Page 1

Sizing PV

Summer Wind Rose

has higher efficiency than polycrystalline (right). The only problem is when temperature goes up. However, sea breeze can cool the roof therefore efficiency of PV would not be influenced significantly.

The average residential electici- The house is in the west coast so we take wind rose of Laverton to analyse. Wind come from north and south most in winter and summer respectively ty use in Australia per person is therefore dense planting are placed to filter strong wind and give client 7.37 Kwh per day. The Ngs has two dogs and therefore electric- more comfort. In addition, sea breeze blows from east therefore east faced windows are necessary to enhance ventilation and meet the client’s need. ity they use per day is approxiReference: mately 20 Kwh. The standard https://www.brilliantlighting.com.au/products/air-movement/ceiling-fans/brighton-fan/ input rate of solar panel is 1Kw http://andrewmarsh.com/apps/staging/sunpath2d.html http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/average-houseand the efficiency rate is 20%. hold-electricity-consumption The sun hours is around 12 hours https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/home/considering-getting-solar-panels-here-are-the-right-questions-toper day and about 2/3 year it ask/2018/03/09/3190c71a-20c0-11e8-94da-ebf9d would not rain. By calculation, it 112159c_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.8 e92bb2d0fa8 is most efficient to have 16 square meters solar panels. Winter Wind Rose

Monocrystalline (left)

Wind Rose

Client Profile

The Ngs are a couple planning to move to a site opposite the beach. The couple has no children, but does have two dogs. They often have guests stay, and like to throw fancy dinner parties. They both work for a solar power company. They would like their house to feel natural with lots of daylight. They like the idea of having sea breezes coming through their house and would like a house with really good passive design strategies. 12°

Winter Wind Rose Winter Solstace 28.5°

Sitting and Orientation Dense cool bush

Reference: https://helpsavenature.com/monocrystalline-vs-polycrystalline-which-solar-panel-is-better

Cool Roofsolve.org/cool-roofs-attack-response Reference: https://climatere-

is made of high reflective material which results in less solar heat absorption therefore reduces cooling need. Since the east side of house facing sea whose breeze will help cool the east roof down, cool roof is only applied on the west side.

Lawn Car Wash

Solar Panel

Landscape

Dense cool bushes are planted near the north and south of the site acted both as a windbreak and privicy protection. Deciduous trees are planted near the west side of the house in front of the two bedroom to provide shading same as the influence of the exsiting tree in the east side. Reflects Reflects 20% 80%

Solar HWS

Summer Solstace 75.5°

Cool Roof Cool Roof

Gardening Area

The house is placed about 12° west of north. Benefit: 1. More living area facing north provides better passive design. 2. Edges of bedroom and ensuite in the south side is aligned to make it as close as possible to the south.

Party Area

Dense cool bush

12°

Green Roof

5.5 m

Land Use

Sea Breeze

1. It helps to save the cost of service connection since almost all service pits are located near the beach. 2. Similar set back with its south neighbor provides better aesthetic along the street. 3. Thirdly, the house can block the cold sea breeze at night when the dinner party is held in the back yard in the west.

Site Analysis Reference: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ high

The backyard is divided into two parts. The land closer to the house is used for the dinner party and the other one is used for gardening to improve the environmental influence of the site.

spring

Adjacent Properties

Summer Wind Rose

Student Name LU ZHANG SCARLETT Student Number 953964

Closer to the east side

To avoid preventing the solar access of the neighbor on south, the distance between two house need to be at least 5.5m since house of the Ngs is single storey.

low 8 C° 14 C°

rain

26 days summer 26 C° 14 days autumn 20 C° 10 C° 19 days winter 14 C° 5 C° 23 days Melbourne is in Zone 6 with four distinct seasons. According to the statistic, the diurnal range is around 10°, which implies the house will benefit from the thermal mass influence as a rule of thumb. 19 C°

Sewage

Electric meter

Stormwater

PCD

Potable water

Tank

Electric

Lawn

Telecom

Bush


Summer 75.5° Equinox 52° Winter 28.5°

N Position of the sun at midday

Calculating sun angle

The latitude of Melbourne west coast is 37.8° to 37.9° (we take 38° approximately). Therefore the equinox is 90° 38° = 52°. Summer solstice is equinox + 23.5° = 75.5°. Winter solstice is equinox 23.5° = 28.5°.

Upward raked eave

Summer Sun Block

Winter Sun Access

To allow more southern space of the house to have winter solar access in the north side, upward raked eave is utilized instead of the normal eave since temperature of this area is cooler than the inland. The width of eave is designed corresponding to the noon mid summer sun and the upward angle is same as the noon mid winter sun. Also, stack ventilation will help the whole room warmer since the heated air will rise up.

