CREATING SITES OF GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP The Mellon Fellow Community Initiative
Table of Contents
About Salzburg Global Seminar and the MCFI
Introduction: An Unlikely Constellation of Partners
Assumptions, Realities, and Possibilities: Essays on Global Citizenship Education
01 The ACA, HBCUs and the MFCI: (Unlikely?) Partners for Making a Difference in Global Education Yolanda Moses
02 The Evolution of Collaboration: HBCUs and the ACA Building Capacity to Develop Global Citizenship Betty Overton-Adkins
03 Connecting Our Stories as ACA and HBCU Institutions Marybeth Gasman
04 Retelling Our Institutional Narratives: Creating Unexpected Spaces for Global Citizenship Education Keshia Abraham
05 Nuts and Bolts: Reflections on Making a Cross Institutional Project Work Karla McLucas and Mark Dollar
06 An Experience of International Civic Engagement: A White Paper on the Darfur Conflict Cynthia Hewitt, Najwa Gadaheldam, and Charles Moses
07 Structured Reflection for Transformative Learning: Linking Home and Away Kiran Cunningham
08 Re-Defining Learning Outcomes for Global Citizenship Education Mark Drnach
09 Learning and Leading: Building Collaborations Across Campus at an Appalachian College Association (ACA) Tracy Parkinson
10 Cultural Identity and Inclusive Societies: Infusing Diversity and Culture into Character Education Walter Earl Fluker
A Community of Many Voices: Personal Experiences and Reflections from MFCI Participants
Next Steps: Experiences and Experiments
Changing Institutions, Changing Lives: Profiles of All MFCI Institutions and Their Global Education Initiatives
Appendices - MFCI Partner Institutions and Participants - MFCI Faculty and Staff - Chronological List of Sessions & Workshops
110 117 118
Salzburg Global Seminar is proud to publish this report on the Mellow Fellow Community Initiative, which is emblematic of our pioneering commitment to global citizenship and to educational innovation for this purpose. Since its founding in 1947 by Austrian and American students at Harvard, Salzburg Global Seminar has been a leading force for exchange between US citizens and faculty and their counterparts across the world. While the language of “globalization” was different at the time, our goal from the start has been to promote peace and enhance the common welfare of the planet and its inhabitants – by creating a place of openness where people with different backgrounds and beliefs can challenge and learn from one another, and collaborate to advance institutional goals and personal dreams. Salzburg Global’s mission is ‘to challenge present and future leaders to solve issues of global concern’. Our program strategy – focused on Imagination, Sustainability and Justice – is guided by our commitment to tackle systems challenges critical for future generations and to engage new voices to ‘re-imagine the possible’. A key to Salzburg Global’s endurance and impact is our capacity to identify young leaders with high potential, expose them to values of free expression and global responsibility, and empower them with the confidence and connections to lead lives of public purpose and benefit. The Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI) embodies the transformative power of education and our mutual commitment to strengthening educational access, success and relevance. In the last five years, the MFCI has brought together more than 250 people from thirty-six colleges and universities – either designated Historically Black Colleges and Universities or members of the Appalachian College Association – with world-class international faculty. Everyone involved shares the determination to find practical ways to advance global citizenship through rigorous teaching, research, cross-cultural exchange and community outreach. These strategies are critical to broaden the MFCI’s impact and better support students whose lives will be lived in an ever more culturally diverse and globally connected world. As this report demonstrates, the MFCI’s unusual constellation of partners is uniquely suited to developing and implementing innovative approaches to global citizenship education in classrooms, across campuses, and throughout communities. Through the MFCI, our partners have embarked on a journey to explore and reinterpret their own historical legacies for the 21st century. The MFCI’s impact on the individuals and institutions involved is truly remarkable. I am confident that we are only at the beginning of realizing this Initiative’s full potential.
The MFCI is based on Salzburg Global’s Global Citizenship Program, created in 2004, which has connected nearly 3000 higher education administrators, professors, and students from eighty colleges and universities and directly shaped new curricula in several US universities. Experience gained through the MFCI also helped frame our recent three-year series on Optimizing Talent: Closing Educational and Social Mobility Gaps Worldwide, which focuses on policy and financial strategies for opportunity and equity. More broadly, the MFCI serves to bring knowledge and participants from the higher education sector into Salzburg Global’s issue-specific work on rule of law, economics, global health, environmental sustainability, and arts and culture. This twoway interchange opens up new academic and policy networks for MFCI partners and helps Salzburg Global to refresh and deepen its global citizenship curriculum. The MFCI would be impossible without the commitment of its partner colleges and universities and their senior leadership, the dedication of those who give seriously of themselves – both as participants and as members of a growing community of educators - and of course the generosity of those with outstanding experience and expertise who donate their time to lead and inspire every session we convene. Finally, on behalf of Salzburg Global Seminar, I express sincere gratitude to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for its continuous, far-sighted support in making this life- and institution-changing Initiative possible.
Stephen L. Salyer President and Chief Executive Officer Salzburg Global Seminar
One of the primary goals of the MFCI was to work with the participating colleges and universities to initiate systematic and sustainable institutional change. Throughout their involvement in the MFCI, partner institutions worked to develop and implement projects intended to bring more comprehensive institutional approaches to global education. The aim was to facilitate an ongoing process in which each institution, by bringing broader global perspectives into their classrooms, campuses, and communities, could better prepare students to pursue ethical and productive lives and careers in an ever-changing and globalized world. In short, the MFCI facilitated a process whereby partner institutions undertook efforts to become ‘sites of global citizenship’ and ultimately instill a global citizenship ethos in their graduates. Broadly speaking, global citizens are consciously prepared to live and work in the complex interdependent society of the 21st century and contribute to improving the common global welfare of the planet and its inhabitants. Prior to participation in the MFCI, each institution drafted a project proposal for an activity or set of activities that would create or strengthen global education initiatives. Many were already pursuing global education activities so the MFCI was an opportunity to refine and expand work that was underway. Other institutions had various global education activities taking place but no systematic approach to coordinating them. Nearly every institution to some extent had a fair amount of ‘RAGs:’ Random Acts of Globalization. At the first MFCI session, institutional teams worked to refine and develop both their projects and to develop specific implementation and action plans. The second session was focused on analyzing progress made in the intervening year, updating projects based on successes, challenges, and changes and developing revised project, implementation, and action plans.
About Salzburg Global and the MFCI
Since its inception in January 2008, the MFCI has:
Salzburg Global Seminar designs, facilitates and hosts international strategic convening at its historic castle retreat and around the world to drive progress based on imagination, sustainability and justice. We are a catalyst for global engagement on critical issues in education, health, environment, economics, governance, peace-building and more. To this end, we work with carefully chosen partners to connect forward-thinking institutions across sectors, foster innovative ideas and inspire long-term solutions. The Seminar program convenes senior experts and also emerging leaders from different countries, cultures and sectors enabling them to forge connections across geographic, professional and generational boundaries. Together, we leverage expertise, resources and passion to build understanding, strengthen skills and increase investment into equitable change. For the past five years, and thanks to the generous and sustained support by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the MFCI has brought together select teams from universities and colleges affiliated with the Appalachian College Association (ACA) and the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in a joint and concerted effort to introduce a meaningful dimension of global citizenship education to their respective institutions. The MFCI seeks to enhance the capacity of the participating institutions to graduate students who are aware of their place in a globalizing world. It offers week-long seminars and shorter workshops for faculty and administrators to develop tailored approaches of incorporating global citizenship education into the fabric of their institutions.
Partnered with thirty-six HBCU and ACA colleges and universities
Started building critical mass among faculty and administrators to launch and sustain an institutionwide change process to ‘globalize the campus’
Helped initiate the reorientation of mission/vision statements, strategic plans and student learning outcomes to include global perspectives
Facilitated the introduction of new global education courses, programs, co-curricular activities, etc.
Given partner institutions the impetus to formulate their own, institution-specific response to the global literacy of their students
Promoted cooperation between ACA and HBCU colleges and universities to jointly advance global citizenship education
An Unlikely Constellation of Partners In January 2008, the first group of forty-five faculty and administrators convened in Salzburg, Austria, for what would become a remarkably rich and in many respects unique long-term program. At this point, however, there was no indication that this meeting would mark the starting point of an extensive journey. It was meant to be the first step of a two-year project on “Making Colleges and Universities Sites of Global Citizenship” involving fifteen colleges which had applied and were selected for this Initiative.
budgets. Even relatively small fluctuations in the number of their student enrollment can have a large adverse impact. Small can be a synonym for personal attention and a strong sense of place and it can be a synonym for less resources, opportunities, and recognition. Despite these structural commonalities, which are only apparent once one has a better understanding of the two types of institutions, everyone who entered the meeting room for this first session of the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI) in January 2008 immediately noticed an unmistakable difference between the teams of participants of the fifteen colleges and universities: the difference of race. In all likelihood, those gathered in the room took it for granted that the participants from ACA institutions were primarily white whereas those coming from HBCU institutions were primarily black. It may have been less clear in their minds what they could learn from each other.
In hindsight, it is not hard to see that the seeds were being planted for a much larger and ambitious project. The fifteen institutions were members of either the Appalachian College Association (ACA) or they were Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU). The composition of this cohort reflects the long-standing commitment of the Initiative’s funding partner, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, to these two special groups of higher education institutions. ACA and HBCU institutions have some distinct similarities and some fairly obvious differences. All of them educate their students in the liberal arts tradition. Most of them are among the smallest institutions in the US with some of them having no more than 600 to 700 students and a permanent faculty of less than fifty. They are predominantly located south of the Mason-Dixon Line. Most were founded in the late 1800s and early 1900s and have strong religious roots and affiliations. Most also serve student populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the US higher education system including many first generation college students.
This was the starting point and the question was if and how the ensuing discussions about a lofty topic such as global citizenship as a cornerstone for 21st century undergraduate education would change the dynamics of the interactions between ACA and HBCU representatives, individually, and institutionally. As illustrated below, based on the positive feedback of the experience with the first group of fifteen colleges and universities, a second ‘cohort’ of eleven ACA and HBCU institutions and then a third cohort of ten more institutions joined the MFCI thanks to the Mellon Foundation’s ongoing support. Activities expanded to include a student seminar on global citizenship and shorter workshops on specific topics related to global education held on the campuses of partner institutions in the US. Within five years, the MFCI grew into a strong network of nearly 250 faculty, administrators, and students at thirtysix institutions engaged in global education activities at and across institutions. Although this may not have been part of the original plan, everyone involved in the MFCI quickly recognized its unique potential. As a result of a deep commitment to a common cause and roughly equal doses of intentional design and serendipity, this Initiative, with its modest beginnings, has transformed individuals and left lasting legacies at the institutions involved. This report highlights why, how and what the MFCI has accomplished so far while also anticipating next steps that can take the MFCI to yet another level.
The small size of many of these institutions brings along a common set of strengths and hazards. For example, they can provide a very personal and caring learning environment for their students, which is even more important given the specific composition of their student bodies. Also, location plays a big role in the identity for the ACA and HBCU institutions, and with it the views and values which their students bring with them and which the institutions instill in their graduates. This can be the physical location like Appalachia and that region’s rich culture and history. It can also be a location in a more figurative sense, like the place of the African-American population within the US society and beyond. At the same time, small institutions are economically more volatile if they do not have a sizable endowment to stabilize their
Approach The MFCI was conceived as an institutional development program to encourage and support partner colleges and universities to start and advance their own global education initiatives with the potential for meaningful and sustainable impact on their campuses. Participation in the Initiative was on a competitive basis. Institutions were invited to submit proposals outlining their global education project idea and blueprint. If selected, an institution would begin a two-year process with Salzburg Global Seminar that included two, week-long sessions on global citizenship education and strategic change management with at least one held at Salzburg Global’s facility in Salzburg, Austria. Throughout these two years, each institution’s initial project plan would be reviewed, revised, refined and expanded, translated into coherent and realistic action steps, and rolled out for implementation, thus beginning to weave global education into the fabric of the respective colleges and universities. Each institution selected a team of three participants, including one member with senior management responsibilities, for each meeting. The Mellon Foundation provided funding for two team members to attend the meetings and each college or university agreed to cover the costs for the third (willingness to contribute to the costs being a sound indicator of the seriousness of the commitment to the Initiative’s goals).
a result of these varied activities, the network capacity of the MFCI grew considerably, both in terms of the extensity of its membership and the intensity of exchange and mutual learning. The MFCI program team at Salzburg Global Seminar has served as a facilitator and catalyst for change instigating, accelerating, and supporting a process of sustainable change which the partner institutions agreed to pursue when they joined the program. The Salzburg Global team had accumulated experience and knowledge in facilitating institutional change for global education at colleges and universities as a result of its Global Citizenship Program (GCP). The GCP began in 2004 and promotes a paradigm shift in higher education to prepare students for responsible, meaningful, and rewarding lives as professionals and citizens in a hyper-complex and increasingly interconnected world. Close to 3000 students, faculty, administrators and staff from more than eighty US colleges and universities have participated in this Program. Through this work, the team gained the requisite knowledge and experience in the field of global citizenship education and how to integrate it into the missions, the curricula, and the strategic goals of higher education institutions.
An open call for proposals was circulated to all thirtysix ACA institutions while a smaller, select group of HBCUs was invited to submit proposals. The response was enthusiastic with twenty ACA institutions submitting proposals and a majority of the HBCUs doing so as well. In the end, eight ACA and seven HBCU institutions were selected to form the first MFCI ‘cohort’ which was soon expanded by two additional cohorts increasing the total number of MFCI partners to thirty-six (twenty-one ACAs and fifteen HBCUs). The staggered approach with respect to the starting point of each of the cohorts, while not entirely intentional from the outset, proved useful. It allowed for adjusting and finetuning of the program along the way. Also the institutions coming on board later were able to learn from the ideas and experiences of the first groups of MFCI partners. Likewise, the initial institutions were often re-energized and rejuvenated when new colleges and universities joined the MFCI with fresh ideas and enthusiasm.
MFCI Core Faculty members Yolanda Moses (l.), Betty Overton-Adkins (r.) donated time, expertise, and experience at many MFCI sessions.
Over time, a close-knit group of senior scholars, administrators, professionals, and practitioners with a broad range of expertise became involved in the Global Citizenship Program. They now form its core faculty which the Salzburg team drew upon for the MFCI. It merits specific mentioning and gratitude that the faculty for the Global Citizenship Program, the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative, and indeed all of Salzburg Global Seminar’s programs, volunteers its time and wisdom. In a time when higher education increasingly seems to become a commodity, this dedication of time and expertise speaks volumes about faculty’s commitment to the spirit and values of global citizenship—values which, among other things, advocate an ethic of sharing beyond short-term profit motivations.
Starting in 2010, MFCI activities also included shorter twoto three-day workshops hosted on MFCI campuses in the US devoted to themes relevant to all partner institutions. These workshops complemented the program and afforded the opportunity to interlink the entire MFCI community regardless of cohort. In early 2011, a MFCI student session took place in Salzburg bringing together some of the very best and brightest from seventeen partner institutions. As
A Theory of Change
and with it the self-conception of how HBCUs and ACAs can embrace this imposing notion which at first may have seemed to be out of their league.
These different elements of the MFCI can also be understood as stages or modes of passage from one level of engagement to another. The essays and reflections of MFCI participants in this publication reflect or emphasize these different stages. Each person and institution began the MFCI with their own understanding of what change means in the context of their outlooks or their institutions. It is important to have a theory of change at the outset of a major initiative but it must be adaptable to changing situations throughout the life of a project. This served as an effective guiding principle for the MFCI as a whole and for the institutions involved as illustrated in the summaries of each institutions’ global education activities later in this report.
The MFCI institutions realized that global education is not only, and not even primarily, about traveling to other parts of the world. (That is ‘internationalization’ and student mobility.) ‘Globalization at home’ is about teaching and modeling inclusion, diversity, and reciprocity in the context of how one relates to an increasingly interdependent world. It is as much about crossing national or state borders as it is about crossing ‘borders of the mind’ by reaching out to ‘otherness.’ Global education is about educating students to develop the life (and work) skills necessary for the 21st century. It is about learning how to make the cultural diversity, which is found not only far from home but also increasingly in our backyards, an asset from which one can benefit rather than solely a challenge to overcome. The specific constellation of ACA and HBCU institutions offers a unique opportunity, through cooperation, to make ‘globalization at home’ and ‘citizenship without borders’ a powerful and tangible learning experience for their students, and in the process make a significant contribution to the ongoing discussion about diversity and global education in US higher education.
The MFCI is based on a number of assumptions and premises that informed this program from the start: • I nstitutional transformation begins with the individuals who take part in the program and discover or connect to a new purpose of education and notion of what it means to be an educator. • Institutional teams, composed with strategic intent, can impact the adaptability to change on their campus with exponential efficacy.
Global education can be used as a bridge and a force to connect ACA and HBCU institutions, the work that they are doing, and the students and communities that they serve. Those coordinating the MFCI have always recognized that this seemingly ‘unlikely constellation of partners’ has much in common in terms of the challenges of enrolling student populations that are often under-served, first generation college students, and less economically advantaged. Another important commonality is that both ACA and HBCU institutions tend to be very rooted in their own historical legacies related to race, place, history, and community. Today this rootedness often serves as a source of institutional identity providing pride and distinction. It also can serve to lock these colleges and universities into a very traditional perception of themselves that does not leave much room for a re-framing and reinterpretation of their foundational story and purpose in accordance with the changing external conditions within which they operate – globalization being a general metaphor for these changing conditions.
• L earning is a social activity which at its fundamental level implies emulation and engagement with others. Thus, like individuals, institutions are more likely to become smarter in well-designed cross-institutional settings. During the course of the MFCI new lessons were learned and added to the key assumptions: • T he shared idea of global social justice as a common value-based frame of reference is a powerful connector and can help transcend deep-seated real or perceived differences between people and institutions. • C ooperation between institutions is not so much an add-on to a change effort that has already taken hold at a specific campus; instead, it is an enabler of incipient change efforts.
Some Lessons Learned One of the common misunderstandings in the discussions about a global education is the presumption that being a global citizen starts and ends with traveling to distant countries. This belief also played a role in the initial discussions at MFCI meetings when participants from institutions with very limited international exchange tried to wrap their minds around the notion of global citizenship and its relevance to their home campuses. As this program evolved, however, the understanding shifted
It has been an overriding goal of the MFCI to see if and how global citizenship education can be used to create incentives for collaboration between these institutions in a way that enhances the work of all. One of the most rewarding aspects for those involved in the MFCI has been that the dual goals of developing and implementing global education projects tailored to specific institutions and discovering common ground between ACA and HBCU institutions by adopting a global education
mindset became mutually reinforcing. There is a growing realization that the unique experiences that these institutional types have based on their historical legacies sets them apart from one another and, at the same time, provides an opportunity to incorporate a very distinct and genuine perspective on global issues into their classrooms and on their campuses via collaborative initiatives. As a result, the MFCI has fostered a fertile environment for cross-institutional collaboration and it has generated compelling ideas for collaborative projects. In order for the MFCI work to realize its full potential and for partners to take advantage of what they have learned and developed in Salzburg and elsewhere thus far, it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative aspect of this work. There is much potential and a realistic prospect for developing a more meaningful cooperation across the thirty-six colleges and universities involved, which could ultimately pave the way for a strong and wide-reaching consortium to be established. After five deeply rewarding years of designing, developing, and implementing the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative, the time has come to take stock and share results and experiences with a wider audience. We are grateful to everyone who is involved in the MFCI and to everyone who contributed to this publication. Special thanks goes to Sharon Watson-Fluker for coordinating the production of and editing this report and to Kymberli Roberts who worked tirelessly to implement the MFCIâ€™s US-based activities. We also extend our thanks to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for making this work possible.
Jochen Fried Director of Education Salzburg Global Seminar
David Goldman Associate Director of Education Salzburg Global Seminar
Jochen Fried and David Goldman have been involved in all stages of MFCI conceptualization, planning and implementation.
Assumptions, Realities, and Possibilities: Essays on Global Citizenship Education
Assumptions, Realities, and Possibilities: Essays on Global Citizenship Education The following essays address some of the assumptions, realities, and possibilities of bringing a more comprehensive approach to global education to the thirty-six participating institutions. The essay contributors come from a wide range of disciplines and area-interests, from large universities and small colleges, predominately black and predominately white institutions, they represent faculty, administrators, researchers and practitioners, and they are from different regions of the US and the world. Several contributors served as MFCI seminar or workshop lecturers or facilitators, while others participated in the MFCI as representatives of their institutions. The approach here is reflective of each contributorâ€™s observations, expertise, conceptual framework, and experience in weaving together a tapestry of new insights, models, or practices for those working to advance global citizenship education for the next generation of leaders.
in their classrooms, campuses, and communities. The projects developed and rich exchanges that occurred between faculty and administrators alike, in fact, led to several collaborative project initiatives that OvertonAdkins highlights as evidence. The two essays by Gasman and Abraham address the importance of stories and institutional narratives and the acknowledgement of recognizing shared attributes in the respective histories of ACAs and HBCUs as institutional types. For example, these shared attributes have led to a greater appreciation of â€œthe otherâ€? in a way that models the importance and advantages of faculty, students, and institutions to embrace global citizenship. Marybeth Gasman argues that because of the discovery of some common ground, these institutional types are uniquely positioned to serve as prime examples fostering cross-racial conversations locally and globally. However, learning how to tell and re-tell their stories is an important first step in maximizing this potential and is at the core of the argument by Abraham and Gasman. In her essay entitled Retelling Our Institutional Narratives: Creating Unexpected Spaces for Global Citizenship Education (the product of an MFCI workshop at North Carolina Central University in November 2012), Keshia Abraham suggests that the MFCI allowed participants to take a deeper look at the stories of each institution by working across institutions in group settings and in one-on-one engagement. By doing so, participants gained both understanding and courage to re-frame the histories of their institutions in a way that uncovers the sometimes latent connection to (global) citizenship and thus adds legitimacy for future collaborative work. To illustrate her point, Abraham examines the history and mission of several ACA and HBCU institutions in exploring some of these common factors.
There are ten articles grouped around five core themes that significantly inform our thinking about both resources and strategies for global citizenship education. The first two essays by Moses and Overton-Adkins provide a broad canvas in exploring the possibilities of institutional collaboration among ACA and HBCU institutions by looking at institutional legacy, mission, and the first efforts of institutional partnerships. Yolanda Moses reviews the legacies and missions of both ACA and HBCU institutions in The ACA, HBCU and MFCI: (Unlikely?) Partners for Making a Difference in Global Education. Moses believes this history can support the promise of a Global Education Consortium (GEC) among them as a way to further explore the continuing global problems of race and racism. In The Evolution of Collaboration: HBCUs and the ACA Building Capacity to Develop Global Citizenship, Betty Overton-Adkins makes the case that while collaboration in higher education does not come easy, the MFCI provided the possibilities for new partnerships to develop by giving the institutions both space and time to develop and implement projects that infuse global perspectives
While the MFCI began as a loose group of HBCU and ACA institutions around global citizenship education,
one of the underlying goals of the entire Initiative was to create a space for innovative collaborative work across institutions. The third group of essays highlights examples of initial MFCI global collaborations. Cynthia Lucas Hewitt, Najwa Gadaheldam, and Charles T. Moses explore the creation of the Atlanta University Community—Global Citizenship Learning Community (AUC-GCLC) in their essay entitled, Making Peace in Darfur White Paper and HBCU Global Citizenship Initiative on Sudan. The AUC-GCLC collaboration led to an ongoing engagement between Hewitt, Moses, and Gadaheldam that ultimately led to the drafting of a formal “white paper” that reached the US State Department as it was articulating its new diplomatic strategy towards Sudan at a critical juncture. Bringing their expertise as scholars and activists, the paper advocated for a culture of dialogue rather than one only of military intervention or humanitarian aid.
the development of global consciousness for students should always be reflected in the primary education goals of the institution. This has been done at Wheeling Jesuit University and as a result of established learning objectives across the university, faculty have worked to align them with learning outcomes that aid their students in the acquisition of awareness and knowledge of global issues. The final essay in this group is by Tracy Parkinson, formerly Dean of the Faculty and Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs at King University and currently Provost of Coker College in Hartsville, SC. In his essay entitled Learning and Leading: Building Collaborations Across Campus and an ACA Institution, Parkinson makes the strong case that the global learning ethos that developed at King University has contributed over time to student experiences beyond the campus gates. There are several critical components of this King experience including freshmen class travel to Washington, DC and Italy May Term/France Summer, both opportunities that contribute to global education and awareness for the students—but more importantly, Parkinson suggests these opportunities have aligned university administrators and faculty across the campus as true stakeholders.
Bennett College for Women and King University began a cross-institutional partnership to engage select students from both campuses in a global citizenship experience built on the intersection of race, class, gender, and faith. This ongoing initiative has seen students and faculty travel to Salzburg Global Seminar in Austria for sessions on Global Citizenship. Karla M. McLucas and Mark Dollar describe in their essay, Nuts and Bolts: Some Reflections on Making a Cross Institutional Project Work, how the partnership evolved from the work that both institutions were developing as part of their MFCI projects. They describe the journey of climbing the mountain of expectations, hopes, challenges, planning, and reflection in working to develop a model of cooperation between an ACA and HBCU institution. These institutions have made such significant strides that two student sessions have taken place in spring 2012 and spring 2013.
The final essay is by Walter E. Fluker, currently Martin Luther King, Jr. Professor of Ethical Leadership in the School of Theology at Boston University in Boston, MA and previously Executive Director of Morehouse College’s Leadership Center. His essay, entitled Cultural Identity and Inclusive Societies: Infusing Diversity and Culture into Character Education, is devoted to outlining the strategies and resources needed for diversity through ethical leadership education and represents the final theme. Unlike other essays in this section addressing the perspective of faculty and administrators, Fluker worked with students during the MFCI session for students which emphasized ethical engagement and leadership in the 21st century. The essay outlines a methodological approach as it is related to character education in the development of ethical student leaders.
Essays by Cunningham, Drnach, and Parkinson encourage us to look at the collaboration within an institution as a case study in efforts on how to work across departments, offices, and centers on a single campus with each contributor providing a framework or model for thinking about student learning around global awareness. Kiran Cunningham’s essay, entitled Structured Reflection for Transformative Learning: Linking Home and Away, includes research from students’ experiences in contexts of service learning and study abroad at Kalamazoo College. She raises a key question here: How do we maximize the transformative educational potential of study abroad and other off-campus border-crossing experiences and minimize the chances of those experiences resulting in a hardening of stereotypes? The essay offers a model of structured reflection that has been used broadly across departments (career center, advising center, etc.) and includes students’ experiences along with campuscurricular structures and pedagogical practices before and after many kinds of co-curricular activities. In Redefining Learning Outcomes for Global Citizenship Education, Mark Drnach argues that a guiding framework that supports
Taken together, these essays help us to understand some of the early assumptions characterizing these institutional types; some of the realities they face as they seek to expand their work in global citizenship education; and the future possibilities of collaboration as we imagine the work ahead.
The ACA, HBCUs and the MFCI: (Unlikely?) Partners for Making a Difference in Global Education – Yolanda T. Moses
The Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI) has mission-driven. Most serve local and regional populations, demonstrated over the life of the project that the and all of them care profoundly about the access and participants have developed a determined commitment success of their students, many of them who are the first to the idea and the possibilities of the MFCI as well as the in their families to go to college. So, the overall goal of commitment to global citizenship education. It has been this project: “to work with select colleges that are either my privilege to be a part of the genesis of the project, but Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) or to also witness and participate in the process of watching members of the Appalachian College Association (ACA) it grow and mature as well. In this short essay, I want to bring more comprehensive institutional approaches to focus on the significance of this partnership going to global education at and among the participating forward at several levels: 1) the Appalachian College institutions” seemed like a good place to start. Association (ACA) legacy; 2) the Historically Black College and Universities (HBCU) legacy; 3) the But the project became so promise of a GEC (Global Educational much more than that. It was an Consortium); and 4) tackling the The overall goal of this project: opportunity for Salzburg Global global problem of race and racism to work with select colleges that are Seminar to expand to work in a locally, nationally and globally. either Historically Black Colleges and new way with the MFCI program Universities (HBCU) or members of the and build new relationships. Appalachian College Association (ACA) to It also provided new facultyThe Mellon Fellow Community bring more comprehensive institutional to-faculty relationships for the Initiative (MFCI) approaches to global education at and participants from each of the This multi-year initiative was among the participating institutions. institutional partners. It opened designed to bring two sets of higher up new ways of knowing about education institutions together that how to bring the concept of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has had a long track global education to similar but distinct institutional record of supporting separately. Thanks to the foresight of types in the United States, and how to make it relevant to the Mellon Foundation, in particular Vice President Philip their “place and space.” I will go into more detail below E. Lewis and former Program Officer, Carlotta Arthur, the about the potential for a unique win-win opportunity for project was launched. As an anthropologist who studies everyone. But first let’s take a closer look at the legacies the culture of American higher education among other of these two unique higher education clusters. There things, I was fascinated to learn about the similarities are almost 5,000 institutions of higher education in the that these small, mostly private liberal arts institutions United States, but none with more uniquely American shared. Over the five years that I have been involved with historical roots than ACA and HBCU institutions. Salzburg Global Seminar’s MFCI, I became more and more convinced that this project has the potential to impact our understanding of global education in this country and abroad. Both sets of institutions are extremely
The ACA Higher Education Legacy
and others. In 2005, the UNCF supported approximately The Appalachian College Association is a non-profit 65,000 students at over 900 colleges and universities with consortium of thirty-six private four-year liberal arts approximately $113 million in grants and scholarships. colleges and universities, spread across the central About 60% of these students are the first in their families Appalachian mountains in Kentucky, North Carolina, to attend college, and 62% have annual family incomes of Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Collectively less than $25,000. UNCF also administers over 450 named these higher education institutions serve approximately scholarships. 42,500 students. The Association helps develop and share ideas, information, programs, and resources to achieve The Promise of the GEC its goals, which include promoting cooperation and In the course of the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative, collaboration among its member the idea emerged to work towards institutions to serve the people the creation of a free-standing of Appalachia through higher A partnership would also provide an and self-organized consortium education and related services. opportunity to redefine, deepen and of like-minded ACA and HBCU Most of these institutions are widen our understanding of localinstitutions to promote global financially challenged, with very global relationships around the many citizenship education and to small endowments, so any support dimensions of identity (including race/ place the cooperation of these by ACA goes a long way. Primary ethnicity, national origin, class, gender, institutions on a firm and longefforts of ACA are directed toward sexuality, transgender, and questioning term footing. A Global Educational strengthening faculty by helping identities) of our own students. Consortium (GEC) made up of them stay current in their subject the selected institutions has the matter through graduate and potential to shape a unique higher post-graduate study and research; but ACA also provides education partnership that is a win-win for the Andrew students from ACA institutions with research experiences W. Mellon Foundation, ACA, and HBCUs. The MFCI is that supplement their basic courses. They also have laying the groundwork for the future formation of a activities currently supported by their own globalization GEC: The readiness and ability to tie MFCIâ€™s commitment initiatives which include: Mellon Faculty Fellowships, to globalization and citizenship to each participating support for using the Global Perspectives Inventory (GPI), institution through the reaffirmation of the Mission and and Global Education Faculty/Staff Development, along Vision statements of the institutions, a re-articulation of with NAFSA: The Health and Safety in Study Abroad core values with a focus on affirming or reaffirming the workshop, and the annual Teaching & Learning Institute. role of core values, and finally creating a way forward It is against this backdrop that we will now turn to the to implement this work by focusing on both short and HBCU legacy. long range strategic goals. A partnership would also provide an opportunity to redefine, deepen and widen our understanding of local-global relationships around the The HBCU Higher Education Legacy many dimensions of identity (including race/ethnicity, Most HBCUs were established after the American Civil War. national origin, class, gender, sexuality, transgender, and However, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania, established questioning identities) of our own students. In addition, in 1837, Lincoln University, PA (1854), and Wilberforce it would provide the opportunity to bring critical masses University (1856), were founded for blacks prior to the of international faculty, staff and students to understand American Civil War. In 1863, the Morrill Act provided for what their experiences of global citizenship are in GEC land grant colleges in each state. Seventeen states, mostly institutions. A GEC would allow a more effective sharing in the South, generally excluded blacks from their land of existing curricula, as well as the opportunity to think grant colleges. In response, the second Morrill Act of 1890 in new ways about exponentially more possibilities for was passed to require states to establish a separate land offerings to their students in language training, study grant college for blacks if blacks were being excluded from abroad and study away programs. the then existing land grant colleges. The Higher Education Act of 1965 established a program for direct federal grants to HBCUs, including federal matching of private Explore Joint Legacy of History and Place endowment contributions. The Thurgood Marshall College There are several ways that the ACA-HBCU partnership Fund raises money for the public historically black colleges organically fits together to do the work that would make and universities. The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) both sets of institutions stronger together. They have the is an American philanthropic organization that fundraises potential to create a partnership that can take the MFCI to college tuition money for black students and general the next level. Some of these areas include the following: scholarship funds for thirty-nine private historically black colleges and universities. The UNCF was incorporated on â€˘ Geography/archeology of the South: Both sets April 25, 1944 by Frederick D. Patterson (then president of of institutions share a space and place called what is now Tuskegee University), Mary McLeod Bethune, Appalachia. In this geography there is a history that
connects the students and community from each set of institutions to a common history with the land through immigration, migration, slavery, farming, and settlement. There is the potential of creating interesting history and archaeology classes to explore these relationships. •
want all of our institutions to do for our students. This project has the potential to be a model for the rest of the nation and beyond.
The promise of the GEC is that all of these initiatives can be achieved through joint programs and future activities to leverage best practices in a time of fiscal austerity.
History of social relations: These geographical relationships lead to a deeper understanding of social relations among the diverse people who lived and continue to live in Appalachia. Exploration of such issues as immigration to the region, white indentureship, slavery, freedmen, land acquisition, including Native American experiences in the region (The Trail of Tears, for example) would be important to this understanding. It also provides an opportunity to explore what are the twentieth and 21st century global impacts on the region, especially through migration and immigration of people from other parts of the globe.
These activities include:
Economic relations: Understanding that globalization is not new in South is critical. In fact, from the 16th century through the 21st century Appalachia was involved in the global triangle of slave trade, forced labor and economic migration. There have been global flows in the region for a long time. Connection to the land: There is another way that ACA and HBCU institutions can connect to the land, and that is through a deeper understanding of how sustainability is important to the region. Students can understand the stewardship issues of the natural resources of the region, and what is lost if the current generation of people living in the region do not take issues like fracking, the over-mining of coal, and the over-cutting of timber in the Smokey Mountains seriously. These are finite resources and students of both sets of institutions can learn how what is happening to natural resources in Appalachia has repercussions worldwide. Strong religious beliefs: People from both ACA and HBCU institutions come from strong religious traditions. By viewing the mission statements from both sets of institutions it is clear that many of them have religious, community service and social justice traditions that complement each other. There is an opportunity for joint teaching, learning and research by exploring the intersection between spirituality and global citizenship education.
Curriculum: We can begin to look at the curriculum in new and innovative ways. We can explore developing new global education courses, the creation of learning communities, interdisciplinary courses, new ways to teach language courses, the development of specialized globalization certificates, and the development of minors and majors—all tailor-fitted to needs and circumstances of ACA and HBCU institutions and always with the goal to benefit from each other’s perspectives and experiences.
Study abroad and beyond: We can explore the creation of study-away programs, study-in-place programs, the introduction of technology, and social media in the creation of new networks for local and global educational engagements. There is also the importance of bringing new voices into the mix to study use of technology.
Developing assessment models that work for HBCU/ ACA institutions: These tools and models to assess student learning outcomes with regard to global competence could be custom-made to elucidate traits of both sets of institutions.
Developing joint HBCU/ACA research projects: These joint efforts could bring together research projects of relevance to global citizenship writ large that include undergraduate students, graduate students, faculty and administrators from both sets of institutions.
The Race Project as a Case Study I want to present a case study of how a joint project between an ACA and HBCU institution might look at an issue that is both local and global in its scope and that has traction in the way that we as Americans see each other, how other people in the world see us, and how people construct their notions of identity here in the US and abroad. Today seems an auspicious time to forge new ways to teach about race: what it is, and what it isn’t—from a biological, cultural, archaeological and linguistic perspective. With the election of an “AfricanAmerican” President in 2008, a person whose mother was an American anthropologist and whose father came from Kenya, Barack Obama appears to be forging new ways to
Legacy of race: Finally, there is also an opportunity to create a space for students from predominately white institutions and predominately black institutions to examine the issues of race and identity in both a local and global context. Educating students to live and work in a diverse democracy is what we say we
be a bi-racial and multi-faceted American, helping many approach the issues surrounding race in new ways.
social science, and provide more than ten lesson plans that address biological and cultural variation, and the experience of living with race and racism. The facultyteacher’s guides include some of the background material and lesson plans published in a related book for teachers, How Real is Race? A Sourcebook on Race, Culture, and Biology by Carol Mukhopadhyay, Rosemary Hence, and Yolanda Moses (2007).
