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SUBSCRIPTIONS SANTOSH KUMAR Saur Energy International is printed, published, edited and owned by Manas Nandi and published from 303, 2nd floor, Neelkanth Palace, Plot No- 190, Sant Nagar,East of Kailash, New Delhi- 110065 (INDIA), Printed at Pearl Printers, C-105, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase 1, New Delhi. Editor, Publisher, Printer and Owner make every effort to ensure high quality and accuracy of the content published. However he cannot accept any responsibility for any effects from errors or omissions. The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the Editor and publisher. The information in the content and advertisement published in the magazine are just for reference of the readers. However, readers are cautioned to make inquiries and take their decision on purchase or investment after consulting experts on the subject. Saur Energy International holds no responsibility for any decision taken by readers on the basis of the information provided herein. Any unauthorised reproduction of Saur Energy International magazine content is strictly forbidden. Subject to Delhi Jurisdiction.


LETTER FROM THE EDITOR Is Safeguard Duty Making Developers Un-safe? The emerging threat of safeguard duty and anti-dumping duty on solar panels and modules imports is showing its impact on participation in solar auctions, leading to postponement of two very recent auctions. A 1000 MW by Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co Ltd, announced in December, which has been postponed for the fourth time as only two developers submitted bids by February 23 deadline fixed after the third postponement. The last date for submission has now been extended to March 9. Similarly, a 1200 MW auction by Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Ltd announced in end-January, has been postponed because only two developers submitted their bids for 100 MW each. The last date for bid submission, originally set for February 21, was changed to March 2. 90% of modules used in Indian solar projects are imported, as Chinese and Malaysian products are more than 25% cheaper than the Indian manufactured modules. Developers have stayed away mainly because the tender documents do not include the safety net of a “change of law” clause. In July last year, Indian Solar Manufacturers Association (ISMA), comprising domestic solar manufacturers, had filed a petition before Directorate General of Anti-Dumping and Allied Duties claiming that solar equipment imports were crippling their industry and seeking antidumping duty on such imports. Subsequently, in December, ISMA filed a separate petition before the Directorate General, Safeguards, making a similar appeal. While DG Anti-Dumping is still investigating the matter, DG, Safeguards, after its own probe, announced preliminary findings in early January upholding the local manufacturers’ complaint and suggesting a whopping 70% duty on solar imports for a minimum period of 200 days. If indeed either duty or both are imposed, solar developers’ input costs are bound to rise sharply, forcing them to charge higher tariffs. But even though they have extended the last date for submitting bids for their solar auctions, neither Maharashtra nor Karnataka have incorporated the provision the developers want.


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- Smart Cities Mission Gets Hike of 50 Percent - Clean Energy sector will create 3 lakh jobs - Kor Energy Clinches Best Rooftop Solar EPC Company Award - Gujarat Urja Vikas Nigam Limited Floats 500 Megawatt Solar Power Tender - Govt Issues Penalty for Violating DCR Norms Under MNRE’s Solar PV Projects - CleanMax Solar Installs Rooftop Solar Plant for Knorr-Bremse Systems - Ireda and Rumsl Join Hands for Large-Scale Solar Parks in Madhya Pradesh - Ecoppia Deploys Solar Panel Cleaning Solutions in Bhadla Park, Rajasthan



- EnSync Energy Partners with Lower Electric to Enter the Illinois Solar Market - JinkoSolar Leads Technology Dialogue in India, Hosts PV Tech Seminar

Sunil Rathi 26 Director | Waaree Energies

- Sterling and Wilson to Build Zambia’s Largest Solar Plant - African Development Bank Plans to Bring Solar Power to Millions - Clean Focus Completes 11.92 MW Six Community Solar Projects in US - JA Solar Supplies Mono PERC Modules for 250MW Solar Project in Israel - LONGi Plans To Triple Its Wafer Capacity to 45GW by 2020 - French Engery Giant EDF Enters China's Rooftop Solar Market












32 Chetan Shah

Director | Goldi Green Technologies

Vineet Mittal

Director Navitas Solar


India’s PV Module Manufacturing Sector Needs Serious Attention



Saurabh Marda

Founder and Managing Director Freyr Energy

Climbing Stairs for Indian Rooftop Industry



NATIONAL NEWS Radite Energy Bags Orders for 580 KWfrom Amplus Solar Radite Energy, a distinguishable solar energy producer has bagged orders for for 580 KW solar plantfrom Amplus Solar for rooftop solar project in Nalagarharea of Himachal Pradesh. This is the third project bagged by RaditeEnergy after successful completion of Kolkata projects. As per Amplus team, they are 100 percent up to mark with client requirements in terms of quality and project timeline. Radite has already commissioned power projects of total 200 MW in India and are planning to expand their businesses in the manufacturing of solar structure system in other parts. Siemens Gamesa Wins Solar EPC Orders from Two Indian Customers Renewable energy firm Siemens Gamesa announced it has bagged 160MW of solar EPC orders from two customers from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, respectively. According to the agreements, the company will provide complete turnkey solutions including infrastructure, engineering and design of solar farm, erection and commissioning of photovoltaic solar farms in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Both projects are slated for commissioning in March 2018, a company statement said.The company entered into solar business in India in 2015. Siemens Gamesa India, CMD, Ramesh Kymal said, "Today India is one of the most promising markets for renewable energy. The country has witnessed incremental growth in solar segment in last three years and we expect the momentum to increase in coming years.”


Smart Cities Mission Gets Hike of 50 Percent ArunJaitley in the Budget 2018 has proposed an over 50 percent increase in the allocation for smart cities and about a 20 percent hike for the Atal Mission for Urban Rejuvenation and Transformation (AMRUT) schemes in 2018-19. Both schemes are interlinked. 99 smart cities have been selected with an outlay of Rs 2.04 lakh crore. These cities have started implementing the smart cities mission and about Rs 2,350 crore worth of projects have already been completed. Around Rs 20,850 crore worth of smart city projects are still under progress. The schemes are aimed at bringing transformative change in urban areas, which includes providing water connection to all households in 500 cities and towns though the government is struggling to show results. These cities are implementing various projects like smart command and control centre, smart roads, solar rooftops, intelligent transport systems and smart parks.

Clean Energy sector will create 3 lakh jobs

Kor Energy Clinches Best Rooftop Solar EPC Company Award

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)

Rooftop solar EPC company, Kor Energy (India) Pvt Ltd, has won the ‘Best Rooftop Solar EPC Company award’ 2018, sponsored by ET Now, part of Times Group. The award was a part of ‘ET Now Rise with India’, a solar leadership award. The award was presented to Ms. Priyanka Mohan, Director, Kor Energy India Pvt. Ltd. at a function held in Mumbai. Ms. Priyanka Mohan said, “We are honoured to have received this award. This award is recognition to our commitment for promotion of green energy by utilizing rooftops of residential, commercial and industrial buildings across India. We always give best in technology at reasonable price to our customers so that they can achieve best return on investment, which they had made in their Rooftop Solar Installations.” The company has recently bagged orders from four companies for 2.8 MWp rooftop solar plants in the industrial area of Uttar Pradesh.It has also successfully installed a grid connected rooftop solar systems at three cold storages in Haryana.

has prepared a blueprint to create 3 lakh jobs till 2020 in the renewable energy sector. According to sources a long-term target to create 14 lakh jobs by 2025 has also been set in this regard. Power and Renewable Energy Minister R.K. Singh has been assigned to work on the target of creating more jobs in the renewable energy sector, the sources said. Explaining the details, the reports said, 34,600 potential jobs will be created for people to work in the wind power segment, while as 58,600 in utility (farm-based) solar projects and 238,000 in rooftop solar jobs in the next two years. “Besides solar farms, the labour-intensive rooftop solar segment has the potential to employ 70% of the total workforce needed in the solar projects in the country. More than 300,000 new workers can be employed in wind and solar jobs within a two-year time span,” reads the MNRE’s blueprint on job creation in the renewable energy sector.


NATIONAL NEWS Gujarat Urja Vikas Nigam Limited Floats 500 Megawatt Solar Power Tender

Gujarat UrjaVikas Nigam Limited (GUVNL) has floated another tender to procure 500MW from grid-connected solar PV projects through competitive bidding after the power utility had successfully completing bidding to source 500MW solar power in 2017. There is also a greenshoe option for the purchase of an additional 500MW. The power utility invited bids for solar power to fulfil its renewable power purchase obligations (RPPO) and to meet future requirements of distribution companies (discoms). The state-run utility in its tender document, said, "An additional 500 MW capacity through greenshoe option may be offered to participating bidders, who are willing to execute PPAs (power purchase agreements) with GUVNL at the lowest tariff (L1 rate).” The minimum project capacity has been set at 25MW. The deadline for submission of bids is March 19, 2018, while technical and financial bids will be opened on March 20 and March 26, respectively. The date for the reverse e-auction will be intimated to eligible bidders after the bids are evaluated. TERI Organizes World Sustainable Development Summit in Delhi

Govt Issues Penalty for Violating DCR Norms Under MNRE’s Solar PV Projects

CleanMax Solar Installs Rooftop Solar Plant for Knorr-Bremse Systems

The Government of India (GoI), through the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), has issued a memorandum titled – “Penalties for violation of norms of Domestic Content Requirement (DCR) under Solar PV power projects under MNRE’s Schemes / Programmes”.It said,"In order to avoid misuse of policy, it has been decided that with respect to solar PV power projects under MNRE’s Schemes/ Programmes, where Domestic Content Requirement (DCR) has been mandated in a WTO compliant manner, the following actions shall be taken by MNRE or any agency acting on behalf of MNRE for violation of DCR provisions prescribing use of domestically produced cells and modules.” The government will take strict actions such as – it can file a criminal case under IPC 420 & related sections, blacklist developer for 10 years, forfeit relevant Bank Guarantee(s), disciplinary case against the officers of concerned CPSU/State Government, and any other action, in addition to these.

CleanMax Solar, a rooftop solar developer has installed a rooftop solar plant for Knorr-Bremse systems for Commercial Vehicles India Pvt Ltd, a manufacturer of braking systems for rail and commercial vehicles. The solar plant will be installed at Knorr-Bremse's manufacturing facility in Hinjewadi, Pune, and one of the biggest at any of its facilities globally. This 600 kWp rooftop solar plant is estimated to generate 8.7 lac units of solar electricity and abate 600 tons of carbon dioxide per annum. This solar installation at the Hinjewadi facility will meet 30 percent of the plant's electricity requirement. It is based on the 'pay as you go' or OPEX model which is investment-free, risk-free and hassle-free; provides electricity at tariff rates 45 percent cheaper than grid power, and is estimated to save Knorr Bremse Rs 3.4 million annually. Gajanan Nabar, CEO of CleanMax Solar said, "As the industry leader in rooftop solar solutions for corporates, this project with Knorr-Bremse is a great opportunity to help the company achieve their sustainability goals and save costs at the same time.”

TERI Organizes World Sustainable Development Summit in Delhi The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) invited country’s top leaders from the PV industry to address the World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS) to be held at India Habitat Centre in New Delhi from February 15 to 17. The agenda of the session was ‘Greening Solar PV Value Chain’. WSDS is the flagship forum of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and seeks to bring together on a common platform, global leaders and thinkers in the fields of sustainable development, energy and environment sectors. The speakers discussed about the major resources that find use in solar PV technologies and how the demand would evolve over the next 10-15 years. ISA Biggest Global Achievement after Paris: PM Modi Ahead of the first International Solar Alliance (ISA) Summit in Delhi on March 11, 2018, the Prime Minister NarendraModi termed the solar alliance, “the single most important global achievement after Paris”. Speaking at The Energy Research Institute’s (TERI) World Sustainable Development Summit, Modi said that the government has planned to draw one 175 Giga-Watts of energy from renewable sources by 2022, including 100 GigaWatts from solar energy and 75 Giga-Watts from wind and other sources. “We have added more than 14 Giga-Watts to solar energy generation which was just about 3 Giga-Watts 3 years back,” the Prime Minister said. Adding to it, he said, we are already the 5th largest producer of solar energy in the world.



NATIONAL NEWS Ecoppia Deploys Solar Panel Cleaning Solutions in Bhadla Park, Rajasthan Robotic PV cleaning solut-ions provider, Ecoppia has completed the deployment of hundreds of its automated sys-tems in the 2,255 MW Bhadla Solar Park in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The Bhadla Solar Park is located in a vast desert area and is developed by the Engie Solar India, a subsidiary of energy multinational ENGIE Group. The site is prone to frequent dust storms, which reduce energy generation by as much as 40 per cent in a matter of minutes. Ecoppia said that its solution is able to maintain peak energy production and restore panels post-storm in just hours – without water or external electricity consumption: with the deployment of Ecoppia across its site, ENGIE is expected to save over 1.5 billion of liters of water, and reduce its operating expenses drastically. Solar Panel Case: MNRE Removes DCR Clause From 5 GW Phase-II Batch-IV VGF Scheme The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has announced an amendment for the implementation of a scheme for setting-up of more than 5 GW of grid-connected solar PV power projects with Viability Gap Funding (VGF) under Batch-IV Phase-II of Jawaharlal Nehru

Ireda and Rumsl Join Hands for Large-Scale Solar Parks in Madhya Pradesh

Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency

Limited (IREDA) and Rewa Ultra Mega Solar Limited (RUMSL) signed an agreement for financing the shared infrastructure of two large Solar Parks in Madhya Pradesh. Under the World Bank Line of Credit, IREDA has sanctioned its first loan of Rs. 210.62 Cr. to RUMSL to finance two such solar parks in the state of Madhya Pradesh. The broad terms and condition of the agreement include a fixed interest rate of 8.5% p.a. for entire loan tenure, moratorium from principal repayments up to 5 years and loan repayment period of up to 20 years. Speaking on the occasion, K S Popli, CMD, IREDA appreciated the initiative of MNRE, support of The World Bank and more specifically of DEA to reduce the Sovereign Guarantee fee to 0.5%. He further stated that this support from DEA will enable to expedite development of such proposals in other states also. UpendraTripathy, Interim Director General, ISA congratulated IREDA and RUMSL for achieving the feat in short time frame and also for the innovative Payment Security Mechanism which will ensure timely payment to the developer.

Waaree Energies Wins ‘Solar Module Company Of The Year’ Award Solar power solutions company, Waaree Energies Ltd. has won the ‘Solar Module Company of the year’ award at CSR Leadership Awards, held in Mumbai in recognition of the company’s outstanding work in 2017. With an ever-present focus on market-facing innovations, it brings together state-of-the-art technology and operational excellence to make solar affordable and accessible. Waaree has a constant presence on the TIER 1 Module Manufacturers List, the company said in a statement. To continue the stellar work and to fulfil its vision to provide high quality and cost effective sustainable energy solutions across all markets, Waaree has developed over 200 Channel partners and plans to expand the number to 1000 partners by the end of 2018, it said.

National Solar Mission (JNNSM),

Apart from supplying more than 400 MW of modules

dated March 14, 2016. The

in 2017, Waaree also executed more than 50 MW

amendment comes in response

of solar EPC projects and supplied 3000 tonnes of

to the US allegation that India had not complied with the World Trade Organisation’s ruling in the solar panels dispute case.


L&T Q3 Profit Jumps 53%; Gross Revenue up 9.4%; Bags Solar Orders

module mounting structures and more than 2000 solar pumps. The year also saw Waaree execute some marquee projects like the solarisation of 12 railways stations for Mumbai Metro.


India’s largest construction and engineering firm, Larsen & Toubro Ltd, has reported impressive growth of 53 per cent in its consolidated net profit after taxes (PAT) at Rs 1,490 crore for the third quarter ended December 31, 2017, mainly on account of higher order inflows. “The consolidated net profit of the engineering and infrastructure major stood at Rs 972 crore during the same period a year ago,” said Larsen & Toubro Ltd in a filing to the Bombay Stock Exchange. It’s gross revenue increased by 9.4 per cent at Rs 28,747 crore during Q3 2017-18, as compared to Rs 26,287 crore during the same period last year. Total expenses of the company during the October-December quarter rose to Rs 26,420 crore, from Rs 24,883 crore in Q3 FY 2018. International revenues during the quarter stood at Rs 10,110 crore constituted 35 per cent of the total revenue, the company said in a statement.

NATIONAL NEWS Hartek Power Crosses 1k MW Milestone in Solar Installation Punjab-based Hartek Group said that its power system arm, Hartek Power, has crossed the milestone of 1,000 MW capacity in solar installations on pan India basis. “From 598 mw capacity as of March 2017, solar power system EPC projects executed by Hartek Power have now gone up to 1,143 mw, registering nearly a 2-fold growth,” the statement said. With a total of fifteen substations of up to 220 KV, the 545 mw projects executed in the present FY including a 100-mw project in the state of Telengana, 50-mw project in Madhya Pradesh, 25 mw project in Punjab, 6 projects totalling 180-mw in Karnataka, 2 projects of 140-mw in Rajasthan and 4 projects of 50-mw in UP respectively. Hartek Group, Chairman & Managing Director, Hartek Singh said, “With other 285 mw projects under execution, we are expected to reach the 1,500 mw-mark by March 2018.” Renew Power Signs MoU with Maharashtra Govt for Rs 14K Cr Investment ReNew Power has said it has signed a pact with the Government of Maharashtra to facilitate a proposed investment of Rs 14,000 crore in the state for commissioning renewable energy projects. A MOU was signed at the three-day investment summit “Magnetic Maharashtra: Convergence 2018” held in the financial capital of the country. The proposed investment is expected to create direct employment for more than 7,000 people. As per the MoU, in the next five years, ReNew Power Ventures proposes will invest in three major categories a solar power (Rs 6,000 crore), wind power (Rs 6,000 crore) and waste to energy (Rs 2,000 crore).


