Issuu on Google+

“A STUDY ON ROLE OF MEDIA IN SHAPING STEREOTYPICAL AND PATRIARCHAL ATTITUDES AMONG MALE POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS”

1


CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Ms XYZ, student of the Department of Social Work, XYZ University, has successfully completed his dissertation titled, “A STUDY ON ROLE OF MEDIA IN SHAPING STEREOTYPICAL AND PATRIARCHAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN AMONG MALE POST GRADUATE STUDENTS” The study is a genuine research work carried out in the partial fulfilment of the requirements of the award of the MBA.

2


Acknowledgement

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to XYZ, Co-ordinator of the Department of Social Work for his support and constant guidance. I am also grateful to other faculty members for providing valuable suggestions and comments in different stages of the completion of my study. I take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to my dissertation guide Dr.XYZ, Asst. Professor, Department of Social Work in Christ University for his guidance through the project study. I would like to thank all my respondents for making this research possible.

Further I am grateful to my parents, friends, and well wishers who have directly or indirectly been responsible for supporting me in this endeavour.

Place: Date:

Signature of the Student

3


Content I

INTRODUCTION......................................................................... 7

II REVIEW OF LITERATURE........................................................ 17 III RESEARCH METHDOLOGY..................................................... 25 IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION...................................... 32 V FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION.................................................45 APPENDIX–A....BIBLIOGRAPY.................................................51 APPENDIX–B ....QUESTIONNAIRE........................................... 55

4


LIST OF TABLES TABLE

PAGE DESCRIPTION

NO.

NO.

1

Age of the Respondents

33

2

Institution of Respondents

34

3

Questions Relating to Equality

35

4

Questions relating to Interests

36

Questions relating to Expectations and Responsiblities

37

6

Questions Relating to Appearance

37

7

Questions Relating to Sex role typing

38

8

Age Vs Questions Relating to Equality

39

9

Age Vs Questions relating to Interests

40

5

Age Vs Questions relating to Expectations and 10

40 Responsiblities

11

Age Vs Questions Relating to Apperance

41

12

Age Vs Questions Relating to Sex role typing

41

13

Instutions Vs Questions Relating to Equality

42

14

Institutions Vs Questions relating to Interests

42

Institutions Vs Questions relating to Expectations and 15

43 Responsiblities

16

Institutions Vs Questions Relating to Appearance

43

17

Institutions Vs Questions Relating to Sex role Typing

44

5


LIST OF GRAPHS

Graph

DESCRIPTION

PAGE

NO.

NO.

1

Graphical representation of religion of repondents

33

2

Graphpical representation of Institutions of respondents

34

3

Graphical

representation

of

Questions

relating

to 41

Appearance 4

Questions Relating to Sex Role Typing

41

6


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

7


Introduction General Understanding of ‘woman’: The general understanding of the term ‘woman’ among men in today’s world is affected by various factors and has numerous connotations .It is well know that societies distinguish men and women and assign them social roles. As soon as a child is born families and society begin the process of gendering. The birth of the son is celebrated, the birth of a daughter is filled with pain; sons are showered with love, respect, better food and proper health care. Boys are encouraged to be tough and outgoing girls are encouraged to be homebound and shy. Stereotypical and patriarchal beliefs: All these differences are gender are grounded in stereotypical and patriarchal thoughts. Gender stereotypes are shared asymmetrical beliefs .Stereotypes are beliefs about the attributes that characterize a group of people (Ashmore & Del Boca, 1981). Stereotypes can be personal or consensual (Ashmore & Del Boca, 1981; Devine & Elliot, 1995). Personal stereotypes are one person's beliefs about the attributes that characterize a group of people. Consensual stereotypes are shared beliefs about the attributes that characterize a group of people .Most commonly women are stereotyped with being motherly, affectionate, self sacrificing, nurturing ,emotional ,dependent. Defining gender roles, Parsons(1965)acknowledged that feminine role is strictly defined within the family role while the masculine role is more complex and diffuse because it is both related to family and life outside the family. Such stereotyping that shows great favourability to masculine trait and s has resulted in demining women .The study of stereotypes is important because

according to Tajfel (1981), “Social

stereotypes must be analyzed as they are ideologies that shape actions and 8


relationships.”It is evident that feminine stereotypes play a salient role in social perception. Though the authenticity of these notions are questioned very much today one dominant concept remains… A WOMAN IS SUBORDINATE TO MAN. However hard the twenty first century feminists strive to patriarchal thoughts , it is still rampant. Patriarchy is best defined as control by men. The origins of patriarchy can be traced through different stages of civilisation and, several views have been expressed regarding the origins of patriarchy and its universality. Its roots have been traced in history, religion and in nature. For some, patriarchy as a system has a beginning in history, is man made and thus can be ended by historical processes in the future. For others, patriarchy is a natural phenomenon, i.e., it is based on biological differentiation of human beings into male and female categories. It is understood that, patriarchy is universal, God-given, natural and cannot be questioned. Media and it’s role in today’s world: In the present scenario gender sensitive individuals are trying to eradicate such thoughts but they creep in somehow in one form or the other. There are several determinants. The media is definitely one of them .The media creates and reinforces attitudes about women by presenting women differently through different perspectives. In today’s world, media has made a very special place for itself in our lives. If I say that today, media has become as important as food and clothing, then I don t think so that I am over exaggerating anything. There is no denial that media is playing a very significant role in making the world smaller. Through various mediums of media whether it is radio, television, newspaper or internet, we are able to connect with large number of people around us. Especially internet has 9


