Hogan's Alley Site Guidelines

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HOGAN’S ALLEY SITE GUIDELINES

Design and Policy Recommendations Nicole Dulong (she/her), Samantha Miller (she/her), Reece Milton (he/him) [Re]Visiting Hogan’s Alley - Vertical Studio Winter 2021


Special Thanks: This project could not have been completed without the stories, guidance, and desires shared both directly and indirectly by The Hogan’s Alley Society, the Hogan’s Alley Community, JB Taylor (he/him), Kesugwilakw (Sierra Tasi Baker) (they/she), Lys Divine Ndemeye (she/her), Vanessa Richards, Stephanie Allen, June Francis, Adam Rudder, Joshua Tecumseh F. Robertson, Chris Cornelius (he/him), T’uy’t’tanat (Cease Wyss) (she/her/they/ them), Lee Maracle, Wayde Compton, and Mintledus/Halikium (Wade Baker) (he/him). We also want to thank our classmates and reviewers/critics in the [Re]Visiting Hogan’s Alley Studio, who inspired us with their wealth of knowledge, research, willingness to learn, vulnerability, and who have encouraged us throughout this process. ‘

The digital file of this report has been modified to be accessible under the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0), and is (AODA) Accessibility for Ontarians Act compliant. Ontario standards were used as BC does not have legislation for this yet.


C O NT E N T S

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5 1.1 .Acknowledgements ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������7 1.2 .Disclosures ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������9 1.3 .Vibe Statement ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 11 1.4 .Guiding Principle ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 1.5 .Existing Conditions ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 1.6 .Future Climatic Conditions �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 1.7 .Existing Policy Documents �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23 2.0 Stories of the Land ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 3.0 Site Guidelines ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 79 3.1 .Summary of Wants and Needs ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 82 3.2 .Preconditions to Guidelines ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 85 3.3 .Demolition �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 89 3.4 .Site Guidelines ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 93 3.5 .Policy Comparison ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 137 4.0 Iterations + Criteria ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 143 4.1.Criteria ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 145 4.2 .Iterations ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 147 5.0 Appendices ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 153 Appendix A: Bibliography ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 155 Appendix B: List of Figures �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 163 Appendix C: Definitions ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 171 Appendix D: Black + Indigenous Creatives, Landscape Architects, + Architects �������������� 173 Appendix E: Chart of Wants + Needs ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 175

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1.0


INTRODU CTION



1. 1 AC K NO WL EDGM ENT S

Figure 1: ‘The Grateful Heron’ by James (Nexw’Kalus-Xwalacktun) Harry and Lauren Brevner, 2018. (https://www.jamesharry.ca/projects)

INTRODUCTION

The authors of this document would like to acknowledge that they are settlers and uninvited guests on the land in question. They acknowledge that the area called Vancouver is within the unceded Indigenous territories belonging to the xwmwθkəy̓əm (Musqueam), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), and Səl̓ílwətaʔ/Selilwitulh (Tsleil-Waututh) Peoples (MST). Furthermore, they recognize that the colony of British Columbia was created through organized dispossession and colonial violence, that they have personally benefited from this dispossession, and seek to participate in the land sovereignty and decolonization process through this project iteration. It is their ultimate recommendation that care of the land be returned to MST and that all proposals be discussed with and approved by the Land Stewards as is customary in MST traditions.

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INTRODUCTION

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Nicole Dulong (She/Her)

Samantha Miller / ‫שַחַׁר‬ (She/Her)

Reece Milton (He/Him)

Nicole was born and raised in what is now known as Toronto, ON, which is Treaty 13 territory, the traditional territory of the Mississaugas of the Credit, the Anishinaabeg, the Chippewa, the Haudenoshonee, and the Wendat Peoples. She is an uninvited guest and settler, currently living and studying on the unceded and ancestral homeland of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), and Səl̓ílwətaʔ/ Selilwitulh (TsleilWaututh) Nations.

Samantha was born and raised in what is now known as Winnipeg, MB, on Treaty 1 territory, which is the traditional territory of the Anishinaabeg, Cree, Oji-Cree, Dakota and Dene Peoples, and the homeland of the Métis Nation. She is an uninvited guest and settler, currently living and studying on the unceded and ancestral homeland of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), and Səl̓ílwətaʔ/ Selilwitulh (TsleilWaututh) Nations.

Reece was born and raised in what is now known as Georgetown, ON, on Treaty 19 territory, the traditional territory of the Mississaugas of the New Credit, the Anishinaabeg, the Haudenoshonee, and the Huron-Wendat Peoples. He is an uninvited guest and settler, currently living and studying on the unceded and ancestral homeland of the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), and Səl̓ílwətaʔ/ Selilwitulh (TsleilWaututh) Nations.

Figure 2: Map excerpts from Coming Home to Indigenous Place Names in Canada, Dr. Margaret Pearce, 2018


1. 2 D I SC L O S URES

The authors of this document are graduate students of the UBC School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture and have constructed this proposal under the supervision of LARC 504/505 [Re]Visiting Hogan’s Alley instructors JB Taylor (he/him), Kesugwilakw (Sierra Tasi Baker) (they/she), and Lys Divine Ndemeye (she/her). ‘

+ The recommendations made do not (yet) reflect the views of the University of which they are a part. + While the authors operate within the field of design, the intended audience for this document stretches beyond other designers. They understand that designers are used to seeing visuals rather exclusively. The graphics in this document are intended to be visual aids to make the material more digestible for community members. + The guidelines outlined in this document are one way Hogan’s Alley could evolve. They have been developed based on the needs and wants of the Hogan’s Alley community but have not been assessed by MST or Hogan’s Alley Society and do not reflect the opinions of either.

INTRODUCTION

+ The authors further recognize that the language and policy framework used throughout this document speak the colonial tongue. This is not a means to further the institutional agenda but rather to maintain the approachability and digestibility of the recommendations made to other institutional and decision making bodies.

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1. 3 V IBE S T A T EM ENT Advocate, activist, and co-founder of the Hogan’s Alley Memorial Project, Wayde Compton, noted that it is important that the history of what happened to Vancouver’s Black community remain in the public memory, “so people understand that top-down planning doesn’t work, and contemporary versions of that are equally dangerous“ (Compton via CBC News, 2016). The process began with an analysis of the Hogan’s Alley Working Group Workshop Report (2017), the Northeast False Creek Plan (2018), and a guest-lecture from Stephanie Allen given to the [Re]Visiting Hogan’s Alley Vertical Studio on September 28, 2021. This led to identifying a list of wants and needs directly from the community, understanding the intent of the reports, themes, language used, and recognizing political structures in so-called Vancouver. Refer to 3.1 Summary of Wants and Needs, and Appendix E: Chart of Wants + Needs.

1.0 Introduction addresses any disclaimers and acknowledgments. 2.0 Stories of the Land outlines a comprehensive historical and current context pertinent to the design process. 3.0 Site Guidelines outlines preconditions for an MST Land Trust, wants and needs of the community (HAWGWR 2017), and proposes design and/or policy guidelines to address the above. 4.0 Iterations + Criteria demonstrates the guidelines visually and identifies methods of prioritizing trade-offs.

INTRODUCTION

This report seeks to address, to the best of the author’s abilities, the direct wants and needs of the community. It is a graduate level attempt at subversion, or a bottom up approach, where the desires of the community are

considered far above the bottom line. Guidelines provide direction to, and support for, systematic change while leaving room for community input. It places emphasis on Black and Indigenous geographic centrality, healing, spaces of social connection, oral history, resilient nature, and land sovereignty. This is a working document and will be given to the community to be used in whatever role they deem appropriate, with support provided by the authors moving forward. The authors recognize that Hogan’s Alley exists within a greater socio-economic urban culture and that this process could be applied to similar scenarios.

Figure 3: ‘Remember Hogan’s Alley’ by Ejiwa ‘Edge’ Ebenebe, 2019. (https://www.artofedge.com/projects/0XNWdY?album_id=1803763)

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1. 4 G UIDING P RINCIP L E

Figure 4: ‘New Chiefs on the Land’ by Laurence Paul Yuxweluptun, 2006. (https://lawrencepaulyuxweluptun.com/larrypic.php?img=db/ new_chiefs.jpg&title=New%20Chiefs%20on%20the%20Land,%202006,%20169%20x%20213%20cm,%20Buschlen%20Mowatt%20 Gallery,%20Vancouver,%20BC.)

INTRODUCTION

To subvert the discriminatory omnipresence that displaced and oppressed the Hogan’s Alley community through the promotion of spaces that encourage social connection, self-determination, and neighbourhood adaptability.

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INTRODUCTION

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Figure 5: ‘Hogan’s Alley Looking West’, Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021.

Figure 6: ‘Colours of Hogan’s Alley’, Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021.

Figure 7: ‘Solidarity Storytelling’ by Emma Xie, Chase Gray, and John Sebastian, 2021. (source cited in Illustration credits)

Figure 8: Photograph of Nora Hendrix Place, 2019. (https:// www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/supportivehousing-units-open-in-vancouver-s-historic-strathconaneighbourhood-1.5041227)

Figure 9: ‘Hope Through Ashes: A Requiem for Hogan’s Alley’ by Anthony Joseph, 2020. (https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ british-columbia/hogan-s-alley-mural-1.5713560)

Figure 10: Photograph inside Jimi Hendrix Shrine with Mannequin of Vie (http://www.voodoohendrix.com/blog/jimihendrix-shrine.php)


1. 5 E X IS T ING C O NDIT IO NS Hogan’s Alley is located in Skwácháy̓s and the present day neighbourhood of Strathcona in the so-called city of Vancouver. The area is rich in legend and oral history, is home to tales of tragedy and dispossession, and features structures and landmarks important to the existing and former community. Refer to section 2.0 Stories of the Land. This report roughly focuses on the two blocks between Union Street, Gore Avenue, Prior Street, and Expo Boulevard, and its surrounding area. This includes Nora Hendrix Place, the Plaza Skateboard Park, the Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts, and the Murrin Substation. Recommendations have also been made throughout that extend beyond the limits of the subject property. For an example, refer to sections 3.4.4.5 Narrow Alleys and 3.4.5.4 Resilient Nature & Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK).

Notable Places: Nora Hendrix Place is a modular housing facility that was built in

partnership with the Hogan’s Alley Society and Portland Hotel Society to meet the needs of Vancouver’s unhoused Black and Indigenous communities. The facility has 52 units to house individuals until they are matched with permanent housing and provides access to healthcare support and community programming. Painted atop the east wall is a mural entitled Remember Hogan’s Alley by local artist Ejiwa “Edge” Ebenebe.

INTRODUCTION

The Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts, which were opened in 1972, run through open green space. Refer to section 2.0 Stories of the Land: Hogan’s Alley. The so-called city of Vancouver voted to demolish the viaducts in 2015, but no demolition work has started yet. There are murals painted by Anthony Joseph, in partnership with the Hogan’s Alley Society, across the side of the Dunsmuir viaduct.

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INTRODUCTION

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Figure 11: Section Digital Drawing of Current Day Hogan’s Alley by Nicole Brekelmans, 2021.


The Murrin Substation was built in 1947 and is bound by Union St. to the south, and Quebec St. to the west. See Section 3.3.3 Murrin Substation (721 Main Street). To the west of the subject property, between Quebec and Union Streets under the Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts, is the Downtown Skateboard Plaza. This street-style skateboard park, which opened in 2004, was upgraded in 2011 and is a popular destination for advanced skateboarders. It is considered North America’s first purposely built plaza-style skatepark and has attracted local and international skateboarders for over a decade. It features replica rails, embankments, curbs, walls, ramps, and steps, and has a variety of surface textures. Unfortunately, the impending deconstruction of the viaducts will also

see the loss of this beloved skate haven, but the NEFC Plan has allocated space for its replacement. Existing planting on site is limited to trees and a layer of vegetated grass, with interspersed shrubs. Somewhat ironically, the space between the viaducts is host to some interesting vegetated species, including Japanese quince. The surrounding streets and laneways host a far more diverse planted ecosystem than the open space itself. They are home to both Indigenous and introduced planting such as boxwoods, willows, asters, goldenrod, spirea, birch, plums, clovers, oaks, fennel, laurel, and snowberry. Collectively, they provide a fairly dense ecosystem for a residential neighbourhood and provide adequate shading for the residents and their homes. While it is recommended that the plant selection for the proposed spaces solely utilize Indigenous and local planting to improve resiliency, the richness of these residential areas and the historical planting and inferences they embody can and should inspire planting design moving forward. INTRODUCTION

The Jimi Hendrix Shrine is just north of the property, located at 209 Union Street. According to Jimi Hendrix, the Man, the Magic, the Truth, a biography published in 2004, Jimi lived in 14 different places, including short stints in Vancouver (Lazarus, 2018).

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1 .6 F UT UR E C L IM A T IC C O NDITI ONS Inundation Related Data Summary: In the Pacific Northwest, most rain falls over

the winter months, which will continue to occur in the future. Projections indicate that Vancouver will experience an increase in total annual precipitation of a modest 5% by the 2050s and a more substantial increase of 11% by the 2080s (Rain City Strategy, 2019). And while these increases alone are not a dramatic departure from the past, the increase in precipitation will be distributed unevenly over the seasons. For example, the most significant percentage increase in rainfall will occur in the fall season, increasing 11-12% by the 2050s and 20% by the 2080s (Metro Vancouver, 2016). Less extensive extremes are expected for the winter and spring months. Furthermore, by 2050, volumes are expected to increase to 33% more precipitation on very wet days, and 63% more on extremely wet days. The intensity of less frequent events such as 1-in-20-year storms is projected to increase by 36% (Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, 2016). Collectively, these values indicate significant potential for increased flooding. Coupled with the projections related to sea-level rise, with an increase of 0.5m expected by 2050 and 1m by 2100, the danger to this region is magnified (Hallegatte et al., 2013).

Figure 12: Speculative Digital Perspective Drawing of Future Northeast False Creek, 2100, by Nicole Dulong, 2021

INTRODUCTION

It is accepted that by mid-century, lower-lying areas on Granville Island and parts of False Creek will be commonly flooded, but the area will experience the major tipping point around the year 2070. By then, even during calm periods, the western portion of Granville Island and lower-lying parts of False Creek and Olympic Village will be regularly underwater at extreme tides. By the end of the century, during a rare flood event, 2.5km2 of the city would flood, and with 1m of sea-level rise, almost 13km2 of city lands are in the floodplain with the assessed value of land and buildings in this floodplain today being $7B (Lyle, Long & Beaudrie, 2015).

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95 METRE TALL FIR TREE

PRIOR ST

DUNSLEY AVE

GORE AVE

MAIN ST

UNION ST

‘HOGAN’S ALLEY’

LEQ’LEQ’I GEORGIA VIADUCT

‘HOGAN’S ALLEY’ RESIDENTIAL LOTS PRE-VIADUCT

STRATHCONA PARK

X̱ ÁYWÁ7ESKS “NARROW PASSAGE; TWO POINTS EXACTLY OPPOSITE PACIFIC CENTRAL STATION

SMEM̓ CHÚS / SMAMḴW’CH

SEN̓ ÁḴW “AND A FEW PEOPLE RAKED HERRING AT SEN̓ ÁḴW

SKWÁCHÁY̓ S ‘PLACE WHERE WATER IS DRAWN DOWN INTO A HOLE; WHIRLPOOL’

Á7ENMITSUT

FLOUNDER PERCH SMELT

TIDAL FISH TRAP

Figure 13: Map of Historic Shoreline and Flooding in False Creek by Kerry Gibson, 2021.

Action Plan (Flooding): The City of Vancouver Coastal Flood Risk Assessment has PRE-COLONIAL SHORELINE

VILLAGE

1939

MIDDEN OR CAMP SITE

2014

PRE-COLONIAL INDIGENOUS TRAIL

X̱ AW̓ S SHEW̓ ÁY̓ NEW GROWTH

several proposed protective or adaptive solutions for these types of events. These are all geotechnical solutions such as a sea barrier, raised seawall, or a partial dike. The City of Vancouver Coastal Flood Risk Assessment Phase II Final Report suspects that raising the seawall in False Creek by an average of 2.3m would cost between $500M to $850M (Lyle, Long & Beaudrie, 2015). Examples of their geotechnical measures can be seen in the report.

INTRODUCTION

1:30,000

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Drought Related Data Summary:

Figure 14: Photograph of Smoky Air in Vancouver, 2021. (https:// www.vancouverisawesome.com/local-news/bccdc-warnsbritish-columbians-to-prepare-for-the-worst-ahead-of-wildfiresmoke-3928490)

Action Plan (Drought): It has

been difficult to locate city strategies for managing drought related risks and dangers beyond summer water restrictions, drought tolerant planting, and an increase in shade trees.

INTRODUCTION

On the opposite side of water level volatility is the consecutive number of dry days expected to increase from 23 to 29 days during the summer months per year at an increase of 23%. As a result, the season is likely to experience a decline in precipitation of 19% by the 2050s and a decline of 29% by the 2080s (Metro Vancouver, 2016). Furthermore, Vancouver relies on rainfall and snowmelt for drinking water and aquifer recharge in springtime. An increase in daytime high and nighttime low temperatures will cause more precipitation to fall as rain instead of snow, resulting in less snowpack melt for the spring and summer months. Specifically, warmer winters are predicted to result in a 58% decline in snowpack by 2050. This trend is expected to increase by the 2080s with a 77% decrease in winter snowpack and an 84% decrease in spring snowpack, leading to exaggerated drought levels over time (Metro Vancouver, 2016).

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“Vancouver to revive Hogan’s Alley community with help of American Architect.” - Anna Diamoff from CBC News

“The stepped massing is specifically tailored to respect view cones and adjacent contexts and the overall form is expressive of a unified architectural expression. This will render a clear sense of place necessary for its identity as a cultural precinct.” - Perkins + Will s 10 20

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“Slum clearance would pay off in Vancouver in many ways... The incalculable costs that go with slums such as unhealthy living conditions, crime, policy, sickness, social service requirements, and others will all be reduced.” - Jim Fairley in ‘The

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INTRODUCTION

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[TW: Erasure] “Previous to the year 1886, the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, had no existence. Where the city now stands, was then a dense, tangled forest of huge fir, cedar, spruce and hemlock; the only evidence of the presence of man being a clearing a few acres in extent, on which low frame buildings, not more than a dozen in number, had been erected, and which was vaguely know to the outside world as Coal Harbour, Gas Town and Granville Town Plot.” - Vancouver Waterworks

Figure 15: Axonometric Timeline Digital Drawing of Structures and Structural Events in Strathcona by Nicole Brekelmans, Samantha Miller and Reece Milton, 2021.