SCCL to Set up First Solar Power Plant in Telangana State-owned coal miner the Singareni Collieries Company Ltd (SCCL) is planning to set up its first solar power plant of 50 MW capacity in Ramagundam-3 division of the Godavarikhani coal belt region of the Telangana state. The move has come as the company decided to generate solar power by itself to save its electricity bills. The company officials has already inspected the site to set up its proposed solar power plant at a cost of Rs 225 crore and sent their proposal to the company’s corporate office. The SCCL authorities have decided to coordinate with the Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) to set up the solar power panels and start generating electricity. Moreover, it is the second solar power plant that will be established in the Mandamarri coal belt region. Further, the management of Singareni has decided to produce about 550 MW of electricity from solar in a phased manner. It has now eleven coal divisions in the region and the company is planning to set up 50 MW solar plants in each division. These solar power plants would save at least Rs 24 crore annually to the company, as currently the SCCL is buying electricity from TS Transco.

Avaada Power to Invest Rs 10k cr to Set Up 1,600 MW Solar Projects in UP Avaada Power, a clean energy company, has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Uttar Pradesh (UP) government during the Investors Summit 2018 to invest Rs 10,000 crore in setting up 1,600 MW solar projects. The move will churn out nearly 3,700 jobs, the company said, “The projects will be developed across Mirzapur, Badaun, Gorakhpur and Bundelkhand districts.” Avaada Group, Chairman, Vineet Mittal said, “We are geared up to support UP’s mission of utilising the potential of the sun to power its development needs sustainably. We are working aggressively to help catapult the state on the clean energy trajectory.”

Tamil Nadu Among Nine Global Market Leaders in Renewable Energy

Tamil Nadu figures in the list of nine major global power markets in renewable energy, according to a new research by US-based Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA). The state has achieved an outsize share of wind and solar generation while assuring the security of supply. They are providing compelling examples of the fast-moving evolution of electricity generation. The report, 'Power-Industry Transition, Here and Now', includes case studies of markets -- ranked by relative share of reliance on variable renewables -- that include Denmark, South Australia, Uruguay, Germany, Ireland, Spain, Texas, California and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Wind and solar accounted for 14.3 percent of Tamil Nadu's total electricity generation in 2016-17. The state leads India in variable renewables market share. It also leads India in installed renewable energy capacity. Of the total 30 GW of installed capacity across the state as of March 2017, variable wind and solar power accounted for 9.6 GW or 32 percent of the total.

SunSource Energy raises fund from SBICAP Neev Fund via PE investment

Solar energy products supplier, SunSource Energy Pvt Ltd has raised an undisclosed amount from the Neev Fund, which is a joint venture between SBI and UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) , through private equity investments. The company said that this investment would be used in developing solar project assets in states with low levels of capital investment, namely Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh. SunSource Energy, CEO and Co-Founder, Adarsh Das said, “Our focus on environmentally sustainable solar energy solutions is fully aligned with Neev's focus on under-invested states. We look forward to deploying this capital into solar assets in these states, and significantly contribute to the sustainable development of these states.”


NATIONAL NEWS Renew Power Commits Rs 13k cr Investment on Clean Energy in AP

Renewable energy company ReNew Power has inked a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Andhra Pradesh (AP) government during the ongoing 3-day CII Partnership Summit to invest Rs 13,000 crore over the next five years. The move has come to develop renewable energy capacity in Andhra Pradesh and also helps in generating direct employment for 4,000 people and indirect employment for 6,000 people. “The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) envisages the development of 1,000 MW of installed capacity for solar power and another 1,000 MW of wind over the next five years by ReNew Power,” the company statement said. “The projects, put together, have the potential to create direct employment for 4,000 people and indirect employment for 6,000 people, while providing access to clean energy in the state,” it said. ReNew Power, Chief Executive, Sumant Sinha said, “We already have more than 300 MW of installed green energy capacity in Andhra Pradesh. With this proposed investment, we want to further enhance our support to the state in meeting its energy requirements in a more sustainable way and also create thousands of jobs.”

MNRE Prepares Draft for Solar Pump Specifications & Testing Procedure

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has prepared the draft for solar pump specifications and testing procedure, for which comments or suggestions can be submitted latest by March 12, 2018. The Ministry said in a release that, “In continuation of OM of even number dated February 16, 2018, related to testing procedure of solar pumps, the Ministry has prepared the following draft: A. Testing procedure for solar pumps, which includes, testing protocol and bench-marking criterion for solar water pumping systems, and solar profile (summer and winter) for testing of solar pumps. B. The revised specifications for solar pump for irrigation purpose.” In testing protocol and benchmarking criterion for solar water pumping systems, the essential components of a solar water pumping system are – PV Panel, Pump Controller (combination of MPPT, Inverter/ VFD for AC Pumps), and Motor Pump set.

48 CST, 12 Solar Cooker Projects get Extension for Completion

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has issued an order for the extension of project completion time of 48 Concentrated Solar Technology (CST) projects and 12 Solar Cooker projects till March 31, this year, with no further escalation of cost and time. In a release, the Ministry said, “With reference to this Ministry’s OM vide No. 271/139/2017 – Concentrated Solar Technologies dated 27th December 2017 regarding the Project Approval Committee (PAC)s recommendation for the extension of completion time for 48 Nos. of Concentrated Solar Technology (CST) projects and 12 Nos. of Solar Cooker projects, the approval of competent authority is hereby accorded for the extension of project duration of 48 Nos. of CST projects as per the list provided in annexure – I and 12 Nos. of Solar Cooker projects as per the list provided in annexure – II till 31.03.2018 with no further escalation of cost and time.”

SECI Invites Bids for 3000 MW ISTS-Connected Solar PV Projects in India

The Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI), a government of India enterprise, has invited bids for setting up of grid-connected solar PV projects to be installed anywhere in India on ‘Build Own Operate’ basis for an aggregate capacity of 3000 MW. As per the RfS document, SECI has invited bids for “selection of solar power developers for setting up of 3000 MW (250 MW x 12) ISTS-connected solar power projects under global competitive bidding”. Adding to it, SECI shall enter into the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with the successful bidders selected based on the RfS for purchase of solar power for a period of 25 years based on the terms, conditions and provisions of the RfS. Further, the power procured by SECI from these projects has been provisioned to be sold to the different Buying Utilities of India. Moreover, the maximum tariff payable to the project developer is fixed at INR 2.93/ kWh for 25 years. Also, the deadline for the submission of bids is April 27, 2018.

Avaada Power Inks MoU to Set Up 500MW Solar Farms in Andhra Renewables developer Avaada Power has inked an Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Andhra Pradesh government to develop 500MW of utility-scale PV projects, with an investment of Rs 35 billion (USD537 million). The Indian solar developer said that the projects in the state would be able to power the equivalent of 2.4 million households. The move will generate more than 1,200 employment opportunities in the state. Meanwhile, the state government has set a target to achieve 18GW renewable energy capacities by the year 2021-22. Adani Group Inks Rs 9000 cr Solar, Other Projects in Andhra A dani Group has inked a pact with the Andhra Pradesh government to invest over Rs 9,000 crore in various projects, including setting up of solar and wind facility, development of a greenfield port, in next five years. Adani Group, Chairman, Gautam Adani said that the company would also be investing in a multi-modal logistics park. He added that Andhra Pradesh is also fast emerging as solar power and battery technology production hub. The group with India’s largest renewable energy company is well positioned to contribute to this sector. “We seek to set up one 1000 mw solar and wind facility along with battery storage station” in Andhra Pradesh,” Chairman added. All in all across the different projects, the group would make an investment of “over 9000 crore in the state over the next five years,” he added.



INTERNATIONAL NEWS APS Teams with First Solar on Plant with Battery Storage Arizona's largest electric utility is teaming with one of the leading US based solar panel makers to develop a solar power field matched with battery storage. Arizona Public Service Co. and Tempe-Based First Solar has announced they will build the solar panel array and battery bank near the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station 50 miles (80 kilometers) west of Phoenix. The First Solar plant is planned to be operational in 2021 and will be build near the APS Red Hawk Power Plant on 363rd Avenue in Arlington. PSEG Acquires North Carolina PV Project from BayWar.e. PSEG Solar Source, a subsidiary of PSEG Power, has acquired a 7 MW-dc solar energy facility from BayWar.e. foran investment of about $10 million. The PSEG Halifax Solar Energy Center which began operations Dec. 21, 2017, has a 15-year power purchase agreement with Virginia Electric and Power Co. The facility occupies 28 acres that are under a 25-year lease with the Halifax-Northampton Regional Airport, located in Halifax, N.C., about 80 miles northeast of Raleigh, N.C. Diana Drysdale, President of PSEG Solar Source, said, "We are delighted to work with BayWar.e. on this project, a best-in-class partner." BayWar.e. was the project's engineering, procurement and construction contractor and now operates the facility for PSEG Solar Source. The facility will use approximately 20,550 mono-crystalline solar panels with three SMA inverters. The project was initiated by Geenex Solar, a developer based in Charlotte, N.C.


EnSync Energy Partners with Lower Electric to Enter the Illinois Solar Market

EnSync Energy Systems, a leading developer of innovative distributed energy resources has announced a partnership with licensed agent, broker and consultant (ABC) Lower Electric to offer solar energy-based electricity solutions to its nearly 4,000 clients in Illinois. The Plan sets a minimum target of 666 megawatts (MW) of capacity from community solar and commercial and industrial (C&I) solar generation systems that are less than 2 MW in size by year 2020. The plan is currently under consideration by the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) and is expected to go into effect on April 3, 2018. Dan Nordloh, executive vice president of EnSync Energy, said, "Combined with Lower Electric's client relationships, the partnership creates a range of market options that align with both Lower Electric'sand EnSync's client interests.” EnSync Energy will cover customer origination, project development, design, construction and operation of photovoltaic-based installations for two key customer groups in Illinois: community solar subscribers and C&I operators. The systems will be up to 2MW in size and the projects will be sold either directly to the customer or as power purchase agreements (PPAs) to the ultimate asset owners. Lower Electric's C&I clients interested in solar for their buildings can either directly purchase a solar installation or participate in a PPA offered by EnSync Energy to reduce or avoid upfront costs.

JinkoSolar Leads Technology Dialogue in India, Hosts PV Tech Seminar

JinkoSolar, a global leader in the photovoltaic industry (PV), held a PV Tech seminar at The Leela Ambience in Gurugram. The seminar aimed to raise discussions on upcoming module technologies and solar manufacturing excellence for enhanced efficiency and generation. Dr. Y.B. Reddy, Deputy General Manager of the Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) in his speech stressed the importance of using quality and reputable modules to ensure long-term success of solar projects in India market. Attendees also listened to a knowledge sharing talk on Anti-dumping and Safeguard duties by ELP, a prominent law firm in India. The piece de resistance of the event was a PV technology presentation by JinkoSolar Technical Department’s Eddy Hu. He discussed the latest technology developments in solar and highlighted the advantages of JinkoSolar’s half-cell technology.


Sterling and Wilson to Build Zambia’s Largest Solar Plant

Sterling and Wilson, leading Global Solar EPC Company has been chosen to construct Zambia’s largest solar plant, of capacity 54.3 MWp. It is the first project to be implemented in the frame of the Scaling Solar program, promoted by the International Finance Corporation – a member of the World Bank Group. The project is being developed by Neoen, the French developer and Independent Power Producer (IPP). Situated at 20 km South East of Lusaka, in Kafue district, the project site has spread across 52 hectares of land. BikeshOgra, President and CEO – Renewable Energy and Energy Storage business, Sterling and Wilson said, “Sterling and Wilson is a key player in Africa region. We have commissioned 90 MWp Solar PV plant in Africa till date. Zambia is one of the key markets for us considering the booming renewable energy segment and the Zambian government’s support for the development of 500 MW of new Solar PV plant in next couple of years.”

INTERNATIONAL NEWS African Development Bank Plans to Bring Solar Power to Millions African Development Bank is unveiling its plan to help connect 29.3 million people in the continent with electricity by 2020. The bank is investing heavily in ways to help the estimated 640 million Africans who lack access to energy as well as protecting them against climate risks. As part of its Desert to Power initiative, the bank sees a pivotal role for solar power in this ambitious plan by building 10,000 megawatts (MW) of new capacity in the 1,000km Sahel region, close to the Sahara desert. It’s claimed that this project could eventually provide electricity for up to 250 million people, with 90 million currently living off-grid. AkinwumiAdesina, President of the Bank made the announcement at a meeting in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. “We have already started with development of a 50 MW solar power system in Burkina Faso…The initiative will protect the Great Green Wall of trees established to protect against desertification in the Sahelian zone, from being cut down by energy-poor households for use as fuel wood. When completed, we expect this to be the largest solar power system zone in the world”, he said.

Clean Focus Completes 11.92 MW Six Community Solar Projects in US

JA Solar Supplies Mono PERC Modules for 250MW Solar Project in Israel JA Solar Holdings, solar product manufacturers has announced the shipment of modules to the Ashalim 250MW solar project, which is the largest utility-scale project using JA's Mono PERC modules in Israel.

Clean Focus Renewables, Inc. has completed six community solar gardens in the United States. The projects will distribute clean, renewable energy to a wide range of Colorado subscribers. Greenskies Renewable Energy will maintain the solar arrays, and Clean Focus Yield Limited will operate the system as part of its large portfolio of commercial, industrial, small utility, and community solar projects. The six Colorado community solar gardens are expected to generate 23,829,000 kWh of clean energy annually, which could power 2,213 homes. The six projects offset the environmental impact of 1,995,493 gallons of gasoline or nearly 3,797 cars each year. Stanley Chin, who is the President and CEO of Greenskies and Clean Focus Group, said, “We are excited to energize one of the largest solar gardens in Colorado. They democratize solar by allowing customers who might not have been candidates for solar to adopt renewable energy and save money.”

The project is being developed by the large electric utility company Electricite De France S.A. and a leading Israeli renewable energy company, Clal Sun Ltd. BELECTRIC, which is one of the world's largest installers of solar power plants and providers of EPC and O&M services, is building the project. Upon completion, the power station, which will reduce contamination levels and promote local renewable energy development profoundly, will be the largest of its kind in Israel and the 5th largest in the world. Located in the Negev Desert, the plant is part of a 250 MW pipeline of solar assets that combine solar thermal energy and photovoltaic energy. The 35MW PV plant was connected in December 2017. JA Solar is the sole PV module supplier, providing high-quality modules using its PERC technology.

Acwa Power Wins First Solar Project in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia's Acwa Power has won Skaka IPP PV solar project, the first utility scale Renewable Energy plant at the oil capital, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This plant is the first of what will be a series of procurement within the visionary and ambitious Saudi national renewables program aiming to produce 9.5 GW of renewable energy by 2023 as a first phase. The 25-year Power Purchase contract was awarded for ACWA Power at a new world record tariff of US Cents 2.3417/kWh (8.781 halalas/kWh). Spanning over six square kilometers, Skaka plant of an investment value of c. US $ 302 million will generate 300 MW. Panasonic and Enphase Energy Announce AC Module Partnership Panasonic, Japanese electronics giant has announced a strategic partnership with Californiaheadquartered microinverter specialist Enphase Energy for the development of high efficiency AC Modules (ACMs). The Enphase IQ 7X Microinverter is compatible with Panasonic's HIT modules, and the partnership will continue with the codevelopment of AC Modules (ACM) that will offer significant advantages to integrators and installers. MukeshSethi, Group Manager, Panasonic Residential Solar Group, said, “This partnership with Enphase Energy will enable us to combine our products and expertise to offer a new solar solution that can help our customers meet their renewable energy needs. We look forward to our future with Enphase Energy and what we are able to achieve within the residential solar industry."



INTERNATIONAL NEWS Hyundai Electric Earns $18.5 Mn Solar Power Deal in South Korea Hyundai Electric & Energy Systems Co. has earned $18.5 million solar power order with its design to brighten up the streets of Yeoju, a city southeast of the South Korean capital Seoul. According to the company statement, it signed an agreement with the Yeoju city government and the state-run Korea East-West Power Co. to install a 6.5 megawatt (MW) solar panel and a 20.5 megawatt-hour (MWh) energy storage system on the 2.5-kilometer stretch of bicycle lane along the Namhan River and the 3.2-kilometer walking trail near Yeoju reservoir. The roof-shaped panel would not only power the streetlights but also serve as a shield against the rain. Sungrow Turnkey Station Powers 1.5MW Floating PV Plant in Japan Sungrow, inverter solution supplier for renewables, has successfully installed its 2MW SG2000MV turnkey station and waterproof combiner box for a floating PV plant on the Mitakabe Pond in Sanuki-shi Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. The SG2000MV turnkey station deployed at the project features its 20-foot containerized design which integrates four SG500 central inverters, a transformer, and RMU, significantly saving the cost for commissioning and installation, as well as adding protection to extreme climactic conditions. The combiner box used in the Mitakabe Pond plant, the SunBox PVS-8M/16MW,is specifically customized for floating solar plants and is able to work safely in wet and erosive environments.


LONGi Plans To Triple Its Wafer Capacity to 45GW by 2020 LONGi Green Energy Technology has announced its strategic 3-year plan for its monocrystalline wafer business for the period from 2018 to 2020. In order to accelerate the progress of the PV industry, and to meet the growing demand from downstream users, LONGi plans to expand its monocrystalline silicon wafer capacity to 45GW by 2020. In its strategic 3-year plan, LONGi showcased its phased approach for the steady expansion of its production capacity of monocrystalline silicon wafers. Based on a silicon wafer capacity of 15GW by the end of 2017, the company will aim to increase this to 28GW by the end of 2018, to 36GW by the end of 2019 and to 45GW by the end of 2020. LONGi will continue to reduce production costs, and ensure the market supply of efficient monocrystalline products. LONGi stated that the technical quality and cost objectives of its newly producing projects should support the ongoing requirements of China's national PV grid parity and the company will concentrate on cost-effective monocrystalline products in order to consolidate its leading position in this segment.

