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What is classism?

adjective 1.prejudice against people belonging to a particular social class. “they are told to be on watch against the evils of classism�


ABOUT THE


The post-war complex was designed in the 1950s by British firm Chamberlin, Powell and Bon – a team of three young architects who had recently established their reputation by winning the the 1951 design competition for the nearby Golden Lane Estate. With its coarse concrete surfaces, elevated gardens and trio of high-rise towers, the Barbican Estate offered a new vision for how high-density residential neighbourhoods could be integrated with schools, shops and restaurants, as well world-class cultural destinations. The architects – Peter Chamberlin, Geoffry. Flats were distributed between three 43-storey towers – known as Shakespeare, Cromwell and Lauderdale – and a series of 13 seven-storey blocks. Aimed at young professionals, the residences feature simple layouts with compact kitchens and bathrooms.

These days the address is highly sought after, with properties selling for as much as £4 million. Fenella Beevor moved to the Barbican in 1974 with her late husband. Forty years later, she says it’s gradually developed into a settled and welcoming community. ”The architectural rigour evident across the estate, its mixed-use programme and the sheer scale of the undertaking make the Barbican a very significant work within the evolution of post-war British architecture,” said architect and A and MHH director Peter Morris.

With the Corporation of London as a client, the project was intended to create a mixed society of residents, but the change in politics brought in during Thatcher’s term inevitably led to the majority of homes being sold to private owners and landlords.


It is a tower block

It is a Multi Dwelling Unit

It is defined by its juristrictions


ABOUT THE TOWER Trellick Tower, a Grade II listed block of council flats, sits at the end of Golborne Road in London’s Notting Hill It was completed in 1972 by Hungarian-born architect Erno Goldfinger, the same year work commenced on the neighbouring Grenfell Tower. The Brutalist style which used exposed concrete and was popular in the 60 and 70s, has since fallen out of favour. However, unlike Grenfell, Trellick Tower’s listed status protects it from regeneration projects. The tower remains predominantly occupied by council flat tenants. Internal accommodation measures approximately 803 sq ft. The flat is accessed on the sixth floor, with an entrance hall and steps down to the fifth floor, where there are two double bedrooms, bathroom with separate WC, large reception room and kitchen. The reception room and kitchen both have access to the balcony, which runs the full width of the flat. A number of original features remain, including the original units in the kitchen. The property has excellent proportions, high levels of natural light and good storage, including built-in wardrobes in both bedrooms.


CLASSISM AND WEALTH Classism is differential treatment based on social class or perceived social class. Classism is the systematic oppression of subordinated class groups to advantage and strengthen the dominant class groups. It’s the systematic assignment of characteristics of worth and ability based on social class. Classism is held in place by a system of beliefs and cultural attitudes that ranks people according to economic status, family lineage, job status, level of education, and other divisions. Middle-class and owning- or ruling-class people (dominant group members) are seen as smarter and more articulate than working-class and poor people (subordinated groups). In this way, dominant group members (middle-class and wealthy people) define for everyone else what is “normal” or “acceptable” in the class hierarchy.

Examples include: feelings of inferiority to higher-class people; disdain or shame about traditional patterns of class in one’s family and a denial of heritage; feelings of superiority to people lower on the class spectrum than oneself; hostility and blame towards other working-class or poor people; and beliefs that classist institutions are fair. People who are middle-class and wealthy sometimes internalize the dominant society’s beliefs and attitudes toward them, and play them out against others. Internalized superiority is the acceptance and justification of class privilege by middle-class and wealthy people. Class privilege include the many tangible or intangible unearned advantages of “higher” class status, such as personal contacts with employers, “legacy admissions” to higher education, inherited money, good childhood health care, quality education.


