Page 1

CITIES Marketplaces, Communities, & Machinery SAMEER KUMAR | PG180865 MASTER OF URBAN PLANNING

UNDERSTANDING THE CITY (FOUNDATION STUDIO)


PREFACE The journey over the past five months has been stimulating and enlightening; the studio was akin to a crash-course unravelling the different layers of the city. Each exercise was different, yet somehow connected with those conducted earlier. In its attempt to develop a thorough understanding of the city among the students, the Studio exercises inculcated a habit of observing the surroundings and deriving inferences based on thorough analysis – quintessential skills for urban planning professionals. Exercises included collecting data about the 1-km2 allotted neighbourhoods and deriving inferences based on the analysis of the information gathered through primary and secondary research. Primary research included on-site surveys of residents as well as those working in the respective precincts; sample sizes were selected in proportion to the actual numbers. This portfolio is a compilation of the exercises conducted to understand the city. It is based on the notion that cities have a multi-faceted, dynamic nature; they can be perceived as performing a gamut of roles as described below. • Cities as Marketplace Cities have always been used as centres for economic activities. They owe their origins to trading and commerce. Modern cities also act as markets. Land is the foremost commodity in this market; its price varying based on activities, location and availability. The economic function of cities includes the diverse job categories as well; some jobs need formalised spaces while some are performed informally along building edges. The varying nature of jobs results in variations in incomes as well as expenditure. Cities, therefore become marketplaces of tangible aspects like land, and for intangible aspects in the form of job centres. • Cities as Communities Cities comprise tangible as well as intangible characteristics; an interplay of these results in the formation of communities. Developed land is attributed specific uses; they are populated by the residents from diverse backgrounds who impart life to the lifeless spaces. This results in the formation of clusters of housing having varying characteristics. The natural instinct of the people to congregate demands creation of public spaces such as parks; streets and shaded footpaths also function as places of congregation. The lifestyle of people varies depending on factors including income levels, family sizes, and age groups among others; some prefer visiting malls for entertainment, while others find leisure in street-side activities. Thus, cities, with the myriad population act as communities. • Cities as Machinery The role of cities does not stop at being mere sources of land, community of individuals, or as centres of job creation. Efficiency in operations is a core concept behind the existence of cities. The functioning of cities requires efficient provision of services, infrastructure, and policies. Infrastructural services are quintessential to the city’s day-to-day functioning; these must be adequate for the present needs as well as the rising demands in the near future. Policies and regulations help in preventing overutilisation of resources and also in framing the future growth of the city. The scope of the studio limited the exercises to just analysing the precincts; therefore, no concrete proposals have been made in this book. Since cities perform multiple functions at once, it is not possible to draw a distinctly characterise the location of the exercises within a single chapter; hence, there may be repetition of the contents of some exercises in the given chapters.

A city functions is a combination of three functional components

Flow of the chapters in this portfolio


TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface

OVERVIEW OF THE PRECINCT 1. CITIES AS MARKETPLACE

1.1 Developable Land is Precious ............................................................................................... 2 1.2 A Housing Market ...................................................................................................................... 6 1.3 A Job Centre ............................................................................................................................... 8 1.4 Informal Economy - A Case Study.. ..................................................................................... 10

2. CITIES AS COMMUNITY

2.1 Population Diversity ................................................................................................................ 12 2.2 Travel Behaviour...................................................................................................................... 13 2.3 Lifestyle - Using Public Spaces ........................................................................................... 14 2.4 Lifestyle - Consumption Patterns ...................................................................................... 16 2.5 People’s Housing Choices..................................................................................................... 18

3. CITIES AS MACHINERY

3.1 Regulating intensity of Development (FSI) ..................................................................... 20 3.2 Streets - Connecting Neighbourhoods ........................................................................... 21 3.3 Public Transport - Commuting the sustainable way ................................................... 22 3.4 Infrastructure - Meeting Demands for Amenities ....................................................... 24 3.5 Estimating Costs & Revenue .............................................................................................. 28

CONCLUSION REFERENCES


OVERVIEW A brief description of the precinct LOCATION

EVOLUTION

• The precinct under study

• Ghatlodiya

LAND & THE PEOPLE

was

originally

• The precinct falls under R1 Zone in the CDP of Ahmedabad.

is located in Ghatlodiya;

agricultural land, the only

• Residential land use is predominant.

it is in the New West

settlements

• 60% of the land is unbuilt, but merely 20% is available for public

Zone

in the limits of the Gamtal.

of

Ahmedabad.

being

those

use. • Majority of dwellings are row-houses.

• It is 4.8 km from CEPT

• The precinct has a population of 37,855 • The household income is ₹37,500

University, 10 km from Ahmedabad

Railway

Station, and 12 km from

• Urbanisation

the airport.

1980s

as

began DP

and

in TP

schemes were formulated. 4.8 KM Precinct

Residential Land use

CEPT University • With improved connectivity,

10 KM Precinct

87%

₹₹ ₹27,500 ₹48,000 Land Rates

Chart Title

immigration began.

Ahmedabad Rly Stn

59.84% Vacant

20.14% Public

Built-Vacant Built Unbuilt Ratio

Public-Private Ratio Public-Private Ratio

12 KM Precinct

• Rapid development

Ahmedabad Airport

took

place between 2005 and 2015 with the introduction of several government schemes.

LANDMARKS

Pavapuri Junction

₹₹

Ghatlodiya Gamtal

37,855

₹37,500

Population

Median HH Income


1. Cities as Marketplaces 1.1 Developable Land is Precious in Cities ........................................................................................... 2 1.2 A Housing Market .................................................................................................................................. 6 1.3 A Job Centre ........................................................................................................................................... 8 1.4 Informal Economy - A Case Study.. ................................................................................................. 10

Cities have conventionally been trading markets. Even land is a tradable commodity, being purchased and redeveloped as per the contemporary demands. This chapter is an analysis of the city with the lens of a marketplace. THe analysis starts with the availability of land, followed by the land rates; this is followed by looking at the different housing typologies being sold; lastly, the city is looked at in terms of availability of jobs, with a deeper analysis of the informal economy.

1


DEVELOPABLE LAND IS PRECIOUS IN CITIES What is the ratio of built and unbuilt land? What is the quality of the urban “fabric”? Figure-ground maps give an idea about not just the amount open spaces in a precinct, but also about the quality of urban fabric - the probable building typologies, organisation of built mass, ventilation, street network, etc. The aforementioned parameters were studied in the context of Ghatlodiya

What is the built-open ratio? eltiT trahC

59.84% Vacant

• Almost 3/5 of the area under study is vacant. • This includes parks, streets, railway line, vacant lots and unbuilt spaces around buildings.