1 . 7 E XI ST ING P O L IC Y DO C UMENTS Nor theas t Fals e Cre e k : D ire c tion s for th e Fu tu re, 2 0 0 9

NORTHEAST FALSE CREEK DIRECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE Amended to include Council Resolution passed at November 17, 2009 Council Meeting

Draft Date: October 13, 2009 Amendment Date: November 14, 2013 City of Vancouver Planning Department

City of Vancouver NEFC Directions for the Future

October 2009 Page 1

Figure 16: Cover Page of ‘Northeast False Creek: Directions for the Future, 2009’

INTRODUCTION

The NEFC Directions for the Future document summarizes the recommendations and research from the NEFC High Level Review. The NEFC HLR had previously developed rather broad directions for developing the NEFC area, including rezoning, density, and land use. This document outlines a vision statement and principles to support the vision, which expresses a need for mixed-use development, advancing sustainable development, creating a distinctive sense of place and a unique destination within Vancouver, encouraging innovative forms, fostering a vibrant waterfront and more. Within each direction that aims to support the vision, the document also outlines somewhat more specific ‘guidelines’ on achieving the goals. For example: “3.1.9 Provide opportunities for urban agriculture” (NEFC Directions for the Future, 2009, p. 13), or “3.2.3 Make NEFC more attractive with distinctive identity, vibrant public spaces and lively venues and streets” (NEFC Directions for the Future, 2009, p. 15).

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G re e n e st Cit y 2 0 20 Ac t i o n Pl a n , 2011 The GCAP was put into place as an attempt to make Vancouver the greenest city in the world by 2021, with additional long-term goals for 2050. Vancouver City Council approved the plan in 2011 after over 35,000 people worldwide assisted in its development. The GCAP includes strategies relating to clean water, green buildings, carbon footprints, waste, transport, air quality, and more (Canadian Urban Strategies, 2019). So while Vancouver didn’t make the top 10 list of greenest cities in the world in 2020, it did make the list in 2021. The sheer amount of people consulted on the development of the document is admirable, because it is not just professionals whose opinions are valuable, but also the people who live, work, and learn in so-called Vancouver. Additionally, the plan’s focus on access to nature with the goal that every person has access to a park or greenway within a 5-minute walk from their home is something to value as well (Canadian Urban Strategies, 2019).

INTRODUCTION

Figure 17: Cover Page of ‘Greenest City 2020 Action Plan, 2011’

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Nor theas t Fa l se Cre e k : Issu e s R e p o r t, 2 0 1 1

INTRODUCTION

Figure 18: Cover Page of ‘Northeast False Creek: Issues Report, 2011’

The purpose of the NEFC Issues Report was to seek approval from the Council regarding rezoning applications, further analysis of the Creekside Park extension, changes to proposals of a sports and recreation centre, non-market housing, rental housing, a public plaza, daycare, and the demolition of Enterprise Hall. Of particular importance is the request for the provision of nonmarket housing and that it be secured within the existing site plan and situated within the already proposed buildings.

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Hous i ng and Ho m e l e ssn e ss Strate gy 2 0 1 2 - 2 0 2 1 , 2 0 1 1

INTRODUCTION

Between 2002 and 2010, the number of people who experience homelessness increased by 3 times, which prompted the creation of this report by the socalled city of Vancouver (with 1605 experiencing houselessness in 2010). The document describes the city’s direction for housing over 10 years, including the different types of housing necessary to meet citizens’ needs: affordable housing for all levels of income; and accessible housing for all physical abilities. The report commits to ‘enabling’ 2900 new supportive housing units (2011-2013: 1700 units; 20122014: 450 units; and 2015-2021: 750 units); 5000 additional social housing units (Includes 1000 SRO units); 11,000 new market rental housing units (5000 purpose-built rental units and 6000 secondary market units such as suites or laneway houses); and 20,000 market ownership units. However, it remains unclear as to why 20,000 market value units would help house people experiencing homelessness.

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Figure 19: Cover Page of ‘Housing and Homelessness Strategy, 2012-2021’, 2011


With no follow-up reporting on the development of committed units, it’s difficult to gauge whether or not this was successful. The Vancouver Homeless Count (2019) prepared by the Homelessness Services Association of BC, the BC Non-Profit Housing Association, and Urban Matters CCC, states that the number of people experiencing houselessness has increased from 1605 in 2010 to 2223 in 2019. The Homeless Count in Metro Vancouver (2020), prepared by BC Non-Profit Housing Association for Reaching Home’s Community Entity for Greater Vancouver, shows a slight dip in people experiencing houselessness with a total number of 2095 in so-called Vancouver proper. These numbers are highly dependent on who is available to interview in the twoday period in which interviews are conducted and may not encompass the area’s actual homeless population. The survey for the 2020 report was conducted two weeks before the so-called BC government declared a state of emergency due to Covid-19, and the numbers presented have likely increased with the pandemic. INTRODUCTION

Figure 20: Cover Page of ‘Vancouver Homeless Count, 2019’

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Downtown E a st Lo c a l Are a Pl a n , 2014

INTRODUCTION

Figure 21: Cover Page of ‘Downtown East Local Area Plan’, 2014

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The Downtown East Local Area Plan (2014) was prepared by the City of Vancouver and the Local Area Planning Process (LAPP) Committee. The LAPP Committee included representatives from low-income and middle-income residents, various community groups, non-profit housing organizations and social service organizations. The goal of this plan was to ensure the future of the DTES is responsive to and improves the livelihood of those who live in the area. More ‘specific’ ambitions are to make the DTES safer, supportive, and more liveable. The plan includes ‘plan principles’ in the following categories: Neighbourhood Development, Housing, Local Economy, Health and Well-being, Arts, Culture and Heritage, Transportation, and Parks and Public Open Space. Many of the policies proposed in the plan are very broad such as “6.7.1 Preserve and enhance the existing residential heritage character of the Strathcona residential area”, or “Facilitate compatible new residential and mixed-use development, while reinforcing the existing scale and character of the area” (City of Vancouver, 2014).


Cit y of Vancou ve r Coa sta l R isk Asse ssm e nt P h a s e 2 Final Rep or t, 20 1 5

INTRODUCTION

Figure 22: Cover Page of ‘City of Vancouver Coastal Risk Assessment Phase 2 Final Report, 2015’

The report seeks ways of decreasing vulnerability in at-risk areas: “We encourage the City to consider further policy options that help at-risk areas become less vulnerable to the effects of sea-level rise and flood events over the natural course of infrastructure cycles.” p ii. & “False Creek and Flats (FC): is a zone that has many key existing and future infrastructure assets, including plans for a new St. Paul’s Hospital, a new energy facility serving the downtown core, Pacific Central Train Station, Main Street-Science World SkyTrain Station, BC Place, Rogers Arena, and the rail yards, among others. This area is projected to be vulnerable to flooding in the future. City staff and stakeholders were clear that protecting these assets is both important and

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feasible. Depending on actual observed rates of sea-level rise, significant protective flood-management actions will be required before 2100. Of the protective alternatives we examined, a sea barrier seemed to be somewhat preferred by stakeholders over a raised seawall, though more refined engineering explorations would need to be undertaken to properly clarify the trade-offs, costs, and feasibility associated with these alternatives. ” p iii

INTRODUCTION

There is no mention of False Creek and the Flats being home to thousands of at-risk communities or their livelihoods. This working group believes that infrastructural assets must be protected from degradation and that they should be fortified to protect ourselves from climate disasters such as those mentioned above. But efforts must be centralized around communities likely to be affected first, and those who don’t have the resources to protect themselves. The largely immigrantbased, Black, and Indigenous communities

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found in Strathcona, Chinatown, and Downtown Eastside neighbourhoods adjacent to low-lying False Creek is such a population. Further geotechnical engineering may be a solution using infrastructural ecologies. This community needs support, healing, and elemental and climate protection, and can be visualized as land, food, and water sovereignty. With significant consultation and guidance, using traditional knowledge of the Black, Indigenous, and surrounding Asian communities can aid in this strive toward neighbourhood adaptation. Ultimately this may actualize a safe space that celebrates, slows, retains, and stores water. This may take the form of vertical gardens, floating gardens, aquaculture, sponge city, or giant wetlands or cisterns; perhaps it looks at the destruction of the seawall and the return to the mudflat and marshlands that once protected the space.


Removal of t h e G e orgia a n d D u n sm u ir Via d u c t s, 2 0 1 5

INTRODUCTION

Figure 23: Cover Page of the Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts, 2015’

The Removal of the Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts (October 6, 2015) is based on the Dunsmuir and Georgia Viaducts and Related Area Planning (June 18, 2013) report. It touches on a series of previous planning studies and initiatives from the so-called city of Vancouver. This report outlines a phased strategy of removing the viaducts in tandem with the future developments of the False Creek area, with specific focus on transportation and funding issues. It’s unclear as to why the city continues to plan large-scale infrastructure projects on soil that has potential settlement and liquefaction issues from the imminent earthquake in this region. In summary, this report concludes that the viaducts must be taken down. The cost of maintenance over the next 15 years will cost $8-10M, and the price to seismically upgrade them for the imminent earthquake would cost an additional $50-65M. There’s no

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reason for keeping the viaducts based on their use. Currently the viaducts are being used at half the capacity as to which they were designed for, and will have little to no effect on transit based on traffic analyses.

INTRODUCTION

Northeast False Creek Conceptual Plan: Appendix A of this document provides a preliminary conceptual plan for the area. It reiterates the 11 guiding principles from the Northeast False Creek Plan and focuses on fiscally responsible design that the so-called city presents as progressive. The Hogan’s Alley area (labelled as the ‘cityowned’ blocks) visualizes a mid-to-highrise building complex lined with trees and lacks context in form and the needs and wants of the community.

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NEFC Consultation Strategy: Appendix C of this document outlines the consultation strategies for future works within the area. It offers an extensive list of potential stakeholders and groups based on their interests. Individual residents are mentioned but local groups, such as Hogan’s Alley Society, are left out of this document. It goes on to outline which groups are to be involved in each process of the future of Northeast False Creek Plan. In the creation of design options, the only stakeholders to be involved are city staff and developers. It intentionally leaves out community members, working groups, and advisory groups out of the ‘creating options’ phase of design.


NE FC S u b -Are a 6 D E a s t B l o c k , Ho ga n’s Al l ey Wo rk i n g G ro u p, 2 0 1 7 Carefully examining this report was paramount in the creation of this document. The report is a documentation of the three-day workshop facilitated by the so-called city of Vancouver, with the Hogan’s Alley Working Group, a design team from Perkins+Will, and a landscape architect from PWL. The workshop occurred in May of 2017. The workshop began with a tour of the site, introductions, visioning, idea development, programming, diagramming, and discussions. “If executed well, the redevelopment of Hogan’s Alley can address these challenges and fulfill many of the community’s needs associated with a sense of place” (HAWGWR, 2017, p. 8). The document summarizes the recommendations for redevelopment to include a cultural centre, diverse and accessible housing, a framework for small businesses, open space for activities and recreation, a distinct character and sense of place, and programs and infrastructure to support Vancouver’s Black community. The city recommends the inclusion of a fire station onsite. This was unanimously opposed by the entire community. The authors of the overall site guidelines document condemn the inclusion of police or fire stations on the subject property.

INTRODUCTION

Figure 24: Cover Page of ‘NEFC Sub-Area 6D East Block - Hogan’s Alley Working Group Report, 2017’

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INTRODUCTION

Nor theas t Fals e Cre e k P l a n , 2 0 1 8

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Figure 25: Cover Page of ‘Northeast False Creek Plan, 2018’


The NEFC Plan is a relatively progressive policy document; however, it’s not without fault. Issues found in the document include the historical section, which only allocated four sentences (and is the briefest

history) for MST, the communities with the longest history on these lands. Policies in this document state to “explore creative ways of using [MST] culture to inform design” (4.1.8). This is hugely problematic as uninformed appropriation of cultural designs shouldn’t be taken on by the city or other designers, not from these Nations. Additionally, building forms outlined by policies are lacking action and become contradicting to the wants and needs of the community. For example, policy 10.4.6 looks to pay homage to front porches by creating a covered gathering space in front of the cultural centre, which doesn’t actually provide the same neighbourhood scale social atmosphere and offers no real actionable item. Policy 10.4.12 wants to ‘stitch’ the community together with bridges and vantage points for people watching, a clear contradiction for the community’s wants to not be watched. It also looks to recall the former ‘H-frame’ structures that used to line Hogan’s Alley which at the same time suggested the creation of high-rises. Similarly, policy 10.4.29 guides the creation of fine grain interwoven building fabric. It consistently references smaller-scale buildings while only recommending large-scale structures which are not for the existing community.

INTRODUCTION

The Northeast False Creek (NEFC) Plan was developed by the so-called city of Vancouver and seeks to act as a framework for guiding new growth, development and public investment within Northeast False Creek over 20 years. This document (or rather its 2017 version) contains the approvals for the redevelopment of the subject property by Perkins+Will, including rezoning from M1 to CD1, a variety of buildings with heights up to 22 storeys (west of Main Street) and up to 14 storeys (east of Main Street), commercial uses, residential uses, a childcare facility, a cultural centre, and non-profit office space. The subject property is located within sub-area 6-D, the Main Street District and Hogan’s Alley. The document outlines 11 guiding principles for the replacement and redevelopment of the Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts and surrounding areas and contains detailed guidelines and plans for the area’s future development. The Hogan’s Alley Site Guidelines (current report) document adopts the street layout from the NEFC Plan.

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B lue - G reen Syste m s, 2 0 1 9 As part of the Rain City Strategy (2019), blue-green systems began as an action item within the Streets and Public Spaces Action Plan. Blue-green systems are networks of park-like streets that are connected as a network and manage water in a way that aims to replicate natural functions. The main goal of bluegreen systems is to slow the speed and volume at which rainwater runoff enters the underground system. This can be achieved by using green spaces such as rain gardens or wetlands to remove pollutants and absorb the water so that less water enters the pipes. In turn, we can also reduce the effects of urban heat island and remove pollutants from our air and in our water bodies (City of Vancouver, 2019).

INTRODUCTION

Figure 26: Cover Page of ‘Blue-Green Systems, 2019’

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R ain Ci t y Strateg y, 2 0 1 9 Vancouver’s Rain City Strategy includes many goals with the vision that “Vancouver’s rainwater is embraced as a valued resource for our communities and natural ecosystems” (City of Vancouver, 2019). Some of the goals include improving water quality, increasing resilience through sustainable water management, and enhancing the city’s livability by improving natural and urban ecosystems. The strategy also contains targets, objectives, design standards, guiding principles, transformative directions, and action plans. A significant focus of the strategy is green rainwater infrastructure (GRI), which can take many forms, such as absorbent landscapes, permeable pavement, rainwater tree trenches, resilient roofs, and bioretention. The document is highly comprehensive, with numerous direct design implications at numerous scales and suggestions of reasonable action items. However, while the document outlines a goal to explore intersectionality and reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples, there is a lack of clarity or explicit consideration of Indigenous TEKnology (City of Vancouver, 2019).

INTRODUCTION

Figure 27: Cover Page of ‘Rain City Strategy, 2019’

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2.0


STORIES OF THE LAND


Meet your Hosts: xʷməθkʷəy̓əm “The name Musqueam relates back to the flowering plant, məθkʷəy̓, which grows in the Fraser River estuary. There is a sχʷəy̓em̓ that has been passed on from generation to generation that explains how we became known as the xʷməθkʷəy̓əm – People of the məθkʷəy̓ plant. The old people spoke of a small lake called xʷməm̓qʷe:m (Camosun Bog) where the sʔi:ɬqəy̓ (double-headed serpent) originated. They were warned as youth to be cautious and not go near or they would surely die. This sʔi:ɬqəy̓ was so massive its winding path from the lake to the stal̕əw̓ (river) became the creek flowing through Musqueam to this day. Everything the serpent passed over died and from its droppings bloomed a new plant, the məθkʷəy̓.

STORIES OF THE LAND

For this reason, the people of long ago named that place xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam – place of the məθkʷəy̓)” (Musqueam’s Story, n.d.).

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Figure 28: Screenshot of Double Headed Serpent, taken from ‘The Double Headed Serpent’ - An Animation of the Musqueam Origin Story by Saki Murotani, 2015. (https://vimeo.com/157540577)

“The Musqueam people have been present in what is now Greater Vancouver for several thousands of years. Archaeological journals have recorded evidence of Musqueam’s existence in this area, particularly the Marpole midden - located at the mouth of the North Arm of the Fraser River, in excess of 4,000 years and at the Musqueam reserve in excess of 3,500 years. Over 143 heritage sites were recorded in Musqueam Traditional Territory in Musqueam’s 1984 Comprehensive Land Claims submission to Canada. In the interim eighteen sites have been documented for a total of 161.


Our people still practice our tradition and culture in our bighouse. The ceremonies, which happen in our big house, are very sacred and private to our people. We

try and keep these ceremonies private because we feel it is one of the few things we have left that is our own and we would like to have this part of our culture and traditions kept strong in our community. Participating in bighouse gatherings can be very informal, without invitation as well as large formal gatherings; a specific ceremony or work is to be done. The small informal gatherings happen anytime and often for no reason other than to socialize with family and friends. Our people have always enjoyed spending evenings with our own community members as well as our extended families from neighbouring communities. This is a time to take advantage of telling old stories, passing on teachings, and sharing a meal with one another. Larger more formal gatherings are planned well in advance and formal invitation is given to our own community as well as numerous other native communities who practice our same culture and traditions. These gatherings are usually put on by families who wish to pass on a traditional name to a family member who has earned and has a right to that name by way of family lineage. The family may also want to have a memorial for a deceased family member. Another purpose for a large gathering would be to have a traditional marriage ceremony; this is very rarely practiced today since this form of marriage is not recognized to be legal. Eventually, with colonization and the introduction and influence of the Indian Act, which was administered by the Indian Agent, our traditional and customary system of authority quickly became secondary without the awareness of native leadership. This imposed a different way of life upon the Musqueam people” (Our Story, n.d.).

