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SALIENT

Te Ao Mārama


Nō te uho o te ngahere i wehe atu te mata o Mumuwhango tōna mana whenua i muri tonu i a ia. Auē te kaha o te karanga i pā katoa ai i a ia, pō iho, ao ake. Tē taea te wareware.

Ahakoa tonu, te pora hoki o tōna kite whakamua. He wātea wīti e takoto noa atu ana, ngoikore katoa te tū, āna, kai a Tāwhirimātea te rangatiratanga. “Kai hea ngā tamariki a Tāne? Kai hea ōku hoa piritahi?” Kāore anō te mokemoke e pā ana ki a ia, wiriwiri kau ana te wairua, he waipuke kai ōna kamo, tōna kī whakamutunga, “e noho rā taku whenua.”


I haere tōtika ia, tae noa ki te ngaro o tōna whare koroua. Kai tua rawa he wāhi mōna, kua mōhio. Warea kē ia e te karanga e tōia atu nei kia kohia, kia kaingia ngā hua ō ngā rākau rerekē; kia pātaka tōna oranga. Nawai rā, nāwai rā, ā, kāore tonu ia e rongo ana i a Tāne kai tata ia, kai wīwī, kai wāwā rānei, ko wai ka mōhio? Ko Tāwhirimatea anahe ka kite. He mamae tō tōna tinana, nā ki te poho o te wātea e noho ana .


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Pitopito Kōrero

Editor — Kahu Kutia

Printing — Service Printers 258 Taranaki Street, Wellington

Designers — Eun Sun Jeong and Ellyse Randrup News Reporters — Jade Marino Gifford, Luka ‫ תור‬林-Cowley, Georgia Tarāni Gifford Feature Writers — Awhina Henry, Tipene Kapa-Kingi, Monika Maxwell, Kahu Kutia, Te Nia Matthews, Trinity Thompson-Browne Translators —Migoto Eria, Kahu Kutia, Teaonui McKenzie, Jamie Yeates Sub-Editors — Ani Morris, Toa Te Poono, Kohe Ruwhiu, Georgia Lockie Distributor — Darren Chin Contributors — Taira Dyall-Waretini, Kahu Haimona, Eru Kapa-Kingi, Dayna Eggeling, Tamatha Paul, Ani Eparaima, Lateshia Marie McFarlane, Maggie-May Maybir, Cece Wallace, Shaq Milner, Puck, Anon, Nikayla Jonas, Te Pō Hawaikirangi, Ngāi Tauira, Te Wainuiārua Poa, Merenia Hudson, Jesseallen Te Awhe-Raston, Meg Mann Advertising — Grace Gollan grace.gollan@vuwsa.org.nz 04 463 6982

Paper — Sun 90gsm Salient is printed on environmentally sustainable paper, with vegetable ink, and is completely FSC approved. Typefaces — Churchward Maori by Joseph Churchward, Adobe Caslon Pro by Carol Twombly About Us — Salient staff are employed by, but editorially independent from, the Victoria University of Wellington Students’ Association (VUWSA). Salient is a member of, syndicated, and supported by the Aotearoa Student Press Association (ASPA). Salient is partially funded by Victoria University students, through the student levy. Opinions expressed are not necessarily representative of those of VUWSA, ASPA, Service Printers, or the editorial staff. Complaints — Please email editor@ salient.org.nz and if not satisfied with response contact VUWSA. Salient — 11 September, 2017 Volume 80, Issue 19

Contact — editor@salient.org.nz 04 463 6766 Level 2, Student Union Building Victoria University of Wellington PO Box 600, Wellington

Kaimahi & COLOPHON


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Pitopito Kōrero

Reta o te etitā E rere e taku manu i te hā ō Ranginui Ki ngā maunga kārangaranga o tōku papakāinga Ki ngā wai kaukau ō tōku iwi, ngā wai tuku oranga mō te iwi Hai tōku whakapapa, tōku here ki ōku tīpuna mai rā anō Ko tēnei te reo hai whakaahua i ōku whakaaro I heke mai ahau ā-hinengaro, ā-tinana mai i a rātau kua whakangaro atu engari kei te mau tonu ā rātau mahi, ā rātau kupu kōrero, ngā taonga nā rātau i hanga. Ko te uri tēnei ō Hinepūkohurangi kei te tāpiripiri ēnei kupu kōrero. Tīhei mauri ora! He reo whakapuaki i heke mai i a rātau mā kua nunumi atu ki te pō Ko ā rātau nā taonga tukuiho, kai te mau tonu, kai te mau tonu He uri tēnei nā Hinepūkohurangi e tāpiripiri nei i ngā kupu kōrero hai kaikanohi mā tātau katoa Tīhei mauri ora! Tēnā tātou e te tini, e te mano. Nau mai ki tēnei kaupapa motuhake, arā, ko te whakanui i ngā āhuatanga katoa o te ao Māori. I ahau e tipu ana, kaha rawa atu ngā hua o taku Māoritanga hei arataki i a au. He aroha mutunga kore ki ērā tāngata, ōku kuia, ōku koroua, ōku mātua, ōku kaiako, rātou mā i whai wāhi ai kia ora tēnei tūranga mōku. He nui aku mihi ki ērā tāngata kaha ki te whawhai mō te orangatonutanga o te reo te take. Me pēhea rā tātau te whakatipuranga nei e pupuri ki ngā kaupapa, kia mau. This issue has no theme. I did not give it one but rather searched broadly for the kōrero of our tauira. The history that precedes us is overwhelming. We know about those who preempted us. They have fought for Te Wiki o Te Reo Māori, have fought for our people. To even have this space in a student magazine is a legacy that weighs deeply on my mind. One annual issue for our people is a small success, and only the first step on a long path. Our mana is strong in our spaces, but there is much mahi to be done in the mainstream. To quote the first Te Ao Mārama in 1972: “There will be many people around this university who will be feeling left out after looking at the front cover of this issue. The intention is to help you feel just that. If you are not interested in Māori culture you will read little, if anything, in this Salient — and so perpetuate your ignorance.” We are not looking to leave out, but rather we invite everyone — including tauiwi — to come and listen to us as we talk to each other. Without assigning a theme, it feels right to have Tino Rangatiratanga hanging over this kōrero. The contributors to this issue are the fruits of some of the efforts of Tino Rangatiratanga. In Te Ao Mārama 2017 we wānanga on how to continue this kaupapa. — Nāku noa, Kahu Kutia (Ngāi Tūhoe)


VOTING HAS STARTED, DROP IN AND VOTE NOW. Check your EasyVote pack elections.org.nz 0800 36 76 56


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SUBHEADING

Join us for an evening celebrating Māori Language Week 2017 Te Wiki o Te Reo Māori A live panel imagining Aotearoa New Zealand as a country where te reo Māori was compulsory in all schools Followed by contemporary taonga pūoro musician and Creative New Zealand / Jack C. Richards Composer-in-Residence Rob Thorne

Wednesday 13th September 6.30pm — 8pm Vic Books, 21 Kelburn Parade


Ngā Kai Reta o te etitā................................5 Pānui................................................65 Pitopito Kōrero............................12 Tōrangapū....................................16 Te Ara Tauira Ngāi Tauira.........................................18 Ngā Rangahautira...............................20 Te Pūtahi Atawhai..............................21 VUWSA.............................................21 Te Herenga Waka...............................22 Te Hōhaieti.........................................24 Te Rōpū Āwhina.................................24 Pātai Mai Ki A Aunty.........................62 Te Kete Kōrero Tiakina Tangaroa!...............................24 — Awhina Henry Where are you from?...........................31 — Tipene Kapa-Kingi White Bread in the Hāngī..................36 — Monika Maxwell

He Uri Tēnei Nō Hinepūkohurangi..........................38 — Kahu Kutia Don’t Let Them Fool You...................41 — Te Nia Matthews Putting the Mana in Mana Wahine......................................46 — Trinity Thompson-Browne

Ngā Toi Poem (Anon)..................................... 50 The Night Mechanics............................52 Mahana..............................................54 Tukua Mai Te Reo: He Reo Wāhine....................................56 Fred Graham......................................58 Kai On A Budget................................60 Joseph Churchward.............................61 Ngā Kēmu..........................................62


KUPU HOU

&

¿ 1

Nōhea rawa!

No way!

2

Ehara, ehara!

3

I wāu nei hoki

Harden up

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Āe mārika

Yes, indeed

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Nā whai anō

It’s no wonder

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Mā te aha i tēnā

That's better than nothing

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Kei te āhua o...

8

Mea rawa ake

Nek minnit

9

Kia meatia!

So what!

10

Wheo kē!

Buzzy

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Mā tēnā ka aha?

What will that achieve?

12

Wepua atu!

13

Koia pū

Bang on

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Wēkenerū

Wicked!

15

Turituri warawara

For sure!

It depends on ...

Give it your all

Blah blah blah


Maori Language Week March, Wellington. 1980. Evening Post.


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Te Wiki o te Reo Māori – 11th – 17th Māhuru Rāhina

Rātū

Rāapa

Moana Reo Māori – 11 – 17 Māhuru Kimi me te rapu i a rā — tūhono mai ki te Pukamata o NR mō ngā tīwhiri (Scavenger Hunt in te reo everyday at Pipitea — clues on NR FB page. Prizes to be won!)

8am

Te Atakura o Te Reo Māori: Te whā-tekau mā rima tau o te Petihana Reo Māori Hīkoi ki te Whare Pāremata

9am 10am

12pm 1pm

Rāmere

Tohu reo — Te Hōhaieti o Te Reo Māori (different colour bracelets handed out to tauira to show reo competency)

Ngā kaupapa o te wiki

11am

Rāpare

Parakatihi Waiata - OGB 134 – 10:30am (Ngā Rangahautira) Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori Hīkoi Kaiako vs Tauira Tautohe ki THW (Ngāi Tauira)

NTU/NR kai mō te kore utu ki waho i te whare o RH (Ngā Rangahautira/ Ngā Taura Umanga)

Tina mō te kore utu ki THW (Ngāi Tauira)

2pm 3pm 4pm 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm

Puta i te ao, Puta i te pō: Mātauranga Māori Night ki THW (Te Rōpū Āwhina)

Tikanga Wānanga — OGB234 (Ngā Rangahautira)

Parakatihi Kapa Haka ki THW (Ngāi Tauira)

Pukamata:

Atapaki:

Paeāhua:

Ngāi Tauira Ngā Rangahautira Ngā Tāura Umanga

ngai_tauira nr_snapz

ngaitauira_vuw nga_rangahautira ngatauraumanga


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News

PITOPITO KŌRERO Tiakina te Moana Prisoner Voting Rights Debate and Panel at Wikitoria Ngā Whakataetae Manu Kōrero “What The Cheque?” — Racism Accusations at Credit Union Central Māori “Moana” New name for Te Kōkī

Whakamāori nā Teaonui McKenzie

Tōrangapū


Ngā Toi Pitopito Kōrero

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Tiakina te Moana Nā Jade Marino Gifford

He marama taimaha rawa atu tērā marama mō te iwi ō Pātea a Ngāti Ruanui i te whakaaetanga o te keringa o te one rinorino i te takutai o Taranaki ki te tonga. He mea whai tata tēnei whakatau i ngā tautohetohe i waenga i te Kāwanatanga, Trans-Tasman Resources, ngā iwi o Taranaki, Greenpeace me te rōpū KASM (Kiwi's Against Seabed Mining). “Ka whai hua a Taranaki, a Aotearoa hoki” koia tā Trans Tasman Resources ki a 7 Sharp. Hei tā Hemi Ngarewa (Tangata Whenua) mō te takutai moana, “me manaakitia, me tiakina, me arohaina.” I kōrero hoki a Debbie NgarewaPacker ki a 7 Sharp ko te mahi maina “tētahi o ngā mahi nui takahi mana whenua, takahi mana tangata” ā, “me whakatipu i te ao ohaoha, engari me whai mana tōna whakatipuranga.” Ko te whakapae ka $1.1 Piroana ka kohikohia e te kaupapa nei i ia tau, ka mutu ka neke atu i te 1600 ngā tūranga mahi ka tūwhera huri noa i te motu. Ka kōkiri tonu te kaupapa nei ahakoa te petihana ā Ngāti Ruanui i waitohungia e te neke atu i te 6000 tangata e whakakahorengia ana i te mahi maina whenua i tērā tau, me te pakanga tonu i waenga i ngā iwi ō Taranaki, ngā tāngata o reira me ngā kamupene maina.

Prisoner Voting Rights Debate and Panel at Wikitoria Nā Jade Marino Gifford

On August 17, JustSpeak hosted a debate and panel in Victoria’s Memorial Theatre to discuss the voting rights of prisoners in Aotearoa. The panel included Green Party Candidate Chlöe Swarbrick, Mara Davis (Young Labour), Danny Poa (Restorative Justice Facilitator), Elijah Pue (Young Māori Party), Jack Gradwell (Young New Zealand First), and Laura O’Connell-Rapira (ActionStation). The debate included DebSoc debaters and Wellington Improv and Comedy players Jennifer Alice, Matt Powell, and Janaye Henry. Henry stated “the Bill of Rights Act states all New Zealand citizens should have the right to vote,” and that therefore she couldn’t understand why prisoners had this right revoked from them. According to Statistics New Zealand, over 51% of total prisoner population were Māori in 2012, which is just over 0.6% of the entire Māori population in New Zealand. As the statistics suggest, Māori are overrepresented in prison populations, and significantly underrepresented in general voting turnout. It can be said, then, that prisoner voting rights are not only a social justice issue, but a uniquely Māori issue. JustSpeak is a group of young people who aim to promote and encourage conversation about the need for change in Aotearoa’s Criminal Justice System. With the impending election in September conversation around the voting rights of imprisoned New Zealanders is more prevalent than ever.


