in t h e e c o n o m y of t h e universe; without the agitation they produce, t h e w a t e r s of t h e o c e a n w o u l d s o o n b e c o m e s t a g n a n t , a n d r e n d e r e d unfit for t h e h a b i t a t i o n of m y r i a d s of l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s w h i c h e n j o y e x ­ i s t e n c e t h e r e i n . A sufficient q u a n t i t y of v a p o r w o u l d n o t b e c a r r i e d f r o m t h e s e a to r e f r e s h a n d fertilize t h e l a n d , w h i c h , in c o n s e q u e n c e , w o u l d s o o n b e c o m e b a r r e n a n d d e s o l a t e , unfit for t h e a b o d e of m a n , a n d t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c r e a ­ tures over which he has dominion. While, therefore, w e v i e w e d the a m a z i n g s p e c t a c l e b e f o r e u s , w i t h m i n g l e d feelings of


A V I S I T TO T H E W E S T I N D I E S .

11

p l e a s u r e a n d of a w e , y e t w e w e r e s e n s i b l e t h a t s u c h s u b l i m e o p e r a t i o n s of t h e e l e m e n t s t e n d either directly or r e m o t e l y to beautify the e a r t h w i t h v e g e t a t i o n , a n d to i n s p i r e t h e m i n d w i t h a conviction that H e w h o controls the w i n d s a n d t h e w a v e s , is " w o n d e r f u l in c o u n s e l a n d e x c e l ­ lent in w o r k i n g . " H a v i n g adapted external na­ t u r e t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s c r e a t u r e s h e h a s m a d e for e n j o y m e n t , t h e e l e m e n t s b e c o m e subservient to the most excellent e n d s ; such r e ­ flections h a v e a t e n d e n c y t o r e m o v e a p p r e h e n ­ s i o n s of d a n g e r , a n d m a k e t h e s c e n e o n e of a d ­ miration and wonder. On F o u r t h - d a y , the twenty-fifth, the storm h a d entirely abated. It w a s p r o p o s e d b y one of the p a s s e n g e r s to h o l d a m e e t i n g for D i v i n e w o r s h i p , a c c o r d i n g to o u r c u s t o m , i n t h e m i d d l e of t h e week. T h i s being responded to, preparations w e r e m a d e to h o l d it o n t h e d e c k of t h e v e s s e l . N e a r l y all of t h e s h i p ' s c r e w a n d p a s s e n g e r s seated themselves, and during the opportunity w e d e e m e d it r i g h t to p r e s e n t to v i e w s o m e of t h e t e s t i m o n i e s a n d p r i n c i p l e s of t r u t h a s p r o ­ fessed b y o u r r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t y . O n F i r s t - d a y , t h e t w e n t y - n i n t h , it w a s a g a i n p r o p o s e d to h o l d a m e e t i n g . T h e c a p t a i n a n d p a s s e n g e r s h a v i n g m a n i f e s t e d a d e s i r e for it, w e c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r o n t h e d e c k of t h e v e s s e l , w h e r e , a m i d s t t h e r o a r i n g of t h e o c e a n , a n d t h e s o u n d of t h e w i n d a m o n g t h e r i g g i n g of t h e s h i p , w e e n d e a v o r e d to d r a w n e a r to H i m w h o s e v o i c e m a y b e h e a r d e v e n a m i d s t t h e n o i s e of m a n y w a t e r s , a n d w e r e p e r m i t t e d to r e a l i z e t h e t r u t h of t h e d e c l a r a t i o n , " W h e r e t w o o r t h r e e


12

N A R R A T I V E OF

a r e m e t together in m y n a m e , there a m I in the m i d s t of t h e m . " E a r l y o n t h e m o r n i n g of T w e l f t h m o n t h 1st, t h e c a p t a i n t o l d u s , if h i s r e c k o n i n g w a s r i g h t , w e should see land b y nine o'clock. A m a n w a s sent to the m a s t - h e a d , a n d a b o u t a q u a r t e r past nine w e h e a r d t h e c r y " l a n d to l e e w a r d . " B y ten o'clock w e h a d n e a r e d sufficiently to m a k e it v i s i b l e f r o m t h e d e c k o f t h e s h i p . I t p r o v e d to b e t h e hills of V i r g i n G o r d a . D u r i n g the d a y w e p a s s e d in s i g h t of T o r t o l a , St. J o h n s , a n d St. T h o m a s , a n d b y five o ' c l o c k , P . M . , w e r e i n s i g h t of S a n t a C r u z . O w i n g to a h e a v y r a i n , a n d t h e d a r k ­ n e s s o f t h e e v e n i n g , t h e c a p t a i n d e e m e d it p r u ­ d e n t to " l a y t o " for t h e n i g h t , t h a t w e m i g h t h a v e daylight to a p p r o a c h the island. T h e n e x t morning a gentle breeze wafted us a l o n g t h e n o r t h side of t h e I s l a n d , w h e r e w e h a d a full v i e w of its m o u n t a i n s , s o m e of w h i c h a r e c u l t i v a t e d to t h e i r s u m m i t s . T h e c a n e fields, b o i l i n g h o u s e s , m a n s i o n s of t h e p l a n t e r s , a n d t h e t e n e m e n t s of t h e s l a v e s c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r , p r e ­ s e n t i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e of s m a l l v i l l a g e s , t h e lofty c o c o a - n u t , t h e b a n a n a , a n d o t h e r b e a u t i f u l t r e e s g r o w i n g a r o u n d t h e d w e l l i n g s , all a d d e d to t h e n o v e l t y a n d i n t e r e s t of t h e s c e n e . W e a r ­ rived at W e s t E n d by six o'clock, P . M . , being thirteen d a y s six h o u r s since w e w e i g h e d a n c h o r in the h a r b o r of N e w Y o r k . S A N T A

CRUZ.

Twelfth month 3d.—This morning we came on shore, a n d found excellent accommodations a t t h e b o a r d i n g h o u s e of R e b e c c a R o g e r s . The


A V I S I T TO T H E W E S T I N D I E S .

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t o w n o f W e s t E n d , o r F r e d e r i c k s t a d t , is p l e a ­ santly situated on the sea shore, a n d almost sur­ r o u n d e d b y h i g h hills. M o s t p e r s o n s w h o visit, t h i s i s l a n d o n a c c o u n t of h e a l t h t a k e b o a r d i n g h e r e , t h e r e b e i n g s e v e r a l h o u s e s w e l l f u r n i s h e d for t h e r e c e p t i o n of s t r a n g e r s . A f t e r p a r t a k i n g of s o m e of t h e fine f r u i t s o u r k i n d h o s t e s s h a d p r o c u r e d for u s , w e w a l k e d t h r o u g h t h e t o w n a n d its e n ­ virons, our admiration being excited b y m a n y objects t h a t w e r e c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s e n t e d to o u r v i e w . V i s i t i n g t h e t r o p i c s a t t h i s s e a s o n , is l i k e g o i n g t o a n e w w o r l d . W h e n w e left N e w Y o r k , the w e a t h e r w a s v e r y cold, the g r o u n d w a s covered with snow, and vegetation was t a k i n g its a n n u a l r e p o s e . H e r e , w e a r e e n j o y i n g a c l i m a t e a s w a r m a s t h e s u m m e r s of P e n n s y l ­ vania, and surrounded by the luxuriant products of t h e e a r t h , g r o w i n g in the richest profusion. T h e lofty c o c o a - n u t , a n d m o u n t a i n c a b b a g e , w h o s e s t a t e l y t r u n k s a p p e a r l i k e t h e p i l l a r s of a t e m p l e , t h e c u r i o u s silk c o t t o n t r e e , t h e o r a n g e w i t h its b l o s s o m s , its g r e e n a n d r i p e f r u i t , n u m e ­ r o u s f l o w e r s of g r e a t b e a u t y , a n d m o s t l y different f r o m t h o s e w e l l k n o w n t o u s , c o u l d n o t fail t o b e i n t e r e s t i n g to a s t r a n g e r . A v i s i t t o t h e fish m a r k e t g a v e u s a n o p p o r ­ t u n i t y o f s e e i n g a l a r g e n u m b e r of t r o p i c a l fish. M a n y of t h e s e w e r e of d e e p r e d , b l u e a n d y e l ­ l o w , a n d t h e w h o l e p r e s e n t e d a g r e a t v a r i e t y of size, s h a p e , a n d colors. W e e n d e a v o r e d to o b t a i n from t h e sellers t h e n a m e s a n d c h a r a c t e r of s o m e of t h e m , b u t t h e i r l a n g u a g e b e i n g a m i x t u r e of b r o k e n E n g l i s h a n d D a n i s h , t h e a n ­ s w e r s to o u r q u e s t i o n s w e r e m o s t l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . 2


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D u r i n g a ride across the island, w e s a w l a r g e g a n g s o f s l a v e s a t w o r k p r e p a r i n g t h e soil for c a n e s ; t h e y w e r e a r r a n g e d n e a r t o e a c h o t h e r in long r o w s , both male a n d female, and used no other implement than the h o e ; an overseer o r d r i v e r a c c o m p a n i e d e v e r y g a n g , to s u p e r i n ­ t e n d t h e w o r k , a n d m o r e especially to see t h a t e a c h o n e p e r f o r m e d h i s full a m o u n t of l a b o r . I t is h i g h l y g r a t i f y i n g t o n o t i c e t h a t u n d e r t h e d e s p o t i c D a n i s h g o v e r n m e n t t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e s l a v e s is g r e a t l y i n a d v a n c e o f t h e s l a v e p o p u ­ l a t i o n of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . On this island t h e y h a v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b y t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of t h e g r o u n d s a l l o w e d t h e m , a n d t h e r a i s i n g of s w i n e a n d p o u l t r y , t o a c q u i r e a n d p o s s e s s s u m s of m o ­ ney, a n d w h e n they consider themselves p r e p a r e d a n d a r e d e s i r o u s to o b t a i n t h e i r l i b e r t y , t h e y c a n d e m a n d a n appraisement by disinterested persons of t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s , t o w h i c h t h e m a s ­ t e r is o b l i g e d t o s u b m i t , a n d sell t h e m a c ­ cordingly. T h e y a r e f u r t h e r p r o t e c t e d from t h e u n b r i d l e d i m p u l s e s of p a s s i o n of t h e o w n e r or his o v e r ­ seer, t h e y n o t b e i n g p e r m i t t e d to u s e v e r y h a r s h m e a s u r e s to enforce o b e d i e n c e . A n a t t e m p t is n o w b e i n g m a d e t o p r o m o t e t h e further w e l f a r e of the slave p o p u l a t i o n , b y a l l o w ­ i n g t h e m t h e p r i v i l e g e of t h e S e v e n t h - d a y o f t h e w e e k , to l a b o r for t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e i r p r o ­ v i s i o n g r o u n d s , a n d t h e a t t e n d a n c e of m a r k e t s . T h i s is n o w d o n e o n t h e F i r s t - d a y . This propo­ s i t i o n w h i c h , it a p p e a r s , c a m e t h r o u g h t h e K i n g o f D e n m a r k , is s t r e n u o u s l y o p p o s e d b y s o m e , b u t w h o , it s e e m s , a r e in t h e m i n o r i t y . They


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h a v e d i s p a t c h e d a d v o c a t e s to E u r o p e in order, if p o s s i b l e , to i n f l u e n c e t h e g o v e r n m e n t a g a i n s t t h e m e a s u r e , b u t it is b e l i e v e d t h e c h a n g e w i l l ultimately take place. T h e g o v e r n m e n t is a l s o p r e p a r i n g t o i n t r o d u c e a s y s t e m of s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n for t h e c h i l d r e n of b o t h t h e free a n d t h e s l a v e p o p u l a t i o n . Stone h o u s e s of a m p l e d i m e n s i o n s a n d n e a t c o n s t r u c ­ tion are being erected throughout the Island, a n d p r o p e r l y f u r n i s h e d w i t h a p p a r a t u s , to c a r r y out this benevolent design. T h e English lan­ g u a g e will be t a u g h t . I t is e x p e c t e d t h e s e schools will go into o p e r a t i o n in a short t i m e , a n d t h a t c h i l d r e n from all t h e estates will b e s e n t to t h e m . W i t h t h e s e e v i d e n c e s to m e l i o r a t e t h e i r c o n ­ d i t i o n , w e w e r e s u r p r i s e d t o find so m u c h i n ­ a t t e n t i o n to dress p e r m i t t e d b y t h e P l a n t e r s a m o n g their slaves. R i d i n g from Bassin w e m e t a b o y , a p p a r e n t l y f r o m t w e l v e to f o u r t e e n y e a r s of a g e , l e a d i n g a h o r s e in t h e p u b l i c r o a d , e n t i r e l y d e s t i t u t e of c l o t h i n g ; a n d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s w e h a v e noticed y o u n g m e n in the streets o f W e s t E n d , so s c a n t i l y c o v e r e d t h a t t h e i r c l o t h i n g d i d n o t afford e v e n d e c e n t p r o t e c ­ t i o n . W h e t h e r t h i s is o w i n g t o i n d i f f e r e n c e , b l u n t n e s s of t h e s e n s e of c o m m o n m o d e s t y o n t h e p a r t of t h e s l a v e , o r f r o m t h e s o r d i d n e s s of t h e i r m a s t e r s i n f u r n i s h i n g s u p p l i e s of s u i t ­ able clothing, w e did not ascertain. E a c h cause t e n d s , p r o b a b l y , t o p r o d u c e t h e effects w i t n e s s ­ ed. W h e n the subject w a s mentioned, the reply w a s — O h , they are country people; and the s l a v e of c o u r s e r e c e i v e d all t h e b l a m e . We


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p e r c e i v e d t h e c o l o r e d p e o p l e w e r e g e n e r a l l y fond o f d r e s s ; it is n o t p r o b a b l e , w i t h t h i s f e e l i n g prevailing, that such exhibitions would ever o c c u r , if t h e y h a d t h e m e a n s t o p r e v e n t it. T h e e d u c a t i o n of t h e c h i l d r e n w i l l b e of g r e a t a d v a n t a g e ; a n d w e h o p e it w i l l e v e n t u a t e i n t h e further m e l i o r a t i o n of the condition of t h e t h e s l a v e , a n d b e t h e m e a n s of t h e final b r e a k ­ i n g of t h e o d i o u s b o n d t h a t b i n d s h i m to his fellow m a n as his p r o p e r t y . M a n y proprietors a p p e a r r e a d y to e m a n c i p a t e their slaves. They b e l i e v e a d v a n t a g e s w i l l r e s u l t t o all p a r t i e s b y so d o i n g ; b u t t h e y a s k r e m u n e r a t i o n , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e e x a m p l e of G r e a t B r i t a i n t o w a r d s h e r c o l o n i e s . T h e D a n i s h g o v e r n m e n t is s a i d t o b e t o o p o o r t o p r o m o t e t h i s v i e w , a n d t h e r e is little p r o b a b i l i t y s u c h a p l a n will b e c a r r i e d i n t o effect. I t is l o o k i n g , h o w e v e r , t o w a r d s e m a n c i p a t i o n , a n d the school system n o w u n d e r a r r a n g e m e n t i s a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p t o w a r d s it. T h e different religious sects t o l e r a t e d , viz. the Moravians, Lutherans, Episcopalians, and C a t h o l i c s , w i l l h a v e t h e s u p e r v i s o r y c a r e of t h e s e schools, a n d in order to m a i n t a i n h a r m o n i o u s action, sectarian school b o o k s will not b e al­ lowed. [ N O T E . — T h e following a c c o u n t from St. C r o i x h a s l a t e l y b e e n p u b l i s h e d i n s o m e of t h e p u b l i c j o u r n a l s of this c o u n t r y : — " S T . C R O I X . — L e t t e r s h a v e b e e n r e c e i v e d in N e w Y o r k , w h i c h g i v e a flattering a c c o u n t of t h e im­ p r o v e m e n t in t h e condition of t h e slaves of this Island. T h e Danish Government has extended the r e q u i s i t i o n u p o n p l a n t e r s of s e n d i n g t h e i r s l a v e s


A V I S I T TO T H E W E S T I N D I E S .

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to school, to the a g e of fifteen y e a r s . A b o u t t h r e e y e a r s a g o , t h e G o v e r n m e n t o r d e r e d school h o u s e s to be e r e c t e d , a n d all the slave c h i l d r e n , from t h e ages" of four to n i n e , to b e sent to s c h o o l . The p r e s e n t e x t e n s i o n r e q u i r e s t h e m to b e sent o n S a t u r d a y and S u n d a y until t h e a g e of t w e l v e , a n d on S u n d a y to fifteen. T h e r e a r e s c h o o l h o u s e s on t h e I s l a n d sufficient to a c c o m m o d a t e t h e w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n , and t h e schools a r e w e l l k e p t , chiefly b y the M o r a v i a n M i s s i o n a r i e s . T h e c h i l d r e n ex­ hibit g r e a t a p t n e s s to l e a r n , a n d b y t h e m e a n s n o w in o p e r a t i o n , t h e r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n will b e w e l l educated."] T h e s l a v e s a p p e a r t o b e t h e o n l y s u p p l i e r s of v e g e t a b l e p r o v i s i o n s t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e town. T h e p r o d u c t s of t h e i r g a r d e n s a r e e x ­ p o s e d for s a l e i n a l a r g e o p e n s q u a r e o n t h e F i r s t d a y of t h e w e e k . T h i s d a y , i n s t e a d of b e i n g a d a y o f r e s t , a s it s h o u l d b e , t o t h e s e p o o r p e o p l e , is o n e of l a b o r a n d toil. T h e a r t i c l e s e x p o s e d for s a l e a r e c a r r i e d i n t r a y s u p o n t h e i r h e a d s for s e v e r a l m i l e s , a n d a s t h e y a r e a r r i v i n g a t a l l h o u r s , t h e m a r k e t is k e p t u p t h r o u g h o u t t h e day. It w a s our w i s h to hold some religious meet­ i n g s w i t h t h e p e o p l e of t h i s I s l a n d ; a n d for t h i s p u r p o s e w e called on several influential m e n , w h o s e e m e d d e s i r o u s t o p r o m o t e t h e o b j e c t of o u r v i s i t ; b u t on m a k i n g application to t h e G o v e r n o r for h i s p e r m i s s i o n , h e r e f u s e d to g r a n t it, i n a f o r m a l n o t e a d d r e s s e d to t h e P o l i c e J u d g e , of w h i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g is a c o p y : — ". To Polity

Master

Anderson.

" I n c o n s e q u e n c e of a v e r b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n 2*


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from Messrs. J o h n Jackson a n d George T r u ­ m a n , for p e r m i s s i o n d u r i n g t h e i r a b o d e h e r e , t o hold religious meetings on t h e Island, y o u a r e h e r e b y r e q u e s t e d to notify to those persons, t h a t the requested permission cannot be granted. T h e a n n e x e d four v o u c h e r s ( o u r certificates,) y o u w i l l also deliver over t o t h e m . " Signed b y the Governor, P . V O N SCHOLTON.

St. Croix,

5th D e c , 1 8 4 0 . "

T h e f e a r of o u r m a k i n g r e m a r k s u p o n t h e subject of S l a v e r y , w a s s u p p o s e d to h a v e o p e r a ­ ted u p o n h i s m i n d , t o p r o d u c e t h i s o r d e r , s o c o n t r a r y to t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f e n l i g h t e n e d Chris-

tianity. The which which houses

Police J u d g e also s h o w e d u s a notice w a s issued a b o u t a y e a r previous, a n d w a s p l a c e d i n t h e different b o a r d i n g of W e s t - E n d . T h e f o l l o w i n g is a c o p y :

" W h e r e a s , it a p p e a r s t h a t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the information a n d advice given to strangers a n d o t h e r s a t t h e P o l i c e office, s o m e p e r s o n s h a v e u n d e r t a k e n t o k e e p m e e t i n g s for t h e p u r ­ p o s e of d e l i v e r i n g r e l i g i o u s s p e e c h e s , d i s c o u r s e s , o r p r a y e r s : N o t i c e is h e r e b y g i v e n , t h a t , a g r e e ­ able to t h e existing l a w s a n d regulations of our country, none b u t the ministers duly a p ­ p o i n t e d b y t h e r o y a l a u t h o r i t y for t h i s c o l o n y , or such p e r s o n s ' a s h a v e o b t a i n e d s p e c i a l p e r ­ mission from o u r g o v e r n m e n t , a r e entitled or p e r m i t t e d t o hold o r k e e p s u c h m e e t i n g s , a n d delivery of speeches, discourses, prayers, or a n y t h i n g of t h e l i k e , i n w h a t s h a p e s o e v e r , i n t h i s


A V I S I T TO T H E W E S T I N D I E S .

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t o w n o r j u r i s d i c t i o n ; a n d t h a t i n c a s e of n o n ­ c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h i s c a u t i o n , t h e offender o r o f f e n d e r s , a s also t h e o w n e r or t e n a n t of t h e h o u s e w h e r e s u c h illegal m e e t i n g s m a y b e f o u n d , m u s t e x p e c t to b e p r o s e c u t e d a n d dealt w i t h a c c o r d i n g to l a w . Police Office, Frederickstadt, St. Croix, 9th December, 1839." F i n d i n g n o o p p o r t u n i t y to h o l d m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e p e o p l e , w e felt w i l l i n g to l e a v e , a f t e r c i r c u ­ lating some books, a n d writing a n address to the i n h a b i t a n t s , in w h i c h w e e x p l a i n e d the object of o u r visit, a n d e x p r e s s e d o u r conviction t h a t t h e e x e r c i s e of h u m a n a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e c o n ­ s c i e n c e s of m e n , is u t t e r l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e b e n i g n i n f l u e n c e of t h e g o s p e l , a n d t h e s p i r i t of t h e a g e in w h i c h w e l i v e . T h i s w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y p r i n t e d a n d circulated in t h e D a n i s h colonies. ST.

THOMAS.

Twelfth mo. 9th.—We took passage yesterday f r o m W e s t - E n d , a t 10 o ' c l o c k , w i t h t h e e x p e c t a ­ t i o n of r e a c h i n g this I s l a n d in s e v e n or e i g h t hours. B u t o w i n g to c o n t r a r y w i n d s , o u r littles c h o o n e r d i d n o t l a n d u s till a b o u t 9 o ' c l o c k t h i s m o r n i n g , c o n s e q u e n t l y , w e h a d to s p e n d t h e n i g h t on b o a r d , w i t h v e r y poor a c c o m m o d a t i o n s , a n d scanty fare. W e w e r e kindly received b y o u r friend, E d w a r d S i m m o n s , w h o i n t r o d u c e d u s to s e v e r a l of t h e m e r c h a n t s , a n d a l s o t o t h e G o ­ v e r n o r , O x h o l m , w i t h w h o m w e d e s i r e d to h a v e a n i n t e r v i e w , h o p i n g it m i g h t o p e n t h e w a y for holding some religious meetings on the Island.


20

NARRATIVE

OF

T h e G o v e r n o r a p p e a r e d disposed to g r a n t us this liberty, but u p o n being informed that the G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l of t h e D a n i s h C o l o n i e s , a t S a n t a C r u z , h a d p r o h i b i t e d t h e h o l d i n g of s u c h m e e t i n g s t h e r e , h e d i d n o t t h i n k h e h a d suffi­ c i e n t a u t h o r i t y to g r a n t o u r r e q u e s t w i t h o u t first obtaining V o n Scholton's consent. T h i s w e t h o u g h t could not be procured, a n d w e declined m a k i n g the attempt. B u t a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h i s I s l a n d is u n d e r cultivation. M o s t of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s a r e c o n ­ g r e g a t e d in t h e p r i n c i p a l s e a - p o r t , t h e t o w n o f St. T h o m a s . T h i s t o w n is h a n d s o m e l y s i t u a t e d o n t h r e e h i l l s , o n t h e s u m m i t s of w h i c h m o s t o f t h e finest d w e l l i n g s a r e b u i l t , a n d m a n y of t h e m so s i t u a t e d a s to c o m m a n d a v i e w o f t h e w h o l e t o w n and harbor. B e i n g a free p o r t , it is a p l a c e of g r e a t b u s i n e s s . Commerce with many n a t i o n s is c a r r i e d o n t h e r e , a n d t h e i r l a n g u a g e is h e a r d i n its s t r e e t s , w h i l s t i n its e x c e l l e n t h a r ­ b o r m a n y v e s s e l s f r o m v a r i o u s p a r t s of t h e w o r l d w e r e then riding. Amidst the hurry and bustle w h i c h the exten­ s i v e b u s i n e s s of t h i s p l a c e p r o d u c e s , it is to b e f e a r e d t h a t t o o little t i m e is d e v o t e d to t h a t r a ­ tional a n d serious reflection, w h i c h r e d e e m s from t h e s p i r i t of t h e w o r l d , a n d l e a d s m a n t o c o m ­ m u n e with his M a k e r . F r o m observations w e w e r e able to m a k e , w e s h o u l d j u d g e the s t a n d a r d of m o r a l i t y w a s v e r y l o w a m o n g the colored p e o p l e , a n d w e w e r e s o r r y t o find, u p o n e n q u i r y , t h a t b u t a s m a l l a m o u n t o f c a r e is b e s t o w e d b y t h e religious sects tolerated, t o w a r d s elevating t h e i r c o n d i t i o n , a n d it is p r o b a b l e b u t little p a i n s


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will be t a k e n in this respect, while they r e m a i n i n t h e c o n d i t i o n of s l a v e s . T h e Moravians have an establishment near this t o w n , a n d w e u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a d e g r e e of kindness w a s exercised by these brethren to­ w a r d s the slave population. This w e should n a t u r a l l y e x p e c t t o find a m o n g a p e o p l e n o t e d for t h e i r g e n e r a l b e n e v o l e n c e . T h e D a n i s h G o v e r n m e n t k e e p s vessels of w a r c o n s t a n t l y c r u i s i n g in t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d of t h e i r o w n possessions, w i t h a v i e w to p r e v e n t t h e e s c a p e of s l a v e s t o t h e B r i t i s h I s l a n d s , w h i c h is frequently, a n d notwithstanding the vigilance e x e r t e d , often s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t e m p t e d . T h e dis­ tance between the English a n d Danish Islands, b e i n g i n s o m e p l a c e s less t h a n a m i l e , m a n y o f t h e s e p o o r c r e a t u r e s m a k e d e s p e r a t e efforts, b y s w i m m i n g a n d o t h e r w i s e , to o b t a i n t h e i r l i b e r t y b y t r e a d i n g o n B r i t i s h soil. H o w a p p r o p r i a t e , w e t h o u g h t , w a s t h e e x p r e s s i o n of C o w p e r , " They touch our country, and their shackles fall." B e i n g r e a d y to p u r s u e our j o u r n e y , w e con­ c l u d e d t o g o first to T o r t o l a , a n d e n g a g e d a c o ­ l o r e d m a n t o t a k e u s to t h a t I s l a n d , in a s m a l l vessel n o t m u c h l a r g e r t h a n t h e long b o a t of a m e r c h a n t m a n . W e m a d e a r r a n g e m e n t s to l e a v e early in the m o r n i n g , hoping w e could r e a c h R o a d s t o w n before night. J u s t as w e w e r e a b o u t l e a v i n g t h e w h a r f , o u r k i n d f r i e n d , E . S., u r g e d o u r t a k i n g a b a s k e t of f r u i t s a n d p r o v i s i o n s , a n d a d e m i j o h n of g o o d w a t e r , w h i c h h e h a d p r o v i ­ ded, and which we afterwards found added no little to t h e c o m f o r t s o f t h e v o y a g e , a s t h e s e a


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w a s c a l m d u r i n g m o s t of t h e d a y , the s u n e x ­ ceedingly hot, a n d t o w a r d s evening w e found the contrary w i n d s w o u l d p r e v e n t us from reaching o u r p l a c e of d e s t i n a t i o n b e f o r e m o r n i n g . We p a s s e d St. J a m e s , St. J o h n s , J o s e - V a n d y k e , a n d a n u m b e r of s m a l l k e y s w h i c h f o r m a p a r t o f t h e V i r g i n g r o u p . S o m e of these rise v e r y a b ­ r u p t l y from the s e a , e x t e n d i n g to t h e h e i g h t of m o u n t a i n s , s o m e of w h i c h a r e c u l t i v a t e d a l m o s t to their s u m m i t s ; t h e clouds resting u p o n their sides, presented a novel a n d interesting appear­ ance. N i g h t came on as w e approached Tortola, b u t it w a s a n i g h t of u n c o m m o n b e a u t y . We w e r e glad w h e n the curtain w a s d r a w n b e t w e e n u s a n d t h e s c o r c h i n g r a y s of a t r o p i c a l s u n ; t h e air w a s exceedingly mild; V e n u s shone w i t h sufficient b r i g h t n e s s to c a s t a d i s t i n c t s h a d o w , a n d to illuminate o u r w a t e r y p a t h , a s w e b e a t from s h o r e t o s h o r e , i n a t t e m p t i n g to m a k e p r o g r e s s b e t w e e n St. J o h n s a n d T o r t o l a . A b o u t 9 o ' c l o c k , t h e full m o o n r o s e , a n d g a v e u s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o w i t n e s s t h e b e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y of t h e n e i g h ­ b o r i n g hills. J u s t a b o u t the d a w n of d a y , w e l a n d e d at R o a d s t o w n , a n d w e r e glad to relieve ourselves from the fatigue which a w e a r i s o m e d a y a n d n i g h t in a n u n c o m f o r t a b l e o p e n v e s s e l h a d o c ­ c a s i o n e d , b y c a l l i n g u p t h e i n m a t e s of a h o t e l close b y the sea side, a n d r e q u e s t i n g a b e d . T h e o w n e r of t h e h o u s e , a n o l d c o l o r e d w o ­ m a n , n a m e d McClaverty, soon furnished us w i t h t h e b e s t a c c o m m o d a t i o n s s h e c o u l d afford, a n d after w e h a d refreshed ourselves w i t h a n


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h o u r or t w o of sleep, a n d h a d time to look a r o u n d the t o w n , w e found w e h a d taken lodgings at the only public house in the place. TORTOLA. Twelfth month 1 2 t h . — O u r l e t t e r s p r o c u r e d for u s a w e l c o m e reception from W i l l i a m R. Isaacs, a n d J a m e s D. R o g e r s , t w o of t h e p r i n c i p a l p r o ­ prietors and attorneys upon the Island. They e x p r e s s e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o afford u s all t h e a s ­ s i s t a n c e i n t h e i r p o w e r , t o f u r t h e r t h e o b j e c t of our mission,and accordingly, arrangements were m a d e to hold several m e e t i n g s w i t h the people. W e n o t i c e d u p o n t h i s I s l a n d , a s w e l l a s St. T h o m a s , m a n y s a d m e m o r i a l s of t h o s e v i o l e n t t o r n a d o e s , w h i c h so f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t t h e s e t r o p i ­ cal r e g i o n s . I n 1819 a n d 1 8 3 7 , m o s t of t h e b u i l d i n g s of R o a d s t o w n w e r e d e m o l i s h e d , t h e r u i n s of w h i c h a r e still left s h o w i n g t h e y w e r e once commodious a n d comfortable habitations. T h e d e s t r u c t i o n b y t h e s e h u r r i c a n e s is o f t e n s o c o m p l e t e , t h a t t h e o w n e r s of p r o p e r t y a r e u n a ­ ble to r e p a i r the desolation w h i c h t h e y occasion. T h e m a r k e t of R o a d s t o w n is v e r y s m a l l , w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t of S a n t a C r u z . T h e 7 t h d a y of t h e w e e k is a p p r o p r i a t e d for it. This I s l a n d affords b u t f e w o f t h e finer f r u i t s , a n d t h e v e g e t a b l e s offered for s a l e w e r e n o t n u m e ­ r o u s . F r e s h a n d s a l t fish w e r e t h e c h i e f a r t i ­ cles e x p o s e d b y the d e a l e r s . W e h a d several m e e t i n g s in a n d a b o u t R o a d s Town. T h e first w e a t t e n d e d w a s h e l d i n a Methodist meeting-house, which had been kind-


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l y offered t o u s for t h e p u r p o s e — t h i s w a s h e l d o n First-day morning. T h e r e w e r e about eight h u n ­ dred persons present; a larger n u m b e r w e under­ stood frequently attended, but o w i n g to h e a v y r a i n s w h i c h occurred in t h e m o r n i n g , m a n y w e r e p r e v e n t e d from coming. Here we had an o p p o r t u n i t y of s e e i n g a c o n g r e g a t i o n of p e o p l e , m o s t of w h o m h a d b u t lately b e e n r e l e a s e d from slavery. All g r a d e s of c o m p l e x i o n , from t h e f a i r e s t E u r o p e a n to t h e d a r k e s t N e g r o s k i n , w e r e indiscriminately m i x e d throughout the h o u s e . O n e thing w e h a d not before witnessed w a s v e r y a p p a r e n t here;—it w a s t h e v e r y n e a t a p p e a r a n c e of the p e o p l e a s s e m b l e d — t h e i r dress w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a n e v i d e n c e of refinement in a n A m e r i c a n city. W h e n w e en­ tered, they w e r e engaged in their usual devo­ tions, in w h i c h w e t h o u g h t they manifested g r e a t sincerity. A l t h o u g h their form of w o r ­ s h i p w a s v e r y different f r o m o u r s , w e c o u l d n o t d o u b t b u t m a n y o f t h e i r h u m b l e offerings w e r e a c c e p t e d of H i m w h o l o o k e t h a t t h e h e a r t . S u c h w e r e o u r feelings a s w e w e r e led to declare a m o n g t h e m o u r c o n v i c t i o n of t h e t r u t h o f P e t e r ' s d e c l a r a t i o n , a t t h e h o u s e of C o r n e l i u s , — " I p e r ­ c e i v e t h a t G o d is n o r e s p e c t e r o f p e r s o n s , b u t i n every nation, kindred, tongue, and people, they t h a t fear h i m a n d w o r k r i g h t e o u s n e s s shall b e a c c e p t e d of h i m . " T h e w h o l e c o m p a n y sat in great solemnity, being evidently interested. In the afternoon w e h a d a n appointment at K i n g s t o n , a s e t t l e m e n t of c o l o r e d p e o p l e , m o s t l y native Africans, liberated from the slave ships b y British interference. T h e distance from


