__MAIN_TEXT__

Page 1

日本占领时期 死难人民纪念碑的故事 THE STORY BEHIND TH E C IVI LI AN WAR MEMORIAL


献词 Message

黄循财先生 教育部长兼财政部第二部长 Mr Lawrence Wong Minister for Education & Second Minister for Finance

每一年,我们都会纪念先辈们在1942年至1945年日据时期所经历 的苦难。 我国会在2月15日或全面防卫日,缅怀二战期间蒙难的平民,因为 这天正是新加坡当年沦陷的日子。 全面防卫提醒着国人,若新加坡想克服任何挑战,我们就必须 齐心协力、万众一心。 全面防卫、人人有责。由于我国还正在与2019冠状病毒进行对 抗,因此这句话在今年显得尤为重要。但也就是在这艰难时期, 我们见证了国人展现出全面防卫的精神,大家一起相互扶持、 坚毅向前。 这种精神和心态一定能使我们排除万难,打造一个更为坚毅的 社会。 衷心感谢新加坡中华总商会这些年来风雨无阻地主办悼念日本占 领时期死难人民祭礼,并通过这本电子书为新加坡人提供了宝贵 的参考资源。


Every

year,

we

remember

the

shared

experiences

of

Singaporeans who went through the Japanese Occupation of Singapore from 1942 to 1945. We do this on 15 February or Total Defence Day, the day Singapore fell to the Japanese. Total Defence reminds us that our strongest response to any challenge facing Singapore is a collective response, where we stand together as one united people. This reminder is especially salient this year, as we continue to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. During this time, we have seen Singaporeans embody the spirit of Total Defence, pulling together with tremendous resilience and fortitude. That is the mindset that will enable us to overcome all challenges and emerge stronger together. Many thanks to Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry for continuing to organise the War Memorial Service and for contributing this e-book which will be a useful reference for all Singaporeans.


序言 Foreword

黄山忠先生 新加坡中华总商会会长 Mr Roland Ng San Tiong Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry President

1960年代新加坡中华总商会联合友族同胞,在政府的支持下, 竖立日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑。

这座纪念碑提醒我们居安思危的重要性,也让我们连接过去, 凝聚国人,以坚韧不拔的毅力来共同面对未来。

总商会今年因时制宜推出这本电子书,充分发挥“诚信、效忠、 回馈、创新”的华商精神,推广国民教育,也为保存新加坡的历 史和文化遗产略尽绵力。


In the 1960s, the Chamber and compatriots from all ethnic groups built the Civilian War Memorial with government support. This Memorial reminds Singaporeans of the importance of staying vigilant at all times. It connects us to the past and unites us as a nation, to face the future together with resilience and determination. This year, while adapting to changing times, the Chamber is launching this e-book, demonstrating the Spirit of Chinese Entrepreneurs with the elements of “integrity, loyalty, giving back and innovation”. This allows us to do our part in promoting national education and perpetuating of Singapore’s history and cultural heritage.


4

二战和日本占领时期 死难人民纪念碑有何关联? 2月15日 这个日子有何重要性? 年轻一代对新加坡 的未来建设扮演什么角色? 让我们一起来了解日本占领时期 死难人民纪念碑的故事。

What is the link between the Japanese Occupation and the Civilian War Memorial in Singapore? What is the significance of 15 February? What are the roles youth play in the building of a better future? Join us to discover the story behind the Civilian War Memorial.


5

纪念碑对一个国家的意义是什么? What does a memorial mean to a nation?

一座战争纪念碑是历史的基石,连接国 家的过去﹑现在和未来。1960年代, 新加坡中华总商会的领袖肩负社会和 道德责任,竖立了日本占领时期死难 人民纪念碑,让全体国人通过这座纪 念碑,悼念因战争而牺牲的无辜平民 百姓。 2021年是新加坡建国56周年,让我们一起 来反思建国的历史和发展,以及追溯先辈 在建国进程中所作出的牺牲和奉献。作为 一个独立、年轻的国家,新加坡的繁荣昌 盛靠我们和年轻一代来打造和延续,让我 们不分种族和语言、不分彼此,共同了解 属于我们的过去,为新加坡更美好的未来 一起努力。

A war memorial acts as a historical touchstone that links the past to the present and the future. When the Chinese leaders from the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce (now known as the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry, SCCCI) took on the social and moral responsibility to spearhead the construction of the Memorial to the Civilian Victims of the Japanese Occupation (hereinafter referred to as the Civilian War Memorial) in the early 1960s, it enables all Singaporeans to remember and respect the sacrifice of those who died during the war. As year 2021 marks Singapore’s 56th year of independence, it provides all Singaporeans the chance to reflect on our shared history, sacrifices of our pioneers and values that brought us here. Emerging as a new nation, Singapore’s economic prosperity is heavily dependent on everyone and the youths who are the leaders of our nation, to understand our historical roots and unite as one, regardless of race and language, to chart a path forward for an even better future for Singapore.