STORIES OF THE LAND

Current Musqueam values and teachings are based on our traditional culture. A major part of these teachings and values is the kinship system. Family and relations are more closely defined in Musqueam’s teachings than in Euro-Canadian ways. Traditionally, large extended families lived close together and the children were taught the importance of family and family history. Our people lived in multi-family homes that have been called bighouses. Large extended families lived in one house (parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, children, etc.) These families shared in all the tasks and chores of a household. Yet, each nuclear family was kept separate by partitions often made of bulrush mats. When it came to the teachings and the learning of the traditional ways everybody partook in this informal education process. It was very important that our customary system of authority be taught to the young people. Power was given and controlled within the families. When a problem arose in the community each house was represented by a person who was selected by the family to represent them – to be the head of the family on that particular issue. There was no formal structural level of government as there is today. There was no need to have the forms of government that came with the Indian Agent and the Indian Act. Our people did not always agree as one people, but the teachings were the same. No matter what the situation it could always be solved through our traditional and cultural form of government/authority.

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Meet Your Hosts: Sḵwx̱wú7mesh “Our Squamish Ancestors and leaders protected and preserved our knowledge systems though practice, rather than the written word. It is by our people’s tenacity, grace and collective memory, passed from generation to generation, that we maintain an intimate connection to our lands and traditions” -Sxwelhcháliya (Councillor Julie Baker), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish) Nation.

STORIES OF THE LAND

“The Squamish Nation, as a government, has existed since 1923. In our language, we are called Sḵwx̱wú7mesh Úxwumixw. Prior to 1923, the Squamish People were socially, economically, and politically organized into several physical communities called an úxwumixw (“village; people”) in the territory of the Squamish People. The territory of the Squamish People includes the Burrard Inlet, English Bay, False Creek, and Howe Sound watersheds… The Squamish Language is spoken today by dozens of Squamish People as a second-language. It has been learned from our elders who held onto the knowledge of the language after a significant decline in the population of first-language

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speakers. The Sḵwx̱wú7mesh sníchim (Squamish language) is an independent language that belongs to the Salish language family….The whole Salish language family consists of five branches with each branch language sharing many things in common compared to other branches…. The Squamish People are the Indigenous Peoples who speak the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh sníchim. Today, the term “Squamish Nation” is often used to describe this group of Coast Salish people, however in the long ago there was no word for “nation” and the Squamish simply called themselves Sḵwx̱wú7mesh or “the Squamish People.” The Sḵwx̱wú7mesh sníchim, although critically endangered, is still a vital part of the Squamish culture” (Squamish Nation Website, n.d.). “Our people’s history spans many millennia of living and governing our territory. The oldest archaeological site in the territory of the Squamish People is 8,600 years old at Porteau Cove in the Howe Sound. Our oral literature speaks to our origins as a people in our lands through the stories of first ancestors of the Squamish People….Squamish culture has been created from


our lands, waters, and people over generations. Our people continue to practice many of the traditions, customs, and ways of our ancestors and pass them onto future generations...The modern era of Squamish Nation history started in 1923 when a majority of the Squamish People who were eligible voters at the time all voted to request the Federal Department of Indian Affairs amalgamate several different Indian Bands with Squamish People into a single entity called the Squamish Nation. The amalgamation request was approved and all accounts were merged, all Indian Reserve lands were to be held by the single entity, and all Squamish People were to receive equal distribution of any revenue received from any of the 26 different Indian Reserve lands that belonged to all Squamish People” (Squamish Nation Website, n.d.).

Figure 29: Squamish Carving, “About Our Nation”, Squamish Nation, n.d. Accessed December 6, 2021 from https://www.squamish.net/about-our-nation/

STORIES OF THE LAND

For more information, please visit the Squamish Nation website, as well as the book Story of the Squamish Nation (2020) by Kultsia.

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“Our oral history tells us up to 10,000 Tsleil-Waututh members lived in our traditional territory, before contact with Europeans. Our ancestors’ survival depended on cycles of hunting, harvesting and preserving foods, and on trade with our neighbours. Originally, our great nation was about 10,000 strong, a distinct Coast Salish nation whose territory includes Burrard Inlet and the waters draining into it.

Many of our ancestors and elders were devastated by contact with Europeans from smallpox, residential schools, and cultural suppression. In mid-July or early August, most of the Tsleil-Waututh and other Coast Salish groups travelled to the Fraser River to catch and dry the most favoured type of salmon: sockeye. During this time, people would visit, exchange news of relatives, and form alliances. We also harvested and dried large volumes of berries during the summer.

Our people lived by a “seasonal round,” a complex cycle of food gathering and spiritual and cultural activities that formed the heart of our culture. In winter, community members congregated in large villages located in sheltered bays. Shed-roofed houses up to several hundred feet in length were divided into individual family apartments. Our people subsisted largely on stored dried foods gathered and processed throughout the rest of the year. Winter activities included wood carving, weaving blankets of mountaingoat wool, and participating in spiritual ceremonies.

After the Fraser River run finished in the fall, TsleilWaututh families would congregate in camps on the Indian, Capilano, Seymour and other rivers to fish for pink and chum salmon. Most of the catch was dried for winter use or trade. By December, families returned to their winter villages with the provisions collected throughout the year, and the cycle began again.

In late spring, families would disperse to set up camps on virtually every beach and protected cove in TsleilWaututh territory. Our people transported planks from the winter houses by canoe to construct smaller summer structures. From these base camps, we made excursions to hunt, fish and gather food, as resources became seasonally available. Some food was consumed immediately; others were processed and stored for winter.

Our Elders tell us, once Europeans arrived, a majority of our population was decimated by disease. We also hear how our people survived other difficult times-colonialism, the reserve system and residential schools. Despite this devastation, our people helped build Vancouver and North Vancouver, persevered in the stewardship of our territory, continued practicing and passing down our language and culture however we could. We found our way through the change happening in the world around us” (Our Nation & Governance, n.d.).

Figure 30: ‘Cates Park (Whey ah Whichen)’ by Damian George, 2000. (https:// kelownaartgallery.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/675E9F19-ADA04420-B167-731220488398)

We have discovered numerous archaeological sites where our ancestors gathered, some are thousands of years old. We’ve truly been here since time out of mind.

STORIES OF THE LAND

Meet Your Hosts: Səl̓ílwətaʔ/Selilwitulh

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The Gardens of Sen̓ áḵw: It has been said the lost

ecology of Skwácháy̓s, Sen̓ áḵw, and the False Creek mudflats resembled that of present-day Boundary Bay. Using this knowledge and several recorded histories and other Indigenous resources, this visual is a speculative depiction of Lee Maracle’s Gardens of Sen̓ áḵw. It is meant to convey what respect, reciprocity, and responsibility to the land actually looks like and emphasizes the matriarchal presence in First Nations communities.

Cease Wyss, Skwx̱wú7mesh storyteller and ethnobotanist: Skwácháy̓s is the name that was given to what was originally a massive saltwater marshland. It was a place of abundance that provided sufficient food and materials not simply for survival but for prosperity. This site was named as such for the tunnels that the Sínulhḵay̓ made, the two-headed sea serpent. That is what Skwácháy̓s means, “underground tunnels made by the Sínulhḵay̓.” Wyss says, “Our people know that this has always been an active site of the Sínulhḵay̓. This creature can live underground and create tunnels to get from one point to another with lightning speed. The two heads each represent the dark and light sides of life, and how they can be seen as teaching us to honour these two sides that every one of us is capable of using in our everyday lives.” Settlers transformed this invaluable wetland site into ‘developable’ land over the past 100+ years into present-day False Creek. Figure 31: Section-Perspective Digital Drawing of the Gardens of Sen̓ áḵw by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

STORIES OF THE LAND

The Tale of Skwácháy̓s: as told by T’uy’t’tanat-

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Sen̓ áḵw is an Indigenous village located on the False

Creek shore near present day Kitsilano and Granville Island. Before the Squamish settlement here in the mid 1800’s, Lee Maracle referred to it as a common garden shared by all the friendly tribes. It was also the home of Chief August Jack Khahtsahlano. Sen̓ áḵw has often been referred to as an Indigenous supermarket; an incredibly important location for catching fish along the sand bar, and is a traumatic site of forced Indigenous displacement by the BC government in 1915.

Lost Ecologies: From the same oral histories and

STORIES OF THE LAND

resources used to depict the Gardens of Sen̓ áḵw, the representation on the right depicts the once vast oceanic chain that connected the intensely rich mudflat ecosystem to the coastal hemlock forest. These stories and legends spoke of giant sturgeon 4m long, smelt trapping, camas foraging, and fir trees as tall as 400 feet. The graphic emphasizes those botanical and animal species and where they might be found in such an ecosystem. It attempts to highlight the interconnectedness of these subzones and their importance in ecosystem function, health, resiliency, and general biodiversity. See “Grid of Botanical and Animal Species by Nicole Dulong, 2021.”

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Figure 32: Section-Isometric Digital Drawing of Lost Ecology of Sen̓ áḵw by Nicole Dulong, 2021.



50 STORIES OF THE LAND


Placeholder: Forced Removal from Sen̓ áḵw

Takehionwake (Pauline Johnson) recounts a Legend of a Great Seal King shared with her by Chief Capilano. It is known as The Legend of Deer Lake and tells the story of how the first Chief Capilano discovered an unknown waterway between False Creek and Deer Lake. The story describes how a young hunter speared a “king” harbour seal in False Creek with a magical elk-bone spear only to lose the beast to a hidden underground creek. Months later, he awoke to a forest fire—an “omen” to the east. On the shore of Deer Lake, he found the remains of the seal and recovered his magical elk-bone spear. Reunited with his spear, the man became a brave hunter and the first Chief of Capilano (Legends of Vancouver, n.d.). Read Pauline Johnson’s book Legends of Vancouver (1911) for a longer depiction of this amazing story. Figure 33: Grid of Botanical and Animal Species by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

STORIES OF THE LAND

Deer Lake: In Legends of Vancouver (1911),

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Origin of the name False Creek: George Henry Richards

named False Creek during his survey of the coast in the mid-19th century. He thought he was going up a creek while travelling the south side of the Burrard Inlet but soon discovered his mistake, hence the name ‘False’ (Granville Island, n.d).

STORIES OF THE LAND

The Loss of the False Creek Mudflats: First contact

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between European colonists and the MST First Nations occurred in June 1792, bringing along smallpox and other diseases that killed thousands of Indigenous people. Over the next 200 years, colonizers began the monumental task of clearcutting oldgrowth western red cedar and mountain hemlock forests, literally paving the way for modern development. The natural shoreline of Skwácháy̓s was logged tree by tree, and the shoreline was fortified. With this fortification, the Indigenous Land Stewards were forcibly removed, natural cycles and purification systems became disrupted, and the water conditions edged toward deplorable. In the early to mid-1900s, False Creek was used as a dumping ground for sewage and waste from sawmills, residences, and restaurants around the city. By 1911, 22 lumber mills were in operation along the shores of False Creek (Donald Luxton and Associates 2013). It was eventually decided the land beneath False Creek was better suited to human and industrial uses than ecological ones, and by 1916, the government ordered excavated soil from the Grandview Cut to fill in the Flats, along with aggregate, garbage, and other industrial waste material (Donald Luxton and Associates 2013). The land was designated as the end of the national rail line, and shortly after the new shoreline or ‘seawall’ was constructed. Today, False Creek ‘dazzles’ as a modern global waterfront with development on the rise, but it is feared, with its low-lying position, and evident susceptibility to flooding and sea-level rise that it may not always stay this way. Refer to Section 1.6 Future Conditions.

Figure 34: Section-Perspective Digital Drawing of the Loss of the False Creek Mudflats by Kerry Gibson, 2021.




Hobo Jungle: During the 1930s, the Heatley

Figure 35: Photograph of the ‘Hobo Jungle’, 1931. (https://scoutmagazine. ca/2018/02/20/the-vancouver-park-with-the-hobo-jungle-past/)

STORIES OF THE LAND

Avenue landfill site became one of three city ‘jungles’ providing areas of temporary shelter for the city’s unemployed men, who had been severely affected by the stock market crash of 1929. The dump at Heatley Avenue “had a population of over four hundred men who lived in board and tin shacks with a view across the remaining water of False Creek” (Donald Luxton and Associates 2013). A quote from around this time from a City official reads, “No citizen can travel over the False Creek area without feeling that the city dump there is Public Enemy No. 1 of this city... It is your job and mine to mold public opinion to demand the cleaning up of this cess-pool” (Donald Luxton and Associates 2013). Interestingly, this area is near where Strathcona Park is today and is still an area used by the housing deprived and marginalized, whereby its residents still exist under constant threat of removal from city authorities.

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Disclaimer: The authors welcome and intend for

their current depiction of the history of Hogan’s Alley, Chinatown, and Strathcona to be amended and fortified by the voices and shared stories of the community, past and present. “Hogan’s Alley was not just a Black only neighbourhood at all. It is where Italians in Vancouver traced their origins to as well, and it was right on the edge of Chinatown” Wayde Compton (Secret Vancouver 2016).

Chinese Community: Between 1863 and 1869,

Figure 36: Photograph of Historic Chinatown, 1945. (https://zolimacitymag.com/hongkong-in-vancouver-chinatown-is-fighting-for-its-life/)

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over 15,000 Chinese workers helped build the TransContinental Railway. While white workers were given accommodation in train cars and fair wages, the Chinese workers slept in tents and were paid much less (Sayej, 2019). Chinese immigration boomed in the late 1890s, developing the beginnings of what is now Chinatown. Around 1890, there were over 1000 Chinese residents, but the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1923 quickly halted immigration to Canada. The decline of the Chinese population was accelerated during the Great Depression in the 1930s (NEFC Plan, 2018). The Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed in 1947 after great efforts made by Wong Foo Sien. After the act was repealed, Chinese Canadians were granted citizenship and were allowed to vote (NEFC Plan, 2018). As a result, Chinatown became a flourishing neighbourhood. Because of Hogan’s Alley’s proximity to Chinatown and the railway, many Chinese residents naturally found themselves in the Hogan’s Alley area.


Jewish Community: The majority of Jewish folks that

came to Vancouver immigrated from Victoria after leaving California. One of the Jewish men from the community, David Oppenheimer, moved to Vancouver, where he later became the city’s second mayor. Many other Jews moved north from California to Victoria and later to Vancouver after the CPR made Vancouver the Terminal City (Johnson, 2016). The first Jewish community was in Strathcona, as it was the starting point for most cultural communities. Many of the Jewish folks in Strathcona at the time were Yiddish-speaking storekeepers, tailors, shoemakers, peddlers, and artisans, practicing the skills they picked up in Eastern Europe (Ghiuzeli, n.d.). The Jewish community established itself in Strathcona by establishing the Schara Tzedek synagogue in 1948 (which later became the B’nai Yehuda synagogue in 1911) and a full-time day school called Talmud Torah in 1921 (Jewish Independent, n.d.). The synagogue hosted after-school Jewish programming, and many other programs were facilitated at the National Council of Jewish Women Neighbourhood house, which opened on Jackson Street in 1924. The NCJW helped new immigrants settle, find employment, learn English, and established the Well Baby Clinic, which helped parents care for their families and immunize their children (Jewish Independent, n.d.). In 1948, a group of Holocaust survivors arrived in Vancouver, which included 47 children. Then other Jewish refugees came from Iraq in the 1950s, Hungary in 1956, and more from other countries into the 60s and as late as the 90s. The NCJW was instrumental in welcoming and assisting these refugees (Ghiuzeli, n.d.). The hub for the Jewish community is now in Oakridge.

Figure 37: Photograph of The National Council of Jewish Women Neighbourhood House at Jackson Ave. and Union St., n.d. (https://jewishmuseum.ca/exhibit/more-than-just-mrs/ )

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Italian Community: The Italian community has been a

part of Vancouver since before the city was incorporated in 1886. Some of the first Italians in the area worked building the Canadian Pacific Railway’s extension from Port Moody to Coal Harbour. The first substantial wave of Italian immigration took place between 1896 and 1914. As Patricia Wood notes in her book Nationalism from the Margins: Italians in Alberta and British Columbia, “At the time, of a total [city] population of around 27,000 [in the 1890s] there were only about one hundred Italians” (Atkin, 2016). But by the early 1900s, that number had increased to 1,500, with many settling in today’s Strathcona, close to the City of Vancouver’s works yards at Main and Union Streets which provided employment (Atkin, 2016). The Italian population grew large enough that in August 1900, restaurateur Agostina Ferrera was appointed to serve as the Italian consul; previously, consular services had been handled out of Halifax. Thus, in the early 20th century, Strathcona was ‘Little Italy.’ The neighbourhood was home to several pioneering Italian businesses, including Crosetti’s on Main Street, Benny’s Italian Market, Minichiello’s Grocery (later Union Market), and Giuriatti’s (Atkin, 2016). The 1911 census showed 2500 residents of Italian descent living in Vancouver (this figure includes the former municipalities of South Vancouver and Point Grey), and by 1931 that number would grow to 3590. The next and more significant wave of Italian immigration happened after the Second World War between 1947 and 1973. The population would grow from 5,095 in 1951 to 19,020 by 1971. Outgrowing the original Strathcona community and pushed out by redevelopment plans for the area, the Italian community spread out over a large area of East Vancouver (Atkin, 2016). Figure 38: Drawing of Macaroni Joe, Neighbourhood Patron and Wine Maker by Marije Stryker, 2021.

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Hogan’s Alley: “There has been a Black community in Vancouver since before there was a Vancouver.” Wayde Compton (Vancouver Heritage Foundation, n.d.).

The Beginnings: The first Black immigrants (of

African Descent) arrived in so-called British Columbia from California in 1858 on invitation from Governor James Douglas (Black Strathcona, 2021). They initially settled in Victoria and Salt Spring Island but began migrating to Vancouver in the early 1900s. Unfortunately, the Victoria experience was not as rosy as it sounded, and Vancouver Island failed to be the haven from discrimination and racism they expected. In fact, Pilton (1951) asserts that some felt they experienced more prejudice here than in the United States (Pilton, 1951). Eventually, they made their homes in Strathcona, numbering somewhere in the realm of 800 – a number that was halved after the end of the American Civil War (Black Strathcona, 2021). Even then, Strathcona was an east side, workingclass neighbourhood that was the original home to Vancouver’s Italian and Jewish communities and the southern edge of Chinatown. It was and is still, of course, home to the MST Nations before foreign settlement. Refer to the beginning of Section 2.0 Stories of the Land: Meet Your Hosts.

