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THE SALVATION ARMY’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (2000 – 2015) INCLUDING LESSONS LEARNT FOR AGENDA 2030


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THE SALVATION ARMY’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (2000 – 2015) INCLUDING LESSONS LEARNT FOR AGENDA 2030


Contents

FOREWORD BY GENERAL ANDRÉ COX

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INTRODUCTION

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MDG 1 ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER

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MDG 2 ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION

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MDG 3 PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN

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MDG 4 REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY

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MDG 5 IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH

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MDG 6 HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES

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MDG 7 ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

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MDG 8 GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS FOR DEVELOPMENT

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Next Steps: AGENDA 2030 –

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THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (2016 TO 2030)

APPENDIX

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The primary research for this report was undertaken by Captain (Dr) Kathy Crombie, Senior Research Analyst at the International Social Justice Commission (ISJC) from 2014 to 2016. Captain Crombie was assisted by Luke Cozens and Robert Doctor who were interns at the ISJC from 2015 to 2016. Lt Colonels (Dr) Dean and (Dr) Eirwen Pallant, Director and Deputy Director at the ISJC, added further information drawing on work done in recent years by the ISJC in New York as well as the IHQ Programme Resources team in London who developed a set of International Development Policies. This work received significant input from members of the Programme Resources Consultancy Group (Salvation Army community development practitioners and technical specialists from around the world) as well as members of the International Moral and Social Issues Council. Dr Laurelle Smith, ISJC Research Analyst, contributed to the editing process. Most of the pictures illustrating the report were published in All The World – a monthly magazine edited by Kevin Sims. Kevin edited the report and the designer was Berni Georges. The extracts from the UN 2015 MDG report are reprinted with permission. Copyright © 2017 The General of The Salvation Army ISBN 978-1-911149-42-2


Foreword

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am pleased to endorse this report – Building a Just World – outlining some of The Salvation Army’s contribution to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) during the past 15 years. It is encouraging to realise that progress has been made since 2000 to reduce the extreme poverty and misery experienced by billions of women, men, girls and boys around the world. Life has improved for some people. As the former UN Secretary General, Dr Ban Kimoon noted: ‘The MDGs helped to lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet. They generated new and innovative partnerships, galvanised public opinion and showed the immense value of setting ambitious goals. By putting people and their immediate needs at the forefront, the MDGs reshaped decision-making in developed and developing countries alike’ (The UN MDG Report 2015). The Salvation Army has supported and promoted the MDGs over the past 15 years. Significant advances have been made by having agreed goals and targets. For example: ●● Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined by more than half. ●● The number of out-of-school children of primary school age worldwide has fallen by almost half. ●● The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half. ●● Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has declined by 45 per cent worldwide. ●●

New HIV infections fell by approximately 40 per cent.

●● The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent.

The MDGs have been used by The Salvation Army to motivate and educate our members and supporters as well as inform the development of strategy, policy and practice. The MDGs have helped governments, NGOs, Faith Based Organisations and Churches, like The Salvation Army, prioritise the needs of the most marginalised and poor adults and children. Most importantly, people are enjoying a better quality of life as God intended. However, there is much more to do. In 2015 I signed a statement calling for the end of extreme poverty by 2030. With many other religious leaders, I believe that ending extreme poverty is a moral and spiritual

imperative. We recognised that accomplishing this goal will take two commitments: ‘to act guided by the best evidence of what works and what doesn’t; and to use our voices to compel and challenge others to join us in this urgent cause inspired by our deepest spiritual values’. This report starts to address these two commitments. First, the following pages reveal the breadth and scope of The Salvation Army’s work in countries who were included in the MDGs. However, we recognise more needs to be done to collect evidence of what works and what doesn’t. The Salvation Army is currently investing in strengthening our measurement system and we will have more rigorous data available to measure progress over the next 15 years. Second, the report briefly explains why we do it. We are motivated and energised by deep spiritual beliefs and values. At the heart of the mission of The Salvation Army is our desire to participate in God’s work of saving his world. We can only do what we do because of the power of God that we see evidenced in our work every day around the world. During the past 15 years work has been done to articulate our international development policies and underpinning methodology. In responding to each of the MDGs, this report gives a brief insight into an aspect of Salvation Army belief and policy. The report also looks forward. In September 2015, the leaders of 193 countries signed up to 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to be achieved by the end of 2030. Unlike the MDGs, the SDGs apply to both ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries – it rightly acknowledges that all countries are developing. No nation is perfect. The Salvation Army will support the SDGs in the next 15 years. All our internationally funded projects are already being categorised according the SDGs. We will produce a report every five years tracking our contribution to the attainment of the SDGs. There is much more to do. Far too many people are barely surviving in our world today. They are not experiencing ‘life in all its fullness’ as God intended through the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (John 10:10). I pray this report will help you be the change that God wants you to be.

General André Cox March 2017 5


A young woman from The Salvation Army’s Women’s Advocacy Programme in Pakistan which aims to educate 3,000 girls and women across Pakistan about their legal rights, means of enforcement and access to justice.

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Introduction

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n September 2000, 189 countries signed the United Nations Millennium Declaration, committing themselves to the eradication of extreme poverty in all its forms by 2015. To help track the progress toward these commitments, a set of time-bound and quantified goals and targets, called the Millennium Development Goals, were developed to combat poverty in its many dimensions - including reducing income poverty, hunger, disease, environmental degradation and gender discrimination.2 Since then the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) served as a global framework for collective action. The MDGs included 21 targets to measure progress in poverty reduction and hunger as well as improvements in health, education, living conditions, environmental sustainability and gender equality.3 Significant progress has been made across all goals and millions of lives have been improved due to concerted global, regional, national and local efforts.

integrated, holistic approach to addressing each MDGs will be explained. At the end of 2015, The Salvation Army worked in 127 countries – 88 of which have made some contribution towards the MDGs through work in community and corps (church) based programmes as well as schools, hospitals, clinics and other social service centres. All 127 countries made a financial contribution to improving the lives of poor and marginalised people around the world. The Salvation Army has contributed in many ways to make a difference in the lives of many millions of people. This report aims to give a brief insight into this work.

Report Structure This report will review each of the eight MDGs. A similar format will be used to structure each chapter:

The eight MDGs 4 were:

a. Goals and Targets: What did the MDGs hope to achieve?

1 1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

b. Global Progress: What has happened? Using information from a recent UN report 5, the progress made in achieving the MDGs will be presented.

2 2. To achieve universal primary education. 3 3. To promote gender equality. 4 4. To reduce child mortality. 5 5. To improve maternal health. 6 6. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. 7 7. To ensure environmental sustainability. 8 8. To develop a global partnership for development.

The Salvation Army was founded in 1865 by William and Catherine Booth who were committed Christian evangelists with an acute social conscience. In 1890, William Booth published a ground breaking book, ‘In Darkest England and The Way Out’ addressing the causes and effects of poverty. The comprehensive solutions offered by Booth continue to influence Salvation Army approaches to poverty in the 21st century. In each chapter of this report, The Salvation Army’s

c. Salvation Army Policy: What was The Salvation Army’s approach? This section will briefly set out how The Salvation Army engaged with the particular MDG under review. d. Salvation Army Contribution: What did The Salvation Army do? This section provides data and evidence of The Salvation Army engagement in the particular MDG under review. e. The Salvation Army is focused on enabling and encouraging people to experience change in all dimensions of life so they can enjoy ‘life in all its fullness’ (John 10:10 New International Version). Throughout the report, pictures of people taken between 2000 and 2015 will highlight personal stories of change and progress in communities. f. The report concludes with a chapter explaining why The Salvation Army has endorsed Agenda 2030 and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals as a framework to guide and track global development for the next 15 years.

2 http://www.unicef.org/statistics/index_24304.html 3 See Website for the full Declaration http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm 4 The MDGs including specific targets can be found on the official UN website at http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/ 5 These statistics are based on

evidence from a master set of data compiled by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators led by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat 7


Research Methodology The primary data source for The Salvation Army’s contribution was 15 editions of ‘The Salvation Army Year Book’ between 2001 and 2016 6. Every year, each Salvation Army administrative unit (territory, command or region) provides a brief narrative report followed by some statistical data. This provided some quantitative and qualitative data on services provided in countries served by The Salvation Army. The ISJC data analysts counted services and programs that contribute towards the eight Millennium Development

Goals (MDGs) in developing countries where The Salvation Army operates. Countries included in the MDGs were determined by the United Nations based on their level of ‘development’ in 2000. For additional information on the primary research methodology see online supplement available http://www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/mdg. In addition, insights from Salvation Army reports and policies developed during the period 2000 to 2015 have been included.

‘Significant progress has been made across all goals and millions of lives have been improved due to concerted global, regional, national and local efforts’ This map shows the countries where The Salvation Army is active

6 The Year Books are written detailing the year prior. For example, The Salvation Army Year Book 2015 records data from I July 2013 to 30 June 2014. Therefore, when detailing services related to the MDGs, the Year Book editions of 2001 to 2016 were used.

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The Work of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army commenced its ministry in 1865 and works in 127 countries 7, of which the following 88 were defined as ‘developing’ countries for the MDGs.8 Assessing the impact of the MDGs on the world is complex – there are a number of different approaches. For example, some

organisations are including all countries in the world in their statistics. For the purpose of this report, The Salvation Army’s contribution is being assessed in terms of work done in the following countries.

Angola

French Guiana

Micronesia

South Africa

Antigua

Georgia

Moldova

Sri Lanka

Bahamas

Ghana & Togo

Mongolia

St Kitts

Bangladesh

Grenada

Mozambique

St Lucia

Barbados

Guam

Myanmar

St Marteen

Belize

Guatemala

Namibia

St Vincents

Bhutan

Guyana

Nepal

Suriname

Bolivia

Haiti

Nicaragua

Swaziland

Botswana

Honduras

Nigeria

Tanzania

Brazil

India

Pakistan

Tobago

Burundi

Indonesia

Panama

Tonga

Cambodia

Iraq

Papua New Guinea

Trinidad

China

Island of St Helena

Paraguay

Turks & Caicos

Columbia

Jamaica

Peru

Uganda

Costa Rica

Jordan

Philippines

Ukraine

Cuba

Kenya

Poland

Uruguay

Czech Republic

Lesotho

Puerto Rico

US Virgin Islands

Democratic Republic of Congo

Liberia

Republic of Congo

Vanuatu

Dominican Republic

Malawi

Romania

Venezuela

Ecuador

Mali

Rwanda

Zambia

El Salvador

Marshall Islands

Sierra Leone

Zimbabwe

Fiji

Mexico

Solomon Islands

7As at 31 December 2015 8 www.mdgs.un.org

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This report reviews the contribution of the work of The Salvation Army in developing countries using the MDGs as a framework. Many Salvation Army programmes and services contribute to more than one MDG. Within this report each programme was only counted once toward each MDG however some programmes were counted within multiple MDGs where applicable. The following table summarises the number of programmes that have addressed each MDG.