6

日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑位于何处? Where is the Civilian War Memorial located?

纪念碑位于美芝路上的战争纪念公 园内,高达67米的纪念碑由四根 白色柱子组成。由于外形设计与筷 子相似,本地人俗称它为“四根 筷子”。 纪念碑的四根白柱代表新加坡二战期间四 大种族(华族、马来族、印度族以及欧亚 裔)的罹难同胞。

The Civilian War Memorial, comprising four columns at a height of 67 metres, is situated at the War Memorial Park along Beach Road. Locals also call it the “Four Chopsticks” as the design is similar to chopsticks. The four columns signify those from the four main ethnic groups in Singapore who perished during the Japanese Occupation – Chinese, Malays, Indians, and Eurasians.

24

层楼的 政府组屋 (67米)

Storey HDB flat

(67 metres)

你知道吗? DID YOU KNOW?

纪念碑的高度相等于一座24层楼 的政府组屋。

The height of the Civilian War Memorial is equivalent to a height of 24 storey HDB flat.


7

“ 在我们眼前的日本占领时期死

难人民纪念碑,见证我们多元文 化的密切关系 — 新加坡 不同种族在二战时期团结和

患难与共的精神。 哈莉玛总统,2018年

“The Civilian War Memorial

which stands before us is testament to our multicultural ties – the four tapering columns symbolise the shared experiences and unity among the people of different races in Singapore during the war.“ President Halimah, 2018

新加坡总统哈莉玛 雅各布在2018年悼念 日本占领时期死难人民祭礼上致辞。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Singapore President Halimah Yacob giving a speech during the 2018 Civilian War Memorial Service. (SCCCI Collection)


8

2020年,在悼念日本占领时期死难 人民祭礼上所敬献的花圈。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Floral Wreaths for the War Memorial Service in 2020. (SCCCI Collection)


9

新加坡竖立纪念碑悼念罹难人民是史无前 例的举动,此举也体现了总商会领袖对于 死难者的怜悯之心。因此,日本占领时期 死难人民纪念碑让战后的生还者得以悼念 蒙难亲属,同时也象征人们对美好未来的 憧憬。

It was an unprecedented move in Singapore to erect a memorial to commemorate the civilian victims, demonstrating the empathy and compassion of the Chamber’s Chinese leaders. Hence, the innovative design of the Civilian War Memorial was a form of catharsis for war survivors as well as a symbol of hope for a better future in post-war Singapore.

606 Urns

你知道吗? 你知道吗? DID YOU YOU DID KNOW? KNOW?

日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑的下方, 埋藏了安放死难者遗骸的606个骨灰瓮。

The Civilian War Memorial sits on a raised platform enclosing a vault that holds the victims’ remains in 606 urns.


10

日本占领新加坡期间发生了什么事? What happened during the Japanese Occupation in Singapore?

1942至1945年二战期间,日本军警展开了 特别针对华族抗日嫌疑者的肃清行动,导 致很多本地华人受害。 1960年代,新加坡政府开始扩建住宅和推 动工业发展项目。 1962年,本地工人先后在多个工地的开挖 工程中,挖掘到二战期间死难者的遗骸。

During the World War II (1942 - 1945), the Japanese military police (Kempeitai) carried out Operation Sook Ching (purge through cleansing), to sieve out anti-Japanese elements primarily among the Chinese populace. In the 1960s, the government started to build housing and push forward industrialisation. In 1962, local workers discovered various mass graves containing thousands of human remains in multiple locations.

50,000 死难者

Dead

你知道吗? DID YOU KNOW?

在日本占领新加坡的三年零八个月 里,估计有五万人遇害。

It was estimated that about 50,000 died as the result of the three years and eight months of Japanese Occupation.


