Vol 34 Year 5 Canada $3.00 USA $3.00 Colombia $5.000 Canada 2010
Desktop Publishing Designing a Document What is Desktop Publishing
Alignment Summary................61 Before You Start......................5 Brochures................................72 Business Cards........................79 Color.......................................44 Contrast..................................65 Designing A Document...........56 Flyers......................................74 Four Principles........................60 Letterhead & Envelopes .........82 Lines........................................21 Mass........................................33 Newsletters.............................84 Newspaper Ads.......................77 Postcards................................76 Proximity Summary................67 Q u e s t i o n T o A s k ................18 Repetition Summary...............69 Textures..................................37 Tips.........................................91 Typography.............................87 Web Sites................................81 What is Desktop Publishing...............................4
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AN INTRODUCTION TO DESKTOP PUBLISHING What is Desktop Publishing? Before You Star Design Rules Detail dtpbginfosummary Background Info Detail Question to Ask
Title What is Desktop Publishing Desktop publishing is important as a tool that can enhance communication by making it possible to quickly and efﬁciently produce printed and electronic documents. Desktop publishing and graphic design can make documents look better, prettier. But it’s about more than just appearance. Desktop publishing, used properly, enhances visual communication and streamlines the process of disseminating information of all kinds. Desktop publishing is a term coined after the development of a speciﬁc type of software. Before the invention of desktop publishing software the tasks involved in desktop publishing were done manually, by a variety of people and involved both graphic design and prepress tasks which sometimes leads to confusion about what desktop publishing is and how it is done. Desktop publishing is the use of the computer and specialized software to create documents
for desktop or commercial printing. It is the process of using the computer to produce documents such as newsletters, brochures, books, and other publications that were once created manually using a variety of non-computer techniques along with large complex phototypesetting machines. Today desktop publishing software does it all - almost. But before InDesign and other desktop publishing software there were e-scales, paste-up, and other non-desktop computer ways of putting together a design for printing. Properly speaking, desktop publishing is the technical assembly of digital ﬁles in the proper format for printing. In practical use, much of the “graphic design” process is also accomplished using desktop publishing and graphics software and is sometimes included in the deﬁnition of desktop publishing. Desktop publishing and graphic design are different.
What Is Desktop Publishing
brochures, newsletters, posters, signs, and any other type of visual communication.
It is the process of using the computer and speciﬁc types of software to combine text and graphics to produce documents such as newsletters, brochures, books, etc.
What Is Graphic Design
It is the process and art of combining text and graphics and communicating an effective message in the design of logos, graphics,
Desktop Publishing Software
Desktop publishing software is a tool for graphic designers and non-designers to create visual communications for professional or desktop printing.
Before You Start
Not long ago, businesses were producing all of their day-to-day printed material using typewriters; additional copies were produced with a carbon paper, and later on a photocopy machine. At that time, only the most important business documents were typeset, and the typesetting industry was surrounded by an aura of mystique.
Now, in the digital age, one person may act as the author, designer and producer of a wide variety of documents, including letterhead, brochures, reports and advertisements. The proper use of design and typography can “make or break” the impact and usefulness of every document you produce, whether it is a book, an advertisement or a newsletter. Every publisher wants to send a message to the reader and it is important that the message is easy to comprehend. It is also increasingly important that the design and typography used visually enhances the impact of the written message. In a sense, a desktop publisher is considered a designer in that he or she designs layouts for the documents. Since many desktop publishers do not have formal design training, a series of simple questions to assist even the novice desktop publisher is included below. Several illustrations reinforce these principles of design and typography. As you begin to design each new publishing project you will have to identify the ultimate use of the
product and identify the end user of the product. In doing this, ask yourself several questions. Will it be a ﬂyer, read once and thrown away? Will it be a report, read and reviewed by several people? Will it be an advertisement designed to draw customers into your place of business? These and other questions will assist and keep you focussed in your endeavor to create an effective communication piece.
QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED BEFORE YOU BEGIN TO PRODUCE YOUR DOCUMENTS WHO ARE THE READERS?
Before you begin designing a document, you need to identify your prospective audience. If they are elderly, you may want to set the type slightly
larger so that it is easy to read. If you are designing for children, you may want to include more graphics. If you are designing a business proposal, the design should not detract from the main message of the document. It should be clear, straightforward; charts and or graphs must be labelled.
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT?
When you begin to design a document, the ﬁrst question you should ask yourself is, What is the purpose of this document? Is it to inform, persuade or entertain? Is the document supposed to encourage the reader to take some type of action? For example, a form requires that the user ﬁll it out; an invitation may require a response; and a catalogue may stimulate someone to order your products.
WHAT IS THE MESSAGE YOU ARE TRYING TO CONVEY?
The next question to ask yourself concerns the main message you want the reader to receive. If you want to create a ﬂyer to sell a car, your main message may be that the car is easy on gas, or that it has a low fuel consumption rate. Your secondary message may include the colour of the car, and the fact that it has air conditioning and a stereo system. Information such as your name and telephone number is also secondary information, but is quite important to the message.
HOW WILL THE DOCUMENT BE REPRODUCED?
Another important factor for consideration is that there are many different methods of reproducing the work designed on your desktop publishing system. The number of copies that you will be distributing affects the method of reproduction you will use. For example, an invitation to a birthday party may require 20 copies, while a newsletter may require 20 000 copies. In a classroom or an ofﬁce you may have an inkjet printer or a laser printer). You probably already realize that producing one original from these printers is not a problem, but if you take a stopwatch and time the printer as it produces a single copy you will soon realize that these printers cannot economically be used to produce 20 000 copies of your newsletter. For quick and economical reproduction, you will print your “cameraready art” and take it to a print shop or the printing department of your organization. This may mean that your document will be reproduced on a high-speed photocopier or a lithographic press.
WHAT WILL BE THE LENGTH OF THE DOCUMENT?
The number of pages to be included in the design will be a result of the type of publication. An invitation is usually limited to a single page; a menu or newsletter may be several pages long; and a business report 6
or manual could run to 300 or 400 pages in length.
WHAT TYPE AND SIZE OF PAPER WILL BE USED?
Paper costs are a major part of any printing bill, regardless of how the document will be reproduced. The quality, weight and handling properties of the paper you choose affect the price. Paper must be chosen for its appearance and durability (if required), folding ability, and ease of handling. The ultimate use of the document dictates the paper requirement. Although newsprint is suitable for printing a newsletter or newspaper, it is unsuitable for a business report, invitation or map. Similarly, a heavier stock, such as cardboard, is appropriate for a menu, but is not a good choice for a catalogue or business stationary. The size of your ﬁnished document is important for two reasons. First, the document size must be appropriate for the message. A business card 8 1/2?? x 11 in size might produce a good response, but it would be difﬁcult to carry and/or store large quantities of them. Second, you may have trouble producing documents larger or much smaller than 8 1/2” x 11 in size if your computer printer or software does not handle various paper sizes.
HOW MUCH MONEY DO YOU HAVE TO SPEND?
The amount of money needed to produce a document is inﬂuenced by how much time you have to create it; how important the document is (this may include its expected useful 7
life); how the document is printed, including the type of paper or other material and the number of ink colours, including photographs being used; the binding or packaging of the document; and how many copies will be produced. Of course, your approved budget plays a major role in your decisions at this stage of production.
This note covers the factors to be taken into account as you begin desktop publishing documents. You should now recognize the need for information gathering on items such as your audience, the purpose of the document, and the main message you are trying to get across. You should also have an awareness of your budget limitations and your production deadlines as these will be important to you at every stage of production.
Design Rules Detail G
ood design requires more than just good taste. The successful designer will learn how to manipulate effects such as colour, balance, rhythm, type selection, consistency and graphics to create an effective and more beautiful design without abusing the tremendous power current Desktop Publishing applications. Often the most effective design can be achieved with simplicity.
Design rules to help make your project a success 3 A first rule of design:
3 A fifth rule of design:
Design for your reader,not yourself
Pay attention to detail
3 A sixth rule of design:
3 A second rule of design:
Work within your own limitations
Listen to your client
3 A seventh rule of design:
3 A third rule of design:
Design for your final output
Establish hierarchies and organize your information
3 A eighth rule of design:
Involve your printer up front
3 A fourth rule of design Establish a rhythm
A ﬁrst rule of design:
Also, there are several tricks for organizing and highlighting text that attract the eye and help organize information.
It is said that the best design is invisible. A good design gives precedence to the information contained in the document - without calling attention to itself. Your reader will appreciate your design if it does not get in the way of what is to be said. There are three goals you should keep in mind regarding readers: 3 Attract the reader 3 Make your work easy to read 3 Motivate the reader to do something Some designers attract the reader with an unusual or beautiful layout, but fail at guiding the reader through with clarity and motivation. Unless you have a speciﬁc reason for making your reader work hard, (and there may be reasons why that would be desirable) make all design decisions guided by this rule.
A second rule of design:
Design for your reader, not yourself.
Listen to your client.
Your client is the reason you are designing. If the client is budget conscious, work accordingly. If the client likes red, don’t insist on blue -- unless you are convinced that it is better. Get all the information you can from the client. Ask questions such as: 3 What is the budget? 3 What is the time frame? 3 Who is the audience? 3 What do you want the reader to do? 3 Who are your competitors? 3 How have you reached your audience in the past? 3 What is the existing corporate identity?
Much is known about what reading easy. Generally, lines of text more than ten or twelve words long are difﬁcult for the eye to track back and forth; as a result, designers utilize columns. Indents at the beginning of each paragraph create a visual cue that a new thought is being introduced. Certain typefaces are easier to comprehend in a paragraph, and others can make a headline catch the reader’s eye. 9
Find out what the client wants to achieve with the publication. Determine how to reach those goals. This does not mean that you should give in to every suggestion your client makes. The good designer offers general directional ideas, pointing out what can be achieved within the time and budget constraints. More speciﬁc design ideas evolve as your project develops. Electronic design with programs such as Aldus PageMaker offers the further option of direct participation by the client in design development. Some electronic designers are comfortable with clients working beside them at the computer. This can facilitate a very workable synthesis of ideas -- or it can be disastrous. It also can dispel a client’s perception that you just push a button and it is done -- like magic! As a designer, you must establish comfortable boundaries.
While you organize, be careful not to change the meaning of the copy provided to you. Paul Rand ( designer of the famous IBM logo), decries the ease with which electronic publishing allows the emphasis of ideas in copy to be altered by a designer. The designer should never inﬂuence editorial content arbitrarily.
A fourth rule of design: Establish a rhythm.
After you establish a hierarch with the organization of headlines, subheads, body text, pull quotes, captions, and sidebars -- you can begin to create a rhythm. In a typical book, rhythm can be established by the continuation of layout from one page to the next. This layout could include parallel columns of body copy, even
A third rule of design:
Establish hierarchies and organize your information. A hierarchy is a series of priorities for your design. Group articles into similar categories that use the same styles for heads and body copy. Choose appropriate sections of copy for sidebars or pull quotes. Some introductory text may beneﬁt from a larger point size or different colour. Determine where graphics will best support a topic or idea. 10
or ragged-bottom margins, and the size and placement of graphics or photos -- all important for developing page rhythm. A tool that can help a designer establish rhythm is the thumbnail sketch -- a small sketch of where basic elements on a page will go. Rhythm of a layout can be established quickly -- in broad strokes and small size -- using the thumbnail sketch. One difﬁculty of electronic page layout is that it discourages thumbnail sketching; the designer focuses on the rhythm of the design. Keep the big picture in mind, as well as the details.
A ﬁfth rule of design:
A sixth rule of design:
Work within your own limitations. You cannot do more than the constraints of your time frame, budget, or abilities. As the designer, you interpret what is possible within the given parameters. Evaluate your strengths and weaknesses, and design according to your abilities. As the designer, you interpret what is possible within the given parameters. Evaluate your strengths and weaknesses, and design according to your abilities. Illustrate, if you are a good illustrator. Don’t attempt to create four colour process artwork if you don’t understand
Pay attention to detail.
Nothing affects the quality of the design more than typographical errors or sloppy mistakes, such as rules that don’t meet or uneven columns. It always is difﬁcult to see your creation in an objective, fresh way; that is why it is a good idea to have someone else proofread for errors, consistency, and detail in your layout. Just as important is to take the time to run out ﬁnal laser proofs before sending the ﬁle for ﬁnal output -- no matter how urgent the deadline. Skipping this crucial step invites disasters ranging from missed deadlines to a budget destroyed by the cost of extra image setting -- or worse yet, a job that must be reprinted -- at great cost to your client, or maybe yourself. 11
how it works. You will be much more successful if you do what you do well, and call in experts when you need them. At the same time, work to expand your own abilities.
A seventh rule of design: Design for your ﬁnal output.
Output realities will inﬂuence electronic design decisions. Fro instance, if you plan to use a laser printer to run off 200 ﬂyers, it would be foolish to scan graphics with a high resolution, because the printer can only print at 300 dots per inch. If you are imaging directly to ﬁlm, you will not be able to physically paste in graphics that have not been converted to electronic format. If you are sending your publication by modem to a service bureau, you must build in the time it will take to send the ﬁles, especially if they include complex graphics.
An eighth rule of design: Involve your printer up front.
The importance of this rule cannot be overstated. You should know who will print your work, the shop’s capabilities, and have your questions answered even before you begin to design. The following list is only partial. Each project will involve speciﬁc additional questions:
3 When will you need camera-ready art? 3 Who is your contact person? 3 Where can I save money by making design changes? 3 What pre-press tasks will be needed for this job? Who should do them? 3 Do you prefer ﬁlm or paper? Negatives or positives? 3 What line-screen value should be used for halftones? (Assigned to scans used in PageMaker, varying for different printing processes.) 3 What colour matching systems do you support (PANTONE, Trumatch, and so forth)? 3 Will I see a blue line? (Composite proof generated from ﬁlm negatives.) 3 Will I do a press check? (Checking the ﬁrst few printed pieces before the full run is printed.) 3 When will the work be ﬁnished? 3 What is the rush charge policy? Good printers are happy to answer these and other questions because they know that planning early pays off. Check through camera-ready art with your printer.
3 What are the ﬁnancial terms?
Design Basics & Applications GATHERING BACKGROUND INFORMATION
3 Why is this publication required? What is the main message you want to convey?
The following information will assist you in gathering the necessary information before you begin creating your publication:
3 What is the length of the publication? 3 What type and size of paper will be used? 3 What is the life of the publication? 3 Will the publication require regular updating? 3 How will the publication be produced? 3 How much money do you have to spend to produce the publication? 3 When is the publication required?
3 Who are the prospective readers you want to reach? 3 What image do you want your publication to project? 3 What is the purpose of the publication? 13
Background Info Detail GATHERING BACKGROUND INFORMATION The following questions will assist you in gathering the necessary information before you begin creating your publication.
WHO are the prospective readers you want to reach?
Your audience will determine a number of design decisions. If the likely
readership consists of children, for example you may include additional pictures and graphics to attract and hold their interest. For an elderly readership the type selected would have to be slightly larger for ease of reading. The same applies for people with poor eyesight or persons who are forced to read material in low-lighting conditions. Is your readership a captive audience? How much do they already know about the subject of the publication? Another consideration is the social and cultural background of the readers. Some desktop publishers have incorporated North American-oriented graphics and text into their publications only to find that these are inappropriate or insulting to certain segments of the population or to overseas audiences.