truly become the need of every individual both for our work and to connect with our friends and well wishers. Facebook, Orkut and Twitter have occupied such special place in our lives that if we are not a part of it, then there is something really important that we are missing. Media has a huge responsibility of conveying the truth and relevant information to the common man. The media is not just confined to informing us about the world happenings and serving a means to connect with people, in fact it also affects out thinking patterns as well The mass media is one of the most powerful conveyors of socio cultural ideals. The causal role played by the media has been demonstrated and assessed by several studies. Media has long followed the strategy of supporting dominant views. Most media content encourage conventional and exploitative, gender images. Portrayal Of Women in the Media: It is well researched that media favours traditional gender stereotypes. As long ago as 1963, Betty Friedan attacked American businessmen and their exploitation of women through advertising in her seminal feminist work, The Feminine Mystique: “It is their millions which blanket the land with persuasive images, flattering the American housewife, diverting her guilt and disguising her growing emptiness.

They have done this so successfully, employing the

techniques and concepts of modern social science, and transposing them into those deceptively simple, clever, outrageous ads and commercials, that an observer of the American scene today accepts as fact that the great majority of American women have no ambition other than to be housewives. If they are not responsible for sending women home, they are surely responsible for keeping them there.� (pp. 218-219) 10


Betty Friedan's comments of 1963 are still valid. Even today, women are shown as playing a secondary and passive role in various programmes, episodes and films. They are depicted as mothers, housewives, sisters, sister-in-law, etc., always serving and caring for the other members of the family or community. Portrayal of Women in electronic media In Televisions Disparity in the actual living conditions of women and those presented over the medium of television is perplexing and disquieting at the very least. Krishnanand Dighe (1990), analyzed the plots of fictional programmes and telecasts during a sample period where the analysis had show that the "ideal woman" was caring, concerned, supportive, helped her husband achieve his goals and did not have any ambitions of her own. She was sacrificing, unquestioning, submissive ,pretty, charming, and devoted to the husband. A deviant behavior by women on the other hand, was one disagreeing her husband ,not remain at home to look after the family's comforts, having personal ambitions, not understanding, accommodating, etc. Or the woman they exhibited interests in going to parties and clubs, gossiping with other women and flirting .The children of such women are addicted to alcohol or drugs and their husbands are deprived of peace. The ideal women won everybody's approval, whereas the deviant women became outcasts. They were reformed by being taught proper lessons by the husbands who beat them into shape, or even sometimes by children. Men, Women who were deviant, were punished by the outside world. Thus, fiction programmes very clearly demarcate the spheres for women and men, constantly propagating that a woman's world is restricted to her home. 11


Portrayal of Women in Advertisements: Commercials often depict women using products such as soap and shampoo to enhance' their personal appeal so as to be rewarded with male approval. The male concept of an ideal woman as one who is young, fair, slim and beautiful, is propagated through commercials. A market for these products is cultivated by encashing on the anxieties and insecurities of young women. As viewers of such advertisements, we are constantly trained to identify with the "male gaze" and internalize the male-view of women. Various techniques like camera -angles, special lighting, composition, framing and music are used to produce the effect of a coherent and complete world where the "real woman" is created for us. Portrayal of women in print media: There have been several studies of print media with regard to women which have found the print media guilty of sexism, distortion of image of women and propagation of sex stereotypes: mothers, housewives, dependant, passive, etc. The other side of such misinterpretation is that in most popular print media women are seldom shown as working women- capable professionals, labourers, farmers. Rather the predominant image is that of the self-sacrificing housewife. If a woman wins a beauty contest, magazines or newspapers in particular give much importance to the news and even take her photographs on cover page but, at the same time if a woman gets the Nobel Prize she gets limited coverage.

Similarly the daily newspapers rarely put women's news and their development. Rather they prefer reporting on rape, atrocities, crime, sexual harassment and abuse 12


of women prominently in their columns. Besides Sunday and Saturday special glossy editions on women's leisure, fashion, beauty and other luxurious news items with erotic photographs are issued from time to time by daily newspapers . Influence of Media: By presenting the real woman who is inscribed by culture, tortured by war, showcased by religion, bound by traditions and bonded within families , media has constantly moulded over the years our understanding of THE WOMAN. It is evident that the media does not serve to give a balanced and realistic view of women. It's no secret that men compare women in their lives to the female images they see portrayed on televisions, films, and advertisements. At both the conscious and subconscious level, these media images of women definitely exert an influence on men and affect behavior towards women at every age and stage of life. This results in an irrational pressure on women to conform to patriarchal constructions. The study will focus on the same. It is unlikely that all young men are affected by idealized images to the same degree. Some researchers have found strong positive correlations between the frequency with which men view patriarchal and stereotypical ideas and the desire or expectations in men to expect their close ones to confirm to similar norms.(e.g., Field et al., 1999; Utter, Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, & Story, 2003) Culturally, men are celebrated and glorified by the media for what they can achieve and conquer .The majority of the time men are influenced by these representations. Girls are presented in traditional roles such as playing house and cooking. Girls are also shown playing with dolls and being concerned with being popular and beautiful. Girls are also portrayed as being cooperative and more passive and less aggressive and competitive than boys. Boys on the other hand are 13


shown seeking power, speed and physical action.

