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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON “RATIO ANALYSIS” AT BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICAL LIMITED HARDWAR Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Postgraduate in Management

PROJECT GUIDE BY:GURPREET SINGH

SUBMITED BY:- MR.V.K TANGRI

Uttaranchal institute of technology Arcadia Grant, Post Office, Chandawari Prem Nagar, Dehradun, Uttrakhand


This is to declare that the study entitled “RATIO ANALYSIS” in the context of H.E.E.P. BHEL being submitted by GURPREET SINGH in the partial fulfilment of the requirement by the UTTRACHAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

The study was conducted at Finance

Department, HEEP, BHEL, and Haridwar.

The matter embodied in this project report has not been submitted to any other University or Institution.

V.K TANGRI UIT (Dehradun)

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PREFACE

The conceptual knowledge acquired by management students is best manifested in the projects and training they undergo. As a part of curriculum of MBA, I have got a chance to undergo practical training in HEEP (BHEL) Haridwar. The present project gives a perfect vent to my understanding of the financial management specially the most modern concept of “Economic Value Added” and organization behavior.

The project report entitled “ RATIO ANALYSIS ” is based on theme of BHEL Haridwar performance on the basis of economic value addition made by the BHEL in the last 5 years. The report will provide all the information regarding the RATIO ANALYSIS and their importance in HEAVY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLANT-BHEL, HARDWAR.

I also hope that this report will be beneficial for my next batches and for those who are related to this topic.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere thanks to the Management of ‘HEEP (Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant) of BHEL, Ranipur, Haridwar Unit for giving me an opportunity to gain exposure on matter related to Project under the esteem guidance of Mrs. SANTOSH ANAND (Sr. Accounts Officer)

I hereby take this opportunity to put on records my sincere thanks to Mrs. SANTOSH ANAND under the light of whose able guidance I could complete this project in an effective and successful manner.

I am also indebted to MR.RAKESH KUMAR (Sr. Inventory control managers),Mr. INDER KUMAR (Manager), Mr. SUJIT KUMAR (Dept Manage), Smt MINI KAPOOR (turnover officer) for their valuable information's and inputs, which added dimensions and meaning to my project. I am also thankful to the rest of the staff of the SALES section for their valuable suggestion and cooperation to achieve the task. With sincere thanks Mr.saurab josi (H.O.D) Uttranchal institute of technology Prem nagar, Dehradun


 Objective of study

 BHEL AN OVERVIEW

 INTRODUCTION OF RATIO ANALYSIS 1. MEANING 2. NATURE 3. ROLE OF RATIO ANALYSIS 4. USERS OF RATIO ANALYSIS 5. FINANCIAL RATIOS AND USERS

MAJOR FINANCIAL RATIOS 1. LIQUIDITY RATIO 5


2. LEVERAGE RATIO 3. TURNOVER RATIO 4. PROFITABILITY RATIO

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Objective of the Study

To know the organizational structure of bharat heavy electrical limited, haridwar.

To know the operations of bharat heavy electrical limited, haridwar.

To know the Financial Statement of the Company and to know it’s investment in different sectors.

To know the techniques which were prevailing and used in the company for maintaining its profit as it was in loss.

To know the capital structure of bharat heavy electrical limited.

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B. H. E. L. A CORPORATE GIANT

Established in the late 50's BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED (BHEL) is a name which is recognized across the industrial world. It is one of the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprises in INDIA and is one of the leading international companies in the power field. BHEL offers a wide spectrum of products and services for core sectors like power transmission, industrial transportation, oil and gas, telecommunication etc. Besides supply of non-conventional energy systems. It has also embarked into other areas including defense and civil aviation. A dynamic 63000 strong team embodies the BHEL philosophy excellence through continuous striving for state of the art technology. With corporate headquarters in NEW DELHI, fourteen manufacturing units, a wide spread regional services network and projects sites all over India and even abroad, BHEL is India's industrial ambassador to the world with export presence in more than 50 countries. B.H.E.L.'s range of services extent from project feasibility studies to after sales services, successfully meeting diverse needs through turnkey capability. BHEL has had a consistent track record of growth, performance and profitability. The World Bank in its report on the Indian Public Sectors, has described BHEL as “one of the most efficient enterprises in the industrial sector, at par with international standards of efficiency". BHEL has acquired ISO 9000 certificate for most of its operations and has taken up Total Quality Management (TQM). certification for environmental management systems and OHSAS-18001 certification for occupational health and safety management systems.

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International Business:-

BHEL has, over the years, established its references in over 60 countries of the world. These references encompass almost the entire range of BHEL products and services, covering Thermal, Hydro and Gas based turnkey power projects, substation projects, and rehabilitation projects; besides a wide variety of products like: Transformers, Compressors, Valves and Oil field equipment, Electrostatic Precipitators, Insulators, Heat Exchangers, Switchgears, Castings and Forgings etc.

Some of the major successes achieved by BHEL have been in Gas-based power projects in Oman, Libya, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, China, Kazakhstan; Thermal Power Projects in Cyprus, Malta, Libya, Egypt, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia;

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Hydro power plants in New Zealand, Malaysia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Nepal, Taiwan and Substation projects & equipment in various countries. Execution of these overseas projects has also provided BHEL the experience of working with world-renowned Consulting Organizations and Inspection Agencies.

The Company has been successful in meeting demanding requirements International markets, in terms of complexity of the works as well as technological, quality and other requirements viz. HSE requirement, financing package, associated O&M services to name a few. BHEL has proved its capability to undertake projects on fast-track basis. BHEL has also established its versatility to successfully meet the other varying needs of various sectors, be it captive power, utility power generation or for the oil flexibility to exhibited adaptability by manufacturing and supplying intermediate products.

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BHEL Corporation - An Introduction Employees - 42096 (As on 1-4-07) GOINDWA L HARIDWA R RUDRAPU

NEW R DELHI JAGDISHPU JHANS R VARANAS I I BHOPA CALCUTT PATN L AAAAA BAROD A NAGPU A R HYDERABA D BANGALOR EE RANIPE T TIRUCHIRAPALL Y CORPORATE OFFICE

Turnover - Rs 18702 Crores (2006-07) 14 Manufacturing divisions 4 Power Sector regional centres 8 service centres and 16 regional offices Major Units/Divisions are Certified with ISO 9001(2000), ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 Continuous Profits since 1971-72 Caters to Core Sectors viz., Power, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy etc. Manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups

MANUFACTURING LOCATIONS

SERVICE CENTRES

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B.H.E.L. IN INDIA:-

# REGIONAL OFFICES (POWER SECTORS) ***********************************

1. NEW DELHI (NORTHERN REGION) 2. CALCUTTA (EASTERN REGION) 3. NAGPUR (WESTERN REGION) 4. CHENNAI (SOUTHERN REGION)

# BUSSINESS OFFICES *******************

1.

BANGLORE

2.

BARODA

3.

BHUBANESHWAR

4.

MUMBAI

5.

CALCUTTA

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6.

CHANDIGARH

7.

GUWAHATI

8.

JABALPUR

9.

JAIPUR

10.

LUCKNOW

11.

CHENNAI

12.

NEW DELHI

13.

PATNA

14.

RANCHI

15. SECUNDRABAD

# MANUFACTURING UNITS

1.

BANGALORE

2.

BHOPAL

3.

GOINDWAL

4.

HARDWAR

5.

HYDERABAD

6.

JAGDISHPUR

7.

JHANSI

8.

RUDRAPUR

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9.

RANIPET

10.

TIRUCHIRAPALLY

# SERVICE CENTRES

BANGLORE BARODA CALCUTTA CHANDIGARH SECUNDRABAD NEW DELHI NAGPUR PATNA VARANASI

COMPANY PROFILE:-

BHEL is India's largest engineering company and one of its kind in this part of the hemisphere. It manufactures a wide range of state of the art power generation equipment 15


and systems besides equipment for industry, transmission, defense, telecommunication and oil business.

The first plant of BHEL was set up in Bhopal in 1956, which signaled the dawn of the heavy electrical industry in India. In the early 60's three more major plants were set up in Haridwar, Hyderabad and Tiruchirapalli. The company now has 14 manufacturing divisions, 10 services centers and power sectors regional centers besides project sites spread all over India and also abroad to provide prompt and effective service to customers.

BHEL's business broadly covers conversions, transmission, utilizations and conservation of energy in core sectors of economy that fulfill vital infrastructure needs of the country. Its product have established an enviable reputation of high quality and reliability, which is largely due to emphasizes placed all along on contemporary some of the best technologies of the world from the leading companies in U.S.A., EUROPE, and JAPAN together with technologies from its own R&D centers technologies B.H.E.L. has consistently upgraded its design and manufacturing facilities to international standards by acquiring and assimilating.

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VISION

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A WORLD-CLASS, INNOVATIVE, COMPETITIVE AND PROFITABLE ENGINEERING ENTERPRISE PROVIDING TOTAL BUSINESS SOLUTIONS.

MISSION TO BE THE LEADING INDIAN ENGINEERING ENTERPRISE PROVIDING QUALITY PRODUCTS SYSTEM AND SERVICES IN THE FIELDS OF ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION, INDUSTRY, INFRASTRUCTURE AND OTHER POTENTIAL AREAS.

VALUES •

MEETING

COMMITMENTS

MADE

TO

EXTERNAL

AND

INTERNAL

CUSTOMERS. •

FOSTER LEARNING, CREATIVITY AND SPEED OF RESPONSE.