WHAT image do you want your publication to project? A publication is characterized by its contents in terms of text and graphics information, its design and layout, as well as the quality of the paper used. It is important that you consider these factors when you create your publication so that they are appropriate for your reading audience. usiness institutions want their publications to suggest that they are solid, dependable and well informed. Scientific joumals want to project an image that the profession is scholarly, reliable, dependable and formal. Travel brochures might make extensive use of coloured photographs to suggest adventure, escape and excitement. 14
WHAT is the purpose of the publication?
Determine the prime purpose of your publication: Is it to inform, persuade or entertain the reader? Do you want the reader to take some action such as to fill out a form to join an organization) to order a product from your catalogue), or to respond to an invitation to an investment seminar)?
WHY is this publication required? What is the main message you want to convey?
The message of a publication is closely akin to its purpose. Ask yourself what message you want the reader to receive. If, for example, the publication is a flyer advertising an apartment for rent, the information provided should describe such positive features as its size, address, proximity to public transport, and include specialized features such as air conditioning, building security, and recent remodelling. Such a publication would also include a telephone number or some other means by which interested readers could contact the rental agency. The flyer might incorporate a picture of the exterior or interior of the apartment.
WHAT is the length of the publication?
The length of the publication will be determined by the type of publication being produced. An advertising flyer or invitation may be one page in length, a newsletter or restaurant menu four to twelve pages, while a technical manual or business report.
WHAT type and size of paper will be used?
The cost of paper could become a significant part of the total printing bill. Paper can be selected for its quality, weight and handling properties. Newspapers and newsletters, for example, are often printed on inexpensive newsprint. An invitation should be printed on quality paper that reflects its importance and the information it presents. Restaurant menus and business cards are normally printed on stiff paper or cardboard to withstand repeated use. Most business documents are printed on standard 8 1/2â€? x 11â€? 21.25 cm x 27.5 cm) paper. Invitations and business cards are printed on a smaller-sized paper but often more than one copy is produced on each page. If a nonstandard paper size is required for a publication, make certain that your printer has the capability to handle the size you want to print. Remember too that printing on odd-sized paper may increase the cost of the publication.
WILL the publication require regular updating?
Publications such as magazines and newsletters are produced on a regular basis. Other documents are updated when a significant amount of the information in the earlier version has changed. These publications are best prepared using a master page template a framework model that ensures that the same design is followed throughout successive editions). The template would contain repetitive layout information such as margins, headings, etc. The variable items or elements that are unique to this issue are then inserted into the template.
HOW will the publication be produced?
WHAT is the life of the publication?
Some publications will be read once while other publications are intended to last for a period of time. Flyers, newspapers, and newsletters are normally read and then thrown away or recycled. Menus and business cards, however, are normally reread a number of times.
You will have to decide what hardware and software you are going to use. Your decision will be based on availability and the desired quality of your publication. The method of reproduction making copies) for your publication will depend upon the equipment you have available, the quality of the end product you desire, the number of copies you need, and the amount of money you have budgeted for the project. Publications such as invitations to birthday parties might require a few dozen copies to be produced while several thousand copies of a newsletter may be required. A final copy of the birthday invitation could be produced on a laser printer. Additional copies could be reproduced on a photocopying machine. 16
creases the total cost of publishing because of the significant cost of paper. It is common to establish an initial budget that is examined as the project progresses. Often there are trade-offs between what you would like to do and what you can do within a set budget.
WHEN is the publication required?
Magazines, newspapers, and newsletters that are published regularly have deadlines that must be met. Even if your publication does not have a time restraint, you should prepare a realistic production schedule. Often a project will expand to fill the time available and you will find yourself in a perpetual state of revision. Normally, a camera-ready final, ready to be printed) copy of the newsletter would be saved in a file and transmitted to a professional printing service for printing on a highspeed photocopier or printer.HOW much
money do you have to spend to produce the publication?
Cost will always play a part in the publication process. Factors such as the time required to create the publication, the number of photographs and non-textual elements used, the importance of the publication, the binding and packaging to be used must all be considered. The reproduction costs must also be taken into account. Generally, the larger the number of copies made, the lower the cost of each copy; however, a long printing run in17
Question To Ask 3 What is the basic nature of the publication? 3 Will it be printed or distributed over the Internet? 3 Is it going to be published as both a print and PDF publication.? 3 How many pages will it have? 3 If will be a multi page document, will it have facing pages like a book or will it be single-sided like a ﬂip chart? 3 How many columns will each page have?
Before you begin, there are several questions you must answer about the publication you will be designing and producing:
3 If the publication is for the Internet, will you create a HTML document or a PDF ﬁle? 3 What about the content of the publication?
3 How wide will the margins be? 3 Will you be using colour? 3 If so, how many colours? 3 What kind of paper will it be printed on?
3 What programs were used to create the text ﬁles and graphic ﬁles that the publication will contain?
3 What kind of printer or printing press will 3 What formats were used for text be used? and graphic ﬁles? 3 How will the publication be distributed? 3 What is the most effective way 3 Under what circumstances will it be read? 3 what is the life expectancy of the publication?
to present the content given the production requirements and budget?
Once you answer the above questions, a rough image of your publication will take shape in your mind. Many designers still prefer to use a drawing pad and pencil to roughly sketch out their design before they start the pagelayout program like InDesign. Others do their brainstorming and sketching on the ﬂy, using their favorite software. 18
2 3 3 3 3 3 3
ELEMENTS OF DESIGN Elements of Design Mass Lines Texture Shapes Colour
Elements of Design
The elements of design are the building blocks of all designs, chosen to convey the message beyond the actual words or photos used. Desktop publishing documents utilize the ﬁve elements of design : lines, shapes, mass, texture, and color. Other concepts sometimes listed as elements of design are form, space, and value (as in lightness or darkness of color).
The basic design elements:
Lines can take many forms. They can be loose and free or they can be straight and sharp. Lines can create patterns which adds emotional impact to the visual image. Lines can also be used as forms of universal language in communication.
The three basic shapes: square, circle, and triangle. Each of these shapes have a psychological meaning associated with it. The triangle has the attitude of conﬂict or action. The circle gives the feeling of protection or inﬁnity. Honesty or equality is associated with the square.
Mass refers to the size or amount of space taken up by an element. The mass or solid, plus the shape, tend to give relationship with other elements. The various weights of different shapes can be used to emphasize type styles.
Texture is a part of every printed image. The
ﬁrst reaction is to touch the surface. Texture can be produced by lines that form images. However, this element is usually visual and no reaction would be received through the sense of touch. Actual texture can be produce by embossing.
When color is used on a layout, it causes that part of the layout to attract attention. Color can have a strong emotional and psychological impact on the reader. It can be used to add interest and to reduce boredom. Yellow, orange, and red are considered warm colors and often denotes aggression, excitement, and danger. Blue, green, and violet are considered to be cool colors and are associated with nature and passiveness. 20
Lines are one of the basic elements of design. Alone or in combination with other lines or shapes they can aid in the readability, appearance, and message of a design.
of the same general appearance or lines that are quite different can form a variety of patterns that create textures, suggest movement, or lead the eye - the same as single lines.
Use lines to:
If you arenâ€™t creating original illustrations or doing logo design, your main concern with this part of the study of lines is being able to recognize these patterns in the illustrations you may select for your work and understand how these patterns may or may not project the image you want for your project. These bits of line patterns illustrate static, dynamic, and random use of lines.
3 guide the eye 3 convey universal meanings 3 Organize, connect, separate 3 Create movement 3 Provide texture 3 Convey a mood or emotion 3 DeďŹ ne shapes 3 Provide emphasis, make a statement 3 Provide a framework 3 Appearance of Lines A line is a mark connecting two points. How we get from point A to point B gives the line its distinctive character and appearance. Lines can be long or short, straight or curved. Lines can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal. Lines can be solid, dashed, thick, thin, or of variable width. The endings of lines can be ragged, blunt, or curved. ( p h o t o Appearance of Lines.bmp and lines 2)
Line Patterns Lines are often found in pairs or groups. Lines
(examples are in the photo Line Patterns)
Uniform vertical black and white lines alternate at even intervals. Static. Orderly. Conservative. Upper Right: Uniform horizontal black lines are widely, but evenly spaced. Static. Stable. Orderly.
Uneven spacing of otherwise uniform lines creates the impression of movement. Dynamic. Orderly progression.
In this example the progression moves in from either side giving 21
the illusion of roundness. Dynamic. Orderly progression. Dimension.
Lower Left: Varying line widths and distances create a random pattern. Dynamic. Chaotic. Disorderly.
Lower Right: While the uniform size and spacing of the lines in the upper examples are static, make the lines into curves and you get movement although it is a controlled movement. Dynamic. Orderly ďŹ‚ow.
well-known example, the AT&T logo, is a pattern of thick and thin lines arranged in a circular shape. Look at ads, newsletters, business cards, books, and other projects with an eye on lines. Are the lines used prominently? Are they part of a logo or used in other ways to divide the page or add decoration?
Seven types of lines: 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Lines Keep an eye out for brochures, ads, newsletters, graphics, logos, and other print projects that include examples of lines, look for materials around you that include lines of all kinds. Youâ€™ll refer to these examples in some of the lessons in this class. Lines can be long or short, straight or curved. Lines can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal. They create patterns. Lines in graphic design can be solid, dashed, thick, thin, or of variable width.
1. horizontal lines 2. vertical lines 3. diagonal lines 4. curved or freeform lines 5. lines used in a pattern 6. non-solid (dashed, dotted, etc.) 7. lines (photo lines)Lines, an element of design
Practical Use of Lines
Sometimes a designer uses a line alone to divide or unite elements on a page. Lines can denote direction of movement (as in diagonal lines and arrows) or provide an anchor to hold elements on a page (such as lines at the top, bottom, or sides of a page). You can use lines in conjunction with other elements of your design. One
Whether lines appear as part of a graphic element, such as a logo or illustration, or the 22
lines themselves are the graphic element, such as frames and dividers, use them purposefully in the overall design.
The examples below demonstrate a few of the ways lines might be used in page layout or illustration. You can probably ﬁnd examples all around you as well. (photo Designing with rules.bmp)Above, a solid line separates columns of text, a pair of lines set apart a phrase, and a short dotted line separates a section of text from other parts of the page. (photo Use of lines 1) A few simple lines added to a piece of clip art gives a sense of movement to the airplane. Short, choppy, vertical lines create a grooved texture along the edge of the timepiece sketch. (photo Practical Use of Lines example 3.bmp)Dashed lines suggest a coupon, whether there is one or not. It causes many of us to take a second look at this ad because the familiar dashed line makes us think “I can save money!”
When using clip art in your page layout, pay attention to the lines within the image. The lines of the clip art shouldn’t interfere with or conﬂict with the
tone of the design or other line elements used in the piece.
Printing Tip: Don’t use the ‘hairline’
rule setting in your page layout or graphics program because not all program deﬁne hairline rules in the same way. Hairline rules that are too thin may disappear when printing to a high resolution imagesetter. Specify a speciﬁc size such as .25 points.
Lines Rule! Rule is another name for a line in graphic design. Use rules as decorative elements and as functional parts of the overall layout to separate, offset, or anchor areas of the page. Examples of Horizontal Rules (photo Examples of Horizontal Rules) Rules are normally expressed in point sizes although some programs use inches by default. A hairline rule is the smallest size and is usually about one-fourth of a point. Most page layout programs come with several preset “one-click” width rules usually from hairline to 8, 16, or 24 points. However, you can customize rules for other sizes including partial sizes such as 1.5 or 2.6 points. Solid rules aren’t the only possibility. Some software programs offer a wide variety of pre-set rules styles or you can create your own. Make rules from round, square, or diamond-shaped dots. Mix dots and dashes in a pattern. Combine solid or non-solid rules 23
Also Known As: vertical rules | lines | column dividers (photo Downrules) A vertical rule or downrule separates adjacent columns of text.
Designing With Rules Some ways to use rules in your design: in different sizes. And don’t forget, rules can be vertical and diagonal too. Due to varying screen resolutions, the widths in image are only approximate representations.
Add a border to a graphic or table. Place above and/or below headlines, titles. Use at the top and/or bottom of pages to deﬁne the shape of the page or to separate header and footer text from other copy.
Deﬁnition: In page layout, rules are lines used to separate, organize, emphasize, or otherwise decorate a page. Downrules refer speciﬁcally to vertical rules placed between columns of text, used to provide greater visual separation between the columns. Place downrules between columns of text to keep the readers eye from jumping the alley (space between columns) and becoming confused. Use narrow downrules, especially in
Separate columns of text. Offset sidebars, pull-quotes, or other blocks of text. (photo Designing With Rules)
Use rules with restraint and appropriately: Too many rules are distracting and interrupt the ﬂow of text. Don’t box in every element on the page.
Use appropriate size rules. narrow spaces to avoid visually overpowering the page and running into adjacent text.
Thick rules can overpower delicate text and rules that are too thin fade away into the background. 24
Pay attention to spacing.
your drawing program may have a different
Put enough space between text and rules to avoid ascenders or descenders running into the rules. When placing rules above and below or to the left and right of a block of text, make sure the distance between text and rules is visually balanced on both sides.
Some ways to attractive rules:
Use dots or dashes instead of solid lines. Pair up thick and thin rules for double lines. Use rules in a spot color or tint. Use a group of rules in the same or varying thicknesses and lengths as design elements that draw the focus to an important element of the design.
Reverse text out of a thick rule. Rules Tips and How-to’s Most page layout programs have the ability to create a variety of default rules and often you can create custom rules within the program. More elaborate rules may require a graphics program. Not all hairline rules are created equal. Specify a speciﬁc size, such as .25 pt. to avoid surprises when printing to different printers, especially imagesetters which may view the “hairline rule” setting as larger or smaller than the software you used to create it. Another reason not to use pre-deﬁned hairline rules. The hairline rule you deﬁne in
weight then the rule you speciﬁed in your page layout program.
Logo Design 3 Use Lines in Logo Design (photo Use Lines in Logo Design) 3 Lines come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Don’t get stuck in a rut. 3 Vary the thickness of the lines. 3 Make lines of dots, dashes, or combinations. 3 Look at the patterns that a series of lines make. 3 Use lines to direct eyeﬂow. 3 Use lines to form barriers. 3 Use lines to indicate connections. 3 Use lines to show movement. Be aware of what the shape of lines can convey. Sharp edges could indicate tension, crispness, hardness, formality, or high tech. Soft edges and curves may be softer, ﬂowing, more casual, or more personal.Even small changes in line thickness, endings, or shape changes can alter the look and feel of a design. In the “Advanced” logo design example, the lines that make up the triangle (letter A) go 25
from thick at the bottom to thin at the top. They also suggest a set of steps (advancement) leading upward. Notice how the round line endings give the hammer drawn freehand with straight and curved lines a softer feel. The second version of the iﬁche logo design uses rounded line endings and more curves (in the ﬁns/lashes). Notice that a different typeface is chosen for each, to match the style of lines. You can also create interesting patterns with a series of repeating lines. None of these designs rely on color -- although changes in color can further change the appearance of the lines.
A heavy rule with a mug shot sitting on or hanging from the line can become a department head for a recurring section in a newsletter. Place mug shots to the left or right of column dividers to create little ﬂags. Dangle pictures from a dotted or wavy line. Use rules of different lengths or sizes to create a pattern behind or around individual images.
When using clip art in your page layout, pay attention to the lines within the image. The lines of the clip art shouldn’t interfere with or conﬂict with the tone of the design or other line elements used in the piece.
Printing Tip: Don’tuse the ‘hairline’
rule setting in your page layout or graphics program because not all program deﬁne hairline rules in the same way. Hairline rules that are too thin may disappear when printing to a high resolution imagesetter. Specify a speciﬁc size such as .25 points.