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Ngā Whakataetae Manu Kōrero Nā Georgia Tarāni Gifford

I te tau nei ka tae ngā whakataetae Ngā Manu Kōrero ki tōna tau 52, ka tū ki te rohe o Taranaki. He whakataetae tēnei mā ngā kura tuarua ka tū ki ngā reo e rua, Pākehā mai, Māori mai, Teina mai (tau 9, tau 10) Tuakana mai (tau 11–13). Mai i te rohe o Te Whanganui-Ā-Tara ki Otaki kō te kaikōrero i te wahanga Pei Te Hurinui Jones kō Whakaue Winiata mai i Te kura ā iwi o Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, Kō Te Maia o Tipene McKenzie mai te Kareti o Tawa ki te wahanga Tā Turi Kara, kō Te Amorangi Hawaikirangi mai i Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Ngā Mokopuna ki te wahanga Korimako, ka mutu kō Te Paea Te Tana mai i Te Kura Māori o Porirua ka tū ki te wahanga Rāwhiti Ihaka. Kō ētahi o ngā kaupapa ka tohea kō — “Fluency in Te Reo Māori is the cornerstone of our culture” “My sovereignty, my wellbeing,” mē “Taku patu, taku patu, Māori mana motuhake.” Kō tā ngā kaupapa o te whakataetae Manu kōrero i tēnei tau he whakakipakipa i ngā rangatahi kia kōrerohia ngā take nei, kia aro hoki te iwi ki ngā kaupapa pēnei ki ngā kaupapa kaikiri. Waihoki ka aro atu ngā kaikōrero ki ngā kaupapa e pā mai ana ki te iwi pēnei i te mana o te reo Māori i ngā kura. Kō Ngā Manu Kōrero he wāhi e tāea ai ngā tamariki Māori ki te kimi, ki te whakapakari i ō rātou tikanga Māori i tō rātou Ao Māori.

“What The Cheque?” — Racism Accusations at Credit Union Central Jade Marino Gifford

A video posted by Te Whata Tau Ō Pūtauaki school principal, Ripeka Lessels, surfaced on social media this month, exposing a heated confrontation between herself and a manager at the Whakatane branch of Credit Union Central bank. Lessels attempted to exchange the cheque, which she had filled out in Te Reo, and was declined. Lessels claimed that the bank manager “refuses to accept that Te Reo Māori is an official enough language of NZ to be used in his bank. He doesn’t accept it on the grounds that others in the bank (Pākehā) do not understand.” Lessels claimed that she has banked with Kiwibank, BNZ, and ASB in the past, who had all accepted her cheques in Te Reo. To which the manager responded was “rubbish.” The video was viewed over 40,000 times, and sparked lively debates in the comment section. Discussion around the appropriate use of Te Reo, as well as casual and institutional racism, was particularly prevalent.


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Māori “Moana” Nā Jade Marino Gifford

I muri tata ake i te angitū o te kiriata Disney i te tau 2016 a Moana, ka hono atu a Taika Waititi me tōna tuahine whāngai a Tweedie Waititi ki a Disney ki te whakamāori i te kiriata nei. “He moemoea nui tēnei ki au, te kite i ngā kiriata auraki e whakamāoritia ana... He mea nui tēnei ki ngā hunga taketake, te rongo i ēnei kiriata i tō rātou ake reo, e akiaki ana kia māori te reo taketake, ā, kia whai mana ai rātou” — Tā Taika ki te perehi. I tau katoa atu te ope ki ngā tiriti o Hollywood i tēnei marama ki te hopu, ki te wetewete i ngā taipitopito mō Moana Reo Māori i ngā taupuni mahi o Disney. Kō tētahi i te ope nei ko te toa o te whakataetae “Finding the Māori Moana” — Jaedyn Randell. Ngā kaiwhakaari Rachel House (“Gramma Tala”), Temuera Morrison (“Chief Tui”), Jermaine Clement (“Tamatoa”) me Oscar Kightley (“Kaihī ika”) katoa ka tukuruatia ō rātou reo ki te kiriata Māori. Kua tīkina atu ngā whakaaro mō tēnei kiriata i ngā ahurea, ngā pūrākau Māori me ērā ō ngā moutere ō Poronēhia whānaui, ka mutu he kiriata rongonui huri noa i te ao i whakawhiwhia ki te neke atu i te $56 miriona USD i tōna wiki tuatahi. E pā ana a Moana ki ngā hekenga me ngā hōpara ō ngā tūpuna o te Moana nui ā Kiwa, e pā ana ki te kōrero mō Oceania, i te angitū o Moana ki te whakawhiti i te moana hei oranga mō tōna iwi. Hei te Mahuru (Māori) ka puta mai te kiriata nei i wiki o te reo Māori. Kō ngā whare pikitia ka whakaatu i te kiriata nei ki Pōneke kō — Courtenay Readings, Porirua Readings me te Embassy Event Cinema.

New name for Te Kōkī Luka ‫ תור‬林-Cowley (Hamoa, Haina, Ūropi, Hūrai, Ingarani)

The university, as an integral part of settler-colonial society, has underserved Māori and Indigenous students: the music school is no different. VUW assumed full responsibility of the school in 2014; it used to be a joint venture with Massey University and its initial name was simply “New Zealand Music School.” Te Kōkī is the name gifted by three prominent Māori academics in 2006 (a request was made only after the school attempted to give itself its own “Māori name”, and ended up with something, shall we say, indelicate…) on the understanding that tikanga and “music school culture” would be integrated. “Te Kōkī” was removed from the school’s Facebook page earlier this year. Following action from students, the name on Facebook is now “New Zealand School of Music — Te Kōkī, Victoria University of Wellington”, as opposed to the intended “Te Kōkī New Zealand School of Music”. Te Kōkī is displayed as a mere subtitle on the webpage. The change was made without student consultation and despite some academic staff countering those who believe it is good for marketing and not that important. Salient asked the university to comment on the reasons behind changing the name and the school’s new Director, Professor Sally Jane Norman, responded: “Its full name — Victoria University of Wellington’s Te Kōkī New Zealand School of Music — is unwieldy in some contexts but there was a strong wish to retain the name Te Kōkī .” “Te Kōkī” is regarded by the university as the “non-literal translation” of the school’s name and its initial removal from Facebook was in line with other university schools’ Māori translations. This is part of a rampant lack of cultural awareness and integration; there was a discussion in November 2015 of whether there should be a pōwhiri to begin music school orientations. The outcome was: “no, it would be tokenistic.” There was no Māori presence at this meeting. We have discussed ways forward. We have been patient. But how long must we wait. Discussions between the new director and Te Kōkī Māori and Pasifika Music Students’ Rōpū have been promising. We look forward to further developments.


Ngā Toi Tōrangapū

16 16

This section ranks some policies from the different parties on issues that affect Te Ao Māori directly. The information was collated and summarised from political party websites to give a clear and concise summary of their focus towards these issues. The ranking system itself subjectively scores each political party out of ten on their strategies in dealing with these issues. We encourage you seek out more information on the policies themselves, and look at the wide range of other policies to develop your own understanding and opinion.

Te Reo Māori National: The Education policy package invests $160 million over four years to provide schools and Communities of Learning with resources for second language learning, with “priority languages” including Te Reo Māori alongside “Mandarin, French, Spanish, Japanese, and Korean.” 2 Labour: Labour’s Education Manifesto establishes optional Te Reo Māori classes in all secondary schools, and would provide early childhood and primary teachers an opportunity to learn Te Reo Māori. 5 Māori Party: The Māori Party has a targeted Te Reo Māori policy, which would establish Te Reo Māori and Māori history and culture as a subject in the school core curriculum; increase funding for Kōhanga Reo; fund two years full time Te Reo Māori course for one person in every non-speaking whānau; and increase overall funding for Māori medium education. 10 Green: The Green Party’s Education policy would provide more funding for Te Reo Māori and immersion and bilingual

programmes; introduce universal teaching of Te Reo Māori in all public schools; and work towards tikanga Māori being available to all learners. The Inclusive Education policy calls for specific research into the needs of Māori and Pasifika children who require additional learning support. 8 NZ First: The Education policy would explore new ways to fund and deliver Kōhanga Reo and the Māori immersion early childhood education centres; and develop national curriculum guidelines for Te Reo Māori in immersion schools. 4 The Opportunities Party: The Democracy Reset policy would make Te Reo Māori compulsory in all primary schools. 6 Mana Movement: Mana Movement have a targeted Te Reo Māori policy, supporting Te Reo Māori as a core subject in the New Zealand curriculum. They would increase funding and research in revitalisation strategies in schools such as Kura Kaupapa and Kōhanga Reo. 9 ACT: No mention of Te Reo Māori in education policies. 0 United Future: No mention of Te Reo Māori in education policies. 0

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

settlements, to respect smaller groups of iwi and hapū. 7

N: No targeted policies. National plans to continue to conclude treaty settlements. 1

M: In its Te Tiriti o Waitangi policy, The Māori Party would entrench Te Tiriti in all legislation, ensuring consistency of New Zealand legislation with its principles and empower the Waitangi Tribunal to make binding recommendations. The policy would implement a series legislative changes that recognise the status of Māori as tangata whenua and uphold the rights guaranteed to Māori in Te Tiriti. 9

L: No targeted policies. In its Clean Rivers policy, Labour commits to work with iwi to settle treaty claims regarding water, recognising that Māori have a “special interest” in water. 2 NZF: New Zealand First does not consider Te Tiriti to be an integral part of New Zealand’s constitution. They would hold a binding referendum on the abolition of Māori seats in Parliament and repeal all provisions in the Resource Management Act that require consultation with iwi, including for water consents and discharge consents. New Zealand First would continue to settle treaty claims. -2 G: Under the Honouring Te Tiriti policy, the Green Party would entrench the Māori electorates; remove the ability for the public to override a council decision to create a Māori ward; undertake a comprehensive review of the Treaty settlement process and end “full and final” settlements; and remove the Crown’s “large natural groupings” approach to

MM: Under its Constitution of Aotearoa policy, Mana Movement would create an entrenched written constitution, based on the work done by the Constitutional Transformation Working Party and the Mātike Mai Aotearoa Report. The policy recognises He Whakaputanga o Te Rangatiratanga o Nū Tīreni and Te Tiriti o Waitangi as the twin cornerstones of Aotearoa’s constitution. 10 TOP: TOP is opposed to attempts to remove Māori electorates. In its Democracy Reset plan, TOP would establish an Upper House of Parliament with equal Māori representation and establish a written constitution, which


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Tōrangapū

would set out the rights and obligations provided in Te Tiriti. 7 ACT: ACT do not mention Te Tiriti in their policies and do not believe in “legally privileged” Māori. -2 UF: Under its Constitution and Citizenship policy, United Future recognises consistency with Te Tiriti obligations as an important principle in “valuing the New Zealand identity.” 1

Water N: The National Party brought in a range of freshwater management reforms in 2017 under the Clean Water package 2017. In these, National recognises the concept of Te Mana o te Wai, freshwater’s integral part in the social, cultural, economic, and environmental well-being of communities. 2 L: Under its Clean Rivers policy, Labour seek to restore the mauri of waterways through new freshwater quality standards and promoting of sustainable farming practice. Labour will “work with iwi to resolve Treaty water claims in a manner that respects iwi mana.” 5 UF: The Freshwater policy would establish royalties on the commercial use of water, but does not provide for consultation with iwi. 0 TOP: The Clear Water

Action Plan would introduce a charge for the commercial use of water, and a “cap and trade” system for allocating rights to consume water. As a precondition of the policy, TOP has said that they would resolve issues of water ownership with regard to Te Tiriti. 6 G: Under its Protecting Drinking Water Policy, the Green party seeks to put an immediate $0.10 per litre levy on the sale and export of water, and develop a fair way to charge all commercial water users in light of Te Tiriti. “It will be up to the tangata whenua to decide exactly how they engage in the conversation and influence its outcomes.” The Resource Management (Clean Groundwater) Amendment Bill seeks to amends section six of the Resource Management Act 1991 to protect water quality and quantity in aquifers in the context of Māori water rights that are guaranteed under Te Tiriti. 7 ACT: ACT is specifically opposed to co-governance arrangements with iwi, including for water, particularly those that require formal consultation with iwi to determine freshwater management. 0 M: He tāonga te wai policy plan seeks to protect freshwater and give it the status of tāonga in New Zealand Law. The policy would establish a Minister for Freshwater to prioritise issues of freshwater

protection, rights and interests, and set up an annual Te Mana o Te Wai funding to support community projects. 10 MM: The Environment and Energy policies would require all environmental legislation to be drafted consistently with Te Tiriti o Waitangi and the principles of tino rangatiratanga and genuine consultation. This would ensure hapū and iwi are properly resourced to exercise kaitiakitanga over their rohe, and have equal authority to central and local government in developing environmental policies over all resources, including freshwater. 9 NZF: The Environment and Conservation policy provides that Māori have a right to shared governance in some areas of water management; but states that Te Tiriti does not confer rights to Māori to take or use water which are greater or lesser than the rights of any other New Zealander. 3

Housing N: No mention of Māori in housing policies. 0 L: The Better homes for Māori policy would reform loan schemes to increase the accessibility home loans for those who own land collectively as part of whānau trust, and establish a Māori Housing Unit within the Affordable Housing Authority. 3

M: The Māori Party would create a Minister for Māori and Pacific Housing to address housing problems faced by “whanau/fanau/ainga”. They would also develop a National Housing Strategy according to the rights and interests of Māori under Te Tiriti o Waitangi. 8 G: The Home for Life policy would work with community housing providers and iwi to expand housing options, in addition to building more homes. 7

TOP: No mention of Māori in housing policies. 1 UF: No mention of Māori in housing policies. 1 MM: The Māori housing policy would increase fundings for Māori to build on Māori land; allow Māori to return to their papakainga without having their benefits cut; provide accessible loans for Māori first home buyers; and allow whānau to capitalise child benefits or use Kiwisaver as a first home deposit. 9 NZF: The Māori Affairs policy would encourage Māori to build houses on collectively owned land and maintain zones of High Housing Need — such as Northland, East Coast, Eastern Bay of Plenty — with low deposit and interest. 4 ACT: No mention of Māori in housing policies. 0


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Te Ara Tauira

NGĀI TAUIRA 2017

Kia Ora e hoa, Ngā mihi mahana kia a koutou ngā tauira, ngā kaipānui o tēnei pukapuka maheni, waihoki ngā kaitautoko o tēnei wiki, Te Wiki o Te Reo Māori! He paku kōrero tēnei hei mōhio ai te katoa ko wai mātou a Ngāi Tauira. Kia koutou, ngā tauira o te Whare Wānanga o Wikitoria, kāore anō kua tūtaki; ko te tūmanako nā tēnei kupu whakataki ka mārama koutou ko wai mātou, ā, he aha rā tō mātou mahi.