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R o a d s T o w n is a b o u t t h r e e m i l e s a c r o s s a n a r m of t h e s e a . I t b e i n g a p l e a s a n t d a y , w e w a l k e d to t h e p l a c e of m e e t i n g , b y a c i r c u i t o u s p a t h a l o n g t h e s e a - s h o r e , m a k i n g t h e d i s t a n c e n e a r l y five miles. W h e n w e reached there, w e found about five h u n d r e d m e n , w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n , c o l l e c t e d near the beach, w h o soon gathered around us, a n d w e held a m e e t i n g u n d e r t h e d e n s e foliage of a cluster of t a m a r i n d trees. W e r e m e m b e r e d t h e d a y s w h e n o u r f o r e f a t h e r s first l a n d e d o n these shores, a n d collected t h e long-neglected A f r i c a n s l a v e s a r o u n d t h e m , n o t for t h e l o v e o f s i l v e r o r g o l d , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y felt t h e m t o b e t h e i r b r e t h r e n , t o w h o m t h e y w e r e s e n t to p u b ­ lish t h e g l a d t i d i n g s of t h e g o s p e l of p e a c e . T h e y s e e m e d f u l l y to a p p r e c i a t e o u r l a b o r s a m o n g them, and w h e n w e saw the tears flowing from the youth, and from the h o a r y headed, w h o s e t e r m of p r o b a t i o n h a d n e a r l y a p p r o a c h e d its c l o s e , w e felt t h a n k f u l t h a t o u r l o t h a d b e e n c a s t a m o n g t h e m , a n d t h a t w e h a d b e e n a b l e to g i v e a w o r d of e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o t h e s e p o o r b u t good-hearted people. A s w e w e r e a b o u t closing the opportunity, a n a g e d m a n collected three stools, a n d placing o n e before e a c h of u s , said w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t a p p a ­ r e n t s i n c e r i t y — " N o w , m a s s a , y o u all p r a y for us before y o u g o . " After explaining our v i e w s for n o t c o m p l y i n g w i t h h i s r e q u e s t , w e g a v e t h e m a n a s s u r a n c e o f o u r e a r n e s t d e s i r e s for their present and future welfare, a n d encourag­ i n g t h e m t o l i v e i n a s t a t e of d a i l y w a t c h f u l n e s s against sin, w h i c h w o u l d secure to t h e m the f a v o r of h e a v e n , w e b i d t h e m f a r e w e l l . When 3


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the m e e t i n g closed, t h e y s e e m e d u n w i l l i n g to part until w e had taken nearly every one b y the h a n d — n e i t h e r w o u l d t h e y c o n s e n t to o u r w a l k ­ i n g b a c k , b u t , l a u n c h i n g o n e of t h e i r b o a t s , t w o of their s t u r d y o a r s m e n soon l a n d e d us at R o a d s T o w n , in time to a t t e n d a m e e t i n g a p ­ p o i n t e d for u s t h e r e i n t h e M e t h o d i s t c h a p e l . T h i s s e t t l e m e n t o f n a t i v e A f r i c a n s c o n s i s t s of a b o u t a h u n d r e d b u i l d i n g s , a n d five o r s i x h u n ­ dred inhabitants. T h e British, some years ago, c a p t u r e d a n u m b e r of s l a v e s h i p s , a n d it b e c a m e a question w h e t h e r they should colonize the p e o p l e or send t h e m b a c k to their n a t i v e c o u n ­ try. T h e y d e t e r m i n e d on the former project, a n d t h i s l o c a t i o n w a s s e l e c t e d for t h e p u r p o s e . S e v e r a l h u n d r e d a c r e s of l a n d w e r e g r a n t e d t o t h e m by William I V . T h i s they cultivate in s m a l l p a t c h e s , b u t m o s t o f it is h a r d a n d difficult o f c u l t u r e , a n d suffers s e v e r e l y f r o m d r o u g h t . O n e of t h e m o b s e r v e d , t h a t w i t h a fair s e a s o n t h e y h a d plenty, but during the dry season they a r e frequently r e d u c e d to w a n t . F i s h i n g , l i m e - b u r n i n g , a n d t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of t h e i r little d o m a i n s , c o n s t i t u t e t h e c h i e f o c c u p a ­ t i o n s of t h i s c o m m u n i t y . T h e i r l i m e - s t o n e is t h e c o r a l r o c k , p i c k e d u p along shore, a n d frequently obtained b y diving to a considerable depth. W e understood they w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l l i m e - b u r n e r s for t h i s a n d t h e n e i g h b o r i n g i s l a n d s — w e o b s e r v e d a n u m b e r of k i l n s r e a d y t o b e fired. T h e s e a r e f o r m e d of l a y e r s o f w o o d a b o u t a foot t h i c k , a n d f r o m 1 5 t o 2 0 feet i n d i a m e t e r , a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h l a y e r s o f t h e c o r a l t o t h e h e i g h t o f S o r 10 feet. The


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k i l n s b e i n g fired, it is p e r m i t t e d t o b u r n u n t i l all t h e w o o d e m p l o y e d i n its c o n s t r u c t i o n is c o n ­ s u m e d , b y w h i c h t i m e t h e s t o n e is p r o p e r l y r e n d e r e d into lime. Twelfth month, 14 t h . — B e i n g f u r n i s h e d w i t h h o r s e s a n d a c c o m p a n i e d b y o u r k i n d friend W . R. Isaacs, w e visited his estate at Pleasant V a l ­ l e y , w h e r e h e i n v i t e d u s to h o l d a m e e t i n g w i t h the resident laborers. W e w a l k e d into his cane fields, w h e r e b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n w e r e b u s i l y e n g a g e d p r e p a r i n g t h e soil for p l a n t i n g . W e c o u l d not but r e m a r k h o w cheerfully a n d earnestly t h e y p e r f o r m e d their l a b o r s — v e r y differently f r o m t h e s l o w m o t i o n s of t h e s l a v e s of S a n t a Cruz—the reason w a s obvious: here they were s t i m u l a t e d b y a r e w a r d for t h e i r t o i l s . T h i s p r o c e s s o f p r e p a r i n g t h e g r o u n d for c a n e s is c a l l e d " h o l e i n g . " E a c h laborer has h i s o r h e r p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n of d u t y a s s i g n e d —some with huge hoes were forming the ridges, others clearing the trench, and others w e noticed w e r e carrying stones u p o n their h e a d s to m a k e e m b a n k m e n t s . T h i s w e t h o u g h t a w a s t e of l a b o r , a s a h o r s e o r m u l e w o u l d h a v e d r a w n a load that a dozen laborers would h a v e r e q u i r e d a n h o u r to c a r r y . T h e trenches w h e n finished a r e a b o u t t w o feet d e e p , a n d t h r e e feet f r o m r i d g e to r i d g e — c r o s s e m b a n k m e n t s a r e m a d e at short intervals, w h i c h forms the h o l e — i n t h i s t h e c a n e p l a n t is p l a c e d , t h e r o w s b e i n g a b o u t five feet a p a r t . T h i s p l a n t is t h e t o p p a r t of t h e c a n e , n o t y e t m a t u r e d , f r o m s i x t o t e n i n c h e s l o n g , w i t h t w o o r t h r e e j o i n t s , a n d is f r e q u e n t l y s o a k e d in w a t e r for s e v e r a l d a y s b e -


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fore p l a n t i n g . T h e o n l y i n s t r u m e n t w e s a w used w a s the hoe. W i l l i a m R. Isaacs a n d J a m e s D. R o g e r s in­ formed us that the laborers under their charge, w h o are a n u m e r o u s b o d y , manifest m u c h sta­ bility and industry, and that emancipation on t h i s I s l a n d w o r k s to g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h e q u a n t i t y of s u g a r m a d e l a s t y e a r , a s w e l l a s t h e c o m i n g c r o p s , w i l l fall far s h o r t o f t h e more prosperous seasons during the existence of s l a v e r y — y e t t h e y a s s e r t t h i s is n o t o w i n g to n e g l i g e n c e o n t h e p a r t of t h e l a b o r e r s , b u t to t h e excessive droughts which have prevailed, a n d f r o m w h i c h t h e I s l a n d h a s suffered s e v e r e l y . F i f t e e n h u n d r e d h o g s h e a d s of s u g a r h a v e been produced during the best seasons—four h u n d r e d w e r e m a d e last y e a r , a n d from p r e ­ sent a p p e a r a n c e s not m o r e will be m a d e this. T h i s deficiency h a s been noticed b y the e n e ­ m i e s of e m a n c i p a t i o n , a n d b e e n q u o t e d a s p r o o f a g a i n s t t h e p r o f i t a b l e w o r k i n g of f r e e - l a b o r . O n e s h i l l i n g c u r r e n c y ( 1 2 1 c e n t s ) is g i v e n a s w a g e s for a d a y ' s l a b o r — e a c h f a m i l y is p r o ­ v i d e d w i t h a h o u s e a n d g a r d e n free o f r e n t . T h e l a b o r e r s h a v e a l s o t h e p r i v i l e g e of k e e p i n g cows, swine, poultry, and g o a t s ; b u t the cows a n d g o a t s , a r e o b l i g e d t o b e t e t h e r e d in t h e i r p a s t u r e - g r o u n d s , there b e i n g n o fences b e t w e e n p l a n t a t i o n s o r i n t h e d i v i s i o n of fields t h r o u g h ­ out the Island. T h e s o u n d of t h e c o n c h - s h e l l w a s a s i g n a l for a l l h a n d s to q u i t t h e i r w o r k a n d a t t e n d t h e meeting. While the work-people were preparing them-


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selves, w e visited the plantation schools—fiftythree children were present,sixty being the n u m ­ b e r o n t h e i r list. W e w e r e e x c e e d i n g l y g r a t i f i e d w i t h the m a n n e r in w h i c h the children p e r f o r m e d their various exercises. T h i s school h a d only b e e n o p e n e d a b o u t four m o n t h s , a n d m o s t of the scholars, at the c o m m e n c e m e n t , k n e w n o ­ t h i n g of l e t t e r s ; s o m e o f t h e s e n o w r e a d t o u s w i t h clearness a n d precision. T h e scholars fur­ n i s h e d a m p l e e v i d e n c e of a c a p a c i t y to r e c e i v e instruction. T h e i r t e a c h e r is a y o u n g c o l o r e d m a n o f i n ­ telligence. T h e s c h o o l is u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of a n E p i s c o p a l C l e r g y m a n , a n d of c o u r s e m a n y of t h e e x e r c i s e s h a d r e f e r e n c e to t h e c r e e d a n d d o c t r i n a l v i e w s of t h a t d e n o m i n a t i o n . S e v e r a l of t h e n e i g h b o r i n g P l a n t e r s a n d t h e i r families j o i n e d us in the m e e t i n g ; a b o u t one h u n ­ d r e d a n d fifty l a b o r e r s w e r e p r e s e n t . T h e o p p o r ­ t u n i t y w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y to u s , a n d t h o s e p r e s e n t a p p e a r e d to a p p r e c i a t e our labors a m o n g t h e m . D e s i r i n g to m a k e a v i s i t t o the P r e s i d e n t , H a y D r u m m o n d H a y , w h o s e residence w a s upon the o p p o s i t e s i d e of t h e I s l a n d , w e left o u r k i n d friends at the plantation, a c c o m p a n i e d b y the m a n a g e r a s o u r g u i d e . T h e r o a d w a s difficult, b e i n g a t first a z i g z a g p a t h u p t h e s t e e p s i d e o f a m o u n t a i n , a n d in m a n y p l a c e s a l o n g t h e e d g e of g r e a t precipices, w h e r e w e w o u l d have t h o u g h t it d a n g e r o u s t o t r a v e l , h a d n o t o u r friends a n d guide assured us that our horses w e r e sure footed. Soon after w e h a d c o m ­ menced the ascent, and while c o m m a n d i n g a d e l i g h t f u l v i e w of t h e p l a n t a t i o n , t h e little c h i l 3*


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d r e n w e h a d j u s t left b r o k e f o r t h i n c o n c e r t , s i n g i n g o n e of t h e i r i n f a n t i l e h y m n s . T h e s w e e t s o u n d r o s e u p o n t h e b r e e z e a s it f a n n e d u s i n our u p w a r d journey, andlooking down w e could perceive these poor hard working but affec足 t i o n a t e p e o p l e e n d e a v o r i n g to o b t a i n a last look. W e a s c e n d e d a b o u t o n e t h o u s a n d feet, a n d f r o m o n e of t h e e l e v a t i o n s n e a r l y a l l o f t h e V i r g i n Islands could be distinctly seen. T h e Island of T o r t o l a f r o m t h i s s i t u a t i o n a p p e a r e d to b e o n l y a c o l l e c t i o n of h i l l s . W e were very kindly received b y the Presi足 d e n t , a n d a f t e r o p e n i n g t o h i m t h e o b j e c t of o u r visit to these Islands, h e said h e w o u l d g l a d l y offer u s a n y a s s i s t a n c e in h i s p o w e r to a i d u s in our mission. T h e conversation w e h a d w i t h h i m chiefly r e l a t e d to t h e state of t h e Island, and the numerous dependencies, amount足 i n g to a b o u t forty, o v e r w h i c h h e presides. T h e s e d e p e n d e n c i e s a r e I s l a n d s or K e y s of various sizes, b u t on the w h o l e the p o p u l a t i o n does not m u c h exceed 8,600. He gave us a v e r y f a v o r a b l e a c c o u n t o f t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e free l a b o r s y s t e m , a n d s t a t e d m a n y f a c t s t o s h o w t h a t it w a s a b l e s s i n g to b o t h m a s t e r a n d s l a v e . H e said t h e a m o u n t of c r i m e w a s n o t m o r e than one-third as much as during the existence o f s l a v e r y , a n d t h a t t h e m o r a l s of a l l c l a s s e s w e r e on the advance ; that none w h o had n o w t r i e d t h e s y s t e m of free l a b o r w o u l d b e w i l l i n g t o r e t u r n a g a i n t o t h e f o r m e r p r a c t i c e of s l a v e r y , and that m a n y w h o had been the most strenu足 o u s o p p o s e r s of e m a n c i p a t i o n , w e r e n o w i t s strongest friends. T h e liberated slaves, he said,


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did n o t m a n i f e s t a d i s p o s i t i o n t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e i r n e w c o n d i t i o n , so a s to i n j u r e t h e i r former masters, hut on the other hand were w i l l i n g to w o r k for e v e n l i m i t e d w a g e s . He c o n c u r r e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t , t h a t it w a s n o t for w a n t of a t t e n t i o n a n d l a b o r , t h a t t h e c r o p o f s u g a r for t h e l a s t t w o o r t h r e e y e a r s h a d f a i l e d , b u t a t t r i b u t e d t h e d e f i c i e n c y to o t h e r c a u s e s , c h i e f l y to t h e u n p r e c e d e n t e d d r o u g h t s . W h e n w e proposed going, the President or­ d e r e d h i s h o r s e , a n d said h e w o u l d a c c o m p a n y u s five o r s i x m i l e s , o n o u r w a y b a c k t o R o a d s Town. A s w e passed along he pointed out to us many improvements that have been made since t h e d a t e of e m a n c i p a t i o n . Passing a p l a n t a t i o n w h e r e a l a r g e n u m b e r of l a b o r e r s w e r e w o r k i n g near the road side, he r e m a r k e d t h a t h e did n o t s u p p o s e t h e condition of t h a t c o m p a n y could be m u s h bettered b y emancipa­ t i o n , a s m a n y o f t h e m w e r e old a n d i n f i r m , a n d h a d a l w a y s b e e n k i n d l y p r o v i d e d for b y t h e i r former master, but n o w were under the necessity o f p r o v i d i n g for t h e m s e l v e s , a n d p r o p o s e d w e s h o u l d q u e r y of t h e m h o w t h e y l i k e d f r e e d o m . T o this q u e r y an a g e d m a n r e p l i e d — " 0 , v e r y well, massa." B u t , says the President, did not y o u r f o r m e r m a s t e r g i v e y o u p l e n t y t o eat a n d d r i n k , a n d w a s h e n o t a l w a y s v e r y k i n d to y o u : w h a t more do you get n o w ? T h e same person a g a i n r e p l i e d — " T h a t is all t r u e , — o u r massa w a s k i n d e n o u g h to u s , — h e a l w a y s g a v e u s p l e n t y t o e a t ; b u t t h e n w h i l e w e w e r e in s l a v e r y w e h a d t o e a t it w i t h a s o r r y h e a r t . " We t h o u g h t t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n of t h e o l d m a n w e n t t o


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p r o v e t h a t l i b e r t y is d e a r t o e v e r y m a n , a n d t h a t w h e r e v e r t h e r e is a r a y of i n t e l l e c t u a l l i g h t , a d e s i r e is felt to e n j o y t h i s free gift of h e a v e n . Twelfth month 1 5 t h . — H a v i n g been furnish­ ed w i t h a n excellent b a r g e b y o u r kind friend T. B.,the Methodist missionary, we employed f o u r a t h l e t i c o a r s m e n , a n d left R o a d s T o w n e a r l y t h i s m o r n i n g for S p a n i s h T o w n , or V i r g i n Gorda, an Island a b o u t t w e n t y miles distant. T h e sea being calm, w e had a pleasant voyage, s t o p p i n g for a s h o r t t i m e u p o n o n e of t h e K e y s . W e h a d s e n t to i n v i t e t h e i n h a b i t a n t s t o a m e e t i n g , a n d f i n d i n g u p o n o u r a r r i v a l it w o u l d not be held until evening, w e w a l k e d over to M i n e hill to v i e w the p r e p a r a t i o n s m a k i n g to re-open a copper mine, which had been worked about a century ago. A b o u t forty m i n e r s from Cornwall, England, are employed, and about one h u n d r e d a n d fifty c o l o r e d m e n , w o m e n a n d c h i l ­ dren. T h i s I s l a n d h a v i n g b u t a p o o r soil, a n d droughts frequently occurring, the colored people h a d b e c o m e discouraged, a n d almost entirely n e ­ g l e c t e d c u l t i v a t i o n . I n s t e a d of a d v a n c i n g t h r o u g h t h e m e d i u m of f r e e d o m i n t o a h i g h e r r a n k of c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h e y c o n t i n u e d w h e r e s l a v e r y left them. T h r o u g h t h e e x e r t i o n s of t h e m a n a g e r of t h e c o p p e r m i n e s this condition of t h i n g s h a s been improved. N e e d i n g assistants, he called t h e s e p e o p l e a r o u n d h i m , offering t h e m a c o m ­ p e n s a t i o n for t h e i r l a b o r g r e a t e r t h a n t h e y h a d b e e n accustomed to receive. This induced t h e m to e n t e r i n t o a g r e e m e n t s w i t h h i m , a n d n o w b y m i l d b u t firm t r e a t m e n t , h e h a s so f a r b r o u g h t t h e m into order, t h a t h e r e m a r k e d to u s


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h e d i d n o t w a n t b e t t e r o r m o r e faithful h a n d s . T h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e n e g r o e s t h r o u g h ­ o u t t h e I s l a n d s , is r e p r e s e n t e d t o u s a s a m i a b l e and docile; and experience has amply s h o w n t h a t b y k i n d t r e a t m e n t t h e y a r e easily influ­ enced. Charles O ' N e a l , a y o u n g colored m a n , a n d o n e of t h e h e a d c a r p e n t e r s a t t h e m i n e s , g a v e u s m u c h information in respect to the con­ d i t i o n of t h e p e o p l e . During our stay upon the I s l a n d h e p r o v i d e d for u s t h e b e s t h i s h o u s e c o u l d afford, w i t h o u t r e w a r d — d e s i r i n g n o o t h e r t h a n o u r p r a y e r s for h i s p r e s e r v a t i o n . The r e m e m b r a n c e of C h a r l e s , a n d h i s c a r e f u l a t t e n ­ t i o n s , w i l l r e m a i n w i t h u s w h e n far s e p a r a t e d from him. W e also visited a n a t u r a l curiosity b y t h e sea shore, called the " B a t h s . " I t is a c o l l e c ­ t i o n of i m m e n s e b o u l d e r s p i l e d u p o n e a c h o t h e r in such a m a n n e r , that entering a m o n g t h e m b y n a r r o w and precipitous places, w e w e r e intro­ d u c e d into large openings like r o o m s , s u r r o u n d e d b y r u d e a n d rocky walls. In the interior are t w o p l a c e s i n t o w h i c h t h e w a t e r flows f r o m the sea, w h i c h b e i n g completely secured from t h e s u n , furnish excellent a n d cool b a t h i n g places. I n o n e of t h e a p a r t m e n t s w e e n t e r e d , w e found ourselves directly u n d e r a collection of s m a l l e r r o c k s , c o v e r e d p a r t l y w i t h e a r t h , o u t o f w h i c h t r e e s of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i z e w e r e g r o w ­ ing, whose roots w e r e hanging around us on e v e r y side like ropes s u s p e n d e d from a ceiling. I n the evening w e h a d a large meeting w i t h t h e i n h a b i t a n t s . A g r e a t n u m b e r of all c l a s s e s of t h e p e o p l e w e r e p r e s e n t , a n d it h a s s e l d o m


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OF

b e e n o u r lot to s e e a m o r e a t t e n t i v e a u d i e n c e . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n of s e c t , c a s t e , o r c o m p l e x i o n , s e e m e d to b e lost s i g h t of. In the gospel rela­ tion these must ever vanish : m a n must recog­ n i s e all a s h i s f e l l o w s , b e f o r e h e c a n s a y — " O n e i s o u r m a s t e r , e v e n C h r i s t , a n d all w e a r e brethren." W e w e r e l e d to o p e n to t h e s e p e o p l e s o m e of t h e s i m p l e t r u t h s of t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , — s h o w i n g t h e m t h a t it s t o o d n o t i n " meats and drinks, divers washings, a n d carnal ordinances," b u t in righteousness, peace a n d j o y in a h o l y spirit. O u r mission w a s to call t h e m to C h r i s t , a n d to h i s w o r k s w i t h i n t h e m , a s the m e a n s of r e d e m p t i o n ; a n d to t h a t o b e ­ d i e n c e to t h e t e a c h i n g s of t h e S p i r i t of T r u t h , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e u n i f o r m g r o u n d of a c c e p t ­ a n c e w i t h G o d , in e v e r y a g e , of all t h o s e w h o fear h i m a n d w o r k righteousness. T h e s e v i e w s a p p e a r e d to c o m f o r t m a n y , w h o h a d b e e n t a u g h t to b e l i e v e t h a t g o o d w o r k s w e r e of b u t little a v a i l , a n d t h a t r e l i g i o n c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y i n s u b s c r i b i n g to a b s t r a c t t h e o r i e s a n d o p i n i o n s , a n d a c o n f o r m i t y to t h e c e r e m o n i e s o f the church. A poor w o m a n w h o had brought h e r s i c k i n f a n t t o u s , a n d i m p l o r e d u s to p e r f o r m t h e c e r e m o n y of b a p t i s m , — s a y i n g , t h a t a s t h e r e w a s no resident clergyman on the Island, a n d the circuit-preacher would not be a m o n g them for a f o r t n i g h t , s h e f e a r e d t h e c h i l d w o u l d d i e , a n d w i t h o u t b a p t i s m she h a d b e e n t a u g h t to b e l i e v e it w o u l d n o t b e s a v e d , — s e e m e d g r e a t l y comforted on finding w e considered w a t e r b a p t i s m of n o i m p o r t a n c e . W e h a v e b e e n in­ f o r m e d t h a t t h e c l e r g y o f t h e different s e c t s ,


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s i n c e t h e d a t e of e m a n c i p a t i o n , h a v e s t r o n g l y u r g e d t h e free c o l o r e d p e o p l e t o c o n f o r m to t h i s a n d o t h e r c e r e m o n i a l r i g h t s , a s e s s e n t i a l to religion : w h e r e a s , d u r i n g the times of s l a v e r y , s u c h c o n f o r m i t y w a s s e l d o m t h o u g h t of, m u c h less r e c o m m e n d e d . W h y they should stand less in n e e d o f b a p t i s m w h e n i n a s t a t e o f s l a ­ v e r y t h a n t h e y d o n o w , is n o t e a s y t o c o n j e c t u r e , u n l e s s it b e t h a t u n d e r t h e i r f o r m e r c o n d i t i o n t h e y h a d n o t t h e means t o p a y for a n i n i t i a t i o n into c h u r c h fellowship. I t is g r e a t l y to b e f e a r e d t h a t m u c h of t h e h a r d e a r n i n g s o f t h e p o o r p e o p l e of t h i s a n d o t h e r I s l a n d s is e x a c t e d f r o m t h e m t o s u p p o r t t h o s e w h o call t h e m s e l v e s m i n i s t e r s of C h r i s t , b u t w h o , c o n t r a r y to a l l p r e c e d e n t o r e x a m p l e of H i m o r h i s a p o s t l e s , a n d i n v i o l a t i o n of h i s c o m m a n d , preach for hire, and divine for money. After the c o m p a n y h a d dispersed w e partook of s o m e r e f r e s h m e n t s , a n d l y i n g d o w n on t h e floor o f t h e h o u s e in w h i c h w e h e l d t h e m e e t i n g , w e enjoyed a s w e e t rest from the fatigue occa­ sioned by this d a y ' s j o u r n e y a n d labor. Twelfth month 1 6 t h . — W e r o s e b e f o r e it w a s l i g h t , a n d m a d e o u r w a y to t h e b e a c h , w h e r e w e f o u n d o u r b o a t m a n r e a d y to t a k e u s b a c k t o Tortola. W e w e r e soon o u t of v i e w of the s i n ­ g u l a r a n d p i c t u r e s q u e s h o r e of V i r g i n G o r d a , its r o c k y beach exhibiting from the distance the a p ­ p e a r a n c e of a r u i n e d c i t y w i t h its d i l a p i d a t e d t o w e r s a n d castles. In a few hours we reached Fat-hog B a y , an i n l e t o n t h e s o u t h e a s t s i d e of T o r t o l a , a t w h i c h p l a c e w e l a n d e d , a n d t a k i n g a little g i r l for a


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g u i d e , w e s e t off t h r o u g h a d e n s e t h i c k e t t o L o n g L o o k , t h e a n c i e n t h o m e of S a m u e l a n d M a r y N o t t i n g h a m , ( F r i e n d s of B r i s t o l , E n g ­ land.) A b o u t sixty y e a r s ago these enlightened and benevolent Friends, w h o owned and occupied t h i s e s t a t e , r e t u r n e d to E n g l a n d a f t e r h a v i n g m a n u m i t t e d their slaves, a n d m a d e t h e m a deed for t h e p r o p e r t y a s a c o m p e n s a t i o n for t h e i r s e r ­ vices. T h e y a l s o f u r n i s h e d t h e m w i t h a l e t t e r of a d ­ v i c e s u i t e d to t h e i r n e w c o n d i t i o n , w h i c h w e w e r e g l a d to d i s c o v e r h a d b e e n v e r y c a r e f u l l y a t t e n d e d t o . T h i s l e t t e r is c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e p r e s e n t o c c u p a n t s a s o n e of t h e i r c h o i c e s t t r e a s u r e s , a n d w a s h a n d e d to us soon after o u r a r r i v a l a t t h e h o u s e of J a s p e r R a b s a t , o n e of t h e o l d e s t m e m b e r s of t h i s little c o m m u n i t y . The f o l l o w i n g is a c o p y : " B R I S T O L , 3 0 t h of N i n t h m o n t h , 1 7 8 2 . " Bear George:—Thy l e t t e r o f t h e 8 t h of S i x t h m o n t h l a s t w a s received, w h i c h w a s very pleasing t o u s t o h e a r o f t h e p r e s e n t g o o d d i s p o s i t i o n of t h y s e l f a n d t h e r e s t of o u r l a t e s e r v a n t s , w h o s e welfare a n d happiness, both here a n d hereafter, w e h a v e m u c h at h e a r t . B u t w e a r e sorry to h e a r o f t h e r e m o v a l of p o o r J o h n V e n t u r e , a n d H a r r y , t h o u g h w e a r e n o t w i t h o u t h o p e of their p a r t a k i n g of t h a t m e r c y w h i c h is e x t e n d e d to a l l w i t h o u t r e s p e c t of p e r s o n s , w h e t h e r w h i t e o r black. So, G e o r g e , r e m e m b e r w h a t w e w r i t e to t h e e , w e w r i t e to all of y o u w h o o n c e c a l l e d u s m a s -


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ter a n d mistress. B u t n o w y o u a r e all free, a s far a s it is i n o u r p o w e r t o m a k e y o u , b e ­ c a u s e n o n e a r e free i n d e e d , e x c e p t t h e y a r e free in Christ. Therefore w e admonish you, not as your mas­ ter a n d mistress, b u t as y o u r friends a n d benefac­ t o r s , b e s e e c h i n g y o u t o b e c a u t i o u s of y o u r c o n ­ d u c t , a n d circumspect in y o u r b e h a v i o u r to all, t h a t n o n e m a y a c c u s e y o u of a b u s i n g t h a t free­ d o m , w h i c h w e in t h e c o u r s e o f d i v i n e P r o v i ­ dence h a v e b e e n able to g i v e y o u . Remem­ b e r i n g a l s o , t h a t a s free m e n a n d w o m e n , y e s t a n d a c c o u n t a b l e for e v e r y a c t o f y o u r c o n d u c t , a n d m u s t a n s w e r for t h e s a m e in y o u r o w n p e r ­ s o n s if y e d o a m i s s . I n w h i c h c a s e t h e l a w s where you are, have provided a punishment ac­ c o r d i n g t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e offence. But do w e l l , a n d y e s h a l l h a v e p r a i s e of t h e s a m e . And that, y o u m a y b e a b l e t o l i v e h o n e s t l y a m o n g m e n , w e h a v e given you our E a s t E n d plan­ tation on F a t - H o g B a y , with every thing there­ u n t o b e l o n g i n g , w h i c h w e will e n d e a v o u r to h a v e s e c u r e d to y o u b y a l l l a w f u l w a y s a n d m e a n s , t h a t n o n e m a y d e p r i v e y o u o r y o u r off­ s p r i n g of it, b u t t h a t y o u m a y f r e e l y c u l t i v a t e a n d i m p r o v e it t o y o u r o w n b e n e f i t a n d a d v a n ­ t a g e , a n d t h e r e b y b e p r o v i d e d w i t h a sufficient s u b s i s t e n c e to l i v e c o m f o r t a b l y t o g e t h e r , in a l l friendliness and cordiality, assisting each other, t h a t those m o r e a d v a n c e d in y e a r s m a y a d v i s e t h e y o u n g e r , a n d t h e s e s u b m i t t i n g to t h e c o u n ­ sel of t h e e l d e r , so t h a t g o o d o r d e r a n d h a r m o n y m a y be p r e s e r v e d a m o n g y o u , w h i c h will a s ­ s u r e d l y d r a w d o w n t h e blessing of t h e M o s t 4


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High. B u t if y o u h a v e n o t w h e r e w i t h a l to c u l ­ tivate and improve the plantation yourselves, w e a d v i s e y o u t o h i r e y o u r s e l v e s for a s e a s o n t o w h o m y o u p l e a s e , a s a l s o t h e p l a n t a t i o n , if y o u t h i n k it n e c e s s a r y , till y o u a c q u i r e a suffi­ ciency to g o o n y o u r s e l v e s . B u t in every step y o u t a k e of this k i n d , a l w a y s r e m e m b e r t h e g o o d of t h e w h o l e , a n d a s s o o n a s y o u c a n m a k e a b e g i n n i n g on the plantation yourselves w i t h c o t t o n a n d p r o v i s i o n s , w e w o u l d b y all m e a n s h a v e y o u t o d o it, t h a t y o u m a y n o t b e s c a t ­ tered, a n d too m u c h divided, b u t e n d e a v o u r to d w e l l t o g e t h e r a n d b e c o n t e n t w i t h food a n d r a i m e n t , a n d a b l e s s i n g will c e r t a i n l y a t t e n d y o u u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e of s u c h a d i s p o s i t i o n . Tell Dorcas Vanterpool w e are m u c h obliged to h e r for h e r f r i e n d l y c a r e a n d a t t e n d a n c e of p o o r J o h n V e n t u r e , a n d H a r r y , d u r i n g their sickness. W e s h a l l b e p l e a s e d to h e a r h o w y o u g o o n , b y any opportunity, and that you cautiously maintain a good report a m o n g the neighbors. L i v e in love a m o n g yourselves, a n d the peace of H i m w h o p a s s e t h all u n d e r s t a n d i n g , will a s ­ suredly be with you and yours, which w e earn­ e s t l y d e s i r e a n d p r a y for, b e i n g y o u r s i n c e r e friends a n d well wishers. SAMUEL MARY

NOTTINGHAM.

NOTTINGHAM."

F r o m w h a t w e c o u l d l e a r n in r e l a t i o n to t h e s e people, they h a v e never a b u s e d their freedom, a n d a l t h o u g h o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p r o m o t e t h e i r p e ­ cuniary interests h a v e b e e n v e r y limited, t h e y h a v e sufficient for t h e i r m a i n t e n a n c e , a n d t h e r e -


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with h a v e been content. T h e freedom they h a v e enjoyed h a s e v i d e n t l y i m p a r t e d to t h e m a m u c h m o r e dignified m a n n e r t h a n w e discovered in those w h o h a d b u t lately b e e n released from slavery. A s a p r o o f of t h e b e n e f i t s of f r e e d o m a n d free l a b o r , it is w o r t h y of n o t i c e , t h a t w h i l e m a n y of t h e p l a n t a t i o n s in t h i s p a r t o f T o r t o l a , formerly under cultivation, and worked exclu­ sively b y slaves, h a v e long since b e e n deserted, and are n o w g r o w n u p a rude wilderness, the p l a n t a t i o n of S a m u e l a n d M a r y N o t t i n g h a m is still y i e l d i n g a c o m f o r t a b l e s u b s i s t e n c e t o a p r o s ­ perous and happy community, numbering now a b o u t eighty persons in sixteen distinct families. I t i s , a l s o , a n e n c o u r a g i n g m a r k of i m p r o v e ­ m e n t , to d i s c o v e r t h a t s i n c e t h e d a t e o f e m a n c i ­ p a t i o n , m a n y acres of t h e s e w a s t e l a n d s h a v e been brought under cultivation. T h e p l a n t a t i o n g i v e n to t h e s e p e o p l e is n o w c u l t i v a t e d i n s m a l l p a t c h e s b y t h e different fa­ m i l i e s . M a n y of t h e i r y o u n g p e o p l e h a v e g o o d trades at which they work both at h o m e a n d abroad. D u r i n g a violent h u r r i c a n e in 1 8 3 7 , w h i c h d i d a g r e a t d e a l of d a m a g e o n t h i s i s l a n d , t h e h a b i t a t i o n s of t h e s e p e o p l e w e r e n e a r l y a l l destroyed, together with m a n y other things on w h i c h t h e y h a d to d e p e n d for a l i v i n g . From t h e losses occasioned b y this c a l a m i t y , t h e y h a v e n o t y e t fully r e c o v e r e d . S o m e of t h e o l d e s t o f t h e m retain a n affectionate r e m e m b r a n c e of F r i e n d s ; one aged m a n , n o w quite blind, informed u s t h a t he frequently h a d b e e n w i t h his m a s t e r , a t Q u a k e r m e e t i n g s in N e w Y o r k a n d P h i l a ­ delphia.