Aggressive

behaviour is

almost exclusively limited to targeting boys. Boys are also shown as being more independent than girls. Though at the surface level it may seem that today’s men laugh at the crudeness with which the movies present women with these stereotypes, there is no doubt these women are a very powerful influence on everybody even today. To be as pure as Sita, as loyal as Draupadi, as beautiful as Lakshmi, as bountiful a provider as Annapoorna, as dogged in devotion as Savitri, as strong as Durga these are all the ultimate role models the society cannot dismiss. Such behaviors are observed and internalized from television by male viewers and has considerable influence in shaping their own gender role concepts (Kolbe & Muehling, 1995; Smith, 1994). Expectations of sex roles and selflabeling as the more powerful one influences many aspects of a man’s life from social interaction to occupational plans, and even to cognitive . Media has the potential to reinforce conventional sex-role definitions, meaning that viewers may come to believe life is supposed to be like it is portrayed in media (Ivy & Backlund, 1994,p.116). Media may also has the capacity to influence how viewers/readers develop an identity for themselves, relative to their own sex and gender, and how they come to expect certain behavior from men and women (Macklin & Kolbe, 1984).

Conclusion: The traits discussed can be summed up as: 14


‘Male’ Gender Traits

‘Female’ Gender Traits

Independent

Dependent

Rational

Irrational

Rough

Gentle

Nasty

Nice

Brave

Cowardly

Insensitive

Sensitive

Aggressive

Placid

Competitive

Co-operative

Physical

Emotional

Disobedient

Obedient

Active

Passive

Unhappy

Happy

Assertive

Unassertive

Confident

Unconfident

Women who reject the roles of chaste, obedient wives and daughters cause anxiety because they blur gender divisions and are seen to pose a threat to the potency and culture of the nation. It is clear that sexist and stereotypical advert portrayals have severe negative impact and Current theories present a more complex interaction between the media and society. St. Lawrence and Joyner (1991, p. 49) comment that the “negative attitudes and behavioral biases toward women” are among the many un- desirable social consequences created by media images.”The media generate information as a network then publish 15


information using articles, videos, and photos to a group of consumers, in turn influencing individual interpretations of the information provided while potentially influencing unrelated cultural and personal beliefs, as per the propaganda model. This study will examine the role media plays in shaping stereotypical and patriarchal attitudes towards women amongst male college students.

16


CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

Introduction: The review of literature is not mere reading sake; it is focused and directed towards specific purposes. It is also selective. Since the study is exploratory in nature, the researcher could not identify many identical studies. So, the researcher chose relevant and studies .The following studies examine the role of media and the influence it generates on individuals and society at large at various levels. 17


Relating to media violence against women: Penny Reid and Gillian Finchilesce, The disempowering effects of media violence against women on women ,November 1994. This study investigated the disempowering effect of exposure to media violence against women on female students. Two hundred and four second-year female

university

students participated in this study . Fifty-six items were

constructed, based on the 14 variables highlighted by the empowerment literature.Participants

completed

the 56-item questionnaire, indicating their

agree-ment or disagreement with each item on a 7-point Likert scale. The results were Continuous media exposure reinforced and encouraged practices such as wife battering and sexual harassment in real life .It also triggered aggressive tendencies against women and taught techniques of violence. It was proved that such media portrayal fostered feelings of powerlessness amongst women and Desensitized viewers. Relating to Body Image and appearance: Fiona Monro,Media-Portrayed Idealized Images, Body Shame ,and Appearance Anxiety,2005. This study was designed to determine the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women’s body shame and appearance anxiety,and to establish whether the effects depend on advertisement type. Participants were 39 female University students. Twenty-four magazine advertisements comprised 12body-related and 12 non–body-related products, one half of each with, and the

18


other one half without, idealized images. Pre exposure and post exposure body shame and appearance anxiety measures were recorded. The study proved that Appearance anxiety increased after viewing advertisements featuring

idealized images. There was also a significant

interaction between self objectification level and idealized body(presence vs. absence). No differences emerged for body-related compared with non–bodyrelated product advertisements. The only result for body shame was a main effect for time. Participants ’body shame increased after exposure to idealized images, irrespective of advertisement type. The Restraint Questionnaire (RQ; Herman & Polivy, 1975) was used to assess the extent to which participants are attitudinally and behaviourally concerned with their weight and dieting. The 12-item Social Physique/Appearance Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary & Rejeski, 1989), which assesses how anxious participants feel when their bodies are observed or evaluated by others, was used to measure appearance anxiety in this experiment .Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (BS-OBCS; McKinley & Hyde, 1996) indicates how ashamed participants are of their body, and the extent to which participants have internalized the cultural thin ideal .