Create New Graphic Elements with Photos and Rules (photo Photos and Rules)
Combine mug shots with rules and dividers
Combine mug shots with other elements. 26
Shape is one of the basic elements of design. Alone or in combination with other shapes or lines they can convey universal meanings as well as guide the eye or organize information. The three basic types of shapes are geometric, natural, and abstract. Geometric shapes are structured, often symmetrical shapes. These include squares, circles, and triangles but also octagons, hexagons, and cones.
ics or in the way the elements are placed on the page.
six shapes: 3 square (not-rectangle) graphic element 3 square (not-rectangle) text blocks 3 circle graphic element 3 triangle graphic element 3 circle, triangle, or freeform text blocks 3 paper in other than a rectangle (diecut brochures or business cards or perhaps a non-rectangular ad amid a sea of rectangular ads in a newspaper)
Natural shapes are found in nature or they can be manmade shapes. Leaves are an example of a natural shape. An ink blob is a natural shape. Natural shapes are often irregular and ﬂuid. Abstract shapes are stylized or simpliﬁed versions of natural shapes. Symbols found on signs, such as the stylized wheelchair shape for handicapped access, is one example. For the purposes of this class we’ll focus on the three basic geometric shapes of squares (and rectangles), circles, and triangles but lesson 4 will also brieﬂy address natural and abstract shapes.
(photo shapes)Shapes, an element of design
Identify Geometric Shapes
Circle, square, and triangle are the three basic shapes used in graphic design. Perhaps the most familiar shape to desktop publishing is the square (and rectangle). Paper is rectangular. Most text blocks are square or rectangular. While you may encounter printed projects cut into other shapes, most circles, triangles, and freeform shapes in desktop published materials are found on the page within the graph-
The square denotes honesty and stability. Squares are familiar, trusted shapes. Because the vast majority of the text we read is set in squares and rectangles, it has become familiar, safe, and comfortable. Squares and rectangles are probably the most common geometric shapes we encounter. A few books, especially those for kids, may be 27
cut in irregular shapes but adult (i.e. ‘serious’) cor respondence comes in squares - both the physical shape of the
books, magazines, newspapers, andthe rectangular columns of set text. Some designers might equate square with boring. It’s true that other, unexpected shapes, can grab attention better than the simple square but don’t forget the importance of comfort and familiarity. Imagine how difﬁcult it becomes to ﬁle everyday correspondence if letterhead came in a variety of triangles or freeform shapes. Try reading an entire book with all the text set in circles. Squares and rectangles deﬁnitely have a place in design. Some ways you can use squares and rectangles: To symbolize honesty, stability, equality, comfort, or familiarity. It could also symbolize rigidity or uniformity. Related to the ﬁrst bullet item, use repeating squares to suggest familiar themes (checkerboard pattern to represent a game board, the checkered ﬂag at the end of a race, a tablecloth). To highlight, organize, or set apart information using a solid or outlined box. Use a square unexpectedly. Set a block of text in a solid or outlined but tilted box with or without also tilting the text. 28
Circles suggest inﬁnity. They are also protective (think of protective encircling arms). They can also denote free movement such as a rolling ball or a more controlled movement such as a spinning globe.
about any round fruit or vegetable, a target, the earth). To highlight, apart inusing
The sense of movement is often enhanced through shading or the use of lines (as suggested in Class 2 on Lines).
organize, or set for mation a solid or outlined circle. Try a
Outside of logo designs, circles are less common elements of design which makes them good for grabbing attention, providing em p h a si s, and breaking up familiar rectangular blocks of text. You could set text in circles or simply use a circle as the background for more traditional blocks of text.
Some ways you can use circles: To symbolize inﬁnity and protectiveness. Circles could also suggest something wellrounded or complete. Similar to protectiveness, circles could also imply security.
Related to the ﬁrst bullet item, use circles to suggest familiar themes (bullet holes, a stack of cannonballs, a bunch of grapes -- or just
freeform circle that looks like it was drawn with a marker or pen to highlight important text. Replace the letter O or other ‘round’ letters in text with a circular shape that suggests 29
that letter. Try an orange in the word Orange Triangle Shapes or a basketball, baseball, or soccer ball to re- Triangles suggest action. They are dynamplace an O or other letter in the nameplate of ic. Triangles may convey either conﬂict or a sports newsletter. strength. Triangles can direct movement (up, down, left, right — depending on which way they ‘point’) but rather than moving themselves, they point the way for the reader. Triangles are suggestive of many different shapes and ideas. They can represent a religious Trinity, a pyramid, a ﬂag or pennant, an arrow, a beacon.
Some ways you can use triangles:
To symbolize action or conﬂict. In a logo, a triangle might be better suited to a growing, dynamic high tech company than the more stable, familiar square, for example.
Related to the ﬁrst bullet item, use triangles to suggest familiar themes (ﬂag, pyramid, arrow or pointer). A single or a series of triangles can point the eye to important information or act as an arrow to get readers to turn the page. To highlight, organize, or set apart information using a solid or outlined triangle. Use a triangle to suggest progression. Place it behind a ‘Top 10’ list or the steps to accomplish a speciﬁc task. Replace the letter A or V in text with a tri30
anglur shape that suggests that letter. Try a wedge of pie for the letter A in the phrase Amy’s Desserts.
Practical Use of Shapes As with lines, whether shapes appear as part of a graphic element, such as a logo or illustration, or the shapes themselves are the graphic element, such as frames or boxes, use them purposefully in the overall design. Some ways that you might use shapes in your design are to: 3 Organize, connect, separate 3 Symbolize an idea
3 Create movement 3 Provide texture or depth 3 Convey a mood or emotion 3 Provide emphasis 3 Provide a framework 3 Geometric Shapes In addition to the basic square, circle, and triangle discussed so far, other geometric shapes have speciﬁc meanings, some culturally-based. An octagon, especially a red one, usually means stop. A starburst is commonly used to grab attention and identify something that is new, improved, or ‘on sale.’
Natural shapes can add interest and reinforce a theme. Rather than a plain box, frame text with a coiling rope or a spray of leaves or ﬂowers. Use a freeform, non-symmetrical shape to convey a feeling of spontaneity.
Some abstract shapes are almost universally recognized and easily ‘read’ even when the text is in an unfamiliar language. The stylized wheelchair, the male and female symbols for restrooms, and the jagged steps for stairs or an escalator are some examples. Icons are often abstract or stylized shapes. For example, a rectangle with a ‘folded corner’ often indicates a page in a document or a word processing program. A hollow circle or oval with smaller circles on the ‘path’ may be a literal representation of a planetary system or symbolic of a network, such as a computer network. 31
This course isnâ€™t the ďŹ rst time Iâ€™ve addressed the use of shapes in desktop publishing. Read each of the following pages (some are parts of longer articles but you only need to read the one page dealing with shape). Use your back button to return to this page after reading each auxillary page. Use Shapes in Logo Design is part of a longer tutorial on logo design. This page shows examples of how you can use shapes to convey ideas plus more ideas on using shapes to replace letters. In the same logo feature, Combine Lines and Shapes in Logo Design is about using the basic geometric shapes and lines to construct more complex images or to suggest familiar themes.
Introduction to Mass as an Element of Design
Two Kinds of Mass
Mass is size. There is physical size and visual size. Size can be relative. A physically small brochure can have a great deal of mass through the use of heavy text and graphic elements. A physically large brochure can appear smaller, lighter by using text and graphics sparingly. While the paper projects you create have a certain size because of the size and weight of the paper, visual mass — how light or heavy it appears — is also an element of the design. Go through your sample folder of ads, newsletters, business cards, books, and other projects and look at each piece and analyze mass in terms of physical size of the piece and the visual mass. Does it have a heavy, imposing look due to the size or weight of the paper or the density of text and graphics? Is it small and compact or light and airy? Hold the items in your hand to see if they feel light or heavy.
Examples of mass as follows:
physically large physically small visually massive visually small or light (photo Mass)Mass, an element of design 3 3 3 3
Mass and Size
Mass is one of the basic elements of design.
Mass equals size. Each piece you create has a physical mass. Additionally, each element within the design (graphics, photos, lines, text blocks) have their own mass relative to the whole piece. Part of working with mass in desktop publishing is understanding how we measure the various parts of a design such as paper, type, and images.
Mass equals size. Each piece you create has a physical mass. The physical mass or size is the actual dimensions of the piece — height, width, thickness/weight (of paper), and depth (3D objects). Additionally, each element within the design (graphics, photos, lines, text blocks) have their own mass relative to the whole piece. For example, a photo that is physically 3 inches by 5 inches can appear smaller or larger depending on the physical size of the paper it is printed on and the size and proximity (closeness) of other items on the page. 33
Some ways to use mass within your designs:
to accommodate information, content Example: To present all the desired or needed information comfortably a designer may create a bi-fold rather than the usual single business card to accommodate normal size restraints or expectations Example: The postal service has limitations on the height and width of different types of envelopes. If a designer ignores those requirements it could incur additional mailing costs for the client. t o
convey a mood o r provide emphasis Example: A place that is physically large (such as an amusement park) or a business that offers a huge assortment of products may use brochures or other marketing pieces that are larger (physical dimensions) or heavier (weight) than normal
to carry out the ‘bigger’ or ‘more’ theme. to create contrast Example: A designer might design a full-page magazine ad using a single small image in the middle of the page with lots of white space. The contrast between the size of the page and the size of the content (image) draws attention to the image and can create a speciﬁc mood (depending on other elements) such as conservative, elegant, lonely, or open. Sometimes bigger isn’t always better. Take this brochure description for example: 23 1/4 x 16 1/2 inch full color two-sided brochure (folded twice to 8 3/4 x 11 3/4 inch). This brochures opens twice and is visually packed and appears massive due to the following elements: 3 It has a large physical size when opened 3 It is folded down numerous times, and although the paper is thin, glossy card stock, it appears massive due to the number of layers created by the folds. 3 It is densely packed (in my opinion, overwhelmingly over-packed) with bold, multicolored backgrounds and graphic elements, multicolored and shadowed text, and photographs - making it visually massive and heavy. The brochure is packed with information about the software and its applications. I didn’t bother to look at it in any detail because the mass of it made it seem like too much work to get through. — Student ID C011409 34
Look at ads, magazines, brochures, logos, and other printed projects with an eye on mass. Ask yourself why each item is as large or small as it is.
Measuring the Size of Your Design
What is large? What is small? In graphic design and desktop publishing there are many ways to specify size. This part of the class on mass focuses on the mechanics of size and common measurement systems used in desktop publishing. Expect to spend a great deal of time on this portion of the course. What you learn here is critical to DTP. To keep from getting lost, bookmark this page now. The information for this lesson is found in a whole series of previous tutorials on this site. You can come back to this page if you get ‘lost’ in the many pages and supplemental materials covering size and measurements. Auxillary Materials: Size Matters: Measuring Type, Paper, and Images This multiple page complex covers the following topics: 3 Metric Measurements 3 Type Size, 3 Using Picas in Page Layout 3 Paper Size 3 Image Size (measures of resolution)
In addition to the main coverage of each topic you’ll ﬁnd that many pages have a Glossary section with related terms, or How-to pages related to that topic. These are important supplemental information. Review them. There are also offsite links to information elsewhere on the Web that will give you more in-depth information on some topics as needed. If you get lost, come back to this page to resume the Graphic Design Basics Course After you’ve studied the auxillary materials, do the following exercises. Take your time. These exercises are important to your future in graphic design and desktop publishing. Size Matters: Measuring Type, Paper, and Images
Desktop Publishing Measurement Systems
Growing up, all the rulers I ever had usually had markings for centimeters on one side — the side I didn’t use. I thought it was some strange system the math geeks used to make the rest of us feel dumb. Besides, the ruler was still always 12 inches long no matter how they marked it. “25.4 mm worm” just doesn’t have the same ring to it I know that for years there has been talk of switching the U.S. over to the metric system. 35
Until I started doing a little research, I never realized that almost every industrialized nation except the United States uses the metric system. Whether you are for it, against it, or don’t care one way or the other, chances are that if you do desktop publishing you will run into those funny little “meter measures” at some point. When I originally published this article I said that both the United States and Canada were not using the metric system.Oops! Some Canadian readers set me straight on that one. Yes, Canada uses metric measures, or as one reader wrote, “Up here, we buy by the liter, gram, and kilogram, we travel by the meter it, dividing and multiplying by 10 is easier: .05 meters = 5 cm = 50 mm and one-fourth of 220 mm is 55 mm or 5.5 cm but one-fourth of 8.25 inches is... hmmm... 2.0625 inches (quick, is .0625 = 1/4, 1/5, 1/8, or 3/16?). But for some of us, it’s kind of like learning another language. English is tough enough. Of inches, millimeters, picas, and points
How we measure in desktop publishing 3 General Measurements using the metric system (for non-metric users) 3 Measuring Type using points, xheight, and caps height 3 Page Layout Measurements using picas and points 3 Measuring Paper using ISO and North American sheet sizes 3 Measuring Resolution using SPI, PPI, DPI, and LPI
and kilometer, we roast and freeze(!) in degrees Celsius, we get precipitation in millimeters, and we have forest ﬁres that consume hectares of trees and brushland.” They do however, use the North American standards for paper (“letter”, “legal” etc.) rather than the ISO standards. If you are from a country where metrics are the standard unit of measure, you may wonder what all the fuss is about. No doubt about 36
Textures Introduction to Texture as an Element of Design
Texture is always a part of our designs whether intentional or not. It is the visual or tactile surface characteristics of a piece. In desktop publishing, texture comes from the paper we use. We may also add visual textures through the arrangement of lines and shapes or the use of photographic images of speciﬁc surfaces.
Examples of textures as follows: 3 actual smooth paper 3 actual rough paper 3 visual texture (simulated fabric, stone, or even water etc.printed on the paper) an example of thermography or embossing or, Alternately for item 3, browse the Web and ﬁnd a Web page with a simulated textured background.
For desktop publishing, actual texture is the feel of the paper. Is it smooth to the touch or rough? Textures can also be visual. On the Web, especially, backgrounds that simulate familiar fabrics, stone, and other textures are common. Certain printing and ﬁnishing techniques such as thermography and embossing can add both actual and visual textures to a printed piece. Look at ads, newsletters, business cards, books, and other projects looking for as many different types of actual and visual textures as you can ﬁnd. Can you tell by looking whether a paper will be soft and smooth or rougher? Are the visual textures used in place of actual papers of that texture or do they relate in some way to the purpose of the printed piece (such as a stone texture for a tile company)? See and feel the difference in textures on embossed pieces or other types of raised printing.
(photo Texture)Texture, an element of design
Paper Textures & Finishes
Paper is often something we take for granted. It’s just ‘there.’ Sometimes we have no choice about the type of paper on which our designs are printed. Normally we can’t dictate the paper used for ads in newspapers or magazines. Even when we do have a choice, we’re limited by budget, printing requirements, or other factors. However, paper can be an important textural element in our desktop published documents. Some papers just ‘feel’ better than others. 37
Grab up some paper from around you. Get a newspaper, a magazine, some paper from your printer, and a few different samples from your Class Samples. Close your eyes and touch the different surfaces. Can you identify the general type of paper (newsprint, etc.) simply by touch? Probably so. But also consider how they feel to your touch — smooth, rough, slightly patterned, fuzzy, bumpy, slick, shiny, dull, warm or cold. Familiarize yourself with some of the various surfaces and ﬁnishes used in paper. Explore each of these paper terms related to the surface charateristics and appearance of paper. Some may be familiar to you already. Others will be new.