RESPECT FOR DIGNITY AND POTENTAIL OF INDIVIDUALS.

LOYALTY AND PRIDE IN THE COMPANY.

TEAM PLAYING

ZEAL TO EXCEL

INTEGRITY AND FAIRNESS IN ALL MATTERS.

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COMPANY'S BUSINESS MISSION AND

OBJECTIVES

BUSINESS MISSION

To maintain a leading position as suppliers of quality equipment, systems and services in the field of conversion of energy, for application in the areas of electric power transportation, oil and gas exploration and industries. Utilize company's capabilities and resources to expand business into allied areas and other priority sectors of the economy like defence, telecommunications and electronics.

BUSINESS OBJECTIVES

GROWTH: -

To ensure a steady growth by enhancing the competitive edge of BHEL defence, telecommunication and electronics in existing business, new areas and international operations so as to fulfill national expectations from BHEL.

PROFITABILITY: -

To provide a reasonable and adequate return on capital employed, primarily through improvements in operational efficiency, capacity utilization, productivity and generate adequate internal resources to finance the company's growth.

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CUSTOMER FOCUS: -

To build a high degree of customer confidence by providing increased value for his money through international standards of product quality, performance and superior services.

PEOPLE- ORIENTATION: -

To enable each employee to achieve his potential, improve his capabilities, perceive his role and responsibilities and participate and contribute positively to the growth and success of the company. To invest in human resources continuously and be alive to their needs.

TECHNOLOGY: -

Achieve technological excellence in operations by development of indigenous technologies and efficient absorption and adaptations of imported technologies to suit business need and priorities and provide the competitive advantage to the company.

IMAGE: -

To fulfill the expectations which stakeholders like government as owner, employees, customers and the country at large have from BHEL.

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CONTRIBUTION OF BHEL IN VARIOUS CORE SECTORS

BUSINESS SECTORS: -

BHEL's operations are organized around three business sectors, mainly power, industry and international operations. This enables BHEL to have a strong customer’s orientation, to be sensitive to his needs and respond quickly to the changes in the market.

POWER SECTORS: -

Power is the core sector of BHEL and comprises of thermal, nuclear gas, diesel and hydro business. Today BHEL supplied sets, accounts for nearly 66 % of the total installed capacity in the country as against nil till 1969-70. BHEL manufactures boilers auxiliaries, TG sets and associate controls, piping and station C & I up to 500 MW rating with technology and capability to go up to 1000 MW range. The auxiliary products high value capital equipment like bowl and tube mills, pumps and heaters, electrostatic precipitators, gravimetric feeders, fans, valves etc.

BHEL has contracted so far around 240 thermal sets of various ratings, which includes 14 power plants set up on turnkey basis. Nearly 85 % of World Bank tenders for thermal sets floated in India have been won by the company against international competition.

BHEL has adopted the technology to the needs of the country and local conditions. This has led to the development of several technologies in house. The fluidized bed boiler that uses low graded high-ash abrasive Indian coal is an outcome of such an effort. With large-

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scale availability of natural gas and the sudden increase in demand, BHEL began to manufacture gas turbines and now possesses two streams of gas turbine technology.

It has the capability to manufacture gas turbines up to 200 MW rating and custom built combined cycle power plants. Nuclear steams generators, turbine generators, sets and related equipment of 235 MW rating have been supplied to most of the nuclear power plants in India. Production of 500 MW nuclear sets, for which orders have been received.

BHEL has developed expertise in renovation and maintenance of power plant equipment besides specialized know how of residual life assessment, health diagnostic and life extensions of plants. The four power sectors regional centers at New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata and Nagpur will play a major role in giving a thrust to this business and focus BHEL's efforts in this area.

:-

INDUSTRY SECTORS:-

BHEL is a major producer of large size thyristor devices. The products

include centrifugal compressors, high speed industrial drive turbines, industrial boilers and auxiliaries, waste heat recovery boilers, gas turbines, electric motors, drives, and 22


control equipments, high voltage transformers, switch gears and heavy castings and forgings.

Company in India with the capability to make simulators for power plants, defense industrial process plants and other applications. An entry has been made in aviation industry for which BHEL has set up facilities and is now producing two seater aircraft.

TRANSMISSION:-

A wide range of transmission products and systems are produced by BHEL to meet the needs of power transmission and distribution sector. These include: •

Dry Type Transformers

SF6 Switch Gears

400 KW Transmission Equipment

High Voltage Direct Current System

Series and Shunt Compensation Systems

In anticipation of the need for improved substations, a 33 KV gas insulated sub station with micro processors base control and protection system has been done.

TRANSPORTATION:23


65 % of trains in Indian Railways are equipped with BHEL's traction and traction control equipment. These include: •

Broad Gauge 3900 HP AC / DC locomotives

Diesel Shunting Locomotives up to 2600 HP

5000 HP AC Loco with thyristor control

Battery Powered Road Vehicles and Locomotives

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT:-

BHEL has a corporate R & D center supported by R & D groups at each of the manufacturing divisions. The dedicated effort of BHEL's R & D engineers have produced several new products like automated storage retrieval system automated guide vehicles for material transportation etc. Establishment of Asia's largest fuel evaluation test facility at Tiruchy was high light of the year. This facility will enable evaluation of combustion, heat transfer and pollution parameters in boilers. Major R & D achievement include: •

Design manufacture and supply of countries first 17.2 MW industrial steam turbines.

Development of 4700 HP AC / DC loco for Indian Railways.

Development of largest capacitor voltage transformers of 8800 PF 400 KV rating.

Development and application low cost ROBOTS for job loading/unloading.

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According to ex- CMD Mr. R.K.D. Shah, "BHEL is spending Rs. 60 Crores on Research and Development. Earning from product which has been commercialized has gone up 26 % to Rs. 760 Crores."

Human Resource Development Institute:-

BHEL has envisioned becoming "A World Class Engineering Enterprise committed to enhancing stakeholder value". Force behind realization of this vision and the source of our competitive advantage is the energy and ideas of our 44,000 strong highly skilled and motivated people. The Human Resource Development Institute situated in NOIDA, a corner-stone of BHEL learning infrastructure, along with Advanced Technical Education Center (ATEC) in Hyderabad and the Human Resource Development Center at the manufacturing Units, through various organizational developmental efforts ensure that the prime resource of the organization – the Human Capital is “Always in a state of Readiness”, to meet the dynamic challenges posed by a fast changing environment. It is their constant endeavor to take the HRD activities to the strategic level of becoming active partner to the (organizational) pursuits of achieving the organizational goal.

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TECHNICAL COLLABORATIONS:-

PRODUCT

COLLABORATIONS

# Thermal Sets, Hydro Sets, Motors &

Prommashexport

Control Gears.

# Bypass & Pressure Reducing Systems

RUSSIA

Sulzer Brother Ltd. SWITZERLAND

# Electronic Automation System for Steam Turbine & Generators

# Francis Type Hydro Turbines

Siemens AG. GERMANY

General Electric CANADA

# Moisture Separator Reheaters

Baloke Duerr GERMANY

# Christmas Trees & Conventional Well Head Assemblies

# Steam Turbines , Generators and Axial

National Oil Well USA

Siemens AG.

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Condensers

GERMANY

# Cam Shaft Controllers and Tractions

Siemens AG.

Current Control Units

GERMANY

# HDVC

ABB SWEDEN

# Programmable Controls

ABB SWITZERLAND

# Gas Turbines

General Electric Co. USA

# Tube Mills

Stien Industries FRANCE

DIVISIONS OF BHEL:-

There are 20 Divisions of BHEL, they are as follows:

1.

HEEP, Haridwar

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2.

HPEP, Hyderabad

3.

HPBP, Tiruchy

4.

SSTP & MHD, Tiruchy

5.

CFFP, Haridwar

6.

BHEL, Jhansi

7.

BHEL, Bhopal

8.

EPD, Bangalore

9.

ISG, Bangalore

10.

ED, Bangalore

11.

BAP, Ranipet

12.

IP, Jagdishpur

13.

IOD, New Delhi

14.

COTT, Hyderabad

15.

IS, New Delhi

16.

CFP, Rudrapur

17.

HERP, Varanasi

18.

Regional Operations Division ARP, New Delhi

19.

TPG, Bhopal

20.

Power Group (Four Regions and PEM)

MAJOR COMPETITORS OF BHEL:-

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1.

Ansaldo

Italy

2.

Asea Brown Boueri

Switzerland

3.

Beehtel

USA

4.

Block & Neatch

5.

CNMI & EC

6.

Costain

U.K.

7.

Electrim

Poland

8.

Energostio

9.

Electro Consult

10.

Franco Tosi

France

11.

Fuji

Japan

12.

GEC Alsthom

U.K.

13.

General Electric

USA

14.

Hitachi

Japan

15.

LMZ

Russia

16.

Mitsubishi

Japan

17.

Mitsui

Japan

18.

NEI

U.K.