To help professors, teachers and students begin a fruitful discussion about race, the American Anthropological Association (AAA) undertook a major initiative on race, sponsoring a large exhibition RACE: Are We So Different? which opened at the Science Museum of Minnesota in January 2007. With generous support from the National Science Foundation and the Ford Foundation, this exhibition is designed to change the way professors and teachers teach about race; a subject that Americans in general are often reluctant to talk about. In addition, exhibition developers designed a family guide to help parents talk to their young children about race (see www.understandingrace.org/resources). The guide presents activities, stories, and exercises for parents and children to do together as well as offering suggestions for discussions about race. Through the lenses of science, history, and how race is lived in “everyday life,” project developers provided a platform for discussing one of our society’s most complex issues—using the disciplinary lens of anthropology.
Today, the main exhibition (three copies) continues its national tour to more than thirty-five cities across the country, including Washington, DC where it appeared at the National Museum of Natural History from June through December 2011. It will continue its national tour through 2014. In addition to the main exhibition, there is a second 5,000 sq. ft. version of the exhibit and a third 1500 sq. ft. version of the exhibit designed so that smaller exhibit spaces around the nation could take advantage of this tremendous resource. Currently, the researchers who started this project are in the process of learning from faculty and teachers who have used the project materials whether or not these materials met their expectations and whether they have changed the way they approach the subject, both in the social sciences and in the biological sciences and archaeology. They are seeking additional funding from NSF for this new project.
The goal of the RACE: Are We So Different? project is to produce a traveling exhibit, a website, and educational materials to convey a comprehensive and integrative story about race and human variation. The story, geared for students and adults, carries three overall messages: •
Race is a recent human invention;
Race is about culture, not biology;
Race and racism are embedded in our institutions and everyday life.
What has really been surprising in the years since the RACE exhibit, award-winning website, and additional materials have been available is the realization that there is still such a strong need and desire for continuing conversation about race in America—well beyond those of faculty, teachers and students. Anthropological materials from the RACE project have, indeed, stirred conversations in museums, and in classrooms for all ages from elementary school to university levels. But such discussions have also been generated in rural, suburban and urban communities, in civil society and social justice groups and organizations, in corporate board rooms, in arts organizations, in state agencies (for example, the child protection agency of Texas), and in government circles, including local, state and federal governmental organizations and agencies.
The exhibit and its website explore three themes: •
The history of the idea of race;
The science of human variation;
The experience of living with race and racism.
Looking Ahead As the US public confronts the notion that race and racism are more complex, nuanced, and prevalent than many believe, now is the time to ask collectively as anthropologists and as educators, what are the next steps for a public anthropology of race project? How would such a project connect to the MFCI project as we move forward with the possible collaboration between ACA and HBCUs? Consider the following:
The website, www.understandingrace.org, includes a virtual tour of the RACE exhibit, videos, historical timelines, activities, and quizzes, as well as scholarly papers. Faculty, teachers and families can access further education materials in the website’s resources section. Two faculty guides present race and human variation through the integrated lenses of biology, culture and history. The guides meet national and select state standards for science, biology, social studies, and
The RACE project’s key messages were developed
several years ago for a broad public. How can we combine additional ethnographic and other forms of anthropological knowledge to elaborate upon these messages and produce new programming illuminating the dynamics of race and racism? What new research topics and findings should inform this process? How can we best deal with genetics and race? •
What greater role can anthropology departments and other humanities and social sciences departments play in developing and implementing RACE programming especially given that the smaller version of the exhibit will likely be seen in university and college venues? Is there a special role for graduate students who comprise the next generation of humanists and social scientists, and who often assume important teaching responsibilities in introductory-level undergraduate courses?
How can the RACE project be used in efforts to develop, maintain, and perhaps repair relationships between universities and their surrounding communities including local schools?
Among ACA and HBCU institutions, what are the prospects for, and impediments to, the types of intraand interdisciplinary commitments necessary for addressing today’s and tomorrow’s social problems? For example, is there a broad social justice vision of human difference that can guide RACE and position it as a platform for future public engagement projects in these institutions?
I hope that educators reading this article will look for the exhibit when it comes to their area. (See www.aaanet.org/race for a traveling schedule.)
Dr. Yolanda T. Moses is Professor of Anthropology, Associate Vice Chancellor For Diversity, Equity And Excellence, and Director For Conflict Resolution at the University of California Riverside. She participated as faculty in several Mellon Fellow Community Initiative sessions and workshops.
The Evolution of Collaboration: HBCUs and ACA Building Capacity to Develop Global Citizenship – Betty Overton-Adkins
The issues facing the next generation globally demand that we educate our students worldwide to use all their resources, not just their mind or their hearts. The hour is late, the work is hard, and the stakes are high, but few institutions are better positioned to take up this work than our nation’s colleges and universities. Diana Chapman Walsh, President Emerita, Wellesley College
In 2011, Bennett College in North Carolina, one of the member institutions of the Appalachian Colleges Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Association (ACA). This Mellon-funded project started as and King University in Tennessee, a member of the a loose configuration of institutions brought together Appalachian College Association (ACA) sent students to around a common theme. It has evolved into budding a seminar on global citizenship at the Salzburg Global collaborative efforts that, while still formative, hold Seminar in Austria, not by coincidence as separate potential to create ongoing relationships in service to institutions, but intentionally as collaborators. Students the educational effectiveness of the involved institutions. from the institutions met prior to As these institutions learn to the seminar for preparation and collaborate with each other, they discussion about the issues, and Collaboration does not come easily to create a new diverse community then they met after the seminar higher education. of practice engaged in exploring to debrief, reflect, and think about educational strategies for how they would integrate the ideas developing global citizens. into their learning and lives. Bennett and King pioneered this collaborative effort, and their effort also catalyzed But collaboration does not come easily to higher education. the attendance of students from Ferrum College (Virginia) In a 2008 Inside Higher Education article, Bill Bowen, longand West Virginia Wesleyan University, two other ACA time president of the Andrew Mellon Foundation, describes institutions. The session’s content focused on global the ability to get institutions to collaborate with each other citizenship and because of the backgrounds and diverse as a “very difficult and unappreciated task” (Brown, 2008). racial make-up of the student group, the interactions For much of the history of the academy, as institutions created an enriched exploration of race, economics, of higher learning, our aloofness from community, other gender, and other issues in the context of globalization. institutions, and certainly what we described as “the real The encounter was a direct result of the collaboration world,” was part of the mystic of our existence. Many of that emerged from the Mellon Fellow Community our ivy-covered, fortress-resembling walls harkened back Initiative (MFCI). The mechanisms that led to this to our medieval cloister heritage, where, in isolation, early enriching experience for students are part of the learning scholars and students labored at the work of exploration process for fostering collaboration in higher education. and learning. Barbara Holland (2005), who studies various types of university collaboration, reminds us that academic The MFCI is a collaborative learning effort between organizations were designed to be highly self-referential. Historically Black Colleges and Universities and the Historically, it was in these isolated, self-absorbed 23
environments that we, teachers and learners, could devote ourselves to deep thought and the development of new knowledge. But that isolation, of necessity, did not last. The complexity of modern society runs counter to this early model. We are discovering, at least metaphorically, that the world really is flat, and in a global, interconnected society and system of higher education, our ability to educate effectively means not relying exclusively on our own resources but seeking out others of like (and different) goals. We have watched businesses and the health industry move comprehensively into the collaboration arena, stirred by increased competition. Higher education, too, is coming to understand the benefits of collaboration and partnership as part of the process of augmenting the learning process, extending resources (human and financial), and providing opportunity for shared intellectual growth. It is often in this collective action with others that higher education moves the needles of progress not only for individual institutions but also for our shared societal and global agendas.
From the outset, the project had three foundational characteristics that worked toward its potential success in supporting the institutions. First, the project brought the institutions together around a compelling and relevant idea: globalization, a concept that was gaining student and faculty interest on the various campuses. The institutions understood they would not be providing an effective, contemporary education unless they developed more meaningful ways to engage students in the complexity of the world beyond the United States. The campuses were motivated by a desire to convey the intricate linkages and relationships of a global society to the felt lives of students, but also the daily actions of their students. Among the institutions that signed onto the project, there also seemed to be a keen sense that while instruction and activities were already being implemented on the campuses, the outcomes needed to be better, more intentional and more impactful. Attendees talked about specific outcomes, such as increasing international travel, helping students see how globalization had come to their local communities, and embedding issues of globalization into the core curriculum and across the disciplines. Faculty were interested in enriching their own instruction by being more knowledgeable, and they struggled with how they might add value to students’ understanding of what it means to live in a global society. The collective group wanted to know how they assessed the outcomes of the work on globalization, to make it better.
The Foundation of the HBCU and ACA Global Citizenship Collaborations Institutional collaboration was only a whisper of a vision when the Mellon Foundation funded the MFCI. The project’s goal was to provide an opportunity for participating colleges to develop and implement projects that would expand their institutions’ ability to infuse impactful global perspectives into the classroom, the campus environment, and the local communities. Planners could see the possibilities of the target institutions collaborating together around this work, but given past experiences, they did not include this outcome as part of the project’s focus. Rather, the project was designed as a series of individually focused institutional development programs for select HBCUs and ACA member colleges and universities.
Second, the project had a base of initial support from a foundation with a history of working with these institutions. The involvement of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation was a stimulus for leveraging both interest and institutional support. The involvement of the Foundation helped signify the importance of the work, that it was recognized and supported. Presidents of all institutions participating in the MFCI were involved by nominating the teams that attended the seminars and by approving the share of the costs that each institution was expected to contribute. Key administrators, including provosts, vice presidents for academic affairs, and deans joined the implementation teams. The Mellon involvement was instrumental in assuring that senior leadership was in place to move discussion from isolated project ideas to institutional impact. The Foundation had the clout and long-standing connection with the institutions to be able to invite them into a new relationship with each other. The project was different in form and focus from other work with the ACA consortium and the HBCUs, but it capitalized on knowledge of the institutions and the theme of globalization, an area of interest to the Foundation. The Foundation’s long-standing connection with the institutions also meant the schools had confidence this was not just a one-time flash effort but part of a sustained commitment to their institutions. While the Foundation could have funded separate projects
The coupling of the two groups in the same project was an acknowledgement of some shared characteristics: they both serve communities and target populations frequently underrepresented in higher education; they both represent institutions often under-resourced to carry out their ambitious educational missions; and both groups, by the nature of their constituents, needed to make significant efforts to ensure their students are connected to the new world of globalization. There were even some past, sporadic efforts to create joint activities, but little sustained connections between the two groups of institutions had emerged. While they were clustered in the South, they represented a wide and diverse geographic mix of urban-centered and rural institutions. The possibility of a shared project presented an opportunity for mining lessons learned and applying those lessons to leverage greater institutional effectiveness and perhaps some broader thinking across the groups.
for the two types of institutions, it understood the benefit that might be garnered from shared learning opportunities. Bowen’s and others’ sense of the difficulty of collaboration did not erase the knowledge of its importance and the potential for creating environments that might promote its development. In the shared learning environment of the MFCI, there was both the opportunity for an efficiency of resource utilization but also the possibility – though not the promise – of collaboration.
individuals to build relationships, to surface shared agendas and experiences, to understand points of difference, and to create openness to experimentation around joint concerns across institutions. As in such settings, conversations spilled over between formal class discussions and late night debates. These personal interactions were an important element for allowing the attending faculty and administrators to invest in rich exchanges foundational for expanding thinking from individual campus strategies to a more systems view of what it means to educate global citizens.
Third, the project began with a common learning experience for the institutions. This experience was an inviting and unifying environment: Salzburg The Evolution of Collaboration Global Seminar. A 2008 announcement of the funded The research literature on institutional collaboration project described it as: “ACA Schools and HBCUs find indicates there is no single factor responsible for creating common ground in Salzburg, Austria” (Salzburg Global successful partnerships or collaborations. There are, Seminar press release, 2008). This particular setting was however, a number of factors that seem most prominent catalytic for the building of collaboration. Since 2004, in successful relations. Barbara Holland (2001) in Salzburg Global Seminar had provided opportunities her work on community engagement partnerships for bringing college students and faculty to Austria identifies a number of elements important to effective for intense learning sessions, immersing them in the collaboration. Two of Holland’s elements that became issues of globalization and evident in the work of the MFCI global citizenship. The goal of include: exploration of shared the Global Citizenship Program The organized and informal conversations goals, interests, and limitations is “enhancing the capacity of in a safe environment allowed and identification of a common colleges and universities to individuals to build relationships, agenda. The evolution of these address the new opportunities to surface shared agendas and elements within the MFCI was and challenges posed to them experiences, to understand points of enabled by the foundational in the age of globalization” difference, and to create openness to characteristics noted above. The (www.salzburgglobal.org/ experimentation around joint concerns shared goal and interest for all of go/GCP). Salzburg Global’s across institutions. the institutions was established international reputation as as part of being involved in the a place for important crossproject. It was clearly stated disciplinary dialogues with a global perspective enabled as: “prepare students for lives and careers in an everit to partner with a broad variety of American colleges changing and globalized world while instilling in them and universities, giving students and faculty time and a the skills and desire to become better global citizens.” conducive environment to wrestle with difficult world All the involved HBCUs and the ACA institutions arrived issues. Guided by expert faculty and facilitators, the at Salzburg for the first seminar with some notion that setting encourages intense work within an environment they would be focusing on this idea as outlined in the of open dialogue and sharing. In truth, the Salzburg application for participation. The institutions had that setting was also an inducement for participation. as a general framework for their efforts, though the Moreover, the combination of new institutional actual project initiatives were stated in narrower terms connections and an inviting place provided sufficient such as expanding a study abroad program, infusing impetus for learning to happen and creativity to surface. globalization into the general education program, Participants acknowledged that their selection for or making globalization a central theme for a firstthis international trip served as a motivator and acted year program. The proposals submitted to be part of as a vote of confidence in their ability to make this the project provided evidence of an array of activities institutional investment pay off. Framing the meetings at various levels of sophistication, maturity, and in Salzburg paid off in eager attendance, stimulating institutional support. Each institution came into the learning environment, and intellectual and social project with different approaches to globalization and bonding. how it should be “taught” through their educational programs—curricular and co-curricular. The MFCI came Part of the Salzburg environment was the structured at a time when the institutions were already pursuing dialogic approach to ideas, allowing participants to find related activities. For example, most had some form common ground even as they discussed controversial of international travel available to students and some and unsolved issues. In other words, the organized and instruction embedded in general education. The MFCI informal conversations in a safe environment allowed became a catalyst to accelerate the work, broaden their
thinking, brainstorm new ideas, and learn from others. The web description of the initial seminar was indicative of that focus: “The main purpose of the seminar was to refine the project outlines so that they could be implemented effectively at the home institution.” The planners certainly imagined the possibility of shared learning and cross-fertilization of efforts, but the development of formal collaborations between the institutions was not a major initial component. David Goldman, Associate Director of Education, noted, “The parameters of the grant allowed us to explore visions of what structure [for collaboration] would look like and the possibilities that exist but they did not allow us to develop or implement it. …People are interested and would be committed to doing so if the circumstances allowed.”
from the project. Other collaborations have come from sharing knowledge about how schools have incorporated globalization into the core curriculum at some schools. A group of schools are continuing discussion about the development of an assessment tool that might be jointly developed and used, creating an assessment reference group to compare data outcomes.
Though less formally organized than some of the student learning activities, there has also been an increase in collaborative contact among faculty from the partner institutions related to pedagogical approaches to incorporating global issues into the classroom, shared study aboard opportunities and joint meetings related to a variety of projects focused on globalization. For example, the recent Obama inauguration became an opportunity for conversations between Campbellsville While institutions arrived with a common interest University and faculty from Howard and the University in globalization, there was no of the District of Columbia common agenda. However, in about the possibility of student the course of the MFCI work, The main purpose of the seminar was interactions. the goal of the project became to refine the project outlines so that a common agenda and focus for they could be implemented effectively All of the emerging collaboration the group, as they began to see at the home institution. has not only been between HBCUs their individual project efforts in and ACA members. The project the larger context of developing has reconnected members within global citizens. This vision of the global citizen became the HBCU group. One of the most successful forms of the common thread around which to re-imagine the faculty research collaboration from the initiative resulted work across institutions. It was in the dialogic and from work undertaken by professors from Atlantaplanning processes that conversations emerged about based Clark Atlantic University, Morehouse College, and the commonality of purpose, shared experiences and Spelman College in conjunction with Salzburg Global eventually the possibility of shared action among groups Seminar faculty member Najwa Gadaheldam from the of institutions toward this agenda. The issue of education Sudan (see the article in this section about Darfur). After designed to produce global citizens highlighted a meeting Gadaheldam at Salzburg, the three HBCUs sense that “random acts of globalization,” a term that decided they needed to jointly take an active voice in became part of the shared lexicon of the seminar, while influencing US policy toward Sudan. Working with laudable, would not produce the changes that all of the Gadaheldam and partnering with the Carter Center in institutions identified as desirable, and the question Atlanta, the schools collaborated on the development of surfaced whether more intentional and coordinated a white paper on the conditions in the Sudan. The paper efforts might move institutions to greater impact was submitted to the US State Department. In addition, for their students but also for their communities. In the institutions also sent faculty members to Sudan to essence, in the interest of the global citizen vision, there observe the referendum election vote in January 2011. was a proposition that the institutions might do some The learning and data from these efforts are being things more effectively if they joined or coordinated integrated into the classrooms at the schools. efforts than each institution might do as a single entity. Additionally, the collective voices of the group might be more compelling than any single voice as they tried to Successes and Future Potential speak to their own visions about creating students who Given the difficulty of collaboration, even small see themselves as global citizens and who, in their daily successes are celebratory, and the MCFI successes are not habits, act out of that realization. insignificant for the time the project has been in place. And the work continues. Although the formal grant By the end of the formal project period, two areas of period has ended (after five years) the seeds that were collaboration had evolved around this agenda, one planted have two tangible outcomes: the development of involving student learning and another involving a new cadre of institutions as a body of practice, sharing faculty research and engagement. The description of the common language and experiences that knit their collaborative student learning experience at Salzburg at institutional work together, even when done separately; the opening of this paper is one direct example of the and an emerging number of collaborative efforts that type of student learning experiences that have resulted pave the way to future partnerships.
Betty Overton-Adkins is currently Director of the National Forum on Higher Education and the Public Good, and a Professor of Clinical Practice at the Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education at the University of Michigan; she is the former Vice President for Academic Affairs at Spring Arbor University in Michigan and has served as a facilitator for several MFCI seminars.
References Brown, Alice. 2008. “Collaboration among colleges: impossible
Holland, B. A. 2001. “Characteristics of engaged institutions and
mission?” Inside Higher Education. August 19.
sustainable partnerships, and effective strategies for change.” Report, US Department of Housing and Urban Development,
Czajkowski, J. 2006. “Success factors in higher education
collaboration: the collaboration success measurement model.” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, UMI ProQuest
Mattessich, P. W., M. Murray-Close, and B.R. Money. 2001.
Digital Dissertation (3226184).
Collaboration: what makes it work (2nd ed.), St. Paul, MN: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.
Goldman, David, email to Betty Overton-Adkins, February 13, 2013.
Connecting Our Stories as ACA and HBCU Institutions – Marybeth Gasman
When I think about the Appalachian College Association income, first generation students. They are committed to (ACA) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities social justice and uplifting students. Moreover, both ACAs (HBCU) stories, I am immediately drawn to my own and HBCUs add value to their students’ lives and minds. personal story. I grew up in an area similar to those For example, the majority of students at ACAs and HBCUs communities surrounding the ACA schools – rural, poor, are underprepared due to a lack of access to college and mainly white in terms of the racial composition. preparatory courses in high school. They are also more However, because of my father’s deep racism and hatred likely to rely heavily on financial aid, which corresponds of blacks, I chose to learn the to their having more difficulty history of African Americans, graduating on time or at all from which led me to HBCUs and I’m sure that when the ACA and HBCU college. Whereas low-income, a career understanding these faculty came together for the first underprepared students often do venerable institutions and time, they felt similarly to me the first not succeed at many institutions, treasures of American history. In time I stepped foot on a black college they do much better at ACAs and many ways, my life and career campus. I was unsure, nervous, and HBCUs because these institutions are at the crossroads where ACAs somewhat afraid of the unknown. have special programs in place to and HBCUs come together – a However, after years of interaction and bolster students’ experiences, they white woman born out of rural learning, I feel wonderfully comfortable. have small faculty-student ratios, poverty inserting herself within and a long history of empowering African American culture. I’m students. ACAs and HBCUs take sure that when the ACA and HBCU faculty came together chances on students that many institutions overlook, for the first time, they felt similarly to me the first time adding value to their learning process. Lastly, these I stepped foot on a black college campus. I was unsure, institutions have a commitment to teaching and a love of nervous, and somewhat afraid of the unknown. However, learning that is tangible when one visits campus or talks after years of interaction and learning, I feel wonderfully to faculty and students. comfortable. Because ACAs and HBCUs have common attributes at During my time with members of ACA and HBCU their core, they have the potential to work together institutions participating in the Mellon Fellow across racial lines to make a difference in the lives Community Initiative (MFCI) collaborative, I was struck of their students and faculty. These institutions can by the interest on the part of both institutional types play a pivotal role in creating opportunities for racial in making sure their students partook in more global understanding. Of note, the faculties at ACAs and HBCUs experiences. I also noticed a yearning among the faculty are relatively homogenous, with more diversity at HBCUs. in terms of their own growth as it relates to global Cross-institutional and cross-racial conversations could experiences but also those experiences that cut across challenge both sets of faculties to think differently about racial lines in our own nation. each other and their students. After much deeper thinking, I realized that the ACA and HBCU institutions have more in common that they do in terms of differences. They share a commitment to low-
There are myriad ways to foster cross-racial conversations. First, both types of institutions can share their histories and common struggles. Although the
histories are not the same, ACAs and HBCUs have both demographics of the nation and thus the changing faced issues of poverty, bias, and even elimination at demographics of higher education. Seeing how the United times. Learning about each other’s histories can lead to States is changing rapidly often helps those who are not better understanding and a more genuine acceptance receptive to change to become more open. They see their of each other’s perspectives. Second, both the ACAs and own destiny and that of their children wrapped up in the HBCUs can share their regional histories and the diversity future and begin to contemplate what role they will play. of culture at their institutions. Currently, neither institutional type knows much about the other beyond Often times it is easier to foster cross-racial dialogue with what has been learned at the gatherings sponsored by financial support. Financial support tends to solidify the Salzburg Global Seminar. A deeper understanding of each seriousness of an effort. In order to garner funding, it is other will lead to greater collaboration among faculty and necessary to tie the cross-race/cross-institution efforts to students. Third, faculty and students across ACAs and larger issues such as retention efforts at ACAs and HBCUs. HBCUs could read a common book Both institutional types have or work on a common research challenges with regard to retention or service project in order to All of these efforts could lead to ACAs of students and working together engender community and trust. and HBCUs being models for higher to increase retention could All of these efforts could lead to education and across the nation for attract the attention of funders. ACAs and HBCUs being models for racial understanding. In addition, cross-institutional higher education and across the collaboration could also be linked nation for racial understanding. to degree attainment and career If these two institutional types – that have similarities placement as funders care deeply about both of these but are racially quite different – can come together and issues, and cross-institutional discussions could lead to bridge these differences, much is possible in terms of more opportunities and better practices. And, one of the racial cooperation and openness in our nation’s colleges best ways to secure funding for cross-institutional efforts and universities. is to track data at both institutions and around any collaborative efforts. Funders react well to data and use it Of course those individuals that have attended Salzburg to make funding decisions. Global Seminar gatherings, whether in Salzburg, Austria or in the United States, tend to be predisposed to having Much has resulted in the coming together of the ACAs cross-racial conversations that increase global learning. and HBCUs, but in order to have a lasting impact and However, when they get back to their home institutions, create a learning experience for other institutions, all of they often face resistance in their efforts to promote these institutions – individually and collectively – must these objectives on their relevant campuses. In order to learn how to tell their stories. Out of the meetings and curtail and ease this resistance, I suggest that people tell activities facilitated by Salzburg Global Seminar can their personal stories. Telling one’s story is powerful for spring forth an example of collaboration and learning both the storyteller and the listener and often stories can across institutional types that are often thought to have change perspectives and attitudes, especially if that story nothing in common and to be at odds with each other. is one of revelation and discovery. Telling stories of understanding and mutual goals will create opportunities for more institutions and individuals I also suggest that when trying to bring people together in the future. The learning is too important to be lost to a across racial lines, those involved remember that people lack of storytelling. rarely embrace difference when they are chastised or shamed. Racial understanding is more likely to take place when individuals do not feel threatened. Another strategy Marybeth Gasman is Professor of Higher is to locate commonalities between people, showing Education at the University of Pennsylvania those who resist that they have more in common with in Philadelphia, PA. She has served as a MFCI those they fear. One can also take a pragmatic approach workshop facilitator. to bringing people together. I often try to convince the most resistant individuals with data. I share the changing
Retelling Our Institutional Narratives: Creating Unexpected Spaces for Global Citizenship Education – Keshia N. Abraham
Yes, it is odd. The Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI) brings together Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Appalachian Colleges and Universities (ACAs) to establish greater awareness of global education on our individual and collective campuses. We seek to establish a legacy for this unlikely partnership that allows for conversations about race, class, gender, geography, and cross-cultural understanding to come to the surface. For each of us, at each of our institutions, there are several layers to the story we tell about international education and our participation with the MFCI.
that by collaborating across institutions to increase the numbers of students participating in international education opportunities, to support more faculty exchanges, and to foster genuine local change, something extraordinary was developing.
I am reminded of the very first meeting of our group of MFCI institutions in which we were being asked what felt like, for the first time, to take ownership of the institutional narrative in order to develop and sustain a connection between it and the work needed to advance global education. The mission was there but it had never been a direct part of how we consciously approached our During the initial meetings in Salzburg when we saw all work. It also seems as though the more common points of the institutional plans for internationalization and of emphasis involving the institutional mission were tied deliberate development of global to issues of heritage narrowly citizenship awareness, we were all defined. Suddenly the global impressed and pleasantly surprised Little by little, bit by bit, the awareness context was at the root of all to see our commonalities begin of how much commonality exists things meaningful. It became clear to leap off the posters scattered between these institution types that in order to bring awareness around the room. One after the became the constant central axis of to a level that would allow the other, these projects included the work we came together to do. actions to match the words, the words and phrases like “global entire campus – each branch, citizens,” “leadership,” “service,” each building, each program, each and each had an acute awareness of the relationship group – would need to understand the global discourses between the local and the global in their school and impacting them. We recognized that most of us were community. Little by little, bit by bit, the awareness of working with a “RAGS” approach to global education (our how much commonality exists between these institution internal tag for “Random Acts of Globalization”). and this types became the constant central axis of the work we was costing us riches. came together to do. Looking towards the impact we could make by working together, we saw for example, This initiative has included well-known and obscure how projects proposed by Appalachian college faculty to schools, well-endowed and underfunded, women’s bring more global awareness to their students, could also colleges and co-educational schools, religious and nonwork for HBCU faculty seeking to make similar advances affiliated, urban and rural, commuter and residential, at their very similar institutions. It became quite clear small and large. As such, establishing a legacy for this
project from this constellation of institutions affords new possibilities for exploring identity politics in the US. Not only would we be crafting sustainable international education opportunities, but our collaboration allows for deliberately challenging our students and our institutions’ engagement with local global issues. This work allows, for example, the consideration of contemporary racism impacting growth and intercultural exchange with HBCUs, which are mistakenly read as exclusively instead of historically or categorically black.
and energetic public policy initiatives. The international population is strong – 300 out of 3000 students are non-US. Campbellsville’s “Vision 25” program involves revisiting the mission and general education curriculum as they develop Christian-serving leaders. This program stems from a directive to “find your calling” by answering “the call” in each of these three ways: the call to service; the call to transform; and the call to be transformed. Like most of us, after the initial meeting, upon return to campus, there was initial genuine resistance to these “new” ideas about global citizenship. Then, rather subtly, within a year, the very people who thought it was a bad idea are now building on buzzwords like “global” and “bridging cultures.” A clear advantage and positive anchor at Campbellsville is their President, who since being installed in 2000, has been seen as somewhat of a “savior” to the institution and within the ACA community because of the past thirteen years of profound growth. The President owns the institutional story and the general feeling is that the university community loves their President for the transformations he has led.
So, “Who shapes the narrative? How do you talk about global at the institution?” Our colleague from Wheeling Jesuit, an Appalachian college in western Pennsylvania thought his story would be easy to tell because of how deeply connected their institutional identity is with their inherently global and compassionate Jesuit background. Although mission statements at some schools have changed a number of times, this is not the case at Jesuit schools where the mission is tied to church principles. However, being the youngest of the Jesuit schools in higher education, Wheeling Jesuit’s historical narrative is still being written. In the process of telling local Appalachian regional people how Jesuit education came into being, there is a growing awareness and interest in promoting excellence in education for self and for “others.” It is the intentionality of how “others” are defined that centers this institution’s work with the MFCI. Here the sense of “others” suggests an even broader scope. Because of their faith and mission base, there has always been verbal institutional support for international education, while questions about learning objectives and what it means for their students to be educated remain central. They have been engaged in the reform of institutional processes informed by these discussions to better implement and sustain their international work. Like many of the ACA schools involved in this project, largely the local narrative has been the perceived wall blocking international travel involving the notion that people from here don’t travel “over there.” This implies both that “travel is what ‘other’ people do” and that “people who are from here don’t travel.” “Study abroad wasn’t always easy as people from these communities haven’t associated themselves with going away.”
Davis & Elkins College, in isolated Elkins, West Virginia, also has a “savior” President who has done tremendous good to improve the institution during his tenure. With the support of their President, the identity of the school has evolved well over the past five years. They are a strong school in a small state where students “aren’t going out”. Here students pay in tuition what would be paid at a state school yet they are getting a private school experience with an intimate and personal education. Being a part of the MCFI has allowed and supported the insertion of global citizenship into discussions about institutional growth and change. Naturally, there is still work to be done but in their supportive environment there is a great sense of hope and commitment. A different kind of savior from an earlier generation ignites the narrative at North Carolina Central University. Their founder, James E. Shephard was an AfricanAmerican pharmacist who started NC Central in 1909 as a religious training school. It has since evolved into one of the premier institutions in the state. They are amongst nine HBCUs in North Carolina. What has always distinguished them is their commitment to their purpose and the narrative of their founding. Despite having been burned down and rebuilt, this institution has consistently rallied around a critical imperative to provide education for masses of black people. Somehow, after each crisis, a benefactor came forward to rebuild and through their strength they have always kept the doors open. Imagine the time period in which this school was established. Think of the lack of funds and contemplate the magnitude of the personal commitments and contributions of a handful of faculty and family. “Truth and Service” has always been the motto here. There is an understory about the legacy of service that somehow
For Campbellsville University, the narrative starts with the founding of the Kentucky Baptist Convention. The institution was previously called Russell Creek College. It was a Baptist college until the mid 90s when two things happened to transform the identity: the Great Commission and the largest employers in the region both closed down within sixteen months of each other. Thus, the institution faced large questions like how to be relevant in a community that might not exist in fifteen years. Religious affiliation still being central to their identity, Campbellsville seeks to find a bridge between the secular and religious story such that service is seen more as missions to the rest of the world, racial reconciliation,
makes it such that every faculty member of their MFCI team is also an alumnus of the school.
world. In contemporary times, many of their students come from outside Appalachia, and the mountains no longer serve merely (as one of the Brevard colleagues said) ‘to isolate us, but to attract students to our campus and connect our academic community to the larger global community’. In this context, the experiential liberal arts education must serve to heighten students’ awareness of the institution and its place in the broader Appalachian environment and the local, national, and global community to which it is increasingly, symbiotically connected. The students’ personal growth must of necessity include awareness of global responsibility as a part of their identity, and they must be inspired to action with the understanding that their personal decisions have global effect. “Learn in order to serve”, the college motto, in this sense is as relevant now as it ever was.
In the 1930s, NC Central (then North Carolina Durham) had international faculty (particularly political refugees from Germany, but people today don’t know how they came here) – that story has yet to be told. Some of their international faculty came from NC State. North Carolina Central benefactors have included Mary Duke and the Duke Family, showing their understanding of the need for quality education for African Americans. Questions remain about the direction of the institution as a teaching school or the need to continue to shift the focus to research. At present these are both priorities. Some of the faculty feel that they are moving away from teaching to too much research focus. Although there are new Ph.D. programs, some faculty want the foundation to remain on teaching. Current institutional research focuses on health disparities (especially for African-Americans).
King University also has a liberal arts core, but their professional schools are their primary focus. As such the institutional culture has shifted and now rather than seeing themselves as liberal arts, the vision is more akin to a comprehensive college making potentially more room for global engagement even on a local level. Now King’s programs include a cross-cultural experience requirement and efforts are being made to develop a reflective document explaining what was transformative about their MFCI work in particular ways. Assessment tools like this are becoming increasingly necessary in order to ascertain students’ learning success beyond the experiential. Similar work is also underway at Brevard College.
Here the struggle has been with focus not identity. Are outside interests influencing shifts in institutional approaches to the mission? Truth and Service have remained constant through this work with the MFCI as well as other partnerships; service has expanded to mean international. Students and faculty are involved in service abroad and at home despite questions from friends and family who ask: “How can you go abroad when there are so many needy people in America?” To this the answer at NC Central is, “Why can’t we do both?” As such they have been intentional about implementing a program that converts service to dollars, increasing fiscal responsibility and encouraging spatial responsibility. There is recognition here that by taking students abroad who may not have gone elsewhere, they are getting more and more students to graduate. It is amazing to think of the founding father and his dream for this 102-yearyoung institution within this global context.
Lindsey Wilson College started as a “normal” school in 1903, intending to teach women to become teachers, and it now has 26 sites in five states. Education is still the largest program. Recently the institution purchased a small house to use as the Center for Global Engagement. They added a global designation tag to all relevant general education courses. The college is beginning to capitalize on the opportunities in Kentucky for larger populations of people without English as a first language in cities like Bowling Green, and the recent settling of Latino farmers. English language learners present new higher education opportunities which Lindsay Wilson is well prepared to offer. This school is seen as a safe space (like a community) where “enrich and empower” is the mission and there is a genuine hope that people will not leave their local communities. Fear of leaving is a reality in this catchment group. As on most campuses, preparations for the college’s reaccreditation visit by Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) is creating a sense of singular focus. Given this climate, the current emphasis on their MFCI project is trying to get faculty and administration to understand why they should care about global citizenship. The school has recognized its “glocal” reach by expanding into these other states. The institutional identity is very much rooted in their commitments to community.
For some institutions like Brevard College, the process of change has recently drastically changed the kind of alumni it graduates and therefore the kind of educational community it provides. Like Ferrum College did in 1970, Brevard became a four-year college fifteen years ago, necessitating substantial institutional change, and it has shifted from its Methodist religious affiliation. The new designation is historical rather than a direct church affiliation, and has afforded an environment where religious and cultural diversity is embraced. Brevard College is committed to experiential liberal arts education that encourages personal growth and inspires artistic, intellectual, and social action. Historically, this mission has been related to delivering educational opportunities to first generation college students in the Appalachian region in a Methodist missionary tradition. Largely isolated in the mountains, the college was a place for students to retreat and prepare to go into the larger
While Lindsey Wilson prepares for SACS, Ferrum College, established in 1913, is getting ready for its centenary. The motto here is “not self but others” and there is great pride in their Methodist heritage. Ferrum is the most diverse college in Virginia. Service is a priority at this institution as is greening the campus. In fact, Ferrum has one of the earliest Environmental Studies majors in the US. “To be caring citizens of the world and the nation” forms the foundation of their work with the MFCI.
Union has adjusted the syllabi for freshmen classes to require an explanation of their global intentions. Similarly established to educate former slaves, Bennett Seminary was founded in 1873 as a high school to prepare for the ministry. In 1896 generous white families, the Pfeiffer and the Kents, started the movement for women to join the ministry. Thus the school became United Methodist affiliated and it remains affiliated with the United Methodist Church. In 1926, Bennett became a women’s college and began exclusively serving women who wouldn’t have been admitted elsewhere because of their GPAs. Just as ex-slaves couldn’t get into other schools, for many current students at Bennett the landscape is still the same. Their two most recent presidents, Dr. Johnnetta Betsch Cole and Dr. Julianne Malveaux, each came into the institution with international visions and were therefore able to establish a culture where every woman is required to have a global experience. Global learning through travel has become a part of the institutional culture.
Like Ferrum and unlike the majority of the HBCUs in this program, Emory & Henry College, an ACA founded in 1836, has never changed its name. This school has never moved. Unlike Florida Memorial University, they never packed up the school in the dead of night and stealthily moved everything they had to another city more than 300 miles away. The school is still in its original location, operating with its same name and infrastructure. These qualities so greatly influence institutional culture that the question becomes: What do you do if you want change in a place known not to change? How do you encourage people to change in a landscape that has never asked them to for so many generations? In thinking about a sense of place, this would be a different school if it weren’t where it is. Here, in the highlands of Southwest Virginia, this school remains true to its liberal arts roots, training teachers and preachers, and there is no intention of ever giving up the liberal arts in their story. Emory & Henry has had a “global” curriculum since 1977 and there is a required global element for graduation. To enhance the Appalachian Center for Community Service, the college is considering developing a center in Europe. Presently the definition they are using for Global Citizenship is what came from their MFCI work which started in 2009.