Relating to stereotypical portrayal: Kelly A. Malcolmson and Lisa Sinclair, The Ms.Stereotype revisited :Implicit and Explicit Facets, Psychology of women quarterly,2007. This study examined the domain of the Ms. stereo- type by using the Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (EPAQ). The EPAQ contains both 19


positive and negative scale .The positive scale included the ‘so’ called desirable traits while the negative scale was used to study the opposite. Respondents were 230 people from Toronto’s Ontario Science Centre. Exploratory research design was used in the study and questionnaires were used to collect the needed information. Ninety-three percent of the respondents associated only the ‘so’ called positive attributes to the term ‘Ms’ .The results added to the evidence that women suffer from stereotypes. Relating to Nature of abilities: Gail D. Heyman,* Bryn Martyna, and Sangeeta Bhatia,Gender And AchievementRelated Beliefs among Engineering Students Participants were 238 undergraduates enrolled at the University of California, San Diego. Participants were recruited with the assistance of faculty members across a range of disciplines. A questionnaire was used to examine students perceptions of possible gender differences in how engineering students are treated. One measure asked students whether they believed that male and female students in their major were treated differently. The second measure asked students to rate their levels of agreement with the statement “The climate women face in engineering is no different from the climate faced by men.” Participants rated their agreement on a forced-choice scale ranging from 1(strongly agree) to 6 (strongly disagree).The results indicated that among engineering students, over half of the women perceived differential treatment of men and women, as compared to just over a quarter of the men. The researcher says “many women made comments indicating that they were treated negatively by men, such as “[male students] tend to be condescending, others treat you like you don’t know anything” and 20


“sometimes we are not believed, looked down upon, seen as ‘little girls.’” One female engineering student made a reference to “subtle intimidation by [male] students.”

Relating to Restricting carrier choices Mary Ann And Gerald.R.Adams. Implications of Sex Typed Child Rearing Practices, Toys, and Mass Media Materials in Restricting Occupational Choices of Women,1979. According to the above study, Developmental research indicates children are aware of their appropriate sex role- behavior relatively early in their life. The study reviews child rearing practices, toy materials, mass media literature and TV pro-Programming and indicates the presence of gender stereotyping. Using these data, and argument is presented in the study that suggests gender stereotyping may limit females' occupational choice and aspirations .The researcher says Differential Childrearing Practices Internalize irrational beliefs on their capacities. Sex Stereotyped Media Material and Programs telecast Men in occupations of power, prestige, technology, and authority. Women, however, are presented in occupational roles reflecting an extension of the maternal role, which is usually viewed as unskilled and low paying. Gender specific toys may socialize children into stereotypic vocational choices. “Toys may be viewed as offering experimentation with future roles and present an opportunity to rehearse a future occupational opportunity on the child's level “The research literature thus argues gender specific socialization practices

channel boys and girls into specific

occupational directions 21


Relating to portrayal in television: Ingham,Helen,The Portrayal of Women on Television,2000. In this article the author talks about television as a widely known means to represent and reinforce the mainstream ideology of contemporary western culture: patriarchy. Helen Ingham says that Some of the most watched, and perhaps influential genres of television viewing are advertisements and soap operas. Talking about advertisements the author quotes a study by Paul Trowler (1997)“women were seven times more likely to appear in personal hygiene product adverts than to not appear; 75% of all adverts using females were for products used in the bathroom or kitchen, 56% of women in adverts were shown as domestic housewives and only eighteen different occupations were shown for women, in comparison to forty three for men”

Are women offended by the way they are portrayed in advertising?, Sonia Dickinson and Donna Gill, The messages reflected in advertising are evaluated from the perspective of an individual’s moral philosophy or ethical judgement (Arthur & Queser 2003).The study states that Individuals experience different levels of affect (in this case, offence) as a consequence of exposure to various stimuli in their environment. Subsequently, this creates a broad range of individual behaviours and cognitions. Thus demining portrayal of women will have a negative influence on them and affect them at various levels. 22


C.Pichandy,Relating to communication and social influence,1988.

The study was conducted in Tamil Nadu and analysed the effects of media on attitude, behavior, and social change. He found that people gave a lot of importance to the information received through the media and suggested that there is a need for a comprehensive programme in regional languages in accordance with local needs ,local specifies and aim to do justice to communication as a medium for development.

Conclusion: These studies make it evident that the media is playing a crucial role in disempowering women and is portraying demining images which is affecting our society. However, the studies fail to look at the influence such portrayals can have on men. Impact on Men has to be understood as they have a huge role to play in the status women enjoy in our society. The researcher thinks her study is necessary to look at this area which remains unexamined. The researcher hopes her findings will trigger similar researches in this unexplored area. 23


CHAPTER 3 24


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A research is a process through which we attempt to achieve systematically and with the support of data the answer to a question, the resolution of a problem, or a greater understanding of a phenomenon. The core concept underlying all research is its methodology. It is not enough to follow the research procedures without an intimate understanding that research methodology directs the whole endeavour – where critical decisions are made and where organising, planning and directing the whole project takes place. The methodology controls the study dictates the acquisition of the data and arranges them in logical relationships, sets up a means of refining the raw data contrives an approach so that the meanings the lie below the surface of those data 25


manifest and finally issues a conclusion or a series of conclusions that lead to an expansion of knowledge.

Title of the study: Role of media in shaping stereotypical and patriarchal attitudes towards women amongst male post graduate students.