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W e h a d a very interesting religions opportu­ n i t y w i t h t h e m , a n d after b i d d i n g t h e m farewell, s o m e of their y o u n g m e n c o n d u c t e d u s b y a cir­ cuitous path through a dense thicket, about a m i l e d i s t a n t , to t h e s p o t w h e r e F r i e n d s o n c e h a d a m e e t i n g h o u s e i n w h i c h t h e y a s s e m b l e d for social spiritual w o r s h i p . T h i s w a s a p l a c e of i n t e r e s t to u s , for h e r e a r e b u r i e d t h e r e m a i n s of s e v e r a l of o u r v a l u e d ministers from P e n n s y l ­ v a n i a a n d N e w Jersey, w h o visited this island a b o u t a c e n t u r y a g o , from a sense of gospel love. T h e s t o n e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e m e e t i n g h o u s e w a s still r e m a i n i n g ; n e a r it five t o m b s h a d b e e n e r e c t e d a c c o r d i n g to a n a n c i e n t c u s ­ t o m of t h e i s l a n d . T h e y w e r e b u i l t of b r i c k , a b o u t t h r e e feet a b o v e t h e g r o u n d , a n d c o v e r e d over neatly with mortar. T i m e h a d m a d e its r a v a g e s u p o n these m a n s i o n s of the d e a d . The a c a c i a s p r e a d t h i c k l y its t h o r n y b r a n c h e s o v e r them, and near t h e m the century blooming aloe w a s luxuriantly growing. Although no eulogy w a s e n g r a v e n u p o n t h e m , y e t t h e t r a d i t i o n of t h e p l a c e is, t h a t these w e r e erected to m a r k t h e r e s t i n g p l a c e of s t r a n g e r s , w h o h a d v i s i t e d t h e island a n d died there. After t a k i n g a brief sur­ v e y o f t h e s e m a n s i o n s of t h e d e a d , w e r e t u r n e d to the beach w h e r e our b o a t m e n were waiting, a n d in a f e w h o u r s w e w e r e s a f e l y l a n d e d a t Roads Town. Our being in the sons.

n e x t visit w a s to M o u n t H e a l t h y . H o r s e s furnished b y o u r k i n d friends, w e started m o r n i n g in c o m p a n y w i t h several per­ T h e road lay over the mountains,—from


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t h e i r h e i g h t s w e h a d a v i e w of t h e t o w n , h a r ­ bor, a n d the adjacent Virgin Islands. M o u n t H e a l t h y is a b e a u t i f u l s p o t , o v e r l o o k ­ i n g t h e s e a , b u t is n o w n o l o n g e r t h e r e s i d e n c e of t h e p r o p r i e t o r . T h i s is t h e c a s e w i t h m a n y of t h e estates. N o t i c e h a d b e e n g i v e n t h a t w e intended to h o l d a m e e t i n g at this p l a c e ; p r e ­ v i o u s t o its c o m m e n c e m e n t , w e w a l k e d t o a n elevation near the house, which c o m m a n d e d a v i e w of t h e h i l l s a n d v a l l e y s t h a t c o m p o s e s e v e ­ r a l a d j a c e n t estates, m o s t of the l a b o r e r s o n which h a d q u i t t h e i r w o r k a n d w e r e c o m i n g to t h e m e e t i n g ; g r o u p s of t h e m c o u l d b e s e e n i n v a ­ rious directions, carrying on their h e a d s their t h r e e l e g g e d s t o o l s , o n w h i c h t h e y w e r e t o sit, o r a b e n c h , w h i c h t w o or t h r e e m i g h t o c c u p y , w a s occasionally borne along. W h e n they h a d as­ s e m b l e d , t h e s i m p l e t r u t h s of the gospel w e r e s p r e a d b e f o r e t h e m , w h i c h t h e y s e e m e d to c o m ­ p r e h e n d , a n d t h e y w e r e d i r e c t e d to t h e s p i r i t o f God within them, which would m a k e wise i n t h i n g s p e r t a i n i n g to e t e r n a l life. T h e more w e mingle and become acquainted w i t h these poor, b u t hitherto neglected people, t h e m o r e d e c i d e d is t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a l l t h e y n e e d is p r o p e r i n s t r u c t i o n a n d k i n d t r e a t m e n t , t o elevate t h e m to a n e q u a l r a n k w i t h a n y o t h e r l a b o r i n g class. Twelfth month 1 8 t h . — T o - d a y Ave m a d e a n i n t e r e s t i n g v i s i t to A l b i o n , t h e e s t a t e o f R . V . S h e w , h e h a v i n g k i n d l y i n v i t e d u s to m a k e h i s people a visit, a n d hold a religions m e e t i n g w i t h t h e m a n d others w h o m h e h a d invited from the neighboring estates. 4*


42

NARRATIVE

OF

W e w a l k e d to his estate, b e i n g a b o u t t h r e e miles from R o a d s T o w n , and he manifested g r e a t p l e a s u r e in t a k i n g u s o v e r it, r e q u e s t i n g u s to i n s p e c t t h e c o n d i t i o n of h i s l a b o r e r s in any­ w a y we wished. H e s h o w e d us their houses, g a r d e n s , a n d provision g r o u n d s , a n d from w h a t w e could see a n d hear from t h e m , w e w e r e well s a t i s f i e d t h a t h e s t u d i e d , a n d w a s c a r e f u l to p r o ­ m o t e , t h e c o m f o r t s of all h e e m p l o y e d . H e s a i d , b y a d o p t i n g t h i s c o u r s e , h i s p e o p l e d e l i g h t e d to w o r k for h i m , a n d t h a t s i n c e e m a n c i p a t i o n h e h a s n o t f o u n d t h e l e a s t difficulty i n m a n a g i n g his estate. H e h a s greatly increased his cultiva­ tion since h e c o m m e n c e d u p o n the s y s t e m of free l a b o r , h a v i n g b r o u g h t u n d e r t i l l a g e , t h i s s e a s o n , a l a r g e a m o u n t of l a n d w h i c h h a d b e e n i d l e for t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s . T h i s is t h e c a s e w i t h other estates u p o n this I s l a n d : thus s h o w ­ i n g t h a t m u c h m o r e w o r k is n o w o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e l a b o r e r u n d e r the s t i m u l a t i n g effect of w a g e s , t h a n u n d e r t h e d e p r e s s i n g s y s t e m of slavery. A planter from the neighboring Danish Island, S t . J o h n s , w a s w i t h u s , w h o is t h e o w n e r of a l a r g e n u m b e r of s l a v e s . H e e x p r e s s e d a p p r o ­ b a t i o n of t h e s y s t e m p u r s u e d o n t h i s e s t a t e , r e m a r k i n g t h a t h e t h o u g h t the laborers did more w o r k t h a n t h e s a m e n u m b e r of s l a v e s on his p l a n t a t i o n . R . V . S h e w is t h e o l d e s t p l a n t e r o n this Island. O n b e i n g a s k e d if h e w o u l d b e w i l l i n g t o r e t u r n a g a i n to t h e o l d s y s t e m o f c u l ­ tivating his estate b y slaves, he replied very e m p h a t i c a l l y , « N o t h i n g c o u l d i n d u c e m e to d o


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it—tho present system works well—it has ex­ ceeded m y most sanguine expectations." W e h e l d o u r m e e t i n g b e n e a t h t h e s h a d e of a l a r g e S a n d B o x T r e e , so c a l l e d f r o m t h e p e c u ­ l i a r f o r m of its s e e d v e s s e l , w h i c h r e s e m b l e s , a n d is f r e q u e n t l y u s e d a s a s a n d b o x . W e could not b u t notice h o w neatly these people w e r e attired, a n d w i t h w h a t attention t h e y a p p e a r e d to l i s t e n t o w h a t w e h a d t o c o m ­ m u n i c a t e a m o n g t h e m , w h i c h b e i n g a w o r d of e n c o u r a g e m e n t , s e e m e d like a p r o c l a m a t i o n of spiritual liberty to t h e c a p t i v e , a n d the o p e n i n g of t h e p r i s o n d o o r s to t h e m t h a t a r e b o u n d . W e p a r t e d w i t h our kind friends, a n d r e t u r n e d to o u r h o t e l , w h e r e , in t h e e v e n i n g , w e h a d a m e e t i n g w i t h a n u m b e r of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f R o a d s T o w n , w h i c h concluded our religious services in T o r t o l a . ST.

CHRISTOPHERS.

Twelfth month 22d—We left T o r t o l a a b o u t 9 o ' c l o c k o n t h e m o r n i n g of t h e 1 9 t h , i n a s m a l l s l o o p , a n d after a t e d i o u s b e a t t o w i n d w a r d , w e landed at Basse Terre about 4 o'clock, P . M . A p r o t r a c t e d v o y a g e of n e a r l y t h r e e a n d a h a l f d a y s , in a n u n c o m f o r t a b l e v e s s e l , left u s w e a k from fatigue, It w a s not, h o w e v e r , w i t h o u t s o m e o b j e c t s of i n t e r e s t . E a r l y o n t h e m o r n i n g of the 2 0 t h w e w e r e in sight of S a b a , a n island w h i c h rises a b r u p t l y from the sea, a n d a p p e a r s to b e b u t a single m o u n t a i n ; w e w e r e in sight of it for t w o d a y s , b u t a t n o t i m e w a s t h e t o p v i s i ­ b l e , in c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e c l o u d s r e s t i n g u p o n it.


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W o a l s o p a s s e d in s i g h t of D o g I s l a n d , A n g u i l l a , S t . M a r t i n s , St. B a r t h o l o m e w s a n d E u s t a t i a . T h e l a t t e r is a s m a l l i s l a n d r i s i n g to a g r e a t h e i g h t a b o v e the s e a , a n d h a s the a p p e a r a n c e of a n e x t i n c t v o l c a n o — w e w e r e i n f o r m e d t h a t it w a s s o , a n d t h a t w i t h i n t h e c r a t e r t h e r e is n o w a l a k e of w a t e r . W e s a w a n u m b e r of c a n e fields a l o n g t h e c o a s t . A s w e passed along the s o u t h s i d e o f St. C h r i s t o p h e r s , w e h a d a fine v i e w of its b e a u t i f u l s c e n e r y . T h e c l o u d s w e r e f l o a t i n g a l o n g t h e s i d e s of t h e m o u n t a i n s — t h e tops being partly enveloped by them—the canefields a n d s u g a r - h o u s e s a l o n g t h e v a l l e y s , a n d t h e d e n s e forests u p o n t h e h i l l s , a f f o r d e d r e l i e f t o t h e t e d i o u s n e s s of b e i n g b e c a l m e d for s e v e r a l h o u r s w i t h i n h e a r i n g of t h e s h o r e . When we l a n d e d w e soon found excellent a c c o m m o d a t i o n s at the "Victoria hotel," a house which had b e e n r e c o m m e n d e d t o u s , a n d is k e p t b y a c o ­ lored w o m a n . W e h a d l e t t e r s of i n t r o d u c t i o n to s e v e r a l p e r ­ s o n s of t h i s p l a c e ; o n e of w h i c h p r o c u r e d u s a w e l c o m e r e c e p t i o n f r o m F . S. W i g l e y , w h o k i n d l y offered h i s a s s i s t a n c e to p r o m o t e t h e o b ­ j e c t o f o u r v i s i t . H e i n t r o d u c e d u s to t h e G o ­ vernor, Charles C u n n i n g h a m , a n d obtained his p e r m i s s i o n for t h e u s e of t h e C o u r t - h o u s e , i n w h i c h w e desired to h a v e a religious m e e t i n g . H e a l s o a c c o m p a n i e d u s o n a v i s i t to t h e j a i l , i n which w e found twenty-four m e n and five w o m e n w e r e c o n f i n e d ; m o s t of t h e m for s m a l l o f f e n c e s ; n o n e w e r e s e n t e n c e d for a l o n g e r t e r m t h a n s i x m o n t h s . T h e k e e p e r of t h e j a i l i n ­ formed us that crimes had very m u c h diminished


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since t h e a c t of E m a n c i p a t i o n . T h e records of t h e p r i s o n s h o w e d t h a t f o r m e r l y t h e y often h a d as m a n y as seventy, a n d seldom fewer than t w e n t y five or t h i r t y p r i s o n e r s ; n o w t h e y f r e q u e n t l y h a v e b u t fifteen o r t w e n t y , a n d s e l d o m a s m a n y as fifty. T h e jail w a s in neat order, and the sys­ t e m of p u n i s h m e n t greatly m o d i f i e d — t h e b a r b a ­ r o u s practices of former d a y s w e r e a b a n d o n e d , a n d a m i l d e r a n d w i s e r m e a n s a d o p t e d for c o r ­ r e c t i n g t h e h a b i t s of t h e i n m a t e s . In the interview w e h a d with the Governor, h e i n f o r m e d us o f t h e p r o s p e r o u s w o r k i n g of Emancipation. H e said t h e p r o p r i e t o r s of e s ­ t a t e s w e r e n o w freed from n o t only t h e s h a c k l e s of t h e s l a v e s y s t e m , b u t from t h e b o n d a g e of d e b t , u n d e r w h i c h m o s t of t h e m h a d b e e n l o n g l a b o r i n g , a n d t h e d e c l a r a t i o n of f r e e d o m to t h e s l a v e , w a s in t r u t h a p r o c l a m a t i o n of l i b e r t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a n d t o all t h e i n h a b i t a n t s thereof. W e m e t w i t h the Governor's private secre­ t a r y . H e is a n e d i t o r o f a p a p e r i n B a s s e T e r r e ; d u r i n g t h e c o n t r o v e r s y i n r e s p e c t to E m a n c i p a ­ tion, h e boldly advocated t h e cause of t h e slave. H e is a Creole o f c o l o r , b u t o f t h i s w e s h o u l d not h a v e b e e n a w a r e , w i t h o u t b e i n g told, his skin being white as the E u r o p e a n . H e gave his v i e w s u p o n their colonial regulations w i t h m u c h f r e e d o m , a n d s t a t e d a n u m b e r o f facts t o show t h e p r e s e n t p r o s p e r o u s c o n d i t i o n o f t h i n g s c o m p a r e d with t h e times of slavery. It is n o w a b o u t t h e t i m e of t h e C h r i s t m a s h o l y d a y s , a n d w e notice t h e retail stores of


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OF

Basse Terre are well supplied with customers m a k i n g t h e i r p u r c h a s e s for t h e o c c a s i o n . Pre­ v i o u s to E m a n c i p a t i o n , t h e s e d a y s w e r e k e p t in rioting a n d d e b a u c h e r y ; b u t since t h e d a t e of freedom a great c h a n g e has been manifest. T h e a m u s e m e n t s , formerly in favor, a r e fast g o i n g o u t of d a t e , w h i l e a n a t t e n t i o n to religious e n ­ g a g e m e n t s is i n c r e a s i n g , a n d a m u c h g r e a t e r d e g r e e of m o d e r a t i o n o b s e r v e d ; still w e n o t i c e t h e w a n t of a b s t i n e n c e o n t h e p a r t of m a n y f r o m t h e u s e of s t r o n g d r i n k s , a n d for t h e first t i m e since w e h a v e b e e n on this mission, w e s a w a n u m b e r intoxicated. W e held a meeting in the Court-house in B a s s e T e r r e ; b u t such w a s the prevailing dis­ p o s i t i o n t o m e r r i m e n t a m o n g t h e p e o p l e , it s e e m e d difficult t o g e t t h e m t o g e t h e r for r e l i ­ gious purposes. Twelfth month 21th.—This morning being t h e first d a y o f t h e w e e k , w e w a l k e d o u t t o Stone's Fort, a n estate m a n a g e d b y R i g a m H i g gins. W e w e r e kindly received b y our friend, and as a previous arrangement had been m a d e for a m e e t i n g t o b e h e l d i n t h e m a n s i o n h o u s e , it w a s w e l l a t t e n d e d b y t h e r e s i d e n t l a b o r e r s a n d a n u m b e r of o t h e r s f r o m t h e a d j a c e n t p l a n ­ t a t i o n s . T h e y w e r e e n c o u r a g e d to o b s e r v e t h e c o m m a n d of J e s u s , " s e e k first t h e k i n g d o m o f G o d a n d t h e r i g h t e o u s n e s s thereof, a n d all things necessary shall b e a d d e d u n t o y o u . " In the afternoon w e h a d a meeting at the h o u s e o f J o h n C h a l l e n g e r , a n officer of t h e c u s ­ t o m s in B a s s e T e r r e , b u t r e s i d i n g n e a r S t o n e Fort. J o h n is a m a n of c o l o r , a n d h a s a n i n t e -


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resting f a m i l y ; t h e k i n d n e s s t h e y e x t e n d e d to u s w o n o u r affectionate r e g a r d . J o h n h a s a t r a c t of l a n d , w h i c h h e is s e l l i n g a n d r e n t i n g in s m a l l l o t s , f o r m i n g w h a t t h e y call a n i n d e p e n d e n t v i l l a g e ; t h a t is, a settlement n o t u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p l a n t e r s , a s t h e lit­ tle v i l l a g e s i n w h i c h t h e l a b o r i n g c l a s s e s r e s i d e , generally are. H e remarked that he had been c e n s u r e d for t h i s c o u r s e b y t h e p r o p r i e t o r s of estates i n his n e i g h b o r h o o d . T h e fear of d r a w i n g from u n d e r their control the laborers w h o l o c a t e i n t h e m , a p p e a r s t o b e t h e g r o u n d of their opposition. F r o m Rigam Higgins w e learned that the l a b o r e r s p e r f o r m e d t h e i r d u t i e s to s a t i s f a c t i o n . H e has greatly i m p r o v e d a n d increased his cul­ tivation since E m a n c i p a t i o n . T h e w o r k is a l ­ l o t t e d i n t a s k s , for w h i c h t w e n t y c e n t s is a l ­ lowed. This task was regulated by that which a s l a v e f o r m e r l y a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a d a y , a n d it is n o w c o m p l e t e d b y t h e free l a b o r e r i n f o u r o r five h o u r s — t h e d a y ' s w o r k g e n e r a l l y c l o s i n g a b o u t e l e v e n or t w e l v e o ' c l o c k i n the, m o r n i n g . S o m e a r e willing to contract to do t w o t a s k s p e r d a y , b u t w e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i n a m a j o r i t y of instances this w a s not the case. In the evening w e walked home with Rich­ a r d C h a l l e n g e r , a c o u s i n of J o h n ' s , w h o s e r e s i ­ d e n c e is i n t h e t o w n of Old R o a d , a n d a t t e n d e d a large meeting in a Methodist meeting-house. W e r e a c h e d t h e h o u s e of o u r f r i e n d j u s t a s h i s family w e r e p r e p a r i n g to go to their u s u a l m e e t ­ i n g , a n d it w a s p r o p o s e d t h a t w e s h o u l d a c c o m ­ p a n y t h e m ; to this w e h a d n o objection. As


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w e w a l k e d u p the aisle a n d took o u r seats, the e y e s of the m i n i s t e r a n d c o n g r e g a t i o n w e r e u p o n us. T h e c u s t o m a r y exercises of t h e e v e n i n g , w h i c h h a d been c o m m e n c e d b e f o r e w e e n t e r e d , w e r e d i s p e n s e d w i t h , a n d t h e m i n i s t e r , after i n ­ q u i r i n g of o u r friend if t h e o b j e c t o f o u r v i s i t t o t h e I s l a n d w a s a r e l i g i o u s o n e , k i n d l y offered u s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to hold a m e e t i n g after o u r m a n n e r of w o r s h i p ; a n d a l t h o u g h t h e o p p o r t u ­ n i t y w a s u n e x p e c t e d t o u s , w e b e l i e v e d it w a s felt b y m a n y t o b e a s e a s o n o f D i v i n e f a v o r ; a n d t h e simple t r u t h s w e h a d to deliver a m o n g t h e m w e r e l i s t e n e d to w i t h m a r k e d a t t e n t i o n . On our w a y back to Basse T e r r e , w e w e r e o v e r t a k e n b y a h e a v y s h o w e r of r a i n , w h i c h o b l i g e d u s t o s e e k s h e l t e r in a s m a l l c a b i n t h a t stood near the road-side. Its only inmate w a s a n a g e d colored m a n , w i t h w h o m w e soon en­ g a g e d in familiar conversation. " My name," s a y s h e , " i s A d a m — " I live a l o n e — I a m too o l d to w o r k — I m u s t b e o n e h u n d r e d y e a r s o l d — I remember w h e n there were but three planta­ tions in the I s l a n d — I got to b e old b e c a u s e I a l w a y s t a k e c a r e of m y s e l f — I g e t a little m o n e y b y selling t a m a r i n d s — I can m a k e a p e n n y a d a y — t h i s p a y s for m y b r e a d — I a m w e l l c o n ­ t e n t e d — I e x p e c t to d i e b e f o r e l o n g — I b e e n t r y i n g to live h o n e s t — s o I t h i n k I shall go to h e a v e n at last." W e w e r e interested with the old m a n ' s s i m p l e n a r r a t i v e — w e d i d n o t d o u b t its t r u t h — " his h o a r y locks p r o c l a i m e d his l e n g t h of y e a r s . " W e m a d e h i m a f e w s m a l l presents before w e departed, leaving A d a m


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w e l l p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w , w h i c h h a d also been interesting to u s . T h e m e r c h a n t s a n d p l a n t e r s h a v i n g b e e n so busily e n g a g e d in social p a r t i e s , m e r r i m e n t s , a n d feastings, w e h a v e h a d b u t few opportuni­ t i e s for c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e m . F e e l i n g c l e a r of St. C h r i s t o p h e r s , a n d f i n d i n g a t r a d i n g sloop g o i n g to A n t i g u a , w e e n g a g e d a p a s s a g e i n it, a n d left for t h a t I s l a n d . ANTIGUA. Twelfth month 30th.—After about thirtysix h o u r s comfortless tossing, w e w e r e l a n d e d at St. J o h n s , t h e p r i n c i p a l s e a p o r t a n d c a p i t a l o f Antigua. W e found good accommodations at a boarding-house kept b y Alice B r o w n , a co­ lored w o m a n . H a v i n g letters to R. B . E l d r i d g e a n d R. H . M a s o n , t w o of t h e p r i n c i p a l m e r c h a n t s of t h e place, w e called u p o n them, a n d w e r e v e r y kindly received. S t . J o h n s is a n a n c i e n t l o o k i n g t o w n , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of a b o u t 5 0 0 0 . T h e E p i s c o p a l i a n s , Moravians, and Methodists, have large houses for w o r s h i p , w i t h n u m e r o u s c o n g r e g a t i o n s . T h e M o r a v i a n s a r e a b o u t one-third of t h e w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n of the I s l a n d . T h i s sect c o m ­ m e n c e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s in A n t i g u a i n 1 7 5 6 , a n d e n t e r e d o n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n of t h e s l a v e s i n this' a n d o t h e r W e s t I n d i a n settlements. T h o u g h f o r c e d t o e n d u r e m a n y difficulties a n d s e v e r e p r i v a t i o n s i n t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of t h e i r p i o u s u n ­ dertaking, yet, by a quiet perseverance a n d 5


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conciliatory d e p o r t m e n t , t h e y w e r e successful in effecting g r e a t g o o d b y d i s s e m i n a t i n g k n o w ­ ledge a m o n g the slave population. A ride to M a r b l e H a l l , t h e c o u n t r y seat of o u r friend R. B . E l d r i d g e , g a v e u s a n o p p o r t u ­ n i t y to s e e t h e f l o u r i s h i n g c o n d i t i o n o f t h e c a n e fields. T h e c r o p w i l l not. b e g a t h e r e d a s e a r l y t h i s s e a s o n a s u s u a l o n a c c o u n t of t h e d r o u g h t . T h e g e n e r a l p r o s p e c t , w e u n d e r s t a n d , is fair. Last year 20,000 hogsheads were m a d e and exported, being as great an a m o u n t as w a s produced during a n y one year under the slave system. T h e m a n a g e m e n t of the e m a n c i p a t e d l a b o r e r s is w e l l u n d e r s t o o d u p o n this I s l a n d — A n t i g u a a n d B e r m u d a s t a n d n o b l y a s t h e p i o n e e r s of freedom. T h e apprenticeship system w a s carried out in o t h e r islands d u r i n g a portion of the t e r m , to t h e m a n i f e s t d i s a d v a n t a g e of b o t h the p l a n t e r a n d a p p r e n t i c e . O n t h i s I s l a n d t h e difficulties w e r e lessened b y this noble a n d extraordinary m e a ­ sure—thirty thousand b o n d m e n w e r e liberated in an h o u r , without reservation. On one d a y they w e r e u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l a n d w i l l of a m a s t e r — t h e n e x t f o u n d t h e m a s free a s t h o s e to w h o m t h e y w e r e i n d e b t e d for t h e b o o n . T h i s g r e a t e v e n t t o o k p l a c e w i t h o u t a single instance of t u m u l t or d i s t u r b a n c e . This w a s the testimony of every one w e conversed with on the subject on this Island. T h e planter and his laborer understand each o t h e r ; t h e former manifesting a disposition to d o j u s t i c e to t h e l a t t e r , finds n o difficulty in o b -


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t a i n i n g laborers to cultivate t h e estates. The t a s k s y s t e m is v e r y g e n e r a l l y a d o p t e d o n t h e e s t a t e s , a n d h a s b e e n p r o d u c t i v e of g o o d . Many of t h e l a b o r e r s c a n a c c o m p l i s h t w o in t h e d a y , r e c e i v i n g t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s for e a c h t a s k . This a l l o w a n c e of m o n e y , w i t h t h e p r i v i l e g e of h o u s e a n d g r o u n d s r e n t f r e e , t h e k e e p i n g of c a t t l e , s w i n e , p o u l t r y , & c , is c o n s i d e r e d g o o d w a g e s . I t is q u i t e e q u a l t o t h a t p a i d t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l laborer in P e n n s y l v a n i a . A t t e m p t s a r e b e i n g successfully m a d e to in­ t r o d u c e h a b i t s of o r d e r a n d cleanliness in t h e i r c o t t a g e s , w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of f u r n i t u r e , a n d many fixtures of household e c o n o m y w h i c h w e r e u n k n o w n i n t h e c a b i n of t h e s l a v e . I t is c o n c e i v e d , t h a t w h e n t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e s e c o m f o r t s is e x p e r i e n c e d b y t h e f e w , t h e i r e x a m p l e will h a v e a powerful influence u p o n t h e m a n y , a n d finding a n e e d o f a d d i t i o n a l s u p ­ p l i e s o f m o n e y t o m e e t t h e s e o u t l a y s , it w i l l b e a n incentive to labor m o r e industriously to o b ­ tain and procure them. T h e different s e c t s a p p e a r to b e e x e r t i n g t h e i r b e n e v o l e n t efforts t o e l e v a t e a n d t r a i n t h e y o u t h for t h e i m p r o v e d s t a t i o n t h e y m u s t o c c u p y in the world. Schools h a v e been established, a n d p a r e n t s a r e careful to send their children to them. T h e l i b r a r y a n d r e a d i n g r o o m s of S t . J o h n ' s , is a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e , c o n ­ t a i n i n g a b o u t five t h o u s a n d v o l u m e s . T h e E n g ­ lish, A m e r i c a n , a n d Colonial n e w s p a p e r s a r e to b e seen u p o n their tables; a n intelligent colored m a n acts as librarian. First month 1st, 1 8 4 1 . — T h i s m o r n i n g w e


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a t t e n d e d , b y i n v i t a t i o n , a m e e t i n g of a friendly society, a n d h e a r d a r e p o r t of their s i t u a t i o n , e x p e n d i t u r e s , & c , for t h e p a s t y e a r . T h i s s o c i t y , w h i c h is s i m i l a r t o m a n y i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t e x i s t a m o n g t h e c o l o r e d p e o p l e in P e n n s y l v a n i a , i s c o m p o s e d of t w o h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y m e n and t w o hundred a n d ninety women. Its o b j e c t is t o afford a i d a n d a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e a g e d a n d the s i c k ; their funds are raised b y m o n t h l y contributions; their subscriptions w e r e quite l i b e r a l ; t h e p h y s i c i a n ' s bill for t h e p a s t y e a r , w h i c h is p a i d q u a r t e r l y , w a s $875. They have a n u m b e r of infirm p e n s i o n e r s . T h e w h o l e n u m b e r t h a t r e a p t h e b e n e f i t s of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , is a b o u t o n e t h o u s a n d , a s w h o l e f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e m e d i c a l a i d , if b u t o n e m e m b e r of it is a t t a c h e d to the association. W e w e r e i n t r o d u c e d to R i c h a r d N a n t o n , t h e chief J u d g e of t h e I s l a n d , a n d from w h a t h e s a i d , w e w e r e l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e m o r a l d e ­ p o r t m e n t o f t h e c o l o r e d p e o p l e is r e m a r k a b l y correct. A t t h e l a s t s e s s i o n s of t h e C o u r t , b u t t w e n t y - o n e w e r e b r o u g h t to t r i a l , a n d t h e s e c h i e f l y for trifling offences. D u r i n g the exist­ e n c e of s l a v e r y , a s m a n y a s o n e h u n d r e d a n d s e v e n t y w e r e sometimes before the Court. T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e of i m p o r t a n c e , a s c o n v e y i n g satisfactory p r o o f of t h e g o o d c o n d u c t o f t h e n o w free l a b o r e r s . First month 3 d . — T o - d a y w e held a reli­ g i o u s m e e t i n g i n St. J o h n s ; for t h i s p u r p o s e , w e p r o c u r e d t h e u s e of a l a r g e r o o m i n o u r b o a r d ­ i n g h o u s e , w h i c h p r o v e d m u c h too small to a c ­ c o m m o d a t e t h o s e w h o s e e m e d d e s i r o u s to a t t e n d .