• Antique Finish
Deﬁnition: An antique ﬁnish is the roughest texture offered in offset paper, it has a natural rough feel with a random texture. Little or no calendering is done to the paper. An antique
ﬁnish has a good printing surface and is common in book papers and cover papers. Also Known As: eggshell ﬁnish Common Misspellings: anitque | anteke
• Cast-Coated Paper
Deﬁnition: A coated paper with a high-gloss ﬁnish is called cast-coated paper. While the coating is still wet the paper is pressed or cast against a polished, hot, metal drum. Alternate Spellings: cast coated
• Cockle Finish
Deﬁnition: An uneven, puckered surface created by air drying paper with a controlled amount of tension is a cockle ﬁnish, often found in bond papers.
• Dull Finish
Deﬁnition: Smooth paper with a low gloss ﬁnish is said to have a dull ﬁnish. More luster than matte but not high gloss. 38
Dull ﬁnish papers can be utilitarian, such as some tissue papers used to stuff shoeboxes or wrap clothing. Dull ﬁnish papers can also be elegant choices for invitations and greeting cards - typically going by more elegantsounding names such as velvet or satin ﬁnish. Also Known As: satin | suede | velvet
• Eggshell Finish
Deﬁnition: An eggshell ﬁnish is found on uncoated, uncalendered paper with a fairly rough texture. It resembles the surface of an eggshell.
• Embossed Finish
Deﬁnition: A design or pattern pressed into paper during the manufacturing process is an embossed ﬁnish. After drying, paper passes between engraved metal rolls to create raised, textured ﬁnishes such as a linen ﬁnish.
• English Finish
Deﬁnition: A smooth, uniform, uncoated book paper that is smoother than paper with a machine ﬁnish is an English ﬁnish.
• Felt Finish
Deﬁnition: An uncoated, uncalendered paper that has a surface texture created by pressing the paper with patterned woven wool or synthetic felt belts during manufacture is paper with a felt ﬁnish.
• Glazed Finish
Deﬁnition: An uncoated, uncalendered paper that has a surface texture created by pressing the paper with patterned woven wool or synthetic felt belts during manufacture is paper with a felt ﬁnish.
• Granite Finish
Deﬁnition: Paper to which multi-colors of ﬁbers has been added to create a mottled surface that somewhat resembles the texture of granite is said to be granite ﬁnish. 39
• Laid Finish
Deﬁnition: Machinemade text or bond paper that simulates the look and feel of handmade paper is said to have a laid ﬁnish. The laid ﬁnish has grids of parallel lines.
• Linen Finish
pers than on glossier ﬁnishes. Common Misspellings: matt ﬁnish
• Mottled Finish
Deﬁnition: An uneven ﬁnish characterized by both dull and glossy areas on the same sheet of paper is a mottled ﬁnish.
Deﬁnition: Bond paper with a fairly smooth, slightly patterned mesh texture applied during the manufacturing process is known as wove ﬁnish. The wove ﬁnish is not a highly patterned ﬁnish and this type of smooth but not slick ﬁnish is often used as writing paper. Also Known As: woven paper
• Machine Finish
Deﬁnition: Smooth ﬁnish paper that gets its surface texture during the papermaking process rather than as a separate manufacturing operation has a machine ﬁnish. Machine ﬁnish papers may be coated by machine on one or two sides.
• Machine Glazed
Deﬁnition: Machine ﬁnished paper - paper made by machine with no texturing or ﬁnishing applied after the paper is made - that has a high-gloss ﬁnish on only one side is machine glazed. Also Known As: mg, machine coated Alternate Spellings: machine glased
• Matte Finish
Deﬁnition: Coated paper with a dull, no-gloss ﬁnish without luster is known as matte ﬁnish. Colors often appear softer on a matte ﬁnish. Text can be easier to read on matte ﬁnish pa-
• Natural Finish
Deﬁnition: Paper manufactured with a soft, slightly fuzzy surface is natural ﬁnish.
• Onionskin Paper
Deﬁnition: Onionskin Paper is a lightweight, durable rag paper normally with a cockle ﬁnish although other glazed and unglazed ﬁnishes are available. Onionskin has a basic size of 17” x 22” 40
Examples: Normally used in carbon sets, interleaved between pieces of carbon paper for typing duplicates.
• Parchment Paper
Deﬁnition: Once made from animal skins, the parchment paper look is now achieved by treating paper from cellulose ﬁbers with sulfuric acid. Parchment paper is characterized by a hard surface, high wet-strength, resistance to grease and dirt. Some imitation parchment paper has the mottled parchment look printed onto the paper. Examples: May be used for certiﬁcates and diplomas or anytime an “old-fashioned” look is desired.
• Supercalendered Paper
Deﬁnition: Calendered groundwood paper made using alternating chrome and ﬁber rollers that makes a very smooth, thin sheet of paper is known as supercalendered paper. Examples: Supercalendered paper is typically used for magazines, catalogs, and directories. Also Known As: SC Paper Common Misspellings: supercalendared
• Vellum Finish
Deﬁnition: Calendered groundwood paper made using alternating chrome and ﬁber rollers that makes a very smooth, thin sheet of paper is known as supercalendered paper. Examples: Supercalendered paper is typically used for magazines, catalogs, and directories. Also Known As: SC Paper Common Misspellings: supercalendared
• Wove Finish
Deﬁnition: Bond paper with a fairly smooth, slightly patterned mesh texture applied during the manufacturing process is known as wove ﬁnish. The wove ﬁnish is not a highly patterned ﬁnish and this type of smooth but not slick ﬁnish is often used as writing paper. Also Known As: woven paper
Design Concept & Texture
Varying paper surfaces can dramatically or subtly alter the mood you want your designs to convey. An exercise from Using Design Basics To Get Creative Results by Bryan L. Peterson uses the example of a piece of jewelry placed against two totally different surfaces — a shiny tile of black Formica vs. a piece of cement. Translate this same concept to paper and imagine a photograph of a well-preserved vintage automobile printed on extremely smooth, glossy paper or printed on a rough, pepply surface. Neither one is necessarily better or worse. It depends on the mood you want to convey. Increased contrast between the image (and it’s visual texture) and the actual surface of the paper can create interest in your design. When selecting paper, choose a texture that is related to the concept of your design and doesn’t overwhelm or get in the way of the message. While you can make a bold statement with texture, sometimes a subtle texture that stays ‘in the background’ is most appropriate. Make sure that your texture works with your choice of type and images so that text does not become unreadable or images 41
unrecognizable. It may be necessary to use a bolder typeface if your paper is rough or strongly patterned. Here is an example of paper texture: Unexpected contrast: In a brochure promoting a computer-related service: “The gray color also evokes a high-tech, sterile mood, although I might expect a glossier surface to go along with that, rather than the sensual feel of the textured stock.” — Student ID S011203 My comments: “...the softer texture may indeed have been meant to soften and humanize the high-tech image.”
(photo photo testure 1) Textures: smooth glass bottles; fabric of the potholders
Everything around us has a texture. Sometimes we can simulate those textures with paper, but more often the textures we create in our designs are visual rather than tactile. However, those visual textures can be just as provocative or full of meaning as actual textures we can touch. It’s extremely easy to ﬁnd or create visual textures for your designs. There are four basic ways to incorporate visual texture.
Objects within photograph
Textures: fairly smooth surface of the chalk; rough surface of the cement
(photo photo testure 2) Textures: worn wooden mallet; grass
(photo photo testure 3) Images created with photo-editing software these textures may mimic actual textures or be imagined textures 3 Texture: mimics drapes or folds in a satiny fabric (photo Images created with photo 1) 3 Texture: simulates a rough, rocky surface (photo Images created with photo 2) 42
3 Texture: random soft circles create an imaginary texture (photo Images created with photo 3) 3 Digitized images of actual textures (from scans, digital photos) 3 Texture: a straw mat (photo Digitized images 3 Texture: piece of door mat made from old tires (photo Digitized images 3 Texture: tree bark (photo Digitized images
of visual textures depending on the actual texture of the paper used. Keep this interaction in mind when using texture. While you can easily simulate a rough texture on smooth paper, using a ‘slick’ visual texture on some rough papers changes the visual appearance. As with paper textures, choose textures that relate to the concept of the piece and are appropriate to the design. Just as some paper textures can interfere with the readability of text, so can visual textures used as backgrounds. Use caution when placing text over heavy or busy visual textures.
Printed Textures Symbolic textures created with lines or shapes these patterns suggest various textures and are similar to the use of symbols or icons to represent ideas or objects 1. Texture: wavy lines could symbolize water, waves, rolling terrain (Photo Symbolic textures ) 2. Texture: overlapping circles give the look of ﬁsh scales (photo Symbolic textures ) 3. Texture: a grid of lines could simulate plaid or linen fabrics, wire mesh, or other textures (photo Symbolic textures ) 4. You can enhance or alter the appearance
Some textures are added after the design process is complete and the project has gone to the printer. Embossing, debossing, foil stamping, engraving, thermography, and varnish are examples of texture added during or after printing. Go to the Glossary to learn more about each of these related texture terms: 3 • Blind Embossing 3 • Debossing 3 • Embossing 3 • Foil Embossing 3 • Foil Stamping 3 • Ink Embossing 3 • Varnish
Introduction to Color as an Element of Design
Color is not essential to a good design. Black and white and shades of gray can create ‘color’ that is just as effective as reds, blues, and greens. However, color is an added dimension that can evoke moods and make powerful statements when used wisely. Color is everywhere. Every single piece in the samples you’ve collected so far, even if it is black and white, exhibits the element of color. Color is used to attract attention. It can be subtle or bold. Color can be found in the paper, the text, or the graphic elements and photos. A monochromatic color scheme uses a single color, perhaps in various tints, while other layouts utilize combinations of two, three, or more colors. Color can be used to ellicit speciﬁc emotions and reactions. Red is typically thought of as an attention-
grabbing, hot color. Blues are more calming or convey stability. Some color combinations are used to create a speciﬁc identity (corporate colors, school colors) or may be used in conjunction with texture to simulate the look of other objects (the look of plain paper wrapping or neon lights, for example).Color may provide cues for the reader. Sometimes considered a separate element of design, value is the relative lightness or darkness of an area compared to the surrounding area. Tints of gray or red are different values of the same color. Changing values can create contrast, movement, and emphasis.
Examples of the use of color and value:
subtle use of color (monochromatic or very little color) bold use of color (bright color, many colors, etc.) black and white only strong contrast in values other than strictly black and white (light and dark areas using tints of the same color or different light and dark colors) ook at ads, newsletters, business cards, books, and other projects and look at the variety of colors, color combinations, and the way color is used. Does the piece derive its main color from the paper? Are colors used throughout in speciﬁc ways such as just for graphic elements or only for headlines? (photo colour)Color and Value, 44
Value is present in all design. It is the lightness or darkness of an object, regardless of color. Value is relative to the background color and other items on the page.
Use value to: Increase Decrease Contrast The greater the difference in value between an object and its background, the greater the contrast. (photos contrast 1,2,& 3)Choose the value that creates the amount of contrast and effect that you want for your design. In the above examples, the lighter value recedes into the light background. The design with the greatest contrast makes the darker object more dominant.
Objects of the same value create a static design with all objects equal in visual importance. Introducing varying values gives the page a more dynamic appearance and creates a ‘pecking order’ among the objects. Some stand out while others recede. (photos Movement1 & 2)Mix elements of different values to add visual movement to your design or to create a hierarchy of importance.
Lead the Eye
By creating a pattern of dark to light values, even when the objects are equal in shape and size, it leads the eye in the direction of dark to light. )photos Lead the Eye 1,2 & 3)In the above example, the ﬁrst set of all dark lines are static. The middle example leads the eye in a downward direction (dark to light). Reversing the values of the lines leads the eye upward. Use color to change the effect of value: Color has the power to override the effects of value. In a high contrast black & white design, introducing a single, small bit of color will change the focus and balance of the design. (photos effect of value 1 & 2)The eye is drawn to that spot of color even if other elements are designed to draw the eye in some other direction or the objects are otherwise equal. That’s the power of color.
Technical Aspects of Color
Before you can go choosing red over blue or mixing light and dark colors, you need to know how color works in print and on the Web. 45
Color Wheels in Desktop Publishing
Did you know that the color wheel you learned in school isn’t the same as the colors used for the Web? It’s not even the way colors are mixed for printing? Well, ok, same colors, just different arrangements and mixes. The traditional primary colors are RED, YELLOW, and BLUE. 3 Mix two primary colors to get the complementary colors. 3 The traditional complementary colors are ORANGE (Red plus Yellow), GREEN (Yellow plus Blue), and PURPLE (Blue plus Red). In grade school you probably had plenty of opportunities to mix primary colors and make new colors. It was magic!
(photos Color Wheels 1 & 2) The way we see color is a bit different. You’ve probably seen a prism break a beam of light into a rainbow of colors. The visible spectrum of light breaks down into three color regions: RED, GREEN, and BLUE. 3 Add RED, GREEN, and BLUE (RGB) light to create WHITE light. Because you ADD the colors to-
gether to get White, we call these the additive primaries. 3 Subtract one of the colors from the other three and you are left with yet another color. RGB minus RED leaves CYAN. RGB minus the BLUE leaves YELLOW. RGB minus GREEN leaves MAGENTA. These are called the subtractive primaries (CMY). Try mixing GREEN and BLUE paint and I bet you don’t end up with a nice CYAN. Why? Because the color we see is reﬂected light and light and ink don’t work in quite the same way.
(photos mixing colour 1 & 2) Now put all this aside for a bit and look at the way we try to reproduce color in print and on the Web.
RGB and CMYK Color in Desktop Publishing
Web vs. Print Color Your computer monitor emits light so it stands to reason that the computer uses the three color regions of RED, GREEN, and BLUE to reproduce the colors we see. Working with images destined for the screen or the Web, we designate colors by the amount of RED, GREEN, or BLUE in the color. In 46
your graphics software these numbers might look like this: 255 RED 255 GREEN 0 BLUE A number between 1-255 designates the amount of each color RED, GREEN, or BLUE. In order for your computer to understand these numbers we translate them into 6 digit hexidecimal numbers or triplets. 255 RED 255 GREEN 0 BLUE becomes FFFF00. The ﬁrst pair (FF) is the Red, The second pair (FF) is the Green, and 00 is the Blue. FF is the hexidecimal equivalent of 255 and 00 is the hexidecimal equivalent of 0. In print, we try to reproduce the colors we see. Remember how color (light) is made by subtracting differing amounts of other colors from the additive primaries (RGB)? Well, in printing when we are mixing (adding) inks together the colors don’t come out as we might expect. Therefore, we start with the subtractive primaries (CYM) and mix those in varying amounts (plus BLACK abbreviated as K) to get the colors we see printed in magazines and books.
Colors are mixed percentages such as:
50% CYAN 100% YELLOW 25% MAGENTA This CMY(K) color model is only one of many ways we can express color for print — but we’ll save that topic for another feature. There are other color-related terms which we’ll address brieﬂy. The overview on the next page will help you see how the different
terms work together and interact to describe the colors we see in the world, in print, and on the Web.