TABLE 1. Number of programmes that have addressed each MDG Millennium Development Goals

MDG1: To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

1,759

MDG 2: To achieve universal primary education

2,119

MDG 3: To promote gender equality

1,460

MDG 4: To reduce child mortality

1,459*

MDG 5: To improve maternal health

1,459*

MDG 6: To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases MDG 7: To ensure environmental sustainability

139 82

MDG 8: To develop a global partnership for development * All programmes contribute to both goals of child mortality and maternal health B

The Salvation Army works with governments, NGOs and other agencies worldwide but the number of partnerships was not formally recorded during the period 2000-2015

All 127 countries made a financial contribution to improving the lives of poor and marginalised people around the world 10

Number of Programmes

B


MDG 1 MDG 1

Eradicate extreme poverty Millenuim goal and hunger stated here 11


MDG 1

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

1 What did the MDGs hope to achieve? TABLE 1. Number of programmes that have addressed each MDG TARGETS 9

Target 1.A

Target 1.B

Target 1.C

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day

1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day a 1.2 Poverty gap ratio 1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people

1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed 1.5 Employment-to-population ratio 1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day 1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age 1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

2 What has happened? ●●

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Extreme poverty has declined significantly over the last two decades. In 1990, nearly half of the population in the developing world lived on less than $1.25 a day; that proportion dropped to 14 per cent in 2015. Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined by more than half, falling from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015. Most progress has occurred since 2000. The number of people in the working middle class – living on more than $4 a day – has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015. This group now makes up half the workforce in the developing regions, up from just 18 per cent in 1991. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen by almost half since 1990, from 23.3 per cent in 1990–1992 to 12.9 per cent in 2014–2016.

Image Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, United Nations 10 9 http://www.unicef.org/statistics/index_24304.html 10 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf 11 http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/poverty/overview

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MDG 1

2 What is The Salvation Army’s approach?

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he Salvation Army has fought passionately against all forms of poverty and hunger for over 150 years. The United Nations follows the World Bank’s 2015 definition of extreme poverty, which is living on fewer resources than equivalent to what US$1.90 a day can buy in the United States.11 The figure of US$1.90 is accepted by The Salvation Army as a useful and simple measure to evaluate the economic and material aspects of poverty. However, The Salvation Army also promotes a more holistic understanding of poverty which includes any deficit of human dignity and a lack of fullness of life manifested by a poverty of relationships with God and each other. The Salvation Army believes that poverty needs to be understood through three concepts rooted in biblical teaching which has resonated with people’s life experience for thousands of years: ●●

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Wholeness/Holiness (1 Thessalonians 5:23, Ephesians 2:11-22, James 2:15-26) recognises that all aspects of full human life are important and that all dimensions of life (body-soul and relationships) are in need of restoration. While this is God’s mission for the world, all people are invited to participate in this work towards perfection. Justice (Amos 5:11-15, Matthew 23:4-12) demands the addressing of levels of inequality. Some people are unjustly rich. Unjust political structures and systems perpetuate inequality. The Bible recognises the injustice of those who have less than they deserve as people created in the image of God. Sufficiency/Appreciation (Exodus 16:4-30, Acts 2:42-47) says each should have enough to fulfil God’s purpose for themselves regardless of where they stand relative to a definition of poverty. Not only does God want people to have sufficient, it is also important for people to appreciate what they have and use those talents/gifts well (Matthew 24:45-51, Matthew 25:14-30)

have the most basic of essential services; healthcare must be effective, accessible and affordable; environmental degradation must be addressed as it disproportionally hurts those with least material resources; and, last but not least, poor relationships with God and people can trap people in material poverty as well as causing it. Over the last 15 years The Salvation Army has sought to improve its approach to eradicating poverty by learning from experience and partnerships. The Salvation Army has a strong ethos of helping others without discrimination, especially in a crisis. However, this is not an appropriate long term approach as it can create dependency. This led to an organisational shift in policy towards education, community counselling and enablement, now firmly linked to the essentials of faith in the way of working promoted across The Salvation Army. This policy shift was supported by many initiatives over the 15-year period including the following: a. In 2001 an online Poverty Summit “The Salvation Army and the Poor” 12 was convened to ask whether ‘the poor’ are our special people.13 The report concluded that ministry to the socially excluded and in particular ‘the marginalised poor’ was seen as The Salvation Army’s role historically more than in 2001. The summit encouraged The Salvation Army to rediscover its founding passion for the lost and the least. b. In 2007 The Salvation Army became a member of the Sphere project board 14 to partner with other organisations to improve international humanitarian work. c. In 2008, General Shaw Clifton announced the opening of the International Social Justice Commission of The Salvation Army (ISJC) based in New York City. The purpose of the ISJC is to promote a vision of justice based on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ by ●●

There are many social issues associated with poverty such as unemployment, poor education and limited access to healthcare which can result in a cycle of poverty. Therefore, decent job opportunities are needed so people who are materially poor can work their way out of poverty. Education is needed to transform individuals and environments; water and food security are essential to ensure people

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advocating and advising on social, economic and political issues and events which lead to the perpetuation of injustice in the world amplifying the voices of poor, marginalised and oppressed people and translate their real life insights into policies, practices and life-giving opportunities

12 https://www.salvationist.org/poverty.nsf/vw_news?openview (accessed 10 May 2016 1540 EST) 13 https://www.salvationist.org/poverty.nsf/fm_ homepage?openform 14 http://www.salvationarmy.org/ihq/news/CD5A6683FBA8BD18802573B700594A46 (accessed 10 May 2016 1540 EST)

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MDG 1

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establishing a stronger link between The Salvation Army and the United Nations, NGOs and other faith groups.

d. In 2010 The Salvation Army published the Faith-Based Facilitation (FBF) process in a booklet entitled ‘Building Deeper Relationships’.15 This publication reflected on lessons learnt – particularly in the fight against leprosy and HIV/AIDS – and promoted a theologically grounded process and set of tools to help people hear the voices and experiences of communities. Increasing numbers of communities around the world are now using the FaithBased Facilitation process16 to help people address their issues, describe and analyse their situation, reflect and evaluate it in the light of the Bible and faith tradition, and decide on and make a plan before finally taking action.

Over the last 15 years The Salvation Army has sought to improve its approach to eradicating poverty by learning from experience and partnerships

e. In 2014 a Global Conversation17 was held in Orlando, Florida, USA, to engage social work and emergency disaster service practitioners on key questions needing answers in the fight against poverty. One of the emerging priorities was for more reliable data and better use of evidence to drive practice. In response, The Salvation Army is strengthening its measurement and learning systems and tools as part of a wider Accountability Movement.18 In 2015, General Cox joined more than 40 religious leaders in signing the Moral and Spiritual Imperative to end extreme poverty (See Appendix 1). The statement included two key commitments for The Salvation Army’s practice moving forward: 1. to act guided by the best evidence of what works and what doesn’t; 2. to use our voices to compel and challenge others to join us in this urgent cause inspired by our deepest spiritual values. The Salvation Army aims to empower the people with whom we work, giving practical support where necessary but also seeking to solve problems together and help people to address all types of poverty – physical, spiritual, emotional and environmental. Through this process the people we are helping, are also helping improve the situation for others by taking responsibility, engaging action and sharing lessons learnt with others. It should always be a priority in any Salvation Army programme to ensure mutual learning is taking place.

As a result of severe drought in Turkana, Kenya many people have to walk long distances to collect water from small streams in dry river beds or salty water from Lake Turkana. The Salvation Army has provided tractors and bowsers (large containers to transport water) to provide water in 20 locations across Turkana. Three young girls collect water from a Salvation Army bowser in Turkana, Kenya.

15 http://www1.salvationarmy.org/ihq/www_ihq_fbf2.nsf/0/F5ADD1E432DFCFDD802577E4004BDF90/$file/FBF-Booklet.pdf 16 Building Deeper Relationships using Faith-Based Facilitation, The Salvation Army International Headquarters, London, 2010 www.salvationarmy.org/fbf 17 See http://www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/GlobalConv 18 www.salvationarmy.org/accountability

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MDG 1

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

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1. Food, water, shelter and training

T

he Salvation Army has an international reputation for helping people in a crisis. Whether it is a homeless man on the street, a survivor of a disaster, a person displaced due to war, or a fireman needing a cup of tea, The Salvation Army is often one of the first on the scene of a crisis and one of the last to leave. This is possible because responders are often Salvation Army personnel living in the affected community. In too many parts of the world, people live in almost permanent crisis. Extreme poverty prevents adults and children meeting their most basic human needs – food, water, shelter and safety. The Salvation Army seeks to walk alongside people who are struggling against the long term effects of extreme poverty in their communities and in their lives. Many members of The Salvation Army are themselves living in extreme poverty. This is not something we do just for others; in many places, we are the poor.

Food Security

Feeding programmes in developing countries target people living in extreme poverty by providing food, water, and nutrition. The Salvation Army provided 243 feeding programmes conducted throughout 51 countries between 2000 and 2015. These programmes engaged in a range of activities including food distribution, food and clothing distribution, feeding programmes, food banks, nutrition aid, nourishment, sustenance, malnutrition facilities and/or specific food group distribution (fruit, vegetables, meat, etc.). The majority of feeding programmes were concentrated in the Philippines, Mexico, Bolivia, Jamaica and Costa Rica. Food relief was also provided in countries that had experienced natural disaster. For example, support was provided to people affected by earthquakes in Nepal, China, Haiti, India and Pakistan; those affected by the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami in India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia; and to people affected by cyclones in Bangladesh, Taiwan, Myanmar, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. This usually involved working with affected communities for more than two years post disaster to respond to the immediate crisis but also to build capacity to cope with future challenges.

Water

In areas where people suffer from extreme poverty there is often a struggle to access clean water. A clean water source is key to reducing illness – improved health is a by-product of fresh water supplies, wells, bore holes and piped water. Between 2000 and 2015 The Salvation Army was involved

In 2010 a great flood consumed almost one third of the land mass of Pakistan, resulting in 2000 deaths and displacing more than 20 million people. The Salvation Army responded by distributing food and other essentials to flood victims.

in 39 water programmes conducted in 16 countries. The activities included providing clean water access to communities by rehabilitating and building wells, building sand dams, digging bore holes, and improving clean water production and distribution. Clean water has also been one component of the Integrated Community Livelihood Development Programme in Myanmar from 2013 funded by Norway, which built on an earlier programme funded by Switzerland that also focused on clean water from 2010 to 2012.

Shelter and training

In 1890 William Booth’s book ‘In Darkest England and The Way Out’ addressed the problems of extreme poverty in the East End of London, England. Booth’s approach focused on the importance of safe places where people could escape from the streets and be trained. It described farms where inner city poor people could leave urban poverty, receive training in agriculture, and then move to places where their skills were required in order to build a stable life. The Salvation Army today continues to offer safe places to thousands of people around the world who find themselves in precarious situations. Places of safety such as homes for the elderly, orphanages, hostels for the homeless and boarding schools are still a key aspect of The Salvation Army’s response towards the goal of eliminating poverty and extreme hunger. New ‘safe places’ have opened enabling The Salvation Army to serve women escaping from trafficking and domestic violence. The Salvation Army has more than 1,500 of these ‘safe place’ facilities around the world. While much work can be done in communities, there is still a role for institutions who offer shelter and training to people of varying ages and circumstances.

