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SAHIL GUPTA A/2329/2011

In education, there is widespread support for the idea that every student is important and yet, in practice, systems are set up to favour a few at the expense of the many. -Prakash Nair

School for alternative education Noida Sector 132, Delhi NCR Sahil Gupta 2016

A thesis submitted to: The School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi In fulfilment of the requirements for The Degree of Bachelors in Architecture

Thesis guides: Sonia Kapre Santosh Auluck Vikas Kanojia Thesis co-ordinators: M.L. Bahri Aruna Ramani Grover Thesis jury members: - Vasant Kamath Raka Chakravarty

Abstract The following thesis is an exploration of how K-12 education within the context of alternative education- which in this case the Waldorf School curriculum, manifests itself spatially in terms of architecture. The thesis is divided in to two parts, the first focussing on research on the alternative education systems through primary and secondary sources, while the second focussing on translation of the gained knowledge and information into the built environment through a hypothetical architectural design project in Delhi NCR, India. The research part studies alternative education systems, there salient characteristics in terms of pedagogy, philosophy, architectural implications and expression. Waldorf schooling system is delineated upon due to the choice of client, that in this case is the Shikshantar school, which follows a hybridized curriculum derived from the Waldorf schooling system. The first part concludes with case studies, detailed studies of the chosen site and a detailed area programme created for the project. The design translation part consists of conceptual underpinnings of the project and evolution of the design from concept to final product culminating in a portfolio of drawings and images which has been presented to a jury consisting of reputed architects. Jury comments and critique are sub part of this chapter.


School FOR alternative education


Declaration The research work embodied in this thesis, titled ‘School of alternative education’, has been carried out by the undersigned as part of the Undergraduate program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi- 110002, India under the supervision of Prof. Santosh Auluck & Prof. Sonia Kapre(Design guides) and Prof. Vikas Kanojia(Research guide).

I hereby submit 2 hard copies of the report for internal and external evaluation respectively. The undersigned hereby declares that this is his original work and has not been plagiarized in part or full from any source. Furthermore this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other university.

Sahil Gupta A/2329/2011 Section B, Fifth year, B. Arch School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi


School FOR alternative education


Certificate This thesis was carried out during the January-May, 2016 semester in the department of Architecture under our guidance. Thereafter based on the declaration dated 4th May by the candidate, the work was placed in front of the Juries held on 23rd, 25th & 26th May 2016. On successful completion of the Jury process and completion of the Report in all respects including the last chapter by the Candidate we provisionally accept the Thesis Report and forward the same to the Studio Director.

On successful completion of the course by the candidate I hereby accept this completed report on behalf of the Head of the Department to be placed in the Library of School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

Date: Vikas Kanojia Research guide


Sonia Kapre Design guide

Santosh Auluck Design guide

Prof. M. L. Bahri Thesis Co-ordinator

School FOR alternative education


Acknowledgements I would like to express my gratitude to my thesis guides Prof. Santosh Auluck and Prof. Sonia Kapre for guiding me throughout the design process with great patience and understanding. Without their constant push and critiquing I would not have been able to remain inspired and aligned throughout the semester. A sincere thanks to Prof. VIkas Kanojia for guidance that helped successfully integrate the research and the design aspects of the project through this thesis.

A sincere thanks to Seema Upadhyay and Pranjal Jauhar from Shikshantar school and Mirambika free progress school respectively, who shared their progressive vision with me and gave me the opportunity to visit their campuses. Lastly, I thank my family, friends and friendly seniors who through these five years have always been indispensable and their help as well as inputs have made this possible to a great extent. A special thanks to Prashi Malik, Nishant Gautam and Shashank Jain, for this thesis owes its success to you.

I would also like to thank architect Sanjay Prakash and Gaurav Sanan for the interviews that enlightened me regarding the tricky topic.


School FOR alternative education


Synopsis With a concern for the quality of education imparted through the popular and established system of standardized curricula and testing, the thesis looks upon alternative systems of education that aim at holistic development through child-centric strategies and non-traditional pedagogical approaches. The thesis then departs on its search, to understand how architecture could contribute towards a holistic learning experience. Research from literature and case studies shed light upon educational philosophies and pedagogical approaches of alternative schools and their implications on school architecture. Due to choice of client, i.e. Shikshantar school in Gurgaon, the Waldorf educational system is studied bringing forth philosophies like ‘The heart, hand and mind’, and need for learning communities, importance of nature, and inclusion of handwork, i.e. arts and crafts for better engagement and improved retention of acquired knowledge.


The needs of the learning spaces i.e to incorporate multiple pedagogical approaches, namely- Delivering, applying, creating and communicating is kept in mind while creating the building programme for the project. A 4 hectare site is chosen in the institutional sector 132 of Noida (Delhi NCR) to initiate an architectural dialogue between conventional and alternative schools. The thesis book tries to record the design journey taken by the author, in the quest to understand, analyse, critique and apply the knowledge gained, with an aim to create appropriate, comfortable and flexible learning environments and with a hope to set better standards for schools projects to come.

School FOR alternative education


सारांश मानकीकृत पा��म और परी�ण के लोकि�य और �थािपत �णाली के मा�म से दी गयी िश�ा की गुणव�ा के िवषय म� िचंता के साथ, यह थीिसस िश�ा की वैक��क �णािलयों की ओर दे खती है। वैक��क �णािलयाँ ब�ों की ओर क�ि�त रणनीितयों और गैर पारं प�रक शै�िणक �ि�कोण के मा�म से सम� िवकास का ल� रखती है। यह थीिसस यह समझने की कोिशश करती है की वा�ुकला सम� सीखने के अनुभव म� योगदान कैसे दे सकता है। सािह� और मामलों के अ�यन से वैक��क �ूलों की िश�ा�क दश�न और शै�िणक �ि� कोणों, और �ूल वा�ुकला पर उनके �भाव को समझाया गया है। �ाहक की पसंद के कारण, जो की गुडगाँव का िश�ांतर �ूल चुना गया, वा�ो�� िश�ा �णाली का अ�यन िकया गया है, िजससे 'िदल, हाथ और िदमाग' जैसे दश�न सामने आये। साथ म� सीखने हेतु बने समुदायों, �कृित का मह�, और हाथ के काम, यानी कला और िश� को शािमल िकए जाने, का मह� अिज�त �ान के बेहतर अवधारण के िलए सामने आया।


प�रयोजना के िलए िनमा�ण काय��म बनाते समय, सीखने के �थानों की कई शै�िणक �ि� कोणों को शािमल करने की ��रत का �ान रखा गया है। इन शै�िणक �ि� कोणों म� प�ँचाना, लागू करना, बनाना और संवाद करना शािमल है। पारं प�रक और वैक��क �ूलों के बीच एक �वा�ुिश� बातचीत शु� करने के िलए नोएडा �िद�ी एन.सी.आर) के सं�था गत �े� ���, म� एक ४ हे�ेयर की साईट चुनी गयी है। यह िकताब लेखक के �ारा �ा� �ान को समझने, िव�ेषण करने, आलोचना करने, और लागू करने की िडजाईन या�ा को �रक�ड� करती है। इस या�ा का उ�े � उिचत, आरामदायक और लचीले सीखने हेतु बनाये वातावरण बनाना था इस आशा के साथ की आगे आने वाले िव�ालय प�रयोजनाओं के िलए बेहतर मानकों की �थापना हो।

School FOR alternative education



Abstract 7 Declaration 8 Certificate 9 Acknowledgements 11 Synopsis 12 सारांश 13 Contents 14 List of sources 16

Design Investigation 1. Introduction 19

4. Site 83

2. Research & Case studies 25

5. Determinants 91

1.1 Introduction to thesis topic 20 1.2 Need of the project 21 1.3 Thesis proposition 23

2.1 Curriculum 26 2.2 Pedagogy and space 28 2.3 Universal Accessibility 40 2.4 Orienting sports facilities 44 2.5 Case studies framework 45 2.6 Case studies 51

4.1 Building regulations 84 4.2 Precinct 85 4.3 Site 88

5.1 Highlights 92 5.2 Design Determinants 94

3. Project 75 3.1 Scope, profile and components 76 3.2 Functional diagram 78 3.3 Area programme 79 3.4 Reading the program 81


School FOR alternative education


Design Translation 6. Concept 97

8. Design outcomes

7. Evolution 101

9. Bibliography 133

7.1 Design developemnt 1 7.2 Design development 2 7.3 Design development 3


102 103 104


8.1 Site Planning 108 8.2 Academic block 111 8.3 Recreational Block 116 8.4 Sections and Elevations 118 8.5 Technology component 120 8.6 Views 123 8.7 Jury comments 131

9.1 Books 134 9.2 Articles 135

School FOR alternative education


List of sources Figures 2.1 Head, heart and mind philosophy, Author 2.2 Orjan school site plan, Jolley(2010) 2.3 Variety in learning communities for different ages, Jolley(2010) 2.4 Coming together of communities, Jolley(2010) 2.5 Free Waldorf school Ground Floor Plan, Dudek(2000) 2.6 Orjan school greens, Jolley(2010) 2.7 Central green atrium of Free Waldorf school, Germany, Jolley(2010) 2.8 Tree penetrating through space, left, Jolley(2010) 2.9 Fuji Kindergarten Aerial, top right, Jolley(2010) 2.10 Columns mimicking the form of trees, above, Jolley(2010) 2.11 A girl practicing knitting in a Waldorf school, Jolley(2010) 2.12 Variety of learning settings, Kenn(2005) 2.13 Student home base, Kenn(2005) 2.14 Individual pod, Kenn(2005) 2.15 Group learning space, Kenn(2005) 2.16 Collaboration incubator, Kenn(2005) 2.17 Presentation space, Kenn(2005) 2.18 Display space, Kenn(2005) 2.19 Project space + Wet areas, Kenn(2005) 2.20 Specialised focus laboratory, Kenn(2005) 2.21 Outdoor learning, Kenn(2005) 2.22 Breakout spaces, Kenn(2005) 2.23 Teacher meeting, Kenn(2005) 2.24 Resources, supply + store, Kenn(2005) 2.25 Differently abled parking requirements, Neufert 2.26 Ramped approach, Neufert 2.27 Disabled friendly toilet, Neufert 2.28 Auditorium plan for differently abled, Neufert 2.29 Auditorium section for differently abled, Neufert 2.30 Limits of good orientation for sports facilities, Planning and List of sources

Pg. 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 32 32 32 34 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 41 42 43 43 44

design for outdoor sport and play(2008) 2.31 Open-plan typology, Author 2.32 Cluster typology, Author 2.33 Courtyard typology, Author 2.34 Campus typology, Author 2.35 Shikshantar school, Primary block, 2.36 Stills of the school, 2.37 Zoning of components, Shikshantar school, Author 2.38 Vehicular circulation, Shikshantar school, Author 2.39 Site Plan, Shikshantar school, UAW Architects 2.40 First Floor Plan, Shikshantar school, UAW Architects 2.41 Pre-primary classrooms, Shikshantar school, Author 2.42 Primary and middle classrooms, Shikshantar school, Author 2.43 Secondary school classrooms, Shikshantar school, Author 2.44 O.A.T, Shikshantar school, 2.45 Multi-purpose hall, Shikshantar school, Author 2.46 A.V room, Shikshantar school, Author 2.47 Extended terrace space, Author 2.48 Central O.A.T, 2.49 Classroom, Author 2.50 Sandpits, Author 2.51 Organisation of learning spaces, Author 2.52 Classroom arrangement for mixed learning, Author 2.53 Pond in pre-primary block (Left), Author 2.54 Creepers and climbers on primary block facade (Above), 2.55 Pre-primary school ramp, Shikshantar school, Author 2.56 Primary school ramp, Shikshantar school, Author 2.57 Secondary school ramp, Shikshantar school, Author 2.58 Classroom layouts exhibiting flexibility, Shikshantar school, Author 2.59 Central courtyard, Mirambika, Shift Architects School FOR alternative education

45 45 45 45 51 51 52 52 53 54 55 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 60 16

2.60 Zoning of components, Mirambika, Author 2.61 Ground Floor Plan, Mirambika, Shift Architects 2.62 First Floor Plan, Mirambika, Shift Architects 2.63 Wind movement through the school, Mirambika, Shift Architects 2.64 Mirambika structural grid, Shift Architects 2.65 Aerial view, Free Waldorf School, 2.66 Aerial view, Free Waldorf School, 2.67 Ground floor plan, Free Waldorf School, Dudek (2000) 2.68 First floor plan, Free Waldorf School, Dudek (2000) 2.69 Second Floor Plan, Free Waldorf School, Dudek (2000) 2.70 Central Atrium, Free Waldorf School, 2.71 Central Atrium, Free Waldorf School, 2.72 Response to climate, Free Waldorf School, Dudek (2000) 2.73 Aerial view, Beijing High School 4, 2.74 Site Plan, Beijing High School 4, 2.75 Basement floor plan, Beijing High School 4, 2.76 Ground floor plan, Beijing High School 4, 2.77 Ground floor plan, Beijing High School 4, 2.78 Building sections, Beijing High School 4, 2.79 Auditorium section, Beijing High School 4, 2.80 Subterranean bicycle parking, Beijing High School 4, dezeen. com 2.81 Outdoor vs. Indoor learning spaces, Beijing High School 4 2.82 Sustainable design practices employed, Beijing High School 4 3.1 Research implications on area programme, Author 3.2 Functional diagram, Author 4.1- Noida Master Plan, Noida master plan(2011) 4.2- Noida Master Plan, Noida master plan(2011) 4.3- Precinct landuse plan, Author 4.4- Precinct figureground, Author 4.5- Precinct plan, Author 4.6- Site plan, Author 4.7- Views of site from road, Author 5.1- Pedagogical approaches, Fisher(2005) 5.2- Hierarchy in outdoor spaces, Author 5.3- Unique learning communities, 5.4- Segregation of pre-primary block List of sources

61 62 63 63 64 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 68 69 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 73 73 76 78 84 84 85 86 87 88 89 92 92 92 92