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T h e m i n d s o f m a n y o f t h e different p r o f e s s o r s of religion in this place, h a d b e e n prejudiced against u s , b e f o r e o u r a r r i v a l ; so m u c h s o , t h a t w e m e t w i t h g r e a t opposition in o u r a t t e m p t s to obtain a h o u s e s u i t a b l e for t h e p u r p o s e o f a p u b l i c r e ­ ligious m e e t i n g . A l a r g e n u m b e r of the r e s p e c t a ­ ble inhabitants w e r e present on the occasion t o - d a y . T h e m e e t i n g p r o v e d t o b e o n e of D i ­ v i n e favor, a n d although m a n y c a m e there w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n of h e a r i n g , a s t h e y s a i d , " t h e t r u t h s of C h r i s t i a n i t y c o n t r o v e r t e d , " t h e y w e r e w e l l satisfied w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , a n d a c k n o w ­ ledged their unity with us a n d our labors a m o n g them. T h e i r m i n d s w e r e d i s a b u s e d of t h e p r e ­ j u d i c e s t h e y h a d fostered a g a i n s t u s ; v e r y m a n y offered t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o a s s i s t i n o b t a i n i n g religious opportunities w i t h the people, a n d f r o m t h i s t i m e w e f o u n d n o difficulty i n o b t a i n ­ i n g m e e t i n g s i n t h e t o w n of St. J o h n s , a n d o t h e r p a r t s of t h e I s l a n d . I n St. J o h n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , w e h a d s e v e r a l very large a n d interesting meetings. During our stay u p o n the Island, great openness a p ­ p e a r e d a m o n g t h e p e o p l e , t o h e a r a n d j u d g e for themselves. T h e c a u s e of t h i s p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t u s , w a s a l e t t e r f r o m M a h l o n D a y , of N e w Y o r k , t o N a ­ t h a n G i l b e r t , a c l e r g y m a n of A n t i g u a . The f o l l o w i n g is a n e x t r a c t f r o m i t : " S i n c e l a n d i n g in the United States, I h a v e learned that George T r u m a n a n d J o h n J a c k s o n , t h e f o r m e r of P h i ­ l a d e l p h i a , a n d t h e l a t t e r of D a r b y , n e a r P h i l a ­ d e l p h i a , h a v e o b t a i n e d certificates from t h e m e e t i n g s t o w h i c h t h e y b e l o n g , to m a k e a r e l i 5*


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gious visit to the W e s t I n d i a Islands. These p e r s o n s m a k e the a p p e a r a n c e of F r i e n d s , a n d claim to b e such. I t is p r o p e r , h o w e v e r , t h o u a n d other Friends should be informed that they d o n o t b e l o n g t o t h e r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t y of F r i e n d s , b u t to a s e c t w h o s e p a r a t e d f r o m u s i n c o n s e ­ q u e n c e of a d i s b e l i e f i n t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y a n d d i ­ v i n e a u t h o r i t y of t h e h o l y s c r i p t u r e s — t h e D i v i n ­ ity a n d a t o n e m e n t of o u r blessed L o r d a n d Saviour, J e s u s Christ, his mediation, interces­ sion, & c , as these doctrines h a v e a l w a y s b e e n held by Friends. T h i s s e c t a s s u m e to t h e m ­ selves the n a m e of F r i e n d s , b u t a r e c o m m o n l y k n o w n here b y the appellation of Hicksites, from Elias Hicks, the individual w h o w a s chiefly i n s t r u m e n t a l in c a u s i n g the schism, b y controverting the aforementioned doctrines. T h e a c c o m p a n y i n g p a m p h l e t s set forth t h e c a u s e s a n d p r o g r e s s of t h e s e p a r a t i o n , a n d t h e s t a t e m e n t s m a y b e r e l i e d o n for a c c u r a c y . It is d e s i r a b l e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d b e g e n e r a l l y circulated w h e r e they come, that the character of t h e religious society of F r i e n d s m a y n o t b e implicated b y a n y sentiments they m a y promul­ gate." T h e p a m p h l e t s referred to, w e r e written a t t h e t i m e o f t h e d i v i s i o n i n o u r s o c i e t y , for party purposes, and although they might be "relied o n " a s furnishing a s t r o n g p r o o f of t h e bitter­ n e s s of t h e i r a u t h o r s , t h e y c o n t a i n e d n o e v i d e n c e w h a t e v e r , t h a t t h e c h a r g e s either in t h e m , or in the a b o v e letter, w e r e true. T h e s e , h o w e v e r , h a v i n g obtained a secret c i r c u l a t i o n a m o n g t h e c l e r g y o f t h e different


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s e c t s , i n d u c e d s o m e o f t h e m t o u s e t h e i r influ­ e n c e to defeat t h e object of o u r visit, b y p r e ­ v e n t i n g , if p o s s i b l e , r e l i g i o u s o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h t h e p e o p l e . A l l t h e i r efforts, h o w e v e r , w e r e u n ­ availing, a n d their opposition to u s only h a d t h e effect t o a w a k e n a n i n q u i r y i n t h e m i n d s of t h e p e o p l e , a n d t o p r o c u r e for u s l a r g e a n d n u ­ merous meetings. W h a t e v e r m i g h t h a v e b e e n t h e m o t i v e for w h i c h this letter w a s w r i t t e n , w e will not p r e s u m e t o j u d g e . I t is sufficient for u s t o s a y h e r e , t h a t t h e c h a r g e s c o n t a i n e d i n it a r e u n t r u e , a n d t h a t t h e l e t t e r a n d p a m p h l e t s r e f e r r e d t o i n it, a r e a n u n f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e c a u s e s of t h e u n ­ h a p p y controversy w h i c h led to a division in our religious society. W e w o u l d s a y to t h o s e w h o w i s h i n f o r m a ­ tion r e s p e c t i n g u s , a n d t h e p a r t of society to w h i c h w e a r e a t t a c h e d : j u d g e of u s b y o u r o w n sayings a n d acts, a n d not b y w h a t our opposers m a y say concerning us. T h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t f r o m a n official d o c u ­ m e n t i s s u e d b y t h e y e a r l y M e e t i n g of F r i e n d s o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , a n d d i r e c t e d to t h e Y e a r l y M e e t ­ i n g of F r i e n d s in L o n d o n , m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e v o i c e of t h a t b o d y , a n d s e t s f o r t h w h a t we b e l i e v e w e r e t h e t r u e c a u s e s of t h e d i v i s i o n i n o u r r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t y , to w i t : " W e are a w a r e that our opponents have pro­ n o u n c e d u s infidels a n d d e i s t s ! T h e y h a v e said w e h a v e departed from the Christian faith, a n d r e n o u n c e d t h e r e l i g i o n of o u r w o r t h y p r e -


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decessors in t h e T r u t h . N o t h i n g is e a s i e r t h a n to m a k e such charges as these; b u t in the pre­ s e n t c a s e w e a r e h a p p i l y a s s u r e d t h a t n o t h i n g is h a r d e r t h a n to p r o v e t h e m . W e are not sensi­ b l e of a n y d e r e l i c t i o n o n o u r p a r t f r o m t h e p r i n ­ ciples laid d o w n b y o u r blessed L o r d . The h i s t o r y of t h e b i r t h , life, a c t s , d e a t h , a n d r e s u r ­ r e c t i o n o f t h e H o l y J e s u s , as in the volume of the Book it is w r i t t e n of him, we reverently believe. W e a r e n o t a s h a m e d of t h e G o s p e l o f C h r i s t , b e c a u s e it is t h e p o w e r o f G o d u n t o s a l ­ v a t i o n to all t h e m t h a t b e l i e v e ; n e i t h e r d o w e h e s i t a t e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e D i v i n i t y of i t s a u ­ thor, because w e k n o w from living experience, t h a t h e is t h e power o f G o d , a n d t h e wisdom of G o d ; that, u n d e r the present glorious dispensa­ t i o n , h e is t h e one h o l y p r i n c i p l e o f D i v i n e life a n d light; t h e u n l i m i t e d w o r d of g r a c e a n d t r u t h , w h i c h only c a n b u i l d u s u p in t h e t r u e faith, a n d g i v e u s a n i n h e r i t a n c e a m o n g all those w h o are sanctified; neither are w e sensi­ ble of a n y d e p a r t u r e from the faith or principles of o u r primitive F r i e n d s . " T h e charges brought against us by our opposers, to injure a n d invalidate our character as a Christian people, are the same that w e r e pre­ ferred against our primitive Friends, and, w e apprehend, u p o n the same grounds. In that d a y , those w h o , like D i o t r e p h e s , loved to h a v e t h e p r e - e m i n e n c e , could not b e a r to see a p e o ­ p l e rising u p a n d b e a r i n g t e s t i m o n y to t h e t r u t h a n d practical i m p o r t a n c e of t h a t h u m b l i n g d o c ­ t r i n e ; ' B e n o t y e c a l l e d R a b b i , for o n e is y o u r m a s t e r , e v e n C h r i s t ; a n d all y e a r c b r e t h r e n . '


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( M A T T . 2 3 c., 8 v . ) W e d o n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e dissensions w h i c h h a v e a p p e a r e d amongst u s h a d t h e i r o r i g i n so m u c h i n d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i ­ n i o n i n d o c t r i n a l p o i n t s , a s in a d i s p o s i t i o n , a p p a ­ r e n t in s o m e , to exercise a n oppressive a u t h o r i t y i n t h e C h u r c h . T h e s e , i n o u r m e e t i n g s for d i s ­ cipline, a l t h o u g h a small m i n o r i t y of t h e w h o l e , a s s u m e d t h e p o w e r t o d i r e c t a c o u r s e of m e a ­ s u r e s , painful to t h e feelings, a n d c o n t r a r y to t h e d e l i b e r a t e j u d g m e n t of t h e i r b r e t h r e n . T h u s t h e few usurped a p o w e r over the m a n y , subver­ sive to o u r established o r d e r , a n d destructive to t h e p e a c e a n d h a r m o n y of society. After long a n d patient forbearance, in the hope that our o p p o s i n g b r e t h r e n m i g h t see t h e i m p r o p r i e t y of s u c h a c o u r s e , t h e g r e a t b o d y of t h e Y e a r l y M e e t i n g s a w n o w a y to r e g a i n a s t a t e of t r a n ­ q u i l l i t y , b u t b y a disconnection w i t h those w h o h a d produced, and w e r e p r o m o t i n g such disor­ d e r s a m o n g s t u s . B y official a c c o u n t s , w h i c h w e b e l i e v e t o b e n e a r l y c o r r e c t , f r o m all p a r t s of t h i s Y e a r l y M e e t i n g , it a p p e a r s , t h a t o u t o f a b o u t twenty-Jive thousand adults and children, w h i c h c o m p o s e d it a t t h e t i m e of t h e d i v i s i o n , a b o u t eighteen thousand r e m a i n in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h this b o d y . " O u r f r i e n d R i c h a r d H . M a s o n offering t o a c c o m p a n y u s , w e v i s i t e d t h e h o u s e of c o r ­ rection. Sixty-nine prisoners are n o w under sentence, w h o are e m p l o y e d either in the y a r d , or in a n e i g h b o r i n g q u a r r y . T h e y do not use the chain, which w e h a v e noticed elsewhere w h e n at w o r k outside the prison. T h e apart-


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m e n t s are kept clean and in good order. The p r i s o n m a y b e looked u p o n a s a k i n d of m o r a l t h e r m o m e t e r , a n d the scale s h o w s t h a t things are m u c h better n o w than they have been. In 1S35, eight h u n d r e d a n d seventy-five persons w e r e c o m m i t t e d , w h i c h is t h e h i g h e s t n u m b e r s i n c e t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n of f r e e d o m . In 1839 this n u m b e r w a s reduced to three h u n d r e d a n d e l e v e n c o m m i t t a l s . T h e d e p a r t m e n t for u n t r i e d p r i s o n e r s h a d a n u m b e r of i n m a t e s , w i t h s e v e r a l i n s a n e p e r s o n s . T h i s d e f e c t is a b o u t b e i n g r e ­ m e d i e d b y t h e b u i l d i n g o f a s u i t a b l e a s y l u m for these poor creatures. W e had a meeting with the prisoners, w h i c h w e t h o u g h t a useful oppor­ tunity. Afte the meeting w e visited J o h n Miller, the i n t e l l i g e n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of t h e M i c o s c h o o l s . H e gave us some very interesting information relative to these establishments. A benevolent w o m a n b y t h e n a m e of M i c o , a b o u t t w o h u n ­ d r e d y e a r s a g o , left a l a r g e s u m o f m o n e y for t h e r a n s o m of A l g e r i n e c a p t i v e s , T h e m o n e y n o t b e i n g u s e d for t h a t p u r p o s e , t h e i n t e r e s t h a s s i n c e b e e n a p p r o p r i a t e d to t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s c h o o l s i n s e v e r a l of t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s . T h e n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n o n t h e different islands w h o a r e n o w r e c e i v i n g t h e benefit of this f u n d , is e s t i m a t e d a t t e n t h o u s a n d . T h e in­ t e r e s t a n n u a l l y d i s b u r s e d , is a b o u t s e v e n t y t h o u ­ s a nd dollars, this h a s b e e n increased b y addi­ tional funds from g o v e r n m e n t . S o far a s w e could learn, these schools are conducted v e r y m u c h as t h e public schools in P h i l a d e l p h i a . On o u r w a y to E n g l i s h H a r b o r , w e

stopped


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at Grace Hill, a M o r a v i a n establishment. The n u m e r o u s b u i l d i n g s of t h i s little s e t t l e m e n t c o r ­ respond w i t h the simplicity a n d neatness ob­ servable a m o n g this people. T h e s c h o o l is t a u g h t b y a colored m a n , w h o a p p e a r e d well q u a l i f i e d for t h e s t a t i o n . H i s list o f s c h o l a r s n u m b e r e d one hundred a n d sixty, although not m o r e t h a n half t h a t m a n y w e r e in a t t e n d a n c e . A t this season the children are sickly, the cool­ n e s s of t h e a t m o s p h e r e affecting t h e m . To us, it is r e m a r k a b l y m i l d a n d p l e a s a n t , y e t m a n y o f t h e n a t i v e s c o m p l a i n of t h e c o o l n e s s o f t h e mornings and evenings. T h e superintendent at Grace Hill informed u s of t h e g o o d o r d e r p r e v a i l i n g w i t h i n t h e c i r c l e of their religious c o m m u n i t y , a n d of t h e satis­ factory p r o g r e s s of t h e l a b o r e r s in h a b i t s of in­ dustry. A b o u t t w o t h o u s a n d colored people b e l o n g to their c o n g r e g a t i o n , m o s t l y settled in w h a t are called independent villages. These v i l l a g e s a r e l a i d off i n s q u a r e s , a n d h a v e b e e n p u r c h a s e d b y t h e e m a n c i p a t e d people since their freedom. On these plots each family h a s its c o t t a g e , a n d s u i t a b l e o u t h o u s e s , m a n y of w h i c h a r e of h e w n s t o n e , w i t h s h i n g l e d r o o f s . B u t m o s t o f t h e m a r e b u i l t of w o o d , a n d t h a t c h e d with sugar cane leaves. These settlements have a n a p p e a r a n c e w h i c h indicates the a d v a n t a g e s resulting from freedom. I t is h e r e , for t h e first t i m e , t h a t w e h a v e s e e n to m u c h e x t e n t , t h e e m a n c i p a t e d s l a v e s t a n d i n g u p o n h i s o w n soil b y r i g h t of p u r c h a s e , u n c o n t r o l l e d b y his f o r m e r master. Several hundred acres are thus settled in t h e v a l l i e s , a n d u p o n t h e hill s i d e s , t h r o u g h


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w h i c h the road passed. W e understood that, in some instances, as high as one h u n d r e d dollars p e r a c r e h a d b e e n p a i d for l a n d t h u s o c c u p i e d , a n d in this w a y a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of w a s t e l a n d had been taken up. T h e gardens appeared to b e w e l l c u l t i v a t e d w i t h v e g e t a b l e s , p i n e a p p l e s , c a n e s , &c. T h e m a r k e t s o f S t . J o h n ' s , a n d E n g l i s h H a r b o r , a r e to a considerable e x ­ tent supplied from them. T h e villagers form into independent gangs, or as they are termed, " task g a n g s , " w h o hire t h e m s e l v e s to t h e n e i g h ­ bouring planter, as required. B y these combinations they can perform m u c h m o r e l a b o r for t h e i r e m p l o y e r s , a n d e a r n for t h e m s e l v e s a n i n c r e a s e o f w a g e s , w h i l s t it gives a n o p p o r t u n i t y to cultivate their o w n grounds. T h e p l a n t e r is g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d b y t h i s m o d e , as h e c a n d e p e n d u p o n his c a n e piece b e i n g p r e ­ p a r e d i n a s h o r t e r p e r i o d of t i m e . W e f o u n d t h a t while " i n d e p e n d e n t v i l l a g e s " w e r e object­ e d to b y t h e p l a n t e r s o f S t . K i t t s , t h e A n t i g u a planter e x p e r i e n c e s no d i s a d v a n t a g e from t h e m , b u t o n t h e c o n t r a r y is b e n e f i t t e d . T h e results so f a v o r a b l e h e r e , m u s t n o d o u b t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e b e t t e r t r e a t m e n t of t h e A n t i g u a l a b o r e r . A t E n g l i s h H a r b o r o n e of the M i c o schools is e s t a b l i s h e d , w h i c h w e v i s i t e d a n d w i t n e s s e d a n e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e scholars b y the s u p e r i n ­ t e n d e n t , J o h n M i l l e r , w h o t o - d a y w a s o q e of o u r company. T h e children, like those w e h a v e heretofore seen, a p p e a r intelligent, a n d h a v e m a d e c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s in t h e i r s t u d i e s , m a n y of t h e m a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s o n a v a r i e t y o f s u b -


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jects w i t h m u c h readiness. T h e s e schools are a g r e a t blessing to t h e c o m m u n i t i e s in w h i c h t h e y are located. W e w e r e h i g h l y g r a t i f i e d w i t h t h e m a n n e r of instruction, w h i c h appeared s o m e w h a t novel, b u t efficient t o a r e m a r k a b l e d e g r e e i n i m p r e s ­ sing the lessons g i v e n b y the teacher. T h e children get no lessons b y r o t e — t h e in­ s t r u c t i o n is a l t o g e t h e r o r a l , a n d t h e w h o l e school, y o u n g e r a n d older, p a r t a k e in t h e s a m e exercises in G e o g r a p h y , i n c l u d i n g t h e u s e of M a p s a n d A r i t h m e t i c , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , &c. I n this w a y m a n y things are impressed u p o n the y o u n g m i n d in a m a n n e r w h i c h a p p e a r s t o a n i ­ m a t e and interest them. W e h a d t w o meetings at English Harbor, v e r y m u c h to o u r s a t i s f a c t i o n ; a t o n e of t h e s e a l a r g e a n d m i x e d c o n c o u r s e of p e o p l e a s s e m b l e d . I t w a s g r a t i f y i n g to s e e t h e l i b e r a t e d s l a v e s a n d their former m a s t e r s m e e t t o g e t h e r in the h o u s e of w o r s h i p , a n d e n c o u r a g i n g to w i t n e s s t h e g r e a t a t t e n t i o n a n d r e s p e c t p a i d to o u r l a b o r s a m o n g them. T h e r e has been, w e were credibly informed, a g r e a t ( a d v a n c e in the m o r a l c o n d u c t of t h e p e o p l e of t h i s p l a c e s i n c e e m a n c i p a t i o n . T h e t e s t i m o n y of t h e p e o p l e is, t h a t i m m e d i a t e e m a n ­ cipation w a s the wisest a n d b e s t m e a s u r e the colo­ n y c o u l d h a v e p u r s u e d to p r o m o t e i m p r o v e m e n t . T h e g o o d effects o f it a r e n o w t o b e s e e n i n t h e c o n t e n t e d a n d h a p p y c o n d i t i o n of t h e l a ­ borers. I n a c o m m u n i t y w h e r e so m a n y t h o u s a n d s

6


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w e r e suddenly released from b o n d a g e , w e might n a t u r a l l y e x p e c t t o find s o m e w h o w o u l d a b u s e t h e liberty t h u s g r a n t e d t h e m , — b u t the testi­ m o n y of a c o m p e t e n t j u d g e w o u l d i m p l y t h a t b u t few such instances h a v e occurred. "No w h e r e , " s a y s he, "are persons and property more secure t h a n t h ey are on this I s l a n d — n o p o p u ­ l a t i o n of e q u a l o r e v e n g r e a t e r e x t e n t i n t h e British dominions c a n be m o r e easily governed. A s r e g a r d s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e l a w s , t h e r e i s a c o n s c i e n t i o u s d i s p o s i t i o n m a n i f e s t e d to d o justice a n d to love m e r c y . " A friendly feeling is m a i n t a i n e d b e t w e e n a l l p a r t i e s — t h e r i g h t s o f all a r e m u t u a l l y r e s p e c t e d ; t h e a r b i t r a r y m e a s u r e s o f f o r m e r d a y s h a v e y i e l d e d to a m o r e m i l d a n d e f f e c t u a l m e a n s of g o v e r n i n g t h e m i n a s t a t e of F r e e d o m . W e also h a d a n interesting m e e t i n g in t h e t o w n of F a l m o t h , a b o u t t w o a n d a h a l f miles distance from English H a r b o r . T h e p e o p l e of t h i s p l a c e m a n i f e s t e d a t first a n unwillingness to attend a meeting, w h i c h w e c o u l d n o t a c c o u n t for. T h e y f i n a l l y t o l d u s t h a t t h e d e m a n d s of t h e c l e r g y for m o n e y w e r e so frequent that they avoided religious opportuni­ ties o n t h a t a c c o u n t . O n b e i n g informed t h a t w e w e r e n o t of t h e c l a s s w h o " p r e a c h for h i r e o r d i v i n e for m o n e y , " t h e y s o o n g a v e t h e n e c e s ­ sary information, a n d in a few hours a v e r y large c o m p a n y assembled in a suitable house p r o c u r e d for t h e p u r p o s e . Information has been received that a British c r u i s e r h a s c a p t u r e d t w o s l a v e r s off P o r t o R i c o , with several hundred captives on board. These


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poor creatures will yet h a v e to u n d e r g o a spe­ cies of s e r v i t u d e , a s it is n o t t h e p r a c t i c e t o s e n d t h e m b a c k to A f r i c a . T h e p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n s of c o u n t r y , w h e n c e m a n y of t h e m h a v e b e e n t a k e n , a r e u n k n o w n — b e i n g far i n t h e i n t e r i o r . T h e p l a n n o w a d o p t e d is t o a p p r e n t i c e t h e m t o t h e p l a n t e r s , w h o p a y a c e r t a i n s u m for t h e i r s e r v i c e s , w h i c h g o e s to d e f r a y , i n p a r t , t h e e x ­ p e n s e s incurred in their d e l i v e r a n c e . O n o u r w a y b a c k to St. J o h n s , w e visited L i b e r t a , o n e of the i n d e p e n d e n t villages before alluded to, a n d held a meeting w i t h the inhabi­ t a n t s . F r o m a little e m i n e n c e w e c o u n t e d a b o u t s i x t y comfortable d w e l l i n g s , all of w h i c h h a v e b e e n erected since 1834, a n d chiefly by t h e emancipated people. W e thought, from the a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e h o u s e s a n d g r o u n d s of t h i s little s e t t l e m e n t , t h e r e w a s a m p l e e v i d e n c e t h a t l i b e r a t e d s l a v e s w e r e a b l e to t a k e c a r e o f t h e m ­ s e l v e s , a n d t h a t w i t h t h e i m p u l s e s of f r e e d o m a n d t h e s t i m u l a n t of w a g e s for t h e i r l a b o r s , t h e y w e r e c a p a b l e of b e c o m i n g a h a p p y a n d p r o s p e r ­ ous community. Nice distinctions are m a d e on this Island in r e g a r d to c o l o r — m a n y varieties a r e noticed, w h i c h , to t h e i n i t i a t e d , h a v e t h e i r s e p a r a t e titles. I t w o u l d b e a h a p p y c i r c u m s t a n c e if t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s w e r e less c o n s i d e r e d t h a n t h e y a r e ; b u t p r e j u d i c e s o n c e i m b i b e d , a r e v e r y diffi­ c u l t to e r a d i c a t e . W e find, h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e p a s s i n g a w a y , a n d t h a t in m a n y instances t h r o u g h o u t t h e island, posts of profit a n d h o n o r u n d e r g o v e r n m e n t a r e n o w held b y p e r s o n s of color. T h e y a r e elected to legislative a s s e m -


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b l i e s , a n d s e v e r a l of t h e i m p o r t a n t s t a t i o n s o n t h i s I s l a n d a r e n o w filled b y t h o s e w h o o n c e w e r e slaves. T h e s e h a v e acquired wealth, a n d stand u p o n as respectable a footing as a n y o n the Island. W e d o n o t often s e e t h e r e a l b l a c k m a n so p r o m i n e n t a s t h e l i g h t c o l o r e d . In the M a r s h a l ' s office, w e n o t i c e d h i s p r i n c i p a l c l e r k was a jet black man. Marriages are n o w generally solemnized and e n c o u r a g e d . D u r i n g s l a v e r y , t h e y w e r e in s o m e cases not allowed. On this i m p o r t a n t subject g r e a t e r r e f o r m a t i o n is n e e d e d . I n St. K i t t s n o n e b u t t h e c l e r g y of t h e C h u r c h of E n g l a n d c a n l e 足 gally perform this service ; a n d there are m a n y a t t a c h e d to o t h e r r e l i g i o u s p e r s u a s i o n s o n t h a t I s l a n d w h o s e p r e a c h e r s a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d to officiate. T h e s e live as t h e y formerly did, not b e i n g w i l l i n g to s u b m i t to t h e interference of t h e E n g l i s h C h u r c h in t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f marriage. A n a t t e m p t is b e i n g m a d e to d o a w a y with this restriction, that they m a y b e legally solemnized b y the dissenting ministers. After a meeting, w h i c h w e held at the village of P a r h a m , w e h a d a n interesting c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h several intelligent y o u n g colored people o n t h e s u b j e c t of a h i r e l i n g m i n i s t r y a n d w o 足 men's preaching. It w a s s o m e t h i n g n e w to t h e m to h e a r of a p e o p l e w h o bore a t e s t i m o n y a g a i n s t t h e p r a c t i c e of p a y i n g m i n i s t e r s for preaching, and w h o considered w o m e n could b e e q u a l l y q u a l i f i e d w i t h m e n for t h e w o r k o f the ministry. T h e y h a d b e e n t a u g h t to b e l i e v e t h a t a m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e c l e r g y w a s a d u t y w h i c h the gospel imposed u p o n their h e a r e r s ;


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a n d t h a t t h e e x c l u s i o n of w o m e n from t h e e x e r ­ cise of t h e m i n i s t e r i a l office w a s b a s e d u p o n t h e c o m m a n d of t h e A p o s t l e , w h e r e h e c a u t i o n e d some troublesome Corinthian w o m e n against a s k i n g questions in t h e c h u r c h e s . T h e y a p ­ p e a r e d w e l l s a t i s f i e d , after a n e x p o s i t i o n of o u r v i e w s u p o n t h e s e s u b j e c t s ; o n e of t h e y o u n g w o m e n remarking, that she s a w no good reason w h y t h e i r s e x s h o u l d n o t b e p e r m i t t e d to p r e a c h , a n d as a n evidence that they did not lack the n e c e s s a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n for t h e s e r v i c e , s h e i n ­ f o r m e d u s t h a t o n e of their ministers w a s in t h e h a b i t of e m p l o y i n g a female friend of h e r s to p r e p a r e a n d write out his s e r m o n s . H a v i n g c o n c l u d e d to r e t u r n to St. J o h n s , w e travelled through a rich and highly cultivated p o r t i o n of t h e I s l a n d . W e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n pleased, h a d the w e a t h e r proved more favora­ ble, as this w a s the last o p p o r t u n i t y w e s h o u l d h a v e of e n j o y i n g t h e s p l e n d i d s c e n e r y w h i c h o p e n e d before u s , as w e ascended t h e frequent eminences upon the road. A l t h o u g h it r a i n e d , w e c o u l d n o t f o r b e a r l e a v i n g o u r v e h i c l e to s e ­ l e c t s o m e fine s p e c i m e n s of p e t r i f a c t i o n s , w h i c h h a d b e e n w a s h e d out b y the late rains. These a r e c o m m o n to this p a r t of the I s l a n d . They a r e o f t e n c o l l e c t e d for E u r o p e a n c a b i n e t s , a s t h e y f u r n i s h s i n g u l a r p r o o f of t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f v a r i o u s w o o d s into silicious m a t t e r . M a n y of t h e species of w o o d s n o w i n d i g e n o u s to t h e I s l a n d , a r e f o u n d c h a n g e d i n t o m a s s e s of a g a t e , a n d w h e n polished across the grain, indicate the c h a r a c t e r of t h e t r e e w i t h g r e a t d i s t i n c t n e s s . A visit to the M i c o schools a g a i n confirmed 6*


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p r e v i o u s i m p r e s s i o n s , t h a t t h e m o d e of i n s t r u c ­ t i o n p u r s u e d is p e c u l i a r l y a d a p t e d to t h e y o u n g and tender mind. T h e morning w a s spent a m o n g t h e i n t e r e s t i n g little c o m p a n y i n h e a r i n g t h e m perform their exercises. Afterwards w e called in at w h a t w a s formerly designated the C e n t r a l S c h o o l . T h i s is a free s c h o o l , w h e r e l a d s a r e p r e p a r e d for a c o l l e g e c o u r s e . Latin, Greek, and the Mathematics are taught. The girls' d e p a r t m e n t w a s closed. B u t a n interest­ i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h its i n t e l l i g e n t p r i n c i p a l , a f e m a l e b y t h e n a m e o f G r a v e s , l e d to t h e c o n ­ clusion, that under her instructions the children could not but be improved. First month 20th.—Having made arrange­ m e n t s t o sail for B a r b a d o s , in t h e A u g u s t a of Philadelphia, Captain M c M u r t r i e , w e bid fare­ w e l l to o u r w o r t h y l a n d l a d y a n d h e r h o u s e h o l d , w h o loaded us with their kind wishes a n d bless­ ings. S e v e r a l of o u r friends t o o k b o a t w i t h u s for t h e v e s s e l , w h i c h l a y a t a n c h o r s o m e d i s ­ t a n c e from the s h o r e . A m o n g t h e n u m b e r w a s M i c h a e l H i g g i n s , a little c o l o r e d l a d , a s o n of R i g a m H i g g i n s , of S t o n e ' s fort. H e is n i n e y e a r s o f a g e ; t h e little f e l l o w w o u l d n o t l e a v e u s until t h e last m i n u t e . W e w e r e quite sur­ p r i s e d to find h i m i n t h e b o a t . H e h a d s e c u r e d a s e a t w i t h o u t o u r p e r c e i v i n g it. H e h a d a g r e a t deal of c a u t i o u s n e s s , b u t his love a p p e a r ­ e d t o h a v e o v e r c o m e it. T h e schooner lay m o r e t h a n a m i l e f r o m t h e w h a r f , b u t t h e little b o y c o n c l u d e d , a l t h o u g h h e h a d n e v e r been in a boat before, he would go n o w . W e could s c a r c e l y a c c o u n t for t h i s s t r o n g a t t a c h m e n t o f


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t h e l a d ; e v e r y m o r n i n g h e c a m e t o s e e u s (after h e k n e w of o u r b e i n g i n t o w n , ) f r e q u e n t l y t o o k breakfast w i t h us, a n d spent the time before school. A s w e passed o u t t h e h a r b o r of St. J o h n s , w e s a w on the b e a c h a vessel which w a s c a p t u r e d some time ago, a n d condemned as a slaver. She w a s taken with near three hundred native Africans on b o a r d . J u d g i n g from t h e size of t h e v e s s e l , t h e s i t u a t i o n of t h e s e p o o r c r e a t u r e s on t h e p a s s a g e m u s t h a v e b e e n w r e t c h e d in t h e extreme. T h e reflections occasioned b y t h e s i g h t of t h i s v e s s e l , a w a k e n e d a d e e p s e n s e o f t h e h o r r o r s of t h i s traffic in h u m a n flesh, a n d t h e c o u n t l e s s s u f f e r i n g s so c r u e l l y inflicted u p o n its u n h a p p y victims. BARBADOS. O u r v o y a g e o c c u p i e d n e a r l y five a n d a h a l f d a y s from A n t i g u a to B a r b a d o s . We had good accommodations on board our Philadel­ phia schooner; the Captain being an agreeable y o u n g m a n , m a d e o u r t e d i o u s b e a t i n g to w i n d ­ w a r d m u c h m o r e p l e a s a n t t h a n it o t h e r w i s e w o u l d h a v e b e e n . T h e r e w a s b u t little t o i n ­ terest us o n the v o y a g e , e x c e p t a v i e w of s e v e r a l of the W i n d w a r d Islands. W e p a s s e d b e t w e e n Gaudaloupe and Desirada, b y Petit Terre, M i r i a G a l a n t e — F r e n c h I s l a n d s ; also b y D o m i n i c o , M a r t i n i c o , a n d i n v i e w of t h e h i g h m o u n t a i n s of St. L u c i e . T h e s e I s l a n d s are v e r y hilly a n d m o u n t a i n o u s , a n d m a n y of t h e m e x h i b i t t r a c e s


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o f v o l c a n o e s . B a r b a d o s is t h e m o s t e a s t e r l y of the W e s t Indies. A s w e a p p r o a c h e d it, w e p e r c e i v e d f r o m its b r o w n a p p e a r a n c e , t h e ef­ fects of a l o n g a n d s e v e r e d r o u g h t . Having a v e r y d e n s e p o p u l a t i o n , it h a d t h e a p p e a r a n c e of m a n y thickly settled villages. On the m o r n i n g o f F i r s t m o n t h 2 5 t h , w e a n c h o r e d in C a r ­ lisle B a y . W e s o o n f o u n d e x c e l l e n t a c c o m m o ­ d a t i o n s , a t t h e b o a r d i n g h o u s e of H a n n a h L e w i s , a colored w o m a n , well k n o w n in these p a r t s for t h e k i n d n e s s e x t e n d e d t o t r a v e l l e r s w h e n u n d e r h e r roof. W e h a d l e t t e r s t o d i v e r s persons in this place, b y w h o m w e w e r e kindly received. A m o n g this n u m b e r w a s S a m u e l J. P r e s c o d , a c o l o r e d m a n , a n d a n e d i t o r of a p a ­ per called " T h e L i b e r a l , " with w h o m w e spent a n h o u r s o o n after o u r a r r i v a l , v e r y a g r e e a b l y . B r i d g e t o w n is a b u s y p l a c e , c o n t a i n i n g a b o u t thirty t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s ; the streets are gen­ erally n a r r o w and crooked, but kept r e m a r k a ­ b l y c l e a n . T h e y a r e all M a c a d a m i z e d , a n d c o ­ v e r e d w i t h a k i n d of d i s i n t e g r a t e d coral rock, r e s e m b l i n g a m o r t a r c e m e n t , w h i c h , filling u p the interstices b e t w e e n the stones, forms a smooth, compact surface. T h e r e a r e n o side w a l k s , — t h e c a r r i a g e w a y s , in m o s t p l a c e s , e x ­ t e n d i n g to t h e w a l l s of t h e h o u s e s . T h e e v i d e n c e s of c o m m e r c i a l b u s i n e s s is m u c h g r e a t e r t h a n in a n y t o w n w e h a v e y e t vis­ ited. T h i s I s l a n d is a b o u t t w e n t y - t w o m i l e s long b y fourteen broad, and contains a popula­ t i o n of o n e h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y t h o u s a n d . T h e w e a t h e r is w a r m e r t h a n i n A n t i g u a .


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T h e difference is n o t so g r e a t a s w e h a d a n t i c i ­ pated, although nearer the E q u a t o r . T h e close built t o w n does not a d m i t t h e r e ­ f r e s h i n g s e a b r e e z e t o a c t w i t h its r e v i v i n g influence. O n e of t h e p r i n c i p a l s t r e e t s , h o w ­ e v e r , affords a d e l i g h t f u l w a l k . O n t h i s t h e r e is a r a n g e o f c o t t a g e s o n e i t h e r s i d e , of n e a t c o n ­ s t r u c t i o n , s u r r o u n d e d b y s h r u b b e r y , &c. We n o t i c e d l a r g e o r c h a r d s of C o c o a - n u t t r e e s o n this street. In 1831, a violent hurricane laid w a s t e the whole Island, a n d destroyed houses, trees, and shrubbery. T h e present orchards are t h e r e f o r e y o u n g , a n d a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g to b e ­ c o m e p r o f i t a b l e ; t h e y a p p e a r to b e c u l t i v a t e d a s a n a r t i c l e of m e r c h a n d i z e . T h e principal religious denominations are the C h u r c h of E n g l a n d , t h e M o r a v i a n s , a n d t h e Methodists. T h e M o r a v i a n s h a v e a t t a c h e d to t h e m , in several congregations, a b o u t six t h o u ­ sand members. W e h a d several interesting meetings a m o n g them. F r o m J o h n Ellis, the M o r a v i a n Missionary, and E l i z a b e t h his wife, of B r i d g e t o w n , w e r e c e i v e d t h e k i n d e s t a t t e n ­ tion. T h e i r l a r g e a n d c o m m o d i o u s p l a c e of w o r s h i p w a s f r e e l y offered to u s d u r i n g o u r stay here. T h e M e t h o d i s t s h a v e a b o u t fifteen h u n d r e d members. T h e y have been a persecuted peo­ p l e , o n a c c o u n t o f t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to s l a v e r y . S o m e years previous to the emancipation, the p o p u l a r f e e l i n g w a s so m u c h a g a i n s t t h e m , t h a t their chapel w a s totally demolished b y a m o b , a n d their preachers driven from the Island.