TUMUAKI TAKIRUA: Maia Te Koha Ngāti Porou

Studying: Bachelor of Arts (Education and Te Reo Māori) Kiwaha: Wēkēneru

Ngāi Tauira is the Māori Students’Association at Victoria University. Our core business is to represent and advocate for the wellbeing of tauira Māori during their time at Victoria. Although we work to advocate political changes for students, we are also firm believers in the life motto “work hard, play hard”. We run whanau events, such as quiz nights, bowling, laser tag tournaments, and movie nights monthly for our students; as well as enter sports teams in

ĀPIHA HAUORA:

Shaq Milner Ngāti Porou me Kuki Airani Studying: Bachelor of Commerce (Accounting and Commercial Law) Kiwaha: Arā ia!

the university leagues, have kapa haka weekly, and study wānanga throughout the year. We provide a space for students to feel a sense of home away from home, and express their own Māoritanga. It is both our responsibility and our aspiration to make the student experience at Victoria the best it can be, so make the most of your own experience and get amongst!

ĀPIHA TŪMATANUI: Kahu Kutia Ngāi Tūhoe

Studying: Bachelor of Arts (Media Studies and Māori Studies) Favourite Kiwaha: Wāwau ana

TUMUAKI TAKIRUA:

POU TUARONGO:

KAITIAKI PŪTEA:

Bachelor of Teaching, Bachelor of Arts (Te Reo Māori and Māori Studies) Kiwaha: Ko koe kei runga!

Studying: Bachelor of Arts (Te Reo Māori, Māori Studies) and Bachelor of Science (Marine Biology) Kiwaha: E kore a muri e hokia

Bachelor of Commerce (Finance and Information Systems) Kiwaha: E te muru

ĀPIHA WHAKANGĀHAU:

KAITUHI:

ĀPIHA MĀTAURANGA:

Kealyn Marshall Te Ātihaunui-a-Pāpārangi

Nohorua Parata Ngāti Kahungunu, Ngāti Ruanui me Rongowhakaata Studying: Bachelor of Arts (Film, Media Studies and Te Reo Māori) Kiwaha: Nā whai ano

Hinemaia Takurua Ngāti Porou, Ngāti Pahauwera

Te Aumihi Jones Ngāpuhi, Ngāi Takoto, Te Aupōuri Studying: Bachelor of Commerce (Information Systems) Kiwaha: Me i kore te Rāmere

Paul Tukukino Ngāti Tamatera, Ngāti Porou, Ngāti Kahungunu, Tainui

Sarah-Marie Davies Ngāti Pikiao, Te Arawa

Bachelor of Law and Bachelor of Commerce (Management) Kiwaha: Ka mau te wehi!


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Te Ara Tauira

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Kōrero Te Ara Pitopito Tauira

NGĀ RANGAHAUTIRA — MĀORI LAW STUDENTS ASSOCIATION Nā Kahu Haimona (Te Arawa, Waikato) rāua ko Eru Kapa-Kingi (Te Aupōuri, Ngāpuhi, Waikato-Tainui, Te Whānau a Apanui) Ngā Tumuaki-Takirua o Ngā Rangahautira Ko Ngā Rangahautira tētahi rōpū e tautoko ana i ngā mahi a ngā ākonga Māori e whai ana i te tohu ture. Ko ngā mahi a Ngā Rangahautira, he tautoko, he akiaki anō hoki i ngā ākonga ki te whai i tēnei rākau ture a te Pākehā. He rōpū e hāngai pū ana ki te whakawhanaunga i ngā tauira Māori o Te Kura Tātai Ture, mā te whakahaere i ētahi wānanga ture. Waihoki, ka whakahaerehia ētahi pō whakangāhau, kia kai tahi, kia noho tahi, kia kotahi ai tātou. Ka mutu, he rōpū āwhina i ngā ākonga Māori ki te whakanui i tō tātou Māoritanga i roto i te ture. I whakatūhia te rōpū nei i te tau 1982, ā, i tēnei tau e whakanui ana i ngā tau 35 kua pahure. I tapaina te ingoa e Moana Jackson (Ngāti Kahungunu, Ngāti Porou) ko Ngā Rangahautira, me kī te tira rangahau. Ko te tohu o tō mātou rōpū ko tētahi manaia e pupuri ana i tētahi hama o te kōti me tētahi pepa mātauranga. Nā Barry Te Whatu (Taranaki Tūturu, Ngā Puhi) te tohu i hanga. Ko te tikanga o te manaia, ko ngā tauira Māori e mahi ana i te ture ki Te Whare Wānanga o Te Upoko o te Ika-a-Māui. Waihoki, ko te hama o te kōti e whakaatu ana i te ao o te ture, ā, ko te pepa mātauranga e whakaatu ana i te tohu paetahi o te ao Pākehā, me kī, te tohu paetahi o te ture. Ko te tūāpapa o tā mātou tohu me tā mātou waiata, ko ngā kōrero tukuiho ā Tā Āpirana Ngata (Ngāti Porou): “E tipu e rea mō ngā rā o tō ao, ko tō ringa ki ngā rākau a te Pākehā, hei ora mō te tinana. Ko tō ngākau ki ngā tāonga a ō tīpuna Māori. Hei tikitiki mō tō māhunga. Ko tō wairua ki tō atua, nāna nei ngā mea katoa.” Āpiti atu, he rōpū anō kei waenganui i a mātou. Ko Ngā Kaiaronui, ko Te Hīnātore ngā ingoa o ēnei rōpū. Ko Ngā Kaiaronui, he rōpū ka tāpae atu ki ngā Kōmiti Whiriwhiri o te Whare Pāremata. Engari, e whakatāpae ana, ā-tuhinga, ā-waha anō hoki e pā ana ki ngā take e hāngai ana ki te ao Māori. Ko Te Hīnātore, he rōpū mō ngā tauira katoa, ahakoa Māori mai, Pākehā mai. Kia whai wāhi atu ai te hunga nei ki te āta wānanga i ngā hononga o te ao Māori me te ao Pākehā, arā ngā tikanga Māori me ngā ture Pākehā. Nō reira, e kite ai ngā āhuatanga huhua o Ngā Rangahautira, tūhono mai ki ngā pae pāpāho pāpori o Ngā Rangahautira: Pukamata: Ngā Rangahautira Paeāhua: nga_rangahautira Atapaki: nr_snapz


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Pitopito Te Ara Kōrero Tauira

TE PUTAHI ATAWHAI

VUWSA

Nā Dayna Eggeling

Nā Tamatha Paul (Equity Officer) Ngāti Awa, Waikato-Tainui

Tēnā koutou e te tī, e te tā Ko Dayna Eggeling tōhoku ikoa, he uri ahau nō Kāi Tahu, e mahi ana au ki Te Pūtahi Atawhai he tari mō kāi tauira Māori, kāi tauira nō Te Moana-Nui-a-Kiwa hoki. Kei te papa tuarua o te whare o te Uniana Tauira mātou e noho ana. Ko te kaupapa o tēnei wiki o te reo Māori, Ko ‘Kia Ora’. He aha te ‘Kia Ora’ māhaku? Mā kā kaimahi? Mā kā tauira i tāhaku mahi? Kei te kōrero i tōu ake reo rakatira, kia mau ai tōu ake mita, tōu ake whakapapa, hei orakā mō tātou, ā, mō kā uri ā muri ake nei. Ahakoa tōu taumata, ka kōrerotia te kōrero o ōu tīpuna e maumahara ai koe ki ā rātou mahi katoa. Ko Te Pūtahi Atawhai tētahi tari e whāngai ana i kā reo nō Aotearoa, ā, nō kā wāhi kē. Ko te mea nui o tērā e ako ana tātou i a tātou. Tekau mā tahi kā tau i noho ai ahau i tēnei wānaka, mai te tīmata ki tēnei rā he tuakana au mō kā tauira hou i kā pepa reo Māori i te wanakā nei. Ko tēnei mahi he whakatōtika, he whakakaha nā te teina ki te tuakana, nā te tuakana ki te teina. He tino waimarie ahau ki te tutaki i kā tēina i aua wā ki tēnei wā nā te mea he tautoko tātou i a tātou ki te ora. Ko tōhoku tono ki a koutou te huka reo Māori, kia tuku atu i tōu mātauraka Māori ki te teina hei whakamana i tōna kākau ahakoa nō hea te teina, ahakoa tōna taumata ake. Ko te mea whakamutuka o tēnei, Ko te whakataukī nō tōhoku iwi ko Kāi Tahu “Whakahokia mai anō tōhoku reo ki ōku kutu, au ahi, au ora, kia rere, kia pīataata me he kuru auhuka” (may my language return once again to my lips, if it is spoken it will live, that it may flow freely and shine like a precious pounamu).

Working in and around student associations, it’s super easy to get complacent. Sometimes the big picture becomes blurred by the intricacies of the work. For example, sometimes you feel like your work isn’t important, or that your abilities within these organisations are really limited. This couldn’t be further from the truth though, and we need only to look at history in order to see this. In the ’70s, our very own student association (VUWSA) mobilised half of the Victoria student population in protest against the Vietnam War, as well as donating $2000 (~$30,000 today) to the Viet Minh to purchase a tank. During this time, but further up Te Ika a Māui, Ngā Tamatoa emerged out of the University of Auckland (UoA), and was made up of heaps of tauira Māori. Ngā Tamatoa (and subsequently He Taua) is most known for when they disrupted the UoA’s engineering students “haka party” in 1978. This could be the perfect opportunity to draw parallels between the haka party and those muppets calling themselves the “Auckland University European Students Association”. Unfortunately there are much bigger issues at hand for our people, and especially our young people. It’s well known that throughout the history of popular uprisings, students have always played an integral role. I’m not saying we should all revolt, but looking at those latest stats on suicide in New Zealand, as well as the state of te taiao — we HAVE to do something. We have to find that same strength and use it, because our young people are literally dying. I don’t have all the answers, but I know that a good place for us to start is by casting our votes on the 23rd. Let’s start there aye.


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Te Ara Tauira

TE HERENGA WAKA

Ko Ahumairangi te maunga Ko Ngā Mokopuna te wharekai Ko Te Tumu Herenga Waka te wharenui Ko Te Herenga Waka te marae Ko Ngāi Māori te iwi Ko Te Herenga Waka tō tātou marae i te whare wānanga nei. He whare

wānanga i ngā kaupapa katoa o te ao e noho nei tātou, he tāhūhū kōrero anō mō ngā kōrero o nehe. E kīia ana ma ngā tauira e kuhu atu ana ki tōna poho e whakaara ake ōna pou, kei reira anō te hunga e kōrerotia nei hei toko ake i tōna tāhūhū tau ake nei, tau ake nei.

Koia mātou ngā mata o te whānau o Te Herenga Waka e poipoi ana i a

koutou ngā manu taiko o te whare wananga. Koutou rā e tātao ana te nukuroa o nga kete o te wanaga, te kete tuauri, te kete tūatea, ā, te kete aronui.

Ngā momo wāhi i rō te marae: *

* * *

He whare rorohiko, na Te Whanake Mauiri Tu mō ngā tauira ki te whakamahi i ā rātou akoranga Ko te ruma Matariki he wahi mō ngā akoranga whāiti Ko te wharenui he wāhi hei wānanga mō ngā akoranga whānui Ko te wharekai he wāhi whakawhanaungatanga mo te whānau katoa.

No reira nau mai haere mai ki ngā poupou o tō whare o Te Herenga Waka. Kia kaua e wareware kei runga mātou i a pukamata, reira ai ngā tūranga hirahira. Mauri ora!


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Te Ara Tauira


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Te Ara Tauira

TE HŌHAIETI O TE REO MĀORI KI WIKITŌRIA Nā Nikayla Jonas Te Ātihaunui-a-Pāpārangi, Ngāti Ruanui Whakamāori nā Kahu Kutia He rōpū tēnei mō te hunga e aroha ana ki tēnei reo rangatira, arā, ko Te Reo Māori tērā. Ko te kaupapa nui kia hanga tētahi wāhi pai mō te iwi e pirangi ki te kōrero i te reo, ahakoa te taumata. Heoi anō, kia mōhio ai tēnei hunga ki ngā pou awhina maha mō rātou. Ko te Hōhaieti he rōpū i akiaki i te reo i ngā wā katoa, he reo i ako i roto i ngā akomanga, ngā wānanga, me ō mātou huiā-wiki “Piri Kōrero” hoki. He kaupapa i rangona anō mai runga i te reo irirangi, ko tā mātou wāhi i kōnei ko “Māori Matters”. He kaupapa tēnei i whakahaere ngā tauira o tēnei whare wānanga. Ko te tumanako kia ako tātou i ngā kaupapa Māori me te reo i ngā wā katoa. Ko tō mātou whainga kia pū te aroha mō Te Reo Māori i ngā wāhi katoa o tēnei whare wānanga. Ka mahi tahi mātou o te Hōhaieti, me ngā wahanga katoa kē o te Whare Wānanga ki tēnei kaupapa whakahirahira. Kei te hoatu mātou i ētahi taonga hei Te Wiki o Te Reo Māori. Ko ēnei taonga he mea i tohuatia e ngā tāngata kei te pīrangi ki te kōrero Māori. He kaupapa tēnei kia akina ō hoa i te reo. Ki te pīrangi koe kia whakapakari i tō reo, tēnā nau mai! Mauri Ora e te iwi!