5.5- Use of ramps, 5.6- Importance of nature, 5.7- Flexible classroom layouts, Author 5.8- Zoning diagram, Author 5.9- Location of built blocks, Author 6.1- Basic massing of school block 6.2- Activated movement axis 6.3- Outdoor learning spaces 6.4- Commons to absorb pedagogies 7.1 Site Plan, Author 7.2 Physical model, Author 7.3 Site Plan, Author 7.4 Physical model, Author 7.5 Site Plan, Author 7.6 Academic block- Physical model, Author 7.7 Section, Author 7.8 Primary block elevation, Author 7.9 Second floor plan, Author 7.10 Physical model, Author 7.11 3-dimensional model, Author 7.12 Basement plan, Author 8.1- Physical mode, Author 8.2- Stills from the external jury, Author

93 93 93 94 95 98 98 99 99 102 102 103 103 104 104 105 105 105 105 105 105 131 131

Tables: 1- Comparison between alternative education philosophies, Author 2- Types of pedagogical approaches and connected implication on built environment, FIsher(2005) 3- Reading the program, Author

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18 31 84


Introduction 1

Introduction Alternative education is a blanket term including a variety of pedagogical approaches that are different from the conventional system of education based on standardized curricula and tests. A common principle behind these approaches is integrated learning, i.e. the aim to develop the whole human being, rather than just one dimension. The conventional approach that is being followed throughout the country is a derivative of the industrial model of education. The English- education schools created during the colonial period introduced this concept into the Indian society. This system was designed to produce standardized individuals all having similar set of skills that enabled them to fit into the industrial society. This system though having lost its relevance in today’s era is still sadly being followed.

they employ or their techniques of evaluation. Some types of schools based on such philosophies are: Montessori schools, Waldorf schools, Friends schools, Krishnamurti schools, Ashram schools and Homeschools. Their are some commonalities between these, but each philosophy has it’s own way of working. Some commonalities are as follows: • Individualized and child centric approach • Integration of children of different socioeconomic status and mixed abilities. • Integrated approach to various disciplines • Experiential learning • Creative instructional staff • Low student-teacher ratios • Non-traditional evaluation methods.(Aron, 2009) (Vitachi, 2007)

The architecture of such a school plays an integral The early 20th century saw a number of movements part, by making physically possible the alternative against this education system all around the ways working of such schools, and new modes of world. While thinkers and educationalists like learning through new pedagogical approaches. Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner lead these movements in the west, Rabindranath Tagore, Sri Aurobindo and the Mother and Jiddu Krishnamurthi lead these movements in India. An alternative school is one that employs nontraditional methods to educate students. The nontraditionality could be in the type of curriculum they offer, teaching and administrative systems 1.1 | Introduction

School architecture reflects the society in which it functions. For example, one-room schoolhouses reflected the simple agrarian communities in which they were based. During the industrial revolution school architecture resembled that of assembly lines with a central hallway connecting a series of room alongside it.(Hollander, 2013) A school built in today’s era should reflect the progressive democratic society that characterizes the India of today whereas a majority still reflect the industrial era. From standardized curricula to standardized classroom layouts the conventional school systems consciously or unconsciously exhibit the industrial approach to education. This architectural design thesis would predominantly explore how school architecture could reflect the society of today while studying the architecture of alternative schools in India and abroad culminating in a school design project in Delhi NCR.

Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid. -Albert Einstein School FOR alternative education 20

Need of the project More than sixty years post independence the education system has not been able to evolve effectively. The system is still focussed on scoring high marks in examinations that test a limited range of skills, mostly academic. The fact that each child is different is ignored in a majority of schools, where conformity is preferred over diversity. Children are railroaded into a testing culture that squeezes out the joy of learning and turns schools into “factories”. In a survey submitted to Educational Consultants India Limited(edCIL) in 2013, the cohort dropout rates India is at a striking 16.8% for 2009-2010 rising from last year’s 14.2%. Cohort dropout rate is based on the inefficiencies of the education system. Also, a major reason for dropping out was found to be loss of interest in studies. This loss of interest could be because of the way these schools

try to educate. In India schools have become like cages rather than liberators, restricting the flight of the child’s imaginations, inclinations and passions. The volatile energy with which the child bubbles is controlled and regimented. Enjoyment is no more a part of education and creativity and curiosity are nipped in the bud.(Woodward, 2003) Hence there is a need to soften the system. While mainstream schools generally socialize children to fit into status-quo, alternate education is a pathway to alternate visions and possibilities. Many schools have adopted some of the alternate methods yet it is still a far cry from the realization of full blown alternatives. The teaching should be child-centric and should focus on developing the child as a whole.

Delhi, though having a huge number and variety of schools, has a huge scarcity when it comes to alternative schools. Some that are present are only limited to primary schools. Some use holistic learning as the unique selling point but still are not able look past the standard curriculum set by state boards. The project would aim at spreading awareness at alternative schooling practices in Delhi NCR by being in dialogue with nearby conventional schools.

Of the evils of modern education few are worse than this- that the perpetual cackle of his(or her) elders leaves the poor child not a moment of time, nor an inch of space, wherein to wonder- and grow. -Charlotte Mason (Vol. 1, p. 18) 1.2 | Need of the project

School FOR alternative education


Comparison between systems System

Free Progress Philosophy

Montessori Philosophy

Waldorf Philosophy


Sri Aurobindo and the mother

Maria Montessori

Rudolf Steiner


• • •

Five principal activities: the physical, the vital, the mental, the psychic and the spiritual Nothing can be taught: Teacher as guide rather than an instructor Free progress Imagination and practicality

• • •

Child allowed to behave according to natural inclinations No surge of settled obligations or programme Free movement of child and his work in and out of classroom Promoting natural curiosity

• • •

Part to whole relationship: Head, Heart, & Hand Forming students with autonomous and free spirit life Classroom as community- Unification between communities Stressing arts and acting, as well as a special sort of dance called eurhythmy


Mirambika and Mother’s International Montessori school of Ingolstadt (MSI), Freie Waldorf Schule (FWS), Cologne School Bavaria

Architectural Response

Vegetation and sky visible from every space Integration of vegetation and structure Symmetry and flexibility

The project consisted on the dissemination on the terrain of the conventional single school building into smaller functional units, linking them around a great communal garden.

The design concept was to organise the building in a manner which would determine the social relationships developed in school centring the learning spaces on a social and circulation atrium. Colour and light are manipulated in a specific manner, in accordance with Steiner’s colour plans for ages and activities.

Table 1: Comparision between alternative learning systems 1.3 | Proposition

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Shortcomings of alternative learning schools

Achieving the balanceShikshantar school

Founded on September 28th, 2002, Shikshantar is built on the principle that every child has an inherent ability to learn. Integrated education Since most alternative learning schools in India are limited to pre-primary and progressive international practices area employed to make learning or primary schools the students after passing out from such schools face meaningful for every individual at Shikshantar, child or adult. issues in adjusting to the rigorous curriculum in conventional schools. On the other hand students shifting from conventional schools to alternate Shikshantar is affiliated to the CISCE Board. The belief is that education learning schools find the education less competitive and rigorous. is much more than merely teaching a syllabus and preparing children for examinations.

Adjustment issues

Admission to higher education institutes

Though some have a college preparation focus, due to lack of competitive spirit among students and lack of standardized evaluation processes many face challenges in securing seats in higher education colleges.

Low populations; narrow horizons for students good in sports

Since these schools have a limited student populations opportunities to join sports teams and other extracurricular programs abundant at many public high schools may not be present in alternative education settings.


The school through its innovative teaching practices and curriculum tries to overcome the shortcomings seen in other alternative schools.

Proposition To create a new branch of Shikshantar school in Noida in a school district to create awareness for alternative learning schools through addition of revenue generating spaces in form of auditorium, exhibition spaces and international standard sports facilities. Revenue collected would help in running the school as such schools are mostly private funded.

The school should achieve a delicate balance by fostering natural inclinations The project would aim at exploring how the pedagogy and philosophy at younger ages and imbibing competitiveness at teenage. In order to of Waldorf education system and Shikshantar school curriculum could be minimize the shortcomings the school should have: translated into design. The new school campus would try to cater to the age-group of 2-19 years old under one integrated campus coupled with • Standardized curriculum and evaluation process in secondary school residential facilities that could be a part of the second phase of the project. while having alternative learning practices in the lower grades • Strategies employed to smooth such a transition • Comparable student populations to conventional schools

1.3 | Proposition

School FOR alternative education 23

Research and Case Studies 2

Curriculum The following paragraphs provide information on the Shikshantar school curriculum and organization. The purpose of this thesis is not to endorse, evaluate, or critique the curriculum in any way. This is merely a summary of the school curriculum as it exists. The Shikshantar school adopts a hybridized curriculum which has been derived from the Waldorf education system but has been reinterpreted in the Indian context in order to be compatible with Indian schooling and higher education systems. The curriculum is designed to provide the child with time and space to pursue his or her own inclinations and passions in the early ages through theme based projects. These aim at building the child’s creative faculties and provide holistic knowledge. It also exhibits a gentle transition from open-ended learning before middle school and rigorous curriculum based education after it using the middle school for softening this transition.

2.1 | Curriculum

Alternative practices

to address specific issues and concerns through dialogue and reasoning.

One of the most distinguishable features of the curriculum is the inclusion of circle time twice a Mixed-age learning Children of different age groups interact with each day and choice time once a day. other frequently during the morning outdoors time, the choice time and during the many festival Circle time During morning circle time each learning celebrations at school under the supervision of community gathers around in inside or outside teachers to develop an inter-community bonding. a classroom to gather energies. This is done through sharing experiences of the past day or week in order to create a bond between students and teachers. A theme for the day is chosen during this time on which the child would work. Afternoon circle time is used for evaluating child progress and setting new goals.

Pre-primary school The pre-primary curriculum is designed to give each child space to reflect upon and assimilate his/ her daily experiences. Children engage in small or large groups- working on projects; exploring toys, books or puzzles; conducting simple ageappropriate experiments; weaving and narrating stories.

Choice time It is an opportunity for a child to be by him/ herself when he/she so wishes; for exploring nature, for recognizing and indulging in his/her Storytelling own preferences. This practice responds to the Teacher facilitated oral story-telling is the major child’s individual pace of learning. mode of spreading knowledge. Role-play, pretend play, story dramatization and free expression. Small group interactions They allow children to accommodate and share Arts each other’s needs, resolve interpersonal conflicts Art, music and drama are an integral part of and reach out to peers in need. the curriculum. Explorations in the Art Room and Music Room give children an opportunity One on one interaction with teachers to explore and experience new techniques and Every child gets one-on-one time with teachers colour, musical instruments, rhythms and patterns. to facilitate any particular interest in learning or School FOR alternative education 26

Primary school and middle school

time and across discipline areas such as science, languages, arts, social science and mathematics. Through project work, children are encouraged to make fundamental connections with the The curriculum in the primary school aims at processes of enquiry. Project presentations are the physical, social, emotional and cognitive often put together as exhibitions and models that development of the children. It follows the are shared with different classes. principle of integrated education. Hands on experiences play a major role in nurturing the Secondary school spirit of exploration and enquiry. The curricular practices of Senior School build on the holistic approach of the early years. Linkages to formal work, skill development and academic rigour gain importance in order to enable students to compete with students fro other schools and cultures. A organized and rigorous yet flexible curriculum is introduced to achieve CISCE board requirements without hampering the sense of enquiry and Science The Science curriculum provides opportunities for creativity of the student. The senior school exploring, experimenting, observing and drawing curriculum is designed to facilitate enquiry, research and rigorous study such that young conclusions. people can connect with increasingly complex constructs with an enduring interest. Sports Language The language curriculum is designed to provide rich experiences in listening, speaking, reading and writing. Children build connections with language, math and science in their surroundings. To deal with a mathematical concept, concrete material, relevant situations and games are used.

The Sports curriculum lays emphasis on development of gross motor skills, stamina, flexibility, balance, strength and overcoming fear.

Education Structure

• Pre – Primary School: Playgroup to Arts Kindergarten; 2-6yr old Art, music, dance and theatre help children to • Primary School and Middle: I – VIII class; 6-14 express themselves and connect to their inner yr old selves. • Secondary School: IX – XII; 15-19yr old • Total no. of students- 1500, 25-30 students in In the middle school theme based curriculum each class approach continues in the middle classes with project work spread out over longer periods of 2.1 | Curriculum

Evaluation • • • •

• • • •

No pre-set curriculum or syllabus till 8th. Teacher : Pupil = 1:8 / 1:10 Flexible Curriculum yet an organized structure Each group, goals in terms of qualities, mental faculties and skills to be developed during the course of one year are decided and delineated into quarterly targets. Children learn facts and figures that will equip them to enter what is called ‘real world’ in a time frame No conventional tests or examination at any stage Twice a year, progress of child discussed through discussions with parents Child-centric evaluation 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th study is according to CISCE syllabus to mostly apply the understanding of integral learning in a more practical way, deepening the process of learning

Brief structure of the day • Outdoor Activity Games: Variety of age relevant outdoor experience • Circle Time • Project Time: Theme based through illustrations, presentations, etc. (weekly basis) • Tiffin Break • Dance/Music/Art/Library: Bi weekly activities • Maths/Science/Languages: Reading, writing, articulation of thoughts • Lunch Time • Choice Time • Circle Time School FOR alternative education 27

Pedagogy and space Waldorf education

need to be engaged in the education. These forces include mental, emotional, and physical activity; otherwise known as head, heart, and hand. (Petrash, 2002)

Waldorf education is not about the separate elements but about a holistic approach to education. In order to better understand the Incorporating all three of the forces in the learning pedagogy, it is better to explore each aspect process would lead to better engagement individually and relate back to the whole. with education. The pedagogy of conventional schools focus upon teaching facts that are a part Waldorf education adopts a holistic approach of the standardized syllabus, which the students towards education to create creative individuals are supposed to memorize and repeat in and their all round development. To understand examinations in the same form. This relies mostly the pedagogy we shall study each aspect of the upon the head and due to lack of freedom and pedagogy and then later relate back to the whole. creativity make the process boring. If the same process could utilize the heart and the hand, i.e Waldorf education places the development of through activities, games or hands-on workshops the individual child in the focal point, convinced the child could engage better and imbibe the that the healthy individual is a prerequisite for a acquired knowledge. (Calgren, 2008)

2.1 Head, heart and mind philosophy

healthy society.� -The International Conference on Education of An interesting aspect of these forces is that if they are constantly ignored they will exhibit themselves UNESCO in the child’s natural behaviour. For example, (Petrash, 2002, p. 11) sitting at a desk all day long could result in the child becoming fidgety and loosing concentration the subject being taught. The basic objective Part to whole relationship: Head, over is to exercise the head, the heart, and then the Heart and Hand hand simultaneously so that the children tire less and develop a habit of focussing all their energies The curriculum in a Waldorf School is designed into the task at hand. (Lyons, 2003) so that the students are engaged on more than one level. Rudolf Steiner considered there to be 2.2By Orjan school site plan that utilize the heart three fundamental forces within the children that students become tired. incorporating exercises 2.2 | Pedagogy and space

and the hand, the students will remain attentive.14

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Architectural response

At the age of six the children will enter the first 3.28 Clas Communi grade with a teacher who will stay with them To support the three forces within every child, through the eighth grade. This is one of the most the classroom needs to have an open plan that defining aspects of Waldorf education. allows the space to be modified and divided into different activity zones by the teacher. In this In any other school setting, as the students sense, the separate activities are unified within the advance to the next grade, they are assigned to a whole of the classroom. This same idea applies to different teacher. The only exception is that some the entire school, each space serves a particular schools have one or two teachers who instruct purpose on its own, but must be integrated and the same group of students for two consecutive related to the building as a whole. The structure years at the elementary level. Even so, this is not 3.31 Differ should not be a conglomeration of individual the same commitment as being with the same to Experien pieces; it must be a grouping of connected zones class for eight years. For a teacher, one school as a unified whole. year is just the amount of time it takes for he or she to truly know and understand their class. In figure 2.2, this Waldorf grade school is designed For the students, it is also the same time it takes around a central unifying space that each structure for them to fully trust and know their teacher. By 2.3 Variety in learning communities for different relates to. Each zone is distinguishable, but also changing teachers, these connections are lost ages 41 unified through the use of common materials. and must be started all over again the following year. (Lyons, 2003) 3.32 Gath

Role of the teacher The most prominent and unique feature of the Waldorf pedagogy is the relationship that develops between the Waldorf teacher and the student throughout the elementary education. From first grade to eighth grade a student will be instructed by the same teacher for most of their courses. The location of an instructor’s class is changed within the school building from year to year but the students remain with the same teacher for eight years. Unlike most conventional schools a Waldorf teacher is not associated with a particular subject or location within the school.