Thermal mass

To avoid overheating, the glass to mass ratio for Melbourne should be 16%. From the house plan, the living area is 8800*6650 hence the glass area need to be 8800*6650*0.16 = 9363200. The height of doubled glazing door on the north side is 2400 hence the width should be 3500. To make the design more practicable, the width is set to be 3500. From the site analysis, the diurnal range is around 10°,therefore earth coupling is desirably employed for living room and achieved by using slab-on-ground construction without carpet covered. 3500

Upward Raked Eave

Louvres

Instead of sliding window and casement window, lourves are installed in the east side to allow the maximum sea breeze to enter the house since the opening area of lourve and casement or sliding is 80% and 45% repectively. Also, the adjustable lourve angle can change the ventilation path. In summer, the lourve can be put upward inside to make the upper room cooler. Then the stack ventilation will help the whole room get cooler since the breeze will come down.

Flyscreen Security Door

The outer door is a flycreen door to allow ventilation in hot days while the inner door is a wood door to prevent heat loss in winter and left open in summer. Also a solid inside door provides privacy protection.

Pergola

West side detached pergola

Cross ventilation

Since Melbourne is in Zone 6 with cool temperate climates, west side shading is more significant than the east side. Also, east side pergola will influence the sea view therefore not considered.

Smaller windows in the east side contributes to a better cross ventilation therefore enable more sea breeze entering the house which meets the client’s need and also not obstruct the sea view. The door orientation of the master bedroom is changed to the north side and the walldrobe is extended along the wall to produce a narrower layout, which both enhances the ventilation between living room and bedroom.

Calculating lourves Spacing and Width Spacing (S)

Wi

dt

h(

W)

Mid winter

Set lourves to noon mid winter sun angle (28.5°) and the spacing between adjacent louves is 75% of their width to allow the winter sun to pass throuth

Fan

To improve the air movement of the whole house espectially of the two bedroom on west, a fan can be installed in the centre of the living room to draw the sea breeze inside.

Mid summer

West side outside pergola

Another undetached pergola is built between the party area and house. The purpose of this pergola is, firstly, provides a shaded open space if the Ngs want to do outside activities during the day. And secondly, some vine or fruits can be planted along the bar therefore improve the environmental influence of the site.

South dense planting

West side bedroom opening

Through the site analysis, the summer wind will come from south, therefore it is necessary to have wind breaks on the south side. Dense planting are desirable choice as the windbreaks since, firstly, its high density will make it act as a wall to block the wind and secondly plants’ ability of transpiration would help cooling down the environment. Also, height of the plant needs to be taken into consideration since it could not be too high to obstruct the north solar access of neighbour.

Windows in west side bedroom is used to enhance the ventilation, however, if not well shaded, it will result in overheated. Since the tree needs time to grow up, it is essential to have the awning window to reduce the heat gain.

Passive Thermal (Ventilation/Solar)

Student Name LU ZHANG SCARLETT Student Number 953964

Bush Circulation

Reference http://timberscreendoors.com.au/gallery/timber-screen-door-raw-427x640-2/ http://wmblanchardco.com/awnings-all/window-awnings/ https://www.thespruce.com/free-pergola-plans-1357132 https://www.amazon.in/Surya-Royale-1200mm-Ceiling-Titanium/dp/B077NJV7HW


Roof - Material & Ventilation

Apart from the green roof, other roof consists of tile, battern, sisalation and battern from the outermost to innermost. The sarking is used to reflect the unwanted heat to come into house and reduce the roof heat gain as well, which allows the roof to have a longer life span. For the ventilation, it can be achieved by different methods as illustrated in the diagram.

Wall material - Reverse BV

Bevel-back weatherboard

Reverse brick veneer is used for the external wall of the living room. Compared with the regular brick veneer, the brickwork is built on the inside, which contributes to a higher thermal performance of the house. The method of wall building is stud frame with cladding, which means a timber frame is erectd first with insulation between the studs, weather board cladding is installed on the outside and a layer of brick is built on the inside.

Rusticated horizontal weatherboard

Bevel-back horizontal weatherboard

Insulation - Wall & Ceiling - Earthwool

W1

Floor Slab on ground

Concrete floor

high thermal mass

Ground

500

W5

2700

700

W14 W13

0.55mm sheet stainless steel weathering and protectio cover

500

W6

W11

1000

Insulation for Floor Floor Slab

1000

W7

W7 W11 W8 W12 W9 W14

W9 W10 1000 2000

3500

SD2

W8 1000

FG Fixed Glass CW Casement Glass AW Awning Sash SD Sliding Door LVR Louver

2700

2700

700

1000 500

500

SD1

W4

Floor

W12

W5 W10 W6 W13

700

W3

Pergola

1000

W1 W3 W2 W4

W2

Frame & Insulation

SD2

LVR

Brick Inside

Outside Cladding

To achieve higher energy effiency in this house, the R - value of insulation used for ceiling and wall is 5 and 3.5 respectively.