Built-Vacant tliu bnU tl iuBRatio

Sizes of footprints vary; poor relation with open spaces; probably informal settlements

• The large proportion of open spaces enables natural ventilation,

Built structures are organised in rows, with proper open spaces probably semi-detached dwellings

The area has heterogenous built characteristics • Heterogenous development of the precinct • Density and arrangement of buitforms in the area shows variations • The footprints are of varying scales • The following inferences can be drawn from these scales and the arrangement of footprints:

Dense, haphazardly laid built structures; probably old / informal settlements • Large, building footprints suggest presence of institutional or commercial buildings

Legend

Built

Recurring large built structures organised in a rectangular grid suggesting these are apartments Unbuilt

• Mid-size footprints = apartments

• Small, recurring footprints = colonies of single-family dwellings

Map: Figure-Ground

Cities as Marketplaces

Legend

2


How much land is in the public domain? Is there a need to increase publically accessible Public Spaces are an essential component of urban development. Provison of adequate public spaces enhances living standards, resulting in healthier, greener, and vibrant cities. Vibrant cities attract investors as well as tourists, thereby improving the economic well-being of cities. Greener cities help create a healthier population while also maintaining adequate enivronmental quality. Thus, public spaces are immensely beneficial to the city. This study analysed the amount of public spaces available in the precinct, comparing it with other precincts of same area, and suggesting ways to increase the amount of publically accessible areas in the precinct.

Only 20% land is under public domain • 20.14% of the total land is under public domain (includes streets, parks & temples). • This is merely 33.6% of the total

20.14% Public

vacant land.

Constraints in public spaces: oitaR etavirP - cilbu P Public-Private Ratio

Accessibility Constraints

Office campuses, temples, and gated parks are accessible only for fixed duration in a day. Time Constraints

these

are

subjected

to

constraints.

The proportion of public areas must be increased 70

66

60

Percentage of Total Area

Movement along streets in Chanakyapuri is hindered by potholes. Temples are also not universally accessible.

• Even

57.2 48.8

50 40.16 39.7

40

33.2 29.1

30

20

25.6 20.14

18

17.2

10

4.9

0 Ashram Road

*

Provenca * (Barcelona)

Ghatlodiya

Mongkok (Hong Kong) * Precinct Name

* Source: HCP Design, Planning & Management Pvt Ltd

Legend

Public Realm

Building Footprint

Private Open Space

Graph: Comparison of Private spaces & Public Realms in different precincts

People from the HMIG and HIG prefer not to access its public areas.

Legend No Constraints Accessibilty Constraint Map: Nolli’s Map

Cities as Marketplaces

Time Constraint Cultural Constraint Private Realm (Non-Accessible)

Cultural Constraints

• Public areas can also increase (land acquisition) through an increase in FSI (incentives). • Constraints can be reduced by providing universally accessible & safer public spaces, and eliminating social stigmas. • The difference in the vacant and public space suggests that the presence of compound walls implying security concerns. 3


What are the land uses in the precinct? How much land is available for future development? Obis voluptatenis eaquibus perum volori occatiani temoluptibus destrum ut autem res aliqui omnis doluptam fugit volupta tiatquiaere sum natio molupidit, te digent, aspedis ma susam volupti atureperspel maxime et as aut quid ut voloremque coreici ligendisi as sit, im reiur re vitaspi squianis comnihit eum autectaquis mod eum que necepro tecearum ea coriatur? Udis eatiorem re provita tendipienis utemolo reribusam, sus doluptate sandi odis etur re et iliat deles coritam dolupta nos debis doluptam rem fugit fugiati scilique eosa dem eumquia et que latibea dolo et maionsed quibus.

Characteristic Land Uses:

87%

4%

4%

2%

Residential Use

Gamtal

Vacant Plots

Recreational Use

• 87% of the precinct is under residential land use; merely 2% is available publically for recreational use; 4% of plots are completely vacant.

G.F. Use along Ravishankar Marg

• Commercial Use on ground floor of buildings (including residences)facing the major streets

Who Owns the Land? How much land is available for development? 4%

4% 4%

3% 4%

3%

11%

11%

1% 1% 5%

5%

AUDA Built

AUDA Built

Government Built

Government Built

Government Vacant

Government Vacant

IndianRailways Railways Vacant Indian Vacant PrivateBuilt Built Private

G.F. Use near Gamtal

Private PrivateVacant Vacant UNKNOWN Built UNKNOWN Built

72%

72%

80% Privately Owned

11% Government Owned

LEGEND Residential

Commercial

Institutional

Recreational

Vacant Land

Public Utility

Map: Land uses in the precinct Cities as Marketplaces

Gamtal

Can be easily acquired for future development 4


What are the factors controlling the land prices? Land is a unique economic commodity; its price rarely decreases. Cities are the prime centres for the land market. However, land prices differ even within a small patch of 1 ha. Market rates of land in the precinct varied from ₹33,000 to ₹48,000. An attempt is made to identify the numerous factors responsible for these variations.

How much does land cost in the precinct? (per sq. m.)

Market Rates ₹33,000 - ₹48,000

4X - 5X

Jantri Rates ₹6,500 - ₹10,500

Market rates are 4-5 times the Jantri Rates; this is due to the recent developments in the precinct which were not considered during the calculation of the Jantri Rates. What factors contribute towards pricing of land?

Land price is less due to poor quality street network & infrastructure

LEGEND 0-4

12-16

4-12

16-32

Public amenities like parks increase the land prices

Comparing Land Rates & Density

Facilities such as schools, good quality

LEGEND

roads make this the most expensive

< 37000

37001-43000

45000-48000

<37000

43000-45000

Bus Route (AMTS)

Map: Market Rates in the Precinct Cities as Marketplaces

area in the precinct

0

300 Metres

• Land prices are highest in the southern part & lowest in Chanakyapuri (Vishwas City) in the northern part of the precinct. • This is mainly due to the poor condition of roads and infrastructure. vAreas with access to public transport network have comparatively higher rates. • High land prices are also due to the proximity to facilities like schools and recreational areas. • Dwelling unit density also plays a role in determining the land prices. 5


CITIES AS HOUSING MARKETS What are the different housing typologies in the precinct? How do the characteristics of each typology vary with areas?

Apartment

TYPOLOGY

Semi-Detached

Detached

Row Houses

Chawl/Slum

AREA

Gamtal

Ravi Shankar Marg

Karamchari Nagar

Chanakyapuri

Ravi Shankar Marg

Karamchari Nagar

Chanakyapuri

Gamtal

Karamchari Nagar

Gamtal

Karamchari Nagar

Chanakyapuri

Chanakyapuri

Laxmangarh

AGE

>30

15-20

15-20

15-20

5-10

15-20

15-20

5-10

10-15

15-20

15-20

25-30

15-20

15-20

B.U.A. (sq.m.)

50

85

60

70

160

73

80

150

150

90

50

30

Price (in ₹) Rate (₹/sq.m.)

