Metal Strip Fence

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metal strip fence The Metal Strip “Kasaine” fence installed around the outside of a farm creates erratic metal clanging noises as it blows in the wind. It reflects the sun or torch light towards approaching elephants creating both a visual and noise deterrent. Kenya - Kasigau Wildlife Corridor, Sasenyi

The fence is made of lightweight strips cut from corrugated metal sheets strung on fencing wire.

Metal Strip “Kasaine” Fence constructed in Kajire, Sagalla © Meha Kumar/Save the Elephants

Ideal deterrent for low budgets that farmers can make themselves from widely available materials.

Von Hagen, R. L., et.al. (2020). Metal strip fences for preventing African elephant (Loxodonta africana) crop foraging in the Kasigau Wildlife Corridor, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 59(1), 293–298.

MATERIALS NEEDED FOR FENCE

6 metal (mabati) sheets, metal rolls or any other galvanized metal (Iron or Steel)

Nails

1.

Tin snips

24 wooden, steel or concrete posts (trees is available)

For approximately 1 acre (240m):

Fencing wire

Pliers

Hammer

Shovel/jembe

As noted in the Construction Manual by Wildlife Works, 2021

Insecticide or old engine oil and paint brush only if the wooden posts need protection from termites

Measuring tape

Thick work gloves for protection


CONSTRUCTION METHOD PREPAraTION OF POLES Dig holes around your farm for the poles with a distance of 10 meters between each pole.

Each post should be 2.5m long.

Each hole should be 60cm deep. 2.5 meters

0.6 meters

TIP

Use concrete or steel poles with fences to ensure they are long lasting and to save on maintenance cost.

10 meters

Preferred option for poles is using natural trees like

TIP Commiphora spp, which re-grow with roots. There is no need to cover them with oil or insecticide.

PREPARATION OF Metal STRIPS Using tip snips, carefully cut the metal sheets with measurements of 13 to18 cm long and 4 to 5 cm wide.

SAFETY TIP

Beware of sharp metal edges. Use thick rubber gloves.

TIP

13-18 cm

Different sizes assist by causing more noise when the metal pieces clatter against each other. Use a nail and hammer to bang a hole on one end of each metal strip to hang them.

4-5 cm

2.

Make sure the hole is not too close to the edge of the metal strip, as it may cut and fall off.

Cut the binding wire to 12 m long. This will be the length between 2 poles, including loops and end sections. Gather 3 to 4 metal strips together and put the binding wire into the holes. Make sure you leave 1m of plain wire on each side to tie tightly around the poles. For every 10 metres, there are approximately 55-60 strips needed.

As you begin to bundle the metal strips, ensure they are arranged to create air pockets to allow wind to pass through and produce loud sounds.


Using pliers, make loops on the binding wire between each bundle of strips. 40 cm apart

Tie each end of the binding wire to the poles. Wire should be at a height of 1.5m from the ground which is the chest height for an elephant.

The 2 loops that hold metal bundles together should vary with the number of strips used. For example 3 strips should be looped wider than if 2 strips are used. Be aware not to loop the strips too close, or else they will not produce sounds.

Hammer a nail on the pole and hang the wire over it to support the weight of the strips. Continue until you have fenced the whole area of your farm.

TIPS FOR MANAGEMENT

Strong poles are required to support the weight of the metal strips.

Alternatively, use the hook and loop design so if an elephant tries to breach the fence, the hook detaches, leaving the poles intact. See: Kasaine Metal strip fence Construction guide.

PROS

Low-moderate set up cost.

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Remove the fence after crop harvest season, and store it. The less elephants are exposed to the fence, the less likely they are to habituate to it.

Metal sheets are easily available at local shops.

With time, the moving metal strips will wear down the hole and fall off.

The fence requires low maintenance as metal lasts for years.

The shininess of the metal will dull with time, but the noise should remain.

Good fencing is a long-term investment.

Do not use rusted metal, as it will have no effect.

The erratic noise generated may make this fence resistant to habituation.

Add a second layer of metal strips for more effectiveness.

If elephants break through the fence, the noise and the annoyance of the sharp metal may make them feel unsafe and could wake up the farmer who can chase away the elephants.

Choose an alternate method to combine such that if there is no wind, the fence is still functional.

Cons If there is no wind, there is no erratic sound.

Combine with chilli rag fence or flashing lights.

CAUTION TIPS:

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Elephants may still break the fence despite feeling unsafe. Effects may be reduced at night as there is no sun to reflect on the metal strips.

This fence successfully acts as an early warning system at night to alert farmers of elephants. There is a risk of elephant habituation. Combine different methods to increase effectiveness. It is labour intensive and may take 1.5 weeks to install. Use innovative ideas to increase effectiveness.

Credits and Disclaimer:

This idea was created in Kenya by Simon Kasaine and developed and tested by the Elephants and Sustainable Agriculture in Kenya (ESAK) project and its partners: Wildlife Works, Western Kentucky University, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology, Auburn University, the Earthwatch Institute and the International Elephant Foundation. For literature and resources used, see References. More research may be required before each site-specific implementation. Safety and caution is advised with all the methods presented in this toolbox. *Save the Elephants is not liable for any costs, damages or injuries incurred by the use of these methods.

3. Made in Kenya 2023

Produced by Save the Elephants

www.savetheelephants.org

Illustrations by Nicola Heath


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