1000

SD1

2000

500

Upward Raked Eave

Wall material - Straw bale

As a renewable and biodegradable material, straw bale have a low embodied energy and can store carbon when using in construction. Though its thermal mass is low therefore only used for external walls of bedrooms and ensuites, it have a high insulation value, which helps to reduce the heating and cooling energy. Straw bale has other desirable properties as well, for instance, it could resist fire and vermin. After rendering, it is similar to the mansonry wall and also need a weatherboard for further protection.

700

3500

Insulation is installed in the ceiling to make the space between roof and ceiling isolated from the inner space, which contributes to less extra heating or cooling for roof. Compared with pink batts, earthwool can be compressed into a smaller volume, which saves the storage space and transportation cost. Also, for the same R-value, pink batt is double price than earthwool. The minimum R - value is 4.1 and 2.8 for ceiling and wall respectively in Melbourne. 700

To extend the house life span, outside cladding need to be considered carefully, since it is the outermost protection for the building. Weatherboard is a sustainable material with low embodied energy and it can not only act as a thermal and acoustic barrier, but also offer a hign level flexibility in design. Compared with the rusticated one, the bevel-back design can perform better to allow air to enter and water to dry.

Scale: 1:75

Materials and construction

Double Glazing Window & Door

To attain high insulation level, double glazing windows are mounted and gas between two panels is argon rather than air since gas of higher density act as a better insulator with low conductility. Apart from its thermal and acoustic advantages, double glazing window reduces internal condensation as well since the temperature of the inner panel is similar to the room. Frame is made by uPVC since it not only has higher insulation level than aluminium but also provides better air seal than timber. The U value and SHGC of the window and door is 2.0 and 0.31 respectively. Student Name LU ZHANG SCARLETT Student Number 953964

Reference http://www.ecobuildingmaterials.com.au/Reverse-Brick-Veneer https://buildabroad.org/2017/02/07/straw-bale-construction/ https://www.weathertight.org.nz/new-buildings/detail-solutions/wall-cladding-selection/weatherboards/ http://www.simondale.net/house/straw.htm http://www.yourhome.gov.au/materials/concrete-slab-floors

Compared with the insulation under the slab (R=2) , edge insulation will be more efficient and can reduce the thermal loss to a large extent. Also, it act as a barrier to ensure the house termite-free. The common material used for edge insulation is XPS or EPS.

Sealing

Gaps and draughts need to be sealed up by using silicone sealants or expandable form fillers with caulking gun to improve the energy efficiency of house.

https://www.proctorgroup.com/products/roofshield http://energysmartohio.com/how_it_works/attic-ventilation/ https://www.bradfordinsulation.com.au/home-insulation/ceilings/gold-ceiling-batts https://www.windowsanddoors.build/News/DoubleGlazing.aspx https://www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/You-and-your-home-Save-energy/ Draught-proofing/Seal-gaps-around-walls-and-floors


Light-coloured room

Zone

Average Area

Lumens

Watts

Application (w)

Living Room

30 m^2

10*10.76*30 ≈ 3300

50

Ceiling 30 Wall 10

Kitchen

20 m^2

30*10.76*20 ≈ 6500

100

Ceiling 50 Task 30

Bed Room

10 m^2

10*10.76*10 ≈ 1100

16

Ceiling 16

Corridor

5 m^2

5*10.76*5 ≈ 270

4

Ceiling 4

Bathroom

5 m^2

30*10.76*5 ≈ 1600

23

Ceiling 8 Task 15

Downlight

Downlight is more directional therefore used for task lighting in kitchen and bathroom. It will be placed near the wall to avoid shadow casting.

2

The wall of the house will be painted in white. Compared with the dark-coloured wall, the white wall will absorb less light and reflect more light therefore helps the light using and make the energy more efficient. Also, the light-coloured walls can make the room feel bigger and inviting. Since the Ngs like to have the night party, it is better to make their house more open https://www.huffpost.com/entry/8-home-deand airy. Reference: cor-tricks-to-brighten-a-dark-room_n_57b74a91e4b029a9a465cb40 Calculation for Lumens & Watts https://www.archdaily.com/897277/how-to-determine-how-many-led-lumens-youll-need-to-properly-light-your-space 1 footcandles = 1 lumens/square feet Dimmer = 10.76 lumens/square meter Dimmer can be used to lower the brightness of light when the occupant doesn’t need too much illumination and therefore reduce the energy con- Lumens to watts conversion for LED is sumed. Also, adjusting light brightness changes the mood of a room closer approximately 70 to 1. to the client’s need hence provide more comfort. Dimmer is not necessarily used in a room where people would not spend too much time. For this reason, dimmer will be employed for four ceiling light with fan and the dining room light. 2

2

Reference: https://www.bunnings.com.au/hpm-240v-white-trailing-edge-dimmer-light-controller_p4330560

Ceiling fan with light

Reference: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Yeelight-Recessed-Ceiling-Downlight-Bedroom/dp/B0771JN1YDv

Pergola

Walllight

2

To improve ventilation and also save space, ceiling fan with light is installed in the centre of living room and three bedrooms. It is controlled by two switches (one is near the door and the other is besides the bed and far away from the door), which makes the occupant easier to turn off the light on bed.