TE RŌPŪ ĀWHINA Nā Ani Eparaima Ngāti Awa, Ngāi Tūhoe The kōrero of our tīpuna are recounted in many hapori across the Pacific. The importance of retelling those stories is considered a craft which we attempt to practice in every facet of our being as Māori and Pasifika people who are descended from greatness. For me, these kōrero are integral to the delivery of the science projects that Te Rōpū Āwhina (Āwhina) is taking to hapori across Aotearoa. Established in 1999, Āwhina is the on-campus whānau for students studying in the Faculties of Science, Engineering, Architecture and Design (SEAD). The Awhina outreach programme aims to demystify science by privileging Māori and Pasifika knowledge and kōrero as the foundation of our science activities. Delivered to rangatahi across the motu, one such activity discussed the love story of Mount Taranaki whilst investigating its geological movement and the analysis of igneous rock. Another activity discussed the antibacterial effectiveness of rongoā rākau such as Manuka oil. This gives rangatahi the opportunity to experiment with a range of ingredients to create everyday items like Manuka lip-balm to take home to their whanau. A popular activity was the creation of a 3D printed Fale Samoa, the explanation of its architectural design and cultural importance of the many pou. Other activities included; exploring magnetic fields in hangi stones, examining the pollution of waterways, and the creative design of tapa cloth. This programme would not have been possible without the incredible people we partnered with and their unwavering support. Ngā mihi maioha ki a koutou.


Te Kete Kōrero

KŌ R

ER O

enry Awhina H

Tipene Kapa-Kingi

KE

TE

Monika Maxwell

TE

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& Kahu Kutia

Te Nia Matthews

Trinity Thompson-Browne


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Te Kete KĹ?rero


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Te Kete Kōrero

TIAKINA TANGAROA! Nā Awhina Henry Ngāti Porou, Te Whānau a Apanui Whakamāori nā Jamie Yeates Te Āti Awa, Te Pae o Rangitīkei

“Na Io matua kore a Tane Mahuta e tohutohu, ka tu ahua nei rite ki a koe, ka puta mai te wahine tuatahi. Kia tūpato kia takahi te mana o ngā wahine. Ko ratou e kai mau te ahua o ngā atua. Ko ratou e kai mau te ira o ngā atua. I ngā hē, kia tiaki i ngā matou ka mate ngā whakatipuranga.” Io matua kore te atua/god of the universe, of everything, told Tane Mahuta the god of the forest to make someone in his image. He created the first woman from the very earth clay in which we walk. It was this creation as the first human being that gave woman great mana/prestige. Io matua said that women are created in the image of the atua/god, they are perfect, do not treat their mana. Because if this happens then the population will die.


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Te Kete Kōrero

Ao mai, ao atu ka kaha ake te kumea o roto nō tōna ekenga ki te toi o ngā rangi. Ko tēnei kukume, te tākiri nei kei roto rawa i a au e karanga atu rā ki te wai, ki te kōpū kia pana, kia tō. E pūao iho nei te ahotea kia tauria te mata o te whenua e te mārama. Ka uira te tai whatiwhati i te mana o te mārama, ka kānapanapa i tōna whanake, i tōna whīroki. Ka rewa te atarau, ka kumea au i ngā wai o roto. Ka titi te atarau, ka kumea kaha ake te tai moana. Ko te mārama te kaitākiri i tēnei herenga o te waiora o te tangata me te waiora o te moana. Nā te mārama me āna pānga i honoa ai tōku kōpū ki a Tangaroa, i honoa hoki ai a Tangaroa ki te iwi nei, te iwi Māori. He wāhine tātou, he whare tangata, he puna waiora, ko tātou te ūkaipō o te iwi. Kei a tātou te āhua o ngā atua “rātou e kai mau te āhua o te atua,” i hangaia ake ki te whenua. Ki tā te Ao Māori he tapu te wahine nā te mea ko te kōpū te tūhono o te ao kiko me te ao wairua. Kei te whare tangata te puna waiora. Ko tēnei wai koirā hei honohono i a tātou ki a Tangaroa, ki te Mārama anō hoki. Ka mōmona te mārama, ka pari te tai, ka timu te tai; ka pari hoki, ka timu hoki ko te waikura o te whare ika. Koia nei te tauhere i waenga i a tātou ko Tangaroa ko te Mārama. Ko te wāhine e rongo i tēnei āhua, ka mārama kehokeho hoki ki a ia te mauri o te ao me te whakapapa e honoa nei ngā mea katoa. He wahine ngākau-nui engari he mārohirohi tonu, nōna e whai ana i ngā tapuae o ōna tīpuna. Koinei tētehi o ngā hononga o te iwi Māori ki te moana, ko te hiringa nei ki roto i te kōpū. Ko Tangaroa te atua o te moana, he moana nui, he moana roa, he moana. He mahi nui whakaharahara mō tō tātou reanga te tiaki i te hauora o Tangaroa. Nā te kaha whai i te hinu, i te parahitiki, i te mahi ahuwhenua ka paru noa atu te wai. Kia tohaina atu ngā kōrero Māori me te mōhioranga Māori ki te rangatiratanga o Tangaroa. He huanui tēnei e taea ai te whakaheke i ngā paruparu, e oho ai te tangata kia manaaki i a Tangaroa. He ika anō tā Tangaroa, he ika e hono atu nei tātou mā te mōhio ki te whakapapa o ngā ātua i te Ao Māori. Ko ngā pukapuka me te hau e pūpuhi nei, nā Tāwhiri-mātea. Nā Tāne te roro, te rua mahara. Kei a Rongo ko te ngākau me te aroha e māpuna ake nei. Nā Tangaroa te wai o roto me ngā kare ā-roto e rere nei, e whati nei. He rite te pāpaki o te ngaru ki te rere o te toto i ō tātou iaia. Nā reira e pai ana te kaukau i te moana mō te tangata kōmingo, mō te tangata hūkokikoki. Ka tau iho te kapakapa o te manawa ki te pīti e tika ana. I whāngaihia au ki te kai o te moana nā reira au e mōhio nei ko te kai o ngā iwi noho takutai he kaimoana, he tote. Whakapono mai, he uaua te noho ki te wao nui o Tāone i te wā ka whakamomori noa rawa koe ki te tote. He mōhioranga ka whai painga te hinu ika hei whakaheke ngako, hei whakatau i te rere o te toto kei tūponohia te mate manawa me te rehu ohotata. Ina tūhonoa anōtia te iwi ki a Tangaroa, ka ora, ka pai ake te hauora manawa. He whakaaro Māori anō hoki kei roto i te kai ika, i tua atu i te hauora manawa. Ko te whakatairite i te rere o te toto ki te timu me te pari o te tai. He nui whakaharahara te hononga o te ia o roto ki a Tangaroa, he miramira i te painga o ngā uri o Tangaroa ki tēnei wāhanga o te tinana. Mā te whakamahi me te mārama anō ki ngā āhuatanga o tō tātou nei taiao ka piki ake te mauri, ka hū ake te hiringa mō tō tātou hauora ā-tinana, ā-ngākau, ā-wairua. Nōku e tipu ake ana, i hau mai te rongo o ngā kōrero mō Waiapu o Ngāti Porou, o te taniwha rā a Horowhatu nāna i tōremi te tangata i te awa.


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Awhina Henry

TIAKINA TANGAROA!


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Awhina Henry

TIAKINA TANGAROA!

I whakamānawatia te awa e te mahi a te minita, pīrihi me ngā tohunga i hīkoi tōtika atu mai te mātāpuna ki te wahapū. He ritenga tō Rangitikia me mahia kia pai ai te kaukau, hī ika rānei ki te wahapū nei. “I mua o te hekenga ki roto i te tiana hoki o te Kai-hao. Hei reira ra ano ka heke ai te Kai-hao ki roto i te wai. Pena tikanga i nga wa katoa. Kei te mau tonu i a Ngati Porou inaianei.” 1 E mahia ana tēnei ritenga hei whakapanapana i ngā ika nui: ko ngā whai, ngā mangō me ērā atu uri whakawehi o Tangaroa, ka rongo i te hāunga o te tangata. Nā tēnei i māmā ake ai te hopu i ngā ika iti iho kāore e taea te rongo. E hia kē nei ngā tikanga o te moana, o Tangaroa. Ko te matua, me manaaki te moana. He kāinga ki te tokopae o Tangaroa, me pērā te mahi: he kāinga tonu. Kia mārama ki a tātou, nā ngā matū e whakamahia ana e tātou i ngaua kino nei te taiao, otīia ki te moana me ōna uri. Ki te pēnei tonu te whakamahi o ngā matū kikino, ko te parahitiki tētehi tauira, me mātua mōhio e tātou te hiranga o te taiao, ehara i te hiranga ā-kiko anake engari ā-ahurea nei, ā-wairua nei, ā-ngākau nei, ā-hinengaro nei hoki. Nōku te wawata mō āku tamariki kia kī tonu tēnei kete kai e kore e pau, e pai ai ki a rātou te kaimoana me ōna hua mō te tinana me te hinengaro me te wairua. Nā tōku Māoritanga ka whakapono au nō te moana au, he whakapapa i heke mai i a Tangaroa. “Ko au te moana, ko te moana ko au.” Whakahuatia ai te moutere nei o runga ki te ingoa “TE IKA A MĀUI.” Ko te nuku o te whenua e takahia nei e ōku waewae, he ika. TIAKINA TE TAIAO! TIAKINA TE MOANA: LOOK AFTER THE ENVIRONMENT, LOOK AFTER THE MOANA! Nā Awhina Henry He tāwhiri hei whakapūmau i tō hono ki a Tangaroa: 1. Ka tau te mauri i te kaukau moana. 2. Ka tairite i te pāpaki o ngā ngaru te rere o te toto i ō tātou tinana. 3. Whakamahia ngā tote tāpu kia pērā ki te kaukau moana. 4. Kainga te kaimoana! 5. Ka whakapaingia te wairua, te tinana me te hinengaro. 6. Manaaktia te moana! Tiakina ōna uri!

1. Te Ara. https://teara.govt.nz/mi/te-hi-ika/page-3


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Te Kete Kōrero

WHERE ARE YOU FROM? Nā Tipene Kapa-Kingi Te Aupōuri, Ngāpuhi, Waikato-Tainui, Te Whānau a Apanui


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Te Kete Kōrero

Where are you from? An innocent question. For most, there’s no deep thought process in answering. We Māori spend a lot of time internalising an answer. Given the rich history of te iwi Māori, there’s a myriad of possibilities. Mā te tau o tō mauri te whakautu e kōwhiri. Ka whakaaro ētahi he Māori anō te Māoritanga ki te iwi Māori nei. Engari, kei te hahua tonutia tō tātou Māoritanga i te rua hōhonu o neherā. Ko etahi o Ngāi Māori kāore tonu i te mōhio ki ō rātou pakiaka, me pēhea kē tō rātou tupu? As Māori, identity and whakapapa are the very fibres of our existence. Not knowing where you’re from is like not knowing what your name is. However, a large portion of Māori are disconnected from places and people in which they would seek identity. There’s an even larger portion who are disconnected from our reo and tikanga. This is partly attributable to the urbanisation period in which Māori whānau moved from their haukāinga to urban areas to find mahi. And of course, let’s not forget the C word — colonisation. The detrimental effects of this on Te Ao Māori needs no explanation. Nō nāianei pea ka whakaaro koe he tuhinga tēnei mō ngā hara o te tiriti me taku ahurei i tūkinohia, i waimehatia e te ringa o te Pākehā. E kāo. Ka hāngai ēnei kupu ki ngā āhuatanga kei waenga pū i a tātou te Māori. I a tātou e pēhi nei i a tātou anō. Today, Māori are dispersed. Geographically, socially, and politically, we are divided. This division has led to disparities in whakaaro between iwi, ultimately turning us all against each other. We look at our whanaunga in Parliament who stab each other’s backs while they hide behind their policies. We look at my


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Tipene Kapa-Kingi

Where are you from?

relations up north who squabble over a mandate in which we should claim our settlements. We are our worst enemies. We are our own oppressors. Moumou ake nei te pitomata. Korekore ka pēhia anōtia te iwi Māori e te pūnaha Pākehā e noho nei tātou. He aha kē tātou e takakino nei i a tātou anō? He moroiti tonu tātou i tō tātou ake whenua. Ki te wāwāhi te Māori, kua memeha tō tātou mana. E tika ana te kōrero; “He tōtara wāhirua, hei kai mā te ahi.” Paulo Freire, author of The Pedagogy of the Oppressed, states that those who suffer from long-term oppression eventually idolise their oppressors. They internalise their oppressors and begin to oppress each other. Especially those who seek liberation. This is what has affected us as Māori. We’ve been bound within the dark corners of society for so long, we think it is our rightful place. We shit on other Māori who seek freedom. We think they are not deserving of this gift when, in fact, “freedom is acquired by conquest, not by gift” (Freire, 1970). People label it “tall poppy syndrome” or they say we are genetically predisposed to be under-achievers — ehara! We need to label it for what it is: internalised oppression. Being Māori has become something of a competition between us. Especially between the younger “renaissance” generation of our culture. Who has the best reo? Who can recite their whakapapa? Who is the most “tūturu” Māori? Apparently, this makes you more Māori than those who have not been so fortunate to learn those treasures. Some of us use this as a weapon to make those less fortunate feel inferior. To make someone feel less than who they are is, again, oppression. We laugh at those who are stumped when someone asks them where they’re from. We call them “plastic”. We need to help them find the answer. Nō reira, me pēhea rā te whakautu? Kia whakaaro ngātahi tātou. Me takimano tōna whakautu. Nō hea tātou, otirā, nō wai tātou? Nō ngā atua tātou. Nō ngā kāwai tapu o ngā ariki. Nō ngā kaihautū o tēnā waka, o tēnā waka. Nō ngā maunga whakahī, nō ngā awa whakairo. Nō tēnei whenua tātou katoa.