Hues, Tints, Shades, and Saturation Colors
Same Color, Different Colors in Desktop Publishing There are more colors that we can see and create than just Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Yellow, and Magenta. Although we often depict the color wheel as shown above — with blocks of solid color. It is really millions of colors that blend one into another as we move around the wheel. Similar to this color wheel:
(photo Color Wheels 3.bmp)Each of those individual colors is a hue. Red is a hue. Blue is a hue. Purple is a hue. You can change the saturation of a hue by adding black (shadow) or white (light). The amount of saturation gives us our shades and tints. Add varying amounts of black to get shades. Think of the coming darkness and the darkening shadows to remember that a hue plus black equals a shade. Add varying amounts of white to lighten a hue. The light hues are tints. (photo shade & tint) 47
Perception of Color
How We See Color in Print If you thought the primary colors were Red, Blue, and Yellow, with complementary colors of Purple, Green, and Orange, then you need to take a look at part 1 of this feature because for this discussion we rely on the additive and subtractive colors, RGB and CMY. Several factors affect the way we perceive color. One of those factors can be shown by the position of colors on the color wheel in relation to other colors. These color wheels (below) take out the all or some of the transitional colors so that you can more readily see the relationship of the colors to one another. (photos color relationship 1 & 2) Adjacent colors (next to each other) harmonize with one another. They work well together (usually). For example Green and Yellow or Purple and Magenta. Generally one of the colors has a little touch of the other in it (i.e. with the Blue/Magenta pair, Magenta is made up of Red and Blue). Colors separated by another color are contrasting colors. You may also see these referred to as complementary. Red and Green are contrasting colors. The more transitional colors separating two colors, the greater the contrast. For example, Magenta and Orange is not as high contrast as Magenta and Yellow.
Colors that are directly opposite from one another are said to clash. Youâ€™ll note that these clashes occur between primary/complementary or ADDITIVE/SUBSTRACTIVE pairs such as Blue and Yellow or Green and Magenta. While these terms can be useful, t h e y can also be deceiving. The term harmonize sounds nice, pleasant. But some harmonizing colors may appear washed out (yellow/green) or too dark and similar (blue/purple) to work well together. While contrast is often needed to provide optimum readability (such as high contrast between background and text) contrasting colors on the color wheel when printed side by side can appear to vibrate and be very tiring on the eye. Although it sounds bad, sometimes clashing colors can work together in a design depend48
ing on the amount of color and how close they appear together on the page or screen. Shades and Tints of Color Some of the ambiguities of these color combinations can be alleviated with the introduction of black and white, dark and light, shades and tints. Previously we deﬁned shades as the addition of BLACK to a hue (color) and tint as the addition of WHITE to a hue. (photo shade & tint) In using adjacent or harmonizing colors, you can achieve a greater degree of legibility by adding black or white to one of the hues. (photo black shade & whith tint) Create Contrast with Black and White WHITE is the ultimate light color and contrasts well with dark colors such as red, blue, or purple. BLACK is the ultimate dark color and makes lighter colors such as yellow really pop out. Any single or multiple colors can change or rather our perception of them changes due to the other surrounding colors, the proximity of the colors to each other, and the amount of light. A light color appears even lighter when it is adjacent to a dark color (including black). Two similar colors side by side may appear as two distinct colors but placed far apart they start to look like the same
(photo Contrast with Black and White)
Paper and Emotions Affects Color Perception
The amount of light we perceive in a color is also affected by the surface on which it is printed. A shiny RED corvette printed in a magazine ad on slick, glossy paper is not going to look the same as the RED corvette printed in the newspaper ad. The papers absorb and reﬂect light and color differently. Additionally, our color choices are often dictated by the emotions that speciﬁc colors and color combinations evoke. But once we have the colors we want, getting them to print or display as intended is the next step.
Telling the Printer What Color to Print
Choosing the most pleasing or effective color combinations is only part of the equation in working with color. You must also be able to specify the colors you want. For printing 49
there are a number of ways to specify color and it can vary depending on the number of colors used and how you use them. We’ll just go through a few of the possibilities. Tints of a Single Color You can achieve a large variety of effects using a single color (1/C) by specifying that the color be screened (tints). These tints are percentages of the solid color (100%) as depicted below. (photo tint 100, 50, 20) Two or More Colors Combine solids and
screened tints of two or more colors (2/C, 3/C, 4/C etc.). In the example, below, the colors are all combinations of a single color plus black (K) (top three are cyan, bottom three are magenta). (for printing purposes black is a color) They are also percentages. (photo Two or More Colors with tints) PMS Colors To match a color exactly (or as near as printing can get) you can use a system such as the Pantone Matching System. There are others as well. Color mixes are numbered for easy reference. Your graphics program may have color palettes named for some of the more popular color-matching systems.
These allow you to choose colors for your design that correspond to the color-matching system your printer uses. CMYK In four-color process printing, to reproduce full-color continuous-tone color, we use four speciﬁc colors. These process colors are cyan (C), yellow (Y), magenta (M) (the SUBTRACTIVE colors from our color wheel), and black (K). The perception of millions of colors is achieved not by mixing these colors of ink but by printing thousands of tiny dots of each color in different sizes and patterns. The viewers eye “mixes” the colors and sees more than the four colors of CMYK (or sometimes, CYMK). Color Separations In four-color process print-
ing, rather than specifying speciﬁc colors, you 50
create separations [def.] — a different copy of your artwork for each of the four colors. Each copy is printed one on top of the other to create the optical effect of full-color. (photo C Y M K 1, 2) Obviously this is only a quick overview. Hundreds of books and articles have been written about the process of specifying and printing in color.
Specifying Web Colors
In many ways specifying color for the Web is actually much simpler than printing in color. Just as four-color process printing relies on how our eyes interpret dots of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black in varying patterns, our computer screen relies on how our eyes interpret dots of red, green, and blue. Color on the Web is speciﬁed in terms of the amount of red, green, and blue in the color. Black is the presence of 100% of all three. White is the absence of all three. In our graphics program these amounts of red, green, and blue are speciﬁed with numbers for 0-255 (255 being the pure 100% value of the color). 255 RED 255 GREEN 0 BLUE In order for your computer to understand these numbers we translate them into 6 digit hexidecimal numbers or triplets. 255 RED 255 GREEN 0 BLUE becomes FFFF00. The ﬁrst pair (FF) is the Red, The second pair (FF) is the Green, and 00 is the Blue. FF is the hexidecimal equivalent of 255 and 00 is the hexidecimal equivalent of 0. It would appear that there are 256 possible color combinations that you can see on your
computer monitor. Simple enough, until we start talking about browser safe colors and cross-platform color appearance. The truth is, different browsers interpret colors slightly differently and the same color will not appear the same on all computer screens. It’s very much like the way a printed color looks different on different types of paper. In creating color graphics or specifying colors for backgrounds and text for display on the Web there are some things you can do that will help ensure that your colors will look acceptable to the majority of viewers. See our extensive collection of links to color selection, color on the Web, and other color topics.
Spot colors are specially mixed inks that come in a rainbow of colors, including some speciality inks such as metallic and ﬂourescent. Unlike CMYK or process color which creates colors by laying down layer of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black in varying amounts on the printed page, spot colors are pre-mixed and applied individually to the printed page. Learn how spot colors are speciﬁed and used in desktop publishing with emphasis on PANTONE, the dominant spot color printing system in the United States. Other spot color systems include TOYO, DIC, and ANPA. Browse galleries of spot color palettes and tips on designing with spot colors. Spot Colors Expand Color Options in Desktop Publishing 51
Title Just Add Black
3 Overprint black text on screens of the chosen spot colors. For best contrast use light tints. 3 Create duotones with spot colors. 3 Use spot colors consistently. Try using spot colors for all page numbers, pull-quotes, or end signs. 3 Instead of a black or gray drop shadows, use a tint of the chosen spot colors. 3 Combine two or more spot colors along with tints of those colors for even more color possibilities. 3 Take advantage of the unique possibilities available with spot colors by choosing a metallic ink or other special type of ink. 3 Add more colors by choosing a paper other than white. But, remember that the color of the paper will affect the appearance of the printed ink colors. 3 Generally speaking, if using more than four spot colors, it may be more economical to use process or 4-color CMYK printing. Talk to your printer if your job will require many colors to ďŹ nd the best approach.
Color adds impact to design. But unless you are just printing to your desktop printer, printing in color can be expensive. One way to use color and control costs is to use screens (tints) of a single spot color plus black. For more interest, add another spot color. Process printing creates colors by combining four process colors of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. Four plates are needed, one for each color. Spot colors (sometimes called PMS colors) are each a single ink formulation. Because a single plate is needed for the spot color and tints of that color, it is usually more economical to print a spot color job (If adding black, printing requires 2 plates, one for
black and one for the spot color). With careful combinations of solid color, tints, black, and even paper color, a design can be quite colorful without having full-color photos and the expense of 4-color process printing.
Designing with Spot Colors
3 Reverse text out of spot colors. Use solid colors or a dark tint to provide the best contrast.
The PANTONE Matching System (PMS) is the dominant spot color printing system in the United States. Pantone, Inc. sells color guides (known as swatch books) and chips for both their spot colors and for process color printing. For accurate color selection, it is best to choose color based on these swatches (or the swatch books for other color systems). 52
(photos Pantone 3278 and black,Pantone 814 and black,Pantone 300 and black) The illustrations at the top of the sidebar (click the image to see all 3 images) each use black plus one spot color: Ship - Pantone 3278 at 100%, 50%, 30% Airplane - Pantone 814 at 100%, 30%, 20% Musical - Pantone 300 at 100%, 70%, 30%, 15% All illustrations use: Compacta BT, Compacta Lt BT, Compact Bd BT, Arial, and DF Diversities LET When you want to punch up a design without breaking the bank, pick a pretty color and just add black. On the next few pages we’ll explore patriotic palettes based on the ofﬁcial or customary Pantone printing colors for a variety of national ﬂags from Antigua to Vanuatu. In some cases the colors are based on the prescribed color speciﬁcations of the country. Not all countries have ofﬁcial colors matching the Pantone Matching System so a best guess or customary mix is used in these palettes. The Red, White, & Blue palettes feature ten reds and thirteen blues in various combinations. The Yellow palettes combine nine different shades of yellow or orange with red, blue, black, or white. The Green palettes include eight greens with red, white, blue, yellow, or purple.
Definition: Pantone Matching System
The palettes in the patriotic series use the Pantone Matching System (PMS). PMS
colors are a set of spot colors commonly used in printing. By specifying a PMS color you insure that the correct color is printed regardless of what your monitor might display. Most graphics programs come with PMS palettes and more complete PMS colors can be found in products from Pantone, Inc., the company that developed this system. You can also use your graphics program to translate the PMS colors used in this feature to RGB, CMYK, or other equivalents for Web display or process printing. There are other color systems as well, but PMS is probably the most widely used for spot colors.
PANTONE® Spot Color Name Suffixes
Understanding C, U, CV, and other naming conventions in PMS colors The PANTONE® Matching System (PMS) is the dominant spot color printing system in the United States. Printers use a special mix of ink to achieve the color needed. Each spot color in the Pantone system is assigned a name or a number. There are over a thousand Pantone spot colors available. Are PANTONE 3258 C, PANTONE 3258 U, and PANTONE 3258 CVU the same color? Yes and No. While P A N T O N E
3258 is the same ink formula (a shade of green), the letters that follow it represent the apparent color of that ink mix when printed on different types of paper. The letter sufﬁxes of U, C, and M tell us whether that particular color is how it will appear on uncoated, coated, or matte ﬁnish papers, respectively. The coating and ﬁnish of the paper affects the apparent color of the printed ink even though each uses the same formula. You would use these swatch books or color guides to ﬁnd the desired spot color for the type of paper used in your project. Software programs such as Photoshop and CorelDRAW contain color palettes for various printing systems, including PANTONE colors. You can add additional color palettes or create custom palettes for your software.
Quick Suffix Overview:
U = uncoated paper C = coated paper M = matte paper CV = computer video (electronic simulation) 3 CVU = computer video - uncoated 3 CVC = computer video - coated 3 3 3 3
Name That Color
So, which designation should you use when specifying colors? It doesn’t really matter as long as you are consistent. While PANTONE 185 CV and PANTONE 185 CVC are the same ink formula, your software may see them as two different colors, even if your monitor shows them as virtually identical. 54
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
PAGE LAYOUT OR PAGE COMPOSITION Designing a Document 4 Principles Alignment & Alignment Summary Contrast & Contrast Summary Proximity & Proximity Summary Repetition & Repetition Summary
Designing A Document Once you have completed the background work on your project, you are ready to advance to the designing stage. At the early stages of design you must make plans for layout, size, and the use of graphics. A tool which will help you in the design process is a thumbnail sketch.
A thumbnail sketch is a rough illustration of the planned design for your document. You may think of it as brainstorming on paper— you will draw out your suggested layout on a piece of paper and then progress from there. It does not have to be extremely detailed, but it should give you a good idea of the layout of each page, the position of the different text, and graphic elements. A thumbnail sketch is also an organizing tool, much like an outline, because it helps you to preserve the design continuity and ﬂow throughout your document. The thumbnail sketch allows you to make some decisions before the production of your document begins. For instance, how long is the document going to be? If it is to be a four-page newsletter, the thumbnail will help the designer and editor decide on the placement of various features of the publication.
At this stage, ruled lines can be used to represent width and depth of the body type. For ﬁnal design samples these ruled lines should be replaced with “dummy type” if actual copy is not available. Dummy type also represents body type column width and depth, but further utilizes actual font, font size, and leading. The thumbnail sketch can be created either on paper or in some cases with the software page layout program. Most designers create several thumb-nails for a document and then choose the best prospect to be carried through to ﬁnal development.
USING A GRID SYSTEM
As you design your pages, you will ﬁnd that using a layout grid is helpful. A grid provides dotted guidelines which do not print on the ﬁnal document, but which assist you in lining up the elements on each page. It does not have to be complicated and may be as simple as several guidelines deﬁning page margins and outlining columns. 56
The use of a layout grid will help you maintain consistency in the placement of elements on each page. Grids may
graphic spanning two columns by reaching half-way into each. When starting to use a page layout program be sure to check to see how it allows you to create guidelines or grids.
include two, three or four columns. Guidelines should be placed where headlines, headers and footers are going to be located. Using a grid does not mean you are limited to the speciﬁcations it deﬁnes. If you are using a three-column grid for a newsletter, you may ﬁnd that a certain illustration may span two of the columns. The grid will help you maintain consistency and assist in aligning a photograph with the text in the two columns below it. In some instances you may have a
White space focusses the interest of your reader. A single page consisting of nothing but text may soon lose the reader’s interest. On the other hand, a page having too much white space may leave the reader feeling bewildered, because they are not sure where they should look or which element they should look at ﬁrst. White space frames text and graphics allowing your reader to concentrate on the message being presented. This includes the use of margins, space around graphics, use of columns and space between them, and adding extra space between paragraphs, and above and below headings. When planning a document, ensure that you have provided for enough white space to make your document both readable and attractive without detracting from your main message. 57
USE OF PAGES SINGLE PAGES Designing a document which is to be a single page is easier than a multi-page document as you do not have to worry about your design being consistent with the following pages. However, you should try to maintain consistency throughout your page. Some examples of single-page documents include posters, forms, business cards, and invitations.
would like to use in your document. If you have created thumbnail sketches and used a grid system, you will realize how easy it is to deﬁne the size of the columns. This will depend mostly on the type of document you are producing. Books, invitations, reports and letterhead most often contain only a single column. Brochures, newsletters, and magazines may have a format that ranges from two to four columns. Forms and catalogues will often feature numerous columns.