Founded by educators, teaching is the primary focus at Florida Memorial University. This institution, formerly Florida Baptist Institute, was established in 1879 (only fourteen years after Emancipation) to empower and educate people who are survivors. FMU is the only HBCU in South Florida and the southern-most HBCU in the US, although the culture of the institution isn’t particularly “southern,” given the heavy Caribbean influence on the region. The institution survived racial threats and violence that forced the move from St. Augustine to Miami. Although the school is located in Miami Dade County, the campus itself is a microcosm of the world. Students, staff, and faculty come from nearly every continent and represent all sorts of diversity. This institution is intentional about providing training and support to develop students holistically. The global footprint remains relatively small as the focus here hasn’t been sending students abroad as much as it has been preparing students to think more globally about their local environment. Traditionally FMU has served the underserved in the hopes of instilling in this population a sense of how deserving they really are. It is important that when these students graduate they are able to use the tools of “character, leadership, and service” instilled in them to empower others.
Global Citizenship and commitment to international education has also grown at Virginia Union University since their participation in the 2009 group of MFCI institutions. Having installed a new president only a year earlier, the timing of their participation in the MFCI was extremely fortuitous. When the president arrived, the quality of students was lacking and this realization became part of what connected the institutional narrative with the contemporary story. Established in 1865 in Lumpkin jail to educate freed slaves, the official institutional narrative is tied to its origins as a place established to serve “slaves”. Thus the reason to tell the story is to connect the past with the present in the search for ways to keep it from repeating itself. Like Campbellsville and Davis & Elkins, there is recognition of the president as the owner of the story and the desire not to become like other schools. Here there is a pride that comes out of a legacy of poverty. While it is clear that there is a need to increase funds and scholarships given to students to enhance their education, there is also a serious need to increase enrollment. Since developing their “Institutionalizing Internationalization” plan, Virginia
During our workshop in Durham, a personally nuanced version of North Carolina Central University’s global narrative was told by an alum originally from continental Africa. “African-Americans weren’t able to attend library school. NCCU has the only library school in the US at an HBCU”. As an African, this librarian regarded AfricanAmericans as de facto and originally forced and uprooted global citizens because through their work, they were always integral to the global economy. Immediate circumstances and experiences take the significance of
this away from the African-Americans. The need to learn African-American history from an African diasporic perspective becomes key to effective teaching at an HBCU. Ultimately, with this knowledge of history comes the question of how to create a global citizen within this situation. As many of us have come to recognize through the context of doing this work, the key is to aid students (and teachers and administrators) to legitimize themselves before becoming global. “Global becomes very far away.” However, by connecting an international educational experience to a course whereby students experience a different educational infrastructure, they return as nascent global citizens, more interested in the world after having these experiences. Like many of us, they are now considering ways to translate this global experience into the local experience of students.
in less urban environments. Being a “foreigner” in Appalachia can mean you come from the next county or town, let alone another country. Still, the locations intersect. Rivers, tracks of land, and skilled labor unite the populations served by these institution types. There are commonalities in the desire to serve local communities, and difference with regard to how those communities have been defined. Ultimately both types of institutions share perceptions as closed and/or remote places opening up to become more universal, while both fight stereotypes about their cultures historically and currently. Both are redefining themselves within a global context and inviting their students and faculty to do the same. Through this work we are coming to learn how our students talk about themselves locally, nationally, globally. Resilience is our historical commonality. Our work is an “organic, grassroots thing. It is a celebration of the human spirit.”
A central component of this work has been developing relationships between institution types and exploring We found ourselves asking: “How can you be a global what kinds of new spaces are created when these citizen if you are still disenfranchised?” institutions come together. New ways of looking at diversity and If we as a group can see this race are being explored. This work A central component of this work work as a collective, we could be is about creating dialogue and has been developing relationships writing intentional curriculum learning opportunities involving between institution types and for students in a four-year degree issues of racial, ethnic, and exploring what kinds of new spaces program. What then would be identity formation, and change are created when these institutions the intentional inputs for the in national and global contexts. come together. New ways of looking at global output? What will get us HBCUs have histories of exclusion diversity and race are being explored. data on the global, instead of which is a quality shared by 98% and in addition to travel? What of the world’s population (only would we do differently so that 2% of the world’s population have higher education students inherently understand the problematics of a experience). What do we – HBCUs – contribute to the “chapter on minorities” as an inadequate treatment of choir of global education? global citizenship? Can our students and our institutions articulate their definitions of “American culture?” While neither ACAs nor HBCUs are homogeneous – both Where do they see themselves in terms of their global categories include wealthy and poor schools, small and citizenship? large institutions – still, we are more like each other than we are like many other schools. We are more alike than The students who participated in the first collaborative we are different. Our mission statements in word or spirit MFCI student program learned a great deal about are extremely similar. Many of us serve populations that themselves and each other through the partnership wouldn’t have had a chance at higher education. The between King University and Bennett College as well as emphasis of this work is on the transformative power of Ferrum College, which included experiencing together education. Students are our priority. “We have been able a week-long session on global citizenship at the home of to frame this learning so that we prepare students to be Salzburg Global Seminar in Salzburg, Austria. As one of the vectors of change within their communities.” As such, the African American women from Bennett College so when the MFCI schools come together we are modeling rightly explained, “We don’t all show up to Austria as the and actively practicing global citizenship. Each of our same American.” While the students from Bennett wanted meetings is a model of global citizenship that gets brought to talk about race and gender, initially the King students back to the campus. We all know community. We have didn’t know how to engage these topics without causing community and we know it when we see it. We create offence. They didn’t have language or experience talking community for our students. about race. Thus, breaking out of misconceptions and gaining an appreciation for other cultures’ ways of living Geography specifically defines and locates Appalachian were exciting outcomes of this experience. For another colleges. While HBCUs are concentrated in the southeast, student the greatest aspect of change was an increased they cover a larger geographical landscape and are not sense of understanding and tolerance for people who primarily defined by their locations. HBCUs are found have racist thoughts. This program has expanded the in both urban and rural landscapes, ACAs tend to be discipline-specific, narrowly defined, discourse on diversity
to larger realms of intercultural engagement, learned next steps. Meeting twice a year allows us continuity, in very personal ways. Students themselves recognized without which our work would be lost. How can we meet that they weren’t as prepared to discuss race as they had together? How can we continue the collaboration so anticipated. King University’s preparation was more about that the work continues to move forward, using the past culture and religion, and not so much about race. The experiences with the MFCI with a mind to the vision of theme of this program was “Gender, Race, and Religion in the future of the program? a Global Context,” which includes topics such as Women in African Each time we meet as the MFCI Islam. The context of being at Our work through the MFCI has – colleagues attempting similar the Schloss, in Austria, allows for shown that we have common themes, work under similar conditions discussions about race, class, and common missions and, beyond the – allows us to bring a certain culture outside of America and its surface of our seeming differences, amount of expertise back to influence. we share a particularly strong sense of our campuses. Each institution home and culture. has experienced innovations in Our work through the MFCI has teaching because of this work. We shown that we have common know that meeting twice yearly themes, common missions and, beyond the surface of our helps to move the projects forward and encourages seeming differences, we share a particularly strong sense growth. There is no competition between our institution of home and culture. We, like Native American Colleges, types and our collaborative work makes each of our share parents who may be afraid that if their children’s programs more viable. Having a fund to draw from to worldview expands too far their sense of home culture make these meetings and other collaborations possible might be lost. For our students, just coming to college is would strengthen our work. From these partnerships an expansion of their world view. In the rush to globalize, come ideas for projects including teaching from a we recognize that there is a genuine sense within the common book across institutions, conducting joint cultures of our institutions (and their home communities) research and service learning projects. Particularly of protection from too much change. Not only are the intriguing are our opportunities for collaborating on student populations similar in terms of how localized social justice research and music history. the identity of the institutions are, they share cultural beliefs that greatly impact the economic and social Our schools, our students, their parents, and our mobility expectations of the students and their families. communities have deep experiences of struggling for The majority of the students at our schools collectively do education and have seen education as a way out of not arrive on campus already prepared and expecting to struggle. It is not that we are small and doing this work, study abroad, let alone to become ‘a citizen of the world’. what matters is that this work is part of the legacy of We quickly came to realize that the factors defining their our institutions and that the experience is embedded sense of access were often blurred by the local narrative. in our histories as institutions. How can we build on the 200-year-long biography of the region? Our history Our institutional stories are social justice oriented. and contemporary condition is what makes this work We share a commitment to uplifting students and significant, and this is what distinguishes us from other demonstrate profound care about both what they are places with more funding. Considering that the MFCI learning and what they become. We see our work as schools still seem like an unlikely match given the fears adding value and opening minds. We share a commitment and divisions that are still very real in a US context, the to teaching and a love of learning. Demonstrating reliance image that we are presenting as US citizens to other US despite financial struggle, our schools pride themselves citizens in the world is remarkable. Our work together on their survival. We create safe spaces. creates opportunities for racial understanding. Given the cultural diversity represented through our partnership, As we continue to contemplate the way forward, we are we provide models for others in higher education and for considering what our structure needs to look like. How the nation. We have the ability to create platforms for our do we gather for annual meetings at other opportunities shared histories, shared struggles, and shared regional that would be financially manageable for us? Perhaps culture(s). if we met at an ACA annual meeting, before or after the meeting, and including a session, we could do the same at the HBCU Faculty Development Conference. Keshia N. Abraham is Interim Dean This would provide two opportunities per year, as of Arts and Sciences, Chair of Humanities well as hopefully inspire a third meeting in Austria and Associate Professor of English at Florida periodically. Fortunately, as this group has witnessed, “if Memorial University in Miami Gardens, FL. we do anything that becomes something.” It adds to our She has participated in MFCI seminars and validity and becomes currency to be able to do something workshops. more. It’s time for us now to come together to plan our
Nuts and Bolts: Reflections on Making a Cross-Institutional Project Work – Karla M. McLucas and Mark Dollar
The MFCI had two underlying and complementary goals: to launch institutional projects aimed at making the colleges and universities involved ‘sites of global citizenship’, and to create a space for projects involving ACA and HBCU institutions to strengthen all partners’ ability to provide unique cross-cultural learning experiences that would be difficult or impossible to achieve without a collaborative effort. Bennett College for Women and King University, both part of the first group of MFCI institutions, embarked on a common journey to send their students to a joint, week-long session of Salzburg Global Seminar’s Global Citizenship Program (GCP) at Salzburg Global Seminar.
designed the prep courses for their students, they agreed upon common readings for discussion, and they arranged student visits to one another’s colleges before and after the week in Salzburg. The enthusiasm of the faculty members from Bennett and King was infectious and motivated other MFCI partners (Ferrum College, West Virginia Wesleyan College) to also enroll students in the same sessions. The entire process from its conception to the most recent session in May of 2013 involved multiple people on both campuses showing an extraordinary degree of effort and creativity to bring the initiative to fruition. It was also a time of much learning, development and growth on the part of the faculty, Salzburg Global Seminar staff, and the students. For as rich as the learning opportunities were, there were also expected and unexpected challenges and obstacles that had to be addressed and navigated along the way.
This collaborative effort built on the respective strengths of both institutions and Salzburg Global Seminar. As part of their joint program, Bennett College for Women, an HBCU, and King University, an ACA, both incorporated their institutions’ historical narratives, legacies, locations, and perspectives into a broader conversation about global citizenship. For its part, Salzburg Global Seminar has offered the GCP several times per year since 2004 and is a recognized leader in the area of global citizenship education.
The following essay consists of contributions from Dr. Karla McLucas of Bennett College and Dr. Mark Dollar of King University. Both authors describe the genesis and development of the project from their own personal and institutional perspectives. They also address some of the challenges, shortcomings, and, most importantly, examples of truly transformative learning opportunities while making practical recommendations for others undertaking this type of collaborative engagement.
In keeping with the spirit of the MFCI, Bennett and King worked closely together to prepare their students before sending them to Salzburg. The faculty members co-
THE BENNETT COLLEGE PERSPECTIVE This essay is a summary of my perspectives on how students, faculty and staff from Bennett College for Women prepared for our first cross-institutional engagement with King University, our partner institution from the Appalachian College Association (ACA), to
participate in the Global Citizenship Program at Salzburg Global Seminar in May 2012. Bennett College and King University were two of the first fifteen MFCI institutions and this cross-institutional project evolved from that Initiative. Bennett and King developed a plan in which
twenty students from each institution would come together in Salzburg for one of the Salzburg Global’s week-long Global Citizenship Programs where they would discuss issues of global citizenship built on the intersectionality of race, class, gender, and faith. This essay details some of the nuts, bolts, challenges, and triumphs of this experiment and experiences.
that meeting, initial ideas regarding student learning outcomes, course readings, and proposed dates for the pre-session meeting of our students were sketched out. In the spring of 2011, Drs. Brown, Bookman, Johnson and I visited King University where we refined the student learning outcomes and discussed possibilities for common readings. During this visit we were struck by the fact that there may not be any students of color enrolled in King’s Honors Program who would attend the 2012 GCP and we did not encounter any faculty of African or African-American descent at King University. Being familiar with ACA institutions through the MFCI, this was not surprising to my colleagues and me. We recognized, however, that our students may not have expected to encounter such homogeneity.
Call to Action Bennett College is one of two Historically Black Colleges for women. Located in Greensboro, NC, and established in 1873, the College has focused on helping students understand their roles and responsibilities as peopleof-color and descendants of enslaved people in the development of their personal and professional careers. Bennett College has fostered awareness among its students about how to advance social and economic strategies and programs to address race, class, and gender injustices in their home, national, and global communities.
For the courses that my colleague and I taught at Bennett, we developed a learning circle in a seminar setting. The students were responsible for their and their peers’ learning by leading discussions on the readings, speakers, and class discussion. This deepened the students’ critical skills set and prepared them more fully to engage in the GCP activities. We also developed a number of writingto-learn activities so that the students could begin to concisely articulate their understanding and critiques of the concepts and theories that served as the foundation of the course themes.
Bennett students (hereinafter referred to as “Bennett Belles”) have had a long history of being held to a standard of excellence. Traditionally, the Belles have been required to develop and enhance their critical reading, analysis, writing, and presentation skills. It is expected that they understand why being life-long learners makes them an asset in their home communities and the wider society. During her tenure from 2007 to 2012, President Julianne Malveaux sought to increase the number of Bennett Belles who studied abroad and/or had a shortterm global experience. Thus, a “Maymester” term was developed to provide opportunities for students to travel abroad for up to four weeks for intensive short-term language, travel, or research programs.
Selection of Students There were approximately twelve Honors Program students enrolled in the course taught during the spring 2012 semester. However, only seven of the students ultimately traveled to Salzburg. In the spring semester course the students focused on readings, speakers, lectures and activities that explored the theme of peopleof-color in the global arena. The course’s title, “Color Me Global,” was both a statement and a question. Students discussed how the ideas of global citizenship could be examined within national and global contexts.
Thanks to a two-year grant supported by the Mellon Foundation, Bennett had funding for two cohorts of twenty students each enrolled in the Honors Program to attend the Global Citizenship Program at the end of the spring 2012 and 2013 semesters. Dr. Valerie Ann Johnson, director of the Africana Women’s Studies program at the College, and I agreed to co-teach a year-long program for the GCP 2012 Maymester. We created a new Honors course conducted during the fall 2011 and spring 2012 semesters designed to prepare students for their engagement at the GCP in May 2012.
These questions were also explored in the common reading that Bennett and King had agreed upon. Pauli Murray’s 1956 book, Proud Shoes: A Story of an American Family, was utilized to explore a woman-of-color’s life and develop an understanding of what it meant to be a citizen in the 20th century, not only from a national, but also from an international perspective. The book was written at a time when former colonies primarily in Africa and Asia were seeking to become independent nation-states and members of the increasingly diverse and divided world. We also read this text to discuss how faith and spirituality supported, and in some instances challenged, the dominant concepts of race, class, and gender.
Course Development In order to prepare for the development of the course, faculty from King and Bennett met to coordinate the parameters for this joint initiative. In the fall of 2010, Dr. Mark Dollar, director of King University’s Honors Program, came to Bennett College for a discussion with Dr. Gwenn Bookman, director of the Global Studies Program; Dr. Linda Brown, director of the College’s Honors Program; Dr. Valerie A. Johnson and me. During
Although the faculty at both Bennett and King had discussed the questions for our students to consider and analyze in the Murray text, it became clear that
the students’ identities formed their expectations and perceptions of the reading. These varying perspectives became evident in the initial meeting and interactions of the students in late February 2012.
students to begin engaging with one another in a more conciliatory manner. On Sunday, the students participated in the Pauli Murray Project tour. That activity further fostered détente among the students. Most of them engaged in the posttour discussion and began to see themselves as more alike than dissimilar. Faculty felt encouraged to see that the students’ initial meeting would help them see how race, class, gender, and spirituality could be woven in discussions of global citizenship. For the remainder of the 2012 spring semester, Bennett students became more conscientious about considerations that King students might posit in the possible discussions during the GCP.
Meeting of Bennett College and King University Students During several telephone meetings, Drs. Dollar, Johnson and I developed what we believed would be a schedule of events for the initial meeting of the Bennett and King students at Bennett College. Our intent was to create a plan that would stimulate discussions about our readings and students’ understanding of some of the challenges that they might encounter in discussing ideas of global citizenship.
Global Citizenship Session in Salzburg
What we did not fully appreciate were the students’ The majority of the Bennett Belles who traveled to concerns about the facilitated discussions on race, class, Salzburg had traveled internationally on a number of gender, and spirituality. Some of the Bennett students were occasions for various reasons. However, this was not true unsure if the King students understood how race might be for most of their counterparts from ACA institutions seen as an important factor that illuminated the challenges which caused some surprise on both sides. Also, ACA the Fitzgerald family faced in Proud Shoes, as well as the students from Ferrum College and West Virginia discussions of citizenship in Wesleyan College who also joined national and global contexts. As the Salzburg session were not fully one Bennett Belle stated, “how How can students, especially aware of the interactions, joint can students, especially college college students who are engaged in readings and discussions that the students who are engaged in critical analysis, not understand the Bennett and King students had critical analysis, not understand the importance of race in America? during the spring 2012 semester. importance of race in America?” The Bennett Belles were also confused that the experts lecturing The first interactions on Friday evening at dinner went at Salzburg Global Seminar discussed the themes of race, fairly well; however, some of the cultural differences class, gender, and spirituality in a different way than between Bennett and King were immediately apparent. the Belles expected. Additionally, the Belles felt that not For example, Bennett Belles are expected to dress everyone fully understood or appreciated the thoughts in business attire at events when out in public as and issues that they raised during lectures and small representatives of the College. Some of the Belles group discussions. commented that they would have appreciated being able to “dress down” as our traveling colleagues from Immediately after the session, the Bennett Belles King University had done. On Saturday morning there submitted written assessments of their experiences. was a tour of the International Civil Rights Center and Several said they had the impression that their fellow Museum (ICRCM). The tour went well with both groups of students did not recognize or understand the significance students expressing that they would have welcomed more and importance of their identities as black women-ofinformation and discussions at the Center. color. The following comments illustrate this view: A facilitated discussion analyzing Proud Shoes caused the most discomfort among both groups of students. The Bennett Belles had read and analyzed the book through the lens of race, class, and gender, using the sociological and feminist theories of social conflict and Black feminist thought. When the students began to discuss the text and integrate ideas with the issues that arose from visiting the ICRCM, some of the King students appeared to “shut down” and withdraw from the discussions. This in turn seemed to frustrate the Bennett students. The end result was that the faculty agreed to revise the initial plan and let the students engage with one another without the faculty being present and without the faculty contributing to the discussions. This helped some of the
“If we are going to engage around global social issues, we cannot pick and choose whose issues and hardships are worthy of discussing.”
“Sadly, we live in a world where Black women have to be more prepared than our white counterparts. I would tell my sisters to be as well read as possible [and] keep themselves abreast of global current events, the effect those events have on them based on race, class, gender, and other demographics. It is important that they steel themselves to the subtle and blatant racism that they may receive and that they use those times as teachable moments, both about the brilliance and strength of women, and the fallacy of the stereotypes that have been broadcast to the world.”
Post-Session Meeting and Recommendations When Bennett and King faculty and students met again in November 2012 for a post-session weekend at King University, we greeted each other as friends and colleagues. In the conversations we shared experiences and reflections about the lectures and activities that worked, and those that were less than ideal during the GCP week. The students discussed the lessons they learned from their interaction and developed written recommendations for the faculty from Bennett and King and for the organizers at Salzburg Global Seminar on how to reshape some critical aspects of the GCP session program. The recommendations focused on setting some ground rules and parameters for everyone in order to facilitate open and frank conversations in a way that reduces the fear of offending peers from other institutions and backgrounds.
manner as humanly possible. The issues, concerns and discussions about global citizenship will usually be viewed through the lenses of one’s race, class, gender, and spirituality, but cannot be confined to these perspectives. The GCP session helped our students comprehend how challenging it is to analyze and discuss critical issues with those who are their peers but whose life experiences seem to make the familiar look alien. The interactions between these students may influence them to engage with one another and others in a more thoughtful and respectful fashion. We hope they will be future leaders in shaping an idea of global citizenship that is more inclusive and interdependent.
Dr. Karla M. McLucas is an Associate Professor of Sociology at Bennett College and a participant of MFCI workshops.
The GCP experience was in many ways transformative for our students. The Bennett Belles learned how important it is to continually reach beyond their normal comfort zone to engage in dialogue with others in as non-judgmental
THE KING UNIVERSITY PERSPECTIVE Beginnings and the First Year When I was named the director of the Snider Honors Program at King in 2009, I was asked to find ways to recruit more top regional students, and undergird our program’s new focus on global citizenship and contemporary cultural studies. My Dean of Faculty at the time was Dr. Tracy Parkinson, a great friend and supporter of the MFCI programs. Dr. Parkinson and I decided to build on King’s prior successes with the MFCI by adding a travel grant for a week of study in Salzburg to the honors scholarship package. King would cover approximately 40% of the travel expenses for rising seniors in the program in good stead academically. This meant that King would be sending a contingent of excellent students to Salzburg each May for the foreseeable future.
and Islam in American society after 9/11. At the same time in 2009, Dr. Parkinson and Dr. Gwenn Bookman of Bennett College – friends and colleagues who met at earlier MFCI sessions – approached me with the idea of joining honors students from both colleges for a special GCP week that would be the culmination of a semester involving a joint preparation course, travel, and intentional networking during the spring before the trip to Salzburg. This relationship would increase the Bennett and King students’ understanding of cultural differences in race, gender, and faith. I was delighted to help bring King and Bennett together, and I have met with faculty from Bennett every semester since 2009 to improve our students’ experience. Our students going to Salzburg in 2012 met for the first time in February 2012, as guests of Bennett students and faculty in Greensboro, NC. The first evening was genial, with polite but superficial conversation dominating our students’ interaction. The next day of regulated discussion was awkward at best and infuriating at worst. The King students were not well-versed in the AfricanAmerican experience or notions of identity as culturally determined. They had difficulty grasping and responding to the concept of white privilege and seeing how it applied to the hard-scrabble, blue collar experiences they saw growing up in Appalachia. They largely stopped engaging with the Bennett students at some point on the
The Salzburg component, added to an otherwise modest scholarship award, had a definite impact on our recruiting numbers; the program now averages eighty to ninety active members per year (about 10% of the overall student population) whereas prior to the travel grant it averaged sixty members. I quickly realized that the honors seminars required for the program could be used to prepare our students for a more intensive experience during the Global Citizenship Program in Salzburg, in addition to addressing key issues in modern American culture such as the decrease in American influence abroad, the diversity of NGOs with humanitarian aims,
second day, in the process offending some of the Bennett students. My colleagues from Bennett and I met privately to figure out how to get the weekend back on track. We traveled to Durham, NC to see the home of Pauli Murray, the inspiring writer, activist, and theologian whose memoir Proud Shoes served as a common text for both colleges. The weekend concluded on a positive note, but I wondered how open our students would be to the coming conversations in Salzburg.
to clarify terms and key issues. But at the museum, my students were uniformly shocked or discomfited by grainy black and white photographs of lynched black men, Jim Crow-era signage, and footage of the Greensboro sit-ins showing black college students accosted by white diners. I knew that we would be similarly challenged by the visit to Dachau as part of our Salzburg week. Encourage students to try to understand the perspective of others by practicing emotional empathy and imagining themselves in similar positions. Make it clear, however, that their capacity to truly understand is limited.
When the time came for our joint Salzburg GCP week in May 2012, we met the Bennett group in Atlanta airport, flew together to Munich, and shared a chartered coach for the two-hour journey to Salzburg. It took a while for the King and Bennett students to get reacquainted, and there still seemed to be some divisions between them. The day trip to the Dachau Holocaust Memorial, however, seemed to bring a shift in tone. It was a very moving experience for all who participated, and the structured discussions that evening exposed some raw nerves and led to more open discussion. The Salzburg week ended too soon, but I felt that all the ups and downs along the way were worth it—this was not like the often superficial study abroad trips I had led before; the week was intense and made all the more meaningful and memorable by the months and years that had gone into planning for it between King and Bennett.
3. Consider grading the frequency and quality of the interaction between ACA students and HBCU students. I have found that many King students became reticent to discuss issues of race and identity in our meetings at Bennett and in Salzburg. They told me that they either weren’t confident enough in their knowledge of the issues or feared offending another student, so they kept quiet. This attitude is counterproductive to the learning experience of the GCP. I plan now to assess the quality and frequency of their interaction in small group discussions in much the same way as I would do in a seminar class. Hopefully the desire to perform well (always a factor for honors students) will overcome shyness or reticence. Unless the students from the partner institutions engage openly and honestly with one another, the academic benefit of joint study is fairly weak.
Suggestions Based on the First Year As a result of our experiences and based on feedback from the Bennett and King students, I developed several suggestions for myself and for other ACA member schools in order to maximize the benefit of collaborating with HBCU schools during the preparatory course and during the Salzburg Global Seminar GCP.
4. Be able to articulate Appalachian cultural norms. Encourage ACA students to share stories from their families that epitomize the values that make Appalachian culture unique. In recent years we can see a surge in popularity and appreciation for 1. Create a safe space for the discussion of prejudices. Appalachian music, crafts, and literature. When the Deal with issues of race, faith, and gender directly— Bennett students who traveled with us to Europe in don’t shy away from asking students very tough 2012 came to King to close the assessment loop, we questions. Although prejudiced took them to a play which had just expressions are rightly taboo in won the Appalachian Playwriting our academic contexts, we and Approach tough issues academically at Festival in southwest Virginia. our students can still harbor first, dispassionately and objectively; The play centered on a close-knit, them nonetheless. The professor but recognize the emotional and working-class family employed should seek to facilitate an personal implications of such issues. for several generations by a coal honest discussion of students’ company in east Tennessee; when ideas. I have found that the part of the mine collapses and “discourse community” created by the class often helps several of the men go unheard from, the women at mediate and soften extreme positions. home imagine what their lives will be like if they go on as widows. While many of the play’s themes were 2. Approach tough issues academically at first, universal, the King students seemed to understand dispassionately and objectively; but recognize quite deeply the fear of a family on the edge of the emotional and personal implications of such impending financial disaster and dependence upon issues. During our February 2012 trip to Greensboro, an unstable natural resource in our region. I strongly our students were able to tour the spectacular encourage ACA members to make use of faculty on International Civil Rights Center and Museum. Most of campus who are experts in such areas as cultural our conversations with the faculty and staff at Bennett identity, Appalachian studies, and American history to had heretofore taken an academic tone, to attempt contribute to the preparation course.
5. Iterate the cultural norms, mission, and vision of your institution, finding ways to tie them in with those of the HBCU and other topics included in the GCP. Along with developing a clear sense of a native cultural identity, it is important to help students and students from partner institutions understand the history and ethos of a particular college. I was adamant that my students in 2012 know the remarkable history of Bennett College and try to understand its unique mission to empower AfricanAmerican women. King is a faith-based school but without many of the dogmatic features and rules that differentiate or stigmatize some other Christian colleges in the South. Understanding “God’s will” is imperative for most of our students, and I found that King’s mission to “transform culture in Christ” has clear implications for our study of global citizenship. One of the fundamental questions I asked in the preparation was this: “To what extent are American Christians called by God to be responsible global citizens?” Implicit in this query is whether an attitude of provincialism – so often a part of Appalachian life – is counterproductive to living a full human life within the will of God.
February to get to know their fellow travelers. The faculty laid the groundwork for the discussions we hoped would continue through the Salzburg trip, and the students seemed to get along splendidly—much more so than the groups who met in 2012. The students finished out the semester with positive expectations for the Salzburg week in May.
The Second Year
“The trip allowed me to not only see a foreign culture, but it also allowed me to interact with other American students in an environment that encouraged us to discuss global issues.”
“I was forced to talk about topics I normally do not discuss and perceptions of the US that most US citizens would never encounter. Most importantly, I was introduced to people from the US that I would have never crossed paths with. The discussions (…) inside and outside of the classroom led to me being better able to understand the relationships between different groups of people within the US.”
Salzburg Week During the week of residential learning at Schloss Leopoldskron, each day, a different expert addressed a new topic designed to enhance student awareness of and commitment to global citizenship and address America’s position in the era of globalization. These topics ranged from ethnocentrism, race, environmental sustainability, and the view the rest of the world has of America. The student group of fifty consisted of students from King, Bennett, Ferrum College, and Tarrant County College (TX). The students met in plenary sessions as well as in small groups to discuss each day’s topic; they also met to form responses to challenges posed by the facilitators. Here are a few comments written by King students in their post-trip evaluations:
For the students of King University and Bennett College, the Salzburg 2013 experience began in January with a joint preparation course taught by King and Bennett faculty, and it continued through the spring semester and a weekend in February when King students again visited Bennett. The experience culminated in the week at Schloss Leopoldskron from May 17-25.
When the spring preparation course of 2013 began, I felt much more comfortable after having experienced what did and did not work in spring 2012. My Bennett colleagues and I knew what pitfalls could arise, and which readings and assignments could be the most effective. I Faculty Response decided for my own course at King to more intentionally Our colleagues from Bennett and we were also pleased emphasize the connection to see that our students were between one’s conception of able to have frank and honest self-identity and one’s notion of I spent a lot of time with my students conversation about the differences the Other. Specifically, I spent discussing the phenomenon of white prevalent on the campuses of our a lot of time with my students privilege, a concept quite foreign to ACA college and their HBCU that discussing the phenomenon of many whites from rural Appalachia. serves primarily African-American white privilege, a concept quite women. Such conversations are foreign to many whites from rural necessarily uncomfortable at Appalachia. I also tried to tie it into notions of “American times, and faculty leading future ACA-HBCU groups will Exceptionalism” that seem to induce cultural blindness need to temper their expectations of student growth. For and disinterest in “Otherness” among many Americans. every step forward in understanding, it seemed there was While some objections and exceptions were raised by the another step back, a reversion to old misunderstandings students, I believed that the notion of privilege was at and ethnocentric attitudes. For instance, one Africanleast reasonable to them at an academic level. The King American student from King wrote in her evaluation. students then traveled to Bennett for a weekend in mid-
“When some of the Bennett students talked about some pressing issues on their hearts, the King students did not know why they were talking about slavery or different issues that Black/AfricanAmerican women or men are going through because King students avoided the issues most of the time, and I did not know how to help them confront the issues (…) I feel like the issues about the black community that were brought up by Bennett students were ignored and disrespected by King Students.”
year series of programming with the same students would probably be more conducive to open learning. I wholeheartedly recommend to my colleagues in ACA member institutions that they enter into similar partnerships with HBCUs. Our ultimate focus was on global citizenship and making our American students more aware of a shrinking, interdependent world; however, we also addressed perceptions of race, faith, and gender that are equally pressing in our own communities. Greater understanding between two seemingly dissimilar groups like King and Bennett is a good in and of itself, but the directed study done with the assistance of our friends at Salzburg Global Seminar shaped that good into a call for action on our respective campuses.
I found myself agreeing with her, yet at the same time wishing she had addressed her thoughts with the other King students. But, a foundation for future (individual) growth was certainly laid during the week, and I am confident that our students now see race and culture through a more nuanced and sophisticated lens than they did before.
Finally, I am personally grateful to the MFCI and Salzburg Global Seminar for helping me meet and befriend trusted colleagues like Drs. Karla McLucas, Gwenn Bookman, and Valerie Johnson at Bennett College. We would not have met otherwise, and I would be a lesser person for it.
Conclusion I regret that GCP 57 represented my final visit to Salzburg as director of the Honors Program at King. I believe that, with a bit more work on our end, we could achieve educational outcomes that would more fully link the three-year global studies curriculum of King’s Snider Honors Program with the aims of Salzburg Global Seminar’s Global Citizenship Program. I believe that the Honors Program under my direction, and by extension King University, has not adequately addressed racial diversity as a subject of study. I also wonder if the ACA-HBCU connections need more time and attention to develop; with Salzburg Global’s Global Citizenship Program serving a crucial role in the relationship, a two-
Dr. Mark Dollar was the Director of the Snider Honors Program at King University and a participant of MFCI workshops.
An Experience of International Civic Engagement: A White Paper on the Darfur Conflict – Cynthia Lucas Hewitt, Najwa Gadaheldam, and Charles T. Moses
In 2008, the Atlanta University Center (AUC) schools, Clark Atlanta University, Morehouse College, and Spelman College, were invited by Salzburg Global Seminar to participate in an international effort to promote global citizenship. Salzburg Global Seminar conceived of their strategy as a focus on the “glocal,” which was appropriate because in the process of meeting abroad (global), we began to meet at home (locally). This initiative, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, was pivotal in creating the space for collaboration between members of the neighboring AUC institutions to come about. The first effort was to advocate for peace in the Sudan, through international dialogue.
platform, as informed citizens, scholars and activists, to advocate for the US to use its resources to promulgate a culture of dialogue among all parties involved and engagement, rather than promote military intervention, or only humanitarian aid. Our goal is a forward-looking peaceful solution to the crisis, to ensure the protection of human rights. Our focus is on education and our ability to improve society by increasing the stock of human capital. Although we did not purport to speak for our respective institutions, our group included two deans, a director of a significant leadership center, and two directors of international study and study abroad programs. This provided the group with sufficient resources to erect a preliminary framework for cooperation.
We attended the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative in Austria. The program served as an incubator to bring scholars and administrators together for six days to consider global issues and globalization initiatives at their respective campuses. The keynote speaker on Darfur, peace activist and United Nations Development Officer Najwa Gadaheldam, delivered her address, “Darfur as a Global Conflict” and acted as a catalyst to our formation of the AUC Global Citizenship Learning Community (AUCGCLC). This experience was formative because tenure at an HBCU is characterized by a heavy teaching load and much higher reliance on tuition, leaving very little time and resources for retreats or scholarly meetings.
The AUC-GCLC case is also unique because our analysis of the situation in Sudan led to our strong support for the US policy position, as articulated by the new Obama administration US Special Envoy to Sudan, Scott Gratian, who had been attempting to bring various militias and other armed groups together to negotiate peace. There emerged a window of opportunity whereby the AUC-GCLC policy proposal and the leading policy articulation of the United States State Department were in alignment. This was a rather rare and auspicious conjuncture for US policy formation, as the African-American population and the government often experienced interaction as confrontation. Our HBCU group does also bring to the fore critiques of US foreign policy implementation and alliances, including concern over the role of imperialism.
The AUC-GCLC came together behind Ms. Gadaheldam’s framing of the path to peace in Darfur as one of peacemaking rather than peacekeeping. This turned out to be pivotal to HBCU support. Peaceful non-violent conflict resolution has a long history among these institutions and reflects the cultural heritage of southern AfricanAmerican life. Our interest was to use our institutional
The GCLC acknowledged much of the case being made in popular channels of press and academic studies for the need for humanitarian assistance to alleviate suffering;
however, we retained a characteristic African-American mass-culture and independent sector skepticism about how the situation was to be rectified. As stated in our White Paper below, “We speak for ourselves out of humanitarian concern for the plight of the Darfurian refugees, women and children and others facing hardships as a consequence of the widespread aggression and murders, rape and physical violence against vulnerable people in that region. We recognize the role of national and global actors as contributing to the crisis, as they jockey for direct and indirect control over the regions’ resources.” We also recognize the importance of long-term factors, particularly the impact of climate change in triggering conflict between nomads and farmers in that Sub-Saharan region.
Nile Valley Conference II, held at Morehouse College in September 2011, where Dr. Abdalla was among the over 100 presenters. We have been invited to a seminar on ancient and contemporary society in Northern Sudan, which we look forward to accepting because we feel that Nile Valley history can be a point of identification for African and African-American scholars as we develop relationships to address contemporary issues of making peace in Sudan. We also envision the start of a course entitled, “Africa and Islam,” which will focus on North Africa and the Sudan, including the Sahel. Najwa Gadaheldam has played a vital role in initiating some components of this curriculum for spring 2013 at West Virginia Wesleyan College, one of the ACA institutions which are part of the MFCI.