It is a 31-storey block commissioned by the Greater London Council and completed in 1972. The building is admired for its bold silhouette, with a separate lift and service tower linked to the main block on every third floor. It has a 24-hour doorman. Trellick Tower is located at the northern end of Golborne Road, within a short walk of Westbourne Park Underground

station (Hammersmith & City and Circle lines). The area also has good bus links, and the A40 Westway offers a convenient road link to the West. The restaurants, shops and bars of Portobello Road and Notting Hill are within easy reach.


However, unlike Grenfell, Trellick Tower’s listed status protects it from regeneration projects. The tower remains predominantly occupied by council flat tenants. Internal accommodation measures approximately 803 sq ft. The flat is accessed on the sixth floor, with an entrance hall and steps down to the fifth floor, where there are two double bedrooms, bathroom with separate WC, large reception room and kitchen. The reception room and kitchen both have access to the balcony, which runs the full width of the flat. A number of original features remain, including the original units in the kitchen. The property has excellent proportions, high levels of natural light and good storage, including built-in wardrobes in both bedrooms.


Windows 2 meteres by 2 meteres

143 metees x 140 metres perminter


Height of high rise - 49 meteres

143 metres x 130 meteres


34 storey high, 153 meteres


A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a lowrise building and is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions. It is used as a residential, office building or other functions including hotel, retail or with multiple purposes combined. A residential high-rise building is also called tower block and may be referred to as an “MDU”, standing for “Multi Dwelling Unit”. [1] A very tall high-rise building is referred to as a skyscraper. High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator (lift) and cheaper, more abundant building materials. The materials used for the structural system of high-rise buildings are reinforced concrete and steel.

High-rise structures pose particular design challenges for structural and geotechnical engineers, particularly if situated in a seismically active region or if the underlying soils have geotechnical risk factors such as high compressibility or bay mud. They also pose serious challenges to firefighters during emergencies in high-rise structures. New and old building design, building systems like the building standpipe system, pose significant problems. Studies are often required to ensure that pedestrian wind comfort and wind exposure,


HIGH RISE RENT ISSUES In response to the disparity faced by many in our nation, especially by those at the lower end of the economic ladder, the United States Government felt it necessary to implement several policies aimed at assisting poor and middle class individuals and help to level the playing field. One such policy is the Affordable Care Act (ACA). On March 23, 2010 the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was

signed into law by President Barack Obama with the premise of providing affordable health coverage to every American, even those with preexisting conditions, thereby helping to reduce the inequality in health coverage between those who are advantaged and the disadvantaged segment of society. ecutive Order 13672 was created to provide minorities and .Moreover, in January 2009,

President Obama signed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, making it easier for workers to challenge unequal pay. Despite the passage of the 1963 Equal Pay Act, which provided for men and women in the same workplace, doing the same job, to be paid equally, Many women still are being paid less than men for doing the very eact same job. On March 23, 2010 the Affordable


‘High rises are dangerous”

“They lead to fires and deaths”

“Why are they still being produced”


Jacob Smith, 25, Alexandra Esate, London


To understand the issue with classism we ABOUT THE ESTATE must first understand what is class. Class hasWhen been I awassubject which been off-lima student in thehas early 1990s, discovering its the within society. Although many recognizwork of architect Neave Brown was revelatory. At es aittime presence, peoplehousing fear talking about architecit. when council and domestic