When you design a publication with more than one page, it is important for you to consider what the reader’s eye will see when the publication is opened to its second and third pages. Here they will see a left-hand and a right- hand page. You must remember that the design for these and other “facing” pages should be balanced, and that it should encourage the reader to start reading at the top of the left-hand page and continue through to the end of the right-hand page. You should also be aware that any illustrated material should be kept within the two facing pages of the text that describes it, whenever possible. Facing pages are often referred to as “reader’s spread.”
Early in your design process a decision will have to be made on how many columns you
Columns do not have to be the same size on the page. Some publications feature pages that include one narrow and one wide column. As you create columns, keep in mind the size of type that you have selected to use. The larger the type, the wider the column width should be. Once your columns are deﬁned, you can make decisions concerning the placement of headers. For instance, will the headers be the same from page to page, or reversed? Also, will some headlines span more than one col58
umn? Unless you are an experienced designer, avoid changing the column layout from page to page or within a single page of your document.
When you create columns, you will need to provide space between them. This space is known as the alley (sometimes referred to as the gutter). If you do not allow enough space between columns, your reader will become disoriented and not know when to return their eyes from the end of one line to the beginning of the next.
Margins, in addition to providing white space, deﬁne the edges of each page. Margins also play an important physical role because they allow enough space for your publication (if it is longer than one page) to be folded or bound. If your publication is going to be bound, make note of the side of the page that your wider margin is on. For instance, on a lefthand page, the binding margin will be on the right, on a right-hand page the binding margin will be on the left. This area between the right edge of text on the left-hand page and the left edge of text on the right-hand page is also referred to as the gutter.
and ruled lines in your layouts. Decorative borders are especially effective on menus, invitations and letterhead. Positioning of borders is an important factor in page layout. If the border is placed too close to the edge of the paper, it could draw the reader’s attention away from the text on the page. The thickness and design of the border should complement the amount of text and any graphics which are positioned on the page.
In this section, you have looked at the steps a professional designer takes to create a document. The design process often begins with a few rough sketches, either drawn by hand or executed on the computer, known as thumbnails. One of these will be selected for development of the ﬁnal document. As the sketch is developed, the designer will pay special attention to the amount of white space in the document. tion on a page.
Borders are decorative designs or lines which create a frame for the text in your pages or columns. Use borders sparingly, especially if you are going to use other graphic devices 59
The Four Basic Design Principles The following is a brief overview of the principles. Although they are discussed separately, keep in mind they are really interconnected. Rarely will you apply only one principle.
the idea behind contrast is to avoid elements on the page that are merely similar. If the elements (type, colour, size, line thickness, shape, space, etc.) are not the same, then make them very different. Contrast is often the most important visual attraction on a page.
Repeat visual elements of the design throughout the document. You can repeat colour, shape, texture, spatial relationships, line thickness, sizes, etc. This helps develop the organization and strenghtens the unity.
Nothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily. Every element should have some visual connection with another element on the page. This creates a clean, sophisticated, fresh look.
Items relating to each other should be grouped close together. When several items are in close proximity to each other, they become one visual unit rather than several separate units. This helps organize information and reduces clutter.
When deciding which principles from the vast morass of design theory, I was trying to think of some appropriate and memorable acronym within these conceptual ideas that would help remember them. Well, there is an aronym, which is memorable, but not too appropriate...You decide!
Alignment Summary Design beginners tend to put text and graphics on the page wherever there happens to be space, often without regard to any other items on the page. What this creates is the slightly messy kitchen effect- you know, with a cup here, a plate there, a napkin on the ﬂoor, a pot in the sink, a spill on the ﬂoor. It doesn’t take much to clean up the slightly messy kitchen, just as it doesn’t take much to clean up a slightly messy design that has weak alignments.
The principle of alignment states that nothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily. Every Item should have a visual connection with something else on the page. The principle of alignment forces you to be more consciousno longer can you just throw things on the page wherever there happens to be room. When items are aligned on the page, it creates a stronger cohesive unit. Even when elements are physically separated from each other, if they are aligned there is an invisible line that connects them, both in your eye and in your mind. Although you might have separated certain elements to indicate their relationships (following the principle of proximity), the principle of alignment is what tells the reader that even though these items are not close,
they belong to the same piece.
Do you tend to automatically center everything? A centered alignment is the most common alignment that beginners use-it’s
very safe, it feels comfortable. A centered alignment creates a more formal look, a more sedate look, a more ordinary and oftentimes downright dull look. Take notice of the designs you like. I guarantee that most designs that have a sophisticated look are not centered. I know it’s difﬁcult, as a beginner, to break away from a centered alignment; you’ll have to force yourself to do it at ﬁrst. But combine a strong ﬂush right or left alignment with good use of proximity and you will be amazed at the change in your work. I’m not suggesting that you never center anything! Just be conscious the effect a centered alignment has-is that really the look you want portray? Sometimes it is; for instance, most weddings are rather sedate formal affairs, so if you want to center your 61
wedding announcement, do so consciously and joyfully. Sometimes you can add a bit of a twist on the centered arrangement such as centering the type, but setting the block of type itself off centre. Or set the type high on the page to create more tension. Or set a very casual, fun typeface in a very formal, centred arrangement. You’re accustomed to working with text alignments. Until you have more training stick to the guideline of using one text alignment on the page: either all text is ﬂush left, ﬂush right or centred. Occasionally you can get away with using both ﬂush left and ﬂush right text on the same page, but make sure you align them in some way! When you place other items on the page, make sure each one has some visual alignment with another item on the page. If lines of text are across from each other horizontally, align their baselines. If there are several separate blocks of text, align their left or right edges. If there are graphic elements, align their edges with other edges on the page. Nothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily!
Lack of alignment is probably the biggest cause of unpleasant-looking documents: Our eyes like to see order; it creates a calm, secure feeling . In any well-designed piece, you will be able to draw lines to the aligned objects, even if the overall presentation of material is a wild collection of odd things and has lots of energy. A problem with many non-designers’ publications is a subtle lack of alignment,such as centered headlines and subheads over indented paragraphs. Never center headlines over ﬂush left body copy or text that has an indent. If the text does not have a clear left and right edge, you can’t tell the headline is actually centered. It looks like it’s just hanging around. All these unaligned spots create a messy page: wide indents. ragged right edge of text,centered heads with open space on both sides, centered photo. All those minor misalignments add up to create a visually messy page. Find a strong line and stick to it. Even though it may be subtle and your boss couldn’t say what made the difference between this example and the 62
one before it, the more sophisticated look comes through clearly. Find a strong alignment and stick to it. If the text is ﬂush left, set the heads and subheads ﬂush left. First paragraphs are traditionally not indented. The purpose of indenting a paragraph is to tell you there is a new paragraph, but you always know the ﬁrst one is a paragraph. On a typewriter; you indented ﬁve spaces. With proportional type such as you are using on your
them with an edge and/or a baseline. Even in a piece that has a good start on a nice design, the subtle lack of alignment is often the missing key to a more professional look. Can you see all the places where items could be aligned, but aren’t? Check for illustrations that hang out over the edge just a bit, or captions that are centered under photos, or headlines that are not aligned with the text, or a combination of centered text and ﬂush left text.
computer; the standard typographic indent is one em (an em is as wide as the point size of your type), which is more like two spaces.
I want to repeat: ﬁnd a strong line and use it. If you have a photo or a graphic with a strong ﬂush side, align the ﬂush side of the text along the straight edge of the photo.
Be conscious of the ragged edge of your type. Adjust the lines so your right edge is as smooth as possible.
If your alignments are strong, then you can break through the alignments consciously and it will look intentional. What a concept! ‘
If there are photographs or illustrations, align
It is possible to sometimes break completely 63
free of any alignment, if you do it consciously.
appear, you can always ﬁnd the alignments within.
I am giving you a number of rules here, but it is true that rules are
The basic purpose
The basic purpose of alignment is to unifY and organize the page. The result is similar to what happens when you pick up all the baby toys that were strewn around the living room ﬂoor and put them all into one toy box. It is often a strong alignment (combined, of course, with the appropriate typeface) that creates a sophisticated look, or a formal look, a fun look, or a serious look.
What to avoid made to be broken. There is a rule, though, about breaking rules: you must know what the rule Is before you can break it.
Avoid using more than one text alignment on the page (that is, don’t center some text and right-align other text). And please try very hard to break away from a centered alignment unless you are consciously trying to create a more formal.
Summary of alignment
Nothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily. Every element should have some visual connection with another element on the page. unity is an important concept in design. Even if the separate elements are not physically close on the page, they can appear connected, related, uniﬁed with the other information simply by their placement. Take a look at designs you like. No matter how wild and chaotic a well-designed piece may initially 64
look ďŹ rst or what is important. Contrast makes a page more interesting so the reader is more apt to pay attention to what is on the page. Contrast aids in readability by making headlines and subheadings stand out. Contrast shows what is important by making smaller or lighter elements recede on the page to allow other elements to take center stage.
Contrast with Size
How Contrast Works Use size, value, color, and type to create contrast Contrast is one the principles of design. Contrast occurs when two elements are different. The greater the difference the greater the contrast. The key to working with contrast is to make sure the differences are obvious. Four common methods of creating contrast are by using differences in size, value, color, and type. Contrast adds interest to the page and provides a means of emphasizing what is important or directing the readerâ€™s eye. On a page without contrast, the reader doesnâ€™t know where to
Big and small elements of the same type, such as big and small images and big and small type are the most obvious uses of size to create contrast. Contrasting white space or the physical size of the piece with another element of the design is another method.
Contrast with Value
The relative lightness or darkness of two elements to each other can create a contrast in value. Whether with shades of gray or tints and shades of a single color, the further apart the values the greater the contrast.
Contrast with Colour
Use harmonizing, complementary, and opposite colors to create contrast. Be careful with the value of the colors as well. For example, harmonizing colors (adjacent to each other on the color wheel) can appear washed out if there is not enough difference in the values of each color. 65
Contrast with Type
Type contrast can utilize size, value, and color to create contrasting typographic treatments. Add bold or italics to create contrast. Mix large type with small type. Combine serif with sans serif type to create type contrast. Set portions of text in contrasting colors or varying values. Changes in type alignment create contrast as does type spacing such as extreme kerning for headlines.
Other methods of creating contrast
Other methods of creating contrast include using texture, shape, alignment, direction, movement. Remember, the key is to use a substantial difference. A bold face, a font size change that is barely noticeable, and colors that are too close in value looks more like a mistake than an attempt to provide emphasis or interest.
Some Ways to Use Contrast
3 Add visual interest to a layout of tall skinny columns of text by using wide or irregularly shaped photos. 3 A series of static images with a single picture showing movement will draw the eye to the contrasting image. 3 Align text to the left but set subheads right-aligned in an adjacent column. 66
Proximity Summary Very often in beginners’ designs, the words and phrases and graphics are strung out all over the place, ﬁlling corners and taking up lots of room so there won’t be any empty space. There seems to be a fear of empty space. When pieces of a design are scattered all over, the page appears unorganized and the
information may not be instantly accessible to the reader. The principle of proximity states that you group related items together, move them physically close to each other, so the related items are seen as one cohesive group rather than a bunch of unrelated bits. Items or groups of information that are not related to each other should not be in close proximity (nearness) to the other elements, which gives the reader an instant visual clue as to the organization and content of the page.
When several items are in close proximity to each other, they become one visual unit rather than several separate units. As in life, the proximity, or the closeness, implies a relationship. By grouping similar elements into one unit, several things instantly happen. The page becomes more organized. You understand where to begin reading the message, and you know when you are ﬁnished and the “white space” (the space around the letters) becomes more organized as well. When you create a ﬂyer. a brochure, a newsletter, or whatever, you know which pieces of information are logically connected, you know which information should be emphasized, and what can be de-emphasized. Express that information graphically by grouping it. Sometimes when grouping like items in close proximity, you need to make some changes, such as in the size or weight or placement of text or graphics. Text does not have to be 12 Point! Information that is subsidiary to the main message such as the volume number and year of the newsletter, can often be as small as 7 or 8 point. The idea of proximity doesn’t mean that everything is closer together; it means elements that are intellectually connected, that have 67
some sort of communication relationship, should also be visually connected. Other separate elements or groups of elements should not be in close proximity. The closeness or lack of closeness indicates the relationship.
remembered. As a by-product of organizing the communication, you also create more appealing (more organized) “white space” (designers’ favorite term).
If there are too many separate items, see which ones should be set closer to each other. If there are areas in the page where the organization is not perfectly clear, see if items are in proximity that shouldn’t be.
Squint your eyes slightly and count the number of visual elements on the page by counting the number of times your eye stops. If there are more than three to ﬁve items on the page (of course it depends on the piece), see which of the separate elements can be grouped together into closer proximity to become one visual unit.
Proximity is really just a matter of being a little more conscious, of doing what you do naturally, but pushing the concept a little further.
Summary of Proximity
How to get it
What to avoid
3 Avoid too many separate elements on a page. 3 Don’t stick things in the corners and in the middle. 3 Avoid leaving equal amounts of white space between elements unless each group is part of a subset. 3 Avoid even a split second of confusion over whether a headline, a subhead, a caption, a graphic, etc., belongs with its related material. 3 Create a relationship among elements with close proximity. 3 Don’t create relationships with elements that don’t belong together! If they are not related, move them apart from each other.
When several items are in close proximity to each other, they become one visual unit rather than several separate units. Items relating to each other should be grouped together. Be conscious of where your eye is going: where do you start looking; what path do you follow; where do you end up; after you’ve read it, where does your eye go next? You should be able to follow a logical progression through the piece, from a deﬁnite beginning to a deﬁnite end.
The Basic Purpose
The basic purpose of proximity is to organize. Other principles come into playas well but simply grouping related elements together into closer proximity automatically creates organization. If the information is organized, it is more likely to be read and more likely to be 68
in the same location on every page. Speciﬁc columns or special sections of a newspaper are more readily recognized, even when they change location, if they look the same from issue to issue.
Examples of How to Use Repetition
Use the same font for all your headlines. Use the same graphic rule at the top of all pages in a multi-page document. Put repeating elements (like page numbers) in the same location on each page of a multipage document. Repeating a sequence; having it occur more than a few times. Repetition, or consistency, means that you Using the same style of headlines, the same should repeat some aspect of the design style of initial capitals, or repeating the same throughout the entire document. basic layout from one page to another. Repetition acts as a visual key that ties your piece together — in other words, it uniﬁes it. Repetition controls the reader’s eye and helps How to Get It you keep their attention on the piece as long Think of repetition as being consistent. Then push the existing consistencies a little furtheras possible. The basic purpose of repetition is to unify and turn some of those consistent elements into to add visual interest. Don’t under-estimate part of the conscious graphic design. Do you the power of the visual interest of a page-if a use a 1-point rule at the bottom of each page piece looks interesting, it is more likely to be or under each heading? How about using a 4-point rule instead to make the repetitive eleread. Repeat elements such as a graphic, font style ment stronger and more dramatic? or size. To get started, repeat elements that Then take a look at the possibility of adding elements whose sole purpose is to create a you’re already using. Provide Comfort for Readers with Repetition repetition. Do you have a numbered list of Readers gain comfort from having certain ele- items? How about using a distinctive font or ments repeat themselves at consistent inter- a reversed number, and then repeating that vals or in the same position. It is much easier treatment throughout every numbered list in to ﬂip to the desired page of a magazine if the publication? At ﬁrst, simply ﬁnd existing the reader knows that the page number will be repetitions and then strengthen them. As you 69
get used to the idea and the look, start to create repetitions to enhance the design and the clarity of the information. Repetition is like accenting your clothes. If a woman is wearing a lovely black evening dress with a chic black hat, she might accent her dress with red heels, red lipstick, and a tiny red corsage.