Merenia Hudson NgÄ ti Awa


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Te Kete Kōrero

WHITE BREAD IN THE HĀNGĪ Nā Monika Maxwell Ngāi Tūhoe, Ngāti Aerana

I am awful when it comes to starting a project, notoriously so. I’m the person you tag in memes about procrastinating, the person who smiles blankly when you ask how their essays going, and the person who eases your anxiety by ensuring you that you’re not the only who whose left that assignment for last minute. Generic procrastination aside, there is usually a reason I struggle to inspire myself to begin writing. Usually I’m unaware of this issue until I’m directly met with it, but for this particular essay the hesitation preventing me from writing is essential to the subject itself. I feel uncomfortable when accessing my Māori identity and, because of that, I feel uncomfortable writing as a contributor to Te Ao Mārama. I’ve had this word document open for three weeks, and here I am, a week after the deadline and attempting to fathom into 1200 words or less why I feel uncomfortable. So here I go. My relationship with being Māori for much of my life was shallow and surface level, reduced only to my appearance. Brown skin? Check. Dark hair? Check. Brown eyes? Check. The list continues and it all whispers hints to my heritage. If I were asked what Iwi I was from, however, I probably would’ve just smiled blankly and blinked. My affiliation with my Māoritanga was limited to just that of biology and the value of my cultural identity held no significance in my understanding of who I was. I was dislocated from that facet of my identity and I never bothered to mind. I never perceived the disconnection of myself and my Māoritanga as a loss when I was younger, but the more I learn why this disconnect exists, the more I mourn this as a loss. Life has not been compassionate towards my cultural identity because it was not compassionate towards that of my mum. A series of unfavourable


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Monika Maxwell

WHITE BREAD IN THE HĀNGĪ

circumstances are responsible for my mum’s placement into the “care” of the state, offering her as a hostage to the New Zealand foster care system of the 1960s. “Abusive”, “traumatising”, and “deeply shocking” are the preferred buzzwords used by most media companies when covering the state of the foster care system during this time. Negligent, too, should be added because the system betrayed my mum’s cultural identity. Instead of facilitating this aspect of her identity by placing her in the care of people in her tribe, or even the same culture, my mum was raised by a white family living in the Bay of Plenty area. Placing her in a white family unable to nourish her identity starved her of her culture. The system betrayed my Mum’s identity by ignoring the importance of culture. The lack of support available to aid a connection between my mum and her Māoritanga was a failure to nurture her identity. It paved a trajectory for my siblings and myself that split us from our cultural roots. I have been described by my friends as “the whitest Māori they know,” and often found myself contributing to this disassociation by asserting that “I’m Māori, but like, not really.” It’s not that I was ashamed of being Māori, or favoured my European ancestry more, it was just that I felt estranged from Māori culture and therefore felt unable to claim it as my own. I’m fortunate enough to have a relationship with my biological Grandmother and spent a lot of time with her and my cousins over the summer holidays. In these interactions I was aware of the jarring dissimilarities between my cousins and I which further encouraged this idea that being Māori was something I did not have the right to access. The way I spoke and my interests all existed in a niche abstract to that of my cousins. Once they put down a hangi but I instead opted for Nutella sandwiches, white bread of course. I’m not reducing being Māori to whether you do or do not like hangi or boil up, but as a kid it just seemed like another example of my “whiteness”. My understanding of what it is to be Māori excluded me and so I assimilated the idea that it would be inaccurate or even an insult to try assert my Māori-ness. As a teenager I dressed myself in gowns of angst, jewels of insecurity, and lined my lips with existentialism. I listened to songs entirely irrelevant to my own experiences and pretended to relate to them, nodding my head in cool acknowledgment. In year 13 for media studies I produced a short film with themes surrounding identity but still failed to acknowledge my lack of relationship with my culture as an issue. It just was. My mum wasn’t raised entrenched in Māori culture and nor was I. But as an adult my Mum took the time to nurse her wounds and take Te Reo courses as a way to rekindle her relationship with her Māoritanga. My lack of connection has wounded me, left me with an emptiness that I have only just identified. Cultural identity is dynamic and unique, the way you relate to and express your culture is independent of yourself. My lack of familiarity and understanding of Māori culture fuelled me to estrange myself from the right to claim Māori as my own. I feel uncomfortable expressing my identity as a Māori because a system whitewashed my mum’s upbringing. I don’t know my language like my cousins do, I don’t know my traditions like my cousins do, and I don’t know my culture like my cousins do. But now I do know that this is an issue and it’s my responsibility to repave my trajectory to meet back up with that of my culture.


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Te Kete Kōrero

HE URI TĒNEI NŌ HINEPŪKOHURANGI Nā Kahu Kutia Ngāi Tūhoe Whakamāori nā Migoto Eria

Kohukohu ana ki te rangi Kohukohu ana ki te papa Kohukohu ana ki te ao, kohukohu ana ki te pō, Arā ngā kākahu a Hinepūkohurangi. Kei taku kura tuatahi, ka whakaakona e rātou te whakakīngia i tō mātou pepeha. He pepa e A4 te rahi, he wāhi tuhituhi e wātea ana mō ō ake whakautu. I a au e wānangahia te whakatakoto o tōku pepeha, he rite taku reo hamumu i taku tamarikitanga, e 10 tau taku pakeke. Tōku maunga, tōku awa, tōku marae, tōku hapū, tōku iwi me tōku waka. Ki te mōhio koe i tō pepeha, e mōhio ana hoki nō hea koe ā-whenua nei: koinei tō mātou awa e kaukau nei mātou hei te Raumati, koinei tōku maunga e whakamaru i a mātou i te Takurua, koinei tōku marae, te papa kāinga o ōku tupuna. Ko tōku pepeha ko au, ko au tōku pepeha. I tērā tau ka puta mai te māramatanga ki a au i roto i ētahi wānanga, kotahi tau te roanga o te whakapakari tangata me ētahi rangatahi Māori mai i ngā pito o te motu. I a au e wānanga ana me tēnei rōpu, ka puta mai te whakatau ki te takahi i tētahi ara me te whāinga kia riro i a au taku tā moko tuatahi. Ko tēnei ara tā moko mōku he reo karanga o tōku whakapapa, he pito arataki i a au i roto i tōku pepeha. He rangatahi tonu au, kāore i te tino kaha te kōrero Māori, he tawhiti hoki mai i tōku kāinga i a au e rangahau ana. Ahakoa he tairo tonu ēnei, e mōhio pūmau ana he ara tika tēnei mōku.


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Author Kahu Kutia

Te Kete Kōrero HE URI TĒNEI NŌ HINEPŪKOHURANGI

Ka waea atu au ki tōku Pāpā me taku īnoi.

“Kia ora e kō,” ka whakautu a ia tōna waea. “Pāpā.” Ka rongo au i a ia e inu tī ana. “Pīrangi ana au te mau moko.”

Ka pātai mai ia kei tēhea wāhi o tōku tinana, ko tāku, “Kei aku kikopuku, ringa rānei.” Ka kī au ki a ia kua rite au te kimi whakaaro, engari he paku āwhina te hiahia, “He aha rā te āhua o taku moko?”

I āta whakaaro a Pāpā mō te wā poto, me tōna whakautu. “Ko tō whakapapa te kaupapa. He kāwai tupuna anō hoki. Tērā pea ko te tipuna nei a Hinepūkohurangi tētahi whakaaro, he hononga ki tō taha Tūhoe.” Ko taku waea atu ki tōku Pāpā he tuatahitanga i tēnei ara, he tīmatanga. Ko te pātai matua e pā ana ki te whakapapa. Nō te kīanga o Hinepūkohurangi e tōku pāpā, koinei te wā tuatahi e wānangahia ana mō te tipuna nei kua tā ki taku kiri. Ko Hinepūkohurangi tō mātou tipuna, ko ia te atua o te kohu. Ka whārikitia e ia i a Papatūānuku me ōna makawe mā, roroa anō hoki. E ai ki ā mātou pūrākau, ka puta mai a Ngāi Tūhoe i te piringa a Hinepūkohurangi me Te Maunga – ko ia ko ngā puke me ngā maunga tiketike. E tika ana tēnei kaupapa mā mātou, ka whānau mai te iwi i ngā puke kua kākahutia e te kohu o Te Urewera. Ko mātou “Ngā Tamariki o te Kohu.” He mātau aku whānau ki ngā ara hīkoi ki tērā takiwā me te mahinga kai mai i te whenua. Kua kohia hoki au i ngā whakapapa o Mataatua waka, nāna aku tipuna i kawea ki Te Moana a Toi. Tokotoru ngā tamariki a Wekanui me Irakewa, arā, ko Puhi, ko Muriwai me Toroa. Ka moe a Toroa me Kake-Pikitia, ka puta mai tā rāua tamāhine a Wairaka. Ko te tamaiti a Wairaka ko Tamatea Ki Te Huatahi, ā, i moe a ia ki a Paewhiti, te tamāhine a Taneatua. Tokotoru ā rāua tama, kotahi te tamāhine. Ko te pōtiki, ko Tūhoe-Pōtiki, nā ka puta mai ko Ngāi Tūhoe te ingoa o te iwi. Ko te whakamārama o tēnei ko “ngā uri a Tūhoe.” Inā kīi mai taku whakapapa, he uri ahau o Hinepūkohurangi, te wahine o te kohu, ko te kūare kei roto i ahau e kīia nei he kōrero paki noa. Kāore i te whakaaetia e tērā o ngā rangahau i ahu mai mātou i te Moana nui a Kiwa, mai i Āhia me Āwherika. Kua rongo au i a rātou e mātau ana ki ā rātou whakapapa ki ngā tipuna motuhake, tekau reanga ki muri. E mārama ana rātou ki ngā mahi whakaakoranga o ō rātou tīpuna me pēhea hoki rātou tae ki taua māramatanga. Kua rongo hoki au i ētahi e taki whakapapa ana o ngā iwi katoa o Aotearoa me ngā tātai, hononga katoa ki a Māui, Kupe me ngā atua, tērā whakapapa e kīia nei he Māori. Ko tēnei te take ka tīmata au i tēnei ara o te whakapapa. Kaua mō taku taha Māori anake, e ngari mō taku taha Pākehā anō hoki. Ka taea e tōku kuia te maumahara e 15 ngā reanga ki muri o ngā hononga ki Tenemāka, Kōtarana


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Kahu Kutia

HE URI TĒNEI NŌ HINEPŪKOHURANGI

me Ingarangi. He kaha nōna te awhi mai i a au te kohi i ngā mauhanga whānautanga, matenga hoki o ētahi o aku whānau. He nui tonu ngā mea kāore i te mōhio, he nui hoki ngā pātai kāore anō kia whakautu. Koirā te mate o te tāmitanga, whakapāwera hītori, te pūnaha whāngai tamariki me te pāmamae ki runga i ngā whānau. Ko tātou ngā whakatipuranga o ō mātou wāhi. Ki taku nei tirohanga ka taea te kite me pēhea tōku whakaputanga mai ki te ao nei. Tāiritia ana Hinepūkohurangi i Te Urewera i te ata, whārikitia ana te riu katoa e te kohu mātotoru. E mākū ana te otaota, e puke ana te awa, ka whārikitia ana i te maunga, arā, ko tana whaiāipo. He tohu a ia mō te mea ngaro - mō tētahi ūpoko māro e tae ate ako me pēhea te piri ki te ara inā tē taea te kite te 30 henemita ki mua. Ko tōna taenga mai (a Hinepūkohurangi) he tohu mō te putanga ki waho o te whare ki tōna kohu mātotoru, noho pū ki roto rānei hei kōrero, hei wānanga rānei i te whakaaro. He akoranga ēnei mōku mai i a Hinepūkohurangi, mā te whenua hoki tātou e ako pēnei i tō tātou whānau. He kōrero tawhito mai i a Elsdon Best mō tōna mīharo ki ō tātou whakapapa, arā, he uri whakaheke ā-toto nei mātou mai i a Hinepūkohurangi. He rite tahi ko ngā tohunga tikanga tangata, ngā kaipūtaiao rānei e kīia nei he paki noa ēnei kōrero. Ahakoa tērā, ko Hinepūkohurangi tō mātou whāea, nāna ngā tikanga me ngā whanonga o Ngāi Tūhoe i waihanga. Kātahi anō ka riro i a au taku tā moko tuatahi, ka tīmata mai i tētahi wāhanga ātaahua ki te kawititanga o taku ringa matau. He mihi ki a Pāpā i mate atu nō muri mai i tōku haerenga i tōku ara. He nui ngā akoranga whakapapa i runga i tēnei ara, engari ki te ako tonu au, he māramatanga nōku he nui kē atu te mātauranga kei waenganui i a tātou. Māku au e whakatōkia ki roto i taua whakapapa, he āta haere, he āta mahi pēnei i te mahi raranga, ka whakakotahi te kōrero o taku tuakiritanga.