ture was at a low ebb, his housing estates, such as the When we speak of social we refer to an inAlexandra Road estate class for the London Borough of dividual’s position in society in terms of wealth, Camden, designed in the 1970s, were beacons of hope. education, position and power. People categorized in theestates same class a common Brown’s were usually robust have reminders of the drafinancial and social status within society, estabmatic progress public housing in the UK had made lished their income, wealth, education and the overbythe course of the 20th century. Barely 100 years power and influence they hold. The money that since Charles Booth shone a light on the living conindividuals not the sole indicator of class. ditions ofearn theismost needy in London, Brown and his team built on the progressive traditions of pubMany opponents holdUKthe it best, lic housing in the to viewpoint create somethat of the creates sense of homes power this and country control has among most ainnovative ever seen. those considered to be upper class, while At his scheme at Dunboyne Road, completedal-in 1975, lowing those considered to bein lower to hudspacious homes are arranged steppedclass terraces feeldled inferior and having no powerand or gardens. control. At Alamong a landscape of trees Many opponents also believe that it into also one of exandra Road, he scaled up this concept divides andmost separates people, it placLondon’s ambitious public as housing statements es with themtwoin mighty categories of rich and poor. terraces providing 500 homes.. Many opponents hold the view that classism allows forWhile preconceived to undeniable, form againstthis certain its sheernotions scale is is also an classes of people for example, the rational that an open environment full of spaces for residents to individual in the upper smarter more elmeet, and linger andclass for is visitors toor wander through. oquent someone in the middle or itlower class. One that I spoke to recently told me wasan “extraordinary privilege” to live in such an extraordinary home full of endless clever and beautiful details.


Canada

North America

46%

of the world lives in social housing.


Europe

Russia

East Asia

KEY: % of the MOST worse estates

% of the LEAST worse estates


IN HIGH RISES CAUSES DEATH


CLADDING ISSUES More than a dozen fire safety concerns have been uncovered in a new housing complex covered in Grenfell-style flammable cladding, built by one of Britain’s biggest housebuilders, Galliard Homes. In the weeks after the Grenfell Tower fire, which claimed 71 lives, defective fire doors, missing fire-stopping, dangerous fire escapes and holes in plasterboard meant to stop the spread of flames and smoke were identified by fire officials at New Capital Quay in Greenwich, south-east London, which is home to about 2,000 people and opened in 2013.The Guardian has learned that another deficiency notice from the London

Fire and Emergency Planning Authority (LFEPA) was issued on 25 January in relation to all 11 blocks in the complex.

who rents from Hyde Housing, the head leaseholder of two of the blocks. “People have been cutting corners for so many years and are putting It identified 16 fire safety is- people’s lives at risk and they sues, including a lack of ar- have to be held accountable.” rangements to evacuate vulnerable and elderly residents, Annabel Parsons, 54, a busian ineffective maintenance ness psychologist, said her regime, a broken firefighting neighbour regularly used parlift and a broken fire hydrant affin burners on his balcony outside one of the blocks. and that an 87-year-old living Ruth Montlake, 85, who lives on the 10th floor “fully expects on the seventh floor of one to die in the flat if there is a fire”. of the blocks, said: “The fire situation is very worrying. We simply do not feel safe I am hard of hearing; how living in buildings with will I know to evacuate?” defective cladding that could To know that seven months rapidly go up in flames while down the line we are living in we are sleeping,” one woman this property with this clad- told Greenwich council in an ding is upsetting,” said Joseph, email exchange.Galliard said


Example of the cheap cladding used for Grenfell, 2016


Mary Smith, 25, ex Grenfell resident

‘What happened at Grenfell was a prime example of British classist society.”

GRENFELL’S CLADDING DISASTER Survivors of the Grenfell Tower fire have urged ministers to urgently strip flammable cladding from hundreds of tower blocks across the country, saying it is unacceptable that people still live in homes wrapped in materials similar to those that burned so fiercely on 14 June 2017.

blaze and the families of victims. “They should ban the cladding full stop,” said Mussilhy. “We still have death traps out there in London. Let’s make those changes now and give people the assurance they are safe in their homes. Sprinklers need to be added and the cladding removed.”

Karim Mussilhy, whose uncle died in the blaze, and Natasha Elcock, who escaped from the 11th floor, made the demand at a rally in Parliament Square attended by people who escaped the

They also said they do not want the people who died a year ago to have died in vain. There are also people still living in blocks with this cladding. so they want to ensure this didnt happen again


Kelly Smith, 43, Barbican Esate, London

“Social housing is a disaster�


Classism and Social Housing  
Classism and Social Housing  
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