Figure 39: Drawing of the Sun Setting over Hogan’s Alley by Marije Stryker, 2021.

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Canadian Pacific Railway: The decision to locate

the Canadian Pacific Railway’s western terminus in Vancouver in 1886 was an additional contributing factor to settlement in False Creek and Strathcona, as the one-block long logging outpost, known as Granville, became a city that provided a link to the rest of Canada. The CPR built its roundhouse, repair shops and tracks on the False Creek mud flats making it a labour hotspot and a popular area for settlement for the Black community. Black settlement in the Strathcona neighbourhood was then fortified by Black homesteaders from Alberta in 1908 who originally came from Oklahoma, and by Black railroad porters (Black Strathcona: Sleeping Car Porters, 2014). Other established stations in the area were the Great Northern Railway Station and the Canadian National Station that perpetuated the desire for and the role of porters.

The Railroad Porters: The legacy of the railroad

porters remains a vital facet in the history of Hogan’s Alley. For an accurate recount of this commonly ‘untold story’, we present John Belshaw’s review of Cecil Foster’s They Call Me George: The Untold Story of Black Train Porters and the Birth of Modern Canada.

Figure 40: Photograph of Sleeping Car Porters ‘Tourist Car, Serving Tea’, n.d. (https://www. cranbrookhistorycentre.com/how-the-black-sleeping-car-porters-shaped-canada/)

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“From 1909 the role of railway sleeping car porter — the folks who served passengers on the once-rather-grand carriages of this country — was filled exclusively by


Black men. This situation arose (and I simplify here) from the near-monopoly held by the “Pullman service” imported from the USA. George Pullman wanted to deliver an experience that echoed the style of hospitality in grand Southern mansions. A key part of that was the male servant: Black and ubiquitously known as “George.” The Pullman Corporation franchised-out their services to railway companies across North America, including the Canadian Pacific, the Canadian National, and various other lines. So it came to pass that “George” was encountered in his hundreds from coast to coast and from decade to decade: carrying bags, serving drinks, and setting up beds while carriages swayed gently down the tracks. It was a job for Black men and only Black men need apply.” (Belshaw and Foster 2020) in Hogan’s Alley was the porter’s quarters, which resembled a lounge, and helped perpetuate a mix of more permanent residents with other transient folks in the area. The Vaudeville Circuits often frequented the Pacific Northwest via Vancouver due to its position as the Western terminus station. Several performers ultimately stayed in Vancouver upon arrival, while others returned after the troupe went under in Seattle, such as the Hendrix family. Housing discrimination in other parts of Vancouver (Refer to section 2.0 Stories of the Land: Discriminatory Policies) and Nora Hendrix’s establishment of the African Methodist Episcopal Fountain Chapel in 1923 further reinforced the city’s Black population in this area. Figure 41: Archival News Article from The Vancouver Sun ‘Presenting the Return of ‘Big Time’ Vaudeville’, 1958.(https://forbiddenvancouver.ca/wp-content/ uploads/2015/03/Majestic-Vaudeville-1958-3-13-Vancouver-Sunday-Sun.jpg)

STORIES OF THE LAND

Further Establishment: One of the original institutions

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Etymology of Hogan’s Alley: The name’s origin is

surrounded by ‘all sorts of weird urban myths’ of who Hogan might have been. The most widely accepted version is about a comic strip by Richard F. Outcault, racist not only to the Black community but also the Irish. It portrays a ‘comically chaotic’ Irish ghetto in Hell’s Kitchen in New York. A century ago, one might mention a ghetto and say it was a regular ‘Hogan’s Alley’; an idiom for poor neighbourhoods. It has been said the name was in use before 1914, the original name of the space was lost, and it was referred to as Hogan’s Alley (Secret Vancouver, 2016).

Form: Hogan’s Alley was the local, unofficial name

for Park Lane. This alley ran through the southwestern corner of Strathcona in so-called Vancouver during the first six decades of the twentieth century. It was a T-shaped alley whose north/south axis ran parallel to Main Street between Union and Prior Streets from approximately Main Street to Jackson Avenue. This T-shaped intersection formed the nucleus of Vancouver’s vibrant Black community (Compton, 2014).

Figure 42: ‘What did they do to the dog-catcher in Hogan’s Alley’ by RF Outcault, September 20, 1896. (https://pasttensevancouver.wordpress.com/2008/04/05/theelusive-hogans-alley-part-2/)

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Culture & Vibrancy: “We were Hollywood north before it was even an idea” - John Atkin (Secret Vancouver, 2016).

By the 1930s and ‘40s, so-called Vancouver was well established, and the city’s nightclubs attracted visitors far and wide. This entertainment industry played an incredible role in the city’s development, and Hogan’s Alley was no exception. Many of the women in the community, for whom rail work was not an option, sought ownership of chicken houses that often doubled as speakeasies such as Vie’s Chicken and Steak house. It was an incredibly vibrant destination for food and song. Over the years, Vie’s and establishments like it, attracted several famous customers including: the Mills Brothers, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Nat King Cole, Ella Fitzgerald, and Sammy Davis Jr., who often visited in the early morning hours after their Vancouver shows had ended. Other performers from the East End Black community who achieved renown include the singer and actor Thelma Gibson-Towns and her brother Leonard Gibson, a dancer of note whose Negro Workshop Dance Group led to his work in with the Ballet of British Columbia, the Crump Twins, Ronald J. and Robert P, and their sister Honey Carlisle (Secret Vancouver, 2016 and Compton, 2014). Figure 43: Photograph of the Crump Twins, Pulled From the YouTube Video ‘Secret Vancouver: Return to Hogan’s Alley’, February 17, 2016. (https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=B-8lgpvj0Hg)

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Nora Hendrix: One of Hogan’s Alley’s most famous

resident is quite likely Nora Hendrix, the paternal grandmother of the musician Jimi Hendrix. Much if not all of his time, particularly during boyhood, was spent with his grandmother, Nora Hendrix. Nora lived nearby and worked as a cook at the infamous chicken house Vie’s, run and operated by Vie Moore from 1948 to 1975. Both the shrine and the chicken house share the same location, and it has been said that as a young man, Hendrix was often found busking outside the chicken shack or jamming at local clubs, even playing at the PNE in ’69 (McLachlan, 2019). Nora was involved in the community from the 1920s to its demise, remaining nearby until the 1980s. As mentioned, Nora was responsible for the fundraising and founding of the African Methodist Episcopal Fountain Chapel in 1923. Her name and legacy now lives on in the title of the modular social housing project on the 898 Main Street block as Nora Hendrix Place.

Figure 44: Portrait Photograph of Nora Hendrix, 1999. (http://www.jimihendrix-lifelines. net/1968jan-june/styled-265/styled-266/index.html)

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Placeholder For Other Revered Residents

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STORIES OF THE LAND

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Figure 45: Archival Isometric Drawing of an Urban Renewal Strategy for an Area Including Hogan’s Alley. Taken from ‘Rebuilding a Neighbourhood’ by Leonard C. Marsh, University of British Columbia, 1950.

Figure 46: Archival Drawings of an Urban Renewal Housing Typology. Taken from ‘Rebuilding a Neighbourhood’ by Leonard C. Marsh, University of British Columbia, 1950.

Urban Renewal: The Strathcona, Chinatown,

To ‘cure’ the city of this ‘blight’, the municipal government proposed a new urban renewal district for the entire area within Main St., Victoria, the False Creek Rail Yard and the harbour to the north. The project proposed a vast array of public housing projects, and to welcome the arrival of suburban car culture, a 12 lane freeway layered right on top. Wayde Compton explains that their justification for the building of a freeway at the site of Hogan’s Alley and half of Chinatown was “tied to the creation of two tower blocks in Strathcona: MacLean Park and the Raymur Social Housing Project, where both were meant to absorb the residents displaced by the freeway” (Compton, 2014).

and Hogan’s Alley neighbourhoods were considered bustling working-class immigrant enclaves, but generally speaking, poor neighbourhoods. From as early as 1929, Hogan’s Alley was subject to a long debate regarding its status as a ‘slum’. Not long after, a shift in city bylaws discouraged the area’s development as a residential neighbourhood (Compton, 2014). Historical recounts of the neighbourhood often speak of slumlike conditions of disease, blight, immorality, and crime but often fail to mention that the consistent and intentional neglect by the so-called city of Vancouver led to that decline. Along the same lines, their mention of illicit activities such as prostitution, gambling, and bootlegging are completely void of context, where a combination of necessity, survival, and discrimination perpetuated these activities.


Figure 47: Archival Plan Drawing of an Urban Renewal Strategy for an Area Including Hogan’s Alley. Taken from ‘Rebuilding a Neighbourhood’ by Leonard C. Marsh, University of British Columbia, 1950.

After significant opposition, the city abandoned its urban renewal policy, but not before the approval and construction of a new Georgia Viaduct that ultimately destroyed parts of Hogan’s Alley, and many homes and businesses (Walling, 2011). Chinatown was saved, but few markers of the Black community that had once been there remained (Compton, 2014).

Figure 48: Archival Image of Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts, Screenshot from Secret Vancouver: Return to Hogan’s Alley. YouTube, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B-8lgpvj0Hg&t=318s

STORIES OF THE LAND

“Everywhere I go, every city I go to, has a story of what Urban Renewal did to that city. It is invariably something that happened in a Black neighbourhood or a Chinatown, and in Vancouver, it was both.” - Wayde Compton (Secret Vancouver, 2016).

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Discriminatory Policies Disclaimer: The authors welcome and intend for

their current depiction of discriminatory policies to be amended and fortified by the voices and shared stories of the community, past and present.

Content warning: The following section deals

with some of the discriminatory policies that enabled slavery, residential schools, and many other forms of racism (with mention of racist language) that still affect the lives of BIPOC individuals to this day.

The False Narrative of False Creek: The majority of archival information presented by the so-called city of Vancouver today was initially funnelled through a dominion agent for approval before dissemination (Sierra Tasi Baker, 2021). This approval process led to a falsified version of Vancouver’s history and origins, boasting pride in industrialization, exploration, settlement, and development. It shrouds the long endured colonial violence, erasure, and displacement under a guise of celebrated economic incentive and a ‘dazzling modern waterfront.’ Today, land and water are fractured along the seawall and creatures of the land and sea are separated through colonial design. This organization of space is in stark contrast with precolonial Sen̓ áḵw and Skwácháy̓s in which land and sea Figure 49: ‘Girl in Motion’ by Robert Genn, from the Expo ‘86 Collection Posters for Vancouver, 1986. (https://kerrisdalegallery.com/print/robert-genn-girl-in-motion-expo-86-signed-artist-proof/)

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existed in a continuous state of flux, the gradation of which created a lush habitat for Indigenous plants and animals. The present condition is far from this state. It is currently not advisable to swim in the water due to the amount of raw sewage that is dumped into the waters of Sen̓ áḵw and Skwácháy̓s by the so-called city of Vancouver.

Legalizing Racism The Imperial Act was enacted in 1793 in Britain, giving legal protection to slave-holding and formally enabled slavery in Canada. This Act permitted the entry of “Negroes, household furniture, utensils of husbandry or clothing” into Canada (Roy, n.d.). By this time, slavery was already an established practice, but this legislation was a formal recognition of the practice (Roy, n.d.). Canada continued to practice slavery until early in the 19th century (Sheppard, 1997). Up until 1939, the highest court in Canada had decided that racial discrimination was legally enforceable and aided in legislation that enforced segregated schools and communities and limited property rights (Walker, 1997). Figure 50: Photograph of People Protesting School Segregation, n.d. (https://www.bbc. com/news/world-us-canada-45875045)

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Planning, Housing, etc.

Later in the 20th century, Bartholomew played a vital role in implementing urban renewal, which included the construction of the viaduct (Allen, 2002, p. 27-29). Urban Figure 51: Digital Map Drawing of Racial Profiling and Graffiti by Noora Hijra, Chris Rothery, and Aiden Mezidor, 2021

renewal was formally implemented in the policies of the Housing Act of 1944. In this act, there were offers to provide financial aid to projects that involved “acquiring and clearing blighted residential areas” (Pickett, 1968, p. 233). The core ideology of urban renewal is described by an employee of CMHC working on urban renewal in Calgary as: “slums were the physical evidence of the urban organism’s failure to renew itself. In the popular metaphor, which completed the biological analogy, slums were cancers” (Smith, 1985, p.9). Other policies that aided in the implementation of urban renewal in Vancouver included the National Housing Act of 1956, and the Redevelopment Study of 1957, which also produced a map of ‘blight’ for redevelopment, (Allen, 2002, p.35-36). Unsurprisingly, the policies that facilitated spatial segregation based on race in Vancouver in the 20th century are not well documented. However, a property record for an area near the Point Grey Golf & Country Club was found that stated, “no Asiatic, Negro or Indian shall have the right to be allowed to own, become a tenant or occupy any part of [the property]” (Hopper, 2014). Similar white-only property policies have existed as recently as 2014, with restrictions on selling property to “any person or persons of African or Asiatic race or African or Asiatic descent” (Hopper, 2014).

STORIES OF THE LAND

American planner Harland Bartholomew was hired in 1926 to conceive the first official city plan for Vancouver. Bartholomew, being a segregationist, brought his white supremacist ideas into his zoning plans. He developed land-use classifications based on density and home quality, which allowed him to keep racialized and lowerincome communities separate from more affluent white neighbourhoods (Allen, 2002, p. 26). His plan for the city, which he produced in 1929, located the industrial land-use zones near low-income and racialized communities. This plan came to fruition with a bylaw from 1931 that designated much of Hogan’s Alley as an industrial zone rather than residential (Allen, 2002, p. 34). Individuals who required home improvement loans or mortgages found it extremely difficult to do because lending institutions did not wish to invest in residential properties in an industrial area. This ultimately led to devastating economic effects such as low-value residences and homes needing many repairs (Allen, 2002, p. 34). This is a key example of redlining.

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Labour

Discrimination against Chinese Canadians

The powers that controlled government and organized labour perpetuated racialized work by controlling what opportunities existed for Black Canadians. For example, it was made extremely difficult for railway porters to progress in their careers or move into other fields of work (Belshaw & Foster, 2020). The idea to confine these porters to their current job came from a segregationist named Aaron Mosher. Mosher was the head of the Canadian Congress of Labour and the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, Transportation and General Workers Union. He believed that Canada, “a white nation... would only need to deal with the Negro question if the Black population became comfortable or increased in number” (Belshaw & Foster, 2020).

From the day Vancouver was incorporated in 1886 until 1949, Chinese residents were prohibited from voting in any municipal election in so-called Vancouver. This also barred Chinese residents from running for public office, owning properties in certain areas, or working in some professions such as law, pharmacy, medicine, retail and banking. The federal government only granted voting rights after Chinese veterans of the two world wars, and non-Chinese leaders voiced concerns about ‘recruitment without enfranchisement’ (City of Vancouver, 2017).

STORIES OF THE LAND

Figure 52: Digital Map Drawing of Job Density by Noora Hijra, Chris Rothery, and Aiden Mezidor, 2021.

Vegetable peddling was of utmost importance to the Chinese population, where they conducted business and flourished as a community. In 1914, the city introduced a peddling levy of $50, which turned into $100 just 5 years later, forcing many to stop peddling (City of Vancouver, 2017).

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Racism Against Indigenous Peoples

STORIES OF THE LAND

The Indian Act, enacted in 1876, was intended to ‘protect’ the rights of First Nations Peoples, but instead created a structure that controlled and still controls Indigenous People’s identity, land, resources, languages, and cultural practices (Loppie, Reading & de Leeuw, 2014). The Department of Indian Affairs was created in conjunction with the Indian Act to oversee the policies that concerned Indigenous Peoples. Unfortunately, both the DIA and the Indian Act initiated an era of racist policies and discrimination (Loppie, Reading & de Leeuw, 2014). Whatever alterations have been made to the Indian Act since it was enacted have done little to address the systematic oppression it caused and maintains. Still, these structural systems have the power to define who is and is not ‘Indian’ and control most of the lands to which they are entitled (Loppie, Reading & de Leeuw, 2014). Of course, the most notorious form of racism that the Indian Act upheld was the implementation of residential schools, which sought to “kill the Indian in the child” (Loppie, Reading & de Leeuw, 2014). Residential schools caused unimaginable intergenerational trauma, which is still being felt today. The structural racism put in place by colonial powers still exists in many forms, including but not limited to the justice system and the health care system. Among many other factors, racial profiling and over-policing uphold mistrust in the justice system and are a few reasons why Indigenous Peoples do not feel that the institution represents the genuine interests of their communities (Loppie, Reading & de Leeuw, 2014).

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Take a Moment

Before moving onto the next chapter, the authors would like to encourage readers to take a moment of pause and reflect on what they have just read. Take a moment to honour the hardships, intergenerational trauma, and oppression brought on by colonization. Take a moment to mourn the loss of the thousands of murdered Indigenous children at the hands of the catholic church. Take a moment to pray for the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women, Girls, and Two-Spirit People (MMIWG2S). Take a moment to show respect for the over 6 million Jews who were murdered for simply being Jewish. Take a moment to mourn the lives of Black individuals who have lost their lives at the hands of police. Take a moment to understand these communities are racially profiled daily and live in fear of the institutions set out to ‘protect’ them. If you or your family have not directly felt the impacts of the Stories of the Land and its discriminatory policies, take a moment to consider your privilege. Go back, and re-read the previous section again. What is your positionality in the process of decolonization?

STORIES OF THE LAND

As designers, our allyship MUST take the form of respecting boundaries, being empathetic, listening, learning, holding space, and leaving space. Think about what you need to do to decolonize your mind, and decolonize your design process.

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Untold Stories of the Land

STORIES OF THE LAND

This spread has been intentionally left blank to invite community members to add their own stories of the land to this document.

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STORIES OF THE LAND


3.0


SITE GUIDELINES



The following chapter proposes a set of design guidelines that respond to the direct wants and needs of the community (Refer to 3.1 Summary of Wants and Needs). They should be considered in future design work by all parties involved. The guidelines can serve as a general model for designing for a community you are not a part of. These guidelines serve as a starting point, and the community and MST have veto power and the ability to make changes to said guidelines.