W/m^2

Living

3.2

Bedroom

1.6

Wet Area

3.9

NCC

All value is less than 5 therefore meet the standard.

Walllights act as the supplementary light for the living room. The one near the main entrance are controlled by double switches, which gives the client the convience to close the lights when leaving the living room.

2 2

2 2

2

Reference: https://www.gearbest.com/outdoor-lights/pp_801007.html 2

2

2

General Ceiling Lamp

This LED lamp is installed on the ceiling of laundary, bathroom, corridor and dining room. The wattage is same in bathroom and laundry. Also, dimpled lens technology is applied to make larger space illuminated.

Reference: https://www.pinterest.com.au/pin/133067363974750423

LED VS CFL

Zone

Reference: https://www.pinterest.es/pin/635852041114441459/

LED will be more cost-saving in the long term.The only possible disadvantage of LED is that its light is directional. However, the innovation of dimpled lens make LED also achieve the diffusing property therefore LED will be chosen or all lightings in the house.

2

2

2

Warm light VS Cool light

Solar power

PV & Wind

Battery Wind generator

Warm light can provide people with more sense of cosy environment hence except bathrooms and laundry using cool light other rooms will https://www.integral-led.com/eduse warm light. Reference: ucation/warm-white-or-cool-white

Telecom connection

Electrical and Telecom

Reference: https://www.oceanlighting.co.uk/flush-ceiling-lights-c72/astro-7831-osaka-led-flush-ceiling-light-polished-chrome-ip44-p28912

Student Name LU ZHANG SCARLETT Student Number 953964

PCD -> NTD -> PSU

PV is the dominant renewable power generator for this home since the Ngs works in solar power company. In addition, wind power will be utilised as well since wind is quite strong in melbourne and the house is located near the sea. The generated electric will store in the battery and back to grid when battery is sufficient.

Ceiling light fitting

Double power point

Wall light fitting Single power point

2

Reference: http://www.windenergy.com/community/blog/wind-power-remote-homes

Double light switch

Smoke and fire alarm

PCD

Electric pole

Battery

Weather proof power point

Triple light switch

Electric meter

NTD

Telecom pit

Wind generator

Single light switch

Exhaust fan

Switchboard

PSU

Fan

Electric


Collector type - Evacuated tube

The diagram on the right indicates evacuated tube collector is about 160% and 50% more efficient than the flat plate collector in winter and summer respectively since the energy the flat plate collector absorbed depends on the sun angle to a large extent.

Solar HWS

Boosting options - Heat Pump

Powered the sun, solar HWS can achieve no greenhouse gas emission therefore have a more positive environmental effect compared with other types of hot water service. Moreover, it saves the heating bills in long term though the cost of installation is more expensive and the energy is unlimited and renewable.

When sunlight is insufficient, water need to be heated by other energy. Gas booster will produce greenhouse emission and electric booster operate whenever the temperature of the tank water drops, which means much energy will be wasted. Hence heat pump is applied for this house. It compresses the warm air and transfers the heat to the water. It is quite efficient and usually has COP more than 3. Reference: https://www.sierraclub.org/compass/2017/07/what-heck-are-heat-pumps

Reference: http://www.alternative-energy-tutorials.com/solar-hot-water/evacuated-tube-collector.html

Reference: https://www.gwstore.co.za/product/evacuated-tubes-15-tube-collectors/

Reference: https://www.energymatters.com.au/solar-hot-water/flat-vs-evacuated/

Gas

No gas will be used in this house. Since the client work in solar power company, the house will utilise the solar power to largest extent. PV panels produce electric and evacuated tubes provide hot water therefore there is no need to use gas as energy source. Also, it causes much greenhouse emission hence it is better to free from gas to make home with less carbon footprint.

Tankulator

The average daily water consumption in Australia is 340 L per person. Since two people live in this house, we assume their total daily water use is 700 L. The roof catchment area is 87 square meter since a part of roof is planned to be green roof therefore do not contribute to rainwater collection. According to the tankulator result, the most efficient size of rainwater tank is 1000L and tank water is available in 41 days of a year.

Pergola

Dual flush VS Single flush

Compared to the single flush, dual flush has different machanisms for flushing liquid waste using 0.8 gallons of water (half flush) and solid waste using 1.6 gallons of water (full flush).

Bladder

Bladder is used as water tank hided under the deck in front of the dining area to achieve more aesthetic outlook.

Reference: https://connor-plumbing.com/2017/09/16/how-a-dual-flush-toilet-saves-you-money/

Water-saving shower head

Reference: https://www.waterplex.com.au/product/accessories/other-accessories/eco-sac-covers/

Downpipe every 9 meters

Rainwater Collection

Rainwater flow through the eave gutter downpipes then be collected in bladder tank.