2.2 | Pedagogy and space

the Comm

There are other benefits to maintaining the same teacher as well. Since the same teacher has been with a class for several years and will continue to be with them for a few more, he or she fully understands what the children have been taught and what they will be learning. By having this background, the teacher is able to see the entire picture of the children’s education and able to cater lessons to his or her students’ interests. It also enables them to foresee possible issues based upon past experiences and truly gauge each child’s educational progress. 2.4 Coming together of communities 43

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Classroom as a community

figurehead or board. Ultimately, the direction the just as one community is not exactly the same as school takes and what decisions are made come another. This allows each class to have a space they can claim as their own and reflects the character By maintaining the same students and teacher down to the faculty. (Lyons, 2003) of the group. One of the simplest ways to achieve in each class, the group becomes their own Architectural response the individual character is through the use of community. The children begin to know each colour. Rudolf Steiner had strong convictions other very well, to the point where they know Each classroom must have some unique qualities about the meaning of different colours and their each other’s strengths and weaknesses. So when certain situations arise, those who are more that separate it from the rest of the classrooms, application in spaces. He saw red as being a more proficient may help those who are less proficient. The bonds the students form allow them to grow and mature together and provides them with a sense of having a home they can rely upon. In a similar way, the teacher becomes an important authority figure whom the children are constantly looking to.(Calgren, 2008) The full importance of the concept of community was realized after speaking with Karen Crick, Enrolment Director at the Cincinnati Waldorf School. She spoke about the importance of having just one class/community at each grade. The school never desires to have multiple classes of students at the same age. It is important that all students of the same age are able to share a common experience while in school. This approach is also beneficial in limiting the amount of space required to operate the school, but at the same time may limit the revenue the school receives each year. The concept of community is extended beyond each individual classroom and into the structure of each school. The faculty exist as a community of equals, all sharing in the responsibility of how the school operates. The teachers may elect their own chairman, but beyond that there is no other 2.2 | Pedagogy and space

2.5 Free Waldorf school Ground Floor Plan

ways to achieve the individual character isFOR through theeducation use of color. School alternative 30

active colour and blue being a more passive colour relating to mental concentration. This belief is brought into Waldorf classrooms, where first grade is a bright red, second grade orange, until eight grade where the colour is blue-purple. Each grade gradually loses the red/active colour as they mature and become less active beings, the Cincinnati Waldorf School has applied these colours to the walls to the old Catholic school they are occupying. (Walden, 2009)

Using art in all subjects not only enriches the education but also appeals to children’s desire to be an artist.

An additional way to create individuality is for each classroom to have a slightly different shape, so that each room is not a direct copy of the previous one. Figure 3.9 is the plan of a Waldorf school where the rooms are arranged around a central atrium. Each space is given a unique configuration, and because of the circular plan, each room will also receive different qualities of sunlight. It is important to note that the building still needs to be a unified whole even though each classroom is to be unique.

The children also learn how to represent what they are being taught in a visual manner. Artistic 3.12 Orjan School exercises help the students express themselves in Nature Diagram a creative way through the use of different media. They learn how to use a crayon versus how to work with watercolor and what kind of results they can achieve with each.

The use of drawing and painting will not just enrich the education process; it also serves as a practical life skill. Artistic activities require attention and alertness, which can be developed while practicing art but can also be applied to other current and future activities.

Importance to nature

Having the children engaged and interacting with nature is a very important aspect of Waldorf Inclusion of the arts education. In many ways people are becoming very disconnected with the natural world and In many public school settings, an art class occurs lack a true appreciation for what it provides and only one or two times a week for no more than offers. It is much easier to teach children the an hour at a time. When funding becomes too importance of nature and the responsibilities low, the arts are one of the first areas of the humans have in maintaining it than it is to teach curriculum to see cuts or even be eliminated. In adults. Children find it easier to relate to plants a Waldorf school, drawing and painting are an and animals in their own environment and readily integral part of the entire curriculum; it is infused pick up responsible environmental habits.26 To in nearly everything the students do. Art gets the gain a full appreciation for nature, the students children emotionally involved in their education, need to become active in their environment and which is an important aspect of Waldorf education. understand how humans rely upon raw materials. 2.2 | Pedagogy and space

2.6 Orjan school greens

3.13 Freie Waldorfschule Central Atrium

2.7 Central green atrium of Free Waldorf school, Germany School FOR alternative education


For example, the students will experience how corn is grown, how it is harvested and have it milled, and baked into bread. Rudolf Steiner always stressed that the natural world should be taught by finding a relationship between nature and the children’s understanding of themselves. (Rawson, 2004)

piece of nature directly into the building. At Fuji Kindergarten outside Tokyo, the building wraps around several existing trees on the site, figure 3.14. Punctures are made through the structure, allowing the trees to tower directly over the school. Figure 3.15 shows how the trunks are visible and accessible from within the building.

Just as plants are a part of the human environment, The idea of a tree can be taken in a different so are animals. Students at Waldorf schools are direction as well. The structural columns that exposed to animals, especially farm animals, support the roof of the school can be shaped to starting around the fourth grade. Whether learning about plants or animals, direct exposure is always stressed over showing pictures or video. Nothing can truly capture or simulate the actual experience of being a part of nature.(Calgren, 2008)

mimic the form of a tree. Figure 3.16, is an example of a Waldorf school using wooden columns with branch like supports extending from them to support the roof above, which acts like the canopy of a forest. The use of natural materials in this example is also a reflection of nature. The children can look towards these materials to understand how humans utilize the natural world in many ways.

Architectural response: There are numerous ways of included the natural world in the design of a Waldorf school. Looking again at Orjan school, figure 3.12, at the center of the community is a naturalized landscaped, creating a gathering and focal point for the school. The buildings are also surrounded by the natural environment, immersing the students into there surroundings. Another way of looking at the same idea is to bring nature into the building, such as the atrium in Freie Waldorfschule, figure 3.13. In this example, any time the children leave a room, they become engaged with an element of nature. A similar idea is to create multiple, smaller court yards throughout the building that bring a 2.2 | Pedagogy and space

2.8 Tree penetrating through space, left

2.9 Fuji Kindergarten Aerial, top right 2.10 Columns the form trees, above 3.14ofFuji The idea of a tree can be taken in a different directionmimicking as well. The

structural columns that support the roof of the school can be shaped to

Kindergarten Aerial, top right

mimic the form of a tree. Figure 3.16, is an example of a Waldorf school

3.15 Tree

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Another way of bringing nature and architecture together is to bring the cyclical qualities of nature into the built environment. Instead of being a static structure, the building can respond to and change with each season of the year. One simple approach would be to employ window shading devices that can be removed or retracted when they are not needed in the winter. A green wall can also be employed to reflect change in season. A green wall is the use of vegetation to cover the façade of a building by either allowing the vegetation to directly grow on the building or on a separate supporting structure. In the fall, the building itself will appear to change colour, then reveal its true skin in the winter, and have a rebirth of life on the building in the spring.

simple objects with greater complexity added each year. Learning to knit at a young age helps develop hand eye coordination along with concentration. These are skills that will prove very important in other tasks and in their development as a person. Also, knitting can emphasize other subjects such as math and geometry. The children can be asked to do rows of colours based on a mathematical pattern. (Rivers, 1999)

The use of wool is another way to demonstrate to the students how materials from the earth can be transformed. The children can participate in sheering a sheep and then spinning the wool into usable yarn. Working to transform natural materials develops a sense of well being in the students and a sense of accomplishment from Natural light is a very crucial factor in a Waldorf creating an object out of raw materials. The 2.11 A girl practicing knitting in a Waldorf school school; it is preferred over electric lighting in process of knitting awakens and educates the will, in sheering a sheep and then spinning the wool into usab any situation. The design must be able to be which is connected to thinking. By educating the supported by daylight to the greatest extent will early, the curriculum is preparing the students possible. The dynamic qualities of natural light are to become creative thinking adults. The process to transform natural materials develops a sense of well be much more pleasing than the stark and consistent also teaches the kids to notice detail and learn light emitted by electric light fixtures. The building how to work with tools. students and a sense of accomplishment from creating an should respect nature by embodying principles of sustainability such as: passive solar heat gain for Rudolf Steiner stated that: raw materials. the winter, rainwater collection to flush the toilets, “a person who is unskilled in the movement ofThe his process of knitting awakens and educ a green roof to reduce storm water runoff and the fingers will also be unskilled in his intellect, having heat island effect, rainwater garden, permeable less mobile ideas or thoughts, that he who to thinking. By educating the will early which and is connected paving, and locally grown materials. has acquired dexterity in the movements of his fingers has also mobileisthoughts and ideas preparing theand students to become creative thinking adu can penetrate into the essence of things, one will Handwork not undervalue what is meant by developing the also teaches outer human being, with the aims that outthe of thekids to notice detail and learn how to wo Another aspect of the Waldorf curriculum is the whole treatment of the outer man the intellect Rudolf stated that: development of objects using the hand. Starting shall arise as one part of the Steiner human being. in the first grade the children learn how to knit (Calgren, 2008) 2.2 | Pedagogy and space

a person who is unskilled in the movement of his fi School FOR alternative education 33

Beyond the classroom In order to provide for alternative education strategies, the school needs make possible a variety of pedagogical approaches inside the facility. In order to achieve this we would need to look outside the domain of the standard classroom. Kenn Fisher is recognised as one of the leading learning environment specialists practising internationally. He translates pedagogy into many learning spaces: the student home base, the collaboration incubator, storage space, specialized and focused labs, project space and wet areas, outdoor learning space, display space, breakout space, the individual pod, group learning space, presentation space, and teacher meeting space. Most innovative schools still feature specialized classrooms for making things, including art, engineering, media, and design labs. (Nair, 2005) He proposes there to be a variety of possible learning settings for various modes and group sizes open to students. These multi-modal learning settings should be collocated and clustered to allow students to move around various learning environments to suit the particular learning task.

2.2 | Pedagogy and space

learning settings

... possible learning settings for various modes and group sizes. These multi-modal learning settings should be collocated and clustered to allow students to move around the various learning environments to suit the particular learning task

colloboration incubator

group learning

presentation space

[source: Dr Kenn Fisher]

teacher meeting space

resources, supply + store individual pod [place to think]

student home base

specialised focus lab

project space + wet areas

outdoor learning

display space

breakout space


2.12 Variety of learning settings

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ore activities. ore activities.

principles - 01 setting setting learning princip learning ... describes types of spaces and spatial qualities that support individuals and research/ t

PEDAGOGICAL P E D A G O G I C A LPEDAGOGCAL PEDAGOGICAL SPATIALSPATIAL ICON INCIPLEPRINCIPLE ICON APPROACH ACTIVITY APPROACH ACTIVITY PEDAGOGICAL PEDAGOGCAL NCIPLE SPATIAL ICON PEDAGOGICAL PEDAGOGCAL APPROACH ACTIVITY NCIPLE SPATIAL ICON APPROACH ACTIVITY The learning Learner centred Delivering Learner centered pedenvironment is pedagogies with rning environagogies with multiple supportive and multiple learning Learner centered pedsupportive and Delivering productive settings collocated Learner centered pedning environlearning settings colagogies with multiple ning environve upportive and agogies located Delivering multiple learningwith settings colupportive and Delivering ve learninglocated settings colve Peer to peer Applying The learning rning environlocated learning environment romotes indePeer to peer learning ning environIntegrated problem promotes ning environe, interdeintegrated problemApplying resourceindependence, learning omotes inde- Peer to peerand based interdependence peerproblemlearning omotes indee and self mo- Peer and to resourcebased integrated Applying e, interdeand self integrated problemApplying interdeand resourcebased e, and self momotivation and self mo- and resource- based s are chalCreating Students are Integrated, andare supported Integrated, problem chalproblem and challenged and chal- Integrated, op are deep levels and resource based Creating and supported problem resource based supported Integrated, problem nd deep supported ing and levels applilearning op and resource based Creating learning to develop deep and resource Creating p deep ng and levels appli- levels learningbased of thinking andlearning ng and appliTheory linked to pracapplication s’ needs pertice problems Theory tointeprac-to Communicating Students’ needs linked Theory linked grate both aspects, s’ and interests Theory linked to pracperspectives practiceinteproblems needs perticeand problems interests areproblems integrate resources used contininperthe tice inte-both Communicating needs s’flected and interests grate both aspects, reflected in the aspects, ually both and creatively program grate aspects, and interests lected in learning the resources continprogram used resources used Communicating integrated curriculum unds program resources used continlected in the ually and creatively backgrounds continually and Communicating delivery ually and creatively creatively unds program integrated curriculum integrated integrated curriculum nds delivery curriculum delivery delivery ment practices Continuous assessntegral part ofTable ment, utilizing a peda-approaches Decision 2: Types of pedagogical andMaking connected implication on built environment ent practices Continuous assessand practices learning gogyutilizing of assessment ent Continuous assess2.2 of | Pedagogy and space ment, a peda- Decision Making ntegral part

... describes types of spaces and spatial qualities that support indiv

student home base 2.13 Student home student homebase base space

Student home base space

Space for an individual personalise andtoinpersonalise which Spacetofor an individual a to work and study.Space to work and study. Gathering place for learners Space forand anteachers. to teach Gathering place forindividual learners and

personalise and in which to work pedagogy and study. Provides sense ofGathering ownership and teaches Provides sense of and teach place forownership learners and responsibility for one’s own learning. responsibility for one’s own learning. teachers.