Figure 53: ‘Panel of Knowledge’ CoastSalish salmon and eulachon light installationw, 2020 by Wade Baker and Sky Spirit Studio + Consulting (https://www.instagram.com/p/B9ahflCH6oQ/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link)

SITE GUIDELINES

The authors have carefully considered questions such as ‘what is ours to design?’ and ‘how can we design for a community we are not a part of?’ Within the guidelines, text may be accompanied by what the authors call ‘design prototypes.’ A design prototype is only provided if it has been designated as something the authors felt they could design. The prototype is one way the authors envision the application of a guideline being pursued in a design intervention. There may be a ‘precedent’ where there is no prototype accompanying a guideline. A precedent, in this case, is an example of a previously completed work by another designer or artist. The precedent is an example of a design intervention that the authors felt was not their place to propose a design. The precedents intentionally feature (where possible) local and/or BIPOC designers and artists that can be consulted or commissioned for this work.

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3 .1 S U MM A RY O F WA NT S A ND NEEDS + Low barrier access to programs like mental health, addiction, youth care, seniors and homeless + Increase in economic, political and social capital + A place to be who you are, a place where no one will question your Blackness + No reinforced or enforced barriers + Right of return + Clean and maintained spaces + Recognition of discriminatory policies in the past + Environmental Resilience and Stewardship + Food Sovereignty + Soulful, Vibrant Spaces + Spaces to gather, sit, and watch + Recognize the importance of porches as a place of connection for community + Solidarity among residents, Black, Indigenous, Chinese, Italian, Jewish + Honouring History + Design that defies gravity

SITE GUIDELINES

+ Connection to nature and wellness centered around nature

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Figure 54: Digital Photograph of Hogan’s Alley with Speech Bubbles of Community’s Wants and Needs, by Samantha Miller, 2021.

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3 .2 P R E C O NDIT IO NS T O GUIDELI NES

This report highlights two vital preconditions for the guidelines to work including the legal transfer of lands to MST Stewards, and the development of at least 300 leasehold properties, rental homes, and emergency housing for people experiencing homelessness. This report does not recommend the development of any market-value or luxury properties within the subject property.

Precondit ion 1: L a n d B a ck

This report acknowledges the so-called city of Vancouver and Hogan’s Alley are located on the unceded and unsurrendered territories of the xwmwθkəy̓əm (Musqueam), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), and Səl̓ílwətaʔ/Selilwitulh (Tsleil-Waututh) MST Nations. The authors understand that under Indigenous laws, land cannot be ‘owned’ by anyone, however this report will not be investigating the legality of extant property ownership in Hogan’s Alley and the surrounding area.

Figure 55: ‘Land Back Sign Left at Robson Square’ Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, October 31, 2021.

SITE GUIDELINES

A Land Trust will be developed in the name of MST Development Corporation, and the so-called city of Vancouver will hand over properties to MST, including properties within Union Street, Gore Ave, Prior Street, and Expo Boulevard, as well as 721 Main Street and 280 Main Street (which the City will have to acquire and include in Land Trust). This would provide MST with legal rights to their land (albeit the laws not recognized by MST) and give Indigenous Stewards the power to veto Phase 2 and additional guidelines.

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Precondit ion 2: Le a se d Prop e r t y & R e nta l Ho m e s This report proposes the creation of at least 300 Leasehold Properties, Rental Homes, and Emergency Housing on the MST Land Trust. New developments MUST use sustainable building materials, SHOULD utilize plant based materials with carbon storage properties wherever possible, and SHOULD strive for net zero emissions. Refer to 3.4.2.5 Material Selection. The following guidelines are examples that apply to the aforementioned Leasehold Properties and Rental Homes and are based on the approach taken in Portland’s North/ Northeast Neighbourhood Housing Strategy: Prevent ing D isp lacement + Provide 0% interest loans of up to $40K per home for repairs and upgrades (for lowincome homeowners up to 80% median income). + Provide $5K grants per home for repairs and upgrades (for low-income homeowners up to 50% median income). + Create a non-profit tax exemption for social housing. + Renter retention, homelessness prevention and transitions to homeownership (review best practices and seek to increase resources for programs that successfully assist people living in rental units to stay in their homes). At trac ting New Homeown ers + Create a funding program for down payment assistance loans for low-income first time home buyers (up to 80% median income).

SITE GUIDELINES

+ Create new permanent affordable housing stock.

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Creating R ent al Ho mes + Redevelop city-owned land for affordable rental housing with an emphasis on familysized units, and multi-generational family living. + Identify ground-floor commercial opportunities for local businesses.

L and Acq uisition + Acquire additional land to develop affordable housing. + Work with the community and other institutions to leverage additional funds for this purpose.

R ight of R et urn Access + Preferential to existing community members and those displaced. + Outreach and engagement with owners and developers to create knowledge and opportunity for marketing vacancies in the local neighbourhood.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ Screening criteria in collaboration with community-based organizations to implement best practices for tenant screening that do not have unintended negative consequences for communities of colour.

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3. 3 D E MO L IT IO N Following Phase 1, the immediate removal of the Georgia and Dunsmuir viaducts, as well as selected trees, will occur. A Desktop Health Impact Assessment completed by Golder Associates in 2015 concluded that the demolition would have neutral impacts on air quality and noise change with proper mitigation measures in place. Planned road development was determined to reduce traffic noise in the area. However, no air quality modelling was completed for developments on site. A Comprehensive Health Impact Assessment MUST be completed for proposed projects onsite to ensure minimal impacts to the existing community.

3.3.1 Vi adu c ts

As mentioned in previous reports, the Viaducts will require $8-10M over the next 15 years in maintenance cost alone. It would cost $50-65M to repair after a major earthquake and $80-100M to replace entirely (Removal of the Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts 2015). Both viaducts MUST be dismantled, and their materials SHOULD be salvaged for future works onsite where appropriate.

The D owntown Sk ate b o a rd P l a za

Spencer Hamilton, a local professional skateboarder, believes the current skatepark is successful because it mimics the “different obstacles you’d actually see in the downtown core” of cities like Vancouver, San Francisco and Los Angeles. He wants to see the Plaza’s street-style design, which skateboarders worked with the park board to design, replicated in a replacement park. “This place is actually a true representation of what street skateboarders want, which is space, granite ledges, stairs, [and] rails,” says Hamilton (Miyagi & Gray, 2017). When demolishing the park, dismantle and salvage granite ledges and features for future park use.

Figure 56: Archival Photograph of Protesters on the Viaducts with Signs Reading ‘Freeways are not free”, “The road to hell is paved with politicians errors”, and More, 1972. (https://vancouversun.com/news/metro/this-week-in-history-1972-sees-georgia-viaduct-open)

SITE GUIDELINES

3.3.2

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3.3.3

Murrin S u b station ( 7 2 1 M a in Stre e t ) Built in 1947, The Murrin Substation is reaching end-of-life (BC Hydro, n.d.) and SHOULD be decommissioned, demolished, and remediated for the site to move onto its next life. While the kind of remediation depends on the type of contamination in the soil and the groundwater, an assumption can be made based on the use of the site that there will likely be petroleum-based contamination and possible PCB’s. Some of the technologies listed below are suited for PCB remediation but it may be a lengthier process. Some considerations for soil remediation are as follows: + Excavation of the site. + In-situ chemical oxidation, ensuring to thoroughly saturate the soil with the oxidant (e.g. hydrogen peroxide). + Soil vapour extraction could be an option depending on the size of the contaminated site. This process involves venting the impacted soil from the subsurface so that the contamination is volatilized and pulled to the surface to be treated in the air.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The use of mycelium (specifically Morchella mycelium), which is a network of fungal threads) could be considered as a technique for soil remediation, specifically soils with heavy lead content (Yazhou Wang et al., 2021).

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Some considerations for groundwater remediation are as follows: + In-situ chemical oxidation (injecting hydrogen peroxide into the groundwater). + Activated carbon treatment technology. This involves injecting an activated carbon substrate into the subsurface, which acts as a sponge to the contaminants. + Enhanced in-situ bioremediation. This process includes injecting nutrients and electron acceptors (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil or lactate) into the subsurface to promote the aerobic biodegradation of the petroleum contamination in the groundwater via the existing native bacterial population. This could include injecting more bacteria to kickstart the process.

SITE GUIDELINES

Special thanks to Samuel Lingwood, M.Sc.A., P.Eng., Team Leader & Senior Project Manager, Environmental Due Diligence & Remediation at Pinchin Ltd. for providing us with this information.

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3. 4 SI TE GUIDEL INES The Site Guidelines respond directly to specific wants and needs from the community and additional programmatic elements and site considerations proposed by the authors. The overall block organization, as well as individual buildings and open spaces between buildings, SHOULD be designed using traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and designed around social connections – porches, terraces, rooftops and building forms that support social life and connection; a range of scale of spaces for a variety of activities; glimpses of life within (HAWGWR, 2017).

3.4.1 Res ou rce s/ S e r vice s 3 .4 .1 .1

Hours o f O p eratio n This site MUST remain open 24/7, 365 (366 on leap years) to the public.

3 .4 .1 .2

M ore Tran sit The so-called city of Vancouver COULD provide an additional service stop at Union and Main St. for buses 3, 8, 19, 22, N8, and N19.

Figure 57: ‘Laundry Hanging on a Clothesline’, Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The site COULD include a bike lane, or shaw-go bike rental area, bike storage container.

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3 .4 .1 .3

S afe Consu mptio n & Needle Exc han g e Current drug use onsite, and lack of resources within reason require the development of a safe consumption & needle exchange site to help those fighting with addiction and mental health in the area. In the DTES, the safe-injection site, Insite, reported regular clients were 30% more likely to enter addiction treatment, and there have been 6400 death-free overdoses and 48,000 clinical treatment visits with no increase in drug use or crime (Chen, 2017). + This facility COULD have the capacity for at least 15 injection stalls and room for 30 people. This number is based on Insites in Vancouver’s DTES. Insites saw an average of 312 injection room visits per day, totalling 170,731 visits in 2019 (Vancouver Coastal Health, 2019). Insites has 12 injection stalls, which would mean that each booth saw around 3 individuals per hour over 8 hours. By this logic, the safe injection site proposed could see around 360 people per day.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The facility SHOULD provide mental health services such as addiction specialists and counsellors and maintain a direct relationship with the community cultural centre and nearby medical centres.

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Figure 58: ‘Interpretive Signage, from the Brokenhead Wetland Interpretive Trail’ on the Brokenhead Wetland Ecological Reserve on the traditional territory of the Ojibway Nation. Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 28, 2018.

Accessi ble Signage The site MUST provide signage in multiple languages, with Indigenous place names, and in braille.

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3 .4 .1 .4

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3 .4 .1 .5 L ab our / Jo bs The site MUST aid in the creation of new jobs and increase the quality of jobs available to community members. + Land Stewards COULD allocate a percentage of income toward wage and rent subsidies and hiring bonuses for small businesses. + Based on community needs, this guideline will need to be further developed with MST Land Corporation, Hogan’s Alley Society, and local governments for the purpose of acquiring funds. Local governments will have no authority over the implementation of this guideline. + Local BIPOC community members SHOULD be given consideration for employment opportunities first and COULD be employed in this site’s construction and development process.

Figure 59: Digital Rendering of Bustling Streetscape from the Livernois Revitalization Project in Detroit, MI, 2019. (https://detroitmi.gov/sites/ detroitmi.localhost/files/2018-05/Livernois-Revitalization.jpg)

SITE GUIDELINES

+ Childcare SHOULD be free of charge to ensure all parents have the same employment opportunities.

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3.4.2

Health + S a fe t y

3 .4 .2 .1

E x terio r Lighting The site design SHOULD follow the guidelines set out by the Guidelines and Specifications for Outdoor Lighting at Parks Canada report and the Canadian Guidelines for Outdoor Lighting Report. + The site COULD have adequate lighting in open or covered spaces no less than 60 lumens and should be ‘Dark Sky Friendly.’ + This COULD include using Full Cut-Off light fixtures that reduce energy consumption, glare, and light pollution. + This COULD include light fixtures pole heights shorter than the tree canopies to reduce additional glare.

Figure 60: Digital Perspective Drawing of Nightlife and Performance Space by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ This COULD include light colours on the red spectrum rather than blue spectrum to reduce possible vision degradation of animals.

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Figure 61: Digital Perspective Drawing of Folks Sitting on a Bench Under a Tree by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

3 .4 .2 .2

E lem ental Pro tec tio n + The site SHOULD provide both natural and constructed methods of providing shade from the sun and protection from rain.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ This COULD include shade trees, canopies, or awnings.

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+ Examples of native shade trees include Garry Oak (Quercus garryana), Bigleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum), Oregon Ash (Fraxinus latifolia), Bitter Cherry (Prunus emarginata), and Indian Plum (Oemleria cerasiformis).


Figure 62: Digital Section Drawing of Streetscape with Planting Filtering Air by Samantha Miller, 2021.

O utd o or Air Q u alit y + Outdoor air quality SHOULD be less than or equal to 20 parts per billion for the one-hour Nitrogen Dioxide CAAQS (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, n.d.). + This COULD be done by planting at least one tree for every tree removed during demolition, 50 trees to memorialize each of the houses destroyed by the Viaducts (Refer to Section 3.4.3.6 Honouring History), and at least 25 additional trees to compensate for those that would be removed in the process of demolishing the viaduct.

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3 .4 .2 .3

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3 .4 .2 .4

I nd o or Air Q u alit y Indoor air quality of all architectural interventions MUST demonstrate high standards and be compliant with policies set out in the Living Building Challenge v4.0. + Building entries SHOULD reduce the tracking of particles from the exterior to the interior such as a vestibule. + Buildings SHOULD have operable windows and the option to naturally ventilate. + This MUST be done using NO VOC materials. Selections SHOULD be in compliance with the CDPH Standard Method v11-2010 (or international equivalent). + This COULD be accomplished through sustainable construction methods and materials that often resemble traditional building techniques of Black and Indigenous communities.

Figure 63: ‘Pumpkin Ridge Passive House Wall Assembly’, Hammer & Hand, 2013. (https://hammerandhand.com/portfolio/pumpkin-ridgepassive-house/wall-assembly-2/)

SITE GUIDELINES

+ Examples of NO VOC finishes often use naturally occurring and minimally processed ingredients that are entirely free of petrochemical products, such as clay plaster, lime plaster, tadelakt, rammed earth, lime paint or casein paint, wood sealed with linseed or tung oil, stone, earthen flooring, linoleum, cork, bamboo, and various others.

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Figure 64: ‘Bamboo’, (https://elemental.green/the-prosand-cons-of-bamboo-in-green-building/)

Figure 65: ‘Blown-In Cellulose’, (https://fredfcollis.com/service/ blown-cellulose-insulation)

Figure 66: ‘Cork’, (https://www.123rf.com/photo_5632420_ texture-of-the-cork-material.html)

Figure 67: ‘Mineral Wool’, (https://www.airproducts.com/ applications/mineral-wool-rockwool-production)

Figure 68: ‘Hemp Panels’, (https://materialdistrict.com/ material/hemp-panels/)

Figure 69: ‘Wood Fibre’, (https://www.bvb-substrates.nl/us/ references-and-support/bvb-wood-fibre-for-growing-media/)


M aterial S elec tio n New developments MUST use sustainable building materials, SHOULD utilize plant-based materials with carbon storage properties wherever possible, and SHOULD strive for net-zero emissions. + This COULD include materials such as wood, wood fibre, hemp, bamboo, straw, dense-pack cellulose, mineral wool, and cork. + Examples of such structures built at the mid-level rise and commercialscale include the Jules Ferry Apartment Complex in Saint-Die-des-Vosges, France (Builders for Climate Action, 2019) and the Mahonia Mixed-Use Building, Oregon, designed by Arkin Tilt Architects (Mahonia, 2021). + Any timber or resources used on-site MUST be sustainably harvested and contractors SHOULD allow for MST ceremony to occur prior to being erected or used on site. For example, Indian Community School by studio:Indigenous. + If the developments in question hope to attain a sustainability certification status, it is recommended they strive for Living Building Challenge or WELL Building status, far surpassing the rather futile environmental efforts of LEED, Passive House, and Energy Star certifications. SITE GUIDELINES

3 .4 .2 .5

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Figure 70: Housing typology for non-nuclear/multi-generational living by Samantha Miller, 2021.


Healthy Mu lti- G en eratio n al Ho u sing Due to climate change, the rate of disease emergence from animal reservoirs triples the chance of a severe pandemic occurring again in the coming decades (Marani et al., 2021). In addition, evidence suggests that social infrastructure, demographics, access to services, and multi-generational living are among the list of most significant factors that increase the severity and impact of a pandemic (UN-Habitat, 2021). + The site design SHOULD include housing that better protects vulnerable communities, keeping them healthy and safe. + This SHOULD include considerations for multi-generational living, such as multiple bedrooms of the same size to reduce a hierarchy of sleeping spaces. + Preparing and feasting areas COULD be designed to have adequate room for socializing and contribution. This COULD include a large centre ‘island’ and open concepts. + This COULD include multiple public spaces within the building, both indoor and outdoor (such as a courtyard), to encourage engagement and communal living. + Housing buildings COULD be designed with a focus on cross ventilation. + Housing buildings COULD offer public work-from-home spaces with exceptional ventilation, natural lighting, adjustable desks, and gender-neutral washrooms. + There COULD be provision for mental and physical health resources within mixed-use buildings. In the event of a severe pandemic, there COULD be a unit reserved for livein medical professionals. + Housing buildings COULD include a community garden area and a water cistern in case of emergencies. + Auxiliary structures COULD be used for emergency housing to provide shelter to those currently experiencing houselessness.

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3 .4 .2 .6

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3.4.3 Com m u n it y 3 .4 .3 .1

Com m unit y Cu ltu ral Centre The site SHOULD provide indoor cultural and recreational space such as a community cultural centre serving the Black, Indigenous, Chinese, Jewish, Italian, and other community members. The centre SHOULD include a gallery, performance, gathering, and multifunctional space, including but not limited to open space for music, dance, and celebration, outdoor dining associated with a community kitchen, and rooftop gardens. + This facility MUST engage with local community artists for indoor and outdoor gallery installations and plan for more extensive, park-wide installations. + This facility COULD provide indoor and outdoor formal and informal gathering spaces. + This facility COULD reach outward with sheltered gathering - a ‘front porch’. + Community centre including programming for daycare, counsellors, career coaching, a place for at-risk youth, youth programs, etc.