19. Raytheon

USA China

Russia Italy

USA

20. Rolls Royce

Germany

21. Sanghai Electric Co.

China

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B H E L ANALYSIS IN 2005-2006

FINANCIAL OPERATION Turnover for the year has touched an all time high for the third year in succession thereby touching the figure of Rs.145254.93 million against Rs.103363.97 in 2004-05, an increase of 40.53%. PAT for the year 2005-06 stood at Rs.16792 million as against Rs.9534 million for the year 2004-05, registering an increase of 76.13 %. Value addition at Rs.56828 million has increase by 33.58% over the previous year’s value added of Rs.42540 million.Net working capital (other than cash and bank balance decrease by Rs.8432 million during the year. The factors contributing to the decrease are: a) Increase in Advance from customer by Rs.13314 million over previous year. b) Increase in Other current liabilities and provision by Rs.3281 million. Cash and bank balances, including short term deposits, at the year-end stood at Rs.26596 million as against Rs.13209 million at the end of last year. Equity remained at Rs.2448 million.Net worth increase by Rs.5699 million to Rs.52781 million. Debt-Equity Ratio declined from 0.09 in 2004-05 to 0.08 in 2005-06.

POWER SECTOR o During the year, power sector secured orders worth Rs.126785 million for supply and installation of total 5313MW Generating Equipment, plant performance improvement Business, Service and Spares. This is the highest ever order booking by Power Sector in the year in term of financial value as well as in physical terms.

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o The year witnessed highest number of order received for 500 MW sets (6Nos.) as also 6Nos. of Turnkey/EPS contracts. •

80% of the main equipment orders i.e. 4270 MW were won against stiff International competitive Bidding (ICB).

Because of multi task activities involved in setting up of Power Station and requirement of faster completion of the project, customer bestowed higher responsibilities on BHEL and ordered projects to be executed on EPC/Turnkey basic.

o There has been a constant endeavor on part of BHEL to meet customer demand through quicker delivery. During the year, BHEL set a new bench mark by commissioning Kota V (195MW) in 24 months and 19 days.

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS •

During 2005-06 overseas export orders worth Rs.33480 million have been booked in diverse product areas. Ordering for certain major tenders where BHEL is favorably placed, got shifted due to delay in finalization of orders by customers.

The company secured several prestigious orders, each one of which signifies a major step forward towards consolidation in international business:  Supply and supervision of Fabric Filter for Romania-the first-ever order for Fabric Filter in the export market and the first ever export order from Romania.  First ever export order for Electro Static Precipitators (E S Ps) on turnkey basis received from Thailand. •

Other notable export orders received during the year included: -Transformers from Greece; -Solar Cells from Germany, Australia, Thailand and Italy;

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-Residual Life assessment (RLA) Studies for Boilers for Finland -Valves from Malaysia  Continued focus on After Sales Services to orders for spares & services from Thailand, Oman, Indonesia, Malaysia, Azerbaijan, Libya, Bangladesh, Malta, Malaysia, Sri Lanka.

CAPITAL INVESTMENT In our continued efforts to upgrade the manufacturing technology and facilities, capital investment of Rs.2730 million was made on plan capital programs during the year 200304.The thrust of investment during the year was on implementation of the ongoing product modernization schemes and also on replacement and up-gradation of ageing facilities. To meet the increasing intensity of competition, investment planned for the year 2004-05 is directed towards improving product quality, introducing new manufacturing technologies, cycle time & cost reduction measures etc. Highlights of the major schemes are as follows: Schemes completed: •

Capacity augmentation of new design blades to 3500 MW at Hardwar

Facilities for Total Impregnation of T Gs (TARI)

New Office Building for PS-ER at kolkata AWARD WIN BY BHEL

Prime Minister’s Shram Awards

From the prestigious ‘‘Prime Minister’s Shram Awards’’ (namely Shram Bhushan, Shram Vir and Sharm Shari).3 Awards have been won by 5 workmen of BHEL, for the year 2002, out of 17 awards declared by ministry of labour.

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Vishakarma Rashtriya puruskars

Nine Vishwakarma Rashtriya Puruskars have been won by 7 employees of BHEL for the year 2005 and three awards have been won 6 employees of BHEL for the year 2005.

National Safety Awards

Two BHEL Units viz., Trichy and Electronics Division- Banglore have won three awards for the year 2001.Also; Trichy Unit has three awards for the year 2005.

National Awards for the welfare of persons with disabilities

Shri R.C.Parakh, AGM from Bhopal unit received this award from president of India for his contribution to technological development of transformer product in Bhopal .

RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS OF BHEL

1. BHEL's R&D ops contribute Rs 1,151 cr to turnover in 2005-06 [May 19 2006] NEW DELHI: Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd on May 18 said the company has achieved a turnover of Rs 1,151 crore during 2005-06 through products developed by in-house research and development operations. This revenue was eight per cent of its total revenue of Rs 14,410 crore in 2005-06. This was the result of a constant thrust on developing new technologies and products, improving existing products and systems in terms of reliability, cost and quality through in-house R&D efforts. 34


The company invested about Rs 150 crore on Research and Development of products and systems during the year, which was among the highest in the country. The company also filed for 84 patents, including three abroad, taking the total number of patents filed till date to 339. Out of this, BHEL has been granted 26 patents and the rest are in various stages of processing. Thirteen copyrights have also been filed. R&D and technology development are of strategic importance to BHEL as it operates in a competitive environment where technology is a major factor.

2. BHEL to manufacture 800 mw thermal sets [Apr 14 2006] Catching up with the advancement in global technologies, Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd (BHEL), through the efforts of its corporate research and development division in Hyderabad, is now equipped to manufacture 800 mw super-critical thermal power sets in the country. Much sought-after by several players in power generation, including APGenco, for its fuel efficiency, the super-critical technology has been till now viewed as the sole domain of developed world. As part of its effort to emerge as one of the global technology players in power systems and other new technologies, the R&D division of BHEL has started fresh initiatives by setting up centers of excellence for surface engineering (CoE-SE) and intelligent machines and robotics (CIMAR). According to the source, CIMAR would be set up at the Corporate R&D division in Hyderabad at an initial investment of Rs 4.77 crore. Among the new products, the BHEL Corporate R&D has successfully completed design, supply and commissioning of automated storage and retrieval systems for four of the 13 warehouses at the Central Ordnance Depot, Kanpur.

3. BHEL inks agreement with IIT Madras for new courses [Apr 25 2006] Chennai: Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd and the Indian Institute of TechnologyMadras have signed a memorandum of understanding for collaborative research in the areas of design of boilers, manufacturing, metallurgical engineering, mechanical engineering, information technology and other areas of mutual interest. With the help of BHEL, Tiruchi, IIT-M will establish a research centre at the

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BHEL campus for the purpose. IIT-M will select MS/PhD research scholars to work as research associates/project associates. BHEL on its part will make available its research facilities and laboratories for the purpose. The collaboration has also given scope for IIT-M to start two new courses one on energy engineering and another on welding engineering. The courses will start from the academic year 2006-07. BHEL, which designs power plant boilers for handling a variety of coals, is also interested in getting into coal research.

4. BHEL secures Rs 80 cr export order from EETC [May 10 2006] NEW DELHI: Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) has bagged its largest ever export order for transformers worth Rs 80 crore from Egyptian Electricity Transmission Co (EETC). BHEL will supply 14 transformers of 125 MVA to the state-run Egyptian company as a part of the order. These transformers would be installed in eight substations at different locations in Egypt. The transformers, to be built at the company's Jhansi plant, would be installed and commissioned under BHEL supervision. The company had earlier executed a boiler project at Al Arish in Egypt. With the order for transformers, BHEL has also established itself in the transmission market in Egypt. BHEL had earlier reported a six-fold increase in its export orders booking for the fiscal ended March 31 at Rs 3,348 crore. These orders contributed to one-fifth of the company's total orders booked last year. With this BHEL is poised to achieve a quantum growth in its export business driven by consolidation in existing markets and widening its export base through expansion of existing basket of products and services and entering new markets.

5. BHEL net profit up 62 pc(the tribune,3 June 2006)BHEL has posted a net profit of Rs 867.95 crore for the quarter ended March 31,2006, as compared to Rs 534.28 crore for the quarter ended March 31, 2005, an increase of 62.45 pc. Total income has increased from Rs 4,518.94 crore in Q4 FY 04-05 to Rs 5728.96 crore for Q4 FY 05-06.It has posted a net profit of Rs 1679.16 crore for the year ended March 31,2006(FY 05-06) as compared to Rs 953.40 crore for the year ended March 31,2005. total income has increased from Rs 9977.36 crore in FY 04-05 to Rs 13820.02 crore for FY 05-06.The board of directors has recommended 36


a final dividend of 20 percent of equity of the company, making it to total of 145 percent of the equity share capital of the company for the financial year 2005-06. this includes the interim dividend of 40 percent and special dividend of 85 percent already paid during the year.