19 See online supplement available at http://www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/mdg for more detailed analysis and an explanation of this report

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MDG 1

People who are disabled are at particular risk of extreme poverty and need safe places. Education for people with disabilities can provide opportunities for employment resulting in financial independence that helps keep them from extreme poverty. The Salvation Army runs 48 schools for blind and disabled persons in 15 countries. These countries include Bangladesh, Bahamas, China, Costa Rica, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Panama, Republic of Congo and Tanzania.

2. Developing Resilient People and Communities

Unlike many NGOs and FBOs, The Salvation Army is a church with members and permanent buildings in thousands of communities around the world. The Salvation Army rarely works in an area for only a few years. Once we arrive we tend to stay as people join the church and then start serving their community. Therefore, most Salvation Army community development programmes have close links to Salvation Army congregations. By the end of the period under review, there were 13,826 Salvation Army congregations around the world with the potential to support Agenda 2030 and contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Each one makes some contribution to supporting people in their community who are experiencing poverty. In the smallest congregation it may only be a weekly women’s support group (Home League) or a youth group. In the largest congregations (corps) there will be many programmes often addressing complex social problems. Rural community development programmes help impoverished rural communities by raising the financial capacity of developing countries. In the period under review, The Salvation Army was involved in 19 rural development programmes in 10 countries – Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Papua New Guinea, India, Liberia, Malawi, Brazil, Philippines, Republic of Congo and Zambia – that contributed to progress towards the MDGs. A total of 365 different community development programmes were conducted in 51 different countries. Examples of community development programmes include

community health and/or urban development programmes and housing projects. The Salvation Army’s participatory approach to community development encourages a level of local ownership that in itself contributes to fighting poverty in that a sense of ownership, power and freedom decreases a person’s psychological, social, emotional and spiritual poverty. An emphasis towards the end of the period under review was training ‘at risk’ communities to prepare for an emergency or disaster such as an earthquake, flood or drought. The international strategy intentionally focused on building local capacity to respond to emergency situations based on the Sphere standards which require that people are served based on need and without discrimination or favouritism. The Salvation Army recognises it is important for faith groups to reassure all communities that we serve without discrimination at all times. Another initiative to develop resilient people and communities has been to ensure greater integration and synergy between emergency service personnel (who tend to focus on short term initiatives) and community development teams (who take over after the crisis and work in communities over the medium to long term). Significant progress has been made in developing common ways of working and shared purpose.

Agricultural Programmes

Agricultural programmes help fight extreme poverty and hunger by providing basic training in improved practices and, if necessary, resources to farmers. A key aspect of these programmes involves capacity building and training on agricultural methods and practices (e.g. in Malawi). These programmes can assist in improving farming practices in the face of climate change challenges. Sixty-eight agricultural and animal husbandry programmes have operated in 28 countries. These programmes include fish, and small livestock farms, raising buffalo, bee-keeping, agroforestry, salt making and agricultural co-operatives.

The Salvation Army is one of the first on of a crisis and 16


MDG 1

Young boys from the Balan School in Haiti where The Salvation Army runs a feeding programme to improve the nutrition of the children by providing a meal for the students each day

often the scene one of the last to leave 17


Income Generating and Micro-Credit Programmes

Income generating programmes of The Salvation Army are designed to help poor people in developing countries generate greater household income. To this end, 442 Salvation Army-sponsored micro-credit, micro-lending and income generating programmes were in place throughout 33 countries. These programmes assist those who are indebted and often in extreme poverty, and financially assist them to rise out of hard financial conditions by providing feasible loans.

Skills Development and Adult Literacy

Skills development and adult literacy programmes are another strategy that The Salvation Army is using to help eradicate poverty. These programmes work to provide education for those looking for wider opportunities. Many jobs require workers to hold a number of skills including literacy. Skill development and literacy programmes assist populations in extreme poverty and hunger by teaching essential skills to escape such conditions. Services which describe adult literacy programmes, skill training, job training, and other adult education programmes fall into this category. Skills that are specifically named such as sewing are also included. Over the past 15 years, The Salvation Army has conducted 429 programmes to develop skills of people in 57 countries.

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Fair Trade Programmes

The Salvation Army promotes fair trade enterprises in developing countries where proceeds go back into creating jobs. These programmes promote fair wages and conditions for people with limited opportunities. Some examples of these programmes are handicrafts and cultivation of coffee crops. A total of 68 programmes have operated in 28 countries. Under the ‘Others’ brand, products made in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Kenya and Moldova are exported and sold commercially in various countries, primarily in Scandinavia and North America. Producers are recruited through Salvation Army social programmes and community development projects in the producer countries. The programme has operated since 1997, previously under the brand ‘Sally Ann’, and provided employment opportunities for an average of 1,400 people per year from 2011 to 2015.

In Pakistan, Shabana, Samuel and their two young daughters had been living in poverty a long time. Samuel, a carpet maker, didn’t have his own carpet-making frame and instead had to hire one every time he received an order which resulted in most of his profit being spent on equipment. The remaining money he earned was barely enough to cover food and necessities for him and his family and they could not afford electricity. However, when Shabana started working with the Others progrmame making lanyards for the Boundless International conference not only was she able to afford electricity for their home but she was able to save some of her income to purchase a carpet making frame for her husband which lead to the family being able to keep all the profits from the carpet sales, leading to a revolutionary change for this family.


An Afghan refugee family in Greece receives help from soldiers and volunteers from The Salvation Army Athens Corps who distribute food, water clothes and nappies to refugees who are camped in local parks.

Medical staff from a local hospital operated by The Salvation Army treat a wounded child in a Salvation Army mobile clinic in Batang Piaman, Indonesia after a large earthquake, measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale, hit West Sumatra, Indonesia.

19


Young children stand outside what is left of their home in Kathmandu, Nepal after devastating earthquakes hit their country. The Salvation Army’s International Emergency Services provided emergency response distributing food and tarpaulins for shelter to families in remote villages. 20 20


Although The Salvation Army is reletively new in Vanuatu, when cyclone Pam hit in 2010 the International Salvation Army responded. It was estimated that 188,000 people, more than half of the country’s population, were affected by cyclone Pam. The Salvation Army’s International Emergency Services team from International Headquarters took the lead in providing a response to the disaster. The team provided food, cooking gear, blankets and hygiene kits. The Salvation Army partnered with local schools to develop a ‘food for fees’ programme allowing schools to continue to function and to provide children with one hot meal a day without charging fees to the parents while the island recovers. Here a Salvation Army team member sets up a water supply tank in Tagabe, Vanuatu.

21


After the typhoon known internationally as Haiyan hit the Philippines The Salvation Army was quick to put in place an emergency response, distributing food and water and providing health care. However, since the initial emergency response The Salvation Army has continued to respond providing programmes designed to help rebuild lives and communities. These include the repair of houses, helping farmers plant coconut trees and crops and reconstructing schools and municipal buildings. Here children help a Salvation Army team member at an agricultural project in their community.

22

The Salvation Army seeks to walk alongside people who are struggling against the long term effects of extreme poverty


MDG 2

Achieve universal primary education


MDG 2

Achieve universal primary education

1 What did the MDGs hope to achieve? TARGETS

Target 2.A

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling

2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education 2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary  2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds, women and men

2 What has happened? ●●

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The primary school net enrolment rate in the developing regions has reached 91 per cent in 2015, up from 83 per cent in 2000. The number of out-of-school children of primary school age worldwide has fallen by almost half, to an estimated 57 million in 2015, down from 100 million in 2000. Sub-Saharan Africa has had the best record of improvement in primary education of any region since the MDGs were established. The region achieved a 20 percentage point increase in the net enrolment rate from 2000 to 2015, compared to a gain of 8 percentage points between 1990 and 2000. The literacy rate among youth aged 15 to 24 has increased globally from 83 per cent to 91 per cent between 1990 and 2015. The gap between women and men has narrowed.

Image Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, United Nations 20

The Salvation Army is committed to safeguarding all children under its care by striving to create a safe, positive and rights-respecting environment 20 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf

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MDG 2

3 What is The Salvation Army’s approach?

T

he Salvation Army believes all children are valuable and should have the opportunity to develop in every dimension of human capacity physical, cognitive, emotional, social, intellectual and spiritual. These developmental aspects should be promoted holistically and take into account the child’s family, cultural context, gender, personality, talents and abilities. Therefore, The Salvation Army seeks to enable the development of all children into compassionate people of integrity and character with the relevant skills, knowledge and understanding to be able to achieve their full God-given potential.

embrace our responsibility of care and advocacy with strong convictions and will continually endeavour to follow best practice when working with children. Salvation Army-run schools seek to develop compassionate children of integrity and character with the relevant skills, knowledge and understanding to achieve their full Godgiven potential. This will be achieved by developing highquality, holistic, faith-based and family-focused education prioritising vulnerable and marginalised children.

The Salvation Army is committed to safeguarding all children under its care by striving to create a safe, positive and rights-respecting environment. We recognise and

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

Students at The Salvation Army’s Lam Butt Chung Memorial School in Hong Kong learn to play board games. The school is located in a deprived community where a large number of people are recent immigrants from mainland China and are unable to work. Around 700 students attend the school and admission is open to children from any or no faith. The focus is on teaching the child while working with the family and results are positive, with grades well above the average expected in such a low-income area.

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MDG 2

Every child has the right to an education NO matter who they are or where they live 4 What did The Salvation Army do?

21

T

he work of The Salvation Army in primary schools in developing countries has played a significant role in achieving universal primary education. Schools generally make up a large part of The Salvation Army’s services in newly developed/ developing countries. The school services provide education to children who do not have other options, thus working to achieve universal primary education. Many Salvation Army schools incorporate preschools and primary education. Preschools, elementary schools, primary schools, childlearning centres, and outreach schools are all included.22 In some cases. The Salvation Army also provides after-school facilities for children to be supported in their education, social and spiritual development. The Salvation Army has administered 2,071 primary and kindergarten schools in 54 countries. The majority of schools are concentrated in Kenya (749), Democratic Republic of Congo (279) and India (154). In addition to providing education, The Salvation Army advocated in 2015 for world leaders to keep their promise

from the year 2000 that all children in the world will go to school and have the opportunity to learn and achieve their potential. The Salvation Army collected more than 70,000 signatures in the #UpForSchool petition, including General André Cox. More than 10 million people signed the petition which was used to challenge world leaders at the UN General Assembly in 2015 to do more to address the reasons why 58 million children around the world are currently excluded from school due to the effects of child labour, child marriage, discrimination, exploitation and war. The United Nations Special Envoy for Global Education, and former UK Prime Minister, the Rt Hon Gordon Brown said at the time: “The Salvation Army is working around the world to support the #UpForSchool campaign to get every child into school and offer them a better future. The role of the faith communities in the #UpForSchool campaign is crucial as together we can create a powerful message that no world leader can ignore. Every child has the right to an education, no matter who they are or where they live. I want to thank The Salvation Army for being a key partner in this historic movement.”