Objectives of the study: The objective refers to the questions to be answered through the study. They indicate what we are trying to get from the study. The study has attempted to examine the following issues: 1. To study the influence media generates on men in shaping attitudes towards women 2. To study the role of media in disempowering women 3. To investigate the issue of gender equality in media

Definitions of terms: Patriarchy is an andocentric social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property A stereotype is a commonly held popular belief about specific social groups or types of individuals. The concepts of "stereotype" is very close to prejudice

26


In general media refers to the various forms of communication. An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for an item

Research Design: Research Design is a conceptual framework within which the research is conducted. It constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. The study is an exploratory study. The study will look at the role of media is playing in influencing and perpetuating the social problem of stereotyping and patriarchy among male students. Exploratory design is suitable for this study as the study only aims to gain insights on the issue and no such exact study has been carried out in the same topic selected by the researcher, especially among men.

Universe: A total of 100 registered male post graduate students of Social work were chosen.20 students were chosen from Christ university, Bangalore University, Madras school of Social work and Loyola school of Social Work. The department of social work , Christ University

aims at moulding

students into professional social workers with highest professional values as well as skills. The course design has a balanced blend of class room teaching with field experience. The department works in close alignment with the Centre for Social Action to sensitize students towards issues of social concern. At Madras school of 27


Social Work, The department came into existence in 1963. The objective of this course is to prepare candidates for a career in social work through a professional training programme. The course is a two-year full time programme covering four semesters. The foundation course comprises theory in social work, research methodology and applications that support the understanding of core courses. Loyola College was founded by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1925 with the primary objective of providing University Education in a Christian atmosphere for deserving Students, especially those belonging to the Catholic Community. The social Work programme aims at training young men and women of quality to be leaders in all walks of life, who will play a vital role in bringing about the desired changes for the betterment of the people of our country, more particularly of the poor and marginalized sections of society. Bangalore University is one of the oldest in India, dating back to 1886. The university is a part of The Association of Indian Universities (AIU)and nears the status of "Potential for Excellence" which is reserved for the top 10 universities in India under the Guidelines of the University Grants Commission(UGC).

Sampling Method: The researcher used probability sampling to choose her samples. The researcher picked students of Social Work as the researcher felt they would be suitable for the study.

Sample Group: The sample group was 100 male post-graduate students of social Work.

Criteria for inclusion and exclusion: 28


Inclusion Criteria: Only male post graduate Social Work students have been included in the sample as the results can indicate the impact amongst men of this particular age group and can be generalized amongst them. The study will need only male samples as the focus of study is to see the impact media generates on men Post graduate students of social Work were chosen as they will be easy to access and have greater exposure to media.

Exclusion criteria: Older Men are not included in the study as it might be difficult to get responses from to them due to their conservative nature

Pre testing: It is a process of an advancement of the study design after the questionnaire has been prepared. The researcher conducted pre test on 10 respondents. This was very helpful and led to modification of the questionnaire . Few questions were added, a few deleted and a few edited.

Tools of data collection: The primary tool of data collection was a self-structured questionnaire with close ended questions. The secondary tools were research articles, journals and books related to the area of study by the researcher 29


Processing and Analysis of data: After collection of data it has been processed and analysed in accordance with the outline laid for the purpose at the time of developing the research plan. The information collected has been analysed using Frequency , Tabulation Cross Tabulation, Quartile deviation and Mean .The information is presented in simple tables

and cross tables with the researcher’s own accompanying interpretations. This is further supported by charts wherever necessary.

Limitations of the Study: 1. The study was confined only to 100 male post graduate students and therefore cannot be generated to the entire male student community 2. The responses given by some of the respondents may be biased. This might due to male chauvinism or to paint a favourable picture in the eyes of the

researcher.

Ethical Considerations: The following were some of the ethical aspects which were considered in this research: 1) The participants gave consent for the study and only then included in the study. This was carried out by providing the informed consent form to each participant enabling them to sign before filling out the questionnaire. 2) Respondents were free to voluntarily withdraw from the study at any point of time if they wanted to. 30


3) Researcher used the data only for research purpose.

CHAPTER 4 31


ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

DATA INTREPRETATION AND ANALYSIS Table 1: Age of the Respondents Sl. No. Age

Frequency

Percentage

21 – 23

41

45

24–26

39

39

27– 29

16

16

1. 2. 3.

TOTAL

100

The above table Shows the age that out of the 45 respondents

32


Table No. 2: Religion Of Respondents Sl. No. Religion

Frequency

Percentage

Christianity

75

75

Hindhuism

22

22

Islam

3

3

Others

0

0

1. 2. 3. 4.

Total

100

33


Graph 1: Graphical Representation of the Religion of Respondents

Table No. 3 Institution Of the respondents

Sl. No

Frequencies

Percentage

1.Loyola college 2.Madras School Of Social Work 3.Bangalore University 4.Christ University TOTAL

25 25 25 25

25 25 25 25 100

Graph2:Graphical representation of Institutions 34


The results have been grouped by the researcher based on the domains

Questions relating to Equality: Table No:4-Questions relating to equality Scores 20-51 51-80 Total

Cumulative Frequency 4 96 100

Percent 4.0 96.0 100.0

Valid Percent 4.0 96.0 100.0

Percent 4.0 100.0

The above table shows that only 4% of the respondents believe that the media is fostering attitudes of superiority on them.96% of the respondents feel that the media does not influence them in shaping inferior attitude towards women .This may be because of the emerging roles in media of women at different positions. Women are telecasted to be bread winners and active contributors of the society in the new media(Karl,2004).This also shows the media is accommodating the changing role of women 35


Table 4: Questions Relating to Interests

Scores

Percent

4-6

100.0

Questions relating to interests confined the interest of a women to a particular traditional group such as aesthetics and stated that women who deviated from this group are not ‘lady-like’. All the respondents believe that a women’s interest should be inclined to aesthetics and the media plays a huge role in influencing this belief. These results also tell that that the respondents might have been biased in answering the questions in the first domain as it ill explicitly reveal their patriarchal attitudes. Paul Trowler sites a study of women in advertisements, which found that women were seven times more likely to appear in personal hygiene product adverts than to not appear; 75% of all adverts using females were for products used in the bathroom or kitchen products .