The second major outcome was the decision by the AUCThe GCLC began with an initiative that supported the GCLC to visit the Sudan ourselves. We formed a small broadening of resources available to HBCUs (and other delegation with Conscience International, a US-based minority-serving institutions).1 If this initiative is to NGO, in response to the invitation by Ms. Gadaheldam, have lasting impact, the AUC-GCLC will have to find the Bridge Program, an, International NGO in Sudan, and additional sources of support. Why should the US policy the Sudanese Council on International Affairs, to serve as leaders support this effort? There are several important Referendum Observers for the vote which would decide reasons. The HBCUs bring critical capacity to addressing the unity or separation of the Sudan, and to participate the fundamental issues of identity formation which in the conference, “Peace in the are linked to effective poverty Sudan: An American Civil Society alleviation because one of the Perspective,” in January 2011. The diversity of the American big barriers to self-sufficiency Our group visited eleven polling population can be viewed as an asset is self-alienation and inferiority stations in Juba in the South in establishing mutually beneficial complexes. Further, rather than and in East Khartoum. We met relationships globally. viewing the mobilization of ethnic with several high level officials, communities in the United States including the Minister of Foreign as a source of skewing foreign Affairs for Sudan, Dr. Ali Karti, MPs, women’s groups, and policy or irrational “homeland” commitments, the local community leaders. We attended the opening day experience and standpoint of racial/ethnic groups provide ceremonies in Juba, and met with the Chief of Staff for the US with a comparative advantage of human capital – the Cabinet of the President of Southern Sudan, as well as knowledge and skills in peaceful civil and human rights the Minister of Information, and were greeted by the US attainment. The diversity of the American population delegation, including Senate Foreign Relations Committee can be viewed as an asset in establishing mutually Chair, John Kerry, General Scott Gratian, actor and civil beneficial relationships globally. In the context of Africa, society activist George Clooney, and several AU and EU the Caribbean and Latin America, the African-American representatives. While in Sudan, we met with several community can serve as a bridge to international opposition groups to assist in establishing peace and show communities faced with similar challenges. It can result historical support for all parties involved. The AUC-GCLC in a policy outcome for the United States of long-term, provided a connection with the daughter of Martin Luther voluntary engagement, cultural exchange and diffusion, King, Jr., who was kind enough to provide a five minute for making peace permanent. video on peaceful movements. It was established that the referendum was free and fair and met international What follows is the original policy statement and critique standards. made by the AUC-GCLC, prior to participation in the referendum. The statement was the product of a series The third component to our stay was the establishment of of seminars across the campuses and strategic GCLC educational collaboration, which resulted in meeting with meetings involving fourteen scholars and community three major universities in Khartoum and the Nile Valley activists six months after the Salzburg Seminar. Concern University (NVU) in the northern, Nile River State. We about the Sudan had been galvanized by the Save Darfur focused attention on joint exchange in ancient Sudanese movement, whose media campaign highlighted the history of Kush and Nubia. In April 2011, we were able to suffering in this western region of Sudan, and also led to host the Chancellor of NVU and Dr. Abdelgadir Abdalla, a renowned scholar for the AUC annual Africa Awareness 1 Native American, Latino, Appalachian, and Community serving colleges Week, prior to the major international conference, The and universities were also supported.
a renewed look at the larger scope of the over fifty-year conflict between the north and the south. Eventually, our understanding of the Darfur situation came to reflect a broader understanding of this historical, cultural, racialized conflict, and the need to address the underlying environmental drivers for poverty and conflict. We came to understand the Darfur situation, while highly grievous, as a re-alignment of forces following a major oil revenue sharing agreement between north and south.
Today, the continued contestation of both internal leaders and external global forces over borders and resources in northeast Africa can be seen, from the imperialist overthrow of Mummar Quaddafi to the continued clashes in the two Sudans. Conflict resolution to confront the challenges today is needed on an urgent basis, and with all possible resolve (these include such issues as external security threats, justice and internal mechanisms for reconciliation, communities’ vulnerability and little chance to contribute to a modern economy, etc.). Global, regional and local genuine commitments need to be made to re-shape what now seems a dangerous and crisis filled future into a sustainable future for the two countries of Sudan, and even more so for the whole region. What we are calling for is an inclusive national dialogue (with political parties, government, armed and non-armed groups, civil society, the private sector, religious leaders, tribal leaders, women’s groups, youths, unions, and other independent institutions). Lastly, but in no way least, the strengthening of Africa through its internal unification, as called for in the 2009 AUC-GCLC policy statement below, has never been more needed.
We have received criticism for “siding with the elite” in the statement below because we did not support the charge of genocide and US armed intervention, and instead supported the African Union stance and called for national dialogue and engagement with the disengaged people. The reasons for this are given below. To follow the successful peace process with dismantling of the very northern Sudan government that accepted and implemented the peace process would not only not achieve the goal of ending the Darfur conflict, but would likely create a stateless situation akin to Somalia. Certainly, if South Africa accepted that the Nobel Prize could be awarded to Pik Botha, lifelong supporter of apartheid, certainly extending an olive branch to Omar Al-Bashir might be acceptable!
Darfur – A Human Rights Perspective – White Paper October 27, 2009 1) INTRODUCTION 1.1. We are faculty from three Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) located at the Atlanta University Center (AUC) who are committed advocates for global citizenship. Our interest is as informed citizens, scholars and activists interested in promulgating a humanitarian and forward looking solution to the crisis, one which ensures the protection of human rights. Our focus is education: we work to improve society by increasing the stock of human capital. We are willing to champion this issue at our institutions and among our colleagues and in the communities in which we live.
1.3. We favor the continued pressure for peaceful resolution on all parties involved, including the Sudanese government in Khartoum and various rebel groups, and continued constructive engagement on the part of the African Union with the ends of generating a peaceful and lasting resolution of the crisis. However, we question the effectiveness of the sanctions mechanism. We additionally favor the inclusion of warring rebel groups which were not signatories to the Darfur Peace Agreement (Hoyer 2007). 1.4. We recommend a strong focus on bringing about effective Darfur-Darfur dialogue, so that a consensus can be reached among the various forces whereby they can be expected to be mutually respectful of an agreement into which they enter via their representatives. We favor an approach that is informed by the methods used to bring about the successful 2004 negotiation of a Peace Accord bringing to an end the twenty-two year civil war between the South of Sudan and the federal government in the North.
1.2. We don’t purport to speak for our respective institutions. We speak for ourselves out of humanitarian concern for the plight of the Darfurian refugees and others facing hardships as a consequence of the widespread and systemic murders, rape and physical violence against vulnerable people in that region. We recognize the role of national and extra-national actors as contributing to the crisis, as they jockey for direct and indirect control over the regions’ resources.
1.5. We highly recommend adequate support be given to the successful implementation of the terms of the 2004 Peace Accord, including attention to civil and structural development and rebuilding, to provide a model and incentive to the Darfur combatants to come to the peace table in like manner.
rebel groups, criminals and unaffiliated citizens. Estimates as to the number of persons killed and displaced vary from the hundreds of thousands to over a million, with countless others maimed and/ or mutilated. The crisis has additionally resulted in millions having to flee their homes to live in squalid refugee camps in Darfur or in neighboring countries. While the UN alleges that the crisis has abated, the underlying conditions causing it remain: sporadic upticks in killings and violence as one party or another perceives itself to be disadvantaged by circumstance or agreement (Lavallee 2009).
1.6. Words have the power to mislead, even to kill. We oppose the use of loaded words, such as genocide, to describe the Darfur conflict because this word fails to encompass the indirect role of economic and statist forces in the continuance of the Darfur conflict; in other words, we argue for an epistemology which accurately addresses the challenges as they exist. While we support pressure on the Sudanese government and other parties (see 1.3 above), we also favor US active engagement with the government in Khartoum and other parties aimed towards a peaceful and permanent resolution of the crisis. We argue that solutions to the problem are necessarily devolved and will require a range of programs and initiatives in order to produce a sustainable peace which benefits many.
2.2. The nature of the conflict which has engulfed the region is economic, geo-political, ethnic and historic: when the Sudan was formed, its northern regions and capital city, Khartoum, were integrated in a Pan-Arab and British-controlled colonial network, while the people from that nationâ€™s southern and western regions (Darfur) were excluded. Few resources were invested in the latter regions, which led to a rebellion, and the Sudan government and various â€œArabâ€? identified ethnic groups coalesced in opposition to them. Religious identity was also a factor. The Southern region, and part of the western region, are characterized by people who identify themselves as Christian or indigenous, while the Northern and part of the Western region as well as the Khartoum government are Muslim.
1.7. We support the sending of election observer teams to the Sudan for the upcoming elections. 1.8. We support the eradication of slavery in the Sudan as a matter of principle. 1.9. We support the eradication of the guinea worm and other parasitical diseases in the region.
2.3. It takes the form of inter-tribal and inter-group fighting among fragmented rebel groups, factions of the Sudanese government, sundry militias and armed groups, and various tribes. It is a struggle over resources between groups mobilized around ethnic solidarity.
1.10. We support the introduction and promulgation of anti-desertification and land reclamation initiatives in the Darfur region, as one means of increasing the supply of arable land available for productive utilization by indigenous actors.
2.4. The volatile conditions described above were exacerbated by the discovery of oil and natural gas in the Southern region. The struggle over allocation of the wealth generated from exploitation of these discoveries has only served to intensify the crisis.
1.11. Lastly, we offer ourselves as resources to the Obama regime as it seeks to engage, and resolve, the conflict. We urge the administration to engage a broad spectrum of academics, activists, and policy experts, political and economic actors in substantive discussions leading to the crafting and execution of US policy on this critical issue. The administration will have a continuing need to: 1.) Gather information and data, 2.) Engage in dialogue and discussion, and 3.) Participate in multilateral negotiations and other discussions aimed at a sustainable resolution of the conflict and the continuing development of robust civil infrastructures to support progress.
3) THE CURRENT SITUATION 3.1. The number of those affected by the crisis is estimated at 4.7 million, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 3.2. In 2004, most parties to the North-South Crisis signed a peace accord. The ensuing years have seen continued unrest, however, as the newly demobilized armies affiliated with factions of the Sudanese government were unhappy with the terms of the pact, and other Darfuri combatants, unhappy with the allocation of land under the new dispensation,
2) CRISIS OVERVIEW 2.1. The Darfur Crisis involves the Government of Sudan,
the warfare resumed. The Sudanese government, perceiving this to be intransigence, has attempted to suppress the Darfurians, combatant and noncombatants alike. The current conflict is also enabled by various other conditions, one of them the ongoing war in neighboring Chad.
4.4. “No-fly” zones are a military blockade of the air space over a region. No-fly zones are harmful because they impose a blanket isolation, and give undue power to outside factors that have airplanes. The US should cease and desist from imposing air blockades to try to bring down the Sudanese government.
3.3. The Sudanese government administration appears well ensconced and is highly sensitive to criticism and sanction threats from governments and world bodies. This has made questions of definitions of the existence and nature of the conflict a difficult proposition for governments. We recommend that the US continue to engage in a constructive dialogue with all political parties in Sudan and that it use its power in the UN Security Council for increased dialogue with Sudanese stakeholders in the run up to that nation’s 2010 elections. We recommend strongly that the US government reconsider its relationship with the regime and that the Sudan be removed from the State Department’s list of terrorism-sponsoring organizations. Creating such a designation has cast a blanket pall over all the government in the Sudan, obstructing constructive engagement with progressive fractions.
4.5. The strength of peacekeeping elements needs to be maintained.
5.1. Humanitarian assistance provided by the world community continues to be hampered due to interference by the Sudan government, but also because of flagging concerns on the part of various governments, among them the US. Humanitarian aid vehicles are regularly hijacked, forcing aid organizations to resort to air deliveries, which is much more expensive. Food supplies to the region are also affected by the increase in global food prices.
4.6. The United States should call for a just and equitable peace negotiations process facilitated by a mutuallyagreeable arbiter. Proper funding and training of African Union troops can provide additional security as peace processes are enacted and the United States should support such initiatives. Use of United Nations troops should be minimized because history has shown us that where they enter, they often stay indefinitely, creating a power vacuum. We strongly support the peacekeeping initiative of the African Union because we believe that this represents the African continent’s continuing drive towards selfregulation and independence from foreign influence.
5) HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE
4.1. The US envoy in the region, Scott Gration, has been attempting to bring various militias and other armed groups together to negotiate peace. We support this initiative. 4.2. Peace has eluded the region because an often amorphous mix of armies, militias, and multinational companies continue to jockey for primacy in the region, the ends being to gain control over the region’s oil and gas. A byproduct of these interests has been a steady flow of military armaments to the region.
6) THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC) 6.1. The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Omar al-Bashir, the President of Sudan in May 2009, the court’s first such action against a sitting head of state. We remain skeptical of such actions, because any legal proceedings which follow will not be controlled by the people of Sudan, but by outsiders. Further, the de-legitimating of the head of state and resultant crisis encourages the designation of Sudan as a “failed state,” aborting all possibilities of establishing binding negotiations through peace table negotiations between all parties.
4.3. Peacemaking has also seen various geopolitical forces aligned with various factions with the hope of redefining control over the oil and gas resource. We favor the ending of trafficking in arms and ammunition so that a lasting, internally driven, political resolution of the conflict may be brought about. This includes an open probe of the role of France in Chad and a call for the embargo of all military shipments from there as well as to Sudan. The people of Sudan were able to end one longterm war. They will be able to end this one too if outside instigation is minimized. The civil rights of the people of the Sudan requires that they be allowed to settle the question of the future of oil and gas production, its sale in global markets and the distribution of profits.
6.2. In most cases, we instead favor the adoption of an internal “transitional justice”2 mechanism which 2
Transitional justice refers to the process by which human rights abuses are treated as a society returns to political and social normalcy.
9) THE UNITED STATES ROLE IN PROMULGATING EQUITABLE RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION
allows for the establishment of culpability and the restitution of rights to those (e.g. a locally constituted version of the Truth and Reconciliation mechanism). This would extend to the implementation of a disarmament program.
9.1. The United States, China, France and other state actors should agree to sit down at the negotiating table at the Sudanese behest. The parties to this multilateral discussion should openly discuss their ambitions for the region, including their economic objectives3.
7) THE ROLE OF WOMEN 7.1. Women continue to suffer mightily as a result of the conflict. Reports of widespread and systematic rapes and other forms of sexual and physical abuse continue. We favor the establishment of clear legal standards, supported by vigorous enforcement apparatus, providing unequivocal support for the sanctity of womanhood within a human rights framework. This would include sanctions prohibiting violence against women of any kind, a woman’s right to self-determination (including educational and career rights).
9.2. The negotiating parties should call for a full disclosure of all those who want to access the resources of the Sudan, and intrusion by anyone who does not subject their interest to this level of glasnost should be barred from participation. 9.3. Once the “claims” or desires are on the table, the people of Sudan can negotiate a sharing agreement that best suits their needs. This conflict is only the tip of the iceberg. It can set the precedent for solving resource allocation issues of the future which will come more frequently and more violently, if we do not insist on some rules of conduct. Transparency in economic dealings is fundamental, because all transactions are expected to be honest exchanges by two willing entities.
7.2. In pursuance of the above, we support review of all structures participating in this conflict resolution to assess gender balance. In particular, we call for gender balance in the Peacekeeping forces of the AU and UN, such that women comprise 50% of these forces, at the lower and higher levels of command.
9.4. We are at a point on Earth where the super profits available from hidden transactions of unequal exchange can no longer be allowed. We call for transparency in international trade as a precursor to international peace.
7.3. The above (7.1) can be supported by women’s organizations which have access and participatory rights in governmental and non-governmental actions aimed at a peaceful and continuing resolution of the conflicts. The US government should fund such organizations.
10) HUMAN DISPLACEMENT AND THE CONTINUING REFUGEE CRISIS
8) THE ROLE OF YOUTHS
10.1. The ongoing war has created a highly unstable situation in which civilians have continued to be victimized. Tens of thousands of people have been displaced as they seek to avoid the violence, many them crowding into refugee camps. The camps are hotbeds of sexual violence, with rape becoming an all too prevalent, though largely unreported practice.
8.1. Darfur is not the only conflict in which youths have been exploited by the culpable. Various militias have recruited, and even press-ganged, youths eighteen-years-old and younger as combatants. This has contributed to the general unrest and lays the groundwork for future destabilization, as the youths incorporate systematic violence as a means for survival.
10.2. The incidence of disease and malnutrition, particularly among children, reached 16.1% in 2007, surpassing the 15% emergency threshold for the first time since 2004. For children six to twenty-nine months old, the malnutrition rate was 21.3%.
8.2. We support the immediate and continuing efforts by interventionist actors to 1.) Prevent the recruitment of youths into armed groups, 2.) The institution of humanitarian programs to re-educate and re-orient youths towards productive roles in that society, and 3.) The development of continuing initiatives to help youths already involved in militias to re-orient themselves to play productive roles in that society going forward.
Sudan’s oil fields produced approximately 500,000 barrels of oil daily in 2007, up from 300,000 in 2006. China fulfills about 7% of its energy needs from Sudan oil. China and the West are on opposing sides in this conflict, with the West supporting various rebel groups while China is aligned with the Sudan government in Khartoum. China is by far a bigger Africa donor than the West ($10 billion). Source: The Christian Science Monitor. February 2, 2007.
10.3. Over 13,000 relief workers in the region are providing assistance to approximately 4.2 million Darfuris, about two-thirds of the area’s total population. Assaults and other violence against these workers have also continued to increase problems involved in providing humanitarian assistance are well known. We support efforts to secure ground access to the refugee camps. 10.4. We support the immediate assessment of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment of the population and the military forces in the areas secured by peacekeeping. It has been shown historically that under-resourced armies and interaction with displaced, desperate people will lead to spread of HIV/AIDS of pandemic proportions, reaching 25 to 44% of the troops and population affected. Reference was made to several US legislative actions.
Cynthia Lucas Hewitt is Associate Professor of Sociology at Morehouse College and Director of the College’s MPAGE study abroad program.
Najwa Gadaheldam is a Sudanese peace activist and former Industrial Development Officer with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
Charles T. Moses is Dean of Clark Atlanta University’s School of Business.
References Bauldauf, Scott. 2007. “Hu’s trip to Sudan tests China-Africa ties.”
LeMelle, Gerald and Michael Stulman. “Africa policy outlook 2009.”
Christian Science Monitor. 2 February.
Africa Action, Foreign Policy in Focus. January 27, 2009. Accessed at
http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/5814. Crick T. 12 February. Telephone interview. Atlanta, GA: The Carter Center.
Reeves, Eric. “Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur: A critical analysis (Part I).” Accessed at http://www.
Dworkin, A. (2004). “The United States accuses Sudan of committing genocide in Darfur.” Crimes of War Project. Accessed at http://www.
Save Darfur Coalition. 2008. “Rhetoric vs. reality–the situation in Darfur.” Accessed at http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/
Gadaheldam, Najwa. 2005-2009. “Darfur: a global conflict.” Seminar presentation series, Salzburg Global Seminar, Salzburg, Austria.
Save Darfur Coalition. 2008. “Darfur Update.” 6 June. Accessed at http://darfur.3cdn.net/46c257b8e3959746d5_
Hoyer, Steny H. 2007. Congressional Delegation trip report, April.
ttm6bnau2.pdf. Lavallee, Guillaume. 2009. “Darfur no longer at war but still far from peace.” Agence France-Presse. 29 August.
Structured Reflection for Transformative Learning: Linking Home and Away – Kiran Cunningham
One of the central tasks we have as educators is to prepare students to live and work in a world where the distance between the local and global is simultaneously narrow and wide, and where grappling with the defining challenges and opportunities of our time will require the ability to navigate through multiple cultural systems and structures of power. Toward this end, more and more colleges and universities are sending more and more students on study abroad and other border-crossing programs. These kinds of programs have the potential for catalyzing transformative learning, but in order for this kind of learning to occur, students need to be ready for the experience and equipped with the tools that enable them to productively work through the dissonance they will inevitably encounter, dissonance that contains within it the seeds of transformation.
information or drawing from existing knowledge” (2005, p.11). High-intensity dissonance, however, contains the potential for transformative learning because one’s existing knowledge is not sufficient to make sense of the dissonance one is experiencing. Thus, whereas the effects of low-intensity dissonance fade and/or are resolved, effects of high-intensity dissonance do not go away; rather, they “create permanent markers in students’ frame of reference” (Kiely, 2005, p.11).
According to Mezirow (1997), transformative learning involves a change in one’s frame of reference. He defines frame of reference as “the structures of assumptions through which we understand our experiences.” These structures of assumptions both shape and constrain our expectations, perceptions, cognition, and feelings. They provide our taken-for-granteds, set our lines of action, and comprise our habits of mind and points of view.
As numerous scholars have demonstrated, and as most of us working with students who study abroad know through experience, study abroad and other bordercrossing experiential learning opportunities have tremendous potential for transformative learning. However, not all encounters with high intensity dissonance result in transformational learning. Indeed, the ethnocentrism embedded in our assumptions is a strong inhibitor of this process. To use Mezirow’s language, we have a “strong tendency to reject ideas that fail to fit our preconceptions, labeling those ideas as unworthy of consideration—aberrations, nonsense, irrelevant, weird, or mistaken” (1997, p.5). This response to dissonance is familiar to any of us working in international education; experiences of high intensity dissonance on study abroad can result in a hardening of stereotypes when students hold tight to their original frames of reference.
Transformative learning is often triggered by a disorienting dilemma, the experience of which can lead to a process whereby these taken-for-granted assumptions are questioned, assessed, and even radically transformed (Mezirow, 1997, p.7). Kiely (2005) builds on Mezirow’s concept of disorienting dilemmas by distinguishing between low-intensity and high-intensity dissonance. Low-intensity dissonance, according to Kiely, “tends to be short-term and manageable by acquiring additional
As educators, the critical question then becomes: How do we maximize the transformative educational potential of study abroad and other off-campus bordercrossing experiences and minimize the chances of those experiences resulting in a hardening of stereotypes? The answer lies not only in the structure and content of the study away experience, but also in the on-campus curricular structures and pedagogical practices that scaffold that experience both before and after (Brewer and Cunningham, 2010). The remainder of this essay focuses on that on-campus scaffolding, and offers a conceptual framework and a model of structured reflection that have proven useful for integrating study abroad and other offcampus border-crossing experiences into the on campus curriculum in ways that maximize their transformative educational potential.
contextualize one’s experience in broader theoretical and conceptual frameworks about, for example, the cultural, political, economic, institutional, or psychological structures at play in their border-crossing experiences. While students at this level may not yet see their own frames of reference as constructed within these overarching structures, they are nonetheless able to use them to make sense of their experiences. The final level, transformative change, entails the kind of shift in frame of reference or habit of mind that Mezirow describes. In the few interviews where we saw these kinds of shifts in frame of reference, we found that students were able to connect their deepening structural understanding with their deepening understanding of their self, essentially making it possible for their own positionality to become a conscious element of their experience. They were able to describe the way that their frame of reference was constructed within overarching structures of culture and power, and that this frame of reference, much like Bourdieu’s habitus, propelled them to comprehend their experience and act in certain ways (Cunningham 2010). In other words, students were able to bring together their deepening understanding of self with their deepening structural understanding to examine and think through the high intensity dissonance they were experiencing. When they did that, they were able to not only make their way productively through the dissonance, but their frame of reference shifted in the process. In other words, transformative learning happened.
My own research has focused on the conditions under which students’ experiences of high intensity dissonance in the contexts of service learning and study abroad, lead to transformative learning (see Cunningham and Grossman, 2009). An examination of the literatures on transformative learning and epistemological development combined with an analysis of over 100 interviews with Kalamazoo College juniors and seniors suggests that there are six key levels in the transformative learning process:
1. Knowledge gains 2. Attitude changes 3. Changes in perspective 4. Deepening self understanding 5. Deepening structural understanding 6. Transformative change
These research findings catalyzed much discussion with and among colleagues at Kalamazoo College about how to catalyze transformative learning. These discussions Evidence of the first three levels in the continuum ultimately led to the development of a model of was very common in the student interviews. Students structured reflection that has proven to be a powerful often spoke of the way that their experiences led to tool for moving students along the transformative increased knowledge about people and places, more learning continuum and maximizing the potential for fine-tuned theoretical and conceptual understandings encounters with high intensity dissonance to lead to of culture and power, as well as transformative learning. Our clearer understandings of their definition of structured reflection, passions. They also spoke about When engaged in structured reflection, developed and refined by faculty such attitude changes as gains an individual, or a group of interacting and staff at Kalamazoo College, in confidence, increased ability individuals, steps aside from being is the following: structured to tolerate ambiguity, and a a subject in a life and begins viewing reflection is a process that can willingness to “let go” of control. ideas held and experiences encountered catalyze transformative learning In terms of changes in perspective, as objects to be worked with, as the by employing intentionally they described seeing things from building blocks of meaning-making. designed discussions, activities, others’ points of view and the or assignments that help students development of empathy. (and others) interrogate, make connections between, and examine consonance or The final three levels of the continuum were increasingly dissonance between assumptions held, theories and less common in the interviews. An ability to critically concepts known, and experiences encountered. This assess one’s assumptions is a key step along the way definition is illustrated in the Structured Reflection to transformative learning in that one not only has to Triangle below (Figure 1). When engaged in structured acknowledge that one has assumptions, but understands reflection, an individual, or a group of interacting that those assumptions are potentially problematic. individuals, steps aside from being a subject in a life and Gaining a structural understanding enables one to begins viewing ideas held and experiences encountered
as objects to be worked with, as the building blocks of meaning-making. Through working along the legs of the Structured Reflection Triangle, individuals move toward self-authorship,1 a pre-requisite for transformative learning. This kind of reflection catalyzes self-authorship both because students’ experiences and assumptions are part of the substance of what is being examined, and in making the connections between them and linking them to theories and concepts they’ve learned, students have to do the meaning-making work. To be ready to productively encounter the high intensity dissonance associated with international and intercultural learning opportunities, students need to understand themselves as meaningmakers and, more importantly, understand that the system of meanings they operate out of is itself made.
experiences and their assumptions about their career paths. Faculty, too, are using the SRT in their courses and in advising. Because the sophomore seminars are intended to be a space for integrating study abroad into the curriculum, teaching these seminars has provided an opportunity for faculty to experiment with using the SRT to design discussions and assignments that ask students to make connections between the theories and concepts central to the class and the experiences they anticipate having abroad. Most recently, we have begun experimenting with incorporating structured reflection and the SRT into advising. Under the direction of Paul Sotherland (Professor of Biology and Associate Provost for Teaching, Learning and Assessment), Kalamazoo College is using a FIPSE grant to identify, develop, test, implement, and disseminate particularly effective academic advising practices. One of the key questions being examined through this project is: Can intentional use of structured reflection during advising help students develop greater authorship of their own educations? Advisors participating in the project are engaging their advisees in reflective conversations using the Structured Reflection Triangle to help them carve their own educational path. We are also interested in seeing if employing structured reflection through advising increases the likelihood of students participating in “high impact practices” (AAC&U, 2008), making connections among the many facets of their education, and building a whole education that is greater than the sum of its parts (Dueweke, Sotherland and McDonald, 2010).
Structured Reflection Triangle (Cunningham, 2010)
Theories and Concepts Known
ST RUCTURED REF LECTION
While structured reflection and the SRT is only one tool in the toolkit for global education, it is a powerful one. Developing the theoretical and conceptual frameworks for understanding multiple cultural systems and the structures of power within which they exist, gaining an ability to critically see one’s assumptions and the way they operate in various circumstances, and having the ability to be attentive to the various dynamics at play in the experiences one is encountering are all crucial to understanding the challenges and opportunities one confronts. However, when these three points of the triangle are put into dialogue with each other through meaning-making structured reflection, transformative learning is possible. And when transformative learning happens, we are able to grapple with the world’s most pressing challenges and opportunities in new ways, bringing new frames of reference and sets of assumptions to think with that may well contain within them innovative and creative paths forward.
The Structured Reflection Triangle (SRT) can be used in a variety of domains to move students along the transformative learning continuum, foster selfauthorship, ready them to learn through border crossing experiences, and capture the learning from those experiences. At Kalamazoo College the SRT is used by staff in the Center for International Programs to craft reflection questions for students to consider before, during and after they study abroad; by staff and student leaders in the Mary Jane Underwood Stryker Center for Service-Learning in their group reflections with students engaged with a variety of community partners through curricular and co-curricular structures; and by the Center for Career and Professional Development as they work with students doing internships, externships, and other professional development activities to consider the connections and disconnections between their work 1
Kiran Cunningham is Professor of Anthropology and Sociology and Women, Gender and Sexuality at Kalamazoo College in Kalamazoo, MI. She was a facilitator of one of the MFCI workshops.
For more on self-authorship, see Baxter Magolda and King, 2008 and Kegan, 1994.
References American Association of Colleges and Universities. 2008. “High-
Cunningham, K. and R. Grossman. 2009. “Transformative Learning:
impact educational practices: What they are, who has access to
An Epistemological Study of Kalamazoo College Student Learning
them, and why they matter.” Washington, DC. George D. Kuh.
Outcomes.” Prepared for the 3rd National Conference on Innovations in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning at Liberal Arts Colleges,
Anderson, C. and K. Cunningham. 2010. “Culture, religion, and
Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana, March 6-8.
nationality: Developing ethnographic skills and reflective practices connected to study abroad.” In Integrating Study Abroad Into the
Dueweke, A., P. Sotherland, and M. McDonald, 2010. “Improving
Curriculum: Theory and Practice Across the Disciplines, Elizabeth Brewer &
student retention and connection through innovative advising
Kiran Cunningham, eds. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
practices.” A proposal by Kalamazoo College to the Department of Education, Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education.
Baxter Magolda, M.B., and P.M. King. 2008. “Toward reflective
Grant PB116B100047 funded 2011-2014.
conversations: An advising approach that promotes self-authorship.” Peer Review Winter 8-11.
Kalamazoo College Self Study 2012
Brewer, E. and K. Cunningham, eds. 2010. Integrating Study Abroad
Kegan, R. 1994. In Over Our Heads: The Mental Demands of Modern Life.
Into the Curriculum: Theory and Practice across the Disciplines. Sterling, VA:
Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
Stylus Publishing. Kiely, R. 2005. “A transformative learning model for service-learning: Cunningham, K. and E. Brewer. 2010. “Capturing study abroad’s
A longitudinal case study.” Michigan Journal of Community Service
transformative potential.” In Integrating Study Abroad Into the
Learning, 12, 5-22.
Curriculum: Theory and Practice across the Disciplines, pp. 1-20, Elizabeth Mezirow, J. 1997.” Transformative learning: Theory to practice.” New
Brewer and Kiran Cunningham, eds. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 5-12. Cunningham, K. 2010. “Putting the anthropological toolkit to use in international and intercultural learning.” Practicing Anthropology
Mezirow, J., ed. 2000. Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a
theory in progress. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Re-Defining Learning Outcomes for Global Citizenship Education – Mark Drnach
As information and knowledge become more readily individual. This realization causes the global citizen to available to many more people on this planet, the need live in solidarity with the human race despite the specific for university students in the developed countries to nation state in which he or she resides” (Wheeling Jesuit, understand and act on their responsibility to make a 2010). Such a goal should be supported by specific courses difference around the world is becoming more evident. that offer part of the resources and knowledge needed to Graduates who demonstrate a global consciousness provide promote an appropriate outcome. A sequence of courses a platform to address the growing global demand for a from one or more disciplines could also be integrated with more inclusive, just, and fair society. Higher education several learning objectives, provided at various taxonomic has the responsibility to nurture the development of levels, utilizing a graded application of knowledge. One global citizens who can participate example would be to include the effectively on the global stage and learning objective that would demonstrate the basic behavior of Higher education has the responsibility require the student to identify a good steward of this planet. Reto nurture the development of global attributes of his or her own evaluating the university’s mission, citizens who can participate effectively culture and cultural practices. programs, courses, and learning on the global stage and demonstrate Many students endeavor to learn objectives in light of this reality is the basic behavior of a good steward of about other cultures without crucial in maintaining a current this planet. an appreciation of their own and relevant course of study. culture and cultural behaviors and attitudes. By setting up this Most academic institution’s mission statements include foundation, students can then explore the intersection of a goal to produce graduates who are competent and his or her culture with another cultures, and identify and holistic in their approach to life. In order to be more discuss when that perception is supportive of or in conflict intentional in this process, institutions, including faculty, with their own cultural practices. A higher or deeper level staff, and administrators should be able to demonstrate of learning could be fostered by having the student further the structure and process to which a student is exposed, analyze the interconnectedness between their culture and guided, supported, and is taught about the world in which different cultures with specific application to their current he and she will live and work. For the administrative field of study, such as medicine or political science. arm of a university this will require appropriate resource allocation; for the faculty, a re-evaluation of the courses The intentional inclusion of learning objectives that provided and the inclusion of learning objectives that guide the faculty and student to an understanding and reflect this intention are also necessary. appreciation of global issues and personal responsibility is one part of the equation. Measuring learning and outcomes is the other half. An evaluation of learning A Guiding Framework objectives begins with identifying the relationship to the A framework that supports the development of a university or program’s mission statement, the primary global consciousness would be reflected in the primary educational goals, and a clear relationship to the intended educational goals of an institution of higher education outcome. Clear, objective, and sequential learning to provide some dimension of global citizenship to their objectives, along with objective and measureable outcome students. One example is from Wheeling Jesuit University: assessments, will aid the students in their acquisition of “The global citizen understands the interconnectedness awareness and knowledge of global issues. The following of human cultures and the dignity and worth of each is an example of a few general objectives (Bloom, 1956):
The student will be able to:
and reflections, can aid in fostering the development of one aspect of global awareness in first generation college students. Stepping out of a country to deliver educational supplies to community partners in the Dominican Republic, provide manual labor in Nicaragua, or health services in Mexico are a few examples of servicelearning activities that provide the student with a venue to implement and develop skills that can be used when working with others around the country or the world.
1. Articulate the history of the university’s mission as it relates to the global community; 2. Identify attributes of his or her own culture and cultural practices; 3. Understand and differentiate between at least three or more cultures;
The collaborations and work of the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative and Salzburg Global Seminar provided the foundation for the development of an intentional framework that clarified some current structures and systems at various institutions and created new opportunities to advance a formal curricular stream of global citizenship. Planned experiences, whether in or out of the classroom or country, begin in the core curriculum and continue through the major programs with the overall goal to provide the students, specifically first-generation college students from HBCUs and the ACA, with the knowledge and resources to appreciate and demonstrate the attributes of a global citizen upon graduation and hopefully use their acquired understanding to be of service to men and women throughout the world.
4. Demonstrate behaviors consistent with service and civic responsibility at a local, regional, or global level. These could be tailored more specifically to a course offered in one or more programs. For example, the student will be able to: 1. Challenge assumptions, biases, and prejudices on social issues encountered in the local community. 2. Understand the basic history and economic development of a specific region. 3. Analyze the intersection of his or her culture with another culture(s), identifying when that perception is supportive or in conflict with his or her own cultural practices;
The Importance of Measuring Outcomes
4. Analyze the interconnectedness between his or her culture and other cultures with specific application to his or her current field of study.
Measuring the effect that an intentional framework has on the knowledge and behavior of a student exposed to this structure can be done through general discipline assessments, focus group feedback, or standard assessments, such as the Civic Attitude and Skills Questionnaire by Moely (2002). In addition, a survey of graduates from a program can also be used to see if the educational design produced a measureable change in the students’ behavior after leaving the institution.
Through an intentional structure that stems from the core requirements of any academic program, the addition of intentional learning experiences with an identified partner (in the case of the MFCI: Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) and the Appalachian College Association (ACA)), and reflections on those experiences, would enrich a students’ education, and lead them to a new level of social and global awareness. What is learned with others could be implemented in the local community and extrapolated to the larger global community through discussions and experiences that sharpen and highlight the application of didactic knowledge. The goal is that he or she recognizes their influence and responsibility to the global family.
The Physical Therapy Department at Wheeling Jesuit University has a structured system of service learning/ international clinical education that incorporates learning objectives, clinical performance indicators, focus group summaries, outcomes using the Civics Attitude and Skills Questionnaire, and surveys of community partners and graduates of the program. The graduates are surveyed six months and one year after graduation. Several of the questions are intended to capture a behavior that is reflective of a global citizen. These include the following:
Service Learning as a Strategy Leading to Global Awareness
1. In clinical practice, how often do you intentionally seek out information from sources outside the US to gain a different perspective? Examples: obtaining literature published in other countries; accessing websites hosted by organizations in other countries or who represent a global community (i.e. World Health Organization, World Confederation of Physical Therapy, Pedro database).
Service learning – a form of experiential learning – is one strategy that could be used to foster a student’s awareness of global issues. Collaboration to expose students and participants to various community activities can aid in fostering a deeper understanding of learning objectives. Trips to local food banks or shelters for people who are homeless, with intentional learning objectives
2. Reflecting on the past six months, when working with a person from a different ethnic, socioeconomic, or international background, how frequently have you modified an aspect of the plan of care due to the person’s ethnic, socio-economic, or international background?
As knowledge becomes a commodity available to more people worldwide, the United States has an obligation to help develop social justice, peace, and a respectable standard of living to those who live without such basic human needs. Students from the Appalachian region and those attending HBCU institutions have a unique history and background that would enable them to have a deeper understanding and empathy towards people around the world. Appropriate learning objectives and measurable outcomes are necessary in order to validate the education of students to be global citizens who someday will affect a change in the people around the world—people who they may finally see as a reflection of themselves.