Rainwater Reuse

Rainwater will be reused in garden, bathroom, laundry and kitchen. Though it can be reused for toilet, greywater is Wet system is used to collect sufficient to flush toilet water from whole therefore only serve as a roof catchment. backup.

Water and Gas Supply

GAS

Filter

Rainwater is filtered before flowing into the tank. The role of this filter is to block leaf and insect as first-flush filter. Since rainwater will reused for drinking, further filtering is required to use UV light treatent to destroy bacteria and make water cleaner.

Shower is the most contributor to the household water usage. The standard and water-efficient showerhead uses 12-22 L and 6-9 L per minute repectively, which means choosing a water-saving shower head can make a significant difference to the total Reference: https://www.thesavergroup.com.au/showerheads water use. Tap Aerator is a water fixture that can Pump reduce water flow from 18L to 5L per minute. A free-standing pump Also, it can act as a filter to keep water is installed outside and dirt-free and a controller to limit the splashing, used to deliver water which can both increase the comfort of to the whole house to water use. Reference: https://www.ecocamel.com/tap-aerators/39/product achieve reusing.

Reference: https://rainwatermatters.com.au/water-pump-supply-and-service/

standards scheme is a labelling scheme. Higher stars rating the product get, more water can be conserved. Using appliance with high star WELS can make the house more environmental friendly.

Reference: https://rainharvesting.co.uk/portfolio/pre_uv_filter/ https://www.amazon.co.uk/Superhead-Filter-First-Flush-Diverter/dp/B0068WMX6I

Student Name LU ZHANG SCARLETT Student Number 953964

WELS Water efficiency labelling and

Reference: http://www.waterrating.gov.au/news/inkwels-february-2018

Potable water

Eave gutter

Filter

Hot water

Downpipe

Pump

Rain water

Water pipe

Tank

Reference http://tankulator.ata.org.au/interactive.php http://kidskunst.info/linked/solar-panels-system-diagram-solar-water-heater-panel-736f6c6172.htm https://www.gardenerswatertanks.com.au/water-tank-installation/how-to-install-your-water-tank/wet-sysem/


Sewer System

Position

Stormwater

The highest and lowest place on the site is at the corner of two bathrooms (59.77) and the sewer pit (59.46) respectively. Taking the advantage of the gradient, the main sewer pipe is placed through these two points. The distance of these two points is around 26 metre and the fall is 0.31 meter, therefore the ratio is 0.31/26 = 0.0119 or 1 in 84. Distance = 26m

Gradient= 1 in 84

Flow direction Fall = 0.31m

If the ratio is smaller than 1 in 40 (steeper than 1 in 84), the liquid will run faster than the solid, which leads to block problem.

Water collected from the eave gutter and downpipes will be first stored in rainwater tank and reused. According to the tankulator, only one day in a year the water tank will overflow then the excessive water flows to SEP as stormwater. Apart from rainwater catched on roof, rainwater on ground is regarded as stormwater and flows to SEP with soil, residues, litter and fertilisers. It will not be treated before getting to lake or river, hence it is necessary to make stormwater with less pollutant.

Collection

Grey Water System

Grey water is collected from shower, hand basin, washing machine and laundry tap. (Water from kitchen tap, dishwasher and toilet are regarded as black water which can not be reused.)

Reuse

Grey water is reused for toilet flushing, gardening and washing clothes. Clothes usually will be rinsed twice. Grey water will be used for the first rinse and rainwater or portable water will be used for the second rinse. Same strategy will be adopted for laundry tap.

PH

Reference: https://www.boroondara.vic.gov.au/parking-roads/drains-and-stormwater

Grey water is quite alkaline and requires neutralization.

Reference: https://www.okc.gov/departments/utilities/protect-your-pipes/sewer-backups

Overflow to stormwater through underground pipe by pump

Connected to sewer pit

Kitchen sink

Filter

Upward Raked Eave

Pergola

To LPD

Lint filter is used to ensure grey water flowing smoothly. Reference: http://www.thepartsbiz.com/Whirlpool-Dryer-Lint-Trap-Replacement-Generic-8531964_ p_13766.html

Dishwasher

Toilet Used for gardening

Connection

Blackwater and grey water stored more than 24 hours are flown to sewer pit and then to public sewer line.

Reference: https://www.pinterest.com.au/pin/688839705476986492/

Reference: https://www.hoselink.com.au/blog/were-a-nation-of-dirty-cars/

Water Recycling and Drainage 5

Hibiscus

Reference: https://www.bhg.com/gardening/plant-dictionary/perennial/yucca/6.html

Reference: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/flowers/hibiscus/ how-to-care-for-hibiscus-plants.htm

Dietes

Liliope

Washing car on lawn

Vent

Vent is used to remove smell out of the house and also allow fresh air into the sewer pipes to maintian the pressure in drainage system. It is better to be installed on the roof to keep the client away from unpleasant gas.