Table 5: Questions Relating to Expectations and responsibilities

36


Scores Percent Valid

44-68

100.0

All the respondents hold stereotypical and patriarchal expectations portrayed in the media. They also want a traditional set of responsibilities constantly showcased (like nursing, caring, cleaning etc) to be fulfilled by their partners or siblings.

Questions relating to appearance

Table:No:6- Questions relating to appearance

Scores 3-8 9-12 11.00

Cumulative Frequency 16 83 1

Percent 16.0 83.0 1.0

Valid Percent 16.0 83.0 1.0

Percent 16.0 96.0 100.0

Graph No:4-Graphical Representation Of questions relating to appearance

37


Only,16% of the respondents agreed that the media is influencing them and they expect their siblings and partners to be like the ideal women shown in television. The media imposes unrealistic beauty standards on women .Many researches indicate that several men are dissatisfied with the appearance of women in their lives due to media influence but the same has been disproved by these results

Table: 7-Questions Relating to Sex Role Typing:

Scores 13-33 34-65 Total

Percent 99.0 1.0 100.0

Graph No:5-Questions Relating to Sex Role Typing

38


Questions in this domain covered a range of common stereotypical assumptions.99% of the respondents said that they believe in these prejudices because of media influence. From the responses, it can be understood that the media serves to promote a polarization of gender roles. [With femininity are associated traits such as emotionality, prudence, co-operation, a communal sense, and compliance. Masculinity tends to be associated with such traits as rationality, efficiency, competition, individualism and ruthlessness.

Results based on age and domains: Table No:8-Age Vs Beliefs related to Equality Scores 20-51 51-80 Total

21-23 2 39 41

Age 26-29

24-26 2 37 39

4.00 0 16 16

Total 0 4 4

4 96 100

The above table shows the age wise responses in the domain of equality .The results show that men between the age group 26-29 are influenced with superiority attitudes by the media. 39


Table No:9-Age Vs Beliefs related to interests Scores 4-6 Total

Age 21-23

24-26 41 41

26-29 39 39

4.00 16 16

4 4

Total 100 100

The above table shows that men between the age group of 24-26 are more influenced by the media in forming assumptions about interests of women.

TableNo:10-Age Vs Beliefs related to expectations and Responsibilities Age Scores 21-23 24-26 26-19 4.00 Total 44-68 41 39 16 4 100 Total 41 39 16 4 100

The above table shows that men in the age group of 21-23 are more influenced by the media in in holding stereotypical and patriarchal set of expectations and responsibilities.

Table No:11- Age vs Beliefs Related to Appearance

Scores 3-8 9-12 11.00

Age 21-23

24-26 9 31 1 41

26-19 3 36 0 39

4.00 2 14 0 16

Total 2 2 0 4

16 83 1 100

Out of 16 respondents who influenced were by the media with regard to appearance related expectations from women 9 belong to the age group of 21-23.

40


Table No:12-Age Vs Beliefs relating to sex role typing

Scores 13-33 34-65

Age 21-23

24-26 40 1 41

26-19 39 0 39

4.00 16 0 16

Total 4 0 4

99 1 100

Out of 99 respondents who believe and expect stereotypical behavior from women due to media influence 40 belonged to the age group 0f 21-23 and 39 to the age group of 24-26.

Results of Across institutions domain wise

Table No:13-Instutions Vs beliefs relating to equality Institution Madras school Bangalore

Scores 20-51 51-80 Total

Loyola college 1 24 25

of social work 1 24 25

university 0 25 25

Christ University 2 23 25

Total 4 96 100

The table shows that students of all colleges on an equal proportion disagree that the media generates feelings of superiority on them Table No:14-Institutions Vs beliefs related to interests

41


Institution Madras school Bangalore

Scores 4-6 Total

Loyola college 25 25

of social work 25 25

university 25 25

Christ University 25 25

Total 100 100

The table shows that all respondents from all colleges believe that the media is generating an influence on them with regard to beliefs centring the interests of women. It can also be understood that there is no difference in the opinion of students across two different cities.

Table No: 15-Institutions Vs beliefs relating to expectations and responsibilities Institution Madras school Bangalore

Scores 44-68 Total

Loyola college 25 25

of social work 25 25

university 25 25

Christ University 25 25

Total 100 100

The table shows that all respondents from all colleges believe that the media is generating an influence on them with regard to beliefs centering expectations and responsibilities TableNo:16 Institutions Vs media influence related to beliefs about appearance Institution Madras school Bangalore

Scores

Loyola college 3-8 9-12 11.00 Total

6 19 0 25

of social work 6 19 0 25

university 3 22 0 25

Christ University 1 23 1 25

Total 16 83 1 100

42


The above table shows that students of Christ University are least affected by the media in holding appearance related assumptions .It can be understood that appearance related expectations are higher among students from Chennai compared to Bangalore.