6. Workers’ participation in management yields savings at BHEL, Hardwar DEHRA DUN, Nov 16: Empowerment of employees through the "quality the areas of import substitution, revamping of old machine tools and safety over the past two decades based on the principle of people-building and mutual development, the "quality circle" was adopted by the BHEL’s Hardwar Plant in the year 1981 and has, since then, yielded savings of nearly Rs five crore, according to Mr. Ashwini Dhar, Public Relations Officer of the organization. The quality circle guides the combined efforts and knowledge of workmen of a particular section. There are more than four hundred quality circles actively working to enhance the excellence on the process, quality and delivery fronts, Mr. Dhar said. Coordinators and facilitators along with other members of the workers’ groups identify problems and think of solutions collectively to prevent defects and maintain overall quality. Mr. Dhar said upgrading, renovation and modernization of hydro sets installed at various power stations equipped with BHEL and non-BHEL equipment was being now undertaken by the Hardwar unit through its research and development efforts. The Hardwar unit of BHEL has received an order of Rs eight crore from Power Development Corporation, Jammu and Kashmir, to carry out renovation and modernization of the lower Jhelum Hydro Electric Project. This project is equipped with turbine and operator equipment supplied by BHEL and the project was commissioned in 1980. Another order, worth Rs thirty crore, was received by the BHEL plant for renovation, modernization and uprating of the units of Ganguwal and Kotla Hydro Electric Projects under Bhakra Beas

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7. Management Board and will ensure an increased output of the generating units by as much as twenty per cent. Earlier, one unit each of the above machines was renovated and updated by the BHEL resulting in a similar output increase for these machines. More than a hundred sets of different capacities supplied by BHEL, Hardwar, are commissioned at various power stations all over the country. The hydro sets are tailor-made to suit varying hydroelectric parameters. Mr Dhar said that at the Hardwar Plant, excellent engineering and manufacturing facilities are available to supply kaplan, francis, pelton and reversible hydro turbines along with matching generators and associated equipment. (UNI)

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The Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) located in Haridwar, is one of the major manufacturing plants of BHEL. The core business of HEEP includes design and manufacture of large steam and gas turbines, turbo generators, hydro turbines and generators, hydro turbines and generators, large AC/DC motors and so on. Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant, Hardwar of this Multi-unit corporation with 7467 strong highly skilled technicians, engineers, specialists and professional experts is the symbol of Indo Soviet and Indo German Collaboration. It is one of the four major manufacturing units of the BHEL. With turnover of 164059 lacs and PBT of Rs.32489 lacs HEEP added 3000 MW of power to the National grid during 2005-06. HEEP is engaged in the manufacture of Thermal and Nuclear Sets up to 1000MW, Hydro Sets up to HT Runner dia 6300mm, associated Apparatus Control gears, AC& DC Electrical machines and large size Gas Turbine of 60-200 MW. HEEP Hardwar contributes about 44% of India’s total installed capacity for power generation with total capacity of Thermal, Nuclear & Hydro Sets of over 45000MW currently working at a Plant Load Factor of 76% and Operational Availability of 86%. Inspite of acute recession in economy, BHEL Hardwar received recent orders for Mejia-5&6,Sipat, Bhatinda, Chandrapura, Bakreshwar, Santaldih, Bhilai, Dholpur.

HISTORICAL PROFILE:-

The construction of heavy electrical equipment Plant commenced in Oct.”1963”after indo- soviet technical co-operation agreement in Sept.”1959”The first product to roll out from the

plant was an electric motor in January 1967.This was

followed by first 100 MW Steam Turbine in Dec.1969and first 100MW Turbo

40


Generator in August 1971.The plant’s “break even” was achieved in March 1974.BHEL went in for technical collaboration with M/s Siemens, Germany to undertake design and manufacture to large size thermal sets upto a unit rating of 1000 MW in the year 1976.First 200 MWTG set was commissioned at Obra in 1977.The continuum of technological advancement subsequently saw the commissioning of 500 MW TG Set in 1984 .The technical cooperation of Gas Turbine manufacture was also signed with M/s Siemens Germany.First 150 MW ISO rating gas Turbine was exported to Germany in Feb”1995”.Our 250 MW thermal set up at Dahanu Plant of BSES made a history by continuous operation for over 150 days and notching up a record plant load factor greater than 100%.

KEY COMPETITORS:Power Sector Giant of the World viz. Siemens Germany, ABB, General electric of USA etc. are the major competitors of HEEP. All these are the MNC’s and enjoy huge financial and R&D backup.

CORPORATE CITIZEN:HEEP Hardwars Strategic plans and its policy & strategy are commensurate with BHEL Corporate / strategic Plan . As first PSU to adopt Corporate Planning as a process . Board meetings for long –range development , BHEL has always guided other PSU’s in their Corporate planning

process .Board meeting , monthly

Management Committee meetings, Annual Revenue Budget exercise , Mid term reviews , Apex TQ council reviews, Personnel Heads Meet, Quality Heads Meet , Technology Meets , Product committees meetings, Inter-Unit Quality Circle Meets etc. are the some of crore strengths of BHEL Corporation’s vast network.

KEY CUSTOMERS AND SUPPLIERS :-

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HEEP’s customer profile ranges from State Electricity Boards,Government Power utilities like NTPC, NPC, NHPC to IPPs like Reliance Energy. HEEP has also supplied Gas Turbine sets to overseas customers in Libya & Iraq. Power Sector Regions of BHEL are its key internal customers. In view of expected market scenario,BHEL has strategically decided that HEEP will concentrate on coal based Higher Rating Thermal Sets for domestic market to fulfil the country’s vision of adding 107,000 MW capacity to achieve ‘Power on Demand’ by 2012. Our key customer, NTPC has drawn up plan for capacity addition of 20,000MW by 2012. HEEP has planned for execution of 34,619MW by 2012.

FAVOURABLE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT:-

Power Sector has to grow over 10% annually to reach the 7% GDP level. Thus, the demand for thermal sets will remain high. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) is the guiding authority for Power Sector strategies in our country. BHEL representatives, along with representatives from various domestic customers, are an integral part of various committees formed by CEA. This enables us to guide and understand the market requirements and future challenges. To meet the 11th Five Year Plan target of adding 61,000MW, CEA has planned addition of 23 nos. standardized 500MW sets for faster project execution and cost reduction. BHEL, including HEEP, is a part of this process. CEA has standardized for the next capacity of 800MW sets and has asked BHEL to prepare itself for manufacturing and supply in the 11th Five Year Plan. BHEL has tied up with Siemens for upgradation of technology. Further CEA’s stress on R&M of ageing Power Plants is also providing business opportunity to unit.

MAJOR CHALLENGES:The favorable business scenario has given the unit a major challenge of establishing Power Infrastructure of the country in close co-ordination with its key customers. HEEP has committed itself to meet the country’s requirements. To cater to the needs of higher rating sets of 800MW, HEEP has collaboration with Siemens.

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STRATEGIC CHALLENGES:• Key Business • Cycle time reduction • State of the art technology • Cost reduction • Operational • Timely delivery • Material cost reduction • Productivity improvement

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• Effective utilization of machines • Human Resource • Motivation of employees • Skill & Knowledge management

MAJOR MILE STONES:-

1975

Job Redesign concept launched for FIRST time in India.

1978

well documented Suggestion Scheme launched.

1982

Launched Productivity Movement & Quality Circle. Concept

1993 1995

of ISO 9001 quality System. Adopted EFQM model of TQM for achieving Business Excellence.

1997

BHEL one of the 9 PSE’s declared “Navratna” by Govt. of India .

1997

National Productivity Award for HEEP by the President of India.

1998

Certificate of Merit by National Productivity Council for Outstanding Performance for 2 nd consecutive year.

1998

Accreditation of U stamp.

1999

Accreditation of R Stamp from National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspector, USA .

1999

AD-Merkblatt HPO Recertification by RWTUV for Gas

Turbine

Combustion Chambers 1999

INSAAN Award for Excellence in Suggestion for 9 th consecutive year

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1999 1999

Launching of 5s concept PCRI recognized as Environmental Lab by Haryana State Board for Prevention and Control of Pollution

1999

Accreditation of ISO 14001-Enviornment management system

2000

CII Site Visit for CII-EXIM Business Excellence Award-2000

2001

Top Management TQM Workshop at Rishikesh and HRDC

2001

INSAAN Award for excellence in Suggestion for 11 th consecutive year

2001

Launching of QTM & RCA at HEEP Hardwar by CMD

2002 Launching of delivery Index, Turnover Index and

Manufacturing

Index 2002 JBE Workshop of Apex TQM Group at Tehri to evolve Business policy 2003

Commendation for Strong Commitment to Excel in CII-EXIM Bank Award

2004

Commendation for Significant Achievement in CIIEXIM Bank Award.

2005

Award given by Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India for "Excellent Work in the field of Management Accounting and Cost Concepts".

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BUSINESS POLICY:

“In-line with Company’s Vision, Mission and values, we dedicate ourselves to sustained growth with increasing positive Economic Value Addition and Customer focused business leadership in the Power and Industry Sector.

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS: •

Increase Orders of Spares/Services to 230 Cr.

Decrease Capital employed by Rs. 120 Cr.

Saving in Material Cost by 16 Cr. i.e. 5%- Rs. 4 Cr.

Decrease in indirect material +miscellaneous expenses by 5%- Rs. 4 Cr.

Effective implementation of QTM/RCA/CTQ

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Strengthening Internal customer concept

Development of an Incentive Scheme

Reward Scheme including EXCEL Awards

Effective implementation of PMS

Effective Contract Management

Technology Up gradation

‘Excellence triangle’ for each Critical Success Factor is now being drawn comprising improvement projects. These projects will be centrally registered under On-line Central Registration system to be developed for it. While CSF Champion will take the total stock of position in the improvement projects undertaken in his respective CSF, progress of individual projects will be reviewed by Area TQ Council (ATQC) and Functional TQ Council (FTQC).