32

18,00,000

45,00,000

37,00,000

45,00,000

35,00,000

35,00,000

1,00,00,000

50,00,000

50,00,000

25,00,000

40,00,000

20,00,000

-

26,00,000

36,000

52,941

61,667

64,286

21,875

47,945

1,25,000

33,333

33,333

27,778

80,000

66,667

-

81,250

% OF TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS

7.14%

21.43%

11.90%

9.52%

4.76%

4.76%

2.38%

2.38%

7.14%

4.76%

4.76%

4.76%

4.76%

4.76%

ZONE

Gamtal

R1

R1

R1

R1

R1

R1

Gamtal

R1

Gamtal

R1

R1

R1

R1

MODE OF DELIVERY

Developer

Developer

Developer

Developer

Developer

Developer

Developer

Self

Self

Self

Developer

Developer

FSI CONSUMED

2.2

2.3

1.85

2.6

1.45

1.25

1.45

1.6

1.3

2

1.6

1.4

-

1.75

FSI PERMISSIBLE

1.8

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.7

1.8

2.7

1.8

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.7

COMPLIANCE WITH REGULATIONS

Cities as Marketplaces

Self

-

6


What are the variations with respect to cost and qualitative aspects? QUALITITATIVE ASPECTS

1,20,00,000

1,00,00,000

₹ 25

Price (₹)

80,00,000

Lakh

60,00,000

30 sq. m Apartment

HIGHER FSI, LOWER GC

PROVIDE MORE OPEN SPACES AROUND BUILDINGS

30 sq. m. Row-House • Opportunity - Develop spaces for social gatherings and recreation; open spaces enable better ventilation • More DU/unit area; developers can earn more profits; More people accomodated.

40,00,000

20,00,000

-

TYPOLOGY: APARTMENT

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Carpet Area (sq.m.)

Apartments

Detached

Informal - Regulated

Graph 1:Price against Carpet Area

Row Houses

Semi-Detached

180

• Apartments are plotted mostly in the central region of the graph; apartments having same area have different costs (60 sq. m. apartments are available for ₹ 20 lakh as well as ₹ 41 lakh).

TYPOLOGY: ROW-HOUSING MODERATE FSI, HIGHER G.C. • More land under built-mass, less open spaces • Cramped spaces to accomodate more dwellings TYPOLOGY: SEMI-DETACHED HOUSING MODERATE FSI, HIGHER G.C. • More land under built-mass, less open spaces • Not favourable for densely populated cities

More Open Spaces available

Cramped Spaces

More DU per unit area

Less DU per unit area

Stilt Parking Coverage and FSI Matrix

Cities as Marketplaces

FSI & Ground Coverage of different typologies

Open space - for recreational use

Open space - for parking vehicles

7


CITIES AS JOB CENTRES What are the different types of jobs centres? Where are the jobs concentrated? Jobs have been the core domain of cities for centuries; myriad types

(proportionate to their actual numbers) were surveyed for the

of jobs of varying nature are practised in cities. Spread across the

income and job characteristics for this exercise. The analysis

city, jobs are often considered to be concentrated in commercial and

combines the findings with results of the survey of 40 households

institutional areas.

What is the predominant nature of jobs in the precinct?

8,269

47%

to come to a conclusion.

This study focuses on Ghatlodiya as a job centre; 40 job centres

No. of Job Centres

Casual

Self-Employed

Casual

Regular

27,951 No. of Jobs

The precinct generates 27,951 jobs through 8,269 job centres. Most jobs are of casual nature (21,865).

What are the sources of jobs in the precinct? Job Centres LEGEND

Industrial 0.02%

Ins titutional 0.26%

Street Vendors 0.36% Others 0.48%

Other 3.48%

Res idential 96.52%

Commerci al 2.35%

Graph 1: Proportion of Job Centres in the Precinct

12000

No of Jobs

10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Land Price (Market Rates in ₹)

Graph _: Co-relation Between No. of Jobs and Land Prices

Low

High

Map: Relative Land Rates

• Most jobs (~10,000) are in densely built areas, whose land values lie between ₹30,000 and ₹37,000, suggesting that these are not correlated.

Map: Job Centres in the Precinct

12,000 Jobs

Residences Cities as Marketplaces

Land Price < ₹37,000

96.5% Jobs

Casual jobs 8


How are incomes distributed in cities? The question asked relates to the distribution of incomes and jobs in the precinct. The intention is to find out whether incomes are equitably distributed in the precinct; if not, what disparities are observed in their trends.

What is the gender-wise distribution of jobs?

3:2 (Male:Female)

• Most females are employed in residential job centres

72%

• Technical jobs employ mostly MALE workers

Income Trends in Cities: 20%

90%

16%

80%

14%

70%

12%

60%

Distribution of income (%)

90%

Cumulative Households (%)

18%

HOuseholds (%)

100%

100%

Male

80% 70% 60%

Male

50%

10%

50%

8%

40%

6%

30%

4%

20%

10%

2%

10%

0%

0%

0%

40%

Technical Jobs

30% 20%

Disparity in Income Distribution Mean Income: ₹16,600 Median Income: ₹10,000

Income Range

Income Range (₹)

Apartments

Chawl

Detached others

Row houses/Attached - gamtal

Row houses/Attached (others)

Semi detached

Slum

Cumulative No. of Households

Log. (Cumulative No. of Households)

Graph 7: Average Salary Distribution of Households in the precinct 40000

Self-Employed

Casual

Graph 6: Average Salary Distribution by Job Type

• Income Range: Less than ₹20,000 per month • Vulnerable - irregular pay scale • Primarily residential job centres and informal economy

30000

Avg Salary (in ₹)

Regular

♂ ♀

Mean Income: ₹19,800 Median Income: ₹10,000 Mean Income: ₹9,000

Median Income: ₹3,000

Casual Jobs:

35000

25000 20000

Self-Employment:

15000

• Most vulnerable - maximum variation in income • Income Range: <₹5,000 to >₹ 1 lakh per month • Job centres - vary from residential to commercial and even industrial centres

10000 5000 0

Female

Employment Ratio in

Residential

Commercial

Industrial

Institutional

Street Vendors

Job Centre Male

Female

Overall

Graph 7: Average Salary Distribution of Workers in the Precinct

Cities as Marketplaces

Others

Regular Jobs: • Least vulnerable • Income Range: ₹5,000 - ₹ 50,000 per month • Mostly in commercial and institutional job centres

• The median income is 60% of the mean income • This implies that there is a large gap in income levels in the job centres. • Also, the median income of females is 30% of that

of males

• Thus, income is unequitably distributed among male and females, mainly due to disparity in employment. • Incomes of workers in the precinct is 1/2 that of the residents Workers

₹16,600

Residents

₹37,500

• This suggests that this precinct does not create high-income jobs and that the residents workplaces are outside the precinct. 9


INFORMAL ECONOMY - A CASE STUDY How do people in the lower income groups sustain their livelihoods? CASE STUDY - FRUIT VENDOR The purpose of this case study was to analyse how a casual worker sustains his livelihood in the city.Eperferr orporpo reptas aboremo cus inctum harchit fugita is dentur rem ilit erumquidit rempor sitiis et adit, volupti ssequiam renimilis andis cus, comnimentis modi natiurerupta as reperati apid excesti dem asitisquat. Am unt. Dolorpo ssitas aut inus exerro cum eossinctae ant.