Provides a common space to start a learning Provides a common space to start a le activity, seek assistance and resources, share activity, seek assistance and resources Pedagogy ideas, and hold group discussions. ideas, and hold group discussions.

size 1-2 sqm.

Provides sense of ownership and teaches responsibility for one’s sizelearning. own 1-2 sqm.a common space to start Provides a learning activity, seek assistance and resources, share ideas, and hold group discussions. Size 1-2 sqm.

School FOR alternative education 35

... describes types of spaces and spatial ... describes qualitiestypes that support of spaces groups. and spatial these should qualities have thatmovable support furniture groups. these so that should the spatial have movable organisation furniture is so that the spatial organisation ey are essentially for self-directed learning sentially for self-directed learning learner-controlled. learner-controlled. These are for small These group are for collaborative group and collaborative cooperative and learning cooperative activities learning activities learner-controlled. These aresmall for small learner-controlled. group collaborative These andare cooperative for small group learning collaborative activities and cooperative learning activities

group learning group space learning space 2.14 Individual pod space group learning space2.15 Group grouplearning learning space individual pod [place to think] individual pod [place to think] space podspace Individual [place Group space space learning space space space Individual or Individual team spaces or team for staff spaces that has for staff adjacent that has adjacent

to think]

collaboration incubator incubator 2.16collaboration Collaboration incubator collaboration incubator space

space Collaboration space


collaboration space

Idea generation IdeaIdea space, generation team space, meeting team space, meeting space, Individual or team spaces for Individual staff that has or team adjacent spaces for staff that has adjacent generation space, team meeting Idea generation space Quiet Spaces for individuals or small groups. Quiet Spaces for individuals or small groups. material preparation material area preparation and meeting area and space. meeting space. access to technology access to and technology other resources and other and resources Space material preparation area and material meetingpreparation space. area and meeting space. access to technology and other access resources to and techn a display space display fordisplay models space and for ideas. models andand ideas. Individual or team spaces for space for models display ideas. space f

Space pedagogy pedagogy pedagogy pedagogy pedagogy staff that has adjacent material Space pedagogy Encourages Encourages Idea generation space, team team teaching, mentoring teaching, ofor mentoring of of area pedagogy pedagogy team teaching, mentoring Encourages team and teaching, mentoring of pedagogy pedagogy Provides quiet for place forEncourages work, study, reflection, preparation meeting Quiet Spaces individuals orteam Provides quiet other placefaculty, for work, study, reflection, or meeting space, access and toteamwork an Support creativity, Support idea creativity, generation, idea teamwork generation, other integrated faculty, planning, integrated and planning, informal and informal Support creativity, idea generation, Support teamwor creativ other faculty, integrated planning, otherand faculty, informal integrated planning, and informal rest. groups. space. small rest. technology and other resources prototyping of prototyping concepts. of concepts. discussions. discussions. prototyping of concepts. prototyping of discussions. discussions. and display space for models Encourages Encourages involvement involvement of local employers of local inEncourages employers theemployers ininv th Encourages involvement of local size Pedagogy size Pedagogy and ideas. sizesizework, developmentdevelopment of development projects. of projects. size of projects. development o 10 sqm.size Encourages team teaching, Provides quiet place for 10 sqm. 20-25 sqm. 20-25 sqm. 20-25 sqm. of other faculty, mentoring study, reflection, or rest. 20-25 sqm. Pedagogy size size size size integrated planning, and informal 20 sqm. 20 Support sqm. creativity, idea 20 sqm. 20 sqm. discussions. Size generation, teamwork and 10 sqm. prototyping of concepts. Size Encourages involvement of local 20-25 sqm 2.04 employers in the development of 2.04 projects. Size 20 sqm.

2.2 | Pedagogy and space

School FOR alternative education 36

describes types of spaces and spatial qualities that support acti of spaces and spatial ... describes qualitiestypes that support of spaces groups. and spatial these are qualities essentially that support for larger groups. groups these where arepresentations essentially forand larger groups where presentations...and services and other resources according the resources studio space type to the studio space type ns services and to other according curwill occur exhibitions will occur

pace presentation 2.17 Presentation presentation space space presentationspace space space space

display space2.18 display Display spacespace display space

Presentation space space


Size 40-50 sqm, generally dividable.


Display space space space

projectspace space wetproject areas 2.19+Project space + Wet+areas space wet areas display space space

Project space space + Wet areas

Space that provides a variety ofprovides work and surfaces, duals Places teams for to demonstrate individuals orand demonstrate and to demonstrate White boards, boards, Whitetack boards, surfaces, blackand boards, tack surfaces, and Space that a variety of w Placesorfor individuals or teams Places toteams demonstrate fortoindividuals and or teams andblack White boards, black boards, tack White surfaces, boards, and black boards, tack surfaces, cabinets for supplies, storage areas for projects in areas f perform. show cases. Place furnishings show cases. to display Place work furnishings in to display work in Space Space cabinetstofor supplies, perform. perform. show cases. Place furnishingsshow to display Place in furnishings display work storage in development stage, and technology. progress or completed projects. progress Can or completed overlap with projects. overlap with to tools Places for individuals or teams to White boards, black boards, tack development access progress or completed projects. progress Can overlap orCan completed with access projects. Can stage, overlap with to tools an Space Specialised lighting, and other infrastructure such as infrastru pedagogy circulation. circulation. Specialised lighting, and other demonstrate surfaces, and show cases. Place pedagogy pedagogy and perform. circulation. circulation. Space that provides a variety sinks and disposal. sinks and disposal. ty to practice, Gives opportunity share to practice, skills share acquired skills share acquired skills furnishings to display work in Gives opportunity toacquired practice, Gives shareopportunity acquired skills to practice, of work surfaces, cabinets for pedagogy pedagogy with learners, and knowledge staff and the with public learners, staff and the public Pedagogy or completed projects. pedagogy pedagogy and knowledge with learners, and staffknowledge and the public with learners, staff and the public progress supplies, storage areas for pedagogy Provides placesCan to show Provides ideas, places show ideas, places work-in-progress dback. and receive feedback. Provides places to showtoideas, Provides work-in-progress to showpedagogy ideas, work-in-progress and receive feedback. and receive feedback. Gives opportunity to practice, overlap withwork-in-progress circulation. projects inspace development stage, Provides space to produce information, services or and finished products. and finished products.and Provides to produce informatio and finished products. finished products. share acquired skills and access to tools and technology. products. size Supports and shares learning Supports process and shares by learning process by products. size size Supports and shares learningSupports process by and shares learning process by knowledge with learners, staff Pedagogy Specialised lighting, and and other Encourages critical development, thinking, problem solving, erally 40-50 sqm, generally dividable. showcasing concept development, showcasing learning concept development, learning Encourages critical thinking, problem 40-50dividable. sqm, generally dividable. 40-50 sqm, generally dividable. showcasing concept development, showcasing learning concept learning and the public and receive Provides places to show ideas, infrastructure such as sinks and team work. activities, development process activities, and development finished process and finished team work. activities, development activities, and finished development process and finished feedback. work-in-progress and process finished products and services. products and services.products and services.disposal. products and services. products.

20 sqm.


size Supports and shares learning 40-50 sqm, generally dividable. Pedagogy size 40-50 sqm, generally dividable. size by showcasing concept size process Provides space to produce 20 sqm. 20 sqm. 20 sqm. 2.06 2.06 development, learning activities, information,2.06 services or products. development process and Encourages critical thinking, finished products and services. problem solving, and team work. Size 20 sqm.

2.2 | Pedagogy and space

Size 40-50 sqm, generally dividable. School FOR alternative education 37

will occur in non timetabled spaces will occur across in non thetimetabled campus spaces scattered verandahs, across cafeteria the campus andacross in library corridors, verandahs, cafeteria and library will occur in nonscattered timetabled spaces scattered will occurin across incorridors, non the timetabled campus spaces in corridors, scattered verandahs, the cafeteria campus and in library corridors, verandahs, cafeteria and library

specialised focus laboratory outdoor learning outdoor learning 2.20 Specialised focus focus laboratory 2.21 outdoor Outdoorlearning learning specialised laboratory outdoor learning space

Specialised space space focus space laboratory


Outdoor learning space

‘breakout’ spaces ‘breakout’ spaces 2.22‘breakout’ Breakout spaces spaces ‘breakout’ sp space

space ‘Breakout’ spaces space


Areas to support activities requiring Outdoor areas ofOutdoor any scale thatOutdoor semi-defined areas of are any by semi-defined scale that semi-defined Lounge areas,by small study rooms, Lounge widened areas, corridor smallwidened study ro Areas learning to support learning activities requiring areas ofare any scale that Outdoor areas of are anyby scale that areby semi-defined Lounge areas, small study rooms, Lounge areas, specialised equipment or furnishings [eg. Science, landscape, building edge orbuilding lightweight landscape, building withedge building or lightweight with spaces thatwith allow gathering spaces awaygathering from that allow formal gatherin Space specialised equipment or furnishings [eg. Science, landscape, edgecover, orSpace landscape, lightweight cover, with edge cover, or lightweight cover, spaces that allow spaces away that froma technology, art, music, dance, fabrication, provision for seating. provision for seating. learning activities. learning activities. of any scale that Lounge areas, small study technology, art, music, dance, fabrication,Outdoor provision for seating. provisionareas for seating. learning activities. learning activiti Space troubleshooting]. troubleshooting]. are semi-defined by landscape, rooms, widened corridor spaces

Areas pedagogy to support learning pedagogy that pedagogy pedagogy pedagogy building pedagogy pedagogy pedagogy edge or lightweight allow gathering away from activities requiring specialised pedagogy Provides informal outdoor area Provides for socialising, informal outdoor area for socialising, Provides psychological and physiological Provides psychological relief from and p pedagogy Provides informal outdoorcover, Provides areawith for provision informal socialising, outdoor Provides psychological Provides psych re for seating.area for socialising,formal learning activities.and physiological or furnishings Provides spaceequipment and infrastructure to develop and private study, reflection or discussion. private study, Can be reflection used or discussion. Can be used formal environments. Allows for formal individual environments. reflection, Allows Provides space and infrastructure develop or and private study,toreflection discussion. private study, Can reflection be used or discussion. Can be usedformal environments. Allows for formal individual environm ref [eg. Science, technology, art, practice specialised skills. forspecialised structuredskills. small group activities. for structured small group activities. or discussion social informal activity for informal small or discu soc practice for structured small group activities. for structured small group activities.informal discussion informal or discussion social activity fo Pedagogy Pedagogy music, dance, fabrication, Brings relevancy of work, family and community to groups. groups. Brings relevancy of work, family and community toProvides informal outdoor area groups. groups. Provides psychological and troubleshooting]. size process. size size the learning process. sizesocialising, private study, the learning for physiological relief from formal varied. varied. size sizeAllows varied. varied. size size reflection or discussion. Can be environments. for size 15-20 sqm. 15-20 sqm. Pedagogy size 15-20 sqm. reflection, informal 15-20 sqm. used for structured small group individual 80-100 sqm. Provides space and infrastructure 80-100 sqm. activities. discussion or social activity for to develop and practice small groups. specialised skills. 2.07Size 2.07 Brings relevancy of work, family Size varied. and community to the learning 15-20 sqm. process. Size 80-100 sqm. 2.2 | Pedagogy and space

School FOR alternative education 38

gng ‘time approach out’staff supports staff approach taking out’ staff taking ‘time out’ supports taking learning ‘time out’ ‘time supports

ng teacher meeting 2.23teacher Teachermeeting meeting teacher meeting space




Teacher meeting space

resources, + store resources, + store supply + store 2.24 supply Resources, supply + store resources, supply +supply storeresources, space

Resources, space spacesupply +space store

m spaces Individual forteam staff that or has team adjacent spaces forhas staff thatspaces has adjacent Space orSpace adjacent Space to the learning or to activities adjacent to the activities learning activities Individual or spaces for Individual staff that or team adjacent for staff that has within adjacent within or within adjacent Space the learning within or adjacent to the learning activities ation area and material meeting preparation space. area and meeting space. spaces to provide resources, spaces store to provide supplies resources, for store supplies for store supplies for Space material preparation area andmaterial meetingpreparation space. area and meeting space. spaces to provide resources, spaces storetosupplies provide for resources, classroom projects, tools, classroom learning projects, products tools, and learning products and Individual or team spaces for classroom projects, tools, learning classroom products projects, andtools, learning products and pedagogy materials. materials. pedagogy pedagogy materials. materials. staff that has adjacent material Space am teaching, Encourages mentoring team ofpreparation teaching, other of other Encourages team teaching, Encourages mentoringmentoring team of other teaching, mentoring of other area and meeting Space within or adjacent to the pedagogy pedagogyspaces pedagogy s, integrated faculty planning, members, and informal integrated planning, and informal pedagogyactivities faculty members, integrated planning, faculty members, and informal integrated planning, and informal space. learning to Provides ready access to needed Provides supplies, ready access tools and to needed supplies, tools and supplies, tools and discussions. Provides ready access tosupplies needed Provides supplies, ready tools access and to needed discussions. discussions. provide resources, store storage for learning projects. forprojects. learningstorage projects. storage forstorage learning for learning projects. 20-25sqm.20-25sqm.

Pedagogy size Encourages team teaching, 20-25sqm. of other faculty mentoring members, integrated planning, and informal discussions. Size 20-25sqm.