Yucca

Student Name LU ZHANG SCARLETT Student Number 953964

If directly washing car on the ground, the water will flows to SEP with detergent, which contains plenty of chemicals and will contaminate environment. The suggesting way is washing car on lawn which will absorb the water with detergent.

Reference: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/flowers/dietes-plants/growing-dietes-flowers.htm

Reference: https://barlowflowerfarm.com/product/lilyturf/

Gardening

Grey water is available regardless of the weather compared with the rainwater. Using less product with phosphorus and neutualizing PH of grey water can make the plants healthier.

Resetting

Grey water can not be stored more than 24 hours. The Ngs usually go to their company at 9AM, hence grey water is set to flow to sewage at 10AM and begin another cycle.

Sewerage

Into greywater system

Stormwater

Sewer vent

Out of greywater system

Downpipe

Grey Water System

Water tank

Eave gutter


Intergration with Passive Design

Zoning

The house is divided into 5 parts corresponding to the varying degrees of the need of heating. Bedrooms

Living room

Hydronic panel heating

Hydronic in slab heating

Polished concrete

Main bedroom

Bathroom Radient heater

‘In slab’ heating is applied instead of ‘on slab’ heating. For ‘on slab’ heating, the pipes with heated water are placed on the concrete slab and under the floor finishes, which will reduce the efficiency of concrete slab to absorb the heat to take advantage of its high thermal mass since the slab cannot directly receive the sunlight. However, for ‘in slab’ heating, the wires are attached to the reinforcement before slab poured. After the concrete dry the pipes are inside the concrete. If well-insulated the heat can be stored in concrete and radiated after the water cool down because of the thermal lag.

When sunlight is efficient, water is heated on the roof and sent to the slab. When sunlight is not efficient, water is heated by electric generated by solar panel. This strategy makes the best use of solar power and the Ngs can most involve this design because of their job relativity.

Benefit

Bedroom usually need to be heated in short time and heater will be turn off by timer after guests sleeping therefore require heater with high reactivity where panel has better performance than slab heating. Compared with HVAC which generates forced air circulation and annoying noise, it provides more comfortable radient heat without draft and dust therefore create more cosy background for sleeping.

Living room colored in pink needs high efficiency

Tile HWS

Bedrooms colored in yellow are left empty

T

when no guest stay. The area of two bedroom are less than 10 square meter therefore one hydronic panel is enough for each room. It is installed under the window to avoid temperature difference in the east and west side of the room.

T H

Benefit

H

Reference: https://dpphydronics.com.au/underfloor-heating/in-slab/

Heating water results in higher efficiency compared with the air since water performs better in conductility. Besides, when water run through the pipes in concrete, heat leaves water and warms the ground and room by radiant heat, which is more ambient and gentle than convective heat.

T

More comfortable

Bathrooms colored in blue will use radiant heaters mounted

on the ceiling. Though it seems not efficient since the heated air will go up, the area is too small (around 5 square meter) therefore the air will nowhere to go but down to heat whole room.

Benefit

Laundry and corridor colored in green do not need any

heater since the client will not spend too much time in these two areas.

Heating

Reference: http://www.australiansunenergy.com.au/dshh-solar-heating/

Source of Energy - Solar

No heater Convective heat from living room and bathroom

space heater. Compared with other zones, the heated area is quite large and required temperature is quite high. If using hydronic panels several ones need to be installed around the room to achieve high performance therefore will take up a lot space in the room and be not quite efficient. Hence hydronic slab heating will be installed in the living room.

Insulated footing

Reference: https://bdlt.com.au/products/brilliant-andromeda-3-in-1-bathroom-mate-with-ptc-heater-led-light-white

Student Name LU ZHANG SCARLETT Student Number 953964

Heat lamp directly heats people while heated towel rack heats air therefore is not quite efficient for the Ngs since they only take 5 - 10 minutes shower. Underfloor heating will not cover this area as well for its low reactivity. 3 in 1 PTC bathroom heater is desirable since it not only save energy but space as well.

Thermostat

T

Water pipe on ground

Hydronic heater

H

Water pipe under ground

Bathroom heater

Switch

Uncomfortable

Main bedroom colored in orange is connected to the living room only through a door hence convective heating strategy is used to heat this room and no heater will be installed. The suggesting way is to open the door half hour before they enter the bedroom to allow air circulation between two rooms and heated air is less wasted and reused when they leaving the living room. Same strategy can be applied to the sliding door between bathroom and bedroom. After taking a shower, the bathroom is filled with heated air, which can be reused to warm the bedroom. Reference http://www.build.com.au/underfloor-and-slab-heating https://dpphydronics.com.au/product-category/hydronic-radiator-panels/ https://www.gardenerswatertanks.com.au/water-tank-installation/how-to-install-your-water-tank/wet-sysem/


Zoning

Intergration with Passive Design

The house is divided into 3 parts corresponding to Selective openthe varying degrees of the need of cooling. ings on the north side to avoid Fan & overheating Earth tubes

Small windows are installed to enhance ventilation. Insulation are needed throughout the whole house to improve the efficient of cooling system.