Informal economy is vulnerable • Uncertainty of sale of goods • Perishable goods • Susceptible to rot and decay

Daily Schedule

Vendors resort to selling additional items to tackle the vulnerability

Monthly Expenditure:

Commodities Sold:

Miscellaneo us 5% Transport 8%

Purchase items

Festival-specific Stall 2%

Packaging 1%

Avg Profit ₹ 1 - ₹ 4 / pc

6AM - 8AM ₹ 65/ kg

₹ 100 / kg ₹ 80/ kg

• Festival-specific items like diya, rakhi, idols, etc. sold • Family-members help with managing additional stall/cart • Expenditure on items for festival stall ~ 2% of the total • Avg profits range from ₹1 to ₹4 per item

₹ 100 / kg Household Savings

Fruits 84%

Set up stall

Avg Expenditure ₹ 54,850

8AM - 9AM ₹ 80/ kg

₹ 110/ kg ₹ 20/ kg

Avg Profit ₹ 12,150

₹ 30 / kg

Business Hours

8%

9AM - 9PM ₹ 60 / kg ₹ 30/dozen ₹ 30/dozen

92% of the total expenditure - Cost of fruits and transportation

Cities as Marketplaces

Electricity Bill 3%

Rent 14% Education 7% Communic ation 1%

The household saves merely ₹ 700 per month inspite of the additional stalls Food 56%

Transportat ion 16%

84%

₹ 50/ kg

Health Housing 3%

• Informal sector is vulnerable to losses, having a direct impact on the livelihood of the household • Sustaining a household of 6 members in a meagre income of ₹12,150 is extremely difficult in Ahmedabad - monthly cost of living for a single person is ₹21,226 (source:Numbeo). • This reflects on the lifestyles of the casual workers as observed earlier. 10


2. Cities as Communities 2.1 Population Diversity .............................................................................................................. 12 2.2 Travel Behaviour..................................................................................................................... 13 2.3 Lifestyle - Using Public Spaces ............................................................................................. 14 2.4 Lifestyle - Consumption Patterns ........................................................................................16 2.5 Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Housing Choices..................................................................................................... 18

This chapter observes the city from the lens of the people. It analyses how cities are populated by people from different backgrounds; what are the myriad activities people perform, where do they perform such activities. Also, it studies the choices people make in cities with focus on housing and travel behaviour and consumption patterns.

11


POPULATION DIVERSITY Who lives here? Why do people choose to live in a specific area?

What kinds of activities do people perform here?

Cities are an amalgamation of people from diverse backgrounds choosing too stay in a locality. This results in blending of the culture of several regions. Here, the diverse groups of people living in Ghatlodiya are identified based on age, gender, profession, and place of origin.

With a diverse group of people, a variety of activities develop within the city. These activites may vary with different age-groups and different times of the day. The folllowing are some of the activities taking place in Ghatlodiya:

• Different Age Groups : Ghatlodiya comprises people belonging to different age groups;from children to teenagers, from the youth to the middle-aged persons, and senior citizens, everyone finds place in Ghatlodiya.

• Religious activities : The area consists of several temples - big and small; this gives rise to religious activities.

• Gender

• Commercial activity : The precinct has a large number of shops selling a variety of items of daily use as well as luxuries.

: The area is a blend of young and old members belonging to all genders.

• Geographical Diversity : The precinct comprises residents belonging to different areas within the city; also, there are immigrants belonging to differnt states. The area is home to Patidars, Rabaris, immigrants from Uttar Pradesh, as well as hose from Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh. • Religious Diversity

Cities as Community

: The precinct largely comprises Hindus and Jains.

• Informal Vending : Informal vending forms a n important part of the city’s economy. It helps the urban poor sustain their livelihoods • Socialisation: Thisis one of the most common activities in the area. People, especially senior-citizens congregate in mornings, and more primarily,/ evenings; kids prefer playing in colony parks; the youth utilises the public spaces to relax in evenings after a long day at work.

12


LIFESTYLES - CONSUMPTION PATTERNS What are people’s consumption patterns? What governs these patterns? People’s consumption patterns refer to where they spend their

patterns of different income groups are analysed. A case study

money. Cities have a large variety of places and activities where

comparing two housholds with similar characteristics has also

this money can be spent. Incomes play a pivotal role in determining

been presented.

All income groups spend on the basic necessities

the consumption patterns of households. Here, the consumption

150001-200000 150001-200000

Transportation Transportation

100001-150000 100001-150000

Education

Education

95001-100000

95001-100000

Communication

Communication

70001-75000

45001-50000

and number of children Entertainment and domestic help are luxuries only the rich can afford • LIGs cannot afford to employ domestic help • They rarely spend money on leisure activities

Health/ Medicines

40001-45000

HH goods (appliances, furniture etc.)

35001-40000

HH goods (appliances,

35001-40000

Electricity furnitureBill etc.)

30001-35000

Domestic Help

25001-30000

Vacation

30001-35000

Electricity Bill

25001-30000

Domestic Help

15001-20000

Vacation Clothing

<15000 0

0

• The amount spent varies depending on the household size

Health/ Medicines

40001-45000

10000

10000

Case Study:

20000

20000

30000

30000

40000

Expenditure (₹) 40000

50000

60000

50000

70000

60000

70000

80000

Clothing

80000

Education

• Education is common to majority of the income groups

out Rent/EMI

45001-50000

<15000

Transport

Entertainment, Recreation and eating Entertainment, out Recreation and eating Rent/EMI

55001-60000

55001-60000

Income Range (₹)

Income Range (₹)

70001-75000

15001-20000

Food

Food/Groceries Food/Groceries

Inferences & observations from the case study • Despite having same housing characteristics and household incomes, the consumption patterns varied drastically. • Household 2 saves more than Household 1 • HH2 spends money on medicines as well as entertianment apart from that common to both the households. • Despite this, the total expenditure of HH2 < HH1, because of the extra money (3.5 times) spent on education. • The amount spent by HH1 on transportation is almost 2X that spent by HH2.

Expenditure (₹)

Consumption patterns of two households with similar characteristics were studied to see if they showed similarities or differences arose; in case of differences, the underlying reasons were analysed. 8% 30%

46% 10% 6%

Cities as Community

Household 1 (HH1) • Detached House • Carpet area-60 sq. m. • Family Members - 5 • Occupation - Business • HH Income - ₹45,000 • HH Expenditure - ₹39,500

2%

6%

8% 4%

42%

21%

2%

4%

11%

Household 2 (HH2) • Apartment • Carpet area-60 sq. m. • Family Members - 5 • Occupation - Government Clerk • HH Income - ₹40,000 • HH Expenditure - ₹24,000

2

1 -40

-35

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

Thousands

Monthly Savings & Expenditure Total Monthly Expenditure (Rs) Monthly family saving (Rs)

13


LIFESTYLE - USING PUBLIC SPACES How do people use public spaces at different times of the day? Public spaces are dynamic in nature; their uses are governed by the users; kids use semi-enclosed, open spaces for playing; youth and middle-age groups use the spaces for exercise; senior citizens prefer socialising and less intense exercises. The uses also differ at different times of the day. Morning activities differ from those done in the afternoon and evenings. As part of the Studio exercise, public spaces in the precinct were identified, and diurnal variations of the activities in two such spaces were studied.