2.2 | Pedagogy and space

size 20-30 sqm.

for classroom projects, tools, learning products and materials.



20-30 sqm. 20-30 sqm. Pedagogy

size 20-30 sqm.

Provides ready access to needed supplies, tools and storage for learning projects. Size 20-30 sqm.




School FOR alternative education 39

Universal accessibility Alternative education schools due to their child centric approach and curricular flexibility attract a large number of differently abled students. Hence achieving barrier free built environment at least in the school and its vicinity is necessary. A school comes under category 4 of CPWD Guidelines for Barrier-free built environment under Public and semi-public buildings.

Pedestrian Pathway

Scope: The scope of integration of universal accessible features in the design of the project would be limited to those relevant in an architectural thesis and details that are a part of interior designing and construction would not be shown.

Wheel Chair:


Parking: PARKING








2.25 Differently-abled parking requirements



For parking of vehicles of handicapped people the following provisions shall Parking :- For parking of vehicles of handicapped people the following provisions be made: shall be made: Chair used by disabled people for mobility. The standard size of wheel chair a) Surface parking for two Car Spaces shall be provided near entrance for Surface handicapped parking for twopersons care spaces be provided entrance for the shall be taken as 1050 mm X 750 mm. a) physically the with shall maximum travel near distance of 30.0 physically handicapped persons with maximum travel distance of 30 M from meter from building entrance. building entrance. b) The width of parking bay shall be minimum 3.6 meter. Site development: The width of parking bay shall be minimum 3.60 Meter. b) The information stating that the space is reserved for wheel chair users shall C) Level of the roads, access paths and parking areas shall be described in the Building requirements:

plan along with specification of the materials.

Access Path/Walk Way:

Access path from plot entry and surface parking to building entrance shall be minimum of 1800 mm. wide having even surface without any steps. Slope, if any, shall not have gradient greater than 5%.

2.3 | Universal accessibility

be conspicuously displayed.

Guidingfacilities floor materials be provided or a device which guides visually d) specified The for the shall buildings for physically handicapped persons impaired persons with audible signals or other devices which serves the same shall be as follows: purpose shall be provided. 1. Approach to plinth level 2. Corridor connecting the entrance/exit for the handicapped. 3. Stair-ways 4. Lift Pedestrian pathway 5. Toilet 6. Drinking water

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900 mm on both sides extending 300 mm. beyond top and bottom of the ramp. Minimum gap from the adjacent wall to the hand rail shall be 50 mm. 21500 Ramped Approach: Ramp shall be finished with non slip material to enter 21500 21500 outdoor grade 1/15 the building. Minimum width of ramp shall be 1800 mm. with maximum Moor grade 1112 gradient 1:12, length of ramp shall not exceed 9.0 meter having 800 mm high hand rail on both sides extending 300 mm. beyond top and bottom of the ramp. Minimum gap from the adjacent wall to the hand rail shall be 50 mm. Side elevation of Ramp 1400s





Level landing 4

P/an view of Ramp

Stepped Approach: For stepped approach size of tread shall not be less than 300 mm. and maximum riser shall be 150 mm. Provision of 800 mm. high hand rail on both sides of the stepped approach similar to the ramped approach. Exit/Entrance Door: Minimum clear opening of the entrance door shall be 900 mm. and it shall not be provided with a step that obstructs the passage of a wheel chair user. Threshold shall not be raised more than 12 mm. Entrance Landing: Entrance landing shall be provided adjacent to ramp with the minimum dimension 1800 mm x 2000 mm.

Corridor connecting the entrance/exit for the handicapped

Overall view of Ramp






2.26 Ramped approach

Approach to plinth level

The corridor connecting the entrance/exit for handicapped leading directly outdoors to a place where information concerning the overall use of the specified building can be provided to visually impaired persons either by a person or by signs, shall be provided as follows: a) ‘Guiding floor materials’ shall be provided or devices that emit sound to guide visually impaired persons. b) The minimum width shall be 1500 mm. c) In case there is a difference of level slope ways shall be provided with a slope of 1:12. d) Hand rails shall be provided for ramps/slope ways.

Every building should have at least one entrance accessible to the Stair-ways: handicapped and shall be indicated by proper signage. This entrance shall One of the stair-ways near the entrance/exit for the handicapped shall have be approached through a ramp together with the stepped entry. the following provisions: a) The minimum width shall be 1350 mm. 2.3 | Universal accessibility

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b) Height of the riser shall not be more than 150 mm and width of the tread 300 mm. The steps shall not have abrupt (square) nosing. c) Maximum number of risers on a flight shall be limited to 12.


Wherever lift is required as per bye-laws, provision of at least one lift shall be made for the wheel chair user with the following cage dimensions of lift recommended for passenger lift of 13 persons capacity by Bureau of Indian Standards. Clear internal depth : 1100 mm. Clear internal width : 2000 mm. Entrance door width : 900 mm. a) A hand rail not less than 600 mm. long at 1000 mm. above floor level shall be fixed adjacent to the control panel. b) The lift lobby shall be of an inside measurement of 1800 mm x 1800 mm. or more.


One special W.C. in a set of toilet shall be provided for the use of handicapped, with essential provision of wash basin near the entrance for the handicapped. a ) The minimum size shall be 1500 mm x 1750 mm. b ) Minimum clear opening of the door shall be 900 mm. and the door shall swing out. c ) Suitable arrangement of vertical/horizontal handrails with 50 mm. clearance from wall shall be made in the toilet. d ) The W.C. seat shall be 500 mm. from the floor.

2.27 Disabled friendly toilet

Drinking Water

Suitable provision of drinking water shall be made for the handicapped near the special toilet provided for them.

2.3 | Universal accessibility

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Auditorium requirements: Accessible toilet facilities should be nearby. Seating for persons with disabilities to be accessible from main entrances and lobbies. Various seating/viewing choice to be provided for persons in wheelchairs throughout the main seating area. A minimum of 2 wheelchair spaces for seating capacity up to 100 seats. A minimum of 4 wheelchair spaces for seating capacity from over 100 to 400 seats.


Plan view of guest seating arrangement

2.29 Auditorium section for differently abled

2.28 Auditorium plan for differently abled 2.3 | Universal accessibility

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possible the pitch should be orientated (end to end) in accordance with the orientation diagram reproduced below. Hockey pitches may be sited in any direction because in this game the ball seldom rises sufficiently for the sun to be a nuisance. However, hockey is now played to a very large extent on artificial turf pitches and the frequency of other sporting activities will have a bearing on orientation. Pavilions should avoid the SW to NW aspect (225°-315°).

Orienting sports facilities

The Fields in Trust Orientation diagram and notes

The orientation of outdoor playing areas is an important planning consideration.

mon st comon e b The orientati

The time of day (early morning or late afternoon) as well as the time of year (winter or summer) has a bearing on optimum orientation. The aim however is to share between opposing participants the advantages and/or disadvantages of the sun’s direction and other natural factors such as breezes. It is generally recommended that playing areas are orientated approximately in a north-south direction to minimise the effect of a setting sun on players. The best common orientation is 15° west of north.

ation where a d orient f goo ction of play for o s it dire Lim iform be arranged un ies can t i l i c a f all

However, with more sports being played under lights, this may be less of a concern.

360° 345°

ba tball ne ss court tenn gra is cricket & k e s t a b b al




ass oc ia


20 ° 5° -5 5°

ball 5° y foot 32 ugb court tennis, r n & hard sketball,

Limits of good orientation where a uniform direction for all facilities can be arranged: Athletics, basketball, bowls, croquet, handball, lacrosse, netball, tennis: between 20° west of north and 35° east of north

True N



5° 23

Hockey and polo: between 45° east of north and 45° west of north


Football and rugby: between 20° east of north and 65° east of north


25 °

Baseball and cricket: between 55° east of north and 35° west of north

200 °

reciprocal bearings shown dotted


5° 14


2.30 Limits of good orientation for sports facilities 2.4 | Orienting sports facilities

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Case study framework Building and open space typologies: OPEN-PLAN


2.5 | Case study framework


2.33 Courtyard typology

2.31 Open plan typology The image above shows the open-plan concept of spaces for small groups arranged around large group instructional areas for different age groups in turn related to a central stuy-resource center. Administration other shared spaces wrap around school court entrance area.


2.32 Cluster typology The image illustrates the cluster plan of divisible classrooms arranged by age groups sharing central entrance areas, relating to shared spaces, and resulting in a plan of residential scale and non-institutional interiors.

The image illustrates the courtyard typology of arranging built and open spaces. Here different sub-schools for different age groups are arranged around different courtyards. The major administrative and public functions are located near the entrance lobby. This typology could also be a product of organic growth.

2.34 Campus typology The image illustrates the campus planning approach. This is generally used for larger complexes. Here different typology of functions are grouped together and located in different blocks of built mass connected through corridors or open space.

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Case study framework PROJECT



Gurgaon, India Humid subtropical 30,000 sqm

Delhi, India Humid subtropical 48,000 sqm

18000 sqm

11000 sqm


Mani-Chowfla architects Cluster Primary

Sanjay Prakash Courtyard Primary


Translation of philosophy Chosen as client; has Translation of philosophy and pedagogy into similar site area and base and pedagogy into space; space; Built-open for design Built-open relationships relationships


FREE WALDORF SCHOOL GARDEN SCHOOL Cologne, Germany Temperate oceaninc 12,000 sqm

Beijing, China Humid continental 45,000 sqm 51000 sqm



2.5 | Case study framework

Peter Hueben Atrium Secondary

Open architecture Connected blocks Secondary

Similar site area and integrated building;Subterrainean construction

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2.5 | Case study framework




Greens and OAT provide Central atrium provides space for circle time; Central courtyard provides space for congregation; extended spaces adjacent open terraces outside space for congregations to corridors provide space and discussions; smaller classrooms provide space for outdoor learning; art, courts next to classrooms for handwork while music, claymodelling provide space for outdoor woodworking and rooms help promote learning and handwork; metalworking workshops artistic expression; provide specialized classrooms with flexible classrooms with flexible training; classrooms seating arrangement seating arrangement provide space for provide space for lectures provide space for choice lectures, and personal and personal learning time, storytelling and learning lectures

Classrooms, outdoor learning spaces and art rooms laid out around O.A.T and greens and connected through continuous corridors

A repeating unit with classrooms or cogregational spaces enveloping outdoor learing spaces laid out aroud central courtyard

Classrooms with oudoor learning spaces on terraces laid out around central atrium



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A cluster of classroms for different age groups share MIXED AGE GROUP LEARNING common outdoor learning space



FREE WALDORF SCHOOL GARDEN SCHOOL A number of classrooms for different age groups share oudoor terraces


Classrooms overlook Classrooms overlook Green courts with plants greens. Horticulture fields and trees; Creepers along walls of courtyards

Central atrium has lush greens and pond


Separate sites for separate components. Segregated pre-primary block


Located in same block around central atrium

VEHICULAR CIRCULATION School buses Private vehicle Guest vehicle SITE ZONING- Public, Private, Common FORMS AND SIZES Classroom

2.5 | Case study framework


Parked inside school, one way circulation, exit through service entry Restricted to entry No space provided











Hexagonal shape-45 sqm; Irregular shape- 55 sqm

To be studied

Irregular shaped for individuality


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Congregational spaces

Audi, M.P Hall, A.V room, OAT

Gymnasium, Hall of light, M.P. Hall

Audi, M.P. Hall, Atrium with pond


Clustering of units- Plan

Around OAT, around smaller interaction spaces

Around 1 large and 12 small courtyards

Around central atrium



Organically around courtyards



Creation of outdoor connect learning spaces

Free flow of child into courts

Introduction of and importance given to hands on experiences


Clustering of units- Section TRANSLATION OF PEDAGOGY




2.5 | Case study framework





400 m runnig track and football field, Gymnasium with basketball court

Accessible through ramps, Variety of heights in fixtures




Courtyard effect creating cool breezes through the buildings

Covered atrium with operable exhaust to respond to cooler climates

North south orientation of building blocks with corridors towards north

North-sourth orientation of clusters

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Use of spaces

Hexagonal shape in senior Removable non-structural block, Irregular shape in walls for transformability pre-primary block



Addition of structures

Repetetive structural grid Possible through repeating for for addition of clusters structures horizontally and vertically




Use of subterrenean space for common introvert congregational functions


2.5 | Case study framework



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Shikshantar School Architects: Mani-Chowfla Architects Year: 2002 Project location: J Block, South City – 1, Gurgaon Site area: 30,000 sqm Built-up area: 10,400 sqm Total no. of students: 1250 Grades: Playgroup-12 Avg students per class: 27-28 School typology: Cluster

2.35 Shikshantar school, Primary block The school follows the principles of integrated education. Integrated Education enables students to make connections between the development of their physical, emotional, mental, social and inner selves. Students are provided opportunities to appreciate the relationships between inside and outside the classroom learning experiences. The objective and outcome is nurturing the ‘whole’ child, the person.” (Aga khan foundation)

2.36 Stills of the school 2.6 | Case Studies

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Zoning and Stacking of Components:

Vehicular circulation:

Pre-primary, Primary and Senior school are each located on a separate part of land. The edge between the primary and the secondary school is porous and promote mixing during congregations. The pre-primary block segregated on a different piece of land. The school if divided into two plots: Pre- Primary school – 1.2 acre Primary, Middle & Secondary – 6.2 acre.

The pre-primary and primary could be accessed from the the Netaji Subhash Marg whereas the Secondary school is accessible from the Central avenue road. The service road next to the primary school is used for the exit of school buses and during school events.

On individual sites younger age groups are located on the lower floors and the higher age groups on the upper floors. This is to promote connect with the open and recreational spaces for the younger age groups due to lesser necessity of classroom teaching.