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Te Kete Kōrero

DON’T LET THEM FOOL YOU Nā Te Nia Matthews, Ngāi Tūhoe

In beginning this piece, I had two questions put forward to me. The first was whether I saw myself as Māori first or as a New Zealander. 1000 per cent I see myself as being Māori first. However, my personal view does not nullify any other Māori view on the subject, whether they don’t identify as strongly or identify as iwi first. The second question is a bit more complex: does voting principally make you complicit with and accepting of NZ democracy as it currently stands? I would be remiss to answer this question without a more in depth look at what contemporary New Zealand democracy looks like. A few weeks ago I went to a candidates debate. Candidates from the Greens, Labour, and the Māori Party debated how they could engage potential Māori youth voters. Members from both Labour and the Māori party made damaging statements about how to get young Māori people to vote. One answer was that political parties needed more empathy from young people; the other was a suggestion to scare our rangatahi into voting. This is both concerning and offensive. For any political party to suggest to Māori students that they are not empathetic to national issues and that scare tactics need to be used in order for people to vote is misleading in a number of ways. I’m going to try and tackle a few of them. This article will not be a preachy piece to convince Māori between 18–24 to vote. I personally feel that’s been done over and over again and ultimately does nothing to deal with the actual problem of why Māori voter turnout is low — lower socio-economic living standards being the main contributor. Instead this article aims to debunk any misguided attitude about Māori youth not being empathetic to national issues or not caring enough to want to go out and vote. The systematic exclusion of Māori from participation is nothing new. New Zealand’s first parliamentary election was in 1853, and those eligible to vote were individual landowners. This restriction meant that those who owned land collectively (as Māori did through iwi) were not able to participate in elections. The Māori electorates were an attempt to solve this land ownership-based marginalisation where Māori were paying taxes and living under government laws but did not have the right to vote. Parliament originally believed that the Māori electorates were a short-term measure that would only be needed until Māori assimilated and transformed Māori land to individual ownership. However, in 1876 a decision was made to keep the seats indefinitely in an acknowledgement that assimilation was not forthcoming. When we address the Māori youth vote we have to look at the number of Māori youth actually getting out to the polls. Just over half (54.92%) of Māori youth, those between 18–24 years old, voted during the 2014 election according to the Electoral Commission. Those of non-Māori descent of the same age group, in comparison, polled at just ten per cent more. This is important, because your electoral roll choice has essential political consequences. The Electoral Act 1993 provides for proportionality between the number of Māori choosing to enrol on the Māori electoral roll and the number of Māori seats. For example, in the 2002 general election, if everyone in New Zealand of Māori descent who


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Te Kete Kōrero

was eligible to vote had been enrolled on the Māori roll and voted, there would have been a total of 15 Māori seats, which would have likely increased Māori political power. (Side-note: the Māori roll is really the only legitimate way of gauging how many Māori people actually vote). A report conducted by Massey University in 2013 for the Electoral Commission found that there are a number of reasons for low levels of Māori participation in voting. Crown breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi, mass urbanisation, policies of assimilation, and an unclear constitutional position are all contributing factors to the lifestyles and socioeconomic status of contemporary Māori. The 2013 Report from the Social Policy Evaluation and Research Centre also found that less than four out of every ten single-parent whānau say they have enough, or more than enough, income to meet their daily needs. This is reflected in the Massey University report, which identifies living standards and age as the two most significant variables affecting participants’ propensity to vote. All of these contributing factors outline a reality for a Māori majority that disenfranchises them from any political engagement.

I am a Porirua native and I live in an area where disenfranchisement is occurring. There have been multiple articles throughout the year reporting about parents from Porirua having to work three different jobs just to make ends meet, with flow on effects for their children who are twice as likely to change schools two or more times within six months than the national average, because parents are having to move for work, or the family is relocated by Housing NZ. It is easy to see why the voter turnout for Māori is the way it is. I don’t blame any parent who says they are too busy to be politically engaged because they are either looking for work or working three different jobs to ensure some kind of stability for their whānau. This coupled with the fact that their children aren’t being offered the opportunity to an education that enables them to be politically conscious — even just to be politically engaged is a privilege that not everyone is able to access. The fact of the matter is that we know why we have such low numbers of Māori between 18–24 voting — there is a lack of access to resources, and a high concentration of people with low socioeconomic status that limits their opportunities. I care about Māori, and all the issues of inequality that have affected us. This could never be a pro-National piece. I’m not about to set up a punchline asking parties to get their shit together, because the chances of any politician taking advice from me is hard to imagine. However, I do want to make this point clear to you, the reader. Ultimately any and all politicians should be well aware to know exactly how the existing state of affairs is working against those people who have been disenfranchised, but it seems to be a whole lot easier to shift blame away from themselves back onto the people who are suffering. Which makes this a question of who and what rights are our politicians willing to fight tooth and nail for. I cannot stress this point enough, some of our politicians are acting more as band aids when they should be searching for a definitive cure.


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Author Te Nia Matthews

Kete Kōrero Don’t Let Te Them Fool You

He hīkoi i te tau 2004 kei te Whanganui-a-tara.


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Te Kete KĹ?rero


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Te Kete Kōrero

Kei hea te mana o te tangata whenua? I haere mātou ki Ihumātao. He taniwha kei te kai i tēnei papakāinga! (Nā Kahu Kutia ngā whakaahua)


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Te Kete Kōrero

PUTTING THE MANA IN MANA WAHINE

Nā Trinity Thompson-Browne


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Trinity Thompson-Browne

Putting the Mana in Mana Wahine

Last trimester, I had the immense joy — and yes, though it was a university project, I do mean that honestly — of researching and exploring a topic that intrigued me: mana wahine. I think the main reason it intrigued me was because I didn’t really understand what it was before I started this project. By the end of it though, I knew this was a kaupapa I’d be learning more about every day. Multi-faceted, powerful, and so incredibly liberating, e hoa mā let me bring you into the world of mana wahine. The first thing to know is that, pre-contact, wāhine Māori and mana wahine were not subject to the oppression women faced in western society; which is pretty incredible. This has a lot to do with an extremely pervasive ideology in the western world — the supposed inferiority of women to men — being absent from pre-colonial Māori society. Bold, fierce, honoured by tāne, and represented equally in story and legend — gender relations is a kaupapa that Māori have had on lock for far longer than Pākehā. That’s important to remember. If you’re a wahine Māori, you have access to a narrative which, inherently, has always placed you in equal stead with tāne Māori. Your whakapapa means you never have to be a passive receiver of the gender bias nonsense constantly plaguing Pākehādom. Our beliefs and mythology grew, nurtured, and cultivated kōrero that consistently reinforced wahine and tāne as equal counterparts who together formed the many whakapapa links rooting each generation in both the past and present day. As a collective culture, our tūpuna understood that tāne and wahine made up the collective whole — the responsibility to uphold the value of each person’s place within that space fell to everyone. Our tūpuna wahine were so awesome. Papatūānuku became the tūpuna tuturu for all Māori when she helped her son Tāne Mahuta breathe life into dust; Maui-tikitiki-a-Taranga acquired fire from his kuia Mahuika; the jawbone of his other kuia, Muriranga-whenua, was what he fished up Te Ika a Maui (the north island) with. And Maui’s last endeavour lost him his life when he failed to attain immortality from Hine-nui-te-pō. In all of these pūrakau, tāne did the mahi, but wahine determined its success. Our mana as wahine wasn’t just protected and enhanced through pūrakau either. Our tūpuna were so smart; they knew when it was best to divide or unify. The fact that they saw wahine and tāne as stronger together than they were separated went right down to the language itself — “ia” meaning he and she; “tāna/tōna” meaning his and hers; and most names (like Kahurangi or Manaia) were appropriate for tāne or wāhine. In whakataukī, one of the pinnacles of Māori whakaaro and expression, old sayings honoured us and our whare tangata. “He wahine, he whenua, e ngaro ai te tangata,” which, among other translations, means without the nourishment wahine give (the whenua referring to both Papatūānuku nourishing us and the placenta nourishing our pēpī), humanity would be lost. With pūrakau and a reo that honoured the mana of wahine, the organisation of pre-colonial Māori society through iwi, hapū, and whānau was no different. Wāhine were held as independent agents — they had their own autonomy, were never seen as property to tāne, nor as merely vehicles through which a male’s bloodline was furthered. When wāhine married, they kept their own family names, and their children had the ability to align with the kin of either or both parents. The kākahu wāhine wore were similar to men, and both


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Te Kete Kōrero

conception and child-bearing were positive, normalised stages of life. Alongside this, the protection of a woman’s mana if they were violated through sexual or physical assault is potentially the most stark difference between Māoridom and Pākehādom. While responsibility fell to the collective if an assault of any kind was perpetrated against wāhine, more often than not a culture of blame, nonsense justification, guilt, rejection, and fear has been the hallmark of assault cases in the western world. Having traced the whakapapa anchoring and upholding mana wahine in pre-colonial Māori society, this now gives rise to three important questions: What is mana? What is wahine? And what is mana wahine? Before we can unpack this concept as a whole, it is essential to understand the individual words that represent it. Starting first with mana, in my research this word took the primary definitions of “inherent value and power.” For wahine, two etymologies were combined. Leonie Pihama conceptualised wahine from two root words, wā and hine — “wā” meaning both time and space, “hine” being the female essence. Together as wāhine, the term “designates a certain time and space for Māori women,” though perhaps this is better worded as “a space that Māori women live in and move through.” Dunlop (2016) on the other hand, translated wahine from three root words, wā, hi, and ne. “Wā” denoting time and space; “hi” meaning to align, draw, catch, and raise up; and “ne” meaning knowledge. Together as wāhine, she translates this as “the holders of knowledge.” Reconnecting back with our pūrākau, Dunlop’s definition aligns with the positions wāhine like Papatūānuku, Mahuika, Muriranga-whenua and others held as holders, keepers, and stewards of knowledge. Amalgamating the definitions of mana and wahine, mana wahine became: “a powerful space that women, the holders of knowledge, live in and move through.” Of all the emotions I could’ve gotten when I was writing this for my assignment, all I could feel was an overwhelming sense of relief. Relief that my culture is a safe-haven from the warped gender battle constantly raging on in Te Ao Pākehā; and relief that I’m validated as powerful and a kaitiaki matauranga in my own culture’s eyes. When I asked three of my friends for their thoughts on mana wahine, two had similar strands of thought, one had slightly different views, and you know what? That is okay. In a language where multiple meanings are weaved within single words, there is never just one definition. Though unpacking mana wahine in English — a language that demands such stringent singularity of thought — was the hardest challenge of this research project, it helped me understand something I’d felt for ages, but had never been able to put my finger on. While Māori is a language of single words with many meanings, English is a language of many words with single meanings. Have you ever noticed that when people talk about success, or dreams, or heck even being Māori, there are always “right” ways and “wrong” ways — that there are “ways” fullstop and each one has its own box and borders it shares with other words and their meanings. Have you ever noticed how English speaking countries organise space and people differently compared to Māori? How just like the language, space is divided and borders shared, with each person inhabiting their own lot. Whereas


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Trinity Thompson-Browne

Putting the Mana in Mana Wahine

Māori, just like the language, is inherently plural, and so space is shared between many with little to no borders separating them. Reconnecting back with our kōrero earlier, our tīpuna knew when it was best to divide or unify; they understood that space, like gender, was stronger as one. Over the years, Pākehādom and its love of separating anything and everything has made its way into so many Māori spaces, to the point where we look at each other now and do exactly what English does — Pākehā Māori, white Māori, urban Māori, plastic Māori, oreo, right Māori, wrong Māori, not Māori enough, aha atu — āue taukuri e what has happened to us? We cannot forget our roots. Our language is designed to unify us because we will always be weaker when we whakaiti each other and segregate ourselves to different “factions” of Māoritanga. We need to challenge our kaumātua, mātua, and peers who have the ability to reconnect the isolated to do just that. Our rangatahi need us; there are so many young Māori hurting right now and we’re becoming disconnected to the point where it’s mainstream media filling us in on it. But irrespective of the hardship or negativity we see today, it’s never too late to create change, and as wāhine, it’s in our whakapapa. Bringing this whakaaro back towards mana wahine, when I look at our tīpuna and our pūrākau, at Papa, Mahuika, Muriranga-whenua, and Hine-nuite-pō — the OG mana wahine — they all determined the course of change Te Ao Tawhito propelled us toward. They all made a difference. If mana wahine is anything, it is change waiting to happen; eyes that see change before it’s visible, breath that inhales tomorrow’s air in today’s circumstance, hands that embrace today’s pain with tomorrow’s solution. It’s about speaking up, changing the norm, realising that Ngāi Māori is stronger with us and weaker without us, and leaving this world in a better place than we found it. E hoa mā, each and every one of us are born to put the mana in mana wahine. E mihi ana, Trinity

If you want some further reading on the kaupapa, anei he kai: Dunlop, Māni. 2016. “Please, call me wahine.” The Wireless.

Mikaere, Annabel L. 1994. “Māori Women: Caught in the Contradictions of a Colonised Reality.” Waikato Law Review 2. Pihama, Leonie. 2001. “Tīhei mauri ora: Honouring our voices. Mana Wahine as a kaupapa Māori theoretical framework.” Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Auckland.

Simmonds, Naomi. 2011. “Mana Wahine: Decolonising Politics.” Women’s Studies Journal.

Winitana, Mei. 2014. “Māori women as transformers of their own identity: An exploration of selected identity markers for Māori women at home in Aotearoa/New Zealand, and in Australia.” Unpublished PhD thesis. Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi, Whakatāne.


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Poem

I woke up to the cold outside Left four small quarters on the floor Picked up my mouth Sometimes it hurts, it’s sore The me days linger of burnt toast Smells sweeter than most But sweet is a cheater that is subtly composed A hard tainted kiss in the morning Waste, exhaled In the cracks of my breath Yawning Couple gentle pecks throughout my day A Couple more Then finally, silently crying and dancing at the same time One more, I’m sure This is me dealing with the cold outside.