6AM-8AM

Legend Public Services Parking

Shops

Bus Stop

Informal Vending

Auto Stand Socialisation Key Plan

Commercial Activity

Crowd

Population (Age-wise)

1PM-3PM

Senior Citizens Youth / Adults Children

5PM-7PM

Map 5 Major Activities

Cities as Community

Map 6 Major Activities around Pavapuri Junction

Map 7 Amul Park on Ravishankar Marg

14


Commercial activity on ground and first floors Upper storeys are residential

Key Takeaways Residential Apt

Access to public spaces:

Shops Temple

Section Janta Nagar Crossing Road

Residential Apt

Vegetable vendors and fruitsellers occupy the narrow pedestrian path and a portion of the carriageway in the evening (6 PM - 10 PM).

• Commercial activity on ground floor; upper storeys are residential • Space - enclosed on one side (by multi-storeyed building); vast open expanse on the other

Unrestricted Vehicular

• Parks are more active in mornings and evenings • Junction is most active in the evening • Senior citizens restrict their activities to socialising in parks or near residences Morning

Morning

Afternoon Evening

Afternoon Evening

Intensity of Commercial Activity

Shops

Park

Pedestrian

Levels (kerbs / footpaths) act as thresholds, restricting vehicular access

Intensity of Socialisation

• Maximum socialisation and vending occurs in the evening • Reason - comfortable temperature & intensity of light, people returning from work (need for relaxation) People prefer shaded areas and put levels to a variety of uses:

Section Amul Park on Ravishankar Marg

Levels act as support

Shaded areas

Compound Walls

Vendors sit/stand under shaded areas - more comfortable

• The park witnesses maximum activity early morning and in the evening. • Most active age-groups = Senior citizens and children • Informal vending is an evening activity on this street. • Vendors set up stalls under trees near the park - more potential customers here Cities as Community

15


PEOPLE’S HOUSING CHOICES Where do people live? How does the housing typology differ at different locations? What are the housing characteristics of the precinct? Who lives here? What drives people’s housing choices?

Ghatlodiya Gam

₹27,000 ₹35,000 Market Price (₹/sq.m.) • Ghatlodiya Gam is densely built; population = 1700 residents. • Housing typologies include row houses, informal dwellings, and few low-rise apartments.

Legend Plot_Pop Sum_Pop < 150 151- 300 301-600 601-1200 > 1200 Plot Boundary Precinct11 Railway

Chanakyapuri (Vishwas City II)

₹37,000 ₹43,000 Legend Legend

Market Price (₹/sq.m.)

Legend

Plot_Pop

0 - 150

301 - 600

151 - 300

601 - 1200

Sum_Pop

< 150

151- 300

> 1200

301-600

Map 601-1200 _ : Population

Apartments

Semi-Detached

Row-Houses

Detached

Informal + Gamtal

Map: Housing Typologies

> 1200 Plot Boundary Precinct11 Railway

378.55 PPH

Population Density of Ghatlodiya

227 PPH

Population Density of Ahmedabad

Row-Houses constitute majority of the building footprint

• The area in the north of the railway line is a densely built area comprising mostly low-rise independent dwelling units. • Apartments concentrated in the north-western corner and along the railway line.

Apartments

Maximum number of dwelling units

Cities as Community

16 Legend


What factors determine people’s housing choices? Karamchari Nagar

Major Housing Populationtypologies in the precinct:

20 18

₹45,000 ₹48,000

16

Market Price (₹/sq.m.) • Karamchari Nagar - Hirbaug Road has low-rise dwellings. • Blend of semi-detached houses, apartments & bungalows. • The area has good infrastructural provisions, green cover, and connectivity through AMTS.

Plot_Pop Sum_Pop < 150 151- 300 301-600

• Building Footprints: Majority are row-houses

RH 11.97%

14 12

Workplace Distance

Legend

D SLUM 1.08% 11.77%

SD 15.67%

10

APT 59.50%

• Dwelling units: Apartments are the predominant dwelling units (4722).

8 6 4

601-1200 > 1200 Plot Boundary

2

Precinct11 Railway

0

Population distribution in the precinct: 0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

35.00

40.00

45.00

Space per capita Apartments

Chawl

Detached

Row Houses

Semi detached

Slum

Graph 2: Workplace distance against Space per Capita

Ravishankar Marg

₹43,000 ₹48,000

• People are likely to sacrifice on the per capita space available to live closer to workplace. • People living in large dwellings travel upto 18 km. • This may be due to the houses being ancestral homes or availability of better amenities near the houses.

Market Price (₹/sq.m.)

Price-Income Ratio Frequency Distribution

16

Average P-I Ratio

No. of Dwelling Units

Area is affordable for most of the current households.

10 8 6

Sum_Pop

0-1

1-2

2-3

3-4

4-5

5-6

Price-Income Ratio

< 150 151- 300 301-600 601-1200 > 1200 Plot Boundary

Cities as Community

Precinct11

Workplace Distance

Affordability

Locality

4

0

Plot_Pop

Railway

12

2

Legend

What are the factors determining people’s housing choices?

2.13

14

• Mix of apartments, row-houses and semi-detched units • Public amenties like parks and schools add to the cost of land.

• 12,000 people reside in the dense area above railway line - low costs increase affordability • 8,000 people live in the Gamtal • Most people reside in apartments - large variety, increasing trends to develop apartments instead of row-houses.

Graph 3: Frequency Distribution of PriceIncome Ratio

Inherited property or Land prices increased since the property was purchased

Housing Choice

17


TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR How do people commmute? What is the purpose of travelling? Travel/commute is one of the basic needs of the people. Cities

vechile ownership of the precint? Which mode of transport do

being large multi-purpose spaces require even more commute.

people prefer and why? The frequency and the primary purpose

This exercise studied the travel patterns of people; what is the

the trips is also analysed.

The residents are not travelling for socialisation or enertainment Trip Distribution by Purpose Others 1%

Education 19%

Vehicle Ownership by Type 100% 90%

Work 48%

80%

Vehicle Percentage Type

70%

Social 32%

60% None

50%

Cycles 4 Wheelers

40%

2 Wheelers

30% 20%

WORK Average Trip Trip rate per capita / day Length 17.26 km 5.13

SOCIAL Average Trip Trip rate per capita / day Length 2.94 km 1.36

Mode Share Walk 22%

10% 0%

• People mostly travel for work. • The lower trip rates for “social” and “other” purposes is probably due to low incomes.

2 Wheeler 34%

0-10

10-30

30-60

>60

School Bus/Chartered Bus 8% Cycle 3% AMTS 2%

Income Range Income of Houshold(thousand rupees) Range of HH

Vehicle ownership by Income Group

• 2-Wheeler

4 Wheeler 22%

is

owned

by

maximum

households LIGs can only afford to own cycles • Cycles are owned by most LIGs and few LMIGs. • The former can afford to purchase only cycles, owing to the low incomes. Some households own multiple vehicles • Ownership of multiple vehicles is for the convenience of the families • This helps in case there are more than one working members Cities as Community

EDUCATION Average Trip Trip rate per capita / day Length 3.36 km 0.95

OTHERS Average Trip Trip rate per capita / day Length 1.67 km 0.02

• People commute mostly for work (trip rate = 5.13 per capita per day) • The high trip rate for work implies people change their mode of commute while travelling to and from workplaces. • The work-place distance is also large.