2.37 Zoning of components, Shikshantar school

2.6 | Case Studies

2.38 Vehicular circulation, Shikshantar school

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Primary school

Secondary school

2.39 Site Plan, Shikshantar school

Building components: Educational: Classrooms, Library, Fine arts rooms, A-V room, Music rooms, Laboratories Recreational: Football field with running track, Basketball court, Multi-purpose hall, Amphitheatre

Pre-primary school


Services: Toilets, Pantries, Stores 2.6 | Case Studies

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Primary school


Secondary school 2.40 First Floor Plan, Shikshantar school

Pre-primary school

Typology and Zoning of activities: Pre-primary school:

The pre-primary school is of courtyard typology. A central courtyard also called as central hub is surrounded by large ramps, corridors connecting each other courtyard and a slide. Classrooms are located around two Secondary school: The Secondary school campus also of cluster typology is laid out around smaller tranquil courts with greenery and water features. an amphitheatre, which serves as a unifying element. Classroom clusters are located at one end while congregational spaces like the dining hall, Primary school: The primary is of cluster typology. Classrooms, libraries, laboratories and multi-purpose hall and library are located around the amphitheatre. All activity rooms are laid out in varying forms to inspire interaction and active these spaces are connected through a continuous corridor around the amphitheatre. participation. 2.6 | Case Studies

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Forms and sizes: Classrooms:

Congregational Spaces:

Pre-primary classrooms are approx. 55 sqm serving 25 students/class. The The 600 sqm O.A.T fits into a 5 sided slot at the building centre capable of shapes are irregular responding to the mental nature of kindergärtners. The holding 400 people. shape of the classroom and the tables make different seating arrangements possible. The multi-purpose hall is used for badminton and gymnastics and also boasts a balcony seating area. Primary and secondary classrooms have hexagonal shapes that provide large wall area. They are approximately 45 sqm each. The two classroom An A/V room of 300 capacity is located beneath the multi-purpose hall clusters connect to a primary spine having congregational and administrative along with table tennis playing area. facilities. This spine directly flows onto the greens on ground floor.

2.43 Secondary school classrooms, Shikshantar school

2.41 Pre-primary classrooms, Shikshantar school 2.6 | Case Studies

2.42 Primary and middle classrooms, Shikshantar school

2.46 A.V room, Shikshantar school

2.44 O.A.T, Shikshantar school (Left top) 2.45 Multi-purpose hall, Shikshantar school School FOR alternative education 55

Variety in learning spaces:

Organisation of learning spaces:

In order to accommodate several pedagogies ranging from instruction type to creative and experimental the school creates a variety of learning spaces.

The learning spaces are organized around congregational spaces that allow for circle time discussions to take place within them. These are then connected to shared common learning spaces. These common learning spaces are created in midst or adjacent to classroom cluster.

As activities outside the classroom are given equal importance to the ones inside each age group has an outside learning or recreational area in the form of sand pits, cycling tracks, green mounds, huge amphitheatre, swings and play-fields. Such places are located along circulation corridors or are a part of circulation itself. A hierarchy is achieved among various balconies and terraces which are used for circle time, project work and group interactions.

Circle time space Common learning space Classroom

Classrooms Circle time space

Outdoor learning space

2.51 Organisation of learning spaces 2.47 Extended terrace space 2.48 Central O.A.T

2.6 | Case Studies

2.49 Classroom 2.50 Sandpits

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Mixed age group learnings:

Importance of nature:

Each classroom cluster consists of different age groups spilliout out into shared open learning spaces. This along with creating a sense of community creates synergy between different age groups each age group helping out the other. The difference of age is not too high in order to avoid bullying.

One of the values that the school architecture tries to imbibe in students is the importance of nature. The primary block has creepers and climbers running all over its facade. All courtyards exhibit either small trees or water bodies. The pre-primary school courtyard once even used to have turtles in its ponds. Every school block enjoys connect to some greens throughout the campus. These greens are either in the form of mouds or playfields.

2.52 Classroom arrangement for mixed learning

2.6 Case Studies

2.53 Pond in pre-primary block (Left) 2.54 Creepers and climbers on primary block facade (Above)

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Universal accessibility:


All buildings are made wheelchair accessible through ramps of appropriate A repeating cluster typology and modular classrooms in the primary and slope but universal toilets and railings are absent inhibiting a barrier-free secondary school promote flexibility of functions and provides permutations environment. for the building to grow. Blocks could be added, connected to older buildings slabs or corridors. The major ramp in the secondary school building is circular and hence is limited to being a architectural feature.

2.57 Secondary school ramp, Shikshantar school

2.55 Pre-primary school ramp, Shikshantar school

2.56 Primary school ramp, Shikshantar school

2.58 Classroom layouts exhibiting flexibility, Shikshantar school

2.6 | Case Studies

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Response to climate: North-south orientation of spine and well connected system of corridors create shaded spaces. Many courtyards created through positioning of blocks also lead to thermal comfort. Well-ventilated and well lit, classrooms with large windows are designed for comfort in varying weather conditions of North India. The positioning of the rooms allows breeze to blow through the east-west and north-south air corridors.

Arithmetic: Site Area: Ground coverage: Total Built-up area: Permissible FAR: Achieved FAR:

2.6 | Case Studies

30,000 sqm 20 %(6000 sqm approx.) 18,000 sqm 1.5 0.6

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Mirambika, Delhi Architects: Sanjay Prakash and Matthijis Cornelissen Year: 1981 Project location: Aurobindo marg, Delhi Site area: 48,000 sqm Built-up area: 11,220 sqm Total no. of students: 180 Grades: Playgroup-8 Avg students per class: 25 School typology: Courtyard 2.59 Central courtyard, Mirambika Mirambika started in 1981 as an experimental innovative school. It has inspired several other schools in the country, which have also made mark as schools with difference.It follows the system of integral education as formulated by Sri Aurobindo and the Mother. Integral means total: as it addresses the totality of the being. In Mirambika children learn more by doing, observing and reflecting than by didactic teaching. The curriculum is not rigid, and evolves as the class progresses, allowing each individual child to grow at their own pace.

2.6 | Case Studies

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Building components:

Typology and Zoning of activities:


It was specified in the brief that as a whole there should be continuous integration of vegetation and structure and subtle transitions from space to space in harmony with their functions.

Library, Art room, Science Laboratory, The Music Room, Meditation room, Talk room, Computer room, Living Museum, workshop, activity room


Gymnasium and Sports room


Resource Room, Toilets, Janitor’s closet

Hence the generated form consisted of 12 courtyards and one large courtyard. The building resembles Mother’s symbol i.e. twelve petals indicating powers of the Mother and a centre ‘Aditi’ signifying the ‘flame of fire’. The users had their names for various areas and courtyard groups based on Mother’s enumeration of human virtues such as courage, aspiration, and the like. For easy remembrance, short hand convention of naming courtyards according to the clock position was used, with 12 o’ clock for courtyard in the north. The playground is shared by both MIS school and Mirambika School. The greens and playfields are located adjacent to the boundary wall to the south of the school. The building is entered from the south 6 o’clock courtyard. Major congregational spaces are located at the 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock buildings. While the lower floors consist of a variety of functions like recreational, administrative and educational, the upper floors only consist of educational functions i.e. classrooms and the hall of light. N

2.60 Zoning of components, Mirambika 2.6 | Case Studies

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Translation of pedagogy: To integrate physical, mental, spiritual, psychic, and vital development of the child according to Sri Aurobindo and the mother’s philosophy it was specified in the brief that from every work space some portion of the sky and some vegetation should be visible, but otherwise no two rooms need be the same. Each courtyard expresses a value/principle helping the children learn even when they are outside the classroom. The flow of indoor to outdoor spaces further gives way to a child’s imagination and creativity. Each classroom has some unique quality that separates it from rest of the rooms. This allows each class to have a space they can claim as their own and reflects the character of the group. These spaces are then integrated and relate to building as whole. The Art Room in Mirambika is viewed as a place of significance and a lot of activity takes place in it. Keeping in view the nature of work, the organization of the room is such that it is well-lit, ventilated, having high tables, low tables, simple floor mats, large closet cupboards for storage of art material. Shelves for display of items, models or other art work are placed in such a way that they are visible from outside the art room. N

2.61 Ground Floor Plan, Mirambika

2.6 | Case Studies

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Response to climate:


Due to the symmetrical plan, west facing glass was minimized by placing opaque walls. Two large halls were placed at 9 o’ clock and 3 o’ clock thereby slashing heat from the worst faces in one stroke. The introverted courtyard planning and the large windows and terraces allow maximum daylight to enter the school without affecting visual comfort. The cantilevers, orientation and landscape further take care of the changing weather conditions. The building block is surrounded by vegetation and trees to avoid direct sunlight and to provide a view from every window. Bunch of curtain creepers and bushes provide enough shading. Terrazzo finished terraces to reduce heat from the roof.


2.62 First Floor Plan, Mirambika 2.63 Wind movement through the school, Mirambika

2.6 | Case Studies

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It was part of the brief to design a framework that is at once definite enough Site Area: 48,000 sqm to be submitted and built, and at the same time flexible enough to be Ground coverage: 10 % adapted to future changes in consciousness, purpose and usage. Total Built-up area: 11,000 sqm Permissible FAR: - Achieved FAR: 0.23 This was achieved through a grid composed of squares and equilateral triangles that could be repeated horizontally to create continuous forms and repeated vertically to create new floors. Standard grid of 7.2m was divided into 8 equal parts giving nominal planning dimension of 0.9m and clear of 0.84m. The triangle was subdivided into 4 congruent triangles from the main 7.2 m side. Doors, corridors, etc. all were planned according to grid. The grid was only broken for window design. Even the furniture was designed in multiples of 0.84m

2.64 Mirambika structural grid

2.6 | Case Studies

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Free waldorf school, Cologne Architects: Peter Heubner Year: 1997 Project location: Chorweiler, Cologne, Germany Site area: 12,000 sqm Built-up area: 6150 sqm Total no. of students: 180 Grades: Playgroup-8 Avg students per class: 25 School typology: Atrium 2.65 Aerial view, Free Waldorf School

Waldorf schools are based on the philosophy of Robert Steiner, aiming at developing the head, heart and mind alike, granting students great freedom for their own development. The Free Waldorf School was built in 1997 on a tight budget as it was community run and built. The building exhibits the holistic nature of Steiner ethos characteristic to Waldorf schools.

2.6 | Case Studies

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Building components: Educational: The school comprises of 2 buildings, one is the school building, whereas located after a landscaped stretch adjacent to the school building is the sports hall. The school building would be the primary focus of the case study.

Classrooms, Manual work-rooms, Orchestra room, Eurythmy room, physics, chemistry and biology labs, library, art room, book binding/painting room

Recreational: Auditorium


Toilets, Disabled toilet, Housekeeping, stores, refrigeration room



2 1 N

1. School building 2. Sports hall

2.66 Aerial view, Free Waldorf School

2.6 | Case Studies

2.67 Ground floor plan, Free Waldorf School


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Forms and sizes: The building is conceived to as organic building mimicking the form of a lotus with the central tree-type support for the atrium roofing acting as the central core and the classrooms as the petals surrounding it. The building tries to break any and all symmetry, rhythm and order which is common in Waldorf schools as a way to characterize the untamed free spirit of children.


The form of each classroom depicting a petal is different from the rest but an approximate typical area of a classroom is 68 sqm.



2.68 First floor plan, Free Waldorf School SECOND FLOOR PLAN

The auditorium being centrally placed and owing to its specific way of functioning is the only component that has symmetry. The stage and the seating collectively make approximately 350 sqm.

Eurythmy room:


2.69 Second Floor Plan, Free Waldorf School

2.6 | Case Studies

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Translation of pedagogy:

Response to climate:

In order to create each classroom as a unique community which practices complete autonomy in the learning methods, as per Steiner philosophy each classroom exhibits a different shape and hence its own unique order, but at the same time is unified with other classrooms on the whole through a triple height central atrium.

Cologne though one of the warmest cities in Germany is much colder compared to India. The introvert atrium typology is hence in response to the colder climate. If it was to be reinterpreted in Delhi’s climate it would need to be modified in certain ways.

Firstly, the closed atrium would need to be converted to an open courtyard. Many workshops and outdoor terraces have been created in addition to The scale of the existing atrium is appropriate for the courtyard too. the central landscaped atrium to take care of the development of the head Secondly, to tackle the heat the building would need to be made more porous by punching voids through the dense building block thus facilitating and heart. the flow of breeze from the east-west directions. The connect with nature is also given great importance in the waldorf philosophy, which is interpreted here by the organic form of the building mimicking a rose. The central supports for the atrium top mimic a tree trunk and the secondary supports its branches. The landscaped atrium with the pond provides a literal type of connect.

2.71 Central Atrium, Free Waldorf School

2.70 Central Atrium, Free Waldorf School

2.6 | Case Studies

2.72 Response to climate, Free Waldorf School

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Beijing High School 4, Beijing Architects: OPEN Architecture Year: 2012 Project location: Changyang, Fangshan district, Beijing, China Site area: 48,332 sqm Built-up area: 58,000 sqm Total no. of students: Grades: Avg students per class: School typology: Linear block 2.73 Aerial view, Beijing High School 4

Beijing high school four is a prestigious high school in Beijing. This new 4.5 ha campus in Fangshan was opened in 2014. As an important piece in a grand scheme to build a healthier and self-sustainable new town, avoiding problems of the earlier mono-functional suburban developments, the school is vital to the development of the vast newly urbanized surrounding area due to its sustainable practices and design. It is equipped with green roofs and makes optimum use of passive solar design, daylighting and ventilation.

2.6 | Case Studies

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2.74 Site Plan, Beijing High School 4

2.6 | Case Studies

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2.75 Ground floor mezz. plan, Beijing High School 4

2.6 | Case Studies

2.76 First floor plan, Beijing High School 4

2.77 Second floor plan, Beijing High School 4

School FOR alternative education


Subterranean Architecture: The architecture of the school features large subterranean elements including an auditorium and swimming pool. This decision was taken in response to the felt need for more natural and open-air settings than other conventional schools. To achieve this large congregational facilities like canteen, auditorium, gymnasium and swimming pool were located below ground, hence allowing the gardens to extend above their rooftops.

This arrangement provides a variety of interconnected teaching and activity areas. “Unlike a typical campus with hierarchical spatial organisation and often clear axis to organise more or less symmetrical movements, this new school is free-form and meant to have multiple centres that can be accessed in any possible sequences,� said the architect.

The shapes of the mounds were determined by the height requirements of their varying programmes. Spaces created on top include a poetry garden, a theatre garden and a bamboo garden. Sections of the building visible above ground are organised around a central axis. Branches extend out on either side, accommodating the teaching and administration spaces.