3. Do you provide financial support to people, programs or organizations that address the needs of people living in developing countries? 4. Since graduating, have you participated in, or have made plans to participate in, any international trips to provide information (lectures, poster presentations, etc.), attend conferences, or provide services (physical therapy or manpower) to others?
Mark Drnach PT, DPT, MBA, PCS is Clinical Associate Professor of Physical Therapy at Wheeling Jesuit University in Wheeling, WV and a participant of numerous MFCI sessions and workshops.
5. Since graduating, do you participate on a personal level in activities that reflect a global awareness such as conservation activities, recycling, purchasing “fair trade” items, or the efficient use of energy?
References: Taxonomic levels of low (L), medium (M), and high (H) are based on
Veldhuis, Rudd. 1997. Education for democratic citizenship: dimensions
the “Major categories in the taxonomy of educational objectives.”
of citizenship, core competencies, variables, and international activities.
Bloom, Benjamin. 1956. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I:
Instituut voor Publiek en Politiek, Amsterdam. Available from
The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay.
Council for Cultural Cooperation, F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex, France.
Global Competence Matrix. EdSteps. 2011. Accessed at
Wheeling Jesuit University. 2010. Primary Education Goals. Wheeling
Jesuit University. Wheeling, WV
Moely, B.E., S. Mercer, V. Ilustre,D. Miron, and M. McFarland. 2002.“Psychometric properties and correlates of the civic attitudes and skills questionnaire: A measure of students’ attitudes related to service-learning.” Michigan Journal of Community Service-learning, 8:15-26.
Learning and Leading: Building Collaborations Across Campus at an Appalachian College Association (ACA) – Tracy Parkinson
From its initial participation in the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative and other parallel efforts to engage students in broadened thinking about identity and global citizenship, a cross-disciplinary and cross-sectional ethos of collaboration has been key to successful endeavors at King University. King is a Presbyterian-affiliated institution with a total enrollment of just over 2000, to include approximately 1000 traditional students. The residential campus is located in Bristol, TN, on the border of Tennessee and Virginia in Central Appalachia. While generally drawing students from over thirty states and twenty foreign countries, the traditional enrollment also includes a high proportion of first-generation college students with close ties to the region. As such, the university seeks to establish a learning ethos that extends well beyond the confines of its campus, for the benefit of all students, regardless of background or hometown. This ethos manifests itself in the curriculum, as well as in key aspects of the co-curriculum, including travel and service. Three key travel experiences detailed here have developed foundations of that ethos.
multicultural city; and provide meaningful interaction with faculty and staff beyond that normally encountered in classrooms or campus offices. The program has traditionally run from a Thursday midday departure to a late-night Sunday return by motorcoach. Programming has included activities for the full group, normally numbering around 200, to include Arlington Cemetery and the Kennedy Center. Other programming is designed for small groups of ten to fifteen students led by faculty and staff. Small group activities might range from trips to the National Mall for those making their first visit to Washington to more targeted experiences, such as a behind-the-scenes tour at an embassy, a National Public Radio visit, or a trip to the Islamic Center. The success of Experience DC at King University has required cooperation and support across administration, faculty, and staff. It’s success – with over 90% student participation – has been dependent on a commonly-held understanding of its educational value. Administrative support allowed the program to become part of the regular operating budget of the college, thus meaning the “excursion” was included as part of the curriculum for students’ First Year Seminar Course, at no additional cost. Support from athletics ensured that as many teams as possible had open dates on the weekend of Experience DC and those teams with competitions released their freshmen to participate. Most importantly, a successful Experience DC weekend required participation of twenty or more faculty and staff each year, ranging from coaches to faculty members to support staff. These faculty and staff members serve as teachers and guides, rather than chaperones and head-counters.
Experience DC Now approaching its tenth birthday, “Experience DC” is perhaps King’s signature initiative aimed at encouraging students to reach beyond the confines of the campus. Experience DC is a four-day program intended to take the entire freshman class to Washington, DC. The trip takes place annually within the first three to four weeks of the fall semester, thus early in the college experience. The program seeks to accomplish several things: create a unique experience tying students to one another and the institution early in the freshman year; establish early in the freshman year the value of learning beyond the classroom; incorporate an experience in a global,
Italy May Term, France Summer
In May, 2012, fourteen junior members of the King While the experience abroad is a staple of encouraged College honors program participated in an International options in most undergraduate programs, the success Study Program session of Salzburg Global Seminar and viability of programs at small colleges like King alongside students from Bennett College for Women. are dependent on creative cooperation. King University (The group was also accompanied by students from has been able to maintain a fully-subscribed, threetwo other ACA institutions: Ferrum College and West week, residential experience Virginia Wesleyan University.) This in Montepulciano, Italy thanks program was a direct outgrowth to faculty collaboration across While the experience abroad is a of a vision developed in sessions disciplines. To ensure a program staple of encouraged options in most of the MFCI, seeking to find a that could appeal to a wide range undergraduate programs, the success long-term way to reproduce the of students and help them be and viability of programs at small learning experiences of the facultysure of maintaining a timely path colleges like King are dependent on staff groups who participated toward graduation, the curriculum creative cooperation. in this program, but also, most was devised to include instruction, importantly, the extraordinary by faculty members from the MFCI student session at Salzburg college, ranging from biology to religion, and general in early 2011 that presented a variation of Salzburg education courses, to, of course, Italian. Without this Globalâ€™s Global Citizenship curriculum to students breadth of courses, and the necessary cooperation across representing a broad range of ACA and Historically Black academic departments, I am convinced the program Colleges and Universities (HBCU) institutions. would not have been able to consistently recruit a sufficient number of participants. From an institutional perspective at King University, this required administrative support of a funding plan for junior Facing a comparable challenge for summer study abroad honors students to underwrite a portion of their Salzburg in France, King University took an alternative approach of costs. It required participation and support from faculty in maintaining a language and culture-focused curriculum by multiple disciplines to assist in the preparatory learning taking part in a collaborative initiative among institutions. experiences. It required a willingness on the part of the With six to ten small colleges, all with similar sizes and university to share ownership with other institutions. Finally, missions, sending just a few students each year, the it required a university-wide understanding, reinforced by the cumulative result was a viable, annual program. Perhaps observed value of other projects that such a project, and its most importantly, each institution was able to brand the expense in dollars and human resources, was consistent with program as its own, often a key variable that offers a sense the educational mission of the institution. of familiarity when convincing students and families that an experience abroad is safe and trustworthy. The next King-Bennett student session on global citizenship (again with participation of Ferrum College students) took place in May 2013, and students from the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative two schools held a preliminary meeting on the Bennett and Related Programs campus in February 2013. Thus, as an indirect result The two examples noted above are important of collaborative campus initiatives focusing on global aspects of Kingâ€™s participation in the Mellon Fellow awareness, and as a direct result of student and faculty Community Initiative (MFCI) in large part because they experiences by way of the MFCI, a cross-institutional, represent fundamental projects in building a culture cross-disciplinary, international experience brought of collaboration at King, particularly with regard to together students from vastly different American incorporating a curriculum and co-curriculum that experiences for shared learning as American students encourages student attention to identity and global abroad for its second iteration. I am convinced that the civics. Thus, even the project related to Kingâ€™s initial foundation is now set for this program to continue and MFCI participation, was a curriculum development grow, thanks to the investment of the Andrew W. Mellon project to craft and add an interdisciplinary course on Foundation in these institutions and these students. Cultural Identity to the general education program of the college. Support from academic administration, the core curriculum committee, and at least three Tracy Parkinson is now Provost of Coker different program areas was necessary for something as College in Hartsville, SC. He was the former Dean seemingly small as one new course to find its way into of the Faculty and Associate Vice President for the catalogue and into the regular rotation of instruction. Academic Affairs at King University in Bristol, TN More importantly, each of the aforementioned types of when the MCFI began. As faculty participant and cooperation across and beyond campus were key elements session faculty, he took part in numerous MFCI to what I believe was the most significant long-term meetings. outcome of the MFCI for King and its students.
Cultural Identity and Inclusive Societies: Infusing Diversity and Culture into Character Education â€“ Walter Earl Fluker
in conduct; and the absence of trust, a sense of duty and In January 2011, a group of forty-seven students coming responsibility to others are all signs of an unanchored in roughly equal proportions from seventeen Appalachian ethical center. In respect to diversity and culture, it was College Association (ACA) and Historically Black Colleges argued that the ethical center both forms and informs and Universities (HBCU) partner colleges and universities the studentâ€™s sense of self in relation to others and of the MFCI attended a week-long global citizenship his or her larger universe of discourse. Any character program in Salzburg, Austria. The following article is education program that seeks to spark a transformation based on my experience as the of consciousness regarding the faculty chair of this student problems that often attend session. One theme of the session Diversity is not the simple cultural diversity must first help was a discussion of significant amalgamation of multiculturalism, students engage and repair their issues and challenges confronting language, beliefs, disability, race, ethical centers. students and educators from gender, class, religion, age and medical many different backgrounds, condition, but covers a broad and Diversity is not the simple cultures, and communities who complex spectrum of differences borne amalgamation of multiculturalism, must negotiate the difficult of cultural origins, ways of learning, and language, beliefs, disability, race, matters of tolerance, respect, most important for our purposes, ways gender, class, religion, age and and appreciation of difference. of viewing and relating to others. medical condition, but covers a A second theme was the need broad and complex spectrum of for development of ethical differences borne of cultural origins, student leaders and educators within specific school ways of learning, and most important for our purposes, environments who will promote habits and practices that ways of viewing and relating to others. Emphasis in the create communities of discourse and practice to address session was placed on developing morally-anchored character the challenges of diversity and culture. A methodological (Thomas, 1989), transformative acts of civility (Carter, 1998; approach for the infusion of culture and diversity into Etzioni, 1996; Fluker, 1998; Goldfarb, 1998; King & Devere, character education was proposed which utilizes three 2000; Putnam, 2000) and a sense of community, which interrelated concepts and practices of character, civility and seeks just relations with, and openness to, others (Capra, community in the development of ethical student leaders. 1996; Devall & Sessions, 1985; Hanh, 1995; His Holiness The Dalai Lama, 1999; King, 1967; Lerner, 1996; Shields & Bredemeier, 2005; Thurman, 2000).
The Problem of Diversity and Culture in Character Education
Issues and Challenges That Impact Diversity and Culture in Character Education
The basic argument for the strategy of infusing diversity and culture in character education is that human development requires a moral anchor, a psychosocial structure in which students themselves must be central participants. Destructive behaviors, poor decisionmaking and life skills; arrested development in emotional intelligence and communication skills; severe limitations
A number of historical and contemporary issues impact this topic area. Among these are global change (Appiah, 2006; Friedman, 2005; Zakaria, 2008) and social-historical contexts, i.e. the changing landscape of the United States in respect to the particular issues of immigration,
language, religion, culture, race, poverty, class, and Our emphasis on spiritual and cultural imagination aesthetic ideals meted through communications media in character education and leadership discourse and and educational practice. A New York Times article states practice is centrally an issue of attending to the human that “The census calculates that by 2042, Americans who spirit, with emphasis on what it means to be human. identify themselves as Hispanic, black, Asian, American Discussions of spirituality cover a broad and increasingly Indian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander will together complex spectrum of beliefs, practices, and approaches outnumber non-Hispanic whites. within and beyond traditional Four years ago, officials had religious circles. For our purposes, projected the shift would come in Connection to others is intimately spirituality refers to ways of seeking 2050” (Roberts, 2008, p. A1). related to who I am and who I become, or being in relationship with which is the foundation of ethics and others who are believed to be A clearly articulated conceptual the origin of civil society beyond our worthy of reverence and highest framework must be utilized to private quests for meaning and audevotion. In this definition, I strengthen and transform character thenticity. Indeed, in order to be fully am concerned with others as education and provide support human and ethical, we must be coninclusive of both individuality and for the infusion of diversity and nected to others through obligation community. culture in the learning process. and interdependence. Most models of character education Connection to others is intimately begin with traditional (virtuerelated to who I am and who I based), developmental (cognitive approaches emphasizing become, which is the foundation of ethics and the origin reason and judgment), and emotional intelligence of civil society beyond our private quests for meaning strategies (ethics of care or compassion, attachment, and and authenticity. Indeed, in order to be fully human spirituality) for assessment of the self as the primary locus and ethical, we must be connected to others through for impact and transformation of behavior. Nearly all obligation and interdependence. models acknowledge the interaction of self in the context of social interaction with others. Most, including the work of Lawrence Kohlberg and “just community” strategies, Methodological Considerations virtue ethics, and non-cognitivist approaches, wrestle with Critical to the infusion strategy of diversity and culture in the notion of an individuated self that seeks understanding character education is the solicitation and utilization of and motivational resources for moral judgment and stories in nurturing the human spirit. Stories provide the behavior in variable situations (Wren, 2008). For example, vehicles through which students come to appreciate and Kohlberg’s just community theory is informed by a empathize with others. Remembering, retelling, and reliving hierarchical developmental approach which is cognitivist, of stories encourage the cultivation of listening, or what especially as it relates to human agency and moral will. In some scholars have called civil listening (Carter, 1998). The all instances, Kohlberg’s emphasis rests with the autonomy imagination is engaged in story discourse at two levels. One of the individual as a moral agent. Our approach is more is the narrative level where the hearer is engaged in secondakin to Gilligan and others who seek a model of self-inorder discourse that is primarily descriptive and easily relation (Gilligan, 1982). accessible. At a deeper level, however, there is a dimension of story that scholars have called first order language, which While these approaches have proven helpful in is primal and primordial; and invites the listener to envision the complex and developing literature of character a future of diversity accentuating respect, tolerance, and education, the focus on the individual conflicts with appreciation of difference (Fluker, 1998). the goal of cultural enrichment and diversity (Gallien & Jackson, 2006; Lehr, Katzman, Clinton & Sullivan, Storytelling in the Ethical Leadership Model® is the 2006; Smagorinsky & Taxel, 2005; Wren & Mendoza, prime vehicle for transmission of the wisdom, habits, 2004). Human beings, especially our students, are and practices that fund the moral character (character), not discrete individuals without connection to larger transformative civil discourse (civility), and reconciling social-historical narratives and traditions that define acts of community (community) of ethical student character in the context of particular communities of leaders. When revitalized with imagination, tradition discourse and practice. Our approach takes its cue from becomes a discourse (oral, written, or ritual) that is able all three prevalent theoretical models (cognitivist, virtueto bring disclosure of personal and collective meaning. based and emotional intelligence-based) with emphasis However, imagination without the input of tradition on communities of discourse and practice and the role of fails to inculcate habits of conduct within students that spirituality and cultural imagination. The latter consists preserve their sense of continuity with the past. Tradition of the many cultural narratives, myths, rituals, and refers to the customs and meanings around which a aesthetic triggers that inform experiential and reflective community unites, as well as the transmission of these learning, critical thinking, and moral judgment (Tisdell, customs and ways of thinking to the next generation. The 2007; Welch, 1999). return to tradition as a direction for present and future
character (personal); civility (social and public); and community (communal belonging and practice). The desired outcomes of this approach were to empower students to infuse culture and diversity through story-telling (narrativization as a critical skill for remembering, retelling and reliving their stories in the context of other cultural narratives); to provide resources for teaching skills and competencies for negotiation, tolerance and appreciation of difference (looking, listening and learning from the others’ stories); and to support ethical decision-making (discerning, deliberating and deciding on appropriate conduct in relation to the other). In the interest of economy, these sets of competencies and skills were integrated in the overall summary that follows.
leadership has its inherent dangers. Any casual observation of the national and global conflicts surrounding religion, race, and ethnicity should sound a warning to unreflective attachment to tradition. For example, African-American moral traditions have shaped ethical leaders who attempt to end unjust institutional practices which promote an unhealthy and self-destructive existence. Retrieval and critical reframing of different cultural traditions and practices can serve both as strategic and instructive resources in the formation of ethical leaders for the 21st century (Fluker & Tumber, 1998). During the MFCI student session we proposed a framework that consists of the three aforementioned categories for infusing culture and diversity into curricular strategies:
Summary of Three Workshops There were three primary lectures grouped with three extended group work activities. The length of the group work sessions was flexible. Each workshop followed sequentially, starting with “Cultural Identity and Inclusive Societies.” This workshop occurred toward the beginning of the week, as it set the tone for that which followed. Workshops built on each other to provide participants with the necessary experiential learning for their group’s presentations at the end of the week.
Group presentations followed from the “Remembering the Whole” workshop where students learned to view their own cultural narratives through the eyes of the other to create a cultural “we.” In groups of ten to twelve participants presented on their collective visions for how to create the Beloved Community. Listed below is a short summary of objectives for workshops one to three.
Walter Fluker, Tracy Parkinson, Clint Fluker
LEC T URE:
LEC T URE:
LEC T URE:
Andy the Ant:
What is Ethical Leadership?
Remembering, Retelling, Reliving
Building Solutions for Community
Isis and Osiris
Leadership Challenges to
Ethical Leadership Model (Handout)
Remembering our stories at the
Moral Compass? (Handout)
Intersection Where Worlds Collide
Methodology – Remembering,
Memory, Vision, and Mission
Retelling, and Reliving Story
- Piecing together our
Militarism, Violence and
Intro for Remembering,
“individual” cultural narratives
and discovering a cultural “we”
Walter Fluker, Tracy Parkinson
Cultural Identity and Inclusive Societies
Creating the Beloved Community (World House)
Walter Fluker, Tracy Parkinson, Clint Fluker
Remembering, Retelling, and Reliving
Gangsters (Calvin the Crab)
At the Intersection Where Worlds Collide
Creating the Beloved Community
as global citizens.
At the Intersection Creative
What does this realization
Return to socially constructed
mean for me personally?
What will I/ we do to create the
- What is freedom?
The problem of cultural identity and
Can we free ourselves?
inclusiveness qua lifeworlds and systems
Do we need a helping hand?
Socially constructed identities
Lifestyles and values
The Cave of the Heart 73
Remembering the Whole
Conclusion and Recommendations
interior aspect of justice. The main character became In summary, the challenge of developing strategies of conscious of himself through the assistance of others. infusion of diversity and culture into character education The illusions or shadows no longer could hold him in will require the development of innovative and imaginative bondage, the point of the story is that he indeed became curricular strategies, pedagogies, and practices that address conscious (self-recognition) and his awakening was the the questions of diversity, globalization, and change; first step in the realization of justice. For ethical leaders, and courageous institutional leadership and support. justice first begins with an awareness of self—not an The framework discussed in this essay has attempted isolated, unanchored self but one who is intricately and to place methodological emphasis on the concepts of intimately related to others as the story suggests. Though character, civility, and community. Outlined below are this enlightened one was liberated, he was aware that more concrete strategies that can be customized to address he was not free as long as others were bound, hence his students, teachers, administrators, corporations, nonreturn to the Cave. Justice begins with awakening to the profit organizations, human resource departments in self and to the other—and realizing that one cannot be their particular communities of free and equal until all are free discourse and practices in variable and equal. For ethical student educational contexts. Stories make claims on our minds leaders, this is a daring ideal that and hearts often before we know may never be fully realized, yet it Story Telling and Rituals: why or how. serves as a critique on all existing Telling stories has long been arrangements that are unjust. recognized as an important part of healing, self-knowledge, and personal and spiritual On the other hand, myth mediates between two development. Stories make claims on our minds and irreducible opposites and seeks to resolve the hearts often before we know why or how. We are drawn contradiction and paradox; myths presume the possibility into a tale without permission, forethought, or desire to of such reconciliation (Assmann, 1999; Levi-Strauss, 1963; be involved (Nash, 2004). The types of stories with which Ricoeur, 1967). An example of this phenomenon is Toni this approach is concerned are parabolic and mythical. Morrison’s Beloved (Henderson, 1991). It is the story of the return, not merely to intellectual excavation of historical Parables are stories that highlight and create contradiction data, but is associated with deep emotional energy, which in order to reveal a truth that is otherwise hidden. is spiritual and emphatic. Remembering their own stories Parabolic stories introduce contradiction into situations of in response to hearing parables and myths such as these, complacent security and invite transformation by opening offers students entrée into forgotten worlds of meaning. students to the possibility of something new. One of the The stories invite and allow recovery of dismembered stories Socrates used to help his sophomoric band grasp bodies of experience otherwise invisible. They help his view of justice is the parable of the Cave. Among the students and educators alike to better understand and many lessons implicit in the narrative is the contradiction respond to the questions of character: Who am I, really? of self-knowledge (read, self-recognition) and the What do I really want? And how do I propose to get what I really recognition of the other. Stated simply, he asked them to want? imagine a dark cave with people who are sitting bound to its floor and facing a wall. All their lives, they have been As students are drawn into these stories, the customs, seated in this bound position unable to see what is behind ways of thinking, and creative resolutions utilized by them. On the wall, they see figures of people in varied story characters, will be transmitted to others towards human activities: making love, making war, dancing and the end of creating diverse understandings of others and singing, crying and laughing, and so on. Little do they forming community. Parables and myths, as illustrated know that these people on the wall are only shadows. One above, can be drawn from classical philosophical and day, one of the people chained to the floor is taken into literary traditions, history, current events, and ancient the sunlight and discovers that what he has been looking folklore from different traditions. at all of his life were but shadows on a wall. He escapes his cave and for the first time sees the “real” world. Rituals are solemn rites and routine, repetition of (Might it be that for the first time, he saw his own face rigorously enforced acts to aid understanding of a mirrored through the eyes of the other—and in facing story and the internalization of virtues, values, and the other, he knew what he was called to do?) He returns virtuosities. Rituals that are appropriate to storytelling to save those in the cave and confronts the clandestine should be utilized. Students must be given opportunity puppeteers who made shadows appear real; and suffers to apply their new insights to their own parables and the fate of great leaders whose conscience (ethical center) myths. For instance, in the retelling of Plato’s Allegory demands courage, justice, and compassion. of the Cave, students can be assigned the task of creating an accompanying ritual to provide articulation to the The Allegory of the Cave, as it sometimes called, is a dominant themes of the story (bondage of consciousness; powerful narrative construction that casts light on the enlightenment and liberation; integrity, empathy, hope;
and respect for others). In the parable of the Cave, the re-enactment of the story in ritual allows for its sensuous articulation in personal, social, and spiritual dimensions. Imagine students, as the author has done on numerous occasions, engaged in the physical reenactment of the story in a constructed setting that is a cave. Students visualize themselves in the deep caverns of the cave, chained to a floor and discover that clandestine puppeteers have invented the shadows in order to hold them in bondage; and their challenge is to awaken from the fictive narrative of the shadows and to realize their own inherent freedom and responsibility for the other. When they escape they are escorted to a party where they are celebrated for freeing themselves. The purpose of ritual is to make the participants aware of their moral and inherent ability to choose (integrity, recognition and courage); and to test the participant’s empathy, respect, and just relation to the other. Will the participants return and descend into the Cave to tell others who are still bound how to become free or will s/he remain at the party which is just outside the Cave? Will they have the courage and compassion to seek the other’s freedom in a spirit of hope?
of debriefing, analysis and reflection. Debriefing by a trained educator supplemented by journaling is an essential element of this approach. It is important that the students, as the creators of fantasies, songs, and photographs, for instance, be encouraged to reflect on the triggers that inspired debriefing, analysis, and reflection, and how they are related to character, civility, and community. After imagining in fictional or dramatized form how their situations appear to others, and after hearing how others respond to their dramatized situations, students may find it easier to conceive of alternative ways of deliberating and acting within diverse situations. If they have been able to imagine alternatives in poetry, fantasy, art, and drama, it may be more possible to imagine alternatives in their real lives and their treatment of others who are different. By helping students recognize how their powers of imagination have been engaged, they will begin to realize that they possess creative, speculative capacities and that they can call on these for a variety of purposes. Once the capacity to imagine alternatives in aesthetic domains has been realized, it is but a short step to considering how this activity might be replicated in relationships with others and systems.
In addition to story and ritual, immersion in aesthetic or artistic enterprise is a powerful stimulus for students to Critical Thinking: imagine alternatives in their decision-making processes. Critical thinking is a key skill for students. The After participating in an act of artistic creation, students imaginative skills that underlie critical thinking are may view the world differently. They may see the world as needed by students who live at the nexus of lifeworlds malleable and open to individual differences, which can and systems, and who must negotiate public space be utilized as a learning resource with others. Without these for diversity. The world that the skills, students will fail to student encounters is arranged, “Nothing is fixed, forever and forever develop confidence about their fabricated and designed before and forever, it is not fixed; the earth potential for changing aspects one becomes conscious that one is is always shifting, the light is always of their diverse environments a part of it—and before realizing changing, the sea does not cease to as individuals and in collective that one is also part of how it will grind the rock” action and may not possess continue to be and to perpetuate – Baldwin 1985 an appreciation for diversity, itself. But the world encountered creativity, innovation, and a life is not fixed and static; rather it is full of possibilities. Students may flexible and its “reality” depends in large part on one’s lack an understanding of the future as malleable, not interaction with it. James Baldwin, the African-American closed and fixed, and the ability to create and re-create writer and cultural critic, writes, “Nothing is fixed, forever aspects of their personal, social, and spiritual lives in and forever and forever, it is not fixed; the earth is always pursuit of environments of diversity and change. shifting, the light is always changing, the sea does not cease to grind the rock” (Baldwin 1985, p. 393). Baldwin was well Critical thinking is a natural outgrowth of the healing aware of the power of meeting constructive imagining, work of story, ritual, and aesthetic triggers upon for it is in the shifting of the world and the re-imagining the ethical centers of students as it is the skill of of possibility that the ethical student leader finds one’s imaginative speculation that produces and sustains the character (Baldwin 1985). critical thinker. Exercises in critical thinking can serve as an appropriate vehicle for the enhancement and Examples of aesthetic triggers are origami, mask-making, internalization of students’ newly acquired imaginative tai chi, dance, community banner-making, spoken word, skills. The three forms of critical thinking are reflective poetry, fantasy, drawing, photography, painting, song learning or reframing, dialectical thinking, and writing, and drama (Rosaen, 2003; Tisdell, 2007). emancipatory learning.
Debriefing, Analysis and Reflection:
Reflective learning or reframing. Reflective learning is the process of internally examining and exploring an issue
Crucial to all these aesthetic triggers is some form
of concern as in diversity and culture, triggered by an experience, which creates and clarifies meaning in terms of one’s self, and which results in a changed conceptual perspective. The outcome of reflective learning is a change in assumption about one’s self and the world requiring a corresponding change in one’s behavior and relationships.
internalize imaginative skills needed to produce and sustain reflective learning, dialectic thinking, and emancipatory learning;
Dialectical or nondualistic thinking. Dialectical thinking focuses on the understanding and resolution of contradictions. Dialectical thinking is thinking which looks for, recognizes, and welcomes contradictions as a stimulus for moral development (Fluker, 2004; West, 1982). Emancipatory learning. Lastly, in emancipatory learning, students become aware of the forces that have brought them to their current situation and are empowered to take actions to change some aspect of these situations. In the case of diversity, it is important that students look, listen and learn from the other. Emancipatory learning frees students from personal, institutional, and environmental forces that prevent them from seeing new directions, being tolerant, respectful, and appreciative of difference, gaining control over aspects of their lives which appear different and strange to others, and to work for transformation of their society and their world. Although emancipatory learning is usually associated with adult learners, it can serve as an excellent resource for students engaged in transforming environments that perpetuate a cycle of stigmatization and shame of the other who is different (Friere, 1970; Hutton, 1995; Thompson, 1997, 2000).
Facilitates their application of these skills to solve lifeworld and system problems that promote and sustain intolerance, violence, and disrespect for the other;
Provides students with an experience of community through which the natural development of ethical judgment in favor of tolerance, appreciation and acceptance of difference is stimulated; and
Provides concrete strategies that can be customized to address students, teachers, administrators, corporations, non-profit organizations, human resource departments, along with specific communities of discourse and practices in variable educational environments.
Our notion of democracy, by its very nature and history, suggests that our borders are always expanding and are ever inclusive (Lunsford & Ouzgane, 2004). And so it must be with character education—ever expanding, becoming more and more inclusive and respectful of others. Emerging leaders at the intersection will need to respond to the differences in others with recognition, respect, and reverence. What a revelation it is to discover not only the values that we hold in common, but to discover that values that are very different from our own can have their own integrity—and that different values and the conflict they engender can provide new and refreshing ways of seeing ourselves and others as part of a larger experiment in living together. If we are to retain, reinvigorate, and strengthen the American spirit, there must be an “ethic for strangers” (Appiah, 2006). Character education is the appropriate domain for teaching a new generation of leaders an “ethic for strangers.”
Story, ritual and the aesthetic triggers serve to spark the imaginative speculation skills that underlie these three forms of critical thinking. These aesthetic triggers not only serve to bring healing and restoration of hope to the students, but they also facilitate the creation of critical thinkers, who call into question the assumptions underlying their habitual ways of thinking and acting that promote intolerance, violence, and disrespect. Aesthetic triggers examine assumptions for accuracy and validity—so that students are ready to think and act differently on the basis of this critical questioning.
Walter E. Fluker is currently the Martin Luther King, Jr. Professor of Ethical Leadership in the School of Theology at Boston University in Boston, MA. He was the Executive Director of the leadership center at Morehouse College in Atlanta, GA when the MFCI began. He was a facilitator of several MFCI seminars and workshops.
In summary, the methodological emphases of this essay can serve as a critical resource and infusion strategy that: •
Transmits through storytelling the customs and ways of thinking that promote the development of the personal constructs of an ethical center: character, civility, and community;
Utilizes ritual and other aesthetic triggers to help students question and critique customs and ways of thinking that promote bigotry and xenophobia;
References Please refer to the full bibliography in the article: Walter E. Fluker, Strategies and Resources for Ethical Leadership Education in Educating Ethical Leaders for the Twenty-First Century, ed. Walter
Utilizes critical thinking exercises to help students
Earl Fluker, Cascade Books, 2013.
A Community of Many Voices:
Personal Experiences and Reflections from MFCI Participants MFCI participants were invited to provide their personal reflections in an attempt to capture the personal growth and transformation that resulted from the MFCI. For while it is true that the MFCI is all about institutional change, at the end of the day, institutions are composed of people; and in order for institutions to change, people must learn, grow, develop in a way that allows them to become champions of a cause on their campuses and beyond.
• There is no escaping the importance of having the “space and time” to work collaboratively and think creatively with colleagues who share a similar vision. The experiences in Salzburg and the workshops in the US enabled participants to stretch their minds, design new courses and co-curricular activities, and, most importantly, to develop a coherent strategy and realistic goals that gave life to their global education initiatives.
The first set of reflections is from students who participated in the MFCI Student Seminar on Global Citizenship. This Seminar provided an opportunity to model the impact that a transformative educational experience focused on global citizenship can have and to engage student leaders as critical campus stakeholders capable of supporting their colleges’ global education agenda. The Student Seminar’s particular curricular and pedagogical approach is described in the essay by Walter Earl Fluker. The impact that this experience had on those who participated and the institutions they represent is evident in the reflections.
• Global citizenship education must compete with other priorities on the campuses especially as it relates to available resources and buy-in from key stakeholders. While the challenges are clear, MFCI participants remain vigilant in their support of advancing global education on their campus and beyond. • Random Acts of Globalization was a “discovery” by many institutions. Although they were engaged in some global activities on their campuses, the MFCI encouraged an acknowledgement and inventory in many cases that brought these random acts under a more cohesive and connected umbrella.
The second set of reflections is from faculty and administrators who participated in the MFCI. These contributions complement the institutional profiles that appear later in this report by illustrating how participants’ personal learning and growth strengthened their knowledge, skills, and commitment to education for global citizenship. The following themes are featured prominently in their contributions:
• Many participants were excited to break fresh ground for their institutions as they sought for enlightened ways to increase the level of student awareness of what globalization means specifically for their campus environment and communities, but also how to translate this awareness into tangible student learning outcomes. • Institutions began to connect the new knowledge they gained about each other with the choice to begin intentional collaborations including faculty research, student study abroad opportunities, and faculty exchanges.
A Global Citizenship Journey: MFCI Student Reflections
My journey to Salzburg in 2011 changed me in the ways I learn, live, and look at what is going on in the world. After the student session of the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative, I knew I had to become part of the global community in any way that I could. I returned home to begin a campus organization that dealt with international affairs and exchange. I worked endlessly to provide fellow students with the resources and opportunities to experience other cultures and learn about joining the international affairs career field. My experience in Salzburg led me to pursue my dreams of becoming an international exchange professional. I adored my time in Salzburg so much, I just couldn’t stay away. I knew there was so much more that I needed to learn. So, I contacted the MFCI coordinators Jochen Fried and David Goldman and convinced them to let me apply for an internship the summer after I graduated. For three months I learned from professionals and academics in the fields of education, business and the media about the impacts of globalization. That summer experience was more valuable than I could have ever imagined. My work in Salzburg led me to a job with the Seminar offices in Washington, D.C. where I worked every day, directly and indirectly, to assist the program team to provide an experience like my own to others. I do my best to stay up to date on world events so that I can be an activist. I try to incorporate a global perspective in everything I do. Even the smallest bit of information about something that is going on abroad can spark a lifelong interest in global affairs. I want to thank the Mellon Foundation, the Salzburg staff, and the faculty from my first contact with the MFCI student session for changing my life. This coming fall, I will enter graduate school in International Education and try to spread the Salzburg teachings everywhere I go. Hopefully I will come back to the Seminar to pass on everything I learn to future student participants and challenge them to adopt global citizenship as a standard in their lives, as I have been challenged.
Immediately upon returning from Salzburg, I was still trying to figure out how I would translate my experience of the MFCI student session at the Salzburg Global Seminar to my life back home. I wanted to tell everyone that I knew about all of the things that I had learned, and I would attempt to do so whenever anyone would give me more than one second to speak to them. Frankly, it got annoying fast. After a while, I learned how to live what I had learned, which pleased everyone that I knew greatly. I learned to take every opportunity that I could to try and help make the world a better place. I have worked with organizations that are devoted to ending poverty, I became the president of my college’s chapter of the Gay Straight Alliance, I was the co-chair of the Take Back the Night planning committee, I participated in the Vagina Monologues, I joined the Association for Religious Diversity, I visited China with my college, I started a social justice and activism blog, and I was accepted to Wesley Theological Seminary where I am now learning about how I can combine my faith with my goals for changing the world for the better. I hope to awaken the Church to its potential to do good in the world and create interfaith dialogue that will help to create a more peaceful world.
Ahnna Lise Jennings Emory & Henry College
What I took away the most from my experience in Salzburg was one word: narrative. Everyone has a narrative. Everyone has a story to tell. Everyone has more commonalities than differences. The key to appreciating each other’s stories is to listen to each other. This process of listening, sharing, and understanding has really impacted how I see the world. Instead of it being “America and the World” (which was the title of the Salzburg session), this earth is a colorful tapestry of creeds, customs, and more camaraderie above conflict. As a global citizen, I look at the world as 7.1 billion narratives, voices, and customs. I understand that just
Chanel Bell Howard University
because they may look or sound different than me, I can find more in common with them when I learn their ‘language’ (figuratively and/or literally). Every day I try to listen more to other people. I try to figure out their narrative and understand where they are coming from and why they act as they do. My Salzburg experience has expanded my empathy to see the bigger picture of narratives, experiences, and shared struggles and/or victories. I am thankful for the gracious grant extended by the Mellon Foundation to afford me that amazing opportunity to study in Austria under acclaimed lecturers, educators and alongside my incredible peers.
this identity, mostly through my faith community. Let me reiterate, though: without my experience with the Seminar, I could not have realized just how important growing up in the Mennonite faith was in shaping my global perception. By realizing its importance, my global awareness has increased dramatically, and even led me to pursue my dream of going abroad. In fact, at the time of this writing I am currently studying abroad in Thailand. I am enrolled in a class here, at Mahidol University International College, which studies Thai Society and Culture. We are just beginning to delve into the history and general perception of what makes up “Thai identity.” Although I am clearly farang, or a Western foreigner, being blonde and completely ignorant of the language—which I hope to remedy!—I feel an immense interest in this subject. I cannot believe that this interest is solely a curiosity about what is unfamiliar, which is undoubtedly present. No, I am certain my interest lies in the fact that I have had the opportunity to reflect on identities before in Salzburg. The Global Citizenship session in 2011 helped me to develop a sense of personal and global identity.
Timothy Walker Fisk University
Studying in Virginia has marked my first step of embracing global citizenship. I could not even explicitly describe the subtle changes within my character and strengths; until in Salzburg, I was able to put a name to the impact of my experiences on, not only myself, but also those around me—global responsibility. It was then that I realized what I could offer to the world, as little as it might be. In addition, it was such a welcoming experience with the faculty and the fellows that I decided to move to Europe after graduation. Distance has not stopped the friendship and the inspirations that followed. I was so fortunate to have known these fellows who embarked on great programs and journeys that allowed us to meet again in Tennessee, Beijing, and Italy. The more I travel, the more I feel the need and courage to engage in domestic and global issues. I used to hate politics and just chose to ignore controversial and debatable problems. Now that I have three places that I call “home”, it would be such a pity to answer “I don’t know” or “I don’t care” when I should stand by my beliefs and speak out. I guess the most I got out of the program is that with the privilege of education comes, inevitably, responsibility. Wherever I go, I can at least share with the others what I saw, what I physically experienced, rather than stereotypes or “news”, and work on mutual understanding, one step at a time.