Figure 71: ‘Squamish Lil’wat Cultural Centre’ Iin Whistler by Ratio and Alfred Waugh (https://www.naturallywood.com/wp-content/ uploads/2020/08/Squamish_Lilwat_Cultural_Centre_Michael-Bednar-naturallywood-4.jpg)

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The community centre COULD house programs like mental health and addiction services, youth and senior care and engagement, and provide low-barrier connections to existing resources within the area. For examples, a free-of-charge charter or bus service, landlines to access mental health hotlines, and assistance in finding a family physician.

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Figure 72: Digital Rendering of Atwater Beach Project, Detroit, MI. (https://detroit.curbed.com/2019/4/9/18301921/city-neighborhoodframework-plans-detroit-planning-department)

3 .4 .3 .2

S p ace to Co o k an d G ather The site SHOULD provide outdoor areas that have food preparation and cooking stations for public meals and large group or family gatherings. + This COULD include public BBQs, fires, or wood-burning pizza ovens. + This space SHOULD be large enough to host many community members at once, and should be designed with informal seating to encourage gathering.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ This space COULD allow for a large dining table for multi-generational family meals or community meals.

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+ The space SHOULD accommodate enough space for local and BIPOC vendors to sell their products in an informal setting, or to cater events.


Figure 73: Digital Rendering of Water Play Space for Ralph C. Wilson Jr. Centennial Park in Detroit, MI, by Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates Inc., 2018-Ongoing, (https://www.mvvainc.com/project.php?id=121)

S p ace to play The site SHOULD provide outdoor recreational space accessible to people of all ages and physical and mental abilities. + The site SHOULD include a children’s playground that promotes learning, material exploration, and adventure, such as risky play. + The site COULD include adequate seating for adults to monitor children, gather and foster community. This seating area SHOULD be comfortable, shaded and enclosed by sensory planting. + The site COULD include a reflexology path for lowering blood pressure and improving balance and overall health in individuals over 60. + The site COULD include play features that celebrate natural elements such as waterscapes.

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3 .4 .3 .3

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Figure 74: Digital Photo of Ron Finley in his Community Garden by Elizabeth Weinberg, 2016. (https://thegreatdiscontent.com/interview/ ron-finley)

3 .4 .3 .4

Com m u n it y G arden

SITE GUIDELINES

Whitney Barr has been studying ways to use design intervention to reconnect Black Americans to the soil in a healing way. With an “integrative awareness”, Barr suggests the re-education of Black Americans about West African food approaches because “regenerative agriculture and cultural regeneration go hand in hand” (Green, 2020).

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+ The site COULD provide space for a community garden that can accommodate many new community members if multiple new housing buildings are proposed. + Community Garden COULD integrate a composting program for waste accumulated on-site, in the greater area, and from public cooking/ gathering spaces.


Figure 75: ‘Your Uncertain Shadow’ by Olafur Eliasson, 2010. https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK100100/your-uncertainshadow-colour

O ngoing En g agement The site Stewards MUST actively engage with the local community to ensure that all cultures are represented. + Site Stewards MUST engage with local artists to support community engagement through public art. + The site COULD provide a ‘chalk-walk’ to allow the community to create their own drawn spaces regardless of age or ability. SITE GUIDELINES

3 .4 .3 .5

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Figure 76: Digital Perspective Drawing of Railway Porter’s Commemoration by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

3 .4 .3 .6

Honourin g H isto r y The site MUST honour the legacies of those who were erased from this site and those who still reside, including but not limited to the xwmwθkəy̓əm (Musqueam), Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), and Səl̓ílwətaʔ/Selilwitulh (TsleilWaututh), Black, Chinese, Jewish, and Italian communities in immaterial and material ways. + The site COULD incorporate commemorative signage of the stories told from Hogan’s Alley.

+ The site COULD plant a bosque of trees for every home that was destroyed to construct the viaducts. + The site COULD commemorate the legacy of the porters through subtle design features. Figure 77: Digital Perspective Drawing of Tree Bosque by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The site COULD use digital media and other forms of storey projection on surfaces, including the viaducts, until their removal.

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3.4.4

Form M a k in g

3 .4 .4 .1

E m b rac ing Fo rms Landscape and architectural interventions COULD be designed and constructed using embracing forms that ‘hug’ the community. + This COULD include a welcome area dedicated to Indigenous protocol and ceremony. + This COULD include the design of interior units that reject/shift standards from eurocentric, nuclear family orientation to intergenerational, matriarchal, village, and community-focused spaces. + This COULD include gathering spaces led into and enclosed by trees on one or both sides while still keeping an open sightline for views and security. + This COULD include the sequential widening and narrowing of pathways to provide different experiences.

Figure 78: The Indigenous Peoples Garden, Assiniboine Park, Winnipeg MB, by HTFC Planning and Design in consultation with Cheyenne and David Thomas (Peguys First Nation), 2020

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The site COULD daylight the lost river with a wetland in the close vicinity.

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Figure 79: Digital Perspective Drawing of Raised Pathway by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

3 .4 .4 .2

Pathways Site circulation MUST be accessible with slopes no steeper than 5% with preferences for slopes less than or equal to 2%, and provide levelled rest areas along the path. + The site COULD use linear paths strategically for quicker access to important locations.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The site COULD use informal winding paths strategically for leisure walks.

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+ The site COULD use berms for winding and linear paths strategically for moments of privacy and comfort; refer to section 3.4.4.1 Embracing Forms.


Figure 80: ‘Gathering Sukkah’, by Dale Suttle, So Sugita, and Ginna Nguyen, 2010. Photograph by Nephi Niven, 2010. (https://www. sixthandi.org/event/gathering-sukkah/)

Cult ural Stru c tu res The site SHOULD provide different cultural structures within the park grounds to accommodate different cultures and celebrations. Future designers SHOULD consult community members to identify other cultural structures to ensure all members have the space to celebrate their heritage and feel welcomed and accepted. + The site COULD provide a Sukkah for the Jewish community to celebrate Sukkot and be used outside of Sukkot as a shade structure. + Winter holidays COULD include decorations for ALL holidays observed by community members, including but not limited to Christmas trees; Hanukkiahs for Hannukah; and fruits, vegetables, and Kinaras for Kwanzaa. + The site SHOULD provide adequate space for the celebrations and holidays such as the Spring Festival/Chinese New Year to facilitate activities such as the Dragon Dance, Dragon Boating, and lantern lighting.

SITE GUIDELINES

3 .4 .4 .3

Figure 81: ‘Awen’ Gathering Space’, in Collingwood, ON, by Brook McIlroy, 2018. (https://brookmcilroy.com/projects/awen-gatheringplace/)

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Figure 82: L’dor V’dor Mezuzah, Windthrow, n.d. Accessed December 5, 2021 from https://www.windthrow.com/ windthrow-collection/p/ldor-vdor-mezuzah

3 .4 .4 .4

Cult ural and Religio u s O bjec ts The site COULD provide cultural and religious objects where appropriate. In addition, the Stewards SHOULD reach out as part of 3.4.3.5 Ongoing Engagement to include all cultures within the design. Future designers SHOULD consult community members to identify other cultural objects that would ensure all members feel celebrated, welcomed and accepted.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The site COULD include mezuzahs affixed to the right side at the bottom of the top third of doorposts or arches/entries for the Jewish community. The mezuzahs MUST contain a small scroll inside with the words of the Shema prayer. The mezuzahs can be oriented on a slight slant with the top pointed toward the space in which one is entering.

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+ The site COULD include objects of Chinese significance such as Mystic Knots and Laughing Buddha.


Figure 83: Digital Perspective Drawing of Narrow Alleys by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

Narrow Alleys The site SHOULD provide narrower ‘alley’ like lanes in between newly constructed housing to encourage comfortability in informal backyard businesses and to pay homage to the former importance of laneways. + Existing alleys and homes COULD be provided with design support and funding to invigorate the alleyways in ways that reintroduce the cultural vibrancy that once was. + This COULD include cooking supplies and equipment, seating, different fencing, musical and art materials and supplies, AV equipment, lighting, planting and garden support, and labour. + Policy COULD allow for informal businesses, gathering, and musical acts to be reintroduced to alley communities. + Reintroducing vibrant narrow alleys COULD stimulate circulation and connectivity between residents by using lower fences or partial screening.

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Figure 84: Excerpt of porches from housing typology for non-nuclear/multi-generational living by Samantha Miller, 2021.

3 .4 .4 .6

Porch Typ o lo gies Developments SHOULD incorporate various styles or versions of a porch typology to ensure residents have an outdoor space and to connect them with their neighbours.

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+ Developments COULD incorporate a porch at grade.

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+ Developments COULD incorporate balconies when not at grade.


Figure 85: Digital Perspective Drawing of Raised Pathway at Split of Double Headed Serpent by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

Defying G ravit y The site COULD seek ways in which design can defy gravity in immaterial and material ways. + The site COULD create a vertical garden. + The site COULD create a raised walkway to subvert the presence of the viaducts while connecting community members with the site. + The site COULD include a view structure (refer to Section 3.4.4.9 View Structure) or lookout point.

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3 .4 .4 .7

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Figure 86: ‘Nelson Skatepark’ in Nelson, BC by New Line Skateparks. (http://www.newlineskateparks.com/project/nelson-skatepark/)

3 .4 .4 .8

Future Sk atepark The skate community has identified several criteria for the replacement park and is adamant they be addressed fully.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The site SHOULD honour its promises to the skate community.

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+ The site COULD double as an engineering department partnership and be designed in such a way that it acts as a flood attenuation and water storage space in the event of neighbourhood flooding.


Figure 87: ‘Canadian Museum for Human Rights’ in Winnipeg, MB, by Antoine Predock, Architecture49, and Scatliff+Miller+Murray, 2014. (https://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/CMHR-begins-ad-campaign-as-opening-nears-262907211.html)

View Stru c tu re The so-called city of Vancouver has designated ‘protected views’ that limit building height to preserve precious mountain views. Many of these view cones cross over the Hogan’s Alley site. The site design COULD include a structure that purposefully disrupts these views. + This COULD be in the form of a tall sculpture or tower that stands out in the skyline. This may aid in place-making and can be a signature of the Hogan’s Alley community and history. + The structure may attract tourism and can include an internal elevator to the top where vast views of the surroundings can be achieved.

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3 .4 .4 .9

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3.4.4.10

Traum a-I nform ed Desig n Future designers MUST work to integrate trauma-informed design practices into their principles.

+ The site SHOULD minimize wide-open spaces as those types of spaces make BIPOC community members feel uncomfortable, watched, and unwelcomed. + The site COULD include a safe-space for individuals who experience panic and anxiety attacks to separate themselves and calm themselves if needed. + This COULD be in the form of an enclosed or semi-enclosed outdoor space (surrounded by planting or screens), with sensorial planting or a running-water feature. + The site design COULD reduce irregularities, visual complexity, and harsh contrasts in colour and material to encourage calmness. + The site SHOULD minimize the use of plain white walls unless it is a space designated for local or public art to be displayed. + The site planting COULD mimic naturalized spaces to avoid ‘clean’ or ‘manicured’ spaces. + The site SHOULD avoid axial, grid-like, or colonial organizations of space to celebrate organic forms rather than those of the oppressors, but maintain clear sightlines for navigation. + Arrangement of site furnishings COULD be considered for how visitors perceive a sense of safety, crowdedness, and communication with others. + Site furnishings COULD be moveable to adapt to the communities needs.

+ Proposed buildings MUST NOT use an I-shape or H-shape footprint or floor plan as those shapes were historically used in residential schools and can be re-traumatizing. Refer to Section 2.0 Stories of the Land: Discriminatory Policies and Urban Renewal.

Figure 88: ‘Indian Community School’ Concept Collage by Chris Cornelius (studio:indigenous), 2007. (https://www.studioindigenous.com/ indian-community-school)

SITE GUIDELINES

+ Indoor spaces COULD make use of user-controlled lighting and atmospheric controls to ensure the visitors have autonomy over their spaces.

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3.4.5 Ecolo gy

3 .4 .5 .1

Universal G reen space The site MUST provide universal access to greenspace. The site MUST have easy access to the waterfront and water features. + This MUST include gender-neutral washrooms. + This MUST include paths with a slope no greater than 5%, with a preference for slopes under or equal to 2%. + This COULD include railings with multiple bars at different heights to hold on to when railings are required (i.e. raised pathway). + This COULD include raised site features (such as water features) at hip height that encourage interaction with the elements for those with mobility constraints.

Figure 89: Digital Perspective Drawing of Garden Path with Accessible Water Feature by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ Refer to Accessible Design for the Built Environment, CSA Group, 2018, for more information on Universal Access.

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Figure 90: Digital Perspective Drawing of Green Space with Culturally Sensitive Plantings by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

3 .4 .5 .2

Low M ainten an ce & Cu ltu rally Appro priate P lant i ng

SITE GUIDELINES

The site MUST provide low maintenance shrubs Indigenous to the area. Refer to Section 2.0 Stories of the Land: Lost Ecologies for list of traditional plantings.

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+ The site SHOULD include traditional plantings of the different cultures located in Hogan’s Alley and should include informative signage, refer to 3.4.5.6 Plant Signage and 3.4.1.4 Accessible Signage.


Figure 91: Digital Section Drawing of Street with Rain Gardens by Samantha Miller, 2021

St reet Trees & R ain G arden s Street trees MUST be salt-tolerant and be planted with adequate room for root growth. + This SHOULD include a rain garden between the pedestrian sidewalk and curb of the street to capture stormwater runoff from surrounding buildings to slow the amount of runoff entering the underground system. Refer to Section 1.7 Rain City Strategy, 2019.

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3 .4 .5 .3

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R esilient Nature & Traditio n al Eco lo g ic al Knowledg e ( TE K ) The Hogan’s Alley, Chinatown, Strathcona, and DTES neighbourhoods are home to a diversity of residents whose traditional knowledge of land management could significantly improve the quality of the space. The consultation and participation of these residents toward land sovereignty and protection is invaluable and SHOULD be considered and implemented wherever possible. When traditional knowledge is not applicable, more holistic measures to land management that result in additional vegetation and/or permeable land cover SHOULD always be prioritized. + Flood-sensitive site elements COULD include sunken gathering spaces made of an easily-cleaned material in the event of flooding. + Structural elements such as buildings within the floodplain COULD be elevated above projected water levels via stilts. + The site designers MUST understand that any proposed structure or designed elements that cross the designated floodplain will likely flood. + Site design SHOULD include Black and Indigenous traditional land uses to better protect future generations from flooding and other severe weather events. + This COULD include but is not limited to shoreline stabilization, rainwater harvesting, flood-resistant design, drought resistance, and erosion protection. + While not directly within the scope of the subject property, large scale considerations for flood attenuation COULD imagine the deconstruction of the Vancouver False Creek sea wall followed by the implementation of infrastructural ecologies (a synthetic landscape of living, biophysical systems) that operate as urban infrastructure as an alternative to the geoengineered solutions proposed by the City of Vancouver Coastal Risk Assessment Task Force. Figure 92: Digital Perspective Drawing of Wetlands, Clam Gardens, and New Stabilized Shoreline by Nicole Dulong, 2021.

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3.4.5.4

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3 .4 .5 .5

Non-Hu man Co nsideratio ns “All living things - human, plants, and animals - form part of an integrated whole brought into harmony or alignment through mutual respect and expresses itself across the cosmos and across time” (Hilton, 2021, p. 47). It is an Indigenous worldview that we respect all living things as much as we respect our family members, friends, and neighbours. Therefore, the site MUST respect all non-human actors in the site design. + The site SHOULD include habitat (where applicable) for red-listed and endangered species. + The site COULD construct bird boxes underneath overhangs of pergolas or roofs. + The site SHOULD include at least one area dedicated for a pollinator meadow, including small areas of bare ground for ground-nesters. + The site COULD have a naturalized edge for aesthetic purposes as well as to increase habitat for small mammals.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ The site SHOULD use lighting fixtures that reduce harm to urban wildlife (Refer to 3.4.2.1. Exterior Lighting).

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Figure 93: ‘Plant Signage from the Brokenhead Wetland Interpretive Trail’ on the Brokenhead Wetland Ecological Reserve on the traditional territory of the Ojibway Nation. Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 28, 2018.

Plant Signage The site MUST provide informative signage about the plantings on site, including their traditional names and uses. Refer to 3.4.1.4 Accessible Signage.

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3 .4 .5 .6

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3. 5 PO L IC Y C O M P A RIS O N Throughout the 2014 Downtown East Local Action Plan (DELAP) and the 2018 NEFC Plan, significant attention has been given to improvements in housing, mental health services, and cultural engagement for Indigenous and other multicultural communities in Hogan’s Alley and the Downtown Eastside (among various others). The authors of this book do not have much critique for the contents or analysis, but rather, of the failure to include action items to accompany their policies. For instance, the DELAP report identifies the need for a facility that Aboriginal residents could use for traditional healing practices and ceremonies, and the need for other ways to facilitate Aboriginal placemaking in the community (i.e. innovative inter-generational Aboriginal housing projects, programming, public art, or the establishment of a new community facility which could include a healing and wellness centre). Yet, they provide no support or recommendation as to how this could be done, projects or designers that could provide services or inspiration, how many units, or even where those features might be located. This would provide the community the digestible information they need to engage with the plan and make decisions about whether or not they are being best served. Furthermore, there is significant failure to acknowledge the historical context and systemic structures that led to the conditions the DTES communities are currently experiencing, nor recommendations as to how economic and land sovereignty might occur. In the NEFC Plan, there is plenty of talk about ‘honouring’ the Black community and wishing to ensure all communities felt welcomed and represented, with little to no mention of how that could be achieved.

Figure 94: Digital Drawing of Floating Basketball Court as a Critique of the Perkins+Will proposal for Hogan’s Alley by Samantha Miller, 2021.

SITE GUIDELINES

The following pages contain a few excerpts from various policy documents compared to the guidelines set forward in this document.