All pages should share a consistent colour scheme. Colour should be used consistently on all pages; if on one page, titles are a particular colour, then they should be that colour on all pages (unless there is a particular reason why not, such as colour-coding for sections).
Graphical elements tend to be “lined up” with each other where appropriate. For example, the top of a news story and the top of a related photograph, might be lined up. This also applies between different pages. If the left margin on one page is 100 pixels, it should be 100 pixels on other pages too. Generally, you can achieve this kind of design consistency by sketching a grid-based design. Graphical consistency Media also look more professional if they are graphically consistent. For example, if Excessive Repetition the ﬁrst page of a publication uses a certain Avoid repeating the element so much that it graphic for bullet points, then this should be becomes annoying or over-whelming. consistent in all the other pages. Use a graphiExcessive repetition (monotony) may lead cal motif to give a more distinctive design, to boredom and uninteresting compositions. with regular repeated elements. If one cannot avoid excessive repetitions for any reason, do not forget to add some visual Summary of repetition breaks and white spaces where eyes can rest A repetition of visual elements throughout for a while. the design uniﬁes and strengthens a piece by Be conscious of the value of contrast. For tying together otherwise separate parts. Repinstance, if a woman were to wear the black etition is very useful on one-page pieces, and evening dress with a red hat, red earrings, red is critical in multi-page documents (where we lipstick, a red handbag, red shoes and a red often just call it being consistent). coat, the repetition would not be a stunning and unifying contrast — it would be overwhelming and the focus would be confused. The concept of repetition says that you repeat design elements throughout the entire piece. The element can be a font style, graphic, line, icons, colors-the list is endless. This is easy to do through the use of character, paragraph, and object style palettes of desktop publishing software like InDesign. These allow you to set elements to certain fonts, colors, locations on the screen, frame style, etc. Go ahead and experiment with them.
4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
TYPES OF DOCUMENTS Advertisements Annual Report Books Brochures Calendars Catalogs Corporate Logos Letterhead
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 71
Business Cards Flyers Invitations Menus Newsletters Newspapers Posters Programs &Resumenes
just found it-in what order do you read the panels? Keep in mind the order in which the panels of a brochure are presented to the reader as they open it. For instance, when a reader opens the front cover, they should not be confronted with the copyright and contact information. The fold measurements are not the same on the front as they are on the back! After you fold your paper sample. measure from left to right on front and back. DO not simply divide 11 Inches Into thirds¬it won’t work.
A brochure can be your number-one marketing tool. Brochures are a quick and inexpensive way to get the word out about your brand new homemade-pie business. school fundraiser. or upcoming scavenger hunt. Dynamic. welldesigned brochures can be “eye candy” for readers. drawing them in and educating them in
A delightful and painless way.
Armed with the basic design principles. you can create eye-grabbing brochures of your own. Before you sit down to design the brochure, fold a piece of paper into the intended shape and make notes on each ﬂap. Pretend you
It’s important to be aware of the folds; you don’t want important information disappearing into the creases! If you have a strong alignment for the text on each panel of the brochure, however. feel free to let the graphics cross over the space between the columns of text (the gutter) and into the fold.
Tips on designing brochures
Brochures created by new designers have many of the same problems as newsletters: lack of contrast. lack of alignment, and too much Helvetica! Arial. Here’s a quick summary of how the principle elements of design can be applied to that brochure you’re working on. 72
As in any other design project, contrast not only adds visual interest to a page so a reader’s eye is drawn in, but it also helps create the hierarchy of information so the reader can scan the important points and understand what the brochure is about. Use contrast in the typefaces, rules, colors, spacing, size of elements, etc. Remember that the only way contrast is effective is if it’s strong - if two elements are not exactly the same, make sure they are very different. Otherwise it looks like a mistake. Don’t be a wimp.
I keep repeating myself about this alignment stuff, but it’s important, and the lack of it is consistently a problem. Strong, sharp edges create a strong, sharp impression. A combination of alignments (using centered, ﬂush left, and ﬂush right in one piece) usually creates a sloppy, weak impression. Occasionally, you may want to intentionally break out of the alignment,this will only work If you have other strong alignments to
contrast with the breakout.
Proximity, groupIng similar items close together, is especially important in a project such as a brochure where you have a variety of subtopics within one main topic. How close and how far away items are from each other communicates the relationships of the items. To create the spatial arrangements effectively, you must know how to use your software to create space between the paragraphs (space before or space after) instead of hitting the Enter or Return key twice. Two Returns
between paragraphs creates a larger gap than you need, forcing items apart that should be close together. Two Returns also creates the same amount of space above a headline or subhead as there is below the head (which you don’t want), and it separates bulleted items that should be closer together. Learn that software!
Flyers are great fun to create because you can safely abandon restraint’ This is a great place to go wild and really call attention to yourself. As you know, ﬂyers compete with all the other readable junk in the world, especially with other ﬂyers. Often they are posted on a bulletin board with dozens of competing pages that are all trying to grab the attention of passerbys. A ﬂyer is one of the best places to use fun and different typefaces, and a fun face is one of the best ways to call attention to a headline. Don’t be a wimp-this is your chance to use one of those really off-the-wall faces you’ve been lusting after!
And what a great place to experiment with graphics. Just try making the graphic image or photograph at least twice the size you originally planned. Or make the headline 400 point instead of 24. Or create a minimalist ﬂyer with one line of IO-point type in the middle of the page and a small block of text at the bottom. Anything out of the ordinary will make people stop and look, and that is 90 percent of your goal.
Tips on designing flyers
The biggest problems with most ﬂyers created by new designers are a lack of contrast and a presentation of information that has no hierarchy. That is, the initial tendency is to 74
make everything large, thinking that it needs to grab someone’s attention. But if everything is large, then nothing can really grab a reader’s attention. Use a strong focal point and contrast to organize the information and lead the reader’s eye through the page.
ﬂyer to understand what it’s about, they’re going to toss it rather than spend the time deciphering the text.
Whether your headline uses an ugly typeface, a beautiful face, or an ordinary face in an unusual way, try to pull a little of that same font into the body of the text for repetItion. Perhaps use just one letter or one word in that same typeface. Use it as your subheads, initial caps, or perhaps as bullets. A strong contrast of typefaces will add interest to your ﬂyer.
Create a focal point
And remember, choose one alignment! Don’t center the headline and then set the body copy ﬂush left, or don’t center everything on the page and then stick things in the corners at the bottom. Be strong. Be brave. Try all ﬂush left or ﬂush right.
Put one thing on your page that is huge and interesting and strong. If you catch their eye with your focal point, they are more likely to read the rest of the text.
Use subheads that contrast
After the focal point, use strong subheads (strong visually, and strong in what it says) so readers can quickly scan the ﬂyer to determine the point of the message. If the subheads don’t interest them, they’re not going to read the copy. But if there are no subheads at all and readers have to read every word on the 75
Because they’re so visual and so immediateno envelopes to fuss with, no paper cutspostcards are a great way to grab attention. And for these same reasons, an ugly or boring postcard is a waste of everybody’s time. So, to avoid waste, remember the following: Be different: Oversized or oddly shaped postcards will stand out from that crowd in the mailbox. Think “series: A single postcard makes one impression; just think what a series of several could do!
offer? Then your postcard had better look as expensive and professional as the product. Do you want readers to feel like they’re getting a great bargain? Then your postcard shouldn’t be too slick. Discount places spend extra money to make their stores look like they contain bargains. It’s not an accident that Saks Fifth Avenue has a different look-from the parking lot to the restrooms-than does Zellers, and it doesn’t mean that Zellers spent less on decor than did Saks. Each look serves a distinct and deﬁnite purpose and reaches out toward a speciﬁc market.
Be speciﬁc: Tell the recipient exactly how they’ll beneﬁt (and what they need to do to Crab their attention get that beneﬁt). The same design guidelines apply to directKeep It brief: Use the front of the postcard mail postcards as to anything else: contrast, for a short and attention-getting message. Put repetition, alignment, and proximity. But with less important details on the back. this kind of postcard, you have very little If possible, use color. Besides being fun to time to induce recipients into reading it. Be work with, color attracts the eye and draws brave with bright colours, either in the ink or the card stock. Use striking graphics - there’s interest. plenty of great and inexpensive clip art you can use in all sorts of creative ways.
Tips on designing postcards
You only have a split second to capture someone’s attention with an unsolicited postcard that arrives in the mail. No matter how great your copy, if the design of the card does not attract their attention, they won’t read your copy.
Contrast is probably your best friend in a direct-mail postcard. The headline should be in strong contrast to the rest of the text, the colours should use strong contrast to each other and to the colour of the paper stock. What’s your point? And don’t forget Your ﬁrst decision is to determine what sort that whIte space of effect you want to achieve. Do you want creates contrast! readers to think it is an expensive, exclusive 76
(But with both, the possibilities multiply!) Be clear. Once your catchy headline has garnered some attention, your ad should speciﬁcally tell readers what to do (and give them the means to do so, i.e. phone number, email address, web address, etc.). Be brief. Your ad is not the place to put your life story. Keep the copy simple and to the point. use colour when you can. It always attracts the eye, particularly when surrounded by a sea of gray text.
Tips on designing newspaper ads
One of the biggest problems with newspaper ads is crowding. Many clients and businesses who are paying for a newspaper ad feel they need to ﬁll every particle of space because it costs money. A well-designed newspaper ad can work wonders for an advertiser; however, looking good is not all it takes to be successful in newsprint. Here are a few hints that will help even the sexiest ad rake in results:
Take note of yourself next time you scan the newspaper. Which ads do your eyes naturally land on, and which ads do you actually read? I’ll bet you see and read at least the headlines of the ads that have more white space. Be clever. There’s nothing that can compete with a clever headline. Not even good design.
With a newspaper ad, you need contrast not only in the advertisement itself, but also between the ad and the rest of the newspaper page that it’s placed on. In this kind of ad, the best way to create contrast is with white space. News¬paper pages tend to be completely full of stuff and very busy. An ad that has lots of white space within it stands out on the page, and a reader’s eye can’t help but be drawn to it. Experiment with yourself. Open a newspaper page (or a phone book page) and scan it. I guarantee that if there is white space on that page, your eyes will go to it. They go 77
there because white space provides a strong contrast on a full, busy page. Once you have white space, your headline doesn’t need to be in a big, fat, typeface screaming to compete with everything else. You can actually get away with a beautiful script or a classy oldstyle instead of a heavy face.
Newsprint is porous, coarse paper, and the ink spreads on it. So don’t use a typeface that has small, delicate serifs or very thin lines that will thicken when printed, unless you are
setting the type large enough that the serifs and strokes will hold up.
Avoid reverse type (white type on a dark background) if possible, but if you must have it, make sure you use a good solid typeface with no thin lines that will ﬁll in when the ink spreads. As always when setting type in reverse, use a point size a wee bit larger and bolder than you would if it was not reversed because the optical illusion makes reverse type appear smaller and thinner.
Business Cards Standard business card size in the u.s. is 3.5 Inches wide by 2 Inches tall (B.scm x S.scm in many other countries). A vertical format, of course, would be 2 inches wide by 3.S inches tall.
Tips on designing business cards
Business cards can be a challenge to design because you usually need to pack a lot of information into a small space. And the amount of information you put on a business card has been growing- in addition to the standard address and phone, now you probably need your cell n u m b e r, f a x
number, email address, and if you have a web site (which you should), your web address. If you use a second color, use it sparingly. Most of the time a tiny bit is more effeclive than throwing the second color all over the card. You get your money’s worth with just a splash. Talk to the print shop about how many copies of the card to set up on one page. and how far apart. Ask if you can send them an Adobe Acrobat PDF ﬁle to print from, or buy those perforated, preprinted business cards that you can run through your own ofﬁce printer (although the perforated edges can give an unprofessional appearance to your business).
Your ﬁrst choice is whether to work with a horizontal format or a vertical one. Just because most cards are horizontal doesn’t mean they have to be. Very often the information ﬁts better in a vertical
layout, especially when we have so many pieces of information to include on such a little card. Experiment with both vertical and horizontal layouts, and choose the one that works best for the information you have on your card.
at the business cards you’ve collected. Pick out three that look the most professional and sophisticated. They don’t use Iz-point type.
Create a consistent Image with letterhead and envelope
One of the biggest problems with business cards designed by new designers is the type size. It’s usually too big. Even the 10- or npoint type we read in books looks horsey on a small card. And Iz-point type looks downright dorky. I know it’s difﬁcult at ﬁrst to use 9- or even 8- or 7-point type, but look
Keep in mind that a business card is not a book, a brochure, or even an ad-a business card contains information that a client only needs to look at for a couple of seconds. Sometimes the overall, sophisticated e/fect of the card’s design is actually more important than making the type big enough for your great-grandmother to read easily.
If you plan to create a letterhead and matching envelopes, you really need to design all three pieces at once. The entire package of business cards, letterhead, and envelopes should present a consistent Image to clients and customers. 80
While the same four basic principles I’ve mentioned over and over (contrast, repetition, alignment, proximity) also apply to web design, repetition is one of the most important for a web site. The other three principles help the pages look good and make sense, but repetition lets your visitors know whether they’re still in the same web site. You should have a consistent navigation system and graphic style so your visitors always know they are in the same web site. Repeating a color scheme, the same typefaces, buttons, or similar-style graphic elements placed in the same position on each page will do the trick.
to ﬁnd their way through your site, but it provides a unifying factor to the collection of pages.
If you are specifying the text to appear in a certain typeface (if you’re not, ignore this), typically Helvetica or AriaI and Times or Times Roman, please specify Geneva in front of Helvetica, and New York in front of Times. This will make the text on Macintoshes appear much so much cleaner and easier to read. (If you use a Mac, set your default font to New York instead of Times, and you will be amazed at how much easier it is to read web pages. Change it back to Times before you print a page.) Verdana is found on all operating systems updated within the past few years, and it’s an excellent choice for body copy on the web.
One of the most unreadable places to read text is on a monitor, whether it’s television, video, or computer. So we need to make a few adjustments to the text on web pages to make sure it’s as easy to read as possible.
Use shorter line lengths than you might use on paper. The body copy should never run the entire width of the web page, which means you must put the text in a table (or at least use Designing a web site is quite a bit different a block indent, which indents the text from from designing printed pieces. both the left and right sides). But don’t use such short line lengths that you break up the Tips on designing web phrasing of the sentences too much. Two of the most important factors in good web design are repetition and clarity. A visitor should never have to ﬁgure out how to use your navigation system, where they are in the site, or whether they are still in your web site or have jumped somewhere else.
Repeat certain visual elements on every page in your web site. This not only lets the visitor know they are still at your site, but also provides unity and continuity, intrinsic features of any good design. Once you get to content pages, the visitor should ﬁnd the navigation in the same place, in the same order, with the same graphics. Not only does this make it easy for the visitor
Letterhead & Envelopes Few people look at a company’s stationery and think, “This is so beautiful, I’ll triple my order; or “This is so ugly, I’ll cancel my order” (a friend chose her phone company based on their stationery). But when people see your stationery, they think something about you and it’s going to be positive or negative, depending on the design and feel of that stationery. From the quality of the paper you choose, to the design, color, typeface, and the envelope, the implied message should inspire conﬁdence in your business. The content of your letter will carry substantial weight, but don’t overlook the unconscious inﬂuence exerted by the letterhead itself.
Tips on designing letterhead and envelopes
way on both the letterhead and the envelope (and the business card). Please avoid the boring centered-across-the-top layout on the letterhead!