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NGĀ TOI

Ngā ToI


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Ngā Toi

The Night Mechanics Nā Lateshia Marie McFarlane Ngāti Porou

Māori theatre is among the rarest areas of theatre that an amateur student, such as myself, comes across. Currently I am pursuing the ultimate goal of becoming an actress, within the means and ways of Victoria University’s theatre department — means and ways that have room for considerable improvement to include more Māori and Pasifika kōrero. It was a privilege and a non-negotiable opportunity to partake in the audience experience of watching the preview of a Māori play recently. New Zealand playwright Mīria George’s The Night Mechanics mixes theatrical forms — comedy and drama — with the hearts of young diverse actors, passionate about Māori worldview and deep issues relevant to society today. The play was held in the comfortable Heyday Dome of Bats Theatre (the nurturing place for new NZ performances) amidst a unique yet simple set design. At first glance I was expecting the play to rattle my Māori taringa with the classic speech and dialogue I’d usually hear in theatre, however I was pleasantly surprised and highly appreciative of the plentiful use of te reo Māori with careful pronunciation from all the actors. George has artistically highlighted the reality of the long-term effects of climate change and global warming, and stresses the importance of tino rangatiratanga, iwi, whānau, hapū, and kaitiakitanga. Water is extremely scarce in a somewhat post-apocalyptic NZ where the heat is unbearable and an impoverished people desperately fight for survival day upon day. Rivers are no longer a delicacy, springs have dried up, and the ocean, a distant memory. Thriving wahine toa, Hine, is up against “The Water Company” — a villainous, powerful corporation that has

taken control over water supplies throughout the whenua. Hine forms a bond with a woman who does not belong anywhere, and rekindles a relationship with her self-appointed mayor of a brother, to fight for what belongs to their people, te tangata o Aotearoa. Desperate to uphold the legacy her matua left behind, and with the long coming help of a traitorous preacher, hot headed Hine stands up to the grotesque Darren — the man in charge at The Water Company headquarters — and brawls him for tino rangatiratanga. Each actor executes the uniqueness of their character with enticing energy and intensity that takes your imagination far away from the four walls of the Heyday Dome, finding yourself on the hot grounds of Hine’s home. George has worked hard to compose a beautiful ensemble between the actors, every transition of scenes is smooth, and no one leaves the stage the entire time. There is a diverse range of ethnicities of the actors cast in the play, five to be specific, made up of Māori, Samoan, Sri Lankan, Cambodian, and Malaysian. Considering The Night Mechanics is a Māori play, it is realistic that the cast is mostly brown. I think that this (and I always do) is helpful for the audience’s visual connection — in addition to some of the costume design that really portrays the definition of a mechanic, a post-apocalyptic “Māori mechanic”. Alongside the magical and transformative impact ethnicity and costume can create, the set design is beautifully simplistic, giving balance to an intense use of lighting.


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Ngā Toi

Photo c redit:

My initial reaction to The Night Mechanics is YES! More light needs to be shone on the deep issues this play addresses. The play is clearly influenced by the world, the Aotearoa we live in today — fighting for clean rivers, oceans, and tino rangatiratanga. George stresses the continuous impacts of colonisation on Māori — my people, the loss of identity as one people, as iwi, hapū, and whānau; mass industrialisation upon our precious papatūānuku and tangaroa, rampant impoverishment, but especially the loss of our tino rangatiratanga. As the actors agreed in a post-performance discussion, at this rate, we really are heading towards a future just like that of the night mechanics. Climate change is legit! It’s also legit being educated about it too. So do your research. Did you know that by 2050 there is going to be more plastic in the oceans than fish?! Appalling.

Meg M ann

As a Māori theatre student who likes to think she’s quite “woke”, I encourage my fellow tauira to go see this unique performance, engage in the issues, and continue to spark conversations waking everyone else up. Especially those of you who identify as nonPakehā and are looking for a place in the theatre industry, there are other styles of theatre besides classical theatre, like Māori theatre — and Māori are natural performers, everyone knows that.


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M

ahana — Lee Tamahori Nā Maggie-May Maybir

Once Were Warriors director Lee Tamahori gives an interesting portrayal of Witi Ihimaera’s 1994 award-winning novel Bulibasha: King of the Gypsies in his 2016 film Mahana. Tamahori has the ability to initiate any city dweller into daydreams of manure with his sweet cinematography of rolling green hills. He also features a handsome cast with lead roles performed by well-known Kiwi actors Temuera Morrison and Nancy Brunning as well as industry newcomer Akuhata Keefe. Told predominantly through the perspective of youngest grandson Simeon Mahana (Keefe), we are given an intimate view of the dynamics of a patriarchal Māori Whānau from the bottom of the pyramid. Whakahīhī — “too big for your boots, boy!” — is strewn throughout the film by Koro Tamihana Mahana (Morrison) who carves his whānau with the knife of a certain type of mana. Hard mahi and labour. Simeon, wanting to forge a path of his own mana, outsteps the tīkanga of his whanau and often finds himself at the receiving end of his koro’s erratic whip as he attempts to navigate and shift his social environment. This aspect of the film can resonate with many of us as the shift from “labourer” to “academic” still holds much relevance today. Stats from the 2013 census show that labourers are the most common occupational group for Māori. My dad is a labourer, my mum grows marijuana plants; whakahīhī, neither of them have much respect for tertiary education. Hailing from a low decile suburb where empty Woodstock cans litter the streets, having consistently negative pregnancy tests before 20 is a grand achievement. Nancy Brunning embodies the serene, seemingly all-knowing character of Kuia Ramona, who sits at the left hand side of her husband Tamihana.

Ngā Toi


Q 55 5 5

As expected in a patriarchal whānau, the women cook, clean and keep their mouths amicably shut at the dinner table. “Men fight for what they want. That’s the way of the world” is said by Kuia Ramona once she unveils the mystery behind the Mahana and Poata rivalry. I was disappointed in the complacency of both men and women. I was disappointed in how the big plot punch left no hole in the wall. Where was the outrage? It was taken and trampled on by English Common Law of the time where women and children were merely chattels to be used and abused by the paterfamilias as he saw fit. Overall, I was left feeling underwhelmed and a little bit disenfranchised about the state of Māoritanga as Tamahori had portrayed it. I felt the influence of a colonial world in the interactions between characters of the film. The story speaks in to a small community, but my strayed to the rife reality of racism against Maori especially given the set time period of the film. It was not until as recently as the late eighties where Te Rēo was recognized as an official language. The use of Te Rēo was heavily, sometimes forcibly discouraged from public spaces. Today still, a single Te Rēo issue in an assumedly progressive student publication once a year sparks much controversial debate. In spite of my reservations, the flatmate I watched Mahana with reckons that she had a “wholesome, good time”! So give it a watch, e kare (putlockers.com). –three stars out of five–

Ngā Toi


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Ngā Toi

TUKUA MAI TE REO: ĒTAHI WHAKAARO MŌ TE PUKAPUKA HE REO WĀHINE Nā Kahu Kutia Ngāi Tūhoe When I was taught certain things about New Zealand history in high school I took them as objective truth. When they told me that Abel Tasman discovered New Zealand I absorbed that information as truth, even as my bones knew that Māori had been here long before. When my education prioritised teaching about World War One and the Vietnam War, I was not able to stop and think about the ways in which this information was relevant — or not relevant — to me, and the nuances of these histories that were unseen. Where are our histories preserved? In statues dedicated to Pākehā men in our parks and town squares. In stale documentaries that prioritise certain dominant voices and neglect others. We know that the media has a bias, but we are not critical of history in the same way. But history is written by humans. Last week I had a kōrero with historian Angela Wanhalla. She is of Kai Tahu descent, and has whakapapa back to Ngāti Moki marae of the Ngāi Te Ruahikihiki hapū. Her new book with Lachy Paterson brings forth a rich puna of historical knowledge that is not often talked about. That is the voice of wāhine Māori. He Reo Wāhine disrupts the narrative of our colonial history, bringing to the light the voices of our wāhine in the 19th century. What are your areas of interest? And what questions do you ask yourself when you’re doing your kind of research? A lot of my interest in history is to do with women’s history and Māori history. That goes back to my PhD which was on the history of a community who lived in a reserve on the northern banks of the Taieri River in Otago. The reason why I studied that community

was because my family have a connection to it through my father, and my dad never knew very much about it. One thing I find with New Zealand history is that, particularly for the colonial view of looking at the 19th century, Māori women don’t really feature very strongly in it. Often because it’s said that there aren’t any sources available to tell their stories — and by that I mean the kind of sources that historians would traditionally use. We want to think about how we might respond to an argument that’s been made that there just aren’t the sources out there. I’ve heard that as an indigenous people, we have the greatest written record of our language because of things like letters in archives. This is information that we can’t really use properly because of the volume of it. In writing this book, what was your encounter with that archive?

( ) THERE IS A HUGE, RICH, WONDERFUL ARCHIVE OF MĀORI WRITING AVAILABLE.

You’ve got Māori sending huge numbers of letters to officials. Sometimes as friends, but often to complain about injustices. There


57 are also lots of petitions that Māori send to the government during the 19th century. These women just loved sending letters to each other, and they could see how letters in particular fitted really beautifully within oral culture. There’s a huge wealth of material out there that historians can work with but, because quite a lot of it is in Te Reo Māori, not a lot of historians are making use of it. I saw a quote from the book — “Do not think that this letter is from a man. No, I am a woman who wrote this letter.” (Kataraina Kahuwahine). Do you think that the resources you encountered challenge the narrative of what we are told about Māori women in the 19th century? Like you, I really like that quote because it indicates that often we assume that people who are writing in the 19th century are men. It shows from that woman’s perspective that she didn’t want a colonial official to simply see this as a man’s voice or perspective. Māori women in the 19th century are deeply engaged, and they had a perspective and a voice. They were willing to engage with the state as much as they possibly could to register those injustices at the feet of colonial officials. We get to hear Māori women say that and say how they experience the effects of colonialism in their communities. It’s also bringing in slightly different communities that we don’t always hear about in history books. What was really exciting for me on a personal level was to see that women from that community were writing and petitioning and they feature in the chapter that’s focused on petitions.

Ngā Toi Why do you think the women that are doing these petitions, writing these letters to officials, aren’t remembered or aren’t known about? I think they are remembered in their communities and in their families. They just haven’t been foregrounded as much as they possibly could in our written histories. We’ve seen that kind of trend here where New Zealand history wasn’t at all of interest to New Zealanders. It wasn’t a part of the academy until around the 1950s and 1960s. The history that New Zealanders read and got taught at school was British history, the history of other places, not the history of us. In the 1970s and 1980s feminist scholars were coming to the floor; also, at the same time, we’ve got the growth of Māori history where Māori historians were also saying the same thing — we need to look at Māori history too. What is the importance for you (as a Māori woman) of writing books like this, of bringing these materials to light? Why do this work? As a Māori woman, but also as a historian, I’m really passionate about telling histories that matter to people. I think the stories that are in He Reo Wāhine will matter to a lot of people because they will see their tūpuna there and they’ll see the people that they can really admire represented in this book. I want to write histories where my father can recognise himself in it and he can recognise his family. Where my brother and sister can recognise themselves too. I think that historians have to do our best to actually represent the diversity of the past in the present day, as much as we possibly can. Because if we don’t, we effectively exclude people from history. And I don’t want to write histories that exclude. That’s why He Reo Wāhine exists.


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Ngā Toi

Fred Graham

Mai ngā piko o te awa, ngā tahataha o ngā maunga, ka tū tonu mātou te iwi o Waikato. Nā Te Wainuiārua Poa Te Ātihaunui-a-Pāpārangi, Ngāti Māniapoto (Ngāti Rora), Waikato-Tainui Time is ever changing and we only have one chance at first encounters and yet with the lack of time there is ample opportunity to learn from them. Most Māori understand that it is one thing to meet someone new and another to meet someone from your iwi. When meeting another of your own rohe there is that unspoken alliance that comes into existence. A few weekends ago I had one of the most unforgettable meet and greets at the Te Waka Toi Awards, which is an annual event dedicated to celebrating others’ excellences in Māori art. I attended the event to support my partner who was receiving the Ngā Manu Pīrere Award recognising him as a promising upcoming Māori artist. It was there where I met a man of kudos and grace who happened to be from the same rolling hills of my second home and the nest of my father’s people, the great lands of Waikato. When people harvest the ahikā of Ngāi Māori fluently in their work can we really ignore the trueness of folk wisdom? There is no fraudulence in the infamous whakataukī Waikato-taniwha-rau. He piko, he taniwha. He piko, he taniwha. In him and many more from Waikato there lives a fierce taniwha in their mahi and their heart, which cannot be overpassed. Fred Graham is a renowned Māori artist and yet coming close to 89 years of living on Papatūānukānuku he is claimed to be one of the leading virtuosos of contemporary Māori art, and he does not stop there. In 1955 he was selected to be a part of the New Zealand Māori rugby team and he was a well-endorsed art teacher. He was not shy of sharing his connections when he talked about working alongside Tom Johnson, being a teacher to Nigel Brown, and attending teachers college beside the late Te Arikinui Dame Te Atairangikaahu. He had a deep admiration for people and paying homage to those who supported him was a natural instinct of his and I cannot forget his wife because of the honorable love he shared about her loyalty to him. She was a delicate timid and rare kuia with cherry blossom cheeks who he had praised as being the backbone to his journey. For me Graham has an ingrained presence and an undefined placidness to every word he spoke. Kāore he kōrero


Ngā Toi

Māori ia engari ahakoa tēnā ka hikoia e ia ngā tāringa o te ao tūroa. Pēhea? Nā te mea ka takoto te pono o ngā kaupapa Māori ki roto i ona mahi me ona kōrero ahakoa te aha. The ceremony itself was fine dining, formal dress, and two wine bottles at every table. They had two huge screens to show each recipient’s short story and it caused a little ruckus between the men as they argued for one to be used for the All Blacks match, no joke. I met Graham first and his artwork last and I would not have it any other way. When Graham received his Supreme award and his story played my hands gripped my partner’s side because I was struggling to come to terms with reality. At first I was embarrassed to have no knowledge of his artwork but once that feeling surpassed I was completely inundated and transformed. He was a sculptor and paid close attention to the ideology of perspectives by creating third dimensional pieces that redefined the concepts of depth and curve. The way he carved his kōrero into the pieces really brought to light the contemporary soul of te ao Māori. The tail of his taniwha wrapping around and reclaiming our forms of communication was more than a pleasure to the eye. You could classify him as an environmentalist in a way because his artwork aimed to reorganise one’s appreciation for resources. You can see his art in public spaces, art galleries, and overseas. Through his art he can reconnect people to their whenua, he can touch people as tāngata whenua, and most importantly he talks to people as Māori. Much like his artwork, Fred Graham graces you in various ways that requires the eye to look a little further than face value. Graham makes me look forward to the future because he has embraced the world in all its capacity successfully, and knowing a Māori from Waikato can conquer these extremes comforts me in the idea of growing and advancing in my years to come. Nō reira, tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou, tēnā tātou katoa.