Shannon Neuenschwander Davis & Elkins College
The Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI) student session was an invaluable experience that I continue to draw upon daily for both knowledge and inspiration. This unconventional seminar was a safe place to openly discuss the fascinating and somewhat unusual topic of what it means to be a global citizen. I returned to the United States enlightened, because I felt as though I had learned more about myself in that week than I did the whole previous year. In retrospect, it seems as if that was in fact the purpose of the program: to develop a select number of students who will come back to their communities to establish, develop, and promote change as global citizens. The most fundamental lesson that I learned at the seminar was that in order to be a global leader, one cannot blindly follow in previous generation’s footsteps. In fact, we must first discover ourselves and find our own voices, before we are capable of speaking for those who don’t have a voice. As a young Muslim woman, I was truly enlightened by the MFCI as it expanded my view of conflicts such as that of Palestine and Israel, as well as the Bosnian conflict, which I was not very aware of. Upon return to the United States, this inspired me to learn more about Muslim minorities throughout the world. During the session, I also learned that global citizenship is not achieved merely by geographical location or a travel itinerary, but instead by one’s perceptive and awareness of global issues.
Xueying Hai Emory & Henry College
I cannot say any single experience has helped me to realize my “global citizenship.” In fact, as the program helped me to realize, I have grown up with a sense of
Without exaggeration for more than a year after I returned from the Salzburg Global Seminar, I reflected upon my experiences at least once a day. I found that once I had the tools, which I had developed during the session, it became extraordinarily easy to think like a global citizen. I then began to take steps to reflect upon my own understanding of what the seminar taught. I decided to take an academic approach and began exploring how I could incorporate global citizenship into my study of the sciences. Furthermore, upon our return to Howard University my fellow team members, Chanel Bell and Justin Senu-Oke, and I founded the first-ever-collegiate chapter of Black Professionals in International Affairs. Currently as a research fellow, I am often surrounded by many international scientists and I find that I continue to draw upon the lessons I learned at the seminar. Participating in the MFCI was an unparalleled experience. I know it will always be incomparable to many other experiences, because it pushed me far beyond my comfort zone and thus expanding my horizons. It was unequivocally the highlight of my undergraduate years and ultimately a life changing experience. Thus, I would like to thank the Andrew W. Mellow Foundation for providing the funding, as the experience was a journey in self-discovery that will forever illuminate my worldview.
Last year I was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to teach English in Bulgaria for ten months. It was my experience with the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI) at the Salzburg Global Seminar that inspired me to apply for the fellowship. Every day while working in the classroom I am reminded of the lessons I learned during my time in Salzburg. As an ambassador of my home country I realize that it is my responsibility to find a balance between teaching my students about American culture without enforcing stereotypes that my culture is somehow superior. Many of my students dislike their own culture because it is very different from the wealthier countries they see portrayed in popular media. It is important for me to help them understand that just because something is popular it does not mean it is better. Acting as a global citizen has always been of great importance to me and I do so whenever possible. The summer after participating in the seminar I spent a month in Antigua Guatemala teaching English at the volunteer school in the village of Alotenango. Although traveling alone and working in a less developed country was somewhat daunting I felt it was my duty as a global citizen to use my skills as an English major to help further the goals of a nation less fortunate then my own. As a global citizen I also felt that it was important for me to directly experience South America to further understanding of the continent in my home country.
Heba Elnaiem Howard University
Kaitlen Whitt West Virginia Wesleyan College
A Space and Time to Work and Think: Faculty and Administrator Reflections
The Office of Global Study Abroad/Quality Enhancement is responsible for all global activities. Participation with MFCI has assisted SAU in developing a system that is easily replicated. This has provided us with time saving information. The advantage of this is that we have been able to streamline processes and assist more students, staff, and faculty with global learning activities that aid each in becoming global citizens. The number of students participating in study abroad has increased. Additionally the number of faculty participating in global activities has also increased. We have also integrated global perspectives into the curriculum across all disciplines. The single most important thing we have received from MFCI is not the global citizenship training but rather the friendship in international education. I am better for it and my institution has benefited from it.
Russell Brodie and Willyetta Mitchell discuss Saint Augustine University’s global education initiative.
Participation in the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative has been very instrumental in assisting Saint Augustine’s University in internationalizing its campus. When we began this project, I was just beginning as a study abroad director. I was new to higher education and had little experience in planning international activities. Since that time, I have participated in dozens of conferences, seminars, meetings and workshops. The knowledge, advice, mentoring, and encouragement that we received at MFCI was instrumental in providing us with the much needed resources to begin global learning activities. When we attended Salzburg we were still developing our Quality Enhancement Plan. Thanks to the seminar we were able to complete, edit, and improve our QEP. We now have specific components that we would not have been able to fully execute if we had not participated in MFCI. The first benefit of participation was exposure to the years of higher education and international experience of all the staff and participants of the Seminar. Because of the exposure we were able to accelerate many of our initiatives since we were able to utilize the wealth of information to help eliminate mistakes and roadblocks that we would have otherwise encountered. Saint Augustine’s University (SAU) created a four part plan that includes expanding our freshmen studies to two semesters, launching of a new global living learning community, the addition of a service learning project, and training of faculty and students, staff, and faculty in global learning activities.
Russell G Brodie Director, Global Study Abroad and International Programs; Quality Enhancement Plan Coordinator; Assistant Professor, Saint Augustine’s University
Overwhelmed and isolated. For faculty and staff at an Appalachian College Association (ACA) school, the job can simply feel overwhelming. You want to provide your students with a quality education that would rival that from any school regardless of size or location. But size and location matter, and the demands of our schools often require us to wear so many hats that it can be difficult to be creative or constructive. It can also make it difficult for us to find people to talk to since, for many of us, we are the only person on our campus (and maybe for miles and miles) that teaches in our field or serves in our administrative unit. This isolation retards the development of new ideas and makes it difficult to ‘think outside the box’. And, ultimately, it reduces the quality of the products and services we provide our students. This is why the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI) experience is so important. For the past several years, the MFCI has provided those of us interested in
building a globalized community a connection to the outside world. It has been a place where a chosen few have been able to leave behind the work-a-day pressures that can consume, and engage in constructive and creative dialogue about how to make the lives of our students better. It has been a place where we can share ideas and discuss the experiments in higher education that are incubated on other campuses. We can learn from each other’s success and failures. We can find an energy and inspiration to bring back home.
Perhaps, all of my thoughts are summed up in the memory of the final hours. Yes, that last evening we were all “dressed up” and as we listened to the haunting melodies of Schumann and Mozart there was this unmistakable connection with the past. Within a short time we were at the airport, saying goodbye. Then, what could be more global than going through the now famous airport security? I stood and watched different people from all over the world scurrying to catch their flight or connection. I recognized this recurrent theme in my own life that specific opportunities and challenges to make a shift in thinking are not about a finished product – the global citizen but they are about that citizen in the making.
Shawn Williams Assistant Professor of Political Science; Campbellsville University
Patricia McClung Associate Professor of Special Education, Lee University
A mental map of my reflections now, divides into three categories, the place, the participants, and the purpose. The Place Salzburg holds special memories for me but this visit was different. I went with colleagues and not with family, with a purpose and not for pleasure, and with a certain amount of trepidation and not with ease. On arrival however, who could not be overawed with the majesty of the setting, the Schloss itself, and the mountains “outside the door.” Yet, it was not those specific aspects that had the most impact on me and on which I reflect. It was indeed upon learning the history of the Seminar that I felt a lasting connection with the other and with others. The knowledge that out of the aftermath of World War II, there had grown not more separation but a deliberate attempt by the few to unify disparate and fractured global relationships.
Howard University has embraced globalization at every level: students, faculty and administrators. The administration and the deans of 13 schools and colleges have made room for internationalization in their academic and co-curricular programs. Two years ago, the Office of the Provost created the position of Assistant Provost for International Programs to which I was assigned. The faculty and deans have expressed many times that they now have a point person for inquiries about international outreach. The Mellon Fellow Community Initiative gave me the additional grounding in program objectives that I needed to begin to shape an effective internationalization effort. Howard’s participation in the American Council on Education (ACE) Initiative for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Appalachian College Association (ACAs) was the basis for an assessment of international activities across all 13 schools and colleges. There is a great deal of excitement about prospects for students and faculty to study, do research and teach abroad. Several initiatives require the participation and collective support of faculty and deans. Students are also demanding more opportunities to go abroad, and their faculty are the first line of communication and means of support. Now that the Administration has embraced the notion of expanding Howard’s international footprint and is open to removing barriers to international collaborations, increasing numbers of faculty and students are seeking opportunities for global engagement.
The People It was intense, fun, and invigorating to meet many different types of personalities, people with different backgrounds, and to exchange ideas as to what each institution was seeking to accomplish in the area of global education and citizenship. It was encouraging to hear of the different commitments to promote an essential awareness of the value of diversity. As I write, I see faces, hear voices and laughter, remember ideas, and smile to myself about the real characters of our group – thank you to all who openly shared so many wonderful ideas. The Purpose The MFCI created a lasting impact and a deliberate effort on my part to incorporate into every course I teach some facet of what it means to be a global citizen. It is the promotion of a true appreciation for others in the world and that the recognition of sameness is also an identification of the value of difference. Neither of these ideas exists in isolation.
Jeanne Toungara Assistant Provost for International Programs, Howard University
The Mellon Fellow Community Initiative has been an invaluable experience for me as a proponent of global education at North Carolina Central University (NCCU). During an MFCI session Salzburg in January of 2010, the NCCU team developed a proposal for promoting global citizenship at our university through global courses and preliminary university surveys. Subsequently, I taught a comparative civic engagement course focused on citizenship and civic engagement globally. The course was offered as a service learning course whereby our students engaged in projects in partnership with local international organizations applying civic engagement with a local-to-global focus. I was subsequently named Director of the University Honors Program (UHP), which enabled me to take my MFCI experiences and make global citizenship a focus for NCCUâ€™s top honors students. We have required all honors students at our university to take a Global Experience Course, which I am presently teaching. In this course, we focus on leadership development as engaged global citizens. I was also recently able to take the information and initiatives developed as part of our MFCI projects and translate them into our university-wide efforts to develop a comprehensive Global Education Plan for increasing global awareness and education in a centralized campus effort, which our Chancellor had called for. We aimed to move from random acts of globalization to a coordinated institutional effort to promote global education and global citizenship across our campus. The NCCU Global Education Plan aims to strengthen global competence at North Carolina Central University through a focus on academic curriculum, study abroad, institutional partnerships, extracurricular activities, and international recruitment. Through an interdisciplinary and experiential approach to global education, the plan calls for the creation of opportunities for students to immerse themselves in diverse systems, values, and experiences as a community of global citizens and scholars, while further deepening a richer understanding of their own cultural heritage. The plan aims for students graduating from NCCU to be globally competent leaders who demonstrate specific competencies in the following areas: 1) students will recognize diverse cultural perspectives and the role of culture in identity formation and human understanding; 2) students will be able to communicate and interact across diverse cultures; and 3) students will be able to identify and engage global events, processes, trends, and issues. As a result of our efforts, we were able to get the plan passed as official university policy in September of 2012.
In 2006, I attended Global Citizenship Program 15, â€œColleges and Universities as Sites of Global Citizenshipâ€?, which was one of the precursor sessions to the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI). This session powerfully encouraged me to think about the importance of a more globally aware approach to educating our students at this small, somewhat isolated college. In response and building on years of establishing connections with people in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, I partnered with a colleague to take students to Mexico in early January 2009, a trip that happened immediately prior to our first MFCI seminar. We organized courses in Mexico again in 2010 and 2011. The 2009 MFCI seminars allowed us to imagine, formulate and plan a broader approach to raising global awareness on campus and institutionalizing some of these initiatives as an important component of our 2009 general education revisions. Since then study abroad opportunities have blossomed and many more professors are initiating faculty-led study abroad courses and including global perspectives in their courses. The most personally satisfying aspect of involvement in the MFCI was the opportunity to send two of our students to Salzburg in January of 2011. Both of those students have continued to explore global citizenship, one having studied in India for six weeks in the summer of 2012 and the other who is currently studying for a semester in Thailand. The world is theirs and their example will no doubt inspire others to explore international study options and the world.
Denice Reese Associate Professor of Nursing, Davis and Elkins College
The collaboration fostered by the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI) has reinforced for me the power of story. The narrative we tell ourselves about ourselves and about others shapes how we assign meaning and value, define boundaries and categories, describe relationships and responsibilities. In short, story is the medium through which we come to understand and interpret the world. Possessing only a single story, however, can prove debilitating: a solely provincial story provides a woefully inadequate means of understanding the complex, inter-connected world in which we live. The ongoing conversation, the relating of stories, that has taken place within the context of MFCI and the Salzburg Global Seminar has provided a model for what King University wants its students to experience. Experientially, King requires all students to complete a cross-cultural experience, to move beyond the circle of their previous experience, to encounter a story other than their own first hand. Again a range of activities offer the
Ansel Brown Director, University Honors Program, North Carolina Central University
opportunity for this kind of reflection and transformative learning: working with local agencies like Appalachian Service Project, Habitat for Humanity, Boys & Girls Club, and Remote Area Medical; serving as an ambassador and developing a relationship with an international student; or studying and serving abroadâ€”the glocal and the global enriching and expanding our stories, enhancing our ability to dialogue with one another.
African American leaders had studied. It was also very interesting to interact with my HBCU colleagues about life at their schools. We talked about ways our schools had worked to promote global citizenship. Most of our collaboration occurred during the workshop where we brainstormed and developed resources for our schools. By the end of the workshop, I felt we had formed informal partnerships that we could draw upon at any time to support our shared goals. One of the most profound components of the MFCI workshop was the pedagogy. The entire workshop seemed to be carefully crafted to allow participants to fully engage in networking and experiential learning opportunities. Upon arrival, we were immediately immersed into the community with other MFCI participants. It was emotionally intense as the schedule was rigorous and thought provoking. This approach, though, forced a degree of intimacy between the participants so that authentic dialogue could occur around the material. One of the most transformative parts of the workshop was engaging with Salzburg Global Seminar staff. Their hospitality and my joy in being their guest provided a critical reference point for global citizenship that has remained with me ever since. The MFCI workshop inspired my continued zeal for global citizenship. I have worked hard to create more opportunities for students to learn experientially through engagement with other students, staff, and faculty on campus around diversity issues. Therefore, the MFCI has been extremely important to my professional growth as well as the growth of my students and LMU as a whole.
Karen L. Shaw Associate Professor of English, Coordinator for Study Abroad, King University
Last summer the University of Pikeville established a Global Education Office and hired a director and a coordinator for the same. It was a tipping point that, while we had certainly proposed such a scheme in our plan, we had not expected to see results for at least a couple of more years. Suddenly we were in a whole new ball-game with people specifically charged with implementing changes that would enhance a sense of global citizenship on our campus here in far Eastern Kentucky. Since then we have had almost an embarrassment of riches. The chaplain on campus took a group of students on a service trip to Haiti in January, the biology department is planning to go to Belize in May, a colleague in the history department is planning to teach a course in China this summer and I am planning a study abroad trip to Cusco, Peru this summer as well. For a college that in a good year might have a maximum of six students going abroad in any one year, with only two or three in most years, this was a sea change. The Mellon Fellow Community Initiative (MFCI) program had laid the ground work and the ideational infrastructure that made this possible.
Ann M. Callahan Associate Professor of Social Work, Lincoln Memorial University
Bennett College has participated in the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative since 2008. The MFCI has been instrumental in helping the college move significantly forward with its global education initiative. Bennett has been active in the international arena for many years, primarily through its global ministry as a United Methodist Church-affiliated institution. Bennett administrators, faculty and students have traveled and studied abroad throughout the years and Bennett has welcomed students from all over the world. These engagements, however, were primarily orchestrated through the president of the college and there was no â€œofficialâ€? office where all aspects of global education were strategically envisioned and managed until in 2003, the Office of International Affairs was established with a parttime coordinator. Since that time, Bennett has continued to refine and to revision its global education initiative. Currently, global education is a major focus of the
Professor of Psychology, University of Pikeville
My experience in attending one of the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative workshops was transformative. I was able to network with Appalachian College Association (ACA) and Historically Black College and University (HBCU) colleagues, and, in the process, I was able to personally experience the hospitality of global citizenship. I had never been to an HBCU or spent quality time with colleagues who worked at HBCUs. The setting of the workshop was at a premier historically black institution, Morehouse College. It was so inspirational to tour the campus where Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and other
college and the Center for Global Studies is managed by a director with two staff and several student assistants. Through the MFCI, several important components have been put in place or advanced notably the Faculty Senate Advisory Committee for Global Studies, which has two representatives from each of the academic divisions of the college and which provides support and guidance across the curriculum for international engagement; and re-visioning the global studies minor and certificate program, which has produced the first graduates of the college who will complete their degrees with a minor in global studies in May 2013. The MFCI has provided the space for Bennett to be more strategic about its global engagements and to collaborate with other colleges and universities that have a similar mission. It has been extremely important for us to have a community of like-minded institutions with which we could collaborate as we develop programs and activities to ensure that our students, faculty and staff have meaningful experiences that will fully prepare them to be their best as 21st century global citizens.
The world of the University of Charleston (UC) has become both smaller and larger since our first trip to Salzburg. Before Salzburg there were many fewer international students on campus. Before Salzburg there were many fewer opportunities for international travel and study abroad on campus. And before Salzburg classes looking at issues from a global perspective were not nearly as prevalent. UCâ€™s world has decreased in size because we have become a part of one world, but increased in size because our students and faculty realize that opportunities for study and travel are limitless. Because of our unique, outcomes-based curriculum, faculty have been encouraged to infuse their classes with assignments that focus on global issues. Students in an entry-level science class determine the pollution level of the water in local rivers and compare those to the rivers in Asia and South America. One can see local students talking with international students as part of writing compare and contrast essays about cultures for an Introduction to Humanities class. Students in the Liberal Learning Senior Capstone class must research an issue with global implications and make a presentation to the other members of the class. While these might seem like small, discrete things, together they enable global thinking and engagement to pervade the university. The impact of our involvement in the Mellon Fellows Community Initiative started small but has grown exponentially. It has changed the University of Charleston culture for the good and for good.
Gwendolyn M. Bookman Director, Center for Global Studies and External Partnerships and Associate Professor, Political Science, Bennett College
Joseph Janisch Associate Professor of Music, Coordinator for Global Citizenship Certificate Program, University of Charleston
The above entries are the result of an open call for personal reflections sent to all MFCI participants. We regret that we were not able to include all contributions in their entirety in this report.
Experiences and Experiments At the end of the first five years of building the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative, it was time for an independent evaluation of the Initiative to have an honest and critical view of what had been accomplished and where the next steps may lead. Therefore, the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP) in Washington, DC – well-known for its expertise with respect to diversity issues in higher education – was asked to conduct an independent program review. IHEP’s report, submitted in March 2013, summarizes the achievements of institutions involved by highlighting the work of the MFCI institutions on: creating a new language around global citizenship on campus generating enthusiasm towards global education throughout the faculty staffing new offices or committees to support global education efforts reforming courses to focus on international issues developing new academic programs (e.g. certificates, concentrations) on global education institutionalizing global education into mission statements, quality enhancement plans, and/or strategic plans developing new professional relationships across MFCI institutions starting meaningful cooperation and collaboration among ACA and HBCU institutions based on mutual understanding, trust and respect generating ideas for a range of innovative and interconnected activities related to global citizenship education that draw upon the unique characteristics of HBCUs and ACAs
The report goes on to say: Overall, the institutional teams participating in MFCI were able to create waves of change on their campuses. (…) In some instances, this change was dramatic with the formation of new programs and a new global mindedness on campus. In other instances, the change was small and gradual over time with the effects shown through small incremental successes. Each change was contextual, but despite the challenges, institutional participants were able to incorporate global education on their campus in some way (…)
• transitioning from a Salzburg Global Seminar ‘facilitated’ arrangement to a self-organizing cooperation among the institutions involved; • continuing to lay the groundwork for a long-term alliance between HBCU and ACA colleges and universities; and • creating wider awareness within higher education circles and beyond of the exemplary nature of this unusual coalition of institutions.
The Mellon Fellow Community Initiative offered participating HBCUs and ACAs a unique opportunity to embark on an intellectual journey of global education. Through their work, institutional partners sought to engage and change their campus communities to be more globally aware and purposeful in building international opportunities for students. The design, implementation, and outcomes of the MFCI experience illustrate the extensive efforts of these teams to shift their institutional paradigms from domestic to international. It was no small feat.
During the course of the MFCI activities carried out thus far, participants developed several ideas for specific activities that could only be implemented or would be significantly enhanced if multiple MFCI institutions worked together. Some of these are ‘low hanging fruit’ like organizing collaboratively a Global Education Speaker Series or joint Study Away Programs. Other objectives are more ambitious and intensive but would potentially add tremendous value to the common cause, for example a Global Education Learning Outcomes and Assessment Tools or a common Institutional Benchmarking tool that measures progress made toward transforming universities and colleges into sites of global citizenship education. Participants also strongly feel there should be an annual summit that would serve two purposes: to meet and renew collegial contacts, share information and results, align work across the various institutions, and develop follow-up or ‘spin-off’ activities; but also to raise a higher level of public awareness throughout the relevant higher education circles in the US of the ongoing pioneering work of the MFCI institutions, which in turn will reinforce the commitment of those involved to the long-term goals of this partnership.
While the IHEP evaluation confirms that participating institutions have made great strides in developing and implementing their institutional projects to incorporate a broader and deeper focus on education for global citizenship, it also points out that there remains a need and an opportunity to further strengthen and sustain the benefits of the MFCI. The MFCI has spurred momentum among the participating ACA and HBCU institutions. This momentum can be leveraged further and turned into a self-perpetuating source of inspiration for, and commitment to, institutional change and crossinstitutional collaborative initiatives. Accordingly, the next phase of the MFCI will seek to take the cooperation between ACA and HBCU institutions to a higher level by expanding the range of collaborative projects and institutions involved and by working together in an even more intentional and strategic way. This will help reinforce each institutions’ global education work and at the same time demonstrate the value of ACAs and HBCUs acting together. The next phase of the MFCI will focus on:
For all of the success that it has already achieved, much potential for even greater impact remains. The MFCI institutions have made great strides along the path to transforming themselves into sites of global citizenship. The understanding, trust and shared vision among ACA and HBCU institutions necessary for deeper and wider collaborative work have been created. And as part of its decades-long commitment to working with higher education institutions on issues related to educational access, success and relevance, Salzburg Global is eager to continue working with the MFCI institutions, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and others who share our goals in order to take the work of the MFCI to the next level.
• invigorating and incentivizing the cooperative and networking dimension of the ACA-HBCU consortium; • improving the capacity for cross-institutional learning;
MFCI Partner Institution and Participants
1 Bennett College, Greensboro, NC
16 Alderson-Broaddus College, Philippi, WV
2 Brevard College, Brevard, NC
17 Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach, FL
3 Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA
18 Bluefield College, Bluefield, VA
4 Dillard University, New Orleans, LA
19 Carson-Newman College, Jefferson City, TN
5 Ferrum College, Ferrum, VA
20 Davis & Elkins College, Elkins, WV
6 Fisk University, Nashville, TN
21 Emory & Henry College, Emory, VA
7 King University, Bristol, TN
22 Howard University, Washington, DC
8 Lees-McRae College, Banner Elk, NC
23 North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC
9 Mars Hill College, Mars Hill, NC
24 Tusculum College, Greeneville, TN
10 Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA
25 University of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC
11 Spelman College, Atlanta, GA
26 Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV
12 University of Charleston, Charleston, WV 13 Warren Wilson College, Asheville, NC
14 West Virginia Wesleyan College, Buckhannon, WV
27 Berea College, Berea, KY
15 Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA
28 Campbellsville University, Campbellsville, KY 29 Florida Memorial University, Miami, FL 30 Hampton University, Hampton, VA 31 Lee University, Cleveland, TN 32 Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, TN 33 Lindsey Wilson College, Columbia, KY 34 Pikeville College, Pikeville, KY 35 Saint Augustineâ€™s College, Raleigh, NC 36 Virginia Union University, Richmond, VA
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Changing Institutions, Changing Lives:
Profiles of All MFCI Institutions and their Global Education Initiatives One of the primary goals of the MFCI was to work with the participating colleges and universities to initiate systematic and sustainable institutional change. Throughout their involvement in the MFCI, partner institutions worked to develop and implement projects intended to bring more comprehensive institutional approaches to global education. The aim was to facilitate an ongoing process in which each institution, by bringing broader global perspectives into their classrooms, campuses, and communities, could better prepare students to pursue ethical and productive lives and careers in an ever-changing and globalized world. In short, the MFCI facilitated a process whereby partner institutions undertook efforts to become ‘sites of global citizenship’ and ultimately instill a global citizenship ethos in their graduates. Broadly speaking, global citizens are consciously prepared to live and work in the complex interdependent society of the 21st century and contribute to improving the common global welfare of the planet and its inhabitants.
provided a theoretical and practical framework for how to design and implement a global education initiative so that it moves beyond a project and becomes part of the institutional fabric.
Prior to participation in the MFCI, each institution drafted a project proposal for an activity or set of activities that would create or strengthen global education initiatives. Many were already pursuing global education activities so the MFCI was an opportunity to refine and expand work that was underway. Other institutions had various global education activities taking place but no systematic approach to coordinating them. Nearly every institution to some extent had a fair amount of ‘RAGs:’ Random Acts of Globalization. At the first MFCI session, institutional teams worked to refine and develop both their projects and to develop specific implementation and action plans. The second session was focused on analyzing progress made in the intervening year, updating projects based on successes, challenges, and changes and developing revised project, implementation, and action plans.
3. Innovation. Why and how is your initiative new,
Participants also spent time addressing the practical issues of how to revise and design their projects to be effective, achievable, and sustainable with the broadest impact for students, faculty, and the campus at large. To do this, each team used “The Six I’s Framework,” Salzburg Global’s approach to designing, implementing, and sustaining longterm institutional change.
The Six I’s
1. Inventory. What efforts are already underway and how do they fit into your initiative?
2. Idea. What is your institution’s initiative? unique, better, or adding to your institution’s current global education efforts?
4. Inclusion. Who are the critical stakeholders, what are the vital resources that are needed to translate your institution’s project plans into lasting results, and how do you engage them?
5. Impact. What will your initiative achieve and how will you measure those achievements?
6. Implementation. What specific steps need to take place in order to further the development and implementation of your project, and who will take these steps? Following pages are short descriptions of all thirty-six MFCI institutions and their global education activities related to the MFCI. In some cases, the information for the institutional and project descriptions was provided by the institutions for the purpose of this report. In other cases, it was compiled from project documentation submitted to Salzburg Global during the course of the MFCI and from information available on the websites of the respective colleges and universities.
During each session lectures by experts in the field of higher education such as Alice ‘Tish’ Emerson, Yolanda Moses, and Betty Overton-Adkins focused on topics such as strategies for change at colleges and universities; examples of internationalization at higher education institutions; achieving impact, effectiveness, and sustainability; and assessing progress, markers of success, and recognizing achievements for institutional change. These lectures
Alderson-Broaddus College Philippi, West Virginia
Bennett College for Women Greensboro, North Carolina
Two institutions were united in 1932 to form AldersonBroaddus College. Each of the institutions passed on a rich Christian heritage. It is a health-related and professional institution firmly rooted in the liberal arts. Alderson-Broaddus is affiliated with the American Baptist Churches, USA, the West Virginia Baptist Convention, and the Council of Christian Colleges and Universities. Located in Philippi, WV overlooking the picturesque Tygart River Valley, it has an enrollment of 650 students. The mission of the college is to provide its students with, “the highest quality of education, striving to prepare students to succeed in their chosen disciplines to fulfill their roles in a diverse society as well-rounded and responsible citizens.”
Bennett College‘s fifty-five acre campus is located in the heart of Greensboro, North Carolina. It is the only historically African American college for women in North Carolina and it is one of only two in the United States. A private, four year liberal arts college, Bennett is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Founded in 1873 as a co-ed institution, Bennett became a college for women in 1926. Today, Bennett prepares contemporary women for a complex and competitive world, and its graduates have been recognized as leaders in a large variety of disciplines, including medicine, law, education, government, and religion. While Bennett is historically black, the college welcomes and encourages students from all ethnic and racial backgrounds. There are 15 majors offered at the college with unique programs in Womanist Religious Studies, Africana Women’s Studies, Entrepreneurship, and Global Studies. With fifty-seven full-time faculty members, Bennett offers students a student to faculty ratio of 10 to 1.
MFCI Project: Alderson-Broaddus’s team’s first priority was to define “global citizenship” and take an inventory of what was already happening on campus. Then next phase of project activities focused on: updating the College’s Intended Student Learning Outcomes (ISLOs); increasing international experiences for faculty and staff; curriculum development; and faculty development opportunities. Once the ISLO’s were assessed and updated, attention focused on determining options that would best allow students to achieve those outcomes. The options included developing courses with a global focus, increasing the number of ‘global requirements’ and creating an interdisciplinary model for first year courses that thematically addresses how one views and engages with the contemporary world. The Alderson-Broaddus team began maintaining an inventory of international opportunities available to students. They worked with the International Studies Committee to more systematically link international studies with other global education activities. They developed a reference handbook for faculty seeking to run their own international programs and they introduced short-term experiences that are more intentionally connected to course curriculum. The focus on curriculum development initially revealed a lack of global oriented curricula. Ideas to globalize the curriculum included a campus lecture series on global topics connected to freshmen experience courses, content mapping of globally oriented course content against the definition of global citizenship, and the creation and distribution of models and templates for how to infuse existing curricula with global content. The faculty development component of AldersonBroaddus’s MFCI activities included a series of on-campus workshops on global citizenship, evidence of learning, and cross-cultural competence, with additional workshops planned on topics such as the ‘how to’s’ of international travel, obtaining resources to support international experiences, and incentives for faculty to become involved in study abroad.
MFCI Project: The goal of Bennett College’s MFCI activities was to strengthen a global studies program characterized by a certificate program and to shape seemingly random initiatives into a more visible, coherent college-wide program. This was accomplished by focusing on six connected strands: First, a “Global Activities Survey” was administered that assessed the level of global experiences among the faculty, students and staff to create a baseline of data for further work. Second, the Phi Beta Delta Honor Society was established to recognize international scholarship and engagement. Third, a new course entitled, “Introduction to Global Studies,” was added to the General Education curriculum. It is required for students who have global studies as a minor and it is an elective or a requirement for other majors and minors. Fourth, a Faculty Senate Global Studies Advisory Committee consisting of two representatives from each of the college academic divisions has been established. The purpose is to ensure that Bennett’s globalization vision is infused throughout each aspect of the campus and that faculty members are kept abreast of progress in this area. Fifth, Bennett created an “All Passport Campus” initiative to ensure that as many students, faculty, and staff as possible are in possession of a valid passport. And sixth, the Bennett-King College Collaboration for Honor Students is a collaborative partnership between Bennett College and King University that sends students from both institutions to a week-long Global Citizenship Program at Salzburg Global.
Berea College Berea, Kentucky
Bethune-Cookman University Daytona Beach, Florida
Founded by abolitionists and radical reformers, Berea College today continues as an educational institution still firmly rooted in its historic purpose “to promote the cause of Christ.” Berea is located in Berea, KY. It has 1,613 current students from forty-six states and the District of Columbia, US territories, and 58 countries outside of the US. About 69% of the students come from the Appalachian region and the state and 53% come from families where neither parent has a college degree. There is an 11:1 student to faculty ratio. The Berea experience nurtures intellectual, physical, aesthetic, emotional, and spiritual potential and with those the power to make meaningful commitments and translate them into action. It is best known for the four-year tuition scholarship each student receives when they enroll. Through its labor program experience, each student is provided opportunities for service to the campus and community and leaves the college with little or no debt.
Located in Daytona Beach, Florida, Bethune-Cookman University is an institution filled with rich history, beloved traditions, and a strong commitment to academic excellence and community service. From its beginnings as a school for young African American girls to its status as a university with seven academic schools offering thirty-five undergraduate degree programs and a master’s degree in transformative leadership, BethuneCookman has educated generations of learners and community leaders. Since the early 1940s, the university has graduated more than 13,200 students. It has maintained intercollegiate athletic programs as well as instrumental and choral groups that have achieved national recognition. Many of its alumni are well known in all sectors including business, medicine, law, the arts, and others.
MFCI Project: Bethune-Cookman’s MFCI project, entitled “Building and Bridging Globally Engaged Learning Communities” (BBGELC) sought to enhance diversity and global awareness on campus and throughout surrounding communities. Through establishing mentoring programs and bridging learning communities, the overall objective of the initiative was to further internationalize academic curricula and community agendas by bringing people together of diverse cultural backgrounds. Faculty and international students with cultural, research, and other practical experiences relative to a specific culture were invited as guest speakers and led discussants to share experiences and political perspectives on varied issues. The University’s Model UN program works in conjunction with Campbell Middle School, the Daytona Beach Chapter of the Links, Inc., and the Volusia County Chapter of UNA-USA to foster mentoring relationships and cultural exchange. The intention is that less fear of the unknown will prepare students to seek careers outside of their norm while exercising global citizenship and exchange. The initiative also sought to promote global issues among community based organizations with an overall theme of, “Act Locally. Think Globally.”
MFCI Project: Berea College’s proposal included two new programs: the Global Arch Program (GAP) and the Global Citizenship Certificate Program (GCCP). The GAP would allow a student to focus on one particular country or region over his/her four years of study at Berea College, encouraging him/her to learn about various aspects of their GAP country in any course where he/she has the freedom to select a topic of choice for an assignment or research project. The GCCP would encourage students to ‘connect the dots’ of various modes of Global Citizenship learning and then honor them with a certificate for doing so. Unfortunately, the suggestion of these two new programs was not received enthusiastically among all faculty, staff, and administrators because the College was in a time of transition. Nevertheless, Berea’s MFCI team found members of the campus community who were interested and passionate about global education. Thus, while widespread institutional change resulting from the MFCI has been slow at Berea, involvement in the MFCI has generated new ideas that can have institutional impact. Additionally, it has allowed those who are passionate about global education to engage with one another, continue to increase stakeholder buy-in, and work on the incremental changes in order to lay a foundation for longer-term sustainable impact.
Bluefield College Bluefield, Virginia
Brevard College Brevard, North Carolina
Bluefield College is a Christ-centered liberal arts college in covenant with the Baptist General Association of Virginia. Bluefield College offers a challenging academic experience within a diverse Christian environment. The College’s academic and co-curricular programs transform students’ lives by integrating liberal arts with career-oriented studies and service to God and the global community. We are committed to graduating students who think critically, communicate effectively, and adapt readily to a changing world. Bluefield College provides academic programs that prepare students for their careers, as well as co-curricular programs that promote an environment supporting the intellectual, social, and spiritual development of students. Bluefield College was founded in 1922 and currently enrolls 459 traditional students and offers forty-four majors. The campus is located near the Appalachian Mountains of Southwest, Virginia.
Founded in 1853, Brevard College is the oldest institution of higher learning in the mountains of North Carolina. It is a four-year private, residential, liberal arts college that is historically affiliated with the Methodist Church. Its mission is to deliver an experiential liberal arts education that encourages personal growth and inspires artistic, intellectual, and social action. Its small student body (633 students) and student-faculty ratio (12:1) ensure personalized attention and instruction within all twenty-one B.A and B.S programs. At Brevard College, the experiential programs constantly strive to connect our classrooms to the world and prepare our students to change the world.
MFCI Project: Brevard’s MFCI project was to develop an integrated program to transform global citizenship from a temporary campus theme to a defining characteristic of the College. The proposed project focused on faculty development, the Brevard Common Experience program, international experiences for students, and working with other institutions. The active participation of faculty, administrators and students in the MFCI activities has served to educate faculty and students on the idea of global citizenship in order to create greater awareness, excitement and support. The longer-term goal is to translate these activities into curricular and co-curricular initiatives on campus. As a result of the MFCI, student and faculty interest in pursuing international study/travel programs has clearly increased. Many more faculty than were able to attend the Salzburg sessions have participated in the study and discussion of concepts of global citizenship, giving them a clearer conceptual framework to apply in their courses, and the general-education senior capstone course, required of all seniors, has been re-conceptualized to center more on the development of a global perspective. Due to the College’s competing priorities, however, the commitment to create an institution-wide curriculum that specifically speaks to the issue of global citizenship has not been as successful as initially hoped. Recent years have brought considerable institutional change which has meant that this initiative has had to compete for interest and resources with several other priorities. Thus, despite increased faculty and student interest in global programs, the infrastructure and staffing to fully support that interest is lacking. Brevard’s MFCI team has learned that all campus stakeholders must more fully buy into the importance of institutionalizing global citizenship education. All in all, despite some ongoing challenges, the specific individuals from Brevard College who were able to participate in the MFCI program (faculty, administrators, and students) have developed a much broader and deeper understanding of and commitment to the meaning and importance of global citizenship. They have spread their understanding and commitment to many others on campus—efforts which have led to an ongoing and sustainable focus on global citizenship, both within and beyond the formal curriculum.