Pacifico Energy Raises 15.5 Billion Yen for Its First Solar Fund

Pacifico Energy K.K. has announced it has successfully completed the launch of its first solar investment fund. The Fund will be comprised of 5 Japanese solar power plants totaling over 100 MWdc. The Fund has successfully completed the acquisitions of the 3 solar plants in Chiba and Miyagi prefecture and is in process of acquiring 2 other solar plants (one plant in eastern Japan and the other in western Japan). Mitsubishi UFJ Morgan Stanley Securities Co., Ltd. was financial advisor to the Fund, which successfully raised 15.5 billion yen from Japanese institutional investors. Baker McKenzie acted as legal counsel to the Fund. Pacifico is also providing asset management services to these solar plants by deploying its knowledge and experience gained from successfully developing solar projects totaling over 640 MWdc. Nate Franklin, President of Pacifico said, “We are looking forward to partnering with more Japanese institutional investors to form second and third investment funds in the future providing access to stable investment returns through an eco-friendly clean energy platform.�

Trina Solar Announces New Efficiency Record for IBC Cell Trina Solar announced the achievement of 25.04% total-area efficiency for the IBC cell, at its State Key Laboratory (SKL) of PV Science and Technology (PVST) in China. According to Trina Solar, the 6-inch solar cell reached a total-area efficiency of 25.04% as independently measured by JET in Japan. The IBC solar cell has a total measured area of 243.18cm2 and was measured without any aperture. The champion cell presents the following characteristics: an opencircuit voltage Vocof 715.6 mV, a short-circuit current density Jsc of 42.27 mA/cm2 and a fill factor FF of 82.81%.

Switch Announces Largest Solar Project in the United States

Switch, a Nevada-based datacenter conglomerate, has announced the construction of the single largest solar project portfolio in the United States. Switch CEO and Founder Rob Roy's Gigawatt 1 solar project will be built in Northern and Southern Nevada. The project will produce among the lowest priced solar power in the world and generate enough clean energy to power nearly one million homes. The Gigawatt 1 concept comes from an initiative called Gigawatt Nevada, first proposed by Rob Roy three years ago. "The foundation of Gigawatt Nevada is that Nevada should harness the sun the same way Alaska harnesses its oil to significantly benefit all Nevadans," Rob Roy said. "Nevada enjoys the best solar window in the nation and so we Nevadans should not only be using solar for ourselves, but exporting it throughout the Western U.S. to create new jobs, tax revenue, economic diversification, and raise energy independence." The assets will be owned and developed by Capital Dynamics, the second largest owner of solar projects in the country. Gigawatt 1 anchor tenants will include Switch, and several of the Switch clients that currently partner with Switch for data center and telecommunication services.


INTERNATIONAL NEWS Sunrise Energy Ventures to Develop Solar Farm in US Sunrise Energy Ventures, a USbased solar energy development company announced the City of Macomb has agreed to sell it a seventeen-acre parcel of land so the firm can develop a solar farm. Macomb has approximately 20,000 residents and is home to Western Illinois University, NTN Bower (maker of precision roller bearings) and a Pella Window factory. Sunrise Energy Ventures will bring the first solar installation to Macomb, making renewable energy available to Ameren customers and others who wish to purchase solar power. The two (2) megawatt installation will generate enough power for approximately 300 homes per year. Cleantech Solar Bags 27 MW Rooftop Solar PV Projects in Asia Cleantech Solar, a Singaporebased solar project developer, has announced that it will build industrial rooftop solar projects totalling 27 MWp across Asia for three separate customers. C l e a n t e c h S o l a r re c e n t l y signedthree Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) and the firm will be in charge of the full turnkey financing, design and installation of the photovoltaic (PV) facilities, as well as operation and maintenance for the development of 27 MW of rooftop solar projects.The projects will be located in three different countries in Asia. RajuShukla, the chairman of Cleantech Solar, said, “Those three systems will be among the world’s largest rooftop solar projects.”


French Engery Giant EDF Enters China's Rooftop Solar Market

EDF Energies Nouvelles, the renewable energy arm of French state-controlled utility giant EDF, is to establish a joint venture with clean energy investor Asia Clean Capital (ACC), aiming at rooftop solar projects in China. According to a joint statement, the two partnerswill benefit from ACC's local footprint in distributed solar energy and from EDF Energies Nouvelles' international distributed solar energy and self-consumption expertise solutions for industries. ACC's business focuses on rooftop solar projects. It invests in the solar projects and undertakes the design, construction, and long-term system maintenance. Thomas Lapham, CEO of Asia Clean Capital, said “We are tremendously excited to work with EDF Energies Nouvelles, given their unparalleled experience and expertise in renewable energy worldwide. We will tap our respective advantages and help more companies generate and use green electricity.” Bruno Fyot, Chief Operating Officer of EDF Energies Nouvelles said,“As a subsidiary of the EDF Group, a global leader in low-carbon energy, EDF Energies Nouvelles is committed to using its expertise in distributed renewable energy in France and in the United States, as well as EDF's historic presence in the Chinese electricity market to develop and expand this newlyformed joint venture with ACC.”

JA Solar Partners with Manitu Solar to Expand Presence in Eastern European Markets

JA Solar Holdings Co., Ltdannounced that it has formed a partnership with Manitu Solar, a leading PV distributor in Hungary to expand its reach to the Eastern European markets. Under the terms of the partnership agreement, Manitu Solar will distribute JA Solar's solar modules. Norbert Nagy, CEO of Manitu Solar commented, "Manitu Solar works exclusively with global Tier-1 suppliers to provide the highest quality products and service to our customers.” Cao Bo, vice president of JA Solar, said, "We look forward to establishing long-term partnership with distributors with similar vision to further promote the development of green energy globally."

Enel Green Power Begins Operations at 103 MW Solar Park in Brazil

Italian renewable energy company Enel Green Power has begun operations at the 103MW Horizonte solar park in Brazil through its subsidiary Enel Green Power BrasilParticipações (EGPB). The 103MW solar park features 330,000 solar panels, and is expected to produce 220GWh per year once it is fully operational. EnelGreen Power claims to have invested around $110m for the construction of the Horizonte solar park. The investment for the solar project partly includes the company’s own finances as well as by a long-term finance provided by the Brazilian regional development bank Banco doNordeste (BNB).

SunPower Solar Panels Powering Three Solar Carports in France

SunPower has announced that 750 kilowatts of high efficiency SunPower E-Series solar panels are powering three new carports in Grenoble, southeastern city of France. The project was led by regional utility GEG, in coordination with OSER and Grenoble AlpesMetropole, as part of its PARKOSOL program. PARKOSOL develops solar carport projects to serve the greater Grenoble area. Daniel Besson, GEG Production Director said, "Solar carports make sense because they provide electricity as well as shade.”"High efficiency SunPower solar panels were the best choice for our carports because they maximize electricity output in space-constrained areas, and are recognized for high performance and reliability. The panels are manufactured sustainably, which enables these projects to meet environmental standards set by CRE, France's energy regulatory commission,” Besson added. Peter Aschenbrenner, SunPower Executive Vice President said, "Compared to conventional panels, SunPower E-Series solar panels produce 45 percent more energy in the same space over 25 years, and offer the solar industry's best warranty, guaranteeing power and product quality for 25 years.” "SunPower is proud to partner with GEG on its innovative PARKOSOL program, promoting the increased use of cost-competitive, emission-free solar power in the Grenoble area,” Aschenbrenner added.


INTERNATIONAL NEWS SolarHome Raises $1.2 Million in Convertible Note Offering

A Singapore-based start-up, SolarHome, that provide Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) solar off-grid solutions, has raised another USD 1.2 million in growth capital through an issue of convertible notes to a consortium of investors. The company will use funds to expand into dry zone in Myanmar and build out credit risk management function. SolarHome has raised over USD 2.3 million in funding to date, having secured its seed capital from FORUM, the largest fintech venture builder in Emerging Asia. The investors who participated in the consortium include, Singapore-based venture capital firm Beenext, an impact-oriented family office; X Capital Ventures, an investment group focused on seed to Series B ventures; and distinguished Singaporean angel investor, Koh Boon Hwee, whose deep expertise and leadership spans across the technology, consumer, and investment sectors.

Sharp Signs Pact to Construct 48 MW Solar Power Plant in Vietnam Japanese electronics giant Sharp Corporation has inked a pact with the Gia Lai Electricity Joint Stock Company (GEC), a joint venture of the Thanh Thanh Cong Group (TTC Group), to construct a 48 MW-dc solar

Kumbaya Officially Launches Solar-Powered ZeroXess Solution

power plant in Vietnam.

California-based Kumbaya Inc. has officially launched the solar-powered zeroXess platform for off-grid

in Thua Thien Hue Province in

energy, connectivity and content from the floor of Mobile World Congress 2018 in Barcelona, Spain.

the North Central Coast region

The new zeroXess platform delivers solar-powered energy, connectivity and content to off-grid

of Vietnam. Its annual power

communities globally. ZeroXess is designed to connect the unconnected, it is an economically

generation capacity estimated

priced home energy and communication hub for collecting and distributing power to other devices,

at 61,570 MWh/year, equivalent

equipped with a touch screen to allow users to easily view, monitor and control power, connectivity,

to the consumption of 32,628

lights, communication and the consumption of information. Kumbaya, Founder and CEO, Mike Freni

average Vietnamese households

said, “There is no question that our goal to connect the ‘last billion’ is a huge undertaking, and some

per year.

might say it is impossible. But as Nelson Mandela said, ‘It always seems impossible, until someone

Ayala Acquires Majority Stake

does it,’ and Kumbaya is here to finally connect the unconnected.” Kumbaya’s zeroXess platform is

in US Solar Tech Firm

a modular solar-powered system to bring energy, connectivity and content to off-grid populations,

Conglomerate Ayala Corporation

refugee camps, and areas cut off from the world by natural disasters.

has expanded its footprint in

LSIS to Foray into Japanese Market via Total Solns for RE Systems

Korean firm LSIS Co., Ltd. is planning to foray into the Japanese market with its total solutions for the complete renewable energy systems, including solar power, energy storage system (ESS), direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). Under the concept of a total solution provider of renewable energy systems, the company operated a total of 16.2 booths (145.8sqm), its largest scale, and introduced its representative projects at home and abroad, including a mega solar power plant in Chitose, Hokkaido completed last year and floating solar power plants near Hapcheon Dam and on Chungpung Lake and showcased optical

Further, the company’s 48 MW (DC) PV plant will be constructed

the solar energy by acquiring controlling stake in the Silicon Valley-based Merlin Solar Technologies Inc. In a disclosure to the Philippine Stock Exchange, Ayala said, the transaction was done via AC Industrials’ subsidiary, ACI Solar Holdings NA, which had previously made a minority

power equipment solutions for the Japanese renewable energy market.

investment in Merlin in 2016. AC

Arctech Solar Provides 46MW Racking System to Japan

interest of 78.2% in Merlin after

Solar tracking and racking systems provider Arctech Solar has provided 46MW racking system to a solar power plant in Gunma, Japan. For the first time the company bring a fixed-mounting structure, with more adjustable joints, to the Japanese market. The company is expected to start commercial operation of the project in early 2019, once it is connected to the local power grid, it will start power generation for local residents. Arctech has supplied its single pole solution to the project, which is being set up on a golf course in hilly terrain. Moreover, the single pole structure can adapt well to N-S and E-W slopes on the back of unique design of joints and adjustable connectors. Besides, it is having the advantage of efficient factory pre-assembly and welding-free installation method at project site, the single pole solution brings significant economic value to the investors by

Industrials will have an ownership the transaction and completion of other related activities. The disclosure said, Merlin, which is an American solar solutions fir m, would also establish a manufacturing presence in the Philippines via Integrated Microelectronics Inc. (IMI), a subsidiary of AC Industrials.

minimizing the field installation labor cost. VOL 2 l ISSUE 7 l MARCH 2018 l SAUR ENERGY INTERNATIONAL


Climbing Stairs for Indian Rooftop Industry India has diligently stepped-forward to ply across the cross roads of innovation. Today, India houses one of the biggest tech companies in the world has turned heads. But still, to all the innovations, India has been prolonging on the growing power demands. Not scathing 100 GigaWatt(GW) rather democratized dialogue on 40GW of rooftop seems to the uphill in 2018. Compared to other developing countries, India has significantly made socio-economic changes collaring global level. To name one of them is the solar power marathon which is said to be one of the biggest revolutions modern India has witnessed in recent times. In just few years with Government’s strong confab for the solar sector; has precisely given new aspiration to the billion-dollar growing solar sector in India. Current figures of Indian solar installations are embellishing as the sector grew by 123 percent to reach a record 19.6 GW in 2017 which is more than double the 4.3 GW installed in 2016. Orating on the Rooftop front, initially India has been treacherous but despite that today the industry shares equal pragmatism on the rooftop end. Though uncertainties still haunt the industry players, my desire to explore this nascent rooftop segment had more rational opinions adjudging the future of rooftop solar in India. My journey with two other well-known industry veterans, Rajni Bhandari (Sr. Manager, Business Development), Amplus Solar & Sushil Sarawgi, Director, Kor Energy India Pvt. Ltd. was dawning till the end. Protracting across many questioned aspects today in the rooftop sector, the veterans’ opinions were not everything like porridge. segment in India and has grown by leaps and bounds with a lot of players catering specifically to this sector. However this growth has primarily come from Commercial & Industrial installations. Residential sector remains largely untapped. As an indicator, out of the total 1,861 MW (as of Sep 2017, Bridge to India) of installed rooftop solar capacity, only 377 MW is based on residential consumers. As a comparison Germany, which is the largest non-utility market in the Stakeholders Defining the Term “Basic Framework”

world, residential solar capacity

towards the solar rooftop segment in India. They believe ‘It’s Just the

about 80%

In and after 2017, rooftop players have shown promising attitude Beginning’, Amplus Energy, who has been one of the first borrowers from SBI and very early entrant in this segment. Citing, Mrs. Rajni

contributes to of its total installed

Bhandari (Sr. Manager, Business Development), Amplus Solar

did extend staunch saying, Rooftop solar is the fastest growing




capacity of 42.9GW (as of end 2017). On the residential front, Mrs. Bhandari, noted, “For residential solar to successfully scale up, the government needs to relook at the policy framework which may be hindering the sector taking off. Another area of focus would need to be storage so that rooftop solar can proliferate. Solar rooftops for residential consumers would make more sense if the power is available during peak load times through the use of storage, since the peak of solar generation

Rajni Bhandari

(Sr. Manager, Business Development)| Amplus Solar

doesn’t match the peak power usage for households. Solar rooftop market with the right push has the ability to help India utilize its solar power potential and becoming the largest rooftop solar market.” Mr. Sushil Sarawgi, Director, Kor Energy India Pvt. Ltd. points out that, “Rooftop

Solar Segment is growing rapidly in India and with more visibility of rooftop Solar on residential, commercial and industrial buildings, the awareness about the same is also increasing. Net Metering Policy in most States is in place. With better efficiencies in panel and decreased cost, the segment is expected to grow at much faster rates in years to come.”

Sushil Sarawgi

Director, Kor Energy India Pvt. Ltd

Modelling Rooftops

the actual user of energy possible and

allocation to promote rooftop sector is

investors looking to get tax benefits as well

Lucrative subsidies and extravagant budget argued disparately. Currently, there are two ways through which an individual can install a rooftop solar system. They can choose the capital expenditure model by making an upfront payment. For those unwilling or unable to put up the money, there is the Renewable Energy Servicing Company model in which a terrace owner allows a solar developer to install a plant on the roof. RESCO is popular among commercial buildings where business owners prefer to invest in the businesses instead of solar photovoltaic units. Mr. Sarawgi thinks, RESCO Model makes zero investment from

the capital expenditure is being done by as good returns. As tax incentives have been reduced in the recent years and also expectation of roof owners for a much lesser rates and shorter duration PPAs are leading to challenges for investors also in this segment. Good rated companies still have significant share of actual installations under RESCO Model. Large rooftop solar works best under RESCO mode since the customer can enjoy all benefits of solar without having to incur any upfront cost. Also, the operation and maintenance of the plant is taken care of by the developer who can provide more efficient O&M services at potentially lower costs as it spreads its O&M costs over a large volume of capacity, said Mrs. Bhandari. While RESCO can work well for


residential users as well, however for

year, and 5,000 MW for financial year

the residential segment, the industry

2018. However, India’s cumulative installed

participants including lending agencies

capacity of rooftop solar stood at 982 MW

would need to focus on customising

as of December 2017. A mere 271 MW has

presently available financing schemes

come up this year, disseminated MNRE.

so that the customers can also raise debt

Citing on the growing competitiveness,

to part finance purchase of rooftop solar

Mrs. Bhandari, said, relatively speaking


solar rooftop is significantly more

Comparing Capital Expenditure Utility

competitive than other sources of electricity

vs Rooftop

including the grid. However, due to policy

High capital expenditure in rooftop PV still

hurdles (such as net metering policy

prevails in compare to utility segment. The

adoption by states) and absence of quality

reason justified can be said as, Volume,

industry players, the market has not taken

Quantity with Same effort of Production,

off to the extent originally envisaged.

that’s how I believed.

Having said that Amplus Solar which was

Justifying my notion, Mrs. Bhandari said,

set up in 2015 has already expanded

Capital expenditure in rooftop photovoltaic

to 250 MW and strives to maintain the

is always higher than utility projects due to

momentum and contribute significantly to

the smaller scale and customised design.

the distributed energy segment in India.