2.79 Auditorium section, Beijing High School 4

2.78 Building sections, Beijing High School 4

2.6 | Case Studies

2.80 Subterranean bicycle parking, Beijing High School 4

School FOR alternative education 72

Translation of pedagogy:

Sustainable design practices:

In order to create a balanced and joyful learning experience and harmony between nature and people the architects slotted diverse types of greens in between the tree-like building blocks. These two types of teaching landscape, the conventional and the new, the orthodox and the free spirited, the curriculum and the extra curriculum, the collective and the individual, the necessary and the optional, are juxtaposed and balanced with each other. While the students are cultivated to respect, to balance and to protect the nature, they also learn to balance between these two types of teaching and learning, and ultimately be able to freely navigate and integrate all these contradictions, and better prepare themselves for the future.

This project aims to be the first triple-green-star rated school in the country (a standard that exceeds LEED Gold). In order to maximize natural ventilation and natural light, and minimize heat gain during summer and heat loss in the winter, passive solar strategies are adopted in almost all aspects of the design, from the planning of the building geometry all the way to the details of the window design. Permeable ground surface paving and expansive green roofs helps to minimize surface run-off, and three large underground water retention basins collect precious rain water from the athletics field for irrigation of the farms and gardens. A geothermal ground-source heat pump provides a sustainable source of energy for the large public spaces, whilst independently controlled VRV units serve all the individual teaching spaces to ensure flexible operation. Throughout the project, simple, natural, and durable materials such as bamboo plywood, pebble dashing (a vanishing technique), stone, and exposed concrete are used.

2.81 Outdoor vs. Indoor learning spaces, Beijing High School 4

2.82 Sustainable design practices employed, Beijing High School 4

2.6 | Case Studies

School FOR alternative education 73

Project 3

Project scope and profile

Components Administrative areas

The project scope is to explore the application of the philosophies and pedagogies of alternative education utilizing the Shikshantar school’s This includes spaces for principal, director, administrative and teaching staff hybridized curriculum. and conference rooms for meetings. The school would serve a student population of 1500 students. Student accommodation would be provided for one-fourth of the student population in the form of dormitories and rooms.

Pre-primary school(215 students)

Classrooms: It shall provide education to students from 2-19 years old through three Include sink, large counter area, storage cabinets. Moveable dividers are major components: Pre-primary school, Primary and middle school and desired within space and between spaces. Dedicate story telling space Secondary school. within classroom The project would also include the creation of residential facilities for a Common learning spaces: portion of the staff and wardens which would not be detailed. Spaces common to a group of classrooms, able to absorb a variety of pedagogical approaches. Education structure: • Pre – Primary School: Playgroup to Kindergarten; 2-6yr old Specialized function spaces: • Primary School and Middle: I – VIII class; 6-14 yr old Dance and music rooms • Secondary School: IX – XII; 15-19yr old • Total no. of students- 1500, 25-30 students in each class Outdoor play areas-: Each classroom to have connected outdoor play space. Include hard and OUTDOOR soft seating and sand pits LEARNING



3.1 Research implication on area programme 3.1 | Project scope

Library cum resource centre:

Primary and middle school(800 students) Classrooms: Include sink, large counter area, hard seating, soft seating, varying work surface heights, storage cabinets. Moveable dividers are desired within space and between spaces. School FOR alternative education 76

Common learning spaces: Swimming pool Spaces common to a group of classrooms, able to absorb a variety of pedagogical approaches. Dining hall It shall serve the whole school except the pre-primary block during the day Outdoor learning spaces: the hostel block during the night. Each classroom to have connected outdoor learning space, Locate between classrooms and adjacent to classrooms. Include hard and soft seating. Library Workshops: For clay modelling and crafts.

Hostel(360 students)

Music and Dance: Rooms designed keeping acoustics in mind for different instruments like percussion, string and woodwind.

A hostel serving one-fourth of the student population. It would consist of dormitories for smaller age-groups and rooms for older age groups.

Secondary school(480 students)

Common rooms Dormitories

Classrooms: Rooms To include moveable dividers are desired within space and between spaces, fixed and movable seating providing flexibility of seating arrangements.

Warden residences

Common learning spaces: Wardens who are also regular faculty staff supervise student activities in the Spaces common to a group of classrooms, able to absorb a variety of hostels. Each warden is responsible for 20 children. pedagogical approaches. Labs: Physics, chemistry labs, biology and bio-technology labs

Staff quarters

Workshops: For woodwork and metalwork

Sports and common facilities: Gymnasium 3.1 | Project scope

School FOR alternative education 77

Functional diagram Auditorium Primary wing

Pre-primary wing


Admin Common




Classrooms Common Classrooms Secondary wing

Congregational spaces: Dining hall Gymnasium Swimming pool


3.2 Functional diagram

3.2 | Functional diagram

School FOR alternative education 78

Area programme Pre-primary school

3.3 | Area programme

Primary school

School FOR alternative education 79

Secondary school

3.3 | Area programme

Shared facilities

School FOR alternative education 80

Residential facilities

Major components

Reading the program S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Components Pre-primary school Primary and middle school Secondary school Shared facilities

Users 215 800 400

Area(sqm) 1900 4400 4600 5200

%age 6 15 17 19






Grand total BUA



Total site area Achieved FAR Permissible FAR

42,400 .65 1.5

Perm. ground coverage

40% 16960

Table 3- Reading the program Permissible Ground Coverage: 40% Recommended Ground coverage: 25% Though the site gives a permissible ground coverage of 40%, the case studies show how going above 25% could lead to lack of green and open spaces. Hence ways to achieve greater ground coverage without reducing greens and open spaces connected to classrooms need to be explored.

3.4 | Reading the program

School FOR alternative education


Site 4


Fig 4.1- Noida Master Plan

The Noida master plan-2031 suggests the need create more educational buildings to serve the future residential communities going to occupy Noida. According to the master plan a school could either be proposed in an institutional area or residential area. The selected site falls in an institutional sector 132. Sector 132 is flanked by the Noida-Greater Noida expressway on one side and proposed residential development on the other three.

Max ground coverage: 40% Service population: 7,500-15,000

4.1 | Building regulations

Max FAR: 1.5

Max ground coverage: 40% Service population: 15,000-25,000

Max FAR: 1.5

Max ht.: 24 m

Off-street parking:

Higher Secondary School 4.5mtrs. off-street parking depth in the entire frontage with boundary wall shifted back and front set back will be considered from property line and in other institutions up-to 4.5mtrs. in half the width of the front of the plot would be required for providing off-street parking on roads of 18.0mt or more width.

Building regulations and bye-laws Primary school:

Fig 4.2- Noida Master Plan Higher Secondary school:

Max ht.: 15 m

School FOR alternative education 84

Precinct Institutional The precinct has educational complexes like functioning schools, institutes and office complexes. Among schools DPS Noida and Step by step School are the most popular. The electric power station is located further down the express-way indicated as ESS on the map.


Residential Sectors 130, 133, 134, 93A and 93 B are upcoming residential area with a large proportion of area already under construction or occupied. These consist of mid to high rise housing complexes with private gree ns spaces. Commercial The sector 129 commercial strip is proposed next to the expressway, which would attract large footfalls from the neighbouring areas. Villages Village Rohillapur is located across the road from the site. Other villages such as Shahpur and Nagli Sakpur come in the near precinct. River-front Proposed to south of the site is the proposed river-front redevelopment zones.

4.2 | Precinct

Fig 4.3- Precinct land-use plan


School FOR alternative education 85

Movement systems


Public transport: A bus service runs along the express-way The Noida metro rail system is proposed along the expressway. Stations are yet to be decided. Autos could be found in and around the area addressing intra-Noida customers. Private: The 6 lane express-way provides easy connectivity for private vehicles. School buses too could easily access the site using 45 m wide roads around the precinct. Pedestrian: The planning lacks proper allocation of footpaths. Still, wide roadways presently solve the problem.

4.2 | Precinct

Fig 4.4- Precinct figureground


School FOR alternative education 86

Reason for choice of site: The chosen site forms a part of the educational precinct of Sector 132. It shares an edge with the step by step school. Through this a dialogue would be created between the built form of an alternative learning school against conventional schools.





Village Rohillapur

6 2 3

1) Genesis global school Site area- 30 acres

2) JBM global school Site area- 10 acres

3) Step by step school School strength-1868 Site area- 10 acres

4) Somerville international school Site area- 3 acres

5) DPS Noida School strength-4500 Site area- 16 acres

6) Charitable school for mentally and physically challenged,Site area- 1 acre



Fig 4.5- Precinct plan INSTITUTIONAL

4.3 | Precinct



School FOR alternative education 87




Good connectivity through express- High competition due to a large way as well as wide roadways. number of school buildings in the vicinity. Positioned within school district. Low vegetation on site. Regular shape promoting maximum utilization of space Undeveloped adjacent plots posing risk.


Low importance footpaths.




Possible dialogue between adjacent Possibility of congestion during school building and other schools in peak hours due to large number of the precinct schools on the same road. Fig 4.6- Site plan BUILT



Project could serve as a role model to Upcoming construction on adjacent for others alternative schools. sites could block light and view from building.

Site Area: 42,400 sqm, 10.5 acres Topography: Flat land

Good connectivity could bring Adjacent school building threatens students from Noida as well as privacy and might be a source of Greater Noida. noise.

Dimensions: 150m x 272 m

Vegetation: Trees all scattered near edges, Large Shrubs primarily in the front one-third of site. Neighbours: Shared boundary with Step by step school to the north and vacant land to the south. 4.3 | Site

School FOR alternative education 88

Fig 4.7- Views of site from road

Design determinants 5

Learner centered pedLearner with centered pedagogies multiple Delivering agogies with multiple learning settings colDelivering PEDAGOGICAL PEDAGOGCAL learning settings collocated PRINCIPLE SPATIAL ICON APPROACH ACTIVITY located environ- PEDAGOGY AND SPACE environs inde- Pedagogical Peer to peeractivities learning require Learner centered ped-qualities to be effective. Each principle require specific spatial learning environes inde- The Peer to peerproblemlearning integrated Applying interdeagogies with multiple isresourcesupportive andapproaches Delivering specific pedagogical to support that principle, and these are applied through integrated problemApplying interdeself mo- ment and based learning settings colself mo- productive and resource- based located various core activities.

environenvirontive and tive and


Inclusion of a variety of pedagogical approaches

chalThe school learning being environone of alternative chal-The pported Integrated, problem Peer totopeer learning PEDAGOGCAL ment promotes indeupported Integrated, problem should include PEDAGOGICAL andPRINCIPLE resource basedbe able Creating p levelseducation SPATIAL ICON integrated problemApplying pendence, interdeep levelsa variety and resource based Creating APPROACH ACTIVITY learning d appliof andpedagogical self mo- andapproaches resource- based d appli- pendence learning intivation order to provide for different Learner centered pedTheory linked to prac-and modes of teaching learning. The learning Students areenvironchalTheory linked to pracagogies with multiple ticeisproblems inteds per- ment supportive and Integrated, problem Delivering and supported ds per- lenged tice problems intelearning settings colgrate both aspects, nterests productive to develop deep levels andrange resource based Creating approaches could from interests grate both aspects, located Communicating resources used continin theThe of thinking and applilearning in the resources used continCommunicating uallyinstruction and creativelyto group-work to programdirect cation The learning environprogramone ually and creatively integrated curriculum on one interaction. ment promotes Peer tolinked peer learning integrated curriculum to pracdelivery inde- Theory pendence, interdeintegrated problemApplying delivery Students’ needs per- tice problems intependence and self moand resourcebased spectives and interests grate both aspects, Fig 5.1- Pedagogical approaches tivation ractices are Continuous reflectedassessin the resources used contin- Communicating practices Continuous assesspart of learning ment, utilizing a program ually and Making creatively are a pedachal- Decision larning part of Students ment, pedaDecision Making gogyutilizing of assessment backgrounds integrated curriculum lenged and supported Integrated, problem earning gogy of assessment deliverybased to develop deep levels and resource Creating of thinking and applilearning cation Assessment practices Continuous assessTheory linked to prac- Decision Making are an integral part of ment, utilizing a pedaEach community should unique Students’ pertice be problems integogy of assessment teaching andneeds learning and interests bothlayout aspects, inspectives some manner, be itgrate form, resources used contin- Communicating are reflected in the or colour in order to foster a strong learning program ually and creatively relationship the students curriculum backgrounds betweenintegrated and their classroom. delivery

In order to facilitate multiple types of activities in the open space a hierarchy should be present in the open spaces. This would also induce a variety of sensory experiences to act as landmarks

Fig 5.2- Hierarchy in outdoor spaces

Segregation of pre-primary school

Unique learning communities

Also since practices each ageContinuous group assesshas Assessment specific needs,part it should beutilizing reflected are an integral of ment, a peda- Decision Making and learning toogogy of assessment inteaching the architecture

Hierarchy in outdoor spaces

14 14

The pre-primary block because of the very small age of children needs to have a separate entry and exit and yet be integrated to the rest of the school via pedestrian circulation.


Even the functions and timings of the block differs from the rest of the school.




Fig 5.3- Unique learning communities 5.1 | Highlights

Fig 5.4- Segregation of pre-primary block School FOR alternative education 92

Use of ramps


Strategic positioning of ramps could make them a fun mode of vertical circulation and yet provide for the differently-abled.

As the classroom is not only used for lectures or instructions but for a variety of activities the layouts should be flexible enough to incorporate these.

Fig 5.5- Use of ramps

Importance of nature Throughout the school the importance of nature needs to be exhibited throughout the school.

Fig 5.7- Flexible classroom layouts in Shikshantar school, Gurgaon

Fig 5.6- Importance of nature 5.1 | Highlights

School FOR alternative education 93

Determinants A variety of determinants guided the design process resulting in the final zoning from orientation to building regulations. Some of the major guides are shown here:

Site zoning Pre-primary block segregation

The pre-primary block is segregated due to their distinct working, timings and the sensitive age of the children.

Rent-able facilities

The rent-able facilities i.e. the auditorium, gymnasium and swimming pool has been kept to the front of the site enjoying vehicular access to not interfere the with the working of the rest of the components.

Sports facilities

The gymnasium and swimming pool also enjoy equal connect with the academic block and residential block.

Residential facilities

The residential facilities have been pushed to the back in order to seclude them from noises from the road and the school enjoying views of the play field. 5.2 | Determinants

Fig 5.8- Zoning diagram School FOR alternative education 94

Placement of built block Connect to comfortable outdoor environments

Connected strip of open space left between academic blocks to act as spill-out spaces for outdoor activities

Movement systems

Vehicular Limiting vehicular circulation in site without compromising on fire tender movement Primary Circulation connecting admin, auditorium, school, gymnasium and residential units Secondary Circulation connecting all academic spaces.