Living room & Main bedroom

Bedrooms Fan & Evaporative cooling

Awning window on west to reduce heat gain Laundry & Bathroom No cooling system needed

Living room &Main bedroom

-> Cool roof with

lighter color absorbs less heat.

<- Louvre windows

Benefit

Evaporative cooling system adds moisture to the air while reverse cycle air conditioner drys the air making body not quite comfortable. Moreover, doors and windows must be closed when using AC to trap the cooled air inside. From this point, evaporative cooling system is unbeatable since in order to force hot air out of the house, windows must be left open which can improve the ventilation as well.

Bedrooms

colored in blue will use evaporative cooling systerm. Since these two bedrooms have less access to the sea breeze and the air is relatively dry, evaporative cooler is more efficient. Moreover, laundry, bathroom and corridor require no need for cooling, therefore pipes and energy will be wasted if installing earth tube across whole house foundation. These two bedrooms are next to each other, therefore ducts can be saved .

Reference: https://www.veekenplumbing.com.au/shop/2kw-m itsubishi-heavy-industries-rever se-cycle-inverter-split-sys tem-air-conditioner/

colored in pink use earth tube cooling. Compared with reverse cycle air conditioner, it requires no need to generate cooling air but exchanges heat between air and earth therefore comsume less energy. Since the temperature underground is pratically stable throughtout a year, it can also be used in winter, which improves the utilization of the system.

Water evaporate and absorb heat from the hot air

The living room and main bedroom is on the east side of the house (near the sea), therefore could not be quite dry in summer because of the sea breeze, which makes the evaporative cooling system less efficient.

Earth tube

Reference: https://permaculturenews.org/2017/07/10/earth-tubesnatural-way-air-condition-home/

Reference: https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Earth_to_air_ heat_exchangers

Reference: http://ecohvac.com.au/pr oducts/why-choose-evaporative-cooling/

Reference: https://www.climateking.com.au/cooling/192-evaporative-cooling

Distance between each fan should be at least 3 times the fan diameter.

For stormwater

Hot air is blowed into the earth tube system by a small fan in the entrance and runs through PVC pipes installed 3m underground to release the heat to the earth. Then the cooling air is released back to house through the foundation.

Cooling

on east side to maximize the catchment of sea breeze.

Fan

Reference: https://www.brilliantlighting.com.au/products/air-movement/ceiling-fans/brighton-fan/

Fan makes the room feel cooler because of the wind chill effect. In human cooling mechanism, perspiration is the most obvious way and more sweat evaporated, cooler people will feel. Fan accelerates the air circulation and evaporation becomes quicker. Fan does not cool the space but make people feel cooler. Student Name LU ZHANG SCARLETT Student Number 953964

Fan

Power needed for unit

Switch

Evaporative cooling unit

Main water

Water discharge

Hot air is drawn into the cooling system from outside

Cooled air is blown into the house by a fan

Portable Fan

can be adopted as supplemantary cooling equipment at home. It can help saving energy since at most time it is not necessary to use high effective cooling system. Moreover, sometimes people only need cooling for few minutes and somewhere at home is not covered by any cooling system therefore portale fan can act as a backup. Reference: https://www.target.com/c/fans-home-appliances/-/N-5xtul

Reference https://homeenergyheroes.com/2018/10/30/what-are-cool-roofs/ http://susanaamura.blogspot.com/2010/09/ventana-con-persiana-en-la-camara-de.html http://wmblanchardco.com/awnings-all/window-awnings/


Resilience

Day-to-day Maintenance Window cleaning

Particularly in winter, north-facing windows need be to cleaned at least once a week to ensure the living room concrete slab absorbing as much as sunlight during the daytime to reduce extra heating need.

Unban Heat Island Effect

Global warming is more notable in city due to unban heat island effect, which results temperature in city 5.5° higher than its surrounding. Melbourne is a modern city with 4.269 million people and plenty of high-rise building, which causes more heat trapped.

Rainwater

Filters for downpipe and water tank need to be cleaned at least monthly to ensure rainwater flowing smoothly and free from bateria.

Power Outage Water greenwall

To make greenwall serve better for the house, it is better to water it at least once a week. Weeding is also important for aesthetic outlook and high performance.

Heatwave

Heatwave is a period when the weather is usually hot and people will feel extremely uncomfortable.

Pergola

Greenroof

To mitigate this problem, greenroof is adopted as a part of roof design. Water is absorbed into soil rather than collected into tank and then evaporated through transpirations of plants, which contributes to make the surrounding cooler.