11

日本占领时期肃清行动后,新加坡出现乱葬岗的地点 Places of massacres during the Japanese Occupation in Singapore

榜鹅

Punggol

杨厝港

Yio Chu Kang

巴西立 (白沙)

武吉知马

裕廊西(云南园)

Jurong West (Yunnan Garden)

荷兰路

Bukit Timah

Pasir Ris

惹兰加由

(White Sands)

Jalan Kayu

樟宜

Holland Road

Changi 丹那美拉 实乞纳

加东

直落亚逸

Katong

Siglap

Tanah Merah

Telok Ayer 圣淘沙

Sentosa

注:地图未按比例绘制。

Note: The map is not drawn to scale.


12

竖立死难人民纪念碑的提案 Proposal for building a Civilian War Memorial

总商会肩负道德与社会责任,向日本政府寻求战争赔偿, 并向新加坡政府请求拨出一块土地来竖立纪念碑。 The Chamber took on the moral and social responsibility to seek war compensation from the Japanese government and to seek land from the Singapore government to build a memorial.

总商会发扬“诚信、效忠、回馈、创新”四大 华商精神,贯彻“取之社会、用之社会”的 信念,通过与政府和社会团体的合作,积极推 动竖立纪念碑的工作,也致力于保存新加坡的 历史和文化遗产。

Clearly, the Chamber’s upholding of the Spirit of Chinese Entrepreneurs, namely “integrity, loyalty, giving back and innovation”, puts into practice the spirit and conviction of contributing back to society. Through collaboration with the government and social organisations, the Chamber actively pushed forward the building of a Civilian War Memorial, which preserves the history and heritage of Singapore.


13

“ 这座纪念碑代表一段苦难的历史。 尽管这段历史惨痛不已,

它也让这年轻国家的人民,

不分种族和背景,团结起来。 新加坡中华总商会会长、

死难人民纪念碑工作委员会主席孙炳炎, 1967年

“This Civilian War Memorial

第34届新加坡中华总商会会长、死难人民 纪念碑工作委员会主席孙炳炎。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Soon Peng Yam, 34th President of the SCCCI and the Chairman of the Civilian War Memorial Working Committee. (SCCCI Collection)

represents a bitter history. Although the history is horrifying, it allows the young and developing nation, with a background of different races, to unify as one.“ Soon Peng Yam, SCCCI President and the Chairman of the Civilian War Memorial Working Committee, 1967

你知道吗? DID YOU KNOW?

1962年2月28日,总商会成立死 难人民遗骸善后委员会,负责发 掘已发现的乱葬岗地点,并重新 安置挖掘出来的遗骸。

On 28 February, 1962, the Chamber formed a Disposal of Remains Committee to undertake the exhumation of the discovered war graves and reburial of the remains.


14

总商会的工作 Scope of SCCCI’s Tasks

1963 3月19日 19 March

1963 4月21日 21 April

总商会设立纪念碑募捐委员会,筹集资金建造纪念碑。 To raise funds for the construction of the multiracial memorial, the Chamber set up a Memorial Building Fund Committee.

总商会召开会议,共有609个社团,大约1千多名包括华人、 马来、印度、锡兰和欧亚裔的社团代表出席。会议结束后, 所筹集的捐款总额达13万新元。 More than 1,000 representatives from 609 societies in Singapore (Chinese, Malay, Indian, Ceylonese and Eurasian communities) attended the public meeting organised by the Chamber. Eventually, the total donation raised after the meeting amounted to $130,000.

1967

2月15日 15 February

建国总理李光耀主持纪念碑落成仪式。 Founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew officially unveiled the Civilian War Memorial.

你知道吗? DID YOU KNOW?

纪念碑历时4年的时间完成,花费 约50万新元。这笔款项在1960 年代可购买约62间半的3与4房式 政府组屋。

The Memorial took 4 years to complete at a cost of approximately $500,000. With $500,000, one could buy 62.5 units of HDB flats (3-4 room flats) in the 1960s.


15

总商会领袖积极推动死难人民纪念碑的竖 立,突显了他们对新加坡的认同。而战 后,新加坡的许多华商改变了心态,他 们的认同从回到故土的“落叶归根”转变 成“落地生根”,开始在新加坡扎根。 Undeniably, the Chamber’s devotion to build a Civilian War Memorial in Singapore emphasises the Singapore identity. After the war, the Chinese businessmen no longer saw themselves as sojourners on foreign land but nursed plans to settle in Singapore permanently.