Positioning functions

Sports facilities located between academic and residential block to connect equally to both to maintain activity throughout the day

Orientation Maximizing on academic block





Combining large span structures together and locating basement underneath Parking for school buses provided along side edge of site so that they do not disturb visual connect from road. 5.2 | Determinants

Fig 5.9- Location of built blocks School FOR alternative education 95

Concept 6

Intra-school interaction

Activated movement axis

In order to accommodate different ways of teaching and intra-school interaction each block is created around common spaces. This common spaces include space for presentation, display and project work on the ground floor and the third floor. Being double height spaces each space serves two floors of classrooms.

The central movement axis is kept straight for easy legibility and made active displaced functions and greens. Functions such as the gymnasium, auditorium, hostel and school blocks spill out onto this axis to induce pockets of activity and intervals keeping it always lively.

On the ground, each block spills out on to green space providing space for play and congregation. The blocks are covered on top with a second roof in order to minimize building heat gain and make the roof and outdoor spaces comfortable through out the day.

Universal roof


Functions Classrooms

Common spaces

Fig 6.1- Basic massing of school block 6 | Concept

Central movement axis

Fig 6.2- Activated movement axis School FOR alternative education 98

PedagogicalPedagogical activities activities require specific spatial qualities to be effective. Each principle require require specific spatial qualities to be effective. Each principle require SPACE specific pedagogical approaches PEDAGOGY to support thatAND principle, and these are applied through

Activity spine

pedagogies Pedagogical activities requireIncorporating specific spatial qualities to be effective. Each principle require

specific pedagogical approaches to support that principle, and these are applied through

core activities. various corevarious activities.

pedagogical approaches to support thatin principle, are toapplied The outdoor activity spaces for different learningspecific communities are connected The common spaces each block and is so these designed absorb through any present or creating an activity spine promoting interaction between students of different future non-traditional pedagogical approaches that the school may employ. various core activities. PEDAGOGICAL PEDAGOGCAL age groups. In order to control bullyingPEDAGOGICAL and these spaces are overlooked by Flexibility plays a major role in achieving all approaches i.e. Delivering, PRINCIPLE SPATIAL ICON PEDAGOGCAL APPROACH ACTIVITY PRINCIPLE SPATIAL ICON common spaces that shall always have some teachers present. ACTIVITY applying, creating and communicating. APPROACH Learnerthrough centeredthese ped- to makePEDAGOGICAL Wind from the west and is funnelled The north-west learning environPRINCIPLE agogies with multiple Learner centered pedthem more comfortable even in summers. APPROACH ment is supportive and Delivering The learning environlearning settings colagogies with multiple productive Delivering ment is supportive and located



learning settings colLearner centered pedThe learning environThe learning environ- located agogies with multiple to is peer learning and ment promotes inde- Peer CREATING Delivering APPLYING ment supportive learning settings colThe learning environ- interde- integrated problemApplying pendence, productive located pendence and self mo-to peer and resourcement promotes indePeer learningbased PEDAGOGY AND SPACE pendence, tivation interde- integrated problemApplying The learning environPedagogical activities require specific spatial qualities to be effective. Each principle require pendence and self moresource- based Students are and chalment promotes indePeer to peer learning lenged and supported Integrated, problem tivation specific pedagogical approaches to problemsupport that principle, and these are applied through pendence, interde- Creating Applying integrated resource based to develop deep levels and Students of arethinking chal-and appli- various pendence and self mo- and resource- based learning core activities. lenged andcation supported Integrated, problem tivation to develop deep levels and resource basedto prac- Creating Theory linked Students are chalof thinkingStudents’ and applineeds per- learning tice problems intelenged and supported PEDAGOGICAL Integrated, problem PEDAGOGCAL COMMONS spectives and interests gratePRINCIPLE both aspects, cation SPATIAL ICON APPROACH ACTIVITY to develop deep levels Creating and resource based are reflected in the resources used contin- Communicating Theory linked to pracof thinking and applilearning learning program ually and creatively Students’ needs per- tice problems backgrounds integrated curriculum cation inteLearner centered peddelivery Theaspects, learning environspectives and interests grate both agogies with multiple supportive and Theory linked to pracDelivering used iscontinare reflected in the resourcesment Communicating learning settingsintecoltice problems Students’ needs perproductive ually and creatively learning Assessment program practices Continuous assessboth aspects, spectives and interests grate located curriculum backgrounds are an integral integrated part of ment, utilizing a peda- Decision Making are reflected in the resources used contin- Communicating teaching and learning delivery gogy of assessment The learning environlearning program ually and creatively ment promotes inde- integrated Peer to peer learning curriculum backgrounds COMMUNICATING DELIVERING pendence, interde- integrated problemApplying delivery Assessment practices Continuous assesspendence and self mo- and resource- based are an integral part of ment, utilizing a peda- Decision Making Fig 6.3Outdoor learning spaces Fig 6.4- Commons to absorb pedagogies tivation teaching and learning gogy of assessment Assessment practices Continuous assess6 | Concept School FOR alternative education 99 Students are chalare an integral part of ment, utilizing a peda- Decision Making productive

Evolution 7

Design development 1 Objectives


The initial design represented linear block arrangement of classrooms with corridors on one side and verandas for creative work on another. In order to create a connect with greens with each classroom they were organised around greens courts. The larger congregational spaces were located half below ground and half above with the green courts flowing above them. Next the rooms located around these congregational spaces on the ground floor were those that did not require high amounts of light which was provided through the section.

• Correct orientation of football field achieved • Connected flowing courts provide access to open green spaces to each component • North-south orientation of Academic and residential blocks • Pre-primary block enjoys separate entry to segregate its functioning but is at the same time connected to the rest of the school


Cons • Alternative education strategies not explored fully • Axis not evident in front elevation • Hostel block too segregated • Disconnect of dining hall • Orientation of football field wasting space • Congregational spaces such as gymnasium and auditorium lack fire-safety

7.1 Site Plan 7.1 | Design development 1

7.2 Physical model School FOR alternative education 102

Design development 2 Objectives


In order to create common spaces usable by a number of classroom each school block spread around • School blocks created in clusters with common double height common spaces ensuring ample light and visual connect between classrooms and spaces being shared vertically through double these common spaces. While the pre-primary block spills out into green spaces the primary block spill height spaces and extended verandas provide out into creative work verandas. creative working spaces. • Interconnectivity and bond between different learning communities strengthened. • Compromise in orientation of football field N opens large amount of locked land. • Centrally placed OAT acts as unifying body between various school blocks.

Cons • Weak act of entry to school due to adjacent auditorium • Circulation not working out, with interconnectivity between swimming pool and hostel block not clear • Open spaces too loosely placed

7.3 Site Plan 7.2 | Design development 2

7.4 Physical model School FOR alternative education 103

Design development 3 Objectives


The design aims to segregate academic, sports and residential functions while creating a closely knit, • Each school block is created like learning academic block with each learning community being in dialogue with the other through spill-outs community with centrally placed common and common spaces. The OAT is used as the central unifying body that brings all these communities spaces on subsequent floors. together through interaction. The vehicular circulation is resolved. • Segregation of large span sports and audi block achieved with parking below. N • Movement system rationalised with primary circulation running through the middle of the academic and sports block and secondary circulation flowing through school blocks • Connected outdoor greens spaces provide space for schools to spill out.

Cons • Hostel and faculty block not in synergy with rest of the buildings due to wrong orientation • Act of entry could be further strengthened • Weak act of entry to pre-primary block • Lacks covered circulation from school entry till classroom.

7.5 Site Plan 7.3 | Design development 3

7.6 Academic block- Physical model School FOR alternative education 104

7.7 Section 7.10 Physical model

7.8 Primary block elevation












7.11 3-dimensional model CR
















7.9 Second floor plan 7.3 | Design development 3

7.12 Basement plan School FOR alternative education 105

Design outcome 8

Site plan

8.1 | Site planning

School FOR alternative education 108

8.1 | Site planning

Roof Plan

School FOR alternative education 109

Movement Systems

8.1 | Site planning

School FOR alternative education 110

8.2 | Academic block

Incorporating philosophies

School FOR alternative education 111

Academic Block- GFP

8.2 | Academic block

School FOR alternative education 112

8.2 | Academic block

Academic Block- FFP

School FOR alternative education 113

Academic Block- SFP

8.2 | Academic block

School FOR alternative education 114





To incorporate non-traditional and experimental pedagogical approaches flexibility is embedded through each design decision. PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL


Washbasins are provided in all classrooms to aid with any type of handwork employed for teaching. Seating layouts The common spaces could be divided using temporary partitions to create presentation, display, project work or interaction spaces. Each classroom is aligned with shorter edge outside to be able to be combined with an adjacent one to create a lecture hall or combined learning spaces.

8.2 | Academic block


Incorporating pedagogies

School FOR alternative education 115

Recreational Block- GFP

8.3 | Recreational block

School FOR alternative education 116

8.3 | Recreational block

Recreational Block- FFP

School FOR alternative education 117


8.4 | Sections and elevations

School FOR alternative education 118

8.4 | Sections and elevations


School FOR alternative education 119

Orientation and Wind Movement: The massing of the academic block has been done to maximize on the north-south facade to achieve glare-less light without compromising of the view to the outside. Openings have been given in site planning towards the west and north west side of the building to promote wind flow through activity areas of the site.

Shaded activity spaces: In order to create a comfortable outdoor environment for the school to spillout onto for outdoor classes, project work or skits, the activity spaces are shaded with fabric roofing supported on a metal pergola. Trees and water bodies are scattered in this space to create a micro-environment. Wind flow through these spaces would keeps it comfortable.

Light shelves on south faces:

Technology- Climate

8.5 | Technology component

Light shelves have been provided to the south faces of the building to ensure light penetration. School FOR alternative education 120

8.5 | Technology component

Technology- Structure

School FOR alternative education 121

Technology- Plumbing and Drainage

8.5 | Technology component

School FOR alternative education 122

8.6 | Views

Site model (Massing)

School FOR alternative education 123

Residential block (Massing)

8.6 | Views

School FOR alternative education 124

8.6 | Views

Academic block model (Detailed)

School FOR alternative education 125

Academic block model (Detailed)

8.6 | Views

School FOR alternative education 126

8.6 | Views

View from the road

School FOR alternative education 127

Outdoor activity areas

8.6 | Views

School FOR alternative education 128

8.6 | Views

Outdoor activity areas

School FOR alternative education 129

Central O.A.T

8.6 | Views

School FOR alternative education 130

Jury comments The jury response was overall positive. They liked the author’s understanding and interpretation of alternative education philosophies into architecture. Majority of the discussion revolved around nontraditional pedagogical approaches that such schools have and how the project tries to provide for them through the design of common spaces. The design of outdoor learning environments keeping the comfort of children in mind was well appreciated. There were certain doubts regarding parking needs of the school which was clarified as it is required for the auditorium, staff and residential facilities.

8.1 Physical model 8.7 | Jury comments

8.2 Stills from the external jury School FOR alternative education 131

Bibliography 9

Bibliography Books: Aron, L. (2009). Making Schools Different: Alternative Schooling in the USA. New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. CBSE Affiliation Laws Dudek, Mark (2000), Architecture of schools: The new learning environments, Abingdon, Architectural press Edwards, Carolyn Pope (Spring 2002). “Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia”. Early Childhood Research & Practice 4 Jolley, C., (2010), Waldorf Architecture: A Pedagogy’s Relation to Design, Cincinnati, University of Cincinnati press Nair, P., Fielding, R., & Lackney, J. (2005). The language of school design: Design patterns for 21st century schools (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: DesignShare. Accessed at on May 1, 2005. Neufert’s Handbook Oberman, I.(1997) “Waldorf History: Case Study of Institutional Memory”, Paper presented to Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, 24–28 March 1997, published US Department of Education – Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Jain, A.K (1998), School Buildings: Planning, Design and Management, Management publishing company Space guidelines for Planning Educational Facilities Taplin, Jill Tina (2010). “Steiner Waldorf Early Childhood Education: Offering a Curriculum for the 21st Century”. In Linda Miller, Linda Pound. Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years. SAGE Publications. p. 92. Vittachi, Sarojini, & Raghavan, Neeraja. (2007).Alternative Schooling in India.New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

9.1 | Books

School FOR alternative education 134

Articles: Beri, S. (2000) A Space for Learning: An Architect’s Vision, Journal of the Krishnamurthi schools(Issue 4), Available from: Carlgren, Frans. Education Towards Freedom. Edinburgh: Floris, 2008. Print. Edmunds, Francis. Introduction to Steiner Education: The Waldorf School. New York: Rudolf Steiner, 2004. Print. Fisher, Kenn, (2005) Linking pedagogy and space, Department of education and training, Victoria Hollander, S.(2013) Schoolhouse Architecture Gets Hip: Recently Opened Schools Reflect Changes in Design, The wall street journal, Available from: http:// Jack Petrash, Understanding Waldorf Education: Teaching from the Inside Out (New York: Gryphon House, 2002) Lyons, Nick. Educating as an Art: Essays on Waldorf education. Ed. Carol A. Bartges. New York: Rudolf Steiner School, 2003. Print. Kumar D. (2000) Learning in Mixed Age Groups: How We Made the Transition, Journal of the Krishnamurthi schools(Issue 4), Available from: http://journal. Planning and design for outdoor sport and play. (2008). [London]: Fields in Trust. Rivers, Karen Lee. Waldorf Education: A Family Guide. Ed. Pameal J. Fenner. Michaelmas, 1999. Print. Rotraut Walden, Schools for the Future: Design Proposals from Architectural Psychology (Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe, 2009) Woodward, W. (2003) Culture of tests ‘stifling’ joy of learning. [Online] Opinionator, The Guardian. Available from: apr/17/politics.schools [Accessed: 31 Jan 2016].

9.2 | Articles

School FOR alternative education 135

Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid. -Albert Einstein

Profile for Sahil Gupta

School for Alternative Education, A Waldorf School in Delhi NCR  

An architectural design thesis researching on the architecture of alternative education schools and culminating in an architectural design p...

School for Alternative Education, A Waldorf School in Delhi NCR  

An architectural design thesis researching on the architecture of alternative education schools and culminating in an architectural design p...


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