This situation would continue unless there

As discussed earlier, the industr y

is an integration of rooftop capacities and

stakeholders need to sustain focus

rooftop solar volumes go up which would

on rooftop solar. This includes the

allow rooftop developers to more efficiently

Government drawing up a long-term

manage procurement and engineering.

strategy outlining and implementing

Government can support the sector by

regulations and incentives for distributed

introducing practical policies encouraging

(rooftop) solar, industry financing agencies

rooftop development, removing policy

developing financing structures to support

hurdles, exempting rooftop equipment from

fragmented rooftop solar capacities.

duties and GST and supporting financing

Market measures such as compulsory

structures developed by stakeholders

utilisation of rooftop space, mandating and

including lending agencies.

enforcing RPO obligations, effective net

There is a restriction currently on net

metering mechanism, strengthening grid

metering to cap at 1 MW per connection,

infrastructure to accommodate banking

to aver further, Mr. Sarawgi added, utility

and waiver to duties and levies (initially)

projects are large scale projects leading to

must be implemented to increase the

reduced cost per kilowatt of installations.

demand and adoption of solar by the

There is a restriction currently on net

end consumer.

metering to cap at 1 MW per connection.

Mulling on education & awareness, Mr.

This cap may be reduced to make rooftop

Sarawgi said, still there is a requirement of

segment also get benefit from economies

more education for the benefits of rooftop

of large scale.

solar. Net metering implementation has

Targets and Achievement - Arguably

to be made simple. There is still need for


subsidies for residential and certain other

The original target was 200 MW by financial

sectors. Soft loans for rooftop solar projects

year 2016, followed by 4,800 MW the next

have to be provided by institutions. At least



all government and government funded institutions buildings must compulsorily have rooftop solar installations. Funding Scenario Government investment and banks fund are concurrently empowering the Indian solar sector. The funds allocated for Indian solar industry has to be long taken into account as the equations in long-run might discrete and the industry should have the power to work autonomously but for Indian rooftop sector is attracting dollars in which the players are banking into. To Understand the present scenario, Mrs. Bhandari explains that these are positive developments since project financing has been a bone of contention for the sector. We understand that these facilities are already being tapped by capacity owners which would free up capital (currently fully financed by the owners) for future capacity development.

Traversing across other major funds, Mr. Sarawgi adds, Hot on the Heels, World Bank also approved dedicated $ 625 Mn to SBI for lending to viable GridConnected Rooftop Solar PV (GRPV) projects undertaken by photo-voltaic (PV) developers, aggregators and endusers, for installation of rooftop solar systems on the rooftops of commercial, institutional and industrial buildings. Though Developers, EPCs and Lenders jitter with pre-construction and execution risks of small scale decentralized solar projects. Lending institutions need to have specialized manpower to understand and assess risks associated with funding small rooftop projects both under Capex Model for roof owners and RESCO Model for developers. Until and unless it doesn’t happen, a much focused approach from lending institutions will not be there.

Processes have to be standardized and

the emergence of national level rooftop

disbursement has to be linked as per the

IPPs (that are serious players) such as

progress of the project with scheduled

Amplus would help in rapid capacity


deployment across the sector, creation

Foot-Stepping Trends

of new financing structures to support

Largest Banks and Global Financial Bodies

this capacity deployment, promoting

are merrily looking to invest or fund the

policy measures mandating customers to

Indian rooftop sector; this is perhaps the

adopt solar power solutions and growing

ongoing trend which shall mesmerize the

acceptance of rooftop solar benefits by

Indian rooftop players.

the customers.

But coming to the end of conversation

Mr. Sarawgi concludes saying, More

with the solar Industry stalwarts, I did take

rooftop solar tenders from Government

their view on their apprehension of the

departments, better implementation of

latest trends which is or sought to foster

subsidy schemes and more aggressive

the Indian rooftop segment.

approach of DISCOMs to promote solar

Mrs. Bhandari prompted, Rooftop

installations for commercial segment will

segment in India needs focused effort in

be a key to good growth of this segment

terms of policy and regulatory framework

in 2018.

and aligned stakeholders who understand the need of the sector. Some of the drivers


that are expected to lead to a sustainable growth of the rooftop sector in 2018 include VOL 2 l ISSUE 7 l MARCH 2018 l SAUR ENERGY INTERNATIONAL



NREL Analysis Presents Two Potential Paths to Meeting Residential Solar Cost Reduction Targets for 2030 Leveraging cost-reduction opportunities in the roof replacement or new construction markets for residential photovoltaic (PV) installations could help the United States meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) residential solar photovoltaic cost target by 2030, according to new research from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The NREL analysis presents a potential roadmap for achieving the 2030 residential target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) by identifying and quantifying a plausible range of cost reduction opportunities and mapping how these opportunities could influence system costs in key market segments. "Our findings suggest that between now and 2030 homeowners could see a considerable cost savings when installing PV and a new roof at the same time," said Kristen Ardani, lead author of the report and a solar technology markets and policy analyst at NREL. "We also found that PV installed on new construction offers opportunities for even greater cost reduction. However, it will require considerable business model and permitting process innovation to realize the cost savings potential identified in each of these market segments." The analysis and findings are detailed in the Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030PDF. The report identifies and defines four key cost-reduction opportunities that could have a significant impact on the installed cost of residential PV through 2030: market maturity, business model integration, product innovation, and economies of scale. To assess the potential impact of these specific cost-reduction opportunities, NREL researchers compared modeled residential PV system costs in 2030 to NREL's U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2017PDF. Since 2010, NREL has benchmarked current PV system prices for the residential, commercial, and utility-scale sectors. These benchmarks are generated using


a bottom-up accounting framework for all component and project-development costs incurred when installing PV systems. The residential benchmark models the cash purchase price for systems excluding the federal investment tax credit. NREL used the same cost-accounting framework to model residential PV system costs in 2030 for the roof replacement and new construction markets. Consistent with previous benchmarking efforts, NREL derived modeling inputs and validated draft results via interviews with industry and other subject-matter experts. The analysis also examines two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof replacement, and installing PV as part of the new home construction process. NREL estimates that between 2017 and 2030, an average of 3.3 million homes per year are likely to be built or require a roof replacement. This translates into a technical market potential of roughly 30 gigawatts (GW) each year from 2017 to 2030. Enabling and/or capturing even a relatively small fraction of this technical potential could have a significant impact on the evolution of the electricity system in the United States. For each market segment, the analysis models two pathways: a less aggressive pathway representing an incremental shift


from current market practices, and a visionary pathway representing a more dramatic shift. The modeling results suggest that installing PV on new housing developments could enable residential PV installation savings of 61 percent relative to the Q1 2017 benchmark system price. In existing homes, installing PV at the time of roof replacement could lead to 55 percent in savings relative to the Q1 2017 benchmark system price. The greatest savings opportunities for these pathways include supply chain, sales and marketing, overhead, permitting, inspection, and interconnection, and installation labor. This exercise demonstrates that savings associated with non-hardware balance of system or "soft" costs account for about 65 percent of the savings. In comparison, "hard" costs, including hardware cost, modulerelated improvement, and inverter-related improvement, represent about 22 percent of the modeled savings. Additionally, pathways that realize reliability improvement and financing changes, a mix of hard and soft costs, represent 13 percent in savings. These findings illustrate that reducing soft costs could help industry to achieve the 2030 target, and that capturing these cost reductions will likely require considerable innovation in both technology and business models employed by industry.

Sunil Rathi Director | Waaree Energies

Waaree is coming up with a manufacturing facility of 1.2 GW by March 2018 Waaree Energies Ltd, an integrated solar power solutions company, is committed to make solar energy affordable and accessible to all. The company plays a major role in manufacturing and supplies solar photovoltaic modules and provides engineering, procurement and construction solutions for the setting up of solar power plants. It has launched more than 200 Waaree stores so far and is planning to launch more than 1000 such centres across the country in coming years. Sunil Rathi, Director, Waaree Energies, in conversation with Aaqib Javeed, Saur Energy Journalist, spoke at length about the company expansion plans and introduction of new technologies and innovative products and solutions in the solar sector.


You have been in the Indian market for more than three decades. What makes Waaree Energies a unique provider of solar systems? Rated as India’s Tier 1 panel manufacturers by Bloomberg for 3 years consecutively, Waaree Energies Ltd. is one of India's most diversified and fastest growing solar energy solutions companies. It is part of the conglomerate of Waaree Group, which was established in 1989, and is India's premier multi-diverse technology group, having its forte in varied verticals like Solar Energy, Industrial Valves, Petroleum Equipment, and Process Control Instrumentation. Waaree Energies has India’s largest solar PV module manufacturing capacity, of 550 MW, and is ranked the No.1 Indian Solar Panel Manufacturer by the Bridge to India Report. Additionally, the module manufacturing capacity is also set to be scaled to 1.2 Gigawatt in 2018. We are present across the solar value chain, providing EPC Solutions and Solar Modules for Grid-Connected Solar


Farms, Rooftop Solar, Solar Water Pumps, Project Development, RESCO Model, and Floating Structure Services, and also offer our services as an independent power producer across the globe. With a large distribution network spread across the country and a global presence in 68 countries, Waaree’s area of operations is rapidly expanding. Moreover, our unique franchise (retail) model is the first of its kind in the country, having the potential to generate thousands of jobs in the solar sector, and hence, is helping create a sustainable ecosystem for emerging India. What technological advances has Waaree Energies recently been focusing on, and what drives the company to bring innovation in the solar industry? We, at Waaree Energies, aim to strive for continuous improvement in the quality, reach, and dependability of our products and services. A continuous effort in this regard will make India a ‘pro-solar’ nation, and in the process, reduce the dependence



on conventional energy sources, such as coal. As a glowing example of this commitment, we are one of the few companies with a considerable presence in the Agri-Feeder Solar Plants, Solar Water Pumps, and various specialty solar products and services. The three central pillars of our commitment are innovation, through consistent introduction of new technologies and innovative products and solutions, quality, possessing all the relevant certifications for domestic and international markets, and a consistent customer-centric approach, ably evidenced by a strong customer base of respected industrial houses/companies, in India and abroad. Being one of the leaders in the solar sector, how do you see the current trends? Do you think they are disruptive? In India, the Renewable Energy infrastructure has entered into its golden phase, with a generation capacity enhancement in 2016-17 of 15.3 GW, vis-à-vis 11 GW for


VIZ-A-VIZ conventional power, and an RE installed capacity which has already crossed the 50 GW milestone. These milestones heartening that they are - also underline our belief that infrastructure in the manufacturing and evacuation segments needs to match steps with the aggressive capacity installation. Taking the solar sector as an example, more than 85% of the solar modules were completely imported for the capacity enhancement of 5.5 GW in 2016-17. We also look at the readiness of the Green Energy Corridor to ensure the integration of the solar and wind capacities, without curtailment issues. This is a good opportunity to develop the infrastructure for the manufacturing of renewable equipment, and grid infrastructure for rooftops, in our country. With the advancement of technology and the introduction of the remote monitoring system, operation and maintenance has become easy and convenient. With remote control monitoring, manual monitoring can be avoided, lowering the operations and maintenance costs. Also, for coastal areas, rust resistance panels are highly beneficial in the long run.


What is your take on the Union Budget 2018, introduced by Arun Jaitley, as far as the solar sector is concerned? The Union Budget this year was extremely balanced, and has restored our belief in the Government for ensuring the continued growth of the Indian manufacturing sector. This, coupled with the provisions for boosting solar presence in the country, has helped chart an expedited growth trajectory for the Renewable Energy sector. This has made the sector highly favourable for domestic manufacturers, and we are looking forward to playing a role in helping the country move towards a sustainable future of renewable energy security. With the Smart City initiative embracing rooftop solar power, we at Waaree Energies are ready to deliver. Additionally, with the elimination of the customs duty on solar tempered glass, manufacturing solar panels will now

become relatively cheaper. Being a leading energy company, we are also looking forward to helping the Government fulfil its ambitious goal of providing free electricity to 4 crore rural households, and creating more employment opportunities for the Indian manufacturing sector. What is the future of Waaree Energies in the PV industry? How much growth do you see in India over the next five to ten years? We are committed to making solar energy affordable and accessible to all, and have launched more than 200 Waaree stores across geographies. These stores have been established with the aim of educating people about solar power and helping them take advantage of solar products. These centres shall not only make solar solutions available to people, but also be the service centres for their solar products. We plan on launching more than 1000 such centres, so as to make solar power accessible across the length and breadth of the country. Waaree is coming up with a manufacturing facility of 1.2 GW by March 2018, to cater to the ever-increasing demand for quality solar modules. The launch of a patented structure design for the swift installation of solar panels on rooftops, with minimum components, shall help ease the time consuming and cumbersome process of rooftop solar power plant installation. We have already launched one of the most innovative technologies in solar modules - the Merlin Solar Module. Merlin modules have several unique strengths of their own, such as their flexibility and rugged nature, among others. It is a technology, which, besides mitigating hot spots or micro cracks, also generates more power, and provides an application advantage. There are many more exciting innovations currently underway, which shall be revealed in the days to come. Anything that we haven't talked about that you think is important for our readers to know? In India, Renewable energy has huge potential and demand, as we are an extremely power hungry country. However,


there is a major deficit between the demand and supply; so we definitely need power, irrespective of the source it comes from. Thus, our vision is to provide high quality and cost-effective sustainable energy solutions across all the markets. This will help us reduce our carbon footprint, while paving the way for sustainable energy, and as a result, improving the quality of the present and future human life. Even today, in certain villages and rural areas, medical stores don’t stock medicines requiring refrigeration, because of the costs involved. Electricity has now become the basic need of humans, being almost as important as air or water. Solar energy, being a form of green energy available freely to us, helps us in not only reducing our carbon footprint, but also controlling global warming. Thus, for a country like India, solar energy seems to be the best solution for its growing energy needs, making electricity available to even the remotest corner of the country. Electricity for all will not only help fulfil the basic necessity of mankind, but also fuel the economic growth of our country. We at Waaree are equipped to play a major role in manufacturing and supplying modules, and participating in EPC tenders, as well as providing third-party EPC services for utility-scale projects. We will continue to strengthen our presence in the rooftop segment as well, and participate as developers/investors in solar power projects, on a case-to-case basis. As part of our commitment towards the 100 GW target, we have introduced a floating solar solution, to facilitate the efficient use of water-body surfaces for solar capacity deployment.





India’s PV Module Manufacturing Sector Needs

Serious Attention I

ndia’s manufacturing sector is set to take a giant leap forward, with the government announcing a slew of measures to boost domestic manufacturing in recent past. As a result, various companies are gearing up to expand their production facilities in India. However, Indian manufacturers

continue to face a stiff competition with Chinese and other global manufacturers leading them to operate insufficiently. There could be various reasons ranging from the government’s existing domestic insufficient content policy to fewer types of subsidies or the interest rates on raw material thus making them to be inadequate in promoting the domestic PV module manufacturing industry. However, the challenges in the current policy regime and steps India might take to better position itself to become a global leader in the PV module manufacturing needs a strong overhaul.

Why India Needs to Build Solar

limited or no access to raw materials, lack

Solar power is the strategic need for the


Manufacturing Capacity?

of economies of scale, and inverted duty

country as it can potentially save USD 20

According to a research report - ‘State-level

billion in fossil fuel imports annually by 2030 and domestic manufacturing can save USD 42 billion in equipment imports by 2030. “In the absence of manufacturing, India will need to import $42 billion of solar equipment by 2030, corresponding to 100 GW of installed capacity,” warns a report by KPMG, an advisory firm. The report further highlighted that solar manufacturing can also create direct e m p l o y m e n t f o r m o re t h a n 5 0 , 0 0 0 people in the next five years assuming local manufacturing captures 50 percent domestic market share and 10 percent global market share.

Policy Analysis for PV Module Manufacturing in India’- prepared by a Bengaluru based Think Tank, Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy, stated, a module manufacturing facility is not very capital intensive; therefore, raising capital cost is not a big challenge to set up such a facility. Governments, both at central and state levels, provide incentives to subsidize the capital investment for module manufacturers. However, the research found that these capital subsidies are insufficient to make domestic manufacturing viable, as its impact is outsized by the other factors responsible for high prices. The research

Challenges Affecting Module

outlines three major challenges as under:

There are several factors which contribute to

2. High Interest Rate


1. Raw Material Cost

the higher cost of Indian modules, including

3. Inventory Management and Capital




Raw Material Cost

A significant share (80-90%) of module manufacturing cost is attributed to raw material alone. Raw material for a module mainly comprises cell, glass, encapsulant, backsheet, interconnect ribbon, sealant, junction box, etc. Among these, cell has the biggest cost share of ~70% whereas the rest have a ~30% share. Also, the falling prices make inventories extremely costly. High Interest Rate

The other challenge for a module manufacturing industry is high interest rate on capital, comprising 12-15% of the total module manufacturing cost. The current interest rates in India are in the range of 12- 15%, which are way higher compared to other countries. This analysis observes that high interest rate on working capital increases manufacturing costs. Access to cheaper working capital loans would help reduce costs.


Manufacture of solar panels (also called modules) start with polysilicon, which is made from silicon. Polysilicon is made into ingots, which are cut into wafers. Cells are made with wafers and a string of cells is a module. Today, only modules and cells are made in India, with imported material. When it comes to figures, currently, almost 90 percent of panels and modules in Indian projects are imported, mostly from China, Malaysia and Taiwan, as they are significantly cheaper than the ones made locally. According to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, the country has installed capacity for producing 3.1 GW of cells and 8.8 GW of modules (cells are used to make modules). Modules account for nearly 60 percent of a solar power project’s total cost. India’s solar power generation capacity has already more than tripled in three years to over 20 gigawatt (GW). Of India’s ambitious target of putting in place 175GW of clean energy capacity by 2022, 100GW is to come from solar projects. Local manufacturing capacity is anyway nowhere near enough to meet the target of 100 GW by 2022, which has been set by the central government. At present, the only incentives available for manufacturing these is the ModifiedSpecial Incentive Package Scheme, which is available to all electronic goods manufacturers and implemented by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Inventory Management And Capacity

of intermittent demand in the market.