One of the major strengths of HEEP Hardwar is its free, open and consistent work culture for making continuous improvement evident from the participation of employees in Suggestions and Quality Circles. To recognize their efforts various productivity drives and competition are organized through out the year and Executive director awards the winners in the special Award Distribution Functions. The journey to excellence is unending .It is a continuous search with commitment and belongingness. Sky indeed is not the limit for perfection. The transition has strongly experienced a silent internalization with a blend of commitment of the existing human resource for creating benchmarks for excellence. The emergence of role models and clear-cut driving force at the top provide an anvil to unleash the potential, which remain unexplored in search of “Attitude to perform”. The surge has started and is getting communicated down the . BHEL today through TQM is on march towards excellence.

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HEEP Product profile

Thermal and Nuclear sets –( Turbines , generators , condensers and Auxiliaries of unit capacity upto 1000 MW)

Hydro sets including Spherical and Disc Valves

Electrical Machines –( for various industrial applications , pump drives and power station auxiliaries , unit capacity up to 20000 KW AC/DC)

Control Panels –( for thermal/ hydro sets and industrial drives)

Large size Gas turbines (unit rating ;60-200MW)

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•

Defence products (SRGMs)

PRODUCT CAPACITY RATINGS * Thermal Sets * Hydro Sets

Upto 1,000 MW Maximum hydro runner Turbine diameter 6,600 manufacturing Upto 115 MW

* Gas Turbines

60,200 MW 150 ratings

* Light Aircraft

Two Seater

* AC / DC Machines

5, 20,000 KW

* Apparatus and Control Gears

to match with the power equipment

* Steam Turbines for combined

various combinations

Cycle power plant * Heat Exchangers / condensers

Manufacturing Upto 800 MW ratings

* Medical Equipment

Linac (for cancer treatment)

* Super Rapid Gun Mount

Naval Guns

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KEY CUSTOMERS AND SUPPLIERS

The Power supplier of the country National Thermal Power Corporation, NHPC, NPC, and other IPPs and various State electricity Boards, are the key external customers of HEEP Hardwar. HEEP has a long standing-relationship with its customers. Power Sector-Regions, Power Sector Technical Services and other sister unit of BHEL are the key Internal customers. Manufactures of Casting and Forging, ETS, Steels including alloy steels, component of the product non-ferrous and insulating materials, equipment etc. are its suppliers. Some of the key suppliers are Collaborators M/s Siemens Germany, sister unit CFFP, SAIL, near by Ancillaries developed by BHEL etc. To further strengthen the relations, one to one long term cooperation meetings are being held by BHEL with its 200 major suppliers on regular basis.

TOTAL QUALITY FOCUS: To face the increased competition from MNC’s (due to liberalization policy of Government) in early 90’s and to enter European market we moved towards ISO 9000 Certification. Concept of Business Excellence through EFQM Model was launched in entire BHEL on pilot scale in Oct.”1995” In 1997 HEEP launched TQM in the entire Plant and since then Self-Assessment is done every year in September. Based on feedback Report of Assessment, critical success factors are identified and TQ action plans are drawn. The philosophy of ISO 9001 ,TQM and ISO 14001 has been integrated BHEL Hardwar for ultimately achieving “BUSINESS EXCELLENCE”.HEEP Hardwar plant is accredited for ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 and is now on march towards TQM.5-S was launched in March 1999 in a big way and now it has become a way of life in the organization. In 2000 HEEP applied for CII-EXIM Business excellence award and site

50


visit was conducted but CII team in Seot.”2000.Cii feedback has gone a log way in carrying out further improvement plans and giving a structured thrust to TQM movement

In July 2001, Unit’s TQ Council reviewed the TQ Action Plans 2001-02 for its effectiveness and impact on accelerating the pace of improvement and consequent TQ Score. Executive Director laid the challenge of achieving the TQ score of 650.With an objective to bring awareness about he CII-EXIM Business Excellence Model amongst the Sr. Executives, the first ‘Top Management TQM Workshop’s held at Rishikesh during oct.2001Executive Director who is TQ Assessor also, himself steered the Workshop with assistance from some experienced TQ Assessor of HEEP. It followed by second Top Management TQM Workshop steered again by Ed was held at HRDC on Oct’29,2001.Subsequantly the third Top Management TQM Workshop was held in Nov’2001,where-in Sr. Counselor, CII deliberate the detail on Best practices of TATA STEEL-the winner of ‘CII-EXIM Business Excellence Award 2000’.Simultaneously ,TQ Assessors training program for the select group of young managers(to be developed as Think Tanks)was organized in Nov’2001.To give further boost Apex Group was formed. Apex Group developed “Roadmap to Business Excellence” based on Criteria Linkage of CII-EXIM Business Model and the initiatives taken at Hardwar was drawn by the group and it was widely circulated amongst the employees through special issue of Hardwar Current in April 2002. To be a responsible corporate citizen and to meet exacting international standards in occupational health, safety and environment, BHEL continued re-certification of all its units/ divisions for OHAS-18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management System as well as ISO-14001 Environmental Management System. BHEL' journey in Total Quality Management (TQM) received a boost when all Four major division of BHEL viz. Trichy, Hardwar, Bhopal and Hyderabad along with Power Sector Northern Region received the coveted CII- EXIM commendation certificates. Other significant achievements included: -

'IMC Ramakrishna Bajaj National Quality Award 2004' to BHEL's Ranipet plant making it the first PSE to win this award.

-

BHEL's Hyderabad plant was adjudged the 'Best Organization in promoting Quality Circles' for the second consecutive year by QCFI chapter convention.

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For contribution to the Renewable Energy sector, the SESI2004: PVSEC Award for Applications', was conferred on BHEL's Electronics Division, by solar Energy Society of India.

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OVERVIEW OF FINANCE FUNCTIONS

Role of finance function-

Finance function is the backbone of any organization. The finance function plays a very critical role in the maximization of shareholders who provide the funds to the company. This objective is being achieved by the finance department, which provides the carious information on the financial parameters such as cash flows, profitability, cost and margin, assets, working capital and shareholder value for the purpose of efficient utilization of resources resulting in better profitability of the company. The importance of the finance functions cannot be undetermined in any organization as

53


many companies have perished not due to bad production management but due to poor financial management function acts like radar of the ship, which guides the direction of the ship and saves it from the perils of the sea. In the same way finance department provides timely and relevant information to various levels of management for the purpose of decision-making.

The various activities undertaken by the finance department achieve the aforesaid objectives, may be summarized as follows-

Maintenance of account books, cost records.

Preparation of salary bills and other related payment to employees: PP, bonus, TA, departmental advances of PF accounts etc.

Preparation of Profit & Loss a/c and Balance Sheet.

Generation of various MIRs for management use: MIRs relating to turnover, profitability, cash requirements, inventory.

Coordination with company auditors, Govt. auditors, cost auditors and tax auditors.

Decisions relating to purchase and sales.

Investment decisions: capital investment decisions and working capital management decisions.

Financing decisions: decisions relating to financing-mix or capital structure or leverage.

Dividend policy decisions.

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COST SECTION

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Cost- section of the company is divided into following two sections viz, PRODUCT COST & CENTRAL COST and these deals with the following functions: (i)

Determination of periodic profits including inventory valuation.

(ii)

Determination of pricing policy of the company.

(iii)

Work related to capital expenditures of the company.

(iv)

Developing variance Management Information report for different parts of management for purpose of cost control and reduction.

(v)

Valuation of work in progress and finished goods.

(vi)

Interaction with management of top management link for achieving cost control and cost reduction and thereby improving bottom line of the company.

(vii)

Preparation of cost sheet of different product and their analysis for future planning.

BOOKS AND BUDGET SECTION This section deals mainly with the following:-

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(i)

Preparation of operating budget for the company as a whole.

(ii)

Co-ordination with various functions of organization with regard to generation and submission of important MIR's to corporate office.

(iii)

Preparation of annual accounts of the company.

(iv)

Coordination with company auditors with regard to company accounts.

(v)

Maintenance and accounting of fixed assets accounts.

(vi)

Preparation of long term profit plans based on broad objectives of the company.

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SALES SECTION

Sales accounts section will deal mainly with the following items :(i)

Scrutiny and vetting of estimates / quotation for sale of products / services, wherever financial concurrence is required.

(ii)

Scrutiny and vetting of agreements for sales of products and services

(iii)

Invoicing for sale / advance or progressive payment / erection income and other.

(iv)

Maintenance of subsidiary records like sales journals / sales daybook, sundry debtors ledgers, advances from customer ledger etc.

(v)

Payments, recovery and accounting of sales tax, excise duty.

(vi)

Accounting of claims on carriers/ insurance companies for missing items / damages on outward consignments.

(vii)

Scrutiny, payments and accounting of bills of carriers and insurers and other miscellaneous claims relating to the outwards consignments.

(viii)

Calculation and scrutiny of data for payments of royalties to the collaborators.

(ix)

Review and reconciliation as well as follow up of recovery of outstanding dues from the customers in coordination with the commercial department.

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STORES SECTION For the convenience of performance of various function it is divided in to further three sections which are as follows: a) Stores bills. b) Stores review. c) Foreign payment. They deal mainly with the following items of works: (i)

Payment of supplier’s bills including bills for advances -indigenous and foreign.

(ii)

Pricing of stores receipt vouchers including fixed assets vouchers and fixed assets receipt vouchers.

(iii)

Maintenance of accounts of advances to suppliers, claims recoverable, claims for short suppliers, rejections and rectifications of materials and sundry creditors.

(iv)

Opening of letter of credit and arranging payments to foreign suppliers under foreign credit / differed payment agreements.