21 See online supplement available at http://www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/mdg of this report for more detailed analysis and an explanation of how Salvation Army data was analysed. 22 The Salvation Army administers a number of schools for disabled persons. However, it was not always possible to differentiate

whether primary or secondary education was offered at these institutions. Therefore, this data was included in MDG 1 to eradicate extreme poverty. 26


Pupils at Bethel Primary School, Fond-des-Nègres, Haiti. The Salvation Army is responsible for 2,769 schools worldwide providing education to 594, 229 students. The vision statement for schools’ states that they will seek to develop compassionate people of integrity and character with the relevant skills, knowledge and understanding to achieve their God-given potential. 27


In addition to providing education, The Salvation Army advocated in 2015 for world leaders to keep their promise from the year 2000 that all children in the world will go to school and have the opportunity to learn and achieve their potential 28

Children at the Booth Tucker Memorial Hall in India sign the #upforschool petition to show their support for education for all children


MDG 3

Promote gender equality and empower women


MDG 3

Promote gender equality and empower women

1 What did the MDGs hope to achieve? TARGETS

Target 3.A

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education 3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

2 What has happened? ●●

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Many more girls are now in school compared to 15 years ago. The developing regions as a whole have achieved the target to eliminate gender disparity in primary, secondary and tertiary education. In Southern Asia, only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys. Women now make up 41 per cent of paid workers outside the agricultural sector, an increase from 35 per cent in 1990. Between 1991 and 2015, the proportion of women in vulnerable employment as a share of total female employment has declined 13 percentage points. In contrast, vulnerable employment among men fell by 9 percentage points. Women have gained ground in parliamentary representation in nearly 90 per cent of the 174 countries with data over the past 20 years. The average proportion of women in parliament has nearly doubled during the same period. Yet still only one in five members are women.

Image Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, United Nations 23

Gender equality requires equal enjoyment

23 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf

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MDG 3

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) explains the difference between gender equity and gender equality: ‘Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures must often be available to compensate for women’s historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on a level playing field. Equity leads to equality. Gender equality requires equal enjoyment by women and men of socially-valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards. Where gender inequality exists, it is generally women who are excluded or disadvantaged in relation to decision-making and access to economic and social resources. Therefore a critical aspect of promoting gender equality is the empowerment of women, with a focus on identifying and redressing power imbalances and giving women more autonomy to manage their own lives. Gender equality does not mean that men and women become the same; only that access to opportunities and life changes is neither dependent on, nor constrained by, their sex’.24

An innovative Salvation Army campaign in South Africa to raise awareness of domestic abuse took social media by storm. In February 2015 millions of people passed their opinion on a photo of a strangely lit dress known simply as ‘the dress’ with the majority convinced it was white and gold and few recognising it was actually black and blue. The Salvation Army used this worldwide interest to cleverly highlight the issue of domestic abuse in South Africa. The image of a bruised model wearing a copy of ‘the dress’ with the headline ‘Why is it so hard to see black and blue?’ In just three short days the campaign went viral trending on Facebook, Twitter with comments and retweets from almost every major media outlet, and TV and radio stations around the world running items on the campaign.

by women and men of socially-valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards 24 http://www.unfpa.org/resources/frequently-asked-questions-about-gender-equality

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MDG 3

3 What is The Salvation Army’s approach?

T

he Salvation Army is concerned that women and girls remain the most vulnerable members of society; disadvantaged in employment, health and education provision and can be victims of extreme violence and oppression. The Salvation Army is committed to working for both gender equality and gender equity. Concepts of gender can affect the way in which both men and women are perceived, the opportunities they have and the treatment they receive. Gender equality is the equal valuing in society of both the similarities and the differences between men and women, and the varying roles they play. Gender equity means being fair to men and women. Equitable treatment is therefore not always equal treatment as this would not yield equal results. Historical and social disadvantages mean that specific action will sometimes be necessary to enhance the status of women. Women are also often discriminated against by religious practices and traditions. Evidence shows that development indicators improve significantly when women make an equal or greater contribution than men.25 ‘An increase in female labour force participation – or a reduction in the gap between women’s and men’s labour force participation – results in faster economic growth.26 Of equal importance is

the social and spiritual contribution women often encourage within their families and communities, resulting in the building of more stable, peaceful and productive societies. The Salvation Army believes men and women, girls and boys should not be discriminated against because of their gender. All people are created in the image of God and deserve the same opportunities.27 Salvation Army community development programmes seek to promote gender equity and value the similarities and the differences between men and women, boys and girls, while appreciating and enriching the varying roles all people play to create and sustain a more just world. The Salvation Army recognises that women and girls have been often excluded in communities but when they are active participants in decision making – at all levels – community development initiatives are more likely to succeed. The Salvation Army works with partner agencies, communities and organisations to promote the gender equity for women and girls as well as men and boys.

Teaching women how to sew in one of the many Salvation Army run women’s livelihood programmes across Pakistan. At the end of 6-12 months of training each participant receives a certificate and a sewing machine allowing them to financially support their families and send their children to school.

25 http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/economic-empowerment/facts-and-figures 26 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship: Final Report to the MCM 2012.http://www.oecd.org/employment/50423364. pdf p17 27 Extracts from The Salvation Army International Development Policy on Gender Equity, www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/lead

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MDG 3

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

28

T

he Salvation Army has acknowledged the role and contribution of women since it was co-founded by Catherine Booth in 1865. Three of its 20 Generals (international leaders) have been women. During the past 15 years advancement has been made to promote gender equality and empower women but there is more to do both in the communities we serve and inside The Salvation Army.

Anti Human Trafficking Programmes

The Salvation Army was first involved in the fight against human trafficking for the sex trade in the 19th century. The Salvation Army’s work in anti human trafficking has gathered considerable momentum since 2000. The focus of programmes operating in various countries consists of raising awareness in communities including school programmes, prevention, provision of means of exit and places for refuge, reunification with families including repatriation for some, counselling and rehabilitation, legal advice and advocacy. Salvation Army anti-trafficking programmes have been operating in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Philippines, Argentina, Brazil, Poland, Romania, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Ukraine, Zambia, Mozambique and Malawi. (This list excludes countries not covered by the MDGs like the United Kingdom, USA and Australia where The Salvation Army has a number of sector leading programmes). Examples of the range of programmes operated include community awareness raising (Zambia, Malawi, Fiji, Poland, Ukraine, Uganda, Romania, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Bangladesh), school programmes to raise awareness (Argentina), apprenticeship and transition to work programmes for young women who are vulnerable to being trafficked or re-trafficked(Ghana, Nepal, Tanzania), homes for particularly vulnerable children (India), refuges for children trafficked for sex (Tanzania, Malawi), outreach programmes for those exploited within the sex trade (Brazil, Tanzania, Bangladesh, India, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya), rehabilitation of those exploited within the sex trade (Ghana, Tanzania, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Philippines), refuges for women who, been trafficked (South Africa, Mexico), partnerships with judicial systems (PNG), partnership with the International Organisation

for Migration (Philippines), partnerships with government social services (Tanzania), and specific anti child trafficking programmes (Pakistan).

Skills Training

The Salvation Army has conducted various training services that include women in many countries. Examples of these include programmes which provided training in sewing, weaving, hair dressing, fabric design, safety, child care and provision of nurseries/crèches. The provision of nurseries/crèches assisted women to advance in their careers. Reproductive health programmes are considered an important aspect of women’s empowerment. Services related to women’s development and empowerment; all vocational training and educational facilities, programmes, and/or services specifically for women have been included. A total of 1042 programmes were conducted in 55 countries.

Shelter and Rehabilitation Services for Women

Women suffering from certain conditions and addictions often experience a lack of resources as do women who are victims of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The Salvation Army offered 158 services that specifically worked with women in shelters and rehabilitation services in 49 different countries.

Education and health for girls and women

Adult literacy also serves as a strategy to empower women. While many women would have accessed literacy programmes, this data is included in MDG 1 as statistics regarding gender were aggregated. Many thousands of girls attend Salvation Army schools and access health care through Salvation Army programmes. The data is aggregated into other MDGs.

Speaking up for girls and women

The Salvation Army International Social Justice Commission has prioritised advocacy for the rights of women and particularly girls. Since 2012, the United Nations have recognised October 11 each year as the international Day of the Girl to raise awareness about all issues concerning gender inequality around the world. It’s a day when groups come together under the same goal to highlight, discuss and take action to advance rights and opportunities for girls everywhere.

28 See online supplement available at http://www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/mdg of this report for more detailed analysis and an explanation of how Salvation Army data was analysed.

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This picture was drawn by a young teenager in a Salvation Army programme in India Eastern to mark the UN Day of the Girl 2015

Right: Shobna, who struggled to escape a forced marriage, found help and support from The Salvation Army’s Women’s Advocacy Programme in Pakistan which aims to educate 3000 girls and women across Pakistan about their legal rights, means of enforcement and access to justice

development indicators improve significantly when women make an equalor greater contrIibution than men 3434


35


A happy young girl in the care of The Salvation Army who says she wants to be a Salvation Army officer when she grows up

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MDG 4

Reduce child mortality 37


MDG 4

Reduce child mortality

1 What did the MDGs hope to achieve? TARGETS

Target 4.A

Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS 4.1 Under-five mortality rate 4.2 Infant mortality rate  4.3 Proportion of 1-year old children immunized against measles

2 What has happened? ●●

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Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has declined by 45 per cent worldwide, and most of the reduction has occurred since 2000. In Southern Asia, the maternal mortality ratio declined by 64 per cent between 1990 and 2013, and in sub-Saharan Africa it fell by 49 per cent. More than 71 per cent of births were assisted by skilled health personnel globally in 2014, an increase from 59 per cent in 1990. In Northern Africa, the proportion of pregnant women who received four or more antenatal visits increased from 50 per cent to 89 percent between 1990 and 2014. Contraceptive prevalence among women aged 15 to 49, married or in a union, increased from 55 per cent in 1990 worldwide to 64 per cent in 2015.

Image Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, United Nations 29

The Salvation Army provides medical services and clinics throughout the world

29 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf

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MDG 4

3 What is The Salvation Army’s approach?

S

alvation Army health programmes have been a key part of its work since the early days in slums of Victorian England. An international health strategy was published by The Salvation Army in 2007 with the goal of continuing to be ‘a significant participant in faith-based, integrated, quality primary health care as close to the family as possible giving priority to poor and marginalised members of society’. 30 The Salvation Army’s health ministry prioritises reducing childhood mortality recognising that responses to major global health problems require long term, communitybased, primary health care solutions. All Salvation Army health programmes – whether based in hospital, clinic, community or corps – are encouraged to have a primary health care (PHC) focus. This means focusing on education, prevention, basic treatment and care. Salvation Army health ministry should be as close to the family as possible while encouraging people to develop

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

Every Salvation Army health programme is encouraged to intentionally develop spiritual formation components with explicit connections to local corps (churches). The FaithBased Facilitation process and tools are designed to assist in this task as they help build deeper relationships. 31

32

T

he Salvation Army provides medical services and clinics throughout the world, many of which are hospitals and maternal child health clinics (MCH Clinics). Some overlap exists between services that serve to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health and therefore maternal health clinics and hospitals can serve both goals. Therefore, in order to prevent data duplication, this section includes MCH clinics, health teaching programmes and immunisation programmes, all of which serve to target both MDG 4 Reduce Child Mortality and MDG 5 Improve Maternal Health.