As mentioned above, Indian module

materials and finished modules increase the


Therefore, higher inventory levels for raw

manufacturers are operating at very low

operating cost and puts upward pressure

capacity utilization; however the capacity is currently sufficient to cater to the demand. The major reason for this is lack of demand for domestic PV modules and unavailability and limited access to raw material. Therefore, to at least keep their plants running, raw materials are stored in the warehouse. Also, the finished modules need to be kept in the warehouse because

on manufacturing costs. More long term contracts with manufacturers could assist in this regard, allowing firms to procure raw material just in time to meet demand. Access to working capital is important for Indian companies to compete against the firms from China/ South East Asia, who offer better terms. Domestic Solar Manufacturing- Current Scenario Looks Bleak

Technology, but there have been few takers for the scheme. Will Government’s RecentProposals Change the Scenario?

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has eventually understood the hard core fact that the cell/module manufacturing capacity in the country is “obsolete”. This is why, MNRE headed by RK Singh plans to revolutionize this sector by introducing slew of measures to support solar manufacturing in India. In December, MNRE introduced a concept note’ to build up manufacturing capacity of solar PV modules, cells, wafers/




ingots and polysilicon in India. The Ministry

the capacity of its cell and module factory

panel internally by installing on rooftops

speaks of a “direct financial support” of Rs

in Andhra Pradesh from 500MW to 1GW

of all its manufacturing units and centres.

11,000 crore and a ‘technology upgradation


Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt Ltd,

fund’, for solar manufacturing.

LONGi’s India plans also come in the

one of India’s largest FMCG manufacturing

However, the concept note highlighted

backdrop of US President Donald Trump’s

and distribution companies has also stated

“even this capacity is not being fully

decision in January to levy tariff on imported

that its all three factories in Andhra Pradesh

exploited because of obsolete technology.”

solar panels that will impact Chinese module

and Telangana will start using solar power

Only 1.5 GW of cell manufacture and 3 GW


as the primary source of energy for its

of module manufacture is used.

Monocrystalline silicon is more efficient and

manufacturing operations. The company

Government has also come up with one

expensive as compared to multicrystalline

signed agreements with Vibrant Energy to

good thing in the recent budget where it

silicon, widely used globally in setting up

procure 2.7 crore units of solar power for

proposed that the duty on solar tempered

solar power projects. It also improves the

the three factories.

glass or solar tempered [anti-reflective

average efficiency of a solar panel, resulting

coated] glass for manufacture of solar

in better capacity utilization factor (CUF)

What Needs to be Done?

cells, panels, modules be reduced from 5

of a solar project.

solar industry needs to develop a larger

per cent to zero.

The world’s largest monocrystalline solar

policy framework than the one already exists

Foreign Companies to set up

wafer maker’s plans for India to come in

to support domestic manufacturing plans.

the backdrop of the National Democratic

Introducing favourable policies for domestic

Alliance (NDA) government conducting

solar manufacturing, driving innovation

an anti-dumping investigation on solar

through R&D support in the sector, focusing

equipment from China, Taiwan and Malaysia.

on skill development- are some of the steps

Additionally, India is exploring to levy a 70%

that Indian solar industry drastically needs

provisional safeguard duty on imported

for growth. In addition, state government

solar panels and modules from China

could promote DCR for Public Sector Units

and Malaysia, as recommended by the

consumption to ensure module demand

directorate general of safeguards. A final

and to help in local employment generation.

government decision is awaited.

Incentivizing manufacturing will also make

Domestic Companies Entering Into Solar

sure that India continues to remains a

Manufacturing Units- Market Glance

To make India globally competitive, Indian

leader towards fighting climate change.

There has been growing interest from

Government’s role towards this sector will

companies to set up domestic manufacturing

only find takers when they will come up with

facilities in India. According to consulting

effective policies in the renewable sector

firm Bridge to India, the Indian solar module

such as support domestic manufacturing,

market is dominated by Chinese firms,

and skill the workforce. Thus, more focus at

with domestic manufacturers accounting

challenges and better efforts at increasing

for only 10.6 percent market share. The Chinese firms that have recently expressed

domestic manufacturing capacity and Module Manufacturing

given India’s abundant human resource,

Indian companies are also entering into

solar potential, solar demand, and

in the country include Longi, Trina Solar

solar manufacturing. Last year, Yoga Guru

political will, India has the potential to be

and GCL-Poly Energy Holdings Ltd, both

Baba Ramdev’s Patanjali Ayurved Ltd,

more competitive in global solar module

from China.

India’s consumer goods products company,


LONGi Green Energy Technology Co.

announced its plans to diversify into solar

Ltd will be the first Chinese company to

power equipment manufacturing. The

set up a solar equipment manufacturing

Haridwar-based firm is investing around

facility in India. The company will invest

Rs 100 crore in its Greater Noida facility,

$309 million, including about $240 million

and the plant also plans to manufacture

in construction investment and roughly

chips and photovoltaic cells etc. Initially,

$68 million in working capital, to double

the company would consume all the solar

desire to set up manufacturing facilities




CHETAN SHAH Director | Goldi Green Technologies

Investors should be free From Government’s Complex Policies The government should come up with clear cut and well laid out policies as at present the Indian solar sector is totally dependent on it, believes Chetan Shah, Director, Goldi Green Technologies, one of the fastest growing Solar PV Module manufacturing companies in India. In conversation with Aaqib Javeed, Sub Editor, Saur Energy-International, Shah spoke at length by sharing his company plans and the challenges currently facing the solar industry. The following are excerpts from that exclusive interview.


To begin with, please share with us


How do you see the current sce-

to respond on this issue?

nario of the Indian solar industry?

The anti-dumping duty (ADD) when

The Indian solar industry is growing and

imposed will slightly affect the growth

in India?

is one of the fastest developing markets

of the Indian solar sector. But, it is a

Having initially begun operations with

globally besides China and the US. Both

positive move. In India there’s a saying

a small capacity in 2011, Goldi Green

international and domestic players have

that medicine is always bitter.

has rapidly increased its capacity to

a lot of hopes for India.

If you want to sell something in the Chinese

meet the growing demand for its solar

If you take a look at the past three years of

market, you must manufacture it in China.

PV modules. Today Goldi Green has an

India’s track record, all major corporations

This can be made true for India, too.

annual manufacturing capacity of 500MW

that were not in the solar business before

At present, we have the manufacturing

with plans to take it to 1GW in a short time.

are now turning into solar outfits or

capability and reputation but the policy

Besides staying ahead with the technology

branching out into solar. This shows that

framework to encourage domestic

curve, we have continuously kept ourselves

the market is sustainable.

manufacturing from government is lacking.

the commitment of Goldi Green

Technologies towards the solar sector

upgraded and enhanced our product quality to deliver better efficiencies with robust design.



It seems industry is divided over

Chinese products are available at much

the proposed anti-dumping duty

lower prices and that is hindering the

on solar imports? How would you like


growth of Indian manufacturing.



There should be some barriers, some

international repute (SGS-TUV-SAAR &

walls to restrict the imported supply of

UL India).

such goods at such low prices. This will

Besides being PID free our modules are

result in investors, stakeholders, and

certified for IEC61215, IEC61730, UL1703,

tackle those challenges and meet

manufacturers considering India as a

IEC61701, IEC62716, IEC62804 (PID) and

the country’s ambitious clean energy

manufacturing hub. As of now, many solar

CE Marking.


project installations are taking place in

We are also one of the very few global

First of all it is the need of the hour to

India but no one knows what will happen

companies having 4mm glass certification

come out with clear cut and well laid out

to these projects in regard to warranties

and the first Indian company to be audited

policies from the government. Secondly,

and long-term performance.

by SolarBuyer, USA.

there should not be any conflicting of goals

The government is infusing millions of dollars in subsidies to promote the sector.


In your opinion, what challenges India’s solar sector is currently

facing and what should be done to

How should India scale up its

or interests between different government

module manufacturing capacity?

bodies and implementing agencies,

What are your target/expectations for

which has ultimately hampered the pace

levied. The ADD is not a long-term solution,


of progress.

as I said before it will only slightly affect

Solar manufacturing is a demand oriented

With the burgeoning population of our

the growth of solar in India for the time

business. At present, counting all the

country, the solar industry would prove

being. I believe the growth of the Indian

companies that have unveiled expansion

to be the most effective in providing

solar industry should be domestic inclusive,

plans in India, the country is on track to

ample employment opportunities.

and to achieve that the short term and

have a cumulative module manufacturing

Solar companies are pumping in huge

long-term action plans should be in place.

capacity of above 10 GW. This means

investments in capacity expansions and

The imposition of the ADD will balance out

that now is the time to invest in cell

creating thousands of jobs too, but lack

the markets. The ADD should be imposed


of effective implementation of different

for a control period of up to five years. This

10 GW of module lines need 10 GW of

announcements by central government

would provide local manufacturers with

cell lines. It takes up to nine months to set

bodies can prove to be a dampener raising

the market visibility they need to scale

up a cell line and roll out the first batch

concerns among the industry players.

up. Even foreign manufacturers would be

of products. Cell manufacturers are now

At present the Indian solar sector is totally

willing to set up plants in India.

ensured of continued demand, so they

dependent on the government. Every

Indian products are respected around

should scale up so that their capacity

day the government is expected to do

the world in terms of product quality

parallels module lines.

something for the solar industry which

and serviceability, the ADD will help

Once that is achieved, manufacturers

creates uncertainty. The government

manufacturers by securing a level playing

should start looking towards wafers, ingots,

should only restrict itself to defining the


All of this will be fruitful once the ADD is


and polysilicon.

sector and the rules, policies, and laws

As a module manufacturer, how

Goldi Green has already expanded from

governing or pertaining to it. After that, the

do you ensure the quality check,

130 MW to 500 MW and by June 2018 we

individuals, industrialists, and investors

test results certifications of your PV

will have 1 GW of module manufacturing

should be free and independent within



those boundaries.

Goldi Green modules are manufactured in an ISO 9001:2015, ISO 14001:2015


What’s your take on the recent

India has reached 20GW of cumulative

budget announced by ArunJaitley

solar installations till January 2018, which

as far as the renewable sector is con-

automatic, robotic and dust free facility.

was the initial goal and which though it


Goldi Green panels undergo various

One of the positive announcements in the

took eight years to complete, has been

stringent quality checks right from the

budget was the reduction of customs duty

initial stage of the production process.

on tempered glass for solar to zero from

We source the best raw materials from

the existing 5%. Apart from the budget

reputed international companies and

announcements, introduction of GST has

our modules undergo in-house reliability

been a blessing for this sector with many

checks at various stages. Our modules

local and state taxes being scraped.

& OHSAS 18001:2007 certified, fully

four years ahead of schedule. Now installing another 80GW in a course of five years to achieve 100GW by 2022 is indeed a herculean task but not impossible.


are tested by third party laboratories of VOL 2 l ISSUE 7 l MARCH 2018 l SAUR ENERGY INTERNATIONAL



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Nuclear power and renewables propelling clean power generation - Pratap Anam The highlight of the ‘Paris Agreement’ at the United Nation’s COP21 global climate conference held in late-2015 was its ‘binding’ aspects for the signatory countries. Although partial in their scope, these constitute a more decisive step compared to the earlier global climate summits. To make the emission reduction commitments made by nations, called ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ (INDCs) under the Paris Agreement effective, an appropriate framework for transparency and accountability is being established now. Moving forward, the recent COP23 summit saw further unfolding of the modalities of achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement. India has taken an aggressive lead in reducing its carbon emissions – currently the third largest globally. Also China, presently the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases on the planet, has begun to clean up its act on a speedier time scale. In fact, after the Paris Climate Conference, India as well as China have put a lot of emphasis and directed several policy initiatives towards promoting cleaner power generation. Just prior to the Paris summit, India unveiled a plan to increase the share of clean power generation in the country, with a target to generate 40% of electricity by the year 2030 through greater use of renewables and other low-carbon sources, including solar, wind and nuclear power. This is a far-reaching initiative – one of the biggest plans globally – to clean up power generation, which will go a long way towards reducing the nation’s carbon footprint substantially. Similarly, China is very seriously pursuing clean energy and is moving rapidly away from fossil fuels like coal. Last year, China cancelled several coal-based power plants that were under proposal, in addition to shutting down many existing ones. There is a ground breaking shift taking place in the electricity supply modes in the world in recent times, especially in the last 3-4 years. The shift is from carbon-based air-polluting and climate-changing fuels to clean energy solutions that mark the transition to low-carbon electricity generation. To avoid irreversible, catastrophic climate change, the world must reduce its carbon use and ensure an ideal near-zero use of fossil fuels in the coming decades. This shift must be expedited right now by continually reducing our dependence on coal, oil and gas. In a quest to decarbonize power generation globally, a variety of solutions have been unleashed, including carbon tax, which have made polluting



energy producers to retreat away, like it is happening in several countries, especially European nations. Most European nations are following aggressive policies to move away from coal. Prior to the Climate Conference COP21, the UK announced its intentions to make its electricity generation coal-free by the year 2025. This is no small feat by any measure, especially since the UK has been a major coal producing nation in Europe historically and it also has a strong coal lobby. But all that is changing rapidly. In Europe, the UK is not alone in its enthusiasm and actions to unseat carbon from its predominant position in power generation. Many other European nations are deploying stricter environment policies for moving towards a future away from carbon. France is aggressively seeking to stop using coal for power generation, which it wants to do even before the UK achieves this target. While the UK wants coal to be out of the door by 2025, France wants to get rid of coal even earlier – by 2023. In an anticipated move, Canada has also declared its desire to completely phase out traditional coal power in the coming decade, hopefully by 2030. Clean power generation is marching in the US as well as other countries in that region. Europe has seen rising carbon taxes, which is one of the reasons why coal is increasingly loosing competitiveness. Additionally, now there is also this clear


realization that the real cost of fossil fuels goes much beyond the cost of electricity, as there is a huge invisible cost in terms of climate damage. A thing to note here is also the fact that while solar and wind continue to drop in prices, nuclear power is already cost competitive with coal-fired power plants. Nuclear power is safe, environment-friendly, cost-effective and entirely emissions-free once the plant begins generating electricity. These advantages put nuclear power at the forefront of the emerging clean energy paradigm. India is among 30 nuclear-power-generating nations, including the US, France, China, Russia and South Korea, to name a few. Even oil-rich Middle East countries are eager to explore greater avenues to use carbon-free power generation from renewable and nuclear energy. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), construction is progressing on four nuclear power reactors. The first reactor of these four is already approaching completion. Also, several other nations globally have plans to embrace nuclear power. A great favorable factor for India is the fact that we were among the earliest adopters of nuclear power in the world. We have a rich experience and an impeccable record of operating nuclear power plants safely and professionally. Currently, there are 22 nuclear power reactor units with 6780 MW installed capacity in operation in India. Several new projects – indigenous as well as with international collaboration – are being pursued. Four indigenous reactors of 700 MW capacity each

are under construction in the country, while work has started on India’s third and fourth VVER reactors, each of 1000 MW capacity. Also, sanction has also been accorded for adding fifth and sixth 1000-MW VVER reactors. Moreover, Government of India has accorded administrative approval and financial sanction for constructing 10 indigenous 700-MW PHWRs in fleet mode. Meanwhile, the 500-MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor is also approaching commissioning, which will be the stepping stone for the second stage of the India’s long-term three-stage nuclear power programme as envisioned by Dr. Homi J. Bhabha. In the coming years, the third-stage of the programme will be deployed utilizing the vast reserves of nuclear fuel thorium available in the country, which will enable the country to increase carbon-free power generation even further. Scaling up the share of emissions-free power-generation technologies like nuclear power is the need of the hour. Along with renewables, nuclear power enables environmentally benign, emissions-free electricity generation to mitigate climate change. The faster we increase our efforts in this direction, the better.



Vineet Mittal Director | Navitas Solar


What are the current trends in India’s solar industry? A. We see high growth trends in Indian Solar industry with distributed segment set to pick up with policies getting stable and prices coming down. There are however few policy matters like safeguard duty which is holding off interest in utility scale solar segment. How would you like to respond to government’s role to manufacturers for establishing a solar power plant? Do you think they are doing enough for the solar sector? Government's role can be of a facilitator and with the recent draft policy document, they have shown intent to help domestic manufacturing industry to grow in phased manner and if the objectives can be matched with clear roadmap to off take, we understand that we are moving in right direction. Do you think India has reached its low in solar tariffs or is there scope for the further decrease in solar tariffs? Or will we see the tariffs see a reverse trend? A. Presently, tariffs seem to have achieved a lower base but future decline cannot be discounted. The decline is due to courtesy of lesser cost of finance and fall in prices of modules. Both of the factors have remained stable from past few months. Rise from present levels of tariff is not predicted at the moment but we will not be surprised if a little correction happens as storage comes into play. What is your take on Chinese module manufacturers who offer cheaper prices than Indian or European manufacturers? A. There are different types of manufacturers everywhere and to term each manufacturer in a single category won't be right but looking at macro level, Chinese manufacturers do get



Please introduce us to Navitas Solar and also share with us some of the recent past achievements in India? A. Navitas Solar is a dynamic solar energy company based out of India whose business is manufacturing Solar PV Modules, providing turnkey EPC services to Solar PV projects and various solar energy technology applications and investing in rooftop solar projects to supply electricity. Recently, we have expanded our manufacturing capacity to 200 MW per annum from 75 MW per annum. Navitas Solar appears to have a foothold in all of the major solar photovoltaic technologies, producing multi-crystalline module equipment. Can you tell what advantages do Navitas Solar panels have over other brands? A. It is true that we are catering to different solar PV technology applications and it requires different type of Solar Modules. Advantage which a buyer has when choosing Navitas Solar Modules is that they get best quality product for our raw material comes from the best available sources and our manufacturing process is highly automated to achieve best of workmanship reducing chances of faulty product. We focus on quality and customers are assured to get value for money. Can you tell us more about your cell technology, and how that increases cell efficiencies? A. Cell technology which we are using is both poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline. Research made into the field has allowed us to deliver higher output per module.