Fred Graham, Tāne and Tūpai. 1975. Photo by Shaun Matthews

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Ngā Toi

KAI ON A BUDGET Nā Shaq Milner Ngāti Porou, Kuki Airani The reason why I wanted to create Kai on a Budget was to show students that we can eat healthy, spend little, and still have some putea mō te wīki whakatā mō ngā mea pai. Kai on a Budget gives a variety of healthy kai options so we can turn away from surviving on two minute noodles, lasagne, boil up! Yeah these are all reka kai but we can make something different that tastes as good if not better. One of my favourite meals to cook up is a chicken noodle stir fry. How much of each ingredient you need will depend on if you are cooking for just yourself or the iwi, and portion size. Ingredients + instructions (to feed one person) Canola spray oil 180g chicken breast 1 bundle of Jade Phoenix Thin Noodles 150g of Wattie’s International Mixed Vegetables 62.5g of Wattie’s Wok Creations Honey Soy 1. Pre-heat the frying pan and spray the canola oil on. Using canola spray oil makes sure that you do not overdo it with the good old fashion hinu or pata. 2. Cut up the chicken breast so that it can be easily mixed into the stir fry and cook faster. Cook until chicken is golden brown. 3. While the chicken is sizzling away, prepare the noodles in a small pot of boiling water until they have softened and separated. Once they are cooked, drain the water and let them sit while you finish preparing the stir fry. Give the noodles a young tapahi if you desire. 4. Add the mixed veggies to the chicken. I don’t bother defrosting or precooking so that once they are heated up, they still have a bit of crunch to them. 5. When you are happy with it all, add the noodles to the mix and give it a toss (this is when chopping them up a bit makes it easier). 6. Add the Wok Creation Honey Soy to the pan and mix it up so that everything gets flavour. The aroma should be hissing now. 7. Kua mutu te tunu, time to dish it up and enjoy!

TIPS: 1. If you can’t afford chicken breast at the time, because it can get pretty expenny, a cooked chicken is just as good and you can stretch it out further. 2. Coat the chicken in flour before cooking so that it keeps the moisture in. You can still cook it to brown it but will keep the inside juicy. 3. Mixed veggies I find are a lot cheaper than fresh veggies, plus I am one to not have veggies with every single meal so frozen tend to last a lot longer. We can also take these skills home to show off to our parents and surprise them with our cooking skills. The feeling of being able to cook your own kai lifts your morale and makes your wairua feel good. He kai tangata, he kai titongitongi kaki; He kai nā tōna ringa, tino kai tino mākona noa. Food from another is little and stinging to the throat; Food of a man’s own getting, is plentiful and sweet, and satisfying.


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NĀ WAI TE MOMOTUHI?

Ngā Toi

oseph Churchward was born in Samoa in 1932 and is from the ‘āiga Sā Anae and the villages of Faleasi’u and Tufulele. As a child he traced curves in the sand and in 1946 he came to Wellington; two years later he received an Art Distinction Award in Lettering from Wellington Technical College.

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He passed in 2013, having designed over 570 typefaces over the course of his life which have been used all over the world. Despite living through the transition to digital type-design, Churchward argued for the superiority of hand-lettering, as a computer fails to reproduce the subtle arc of the curve. Photographed by David Bennewith, and gifted to him, Churchward’s french curves — manual tools used in the (re)production of type — were used in the design of all his typefaces. They traced the curls of the koru of the Churchward Māori typeface that heads this issue. While his french curves were essential to the production process, as Bennewith, also his biographer, states: “But a curve cannot completely account for the hand that operated it, as Joseph’s varied explorations of the alphabet demonstrate. I have a vivid image of the very particular way Joseph would flick his right wrist as he described a pen stroke. Sixty years earlier, this same wrist (and hand) had accidentally smashed through the glass panel of a swinging door at Wellington Technical College — a horrific end to a friendly chasing game. Joseph’s nearly severed hand was reattached to his wrist, but the tendons were permanently shortened, resulting in restricted movement in his drawing hand and a loss of feeling to parts of it.” The elegance of his font designs echoes the whanaungatanga that exists between Māori and our tuakana in Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. It reflects the long time relationship with kaupapa Māori, and was created in the early 1980s during the time of the land marches.

Here with this article we mihi to Joseph and his work — Te Ao Māori reflected in a tiny and unknown corner of the world.

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PĀTAI MAI KI A AUNTY Hauora edition Nā Cece Wallace Ngāti Ruanui, Ngā Rouru, Ngāti Tuwharetoa, Ngāti Kahungunu Wāhine mā, let’s take a little haerenga down a hauora path and answer some pātai that many of us wāhine ask when starting the journey down this huarahi.

01. I want to start getting into regular physical activities but I don’t know where to start. I want to start going to the gym but I don’t know what to do there or how to use any of the machines. What do I do? Where and how did you start your hauora journey? TIP: Move your body to create energy. Any little movement is better than nothing. I te tīmatanga o tōku haerenga i runga i tēnei huarahi o te hauora, I started off with a good old fun game of netipōro ki te taha o Ngāi Tauira ia wiki. I used netball to ease my way back into physical activities. However, after a while netball wasn’t enough. It didn’t challenge me like it first did, so I then moved into the big world of the GYM. When I first started at the whare hākinakina I had NO IDEA what I was upto! I just stuck to the good old treadmill and bike because that’s all I knew — it was my comfort zone. After a while I started getting bored and hoha so I decided to make the pīki whara move upstairs ki te ao o ngā WEIGHTS. Still having no idea what to do i tahuri au ki ōku tino hoa a Youtube me ōku ake hoa. I started watching videos of people’s workouts and began copying. YouTube has so many variations on how to use a machine and a range of workout routines for beginners. I also turned to the people around me for help. There is almost always one person you know that can help you out, all you have to do is pātai. So, ko tāku ki ā koe find something you are interested in or something you once did (like netipōro) and get back into it, even if it’s just once ia wiki — it’s still an activity. Kimi i tētahi mea that challenges you and take it on. When that activity no longer challenges you, up your game or move on. Kimi i tētahi mea hou that challenges you, and so on. DON’T BE SCARED TO STEP OUT OF YOUR COMFORT ZONE — YOU WILL FIND THAT THE BEST THINGS ARE OUTSIDE YOUR “ZONE”.


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02. I go to the gym and see all these amazing looking wāhine in shape, skinny, fit, and muscly. I sit there with jealousy running through me. I want to be just like them, but I am nowhere near their physique which then leads to me feeling shamed and not wanting to workout. How do I overcome this feeling? TIP: Use that jealousy to drive you. Let jealousy better you, don’t let it be the better of you! That jealousy that you are holding on to, hold it tight cause it’s what’s gonna get you there in the end. Every time you see those girls tells yourself “myself, I want to look like that, so I am going to look that!” and then work your aaa off to become “that” kōtiro. You ain’t gonna get anywhere if you let your NEGATIVE attitude be the better of you. Take something NEGATIVE and turn that shiz into a POSITIVE! Hauora is not just a physical thing, it is also and equally a mental thing. Me tiaki koe i tō taha Hinengaro hoki.

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1. Don’t be afraid to be alone — Take time out for yourself every once in awhile. Isolation = Relaxation and Recovery, it allows for time to think your own thoughts without the opinions and influence of others. It allows you the time to reflect on yourself and your surroundings.

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2. Be yourself — Don’t lose sight of yourself. You are in control of your own life, mind, and body — NO one else.

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3. Respect yourself — Be HAPPY, enjoy what you do! Appreciate yourself and the journey you are on, “it’s not about the destination, it’s about the journey and the things you learn along the way.” Remember: it’s not a competition, go at your own pace and what you feel comfortable doing, but make it worth your time and effort.

YOU CAN MAKE EXCUSES OR YOU CAN MAKE A CHANGE! CHOOSE YOUR HARD.


Ngā Kēmu

PANGAKUPU: “AKINA TE REO”

PUTA NOA

WHAKARARO

1. He momo kawhe (5) 4. He rākau Māori, kāore e mau kokonati (5) 7. Te Tumu Ahurei o Wikitōria (7) 9. Te mākū o ngā rau i te ata (5) 12. He kiriata nō te moana nui a Kiwa (5) 13. Te atua o te moana (8) 14. Te tumuaki o Te Kawa a Māui (5) 17. Te nama o ngā pepa reo Māori i tēnei whare wānanga (3) 19. Kāore te kumara e ____ mō tōna ake reka (6) 20. Te pāti o Metiria Tūrei (8) 22. Ka rongo ngā taringa, ka ____ ngā whatu (6) 23. Tētahi tino kaituhi, ko Tuwhare te ingoa whānau (4) 24. He hiahia (6) 28. He whakaaro (6) 29. Te mahi i te tangata tuku ai ngā kōrero huna/ngaro (6) 30. Te wahine noho ana ki runga i te marama (4) 31. He kupu anō mō te uenuku (8)

1. He manu kua ngaro ai ki te pō (3) 2. Te āwhiowhio o te hau (9) 3. Tētahi kaiarataki o te Pāti Māori (6) 5. He momo kākahu (7) 6. He kiriata nā Geoff Murphy (3) 8. Tō tātou Wharekai (3,8) 10. E hia ngā marae o te whare wānanga nei? (4) 11. Te ingoa o tēnei whārangi (5) 14. He tangata e noho tokotahi ana (4) 15. He kupu anō mō “ātaahua” (7) 16. He kuia whawhai kaha mō tō tātou whenua (5) 18. He kupu kōreroreo nā William Cribb (6) 21. Te tino manu o Aotearoa (4) 25. Te mahi o te tangata e pīkarikari (4) 26. E ai ki ngā kōrero i huri a Wairaka ki te aha? (4) 27. Ko Ngāti Toa Rangatira me Te Āti ____ ngā mana whenua o te Whanganui-a-Tara (3)

ACROSS 1. Flat white (5) 4. New Zealand’s only native palm tree (5) 7. _____ Higgins, Victoria’s Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Māori) (7) 9. Dewdrops (5) 12. Most recent Disney princess, whose name means ‘sea’ (5) 13. Māori god of the sea (8) 14. Dr ____ Bargh, head of Te Kawa a Maui (5) 17. Number of Māori language papers at Victoria (3) 19. Discussion or speech (6) 20. Kakapo colour (8) 22. Look at or examine (6) 23. Poet Tuwhare or early activist Heke (4) 24. A hope or yearning (6) 28. A thought (6) 29. Reveals, like a secret (6) 30. The woman in the moon (4) 31. Rainbow (8) DOWN 1. Extinct New Zealand bird (3) 2. Whirlwind (9) 3. Politician Fox who is number one on the Māori party list (6) 5. Cloak (7) 6. Geoff Murphy film with a name meaning ‘revenge’ (3) 8. Victoria wharekai (3,8) 10. Clue number in the upper left of this grid (4) 11. Puzzle or riddle (5) 14. One who stays in their room all day and never goes outside (4) 15. Beautiful (7) 16. Dame Cooper who led a famous hikoi (5) 18. William Cribb’s nickname (6) 21. New Zealand’s symbolic bird (4) 25. Stab or sting (4) 26. Man (4) 27. River or stream (3)

LAST WEEK'S SOLUTION

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TARGET

PANGANAMA

Sudoku difficulty: Easy

Make as many words of three letters or more as you can. Each word must contain the letter in the central square. Target goals: Good: 20 words Great: 23 words Impressive: 27 words

Pānui “PUTA I TE AO, PUTA I TE PŌ” | MĀTAURANGA MĀORI NIGHT Nau mai, hāere mai. Learn about the interface where western science and mātauranga Māori meet. Q&A panel on mātauranga Māori with experts. He kapu tī, he timotimo kai hoki (tea, coffee, and muffins provided). “Kia Māori te ao, me Māori te titiro.”

UNIQ ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING UniQ is holding its AGM at 5.00pm on Thursday, September 28, in SU218. We’re voting in some constitutional updates and picking our 2018 executive — come along and have your say, or run for a role! Food will be provided :).

A hea (when): Monday, September 11, 2017 Ki hea (where): Te Herenga Waka Marae, 46 Kelburn Parade Wā tīmata (time): 5.30pm–8.30pm Kai-kauhau (speakers): Dr Ocean Mercier, Hoturoa Kerr, Rereata Makiha

CINEMATOGRAPHER/CAMERAMAN AND SOUND RECORDIST REQUIRED FOR SHORT FILM

FROM EQUAL PAY TO EQUAL VALUE IN AOTEAROA NEW ZEALAND

The film will use visual storytelling techniques, playful dialogue and endearing characters to reel in the audience (pun intended) and leave them feeling warm and motivated.

This talk by Cybèle Locke considers the history of women’s campaigns for wage justice in Aotearoa. It canvases why campaigns for equal pay that resulted in the Equal Pay Acts of 1960 and 1972 did not eradicate the wage gap, and explores subsequent campaigns premised on equal pay for work of equal value and opportunity.

A young girl goes on a quest to catch legendary fish “Big Rainbow”, who is said to bless people with a happy and prosperous life. A light-hearted adventure story influenced by Taika Waititi.

Needed for at least one of the following potential shooting dates: Saturday 16; Sunday 17; Saturday 23; Sunday 24.

Contact George on 02108691003 or georgerobinson678@gmail.com to find out more.

12.00pm to 1.00pm, Friday (September 15) in Student Union Memorial Theatre

A listing in our notices section is free for all VUW students, VUWSA-affiliated clubs, and not-for-profit organisations. If you would like to post a notice please email editor@salient.org.nz and include NOTICE in the subject line. There is limited space in this section so notices will be prioritised at the discretion of the editors.


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Kātahi, pā katoa anō taua karanga ki a ia. Hunaia e te awhi o te witi, huri whakararo tōna rae hongi ai i te whenua. Noho tahi mai rātau ko Papa ko Tāne, kia kitea ai ngā pū o Tāne i raro i te wātea nō tōna mana whenua, ki te wāhi e tū ana ia, ki te ngahere kai korā. I muri tata tonu mai kotahi tonu tana ki mua. Ahakoa rā tē kitea te ngahere kai tua atu ko nāia tonu e mahara ana ia nō raro tonu te mana.

Volume 80 | Issue 19