Maternal, Child Health Clinics (MCH Clinics)

personal capacity and resilient relationships. Salvation Army health programmes strive to work as close as possible with other Salvation Army programmes, particularly corps and divisions providing an integrated and holistic care. We recognise not every PHC initiative can be undertaken by The Salvation Army however we seek to fill the gaps in the service provision that most affect poor and marginalised people.

A total of 251 MCH clinics have operated in 44 countries over the past 15 years and contributed to progress towards MDG 4. The largest number worked in Democratic Republic of Congo. Other countries included India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Republic of Congo, Zimbabwe, Zambia, South Africa, Swaziland, Ghana and Togo, and Philippines. All infant/baby clinics including child development centres were included as MCH.

Health Worker Development

Ensuring adequate health workers is a key means of reducing childhood mortality, reducing maternal mortality (MDG 5) and combatting HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases (MDG 6). Specific teaching programmes in nursing, mother and/or infant health, general health, reproductive health, counselling training centres and other health education components were included. A total of 66 programmes were conducted in 21 countries. The Salvation Army has a long tradition of health worker training. This includes training programmes offered in nursing, midwifery, biomedical science and community health workers. A review of Salvation Army Nursing Training in 2009 by Captain (Dr) Judith Christensen proposed a set of ten guiding principles relevant to all health related training programmes which were approved by General Shaw Clifton: 33

30 The Salvation Army’s International Health Strategy, 2008 31 www.salvationarmy.org/fbf 32 See online supplement available at http://www. salvationarmy.org/isjc/mdg of this report for more detailed analysis and an explanation of how Salvation Army data was analysed 33 Christensen, Judith, 2009, ‘The Way Forward For Salvation Army Schools of Nursing – Implementing the 2008 International Health Ministry Vision Statement in Nursing Education’

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MDG 4

1. Every Salvation Army school/college of nursing/health worker training centre should be an integral part of the local expression of The Salvation Army’s mission. 2. Every Salvation Army school/college of nursing/health worker training programme should be established and maintained with the facilities and resources required to meet the local standards and other requirements. 3. E very Salvation Army school/college of nursing/health worker training centre should have local policies and practices that mirror Christ’s model for living and serving in community. 4. E very Salvation Army school/college of nursing/health worker training programme should include a specific teaching/learning experience that ensures every student is thoroughly familiar with The Salvation Army’s local health ministry vision. 5. E very Salvation Army school/college of nursing/health worker training programme should include a specific teaching/learning experience to enhance the holistic health and the spiritual wellbeing and maturity of each student. 6. E very Salvation Army school/college of nursing/health worker training programme should have a major focus on primary health care as close to the family as possible, with a priority for the poor and marginalised, as a vertical thread through every stage of the programme. 7. E very Salvation Army school/college of nursing/health worker training centre should have a specific strategy for attracting and retaining qualified teaching staff, and also assisting current staff to upgrade their qualifications when the school/college/centre is unable to meet the current minimum requirements, or any higher requirements arising from upgrading a programme. 8. T he Salvation Army International Health Services should develop a process for monitoring the quality of major health-related education/training programmes offered by The Salvation Army throughout the world. 9. T he Salvation Army International Health Services should identify a group of qualified health professionals who can advise International Health Services on the development of an international monitoring process, and guide Salvation Army health-related education/training providers on the development of quality, missionfocused programmes.

10. The Salvation Army International Health Services will assist territories to develop a financial management strategy that facilitates the ongoing financial viability of quality, mission-focused, health related, training/ education programmes. IHQ International Health Services developed health education flip-charts for the Africa Zone. This is one example of health education resources that were used in corps, community and institution-based initiatives.

Immunisation Programmes

Facilities, programmes, and services offering immunisation were included. Tuberculosis control programmes were not included in this section. Any clinics, services specifically for mothers and babies and other programmes that mention immunisation and maternal child health care clinics were included. The Salvation Army administered 244 programmes in 45 countries. The most were concentrated in Democratic Republic of Congo and Papua New Guinea.

Residential Facilities for Children

The Salvation Army operated 238 children’s residential programmes in 40 countries. The most were concentrated in India, Mexico and Indonesia. Services indicating housing for children, schools, churches, community programmes, and other services that provide a clear description of homing children were included. Runaway children centres and orphanages were included.

The Salvation Army’s main access to communities is via 13,826 corps34 in 127 countries. The prime focus for Salvation Army health ministry during the next decade is building on this existing strength by resourcing, supporting and expanding the number of Salvationists and community volunteers engaging in quality, holistic Christian health ministry. Salvation Army hospitals and clinics must prioritise developing supportive relationships with primary health care programmes in corps, and where possible, other faithbased groups.

A baby born in a Salvation Army field clinic after the Haiti earthquake.

34 A corps is a Salvation Army term for the local worshipping congregation. This includes outposts, societies, new plants and recovery churches. Source: 2016 Year Book

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3 What is The Salvation Army’s Approach?

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

Foot not text to be placed here, space-filler to represent foot note text, links abd other information 6 Foot not text to be placed here, space-filler to represent foot note text, links abd other information 8 Foot not text to be placed here, space-filler to represent foot note text, links abd other information

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The Salvation Army partnered with local doctors and the Christian Medical and Dental Association to provide an emergency medical response after typhoon Haiyan hit Tacloban, Philippines. Here a doctor assesses a young patient at a Salvation Army mobile clinic. 42


MDG 5

Improve maternal health


MDG 5

Improve maternal health

1 What did the MDGs hope to achieve? TARGETS

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS

Target 5.A

Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

5.1 Maternal mortality ratio 5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

Target 5.B

Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health

5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate 5.4 Adolescent birth rate 5.5 Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits) 5.6 Unmet need for family planning

2 What has happened? ●●

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Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has declined by 45 per cent worldwide, and most of the reduction has occurred since 2000. In Southern Asia, the maternal mortality ratio declined by 64 per cent between 1990 and 2013, and in sub-Saharan Africa it fell by 49 per cent. More than 71 per cent of births were assisted by skilled health personnel globally in 2014, an increase from 59 per cent in 1990. In Northern Africa, the proportion of pregnant women who received four or more antenatal visits increased from 50 per cent to 89 percent between 1990 and 2014. Contraceptive prevalence among women aged 15 to 49, married or in a union, increased from 55 per cent in 1990 worldwide to 64 per cent in 2015.

Image Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, United Nations35

35

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http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf


MDG 5

3 What is The Salvation Army’s approach?

P

regnant women who lack economic resources are some of the most marginalised people in the world. The Salvation Army’s approach to improving maternal health is closely linked to the approach used to reduce childhood mortality. The priority is faith-based, integrated, quality primary health care as close to the family as possible giving priority to poor and marginalised members of society.36 The Salvation Army believes that life is a gift from God and we are answerable to God for the taking of life.37 The Salvation Army does not support abortion except where carrying the pregnancy further seriously threatens the life of the mother; or reliable diagnostic procedures have identified

a foetal abnormality considered incompatible with survival for more than a very brief post natal period. This is based on the belief that life begins at fertilisation and therefore an embryo is a human being with potential and not merely a potential human being. As such, The Salvation Army is concerned about the growing acceptance of abortion within today’s society, which ultimately reflects insufficient concern for vulnerable persons including the unborn. There is a responsibility on all involved to give the parents of the unborn child, particularly the woman, appropriate pastoral, medical and other counsel. The Salvation Army supports family planning programmes offering contraceptive mechanisms which prevent fertilisation.

A Salvation Army officer plays with a baby at The Salvation Army Doori Women’s Home in Seoul. The home provides accommodation for young, unmarried mothers and their babies, who might otherwise be shunned or marginalised, while they study or look for work.

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

36 The Salvation Army’s International Health Strategy, 2008

37 www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/lead

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MDG 5

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

38

A

ll Salvation Army clinics, rural and urban health centres, and hospitals seek to improve the health of pregnant women in the communities they serve. This includes family planning education and supplies, antenatal and postnatal care including tetanus toxoid immunisations as well as a range of other primary health maternal health interventions to improve the health of mother and child.

Hospitals

These institutions provide medical treatment, and are equipped for inpatient needs and around the clock nursing care. “Health centres” were counted as clinics. While “maternity hospital” counted both towards both hospital and MCH. Branch hospitals were included. A total of 41 hospitals operated in 12 countries.

Clinics

Services specifically identified as clinics, health centres, medical centres and basic health facilities were included. The Salvation Army operated 378 clinics in 42 different countries. The majority of clinics operated in Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, India, South Africa and Papua New Guinea.

Ruarashe with one of her nine-day-old twins in the neo-natal unit at The Salvation Army’s Howard Hospital in Zimbabwe. Before giving birth she had no idea she was expecting twins. The neonatal unit allowed her to recover in hospital while receiving support and training for caring for her babies, basic hygiene and breastfeeding. Howard Hospital provides services to over 250,000 people in the community while also providing nurse training, residential training, a primary care course and a diploma in midwifery.

38 See online supplement available at http://www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/mdg of this report for more detailed analysis and an explanation of how Salvation Army

46

Pregnant economic of the


women who lack resources are some most marginalised PEOPLE in the world 47


A baby at The Salvation Army’s Ethembeni (Place of Hope) Children’s Home in Johannesburg, South Africa 48


MDG 6

ComIbat HIV/AIDS , malaria and other diseases


MDG 6

Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

1 What did the MDGs hope to achieve? TARGETS

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS

Target 6.A

Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

6.1 HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years 6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex  6.3 Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years

Target 6.B

Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/ AIDS for all those who need it

6.5 Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs

Target 6.C

Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

6.6 Incidence and death rates associated with malaria 6.7 Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets 6.8 Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs 6.9 Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis 6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course

2 What has happened? ●●

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●●

●●

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New HIV infections fell by approximately 40 per cent between 2000 and 2013, from an estimated 3.5 million cases to 2.1 million By June 2014, 13.6 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally, an immense increase from just 800,000 in 2003. ART averted 7.6 million deaths from AIDS between 1995 and 2013. Over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent. More than 900 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets were delivered to malaria- endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2004 and 2014. Between 2000 and 2013, tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment interventions saved an estimated 37 million lives. The tuberculosis mortality rate fell by 45 per cent and the prevalence rate by 41 per cent between 1990 and 2013.