Q 38




benefits from the State which makes them more competitive in pricing their products cheaper than the rest of the world for which governments need to come up with solutions to provide a level playing field. Many players are now in this industry and it seems competition is also high. How are you taking this challenge? What kind of innovation are you coming up with? While it remains true that new entrants are making competition stiffer day by day but on the other hand market is also expanding making space for quality manufacturers and service providers. We are very much focused on customer satisfaction and generating brand loyalty in our customer base to secure our market share and also scaling up to keep up with the growing market, both domestic as well as overseas.



What are your views about the decline in solar prices in India and globally? It is a known fact that with increased capacity comes the decline in price. Worldwide PV manufacturing capacity has increased manifolds and research has also led to increase output per unit which has resulted in overall price decline. Do you want to add anything else that our readers want to know about your company? A. Yes, we are a group of young people in business of making the world a better place by promoting use of new and sustainable source of energy, the Sun. Everyone who believes they can make a difference are welcome to join us.



Technical Guide for Power Conditioning & Power Back-Up Solutions Launched Consul Neowatt the Global India UPS company launched a technical guide on power conditioning & power back solutions for consultants and electrical engineering professionals. The first copy of the kit was handed over to Mr Pankaj Dharkar, President FSAI (Fire Safety Association of India) by Mr Sriram Ramakrishnan, MD & CEO, Consul Neowatt Power Solutions at theFSIE 2018 exhibition in Bangalore. The guide – PowerFULL Solutions has been developed by the technical team at Consul Neowatt keeping in mind the challenges faced by consultants and electrical engineering professionals in designing power back up and power conditioning solutions for their projects that meet customer, regulatory requirements in being reliable, efficient, safe and green. Speaking on the occasion Sriram Ramakrishnan, MD & CEO, Consul Neowatt said, “In our interactions over the years with the consultant fraternity and engineers

involved in the design of low voltage power systemswe repeatedly saw a void in the availablity of a comprehensive and reliable field tested guide on factors to consider in the design of power backup and power conditioning solutions. The guide – PowerFULL Solutions has been developed by the technical team at Consul Neowatt highlighting the various considerations and trade-offs in designing the optimal power backup and power conditioning solution to meet specific customer project requirements.” with discussions on various UPS topologies and configurations along with the choice of right UPS and battery technology which can provide an optimal solution for a project. “ The technical guide - PowerFULL Solutions is a complete resource that contains information on power quality, the types of power problems that are seen due to power quality issues and also has extensive discussions on various UPS configurations and topologies along with the choices on

UPS and battery technologies. It also has information on innovative products like Active Harmonic Filters, Static Transfer switches, Solar Inverter with energy storage, Isolated Power Supply (IPS) for Hospitals that is expected to see wider use with increasing awareness and regulatory changes. Pankaj Dharkar, President FSAI said, “the consultant kit is an ideal tool and timely too for the consultant fraternity, as power becomes all pervasive as we move towards fully networked and connected environments. Consultants are required to design systems that are cost effective, efficient and safe and I am sure this kit would be a ready reckoner that consultants would refer for power conditioning and power back up solutions as it comes backed with over 3 decades of field experience by Consul Neowatt team.” The consultant kit available in an easy to refer electronic version at the Consul Neowatt Website.

Saurabh Marda

Founder and Managing Director | Freyr Energy

India's long-term approach should be tax incentive based for solar sector To boost the solar sector in the country, a tax incentive based approach across all customer segments is going to be a more sustainable long term approach, believes Saurabh Marda, Founder and Managing Director, Freyr Energy, Hyderabad-based full solar service solutions provider. In conversation with Saur Energy's Sub-Editor, Manu Tayal; Marda spoke at length sharing his company plans and the challenges currently faced by the solar industry. The following are excerpts from that exclusive interview.


Could you give us a brief overview

Microgrids. Our customers include home

to assess loan options for Individual as

of your company, various pro-

owners, farmers, hospitals, educational

well as MSME clients.


ducts & services and its contribution

institutes etc.

towards clean energy?

We have also developed India’s first mobile

Freyr Energy is a Hyderabad based

solar application called Freyr SunPro which

full solar service solutions provider

is our proprietary software. This allows

of Freyr Energy’s achievements in the

with operations in India and three other

our sales team and channel partners to

recent past?

countries overseas. The company’s

instantly design and price solar systems

In the last three years, Freyr has installed

products range from Rooftop Systems,

based on the end-customer’s needs. In

over 900+ solar systems across 16 states

Petrol Pumps, Solar Water Pumps to

addition to this, the app also has facility

in India, impacting over 50,000+ lives in



Being one of the fastest growing companies in the solar sector,

can you tell our readers about some


rural India and Ghana. In addition to that, we now have operations in three other countries. In the last three years, we have


How does Freyr Energy’s microgrid

two meetings with the customer.

solutions have an upper hand

The app is easily available for download

over others offerings?

on Google Playstore as well as the iOS

grown ~15X and turned profitable in Year

Freyr’s solutions have helped power

App store. We see a lot of individuals

3 itself. SunPro is currently being used by

significant sections of rural India. Our ability

increase their income by over 100% by

over a 1,000 people to design and sell

to successfully navigate these social and

using SunPro.

solar systems.

geographical challenges, work with local

We were one among the Top 10 winners

communities and create long-term impact

of Anita B. Org’s Women Entrepreneur

sets us apart. For example, we regularly

Quest (WEQ 2017), chosen among 257

work in areas affected by extremists.

solutions for both our end-customers and


Most sites require on-foot transportation

channel partners. In India, we expect to

What are the major microgrid

ranging from 5 km to 15 km in hilly terrain,

capture 10% market share and expand

projects that Freyr Energy has

streams etc.

to 25 countries in the next three years.


completed so far. How have they impacted the lives of people in rural



What are Freyr Energy’s ambitious plans for the next five years?

Our goal is to continue offering innovative

Last year Freyr launched SunPro.

Thrust areas for us would be technology

How does it help individuals

development and deployment. Energy

and companies in running their solar

storage is the next big thing in the industry,

Freyr Energy is closely involved with the


and we are focused on providing cost

government to electrify villages, specifically

The Freyr SunPro mobile application is

effective solutions in this area as well.

in naxal hit areas. We have electrified more

designed to help an entrepreneur run his

than 100 villages in the naxal inflicted

solar business with ease. It is equivalent

region of Paderu in Andhra Pradesh and

to a 5 person team consisting of design

also have ongoing projects in Manipur,

engineer, pricing specialist, customer

done to tackle these challenges?

Assam and UP, to name a few.

management, supply chain and project

While the scope for this sector is

In terms of long term benefits, there is a

management, having 24x7 support,

tremendous, the biggest challenge

sense of security and increased ability

and with 365 days to close orders.

which the sector is facing is the lack

to participate in alternative activities

The entrepreneur makes a negligible

of participation at the grassroot level.

for women in rural communities due to

investment and also, does not need to

In addition to that, the current subsidy

access to energy and reduced reliance

have a background in solar to get started.

based policy of encouraging customers

on daylight. An increased competitiveness

The channel partners focus on selling, and

is not generating the desired results. We

of companies and increased ability for

closing the deals with SunPro. Once the

believe a tax incentive based approach

households to adapt and respond to

deal is closed, we take it on from there

across all customer segments is going to

economic shocks and stresses due to

to provide installation, assembly and after

be a more sustainable long term approach.

improved productivity and increased cost

sales support.

Finally, by encouraging banks to provide

India and Ghana?

savings has also been witnessed. Overall impact of our work goes beyond economics:


blocks which the Indian solar

sector is facing, and what should be

Is SunPro helpful for entrepreneurs

long-term financing, another major hurdle

who lack in understanding of

around affordability will be overcome.

the solar or electrical sector? Tell

• 5,000+ students have access to better

us something about the investment

quality education infrastructure


• 20,000+ tribals/villagers have access

With FreyrSunPro app, the user does not

to electricity

need a solar or electrical background

• 17,000 people in Ghana have better

anymore to start their business. The training

healthcare infrastructure

time to use the SunPro is less than 1 hour.

• 2,000+ people have reliable access to

The tool is so easy to use that anyone

drinking water supply

from any background can use it to start

According to USAID funded study, our

immediately in the sector. It can provide

US$1 raised is US$4.62.

design, pricing and proposal generation

Social Return on Investment for every


What do you think are the road-


an instantaneous, error free system for that reduces sales cycle time to just oneVOL 2 l ISSUE 7 l MARCH 2018 l SAUR ENERGY INTERNATIONAL


The Dark Truth of QCA:

Who is Paying Whose Penalty? The solar and wind power generation shows a promising future in India. But due to the variability and intermittency, large scale renewable energy penetration in existing grid is a challenge and the proper policy and regulatory mechanisms, technological solutions and institutional structures are key issues in solar and wind energy penetration. The ‘Forecasting and Scheduling’ (F&S) of variable renewable energy (Solar and Wind) generation is an essential requirement of the stable grid system due to the balancing challenge in load and generation. The concept of forecasting and scheduling of renewable energy generators and the commercial settlement was introduced in Indian context by CERC through Indian Electricity Grid Code (IEGC), 2010. Considering the recent development of different state regulations, the DSM charges are to be computed on a monthly basis. Hence IPPs have to submit their day-ahead power generation forecast and schedule (F&S) to SLDC to manage the grid stability. 1. Grid instability in aggregated forecast / Geographical Integration The grid is not a source/sink of infinite capacity and transmission capacity is not infinite, hence as per regulations the F&S is generation centric. But interestingly, in name of forecast few stakeholders are encouraging the aggregation of different pooling station having different spatial position violating the regulations and this aggregation breaks the basic structure of the grid-network with a massive penetration of RE energy in the grid. Without introducing the complex transmission-distribution network structure, a simple computational framework in this article describes that the aggregated forecast not only violates the regulations in the name of relaxation or compromise, but this type of forecast plays with the stability of the grid making the grid unstable which has socioeconomic consequences. Without going complex structure of grid network let define a simple structure where we have three variable generation grid nodes say G1, G2 and G3 for simplicity, let define three Load dispatch points L1, L2 and L3 such that L1 lies between G1 and G2, L2 lies between G2 and G3, and L3 lies between G3 and G1. The structure is made as simple as possible for the energy flow such that a generation station can distribute its generation in its two nearest Load dispatch points. For simplification, this analysis considers only energy flow in the network to find the stability of the network. Any complex grid network can be simplified into this basic working model. At any time-instant t, the rectangular box in each network path shows three variables: the amount of energy (or Power) transferred from Generating node to Load node, the transmission capacity (in terms of energy or Power) of the network path and cost of transmission.


By Abhk Kumar Das, Del2infinity Energy Consulting

X(t) and Y(t) is two basic variables in such a way that considering the generation of G1, L3 and G2, L1, min{G1 (t),L3 (t)}≥X(t)≥0 min{G2 (t),L1 (t)}≥Y(t)≥0 Considering the transmission capacity between G1 and L3, and the same between G1 and L3 T13≥X(t) T11≥G1(t)-X(t) The last two equations transforms into T13≥X(t)≥G1(t)- T11 Similarly, considering the transmission capacity between G3 and L2, and the same between G3 and L2, T32≥G3 (t)-L3 (t)+X(t) T33≥L3 (t)-X(t) The last two equations transforms into T32-(G3 (t)-L3 (t))≥X(t)≥L3 (t)-T33 Hence,

min{G1 (t),L3 (t),T13,T32-(G3 (t)-L3 (t))}≥X(t) ≥max{0,G1 (t)- T11,L3 (t)-T33 }

Similarly, considering the transmission capacity between G2 and L1, and the same between G2 and L2, T21≥Y(t) T22≥G2 (t)-Y(t)


The last two equations transforms into, T21≥Y(t)≥G2 (t)-T22 Hence, min{G2 (t),L1 (t),T21 }≥Y(t)≥max{0,G2 (t)-T22 } Hence we can write,


If the region A(t) exists for each t then the network is stable i.e. maintaining the grid is nothing but to maintain the area A(t) positive. By simple calculation one can show that A(t) depends on the each value of G1, G2 and G3 separately but not on the sum of its values i.e. G1 + G2 + G3. Interestingly since it is a variable generation and A(t) is not constant but to get the +ve value of A(t) we need a prediction of G1, G2 and G3 separately but not as a sum or aggregation of those values. Due the variability the region A(t) becomes as follows:

XMAX (t)≥X(t)≥XMIN (t) YMAX (t)≥X(t)≥YMIN (t)

XMAX (t)=min{G1 (t),L3 (t),T13,T32-(G3 (t)-L3 (t))} XMIN (t)=max{0,G1 (t)- T11,L3 (t)-T33 } YMAX (t)=min{G2 (t),L1 (t),T21 } YMIN (t)= max{0,G2 (t)-T22 }

At load node L1 and L2 we can state that G1 (t)-X(t)+Y(t)≥L1 (t) G3 (t)-L3 (t)+X(t)+G2 (t)-Y(t)≥L2 (t) The last equations shows that {G3 (t)-L3 (t)}+{G2 (t)-L2 (t)}≥Y(t)-X(t)≥ -{G1 (t)-L1 (t)} Hence for network stability we have three major working inequalities: {G3 (t)-L3 (t)}+{G2 (t)-L2 (t)}≥Y(t)-X(t)≥ -{G1 (t)-L1 (t)} XMAX (t)≥X(t)≥XMIN (t) YMAX (t)≥X(t)≥YMIN (t)

Here the red area is actual requirement and the area of A(t) decreases due to the uncertainty of the generation. Suppose schedule generation of G1, G2 and G3 are not known separately, then the following situation may arise:

Using simple Linear Programming, one can state that these three inequalities define a region as follows,

Here A(t) does not exist and can be considered to 0. Hence the aggregated forecast creates instability when A(t) is not positive. Even in a simple network, the aggregated forecast creates the instability in the grid system. Considering the state level complex network structure of generation-transmission-distribution of power, it is very simple to state that the grid will fail in case of aggregated forecasting of wind and solar power generation.



2. Forecast at Pooling Station: Who is Paying Whose Penalty? A forecast model of solar and wind power generation can be viewed as probabilistic evolution to generate different plausible patterns considering the unscheduled fluctuations. A good forecasting system is a process which gives proper accuracy with minimum penalty due to deviation even in a small capacity of solar/wind plants with high variability with minimum number of intraday revisions. This article concentrates on the theoretical structure of the aggregated forecast. 2. A. Measure using Central tendency The major assumption in aggregated forecast is that the positive and negative error can cancel each other in the long run and hence the average error in aggregated forecast is very small or under acceptable limit. But it only works when the error is measure using MAE or RMSE while the error measurement in Indian regulation is different. To formulate the theoretical structure in a simplified manner lets consider two solar or wind plants of capacity C 1 and C². Without representing the detail algebraic construction of the error distribution, the aggregated forecast error at i-th time-block can be represented as e_agg (i)=ω1 e1 (i)+ω2 e2 (i)

Where ω1 and ω2 are the scaling factor such that ω1+ω2=1 and ω1/ω2 =C1/C2. Hence, in the average case (or the expected value in error according to statistical theory) we can consider μ_e=ω_1 μ_e1+ω_1 μ_e2 Where μe, μe1and μe2 are the average error in aggregated forecast, forecast of plant 1 and forecast of plant 2 respectively. Since ω_1 and ω_2 are in the ratio of their plant capacity, the existent de-pooling mechanism considers to divide the penalty due to deviation of two plants according to their plant capacity or depending on the ratio of the energy generation at a particular time-block in which the penalty exists.

2. B. Measure of Dispersion The generation of solar and wind power is best described using the Wold’s representation theorem according of which solar/wind generation can be represented as the summation of deterministic and stochastic time series. The error in forecasting comes from the stochastic time series in Wold’s decomposition while the maximum portion of the power generation is deterministic. Hence, 1. Solar and wind power generation are not random. Moreover the ramping occurrences have specific distribution depending on plant characteristics according to Wold’s theorem. 2. The power generation characteristics (or statistical distribution) is not same for each PV panel / turbine or each plant of the group of aggregation Considering the variation in error forecasting the variance of the aggregated error can be represented as, σe2=ω12 σe12+ ω22 σe22+2ω1 ω2 ρσe1 σe2 2 2 Where σe , σe1 and σe22 are the variance in the error distribution for aggregated forecast, forecast of plant 1 and forecast of plant 2 respectively. Here ρ is the correlation coefficient. Considering the two plants are almost in the same location, this value tends to 1, i.e. ρ→1. With some simple algebraic manipulation, it can be shown that, if ρσe2>σe1, which is a natural phenomena unless the characteristics and power generation patterns in both plants are same, σe1<σe<σe2 Hence, in the long run, the variance of the error distribution lies between the variance of each plant. Without much loss of generality, we can consider the error distribution in forecasting of solar/wind follows a Gaussian distribution with mean 0 but with different standard deviations as shown in the figure.