(v)

Payment of bills for ocean freight, port trust dues, custom duty, local agents commission and clearing agents bills, transit insurance bills, bills of contractors for transport /handling etc. and accounting of such payments are made at regional offices.

(vi)

Maintenance of accounts of material issued on loan and materials issued to subcontractors.

(vii)

Keeping account of earnest money and security deposits received from tender and suppliers.

(viii)

Adjustment of stores in transit to be made at the close of the year.

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PAYROLL SECTION

This section deals mainly with the following functions: (i)

Preparation of monthly wage bills.

(ii)

All account work related to personal payments and disclose profit and loss account of the company.

(iii)

Dealing with income tax authority with regard to personal taxation of employee.

(iv)

Dealing with other statutory authority such as P.F. Commissioner, ESI (employee state insurance).

(v)

To ensure correct payment of salary and wages and other benefits to employees in, telephone and miscellaneous payments.

(vi)

Preparation of monthly wage bills.

(vii)

All account work related to personal payments and disclose profit and loss account of the company.

(viii)

Dealing with income tax authority with regard to personal taxation of employee.

(ix)

Dealing with other statutory authority such as P.F. Commissioner, ESI (employee state insurance).

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WORKS SECTION Works section of the company is dealing with the following functions: (i)

Payments of contractor’s bills including bills for advance.

(ii)

Maintenance of accounts of contractors with regard to security deposits, earnest money, progressive payments.

(iii)

215 maintenance of accounts of materials issued on loans to contractors.

(iv)

All accounting work related to capital expenditure in progress on erection of plant & machinery and building.

(v)

All other miscellaneous work relating to hiring of various facilities.

LINKAGE OF FINANCE DEPARTMENT WITH

OTHER

DEPARTMENTS

INTEGRATION MODEL

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62


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CONTENTS

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

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SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTHS (S): •

Low cost producer of quality equipment due to cheap labour and fully depreciated plants.

Flexible manufacturing set up.

Entry barrier due to high replacement cost of its manufacturing facilities.

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Comprehensive turnkey experience from product design to commissioning.

Committed and skilled work force.

Relatively stable industrial relationship.

Access to contemporary technologies with back up support from renowned collaborators.

Capabilities to manufacture 4500 MW of thermal TG sets. 4000 MW of boilers, 1345 MW of Hydro sets and 1000 - 2000 MW of Gas Turbines annually.

Ability to set up power plants on turnkey basis, complete know-how for manufacture of entire equipment is available with the company.

Ability to manufacture or procure to supply spares.

Fully equipped to take capital maintenance and servicing of power plants.

Largest share of domestic business leading to; major presence and influence in the market.

ISO 9001 international companies.

Ability to successfully overhaul and renovate power station equipment of different international companies.

Regional centers for services for easy accesses to customers.

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WEAKNESSES (W):

High working capital requirement due to its exposure to cash starved SEBs (State electricity boards).

Inability to provide projects financing.

Difficulty in keeps up commitments on products delivery and desired sequences of supplies.

Longer delivery cycle in comparison with International suppliers of similar equipment.

Inability to provide supplier’s credit, soft loans for financing of power project.

Lack of effective marketing infrastructures.

Inadequate banking infrastructure.

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OPPORTUNITIES (O):

High-expected growth in power sectors (7000 MW/ p.a. needs to be added).

High growth forecast in India’s index of industrial production would increase demand for industrial equipment such as motors and compressors.

Demand for power and hence power plant equipment market is expected to grow.

Private sector power plant to offer expanded market as utilities suffer resource crunch.

Aging of power plants would give rise to more spares and service business.

Life extension programs for old power stations.

Export opportunities.

Easy processing of ventures/collaboration/ imports/ acquisition of new technology.

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THREATS (T):

Technical suppliers are becoming competitors with the opening up of the Indian economy.

Fall in global power equipment prices can effect profitability.

Reduced allocation for power sector.

Increased competition both national and international.

Multilateral agencies reluctant to lend to power sector because of poor financial management by SEB’s.(State Electricity Boards)

Inadequacy of availability of gas would reduce gas turbines business prospects.

Level playing ground not available.

Foreign Co. Spending much more on business

promotion tactics. •

Private sector power companies may not follow so transparent evaluation procedure for bids

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70


CONTENTS

Opportunities & Constraints

Correlation of The Concepts of Management

With Real-Life Situation

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OPPORTUNITIES & CONSTRAINTS During this summer training I got the following opportunities & constraints:

Opportunities • To work in Friendly Environment. • Helpful staff of the Company. • To interact with more MBA’s guys of different Institutes. • To enhance the knowledge. • Team Spirit.

Constraints 

Working hours for trainees were allotted from 1.00 PM to 4.00 PM only, according to BHEL policy. Increase in the allotted hours could have further improved the quality of the project.

Due to non-availability of concerned executives during the allotted hours the time of interaction available was limited.

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CORRELATION OF THE CONCEPTS OF MANAGEMENT WITH REAL-LIFE SITUATION

There are so many important concepts of Management, which are directly applicable on real life situations such as: -

LEADERSHIP During my Summer Training, I had found that what an effective leader could do for any firm. How an effective leader with good communication skills and excellent motivation techniques can improve the performance of the group leading to an overall development of the organization.

I have also found that markets scenario the near participative style of leadership is the best one, as it allows every staff member from top to bottom to lead.

COORDINATION The coordination also plays an efficient role in the development of any organization. Any organization is set to be successful when its entire staff coordinates together and work as one. The coordination applied during my Summer Training, students of different institutes 73


shared their views in-group discussions. I have learnt so many concepts by them and the coordination between us was really good.

MOTIVATION

As we have learnt in the First Semester that Motivation plays an important role in the development of any organization. I was motivated with the sincerity and hard working of my reporting officer Shri Vivek Goel and other finance personnel. In Finance Department of HEEP Haridwar, everybody appreciated Shri Vivek Goel for his excellent role especially in Economic Value Added.

COMMUNICATION

For being an effective leader the basic need is effective communication skills. I had seen that our training in charge had excellent communication skills with top to bottom. The Communication also helped me in communicating the senior officials and employees of BHEL, when I went for an Interactive Session regarding my Project

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\ After recession with my locality member. I choose the project of Working capital management. I discussed the project with my instructor and coordinator Mrs. SANTOSH ANAND (Sr.A/0) at H.E.E.P., BHEL, Hardwar. She approved the project. After that, a simple course of action has been followed for working on this project. Entire information and data were gathered from the respective annual report of BHEL, Hardwar. All the figures are taken from their balance sheet, profit & loss account of the respective years and the other internal documents, which were personally shown by the members of company in our interest.

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MEANING OF RATIO ANALYSIS

MEANING: The ratio analysis is one of the most useful and common method analyzing financial statements. As compared to other tools of financial analysis, the ratio analysis provides very useful conclusions about various aspects of the working, like financial position, solvency, stability, liquidity and profitability of an enterprise.

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The term “Ratio” refers to the numerical or quantitative relationship between two items/variables.

NATURE: Ratio analysis is a powerful tool of financial analysis. In financial analysis, a ratio is used as a benchmark. For evaluating the financial position and performance of a firm. The relationship between two accounting Figures, expressed mathematically, is known as a financial ratio. Ratios help to summaries large quantities of financial data and to make qualitative judgment about the firm’s financial performance.

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This relationship is an index or yardstick, which permits a qualitative judgment to be formed about the firm’s ability to meet its current obligations. It measures the firm’s liquidity .The greater the ratio, the Greater the firm’s liquidity and vice-versa. The point to note is that a ratio reflecting a quantitative relationship helps to form a qualitative judgment. Such is the nature of all financial ratios.

ROLE OF RATIO ANALYSIS: 1: Aid in financial forecasting—Ratio analysis is very helpful in financial forecasting. Ratios relating to past sales, profits and financial position form the basis for setting future trends. 2: Aid in comparison—With the help of ratio analysis, ideal ratio can be composed and they can be used for comparing a firm’s progress and performance. Inter firm comparison or comparison with industry averages is made possible by the ratio analysis.

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3: Financial solvency of the firm—Ratio analysis indicates the trends in financial solvency of the firm. Solvency has two dimensions- long-term solvency & short-term solvency. Long term solvency refers to the Financial viability of a firm. Short-term solvency is the liquidity position of the firm. 4. Communication value—Different financial ratios communicate the strength and financial standing of the form to the internal and external parties. They indicate the over all profitability of the firm. 5.Other uses—Financial ratios are very helpful in the diagnosis and financial health of a firm. They highlight the liquidity, solvency, profitability and capital gearing etc. of the firm. They are useful tool of analysis of financial performance.

USERS OF RATIO ANALYSIS

1

Trade creditors are interested in firm’s ability to meet their claims over a very short period

of time.

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2.

Suppliers of long-term debts are concerned with the firm’s long-term solvency and

survival. They analyze the firm’s profitability over time, its ability to generate cash to be able to pay interest and repay principal and the relationship between various sources of funds.

3. Investors, who have invested their money in the firm share , are most concerned about the firm’s earning.

4.

Management of the firm would be interested in every aspect of the ratio analysis. It is their

overall responsibility to see that the resources of the firm are used most effectively and efficiently, and that the firm’s financial condition is sound.