1967年2月15日,建国总理李光耀 (右排居中)主持纪念碑落成仪式。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew (third from the right) unveiled the Civilian War Memorial on 15 February, 1967. (SCCCI Collection)


16

“ 我们聚集在此不是为了战争补偿或

煽动仇恨。我们在此是要记住那些在 战争期间牺牲的无辜受难者。 建国总理李光耀,1967年

“We gathered here not for war

compensation or incite hatred. We are here to remember those who have sacrificed their innocent’s souls during the war.“ Founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, 1967


17

建国总理李光耀于1967年2月15日 在纪念碑落成仪式上致辞。

(新加坡通讯与艺术部珍藏,照片 由新加坡国家档案馆提供。 )

Founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew officially unveiled the Civilian War Memorial and delivered a speech on 15 February, 1967. (Ministry of Information and the Arts Collection, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.)


18

1967年2月15日,日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑揭幕当天,罹 难者家属哀恸不已。这时刻提醒我们,先辈在二战期间所遭受的 苦难,我们必须珍惜和平的可贵。

(新加坡通讯与艺术部珍藏,照片由新加坡国家档案馆提供。)

The Civilian War Memorial, unveiled on 15 February, 1967, serves as a reminder to the people of the sufferings endured by our forefathers during the Japanese Occupation and the pain suffered from the deceased families and the importance of peace. (Ministry of Information and the Arts Collection, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore)


19

日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑落成之后 Civilian War Memorial today

纪念碑的支柱上方采用连接设计, 象征各族群团结一致、患难与共。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

The joining of the Civilian War Memorial’s pillars near the top represents the unity of all races and shared suffering. (SCCCI Collection)

自1967年起,总商会于每年2月15日举 办跨宗教仪式的祭礼,全体出席祭礼 的人士默哀一分钟,悼念日本占领时 期的死难者。纪念碑支柱的上方采用连 接设计,象征各族群团结一致、患难 与共。

你知道吗?

Since 1967, the Chamber has been organising an inter-religious war memorial service on 15 February annually as a dedication to the victims who perished during the Japanese Occupation. The joining of the Civilian War Memorial’s pillars near the top represents the unity of all races and shared suffering. During the War Memorial Service, all guests and students observe a one-minute silence in remembrance of the civilian victims.

DID YOU KNOW?

日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑是 新加坡唯一一座纪念二战时期罹 难的平民纪念碑。

The Civilian War Memorial is the only memorial in Singapore that commemorates civilian victims of the World War II.


20

2020年2月15日,尽管2019冠 状病毒疫情蔓延,民众仍然出席 总商会主办的悼念日本占领时期 死难人民祭礼。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Despite the outbreak of COVID-19, the public still attend the War Memorial Service organised by the Chamber on 15 February 2020. (SCCCI Collection)


21

每一年的祭礼,民众都会出席与进行祭拜 仪式,悼念蒙难的亲属。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Public will attend the annual War Memorial Service to pay respects for the family members as a form of catharsis. (SCCCI Collection)


22

1984年,政府订2月15日为“全面防卫 日”,纪念新加坡于1942年2月15日沦 陷。1967年2月15日落成的纪念碑,其意义 在于强调保家卫国的重要性。每一年的祭礼 提醒大家居安思危。自2009年开始,总商 会与国防部中央国民教育司合作,举办悼念 日本占领时期死难人民祭礼。2016年,国 防社区联系咨询委员会在祭礼上掀开《#再 也不会新加坡》社交媒体宣传运动的序幕, 并通过祭礼来提高国人的意识,强调捍卫新 加坡主权的重要性与需求。此运动鼓励国人 宣誓对国家的效忠,不把和平与稳定视为理 所当然,以确保国家永远独立自主,不再重 蹈历史覆辙。

学生代表在2019年的祭礼仪式上向罹难人民致意。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Student representatives presenting a wreath to war victims at the 2019 War Memorial Service. (SCCCI Collection)

In 1984, the government set 15 February as Total Defence Day, which marks the anniversary of the Fall of Singapore on 15 February, 1942. The Civilian War Memorial, which was unveiled on the 15 February, 1967, emphasises the importance to defend the land we call home. Every year War Memorial Service reminds everyone to stay vigilant at all times. Since 2009, the Chamber also partnered with Nexus to organise the War Memorial Service. In 2016, the Advisory Council on Community Relations in Defence launched the #NeverAgainSG movement during the War Memorial Service, an online campaign on social media platforms, to raise awareness of the significance and the need for Singapore to defend our sovereignty. The movement encourages individuals to pledge a commitment to not take Singapore’s peace and stability for granted and to prevent history from repeating again.