3 Wheeler 9%

People do not have faith in the public transport network • Despite of being inexpensive, most people do not prefer to use pubilc transport for commute • This suggests that public transport offers an inferior quality of service. People prefer walking to excessive use of vehicles • A quarter of the modal share is walking • This implies that the daily needs of the people are met in close vicinity of their homes and/or the incomes do not permit excessive use of vehicles

18


3. Cities as Machinery 3.1 Regulating intensity of Development (FSI) ............................................................. 20 3.2 Streets - Connecting Neighbourhoods ..................................................................... 21 3.3 Public Transport - Commuting the sustainable way .............................................. 22 3.4 Infrastructure - Meeting Demands for Amenities .................................................. 24 3.5 Estimating Costs & Revenue ....................................................................................... 28

Regulations and policies are required to inhibit uncontrolled growth of urban areas. These control the large-scale development of wards and neighbourhoods. Public goods are quintessential to the existence of a city. Improper provisions may result in desertification of towns and cities. Thus, civic authorities need to ensure they provide a well laid out infrastructure to the citizens. This chapter analyses how cities function as a machinery. The contents comprise factors regulating land development, connectivity, and maintenance of citiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; infrastructure.

19


REGULATING INTENSITY OF DEVELOPMENT - FSI What does FSI tell about the area? What factors are involved in regulating the intensity of land development? This exercise attempts to validate the assumption that the FSI and land rates of an area are correlated. An analysis of the existing FSI of the precinct was mapped and compared to the land prices and ownership among other factors, to establish the reasons for the present situation.

Ghatlodiya is a low-density area • Maximum plots have FSI ranging between 1.15 and 2 • Maximum permissible FSI is 2.1

1.15 - 2

2.7

The FSI of the area is affected by ground coverage

Legend 0.00 - 1.15

2.30-3.45

Railway

1.15-2.30

>3.45

Precinct Boundary

Low market rates have attracted builders to develop the area

New Apartments constructed

High market prices result in land speculation

Government-owned land has low FSI

Owners purchase land as investment to be sold once prices increase further

• The FSI is not dependent just on floors; it also depends on the ground coverage (built-mass). • Hence, some areas with lower heights also have higher FSI owning to the built density.

FSI & Ground Coverage of different typologies

FSI is dependent on many factors apart from land rates • Areas with higher land prices are mostly vacant lots • Market speculation is a primary reason for these landholdings. • Lower land rates attract developers to start new projects, thus increasing the effective FSI of the areas • The utiilised FSI is affected by other factors including public goods like connectivity, sanitation, water supply among others.

Cities as Machinery

20


STREETS - CONNECTING NEIGHBOURHOODS How well are different areas in the precinct connected? Streets form the backbone of a city. No city can function without a

network within the precinct, establishing street hieracrchy and

proper street infrastructure. This study analyses the existing street

find out the probable consequences of the present situation.

Observations about the precint’s street network • Total Street length = 30 km; of this, 21 km are local roads. • Street Density= 303.87 m/ha • Streets cover 17.32% of the total precinct area • ROW Widths vary from 30 m (Ravishankar Marg) to 3.5 m wide local roads • 41% of the nodes are created by the convergence of 3 links

The low connected-node ratio suggests large block sizes Legend Nodes 1 2

Streets Level 1 (Sub-Arterial)

Node Density 4.97/ Ha

Link-Node ratio 1.86 / Ha

Connected Node ratio 0.64/ Ha

Level 2 (Collector)

3 4

Level 3 (Local)

5

• The large difference suggests that the streets are not wellconnected; also suggesting presence of large block sizes

Street Sections

3m

3m

Level 3 Street (Local Road)

Cities as Machinery

1.2m

3m

3m

Level 2 Street(Collector Road)

1.5m

10.5 m

10.5m

1.5m

Level 1 Street (Sub-Arterial Road)

21


PUBLIC TRANSPORT - COMMUTING THE SUSTAINABLE WAY What are the public transport provisions in the precinct? How to make public transport successful? Public transport is a sustainable alternative to the slew of private vehicles plying the roads in contemporary times. Isslues like traffic congestion and pollution can be addressed with adequate

provision of an efficient public transport network. The case of Ghatlodiya is studied here, to ascertain the necessary factors involved in making public transport successful in a city.

Ghatlodiya has a rigid street network • Streets account for 17% of the 1 sq. km. precinct. • Three levels of roads - local, connector and aretrial connect the different areas within the precint.

The area has adequate provision of public transport • The area is serviced by AMTS buses • 15 bus stops within the precinct • 4 bus stops just outside the precint • BRTS station is 1.2 km from the precinct. • The bus stops are strategically placed, conforming to thee large block populations

Legend Precinct11

Sum_Pop 0-1250 1251-2500 2501-3750 3751-5000 > 5000 Plot Boundary Railway Legend Precinct11

Sum_Pop

Map showing block population 0-1250

1251-2500

Time to walk to bus stop (in minutes)

3751-5000 > 5000

Plot Boundary Railway

1000-10000

120000-185000

10000-41000

55000-120000

41000-55000

Map showing area of blocks

2501-3750

Legend

* dimensions in sq. m.

Map showing area of blocks

Block sizes must be reduced to increase the share of population using public transport • Large block sizes increase the walking time to bus stops. • The cost of using IPTs to reach bus stops prevents people from utilising public transport.

15 bus stops

25.4 Ha

in the precinct

Maximum Block Size

• Providing walkable block sizes and well-shaded and well-maintained footpaths will improve the usage of public transport.

Cities as Machinery

22


How well is the precinct connected to major destinations of the city?

The area has good connectivitythrough public transport; still modal share of public transport is less 11%

Modal share of Public Transport

Cities as Machinery

• Of the 10 bus routes studied, most have direct connectivity with the major destinations. • The precinct is, thus, well-connected with other aras of Ahmedabad • But still modal share of private vehicles is more than that of public transport. 23


INFRASTRUCTURE - MANAGING DEMANDS FOR AMENITIES Managing solid waste A city’s functioning depends not just on the superficial provisions, but also the infrastructure provided to meet the daily requirements of the several precincts. Solid waste accounts for a large chunk

of the total waste generated by cities. The given study aims at finding how solid waste is managed at the neighbourhood level.

7.50

12

tonnes

tonnes

Dustbin Dimensions & Influence Area

Surplus Waste = 4.50

Open Dump

Tonnes

D2D collection

Primary Dimensions (mm): 900 x 600

• Secondary dustbins are often kept on the carriageway hindering traffic movement

Zone of Influence: 800mm x 800 mm

• Dustbins are kept on the footpath, hindering pedestrian movement.