FINANCIAL RATIOS AND UTILITY

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A ratio may be defined as a fixed relationship in degree or number between two numbers. In finance, ratios are used to point out relationships that are not obvious from the raw data. Some uses of ratios are following: 1. To compare different companies in same industry. Ratios can highlight the factors associated with successful and unsuccessful firms. They can reveal strong firms and weak firms, overvalued undervalued firms. 2. To compare different industries. Every industry has its own unique set of operating and financial characteristics. These can be identified with the help of ratios. 3. To compare performance in different time periods. Over a period of years, a firm or a industry develop certain norms That may indicate future success or failure. If relationship changes in firm's data over different time periods, the ratio may provide clues and trends of future problems.

MAJOR FINANCIAL RATIOS

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A ratio is an arithmetical relationship between tow figures. Financial ratio is a study of ratios between various items or groups of items in financial statements. Financial ratios have been classified in several ways. For our purposes, we divide them into five broad categories as follows: -

LIQUIDITY RATIOS

LEVERAGE RATIOS

TURNOVER RATIOS

PROFITABILITY RATIOS

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CURRENT RATIO This ratio indicates the extent of the soundness of the current financial position of an undertaking and the degree of safety provided to the short-term creditors. The higher the current ratio, the larger amount of rupee available per rupee of current liability, the more the firms ability to meet current obligations and the greater safety of funds of short term creditors. Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities Year

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

Ratio

1.13

1.25

1.11

0.95

………….

1.4

1.13

1.2

1.26 1.11

0.95

1

RATIO

0.8

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

2004-05

INFERENCE:

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

YEAR

In the year’s entire ratio is greater than 1, which indicates that short-term creditors are safe. There is constant increase in the ratio, and Company should try to utilize its short-term resource more efficiently.

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LIQUIDITY RATIO Quick ratio is a more refined tool to measure the liquidity of an organization. It is a better test of financial strength than the current ratio, because it excludes very slow moving inventories and the items of current assets, which cannot be converted into cash easily. This ratio shows the extent of cushion of protection provided from the Quick assets to the current creditors. A Quick ratio of 1:1 is usually considered satisfactory. Liquidity Ratio = Quick Assets / Current Liabilities Year

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Ratio

0.75

0.54

0.63

0.67

0.64

0.75

0.8 0.7

0.63

0.64

2006-07

2007-08

0.54

0.6

RATIO

0.67

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

INFERENCE: The quick ratio has coming down from (0.75 to 0.64) which shows that short-term liquidity of the company is not so good. But in the interest of the company it appears that short term credits are not fully utilized, and the company should make efforts. STOCK TURNOVER RATIO 85


A considerable amount of a company’s capital may be tied up in the raw material, work-inprogress and finished goods. It is important to ensure that the level of stock is kept as low as possible, consistent with the need to fulfill customer order in time. The higher the stock turnover rate or the lower the stock turnover period the better, although the ratio will vary between companies. Stock turnover Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / Avg. Inventory Where; Cost of goods sold = sales- gross profit Average inventory = (opening balance + closing balance)/2

Year

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Ratio

2.38

2.41

2.06

2.3

2.84

YEAR 86


2.84

3

RATIO

2.38

2.5

2.41 2.06

2.3

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

INFERENCE: Stock turnover ratio indicates that how quick inventories are converted into sales. It indicates the position of the inventory management of the company.

As the stock turnover ratio is increasing from year to year, but in 2005-06 it suddenly goes down but after that it again start to increase and company should try to reduce it order to have better inventory management.

87


DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO

Debtor T/O, which measures whether the amount of resources tied up in debtors is reasonable and whether the company has been efficient in converting debtors into cash. The higher the ratio, the better the position. Debtors Turnover Ratio = Credit Sales/Avg. Debtors

Where; Avg. debtors = (opening debtors + closing balance)/2 Year

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Ratio

2

2.69

2.9

2.58

2.2

3 2.5

RATIO

2.69

2.9 2.58 2.22

2

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

YEAR

88


INFERENCE: This ratio indicates that how quick Debtor is collected and greater the ratio shows better the position of the company. Here from the graph it is clear that in 2004 debtors were collected quickly but from then that is from 2005 to 2008 the condition has worsened as ratio has decreased it means that the debts are not being collected rapidly. This fact was discussed and the management that due to overall recession in global market, company has to be liberal in providing credit to the customers pointed it out DEBT EQUITY RATIO

The ratio indicates the relationship between loan fund and net worth of the company. If the proportion of debt to equity is low a company is said to be low-geared and vice versa. A debt equity ratio of 2:1 is the norm accepted by financial institutions for financing projects.

The higher the gearing, the more volatile the return to the shareholders. Debt Equity Ratio = Long Term Debt/Share Holders Funds Year

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Ratio

0.11

0.10

0.09

0.08

0.09

89


0.12

0.11 0.1

0.1

RATIO

0.09 0.08

0.08

0.09

0.06 0.04 0.02 0 2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

YEAR

INFERENCE:

90


Debt Equity Ratio shows that how much funds a company has to meet the long-term obligations. Lesser the ratio shows better the position of the company.

91


PROPRIETOR RATIO or (SHARE HOLDER EQUITY RATIO)

It is assumed that larger the proportion of the shareholders equity, the stronger is the financial position of the firm. This ratio will supplement the debt-equity ratio. In this ratio a relationship established between the shareholder’s fund and the total assets. A reduction in shareholder’s equity signally the over dependence on outside source for long term financial needs and this carries the risk of higher level of gearing. This ratio indicates the degree to which unsecured creditors are protected against loss in the event of liquidation. Proprietor Ratio = Share Holder Funds / Total Assets Year

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Ratio

0.5

0.45

0.42

0.42

0.4172

0.5

0.5 0.48

RATIO

0.45

0.46 0.44

0.42

0.42

0.42

0.4172

0.4 0.38 0.36

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

YEAR

INFERENCE:

92


There is increase in shareholders fund but there is no fresh investment in FA is made and this may affect future profitability of the company, as new investment are required in fixed assets, which will ultimately earn revenue for the company.

93


SOLVENCY RATIO Solvency is a state where the company is supposed to be financially sound and capable of meeting its liability out of its assets. This ratio indicates the relationship between total liabilities and total assets of the business.

Solvency Ratio = Total Liabilities /Total Assets Year

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Ratio

1.81

1.7

1.61

1.61

1.62

1.85

1.81

1.8 1.75

RAT IO

1.7

1.7 1.65

1.61

1.61

1.62

1.6 1.55 1.5

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

YEAR

INFERENCE: Here from the data and the ratios of last five years it is clear that the company’s financial position is sound and is capable of meeting its liabilities out of its total assets. 94


From the last five years data we see that the solvency ratio is increasing continuously and it has decreased from 1.81 in 2002-03 to 1.62 in 2006-07 indicating a sound financial position of the company.

95


FIXED ASSETS TO NET WORTH RATIO

This ratio shows that how efficiently the fixed assets are utilized by the company. This also shows that what portion of net worth is invested in the fixed assets.

Fixed Assets to Net Worth Ratio = Fixed Assets / Proprietor Funds Year

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Ratio

0.24

0.21

0.17

0.13

0.11

0.24

0.25

0.21

0.2

RATIO

0.17 0.13

0.15

0.11

0.1 0.05 0

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

YEAR

INFERENCE:

96


It is clear from the graph there is declining, which is mainly because most of the assets are depreciated fully and more over increase in the proprietor’s fund. There is a need to invest in fixed assets, which will ultimately earn revenue for the company.

97


FIXED ASSETS RATIO

This ratio indicates the proportion of long term funds deployed in fixed assets. Fixed assets minus depreciation provided on this till the date of calculation. The higher the ratio indicates the safer the funds available in case of liquidation. It also indicates the portion of long-term fund that is invested in the working capital.

Fixed Assets Ratio = Fixed Assets/Long Term Funds Year

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Ratio

2.2

2.03

1.94

1.76

1.79

1.76

1.79

2005-06

2006-07

2.5

2.22

2

RAT IO

2.03

1.94

1.5 1 0.5 0

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

YEAR

98


INFERENCE: This ratio indicates that proportion of long funds deployed in fixed assets.

GROSS PROFIT RATIO

This ratio measures the gross profit margin on the total net sales made by the company. The ratio measures the efficiency of the company’s operation and this can also be compared with the previous years results to ascertain the efficiency partners with respect to the previous year. When every thing is normal the gross profit margin should remain unchanged, irrespective of the level of production and sales, since it is based on the assumption that all costs deducted when computing gross profit, which are directly variable with sales. A stable gross profit margin is therefore the norm.

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit / Net Sales) Ă— 100 Year

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08 99


Ratio

12.65

15.88

19.23

19.23

20

RATIO

18.08

23.67

25

15

23.67

18.08

15.88 12.65

10 5 0

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

YEAR

INFERENCE: In 2003-04 the ratio was 12.65 but after that it increased. This was due to factors like direct labour and direct material, which are the main components of cost of production. So main emphasis should be given on reducing the direct material cost .the ratio suddenly decline in the year 2007-08 because of wage revision Due to which the company was compelled to spend a lot on labour cost and moreover they are losing their orders so they should try to maintain their position. This fact was discussed with the management that there is overall recession in the marketing and profit margin or being reduce in order to sustain in market however effort

100


should be made by the company to reduce it cost through measure like cost reduction and cost control.