Choose one alignment for your stationery! Don’t center something across the top and then put the rest of the text ﬂush left. Be brave - try ﬂush right down the side with lots of linespacing. Try setting your company name in huge letters across the top. Try placing your logo (or a piece of it) huge and light as a shadow beneath the area where you will type. On the letterhead, make sure to arrange the elements so when you type the actual letter, the text ﬁts neatly into the design of the stationery.
Your letterhead and envelope should be designed along with your business card. They should all look like they belong together-if you give someone a business card and then later send a letter, you want those pieces to reinforce each other.
The standard business envelope is 9”” • 4’1. Inches. It’s called a #10 envelope. The European size is Ilomm x 220mm, and it’s called a C4 envelope.
Create a focal point
One element should be dominant, and it should be dominant in the same 82
to print a second page, ask the printer for several hundred blank sheets of the same paper so you have something to write longer letters on.
Faxing and copying Second page
If you can afford to make a second page to your stationary, take a small element that appears on your ﬁrst page and use it all by itself on a second page. If you are planning to print, let’s say, 1,000 sheets of letterhead, you can usually ask the printer to print something like 800 of the ﬁrst page and 200 of the second page. Even if you don’t plan
If you ever plan to send your letterhead through fax or copy machines, don’t choose a dark paper or one that has lots of speckles in it. Also avoid large areas of dark ink, reverse type, or tiny type that will get lost in the process. If you do a lot of faxing, you might want to create two versions of your letterhead- one for print and one for fax.
the president in a special format and it will really stand out. It’s okay to have white space (empty space) in your newsletter. But don’t let the white space become “trapped” between other elements. The white space needs to be as organized as the visible elements. Let it be there, and let it ﬂow.
Tips on designing newsletters One of the most important features of a multiple-page publication is consistency, or repetition. Every page should look like it belongs to the whole piece. You can do this with color, graphic style, fonts, spatial arrangements, bulleted lists that repeat a formatting style, borders around photographs, captions, etc. Now, this doesn’t mean that everything has to look exactly the same! But (just as in life) if you have a solid foundation you can get away with breaking out of that foundation with glee (and people won’t worry about you). Experiment with graphics at a tilt or photographs cropped very wide and narrow and spread across three columns. With that solid foundation, you can set the letter from
The biggest problems with newsletters seem to be lack of alignment, lack of contrast and too much Helvetica (Arial is another name for Helvetica).
Choose an alignment and stick to it. Trust meyou’ll have a stronger and more professional look to your entire newsletter if you maintain that strong edge along the left. And keep everything else aligned. If you use rules (lines), they should begin and end in alignment with something else, like the column edge or column bottom. If your photograph hangs outside the column one¬quarter inch, crop it. You see, if all the 84
elements are neatly aligned, then when appropriate you can freely break out of that alignment with gusto. But don’t be a wimp about breaking the alignment-either align the item or don’t. Placement that is a little bit out of alignment looks like a mistake. If your photo does not ﬁt neatly into the column, then let it break out of the column boldly, not barely.
not be indented. When you do indent, use the standard typographic indent of one “em” space, which is a space as wide as the point size of your type; that is, if you’re using npoint type, your indent should be n points (about two spaces, not ﬁve). Use either extra space between paragraphs or an indent, but not both.
If your newsletter looks a little gray and drab, you can instantly juice it up simply by using a strong, heavy, sans serif typeface for your headlines and subheads. Not Helvetica. The Helvetica or AriaI that came with your computer isn’t bold enough to create a strong contrast. Invest in a sans serif family that includes a heavy black version as well as a light version (such as Eurostile, Formata, Syntax, Frutiger, or Myriad). Use that heavy black for your headlines and pull-quotes and you’ll be amazed at the difference.
First paragraphs, even after subheads, should
Readable body copy
For best readability, avoid using a sans serif for the body copy. Try a classic oldstyle serif face (such as Garamond, Jenson, Caslon, Minion, or Palatino), or a lightweight slab serif (such as Clarendon, Bookman, Kepler, or New Century Schoolbook). What you’re reading right now is Warnock Pro Light from Adobe.
3 Categories of Type 3 Type Contrast
ANATOMY OF A CHARACTER
You might ﬁnd it surprising that each character in the alphabet has an anatomy of its own. You should become familiar with ascenders and descenders. Ascenders are found on the letters b, d, f, h, 1 and t and descenders are found on the letters g, j, p, q and y. The baseline of a character is the invisible line on which the main part of a character seems to sit. It’s the line your eyes follow to help you read the words.
When designing your ﬁrst document you may be tempted to react the way you do when you open a box of chocolates—to try one of everything. One of the surest methods of identifying a novice desktop publisher is that they try to incorporate one of each kind of typeface in their documents. If you take this approach with chocolates you may end up with a stomach ache, but when you apply this method to desktop publishing it is your reader who will endure eyestrain or quickly lose interest in the message that you are trying to convey.
A typeface is the collection of all characters of a type style in all of its sizes, weights, and other characteristics, including slant and style.
A font is the complete set of characters belonging to a speciﬁc style and size of a
You will now be introduced to several aspects of typography, such as typefaces, fonts, enhancement techniques, etc. You will also explore the design possibilities which arc available by using type effectively. 87
typeface. For instance, 24-point Helvetica Bold is a font, as is 8-point Times Roman. Some fonts are named after the person who created or designed them, for example, Bodoni, Zapf Chancery, and Gill Sans Light. Fonts come in two main types, serif and sans serif, and these are described below. The members of a font include the following:
What is a serif font? Serifs are the short strokes that project from the main strokes of a character. They are said to ﬁnish the stroke of a character. The Use of Serif Fonts The major advantage of using a serif font is that a series of serifs produce a baseline for the eye to follow as it travels along lines
of text. The effect of the baseline makes the words easier to read. Most books or documents containing a great deal of text are set with serif fonts. The weight (or thickness) of the serifs used by each serif font can differ widely. The printing process used to produce the ﬁnal document will have to be considered carefully, as some serif fonts, such as Bodoni, “lose” their very narrow serifs when they are not printed properly, or when they are used in a very small type size such as 4-point.
SANS SERIF FONTS
What is a sans serif font? Sans serif (without serif) fonts have the same weight and thickness throughout. Each character in a sans serif font has a “smooth” Sans serif fonts are used frequently for headlines and subheads. They are also used for text; however, text set in a sans serif font is generally a small amount of body copy rather than a large portion. Sans serif fonts do not have serifs to provide a baseline for the eye to follow, making them difﬁcult to read in large quantities. They are seldom used to set large bodies of text, such as books or reports. For these reasons, sans serif fonts are often used to set advertising copy. Also, the number and variety of sans serif fonts allows them to be used for emphasis and excitement.
BOLD, LIGHT AND REGULAR FONTS
Bold, light and regular are terms that refer to the weight of a font. You may also hear 88
for emphasis or for small amounts of text. Light type includes faces whose characters have lighter, or thinner strokes than their regular counterparts. Again, they may be used for emphasis. Light type may also be used when you have to add text to enhance a delicate drawing or border.
ITALICS AND UNDERLINING
Italics and underlining are used to emphasize or highlight type. When you activate the underlining feature of your page layout program, make sure that the line is not too close to the baseline of the word you are underlining. Why? If the line is too close it may intersect with the descenders of the characters of the line above, causing them to be less readable. the term heavy in reference to a type weight. Bold type has a stroke weight heavier, or thicker, than regular type. Bold type is used for emphasis or contrast, especially for headlines.
CONDENSED OR EXTENDED CHARACTERS
Condensed characters are the same characters that appear in the regular font; however, the width of each character is slightly narrower than usual. Similarly, extended fonts contain characters which are slightly wider than the regular font. Both condensed and extended fonts are used
This section introduced some of the terms and concepts relating to the selection and use of typefaces for your documents. The font you choose can affect the readability of your document and will in turn affect the quality of the message you are trying to convey. There are two types of fonts, serif and sans serif and each character in a font has an anatomy of its own. When highlighting a passage of text, or for special effects, you may want to consider special fonts, such as condensed or extended, bold or light. Italics and underlining are also used to emphasize or highlight text. 89
OTHER DESIGN TOPICS & TIPS
Tools of Organization for Effective Graphic Design
Effective graphic design uses a variety of organizational tools to help readers quickly understand the message being conveyed. Graphic design tools have three basic purposes: To guide reader’s eyes from one point to another To inform readers of their progress. To help readers quickly locate desired information Graphic Tools Used to Help Readers Include: • Headlines, Titles and Subheadings • Lead Ins • Pull Quotes • Graphic Boxes • Sidebars • Paragraph Borders • Horizontal Lines • Column Lines
Headlines: • • • •
Headlines, titles and subheadings are the basic organizing tools that are used to help readers understand the main message of the publication quickly and easily If there is only one topic on a page, the title serves as the headline. If there are two or more articles on the same page, the title of the main story is used as the headline. Because readers usually decide whether or not to read your publication by its headline, the headline should be as short and concise so its meaning can be understood quickly. Design your headline or title for impact and make it as easy to read as possible. For example: Set it off from the copy text by using a contrasting typeface Emphasize headlines/titles by using the same typeface as the copy text in a larger, heavier weight Surround headline or title with whitespace
Subheadings are “mini-headlines” shown in boldface every 3 to 6 paragraphs. They help readers identify the content of the copy text and allow them to quickly locate desired information. Subheadings can be: • Centred, flush left or flush right • Placed in the column with the copy text or in a scholar’s sidebar. • Emphasized by horizontal rules above and/or below the words. • Set in a typeface that contrasts with the text and set in larger or heavier types. Subheadings should be treated the same way throughout the publication to avoid confusion and add a unifying effect.
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Rules and Best Practices for Page Layout Tip of the Day - How Many Fonts How many fonts are too many for one project and how do you know where to draw the line? A generally accepted practice is to limit the number of different typefaces to three or four. That doesn’t mean you can’t use more but be sure you have a good reason to do so.
Be consistent in the use of fonts A different font for every headline or for every sidebar is confusing and can give your design a cluttered look. You can usually get away with more fonts in longer documents with many different design elements where only two to three different fonts appear on any one page spread.
use contrasting fonts for Body text and headlines Select one font for body copy and another for headlines. Use bold, italics, and different sizes of those fonts for captions, subheadings, decks, and other design elements. Depending on the design you might use a third font for initial caps, pull-quotes, or other selected items. You might add a fourth font for page numbers or as a secondary body font for sidebars, but usually two or three are sufficient. Use fonts with enough contrast that it is obvious they are different. Mixing two very similar fonts can create an uncomfortable vibration.
don’t use more than four fonts in any one puBlication As a general rule, when designing a publication I never use more than four fonts. Realistically, how many do you need? For a newsletter layout, you could use one font for headings, one for body text (which could also be used in italics or bold for captions) and one for subheadings. You may not even need that fourth one.” — It is also wise to not make sudden typeface changes within a paragraph. Use the same typeface for body copy, using only bold or italics to add small amounts of emphasis, if necessary. If greater emphasis is required — create a pull-quote, set that copy in the margin, or create a sidebar using a different font to really set the information apart. Two much variety creates a mixed message visually and hides the real message in the text. Fonts should not get in the way of communication. Frivolous use of fonts can make a very important message appear to be just so much fluff and nonsense.
the Bottom line: No hard and fast rule says you can’t use five, six, or even twenty different fonts in one document. However, consistency and readability are important to good design and too many font changes can distract and confuse the reader. Make your font choices carefully and consider how many typefaces will be seen together — longer, multi-page publications, such as magazines, can often tolerate a greater variety of typefaces. For brochures, ads, and other short documents, limit typefaces to one, two, or three.
Balance The balance of a page refers to the page being in equilibrium. Everything (text, graphics, etc.)
Above, below, right and left of the optical centre is balanced. When we think of balance in desktop publishing, we talk about heavy and light blocks of text, the size, shape and colour of the text.
This is an example of a block of bold, heavy text.
This is an example of a block of light text.
Note: The above fonts are the same size, 18 pt., but the bold text looks much heavier than the light text. There is a heavier weighting on the right side.
Formal, symmetrically balanced publications send a message of formality, conservatism, reserve and precision
Informal, asymmetrically balanced publications show more energy, enthusiasm and sparkle
heavier page elements should be further away from the optical centre of your page
Lighter page elements should be closer to the optical centre
Think of page balance by visualizing two children on a see-saw. Note the various ways of locating various weights of graphics or fonts to achieve balance.
Asymmetrical Balance 25
Asymmetrical Balance 15
Design Tip of the Day Keep it Simple Simplicity Simplicity in design, also known as visual economy or minimal design, is omitting all non-essential or unimportant elements and details which don’t really contribute to the essence of the overall composition in order to emphasize what is important. It is about really understanding the design problem, and focusing on the essentials.
K.I.S.S. Keep It Simple S.....
Much of the beauty and skill in good design focuses on what is left out, rather than trying to include everything you can. The secret to a great composition is in knowing when to stop; when to put the brush/pen/mouse down, stand back and say “that’s just about right”. KEEpiNG it SimplE is tHE KEy tO GOOD DESiGN Good design means as little design as possible. It involves a paring down to only the essential elements required to achieve the desired effect. Restraint and simplicity are key in the creation of good design. There are no rules for using economy, if an element works in the composition with respect to the whole design, it should be kept. If it distracts from the desired effect, it should be reevaluated for its purpose. Never use anything for its own sake, always consider and justify its inclusion for the contribution it makes to achieve the overall design effect.
Visual Economy M:\InDesign\
Use of Clipart Rules and Best PRactices foR Page layout - Cut the clip art clutter. Clip art is wonderful, abundant, and fun to use. It can spice up fliers, newsletters, and posters. Yet too many pictures on a page make it hard for the reader to concentrate on what the document says. Use clip art with moderation and with purpose. Use clip art that supports your text or illustrates a point. There are no hard and fast rules on how many images on a page is too many. But unless you’re dealing with a product catalog or a yearbook, chances are that if there are more than three or four images the page is too graphics-heavy. Too Many Images Image overload generally comes from using too many bits of scattered clip art, decorative bullets, boxes or borders, and rules (lines) all on the same page. Strip most of that out. It’s unnecessary. Too Much Variation When it is necessary to use many images, unify them. Make them all the same size. Use the same border. Line them up vertically or horizontally. Use a single style of dingbat for bullets throughout the page, throughout the publication. No Hierarchy Text is not treated all the same — headlines get prominence through size and placement, for example. Prioritize clip art in the same way. Give a single image prominence through size and placement. Unify the remaining images elsewhere on the page using the techniques previously described. Too Many Themes Many times the creator of a piece will feel the necessity to use a piece of clip art to illustrate or point out every idea or concept on the page. For example, a party announcement might have a phone icon by the phone number, a house or envelope next to the address, a clock beside the time, and several pieces of clip art for cakes, streamers, party hats, presents, or whatever and a confetti border around the whole page. While the idea may be to emphasize each of those key pieces of information, it’s overkill.
Rules and Best PRactices in Page layout illustRations: Reduce & Resize Instead of many small images, choose one or two key images that complement the text and use them — perhaps greatly enlarged — to focus attention or provide visual interest. Unify Instead of many completely different images scattered all over, provide consistency and order by tying them together visually through size, color, style. Prioritize Instead of a barrage of images competing for attention, make a single key image larger and more prominent so that it draws the eye first. Pick a Central Idea Instead of a different icon or piece of clip art for every piece of information, use font size, placement, alignment, or color to group, set apart, or emphasize information and cut that clip art clutter. M:\InDesign\Notes\Clipart