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From th e Downtown E a st Lo c a l Are a P l an, 2014 + 6.14.2 Support the Aboriginal community in their pursuit of the establishment of an area or site of meaningful community activity and amenity. + 6.14.3 Explore partnerships and opportunities to develop inter-generational Aboriginal Housing projects and a healing and wellness centre in the Downtown Eastside.

From th e Nor theas t Fal se Cre e k P la n, 2018

SITE GUIDELINES

+ 16.5.3 Consider places of congregation as well as places of connection with communities, including Urban Indigenous, Chinese-Canadian and Black communities with deep histories and contemporary presence in the project area.

138

From th is R e p o r t Preco n ditio n 1: L and B ack A Land Trust will be developed in the name of MST Development Corporation, and the so-called city of Vancouver will hand over properties to MST, including properties within Union Street, Gore Ave, Prior Street, and Expo Boulevard, as well as 133 Union Street/721 Main Street and 280 Main Street (which the City will have to acquire and include in Land Trust). This would provide MST with legal rights to their land (albeit the laws not recognized by MST) and give Indigenous Stewards the power to veto Phase 2 and additional guidelines.

From th is R e p o r t 3.4.3.1

Co mmu n it y Cu l t u ral Cent re

The site MUST provide indoor cultural and recreational space such as a community cultural centre serving the Black, Indigenous, Chinese, Jewish, Italian, and other community members. The centre MUST include a gallery, performance, gathering, and multifunctional space, including but not limited to open space for music, dance, and celebration, outdoor dining associated with a community kitchen, and rooftop gardens.


+ 6.12.1 Support development of a mixed use neighbourhood in lands made available by the replacement of the Georgia and Dunsmuir viaducts with a range of housing types, parks and public amenities.

+ Recognition and honour the former Black community Hogan’s Alley that existed prior to the viaducts.

From th is R e p o r t 3.4.3.6

Ho n o u rin g H is to r y

The site MUST honour the legacies of those who were erased from this site and those who still reside, including but not limited to the Musqueam, Squamish, Tsleil-Waututh, Black, Chinese, Jewish, and Italian communities in immaterial and material ways. + The site COULD incorporate commemorative signage of the stories told from Hogan’s Alley. + The site COULD use digital media and other forms of storey projection on black surfaces, including the viaducts, until their removal. + The site COULD plant a bosque of trees for every home that was removed to construct the viaducts. + The site COULD commemorate the legacy of the porters through subtle design features.

SITE GUIDELINES

From Downtown Eas t Lo c a l Are a P la n, 2014

139


From N EF C, 2018

From th is re p or t 3.4.5.4

+ 4.2 Urban Indigenous Communities…… Many Indigenous people from these communities call Vancouver home. + 4.2.2 Design public spaces with Urban Indigenous user groups in mind to ensure everyone feels welcome in that space.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ 4.2.3. Explore opportunities to provide space for traditional, spiritual, health and healing practices.

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The Hogan’s Alley, Chinatown, Strathcona, and DTES neighbourhoods are home to a diversity of residents whose traditional knowledge of land management could significantly improve the quality of the space. The consultation and participation of these residents toward land sovereignty and protection is invaluable and SHOULD be considered and implemented wherever possible. When traditional knowledge is not applicable, more holistic measures to land management that result in additional vegetation and/or permeable land cover should always be prioritized.


+ Flood-sensitive site elements COULD include sunken gathering spaces made of an easily-cleaned material in the event of flooding. + Structural elements such as buildings within the floodplain COULD be elevated above projected water levels via stilts. + The site designers MUST understand that any proposed structure or designed elements that cross the designated floodplain will likely flood. + Site design SHOULD include Black and Indigenous traditional land uses to better protect future generations from flooding and other severe weather events. + This COULD include but is not limited to shoreline stabilization, rainwater harvesting, flood-resistant design, drought resistance, erosion protection.

SITE GUIDELINES

+ While not directly within the scope of the subject property, large scale considerations for flood attenuation COULD imagine the deconstruction of the Vancouver False Creek sea wall followed by the implementation of infrastructural ecologies (a synthetic landscape of living, biophysical systems) that operate as urban infrastructure as an alternative to the geoengineered solutions proposed by the City of Vancouver Coastal Risk Assessment Task Force.

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4.0


ITERATIONS + CRITERIA


Resources + Services

Health + Safety

Community

Form Making

ITERATIONS + CRITERIA

Ecology

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4 . 1 C R I T ERIA

The authors recognize that implementing every single one of these guidelines is near impossible. There will undoubtedly be trade-offs, and choosing what to prioritize must be done with the help of community members.

ITERATIONS + CRITERIA

The following icons represent each of the 5 categories that the guidelines are grouped into: Resources + Services, Health + Safety, Community, Form Making, and Ecology. With the programmatic site plans in the coming pages, the order that the icons are listed are respective to their prioritization in that particular site plan sketch. The authors recommend using a similar rating-style system when developing site plan iterations.

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4 . 2 I T ERA T IO NS

Figure 95: Digital Plan Drawing of Site Programming with Ecological Emphasis by Samantha Miller, 2021

with a large wetland, a large grow space, and stream daylighting. There is less provision for resources, housing, and gathering spaces. Figure 96: Digital Photograph of Hogan’s Alley by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021.

ITERATIONS + CRITERIA

Ecology Iteration: This programmatic site sketch places an emphasis on ecology,

147


Figure 97: Digital Plan Drawing of Site Programming with Community Emphasis by Samantha Miller, 2021

ITERATIONS + CRITERIA

Community Iteration: This programmatic site sketch places an emphasis on

148

community spaces, with gathering spaces varying in size, and some with pergolas for cover. There is less provision for housing and large ecological spaces.


Figure 98: Digital Plan Drawing of Site Programming with Housing Emphasis by Samantha Miller, 2021

and resources, with multiple mixed-use housing buildings placed above the floodplain. There is less provision for large ecological spaces and gathering spaces.

ITERATIONS + CRITERIA

Housing Iteration: This programmatic site sketch places an emphasis on housing

149


150 ITERATIONS + CRITERIA


“The new Hogan’s Alley won’t be something that it was, but something that it needs to be.”

ITERATIONS + CRITERIA

- Hogan’s Alley Working Group Workshop Report

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5.0


APPENDICES



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Figure 99: ‘Pink Dahlia’ Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021.

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Figure 1: ‘The Grateful Heron’ by James (Nexw’Kalus-Xwalacktun) Harry and Lauren Brevner, 2018. (https://www.jamesharry.ca/projects) ���������������������������������������������������� 7 Figure 2: Map excerpts from Coming Home to Indigenous Place Names in Canada, Dr. Margaret Pearce, 2018 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Figure 3: ‘Remember Hogan’s Alley’ by Ejiwa ‘Edge’ Ebenebe, 2019. (https://www. artofedge.com/projects/0XNWdY?album_id=1803763) ���������������������������������������������11 Figure 4: ‘New Chiefs on the Land’ by Laurence Paul Yuxweluptun, 2006. (https:// lawrencepaulyuxweluptun.com/larrypic.php?img=db/new_chiefs. jpg&title=New%20Chiefs%20on%20the%20Land,%202006,%20169%20x%20 213%20cm,%20Buschlen%20Mowatt%20Gallery,%20Vancouver,%20BC.) ��������13 Figure 5: ‘Hogan’s Alley Looking West’, Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������14 Figure 6: ‘Colours of Hogan’s Alley’, Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������14 Figure 7: ‘Solidarity Storytelling’ by Emma Xie, Chase Gray, and John Sebastian, 2021. (source cited in Illustration credits) �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������14 Figure 8: Photograph of Nora Hendrix Place, 2019. (https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ british-columbia/supportive-housing-units-open-in-vancouver-s-historicstrathcona-neighbourhood-1.5041227) ����������������������������������������������������������������������������14 Figure 9: ‘Hope Through Ashes: A Requiem for Hogan’s Alley’ by Anthony Joseph, 2020. (https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/hogan-s-alleymural-1.5713560) �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������14 Figure 10: Photograph inside Jimi Hendrix Shrine with Mannequin of Vie (http://www. voodoohendrix.com/blog/jimi-hendrix-shrine.php) ����������������������������������������������������14 Figure 11: Section Digital Drawing of Current Day Hogan’s Alley by Nicole Brekelmans, 2021. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������16 Figure 12: Speculative Digital Perspective Drawing of Future Northeast False Creek, 2100, by Nicole Dulong, 2021 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19

APPENDICES

AP PE N D IX B: L IS T O F F IGU R ES

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164

Figure 13: Map of Historic Shoreline and Flooding in False Creek by Kerry Gibson, 2021. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 Figure 14: Photograph of Smoky Air in Vancouver, 2021. (https://www. vancouverisawesome.com/local-news/bccdc-warns-british-columbians-toprepare-for-the-worst-ahead-of-wildfire-smoke-3928490) ���������������������������������������21 Figure 15: Axonometric Timeline Digital Drawing of Structures and Structural Events in Strathcona by Nicole Brekelmans, Samantha Miller and Reece Milton, 2021. �����22 Figure 16: Cover Page of ‘Northeast False Creek: Directions for the Future, 2009’ ����������������23 Figure 17: Cover Page of ‘Greenest City 2020 Action Plan, 2011’ ������������������������������������������������24 Figure 18: Cover Page of ‘Northeast False Creek: Issues Report, 2011’ ��������������������������������������25 Figure 19: Cover Page of ‘Housing and Homelessness Strategy, 2012-2021’, 2011 ��������������26 Figure 20: Cover Page of ‘Vancouver Homeless Count, 2019’ �������������������������������������������������������27 Figure 21: Cover Page of ‘Downtown East Local Area Plan’, 2014 �����������������������������������������������28 Figure 22: Cover Page of ‘City of Vancouver Coastal Risk Assessment Phase 2 Final Report, 2015’ ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������29 Figure 23: Cover Page of the Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts, 2015’ ���������������������������������������31 Figure 24: Cover Page of ‘NEFC Sub-Area 6D East Block - Hogan’s Alley Working Group Report, 2017’ ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 Figure 25: Cover Page of ‘Northeast False Creek Plan, 2018’ ���������������������������������������������������������34 Figure 26: Cover Page of ‘Blue-Green Systems, 2019’ ����������������������������������������������������������������������36 Figure 27: Cover Page of ‘Rain City Strategy, 2019’ ���������������������������������������������������������������������������37 Figure 28: Screenshot of Double Headed Serpent, taken from ‘The Double Headed Serpent’ - An Animation of the Musqueam Origin Story by Saki Murotani, 2015. (https://vimeo.com/157540577) �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40 Figure 29: Squamish Carving, “About Our Nation”, Squamish Nation, n.d. Accessed December 6, 2021 from https://www.squamish.net/about-our-nation/ ���������������43 Figure 30: ‘Cates Park (Whey ah Whichen)’ by Damian George, 2000. (https:// kelownaartgallery.pastperfectonline.com/webobject/675E9F19-ADA04420-B167-731220488398) ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������45


APPENDICES

Figure 31: Section-Perspective Digital Drawing of the Gardens of Sen̓ áḵw by Nicole Dulong, 2021. �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������47 Figure 32: Section-Isometric Digital Drawing of Lost Ecology of Sen̓ áḵw by Nicole Dulong, 2021. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������48 Figure 33: Grid of Botanical and Animal Species by Nicole Dulong, 2021. �����������������������������51 Figure 34: Section-Perspective Digital Drawing of the Loss of the False Creek Mudflats by Kerry Gibson, 2021. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52 Figure 35: Photograph of the ‘Hobo Jungle’, 1931. (https://scoutmagazine.ca/2018/02/20/ the-vancouver-park-with-the-hobo-jungle-past/) ��������������������������������������������������������55 Figure 36: Photograph of Historic Chinatown, 1945. (https://zolimacitymag.com/hongkong-in-vancouver-chinatown-is-fighting-for-its-life/) ������������������������������������������������56 Figure 37: Photograph of The National Council of Jewish Women Neighbourhood House at Jackson Ave. and Union St., n.d. (https://jewishmuseum.ca/exhibit/morethan-just-mrs/ ) ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������57 Figure 38: Drawing of Macaroni Joe, Neighbourhood Patron and Wine Maker by Marije Stryker, 2021. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������58 Figure 39: Drawing of the Sun Setting over Hogan’s Alley by Marije Stryker, 2021. �����������59 Figure 40: Photograph of Sleeping Car Porters ‘Tourist Car, Serving Tea’, n.d. (https://www. cranbrookhistorycentre.com/how-the-black-sleeping-car-porters-shapedcanada/) ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������60 Figure 41: Archival News Article from The Vancouver Sun ‘Presenting the Return of ‘Big Time’ Vaudeville’, 1958.(https://forbiddenvancouver.ca/wp-content/ uploads/2015/03/Majestic-Vaudeville-1958-3-13-Vancouver-Sunday-Sun.jpg) 61 Figure 42: ‘What did they do to the dog-catcher in Hogan’s Alley’ by RF Outcault, September 20, 1896. (https://pasttensevancouver.wordpress.com/2008/04/05/ the-elusive-hogans-alley-part-2/) ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������62 Figure 43: Photograph of the Crump Twins, Pulled From the YouTube Video ‘Secret Vancouver: Return to Hogan’s Alley’, February 17, 2016. (https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=B-8lgpvj0Hg) ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������63

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166

Figure 44: Portrait Photograph of Nora Hendrix, 1999. (http://www.jimihendrix-lifelines. net/1968jan-june/styled-265/styled-266/index.html) �������������������������������������������������64 Figure 45: Archival Isometric Drawing of an Urban Renewal Strategy for an Area Including Hogan’s Alley. Taken from ‘Rebuilding a Neighbourhood’ by Leonard C. Marsh, University of British Columbia, 1950. ��������������������������������������������������������������66 Figure 46: Archival Drawings of an Urban Renewal Housing Typology. Taken from ‘Rebuilding a Neighbourhood’ by Leonard C. Marsh, University of British Columbia, 1950. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������66 Figure 47: Archival Plan Drawing of an Urban Renewal Strategy for an Area Including Hogan’s Alley. Taken from ‘Rebuilding a Neighbourhood’ by Leonard C. Marsh, University of British Columbia, 1950. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������67 Figure 48: Archival Image of Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts, Screenshot from Secret Vancouver: Return to Hogan’s Alley. YouTube, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=B-8lgpvj0Hg&t=318s ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������67 Figure 49: ‘Girl in Motion’ by Robert Genn, from the Expo ‘86 Collection Posters for Vancouver, 1986. (https://kerrisdalegallery.com/print/robert-genn-girl-inmotion-expo-86-signed-artist-proof/) �������������������������������������������������������������������������������68 Figure 50: Photograph of People Protesting School Segregation, n.d. (https://www.bbc. com/news/world-us-canada-45875045) ���������������������������������������������������������������������������69 Figure 51: Digital Map Drawing of Racial Profiling and Graffiti by Noora Hijra, Chris Rothery, and Aiden Mezidor, 2021 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������71 Figure 52: Digital Map Drawing of Job Density by Noora Hijra, Chris Rothery, and Aiden Mezidor, 2021. �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������73 Figure 53: ‘Panel of Knowledge’ CoastSalish salmon and eulachon light installationw, 2020 by Wade Baker and Sky Spirit Studio + Consulting (https://www.instagram. com/p/B9ahflCH6oQ/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link) ��������������������������������������������81 Figure 54: Digital Photograph of Hogan’s Alley with Speech Bubbles of Community’s Wants and Needs, by Samantha Miller, 2021. ������������������������������������������������������������������82


APPENDICES

Figure 55: ‘Land Back Sign Left at Robson Square’ Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, October 31, 2021. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������85 Figure 56: Archival Photograph of Protesters on the Viaducts with Signs Reading ‘Freeways are not free”, “The road to hell is paved with politicians errors”, and More, 1972. (https://vancouversun.com/news/metro/this-week-in-history-1972sees-georgia-viaduct-open) ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������89 Figure 57: ‘Laundry Hanging on a Clothesline’, Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021. �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������93 Figure 58: ‘Interpretive Signage, from the Brokenhead Wetland Interpretive Trail’ on the Brokenhead Wetland Ecological Reserve on the traditional territory of the Ojibway Nation. Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 28, 2018. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������95 Figure 59: Digital Rendering of Bustling Streetscape from the Livernois Revitalization Project in Detroit, MI, 2019. (https://detroitmi.gov/sites/detroitmi.localhost/ files/2018-05/Livernois-Revitalization.jpg) �����������������������������������������������������������������������97 Figure 60: Digital Perspective Drawing of Nightlife and Performance Space by Nicole Dulong, 2021. �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������99 Figure 61: Digital Perspective Drawing of Folks Sitting on a Bench Under a Tree by Nicole Dulong, 2021. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 100 Figure 62: Digital Section Drawing of Streetscape with Planting Filtering Air by Samantha Miller, 2021. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 101 Figure 63: ‘Pumpkin Ridge Passive House Wall Assembly’, Hammer & Hand, 2013. (https://hammerandhand.com/portfolio/pumpkin-ridge-passive-house/wallassembly-2/) ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 103 Figure 64: ‘Bamboo’, (https://elemental.green/the-pros-and-cons-of-bamboo-in-greenbuilding/) ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 104

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Figure 65: ‘Blown-In Cellulose’, (https://fredfcollis.com/service/blown-celluloseinsulation) ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 104 Figure 66: ‘Cork’, (https://www.123rf.com/photo_5632420_texture-of-the-cork-material. html) �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 104 Figure 67: ‘Mineral Wool’, (https://www.airproducts.com/applications/mineral-woolrockwool-production) ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 104 Figure 68: ‘Hemp Panels’, (https://materialdistrict.com/material/hemp-panels/) ������������� 104 Figure 69: ‘Wood Fibre’, (https://www.bvb-substrates.nl/us/references-and-support/bvbwood-fibre-for-growing-media/) ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 104 Figure 70: Housing typology for non-nuclear/multi-generational living by Samantha Miller, 2021. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 106 Figure 71: ‘Squamish Lil’wat Cultural Centre’ Iin Whistler by Ratio and Alfred Waugh (https://www.naturallywood.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/Squamish_ Lilwat_Cultural_Centre_Michael-Bednar-naturallywood-4.jpg) ���������������������������� 109 Figure 72: Digital Rendering of Atwater Beach Project, Detroit, MI. (https://detroit. curbed.com/2019/4/9/18301921/city-neighborhood-framework-plans-detroitplanning-department) ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 110 Figure 73: Digital Rendering of Water Play Space for Ralph C. Wilson Jr. Centennial Park in Detroit, MI, by Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates Inc., 2018-Ongoing, (https:// www.mvvainc.com/project.php?id=121) ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 111 Figure 74: Digital Photo of Ron Finley in his Community Garden by Elizabeth Weinberg, 2016. (https://thegreatdiscontent.com/interview/ron-finley) �������������������������������� 112 Figure 75: ‘Your Uncertain Shadow’ by Olafur Eliasson, 2010. https://olafureliasson.net/ archive/artwork/WEK100100/your-uncertain-shadow-colour ������������������������������� 113 Figure 76: Digital Perspective Drawing of Railway Porter’s Commemoration by Nicole Dulong, 2021. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 115