Image Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, United Nations39

39 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf

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MDG 6

3 What is The Salvation Army’s approach?

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he Salvation Army believes every individual is important in the sight of God, and should be appreciated as a holistic person with body, mind and soul. Treatment for HIV/AIDS is therefore viewed holistically, caring for an individual’s physical, emotional, social, mental, spiritual and economic well-being.40 The Salvation Army’s International Policy on HIV/AIDS commits to the Army being a significant participant in faith-based, integrated, quality responses to the HIV/AIDS pandemic giving priority to poor and marginalised members of society. The suffering and death which result from HIV/AIDS stand in stark contrast to God’s intentions for abundant life. Health, healing and wholeness were a central part of Jesus’ earthly ministry. The New Testament provides numerous examples of Jesus’ commitment to healing and social inclusion. Many of the parables provide an excellent example of treating the most marginalised and excluded members of society with compassion, dignity and love (Matthew 8:1-4, Mark 1:29, Luke 8:40-56). We believe that:

●● Relationships are critically important and care is more effective when it is supported by communal and congregational structures and integrated into the web of relationships in which we live. ●● People who suffer from any illness should not be subjected to social isolation or rejection. Unconditional acceptance should be available to all people without discrimination.

The Salvation Army has focused on combatting alcohol and drug abuse for more than 100 years. The Salvation Army encourages an alcohol free lifestyle as a way of enhancing the wellbeing and health of all people. As a witness to this, Salvation Army soldiers choose to live an alcohol free life. The Salvation Army recognises the harm alcohol causes in individuals, families and communities. It advocates for reducing the consumption of alcohol, and it offers its services to support and restore people negatively impacted by alcohol use.41

●● The grace of God is available to all people and can transform lives whatever the situation. The Salvation Army believes contracting HIV should not automatically been seen as – or lead to – the end of life.

People who suffer from any illness should not ibe subjected to social isolation or rejection 40 See The Salvation Army’s International Development Policy on HIV/AIDS: www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/lead 41 See International Positional Statement ‘Alcohol in Society’: www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/lead

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MDG 6

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

42

T

he Salvation Army was one of the first groups to appreciate the importance of care and relationships in stimulating communities to respond to AIDS. We worked throughout the period of 2000 to 2015 towards the eradication of AIDS by focusing on prevention, support, care and treatment in homes and communities supported by congregations and institutions including schools, hospitals and clinics. The Salvation Army recognise that faith groups have a particular role to play in responding to HIV and reducing HIV-related stigma and isolation, and that this role complements, rather than replaces, the state, market and NGO responses. In many communities faith broke down barriers, built trust and provided a means of communication which was direct and effective. The Salvation Army International Headquarters made the fight against HIV/AIDS one of The Salvation Army Trust Company’s six priorities in the period 2000 to 2008.43 In the period 2009 to 2015 the fight against AIDS remained a key component of Salvation Army primary health care programmes. Salvation Army HIV/AIDS programming included work through communities, corps (churches), schools, hospitals and clinics. The connection between prevention and care was shown to be of critical importance. The fight against HIV/AIDS strengthened Salvation Army links into communities – particularly marginalised and stigmatised people. The Salvation Army operated 107 health programmes which included an HIV/AIDS component in 27 countries. The most programmes were concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia with a focus on home-based care. One specific HIV/AIDS orphanage in South Africa continues to serve people in the Johannesburg area.

Tuberculosis and /or Leprosy Programmes

Seven medical and health programmes that specifically combat tuberculosis and or leprosy were conducted in four countries – Haiti, India, Bangladesh and Republic of Congo. The Salvation Army in Zambia had a long standing partnership with The Leprosy Mission and the Government of Zambia including prevention, treatment and repatriation of former leprosy patients who were reintegrated into society.

Programmes Against Other Diseases

There were 13 programmes that specifically targeted other diseases such as epilepsy, malaria, eye diseases and diabetes conducted in seven countries – Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, India, Malawi, Papua New Guinea, Zambia and Uganda. Salvation Army health programmes tend to prioritise diseases which require a high degree of relational appreciation in the healing process. Therefore, diseases such as HIV/AIDS, leprosy, maternal and child health, alcohol and drug abuse are addressed in many Salvation Army health programmes. Alcohol and drug abuse is a major issue in many parts of the world. The Salvation Army has decades of experience working with people affected by alcoholism. Rehabilitation services can assist in alleviating or minimising poverty for those caught in addiction. Examples of services include women’s and men’s rehabilitation facilities, counselling and psychosocial services, drug and alcohol centres. A total of 134 alcohol and/or drug rehabilitation programmes were operated in 37 countries. A significant number were run in China (Hong Kong), Nigeria and India.

Below: the cover of a pictorial flip chart produced by The Salvation Army to help educate people about HIV/AIDS in Malawi where many cannot read or write

‘The Salvation Army was one care and 42 See online supplement available at http://www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/mdg of this report

for more detailed analysis and an explanation of how Salvation Army data was analysed.

43 Salvation Army International Trustee Company Annual Reports 2001 to 2007

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The Salvation Army responded to the Ebola Crisis by implementing Ebola awareness campaigns in schools, providing pscho-social counselling for survivors, distributing food and emergency supplies and distributing hygiene promotion materials. Here a boy uses a hand washing facility provided by The Salvation Army in his school intended to help stop the spread of the Ebola virus.

of the first groups to appreciate the importance of relationships in stimulating communities to respond to AIDS’

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A doctor from a Salvation Army clinic in Chisinau, Moldova, treating a patient in a small village in the Moldovan countryside. Every Saturday, he and his wife, a nurse, head to a village to treat people who are unable to access health care. The Salvation Army provides the medicine needed to the patients as the cost would often be more than a person would earn in one year.

A participant of the health education workshop receives her certificate after completing the training on HIV/AIDS.

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MDG 7

Ensure environmental sustainaibility 55


MDG 7

Ensure environmental sustainaibility

1 What did the MDGs hope to achieve? TARGETS

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS

Target 7.A

Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources

7.1 Proportion of land area covered by forest 7.2 CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) 7.3 Consumption of ozone-depleting substances 7.4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits  7.5 Proportion of total water resources used

Target 7.B

Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss

7.6 Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected 7.7 Proportion of species threatened with extinction

Target 7.C

Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

7.8 Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source 7.9 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility

Target 7.D

By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum

7.10 Proportion of urban population living in slums

dwellers

2 What has happened? ●●

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Ozone-depleting substances have been virtually eliminated since 1990, and the ozone layer is expected to recover by the middle of this century. Terrestrial and marine protected areas in many regions have increased substantially since 1990. In Latin America and the Caribbean, coverage of terrestrial protected areas rose from 8.8 per cent to 23.4 per cent between 1990 and 2014. In 2015, 91 per cent of the global population is using an improved drinking water source, compared to 76 per cent in 1990. Of the 2.6 billion people who have gained access to improved drinking water since 1990, 1.9 billion gained access to piped drinking water on premises. Over half of the global population (58 per cent) now enjoys this higher level of service. Globally, 147 countries have met the drinking water target, 95 countries have met the sanitation target and 77 countries have met both.

Image Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, United Nations44 44 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf

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MDG 7

3 What is The Salvation Army’s approach?

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he Salvation Army’s Christian faith informs its approach to caring for the environment. The Salvation Army believes people are made in the image of God and have been entrusted with the care of the Earth and everything in it. The Salvation Army recognises environmental degradation as one of the most pressing issues facing the world today with its effects felt disproportionately by the most vulnerable communities, particularly in terms of health, livelihood, shelter and the opportunity to make choices. The Salvation Army is concerned about the effects of environmental damage on present and future generations and believes sustainable environmental practices are required to meet today’s global needs and aspirations without compromising the lives of future generations.45 The Salvation Army is committed to addressing environmental degradation through the following practical responses: 1. We acknowledge our lack of care for the environment and seek repentance, thereby endeavouring to be more consciously involved in seeking a changed attitude that will lead towards a more responsible use of the environment and its resources.

responsible use of the environment and its resources by encouraging reflection on current and past practice. 3. We will enact sound environmental policies and practices within The Salvation Army including comprehensive recycling, environmentally sensitive purchasing policies, environmentally responsible waste management practices, and the development of innovative ways to reduce the destructive use of natural resources. 4. We will mitigate the impacts of environmental degradation by the training, education and awarenessraising of Salvationists, towards a goal of improving their environmental practices. 5. We will provide practical care and advocacy for those who are impacted by adverse or damaging environmental situations. 6. We will seek opportunities for cooperation and coordination with all governments, people and organisations of goodwill who are working towards a common goal of sustainable lifestyles and environmental care.

2. We will encourage changes in Salvationists’ attitudes to the environment that will lead toward a more The Salvation Army has trained a team of 20 volunteers and obtained the services of two agronomists to live in two villages in the Democratic Republic of Congo to assist 750 repatriated families to increase their agricultural productivity. Families are trained and supplied with seeds and equipment to produce a crop and encourage sustainability. Here villages show off their new crops.

45 See International Positional Statement ‘Caring for the Environment’: www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/lead

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Dulia, from Yunnan province in China, harvests mulberry leaves to feed silkworms. As part of a Salvation Army project, Mulberry trees were planted along the river instead of Maize, which has shallow roots and is pulled up every year, leading to landslides when rains come. The mulberry trees have good roots systems and are left in place from year to year. Since the tress have been planted there has been noncable reduction in landslides.

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MDG 7

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

46

T

he Salvation Army provides a number of programmes to developing countries that promote environmental sustainability including public health programmes towards sanitation, clean air and energy projects, reforestation, recycling and water programmes.

Sanitation programmes

A total of 26 sanitation programmes operated in nine countries including Angola, Georgia, Ghana and Togo, Indonesia, Malawi, India, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Papua New Guinea. Any programmes that addressed issues of sanitation, public health, sewage disposal, community clean-up, and water sanitation were included. Descriptions of programmes relating to sanitation including hygiene, and environmental cleanliness were also included.

Clean air solar and energy projects

Pollution from the rise in factories and industrial work in developing/recently developed countries is prone to diminishing environmental sustainability. To date services that engage clean air projects, anti-pollution and energy have been few. Two solar energy projects operate in Malawi and a wind power project operates in India.

Water programmes

Clean water projects including wells, clean water access programmes and facilities, filtered water programmes, and distribution of clean water are all significant sustainable strategies. The Salvation Army operated 41 water programmes in countries including Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Togo, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Other environmental and reforestation and programmes

The Salvation Army has operated four other environmental programmes in three countries Bangladesh, India and Republic of Congo. Reforestation programmes have operated in North Korea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Mali and a community flood restoration programme has operated in Pakistan.

Recycling programmes

The Salvation Army has operated six recycling programmes or programmes detailing a recycling feature in four countries – Brazil, India, China and Uruguay.

46 See online supplement available at http://www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/mdg of this report

for more detailed analysis and an explanation of how Salvation Army data was analysed. 59


‘We will provide practical care and advocacy for those who are impacted by adverse or damaging environmental situations’

The Salvation Army is providing sustainable water sources in Uganda and Kenya. Depending on the water level these are boreholes with simple hand or electrical pumps run by solar power. Here members of the community stand next to their new borehole in Uganda.