MFCI Project: After returning from Salzburg, Bluefield College set out on a mission to bring continuity within its global education community. With that in mind, a Global Education Committee, which organizes relevant efforts all throughout campus, now exists. This standing committee is responsible for implementing awareness across the disciplines. Additionally, Bluefield hired a Director of Global Education to help strengthen the committee’s work. Bluefield College is committed to a program of global education where students will be able to experience and gain a greater understanding of the culture, history, language, and customs of different countries. Thanks to the development of the new international exchange program at Bluefield College as part of the school’s mission to prepare innovative learners and transformational leaders, Bluefield College students are currently participating in the global education effort. They are already recounting their experiences as they visit other cities and countries and engage in service-learning projects. Students participating in these programs are left with an indelible impression regarding the hospitality, humility, and kindness of the host peoples. The experience leaves students with a new found respect for different cultures and life-long memories resulting from their global encounter. Global education is an ongoing venture among schools where they will participate in an international exchange of ideas, discussion, fellowship, and study. According to Bluefield College, one of the purposes of global education, according to Bluefield, is to promote education, friendly ties, and mutual benefits among a variety of constituencies. These efforts bring an increased awareness to Bluefield’s campus community – students, faculty, and staff – and to the general public which is also part of the growing global environment in which the College lives and which it serves.
Campbellsville University Campbellsville, Kentucky
Carson-Newman College Jefferson City, Tennessee
Campbellsville University is a comprehensive, Christian institution located in Campbellsville, Kentucky. The university offers certificates, associate’s, bachelor’s, and master’s degrees. The University is dedicated to academic excellence solidly grounded in the liberal arts, but also offering various professional programs. Examples of professional programs include an associate’s degree in nursing leading to the RN, bachelor’s and master’s degrees in social work, and various programs within education. The University has an enrollment of more than 3,000 students with approximately 1,000 living on campus. The University has forty-eight undergraduate majors and seventeen master’s level programs. It has academic centers located in Hodgenville, Louisville and Somerset, KY. One emphasis that CU stresses is the concept of service learning, and last year it was named to the President’s Honor Roll for Service.
Carson-Newman University is a four-year, private liberalarts institution located near the Great Smoky Mountains. Founded in 1851 as a Baptist Seminary, Carson-Newman has both education and service running deep to its core. As a nationally recognized institution, CNU attracts students from twenty-five different countries to study within fifty different academic majors. Graduate programs are available in education, nursing, counseling, religion, business, and social justice. Classes are small to foster both academic excellence and a nurturing community. CNU is a residential campus with the majority of its 2,000 students living on-campus, offering fifty student clubs and organizations and a nationally recognized intramural program. Study, missions, and service opportunities are available around the world.
MFCI Project: Carson-Newman’s MFCI Project initially focused on three areas: faculty development, an introductory course on global identity, and expansion of cross-cultural experiences for students. A major focus was a faculty development training session in the spring of 2010 with a focus on incorporating global citizenship components in every course taught on campus. Individual departments reported on current global citizenship components in courses they teach. Academic departments met and brainstormed ideas for developing ‘global citizen’ components in courses and then reported back to each other. Ideas included assigning articles and stories from non-US writers, movies on global topics, literature components that are not Eurocentric but include African and Asian writers, development of a cultural etiquette course, and inviting current international students to share with classes about their culture. The second focus was developing a course on global identity. Due to the limited number of discretionary hours for degrees, this course was not developed. An alternative was to incorporate a global component in an introductory orientation course for all incoming freshman. Students are required to participate from a number of options in a global citizen activity. The final focus of Carson-Newman’s project is to offer more cross-cultural opportunities for faculty and students. Five new faculty-led study abroad programs have been developed. New opportunities for students to interact with international students on-campus have also been developed. Prior to the MFCI Project, Carson-Newman was engaged in promoting global citizenship on its campus. The MFCI Project helped the College to refocus its efforts into curriculum components with a focus on global citizenship that would impact a larger number of students. A discussion continues about ways to measure global citizenship growth. The College participated in a pilot project using the Global Perspective Inventory (GPI) to survey faculty and students and is still seeking a way to better evaluate its global initiatives.
MFCI Project: The goal of MFCI participation was to develop strategies for the introduction of global citizenship education into the classroom and beyond. The initial plan, entitled “CU Overseas,” was to develop a stand-alone site around which CU programs could develop. The hope was that the site could become a branded CU property for recruitment and retention that provided greater benefits than a multiple-site approach. Campus evaluation revealed considerable disagreement over the best location given the divergent interests of the faculty and the costs of study abroad for the students. During our second year of participation, the plan was modified to develop a customizable, student-centered field research course where students could design a study abroad/ study away experience that could be shared with classmates via an online environment. Entitled “Global Citizenship Experience” (GCE), the course is adaptable for use across the disciplines and can be customized to minimize student cost. The course also encourages students to develop relationships with members of CU’s international student population, which comprises about 15% of the full-time student body. A field test for the course drew participation from students traveling to Ukraine, Slovenia, China, and a study away program to Washington, DC. In addition to the GCE course, becoming part of the MFCI has had additional, ancillary benefits. Direct or indirect results from MFCI participation have included: the development of a Global Studies concentration within the existing political science program, an increase in the number of faculty led study abroad/away programs, and a considerable increase in the number of students engaging in experiential global learning.
Clark Atlanta University Atlanta, Georgia
Davis & Elkins College Elkins, West Virginia
Clark Atlanta University (CAU), formed in 1988 as a result of the consolidation of two independent, historically black institutions, Atlanta University (1865) and Clark College (1869), is a United Methodist Church-related, private, coeducational, comprehensive, urban research university. CAU is located in the heart of Atlanta, Georgia serving students pursuing bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate degrees in thirty-eight areas of study. It has an enrollment of 3,941 students (2010-11) and a faculty to student ratio of 17:1. There are four schools: Arts and Sciences, Business Administration, Education and Social Work. As part of its mission statement, CAU sees its “purpose to prepare a diverse community of learners to excel in their chosen endeavors and to become responsible, productive and innovative citizen leaders locally and globally.”
Davis & Elkins College (D&E), founded in 1904, is located in Elkins, West Virginia and is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA). D&E’s mission is to prepare and inspire students for success and for thoughtful engagement in the world. The College affirms as special values: human dignity, social responsibility, participatory governance, and the unity of the intellectual, social, and spiritual dimensions of life. It values the richness of place, the beauty of the natural world, and the importance of other countries, cultures, and regions. D&E challenges students to participate in a vibrant and diverse campus while cultivating intellectual, creative, ethical, physical, and leadership skills. Davis & Elkins College offers over thirty baccalaureate and associate’s degree programs in the traditional arts and sciences as well as pre-professional and professional studies. The current enrollment is approximately 760 students. The student to faculty ratio is 14:1.
MFCI Project: Clark Atlanta University’s MFCI project was to create an environment in which global education and the opportunities that it provides for CAU students are addressed in a more systematic way from administrators to faculty to students. In addition to bringing a more systematic approach to CAU’s global education initiatives, a key element was to ensure that those advising students from all majors are aware of and promote the various opportunities that exist for global education. Based on the University’s stated commitment to encouraging service focused on the development of local, regional, and national leadership skills, the MFCI team focused its efforts on three areas: partnering with local primary and secondary schools as part of the University’s education programs; increasing awareness of study abroad opportunities; and faculty engagement on issues of common importance to the campus and global communities. The University successfully established a relationship with a local elementary school. As a result, the students at that school were exposed to global perspectives and the prospect of attending college or university was planted or reinforced. The Office of International Education has recently been renamed the Office of Global Education, Study Abroad and Student Exchanges. Accompanying the change in name was a consolidation of activities handled by the Office in a way that is easier to reach and engage students so that they can more easily take advantage of the opportunities that await them. Although not an original part of the plan, one of Clark Atlanta’s MFCI team members became deeply engaged in the political situation in Sudan after hearing an MFCI faculty member from Sudan speak on the topic. He worked with others to develop a White Paper with recommendations for the US government’s policy towards Sudan. With the support of the Carter Center in Atlanta, the paper reached the US State Department at a critical time and several MFCI participants went to the Sudan to help monitor elections as a result of this engagement.
MFCI Project: Davis & Elkins’ MFCI-related activities have been concentrated on four main areas: general education revision, study abroad opportunities, increased enrollment of international students, and an increase in foreign language offerings. In 2009, Davis & Elkins College initiated a comprehensive review of its program of general education. One outcome of this review was the faculty’s adoption of “the development of global awareness and an appreciation of diversity,” as one of the College’s eleven general education learning outcomes. As the general education revisions have been implemented, the vision of globalization on campus continues to evolve as do implementation and assessment strategies. During the timeframe of D&E’s involvement in the MFCI, winter-term and semester-long study abroad opportunities have increased from the occasional and sporadic to more regular and consistent both in terms of location and coordination. The enrollment of international students has more than doubled from 2009/10 to 2012/13 and the foreign language offerings have increased due to closer cooperation with the Fulbright Language Teaching Program. The impact of the MFCI at D&E has been felt across the classrooms, the campus, and beyond. Much of the work has been supported by the Office of Academic Affairs but it would not have been possible if other departments, offices, and individuals were not committed to promoting global awareness and global citizenship at D&E.
Dillard University New Orleans, Louisiana
Emory & Henry College Emory, Virginia
Since 1869, Dillard University has been committed to providing students with a quality four-year liberal arts education. Dillard is a fully accredited private, historically black university. The university is set on a serene fifty-five-acre campus. Dillard offers twenty-one academic majors in three colleges, and enrolls more than 1,300 students with a student to faculty ratio of 14:1. To date, 41% of Dillard students pursue an advanced degree within five years of graduation. Graduates of Dillard represent a wide range of highly successful global leaders in fields ranging from medicine and law to higher education and international business and arts and entertainment.
Founded in 1836, Emory & Henry College (E&H) is a coeducational liberal arts college that stands as the oldest college in southwest Virginia. Affiliated with the United Methodist Church and located in the Appalachian highlands, it is one of the few colleges in the country whose entire campus is listed on the National Historical Register. With approximately 1,000 students and a student to faculty ratio of 10:1, 75% of classes have fewer than twenty students. The academic program includes more than fifty majors in approximately twenty-five fields of study. In addition, E&H students are exposed to a wide range of lectures and cultural events provided by nationally and internationally respected experts, political figures, and artists. With an emphasis on global perspective and education that leads to action – including research and policy change – E&H seeks to graduate students who are global citizens and encourages on-campus international initiatives and study abroad. Nationally recognized for its award-winning faculty and civic engagement, Emory & Henry College is one of only forty institutions included in Loren Pope’s book, Colleges that Change Lives. The book praises the historic College as a “national asset” that makes a dramatic difference in the lives of students.
MFCI Project: During the course of the MFCI, Dillard University has sought to solidify and strengthen its global education initiatives around several themes that connect to its legacy and more recent history. Hurricane Katrina hit the Dillard campus very hard but the community of faculty, administrators, staff, and students has been resilient. Thus, one of the main MFCI-related activities has been to use the tragedy of Hurricane Katrina and its impact on New Orleans, Louisiana, the Gulf Coast Region, and ultimately the United States as the organizing frame of reference to an approach to globalization and international programs. The University has sought to take a comprehensive approach to incorporating global education into a particular theme and has thus focused on creating a more organized and systematic approach to study abroad, faculty development opportunities, implementing a campus-wide lecture series, updating curricula across many disciplines, and similar activities. One of Dillard’s goals at the beginning of the MFCI was to establish a formalized study abroad program. The University now has the Office of International Students and Study Abroad Programs which oversees all of the University’s work in this area. In 2012, they launched the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Institute (TAST Institute). With involvement from MFCI participants, the TAST Institute provides students with the opportunity to travel to one or two countries each year and gain insightful information on one of the most significant events in history, the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. While in these locations, the objective is for students to make connections between the slave trade and their own existence in America. Students learn about their rich and historic heritage through the exploration of various cultural destinations within the country. For example, students might have the option to travel to Ghana or Jamaica one year and to Brazil or Nigeria the next year. Country selection is based on historical connections with the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.
MFCI Project: Emory & Henry’s MFCI project focused on the integration of global citizenship into the College’s Core Curriculum. One of the Core Curriculum’s goals is for students to, “seek to understand their political and social responsibility as citizens in an interconnected world.” In order to achieve this goal, Emory & Henry has focused on the development of curricular citizenship training which begins in the first year when students embark on study and travel within the United States. Students also complete a new college-wide language requirement and study abroad in a short or long-term program, or take a disciplinary course identified as being “international exploration intensive”. Finally, students must complete a Connections course, the senior capstone, which deals with a specific issue that can be addressed on local, regional, national, and world levels. The impact of the project can be seen when students articulate detailed knowledge of another culture, comparative knowledge of several cultures, and awareness of a larger worldview. Most of the activities are housed within the Office of International Education, working closely with students and faculty, while partnering with the Core Curriculum Director to identify and assess learning outcomes. The process has been very rewarding for the students, faculty, staff, and administrators involved who believe that their students are better prepared for careers and citizenship in the 21st century.
Ferrum College Ferrum, Virginia
Fisk University Nashville, Tennessee
Founded in 1913, Ferrum College provides life-long learning and outstanding career and graduate school preparation in a setting of rich natural beauty. Located near the Blue Ridge Mountains of Southwestern Virginia, Ferrum is a four-year, primarily residential college with easy access to the major metropolitan areas of Roanoke, Virginia (thirty-five miles to the north) and Greensboro, North Carolina (seventy miles to the south). Ferrum offers thirty-three areas of study ranging from business and environmental science to teacher education and criminal justice, small class sizes, and a dedicated faculty. The 1,500 men and women who attend Ferrum come from twenty-five states and a dozen countries, and over 80% live on Ferrum’s 700-acre campus.
Founded in 1866, Fisk University is the oldest institution of higher education in Nashville, Tennessee and will celebrate its sesquicentennial in 2016. Fisk received a charter for the first chapter of The Phi Beta Kappa Society on a predominantly black campus in 1953. It has a coed student population of approximately 600 students, approximately 68% of whom live on campus. A liberal arts institution, Fisk University confers baccalaureate degrees in fifteen disciplines and a master of arts degree in biology, chemistry, physics and psychology. From its earliest days, Fisk has played a leadership role in the education of African-Americans and the Fisk tradition of leadership and excellence is being carried on today by “Cultivating Scholars & Leaders One By One.”
MFCI Project: MFCI Project:
As a result of being associated with the Mellon Fellows Community Initiative (MFCI), Fisk faculty members have instituted a lecture series entitled, “Passport to World Connections.” Both faculty and students are given the opportunity to discuss experiences and lessons learned from travel to foreign countries and interactions with persons who do not have the same cultural background. The campus is invited and time is provided to fellowship with each other as food from around the world adds to the experience. The purpose of the lecture series is to heighten awareness of differences and similarities between people of diverse cultures. Fisk aims to promote greater tolerance and understanding between individuals and demonstrate that life lessons can be learned when placed in unfamiliar environments. This activity occurs during the spring semester and is also tied to a presentation by a Fulbright Fellow who is visiting the campus. Qualitatively, the impact of the event is one of goodwill that is shared among participants. They leave the event embracing the differences of each other. Students who participated in study abroad programs are eager to share their experiences. They encourage students who have not participated to prepare for such experiences and many indicated that they intend to travel abroad again. The next steps include assessing the event in a quantitative fashion in order to identify clearly measurable and desirable outcomes that will increase the number of students seeking study abroad opportunities and increase the number of faculty members who add global citizenship topics to classroom discussions and research.
Ferrum College’s MFCI project was initially stated simply as “internationalization across the curriculum enhanced by cocurricular programs.” After the first meeting in Salzburg, the Ferrum team renamed their project, Strategically Integrating and Expanding Global Learning, or STIEGL. A major goal in Ferrum’s mission statement is to, “help students become true global citizens.” The School of Arts and Humanities had already undertaken the task of reviewing what opportunities were then in place in the curriculum and in co-curricular activities that would help meet this goal. Participation in the MFCI ultimately led to a strategic plan that supplied new energy, focus, and expertise to the efforts already underway. After assessing what the College was already effectively doing, a second goal emerged: to develop strategies to assist interested faculty in developing new courses that would provide further learning opportunities in support of global citizenship. During the first two years of involvement with the MFCI, Ferrum College created or strategically modified twelve new courses. Additionally, the College’s three week spring term began to offer more travel abroad courses. As it gained experience with such courses and as students began to see the importance of exploring the world beyond their familiar comfort zones, travel courses and study abroad opportunities have grown in popularity. A final recent MFCI-related development is a certificate program on Global Perspectives that students can navigate as they pursue their degrees in any discipline. In implementing the certificate program, Ferrum College relied on the support of the faculty and administrators who had been involved with the MFCI and on colleagues from other institutions that had met via the various MFCI activities. Ferrum College has also offered, as part of its Mayterm study abroad activities, the opportunity for students to participate in Salzburg Global’s Global Citizenship Program along with students from Bennett College and King University.
Florida Memorial University Miami, Florida
Hampton University Hampton, Virginia
At Florida Memorial University, students have a wealth of opportunities to pursue their lifelong learning and career goals. The university offers forty-one undergraduate degree programs and four master’s programs. With this comprehensive selection of majors and numerous extracurricular activities to hone their skills in academics, leadership, and public service, a college experience at Florida Memorial University results in highly sought-after graduates and solid world citizens. Florida Memorial University offers degree programs that embody a coherent course of study compatible with its mission of “instilling in students the importance of becoming global citizens through life-long learning, leadership, character, and service which will enhance their lives and the lives of others.” As part of the University’s mission, quality programming is offered to support the recognition that “education contributes to the quality of life.” The University expects that “students will leave its community of scholars and traditions prepared to participate fully in a global society.” All degree programs focus on graduating students who are well qualified in their discipline to enter a competitive job market where they will make knowledgeable contributions based on their fields of study.
Hampton University is nestled along the banks of the Virginia Peninsular, near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay in Hampton, Virginia. It is an HBCU steeped in history and tradition with its sights on the horizons of the global community. It changed is name from Hampton Institute to Hampton University in 1984 due to its growing professional and graduate programs. The school provides a wide range of liberal arts and graduate programs and its student population represents forty-nine states and thirty-five territories and nations outside of the US. There are sixty-eight undergraduate programs, twenty-seven master’s degree programs, six doctoral programs and two specialist in education degree programs. Hampton’s current enrollment is 5,402 with a 16:1 student to faculty ratio.
MFCI Project: The primary focus of Hampton University’s MFCI project was to add an international component to the existing University 101 course. All students enrolled at Hampton are required to take the course, entitled, “The Individual and Life.” The course is intended to broaden students’ knowledge of who they are and what their responsibilities are as educated citizens. Adding an international component was seen as a way to address students’ responsibility to be globally aware and to prepare and to build a global foundation to build upon throughout their matriculation at the University. Specific activities to internationalize the course included exposing students to writings related to global issues that gives them knowledge about the concerns of citizens and cultures outside of the US. Also, the addition of a speaker series component to the course that allows faculty, students, and community members to share their experiences as representatives of various cultures and how their cultural perspectives relate to their views on global issues and concerns. It is anticipated that exposing students to more global perspectives early in their time at the University will pique their interest in global issues, encourage them to seek study abroad opportunities, and to enroll in courses with global foci. Longer-term plans building from this work include expanding the curricular focus on global issues across the campus by first engaging in a curriculum mapping exercise to identify existing courses that contain a global component. Once identified, these courses could serve as a source for developing a concentration in global studies that will be available to the entire student body.
MFCI Project: Florida Memorial University’s MFCI-related work focused on globalizing the University’s curriculum and developing a global education certificate program. In order to meet the first objective, the MFCI participants organized a professional development workshop to inform faculty about international education programs available at FMU; educate faculty about the development of faculty-led programs; encourage interaction amongst faculty in different disciplines to discuss their understanding of international education at FMU; and review selected syllabi to be revised with more global content and intentions. The workshops resulted in a growth in appreciation and interest in developing international opportunities for students and led to the formation of a cadre of faculty dedicated to continuing to work on global education initiatives. Development and research of a Global Education Certificate Program at Florida Memorial was the second major component of the University’s MFCI project. The planned certificate program represents a way of increasing global citizenship at the institution and therefore holding true to its mission. It also recognizes the need to encourage intercultural competencies, global citizenship, and depth of character that undergird this project. The certificate program is intended to impact students and transform the culture of the institution. It will also facilitate increased partnerships within MFCI schools and with other HBCUs.
Howard University Washington, DC
King University Bristol, Tennessee
Howard University, founded in 1867 by General Oliver Otis Howard, is a leading research institution dedicated to educating students from diverse backgrounds at the undergraduate, graduate, and professional level, with a particular focus on African-American students. Since its founding, Howard has been open to men and women from all racial and ethnic groups. Howard University consists of thirteen schools and colleges. Current enrollment approximates 11,000 students who come from virtually every state, the District of Columbia, and 108 countries. As a comprehensive research university with a diverse, predominantly African-American student body and faculty, Howard contributes to the development of new knowledge that seeks to solve social and economic problems in the domestic and international arenas, in particular those that impact the African Diaspora.
King University is located in Bristol, TN near the Smoky Mountains. Founded in 1867, it is a Presbyterian related, master’s level comprehensive university offering more than eighty majors, minors, and pre-professional degrees and concentrations in fields such as business, digital media, nursing, forensic sciences, education, and humanities. The undergraduate and graduate programs are supported by six academic schools of learning including: Arts and Sciences, Business and Economics, Education, Graduate and Professional Studies and Online Programs, Nursing, and Christian Mission. For the past twenty-two consecutive years, US News and World Report has consistently ranked King as one of the best colleges in the nation as well as “Best Value” in regional liberal arts colleges in the south.
MFCI Project: MFCI Project:
King University’s MFCI project initially focused on creating a course on “Culture and Identity.” The course was intended to be unique in the curriculum for its effort to help students become better aware of their own identity and how it is shaped by various factors, including nation and region (particularly the Appalachian region of the United States). The King team believed that this course represents a necessary but often lacking bookend to the study of culture by considering what is “different” about the self. In the context of King University, it was seen as a critical stage for developing global citizens who are aware of and sensitive to other cultures and issues around the globe to first recognize their own culture(s) and how that shapes who they are at home and in the world. The course was developed, approved by the Curriculum Committee, and offered as a General Education course. In addition to the development of the course on “Culture and Identity,” King University fully embraced the spirit and opportunities of the MFCI. They invited Dr. Walter Fluker when he was a part of the Morehouse College MFCI team to speak at King’s Buechner Institute’s lecture series. Moreover, King partnered with Bennett College to send students from both institutions annually to one of Salzburg’s Global Citizenship Programs. The two institutions collaborated on course development and coordinated campus visits as well.
Howard University’s MFCI project focused on formalizing and implementing a unified framework that helps facilitate broad access to and participation in global initiatives and activities for the entire university community. This included targeted efforts to globalize the curriculum (both generally and specifically); to increase and support study abroad opportunities ; to promote faculty exchanges and participation in global activities such as travel, research, and conference participation; and to bring under one umbrella the many meaningful but disparate activities and programs that occur at the university. Some of the specific activities to achieve these goals are outlined below. Dr. Kiran Cunningham led a workshop aimed at internationalizing curriculum and improving the quality of study abroad activities through curriculum enhancement and intentional student reflection. The contact to Dr. Cunningham resulted from the MFCI workshop on “Integrating Study Abroad into the Campus Experience” which she co-facilitated. Several University units continue to offer short-term travel opportunities, semester course requirements, or summer study tours and several units in the health sciences are beginning to allow service learning requirements to take place abroad. The students are demanding these opportunities, and the faculty is encouraging students to gain broader cultural competence. In 2011, Howard University signed a three-year agreement with IES Abroad to provide support services for semester study abroad and direct enrollment at the University of the Western Cape. The goal was to increase the number of minority students who study abroad, and indeed the program has significantly increased the annual number of study abroad students. Finally, when Howard University hosted an MFCI Workshop on “Educating for Global Competence – How?” several Howard students who participated in the MFCI student program in Salzburg organized a special session with Dr. Walter Fluker. Dr. Fluker presented on Ethics and Leadership which opened the students’ hearts and minds to notions of global citizenship, human rights, and mutual respect.
Lee University Cleveland, Tennessee
Lees-McRae College Banner Elk, North Carolina
Lee University is a private, comprehensive university located in Cleveland, TN. Lee is emerging as a leader in higher education in the southeastern region and was ranked in 2011 in the “Top Tier” in the South by US News & World Report (Comprehensive Medium-Size Universities). Lee is also ranked by Princeton Review’s “Best Colleges” and is one of the 141 colleges named Best in the Southeast. Over the past two decades, Lee has become one of the largest Christ-centered private institutions in Tennessee and the largest in the Appalachian College Association. During that period, the university has undergone a remarkable transformation that has included significant growth in academic programs, student enrollment, faculty expertise, and diversity, as well as an expanded sense of mission and vision.
Founded in 1900 by Reverend Edgar Tufts, Lees McRae College is situated nearly 4,000 feet above sea level with 460 acres of rolling hills and forests located in the village of Banner Elk, North Carolina. Today it is a small, private, four-year coeducation liberal arts college of approximately 900 students from more than twenty states and countries with a student to faculty ratio of 14:1. Lees McRae offers twenty-two outcomes based, learner-focused major programs of study and several minor programs of study providing a quality, valuesbased education in an ecumenical environment, inspiring and enabling individuals to contribute to a changing society with integrity and civic responsibility. Through a curriculum rooted in a liberal arts core to educate the mind, body, and spirit combined with an emphasis on leadership and service, graduates obtain knowledge, skills, and a holistic understanding of themselves and the world.
MFCI Project: All Lee University students must fulfill a cross-cultural requirement in order to graduate. The University’s Global Perspectives Program offers an array of programs and opportunities, including but not limited to study abroad, that help students fulfill this requirement. Indeed, the University has been recognized for offering a wider variety of experiences and sends a greater percentage of students abroad than most other universities in the United States. Lee’s MFCI project initially focused on developing an in-house travel agency. The goal was to streamline the process for faculty planning study abroad and study away programs and to cut costs by consolidating ticketing, purchasing and related expenses associated with study abroad. After developing a proposal for how such an in-house travel agency would work and even piloting some of the activities, Lee’s MFCI team decided to revise their original plans because, despite support from some administrators, the necessary funds to launch the travel agency were not immediately available. Nevertheless, the idea for an in-house travel agency remains, and the operations of the Global Perspectives Program have been refined and adjusted as a result of the MFCI. Additionally, as a result of participating in the MFCI, Lee’s team sees the possibility of creating a global studies minor and expanding and enhancing the University’s study abroad and study away opportunities through collaboration with other ACA and HBCU institutions.
MFCI Project: When it began with the MFCI, Lees-McRae College, like many other institutions, had a series of activities and initiatives in place aimed at international experiences and global education. They were, however disjointed, disconnected, and reliant upon the personal interests and passions of a few faculty and staff members. Thus, Lees-McRae’s MFCI work aimed for the strategic enhancement and unification of international programs. One of the first things that the MFCI team did was to create a Global Connections Task Force to oversee and implement all other activities generated out of the MFCI. In preparation for their first January term (2009) which included travel courses, a one day faculty development workshop entitled, “Teaching with Travel,” was conducted. Other components of Lees-McRae’s MFCI activities included organizing “listening sessions” with faculty, staff, and administrators to see which opportunities already exist, where people’s interest and passions lie, and to increase stakeholder buy-in across the campus. There was also an emphasis on providing faculty development opportunities, developing first-year courses that incorporate global themes, more systematically integrating international students into the College’s global education efforts, and assessing progress as the project continues. Today, the number of students studying abroad and opportunities to do so has increased, global education and study abroad are administered together, new courses have been introduced, and the International Club provides an opportunity for fellowship and discussion of cultural and global concerns.
Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, Tennessee
Lindsey Wilson College Columbia, Kentucky
Located in the pristine Appalachian Mountain range, Lincoln Memorial University’s (LMU) main campus in Harrogate, TN, is both scenic and historic. About fiftyfive miles north of Knoxville, TN, LMU is perfectly poised to offer a liberal arts education. A main campus full of activities for residential students and eleven extended sites in surrounding areas, LMU provides a rich variety of educational experiences with over thirty academic majors ranging from accounting to wildlife and fisheries biology. LMU prides itself in maintaining a close-knit campus community where students receive personal attention with an average class size of fourteen.
Lindsey Wilson College was founded in 1903 as Lindsey Wilson Training School. Today, it is a four-year liberal arts college affiliated with the Kentucky Conference of the United Methodist Church. The college is located on more than 200 partially wooded acres on a hilltop in Columbia, Kentucky. Enrollment exploded from 260 students in 1977 to more than 2,700 in the 2012-2013 academic year. While 80% of the students come from in state, the remaining come from over twenty states and over thirty countries outside the US Academic degrees are offered through programs leading to the associate’s, bachelor’s and master’s levels. Lindsey Wilson’s mission includes a living learning environment where, “every student, every day learns and grows and feels like a real human being.”
MFCI Project: Lincoln Memorial University’s MFCI project was to develop a new International Service Break program modeled on the Alternative Spring Break programs popular at many colleges and universities. The goal was to make international travel available to some of the disciplines in which students have difficulty going abroad for a semester due to licensing requirements or similar restrictions. Additionally, the project would provide a short-term, more affordable option for global travel for all undergraduate students. Progress towards this objective was slower than anticipated due to a variety of factors which caused Lincoln Memorial’s MFCI team to revise their project and goals. Rather than focusing on developing a completely new program, they focused on including international service learning components for existing courses in the LMU undergraduate programs – particularly those that already have an international travel component. The first course to include an international service learning component was an “Art and Ecology” course taught over the 2011 spring break. Based on the success of that trip from both the students’ and faculty perspective, more faculty members sought to include service learning components to study abroad courses that they were teaching, and student interest in these courses increased dramatically. Prior to involvement in the MFCI, Lincoln Memorial had very few, if any, students studying abroad. Although there is still much work to be done, the courses and experiences thus far are laying a strong foundation for a longer-term and sustainable program incorporating international service learning components to travel courses.
MFCI Project: For Lindsey Wilson College, participation in the MFCI came at a fortuitous time. Faculty were in the process of revisiting and refining the essential student learning outcomes for Lindsey Wilson graduates. The new essential student learning outcomes for the College include the outcome that students will become culturally aware and engaged local and global citizens. Thus, the College’s MFCI activities focused on the sustainable internationalization of the curriculum and co-curricular activities, faculty development for internationalization of the curriculum, and community outreach to broaden the impact of the internationalization effort. On the academic and curricular side of things, the College began assessing progress towards the aforementioned student learning outcome by gathering data using the AAC&U’s Intercultural Competence VALUE Rubric and the Global Perspectives Inventory (GPI). The data were necessary to provide a baseline in order to set goals and priorities related to globalizing the curriculum. A Global Citizenship Teaching Circle was formed in 2011 that brings together faculty from a variety of disciplines to move the curriculum further in the direction of global awareness and to generate various useful classroom approaches to incorporating global citizenship into courses. In terms of co-curricular activities, a house on campus was made available to serve as the home of Lindsey Wilson’s Center for Global Citizenship. The Center will serve as a hub for all of the College’s global and international activities such as facilitating exchanges between international and domestic students and organizing globally themed events. The College also established a sister school relationship with Chukyo University in Tokyo that facilitates a student exchange program between the two institutions. Lindsey Wilson’s MFCI related activities have resulted in important steps in making a more systematic and thorough approach to encouraging global citizenship on a campus-wide basis. Through ongoing collection and analysis of assessment data, a house specially designated for global citizenship activities, and continued meetings of the faculty teaching circle, the College is setting up patterns of activity and institutions that will provide a foundation for future efforts.
Mars Hill College Mars Hill and Asheville, North Carolina
Morehouse College Atlanta, Georgia
Mars Hill College is a private, four-year liberal arts institution located in the mountains of western North Carolina. Founded in 1856 by Baptist families of the region, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in western North Carolina on its original site. Students are challenged to excellence by a liberal arts curriculum which offers five degrees (B.A., B.S., B.M., B.F.A., and B.S.W.) in thirty majors (with sixty-one concentrations) and thirty-three minors. Approximately 1,200 students are enrolled in the traditional campus courses; while over 200 working adults take classes in the evening through the Adult & Graduate Studies program, either on campus or at the new south Asheville site.
Founded in 1867 as the Augusta Institute in Augusta, GA; the college moved to Atlanta, Georgia in 1879 becoming Morehouse College in 1913 in honor of its founder Henry L. Morehouse. Morehouse offers twentysix majors college-wide in three academic divisions: business and economics, humanities and social sciences. It is a member institution of the Atlanta University Center. Over the past five years, it has averaged about 2,600 students. The mission of Morehouse College is to develop men with disciplined minds who will lead lives of leadership and service. A private, historically black liberal arts college for men, Morehouse realizes this mission by emphasizing the intellectual and character development of its students.
One major result of Mars Hill College’s MFCI participation has been the development of a General Education Course for first year students called, “Your Personal Global Positioning System.” The objective is to engage first year students in a course on global citizenship to expand their knowledge of an interconnected world. Elements of the course also inform the teacher education major so that future teachers have a deeper understanding of global citizenship that they can carry into their future classrooms. In addition to being well-received by students based on their evaluations, the course modeled the type of intensive and productive cooperation between the College’s Vice President for Academic and Student Affairs and faculty members in order to achieve meaningful, broad, and sustainable impact. Many of the course readings and materials were based on the readings and lectures from the MFCI sessions in Salzburg. Among the major lessons learned from the MFCI experience are that the level of collaboration necessary to create change can be as challenging and time consuming as it can be rewarding. The next steps will include a deepening of global perspectives across the campus which have thus far concentrated on curricular and co-curricular activities. A critical focus will be on updating the College’s General Education program. Additional activities resulting from the initial MFCI project include field trips to cultural sites with teacher education students, the infusion of global educational issues into teacher education courses, and an increased focus and support on international students at Mars Hill College.
Through the MFCI, Morehouse College established the Morehouse Pan-African Global Experience Program (MPAGE), an innovative, but standard, accredited program offering courses that will be recognized across academic institutions as equal to on-campus instruction. MPAGE is intended as a laboratory of cross-cultural exchange, incorporating cutting-edge ideas and technologies with experiential learning in alternative field settings. The programs are designed to allow students to experience contemporary cultures of African heritage shaped by different geo-political settings in a global world. MPAGE offers cross-cultural experiences for youth from the US and Africa (Ghana and Burkina Faso) with plans to add African locations in Egypt and the Sudan. In addition to establishing MPAGE, Morehouse has remained an active part of the MFCI. Morehouse’s Andrew Young Center for Global Leadership hosted the first two MFCI workshops that took place in the US. Several faculty and staff, including past President Robert M. Franklin, have lectured at Salzburg Global Seminar sessions for students and at other MFCI institutions. Additionally, Jochen Fried, Salzburg Global Seminar’s Director of Education, spent a semester as a scholar in residence at Morehouse’s Leadership Center.
North Carolina Central University Durham, North Carolina
Saint Augustine’s University Raleigh, North Carolina
North Carolina Central University (NCCU) was founded in 1910 as the National Religious Training School and Chautauqua. In 1925, it became the nation’s first public liberal arts college for African Americans. The college was given university status in 1961, and its name was changed to North Carolina Central University. The school became part of the University of North Carolina system in 1972. North Carolina Central University is a comprehensive university offering programs at the baccalaureate, master’s and professional levels. It holds a strong liberal arts tradition and a commitment to academic excellence in a diverse cultural and educational environment. Located in Durham, NC, NCCU has more than 40,000 alumni and 8,600 current students.
Saint Augustine’s University is a four-year liberal arts institution affiliated with the Episcopal Church. Founded in 1867 as Saint Augustine Normal School and Collegiate Institute by the Episcopal Church, part of its original mission was to prepare teachers to teach verbal and computational skills to newly freed slaves and to prepare young men for the clergy. Today, the College prepares students for graduate and professional experiences in a variety of fields. Saint Augustine’s University awards bachelor of arts and bachelor of science degrees in twenty-seven academic disciplines within the four academic divisions. Saint Augustine’s University currently serves 1,500 undergraduate students, has 120 faculty members and a staff of 165. Saint Augustine’s University is committed to offering a challenging, relevant curriculum supported by high-quality instruction and research in every field of study. The University aims to ensure students gain the knowledge, skills, experience, and values necessary to enrich their lives and to serve the society in which they will live as leaders and change agents.
MFCI Project: For its MFCI project, NCCU proposed to pursue a collaborative project with another HBCU that was not part of the MFCI. The project would have allowed both institutions to reach their goals of providing students with exposure to global issues through curricular, co-curricular, and study abroad activities through a cost and resource sharing arrangement focused on global education. Although NCCU was prepared to move forward with the project, the proposed partner institution was not. Thus, NCCU pursued a second, and perhaps in the end more fruitful, MFCI-related goal. NCCU developed and administered a survey to all faculty, staff, and students to ascertain what global education activities were taking place and to gain a better understanding of the attitudes of various campus constituencies towards global education. The survey revealed that NCCU does have many global education activities underway and that there is much interest and support for expanding and strengthening such activities. This information alone provided general excitement and encouragement for the MFCI team to continue working on global education projects and it provided specific insights into where strengths exist and what opportunities for further development are out there. When NCCU hosted the most recent MFCI workshop, many faculty and administrators from various disciplines made an effort to be present out of a genuine appreciation for and interest in what the work of the MFCI has done and will continue to do for their campus.