This assumption in aggregated forecast is correct in some cases, but not sufficient, as it does not consider the variability analysis of the power generation and only plays with the measure of central tendency of the error distribution. This incomplete theory in the aggregated forecast is an issue and hence no valid logical framework is available in calculating the ‘de-pooling’ mechanism in calculating the penalty payable for each plant in case of aggregated forecast.



For the error distribution, the area under the curve in -15% - +15% can represent the accuracy of the forecast as this represents the probability that the plant does not have to give any deviation penalty as the deviation error is under +/- 15%. As shown in the figure, since the standard deviations are different for two plants, the accuracy of plant 1 is reduced due to the aggregated forecast. Hence, in the long run, the plant 1 is actually paying the penalty due to deviation of plant 2 due to aggregated forecast. Hence, considering the multiple plants we can state that, with aggregation, the occurrence of high variability in the generation of one plant affects the error of other plants having stable generation even in the long run. Interestingly, plant specific forecasting does not have this type of anomaly as it solely depends on its own performance not affected by the performance of other plants. Moreover the commercial settlement in penalty due to deviation is comparatively simple in case of plant specific forecast. Hence, Solar/Wind Plant specific Forecast should be encouraged rather than formation of QCA due to the following reasons: a) Performance of one plant affects the performance of other plant. The question arises, who is paying whose penalty. b) There exist no standard de-pooling mechanism (hence no concrete guidelines are available in any regulations) due to the following reasons: i. All plants under same pooling substation may not have similar nature PV panels/Turbine ii. All plants under same pooling substation can not have same solar insolation/wind speed distribution at the same time iii. All plants under same pooling substation can not have a same transmission loss iv. All plants under same pooling substation can not have same inverter efficiency/characteristics v. Plants under same pooling substation differs in PPA vi.Plants under same pooling substation differs in their capacity factors c) Since proper de-pooling mechanism is not a technically feasible option, the F&S at Pooling level can be seen as an option but not only option of F&S. d) If a Solar/Wind plant/IPP want to submit their own forecast separately, the possibility must be entertained and encouraged and the plant must get a fair chance to present their case properly. e) A provision must be there to submit F&S separately by a plant without opting for QCA like the provision made by AP regulations. 3. Techno-Legal perspective – a logical and rational point of view:

In case of any dispute between the SLDC & any IPP(s) with regards to its forecasting and scheduling related DSM, the issues will be as follows in case to case basis, which bring the dark reality: what is the point having a QCA as a Third Party?

(a) If any IPP want to dispute a DSM issued by SLDC, QCA shall not support such IPP, as that will damage QCA’s relation with SLDC. If a QCA is forecasting for 2000+ MW in a state, if there is any issue/dispute with DSM with any of its customers for example a 100 MW plant/IPP, then QCA shall not support said the 100 MW IPP, as that may jeopardize the F&S for the remaining 1900 MW. So, whenever there will be any dispute with SLDC, QCA is going to leave such IPP alone to fight and resolve and litigate with SLDC (b) Once the BG invocation letter is issued by SLDC, in case of failure to deposit penalty in time, if QCA fails to take appropriate legal steps within time, and fails to obtain a stay order against such Bank Guarantee (‘BG’) invocation letter issued by SLDC, then it may become very tough for IPPs to save it’s BG provided if IPP would have submitted its own BG directly to SLDC. (c) Had it been a case that IPP would have it registered as QCA, then IPP would have approached the appropriate forum or court to adjudicate the matter and resolve the issue in the judicial process. But in the current scenario, QCA may not file any case, as it may deteriorate its relationship with SLDC, so all its other customer whom QCA is providing services may suffer or QCA may be scared that if the QCA stand against the SLDC then SLDC shall increase the strictness of its scrutiny which QCA would not like to face for a single customer. (d) Had it been a case that IPP would have it registered as QCA, then IPP would have approached the appropriate forum or court to adjudicate the matter and resolve the issue in the judicial process as it directly has a PPA with state or directly have a PPA with the state DISCOM through SECI or NTPC. In both cases, it will be easy for IPPs to invoke the SERC or CERC or court jurisdiction and get a stay order against such invocation of BG. But in case QCA comes in between it will be no more be a simple bye-party dispute in between the generator and State. Moreover, there is no underlying agreement with SLDC directly with IPP so, ideally no application for temporary relief under arbitration act, as the case may be shall not be available for protecting the BG. Court may not entertain, as it will be become a back to back BG invocation dispute. Then what is the point having a QCA? Having a QCA in between would actually weaken IPPs case to get a relief against the State or SLDC directly. Moreover, if there is a QCA in between, then IPP will not have an argument that there is no point of encashing the BG as substantial payment is receivable from the State itself so DSM/F&S penalty may be adjusted from such payments to be received from States. This shall help IPP with above immediate cash crunch and liquidity issue and save the BG. (e) In another case, when the IPP has not submitted separate BGs with SLDC, and submitted a BG to QCA and QCA would have submitted a back to back BG to SLDC. In such case, if there is any BG invocation notice, IPP would like to go against such invocation as incorrect, but in that case also as IPP is not



directly linked with SLDC for F&S / DSM settlement so IPP may not be able to file a case against SLDC without making QCA a party. So, in one-way IPPs BG is lying with QCA and back to back BG is with SLDC. In such case if IPP loses the case because of negligence of QCA, IPP will be victimized. (f) In the above-mentioned scenario, the back-back BG arrangement will fail, because IPP may get an injunction from its court that will protect the BG given by IPP to QCA but shall not protect the BG issued by QCA to SLDC. So, ultimately, some other IPPs’ BG would be invoked and released to SLDC, in this process. So, back to back BG issuance may turn out to be very costly for some other IPP who would have nothing to do this transaction or not even a party for the same state even. But his BG will be encased, QCA will not be able replenished the same as it is not at all that cash rich, ultimately one IPP shall suffer at the end of it only because of the fact that it had a common QCA. (g) In the above referred case, if a back to back BG is issued to SLDC but there is no mechanism to identify which one is whose BG. So, in a case when BG for 100 MW wind plant is invoked toward DSM demand it will require a total (43,000*100= 43,00,000/-) to pay such demand of F&S DSM settlement. In case if such wind plant is not in a position to pay at that point of time and fail to make payment in due time and its BG with QCA is not honored, then at the same time SLDC may have invoked the BG for the same amount submitted by QCA-BGs. The same QCA would have submitted BG for another 1900 MW plants with SLDC, then SLDC will invoke BG for an amount of Rs 43 Lacs. Which might be submitted by some other 100 MW wind plant and this 100 MW wind plant would be sufferer only because of the fact that QCA is common. So, having a QCA in between as a common feature may become a reason for being affected financially. In that case, QCA is not all that rich or does not even have that net worth/ liquidity to replenish such BG with SLDC. So, this innocent IPP, who does not even have a DSM settlement at all, shall be victims of an act of a QCA. (h) Most of the QCA is a small entity in comparison with a Wind plant (INR 7.5–8 Cr./MW) & Solar plant (INR 5-7.5 Cr./MW). So, expecting that QCA shall fight properly, diligently against the SLDC if there is any dispute with SLDC is not a rational or wise decision. QCAs may fool IPPs upto a level, but the basic fact, the QCA is a very weak-small-entity to fight against SLDCs, whereas an IPP shall even fight more seriously as ultimately, it’s IPP or its investor’s money which is at stake. QCA has nothing at stake at the end of the day, QCA is merely just a Forecasting and scheduling consultant. (i) If there is no mutual consensus between different Solar or Wind generators, single QCA cannot work. A provision should be incorporated, to accommodate Power generator who can go alone without opting for a QCA or would like to change once suffered by any QCA’s inaccurate performance like the provisions


made by AP regulations. (j) Monopoly by any QCA for any pooling station or ‘Forcing Consensus’, should not be encouraged by statute is illegal in limine. Moreover, IPP should have the liberty to submit its own forecasting, it will be unjust, irrational, unreasonable if IPPs are compelled to choose to work with a single QCA even if the QCA fails to perform with accurate forecasting and IPP suffers for the activities of the QCA in DSM. If only one QCA is appointed for a particular sub-station and SLDC disagree to appoint an alternative option or QCA or IPP itself, in such case, then the IPPs should have right to raise a dispute/issue with the accuracy of the QCA’s forecasting accuracy or performance, then SLDC should compensate such IPPs for inaccurate forecasting by such QCA. The IPPs should have a choice to appoint its own QCA or Forecasting service provider or allowed to submit its own F&S itself, so IPPs cannot be compelled to pay unnecessary DSM for SLDCs actions. Otherwise the plant with low capacity installation, but having good ‘Capacity Factor’ will suffer the most. Since there is no risk mitigation of penalty by the low capacity installation, smaller developers will be reluctant to set up the system. (k) Last but not the least, considering the situation, whenever there will be a major grid failure, attracting attention of all general public that such failure may have caused due to some aggregated forecasting, a concept proposed and implemented by few QCA, then all these Forecasting & scheduling acts/ regulations will be scrutinized, interpreted and analyzed judiciously in view of the fact that all needs to protect the Grid, which is national property. If in that case, court finds that QCA is involved in any kind of gaming and has been involved in any kind of misinterpretation of financial benefit, then all such IPPs, who will be working with such QCA or appointed such QCA innocently will be worth his. The investigating authority shall take all the IPPs in loop believing that IPP would have appointed such QCA for getting such financial benefits as the cost of grid stability. This will unnecessarily harass and humiliate and force all such IPP officials to face court cases and inquiries before different forum, without any of its failure or offense, being totally innocent. Then what is the point having a QCA? IPP is the best QCA, there may be short term relief by appointing so called QCA as a third party, but in long term IPP will suffer and victimized; and the Grid will suffer the most with its high penetration of wind and solar energy.



10 Trends That Will Shape the Global Solar Market in 2018 : GTM Research It's going to be a big year for solar around the world. The global solar market grew by 26 percent last year, with 99 gigawatts of grid-connected PV capacity installed. According to GTM Researchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new Global Solar Data Hub, 2018 will be the first-ever triple-digit year for the global solar market, with an anticipated 106 gigawatts of PV coming online. Amid all of that growth, several notable shifts are expected to take place. The solar analysts at GTM Research have highlighted 10 trends that will shape the solar market in 2018. 1. Global solar tenders continue to proliferate GTM Research counts 53 national markets where a tendering or auction scheme is currently in place, up from 32 in the second half of 2016. Furthermore, there are an additional 29 national markets where a tendering or auction scheme has been discussed or planned. Senior Analyst Tom Heggarty notes that more than 3 gigawatts' worth of solar tenders will be announced in the first quarter of 2018 alone.

2. The global market is diversifying, but large countries still dominate China, the U.S., India and Japan will continue to dominate demand in 2018, but their share of overall global market will shrink from 82 percent in 2017 to 72 percent in 2018. The number of countries installing 1 gigawatt or more annually will grow from nine to 14 over the course of these two years. The five countries poised to cross the 1-gigawatt annual threshold for the first time in 2018 are Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, the Netherlands and Spain.



MARKET GLANCE 3. The U.S. is diversifying, too New data from GTM Research shows that 18 U.S. states will install 1 gigawatt or more of PV between 2018 and 2022. Combined, these states will account for 80 percent of U.S. installations during the same time period.

4. PV continues to compete with (and beat) coal and natural gas According to GTM Research’s Global Solar Demand Monitor, recent bids are pushing average PPA tariffs past the cost-competitive range with coal and gas. “It is important to note that nearly all global low-bid projects have long lead times and are still unbuilt and unproven,” said GTM Research Solar Analyst Ben Attia. “Three to five years is an eternity in the solar space. It remains to be seen how market and country-level risks will erode the tendered pipelines.”



MARKET GLANCE 5. A bumpy road for module supply The excess capacity ratio is the ratio between available capacity and demand. GTM Research defines a healthy solar module ECR range as one that falls between 30 and 60 percent. When the ECR is within this range, module prices are more likely to decline at stable rates. When ECR exceeds this range, the market is oversupplied and prices are expected to decline at more rapid rates. Looking toward 2018, GTM Research is forecasting supplydemand tightness in the first half of 2018 and an oversupplied environment in the second half. This means there is risk that prices will increase in the first half of the year and depreciate rapidly in the final six months. Senior Analyst Jade Jones notes that price appreciation in the first half of the year may be limited as suppliers clear excess inventory in the supply chain. But some regional module prices may be stable or even up around April as module demand in China picks up before another round of feed-in tariff cuts.

6. Balance-of-system costs will be an important cost-reduction driver In 2018, balance-of-system costs will account for the largest share of utilityscale PV project costs. GTM Research Solar Analyst Rishab Shrestha notes that efficiency improvements, higher-wattage modules, and 1,500-volt systems will provide BOS cost savings, in addition to hardware cost reductions, helping solar to compete against other sources of generation in markets around the globe.

7. Module-level power electronics outpace centralized and string inverters Microinverters and DC optimizers only make up a fraction of the overall inverter market today, but growing distributed generation markets and a heightened focus on safety will result in the continued proliferation of these technologies.



MARKET GLANCE 8. U.S. residential solar pricing is the highest in the world Despite falling prices globally, residential solar system pricing is higher in the U.S. than in any other major Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) solar market. Within the U.S., pricing varies significantly by state. According to GTM Research’s Ben Gallagher, “variations in hardware costs, wages, taxes, permitting and market fundamentals produce as much as a 68 cents per watt difference in pricing between states.” Companies will continue to look for ways to reduce customer-acquisition costs, and even more so now due to the recent Section 201 decision on tariffs. 9. Storage continues to be integrated into solar projects Public Service Company of Colorado (an Xcel Energy subsidiary) launched an all-source solicitation in 2017 as a component of its 2016 Electric Resource Plan. While the bids haven’t yet been evaluated, the released details provide a window into the future of utility resource planning. "Over 350 of the bids (83 percent) were for renewables or renewables paired with storage," states GTM Research's Ravi Manghani in a report on the topic. "In terms of megawatts, [renewables represent] an even more astonishing 91 percent of all proposed projects." "These bids highlight utilities' interest in solar-plusstorage, and they provide a real-world benchmark for how price-competitive these systems are," said GTM Research Senior Analyst Dan Finn-Foley. 10. Tariffs damper U.S. solar market According to an analysis by GTM Research, the tariffs on imported solar cells and modules set forth by the Trump administration will result in an 11 percent decrease in U.S. solar PV installations over the next five years. This represents a reduction of 7.6 gigawatts of installed solar PV capacity between 2018 and 2022 versus previous forecasts. Projects under construction or with modules already in inventory will temper the impact on 2018 installations, with the effect of tariffs hitting the downstream market more heavily in 2019. According to GTM Research, the utility-scale solar segment will be more heavily affected than the residential and commercial solar segments, taking 65 percent of the expected 7.6 gigawatts of reductions over the next five years. “The overall effect is a meaningful but not destructive reduction to expected solar installations, along with with modest improvements to a still-challenging environment for domestic solar cell and module manufacturing,” said MJ Shiao, GTM Research’s head of Americas. Despite some speed bumps, GTM Research anticipates the global solar market to eclipse the cumulative 500-gigawatt mark in the second half of 2018. VOL 2 l ISSUE 7 l MARCH 2018 l SAUR ENERGY INTERNATIONAL



New Lead-Free Perovskite Material for Solar Cells A class of materials called perovskites

offer some intriguing advantages. They're

has emerged as a promising alternative

potentially cheaper to make than silicon

to silicon for making inexpensive and

cells, and they can be partially transparent,

efficient solar cells. But for all their promise,

enabling new technologies like windows that

perovskites are not without their downsides.

generate electricity. "One of the big thrusts

Most contain lead, which is highly toxic,

in perovskite research is to get away from

and include organic materials that are not

lead-based materials and find new materials

particularly stable when exposed to the

that are non-toxic and more stable," Padture


said. "Using computer simulations, our

Now a group of researchers at Brown

theoretician collaborators at UNL predicted

University and University of Nebraska -

that a class of perovskites with cesium,

Lincoln (UNL) has come up with a new

titanium and a halogen component (bromine

titanium-based material for making lead-

or/and iodine) was a good candidate. The

free, inorganic perovskite solar cells. In a

next step was to actually make a solar cell

paper published in the journal Joule (a new

using that material and test its properties,

energy-focused sister journal to Cell), the

and that's what we've done here."

researchers show that the material can be

The team made semi-transparent perovskite

a good candidate, especially for making

films that had bandgap - a measure of

tandem solar cells - arrangements in which

the energy level of photons the material

a perovskite cells are placed on top of

can absorb - of 1.8 electron volts, which

silicon or another established material to

is considered to be ideal for tandem solar

boost the overall efficiency.

applications. The material had a conversion

"Titanium is an abundant, robust and

efficiency of 3.3 percent, which is well below

biocompatible element that, until now,

that of lead-based cells, but a good start

has been largely overlooked in perovskite

for an all-new material, the researchers say.

research," said the senior author of the new

"There's a lot of engineering you can do

paper, NitinPadture, the Otis E. Randall

to improve efficiency," Yuanyuan Zhou, an

University Professor in Brown's School

assistant professor (research) of engineering

of Engineering and director of Institute

at Brown and a study co-author. "We think

for Molecular and Nanoscale Innovation.

this material has a lot of room to improve."

"We showed that it's possible to use

Min Chen, a Ph.D. student of materials

titanium-based material to make thin-film

science at Brown and the first author of the

perovskites and that the material has

paper, used a high-temperature evaporation

favorable properties for solar applications

method to prepare the films, but says the

which can be tuned."

team is investigating alternative methods.