Secondary (Silver) Dimensions (mm): 1100 x 1500 x 1200 Zone of Influence: 1700mm x 1350 mm

Secondary (Green / Black) Legend

Dimensions (mm): 2500 x 1500 x 1500 Zone of Influence: 2000mm x 2000 mm

Secondary Dustbins on

Open dumping

carriageway

Map: Job Centres in the Precinct

Cities as Machinery

24


Managing solid waste through Door-to-Door collection mechanism Door-to-door collection of solid waste is a garbage collection

hours to complete its designated daily route. The data presented

technique used in Ahmedabad. The route of one collection van was

is for one such trip. Also, one sq km area is covered by multiple

traced to analyse the efficiency of this system and also the related

vans.

challenges. One van makes two to three trips over the course of 5

Key Takeaways • Public spaces have 3 major types of dustbins, each having a different capacity and each placed at different locations. • Open dumping is promoted in case the amount of waste generated exceeds the total dustbin capacity. • The amount of waste generated in the precinct was found to be 1.6 times the total dustbin capacity.

1. Solid waste collection is contracted out to private companies

Door-to-Door Collection of Solid Waste • An efficient way of managing solid waste

• Waste is segregated & collected at the source Legend

2. Waste collection vans collect waste from designated pick-up points in their

Map: Route for D2D collection of solid waste

respective work locations

D2D Collection is efficient but has its set of challenges • Tracking of the vans’ daily routine makes the drivers more responsible, ensuring that waste is collected from every stoppage point.

Data for the Tracked Collection Route No. of Stoppage Points: Route Length: Collection Time: No. of DU: Average Stopping Time: Cities as Machinery

17 3.03 km 2 hr 02 min 422 7 min 10 s

• Most residents do not deposit waste at the designated collection point; many do not segregate the waste.

4. Collected waste is compressed and transported to dumping/landfill sites.

3. Vans transport the waste to transfer stations

• Thus there is a need to educate the residents about the process.

25


INFRASTRUCTURE - MANAGING DEMANDS FOR AMENITIES How do cities meet the household water supply demands? How much area is needed for WSDS facilities? Access to water is a basic human right. Accomodating millions

The study of the precinct’s WSDS network was based on data

of people, cities need an efficient system of water supply; urban

collected at the respective WSDS. The coverage areas shown on

Planners and city administrators must ensure that they provide and

the map are estimated by the workers at the respective WSDS.

adequate WSDS network.

WSDS Details • 6 WSDS supply water to the precinct (4 within; 2 outside) • Total water demand = 52.27 lakh gallons (assuming 140 litres per person) S. No.

GSR Capacity (Lakh Gallons)

Water Demand (Lakh Gallons)

Demand / Capacity

1 2 3 4 5 6

1.74 10.00 6.60 2.00 0.39 0.45

7.51 15.40 14.50 13.46 1.03 0.35

4.31 1.54 2.19 6.73 2.64 0.78

* Demand-Supply Ratio > 3 suggests incorrect capacity calculations

GSR 29%

ESR 13%

Plot Area needed for facilities: 90 sq. m. per “lakh gallons” demand The number of WSDS facility shall depend on the population being catered. Water pumping must be done 2 - 3 times a day; this reduces the need for large storage reservoirs and also for large tanks in dwellings

Office 37%

Pumping Station 21%

Ratio of Plot area required for different constituents of a WSDS

LEGEND Source Station WDS 1 - Chanakyapuri WDS

WDS 4 - Gamtal WDS

WDS 2 - Gota - Janta Nagar WDS

WDS 5 - Karmchari Nagar WDS

WDS 3 - Sattadhar WDS

WDS 6 - KK Nagar WDS

Water Storage Reservoirs - Elevated Storage Reservoir (left), Ground Storage Reservoir (right)

Cities as Machinery

26


Managing sewage and stormwater Sewerage and stormwater networks form an invisible backbone of

storwater drainge networks in the area. Catchent pits and

the city. These are quintessential cleansing elements which help

manholes on every street within the precinct were marked and a

maintain hygienic conditions in the cities, making them liveable.

network profile was mapped. This exercise was very fundame

Manhole Profile • No. of Manholes: 148 • Avg. Manhole/Km: 17.3

Catchpit Profile • No. of Cachpits: 69 • Avg. Catchpits/Km: 9.03

This study aimed at finding the on-site situation of sewrage and

100%

% streets covered

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Upto 12 m

12 m- 18 m

Above 18 m

R.O.W. Width Stormwater Network

Sewerage Network

Graph showing proportion of streets covered by the sewerage and stromwater network

All hierarchy of streets must be serviced the network

Catchment

• Arterial and sub-arterial roads have a well-maintained network of sewerage and stormwater catchment (observed to be 100% during the exercise) • Sreets in the lower levels of hierarchy are not properly maintainted recurring instances of waterlogging and, catchment pits blocked by garbage, merely 50%-80% serviced by sewerage network

Water logging

Provision is not enough; proper maintenance is equally important Manhole

Stormwater Catchment (Concrete) Stormwater shaft leading to trunk

(Steel) Sewage shaft with pipe (150mm 600mm dia)

Cities as Machinery

Cross-sectional section of street showing the layout of the sewerage and stormwater drains

• Reasons for waterlogging: • Low-lying area (topography) • Obstruction of the catchment pit due to waste or buildings • Efficient use of topography and regular maintenance will reduce waterlogging • Manholes must be provided at specific intervals based on the location of pipe junctions. 27


PROJECT COSTS & REVENUE How can cities earn revenue through development? Expenditure

it has. The probable sources of revenue are year-4 identified and a year -1 year -2 year -3 year -5

Running the day-to-day operations of cities, and their development

This study takes a case of developing a 2-km long stretch with

requires funds. ULBs are often restricted by limited monetary

(A) (in INR lakhs) 351.34 breakeven point established. a limited seed fund of Rs 50 lakh; it analyses how n Total SPV Capital can + A&OE

resources and low revenues from taxes.

effectively work to develop the area with the limited resources (A+B)

(B)

55.87 55.87

57.91 57.91

60.10 60.10

62.43 62.43

year -1 year -1 351.34 80.84 53.97 30.522 405.31 111.36

year -2 year -2 88.924 55.87 33.5742 55.87 122.50

year -3 year -3 97.8164 57.91 36.93162 57.91 134.75

year-4 year-4 107.59804 60.10 40.624782 60.10 148.22

year -5 year -5 118.357844 62.43 44.6872602 62.43 163.05

year -1 80.84 30.522 111.36

year -2 88.924 33.5742 122.50

year -3 97.8164 36.93162 134.75

year-4 107.59804 40.624782 148.22

year -5 118.357844 44.6872602 163.05

year -1

year -2

year -3

year-4

year -5

Income - Expenditure -293.95

-227.32

-150.49

-62.36

38.25

Financing done through: Net Income year -1 year -2 • Seed Fund - ₹year 50 -3 Lakhs year-4 Income - Expenditure -293.95 • Debt Financing (Loan from Banks) -227.32 - ₹-150.49 301 Lakhs-62.36

year -5

Expenditure Income

Heads

1 2 3

Carriageway footpath cycle track

cu.mt. -

3,000.00 -

60,26,000.00 -

60.26 -

parking space to be carved from 4 footpath

cu.mt.