23

新加坡总统哈莉玛

雅各布 (中间) 、时任教育部长

(高等教育与技能)王乙康(右一)与新加坡中华 总商会会长黄山忠(左一)出席2018年的祭礼。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Singapore President Halimah Yacob (centre), then-Minister of Education (Higher Education and Skills) Ong Ye Kung (right) and President of SCCCI Roland Ng (left) at the 2018 War Memorial Service. (SCCCI Collection)


24

新加坡武装部队退伍军人协会代表出席2015年的祭礼。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Representatives of the Singapore Armed Forces Veterans’ League at the 2015 War Memorial Service. (SCCCI Collection)


25

1995年9月12日,新加坡时任副总理李显龙(中间)、 英国肯特公爵

爱德华王子(右一)与新加坡中华总商会

第47届会长郭令裕(右三)释放和平鸽。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Singapore then-Deputy Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong (centre), Duke of Kent, Prince Edward (far right) and 47th President of SCCCI Kwek Leng Joo (third from the right) released white doves on 12 September, 1995. (SCCCI Collection)


26

时任总理公署部长黄志明(中间)出席2019 年的祭礼。

(新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Then-Minister in Prime Minister’s Office Ng Chee Meng (centre) at the 2019 War Memorial Service. (SCCCI Collection)


27

日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑时刻提醒我 们,先辈在二战期间所遭受的苦难。回顾 过去,总商会通过竖立日本占领时期死难 人民纪念碑,为无辜的受害者伸张正义, 展现了“诚信、效忠、回馈、创新”的 四大华商精神。 The Civilian War Memorial serves as a reminder to the people of the sufferings endured by our forefathers during the Japanese Occupation. Looking back, the Chamber displayed the Spirit of Chinese Entrepreneurs (integrity, loyalty, giving back and innovation) by building a Civilian War Memorial in the 1960s to seek justice for the innocent souls.

1994年8月28日,日本时任首相村山富士访 问新加坡时前往死难人民纪念碑献上花圈。

(新加坡通讯与艺术部珍藏,照片由新加坡 国家档案馆提供。 )

Tomiichi Murayama, then-Prime Minister of Japan, laid a floral wreath at the Civilian War Memorial during his official visit in Singapore on 28 August, 1994. (Ministry of Information and the Arts Collection, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.)


28

大事记 Milestones

1963

1942 - 1945

1962

日本占领新加坡。

新加坡开始挖掘到 死难人民的遗骸。

Japanese Occupation of Singapore. 21.02.1942

Unearthed human remains in Singapore.

13.03.1963 新加坡政府在市区拨出 土地建造纪念碑。

15.06.1963 建国总理李光耀为 纪念碑进行奠基仪式。

The Singapore government set aside land to build a memorial in town area.

Founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew laid the foundation for the Civilian War Memorial.

日本军警展开肃清行动。

28.02.1962

19.03.1963

Japanese military police launched Operation Sook Ching.

总商会成立日本占领时 期死难人民遗骸善后 委员会。

总商会成立死难人民 纪念碑募捐委员会。

08.1963 总商会成立各民族 行动委员会。

The Chamber set up a Memorial Building Fund Committee.

The Chamber set up a all-races joint action committee.

21.04.1963 总商会召开公开会议 筹募基金。

25.08.1963 总商会发起向日本追讨 血债行动大会。

The Chamber called for a public meeting to raise funds.

The Chamber led a demonstration against Japan’s war crimes.

The Chamber formed a Disposal of Remains Committee.

15.02.1967 建国总理李光耀主持 纪念碑落成仪式。 Founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew officially unveiled the Civilian War Memorial.


29

2021 总商会与政府配合,在疫情下推广国民教育 工作,不仅继续强调全面防卫的重要性, 也突显种族和谐共处是新加坡继续繁荣昌盛 的重要基石。

15.02.2020 尽管面对2019冠状病毒 疫情,总商会配合政府 防疫措施、缩小规模, 并如期举办祭礼活动。

The Chamber works with the government to advocate national educational messages. The Chamber continues to emphasise the importance of Total Defence and racial harmony as these serve as the bedrock of Singapore’s prosperity.

The Chamber scaled down the War Memorial Service in response to the Government precautionary measure towards the COVID-19.

2016

15.08.2013 2009

15.02.1984 新加坡政府订此日为 “全面防卫日”。 The Singapore government set this date as Total Defence Day.

总商会开始与国防部 中央国民教育司合作举 办悼念日本占领时期死 难人民祭礼。 The Chamber started to partner with Nexus to organise the War Memorial Service.