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T h e y h a v e s i n c e e r e c t e d s e v e r a l h o u s e s of w o r 足 s h i p , a n d all c l a s s e s w o u l d b e g l a d n o w to b l o t o u t of r e m e m b r a n c e t h o s e s h a m e f u l p r o c e e d i n g s . It would seem that m u c h more Christian labor is r e q u i r e d u p o n t h i s I s l a n d t h a n is b e s t o w e d . T h e N a t i o n a l C h u r c h , it is s a i d , h a s n o t b e e n v e r y a c t i v e i n t h e p r o m o t i o n of t h e m o r a l c u l t u r e o f t h e m a n y t h o u s a n d s it c l a i m s a s its m e m b e r s . S . J . P r e s c o d is of o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p l a n t e r s are acting unjustly with the laborers. H e thinks t h e y i m p o s e u p o n t h e m , a n d force t h e m t h r o u g h their necessities to labor at their o w n prices, t h e b a r g a i n i n g b e i n g chiefly m a d e b y the p l a n t e r s themselves. O n r e f u s a l of t h e l a b o r e r t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s of t h e e m p l o y e r , h e is, or m a y b e , ejected from his cottage on twenty-four h o u r s ' notice. The p o p u l a t i o n b e i n g so d e n s e , a n d e v e r y h a b i 足 t a t i o n o c c u p i e d , f e w o p p o r t u n i t i e s o c c u r for c h a n g e of r e s i d e n c e ; h e n c e , t h e s e p o o r p e o p l e must submit. H e m e n t i o n e d a c a s e of f o r t y o r fifty f a m i l i e s b e i n g t h u s e j e c t e d , a n d w i t h a l l their chattels t u r n e d into t h e r o a d , w h e n after r e m a i n i n g t w o d a y s , t h e y w e r e o b l i g e d to a g r e e t o w h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d a n i m p o s i t i o n of t h e i r employer. L a n d is h e l d a t a h i g h p r i c e ; f r o m s e v e n t y to t w o h u n d r e d a n d fifty p o u n d s c u r r e n c y is o b t a i n e d p e r a c r e . A s t h e w h o l e of t h e i s l a n d is u n d e r cultivation, a n d rated at such high prices, t h e l a b o r e r , w i t h h i s s m a l l m e a n s , is c u t off f r o m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y of i m p r o v i n g h i s c o n 足 d i t i o n ; or, as in A n t i g u a , of f o r m i n g i n d e 足 p e n d e n t s e t t l e m e n t s . E m i g r a t i o n is t h e o n l y d o o r left for h i m , a n d t h a t h a s b e e n a t t e m p t e d


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to b e closed. W h e n t h e colonial e n a c t m e n t s a g a i n s t it w e r e p r e s e n t e d for r a t i f i c a t i o n a t t h e H o m e g o v e r n m e n t its c o n c u r r e n c e w a s r e f u s e d . If liberty to e m i g r a t e h a d b e e n t a k e n from t h e m , t h e y m u s t h a v e r e m a i n e d in a s t a t e of o p p r e s s i o n b u t a little r e m o v e d f r o m t h a t of slavery. P r e s c o d sees these frauds a t t e m p t e d t o b e p r a c t i s e d u p o n h i s b r e t h r e n , a n d is n o t afraid to e x p o s e t h e m . H e h a s j u s t b e e n li­ b e r a t e d from p r i s o n t h r o u g h t h e p a r d o n of the g o v e r n o r , after a n i m p r i s o n m e n t of eight d a y s , h a v i n g b e e n s e n t e n c e d to t h r e e m o n t h s i m ­ p r i s o n m e n t for l i b e l . I t is c o n s i d e r e d b y m a n y , m o r e a m a t t e r of p e r s e c u t i o n t h a n a n y t h i n g else, a n d so, p r o b a b l y , t h o u g h t the g o v e r n o r . A n o t h e r o b j e c t i o n a b l e f e a t u r e is n o t i c e d , a n d which must be exceedingly oppressive w h e n e n f o r c e d , a s it is r e p o r t e d to h a v e b e e n in d i v e r s i n s t a n c e s , t h a t is, t h e exercise of i n d e p e n d e n t w i l l s i n m a n a n d w i f e . T h i s is o n e o f t h e r e l i c s of s l a v e r y w h e n t h e y w e r e n o t k n o w n i n that relation. T h e o p e r a t i o n of t h i s s i n g u l a r f e a t u r e is t h i s , if t h e h u s b a n d d e m u r s f r o m t h e d e m a n d s o f h i s e m p l o y e r s , he m a y be ejected from his family a n d cottage, his wife a n d children remaining. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , if t h e w i f e o b j e c t s , s h e m a y b e treated in the same m a n n e r , while the hus­ band m a y remain. Families h a v e been sepa­ r a t e d a n d b r o k e n u p b y this system, a n d n o o p ­ p o r t u n i t y of r e u n i o n c a n o c c u r e x c e p t o n t h e e m p l o y e r s t e r m s , in c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e d e n s i t y of t h e p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h occupies e v e r y h a b i ­ tation on the island. I t is t o b e h o p e d t h a t all


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t h e s e i n c o n s i s t e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , so i n i m i c a l to t h e p e a c e a n d h a r m o n y of t h e c o m m u n i t y , will b e abolished. T h e free l a b o r e r s o n t h e o t h e r islands, a n d particularly in A n t i g u a , are m u c h m o r e l i k e l y t o r e a l i z e t h e b l e s s i n g s of e m a n c i ­ p a t i o n t h a n h e r e ; t h e r e , w i t h a s m a l l s u m of m o n e y , t h e y c a n p u r c h a s e l o t s of g r o u n d , a n d b e ­ c o m e f r e e - h o l d e r s , h a v i n g a l l t h e f r a n c h i s e s of t h e full c i t i z e n , t o p l a c e t h e i r o w n r e p r e s e n t a ­ tives in the colonial legislature. There, each laborer builds his o w n h o u s e . If not a m a s o n , or a carpenter, h e c a n build a wattled cabin, a n d t h u s c o m m e n c e free life o n h i s o w n g r o u n d . S u c h a case can scarcely occur in B a r b a d o s . T h e u s u a l a l l o w a n c e of w a g e s p e r d a y , is t w e n t y c e n t s i n m o n e y , to t h e d o m i c i l e d l a b o r e r ; t h a t is, a l a b o r e r w h o occupies a c o t t a g e b e ­ l o n g i n g to a n e s t a t e . I f o n e f r o m t h e n e i g h ­ b o r i n g p l a n t a t i o n is h i r e d , h e g e t s t h i r t y c e n t s , o r if t h e d o m i c i l e d l a b o r e r h i r e s h i m s e l f to h i s e m p l o y e r o n h i s S e v e n t h - d a y , h e is a l l o w e d t h i r t y c e n t s ; t h i s ( t h i r t y c e n t s ) is c o n s i d e r e d t h e m a x i m u m s t a n d a r d of w a g e s . T h e domiciled laborer, therefore, p a y s ten c e n t s p e r d a y for t h e u s e of h i s c o t t a g e a n d g r o u n d s , if, of t h e l a t t e r , h e h a s a n y , w h i c h is not a l w a y s the case. T h e w i f e , if s h e l a b o r s in t h e field, is a l l o w e d t h e s a m e w a g e s , w i t h t h e s a m e r e d u c t i o n o f t e n c e n t s , a n d so w i t h a n y other m e m b e r of the family w h o m a y b e able t o e n t e r u p o n field l a b o r . T h u s every in­ d i v i d u a l o f t h e f a m i l y a b l e to w o r k , p a y s t h e e q u a l r e n t of t e n cents p e r d a y . It w o u l d a p ­ p e a r i n t h e w o r k i n g of t h i s p l a n t h a t f r e q u e n t


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ly a s h i g h a r e n t a s o n e h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y d o l ­ l a r s p e r a n n u m is o b t a i n e d for t h e m i s e r a b l e huts which they occupy. W h e n a n y . fall s i c k a n d c a n n o t g o o u t to w o r k t h e y a r e c h a r g e d for n o n - a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e i r p o s t s f r o m t e n to t h i r t y c e n t s , a t t h e o p t i o n of t h e e m p l o y e r ; a n d w h e n a b l e to r e n e w t h e i r l a b o r t h e i r w a g e s a r e w i t h h e l d u n t i l t h e fine is paid. These impositions were stated, u p o n good authority, as a m o n g the causes which have pre­ v e n t e d t h e success of e m a n c i p a t i o n on this, as o n other Islands. F r o m enquiries m a d e , w e found that the v a l u e o f p r o p e r t y is g r e a t l y a d v a n c e d f r o m w h a t it w a s r a t e d five o r s i x y e a r s b e f o r e t h e d a t e of e m a n c i p a t i o n — s a l e s h a v i n g b e e n m a d e at double t h e former prices. T h e p o p u l a t i a n of t h i s I s l a n d h a s n o t v a r i e d m u c h for t h e l a s t o n e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y y e a r s . I n 1 6 7 5 t h e w h i t e s n u m b e r e d fifty t h o u s a n d , a n d the colored seventy-five thousand. When J a m a i c a w a s conquered a n d a n n e x e d to the English c r o w n a large n u m b e r emigrated thither. W i t h t h i s d e c r e a s e of its p o p u l a t i o n w a s a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e falling off in its t r a d e ; but the population again increased through the natural m e a n s a n d the slave trade from Africa, as well as that w h i c h w a s carried on b e t w e e n the English and the neighboring F r e n c h Islands. A l a r g e n u m b e r of n a t i v e B a r b a d i a n s a r e n o w held in slavery on those Islands w h o w e r e sold a short time p r e v i o u s to, a n d in a n t i c i p a t i o n 7


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of t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s y s t e m . M a n y of t h e s e h a v e relatives living in B a r b a d o s , — h u s b a n d s , w i v e s a n d c h i l d r e n , — w h i c h the cruel a n d b a r ­ b a r o u s s y s t e m of s l a v e r y h a d s e p a r a t e d . S h o u l d F r a n c e follow t h e e x a m p l e of E n g l a n d t h e r e will be m a n y h a p p y re-unions. A r e g i m e n t of s o l d i e r s is r e g u l a r l y s t a t i o n e d u p o n t h i s I s l a n d . B r i d g e t o w n is t h e d e p o t for the Government W e s t India Steamers, which a r e v e s s e l s of w a r , b u t a r e n o w u s e d for c a r r y ­ ing the mails. A v e r y efficient P o l i c e is k e p t u p b o t h i n town and country. T h i s is m a d e u p o f w h i t e a n d colored, w h o receive a military training. W e h a v e n o t w i t n e s s e d , since b e i n g o n the I s l a n d , n e e d for t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h i s p o l i c e . O n a n o c c a s i o n of o u r h o l d i n g a m e e t i n g i n t o w n , so l a r g e a c o n c o u r s e o f p e o p l e a s s e m b l e d a s t o fill t h e h o u s e a n d t h e s t r e e t for a c o n s i d e r ­ able distance. T h e police c a m e u p o n the g r o u n d w i t h a v i e w to p r e s e r v e order, a s t h e y s a i d , o r t o p r e v e n t difficulties, s h o u l d a n y o c c u r . Perfect order, h o w e v e r , prevailed until the m e e t i n g closed ; a n d w h e n the people w e r e r e ­ q u e s t e d to d i s p e r s e t h e y d i d so i n m u c h q u i e t ­ ude. It w a s considered b y m a n y a grievance that this police frequently a p p e a r e d w h e n there w a s n o n e c e s s i t y for t h e i r i n t e r f e r e n c e , a n d t h a t t h e y w e r e o f t e n t h e o r i g i n a t o r s o f difficulties t h e m ­ selves. It w a s also considered b y m a n y t h a t such a police h a d b e c o m e u n n e c e s s a r y since the d a t e of f r e e d o m . W e v i s i t e d t h e M i c o s c h o o l s u n d e r t h e c a r e of


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A l e x a n d e r S t r o n i c k , w h i c h afforded u s m u c h satisfaction. I n t h e j u v e n i l e d e p a r t m e n t (so t e r m e d ) one h u n d r e d a n d thirty b o y s a n d girls w e r e t a u g h t , a n d a b o u t n i n e t y in t h e infant school. T h e s e children s e e m to e q u a l in in足 telligence t h o s e of A n t i g u a , u n d e r t h e c a r e of o u r friend J o h n M i l l e r . T h e i r progress in literary k n o w l e d g e w a s creditable to t h e m a n d their instructors. T h e p l a n of o r a l instruction is p r a c t i s e d , b u t in a different m a n n e r f r o m t h e A n t i g u a schools. T h e children sing frequently d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s s h o r t h y m n s s u i t e d to t h e i r youthful understandings, with the several arith足 metical tables. A b o u t five h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y c h i l d r e n a r e t a u g h t b y this charity in the several schools u p o n this Island. T h o m a s Bilby, the principal s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of this section, informs, t h a t the H o m e G o v e r n m e n t aided last y e a r to the a m o u n t of s e v e n t e e n t h o u s a n d p o u n d s . T h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s of t h e s e s c h o o l s a r e p r e 足 p a r i n g their o w n books, a n d h a v e lately issued t h r e e w h i c h a p p e a r s u i t a b l e for c h i l d r e n . The scholars a r e i n t e n d e d to b e e d u c a t e d free from a n y sectarian bias. T h i s feature w o u l d be one o f its g r e a t e s t e x c e l l e n c i e s if fully o r p r o p e r l y c a r r i e d o u t ; b u t it is d o u b t f u l if it is d o n e , a s t h e t e a c h e r s t a k e t h e l i b e r t y to g i v e t h e i r o w n v i e w s to t h e c h i l d r e n , a n d w i l l be m o s t l i k e l y t o u s e the influence t h e y h a v e to a t t a c h t h e m to their o w n sect. A n e d u c a t i o n c l e a r of s e c t a r i a n b i a s w o u l d p r o v e a b l e s s i n g of i n c a l c u l a b l e v a l u e t o t h e s e hitherto enslaved people. Could they be train-


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e d a n d i n s t r u c t e d in t h e m o r a l p r e c e p t s a n d r e q u i s i t i o n s of t h e g o s p e l , — w h i c h a r e p l a i n a n d simple w h e n disconnected from the abstruse t h e o l o g y of t h e a g e , — a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e y a r e acquiring literary instruction, they w o u l d be fitted for a c t i v e life, a n d e s c a p e t h a t m e n t a l b o n ­ d a g e to p r i e s t c r a f t , to w h i c h m a n y a r e n o w s u b ­ jected. In a c o m m u n i t y w h e r e " p r i e s t s bear rule b y t h e i r m e a n s " w e m a y e x p e c t to find o p p o s i t i o n t o e v e r y t h i n g l i k e a n a p p r o a c h to t h a t r e l i g i o u s liberty w h i c h enfranchises the h u m a n mind, a n d c o n f e r s u p o n it t h e p r i v i l e g e of t h i n k i n g a n d a c t i n g for itself in m a t t e r s o f r e l i g i o n . Hence w e find t h i s c l a s s s t r e n u o u s l y o p p o s i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e s e schools. T h e L o r d B i s h o p ( a s h e is c a l l e d ) o f t h e E n g l i s h C h u r c h h a s his residence on this I s l a n d , a n d from h i m t h e y h a v e m e t w i t h considerable opposition. H e tells t h e m t h a t t h e c l e r g y a r e sworn t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r c o n f e s s i o n s a n d c a t e ­ chisms, and they cannot support or e n c o u r a g e schools in w h i c h t h e y a r e n o t t a u g h t . A n a d u l t s c h o o l is a l s o k e p t in t h e e v e n i n g , t w i c e i n t h e w e e k , w h i c h is w e l l a t t e n d e d . T h e a d u l t s g e n e r a l l y l e a r n to r e a d in t w e l v e m o n t h s , w h i c h is a b o u t t h e l i m i t of t h e i r d e s i r e s : k n o w i n g this m u c h t h e y c o n c l u d e t h e y c a n i m ­ prove themselves. T h e social i n t e r c o u r s e o n t h i s I s l a n d b e t w e e n t h e c o l o r e d a n d w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n is n o t v e r y extensive, as the prejudices formerly engendered remain without much change. T h e whites, numbering about twenty thousand, keep very


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m u c h w i t h i n their o w n circle, s e p a r a t e from the c o l o r e d c l a s s e s . T h i s d o e s n o t r e m o v e t h e feel­ ings of j e a l o u s y c o n s e q u e n t u p o n t h e condition of s l a v e r y , a n d w e t h e r e f o r e find t h a t h e a r t ­ b u r n i n g s still e x i s t . T i m e , w e c a n believe, will w o r k a c h a n g e for t h e b e t t e r . W e m e t w i t h s e v e r a l w e a l t h y a n d intelligent colored m e n w h o w o u l d a d o r n a n y circle i n s o c i e t y . T o w a r d s such as these t h e r e is b u t little p r e j u d i c e felt, a n d c o n s e q u e n t ­ l y t h e y r i s e to s t a t i o n s of e m i n e n c e , a n d r e c e i v e important stations both u n d e r the G o v e r n m e n t a n d in t h e C h u r c h . First month 30th.—This afternoon w e took p a s s a g e i n a l a r g e sail b o a t , u s e d a s a l i g h t e r for t h e c o n v e y a n c e of s u g a r , & c , for S p e i g h t s t o w n , w h i c h is a b o u t t w e l v e m i l e s d i s t a n t f r o m B r i d g e ­ town. T w o h o u r s b r o u g h t us to our destina­ t i o n , b u t n o t t o a h o m e , a s t h e l a n d l a d y of t h e only b o a r d i n g - h o u s e in t h e t o w n refused u s a c ­ c o m m o d a t i o n s ; i n c o n s e q u e n c e of w h i c h w e h a d t o s e a r c h for q u a r t e r s . A f t e r s o m e c o n s i d e r ­ able time spent, exciting in the interim m u c h curious speculation a m o n g the people, w e w e r e v e r y kindly furnished with rooms by Richard M a p p , a v e r y w o r t h y y o u n g colored m a n , a provision dealer. T h e u s e of h i s p a r l o r w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y offered for o u r h o l d i n g a m e e t i n g , w h i c h w e accepted a n d h a d a large a n d satis­ factory opportunity. W e also h a d a n interest­ i n g m e e t i n g o n t h e e v e n i n g of F i r s t - d a y , i n t h e M e t h o d i s t C h a p e l , a t w h i c h m o s t of t h e a d u l t citizens w e r e present. Some

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F r i e n d s exist n e a r this t o w n . T h e y once had a m e e t i n g h o u s e h e r e , h u t no traces are n o w to be s e e n . T h e a n c i e n t p l a c e o f b u r i a l is still c a l l ­ ed " Q u a k e r ' s M e e t i n g . " It contains a b o u t threef o u r t h s o f a n a c r e a n d is e n c l o s e d b y a s u b s t a n ­ t i a l w a l l o f c o r a l r o c k , still in a g o o d s t a t e o f preservation. W e w a l k e d o u t to t h i s p l a c e , a n d s p e n t a n h o u r in e n d e a v o r i n g t o d e c y p h e r s o m e o f t h e m e m o r i a l s of t h e d e a d , b e i n g a n u m b e r of s i m p l e stones, on w h i c h w e r e e n ­ g r a v e d t h e n a m e s of t h e d e c e a s e d , a n d a s h o r t e u l o g y in p r o s e . O n o n e o f t h e s e a n c i e n t m o n u ­ ments, a v e r y long epitaph was engraven, but t i m e h a d so n e a r l y effaced it, t h a t w e w e r e o n l y a b l e t o r e a d t h e c o n c l u s i o n ; it w a s a s f o l l o w s : " w h i c h h e k n e w to b e the g u i d e , light, a n d t r u t h , w h i c h leads to salvation. Died N i n t h m o n t h 17th, 1673, aged 54 y e a r s . " This was the only ancient d a t e w e could distinctly read. W e were informed that the L o r d Bishop w a s t r y i n g to get this g r o u n d a n d other burial places of F r i e n d s , o n t h i s I s l a n d , i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n , t h a t t h e y m i g h t b e consecrated, after w h i c h his m i n i s ­ t e r s c o u l d p e r f o r m f u n e r a l s e r v i c e in t h e m . F r i e n d s f o r m e r l y h a d five m e e t i n g h o u s e s o n t h i s I s l a n d ; t h e m e m b e r s a t t a c h e d to t h e s o c i ­ ety w e r e at one time very numerous. When G e o r g e F o x visited this colony in 1 6 8 1 , h e p u b ­ l i c l y a n d p r i v a t e l y l a b o r e d i n t h e c a u s e of suf­ fering h u m a n i t y ; a n d urged u p o n those w h o held s l a v e s , t h a t it w a s t h e i r d u t y t o t r e a t t h e m w i t h k i n d n e s s a n d m e r c y , a n d to g i v e t h e m t h e i r f r e e ­ d o m in d u e t i m e , d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e t h e c o m m o n objects of s a l v a t i o n , a n d s h o u l d be


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t r e a t e d a s t h e o f f s p r i n g of o n e u n i v e r s a l F a t h e r . W i t h such considerations as these, he taught that moral a n d religious instruction should he e q u a l l y e x t e n d e d to the slave, as to t h e m a s t e r . H i s is t h e p r a i s e o f h a v i n g first a t t e m p t e d , a m i d s t o b l o q u y a n d suffering, to p r e a c h t h e Gospel in this Island to t h e p o o r African slave. I n s t e a d of listening to these h a r m l e s s s u g g e s ­ t i o n s , a n d - p e r m i t t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s to effect a c u r e for t h e i n c r e a s i n g evils o f s l a v e r y , t h e a d v o c a t e s of t h e s y s t e m r a i s e d a t o r r e n t of o p p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t h i m a n d his friends, c h a r g i n g t h e m w i t h exciting the slaves to i n s u r r e c t i o n , a n d s o w i n g t h e seeds of dissatisfaction a n d distrust. I n a letter a d d r e s s ­ e d to t h e G o v e r n o r o f t h e I s l a n d , G e o r g e F o x calls those c h a r g e s a " w i c k e d s l a n d e r " on t h e society. W e l l satisfied t h a t t h e inculcation of s o u n d religious principles, w i t h t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of le­ gitimate rights, w a s not only a duty, b u t con­ s t i t u t e d t h e g r e a t e s t s a f e g u a r d of t h e p e a c e a n d h a p p i n e s s of t h e c o l o n y , t h e s e e a r l y p i o n e e r s in t h e w o r k of e m a n c i p a t i o n , a r d u o u s l y l a b o r e d t o m e l i o r a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e i r f e l l o w m e n , w h o w e r e suffering u n d e r a cruel b o n d a g e . T h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i r m e a s u r e s w a s so s t r o n g , t h a t it l e d t o r e p e a t e d p r o h i b i t o r y l a w s , s o m e o f w h i c h p o s s e s s t h e h a r s h e s t f e a t u r e s of p e r s e ­ cution. B y a n e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e C o l o n i a l R e c o r d s , w e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , in 1 6 7 6 , a l a w w a s p a s s e d forbidding F r i e n d s taking the colored people to p l a c e s of p u b l i c w o r s h i p ; a n d i n 1 6 7 8 , a l a w


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w a s a l s o p a s s e d , m a k i n g it a p e n a l offence for a m e m b e r of o u r society to p r e a c h at a p u b l i c meeting. T h e p r e a m b l e s to these e n a c t m e n t s g o t o s h o w , t h a t t h e free s p i r i t of Q u a k e r i s m w a s inimical to the s y s t e m of s l a v e r y , a n d t h a t both could not be tolerated in the same com­ munity. S u c h w a s the current of opposition against w h i c h o u r unoffending forefathers h a d to c o n ­ t e n d . T h e efforts o f t h e different s e c t s , w h o a t t e m p t e d to p r o v e t h a t t h e African m i n d w a s susceptible of religious a n d m o r a l r e f i n e m e n t , w e r e long a n d openly opposed, and their be­ nevolent exertions w e r e n a r r o w e d d o w n to a v e r y limited s p h e r e , u n t i l t h e act of e m a n c i p a ­ tion in 1836. H a p p i l y , a better d a y h a s d a w n ­ e d u p o n this people. Efforts are n o w b e i n g m a d e t o e d u c a t e t h e m , a n d to o p e n a p a t h for t h e m t o a h i g h e r r a n k a n d s t a t i o n a m o n g thenfellow m e n , Second month 5th.—Visited a n o t h e r of t h e M i c o schools, in B r i d g e t o w n , a t w h i c h o n e h u n d r e d a n d forty children w e r e r e c e i v i n g t h e r u d i m e n t s of a n e d u c a t i o n . It w a s c o n d u c t e d b y a m a n a n d w o m a n teacher, the latter a colored w o m a n . The ex­ a m i n a t i o n of t h e p u p i l s w h i l e w e w e r e p r e s e n t , g a v e s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o o f of t h e t e a c h e r s ' c a p a c i t y t o i n s t r u c t t h e m , a n d of t h e i r r e a d i n e s s t o l e a r n . This evening w e h a d a meeting at Green P a r k , w h e r e a l a r g e c o m p a n y of p e o p l e a s s e m ­ bled. It w a s held at a n unfinished dwelling h o u s e , w h i c h w a s offered for t h e p u r p o s e . T h e g r e a t e r p a r t of the c o n g r e g a t i o n w e r e obliged to


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remain outside, but within hearing. The more w e m i n g l e w i t h t h e p o o r a n d i l l i t e r a t e p e o p l e of t h e s e I s l a n d s , ( a n d m a n y of o u r m e e t i n g s h a v e b e e n chiefly c o m p o s e d of t h e m ) w e a r e m a d e t h a n k f u l t h a t o u r lot h a s b e e n c a s t a m o n g t h e m . T h e d e e p a t t e n t i o n t h e y m a n i f e s t o n all o c c a ­ s i o n s — a n d t h e i r c o n t i n u a l e x p r e s s i o n s of g r a t i ­ t u d e , t h a t w e h a d b e e n l e d a m o n g t h e m to l a b o r i n t h e l o v e of t h e G o s p e l , g i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t it h a s b e e n a p p r e c i a t e d b y t h e m . L a t e in t h e e v e n i n g t h e r e w a s a total eclipse of t h e m o o n . T h e a t m o s p h e r e w a s r e m a r k a b l y clear, a n d the whole firmament displayed a b e a u t y , frequently s e e n in this climate, b u t sel­ d o m in o u r o w n . T h e moon presented a very s i n g u l a r a p p e a r a n c e ; its d i s k , d u r i n g t h e w h o l e of t h e e c l i p s e , a p p e a r e d a l m o s t of t h e c o l o r of blood. Since being on this Island, w e h a v e h a d divers o p p o r t u n i t i e s for i n q u i r y , a l t h o u g h o u r t r a v e l l i n g h a s been limited. M u c h s a m e n e s s exists a s to t h e m a n a g e m e n t of e s t a t e s . T h e w o r k i n g o f t h e free s y s t e m is c o n s i d e r e d f a v o r a b l e . The p o p u l a r s e n t i m e n t is in its f a v o r , a n d d i s s a t i s f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c a r e f u l in e x p r e s s i o n a g a i n s t it. J u d g i n g from s o m e r e m a r k s w e occasionally h e a r d , w e b e l i e v e d , h o w e v e r , s o m e of t h e p l a n t ­ e r s w e r e n o t so w e l l satisfied n o w , a s w h e n t h e y h e l d t h e i r f e l l o w men a s p r o p e r t y . I t is diffi­ c u l t for t h e m t o s u b m i t p a t i e n t l y , a n d s u c h a s t h e s e w i l l b e v e r y l i k e l y to o p p r e s s t h e i r l a b o r ­ ers. P r o p e r t y is m u c h m o r e v a l u a b l e n o w , t h a n d u r i n g t h e t i m e of s l a v e r y , a n d t h i s c i r ­ c u m s t a n c e w i l l h a v e a t e n d e n c y to r e c o n c i l e


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t h e m to t h e c h a n g e . O n t h e g r e a t subject of emancipation, the pecuniary advantage that m a y accrue to t h e parties interested in holding their fellow m e n in b o n d a g e , mostly claims con­ s i d e r a t i o n , a n d not t h e good t h a t m u s t d e v o l v e upon the greater number w h o have been re­ stored to their rights. O w i n g to severe d r o u g h t , t h e crop of sugar w i l l b e Tight, i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h f o r m e r y e a r s . T h i s fact w i l l , n o d o u b t , b e c i r c u l a t e d i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , a s a n e v i d e n c e of t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s resulting from f r e e d o m ; b u t e v e n those w h o w e r e f o r m e r l y t h e a d v o c a t e s of s l a v e r y in B a r ­ b a d o s , w o u l d n o t n o w a d m i t it. I n 1 8 3 1 t h i s I s l a n d w a s v i s i t e d b y o n e of those violent t o r n a d o e s , c o m m o n to tropical r e ­ gions, which destroyed, together with hundreds of buildings, n e a r l y all t h e trees u p o n t h e Island. W h e r e v e r w e g o , w e s e e t r a c e s still r e m a i n i n g , o f t h i s s a d c a l a m i t y . B u t f e w forest t r e e s a r e t o be seen in the c o u n t r y ; a n d in the towns, w h e r e the desolation w a s more concentrated, t h e n u ­ merous ruined buildings, a n d deserted walls, r e m a i n a s m e m o r i a l s o f t h i s afflicting s c o u r g e . W e h a d numerous meetings in a n d around Bridgetown, a n d one at Sharon, a Moravian s e t t l e m e n t , a b o u t five m i l e s d i s t a n t . W i t h all t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s w e felt w e l l satisfied. O u r r e w a r d , w a s t h e r e w a r d of p e a c e ; t h e con­ sciousness of h a v i n g d i s c h a r g e d o u r d u t y , a n d i n s o d o i n g , t o feel t h a t o u r l a b o r s h a d t h e S a l u ­ t a r y effect t o e n c o u r a g e t h e h o n e s t i n q u i r e r a f t e r t r u t h , in t h e w a y of well-doing. Having

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Island, w e m a d e an arrangement with the cap­ t a i n of a s m a l l s c h o o n e r , to c o n v e y u s t o T r i n i ­ dad. W h e n r e a d y to d e p a r t , a n u m b e r of o u r friends c a m e to b i d u s f a r e w e l l ; a m o n g t h e s e w e r e m a n y of t h e s i m p l e a n d h o n e s t - h e a r t e d l a ­ b o r e r s , w h o felt, w e c o u l d b e l i e v e , a s i n c e r e a t ­ tachment, and regretted our departure. We w e n t o n b o a r d a b o u t 2 o ' c l o c k in t h e a f t e r n o o n , and having a pleasant breeze, w e r e soon leav­ ing Barbados. Second month 13th.—The h i g h l a n d s of T o ­ b a g o a r e in sight. T h e y a r e p i c t u r e s q u e a n d beautiful. A b o u t 4 o'clock in the afternoon, t h e m o u n t a i n s of T r i n i d a d , c o v e r e d w i t h a b l u e mist, w e r e visible, a n d before night closed u p o n u s , w e h a d so n e a r e d t h e m a s t o d i s c e r n t h e trees u p o n their sides, a n d the surf b r e a k i n g at their bases. About midnight, we passed the B o c a s , e n t e r i n g t h e b e a u t i f u l g u l f of P a r i a , a n d e a r l y o n t h e m o r n i n g of t h e 1 4 t h , w e a n c h o r e d off P o r t of S p a i n . A s w e approached the Island, w e discovered t h a t its m o u n t a i n l a n d s afford d e l i g h t f u l s c e n e r y . T h e deep gorges cutting the ridges into insula­ t e d hills, w h i c h , rising side b y side, clothed in c o n t i n u a l v e r d u r e , p r e s e n t a p r o s p e c t n o t often witnessed, e v e n a m o n g these W e s t e r n Isles. W e w e r e forty-four h o u r s in m a k i n g this v o y a g e ; c o n s i d e r e d a s h o r t p a s s a g e , b u t sufficiently l o n g for c o m f o r t , a s o u r v e s s e l p r o v e d t o b e e x c e e d ­ ingly filthy, a n d s w a r m i n g w i t h v e r m i n . T h e s e privations, voyagers between the W e s t India I s l a n d s h a v e t o u n d e r g o , if t h e y a r e o b l i g e d t o t a k e u p w i t h t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n s offered b y t h e small I s l a n d craft.