MFCI Project: Saint Augustine’s University’s MFCI project was the internationalization of the campus by focusing the institution’s Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP)on this goal. Using the QEP, Saint Augustine’s sought to put in place a system to provide global learning opportunities to all students, staff, and faculty. This ongoing five-year plan begins with a focus on freshmen by exposing them to global learning activities and will carry through the entire SAU experience. Despite the need to overcome challenges from some campus representatives who were reluctant to embrace the notion of global education as well as the associated activities, those involved in implementing the Quality Enhancement Plan have been successful thus far. They have put in place a wellplanned series of activities ensuring that every student, faculty, and staff member is exposed to global learning opportunities. A semester of global learning classes has been added specifically for freshmen, and a global living learning community is being launched in the fall of 2013. Additionally, a global perspectives focus is now integrated into every major on campus. Next steps include the ongoing faculty and staff training and addition of more activities on campus. The project will continue to be assessed, evaluated, and restructured with the goal that everyone becomes a global citizen by engaging in global learning activities.
Spelman College Atlanta, Georgia
Tusculum College Greeneville, Tennessee
Spelman College was founded in 1881 as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary and became Spelman College in 1924. It is the oldest historically black college for women. Today, the student body comprises 2,100 students from forty-one states and fifteen countries outside of the US. Spelman offers twenty-seven majors and many other avenues of study through its partner institutions in the Atlanta University Center and other national and international partnerships. It has a graduation rate of slightly over 80% - one of the best rates in the nation. Spelman empowers women to engage in the many cultures of the world and inspires a commitment to positive social change through service.
Located in Greeneville, Tennessee, Tusculum College lies near the Great Smoky Mountains. Founded in 1794, Tusculum College is the oldest college in Tennessee, the twenty-eighth oldest college in the nation, and the oldest co-educational institution affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA). The wooded 140-acre Tusculum College campus has eight buildings and the Tusculum Arch that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Tusculum also maintains offices in Knoxville, Tennessee, for its Graduate and Professional Studies Program, in addition to other class sites across East Tennessee. Tusculum College provides a liberal arts education in a Judeo-Christian and civic arts environment, with pathways for career preparation, personal development, and civic engagement. Today, Tusculum is focused on the question of how to actualize educational relevance and excellence into a third century. The future of Tusculum College is fundamentally connected to history through core values embodied by its mission statement. Today, as in 1794, values such as integrity, responsibility, and critical thinking are relevant and essential.
MFCI Project: Spelman’s involvement in the MFCI coincided with an institutional re-examination of the liberal arts education in the 21st century and related work on re-thinking and re-focusing the general education curriculum. The combined goals of these efforts were to provide Spelman students with the knowledge, competencies, and perspectives necessary for lifelong intellectual growth and learning in the 21st century. This focus carried through to the MFCI and formed the backdrop to Spelmans’ MFCI-related initiatives. Spelman’s project focused on enhancing and better coordinating the institution’s “random acts of globalization,” actualizing the College’s potential to become a “high impact,” institution for globalization/internationalization practices, and integrating learning outcomes related to addressing issues of global interconnectedness and inequities, civic engagement, and multi-layered citizenship practice throughout the general education curriculum. Spelman’s MFCI team made recommendations for restructuring the International Affairs Center and rethinking the then-vacant International Student Coordinator’s position. Additionally, there was a renewed focus from senior administrators on ensuring that as many Spelman students have the opportunity to travel and study abroad as possible via short-term or traditional semester programs. Spelman’s MFCI activities contributed to the vision for a renewed commitment by the College to global and international studies. Going Global is the theme for Spelman’s Quality Enhancement Plan with a focus on increasing international travel, global awareness, and intercultural competencies among Spelman students. Also, the Gordon-Zeto Center for Global Education was established to serve as a central node for all of Spelman’s global education activities including study abroad, international service learning, internationalization of the campus through curricular and co-curricular activities, and faculty development.
MFCI Project: As a result of its involvement in the MFCI, Tusculum College has sought to increase its faculty’s and students’ global competency, integrate the Global Studies Initiative into the Tusculum College curriculum, and collaborate with domestic and international partners to further the aims of the Global Studies Initiative. Tusculum seeks to continue providing faculty with international experiences in order to enhance faculty global competency, interest, and enthusiasm so they will recruit students to programs and add course outcomes with a global focus. The College has also already established several trips abroad for students that are becoming increasingly popular. Tusculum will continue to promote these international travel opportunities and explore funding formulas that make international travel feasible for the students and College alike. As part of its plan to integrate global studies into the College’s curriculum, Tusculum has revised assessment rubrics to include global awareness competencies and all departments will establish at least one course and/or learning outcome in each major that relates to global awareness. Additionally, the College is developing strategies to expand its foreign language offerings that fit with its unique academic calendar, international travel initiatives, and related curricular adjustments. Finally, Tusculum is seeking to strengthen all of these interrelated efforts by collaborating with international and domestic partners. Through partnerships with, for example, the University of Malta, the College will streamline international opportunities making them more appealing to students and faculty alike. By partnering with other domestic institutions, Tusculum seeks to increase the number of international opportunities it can offer.
University of Charleston Charleston, West Virginia
University of the District of Columbia Washington, DC
In its first 125 years, the University of Charleston (UC) has grown from a small seminary college to a nationally recognized university. It was founded by the Southern Methodist denomination in 1888 as Barboursville Seminary in Barboursville, WV and became a college in 1889. In 1901, it was renamed Morris Harvey College after a prominent donor. During the Great Depression, the college moved to Charleston, WV to take advantage of a larger metropolitan area. From 1935 to 1947, the college grew rapidly. In 1978, it was renamed the University of Charleston by the Board of Trustees. In 2012, the university announced locations, in addition to its main campus in Charleston, in Beckley and Martinsburg, and it also expanded its online programs. At present, UC offers thirty-two academic programs and has approximately 2,000 students. UC sees its community as a focal point of many intellectual, scientific, cultural, athletic, and civic events.
On August 1, 1977, the University of the District of Columbia (UDC) was formed—a result of a consolidation of three institutions—District of Columbia’s Teacher’s College, the Federal City College, and the Washington Technical Institute. This historically black university is located in Washington, DC. It is an urban land grant university offering seventy-five degree programs in its associate’s, four-year bachelor’s, master’s, professional, and law degree programs through its academic college including the community college and the David A. Clarke School of Law.
MFCI Project: The University of the District of Columbia’s MFCI project was to oversee the creation of the Office for International Programs and Exchanges (OIPE). First the OIPE assessed global offerings in academic programs, partnerships with international institutions and organizations, and student services supporting globalizing the University at the academic and institutional levels. Then it began serving as a resource and communication site between these programs, while also working to increase the global opportunities available to students and faculty. As part of their work with the MFCI, UDC’s team focused on creating an administrative structure that could develop, coordinate, and sustain a range of programs and activities promoting global citizenship; creating a curriculum that provides undergraduate students a global perspective and prepares them to function as global citizens; and developing an assessment plan for the Office of International Program and Exchanges that ensures continuous assessment and improvement of its operation, activities, and programs. Today, the Office of International Programs & Exchange (OIPE) is responsible for coordinating and facilitating internationally focused partnerships and programs that integrate global approaches into all aspects of co-curricular life on campus. This includes study abroad programs, faculty and scholar exchanges, and the development of new curricular innovations. OIPE initiatives are designed to extend into the global arena as well as to encompass UDC’s historic commitment to teaching, learning, scholarship and research, public service, and outreach.
MFCI Project: The University of Charleston sought to develop a project that would introduce students to global citizenship as freshmen, build on this introduction through intentional linkages with the sophomore courses, offer a junior experience that is either a travel opportunity or a campus-based global issues forum, and culminate with the capstone experience. As a result of its involvement in the MFCI, UC offers a Global Citizenship Certificate open to all students. The requirements for the certificate align with the project outlined above. Assembling the various components of the Global Citizenship Certificate required a broad variety of campus stakeholders to become involved and committed to this and other global education initiatives at UC. For example, it was necessary to find creative ways to increase the number and type of study abroad activities either through in-house efforts, partnerships with other institutions, or third party providers. Additionally, outreach to the local community to identify service learning and internship opportunities was necessary. Faculty development was needed so that professors could re-orient curriculum to include a global focus, and the need to increase foreign language offerings was recognized.
University of Pikeville Pikeville, Kentucky
Virginia Union University Richmond, Virginia
The University of Pikeville (UP) is located in Pikeville, a vibrant community in eastern Kentucky. The university was founded by the Presbyterians in 1889. It stands as an opportunity for quality higher education in the heart of Appalachia. The undergraduate curriculum includes three associate’s and twenty-four baccalaureate degree programs built on a liberal arts foundation. The University also has graduate and professional programs in business and sports management in addition to the College of Osteopathic Medicine.
Virginia Union University (VUU), a liberal arts HBCU, is one of the nation’s oldest HBCUs founded in 1865 in Richmond, Virginia. Virginia Union University is accredited by Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The University currently has a population of 1,500 students, 1,200 undergraduates and 300 graduate students. There are more than twenty-four majors offered at the baccalaureate level in four schools – Sydney Lewis School of Business; School of Basic Applied Sciences and Technology; Evelyn Reid Syphax School of Education, Psychology, and Interdisciplinary Studies; and School of Humanities and Social Sciences. The graduate school, Samuel Dewitt Proctor School of Theology, is the second oldest Historically Black Seminary in the United States. The School of Theology offers master of divinity, master of arts in Christian education, and doctor of ministry degrees.
MFCI Project: As it started with the MFCI, the University of Pikeville was in the process of reviewing the General Education program which culminated in the redefinition of institutional learning goals and faculty approval of four interconnected learning outcomes to align with UP’s student-centered philosophy that encourages innovative strategies for preparing students for professional, civic, and personal success in the 21st century. UP’s MFCI activities focused on making the existing global education activities more coherent and systematic by centering them on the revised learning goals and outcomes and connecting them to the General Education curriculum, study abroad, and international students. As a result of the MFCI, UP established a Global Education Committee, approved Global Education within the new general education outcomes, and increased both the number of students studying abroad and the number of international students. UP’s work on global education is ongoing with recommendations for the creation of a Center for Global Education, ideas on how to retain international students, and ways to expand study abroad and study away activities in coordination with the University’s Quality Enhancement Plan.
MFCI Project: Through the MFCI, Virginia Union University sought to institutionalize internationalization activities and establish study away, academic travel, and study abroad programs for students, faculty, and staff. Starting with the General Education core courses, VUU set the ambitious goal of internationalizing all courses within five years. More than thirty courses in all the four schools and in different disciplines have already been internationalized. The goal is to expose all students, irrespective of major, to internationalized courses as soon as they are entering the university and to afford students, faculty, and staff the opportunity to travel away from Richmond to other places within and outside of the United States. As a result, students, faculty, and staff will be encouraged to acknowledge and embrace globalization and citizenship as worthwhile academic, social, and cultural pursuits in the 21st century. So far, students’ response to evaluations of internationalized courses clearly demonstrates the positive impact of the courses compared to non-internationalized courses. Some students who participated in study away, academic travel, and study abroad programs indicated that they became interested in doing so as a result of information about those programs from faculty teaching internationalized courses. It is anticipated that internationalization activities will give VUU an edge in recruitment of students as global citizenship education is well entrenched. Next step priorities building off the MFCI experience include continuing to nurture a culture of study away and study abroad and collaborating with other institutions that have similar global education goals to establish joint global academic programs.
Warren Wilson College Swannanoa, North Carolina
West Virginia Wesleyan College Buckhannon, West Virginia
With its earlier history as a mission school established by the Women’s Board of Home mission of the Presbyterian Church in 1893—Warren Wilson College has a long and remarkable history. Located in Asheville, NC, Warren Wilson was a junior college until 1967 when it became a four year college. Today, Warren Wilson provides a distinctive undergraduate and graduate liberal arts education. The undergraduate education combines academic, work, and service (The Triad) in a learning community committed to environmental responsibility, cross cultural understanding, and the common good. It has over 900 students with an average class size of seventeen which means professors know the students and are able to provide individual attention. There are forty majors and concentrations. With many new state of the art facilities and a growing student enrollment, the profile of the college has continued to rise.
Founded in 1890, West Virginia Wesleyan College (WVWC) is a private residential college that is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. It is located in Buckhannon, West Virginia, centrally located in the state surrounded by an array of outdoor recreational activities, scenic towns, and mountains. The College has 1,400 students and offers forty-four majors and thirtyfour minors along with graduate programs in athletic training, business administration, education, English creative writing, and nursing. It has a student to faculty ratio of 13:1. Today’s students continue to explore and develop their potential in ways that prepare them to make lifelong contributions to the quality of life in West Virginia, Appalachia, and throughout the world.
MFCI Project: In the 1990’s, West Virginia Wesleyan College set international awareness as an institutional priority but progress on reaching related goals was slow due to several factors. A more recent institutional priority emphasizing service provided impetus for faculty to enhance travel courses and include service learning components. WVWC’s MFCI project was entitled GAINS – Global Awareness Infusing Networks of Service. It was designed to link the institutional priorities of international (or global) education and service learning with travel components and connect to the College’s mission of having graduates who “demonstrate their local and world citizenship through service.” The project worked with the Center for Community Engagement which coordinates most of the College’s service learning activities and with faculty who were designing travel courses. In addition to the initially outlined MFCI project, WVWC took advantage of several opportunities that presented themselves. Two of the College’s students participated in the Global Citizenship Program held in Salzburg along with other MFCI institutions such as King University, Bennett College and Ferrum College. Additionally, Najwa Gadaheldam, an MFCI faculty member, Sudanese peace activist, and former sustainable development officer for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), visited WVWC twice to deliver lectures and engage with students, faculty, and staff.
MFCI Project: When Warren Wilson started with the MFCI, its Teacher Education Program was undergoing a significant redesign which sought to change it from an undergraduate program to a postbaccalaureate fifth year program. The College’s MFCI project focused on designing a program that would use this fifth year to create a partnership between those about to graduate from the Teacher Education Program and local schools. Building on Warren Wilson’s commitment to environmental and social justice issues, the teachers-to-be would incorporate these aspects of global citizenship into their lesson plans at local schools. Thus, the Warren Wilson graduates would have an exposure to, understanding of, and experience in teaching global issues in the classroom which they would be able to incorporate into their future work. At the same time, students of the local schools would get a first exposure to global issues. Due to turnover of key faculty during the course of the MFCI, progress on these goals has been slowed. Nevertheless, the faculty and students who participated in MFCI activities have benefitted from the experience.
Wheeling Jesuit University Wheeling, West Virginia
Xavier University of Louisiana New Orleans, Louisiana
Wheeling Jesuit University (WJU) was founded upon the Jesuit tradition of academic excellence and service to others. Founded in 1954, it is located in Wheeling, West Virginia situated in the northern panhandle of the state on the Ohio River. It is one of twenty-eight Jesuit institutions of higher education in the nation. With a faculty to student ratio of 13:1, it has an enrollment of 1,500 student representing twenty-six states and more than twenty countries. It has more than fifty academic programs of study offered through its undergraduate, professional, and graduate programs.
Xavier University of Louisiana (XULA) is the only university in the nation that is both an HBUC and Catholic. It strives to combine the best attributes of both its faith and its culture. Located in New Orleans, this small liberal arts institution dates back to 1915, when St. Katharine Drexel and the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament founded the co-educational secondary school from which it evolved. Today, Xavier offers preparation in forty-four major areas on the undergraduate, graduate, and professional degree levels. The total Fall 2012 enrollment was 3,178 students representing forty states and fourteen countries.
MFCI Project: MFCI Project:
Wheeling Jesuit University has always had a vision of global citizenship as articulated by the vision of the Jesuits that emphasizes educating men and women who are involved in global service through education and committed to serve and live in solidarity with others for peace and social justice. As such, there have been many opportunities for students to engage in transformative service learning combined with global awareness; however, not all students were taking advantage of these activities. As part of its involvement in the MFCI, Wheeling Jesuit University created an intentional framework that clarified the current, and created new, opportunities to develop a formal curricular theme of global citizenship. The design provides faculty and students with a road map to sequentially develop global awareness and to help define themselves as citizens of the world. The planned experiences, whether in or out of the classroom or country, begin in the core curriculum and continue through the major programs. Currently, the Primary Educational Goals (PEGs) of the University include one designated to the development of a global consciousness. The overall goal of the University’s endeavors in this area is to provide the students, specifically first-generation college students from the Appalachian region, with the knowledge and resources to appreciate and demonstrate the attributes of a global citizen upon graduation and hopefully use their acquired understanding to be of service to men and women throughout the world. Some specific accomplishments included creating a definition of global citizenship and a set of related learning outcomes, updating and expanding the Physical Therapy Program’s International Service Learning course, more closely coordinating the University’s global education activities, including global outreach into the University’s new strategic plan, and the creation of a new position to serve as a liaison between international students and the English Language Institute.
XULA’s core curriculum had been developed in the 1970’s, and at the beginning of the MFCI, the University was in the process of updating it. The University used the MFCI as an opportunity to enhance those efforts and to infuse the core curriculum with a global perspective that transforms student preparation toward the assumption of leadership and service in a global society. In order to achieve this goal, XULA’s MFCI team engaged the Vice President for Academic Affairs Office for buy-in and support and proposed the creation of a Global Citizenship Committee. The team then used the University’s Center for the Advancement of Teaching to engage faculty across the institution through a series of events including a presentation of the MFCI-related project, an event where faculty could articulate what they were already doing in the area of global awareness and education, and a day-long seminar devoted to the project. At the seminar, MFCI faculty member Yolanda Moses made a presentation on the role of HBCUs in global citizenship.
MFCI Partner Institutions and Participants
Alderson-Broaddus College Phillippi, West Virginia
Bluefield College Bluefield, Virginia
- Sally Digman, Chairperson, Division of Education and Special Programs - John Hicks, Assistant Professor of History and Political Science; Director of International Studies - Jim Stinespring, Chaplain & Assistant Professor of Religion and Philosophy
- Scott Bryant, Professor of Exercise and Sport Science - Gerardo T. Cummings Rendon, Director of Global Education - Gregory Kerr, Interim Vice President for Academic Affairs - Robert Shippey, Vice President for Academic Affairs - David Taylor, Campus Minister & Church Relations
Bennett College for Women Greensboro, North Carolina Brevard College Brevard, North Carolina
- Antwonett Atkins, Student - Gwendolyn M. Bookman, Director, Center for Global Studies and External Partnerships and Associate Professor of Political Science - Eric Cole, Assistant Professor of Mathematics - Ambrous Jacobs, Chair and Associate Professor, Political Science & Sociology Department - Tamara Jeffries, Assistant Professor of Journalism & Media Studies - Karla McLucas, Assistant Professor of Sociology - Marilyn Mobley, Provost - Pius Nyadzor, Instructor of Business - Mary Stephens, Assistant Professor of Social Work - Tempress White, Student - Joan Williams, Director of Library Services
- Clyde Carter, Associate Professor of Wilderness Leadership & Experiential Education - John S. Hardt, Professor of English - Kevin Manion, Student - Amie R. Scheidegger, Program Coordinator and Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Justice - Scott Sheffield, Associate Professorof History; Interim Vice President for Academic Affairs and Dean of Faculty - Eva Smith, Assistant Professor of Business and Organizational Leadership - Maggie Whitman, Student - Harmony Whitt, Student - Kim Williams, Student - Benjamin E. Zeller, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies
Berea College Berea, Kentucky - Richard Cahill, Director of International Education; Associate Professor of History - Jason Cohen, Assistant Professor of English - Gordon Gray, Assistant Professor of Media and Culture - Scott Steele, Associate Professor of Economics - Wendy Williams, Associate Professor of Psychology and Womenâ€™s Studies
Campbellsville University Campbellsville, Kentucky - Bill Holmes, Director of International Education - Dennis Paiva, Associate Director of International Education - Allison Timbs, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice - Shawn Williams, Assistant Professor of Political Science
Bethune-Cookman University Daytona Beach, Florida
Carson-Newman College Jefferson City, Tennessee
- Karen Duncan, Assistant Professor of Elementary Education - Deborah Freckleton, Director of Faculty Development - Iris Johnson-Quinn, International Students Coordinator - Dorcas McCoy, President, Faculty Association; Director, Model UN; Assistant Professor of International Studies and Political Science
- Mike Arrington, Executive Director, International Association of Baptist Colleges and Universities - Emaly Conerly, Interim Dean of General Education - Danny Hinson, Director of the Center for Global Education and Associate Professor of TESL - Melissa Summey, International Programs Assistant - Bethany White, Assistant Professor of English
Clark Atlanta University Atlanta, Georgia
Fisk University Nashville, Tennessee
- Brandine Armand, Student - Paul M. Brown, Associate Professor of French and Director of International Education - Demisha Burns, Student - Ariel Cobb, Student - Noran L. Moffett, Director of Field Services - Peter Molnar, Associate Professor of Computer and Information Science; Research Associate, Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems - Charles Moses, Assistant Professor of Management
- Sessi Aboh, Assistant Provost - Melinda Aguilera, Student - Adenike Davidson, Director, Du Bois Honors Program and Associate Professor of English - Preston Harris, Student - Kofi Lomotey, Executive Vice President and Provost for Academic Affairs, Fisk University - Reavis L. Mitchell, Chair and Professor, Department of History; Director, Division of Social Sciences - Nancy E. Rasico, Lecturer of Spanish; Interim Chair, Department of Modern Foreign Languages - Grazyna Walczak, Assistant Professor of Modern Foreign Languages - Timothy Walker, Student
Davis & Elkins College Elkins, West Virginia - Kisor Chakrabarti, Provost & Dean of Faculty; Professor of Philosophy - Sarah Krakoff, Student - Shannon Nichole Neuenschwander, Student - Denice Reese, Assistant Professor of Nursing - Judith Smith, Assistant Professor of Psychology and Education - Victor Thacker, Provost & Dean of Faculty
Florida Memorial University Miami Gardens, Florida - Makola Abdullah, Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs - Keshia Abraham, Associate Professor of English and Director of Study Abroad - Monique Earl-Lewis, Director, Center for Academic Advisement & Assistant Professor of Psychology - William E. Hopper, Dean of Computer Science, Mathematics & Technology
Dillard University New Orleans, Louisiana - Alan K. Colon, National Endowment for the Humanities Eminent Professor of Education; Chair, African World Studies Department - Hong Dai, Associate Professor of Mathematics and Business - Marvalene Hughes, President - Eartha Johnson, Associate Professor of Psychology - Carlen L. McLin, Assistant Dean, Division of the Natural Sciences and Public Health; Chair, Public Health Department - Dorothy Smith, Dean of General Education Core & Continuing Education
Hampton University Hampton, Virginia - Charrita Danley, Executive Assistant to the President - Cassandra Herring, Dean of College of Education and Continuing Studies - Nelly McRae, Assistant Professor of Spanish and Business Spanish - Kianga R. Thomas, Assistant Professor in the College of Education & Continuing Studies
Howard University Washington, DC Emory & Henry College Emory, Virginia
- Chanel Bell, Student - Gregory Carr, Associate Professor & Chair, Department of Afro-American Studies - James Davis, Chair and Professor, Spanish and Foreign Language Education - James Donaldson, Professor and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences - Heba Elnaiem, Student - Segun Gbadegesin, Associate Dean, College of Arts and Science - Justin Olumide Senu-Oke, Student - Jeanne Toungara, Associate Professor of History - Dana Williams, Professor and Chair, Department of English
- Linda Dobkins, Associate Professor of Economics - Celeste Gaia, Chair, Department of Psychology; Director of International Relations - Sydney Hai, Student - AhnnaLise Jennings, Student - Chris Qualls, Vice President for Academic Affairs
Ferrum College Ferrum, Virginia - Nancy Beach, Director of Teacher Education; Director of Disability Services; Coordinator of Health and Physical Education - John Bruton, Dean of Arts & Humanities; Professor of English - Jasmine Goodnow, Assistant Professor of Recreation Leadership - David B. Howell, Associate Professor of Religion - Meagan Hodges, Student - Jessi Naff, Student - Patricia Sagasti Suppes, Assistant Professor of Spanish - Cody Wright, Student
King University Bristol, Tennessee - - - - - -
Juan Avila, Student Mark Dollar, Director of the Snider Honors Program Cara Everet Anderson, Dean, School of Education Sharon Gandy, Student Sharon Harris II, Associate Professor of History Kaitlyn Musick, Student
- Abbie Roberts, Student - Tracy Parkinson, Dean of the Faculty; Chair, Department of Languages and Literatures - Karen Shaw, Associate Professor of English; Coordinator of Study Abroad
- Cecil Haydel, Professor of Modern Foreign Languages - Cynthia L. Hewitt, Associate Professor of Sociology - Terry L. Mills, Dean of the Humanities and Social Sciences Division - Tshepo Moshoaliba, Student - Malcolm Olatunji, Student - Ezekiel Phillips, Student - Melvinia Turner King, Executive Director, the Leadership Center; Assistant Professor of Leadership Studies
Lee University Cleveland, Tennessee - Ingrid Hart, Assistant Professor of Business - Patricia McClung, Associate Professor of Education - Beth Thompson, Director of Global Perspectives
North Carolina Central University Durham, North Carolina Lees-McRae College Banner Elk, North Carolina - Tess W. Carr, Vice President, Academic Affairs; Chair of Division of Creative and Fine Arts - Schuyler Carson, Student - Fiona Chrystall, Assistant Dean of Assessment and Effectiveness; Assistant Professor of Environmental Science - Nan McAden, Chair, Division of Student Success; Registrar - Amanda McAndrew, Instructional Technologist and Computer Information Systems Instructor - Robert Rudd, Student - D.J. VanHoy, Student - Marvin Williamsen, Director of International Programs
- Ismail Abdullahi, Associate Professor of Library and Information Sciences - Ansel Brown, Assistant Professor and Director, University Honors Program - Janice Harper, Assistant Vice Chancellor for University Programs - Olivia Jones, Assistant Director, Office of International Affairs - Josh Nadel, Assistant Professor of Latin American and Caribbean History; Associate Director, Global Studies Program - Wendy Rountree, Associate Professor of English and Mass Communication
Lincoln Memorial University Harrogate, Tennessee
Saint Augustineâ€™s College Raleigh, North Carolina
- - - -
- Chandra Barber, Instructional Technology Support Assistant - Russell Brodie, Director, Global Study Abroad and International Programs; Quality Enhancement Plan Coordinator; Assistant Professor - Willyetta Mitchell, Assistant Professor of Elementary Education
Ann Calahan, Assistant Professor of Social Work Rebecca Brackmann, Assistant Professor of English Elissa Graff, Assistant Professor of Art Charles Hubbard, Professor of History; Abraham Lincoln Historian - Curt Klinghoffer, Assistant Professor of English; Director, Kanto International Senior High School Program - JoAnn Russell, Assistant Coordinator of International Student Services - Debra Salata, Assistant Professor of History
Spelman College Atlanta, Georgia - Alma Jean Billingslea Brown, Associate Professor of English - Desiree Selma Pedescleaux, Dean of Undergraduate Studies; Professor of Political Science - Vera Rorie, Dean of Students - Dimeji Togunde, Gordon-Zeto Dean for Global Education; Professor of International Studies
Lindsey Wilson College Columbia, Kentucky - Michael Giordano, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice - David Ludden, Associate Professor of Psychology - Tim McAlpine, Associate Professor of English - Jackie Montgomery, Director of Operations and Compliance, School of Professional Counseling - Jessice Oney, Instructor of Spanish - Melinda J. Senters, Associate Professor of History
Tusculum College Tusculum, Tennessee - Gier Bergvin, Director, Center of Global Studies; Associate Professor of Marketing - DiAnn Casteel, Associate Professor of Education, Graduate and Professional Studies - Kim Estep, Provost & Vice President for Academic Affairs - Tom McFarland, Associate Professor of Business Administration; Director, School of Business - Mitchell Taylor, Student - Sam Underwood, Student - Joel Van Amberg, Assistant Professor of History - Altoine Wilson, Student
Mars Hill College Mars Hill, North Carolina - Thomas Destino, Chair & Associate Professor, Division of Education - Deb Morris, Chair, Education Department - Nina T. Pollard, Vice President for Academic and Student Affairs
Morehouse College Atlanta, Georgia University of Charleston Charleston, West Virginia
- Walter Fluker, Founding Executive Director, the Leadership Center; Coca-Cola Professor of Leadership Studies
- Alan R. Belcher, Assistant to the Provost
- Eric Bodge, Student - Joseph Janisch, Director of Choral Activities; Associate Professor of Music - Karen Merriman, Vice President for Advancement - Ryan Moran, Student - Elyse Surbaugh, Student - Michelle Wells, Program Coordinator and Assistant Professor for the Sports Administration Major - Barbara Wright, Interim Chair, Morris Harvey Division of Arts and Sciences
- Cait Coffey, Student - Ben Feinberg, Chair, Division of Sciences; Professor of Anthropology - Annie Jonas, Professor of Education - Laura Lilley, Student - Laura Turchi, Chair, Education Department - Evan Wantland, Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science; Director of Instructional Technology - Alida Woods, Principal, Isaac Dickson Elementary School
University of the District of Columbia Washington, DC
West Virginia Wesleyan College Buckhannon, West Virginia
- Denis Antoine, Executive Director of International Programs and Exchange - Diedre Evans-Pritchard, Deputy Director, International Programs and Exchanges - Keisha Gordon, Student - Eurmon Hervey, Campus CEO and Executive Director of the Community College - Alex Howe, Associate Professor of English; Director of Undergraduate Studies in English - Aime Mbakop, Student - Rachel Petty, Dean, College of Arts and Sciences - Adanna Quashie, Student - Allen Sessoms, President
- Kathleen M. Long, Dean of Graduate Studies and Extended Learning; Professor of Communication - Melody J. Meadows, Chair, Music Department; Professor of Organ and Music Theory - Larry Parsons, Vice President of Academic Affairs - Robert Rupp, Professor of History and Political Science - Antoinette Velasquez, Student - Kaitlen Whitt, Student - Mara Wright, Student - Kimberly M. Yousey, Dean of Community Engagement
Warren Wilson College Swannanoa, North Carolina
Wheeling Jesuit University Wheeling, West Virginia - Mark Drnach, Clinical Associate Professor of Physical Therapy - Kathryn Vooorhees, Associate Professor of English - Daniel Weimer, Assistant Professor of History - Letha B. Zook, Academic Vice President
University of Pikeville Pikeville, Kentucky - Hannah Freeman, Assistant Professor of English - John Howie, Social Work Program Director; Assistant Professor of Social Work - Brigitte LaPresto, Chair, Division of Humanities; Professor of English - Chandra Massner, Associate Professor of Communication
Xavier University of Louisiana New Orleans, Louisiana - Elizabeth A. Barron, Vice President, Academic Affairs - Elizabeth Hammer, Director of Center for Advanced Teaching - Pearl Lonian, Assistant Vice President for Academic Affairs - Kelsey Riley, Student - Elizabeth Rousselle, Associate Professor of French - Pamela N. Waldron-Moore, Associate Professor of Political Science; International Studies Advisor
Virginia Union University Richmond, Virginia - David Adewuyi, Associate Professor of Education - W. Franklin Evans, Vice President of Academic Affairs - Patricia Murray, Assistant Professor of Business Management - Peter Sutton, Assistant Professor of Philosophy
Note: The titles listed here reflect participantsâ€™ positions and affiliations at the time of their participation in the MFCI.
MFCI Faculty and Staff
Gabriele Abermann, Director, International Office,
Saad Eddin Ibrahim, Founder, Ibn Khaldun Center for
Salzburg University of Applied Sciences
Development Studies; Trustee, Arab Democracy Foundation; and Human Rights Activist
Kiran Cunningham, Professor of Anthropology and Faculty Fellow, Arcus Center for Social Justice Leadership, Kalamazoo College
Stephen K. Mittelstet, President Emeritus, Richland College
Michael Daxner, Professor of Sociology and President
Yolanda T. Moses, Professor of Anthropology and
Emeritus, University of Oldenburg; Researcher and Director of the Project on Security and Development in Northeast Afghanistan, the Free University of Berlin; and Senior research fellow, Berghof Conflict Research
Associate Vice Chancellor for Diversity, Equity and Excellence, University of California, Riverside
Ekkehart Naumann, Sustainable Development and Renewable Energy Consultant and Specialist
Alice ‘Tish’ Emerson, President Emerita, Wheaton College
Julie Newman, Founding Director, Office of Sustainability
Zlata Filipovic, Author of Zlata’s Diary and Producer,
Leadership and Editor, the Howard Thurman Papers Project, School of Theology, Boston University; former founding Executive Director, the Leadership Center and Coca-Cola Professor of Leadership Studies, Morehouse College
and Lecturer, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University Betty Overton-Adkins, Director, National Forum on Higher Education and the Public Good; Professor of Clinical Practice, Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education, University of Michigan; former Vice President for Academic Affairs, Spring Arbor University, Michigan.
Jochen Fried, Director of Education, Salzburg Global Seminar
Tracy Parkinson, Provost, Coker College; former Dean of
Najwa Gadaheldam, Peace Activist and former Industri-
Faculty and Associate Professor of Languages and Literatures, King College
al Development Officer, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
Kymberli Roberts, Logistical Coordinator, Off-site
Walter Fluker, Martin Luther King, Jr. Professor of Ethical
MFCIPrograms, Salzburg Global Seminar
Marybeth Gasman, Professor of Higher Education, Gradu-
Leith Sharp, Former Director, Harvard Green Campus
ate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania
Initiative, Cambridge, MA
Anna Glass, Policy Analyst/Economist, OECD; Former Chief a.i., Section for Higher Education, UNESCO
Srbijanka Turajlic, UNESCO Chair in Development of
David Goldman, Associate Director of Education, Salzburg Global Seminar
Education, Centre for Education Policy; Manager of the Automatic Division, TERI Engineering; former Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade
Reinhard Heinisch, Chair, Department of Political Sci-
Reinhold Wagnleitner, Associate Professor of Modern
ence, University of Salzburg; former professor of political science, University of Pittsburgh and Director of International Studies, University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
History, University of Salzburg
Charles Hopkins, UNESCO Chair and UN University Advi-
Brian Whalen, President and CEO, Forum on Education
sor in Education for Sustainable Development, York University
Barbara Ibrahim, Founding Director, John D. Gerhart Center for Philanthropy and Civic Engagement, American University in Cairo
Senior Advisor to the MFCI
Chronological List of
> January 6 – 13, 2008
> January 6 – 13, 2009
Sessions & Workshops
Colleges and Universities as Sites of Global Citizenship
Colleges and Universities as Sites of Global Citizenship
Cohort I, Session 1
Cohort I, Session 2
Schloss Leopoldksron, Salzburg, Austria
Schloss Leopoldksron, Salzburg, Austria
October 30 – November 6, 2010
January 3 – 10, 2011
March 3 – March 6, 2011
Colleges and Universities as Sites of Global Citizenship
Global Citizenship: America and the World
Integrating Study Abroad into the Campus Experience
Cohort III, Session 1
Schloss Leopoldksron, Salzburg, Austria
Schloss Leopoldksron, Salzburg, Austria
Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia
March 30 – April 1, 2012
May 12 – 19, 2012
November 9 – 11, 2012
Educating for Global Competence – How?
Global Citizenship: At Home and in the World
Bennett-King Student Session*
Howard University, Washington, DC
Schloss Leopoldksron, Salzburg, Austria
Re-Telling Our Stories: Integrating Global Citizenship into our Institutional Legacies Workshop North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina
> January 14-21, 2009
> December 14 – 21, 2009
> December 14 – 21, 2009
Colleges and Universities as Sites of Global Citizenship
Colleges and Universities as Sites of Global Citizenship
Preliminary Global Education Consortium
Cohort II, Session 1
Cohort II, Session 2
Schloss Leopoldksron, Salzburg, Austria
Schloss Leopoldksron, Salzburg, Austria
Schloss Leopoldksron, Salzburg, Austria
March 3 – March 6, 2011
March 3 – March 6, 2011
October 30 – November 6, 2011
Assessment Methods and Tools for Global Education
Global Education Consortium Planning Meeting
Colleges and Universities as Sites of Global Citizenship
Cohort III, Session 2
Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia
Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia
Davis & Elkins College, Elkins, West Virginia
May 19 – 25, 2013
*The Bennett-King student sessions
Pathways to Global Citizenship: Roots and Routes
were not an official part of the MFCI activities funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. As illustrated in this report they resulted from the collaboration and
Bennett-King Student Session*
cooperation that developed directly from
Schloss Leopoldksron, Salzburg, Austria
each institutions’ involvement in the MFCI. Ferrum College and West Virginia Wesleyan College also had students participate in these student sessions.
Salzburg Global Seminar expresses gratitude to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for providing generous support for the Mellon Fellow Community Initiative.