Interest in perovskites, a class of materials

"We are also looking for new low-temperature

with a particular crystalline structure, for

and solvent-based methods to reduce the

clean energy emerged in 2009, when

potential cost of cell fabrication," he said.

they were shown to be able to convert

The research showed the material has

sunlight into electricity. The first perovskite

several advantages over other lead-free

solar cells had a conversion efficiency of

perovskite alternatives. One contender for

only about 4 percent, but that has quickly

a lead-free perovskite is a material made

skyrocketed to near 23 percent, which rivals

largely from tin, which rusts easily when

traditional silicon cells. And perovskites

exposed to the environment. Titanium, on



the hand, is rust-resistant. The titaniumperovskite also has an open-circuit voltage - a measure of the total voltage available from a solar cell - of over one volt. Other lead-free perovskites generally produce voltage smaller than 0.6 volts. "Open-circuit voltage is a key property that we can use to evaluate the potential of a solar cell material," Padture said. "So, having such a high value at the outset is very promising." The researchers say that material's relatively large bandgap compared to silicon makes it a prime candidate to serve as the top layer in a tandem solar cell. The titaniumperovskite upper layer would absorb the higher-energy photons from the sun that the lower silicon layer can't absorb because of its smaller bandgap. Meanwhile, lower energy photons would pass through the semi-transparent upper layer to be absorbed by the silicon, thereby increasing the cell's total absorption capacity. "Tandem cells are the low-hanging fruit when it comes to perovskites," Padture said. "We're not looking to replace existing silicon technology just yet, but instead we're looking to boost it. So if you can make a lead-free tandem cell that's stable, then that's a winner. This new material looks like a good candidate."


Smart New Method to Manufacture Organic Solar Cells The ability to use cheap materials and simple manufacturing methods are two huge advantages of printed organic solar cells. OlleInganas, professor at Linkoping University, is head of a research group that has now developed an even simpler method to manufacture solar cell modules. The results have been published in the scientific journal npj Flexible Electronics. The energy efficiency of organic solar cells is approaching that of conventional silicon solar cells, but they don't necessarily have to compete on the same market. "The organic solar cells can be used in many contexts, not least those in which their special properties are useful: they can be semitransparent, soft, flexible, can be obtained in different colours, and they are cheap to manufacture," says OlleInganas, professor of biomolecular and organic electronics at Linkoping University. Together with his research group, he has now developed an improved method to manufacture these thin and flexible solar cells. In a semi-transparent solar cell module as shown in the photograph, electrodes with two variants of the polymer PEDOT:PSS (commonly used in organic electronics) are used, where one acts as the anode and the other is modified to become the cathode. What appear as stripes across the solar cell module are lines of either cathode-type or anode-type material. The active layer that absorbs light and produces electrons is located between these electrodes. The individual solar cells are connected in series in the module. When the electrodes and the active layer are printed as thin films on top of each other, defects in one layer will act as points of attack for the next layer to be printed. These defects reinforce each other and cause short-circuits between the top and bottom. Until now, this problem has been solved by passing a current through the cell. "The defects in each individual cell must be burned away. Not only is this timeconsuming, it's not easy to gain access to

all cells, and this means that the reject rate for faulty units is quite high," OlleInganas explains. The researchers have now successfully tested a method in which they use instead the active polymer material as glue. Two plastic films, one with the anodes and the other with the cathodes, are covered by the active material before the complete unit is laminated together. Since only two layers are to be printed, the number of defects is lower and the probability that two defects are located exactly opposite each other during the lamination is negligible. "It just doesn't happen. But we did discover that when we laminate the two layers together to give a flexible and robust module, the solar cells generate more current when illuminated from one side than from the other. Of course, we want the cell to generate the same current no matter whether the sun is rising or setting," he points out. The researchers have shown that it is moisture causing the trouble. Small electron traps form in the material that capture electrons before they reach the electrode.

The problem can be solved by manufacturing the anode and cathode films, and then rapidly laminating them together with the active polymer in a protective atmosphere. The shorter the period that the film is exposed to moisture the better. "We have shown that this lamination method works with many different combinations of polymer, and that the energy efficiency is just as high as that obtained by conventional manufacture," says OlleInganas. The solar cell modules that have been developed by OlleInganas and his group at Linkoping University are being developed and manufactured by the spin-off company Epishine, which has chosen to aim at the market for indoor cells. The solar cells then absorb the indoor illumination and create enough current to power, for example, sensors that keep track of a dog when its owner is not at home, or that measure the indoor humidity or temperature. Indoor illumination has a different spectrum and intensity than sunlight, so the conditions of use are simpler and the efficiency high.




New Research Brings Us Closer to Cheap, Transparent, Organic Solar Cells The age of fossil fuels is coming to an end, and the age of renewable energy has dawned—or, it will be dawning soon. In 2014 the World Bank estimated that over 80 percent of the world’s energy came from fossil fuels. That figure is set to drop as countries adopt ambitious goals to move towards solar, wind, and other renewable energy sources. The European Union has set a target of obtaining 20 percent of its energy from renewables by 2020 and 27 percent by 2030 (it’s currently at 17 percent). Similarly, China set a target of 20 percent renewables by 2030. While it might be possible to meet these targets with current technology, it certainly wouldn’t be easy, nor cheap. To make renewables a widespread, affordable reality, the way we produce, transfer, and store their energy needs to get better. A study published recently in Nature by University of Michigan researchers shows potential for a significant advance in solar energy production. The researchers were able to get electrons to travel not only farther than they ever had before, but farther than was even thought possible in the materials used to make organic solar cells. Organic vs. Inorganic The vast majority of solar panels in use today are inorganic and silicon-based. They’re more efficient (the current record stands at 26.6 percent efficiency, reached in Japan in 2016) and have a longer lifespan than organics, but they’re also much more expensive to manufacture. Organic solar cells, on the other hand, are made of polymers, most commonly plastic. This means they can be assembled using existing polymer processing technologies, which makes them cheap to produce—but their efficiency is half that of inorganics at 13.1 percent. In other words, you’ll get double the energy from a silicon-based cell than you will from a


polymer-based cell of the same size. This is unfortunate, because besides being lowercost, organic cells are also thin, flexible, and transparent. That means they can be unobtrusively applied to pretty much anything—namely, for example, to the 5 to 7 billion square meters of glass surface that exist in the US alone. Solar Energy 101 To understand why the U of M team’s research is significant, it helps to first understand how solar panels work. As photons from the sun hit the atoms in a solar cell, the atoms’ electrons are dislodged and begin to move between atoms, producing an electric current. The cells contain a built-in electric field that forces the freed electrons to flow in one direction. Adding metal contacts to the cell allows this current to be drawn off for external use. Silicon has tightly-bound atomic networks that make it easy for electrons to travel through the material, hence its higher conductivity and efficiency. Organic materials have loosely-bound molecules, which can trap electrons, hence their lower conductivity and efficiency. What Happened The U of M team discovered that a thin layer of fullerene molecules, which are made of carbon and are also called Buckyballs, can enable electrons to travel up to several centimeters from the atom they’re knocked off of upon interaction with a photon. It doesn’t sound like much, but it’s an incredible increase from the few hundred nanometers electrons typically travel in organic cells. The researchers layered a thin film of fullerenes onto an organic cell’s powerproducing layer, then added an additional layer to prevent the electrons from escaping. They found that the electrons traveled freely through the material, including outside the power-generating area of the cell. They determined that the fullerene layer formed an ‘energy well,’ a low-energy area that


prevented the negatively-charged electrons from recombining with the positive charges left behind in the power-producing layer. “You can imagine an energy well as sort of

a canyon—electrons fall into it and can’t get back out,” said Caleb Cobourn, a graduate researcher in the U of M physics department and an author on the study. “So they continue to move freely in the fullerene layer instead of recombining in the power-producing layer, as they normally would. It’s like a massive antenna that can collect an electron charge from anywhere in the device.” Why It Matters The implications of the discovery for solar power are that freely-moving, farther-traveling electrons in organic semiconductors could enable manufacturers to shrink solar cells’ conductive electrode into an invisible grid, resulting in transparent cells that could be used on glass surfaces. Stephen Forrest, the Michigan engineering professor who led the research, did make it clear that widespread use of his team’s discovery in solar cells is theoretical at this point. But he also noted the discovery’s larger implications for understanding and exploiting the properties of organic semiconductors. “This discovery essentially gives us a new knob to turn as we design organic solar cells and other organic semiconductor devices,” said Quinn Burlingame, a U of M graduate researcher and author of the study. “The possibility of long-range electron transport opens up a lot of new possibilities in device architecture.”


World's First Solar Fuels Reactor for Night Passes Test International solar thermal energy researchers have successfully tested CONTISOL, a solar reactor that runs on air, able to make any solar fuel like hydrogen and to run day or night - because it uses concentrated solar power (CSP) which can include thermal energy storage. The promise of solar fuels is that we could have zero carbon fuels like hydrogen without the climate-damaging carbon emissions it takes to make hydrogen from natural gas today, so perfecting solar reactors is key to a 100% clean energy future. Instead of burning a fossil fuel for the heat needed to drive the thermal chemistry process, for chemical reactions like splitting H2 (hydrogen) from H2O, scientists have been testing various kinds of reactors heated by the thermal form of solar, CSP, which uses mirrors to concentrate solar flux on a receiver. To attain zero-carbon heat for thermochemical reactions - which can operate at temperatures as high as 1,500 C - experts view the direct heat of CSP as a more efficient clean energy source than electricity from PV or wind. There will be an unlimited supply of sunlight over centuries, and no climate consequences when thermochemistry is driven by solar energy. The only disadvantage compared to burning fossil energy, is that the sun goes down at night. Night solar through CSP Now, a group of scientists at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) supported by the Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory of CPERI/CERTH Greece have built and tested a new solar reactor design that includes storage so it can provide roundthe-clock heat like the current fossil-fired method, but without the emissions. "Solar reactors in the past have had the problem of what you do at night when you don't have sun, or even when clouds go by," said the paper's lead author, Justin Lapp, formerly of DLR, and now Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the

University of Maine. Lapp explained that when the temperature drops, the reaction could need to be halted or the flow rate of the reactants slowed, reducing the amount of products that you get out. If the reactor shuts down at night it cools off, not just wasting residual heat, but starting over from nothing next morning. How it works "So the main idea of CONTISOL was to build two reactors together," he said. "One where sunlight is directly doing chemical processing.The other side for storing energy. In the chemical channels the high temperatures of the material drive the chemical reaction and you get a change from reactants to products within those channels, and in the air channels cooler air goes in the front and hotter air comes out the back." By combining storage capabilities with a direct solar thermochemical reactor, they get the best of both worlds, stable temperatures round the clock but also the most efficient heat source to perform reactions because it's direct, so "you don't have as many losses with multiple steps between the sunlight and the chemistry that's happening." CONTISOL uses an open air receiver, based on the volumetric air receiver operated at its test solar tower at Julich by DLR (DeutschesZentrumfĂźrLuft- und Raumfahrt), which can heat air to 1,100 C. There an open air receiver takes air from the atmosphere and pulls it through small channels in a monolithic material. "Ours is a volumetric air receiver like this one," said Lapp. "The center is an extruded monolith; a large cylinder with many smaller rectangle channels. Every other row of channels is used for chemistry or for passing air through the monolith. These channels are open to the front to allow sunlight to go in and heat up this monolithic material." The original test used silicon carbide for the multichannel receiver, but the scientists plan to try Inconel, a harder metal alloy for the receiver.

"Silicon carbide is a little bit difficult to manufacture because it cannot be machined as well as a metal. So getting very tight tolerances can be tough. It's not too expensive but it is not the easiest material to work with in manufacturing," he related. Temperatures between 800-900 C are needed to rearrange water or hydrocarbon molecules into most solar fuels, so that was the temperature goal. The prototype reactor successfully operated at 850 C at lab-scale: 5kW. CONTISOL was tested at Cologne, Germany using simulated 'suns', rather than an actual solar field, and the storage and heat exchanger was also simulated, as the reactor itself is the innovation. "This scale is a scientific prototype simply for us to understand how to control it. It wouldn't be commercialized at 5 kW,"he said. "Commercially, 1-5 MW would be about the smallest for industrial-scale reactors, and they could scale to 100 MW or even larger." "In our case we are doing methane reforming as an example. But it's not tied to methane, it could make any number of solar fuels. One interesting one is hydrogen production from sulphuric acid as a cycling material. When you evaporate sulphuric acid at about 400 C into steam and SO3, it is not corrosive, so you can even use stainless steel components."



PRODUCT ANATOMY ZOOOK ZB-SOLAR MUSE SOLAR POWERED BLUETOOTH SPEAKER Product Brief French company Zoook has launched its latest Bluetooth speaker, the ZB-Solar Muse, priced at Rs 4,999 in India. The portable speaker boasts of 3D surround sound and is equipped with a solar panel which can charge its batteries. Product Features Zoook’s ZB solar muse is shockproof, dustproof and waterproof. The device comes with a built-in flashlight and a mic for handling calls. It is also equipped with an LED display. Application The ZB-Solar Muse is an all-weather portable device designed for avid travellers who love to tune to their audio library on-the-go. Benefits The wireless Bluetooth speaker requires no power plug-in's or adaptors as it can deliver audio by absorbing solar energy. The speaker has integrated solar panels to charge the lithium battery, which lasts about 30 hours on a single charge. Availability Available.

GOODWE DNS SERIES INVERTERS Product Brief GoodWe is rolling out the new DNS series inverters which are designed for today's high-output PV panels, enhanced to meet the latest grid compliance standards while providing unprecedented power and dual, independent MPPT. Product Features GoodWe DNS series inverters feature an optimized, ergonomic design which is not only convenient for installation and service, but also provides a low-profile electrical system that is safer to manipulate and overall home friendly regardless of location. GoodWe DNS series inverters also feature a secure plug-andplay installation without opening the inverter and an integrated DC disconnect switch. Application Ideal for solar power generation in residential homes Benefits With power categories ranging from 3 kW to 6 kW, GoodWe DNS series inverters are matched for ecofriendly residential installations thanks to their die-casting aluminium casing, compact size and light weight. They are IP65 rated and can be mounted either indoors or outdoors. Availability Available.

ABB PVS – 100/120 STRING INVERTER Product Brief ABB has expanded its solar inverter portfolio to include PVS – 100/120 inverter. The new PVS – 100/120 string inverter range has the ability to interact with the solar plant system through high power consolidation of products and physical parts coupled with digitization. Product Features It offers a six-in-one and sun to socket solution which has various features such as flexibility, scalability, ease of installation, and proactive plant management. With this inverter enhanced O&M can be possible during the operating life of the plant through key features such as in water cooling fans which are heavy duty but can be easily removed during maintenance cycles. Application Large-scale industrial as well as commercial ground-mounted and rooftop applications. Benefits This inverter optimizes the total cost of ownership and brings about 50% reduction in installation as well as Logistics cost. It is quicker and offers improved user experience with fast installation, great capacity, high versatility, and proactive management and control of the solar plant through remote monitoring capabilities. Availability Available.




P WER FOCUS 5th Annual Summit

20th March 2018 | Le Meridien, New Delhi

5th Annual Edition of The Economic Times Power Focus Summit is back to emphasize pressing issues of power sector

Discussion Topics Need for new processes in T&D dynamics Building storage resources for India Boost in India's renewable energy

Past Glimpses

+91 8268 002 169

PRODUCT ANATOMY EASTMAN AUTO AND POWER’S GRID-TIE SOLAR PV INVERTER Product Brief Eastman Auto and Power Ltd (EAPL) has launched ‘State of the art Grid Tie Solar PV Inverter,’ which is one of the most advanced Grid Tie solar PV inverters in the Indian market. It is designed under the latest applied scientific automation. These inverters are technologically exceptional solar devices for residential homes and commercial segments. Product Features It is equipped with IP65 Protection, Wide operating PV voltage range, Compact and light weight, Peak efficiency up to 98 per cent, Quick and easy installation and Maintenance free. Application Households & Commercial setups Benefits Eastman’s grid-tie Solar PV inverter comes with modular design, stronger grip, and support. It is compact, light-weight and energy efficient and is 40 per cent lighter compared to industry standards. Availability Available.

SINENG ELECTRIC’S CENTRAL DISTRIBUTED INVERTER Product Brief Sineng Electric has launched a new central distributed inverter for bifacial solar modules. It is designed to resolve issues of bifacial modules that do not always perform perfectly due to the limited of traditional inverters when light conditions are optimal. It also facilitates technological progress across the sector. Product Features It is equipped with the MPPT combination box designed specially for bifacial modules, capable of supporting an increase in the maximum operating current up to 12.5A and a current gain of over 30 per cent on the back side of the panel. Application Bifacial solar modules. Benefits The inverter has been designed to provide higher yields and lower system costs. The solution is compatible with leading P-type PREC and N-type bifacial modules available in the market. Availability Available.

ENPHASE ENERGY’S 7TH-GENERATION ‘ENPHASE IQ’ MICROINVERTER Product Brief Enphase Energy has launched 7th-generation ‘Enphase IQ’ microinverters for the Enphase Home Energy Solution with ‘IQ’. ‘Enphase IQ 7 Micro’ and ‘Enphase IQ 7+ Micro’ are designed for worldwide markets and have started shipping to distributors in the United States. Product Features These microinverters are powered by Enphase's unique software-defined architecture, which results in an efficient design, and a single hardware SKU (Stock Keeping Unit) worldwide.. Application Residential, commercial, utility-scale PV power plants Benefits The IQ 7 family of microinverters is designed to produce 4 percent more power, and is 19 percent lighter and 17 percent smaller than the IQ 6 family of microinverters. The new IQ microinverters offer the same ease of installation with only two-wire cabling, and leverage semiconductor integration for higher reliability and better economies of scale. Availability These microinverters are to be phased into markets around the world through the first half of 2018.




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Saur Energy Magazine March 2018  
Saur Energy Magazine March 2018  

Climbing Stairs Indian Rooftop Industry