Honest Guda, a farmer in Kenya, with his maize crop which has been grown using conservation farming methods taught through a Salvation Army programme. These methods help to keep the structure of the soil healthy, moist and weed-free. They help farmers withstand the negative effects of longer dry seasons and unexpected rains.

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MDG 8

Gloibal partnerships for development 61


MDG 8

Global partnerships for development

1 What did the MDGs hope to achieve? TARGETS

Target 8.A

Target 8.B

Target 8.C

Target 8.D

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INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction - both nationally and internationally

Address the special needs of the least developed countries Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction

Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.

Official development assistance 8.1 Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income 8.2 Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) 8.3 Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied 8.4 ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national incomes  8.5 ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes

Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)

Market access

Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term

Debt sustainability

8.6 Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and least developed countries, admitted free of duty 8.7 Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries 8.8 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic product 8.9 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity

8.10 Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points

and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) 8.11 Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives 8.12 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services


MDG 8

TARGETS

Target 8.E

Target 8.F

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries

8.13 Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis

In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications

8.14 Telephone lines per 100 population 8.15 Cellular subscribers per 100 population 8.16 Internet users per 100 population

2 What has happened? ●●

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Official development assistance from developed countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion. In 2014, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom continued to exceed the United Nations official development assistance target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income. In 2014, 79 per cent of imports from developing to developed countries were admitted duty free, up from 65 per cent in 2000.

The proportion of external debt service to export revenue in developing countries fell from 12 per cent in 2000 to 3 per cent in 2013.

●●

As of 2015, 95 per cent of the world’s population is covered by a mobile-cellular signal.

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The number of mobile-cellular subscriptions has grown almost tenfold in the last 15 years, from 738 million in 2000 to over 7 billion in 2015.

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Internet penetration has grown from just over 6 per cent of the world’s population in 2000 to 43 per cent in 2015. As a result, 3.2 billion people are linked to a global network of content and applications

Image Source: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, United Nations47

47 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf

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MDG 8

3 What is The Salvation Army’s approach?

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his MDG focuses attention on the role of government in the fight against poverty. The Salvation Army does not align or endorse political parties but, by virtue of its faith, history and approach, The Salvation Army is biased to work with those who live in poverty or who have otherwise been marginalised. Consequently, The Salvation Army seeks opportunities to work in co-operation with the State and its agencies whenever their actions promote a just and fair society. The Salvation Army works with the State and its agencies to deliver and provide humanitarian and social services that benefit people without discrimination. The Salvation Army constantly seeks to be a positive influence on individual States, their respective agencies and institutions, and international bodies such as the United Nations. In all its activities, The Salvation Army seeks to develop relationships in accordance with Biblical values.48 This MDG also covers economic dimensions of development. The Salvation Army has recognised the importance of work and a just economy throughout its history. The Bible views life as an integrated whole. On this basis, the Christian view of a full life is a life where the person is able to realise their full potential in all aspects of life and one which includes meaningful work, physical prosperity, enriching individual and community relationships and a deep relationship with God. God, who created us, is interested in every aspect of life and wishes us to derive the greatest possible enjoyment in all dimensions of our lives. This view of life allows us to establish a frame of reference to guide our thinking about the economy- understood broadly as the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. It helps guide personal economic decisions, and also provides a framework to help us make the best decisions about economic policy at a community, national and international level.

Six key signposts49 emerge from the Biblical text on the economy as part of life: 1. Economy is to be a vehicle of God’s blessing 2. This is a fallen world 3. Human fulfilment is to be sought 4. Equal dignity demands economic equity 5. Stewardship is a human responsibility 6. Jesus is to be our example The witness of The Salvation Army is a witness to the vision of a full, satisfying life, rooted in relationship with God, based on Biblical principles of living life and managing society. Economic justice is a characteristic of the gospel. The Bible describes the love and grace of God in the example of Jesus who though rich, became poor for our sake, so that by his poverty we might become rich (2 Corinthians 8:9). Life lived according to the values of the gospel will incarnate the reality of that love.

‘The Salvation Army works with the State and its agencies humanitarian and social services that benefit

48 International Positional Statement, The Salvation Army and The State, www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/lead 49 ‘Living Faith in the Economy’, A Paper issued by IMASIC https://issuu.com/isjc/docs/living_faith_in_economy_-_imasic_-_

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MDG 8

4 What did The Salvation Army do?

50

Coordination and support through International Headquarters

The Salvation Army, unlike many other FBOs or Christian denominations, operates through a hierarchical structure. All parts of The Salvation Army in more than 125 countries are accountable to the General based at International Headquarters. The Programme Resources team at International Headquarters coordinates support flowing between countries (donor and implementers) to enable the faithful, effective and efficient use of resources. To this end, Programme Resources coordinates the development of International Development Policy documents.51

Partners in Mission

Since its earliest days, The Salvation Army has emphasised the importance of partnership between Salvationists around the world. The importance of being ‘One Army’ runs deep in the culture of the movement. A practical example of this belief in action is the annual Self Denial appeal where people are asked to give financial support to people living in other parts of the world During the period under review, this scheme was relaunched with a focus on partnership. All Salvation Army territories and commands, whether financially independent or grant aided, were organised into ‘Partner in Mission’ groups. This initiative strengthened the relationship between people who often live in very different parts of the world.

Other International Fair Trade – ‘Sally Ann/Others’ Programmes

Some Salvation Army programmes have served to create fair trade partnerships between both developed and developing countries throughout the world, connecting the people and services of The Salvation Army to the global world. The main goal of the enterprise is for employment and to those with limited opportunities.52 53 ‘Others’ (formerly known under the brand ‘Sally Ann’) has throughout the period in question linked producers recruited through Salvation Army programmes in developing countries with markets in Northern Europe and North America, with the goal of creating sustainable employment opportunities. Countries with these types of enterprises along with other fair trade programmes are included. The Salvation Army runs 23 fair trade programmes in nine countries – Brazil, Moldova, Peru, Tanzania, Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Ghana.

Right: Bags made by Others in Bangladesh and Pakistan. The income from these special orders is making a huge difference in the lives of their producers.

to deliver and provide people without discrimination’

50 See online supplement available at http://www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/mdg of this report for more detailed analysis and an explanation of how Salvation Army data was analysed 51 www.salvationarmy.org/isjc/lead 52 http://www1.salvationarmy.org/ihq/documents/Oct08-Sally-Ann-Article.pdf 53 http://www.tradeforhope.com/history

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MDG 8

International Social Justice Commission

The International Social Justice Commission (ISJC) based in New York with staff working in Nairobi, Geneva and Vienna, serves The Salvation Army as a strategic voice to advocate for human dignity and social justice in all parts of the world. The ISJC exercises leadership in determining The Salvation Army’s policies and practices in the international social justice arena. The ISJC seeks to find ways to resource the worldwide Salvation Army to combat injustice, including linking and working with like-minded organisations and other world forums to advance the cause of global social justice. In pursuit of its stated purpose, the ISJC has five goals: 1. Raise strategic voices to advocate with people particularly those who are poor and oppressed. 2. Be a recognised centre of research and critical thinking on issues of global social justice. 3. Collaborate with like-minded organisations to advance the global cause of social justice. 4. Exercise leadership in determining social justice policies and practices in The Salvation Army. 5. Live the principles of justice and compassion and inspire others to do so. The ISJC is the primary international advocate and advisor to the General on social, economic and political issues which lead to the perpetuation of human injustice in the world. The ISJC represents The Salvation Army in a number of significant international partnerships such as the working with the UN Interagency Task Force for Religion and Development; the Joint Learning Initiative for Religious

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Congregations; the World Bank facilitated Moral Imperative to End Extreme Poverty and the recently launched Partnership of Agencies for Religion and Development (PaRD). The increasing willingness of governments, UN agencies and other NGOs to partner with Religious Organisations like The Salvation Army is encouraging and appreciated.

Global Partnership Programmes

The Salvation Army entered into more than 48 global partnerships with external agencies or governments to enhance development. For example, The Salvation Army’s partnership with Aus Aid in China, Zambia, South Africa and Papua New Guinea; Partnerships with Tearfund and Mozambique Human Rights League in Mozambique; Mercy Ship in Liberia; Norwegian Government with Digni in Myanmar, India, Zambia and Pakistan; Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in Sri Lanka and Ghana; Swiss Government with Bread For All in Southern Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Congo Brazaville; Habitat for Humanity in Nepal; Swedish Government in India, Kenya and South Africa. In many of these partnerships, The Salvation Army works with other churches and other Faith Based Organisations to maximise efficiency and learn lessons from each other leading to greater effectiveness.


Next Steps:

AGENDA 2030

The Sustainaible Development Goals (2016 to 2030)


AGENDA 2030

The Sustainable Development Goals (2016 to 2030)

T

he Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) apply to every person, of every age, in every community and every country on Earth and were endorsed by all 193 member states of the United Nations in September 2015. Although every country starts from a different point for each goal all nations have committed to work towards them. The SDGs are based on a shared vision of what world leaders want the world to be like in the future – a future that is secure, sustainable and based on equality of all peoples both between nations and within nations. The SDGs are based on a belief that no-one should be left behind. It will not be enough that the average person has had their life improved. The poorest and most vulnerable people must also experience improvement in their lives with a reduction of the disparity between the richest and the poorest people. The SDGs can be used as tools

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for accountability – are the politicians delivering on their promises? Accountability will not just include accountability for finance but includes many other factors such as peace and security, gender equality and care of the environment. It is difficult to convey just what an achievement it has been to have all 193 nations of the UN to agree these goals. Amina J Mohammed, a Nigerian woman, appointed by UN General Secretary Ban Ki Moon as the UN Special Advisor on Post-2015 Development Planning, described the SDGs as ‘a promise made in good faith’. It is recognised that the vision will be difficult to achieve and even that it is unlikely to be achieved by all nations by the end of 2030, but that does not excuse any nation from not trying their utmost to aim for that goal.


AGENDA 2030

The Salvation Army and Agenda 2030 The fact that world leaders agreed on a set of Sustainable Development Goals reflecting values which The Salvation Army has promoted for 125 years is something to be welcomed – especially as it can result in positive change for the poorest and most vulnerable people. The goals identify issues and promote values very familiar to Salvationists: ●●

Equality of all people with no discrimination

●● The well-being of all people with all people able to flourish ●●

Be good stewards of the earth and its resources

●●

Seek peace and security for all people

These are values that shine through the Bible and have inspired Christians for more than 2000 years. All people, without exception, are made in the image of God and are equally precious to him (Genesis 1: 27-31). At the very beginning God gave the earth into the stewardship of mankind to be cared for (Genesis 1:26). In the Sermon on the Mount Jesus declared: ‘Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called the children of God’ (Matthew 5:9). Jesus declared that he came that we might ‘have life and life in all its fullness’ (John 10:10).