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TRINIDAD. O n F i r s t - d a y m o r n i n g , t h e 1 4 t h of S e c o n d m o n t h , w e l a n d e d i n P o r t of S p a i n . T h i s is o n e of t h e finest t o w n s in t h e W e s t I n d i e s , t h e s t r e e t s a r e laid off a t r i g h t a n g l e s — h a v i n g g o o d s i d e w a l k s a n d m a n y of t h e m b e a u t i f u l l y s h a d e d w i t h t r e e s ; a d e l i g h t f u l a v e n u e of l a r g e t r e e s n e a r t h e b a y , is fenced in a n d is u s e d as a p r o m e ­ nade by the citizens. T h e t o w n is n e a r l y s u r ­ r o u n d e d by v e r y high hills covered w i t h a wil­ d e r n e s s of p e r p e t u a l v e r d u r e . W e f o u n d an e x c e l l e n t b o a r d i n g h o u s e k e p t b y Catherine B u r t o n , a colored w o m a n . During a w a l k in t h e a f t e r n o o n w e w e r e a c c o s t e d b y s e ­ v e r a l c o l o r e d p e o p l e , w h o d e s i r e d t o k n o w if w e had c o m e from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e y in­ f o r m e d u s t h a t t h e y h a d e m i g r a t e d to t h i s c o l o n y from P e n n s y l v a n i a , and M a r y l a n d . A t a meet­ i n g w e h e l d in t h e e v e n i n g , a l a r g e n u m b e r of these American emigrants, were present, they had h e a r d of o u r a r r i v a l , a n d s e e m e d d e l i g h t e d to s e e us. T h e m e r c h a n t s a n d p l a n t e r s s e e m r e a d y to p r o m o t e t h e object of o u r v i s i t . William H . B u r n l e y and J o h n L o s h to w h o m w e had letters, offering to m a k e w a y for u s to v i s i t t h e different p a r t s of t h e I s l a n d . A f t e r h o l d i n g s e v e r a l m e e t i n g s in a n d a b o u t P o r t of S p a i n , we c o n c l u d e d t o v i s i t N a p a r i m a , a n d L a B r e a , a n d o n t h e m o r n i n g of S e c o n d m o n t h 1 6 t h , w e left P o r t of S p a i n in c o m p a n y w i t h W i l l i a m I I . B u r n l e y , G e o r g e R a m s a y , and s e v e ­ r a l o t h e r p r o p r i e t o r s of e s t a t e s . H a v i n g a fine


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b r e e z e w e soon p a s s e d d o w n t h e coast to P o i n t au P i e r r e , a n d l a n d e d at P l e a s a n c e , t h e e s t a t e of George Ramsay. T h i s p l a n t a t i o n lies o n t h e Gulf of P a r i a . T h e m a n u f a c t u r e of s u g a r is n o w going on ; sixteen square rigged vessels are n o w l a y i n g off t h i s p o i n t a n d N a p a r i m a , five m i l e s b e ­ l o w , w a i t i n g for c a r g o e s . W e walked to the s u g a r w o r k s after l a n d i n g ; t h e w o r k m e n w e r e c l o s i n g for t h e d a y . T h e y d o n o t n o w , as t h e y did d u r i n g slavery, continue the boiling d u r i n g the night. A b o u t t h r e e h o g s h e a d s of s u g a r a r e m a d e in these w o r k s per d a y , the hogshead weighing two thousand pounds. T w o puncheons of m o l a s s e s of a b o u t o n e - h u n d r e d g a l l o n s e a c h , drain from these hogsheads. A d i s t i l l e r y is a t ­ t a c h e d to a l m o s t e v e r y b o i l i n g h o u s e . T h i s e x ­ t e n s i v e m a n u f a c t u r e of r u m is a d e p l o r a b l e c i r ­ cumstance. T h e l a b o r e r s i n s i s t u p o n h a v i n g it as a p a r t of t h e i r w a g e s , a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e i s , t h a t m a n y difficulties a r e c o n t i n u a l l y o c c u r r i n g upon almost every plantation. M o s t of t h e p r o p r i e t o r s p r o f e s s e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to relinquish distillation, p r o v i d e d t h e y could find a p r o f i t a b l e m e t h o d of d i s p o s i n g of t h e i r offal. T h e p r i n c i p l e in t h e case w a s n o t a m a t t e r t o consider. R u m is an a r t i c l e r e a d i l y d i s p o s e d of, a n d g o e s , t o s o m e e x t e n t , to p a y e x p e n s e s ; w h i l e t h i s is t h e fact, it w i l l n o t soon b e a b a n d o n e d . T h e u s e of a r d e n t s p i r i t s is c o n s i d e r e d b y m a n y of t h e p l a n t e r s , as needful in t h i s c l i m a t e , h e n c e w i n e s , a n d o t h e r l i q u o r s a r e u s e d v e r y freely. T h i s e r r o n e o u s p r a c t i c e of t h e e m p l o y e r , d i s ­ qualifies h i m from o p p o s i n g t h e i r u s e b y t h e la­ borer. T h u s drunkenness, and debauchery are 8


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perpetuated. W e feel b o u n d to m a k e a d e c i d e d stand against this demoralising custom, b r i n g i n g t h e subject i n t o v i e w f r e q u e n t l y u p o n o c c a s i o n s of i n t r o d u c t i o n t o o u r f r i e n d ' s h o u s e s , as t h e r e t h e d r i n k i n g u s a g e s a r e p r o p o s e d as t h e first act of h o s p i t a l i t y . T h e idea of total a b s t i n e n c e f r o m ardent spirits, & c , and r e m a i n in health, can s c a r c e l y be r e a l i s e d b y t h e m . T h i s is t h e d r y s e a s o n — s o c a l l e d — t h e y e a r b e ­ ing divided into w e t and d r y seasons. The w e a t h e r is n o w d e l i g h t f u l . H a v i n g f r o m five to s i x m o n t h s of d r y w e a t h e r , t h e p l a n t e r s a r e e n a ­ b l e d to m a k e u p t h e i r c r o p s of s u g a r . T h e be­ g i n n i n g of c r o p , is a b o u t t h e first of t h e y e a r , l a s t i n g u n t i l t h e last of F i f t h m o n t h . D u r i n g t h e d r y s e a s o n , a l t h o u g h t e r m e d s o , y e t fine s h o w e r s frequently occur, which keep up a luxuriant vegetation. F r o m a r e c u r r e n c e of t h e w e t season e a r l i e r t h a n u s u a l , t h e c r o p is often l e s s e n e d , t h e c a n e s h a v i n g to be left g r o w i n g for a n o t h e r y e a r ; t h e y are s o m e t i m e s t h r e e y e a r s old, before t h e y a r e cut. A h o t s p r i n g issues from t h e s i d e of a hill n e a r t h e m a n s i o n of o u r f r i e n d R a m s a y , affording a fine o p p o r t u n i t y for b a t h i n g . W h e n c o l d it i s excellent drinking water. A ride to S a v a n n a h G r a n d e , t o t h e l o c a t i o n s of A m e r i c a n e m i g r a n t s , was peculiarly pleasant. T h e g r a n d e u r of a t r o ­ p i c a l forest is w i t n e s s e d on t h i s r o u t e . T r e e s of i m m e n s e m a g n i t u d e are seen with t r u n k s covered with parasitic v e r d u r e . M a n y of t h e s e s i n g u l a r p l a n t s s h o o t i n g o u t c l u s t e r s of beautiful flowers— v i n e s d r o p p i n g from t o w e r i n g b r a n c h e s , s t a n d around these trunks, like planted columns, with-


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o u t a b r a n c h for s e v e n t y o r e i g h t y feet in h e i g h t , a n d from t e n t o t w e l v e i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r . P a l m s of v a r i o u s k i n d s g r o w l u x u r i a n t l y , a n d amidst the rich assemblage, the Bois Immortelle, w i t h i t s c l u s t e r s of o r a n g e - c o l o u r e d b l o s s o m s , stands unrivalled. T h i s is also called " L e s M a r i e C a c o . " T h e M o t h e r of t h e C o a c o — a s in all t h e coaco p l a n t a t i o n s t h i s beautiful t r e e is p l a n t ­ e d for its s h a d e , as t h e coaco n e e d s s e c u r i t y f r o m t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e s u n ' s r a y s . T h e n e s t of t h e ingenious corn-bird h u n g p e n d a n t from m a n y b r a n c h e s , secure from t h e m a r a u d i n g m o n k e y w h i c h a b o u n d s in t h e s e forests. On some estates a h u n t e r is a l m o s t c o n s t a n t l y e m p l o y e d t o p r o ­ t e c t t h e c a n e s f r o m t h e d e p r e d a t i o n s of m o n k e y s a n d o t h e r a n i m a l s . T h e L a p p o , a s p e c i e s of h a r e , a r e n u m e r o u s , as also t h e P e c c a r y , o r w i l d h o g , w h i c h is t a k e n in a b u n d a n c e . T h e T i g e r - c a t is a n a t i v e , as is also t h e B o a C o n s t r i c t o r , w h i c h , w i t h o t h e r s e r p e n t s , is c o n s i d e r e d h a r m l e s s . Parrots are numerous. Several emigrants from Baltimore, w e found m a k i n g r o a d s — o u r e n q u i r i e s as t o t h e i r w e l f a r e , m e t with the answer that they w e r e favorably c i r c u m s t a n c e d , w e l l satisfied w i t h t h e i r c o n d i t i o n and future prospects. T h e y a r e w e l l p a i d for t h e i r l a b o u r , e a r n i n g f r o m t w o t o four d o l l a r s p e r d a y , h a v i n g u n d e r ­ taken the road by contract. A t W i l l i a m s v i l l e , t h e e s t a t e of H e n r y S t e w a r t w e met with a kind reception. T h i s e s t a t e is o n e of t h e l a r g e s t u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n , in S o u t h N a p a r i m a , n e a r four h u n d r e d a c r e s b e i n g n o w in cane. A s the e y e ranged over his extensive


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fields, from o u r s t a t i o n u p o n t h e g a l l e r y of h i s m a n s i o n , it a p p e a r e d as t h o u g h an a l m o s t i n t e r ­ m i n a b l e a m o u n t of l a b o r w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d to convert t h e m into sugar. H e expects, however, if t h e season c o n t i n u e s f a v o u r a b l e , to b r i n g t h e w h o l e i n t o m a r k e t , m a k i n g a b o u t four h u n d r e d large hogsheads. H i s l a b o r e r s w o r k w e l l ; at h i s s u g a r w o r k s a m o s t l i v e l y s c e n e w a s e x h i b i t e d , each o n e a p ­ p e a r i n g to d o h i s p a r t w i t h g r e a t r a p i d i t y a n d regularity. A s t e a m e n g i n e of e i g h t h o r s e p o w ­ e r is u s e d for g r i n d i n g — t w o sets of w o r k s a r e upon this estate. T h e s t e a m is g e n e r a t e d b y coal, i m p o r t e d from E n g l a n d ; a l t h o u g h w o o d is so a b u n d a n t , y e t t h e e x p e n s e of c u t t i n g , & c , is g r e a t e r t h a n i m p o r t i n g coal. T h e bagasse, o r p r e s s e d c a n e , is t h e usual fuel for b o i l i n g s u g a r , a n d a p p e a r s to a n s w e r t h e p u r p o s e w e l l . After looking over the estate, w e made arrangements for h o l d i n g a m e e t i n g , — r o d e o v e r to W i l l i a m T a y l o r ' s , w h o , with his wife, a F r e n c h w o m a n , r e c e i v e d us k i n d l y . W i l l i a m g i v e s a v e r y fa­ v o u r a b l e v i e w of t h e w o r k i n g of free l a b o r . T h e o n l y difficulty e x p e r i e n c e d u p o n t h i s I s l a n d , is, t h a t a sufficient n u m b e r of w o r k - p e o p l e c a n n o t be obtained. F r o m this place w e rode on to B u o n - I n t e n t o t h e e s t a t e of o u r f r i e n d G e o r g e R a m s a y . T h e c o u n t r y t h r o u g h w h i c h w e passed t o - d a y is o n e of s u r p a s s i n g b e a u t y a n d f e r t i l i t y . T h e surface r o l l i n g into hill and d a l e , a n d c o v e r e d with cane, presents a delightful prospect, and p r o m i s e s a p r o s p e r o u s a d v a n c e to t h e different m e m b e r s of t h i s p o r t i o n of t h e c o l o n y . B u o n - I n t e n t o is h i g h , a n d h a s a c o m m a n d i n g


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p r o s p e c t for m i l e s , — t h e b e a u t y a n d f e r t i l i t y of t h i s e s t a t e is p r o v e r b i a l . T h e sugar w o r k s were i n o p e r a t i o n . T h e g r i n d i n g is p e r f o r m e d b y m u l e s . M a n y of t h e c a n e - p i e c e s o n t h i s s e t t l e m e n t h a v e b e e n p l a n t e d for t w e n t y , t h i r t y , a n d e v e n f o r t y years. W h e n w e take into consideration that the p l a n t e r s of T o r t o l a , S t . K i t t s , A n t i g u a , a n d B a r ­ bados, h a v e to replant almost e v e r y y e a r , w e can c o m p r e h e n d h o w m u c h t h e p l a n t e r s of T r i n ­ idad h a v e t h e advantage over their neighbors, and the reason w h y t h e y are enabled to p a y their l a b o r e r s s u c h h i g h w a g e s , — F i f t y c e n t s is g i v e n o n m o s t p l a n t a t i o n s for t h e t a s k — t w o t a s k s can b e accomplished w i t h ease. Besides these m o n e y w a g e s , s o m e r a t i o n s of m e a t , a n d fish a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y g i v e n , a n d t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e of b o t h p l a n t e r a n d l a b o r e r , t w o b o t t l e s of r u m p e r week. T h e i r c o t t a g e a n d g r o u n d s a r e also fur­ n i s h e d r e n t f r e e , w i t h t h e usual p r i v i l e g e s of r a i s ­ ing p o u l t r y , &c. N o agricultural laborers are better paid in a n y c o u n t r y , t h e i m m e n s e y i e l d of t h e i r soil e n a b l i n g t h e m to c o n t i n u e it. Returning by William Taylor's, w e stepped i n t o h i s s u g a r w o r k s , w h i c h w e r e also i n full operation, grinding by steam. A n u m b e r of A m e r i c a n e m i g r a n t s a r e l o c a t e d o n t h i s p l a n t a t i o n . W i l l i a m s p e a k s w e l l of t h e m . T h e y h a v e n e a t c o t t a g e s of a b o u t t w e n t y - f o u r feet, b y f o u r t e e n feet, d i v i d e d i n t o t w o r o o m s , w i t h a portico or gallery in front. T h e m e n are g e n e r a l l y well-satisfied, b u t t h e w o m e n a p p e a r unsettled, desiring to return to their native country. O u r m e e t i n g in t h e e v e n i n g w a s l a r g e , a n d 8*


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satisfactory. M a n y of t h e old A m e r i c a n s e t t l e r s w e r e p r e s e n t , w h o h a d l a n d s g r a n t e d to t h e m in t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d b y t h e B r i t i s h Gov­ e r n m e n t in e i g h t e e n - h u n d r e d a n d t w e l v e . T h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s , d u r i n g t h e w a r of t h a t p e r i o d , w e r e s l a v e s in t h e S o u t h e r n S t a t e s , a n d h a v i n g e s c a p e d from t h e i r m a s t e r s , p l a c e d t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n of A d m i r a l C o c h r a n . T h e y h a d an a l l o w a n c e of s i x t e e n a c r e s for each p e r s o n . Some of t h e m a p p e a r e d i n t e l l i g e n t , a n d m u c h c o n f i d e n c e w a s p l a c e d in t h e m b y S t e w a r t , t h o u g h in g e n e ­ r a l t h e y h a v e n o t s u s t a i n e d t h e b e s t of c h a r a c t e r s . B u t w e m u s t m a k e a l l o w a n c e s for t h e m , as t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s for i m p r o v e m e n t h a v e been e x c e e d ­ i n g l y l i m i t e d : a n d free s e t t l e m e n t s , w e find, b e ­ fore e m a n c i p a t i o n , w e r e l o o k e d u p o n w i t h j e a l ­ o u s y , a n d as i n j u r i o u s to s l a v e n e i g h b o r h o o d s . T h e l a b o r i n g p e o p l e on t h i s I s l a n d a r e con s i d e r a b l y b e h i n d t h e s a m e class in i n t e l l i g e n c e in e i t h e r of t h e B r i t i s h I s l a n d s w e h a v e v i s i t e d . S c h o o l s , a r e n o w b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d in dif­ f e r e n t p a r t s of t h e c o l o n y . M u c h less a t t e n t i o n h a s been paid to e d u c a t i o n in t h i s , t h a n in t h e other colonies. O w i n g to t h e d i v e r s i t y of l a n ­ g u a g e s s p o k e n , m o r e difficulty has o c c u r r e d , but t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n to i n s t r u c t o n l y in t h e E n g l i s h , will o p e r a t e f a v o u r a b l y . T h e different r e l i g i o u s bo­ d i e s t h a t h a v e b e e n so e a r n e s t l y a n d successfully e x e r t i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o i n s t r u c t t h e y o u n g in o t h e r I s l a n d s , h a v e b e e n d o i n g b u t l i t t l e in t h i s . T h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c p e r s u a s i o n is t h e l a r g e s t b o d y , a n d t h e y a p p e a r to b e n e a r l y i n e r t o n t h i s i m p o r t a n t subject. O u r m e e t i n g t h i s e v e n i n g w a s h e l d in t h e p l a n -


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tation school house. T h i s s c h o o l h a s an a v e r a g e a t t e n d a n c e of a b o u t t w e n t y s c h o l a r s . T h e n i g h t s a r e r e m a r k a b l y c o o l for so southern a latitude. A blanket would have b e e n a c o m f o r t a b l e a d d i t i o n to o u r b e d s . The h o u s e o f o u r f r i e n d is r a t h e r m o r e o p e n t h a n t h o s e w e h a v e b e e n a c c u s t o m e d to s l e e p i n . B e i n g t h a t c h e d w i t h t h e leaf of t h e C a r o t t e p a l m , a v e r y free c i r c u l a t i o n of a i r is p e r m i t t e d . Second month 18th.—Called at William T a y l o r ' s , w h o a c c o m p a n i e d u s to S a v a n n a h G r a n d e , o r t h e M i s s i o n , a s it is m o s t f r e q u e n t l y termed. T h e Catholics h a d a missionary estab­ l i s h m e n t i n t h i s s e t t l e m e n t for m a n y y e a r s . W e t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h a l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h e quarter. M a n y of t h e e m i g r a n t s of 1 8 1 2 a r e s e t t l e d u p o n it. T h e y appear peacefully i m p r o v i n g t h e i r s m a l l f a r m s , s o m e of w h i c h w e r e u n d e r fair c u l t i v a t i o n . At Matilda, an e s t a t e o n t h e b o r d e r s of t h e w i l d e r n e s s , w e s t o p ­ p e d a n d i n q u i r e d into t h e c o n d i t i o n of s o m e emigrants from N e w Jersey, w h o a p p e a r e d dis­ satisfied w i t h t h e i r location. Their cottages w e r e neat, and the order within one, in particular, w a s a n e x a m p l e to the proprie­ tor, w h o s e m a n s i o n exhibited sad neglect. We understood that the laborers did their part g e n e r a l l y to satisfaction. T h e soil of t h i s e s t a t e is r e m a r k a b l y fertile. A t a neighboring estate called W o o d f o r d a l e , o w n e d b y J o h n L o s h , w e found several families from B a l t i m o r e , w h o a r e w e l l satisfied, a n d h a v e n o w i s h to r e t u r n t o t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y . T h e A m e r i c a n e m i g r a n t s , in m a n y instances,


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h a v e b e e n a n a d v a n t a g e to the estates w h e r e o n t h e y a r e located. T h e i r s u p e r i o r s t e a d y n e s s of manner, sobriety, and general decorum, h a v e h a d a v e r y salutary influence u p o n the lately emancipated laborer. It w a s a satisfaction to find t h e m s c a t t e r e d , a s t h e y a r e , i n different sections, w h e r e their industrious, m o r e cleanly, a s w e l l a s r e l i g i o u s h a b i t s , a r e e x a m p l e s for imitation. On this estate w e m e t w i t h Charles Williams, a colored m a n from Baltimore, in w h o m m u c h c o n f i d e n c e is p l a c e d . H e is n o w r e - o p e n i n g a l a r g e c o a c o a n d coffee p l a n t a t i o n on shares with the owner. A t F r i e n d s h i p , a n estate of H e n r y S t e w a r t ' s , a large n u m b e r of A m e r i c a n e m i g r a n t s a r e lo足 cated. W e h a d a n interesting religious oppor足 tunity with them and others. I n c o m p a n y w i t h o u r friend G e o r g e R a m s a y w e r o d e to S a n F e r n a n d o . O n t h e e s t a t e of Horatio Huggins, near that town, w e found s e v e r a l of t h e A m e r i c a n s ; t h e y a p p e a r g e n e 足 rally w e l l satisfied. A conversation had with D r . M i c u l a m , u p o n t h e p r o s p e r o u s c o n d i t i o n of the colony, w a s interesting. A n invitation b e i n g g i v e n u s b y D r . St. L o u i s P h i l i p s , w e d i n e d w i t h h i m in c o m p a n y w i t h a n u m b e r o f p l a n t e r s a n d m a n a g e r s of estates. T h e Doctor is a d a r k - c o l o r e d m a n ; i n m a n n e r s a g r e e a b l e , a n d well e d u c a t e d ; h a v i n g been t a u g h t in the b e s t s c h o o l s of S c o t l a n d , a n d is a g r a d u a t e o f t h e M e d i c a l College of E d i n b u r g h . H i s wife is a n i n t e l l i g e n t S c o t c h w o m a n . T h e Doctor's f a t h e r left h i s w i d o w a n d c h i l d r e n t h r e e fine e s t a t e s , c l e a r of i n c u m b r a n c e , w h i c h a r e n o w


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m a n a g e d by the Doctor, w h o has relinquished h i s p r a c t i c e for t h e b u s i n e s s of a p l a n t e r . He informed us that the three estates would m a k e five h u n d r e d h o g s h e a d s of s u g a r t h i s y e a r . He h a s b e e n a m e m b e r of t h e G o v e r n o r ' s P r i v y Council. H a v i n g m a d e a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h h i m to visit his estate, called " P h i l l i p i n e , " w e start足 e d on h o r s e b a c k , in c o m p a n y w i t h several o t h e r s . T h i s p l a n t a t i o n r a n k s a m o n g t h e finest a n d best conducted u p o n the Island. T h e sugar w o r k s w e r e i n full o p e r a t i o n , m a n a g e d b y a c o l o r e d m a n , a d v a n c e d in y e a r s , a n d w h o w a s formerly a slave u p o n the estate. Their a p p e a r 足 ance indicated order and regularity. The lawn around the mansion and w o r k s looked well trimmed and n e a t ; and under the numerous s h a d e t r e e s t h a t s t u d d e d it w e r e a l a r g e n u m b e r of m u l e s collected, w h i c h w e r e s c r e e n i n g t h e m 足 selves from the sun, w h i c h n o w p o u r e d d o w n its r a y s w i t h g r e a t f o r c e . M u l e s a r e a n i m 足 p o r t a n t i t e m of e x p e n s e u p o n e v e r y p l a n t a t i o n , a n d a l a r g e t r a d e is c a r r i e d o n i n t h e m t o t h e Spanish main. A g o o d m u l e is v a l u e d f r o m o n e h u n d r e d a n d fifty, t o t w o h u n d r e d d o l l a r s . F r o m f o r t y t o fifty a r e c o m m o n u p o n e s t a t e s , a n d some h a v e as m a n y as one, or e v e n t w o h u n d r e d . T h e prospects from the elevations u p o n this plantation are delightful, e x t e n d i n g over m a n y m i l e s of a s fertile a r e g i o n a s p e r h a p s c a n b e found in the w o r l d . T h e m o u n t a i n cabbage, the prince a m o n g t r e e s , it w a s a p l e a s u r e t o p e r c e i v e , h a d b e e n generally spared b y the wood-cutter. Many


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w e r e seen raising their noble columnar trunks a n d f e a t h e r y c r o w n s i n a l m o s t e v e r y field. O n e of i m m e n s e h e i g h t a t t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n o n the a p 足 p r o a c h to P h i l l i p i n e , a n d m a y b e s e e n a t t h e d i s t a n c e of s e v e r a l miles. It rises n e a r t h e m a n s i o n w i t h a slender c o l u m n , to t h e h e i g h t of o n e h u n d r e d a n d fifty f e e t ; o n e h u n d r e d a n d t h i r t y o f w h i c h is a s m o o t h s u r f a c e . The l a b o r e r s o n t h i s e s t a t e fulfil t h e i r d u t i e s t o t h e satisfaction of t h e p r o p r i e t o r , h e b e i n g w e l l pleased with his emancipated people, preferring t h e m to strangers. W e m a y r e m a r k that d r u n k e n n e s s prevails to a great extent. T h e distillation of r u m b y a l 足 m o s t e v e r y p l a n t e r , g i v e s s u c h facilities t h a t t h e l a b o r e r s d e m a n d it a s p a r t w a g e s . * I t is a m o s t d e p l o r a b l e e v i l , a n d w h i l e it c o n t i n u e s , t h e m o 足 r a l c u l t u r e of t h e e m a n c i p a t e d p e o p l e will b e greatly retarded. T h e desire of the p l a n t e r to m a k e e x c e s s i v e profits, fosters this d e s o l a t i n g v i c e . I n o r d e r to g a i n h i s e n d s h e s u b m i t s to t h e c l a m o r o f h i s l a b o r e r s for t h i s p e r n i c i o u s article, w h o m a y b e said, o n this I s l a n d , to r e g u l a t e t h e t e r m s of h i s o w n l a b o r . If the e m p l o y e r does n o t a c c e d e to the d e m a n d s m a d e u p o n him, his cottages m a y be vacated, a n d h i s fields a n d h i s s u g a r w o r k s left d e s o l a t e . Dr. Phillips h a s n o distillery u p o n his premises, b u t sells h i s w a s t e to a n e i g h b o r i n g p l a n t e r . W e m a d e a s e c o n d v i s i t to P l e a s a n c e i n c o m 足 p a n y w i t h our friend G e o r g e R a m s a y . In the * From recent information we are able to state, that this practice of giving rum as part wages has been very generally abolished.


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journies that h a v e b e e n m a d e from place to p l a c e , w e h a v e t o n o t e , t h a t t h e g r a d e of m o r a l a n d r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g is v e r y l o w . B u t H e w h o w a t c h e t h o v e r H i s flock is a t w o r k p r o d u c i n g a change. A change through His agency must b e effectual. First-day m o r n i n g w e h a d a m e e t i n g in the Methodist meeting-house, San Fernando, which w a s w e l l a t t e n d e d a n d afforded satisfaction. A visit to L e s Effort, a n estate n e a r S a n F e r ­ n a n d o , p r e s e n t e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y of s e e i n g a n d conversing with several American emigrants. J e r e m i a h Scudder informs t h a t last w e e k h e r e c e i v e d f o u r t e e n d o l l a r s a n d e i g h t y c e n t s for five d a y s l a b o r . T h e k i n d o f w o r k for w h i c h he obtained such high w a g e s w a s ditching. A m e r i c a n s w h o contract to perform certain k i n d s of l a b o r g e n e r a l l y m a k e g o o d w a g e s . T h e slow m a n n e r in w h i c h such services w e r e per­ formed d u r i n g slavery, h a s disqualified the planters from m a k i n g contracts with freemen, as they can only base their calculations u p o n w h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n a c c u s t o m e d to see p e r f o r m ­ ed b y slaves. T h e y will learn b y experience, a n d , i n s o m e c a s e s , m a y h a v e to p a y for it. I t is t h e t i m e o f t h e c a r n i v a l : m a s q u e r a d e s a n d revelling abound. T h e Government allows t h r e e d a y s to b e s p e n t in t h i s m a n n e r , a s t h e y h a v e t o c o n f o r m i n s o m e m e a s u r e to t h e w i l l of the n u m e r o u s Catholic population. T h e dresses of t h e F r e n c h a n d Spanish w o m e n a r e i n t h e f a s h i o n of t h e o l d e n t i m e s , — h i g h a n d florid c o l o r s , w i t h l o n g t r a i l i n g s k i r t s s w e e p i n g t h e g r o u n d . B a r e feet w i t h s u c h f l o w -


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OF

ing g a r m e n t s are ludicrous e n o u g h , a n d this m a y often b e s e e n . A g r e a t f o n d n e s s for d r e s s a p p e a r s to generally exist a m o n g t h e w o m e n , w i t h n o s m a l l d e g r e e of v a n i t y . W e took breakfast with H e n r y Crowner, a colored e m i g r a n t from B a l t i m o r e , on L e s Effort estate. H i s wife w a s a lively w o m a n a n d a p ­ p e a r e d to b e a g o o d h o u s e k e e p e r , j u d g i n g from the nicely a r r a n g e d r o o m s a n d the substantial r e p a s t p r e p a r e d for u s . In company with William H. Burnley, w e visited t w o of his estates n e a r L a B r e a . At P e r s e v e r a n c e , a n estate of n i n e h u n d r e d acres, of w h i c h a b o u t t w o h u n d r e d a r e u n d e r c u l t i v a ­ t i o n , a n u m b e r of A m e r i c a n e m i g r a n t s a r e d o ­ m i c i l e d — m o s t of w h o m a r e d o i n g w e l l . A l a ­ b o r e r w h o p e r f o r m s five t a s k s p e r w e e k , is e n ­ t i t l e d to a h o u s e a n d g a r d e n , r e n t f r e e . A task c o n s i s t s in h o e i n g s i x t y feet s q u a r e , for w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e fifty c e n t s . T h e w o m e n are not r e q u i r e d to p e r f o r m field l a b o r ; b u t a s t h e s a m e w a g e s a r e offered t h e m a s t h e m e n , t h e y often e n g a g e in it, a n d t h e r e b y l a y u p c o n s i d e r a b l e s u m s of m o n e y . T h e w i f e of o n e o f t h e A m e r i ­ c a n s , from B a l t i m o r e , told u s , her h u s b a n d did, o n a n a v e r a g e , one a n d a half tasks a d a y , — t h a t i s , n i n e p e r w e e k , — a n d t h a t s h e often c o m p l e t e d one task herself by ten o'clock in the m o r n i n g . T h e Creoles o n this estate h a v e h a d n o a d v a n ­ t a g e of e d u c a t i o n — t h e r e b e i n g n o s u c h t h i n g a s a s c h o o l n e a r t h e m . T h e y a t t a c h b u t little v a l u e to time or m o n e y ; the w a g e s t h e y receive a r e often s q u a n d e r e d a w a y after p e r f o r m i n g their five t a s k s p e r w e e k , w h i c h t h e y d o to s e c u r e


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t h e i r h o m e s . T h e b e n e v o l e n t p r o p r i e t o r of t h i s estate manifests a g r e a t desire to i m p r o v e their c o n d i t i o n a s far a s lies in h i s p o w e r ; a n d , so far as their physical comforts are concerned, he h a s m a d e a m p l e p r o v i s i o n i n t h e e r e c t i o n of c o m f o r t ­ a b l e h o u s e s , a n d t h e offer o f a m p l e g r o u n d s for t h e m t o r a i s e p r o v i s i o n s for t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h e d a r k a n d b e n i g h t e d c o n d i t i o n o f m a n y of these poor c r e a t u r e s in this Island, calls loudly u p o n t h e h o m e g o v e r n m e n t for t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h a t b e n e v o l e n c e s h e p r o f e s s e s t o feel o n b e h a l f of h e r s u b j e c t s in t h e W e s t I n d i a C o l o n i e s . I n p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e forests of t h i s I s l a n d , w e h a v e b e e n struck w i t h the vast a m o u n t of vegetation, indicating the productive character of t h e soil. N a t u r e has dealt bountifully with T r i n i d a d , a n d p r o m i s e s a r i c h r e w a r d for h u m a n industry. U n h a p p i l y , h o w e v e r , the s y s t e m of a g r i c u l t u r e is m i s e r a b l y d e f e c t i v e ; t h e o l d e s ­ t a b l i s h e d practice of tilling the g r o u n d w i t h t h e h o e is still r e t a i n e d ; a n d t h e m a r c h of i m p r o v e ­ m e n t i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s is n o t m u c h b e t t e r . A more judicious system would soon c h a n g e the a p p e a r a n c e of the c o u n t r y . The plough, and o t h e r i m p l e m e n t s of h u s b a n d r y , m i g h t b e i n t r o ­ d u c e d h e r e to a d v a n t a g e ; b u t s u c h is t h e o b s t i ­ n a t e a t t a c h m e n t t o l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d c u s t o m s , it w o u l d b e difficult t o c h a n g e t h e m . The mode of c u l t i v a t i n g t h e c a n e i n t h i s c o l o n y is different f r o m t h e m e t h o d p u r s u e d in t h e o t h e r i s l a n d s w e h a v e v i s i t e d . I n s t e a d of " h o l e i n g , " a s t h e y c a l l i t — w h i c h is d i g g i n g t r e n c h e s e i g h t e e n i n c h e s d e e p for t h e c a n e t o b e b u r i e d i n , a n d w h i c h c o n s e q u e n t l y p u l v e r i z e s a l a r g e a m o u n t of s o i l — 9


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they merely m a k e a small hole with the hoe, l a r g e e n o u g h to c o v e r t h e p l a n t , a n d t h u s l e a v e a l a r g e b o d y of t h e soil u n d i s t u r b e d ; i n c o n s e 足 q u e n c e of w h i c h it r e m a i n s v e r y h a r d ; t h e g r o w t h o f t h e c a n e is i m p e d e d , a n d r e q u i r e s very early weeding. M o n P l a s i u r , a n o t h e r estate of W i l l i a m H . Burnley's, has about one h u n d r e d and thirty acres under sugar cultivation. A n u m b e r of A m e r i c a n e m i g r a n t s a r e located h e r e . S o m e of these informed us, that, with the present w a g e s , t h e y could s a v e at least, on a n a v e r a g e , $ 3 . 0 0 p e r w e e k ; all t h e w o r k b e i n g p e r f o r m e d b y t a s k s , for w h i c h t h e s a m e w a g e s a r e g i v e n a s a t Perseverance. T h e Creoles of this estate, also, are m u c h a d d i c t e d to i n t e m p e r a n c e . W h i l e t h e m a n a g e r s o f e s t a t e s s p e a k o f t h i s a s a g r i e v a n c e , it is t o b e f e a r e d t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s a r e t o b l a m e , for m a k i n g a p a r t of the l a b o r e r s ' w a g e s consist in a w e e k l y a l l o w a n c e of r u m . F r o m t h i s p r a c t i c e a r i s e s m a n y of t h o s e e v i l s a n d difficulties w h i c h t h e p l a n t e r s h e r e h a v e to c o n t e n d w i t h , a n d w h i c h lessens t h e a m o u n t of l a b o r m o r e t h a n a n y other cause. On our w a y from M o n Plasiur to the ship, w h i c h o u r k i n d friend, W m . H . B . , h a d detained a t L a B r e a , t o c o n v e y u s b a c k to S a n F e r n a n d o , w e h a d to p a s s b y t h e P i t c h o r A s p h a l t u m L a k e ; a n d h a v i n g a f e w h o u r s to s p a r e b e f o r e n i g h t f a l l , it g a v e u s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e e t h i s g r e a t n a 足 tural curiosity, occasioned, no doubt, b y the ac足 t i o n o f s u b t e r r a n e a n fire. T h i s l a k e is s i t u a t e d on a small peninsula, jutting into the sea a b o u t


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t w o m i l e s , a n d is e l e v a t e d a b o u t e i g h t y feet a b o v e t h e l e v e l of t h e o c e a n . I t is n e a r l y c i r ­ c u l a r , a n d a b o u t a mile a n d a half in c i r c u m ­ ference ; occupies t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t of l a n d , a n d is s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e s e a b y a m a r g i n o f w o o d . T h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h i s l a k e is v e r y r e m a r k a b l e . G r o u p s o f b e a u t i f u l s h r u b s a n d flowers, tufts o f wild pine-apples a n d aloes, butterflies, brilliant humming-birds, and other beautiful w i n g e d crea­ tures, enliven the scene. D e e p crevices are form­ e d i n different p a r t s of t h e a s p h a l t u m ; t h e s e s h e l v e off t o w a r d s t h e b o t t o m i n a n e l l i p t i c a l m a n n e r ; t h e y a r e f r o m t w o t o t h i r t y feet w i d e , a n d f r o m t w o t o s i x feet d e e p . T h e s e s i n g u l a r c h a s m s a r e filled w i t h e x c e l l e n t l i m p i d w a t e r , a n d c o n ­ t a i n a l a r g e n u m b e r o f fish. L i t t l e i s l a n d s a r e s e e n i n different p a r t s of t h e l a k e , c o v e r e d w i t h s m a l l t r e e s ; t h e s e , t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e of the s l i g h t e s t l a y e r s of s o i l , d a r t t h e i r h a r d y r o o t s into the a s p h a l t u m , a n d enjoy a precarious v e ­ g e t a b l e life. T h e s e little i s l a n d s a r e b y n o m e a n s stationary; the imperceptible, but incessant, m o v e m e n t of t h e a s p h a l t u m , t r a n s p o r t s t h e m f r o m o n e p a r t of t h e l a k e t o t h e o t h e r . Some­ t i m e s t h e y s i n k i n t o it, a n d a r e a g a i n t h r o w n u p at some distance, h a v i n g exchanged their green f o l i a g e for t h e b l a c k v a r n i s h of t h e p i t c h . T h e r o a d w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e l a k e , for n e a r l y a m i l e is c o m p o s e d of t h e a s p h a l t u m w h i c h , a t s o m e f o r m e r p e r i o d , h a s r u n d o w n f r o m it. T h a t a t t h e s i d e of t h e l a k e is p e r f e c t l y h a r d a n d c o o l ; w e r o d e on it t h e d i s t a n c e of o n e h u n d r e d y a r d s , a n d t h e n d i s m o u n t i n g , w e a t t e m p t e d to cross t h e l a k e o n foot. T h i s w a s a t t e n d e d w i t h s o m e diffi-