Table No:17-Institutions Vs Media Influence with regard to Sex-role typing

Institution Madras school Bangalore

Scores 13-33 34-65 Total

Loyola college 25 0 25

of social work 25 0 25

Christ

university

University 25 0 25

Total 24 1 25

99 1 100

The above table shows there is no significant difference across institutions on the influence generated by the media in shaping stereotypical believes.

43


CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS, SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION

44


Findings: •

Only 4% of the respondents believe that the media is fostering attitudes of superiority on them.96% of the respondents feel that the media does not influence them in shaping inferior attitude towards women.

100% the respondents believe that a women’s interest should be inclined to aesthetics and the media plays a huge role in influencing this belief

100% respondents hold stereotypical and patriarchal expectations portrayed in the media. They want the traditional set of responsibilities constantly showcased (like nursing, caring, cleaning etc) to be fulfilled by their partners or siblings.Their expectations from their partner and female siblings are largely with regard to running a family and household

16% of the respondents agreed that the media is influencing them and they expect their siblings and partners to be like the ideal women shown in television

99% of the respondents said that they believe in these prejudices because of media influence.

Findings Comparing Age Across Different Domains: •

The results show that men between the age group 26-29 are influenced with superiority attitudes by the media. 45


Men between the age group of 24-26 are more influenced by the media in forming assumptions about interests of women.

Men in the age group of 21-23 are more influenced by the media in in holding stereotypical and patriarchal set of expectations and responsibilities.

Out of 16 respondents who influenced were by the media with regard to appearance related expectations from women 9 belong to the age group of 2123.

Out of 99 respondents who believe and expect stereotypical behavior from women due to media influence 40 belonged to the age group 0f 21-23 and 39 to the age group of 24-26.

Findings Across Institutions •

All colleges on an equal proportion disagree that the media generates feelings of superiority on them

Respondents from all colleges believe that the media is generating an influence on them with regard to beliefs centring the interests of women.

All respondents from all colleges believe that the media is generating an influence on them with regard to beliefs centring the interests of women.

Students from Christ University are least affected by the media in holding appearance related assumptions.

There is no significant difference across institutions on the influence generated by the media in shaping stereotypical believes. 46


Conclusion From the above analysis and findings we can conclude that media is influencing the concept of gender among men. There is definitely an attempt to accommodate the changing role of women .But largely it reinforces the mainstream ideology: patriarchy. Though all of us are aware that the representations are not true the study has proved that these images are being woven by men into their lives. From the responses it can be concluded that there are primarily three themes on which the media is generating influences. First, women

are underrepresented, which falsely implies that men are

the cultural standard and women are unimportant or invisible. Second, men and women are portrayed in stereotypical ways that reflect and sustain socially endorsed views of gender. Third , depictions of relationships between men and women emphasize traditional roles and normalize violence against women. On ,the whole it cannot be denied that the media is generating demining attitudes towards women among male students.

47


Suggestions: From the inferences made through this study

,the researcher has the following

suggestions: •

It has been proved from this study , that the media is shaping considerable influence on men. According to the theory of Social Learning, human beings learn through observation and imitation. So, it is very likely that such portrayal will trigger patriarchal behavior by men towards women in their daily lives. Thus there is

a strong need for research studies to

examine the implications of such portrayal in real lives and the harmful effects in the society. •

The study also shows that the portrayals in the media are demining ,far fledged and derogatory to the dignity of women .Therefore, the researcher feels the need for studies that will critically examine media content.

The researcher suggests that there should be studies that look at media’s responsibility towards society and critically evaluate it in it’s functioning as a means of development.

48


APPENDIX A

49


References: Aries, E.(1987).Gender and Communication . Barnes, J.H., Jr. & Dotson, M.J. (1990) An exploratory investigation into the nature of offensive television advertising. Journal of Advertising, 19 (September), pp. 61–69. Bereaud, S. R. Sex role images in French children's books. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1975, 37, 194-207 Creedon, P. J.(1993) Women in Mass Communication. Newbury Park. Calif Sage. Dickinson S & Gill D; Are women offended by the way they are portrayed in advertising? Sonia Dickinson and Donna Gill Dines, G. and Humez J.M (2003).Gender, Race and Class in Media Dines, G. and Humez, J. (1995): Gender, Race and Class in Media; London: Sage Fiona M, (2005) Media-portrayed idealized images, body shame, and appearance anxiety Friedan, B., (1963), The Feminine Mystique, Harmondsworth: Penquin Fiske,J.(1987). Television and women’s culture; London: Sage Ford, J.B. & La Tour, M.J. (1993) differing reactions to female role portrayals in advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, September–October, pp. 43–52. Gail D. H, Bryn M and Sangeeta B, Gender and achievement-related beliefs among engineering students Gallagher, M.(2011).Gender Setting: New agendas for monitoring and advocacy