Greenroof consists of six layers. 1. Vegetation & Growing Median Myoporum parvifolium is recommended as vegetation since its height is less than 0.2m therefore not obstruct sun access of neighbour. 2. Filter Membrane 3. Draindge & Root Barrier 4. Insulation 5. Waterproof Membrane 6. Structural support

If the main grid doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t work, the client can obtain electric from PV panels and store it in the battery. If the sunlight is not sufficent, the wind can generate power stored in the battery for the house as well.

Window

Bathroom Encourge the VS Ensuite Bedroom

gustes not to use heating or cooling whole night. Double check Greenwall whether the Greenwall is desirable for not only providing systems have habitat but its insulation property as well. In addi- been turned tion, it can act as another evaporative cooling off after the system in summer to help saving energy. guests gone.

Home User Manual

It is better to use ensuite rather than bathroom. Since ensuite has two windows in adjacent walls, there will be still ventilation if door closed, which is not the case for bathroom. Student Name LU ZHANG SCARLETT Student Number 953964

Leaking tap

Tap and showerhead are easily to be left open. It is recommended to doublecheck them when the last people leave home or go to sleep.

If there is a problem causing it leaking, fix it as soon as possible.

To invite more sea breeze, windows need to be opened to maximum, which reduces the need of fan. Spraying Tranpiration of plants gives cooling effect therefore it is an efficient way to cool the house and surrounding by spraying lawn and greenwall. In addition, gardening area is quite away from the house therefore it is recommended to be covered by reflective membrance to avoid overheating. Window shading When heatwave coming windows need to be shaded to the largest extent. To achieve this, the reflective cover is applied and it can be attached on windows manually.

Reference https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHXw_eZLhII https://zinco-greenroof.com/systems/pitched_green_roof https://modularwalls.com.au/blog/diy-ideas-green-wall/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H6W0PcsO7LQ https://www.ecosia.org/images?c=en&p=4&q=living+plant+wall+outdoor

https://www.alwindows.com.au/product/aluminium-louvre-windows/ https://fixedtoday.com.au/service/leaking-tap-repairs/ https://www.wikihow.life/Fix-a-Leaking-Shower-Head http://www.blindshade.com/product/silver-screen-shades/ https://uae.souq.com/ae-en/car-reflective-sun-shades-36738200363/u/ https://iloveturf.com/library/articles/lawn-spraying-value-added-service https://news.energysage.com/grid-tied-solar-vs-solar-battery-backup/


Environmental Building Systems - ABPL20036 Semester 1 - 2019

First Rate Energy Assessment Project Information Mode Climate Site Exposure Client Name Rated Address Accredited Rater Date

Walls New Home 21 Melourne RO suburban Ngs West coast Lu Zhang 12/04/2019

Type Reverse Brick Veneer Straw Blae 450mm Finished Internal Platerboard Stud Wall

Type CSOG: Slab on Ground Energy (MJ/m2)

Insulation 2.0

Ventilation encl

Area (m2) 95.3

Roof/Ceiling

31.5 23.2 8.2

Total Heating Cooling

Area (m2) 53.1 73.5 78.4

Floors

Energy Usage Mode

Insulation 3.5 3.5 3.5

Type Disc: Attic-Discontinuous

Insulation 5.0

Area (m2) 95.3

Areas Area Net Conditioned Floor Area (NCFA) Unconditioned Room Area Garage Area

Windows

Size (m2)

Type

84.9 10.4 0.0

PVC-006-03 W uPVC B DG Argon Fill High Solar Gain low-E -Clear

Zones

Window Directions Zone

Living Bedroom 1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom 3 Laundry Ensuite Bathroom Corridor

Student Name:

Area (m2) 46.9 9.6 10.2 9.3 3.9 4.8 5.7 5.1

Heating (MJ/m2) 21.9 44.0 22.3 31.2 87.6

Total Heating (MJ) 1026.8 422.2 226.4 288.9 340.8

44.3

227.7

LU ZHANG (SCARLETT)

Cooling (MJ/m2) 15.6 3.5 4.1 1.8 16.7

1.8

Total Cooling (MJ) 733.4 33.8 41.7 16.5 65.0

Direction

Area (m2)

WSW

7.2

Direction ENE

U-value

SHGC

Area (m2)

2.00

0.31

95.3

Area (m2)

Direction

Area (m2)

8.9

NNW

8.4

Direction SSE

Area (m2) 4.0

Roof/Ceiling Penetration Type Downlight Exhaust Fan

Location Bathroom Kitchen Bathroom Kitchen

9.5

Student Number: 953964

Final Star Rating: 8.8

Quantity 3 3

Sealed 3 3

Area (m2)

Profile for Lu ZHANG

ABPL20036 Environmental Building System Assignment 1  

Site 3 - Beach Suburb Emu House Grade: H1

ABPL20036 Environmental Building System Assignment 1  

Site 3 - Beach Suburb Emu House Grade: H1

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