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c u l t y , in c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e g r e a t n u m b e r of t h e c h a s m s b e i n g filled w i t h w a t e r . B y a c i r c u i t o u s r o u t e w e r e a c h e d t h e m i d d l e of t h e l a k e . Here t h e p i t c h b e c o m e s softer, u n t i l a t l a s t it is s e e n boiling u p in a liquid state, r u n n i n g o v e r , a n d covering nearly half an acre. T h e air w a s strongly impregnated with b i t u m e n and sulphur, a n d t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f o u r feet w a s left o n t h e s u r f a c e of t h e l a k e . T h e f l o w of a s p h a l t u m from this lake h a s b e e n i m m e n s e — t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y , for m i l e s a r o u n d , b e i n g c o v e r e d w i t h it. M a n y a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n m a d e to a p p l y it t o useful purposes, but w i t h o u t m u c h success. T h e a p p e a r a n c e of a h e a v y r a i n o b l i g e d u s t o s h o r t e n o u r visit, a n d b i d d i n g o u r f r i e n d s f a r e w e l l , w e r o d e d o w n to t h e s h o r e , w h e r e a boat w a s w a i t ­ i n g to t a k e u s t o t h e s h i p . W e w e n t o n b o a r d t h e Calypso a b o u t s u n s e t ; b u t o w i n g to c a l m w e a t h e r , w e d i d n o t r e a c h S a n F e r n a n d o till five o ' c l o c k t h e n e x t d a y , f r o m w h i c h p l a c e w e t o o k t h e s t e a m b o a t for P o r t of S p a i n . T h e c a r n i v a l i n t h i s t o w n is e n j o y e d to t h e fullest e x t e n t . T h e streets are thronged w i t h m a s k e d p e o p l e of all a g e s , d r e s s e d in a v a r i e t y of fantastic fashions. Occasionally a group c o n c e n t r a t e d in the street before t h e hotel, sing­ i n g a n d d a n c i n g to t h e m u s i c o f t h e g u i t a r ; t h e w o r d s a p p e a r e d to be F r e n c h . Processions are p a s s i n g a n d r e p a s s i n g , w i t h b a n n e r s flying, & c , a n d t h i s is c a l l e d a r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l . W e v i s i t e d t h e r o y a l gaol i n c o m p a n y w i t h H e n r y L Jobity. It contains at this time fortyf o u r p r i s o n e r s , — o n e u n t r i e d for m u r d e r w h i c h w a s committed within the w e e k past. T h i s is


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a c r i m e o f r a r e o c c u r r e n c e . T h e offender is a Spaniard. H e feels h i s d e p l o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n , raving at times as a maniac. Our friends J o h n L o s h a n d R . Darracott in­ t r o d u c e d u s this m o r n i n g to H e n r y M ' L e o d , the G o v e r n o r of t h e I s l a n d . H e a p p e a r s to h a v e t h e w e l f a r e of t h e c o m m u n i t y at h e a r t . His p a r t i a l i t y h a s b e e n n o t i c e d for t h e A m e r i c a n emigrant, a n d he h a s been e n d e a v o r i n g to m a k e w a y for t h e m w i t h t h e H o m e G o v e r n m e n t , a s it r e s p e c t s t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p r i v i l e g e s , f r a n c h i s e s , & c , a n d is careful to p r o m o t e their g e n e r a l w e l ­ fare. H e d e p l o r e d t h e practice of t h e p l a n t e r s p a y i n g p a r t of their l a b o r e r s ' w a g e s in r u m , a n d s e e m e d d e s i r o u s of d o i n g w h a t h e c o u l d t o arrest the evil. T h e r e a r e ten or e l e v e n M i c o schools o n this I s l a n d , b u t w e d i d n o t a s c e r t a i n t h e n u m b e r of scholars; we understood, however, they were increasingly patronised. A d e l i g h t f u l m o r n i n g a n d a fine M A d a m i s e d r o a d , e n a b l e d u s to g e t to t h e e s t a t e of o u r friend H e n r y J o h n s o n , in A r i m a , at a n early hour. T h i s r o a d is t h e o n l y o n e w h i c h r e a c h e s t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e I s l a n d , to a p o i n t c a l l e d Cocoa B a y , — s o n a m e d from a g r o v e of c o c o a n u t t r e e s w h i c h s p r e a d a l o n g t h e c o a s t for several miles. A m a n u f a c t o r y for p r e s s i n g t h e oil f r o m t h e c o c o a - n u t s is e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e . T h i s oil is f u r n i s h e d t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s a t a b o u t o n e dollar per gallon. T h e s c e n e r y u p o n t h i s r o a d is b e a u t i f u l . A r a n g e of m o u n t a i n s r i s e s u p o n t h e n o r t h , a n d an extended cultivated plain spreads out u p o n 9*


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t h e s o u t h of the r o a d . T h e coaco c u l t i v a t i o n is c o n t i n u e d in t h e g o r g e s a n d v a l l i e s of t h e s e m o u n t a i n s . T h e Bois Immortelle, i n full b l o o m , indicate the location of t h e s e p l a n t a t i o n s . L a u r e l H i l l , t h e e s t a t e of o u r f r i e n d H e n r y , is b e a u t i f u l l y s e a t e d , p a r t l y u p o n t h e m o u n t a i n side, b u t the greater proportion u n d e r cultivation is u p o n t h e p l a i n s . T h e fertility of t h e soil is n o t e q u a l t o t h a t of N a p a r i m a . A mountain s t r e a m is b r o u g h t f r o m a d i s t a n c e in a n a c q u e d u c t , t o a s s i s t in g r i n d i n g t h e c a n e , w h i c h is mostly performed by steam power. One hundred a n d fifty h o g s h e a d s of s u g a r a r e a n n u a l l y m a d e on this plantation. A n u m b e r of A m e r i c a n emigrants are e m p l o y e d , w h o a p p e a r well satis足 fied w i t h t h e i r s i t u a t i o n a n d w a g e s . T h e n a t i v e l a b o r e r s also d o w e l l . A m e e t i n g called at the P a r i s h School-house in the e v e n i n g p r o v e d unsatisfactory, from the c i r c u m s t a n c e of o u r b e i n g p r e v e n t e d f r o m e n t e r 足 i n g , a n d t h e n e c e s s i t y of h o l d i n g t h e m e e t i n g i n t h e o p e n air. M u c h irritation w a s m a n i f e s t e d b y t h o s e c o n v e n e d , a s t h e n i g h t a i r is d r e a d e d . R e t u r n e d to H e n r y J o h n s o n ' s , a n d l o d g e d ; h e a n d his wife h a v e b e e n e x c e e d i n g l y k i n d , using e v e r y e x e r t i o n to r e n d e r u s comfortable. T h e n u t m e g g r o w s u p o n this estate. This h a n d s o m e tree loves moist a n d shady situations. I t is v e r y prolific. T h e r i p e f r u i t a s it h a n g s u p o n t h e b r a n c h e s is b e a u t i f u l . T h e o u t e r p u l p , partially opened, presents the n u t m e g enclosed in a h a r d shell, c o v e r e d in irregular lines b y t h e m a c e , w h i c h , i n t h i s s t a t e , is of a d e e p c r i m s o n . T h e b u r s t i n g of t h e o u t e r p u l p is t h e i n d i c a t i o n


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o f its b e i n g r i p e . T h e c l o v e , a l l s p i c e , ( o r p i ­ mento,) a n d c i n n a m o n g r o w u p o n this Island, a n d m i g h t b e m a d e s o u r c e s of profit. B u t , s u g a r b e i n g t h e g r e a t s t a p l e , t h e g r e a t e s t e n e r g y is e x e r t e d to e x t e n d its p r o d u c t i o n . R o d e to several estates, s t o p p i n g at O r a n g e G r o v e , b e l o n g i n g to W i l l i a m H . B u r n l e y . The v a r i e t y of p l a n t a n d f l o w e r n o t i c e d u p o n t h i s r i d e f o r m e d o n e of its p l e a s u r e s . T h e l u x u r i a n t v e g e t a t i o n is r e m a r k a b l e . Seeds germinate a n d g r o w into trees w i t h astonishing rapidity. The Bois Immortelle, which attains the dimensions of the largest tree g r o w i n g in o u r n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e s , — w i l l r e a c h that size in the p e r i o d of ten years. M a n y o t h e r s g r o w e q u a l l y fast. T h e w o o d of t h e s e t r e e s is soft a n d w i l l s o o n decay. B u t the Bulli-tree, Lignumvitae, Spanish C e d a r , L o c u s t , B o x w o o d , also g r o w here. O r a n g e G r o v e is a l a r g e e s t a t e , c o n t a i n i n g a b o u t t w o t h o u s a n d acres, of w h i c h six h u n d r e d are under cultivation. T w o h u n d r e d a n d forty laborers a n d children are domiciled on this estate. Their dwellings forming a neat village. One hundred and twenty laborers are employed d a i l y . T h i s y e a r the p r o d u c e of s u g a r will equal three hundred hogsheads. The capa­ bilities a r e said to b e four h u n d r e d . Sixty cents p e r d a y , o r t a s k , is p a i d o n t h i s e s t a t e for field l a b o r ; — w h e n engaged at the sugar works, from s i x t y cents to one dollar p e r d a y . T h e cattle raised u p o n the Island are g e n e ­ rally a s l a r g e a s n o r t h e r n cattle. B u t little a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n paid to p a s t u r a g e s . B e e f is c o n s e q u e n t l y poor, a n d the milk from the c o w s


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s c a n t y a n d t h i n . C o w s ' m i l k i n P o r t o f S p a i n is w o r t h t h i r t y c e n t s t h e p o r t e r - b o t t l e full, in w h i c h it is sold ; g o a t s ' m i l k , t h i r t y c e n t s a w i n e - b o t t l e ; g o o d b u t t e r , fifty c e n t s p e r p o u n d . O n o u r r e t u r n w e noticed a n u m b e r of lonely cottages u p o n the road side. O n inquiry w e w e r e informed t h e y w e r e t h e h a b i t a t i o n s of lepers. P o o r creatures, m a n y of w h o m w e s a w at t h e d o o r s of their secluded h u t s , l o o k e d distressed and heart-broken. H o w dreadful t h e idea to b e driven from t h e c o m m o n h a u n t s of m e n , feared a n d s h u n n e d a s unclean, to pine in hopeless misery a n d die alone. A t A n t i g u a , w h e r e this disease also p r e v a i l s , a n a s y l u m h a s b e e n erect­ ed, w h e r e they will b e properly attended t o , a n d their present hopeless condition in a m e a s u r e meliorated. W e could n o t b u t urge t h e subject u p o n t h e b e n e v o l e n c e of o u r friends, t h a t s o m e ­ thing m i g h t b e d o n e u p o n this Island of a simi­ lar character. W e rode to t o w n about 5 o'clock; t h e busy h u m of t h e city h a s c e a s e d , t h e stores a r e all c l o s e d . I t is a s i n g u l a r a p p e a r a n c e t o s e e t h e streets deserted in b r o a d d a y . T h e m e r c h a n t s r i s e e a r l y , p r o c e e d i n g t o b u s i n e s s i n t h e cool o f the m o r n i n g , a c c o m p l i s h i n g m o s t of their t r a d i n g before noon. I n the evening w e h a d a n in­ t e r e s t i n g m e e t i n g i n t h e W e s l e y a n C h a p e l , which w a s l a r g e l y a t t e n d e d b y t h e citizens of P o r t o f Spain. F r o m William Moister, the Methodist m i n i s t e r , w e l e a r n e d t h e p l e a s i n g fact, t h a t F r i e n d s i n E n g l a n d maintain t w o o r t h r e e s c h o o l s u p o n this Island. Third

month,

1st.—This

m o r n i n g , in c o m -


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p a n y w i t h A r t h u r W h i t e , the G o v e r n o r ' s se足 c r e t a r y , w e m a d e a v i s i t t o St. A n n s , t h e G o 足 v e r n o r ' s private residence. A large botanic g a r d e n of m o r e t h a n t w e n t y a c r e s s u r r o u n d s t h e mansion, which w a s established b y Ralph W o o d f o r d , a f o r m e r G o v e r n o r , w h o s e n a m e is r e m e m b e r e d with m u c h respect. A n x i o u s to p r o m o t e t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c o l o n y , h e d e s i g n e d t h i s g a r d e n a s a n u r s e r y for t r o p i c a l fruits a n d w o o d s . M u c h expense was incurred i n o b t a i n i n g t h e v a r i e t y of s p i c e s c u l t i v a t e d i n foreign islands, besides other v a l u a b l e plants. M a n y h a v e s u c c e e d e d w e l l , a n d it w a s f r o m this nursery, that the n u t m e g , clove, p i m e n t o , black pepper, & c , h a v e been introduced into o t h e r p a r t s of t h e i s l a n d . Iron pipes conveying excellent w a t e r from a m o u n t a i n spring, a n d w h i c h s u p p l i e s P o r t of S p a i n , p a s s e s t h r o u g h this g a r d e n . O n t h i s i s l a n d , a s o n o t h e r s we h a v e v i s i t e d , o u r o p e n i n g s for m e e t i n g s i n c r e a s e , t h e l o n g e r we t a r r y . T h e p e o p l e a r e a n x i o u s for u s t o delay our departure, desiring other religious op足 portunities. W e felt, h o w e v e r , t h a t o u r s e r v i c e s h e r e w e r e d r a w i n g to a close. W e h a d a p a r t i n g m e e t i n g in P o r t of S p a i n t h i s e v e n i n g w h i c h w a s a s e a s o n of D i v i n e f a v o r , a n d i n w h i c h w e w e r e e n a b l e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h o s e a s s e m b l e d to i n d i v i d u a l faithfulness to the t e a c h i n g s of t h e H o l y Spirit, t h a t b y love a n d good w o r k s , t h e y m i g h t s h o w t h e m s e l v e s believers in t h e gospel of C h r i s t , for t h e l o v e of w h i c h , w e h a v e b e e n c o n s t r a i n e d to v i s i t t h e m , a n d in w h i c h w e could bid t h e m a n affectionate farewell.


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S i n c e b e i n g o n t h i s I s l a n d , we h a v e s e e n m a n y of t h e e m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d h a v e received from t h e m m u c h information i n r e g a r d to t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , finding t h e m generally comfortable and doing well. W e h a d b e e n i m p r e s s e d Avith a different i d e a from the s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h h a d b e e n m a d e to u s w h i l e o n t h e o t h e r I s l a n d s . W e find t h a t m a n y mistaken v i e w s h a v e been circulated, as o p p o r t u n i t i e s in this colony to i m p r o v e their condition a r e a m p l y afforded to a n y colored e m i g r a n t , if h e b u t l e a d a life of c i r c u m s p e c t i o n and industry. T h e A m e r i c a n s , e v e n in t h e s h o r t p e r i o d of time they h a v e been k n o w n u p o n this Island, h a v e i n d u c e d a l a r g e s h a r e of c o n f i d e n c e a m o n g the planters, being looked u p o n as greatly su足 p e r i o r i n i n t e l l e c t a s Avell a s i n i n d u s t r y t o t h e native creole, a n d , as a consequence, are m u c h p r e f e r r e d , when t h e y c a n b e p r o c u r e d , a s l a 足 borers on estates. A n u m b e r h a v e r e t u r n e d to t h e U n i t e d States dissatisfied, a n occurrence w h i c h m i g h t be s u p 足 posed would necessarily h a p p e n , as m a n y leave their former h o m e s w i t h o u t properly taking into c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e p r i v a t i o n s or difficulties t h e y m a y h a v e to e n c o u n t e r . S o m e of t h e s e h a v e carried back unfavorable reports, and n o w being h e r e Ave h a v e felt it o u r ' p l a c e , i n s o m e m e a s u r e , to e x a m i n e into their condition a n d prospects, that the truth m a y be k n o w n . F r o m w h a t w e could discover, an agricultural laborer can a l w a y s obtain employment and good w a g e s ; those w h o a r e u n a c c u s t o m e d to


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field l a b o r a n d o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l b u s i n e s s , u n l e s s t h e y h a v e a sufficient c a p i t a l , to p u r c h a s e a s m a l l t r a c t of l a n d , a n d f a r m for t h e m s e l v e s , n e e d n o t calculate upon constant employment. T h e following extract from the " T r i n i d a d S t a n d a r d of S e c o n d m o n t h 1 1 t h , 1 8 4 1 , " w i l l s h o w that the advantage of e m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s to t h i s c o l o n y is c h i e f l y t o b e f o u n d i n t h e civil a n d p o l i t i c a l p r i v i l e g e s t h e y m a y enjoy here. " I t is p l a i n t h a t t h e i n d u c e m e n t s t o t h e c o 足 lored A m e r i c a n s to e m i g r a t e to this I s l a n d a r e v e r y different f r o m t h o s e w h i c h o p e r a t e u p o n t h e l a b o r e r s of t h e n e i g h b o r i n g c o l o n i e s . The l a t t e r flock t o u s b e c a u s e e m p l o y m e n t is difficult t o o b t a i n , o r l a b o r is p o o r l y r e m u n e r a t e d a t t h e Islands from w h e n c e t h e y c a m e . T h e former m e r e l y fly f r o m p o l i t i c a l b u t g r i e v o u s o p p r e s s i o n , t o a l a n d w h e r e a t l e a s t t h e y a r e a s s u r e d o f full protection from the l a w s , as well in person a s i n p r o p e r t y , a n d w h e r e t h e c o l o r of t h e s k i n will r a t h e r protect t h e m from t h a n e x p o s e t h e m to such indignities a s a r e h e a p e d u p o n t h e m in their o w n country. If, t h e r e f o r e , w e w i s h t o d r a w to u s t h i s u s e f u l r a c e of p e o p l e , w e m u s t b e a r in m i n d t h a t the b o o n to be held o u t a n d s e c u r e d to t h e m , is n e i t h e r c e r t a i n t y o f e m p l o y 足 m e n t , n o r i n c r e a s e d r e m u n e r a t i o n for t h e i r l a b o r , b u t t h e g u a r a n t e e t o t h e m of p e r f e c t s e c u r i t y from the evils w h i c h h a v e driven t h e m from the l a n d of t h e i r b i r t h , a n d t h e o p e n i n g to t h e m t h e r o a d to that social condition a n d political c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e v a l u e of w h i c h t h e y h a v e learned, as well by the care t a k e n b y the whites


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in their n a t i v e l a n d , to secure t h e s e privileges for t h e m s e l v e s , a s from t h a t e x e r c i s e d to e x c l u d e a l l p e r s o n s of c o l o r f r o m t h e s m a l l e s t p a r t i c i ­ p a t i o n in t h e m . " Third month 2d.—Having n o w closed our religious services u p o n this Island w e m a d e ar­ r a n g e m e n t s to sail t o - d a y in t h e schooner " S u p e r b , " of N a n t u c k e t , b o u n d for St. T h o m a s . M a n y of o u r f r i e n d s c a l l e d to b i d u s f a r e w e l l , w h o s e p a r t i n g salutations s e e m e d to be t h e e x ­ p r e s s i o n of a w a r m a n d affectionate interest in o u r welfare a n d a sincere desire that w e might w h e n our mission w a s completed, return in p e a c e to o u r h o m e s . A m o n g others w h o c a m e to see us this m o r n i n g , w a s a M a h o m e t a n priest, n a m e d E m i r S a m b a M a k u m b a , with w h o m w e h a d a n in­ teresting interview, a n d obtained from h i m a b r i e f h i s t o r y of h i m s e l f a n d h i s p e o p l e n o w r e ­ s i d e n t u p o n t h i s I s l a n d , w h e r e t h e y c o n t i n u e to w o r s h i p after t h e m a n n e r of t h e i r f a t h e r s a c ­ c o r d i n g to t h e p r e c e p t s of t h e K o r a n . H e is a b o u t s i x t y - s i x y e a r s o l d , h i s h a i r a n d b e a r d , w h i c h h e h a s a l l o w e d to g r o w long, a r e white. H e w o r e t h e h a b i t of h i s o r d e r , a f l o w i n g w h i t e tunic. S a m b a could speak several lan­ g u a g e s ; h e a d d r e s s e d u s in A r a b i c , p r o n o u n c i n g t h e b e n e d i c t i o n of t h e M a h o m e t a n s o n t h o s e t h e y e s t e e m a s p e o p l e of G o d . Afterwards he con­ versed in F r e n c h , a n d o u r F r i e n d H . L . J o b i t y i n t e r p r e t e d for u s . H i s c o u n t e n a n c e w a s r e ­ m a r k a b l y s e r e n e , a n d a l t h o u g h h e had b e e n a m a n o f s o r r o w s a n d a c q u a i n t e d w i t h grief, y e t h i s face w a s l i g h t e d w i t h a s m i l e .


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H e w a s b y descent a chief and a priest a m o n g t h e M a n d i n g o e s i n A f r i c a , b u t i n e a r l y life w a s t a k e n c a p t i v e i n o n e of t h o s e i n t e s t i n e w a r s which are unhappily occasioned a m o n g the na­ tive tribes in Africa by the slave trade. He b e l o n g e d to t h e tribe F u l l a h T a u r o , w h i c h en­ g a g e d in a w a r w i t h s i x o t h e r t r i b e s in A f r i c a to p r e v e n t t h e m , as he said, from c a r r y i n g on the the slave trade. T h e M a h o m e t a n s a r e forbidden to m a k e s l a v e s of t h o s e of t h e i r o w n f a i t h , a n d w h e n a n y o f t h e i r p e o p l e a r e c o n c e r n e d i n t h i s traffic, t h e y believe their religion requires t h e m to put a s t o p to it b y f o r c e . I t w a s for t h i s p u r p o s e a w a r was commenced by the Fullahs against these other tribes, a n d in this w a r S a m b a w a s t a k e n prisoner a n d sold as a slave. He was b r o u g h t to this Island at t h e a g e of t w e n t y - o n e years, a n d w a s purchased from a slave ship by a F r e n c h p l a n t e r , w h o g a v e h i m t h e n a m e of Simon Boissere. Possessing a superior mind, h e w a s soon placed b y his master as superin­ t e n d e n t of h i s p l a n t a t i o n . L a b o r i n g faithfully, a n d opportunities b e i n g afforded h i m , h e soon e a r n e d a sufficient s u m of m o n e y t o p u r c h a s e his freedom. Instigated b y his e x a m p l e a n d ad­ v i c e , o t h e r s of h i s c o u n t r y m e n a l s o s u c c e e d e d in s e c u r i n g t h e i r f r e e d o m . T h e y then formed t h e m s e l v e s into a n association to m a i n t a i n their religious profession, S a m b a acting as their priest. T h e i r n e x t effort w a s to p u r c h a s e s m a l l t r a c t s of land, upon which they erected habitations, a n d w e r e thus enabled b y the produce of their gar­ dens, & c , to support themselves respectably. 10


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H a v i n g secured comfortable homes they turned their attention to their suffering b r e t h r e n in c a p 足 tivity. Liberal subscriptions were m a d e a m o n g t h e m for t h i s b e n e v o l e n t o b j e c t , a n d w h e n a slave ship arrived a t t h e colony, S a m b a a n d his f r i e n d s w e r e t h e first o n b o a r d t o i n q u i r e for M a n d i n g o e s , a n d if t h e r e w e r e a n y a m o n g t h e captives, they ransomed t h e m immediately. U p to t h e t i m e of t h e d e c l a r a t i o n of freedom, t h e y h a d r e l e a s e d f r o m b o n d a g e u p w a r d s o f five h u n d r e d in Trinidad alone. T h e i r operations w e r e also e x t e n d e d to other islands. There a r e s e v e r a l h u n d r e d of t h e m a t p r e s e n t i n this island, a n d a l t h o u g h t h e y c o n t i n u e their form of faith a n d w o r s h i p , t h e y a r e noticed for their h a b i t s of t e m p e r a n c e a n d e x e m p l a r y d e p o r t m e n t . I n this respect they h a v e b e e n as lights to their professing Christian neighbors. T h e old m a n said h e m o u r n e d over t h e con足 dition of t h e Christian w o r l d ; h e r e g r e t t e d t h a t their y o u t h w e r e in d a n g e r of being d r a w n a w a y b y t h e evil practices of t h e Christians. H e t h o u g h t it w a s safe t o j u d g e p e o p l e b y t h e i r actions, a n d w h e n h e s a w the Christians holding t h o s e of their o w n faith in s l a v e r y , e n g a g i n g i n Avars w i t h m e m b e r s o f t h e i r o w n c h u r c h , a n d a d d i c t e d t o h a b i t s o f i n t e m p e r a n c e , all o f w h i c h t h e K o r a n f o r b i d s , h e t h o u g h t it w a s sufficient evidence that the religion of M a h o m e t w a s s u 足 p e r i o r t o t h e r e l i g i o n o f A n n a Bissa, (Jesus Christ.) W e t o l d h i m Ave u n d e r s t o o d t h e r e l i g i o n of J e s u s a s forbidding all these practices, b u t t h a t t h e professors of t h e religion of Christ d i d


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n o t l i v e u p to h i s p r e c e p t s . H e i n q u i r e d " h a v e y o u a n y slaves in your c o u n t r y ? " to w h i c h w e replied nearly three million. A t t h i s infor足 m a t i o n h e g a v e a look of a s t o n i s h m e n t a n d in足 dignation. W e a s k e d h i m if h e b e l i e v e d t h e g r e a t G o d w h o m a d e a l l t h i n g s h a d p l a c e d a w i t n e s s of h i m s e l f i n t h e h e a r t s of a l l m e n to t e a c h t h e m w h a t is r i g h t a n d w h a t is w r o n g , t o w h i c h h e replied, " Y e s , certainly; G o d h a s placed his Spirit in m a n to s h o w h i m g o o d a n d evil, a n d m a n o u g h t t o o b e y it, for b y so d o i n g h e w o u l d p l e a s e h i s M a k e r , a n d b e a c c e p t e d of h i m . " H e f u r t h e r r e m a r k e d , " I t is b y l i s t e n i n g t o e v i l suggestions that he becomes very w i c k e d . " He thought the Christians degraded themselves b y selling the Bible, w h i c h t h e y consider a standard of religious faith. " Y o u o u g h t n o t to sell y o u r r e l i g i o n , " m e a n i n g t h e B i b l e , " o r t a k e p a y for e x p o u n d i n g i t , " m e a n i n g for p r e a c h i n g . We t o l d h i m w e did n o t d o it, w e c a m e o u t of l o v e a n d g o o d w i l l to s e e t h e p e o p l e of t h e s e i s l a n d s , that w e might encourage t h e m to love a n d good works. " T h e n , " s a i d h e , " y o u a r e m e n of G o d , a n d I h o p e the L o r d will bless y o u r labors, a n d m a k e y o u useful in s p r e a d i n g his t r u t h in t h e world." . I t w a s a p l e a s u r e to b e w i t h this b e n e v o l e n t i n d i v i d u a l , w h o m a y b e l o o k e d u p o n a s o n e of t h e b r i g h t e s t p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s of t h e a g e . When w e c o n s i d e r t h e h u m b l e s p h e r e in w h i c h h e h a s m o v e d , a n d the limited m e a n s a t his c o m m a n d for a c c o m p l i s h i n g a b e n e v o l e n t s c h e m e


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w h i c h h a d for its o b j e c t t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f a l l h i s c o u n t r y m e n in c a p t i v i t y , ( t h e M a n d i n g o s l a v e s , ) a n d c o n t e m p l a t e the s u c c e s s w h i c h h a s a t t e n d e d t h e labors of S a m b a a n d his coadju­ t o r s , t h i s b r i e f a c c o u n t of h i m w i l l b e e s t e e m e d w o r t h y of record. ST. THOMAS. Third month 7 t h . — A v o y a g e o f m o r e t h a n five h u n d r e d m i l e s a c r o s s t h e C a r i b b e a n s e a b r o u g h t u s a g a i n to this island. T h e r e w a s b u t little t o i n t e r e s t u s d u r i n g t h e f o u r d a y s w h i c h it o c c u p i e d . W e w e r e o u t o f s i g h t o f l a n d f r o m t h e t i m e w e left t h e s o u t h A m e r i c a n c o a s t a n d m o u n t a i n s , till w e c a m e i n s i g h t o f S a b a a n d Santa Cruz, passing about m i d w a y between those t w o p l a c e s . — W e h a d a strong a n d fa­ vorable wind the whole passage, which some­ times occasioned t h e s e a to b e v e r y r o u g h , a n d we b e i n g i n a s m a l l v e s s e l felt it s e n s i b l y ; w e r e a c h e d t h e m o u t h of t h e inlet o n w h i c h St. T h o m a s is s i t u a t e d o n S e v e n t h - d a y e v e n i n g , but the captain being unacquainted with the harbor, w e w e r e obliged to " l a y t o , " a n d spend a most uncomfortable night on board the vessel. E a r l y n e x t m o r n i n g w e w e n t in a n d cast a n c h o r a m o n g t h e s h i p p i n g , t r a d i n g to this p o r t from almost every nation. A s w e entered the t o w n w e f o u n d m o s t of t h e s t o r e s o p e n , a n d t h e m e r ­ c h a n d i z i n g a n d trafficking, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e b u s t l e of t h e b u y e r s a n d sellers in the m a r k e t p l a c e s , g a v e b u t little e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e i n ­ h a b i t a n t s o f S t . T h o m a s d e v o t e t h e first d a y o f


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the w e e k to rest or devotion. A t ten o'clock, h o w e v e r , t h e stores w e r e m o s t l y closed. The b u y e r s a n d s e l l e r s left t h e m a r k e t p l a c e s , a n d t h e b u s y d i n of c o m m e r c e g a v e place n o t g e ­ n e r a l l y t o d e v o t i o n a l d u t i e s , b u t to p l e a s u r e s a n d vain pursuits more disreputable t h a n the con­ s t a n t attention to mercantile transactions. And yet here, also, w e m e t w i t h those w h o think a n d feel u p o n t h e s u b j e c t of t h e s o u l ' s w e l l b e i n g , a n d see t h e i m p o r t a n c e of l i v i n g a r i g h t e o u s life. N o w a y o p e n e d for u s t o h o l d r e l i g i o u s m e e t i n g s h e r e , in c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e G o v e r n o r g e n e r a l of t h e D a n i s h I s l a n d s h a v i n g issued his proclamation against us. W e found, h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e g e n e r a l s e n t i m e n t o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s to w h o m t h e o b j e c t of o u r v i s i t b e c a m e k n o w n , w a s in our favor, they expressing a w i s h that w e m i g h t h a v e religious opportunities w i t h the people. Although such privileges w e r e not a l l o w e d u s , w e h a v e r e a s o n to believe t h a t o u r visit to the D a n i s h Islands, w a s at­ tended with some good, a n d the very circum­ s t a n c e of o u r h a v i n g b e e n d e n i e d this liberty, led m a n y into a n i n q u i r y o n t h e subject of r e ­ ligious toleration, w h i c h will n o d o u b t lead to beneficial results, a n d m a y possibly h a s t e n the p e r i o d , w h e n e v e r y g o s p e l m e s s e n g e r w i l l be w e l c o m e d to t h e i r s h o r e s , a n d p e r m i t t e d " f r e e l y " to d e c l a r e t h a t w h i c h t h e y h a v e " f r e e l y r e ­ ceived." T h e k i n d a t t e n t i o n s o f o u r f r i e n d E . S. c o n ­ tributed to m a k e o u r visit at this t i m e a p l e a s a n t one. W e remained here several days waiting 10*


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for t h e s t e a m e r t o J a m a i c a , w h i c h e n a b l e d u s to recruit from t h e sea sickness a n d fatigue oc­ casioned b y our v o y a g e from T r i n i d a d in a n u n c o m f o r t a b l e v e s s e l . W e h a v e c a u s e t o feel thankful that our health has been preserved t h r o u g h all t h e e x p o s u r e s to w h i c h w e h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t e d , a n d a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e h a n d of the H e a v e n l y S h e p h e r d in preserving us from m a n y d a n g e r s , w e a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o g o for­ w a r d trusting in h i m . VOYAGE TO

JAMAICA.

Third month 1 1 t h . — W e t o o k p a s s a g e i n t h e s t e a m e r H e c l a , t h i s e v e n i n g , for J a m a i c a . The H e c l a is a g o v e r n m e n t v e s s e l , o f e i g h t h u n d r e d t o n s b u r d e n , a n d is u s e d for c a r r y i n g t h e m a i l s , b e i n g w e l l fitted u p for t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f passengers. O u r v o y a g e occupied four d a y s , s t o p p i n g a s h o r t t i m e a t St. J o h n s , P o r t o R i c o , C a p e H a y t i e n , a n d St. J a g o d e C u b a , t o l a n d and receive the mails. O n F i r s t - d a y m o r n i n g w e a n c h o r e d off C a p e H a y t i e n , a n d h a v i n g a n h o u r to s p e n d t h e r e , w e w e n t on shore a n d took a w a l k through this once celebrated town. A b o u t fifteen h u n d r e d troops w e r e being reviewed b y their general officers i n a n e x t e n s i v e s q u a r e in front o f t h e i r c a t h e d r a l , said to b e the largest c h u r c h in the W e s t I n d i e s , a n d in w h i c h w e r e a s s e m b l e d a large c o m p a n y at their devotions. T h e Catho­ lic, is t h e p r e v a i l i n g r e l i g i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e several other sects tolerated. T h e m a r k e t place w a s c r o w d e d w i t h b u y e r s a n d sellers. Many


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of t h e s h o p s a n d stores w e r e o p e n , from w h i c h w e i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e first d a y of t h e w e e k w a s n o t k e p t a s a d a y of r e s t o r d e v o t i o n . C a p e H a y t i e n is i n a d i l a p i d a t e d c o n d i t i o n . T h e r u i n s o f its f o r m e r p a l a c e s still s p e a k o f its ancient grandeur. T h e mountain scenery around it is p a r t i c u l a r l y b e a u t i f u l . O n o n e of t h e lofty e m i n e n c e s C h r i s t o p h e ' s p a l a c e a n d f o r t r e s s of S a n s S o u c i is s e e n ; w h e r e , b e i n g b e s i e g e d b y his e n e m i e s , a n d n o h o p e of e s c a p e , h e t e r m i 足 n a t e d his existence b y his o w n h a n d s . The c l i m a t e of St. D o m i n g o is p e c u l i a r l y d e l i g h t f u l . T h e a i r is b a l m y a n d s w e e t , c o n t i n u a l v e r d u r e c o v e r s its v a l l e y s a n d its hills. A m o r e l i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d r e n d e r it o n e o f t h e m o s t d e 足 sirable p l a c e s of residence. B o y e r ' s p o l i c y is e x c l u s i v e , a n d his s y s t e m of i n t e r n a l discipline a m o u n t s a l m o s t to a m i l i t a r y d e s p o t i s m . W e s t o p p e d t w o o r t h r e e h o u r s a t St. J a g o d e C u b a . T h i s t o w n lies o n t h e s i d e o f a hill, fully e x p o s e d to v i e w from vessels r i d i n g in the harbor. T h e c o u n t r y a r o u n d is m o u n 足 t a i n o u s a n d is n o w s u f f e r i n g f r o m e x c e s s i v e drought. O n t h e m o r n i n g of T h i r d m o n t h 16th, t h e m o u n t a i n s of J a m a i c a w e r e i n s i g h t . T h e c l o u d s w e r e resting on their summits. W e m a d e the h a r b o r of K i n g s t o n b y n o o n , a n d w e r e l a n d e d b y a small b o a t , in a n e x c e e d i n g l y r o u g h sea. F o r a w h i l e t h e prospect of a sale l a n d i n g w a s e x t r e m e l y doubtful, o w i n g to o u r q u a r r e l s o m e b o a t m e n . T h e m o d e of l a n d i n g p a s s e n g e r s f r o m t h e s e s t e a m e r s is v e r y r e p r e h e n s i b l e . I n s t e a d of b e i n g p u t o n s h o r e b y t h e p r o p e r officers of t h e


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OF

v e s s e l , t h e y a r e left t o m a k e t h e b e s t b a r g a i n t h e y c a n w i t h t h e o w n e r s of small b o a t s , w h o c o m e a l o n g side as soon a s a s t e a m e r c o m e s in p o r t . T h e s e , i n t h e i r e a g e r n e s s to g e t p a s s e n ­ g e r s a n d b a g g a g e i n t h e i r b o a t s , fall i n t o strife a n d contention a m o n g themselves, and w h e n the s e a is r o u g h , a s it w a s o n t h i s o c c a s i o n , it is v e r y m u c h to t h e a n n o y a n c e a n d d a n g e r of t h o s e on board. JAMAICA—VOYAGE

HOME.