50


Gauntlett D, Media, Gender and Identity: An Introduction Gunter, B. (1986): Television and Sex Role Stereotyping. London: John Libbey Ingham, H (2000) The Portrayal of Women on Television Kelly A M & Lisa S, (2007) The Ms. Stereotype revisited: Implicit and Explicit Facets, Psychology of women quarterly Kuhn, A. (1985): The Power of the Image - Essays on Representation and Sexuality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Mackinnon, K. (2003).Representing Men: maleness and masculinity in the media. London, E. Arnold Mary A K & Gerald R. A (1979) Implications of Sex Typed Child Rearing Practices, Toys, and Mass Media Materials in Restricting Occupational Choices of Women Minh - Ha, T.T. (1991): When the Moon Waxes Red. London: Routledge Penny, R & Gillian F, (1994) The disempowering effects of media violence against women on women Pichandy C (1988) Relating to communication and social influence Trowler, P. (1988): Investigating the Media. London: Collins Walby, S. (1990).Theorizing Patriarchy Oxford, Blackwell Williams, D. G. (1987) Women’s roles and problems in media Wimmer R D (2003) Mass Media Research - An introduction, Georgia 2003. Young M L (2005) Media & Society: A Critical Perspective/Mass Communication: Living in a Media World Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 51


52


APPENDIX B

Questionnaire Dear friend, 53


I am conducting a research on ‘ Role Of Media In Shaping Stereotypical and Patriarchal Attitudes’ as part of the course undertaken by me in the university. Please fill in these questionnaires to the best of your knowledge and interests. 1-Completely Agree 2-Agree 3-Partially Agree 4-Diasgree

Questions Relating To Equality 1.

I expect my female siblings to be submissive to me

2.

I think It is alright for a women to be financially dependent

1

2

3

4

on her spouse or male members in the family but the same is derogatory to the dignity of a man 3.

I believe think that education is more important for a man than a woman

4.

I Get offended if my wife or sisters disagree with my views

5.

I Respect my father and other male members in the family more than my mothers other woman at home

6.

I think It is derogatory to their dignity to involve in household chores

7.

I Believe that is an insult to a man if his wife or sister is smarter than him

8.

I feel it is unacceptable if a wife earns more than her husband

9.

I feel it is unacceptable if a wife is more qualified than her husband

10.

I think Men and women are not mutually dependent on 54


each other. Women cannot live without the support of a man 11.

I think It is not cultured for a woman to be a social drinker while the same does not apply to a man

Questions Relating To Values and Interests 1

I think It is unnatural for a woman to have greater inclination towards sports than aesthetics

2.

I think the discipline forces are meant only for men

3

Questions Relating To Expectations and Responsibilities

4.

I Feel that I have greater responsibilities and power in running my family Completely agree

5.

I Feel happy and pleased if my wife /female siblings are dependent on me even for small chores and to make small decisions

6.

I believe It is the duty of a women to take care of her husband’s parents but if the husband does the same it reflects his generosity and kind heartedness

7.

I believe It is the duty of a women to take care of her husband’s parents but if the husband does the same it reflects his generosity and kind heartedness

8.

I Believe that nursing children is the duty of women

9.

I think It is the duty of a good wife to adjust to her husband and his family ’s ways of living

10.

I think Women should always give more attention to their families than their career

11.

I believe It is always a greater responsibility to raise a girl compared to a boy 55


12

I Prefer to have male children

13.

I think that it is not necessary for a man to socialize with his wife’s family and friends

14.

I believe women have to be given limited freedom and their activities need to be monitored

15

I think a man should not compromise on his career for his wife irrespective of her designation

16.

It is mandatory that a women should know how to cook well while the same does not apply to a man

17.

I believe Women have to sacrifice their social lives for their families Questions Relating To Appearance

1.

I Expect my wife and sisters to be dressed like the ‘ideal’ sister or wife shown in television show

2.

I Expect all women to be as beautiful as women shown in televisions

3.

I think all women are jealous of other beautiful women

4.

I think all women love dressing up

5.

I think all women are greedy when it comes to jewellery and clothes Questions Relating To Sex role typing

1.

I feel Women who give more priority to their career cannot be good wives and mothers

2.

I feel that women are emotional and irrational while men are practical and logical 56


3.

I think men can handle challenging circumstances better than women

4

I think Only a man has to take the first step in initiating a relationship

5.

I think Women escape from difficulties by crying

6

I believe It is essential to use different parenting styles for a boy child and a and a girl child

7

I think Patience and tolerance ought to be nurtured in a girl child from childhood

8

I think a women should not walk out of a marriage. She should always strive to make it work

9

I think Woman who are cultured don’t talk about sexuality and reproductive rights

10.

I think all Women are possessive

11.

I think all women are attention seekers

12.

I think all women are suspicious and insecure in relationships

13.

I think If a child is not well behaved then the mother is to be blamed

14

I think being cultured is more important for a woman than a man

15.

I think Remarriage is acceptable for a man but not for a woman

16

I think All young girls fall for chocolates, flowers and pink clothes

17.

I think All women love to gossip and back bite

18

I think a women’s character is defined by her clothes 57


19.

I believe A ideal wife will never wish to have an identity of her own

20

Women outsmart men in academics because they are book worms .Men definitely have greater skills than them

21.

I think men are better leaders than women

22.

All women are greedy when it comes to jewellery and clothes

23.

I think Women demand for reservations because their low capacities

24.

All women’s rights activists are anti-men

25.

A wife will not have male friends ad it will affect her husbands

58


A STUDY ON ROLE OF MEDIA IN SHAPING STEREOTYPICAL AND PATRIARCHAL ATTITUDES AMONG MALE POSTGRADUATE