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Figure 77: Digital Perspective Drawing of Tree Bosque by Nicole Dulong, 2021. ������������� 115 Figure 78: The Indigenous Peoples Garden, Assiniboine Park, Winnipeg MB, by HTFC Planning and Design in consultation with Cheyenne and David Thomas (Peguys First Nation), 2020 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 117 Figure 79: Digital Perspective Drawing of Raised Pathway by Nicole Dulong, 2021. ������� 118 Figure 80: ‘Gathering Sukkah’, by Dale Suttle, So Sugita, and Ginna Nguyen, 2010. Photograph by Nephi Niven, 2010. (https://www.sixthandi.org/event/ gathering-sukkah/) ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 119 Figure 81: ‘Awen’ Gathering Space’, in Collingwood, ON, by Brook McIlroy, 2018. (https:// brookmcilroy.com/projects/awen-gathering-place/) ������������������������������������������������ 119 Figure 82: L’dor V’dor Mezuzah, Windthrow, n.d. Accessed December 5, 2021 from https:// www.windthrow.com/windthrow-collection/p/ldor-vdor-mezuzah ������������������ 120 Figure 83: Digital Perspective Drawing of Narrow Alleys by Nicole Dulong, 2021. ����������� 121 Figure 84: Excerpt of porches from housing typology for non-nuclear/multi-generational living by Samantha Miller, 2021. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 122 Figure 85: Digital Perspective Drawing of Raised Pathway at Split of Double Headed Serpent by Nicole Dulong, 2021. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 123 Figure 86: ‘Nelson Skatepark’ in Nelson, BC by New Line Skateparks. (http://www. newlineskateparks.com/project/nelson-skatepark/) ������������������������������������������������� 124 Figure 87: ‘Canadian Museum for Human Rights’ in Winnipeg, MB, by Antoine Predock, Architecture49, and Scatliff+Miller+Murray, 2014. (https://www. winnipegfreepress.com/local/CMHR-begins-ad-campaign-as-openingnears-262907211.html) �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 125 Figure 88: ‘Indian Community School’ Concept Collage by Chris Cornelius (studio:indigenous), 2007. (https://www.studioindigenous.com/indiancommunity-school) ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 127

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Figure 89: Digital Perspective Drawing of Garden Path with Accessible Water Feature by Nicole Dulong, 2021. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 129 Figure 90: Digital Perspective Drawing of Green Space with Culturally Sensitive Plantings by Nicole Dulong, 2021. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 130 Figure 91: Digital Section Drawing of Street with Rain Gardens by Samantha Miller, 2021 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 131 Figure 92: Digital Perspective Drawing of Wetlands, Clam Gardens, and New Stabilized Shoreline by Nicole Dulong, 2021. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 133 Figure 93: ‘Plant Signage from the Brokenhead Wetland Interpretive Trail’ on the Brokenhead Wetland Ecological Reserve on the traditional territory of the Ojibway Nation. Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 28, 2018. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 135 Figure 94: Digital Drawing of Floating Basketball Court as a Critique of the Perkins+Will proposal for Hogan’s Alley by Samantha Miller, 2021. ����������������������������������������������� 137 Figure 95: Digital Plan Drawing of Site Programming with Ecological Emphasis by Samantha Miller, 2021 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 147 Figure 96: Digital Photograph of Hogan’s Alley by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 147 Figure 97: Digital Plan Drawing of Site Programming with Community Emphasis by Samantha Miller, 2021 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 148 Figure 98: Digital Plan Drawing of Site Programming with Housing Emphasis by Samantha Miller, 2021 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 149 Figure 99: ‘Pink Dahlia’ Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021. ��� 155 Figure 100: ‘Mural Seen in Hogan’s Alley’ Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 175 Figure 101: ‘Canopy’ Digital Photograph by Nicole Dulong, September 10, 2021. ����������� 182

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AP PE N D IX C: DEF INIT IO NS

APPENDICES

Comprehensive Health Impact Assessment - in-depth project that requires literature review and Project specific primary data collection. It also includes steps from Desktop and Intermediate Health Impact Assessments. (Golder Associates. 2025. Pg. 3) Desktop Health Impact Assessment - A quick desk based exercise that’s based on information through existing secondary sources. It’s the least detailed approach, does not include primary interview or targeted consultation, but can help identify areas for further research should an intermediate or comprehensive HIA be required. (Golder Associates. 2025. Pg. 3) Intermediate Health Impact Assessment - Completed with a small group of stakeholders and is primarily based on secondary data and includes information provided by specific people with knowledge about the project or community. (Golder Associates. 2025. Pg. 3) Land trust - A land trust are usually non profit organizations that own and manage land, and work to protect landowners and create separation between personal finances and property. Leasehold Property - A leasehold property means that the owner owns the house/ townhouse/condo itself but not the land it is built on. That land is leased to the homeowner by the Land Stewards. Mezuzah - the Mezuzah is a Jewish traditional object affixed to door frames that provides protection from physical or spiritual harm to those who enter the home or space. The mezuzah holds a scroll with the Shema prayer inside. Having mezuzahs in one’s home is required as commanded in the Torah. Net Zero - Net-zero refers to greenhouse gas emissions, particularly when a building, economy, city, country, etc. either offsets the amount of emissions they produce (by planting trees for example) or emits no greenhouse gas emissions at all.

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PCB - A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound. They were once widely deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids. Rain garden - A rain garden is a small depression often planted with native plants that temporarily hold or soak in rainwater. Planted rain gardens are effective in removing chemicals and sediments from water that runs off from roofs or driveways, and also slowing the amount of water that enters the underground system. Remediation - Remediation is a process that employs either engineering or natural (or both) techniques to remove pollution from the soil, groundwater, or surface water. Rental Homes - A rental home is a residential home, apartment building, etc. that is either owned by an individual or investor, and is leased out to tenants who live in said home. Sukkah - A sukkah is a temporary outdoor hut constructed for the week-long celebration of Sukkot. The huts represent the tent-like structures the Jews dwelled in during their 40 year journey through the desert after being enslaved in Egypt. It is tradition to eat, celebrate, and sometimes even sleep in the Sukkah which would be decorated with fruits and fragrant plants inside. Single Room Occupancy (SRO) - A form of housing that rents out single rooms with minimal furniture and shared utilities, primarily for low-income individuals. Redlining: “Redlining occurs where institutional mortgage lending is the norm and where lenders decline to loan in specific areas” (Harris, 2003) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) - VOCs are chemicals that are often found in building materials. Once in our buildings, they may emit harmful gases that can be harmful to health.

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AP PE N D IX D: BL A CK + I ND I GE N O US CREA T IVES , L AND SC AP E A RCHIT EC T S , + AR C H I T ECT S

+ Chris Cornelius, Studio:indigenous

+ Tamarah Begay, IDS-A

+ Alfred Waugh, Formline Architecture

+ Colin Berg, KAGVRV

+ Sky Spirit Studio + Consulting

+ Krystal Paraboo

+ Black Indigenous Design Collective

+ David Thomas

+ Douglas Cardinal

+ Cheyenne Thomas

+ Wanda Dalla Costa, Requill Architecture

+ Ryan Gorrie

+ Hood Design Studio

+ Reanna Merasty

+ Brook McIlroy

+ One House Many Nations

+ Tammy Eagle Bull

+ Two Row Architect

+ Brian Porter

+ Harriet Burdett-Moulton

+ Daniel Glenn

+ Black Architects and Interior Designers Association

+ Patrick Stewart

APPENDICES

This section features a number of Black and Indigenous designers and studios that authors have been introduced to through the [Re]Visitng Hogan’s Alley studio (contact information and affiliations provided when known). This list is not comprehensive and the authors welcome community members to add additional BIPOC designers to the list.

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A PPE ND I X E : C HA RT O F WA NT S + NEEDS

Th e m e ( Wa nt s + Ne e d s )

G o al

D esign Resp o nse/ Applic at io n

Lo gic

R e s ou rce s + S er vices “Low barrier access to programs Unlocking resources, unlocking Include safe-injection site in like mental health, addiction, markets, generation of equitable programming youth care, seniors and homeless” opportunities for all people Adequate access to restorative “Better access to public transit.” Providing stability green space, universally accessible “The new development needs to be a place of intellectual life, a go-to for practical information, self-care and support, familiar and diverse foods and missing services.”

Safe-injection sites Circulation

Community centre including programming for daycare, counsellors, career coaching, A place for at-risk youth, youth programs, etc.

In the DTES, safe-injection site Insite reported regular clients were 30% more likely to enter addiction treatment, and there have been 6400 death-free overdoses, and 48,000 clinical treatment visits with no increase in drug use or crime (Chen, 2017).

Increase number of bus stops Include a bike lane, or shaw-go bike rental area Bike storage container

APPENDICES

Figure 100: ‘Mural Seen in Hogan’s Alley’ Digital Photograph by Samantha Miller, September 10, 2021.

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Th e m e ( Wa nt s + Ne e d s ) “Increase in economic, political and social capital”

G o al Promote the land trust making sure this land belongs to the MST and/or HAS as a BIA Land should be seen as an investment in the community Perpetual affordability

D esign Resp o nse/ Applic at io n Phase 1: “Land Back” - Although not ideal, and understanding that Indigenous laws prohibit land ownership, a Land Trust will be created for MST

Lo gic Actively shifting away from racist political structure to empower community members

Phase 2: “Immediate use” Development of ‘Leasehold properties’ using reversible construction techniques on MST Land Trust that would use Portland based policies and Copehnagen inspired facades which provide opportunities for individuality and personalisation - Using Reversible construction methods Narrower ‘alley’ like lanes to encourage comfortability in creating storefronts (backyard business)

“Land Back and Right of Return”

Ensure that those who were displaced have the opportunity to return to a vibrant place that celebrates their history

APPENDICES

Aid in the returning of land to MST

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Community barbeque/kitchen Policy Based

Research right of return, Portland, Vienna, Israel/Palestine, see if there are recommendations for policy.


Th e m e ( Wa nt s + Ne e d s )

G o al

D esign Resp o nse/ Applic at io n

Lo gic

He a l t h + S a fe t y “Cleanliness/maintenance”

Encourage spaces that are low maintenance and look more naturalized.

Policy and ecologically based Low maintenance planting, native shrubs Integrated compost in community garden, recycling

Community has been systematically left-out of city-wide garbage removal, maintenance, etc. The ideas of ‘cleanliness’ and ‘manicured’ are super colonial and have historically been used against BIPOC to frame them as ‘unclean’ or ‘dirty’.

Co mmu n i t y Shift standards of design from eurocentric to matriarchal to community based, intergenerational spaces Comfortability - what does that look like year round, for specific people?

As white people, our allyship takes the form of providing space for the community to make it their own. Multifunctional outdoor spaces that can be adaptable to a variety of needs that will be ever evolving.

“It wasn’t until I was in PoC-only spaces that I realized how much of myself I had cut off to fit into white culture,” one person of color in Shambhala recently told me. “So being in PoC spaces allows me Comfortable and adequate lighting to reclaim those forgotten parts of myself.” (Blackwell, 2018). Adequate cover from rain and sun “What happens in PoC spaces? Playspace for children (nonAnything we want—and this is traditional - maybe mounds/ the beauty of them. We can be earthworks, risky play, spray pad) sources for our own nourishment and resilience. Why wouldn’t an ally be in support of this? My friend recently said, “We don’t need allies (i.e., friends); we need accomplices (i.e., partners in crime).” (Blackwell, 2018).

APPENDICES

“A place to be unapologetically who you are and comfortable in a space where no one will question your Blackness”

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Th e m e ( Wa nt s + Ne e d s ) “Recognition of discriminatory policies in the past”

“Solidarity among residents, Indigenous, Chinese, Italian, Jewish”

G o al

D esign Resp o nse/ Applic at io n

Explicitly discuss and critique Addressed in policy critiques and in discriminatory policies to ensure design statement they don’t happen again. Being open about the design process. We are trying to use a decolonized approach while in a colonized institution. Celebrate community members Include an adaptable sukkah, both in material and immaterial mezuzahs at entry points ways through cultural structures Signage in multiple languages and and objects. braille Vibrancy in new laneway typology Mixes of traditional planting An array of motifs, symbology and cultural elements

“Honouring History”

Shifting the language from recognition to honour Celebrating the history of the community and honouring a legacy

Community kitchen for celebrating food Commemorative signage Stories projected on surfaces (MTL has some examples) Bosque of trees, each representing a home that was destroyed by the viaduct - 50 trees (one for each home/lot)

APPENDICES

Hour the railway porters legacy through materiality and signage

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Lo gic “Finding the off-switch for this thing” - Stephanie Allen

The NEFC Plan refers to Hogan’s Alley as “the heart of Vancouver’s Black Community.” This area was described by Wayde Compton, a member of the Hogan’s Alley Working Group, as “an immigrant enclave” that flourished with businesses and residents between the 1920s and 1960s, forming a place of cultural significance Not going to inscribe names like other memorials or donors - a tree is a living legacy


“Soulful, vibrant spaces”

G o al

D esign Resp o nse/ Applic at io n

Encourage spaces that celebrate Supporting local artists, hold space the cultures of the community for murals, public studio members, past and present. Chalkboard wall or technological projector to encourage children and pedestrians to draw, or to project posters of events, family photos etc. Bright paving that forms a pattern such a sound wave, that could be visible from new porch (inspired by June Callwood park)

Lo gic “Researchers found nuisance complaints such as noise violations… were the most commonly sighted reasons for evictions, with participant accounts indicating such policies were “prejudicially enforced” among people who used drugs.” Team Socio Economic

Amphitheatre space, multifunctional with low stage and integrated speakers and lighting (can be used for drum circles, events, discussions), added berm can be used for excess seating Performance spaces have microphones that can be amplified through streets, voices and song and events heard across spaces Gallery space - A place to tell their own story, with local or community-based art.

APPENDICES

Th e m e ( Wa nt s + Ne e d s )

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Th e m e ( Wa nt s + Ne e d s ) “Food sovereignty” “Food Gardens”

G o al Leave space for traditional land uses

D esign Resp o nse/ Applic at io n

Designated space for gardening, small-scale agriculture, food production or wildflower garden to Helping this community create reconnect Black people to soil and resources to sustain them in extreme weather or health crises regeneration (pandemics, floods, droughts)

Lo gic By re-educating Black Americans about West African food and unlearning white approaches, they can get to a place where they no longer think of agriculture as bad.” Regenerative agriculture and cultural regeneration go hand in hand” (Green, 2020). In addition to re-connecting with their landscape heritage in an affirming way, the goal is for residents to generate revenue and increase self-sufficiency” (Green, 2020).

Form M a k i n g “Do not reinforce barriers”

APPENDICES

“Solid and grounding emotional gateway into spaces”

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Thresholds - not gates, entrances Soft transitions/thresholds between Maps and boundaries have or boundaries spaces historically been used to control a space and dominate a people, as Naturalistic, informal planting they were tools to “communicate Embracing forms as you enter the understanding of an inhabited spaces in the park territory as well as to transport knowledge of a remote, newly No park hours - anyone, anytime discovered place to a central fire pits for outdoor hangouts governing place” (Davila, 2019). There is a lacking sense of welcome and landing in Vancouver - lack of Indigenous Protocol that helps us land in a space


G o al

“Design that defies gravity - views from height”

D esign Resp o nse/ Applic at io n Highline-type structure Raised pedestrian path connected spaces above main, protects beneath Interactive shadow installation down from raised path down to ground

“Gathering spaces to sit, gather, watch”

“Recognize the importance of porches as a place of connection for community”

Lo gic “Architecture that defies gravity, like Black history; iconic without being elitist; something that draws people in, creative, open” HAWGR

Vertical planting/green wall Equal consideration for indoor and outdoor space, formal and informal uses “The host house”

Create semi-inclosed and inclosed spaces so the community feels comfortable. Informal gathering spaces. Making semi-private, enclosable, Proposed housing has a back-lane spaces, adaptable/dynamic with porches and leave fronts for spaces storefront and balconies above Porches allow for families to extend their home and personalities beyond the walls of the home: provide spaces that the community can make their own and express personality

Various porch scales, from terraces - individual house porches, big pedestrian walkway with seating

Porches assert personal sovereignty and ownership, distance from political and institutional structures

Public park space has prospect refuge - trees backed up against benches, looking toward public spaces

APPENDICES

Th e m e ( Wa nt s + Ne e d s )

181


Th e m e ( Wa nt s + Ne e d s )

G o al

D esign Resp o nse/ Applic at io n

Lo gic

Ecol o g y “Environmental Resilience & Stewardship”

“Wellness centered around nature”

Protecting this land for future generations

Salvaging materials - specifically from viaduct for shoreline

Shifting from eurocentric perspectives of exploitation to Indigneous and Black traditional land use and ownership

Policies for exterior and interior air quality and quality of materials

Increase connection to the land increases a sense of ownership and responsibility

Daylight stream, shoreline stabilization, rainwater harvesting, flood resistance design, drought resistance, erosion protection. Street trees, rain gardens Access to waterfront Water flowing through site symbolic of stream thats lost Informative signage about plant species and traditional uses Winding paths, berms for moments of pause

“In pre-colonial times and today, the right combination of land and water characteristics creates optimal conditions to support a community and its cultural and spiritual identity” (Beacham, 2017).

Lots of planting, Indigenous planting

APPENDICES

Figure 101: ‘Canopy’ Digital Photograph by Nicole Dulong, September 10, 2021.

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