日本占领时期死难人民 纪念碑被列为国家历史 古迹。 The Civilian War Memorial was gazetted as a national monument.

国防社区联系咨询委员会在 祭礼上掀开《#再也不会新加 坡》社交媒体宣传运动的序幕 活动。 Advisory Council on Community Relations in Defence launched the online campaign #NeverAgainSG during the War Memorial Service.


30

问答题 1.

日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑 的落成仪式在哪一天?

4.

新加坡政府在哪一年推出

a) b) c) d) e)

1962年2月15日 1963年2月15日 1966年2月15日 1967年2月15日 1968年2月15日

a) b) c) d) e)

1984年 1985年 1998年 2001年 2018年

2.

日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑 的高度是多少?

5.

新加坡总统哈莉玛于哪一年出席 悼念日本时期死难人民祭礼仪式?

a) b) c) d) e)

38米 67米 80米 100米 380米

a) b) c) d) e)

2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

3.

日本占领时期死难人民纪念碑 的四大柱子设计代表哪些种族?

a) b) c) d) e)

华裔 马来裔 印度裔 欧亚裔 以上皆是

“全面防卫日”?

答案:1) d, 2) b, 3) e, 4) a, 5) c


31

QUIZ 1.

When was the Civilian War Memorial unveiled?

4.

a) b) c) d) e)

15 February 1962 15 February 1963 15 February 1966 15 February 1967 15 February 1968

a) 1984 b) 1985 c) 1998 d) 2001 e) 2018

2.

What is the height of the Civilian War Memorial?

5.

a) b) c) d) e)

38 metres 67 metres 80 metres 100 metres 380 metres

a) 2016 b) 2017 c) 2018 d) 2019 e) 2020

3.

Which ethnic group does the design of the four columns signify?

a) Chinese b) Malay c) Indian d) Eurasian e) All of the above

When did the government introduce Total Defence Day?

When did President Halimah attend the War Memorial Service?

Answer: 1) d, 2) b, 3) e, 4) a, 5) c


32

延伸阅读 FURTHER READING 冯仲汉,《和平的代价》,新加坡:新加坡中华总商会,1996年。 许云樵, 蔡史君编, 《新马华人抗日史料 (1937-1945)》, 新加坡: 文史出版私人公司, 1984。 新加坡中华总商会董事会会议记录。 Blackburn, Kevin and Karl Hack. War Memory and the Making of Modern Malaysia and Singapore. Singapore: NUS Press, 2012. Farrel, Brian P. The Defence and Fall of Singapore 1940-1942. Gloucestershire. Stroud: Tempus Publishing Group. 2005. Karen Hoisington, A Flower in the Fall, Singapore: NPE Printe Communications, 2019. Kratoska, Paul H. (ed), Malaya and Singapore during the Japanese Occupation, Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1995. Foong, Choon Hon. The Price of Peace: True Accounts of the Japanese Occupation. Singapore: Asiapac Books, 1997. Zhou, Zhaocheng and K. K. Seet. Elements of Enterprise: 100 Years of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry (Bilingual edition). Singapore: Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry, 2007. “‘They didn’t even have coffins’: The man who dug up the remains of World War II victims in Singapore.” Channel News Asia. 7 April 2018. Available online: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/grave-bones-world-war-ii-victimssingapore-sook-ching-10089202


悼念日本占领时期死难人民祭礼曁全面防卫日纪念活动由 新加坡中华总商会与国防部中央国民教育司(2009开始)联办: The War Memorial Service in commemoration of the civilian victims of the Japanese Occupation and Total Defence Day Commemoration is co-organised by Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Nexus (since 2009):

战略合作伙伴: Strategic Partner:

本刊物由文化捐献配对基金资助: The publication of this information booklet is supported by:

版权所有,侵权必究。未经新加坡中华总商会许可,不得以任何形式 (电子、机械、影印、记录或其他方式)复制、存储及传送刊物的任何内容。

© 新加坡中华总商会 2021年 © 2021 Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry.

请扫描QR码或点击以下链接, 了解更多内容。 Please scan the QR code or click below link for more information: https://t.me/scccicommunity


Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry 9 Jurong Town Hall Road #04-01, Trade Association Hub Jurong Town Hall, Singapore 609431 T: (65) 6337 8381 F: (65) 6339 0605 corporate@sccci.org.sg

Profile for Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry

The Story Behind the Civilian War Memorial