Holistic, integrated approach combined with full participation

The Salvation Army has always been committed to holistic solutions that addressed the needs of the whole person, mind, body and soul. William Booth’s understanding of the scope of the gospel developed during his life time and since 1890 The Salvation Army has embodied the social gospel in word and deed. Salvationists around the world promote the cause of the most marginalised and vulnerable people. Salvation Army social action must always be an outworking of Christian faith and belief in practice. The lessons learnt during the past 15 years need to be remembered and embedded into practice going forward – for example, continuing faith-based facilitation practices of reflection, ongoing learning, local contribution and working together. The SDGs recognise a lesson The Salvation Army learnt many years ago – people need to participate in their own community development. Despite this, many Salvation Army programmes focus on serving people without adequate focus on solving the underlying attitudes and systems which

cause problems. To achieve the SDGs, there needs to be a focus on solving problems and not only serving people. In addition, The Salvation Army recognises the importance of integration. Just as God created people as integrated persons with ‘body-soul for relationships’54 so those seeking to participate in God’s mission to save the world should not fragment services or treat only the body while trying to ignore the soul and spiritual healing.

Partnerships and accountability are essential

The SDGs are a promise that each nation has made for its people and to the UN. It gives a means by which the governments can be held to account by their people, the other nations of the UN and groups like The Salvation Army. To do this, Salvation Army leaders will need to work in partnerships with partners; gather and use relevant data to help inform local policy and practice; advocate for change to political leaders. Achieving the goals will not be easy and relies on the active participation of not just governments but also private industry, community organisations and people of faith. General André Cox is encouraging The Salvation Army to focus attention on the SDGs in every programme. This does not mean only in the developing world. The goals are universal, for every nation. Each Salvation Army corps or centre around the world can discuss the 17 SDGs and discuss how they are contributing towards these goals within their own communities. For example: ●● How can we, as The Salvation Army, contribute to making our own local communities safe and inclusive? ●● How can we welcome the person who doesn’t seem to ‘fit’ in our community? ●● How can we help those children who are not succeeding at the local school? ●● How can we boost the confidence of our children, especially those who are not seen as important in our culture, girls or those with disabilities?

54 Pallant, Dean, ‘Keeping Faith in Faith-Based Organizations’, Wipf and Stock, Origen, 2012

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AGENDA 2030

Prayer contributes to the SDGs

Prayer acknowledges the role of the creator in the governance of the affairs of the world, and of thanking him for success when this is realised. One of contributions of the ISJC has been to call Salvationists to pray about the SDGs. Prayer asks the creator to intervene in the affairs of humankind. We believe he can. We pray for those involved in work closely related to the SDGs. Basic information is followed by a call to reflection. Such reflection inevitably leads to asking, how this goal affects me? Do I contribute to the problems? Can I contribute to the realisation of these goals? Such reflection can lead to real change of mind and attitude, with resultant action.

Encourage a culture of sharing

The SDGs focus on the less developed countries, yet solutions require the commitment of all. The Salvation Army operates in more than 127 countries, giving organisational experience in countries with different economies, and an understanding that some of the inequalities of the world are caused by the attitudes and policies of industrialised countries. The ‘good news for the poor’ implicit in the Christian gospel is not merely to enable the poor to find satisfaction in the status quo and hope for a better future,

but also to challenge the attitudes of the rich. The Salvation Army is well positioned to do both. As a global organisation committed to an equitable sharing of resources we are aware of the difficulties of facilitating such sharing, including the limitations often imposed by those who have both the resources and the power to control these. Application of the principles within the organisation itself is the place to start. The achievement of a better world for everyone is a goal that not just organisations and communities large and small need to support but also individuals. We all need to share in our responsibilities to this earth and to all the other people living on it with us. How much of the earth’s resources we use, how much we are prepared to pay for our food and clothes, how much we are prepared to pay in taxes to support others all impact on other people. Perhaps when we view the SDGs we can reflect on our personal values as Christians and Salvationists, do they mirror God’s values and how can I show those values in my own living? As Jesus taught us to pray: ‘Thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven’ (Matthew 6:10).

We all need to

share in our responsiibil to this earth and to all the other

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APPENDIX

Ending Extreme Poverty:

A Moral and Spiritual Imperative OUR COMMON UNDERSTANDING

OUR SHARED MORAL CONSENSUS

As leaders from diverse religious traditions, we share a compelling vision to end extreme poverty by the year 2030. For the first time in human history, we can do more than simply envision a world free of extreme poverty; we can make it a reality. Accomplishing this goal will take two commitments: to act guided by the best evidence of what works and what doesn’t; and to use our voices to compel and challenge others to join us in this urgent cause inspired by our deepest spiritual values.

This is why the continued existence of extreme poverty in a plentiful world offends us so deeply. Our faith is tested and our hearts are broken when, in an age of unprecedented wealth and scientific advancement, so many still live in degrading conditions. We know too well that extreme poverty thwarts human purpose, chokes human potential, and affronts human dignity. In our increasingly interconnected world, there is enough to ensure that no one has to fight for their daily survival.

The world has achieved remarkable progress in the past two decades in cutting in half the number of people living in extreme poverty. We have ample evidence from the World Bank Group and others showing that we can now end extreme poverty within fifteen years. In 2015, our governments will be deciding upon a new global sustainable development agenda that has the potential to build on our shared values to finish the urgent task of ending extreme poverty.

Ending extreme poverty will require a comprehensive approach that tackles its underlying causes – including preventable illness, a lack of access to quality education, joblessness, corruption, violent conflicts, and discrimination against women, ethnic minorities and other groups. It will also necessitate a change in the habits that cause poverty – greed and waste, numbness to the pain of others, and exploitation of people and the natural world. It calls for a holistic and sustainable approach that transforms cultures and institutions, and hearts as well as minds.

We in the faith community embrace this moral imperative because we share the belief that the moral test of our society is how the weakest and most vulnerable are faring. Our sacred texts also call us to combat injustice and uplift the poorest in our midst. No one, regardless of sex, age, race, or belief, should be denied experiencing the fullness of life.

ities

In too many parts of the world, women and girls are consigned to second class status, denied access to education and employment, and victimised by violence, trafficking, and rape. Until each and every person is afforded the same basic rights, none of us can truly flourish. We must also state unequivocally that ending extreme poverty without mitigating climate change and combating inequality will be impossible. Climate change is already disproportionately hurting people living in poverty. Extreme inequality, within and between countries, contradicts our shared religious values, exacerbates social and political divisions, and will impede progress. What is needed is a new paradigm of socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable economic growth.

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APPENDIX

OUR CALL TO ACTION We believe that now is the time to end the scourge of extreme poverty – by restoring right relationships among people, affirming human dignity, and opening the door to the holistic development of all people. If we were more committed to living these common values there would be less poverty in the world. Our shared convictions call us to empower and uplift – not denigrate – those living in poverty, so that they can become agents of their own transformation. We must abandon a politics that too often marginalises their voices, blames them for their condition, and exacerbates extremes of inequality. Now is the time to turn fatigue into renewed commitment, indifference into compassion, cynicism into hope, and impotence into a greater sense of agency that we can and will end extreme poverty by 2030. We commit to working together to end the scandal of extreme poverty. We will act, advocate, educate, and collaborate, both among ourselves and with broader initiatives. And we commit to holding all levels of leadership accountable – public and private, domestic and international. Our approach to this staggering need must be holistic, rooted in the spiritual visions of our respective faiths, and built on a shared recognition of the intrinsic dignity and value of every life on Earth. Realising this shared goal will require a revolution in social and political will, as well as new innovations and greater collaboration across sectors. We call on international organisations, governments, corporations, civil society, and religious communities, to play their essential parts and join with us in this critical cause. Poverty’s imprisonment of more than a billion men, women and children must end. Now is the time to boldly act to free the next generation from extreme poverty’s grip.

We commit to working together to end the scandal of extreme poverty 72


Photo by Duane Bassoo Young boy cared for at a Salvation Army health programme in south-east India

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ENDORSERS

Actalliance, General Secretary, Dr. John Nduna American Jewish Committee, International Director of Interreligious Affairs, Chief Rabbi David Rosen American Jewish World Service, President, Ms. Ruth Messinger Anglican Alliance, Joint Executive Director, Rev. Rachel Carnegie Archdiocese of Abuja, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Abuja, H.E. John Cardinal Onaiyekan

Islamic Society of North America, Office of Interfaith & Community Alliances Director, Dr. Sayyid Syeed Interfaith WASH Alliance, Co-Founder, H.H. Pujya Swami Chidanand Saraswatiji Joint Distribution Committee, Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Alan Gill Milstein Center for Interreligious Dialogue, Director, Rabbi Dr. Burt Visotzky Muhammadiyah, President, Dr. Din Syamsuddin

Bibliotheca Alexandria, Founding Director, Dr. Ismail Serageldin

Organisation of African Instituted Churches, General Secretary, Rev. Nicta Lubaale

Baha’i International Community, Principle Representative to the United Nations, Ms. Bani Dugal

Religions For Peace, Secretary General, Dr. William Vendley

Buddhist Global Relief, Chairperson, Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi Bread for the World, President, Rev. David Beckmann Caritas Internationalis, Secretary General, Mr. Michel Roy Catholic Relief Services, President and Chief Executive Officer, Dr. Carolyn Woo Church World Service, President and Chief Executive Officer, Rev. John McCullough

Rissho Kosei-Kai, President-Designate, Rev. Kosho Niwano Religious Action Center, Director, Rabbi Jonah Pesner Sojourners, President and Chief Executive Officer, Rev. Jim Wallis Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement, General Secretary, Dr. Vinya Ariyaratne Shanti Ashram, Director, Dr. Vinu Aram The Salvation Army, General AndrĂŠ Cox

Community of Protestant Churches of Europe, President, Rev. Dr. Thomas Wipf

World Evangelical Alliance, Secretary General and CEO, Bishop Efraim Tendero

EcoSikh, Board Member, Mr. Suneet Singh Tuli

World Relief, President and Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Stephan Bauman

Indigenous People Ancestral Spiritual Council, President, Priestess Beatriz Schulthess Islamic Relief International, Chief Executive Officer, Dr. Mohamed Ashmawey

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World Vision International, President, Mr. Kevin Jenkins Uganda Muslim Supreme Council, Grand Mufti, H.E. Sheikh Shaban Ramadhan Mubaje


‘We believe that now is the time to end the scourge of extreme poverty – by restoring right relationships among people, affirming human dignity, and opening the door to the holistic development of all people’


I believe that ending extreme poverty is a moral and spiritual imperative General AndrĂŠ Cox

For more information email IHQ-ISJC@salvationarmy.org or visit www.salvationarmy.org/isjc

The Salvation Army International Social Justice Commission 221 East 52nd Street New York City, NY 10022 USA

Profile for Salvation Army IHQ

Building a Just World  

The Salvation Army's contribution to the Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015). Published by IHQ Communications on behalf of the Internat...

Building a Just World  

The Salvation Army's contribution to the Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015). Published by IHQ Communications on behalf of the Internat...