NET PROFIT MARGIN

This ratio established relationship between net profit and net sales. Net profit ratio shows the operational efficiency of the managerial inefficiency and excessive selling and

101


distribution expenses. In the same way, increase shows better performance. Increase or decrease in the ratio is determined in comparison to pervious year’s performance. Net Profit Margin = Profit After Tax / Net Sales × 100 Year

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Ratio

5.94

7.6

9.22

11.56

14.01

16

14.01

14 11.56

12

RATIOo ooI o OO OO O

9.22

10 8

7.6 5.94

6 4 2 0 2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

YEAR

INFERENCE: This is clear from the graph that it shows a fluctuating trend as a result of increase in cost of production and loss of orders. So in order to improve that the company should try to decrease its cost of production and also increase its sales. This facts was discussed with the management

102


that there is overall recession in the market and the profit margin are being reduced, in order to sustain in the market however efforts should be made by the company to reduce its cost through measure like cost reduction and cost control.

FIXED ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO Fixed assets are used in the business for producing goods to be sold. The effective utilization of fixed assets will result in increased production and reduced cost. It also ensures whether investment in the assets have been judicious or not.

Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / Fixed Assets Year

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Ratio

5.66

6.94

8.31

12.12

10.94

14

12.12 10.94

12 10

RATIO

8.31

8 6

6.94 5.66

4 2 0 2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

YEAR

103


INFERENCE: This ratio is fluctuating which shows that the company is not using its fixed assets effectively. Efforts should be made to invest in new machine, which are more productive/efficient as compared to existing machine, which will increase the profitability of the company in long run.

104


105


106


ADVANTAGES OF RATIOS

The ratio analysis is one of the most powerful tools of financial analysis. It is use as a device to analysis and interprets the financial health of enterprise. Just like a doctor examines his patient by recording his body temperature, blood pressure etc. Before making his conclusion regarding the illness and before giving his treatment, a financial analyst analyses the financial statement with various tools of analysis before commenting upon the financial health or weaknesses of an enterprise. 'A ratio is known as a symptom like blood pressure, the pulse rate or the temperature of the individual.' It is with help of ratios that the financial statements can be analyzed and decision made from such analysis. 1. HELPS IN DECISION-MAKING: Financial statements are prepared primarily for decision-making. But the information provided in financial statements is not an end in itself and no meaningful conclusions can be drawn from these statements alone. Ratio Analysis helps in making decisions from the information provided in these financial statements.

2. HELPS IN FINANCIAL FORECASTING AND PLANNING: Ratio analysis is of much help in financial forecasting and planning. Planning is looking ahead and the ratios calculated for a number of year's work as a guide for the future. Meaningful conclusions can be drawn for future from these ratios. Thus, ratio analysis helps in forecasting and planning.

107


3. HELPS IN COMMUNICATING: The financial strength and weaknesses of a firm are communicated in a easier and understandable manner by the use of ratios the information contained in a financial statement is conveyed in a meaningful manner to the one for whom it is meant. Thus, ratios help in communication and enhance the value of financial statements.

4. HELPS IN CO-ORDINATION: Ratios even help in coordination, which is utmost importance in effective business management. Better communication of efficiency and weakness of an enterprise results in better co-ordination in the enterprise.

5. HELPS IN CONTROL: Ratio analysis even helps in making effective control of the business. Standard ratios can be based upon Performa financial statements and variance or deviations, if any, can be found by comparing the actual with the standards so as to take corrective action at the right time. The weaknesses or otherwise, if any, come to the knowledge of the management which helps in effective control of the business.

108


USES OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS TO DIFFERENT PARTIES

The analysis and interpretation of financial statements is an important accounting activity. The end users of business statements are interested in these statements primarily as an aid to determine the financial position and the results of the operations. There are different parties interested in the financial analysis of their statements and their aims and their objectives also differ significantly. The following are the use of statement analysis to different parties:

•

TO THE FINANCIAL EXECUTIVES: -

The first party interested in the financial statement analysis is the finance department of the business concern itself to the financial managers such analysis provides a deep insight into the financial condition of the enterprises and the view of the past performance which helps in future decision making. The financial statements give vital information concerning the position of the enterprise as well the result of the operations.

•

TO THE TOP MANAGEMENT: The top management of the concern is also increased in the analysis of these statements because it helps them reaching conclusions regarding: 109


 Performance appraisal of overall business activities.  Enquiry about current financial position and long term strategic planning.  Queries concerning the relationships of earnings to trends in sales etc.  Queries concerning the relationships of earnings to investment. • •

TO THE CREDITORS: The analysis of these statements is very essential to the creditors. Also some aspects of enterprise operations are of interest to creditors in regard to liquidity of funds, soundness of financial structure, profitability of the operations, effectiveness of working capital management etc.

TO THE INVESTORS AND OTHERS: Investors’ presents as well as prospects are also interested in the measurement of earning capacity of the securities. Investors have been increasingly concerned with the cash generation capability of an enterprise, primarily in terms of the flexibility available to such enterprises to acquire other business and new assets on an advantage basis for this purpose.

110


PROBLEMS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

There are certain problems and issues encountered in financial analysis, which call for care and judgment in such exercise. •

DEVELOPMENT OF BENCHMARKS: Given the diversity of BHEL product lines, it is difficult to find suitable benchmarks for evaluating its financial performance and conditions. Hence even for such firm, the financial analyst may run into difficulty. If information is available only about industry average or some other standard and not about the entire dispersion of ratios for various firms in the industry, it may not be possible to draw meaningful inferences.

WINDOW DRESSING: Firm may resort to window dressing to project a favorable financial picture. When window dressing is suspected, the financial analyst should look at the average data available as per resource.

PRICE LEVEL CHANGES: -

111


In India financial accounting takes into consideration price level changes. As a result, balance sheet figures are distorted and profits are misreported. Hence financial statement analysis can be vitiated.

•

VARIATIONS IN ACCOUNTING POLICIES: Business firms have some latitudes in accounting treatment like depreciation, valuation of stocks research and development expenses, foreign exchange transactions, installment sales, preliminary and preoperative expenses, and provision of reserve and revaluation of assets. Due to diversity of accounting practices found in practice, comparative financial statement analysis may be vitiated.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS I have obtained some weak and strong points of the company during the analysis of financial statements, which are as follows: As just only the analysis financial statement is not only mean to reach at conclusions we cannot substitute it for sound judgment. Furthermore good judgment depends upon the intelligence and ability of the analyst. 112


• On seeing the liquidity position of BHEL. I conclude that it is not very good as the current assets are in the form of inventories and debtors. The debt collection period is high and inventories are least liquid current assets. So maintaining the inventories are relatively costly affair for the company and the management must have to investigate properly. It is very necessary so that fund should not be blocked unreasonably. Efficient inventory management is required in BHEL.

On seeing the leverage position of the BHEL, I conclude that it is very good as the stake of owners in company is continuously increasing and its long-term debt continuously decreasing it means that company is paying its debt promptly and creditors will not face any risk in investing in BHEL as also BHEL is giving assured ROI. •

On seeing turnover, fixed assets and current assets turnover of company goes on increasing which is a good indicator as it brings commensurate gain and also the average collection goes on decreasing but management should take more efficient steps to reduce it.

On seeing the profitability of the BHEL its overall performance is very good. A continuous increase in the values of EPS (except year 1999) and DPS results, investors feel safe to invest money in BHEL.

113


BIBLIOGRAPHY

B.H.E.L.- Annual Report B.H.E.L.- BALANCE SHEET Financial Management by S.N. Maheshwari Management Accounting by S.N. Maheshwari

114


115


116


117


Balance sheet Unit-HEEP, HWR. particulars SOURCES Funds from corp. off. Reserve&surplus Inter unit bal.(net) Deferred credit Unsecured loan Secured loan

TOTAL UTILISATION: Fixed assets Less: depreciation Net block Cap.W.I.P Inter unit bal(net) Working capital Misc.exp&losses(dr e) TOTAL Working capital A. current asset Cash&bank balance Sundry debtors Inventory Loan advances TOTAL B.current liabilities: Sundry creditors Advances from customer Other liabilities provisions TOTAL Working capital Capital employed

ACT00 ACT01 ACT02 -01 -02 -03

ACT03 -04

ACT04 -05

ACT05 ACT06 -06 -07

4570

4570

4570

4570

4570

4570

4570

43011

49127

57840

63186

78074

97853

125819

13036

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 0 1103

66 0 238

0 0 308

0 447 0

0 364 0

0 499 0

0 910 0

61721

54002

62718

68203

83008

102922 131299

43292 35090 8202 817 0 50463 2238

43644 36363 7281 1173 13716 29320 2512

52619 37985 14634 1127 27317 18668 972

54668 40586 14082 5650 29819 18475 177

59170 42605 16565 1264 51733 13446 0

60233 46337 13896 4899 55382 28745 0

61721

54002

62718

68203

83008

102922 131299

17 54076 47369 13367 114829

23 50904 43461 6573 100962

527 41417 32370 5730 80044

10 55866 39214 5581 100671

9 48552 58976 5299 112836

9 64709 69798 5152 139668

10 83126 54248 1645 139029

18630 27107

19718 33275

15562 29360

13953 45214

16205 55048

16674 61889

21686 63897

2665 15963 64365 50463 58666

1966 16682 71641 29320 36601

1980 14473 61375 18668 33302

8457 14572 82196 18475 32557

9250 18887 99390 13446 30011

12370 19990 110923 28745 42641

13233 24506 123322 15707 36769

72957 51895 21062 9404 85126 15707 0

118


119


RATIO ANALYSIS at BHEL