W e h a d l e t t e r s t o s e v e r a l p e r s o n s in K i n g s t o n , w h o r e c e i v e d u s k i n d l y , w i t h offers t o p r o m o t e t h e o b j e c t of o u r v i s i t . A s w e a p p r o a c h e d t h i s I s l a n d , w e n o t i c e d t h e a p p e a r a n c e of e x c e s s i v e d r o u g h t , a n d w e find t h a t o n s o m e p a r t s of t h e I s l a n d it h a s l a i d w a s t e t h e p l a n t e r ' s p r o s p e c t s for t h i s y e a r , a n d m u s t affect v e r y m a t e r i a l l y t h e c r o p for t h e n e x t , e v e n s h o u l d t h e y h a v e seasonable rains. Since Fifth m o n t h last, (al­ m o s t t e n m o n t h s , ) b u t v e r y little r a i n h a s f a l l e n u p o n this p a r t of t h e Island. S e v e r a l of t h e s u g a r estates in one section, which h a v e gene­ r a l l y f u r n i s h e d a b o u t five t h o u s a n d h o g s h e a d s , w i l l n o t r e a l i z e m o r e t h a n five h u n d r e d t h i s year. K i n g s t o n is a n o l d f a s h i o n e d t o w n , h o t a n d d u s t y . T h e n u m b e r o f i n h a b i t a n t s is s u p p o s e d to be a b o u t forty t h o u s a n d . It covers a large a r e a , v e r y m a n y o f t h e finer h o u s e s b e i n g s u r ­ rounded by gardens. W e visited the h o u s e of correction in c o m ­ p a n y w i t h J o h n D o u g h t e r y , t h e i n s p e c t o r of t h e


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I s l a n d p r i s o n s . T h e i n s t i t u t i o n is k e p t in e x ­ cellent order, a n d m a n y i m p r o v e m e n t s are being made. T w o hundred and ninety-one persons w e r e c o n f i n e d t h e r e , m o s t of t h e m b e i n g s e n ­ t e n c e d for p e t t y thefts. T h e y a r e k e p t a t w o r k d r e s s i n g s t o n e for b u i l d i n g , a n d b r e a k i n g it for Macadamizing. Five w o m e n only are a m o n g the number. A h o s p i t a l for i n d i g e n t i n v a l i d s is c o n t i g u o u s , w h e r e p o o r h u m a n n a t u r e is s e e n tortured and wasted b y several hitherto incu­ rable maladies. T h e leper w a s t h e r e , w i t h his l o a t h s o m e scales peeling from his b u r n i n g limbs. T h e a p a r t m e n t s in w h i c h these w e r e placed, w e r e l o w a n d c o n f i n e d , a n d t o t a l l y u n s u i t e d for t h e o b j e c t e i t h e r of c o m f o r t o r c u r e . A singular disease, and one considered highly infectious as well as incurable, w e observed in a poor creature in a secluded apartment, sur­ r o u n d e d b y a h i g h w a l l ; it is c a l l e d t h e y a w s , (an African name.) T h i s horrible disease g e n e ­ r a l l y c o m m e n c e s u p o n t h e t o e s . T h e flesh d e ­ c a y s , t h e b o n e s b e c o m e c a r i o u s a n d m o u l d e r off, p r o g r e s s i n g u n t i l a n e n t i r e l i m b is c o n s u m e d , a n d c o n t i n u i n g its r a v a g e s u p o n t h e b o d y r e a c h e s t h e v i t a l s , a n d t h u s t e r m i n a t e s t h e sufferings o f its w r e t c h e d victims. N o m e a n s h a v e b e e n found a s y e t to arrest this dreadful m a l a d y . F r o m t h i s s c e n e of m i s e r y a n d w r e t c h e d n e s s w e t u r n e d a n d m a d e a p l e a s a n t visit t o t h e M i c o schools, u n d e r the s u p e r i n t e n d e n c e of J . M. Swiney. T h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t is p a r t l y d e ­ v o t e d to t h e i n s t r u c t i o n of y o u n g m e n a n d w o m e n for t e a c h e r s , w h o b o a r d i n t h e h o u s e . A juvenile a n d an infant d a y school a r e attached.


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T h e n u m b e r of s c h o l a r s in t h e j u v e n i l e d e p a r t ­ m e n t w a s a b o u t seventy-five, a n d in t h e infant school, about one h u n d r e d a n d twenty. We w e r e m u c h p l e a s e d w i t h t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h the children w e n t t h r o u g h their school exercises. W e find h e r e , a s w e f o u n d i n B a r b a d o s , t h a t t h e episcopal bishop a n d his ministers unite in opposition to this school, a n d are c o n t i n u a l l y u s i n g efforts t o d r a w t h e c h i l d r e n to t h e i r o w n sectarian establishments. A free u n b i a s s e d e d u ­ cation does n o t c o m e w i t h i n t h e scope of their benevolence or their creed. W e h e l d a m e e t i n g i n t h e s u b u r b s of t h e c i t y , w h i c h w a s large a n d satisfactory; great so­ lemnity and order prevailed. H a v i n g a w i s h to hold a meeting w i t h the p r i s o n e r s at t h e h o u s e of correction, w e called u p o n t h e m a y o r , H e c t o r M i t c h e l l , in c o m p a n y w i t h E d w a r d J o r d a n , a colored m a n , a n d a n edi­ t o r o f o n e of t h e p u b l i c p a p e r s . T h e m a y o r a p ­ p e a r e d to b e i n a v e r y i r r i t a b l e s t a t e of m i n d , a n d treated us w i t h great incivility, refusing his p e r m i s s i o n , t o t h e g r e a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of o u r friend J o r d a n a n d inspector D o u g h t e r y . He offered, a s a r e a s o n for h i s r e f u s a l , t h a t a m p l e provision w a s already m a d e b y the government for t h e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n of t h e p r i s o n e r s , a n d that the properly authorized clergy regularly officiated t h e r e . T h e information w e r e c e i v e d from all p a r t i e s is v e r y e n c o u r a g i n g , so far a s it r e g a r d s t h e a d ­ v a n t a g e s of free a n d r e q u i t e d l a b o r o v e r u n p a i d toil. F r o m the a c c o u n t s furnished u s , w e s h o u l d b e l i e v e t h a t e m a n c i p a t i o n is n o w w o r k i n g a s


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w e l l u p o n this I s l a n d , a s u p o n the others to windward. M a n y o f t h e difficulties which p r o d u c e d i r r i t a t i o n , b o t h in p l a n t e r a n d l a b o r e r , h a v e been adjusted, a n d w e cannot but hope t h a t in p r o c e s s of t i m e a l l t h a t h a s e n g e n d e r e d strife a n d c o n t e n t i o n w i l l b e r e m o v e d . T h e c h a n g e from s l a v e r y to freedom, h a s b e e n a g r e a t a n d i m p o r t a n t o n e ; a n d it m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d t h a t s o m e difficulties w o u l d a r i s e o u t of t h e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s of so m a n y . It i s t r u l y g r a t i f y i n g to s e e t h e s e difficulties s u b 足 siding, a n d to witness a disposition o n t h e p a r t o f b o t h t h e p l a n t e r s a n d l a b o r e r s to r e m o v e t h e c a u s e s of t h e m . Believing our religious labors w e r e about d r a w i n g to a close in these p a r t s , a n d a vessel b e i n g i n p o r t a b o u t t o s a i l for N e w Y o r k , w e felt a t l i b e r t y to e n g a g e o u r p a s s a g e h o m e . P r e v i o u s to o u r d e p a r t u r e , w e h e l d a m e e t i n g in the Scotch P r e s b y t e r i a n m e e t i n g h o u s e , w h i c h h a d b e e n f r e e l y offered u s t o h o l d m e e t i n g s in while in K i n g s t o n . T h i s m e e t i n g w a s h e l d o n t h e a f t e r n o o n of F i r s t - d a y , a n d w a s a t t e n d e d b y a l a r g e c o n c o u r s e of p e o p l e . W e w e r e e n a b l e d to declare o u r belief in t h e p r a c t i c a l o p e r a t i o n o f t h e " g o s p e l of C h r i s t " a s t h e " p o w e r of G o d " in c h a n g i n g the c o n 足 d i t i o n o f m a n f r o m t h e i m a g e of t h e e a r t h l y , t o t h e i m a g e of t h e h e a v e n l y n a t u r e , e v e n t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a g l o r i o u s k i n g d o m i n t h e h e a r t s of m e n . In which the angelic a n t h e m c a n b e p r o c l a i m e d , " G l o r y to G o d i n t h e h i g h e s t , on e a r t h p e a c e a n d g o o d will to m e n . " This w a s o u r last religious m e e t i n g in the W e s t I n d i e s . O u r s t a y in t h i s I s l a n d w a s b u t of s h o r t


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duration, yet w e w e r e kindly received. Those a m o n g w h o m o u r lot w a s c a s t , m a n i f e s t e d a d e e p i n t e r e s t in t h e o b j e c t of o u r v i s i t , a n d w e felt w h e n t h e t i m e a r r i v e d for u s t o s e p a r a t e , that w e could part with them under the in­ f l u e n c e o f m u t u a l b r o t h e r l y affection a n d r e ­ gard. T h e brig J a m e s H a y , in w h i c h w e h a v e en­ gaged a passage has just landed a number of c o l o r e d s o l d i e r s b r o u g h t f r o m S i e r r e L e o n e . M o s t of t h e m w e r e l i b e r a t e d c a p t i v e s w h o h a d e n t e r e d t h e British service after b e i n g l a n d e d from the c a p t u r e d slavers. T h e i r h o m e s w e r e no longer to b e found. T h e countries w h e n c e they had been dragged, perhaps have never b e e n visited or k n o w n to t h e w h i t e m a n . De­ s o l a t e a n d u n k n o w n i n a l a n d of s t r a n g e r s , free to c h o o s e , t h e y h a v e g i v e n t h e m s e l v e s c a p t i v e a g a i n to t h e g l i t t e r o f t h e s o l d i e r ' s life. The b o u n t y of a f e w d o l l a r s h a s e n s n a r e d t h e m , a n d h e r e t h e y a r e in J a m a i c a to b e t r a i n e d for w a r . T h e n e e d o f a m i l i t a r y force t o p r e s e r v e o r d e r is n o t n o w c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y , a s i n t h e t i m e s of s l a v e r y ; a n d t h e a r m e d police, w h i c h , d u r i n g s l a v e r y , w a s k e p t u p on all the I s l a n d s , h a s b e e n mostly abandoned. B a r b a d o s is a n e x c e p t i o n , a n d e v e n t h e r e t h e y a r e d i m i n i s h i n g its f o r c e , d i s c o v e r i n g it is n o t r e q u i r e d . T h i s is a h a p p y o m e n , a s it s h o w s t h a t t h e fears w h i c h h a d been magnified d u r i n g the dis­ c u s s i o n o f t h e g r e a t q u e s t i o n of f r e e d o m , w e r e altogether groundless. T h e negro race are a peace-loving people—and not only peaceable, b u t g r a t e f u l for k i n d n e s s b e s t o w e d . This has b e e n p r o v e d b y t h e l a t e a c t of e m a n c i p a t i o n ,


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a n d t h e fact o f t h e d i s b a n d i n g o f a r m e d b o d i e s w h i c h h a d l o n g b e e n k e p t u p for t h e m a i n t e ­ n a n c e of o r d e r d u r i n g s l a v e r y , g o e s t o s h o w t h a t t h o s e w h o s e d u t y it is to a s c e r t a i n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e a r e satisfied it is t r u e . Third month 22d.—After bidding farewell to a n u m b e r of o u r friends, w h o called to see u s , w e w e n t on b o a r d the vessel, a n d a r r a n g e d our­ s e l v e s for t h e v o y a g e ; w e d r o p p e d d o w n t o P o r t R o y a l before night, w h e r e w e w e r e obliged t o r e m a i n till n e x t m o r n i n g , it b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d u n s a f e to g o o u t t h e h a r b o r a t n i g h t . About fifty y e a r s a g o a p o r t i o n of t h i s t o w n w a s s u n k b y a n e a r t h q u a k e , — p a r t s of t h e h o u s e s , a n d t h e w a l l s of t h e fort a r e y e t t o b e s e e n i n a b o u t fifteen o r t w e n t y feet of w a t e r . E a r l y in t h e m o r n i n g of t h e t w e n t y - t h i r d , w e w e r e v i s i t e d b y t h e officer o n d u t y , f r o m w h o m w e received a clearance, w h e n w e w e i g h e d an­ c h o r a n d s t o o d o u t to s e a u n d e r a l i g h t b r e e z e . Our voyage was somewhat tedious occupying t w e n t y - f i v e d a y s , a n d p a r t of t h e t i m e it w a s exceedingly boisterous. W e passed r o u n d the w e s t e r n e n d of C u b a , a n d t h r o u g h t h e G u l f of F l o r i d a . D u r i n g t h e first p a r t o f the v o y a g e w e suffered m u c h f r o m t h e e x c e s s i v e h e a t o f the sun, as w e w e r e becalmed frequently be­ fore w e p a s s e d t h e Gulf, a n d a s w e r e a c h e d a h i g h e r l a t i t u d e a n d n e a r e d t h e c o a s t of A m e r i c a , the cold b e c a m e v e r y intense. B u t w e m a d e l a n d in s a f e t y , a n d a r r i v e d i n N e w Y o r k o n t h e e v e n i n g of F o u r t h m o n t h 1 7 t h , 1 8 4 1 , a n d r e a c h e d o u r h o m e s on the following d a y , to the consolation a n d j o y of ourselves a n d families. 11


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I n c o n c l u d i n g t h i s n a r r a t i v e , it i s t h o u g h t p r o p e r to c o n d e n s e s o m e o f t h e f a c t s s t a t e d , i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s u b j e c t of e m a n c i p a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t , in a b r i e f m a n n e r , a n a n s w e r to t h e following queries, w h i c h h a v e been p r o p o u n d e d b y a friend in V i r g i n i a . Quere first.—What I s l a n d s d i d y o u visit, a n d when ? S a n t a C r u z , St. T h o m a s , T o r t o l a , V i r g i n G o r d a , St. C h r i s t o p h e r s , A n t i g u a , B a r b a d o s , T r i n ­ idad, and Jamaica. T h e visit w a s p e r f o r m ­ e d i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t of 1 8 4 0 , a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g of 1 8 4 1 . Second.—What were the measures adopted b y t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t for e m a n c i p a t i n g the slaves ? The measures were by purchase and appren­ t i c e s h i p . £ 2 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 w e r e a p p r o p r i a t e d for this object. T h e preliminary step w a s a system of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , w h i c h , o n b e i n g b r o u g h t i n t o o p e r a t i o n , did not p r o v e a s beneficial to either p l a n t e r o r l a b o r e r , a s its p r o j e c t o r s a n t i c i p a t e d . T h e a c t of e m a n c i p a t i o n g i v i n g t h e c o l o n i e s t h e p r i v i l e g e of c h o i c e ; A n t i g u a a n d B e r m u d a , r e ­ jected the apprenticeship scheme, and gave im­ m e d i a t e a n d unconditional freedom to their slaves. T h e other colonies a d o p t e d the a p p r e n ­ t i c e s h i p s y s t e m , b u t f i n d i n g its o p e r a t i o n s m a n i ­ festly i n j u r i o u s , b y l e g i s l a t i v e e n a c t m e n t s h o r t ­ ened the period t w o years. Third.—What w e r e t h e g e n e r a l effects of these measures as stated by the Planters, M a ­ gistrates, or G o v e r n o r s ? F r o m t h e best information w e w e r e able to o b t a i n f r o m t h e p l a n t e r s a n d o t h e r s , w e feel n o


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h e s i t a t i o n i n s a y i n g , t h a t t h e m e a s u r e of free­ d o m h a s b e e n highly satisfactory a n d salutary. This w a s the general testimony upon every i s l a n d — w e m e t with n o p l a n t e r willing to r e ­ t u r n a g a i n t o t h e h a r d s e r v i t u d e of a s l a v e h o l d e r . T h e d e c l a r a t i o n of freedom w a s c o n s i d e r e d a b l e s s i n g , b o t h to m a s t e r a n d s l a v e . Fourth.—In those Islands where the appren­ t i c e s h i p s y s t e m w a s a d o p t e d , d i d t h e y find it more advantageous than immediate emancipa­ tion a s a d o p t e d in A n t i g u a ? T h e y did not. T h e t e s t i m o n y in St. Kitts w e n t to p r o v e , t h a t if t h e y h a d c a r r i e d o u t t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s y s t e m for t h e full t e r m p r e s c r i b ­ e d , it w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e r u i n o f m a n y p l a n t e r s u p o n the Island. T h e general sentiment given to us w a s , that the apprenticeship system w a s a failure. Antigua and Bermuda proclaimed liberty unconditional to all their slaves. The consequences resulting h a v e been a m a r k e d a n d d e c i d e d a d v a n t a g e to all p a r t i e s in t h o s e I s l a n d s . Fifth.—Has r e a l e s t a t e r i s e n in v a l u e s i n c e emancipation? I t will b e p e r c e i v e d f r o m t h e n a r r a t i v e t h a t real estate has a d v a n c e d considerably in value. I n m a n y p l a c e s t h e l a n d is n o w w o r t h a s m u c h a s both land and slaves w e r e during slavery. Sixth.—Have t h e e x p e n s e s of c u l t i v a t i o n b e e n increased or diminished b y e m a n c i p a t i o n ? W e understood from the p l a n t e r s generally t h a t t h e e x p e n s e s of c u l t i v a t i o n w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l y diminished. T h e r e were some exceptions, h o w ­ e v e r to this s t a t e m e n t . B u t w e found t h a t there e x i s t e d a s m u c h difference i n m a n a g e m e n t a m o n g sugar planters as exists a m o n g other


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o c c u p a t i o n s a n d p r o f e s s i o n s ; a n d often f r o m a lack of order a n d economical a r r a n g e m e n t losses w e r e sustained, which might have been prevent­ ed b y m o r e careful attention a n d calculation. S u c h i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d tell u s t h e y w e r e l o s e r s b y f r e e d o m ; a n d t h a t the e x p e n s e s of c u l t i v a t i o n w e r e greater n o w than during slavery. In T r i n i d a d t h e r a t e of w a g e s w a s h i g h , — t h e laborer being perhaps better paid on that Island t h a n in a n y other c o u n t r y . Complaint was m a d e b y s o m e of t h e p l a n t e r s t h a t t h e e x p e n s e s of c u l t i v a t i o n w e r e i n c r e a s e d s i n c e e m a n c i p a ­ tion. B u t this position ( e v e n w i t h the h i g h w a g e s given) w a s doubted b y others, as the a m o u n t of l a b o r o b t a i n e d i n a g i v e n t i m e w a s greater n o w than during slavery; and the e v i d e n c e s o f p r o s p e r i t y u p o n a l m o s t all t h e w o r k e d estates were conclusive, that, w i t h the h i g h r a t e s of w a g e s g i v e n , n o r e a l p e c u n i a r y d i s a d v a n t a g e h a d o c c u r e d to t h e p r o p r i e t o r s . I t is t r u e t h a t t h e p r i c e of s u g a r a t t h i s t i m e is u n ­ u s u a l l y h i g h . O n e of t h e p r i n c i p a l p l a n t e r s i n Trinidad informs us that sugar can be m a d e on h i s e s t a t e , — w h i c h is e x c e e d i n g l y w e l l m a n a g e d , — f o r five d o l l a r s t h e h u n d r e d , a n d afford a g o o d profit. T h e y are n o w realizing ten dollars b y the cargo. Seventh.—Has there been a n y insubordina­ t i o n o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o l a b o r for w a g e s , a n d are w a g e s high ? N o i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n h a s o c c u r r e d on a n y of the Islands, a n d v e r y satisfactory accounts w e r e f u r n i s h e d of t h e d e p o r t m e n t of t h e l a b o r e r s , a v e r y g e n e r a l willingness to labor h a v i n g b e e n m a n i f e s t e d for w h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d a r e a s o n -


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a b l e c o m p e n s a t i o n for t h e i r s e r v i c e s . T h e n a r r a ­ t i v e f u r n i s h e s i n f o r m a t i o n of difficulties o c c u r r i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y in B a r b a d o s ; b u t t h e s e a r o s e n o t f r o m w a n t of s u b o r d i n a t i o n or willingness to labor, b u t from unjust exactions b y their e m p l o y e r s . T h e same.difficulties o c c u r r e d in J a m a i c a from the same c a u s e s ; but these, we w e r e informed, h a d g e n e r a l l y b e e n a d j u s t e d to s a t i s f a c t i o n . W a g e s in Tortola, twelve a n d a half cents per d a y , — h o u s e s and grounds furnished rent free,— w i t h p r i v i l e g e of k e e p i n g c o w s , g o a t s , s w i n e , p o u l t r y , &c. I n Virgin G o r d a , at t h e copper m i n e , from t h i r t y to fifty c e n t s p e r d a y . I n St. C h r i s t o p h e r s , t w e n t y c e n t s t h e t a s k , w h i c h t a s k c o u l d b e finished b y a n i n d u s t r i o u s h a n d b y t e n o r e l e v e n o ' c l o c k in t h e m o r n i n g . T h e r e h a d b e e n a n u n w i l l i n g n e s s to d o m o r e t h a n one task p e r d a y , a n d this w a s cheerfully perfor­ med. T h e r e m a i n d e r of the d a y t h e y s o m e t i m e s w o r k e d i n t h e i r o w n g r o u n d s . H o u s e s a n d lots of g r o u n d f u r n i s h e d r e n t f r e e , w i t h t h e u s u a l p r i v i l e g e s o f k e e p i n g c a t t l e , p o u l t r y , &c. I n A n t i g u a , f r o m t w e n t y to t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s p e r t a s k : t w o could b e c o m p l e t e d b y o n e or t w o o'clock in t h e afternoon, w h i c h w a s g e n e ­ rally done. In Barbados, the proprietors allow thirty c e n t s p e r d a y , d e d u c t i n g t e n c e n t s for r e n t of h o u s e s , g r o u n d s , &c. T h i s r e n t is t a k e n f r o m e v e r y w o r k i n g m e m b e r of t h e f a m i l y w h o m a y inhabit the c o t t a g e ; the h u s b a n d , wife, a n d children w h o labor, paying equal rent. This o n e r o u s e x a c t i o n c a u s e d m a n y difficulties a n d h e a r t - b u r n i n g s . T h e cottage w i t h four w o r k 11*


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ing i n m a t e s p a y i n g four times m o r e r e n t t h a n o n e of e q u a l condition w h e r e the h u s b a n d of t h e f a m i l y i n h a b i t i n g is t h e o n l y l a b o r e r . I n T r i n i d a d , fifty c e n t s p e r t a s k w a s g i v e n . This task could be completed by the industrious laborers by noon. T w o tasks, a n d even three sometimes, w e r e performed during the day, b y the more industrious. Houses and grounds f u r n i s h e d r e n t free, w i t h t h e p r i v i l e g e of k e e p ­ i n g c o w s , s w i n e , p o u l t r y , &c. E m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e U n i t e d States, in addition to these m o n e y w a g e s , w e r e furnished w i t h r a t i o n s of flour, p o r k , fish, s u g a r , m o l a s s e s , a n d often w i t h r u m , and with medical attendance. These rations v a r i e d u p o n different e s t a t e s . D u r i n g crop time t h e w o r k m e n at t h e mills a n d boiling houses generally receive from s e v e n t y cents to one dollar p e r d a y , w i t h a l l o w ­ a n c e of s u g a r a n d molasses. A m e r i c a n s c o n t r a c t i n g to d o r o a d w o r k a r e well p a i d , — a s high as eleven dollars per one h u n d r e d feet h a v i n g b e e n a l l o w e d . T h i s , i n s o m e i n s t a n c e s , h a s b e e n let o u t to s u b - c o n t r a c t ­ o r s , w h o c a n g e n e r a l l y finish o n e h u n d r e d feet p e r d a y , for w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e t h r e e d o l l a r s . A b o u t thirty Americans are n o w employed at these high w a g e s , on the roads near San Fer­ nando. O n O r a n g e G r o v e , e s t a t e of W m . H . B u r n ­ l e y , s i x t y c e n t s p e r t a s k is p a i d ; g e n e r a l l y o n e p e r f o r m e d in the d a y ; a n d d u r i n g c r o p , from s e v e n t y c e n t s to o n e d o l l a r p e r d a y a t t h e m i l l s a n d boiling house. W a g e s , it w i l l b e p e r c e i v e d b y t h e a b o v e statements, w e r e high, and these rates were


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paid throughout the colony. Rations were not f u r n i s h e d t h e n a t i v e l a b o r e r s , u n l e s s it w a s a n a l ­ l o w a n c e of r u m , w h i c h h a s b e e n a s e r i o u s e v i l . T h e A m e r i c a n s , to t h e i r c r e d i t , v e r y f r e q u e n t l y r e ­ f u s e d t h e r u m , — r e c e i v i n g p r o v i s i o n s in its s t e a d . These wages are n o w considered enormously high, a n d y e t t h e t a s k h a s b e e n r e g u l a t e d b y w h a t a slave w a s formerly considered able to d o ; t h u s f u r n i s h i n g a s t r i k i n g e x a m p l e of t h e a d v a n t a g e s of free a n d p a i d l a b o r o v e r t h e u n ­ r e q u i t e d l a b o r of s l a v e s . U n d e r t h e p r e s e n t system they must necessarily diminish ; compe­ t i t i o n w i l l s o o n r e d u c e t h e r a t e of w a g e s in T r i n i ­ d a d to t h e g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d o n t h e o t h e r I s l a n d s . In Jamaica, our stay being short, w e h a d o p p o r t u n i t y of m a k i n g b u t few e n q u i r i e s . W a g e s v a r y some on this Island. W h e n task w o r k is p e r f o r m e d , f r o m t w e n t y t o t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s is a l l o w e d ; t w o o f t h e s e c a n b e a c c o m ­ plished during the day. For cottages and grounds, rents are generally charged rating a b o u t fifty c e n t s p e r w e e k . T h e l e v y i n g of r e n t s for c o t t a g e s , & c , w i t h e j e c t m e n t s for n o n - c o n f o r m i t y t o e m p l o y e r s ' t e r m s , h a v e b e e n t h e p r i n c i p a l c a u s e s of d i s ­ satisfaction a m o n g laborers u p o n this Island. B u t t h e s e difficulties h a v e , in m o s t i n s t a n c e s , b e e n a d j u s t e d , a n d a p r o s p e c t of i n c r e a s i n g s a t i s ­ f a c t i o n is e x h i b i t e d a m o n g all p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . Eighth,—Have crimes increased or d i m i n i s h ­ ed ? From e x a m i n a t i o n s m a d e of t h e p r i s o n r e c o r d s i n n e a r l y all t h e I s l a n d s , a n d f r o m t e s t i ­ m o n y given by judges, magistrates, and others concerned, w e h a v e the pleasing information to


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give, t h a t crimes h a v e greatly diminished since emancipation. M o s t of t h e c o m m i t m e n t s w e r e for p e t t y t h e f t s , a n d a s s a u l t s a n d b a t t e r i e s a m o n g the laborers. Ninth.—Is a standing a r m y found as necessary n o w a s it w a s b e f o r e e m a n c i p a t i o n ? N o r e g u l a r s t a n d i n g a r m y c a n b e said to b e k e p t u p o n a n y of t h e I s l a n d s , h a v i n g r e f e r e n c e to security from the laborers, since e m a n c i p a t i o n . A t Barbados and Jamaica troops are quartered, b u t on these Islands there are military a n d n a v a l d e p o t s for o p e r a t i o n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e G e n e r a l G o v e r n m e n t , a n d n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y for internal colonial security. T h e trained t o w n a n d rural police, w h i c h w e r e established on several Islands, a n d c o n t i n u e d after e m a n c i p a ­ t i o n , in a n t i c i p a t i o n of difficulties, w e r e f o u n d unnecessary. T h e y h a v e since b e e n curtailed to a small force, or discontinued. Tenth.—Is it s u p p o s e d t h a t t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d m o r a l c o n d i t i o n of t h e c o l o r e d p o p u l a t i o n b e f o r e e m a n c i p a t i o n w a s s u p e r i o r t o t h a t of t h e slaves in M a r y l a n d a n d Virginia ? F r o m o b s e r v a t i o n s m a d e in t r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h p a r t s of M a r y l a n d a n d V i r g i n i a , w e s h o u l d s u p p o s e , in g e n e r a l , t h a t the m o r a l a n d intel­ lectual c h a r a c t e r of t h e slaves w a s in a d v a n c e of t h e W e s t I n d i a laborers. I n A n t i g u a o p ­ p o r t u n i t i e s for m o r a l a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t u r e h a d b e e n afforded freely for s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e ematicipation b y several religious sects. In T r i n i d a d t h e y a r e e v i d e n t l y far b e h i n d . Emi­ grants w h o h a v e gone from M a r y l a n d a n d Vir­ g i n i a , a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n T r i n i d a d far i n a d v a n c e , i n t h e s e r e s p e c t s , of t h e n a t i v e l a b o r e r s .


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Eleventh.—Has there been a n y decided im­ p r o v e m e n t in the social, m o r a l , a n d religious c o n d i t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n ? I t w a s t h e u n i v e r s a l t e s t i m o n y of t h e s c h o o l a n d religious teachers, the planters a n d magis­ t r a t e s , a n d t h o s e h a v i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s for o b s e r ­ vation, that a great improvement has taken place ; and from the active exertions that are n o w m a k i n g , this i m p r o v e m e n t will unquestion­ a b l y c o n t i n u e t o m a n i f e s t itself. Schools are b e i n g established t h r o u g h o u t all the islands; worship houses are being erected to accommodate the n u m b e r s that h a v e attach­ e d t h e m s e l v e s to r e l i g i o u s c o n g r e g a t i o n s ; b e n e ­ ficial s o c i e t i e s a r e f o r m e d ; m a r r i a g e s a r e n o w g e n e r a l l y s o l e m n i z e d ; t h e d u t i e s of h u s b a n d a n d wife, of p a r e n t s a n d children, a r e b e i n g b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d ; a n d , in g e n e r a l , the social condition is i m p r o v i n g , a n d h a s , u p to t h e p r e s e n t p e r i o d , v a s t l y i m p r o v e d , f r o m its l o w s t a t e f o u n d u n d e r slavery. Twelfth.—Do the local g o v e r n m e n t s in t h e W e s t Indies w i s h to e x p a t r i a t e the e m a n c i p a t e d s l a v e s , i n o r d e r to s u p p l y t h e i r p l a c e s w i t h w h i t e laborers? No. Thirteenth.—Are there a n y other circum­ s t a n c e s , a t t e n d i n g the e m a n c i p a t i o n of the s l a v e s in the British Islands, that w o u l d be interesting to the A m e r i c a n people ? O n e d e e p l y i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e is t h e e s t a b ­ l i s h m e n t of i n d e p e n d e n t f a r m i n g v i l l a g e s . The plots of g r o u n d , v a r y i n g from a q u a r t e r of a n acre to ten acres, h a v i n g b e e n p u r c h a s e d b y the s a v i n g s of t h e f r e e d l a b o r e r s i n c e t h e d a t e o f


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h i s e m a n c i p a t i o n , a u g u r w e l l for t h e i r e c o n o m y a n d thrift. N e a t houses are built u p o n these g r o u n d s , a n d , in A n t i g u a , frequently of h e w n s t o n e . T h e s e little f a r m s a r e w e l l c u l t i v a t e d , w i t h e v e r y v a r i e t y of v e g e t a b l e s r a i s e d u p o n t h e i s l a n d s ; s o m e w i t h c a n e , w h i c h is e i t h e r sold t o t h e n e i g h b o r i n g p l a n t e r , o r c a r r i e d i n small b u n d l e s , w i t h their v e g e t a b l e s , to m a r k e t . T h e i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e s e free v i l l a g e s f o r m working bands, w h o hire themselves by the job to t h e n e i g h b o r i n g p l a n t e r . They have been f o u n d e x c e e d i n g l y s e r v i c e a b l e ; for, w h e n h u r 足 r i e d , t h e p l a n t e r h a s b u t to c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e s e associations, a n d his w o r k will b e p r o m p t l y a n d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d , in g e n e r a l , w i t h n o e x t r a e x p e n s e , a n d f r e q u e n t l y w i t h less t h a n w h e n hireing in the usual m a n n e r . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m difference of c o l o r is fast w e a r i n g a w a y . T h e colored m a n stands upon an equality with the white in h i s p o l i t i c a l p r i v i l e g e s ; h a v i n g all t h e f r a n c h i s e s a n d liberties, connected w i t h a representation in t h e colonial legislature, as his w h i t e n e i g h b o r and employer. M a n y talented colored m e n are n o w employed, on almost every island, in v a 足 r i o u s s t a t i o n s u n d e r g o v e r n m e n t ; a n d , a s far a s w e c o u l d l e a r n , p e r f o r m e d t h e i r p a r t to t h e s a t i s 足 f a c t i o n of a l l c o n c e r n e d . T h e i n c r e a s e of s c h o o l s , a n d t h e p r e v a i l i n g d e s i r e o n t h e p a r t of p a r e n t s for t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o b e i n s t r u c t e d , a r e c h e e r i n g facts, f u r n i s h i n g s t r o n g g r o u n d for b e l i e f t h a t a h o p e f u l p r o g r e s s is n o w m a k i n g , a n d w i l l c o n t i n u e to b e m a d e , b y the present and succeeding generations.


Narrative of a visit to the West Indies : in 1840 and 1841  

Auteur. Truman, G.; Jackson, J.; Longstreth, Thos B. / Ouvrage patrimonial de la Bibliothèque numérique Manioc. Service commun de la documen...

Narrative of a visit to the West Indies : in 1840 and 1841  

Auteur. Truman, G.; Jackson, J.; Longstreth, Thos B. / Ouvrage patrimonial de la Bibliothèque numérique Manioc. Service commun de la documen...

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