66.00

3,54,420.00

3.54

vending space to be carved from footpath

cu.mt.

264.00

14,17,680.00

14.18

cu.mt. -

40.00 -

10,000.00 -

0.10 -

-

-

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

shoulder median/kerb landscape bay service bay compound wall or fencing Bus shelter cycle stands for 10 cycles public toilets drinking water kiosk signage with advertisement board bollards Signal posts CCTV cameras Tree with tree guards hoardings public dustbins

No.

Qty

-

Amount (INR)

-

(C) (D) (C+D)

C+D)-(A+B)

Seed Fund

C+D)-(A+B)

2.00

1,50,000.00

1.50

Per unit

2.00

15,00,000.00

15.00

Per unit

2.00

3,00,000.00

3.00

per signage

5.00

3,00,000.00

3.00

per bollard per signal post per camera

4.00 16.00

20,00,000.00 8,00,000.00

20.00 8.00

no.

30.00

90,000.00

0.90

400.00

sq.mt. per unit

250.00 4.00

1,25,00,000.00 30,000.00

125.00 0.30

300.00

15,00,000.00

15.00

per unit

5.00

7,50,000.00

7.50

street furniture

per unit

30.00

22,50,000.00

22.50

17 special built space

per sq.mt.

20,000.00

-

-

-

Income from assets (in INR lakhs) Income from operations (in INR lakhs) CapIn +OpIn Net Income

No.

20.00

Market area

Income

-

per unit

18 Total

Total Capital + A&OE (in INR lakhs) IncomeExpenditure from assets (in (in INR INR lakhs) lakhs) Total Operational Income from operationsCapex (in INR+ lakhs) Opex CapIn +OpIn

-

4.5 mtr height 22 Street lights with pole 9 mtr height 23 24

(A) (C) (B) (D) (A+B) (C+D)

299.781

14%

200.00

100.00

0.00 Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

-100.00

-200.00

-300.00

-400.00

Cities as Machinery

38.25

Revenue: • Vending, if formalised will help increase revenue, while also reducing Debt Financing congestion and chaos on streets. 86% • Rents, fees, and development charges (VCFs) conrtribute immensely to the revenue Financing of the project

Net Income (in lakhs)

6 7 8 9

Unit

Amount (INR) in lakh

No.

5

As per context

53.97 405.31

Capital Expenditure Sheet

(A)

Basic requirements

Total Operational Expenditure (in INR lakhs) Capex + Opex

Year

Year 5

Year 6

Year 7

Breaking Even with the Costs • Considering the loan is taken for a period of 10 years @ 6% per annum, the SPV shall break even in the 5th year of operations. An SPV is a good method of development • SPVs ensure that the focus of development is restricted to the project area, helping in the effective implementation of the projects. 28


Conclusion

References

The portfolio is an assimilation of the exercises conducted during the Foundation Studio. Through an analysis of a 1 km2 precinct, it views the city as a dynamic organism performing a multitude of tasks – a marketplace for land, housing, and jobs; a community of people from diverse backgrounds, a hotspot of myriad activities, and a place evolving due to people’s choices; and, a machinery requiring a set of regulations and services for efficient functioning. The precinct’s (Ghatlodiya) transformation from its rural roots to the present form reflected how cities grow and evolve, and what are the key determinants to such changes. The precinct was viewed from the lens of a city being a marketplace; the analysis revealed that land is considered as a commodity that could be traded upon; cities are employment hubs, acting as job centres; the number and type of jobs, however, vary with locations – Ghatlodiya is not a high-paying job centre, whereas areas in the vicinity of Gujarat High Court are high-paying. There is, therefore, disparity in jobs and incomes in cities. Cities are an amalgamation of people from diverse communities – natives and immigrants from different parts of the country. Ghatlodiya, for example, is inhabited by Rabaris, Patidars, immigrants from Uttar Pradesh & Madhya Pradesh, among others. The public spaces and their components are utilised by citizens as per the designated use and also adapted for other purposes; footpaths are used by pedestrians as well as vendors; low walls are used as support and seating. Several activities are performed in cities, some having physical limits, others developing notional boundaries. Lastly, the precinct was seen as being a part of the larger machinery of the city. The functioning of the city was also studied – requiring basic infrastructural provisions like sewerage, water supply, etc. Solid waste management is also crucial in cities - 4000 metric tonnes of waste is generated in Ahmedabad every day! The infrastructural provisions of the city were found to be largely adequate, with some lackadaisical approaches being adopted in terms of maintenance of stormwater catchments. Ghatlodiya, has the potential to become an economically and socially relevant neighbourhood of Ahmedabad. It, however, lags behind in some crucial respects such as infrastructure. One approach to develop the area could be to use the employ a Special Purpose Vehicle, which shall help in concentration of funds to the specific purpose of the development of the neighbourhood. Beginning with the major streets, having more salable potential, investors can be attracted to the neighbourhood. This may be followed by subsequent development of the area by the future investors.

• Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. (2018). Solid Waste Management. Retrieved from Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation: https://ahmedabadcity.gov.in/portal/jsp/Static_pages/solid_waste_mgmt. jsp • Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority. (2018). Draft Comprehensive Development 2021 Vol. III: General Development Regulations. Ahmedabad: Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority. • Better-Streets-Better-Cities. (2011). Retrieved from ITDP: https://www.itdp.org/wp-content/ uploads/2011/12/Better-Streets-Better-Cities-ITDP-2011.pdf • Freepik. (2018). Retrieved from Freepik: https://www.freepik.com/ • Google Inc. (2018). Google Earth. • HCP Design, Planning and Management Pvt. Ltd. (2018). Retrieved from HCP Design, Planning and Management Pvt. Ltd.: https://www.hcp.co.in/ • Investopedia. (2018). • Investopedia. (2018). Retrieved from Investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com • MINISTRY OF DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION. (2018). CPHEEO Manual on Water Supply and Treatment. Retrieved from MINISTRY OF DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION: https://mdws. gov.in/cpheeo-manual-water-supply-and-treatment • Revenue Department, Govt of Gujarat. (2018). Ahmedabad Jantri Rates. Retrieved from Revenue Department: https://revenuedepartment.gujarat.gov.in/downloads/amc.pdf

To conclude, the analysis of the exercises conducted disproved many hypotheses and misconceptions about cities, especially with reference to Indian cities. Cities are multi-functional in nature. Three of these have been elucidated in earlier paragraphs. A successful city does not stop at just the land and the people; it needs to have an effective machinery, as illustrated by the contents of the portfolio. The ‘machinery’ keeps the cyclic process of urban development moving.

29


Sameer Kumar

+91-9415332361 sameer.pg180865@cept.ac.in

Understanding The City (Foundation) Studio | Master of Urban Planning | CEPT University  

This portfolio is a compilation of the exercises conducted to understand the city. Cities have a multi-faceted, dynamic nature; they have be...

Understanding The City (Foundation) Studio | Master of Urban Planning | CEPT University  

This portfolio is a compilation of the exercises conducted to understand the city. Cities have a multi-faceted, dynamic nature; they have be...

Advertisement