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Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Utilizes various tactics or control methods (i.e. cultural/mechanical, biological or bio-control, and chemical) in a harmonious and compatible way. • Emphasizes management of pest population rather than the old concept of total eradication. • Keeping pest population low (below Economic Threshold Level).


Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Cultural/Mechanical • Sanitation • Synchronized Planting • • • • •

Crop Rotation Fallowing Use of Resistant Varieties Minimum Tillage Proper Fertilization (eg. Nitrogen)

Biological / Bio-control • Knowing the Natural Enemies of the pest • Diadegma and Cotesia for cabbage DBM control • Spiders, Beetles • Trichogramma • Bacillus spp.

Chemical • Need – based approach in the use of pesticides • High risk pests include Diamond Back Moth, Hoppers (BPH, MLH), Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer, Thrips • Continuous use of pesticides of same of mode of action (MoA) leads to development of resistance • Role of Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM)


Why didn’t it work this time?


Benefits of IRM to FARMERS 1. Insecticides FARMERS use today remain EFFECTIVE for their use. 2. FARMERS Save Money No need to increase number or volume of insecticide applications. No need for “cocktail” to control a single pest. 3. FARMERS Get More Production Good pest management / good crop protection / better income. 4. FARMERS Protect their Environment and Land Less active ingredient applied to ecosystem.


How Insecticide Resistance Develops Insecticide Resistance occurs from the continuous use of

insecticides with the same mode of action (MoA) resulting in the selection (ang natitira) of insect populations that are resistant (hindi na tinatablan) to those insecticides.


Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA) A specific Mode of Action will target a specific part/ function of an insect Feeding

Nerve

+ + +

Respiration

Growth / Development/ Molting

+ Excretory

Digestive + Reproduction

+

+

+

Energy/ Muscle


How Insecticide Resistance Develops in a Farm Susceptible

Brand X

Resistant

Same Product / Active Ingredient / MoA

Survivors Reproduce

Survivors Reproduce

Continuous use of the same Mode of Action (MoA) removes the very susceptible individuals leaving a tolerant population that survives the insecticide application.


To Avoid Development of Insecticide Resistance 1. Incorporate IPM practices 2. Follow GAP Principles 3. Know the mode of action (MoA) of insecticide products / brands 4. Rotate Insecticide MoA group / NOT Active Ingredient (AI) / NOT brands


1. Incorporate IPM practices when using chemical insecticides

 Identify the Pest  Monitor Pest populations  Use the right , registered insecticides, only when needed

 Use only recommended label dose when using chemical insecticides

 Seek expert advise (e.g. Extension workers, industry)


2. Follow Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) Principles USE RECOMMENDED DOSE

Under Dose: Kills most Susceptible but many RS and RR survive

Label Dosage: Optimal Control Small number of RR survive

X X Increasing Dosage

Under Dose

X X

X X X X LABEL DOSE!


3. Know your Pesticide MoA Registered and Commonly Used Pesticides in Vegetables in the Philippines: Chemical Class and MoA MoA Group

Chemical Subgroup

Active ingredient

1

Organophosphates

Profenophos, malathion

2B

Phenyl Pyrazole

Fipronil

3A

Pyrethroids

Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin, Fenvalerate, Esfenvalerate, Betacypermethrin, alphacypermethrin

4

Neonicotinoids

Thiometoxam, Chlotianidin, Imidacloprid

5

Spinosyns

Spinosad

6

Avermectins

Abamectin

11

Bacillus

Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt)

12

Diafenthiuron

Diafenthiuron

13

Chlorfenapyr

Chlorfenapyr

14

Nereistoxin analogues

Cartap

22A

Indoxacarb

Indoxacarb

28

Diamides

Flubendiamide, chlorantraniliprole

*A handout on specific insecticide BRANDS and their Mode of Action (MoA) is available from the presenter.


4. Rotate by Mode of Action (MoA)

Nursery - Transplanting

Leafy Stage

1st Generation

Head Forming

2nd Generation

Harvest

3rd Generation

Diamond Back Moth Insecticide Application Not recommended

MoA 1

Option 1

MoA 1

MoA 2

MoA 3

Option 2

MoA 1

MoA 2

MoA 1


4. Rotate by Mode of Action (MoA)

Do’s and Don’t’s  Do not use a single MoA continuously.  You may use products of the same MoA within the same insect generation.  Use only recommended label dose. Do not under dose.  Apply a product with a different MoA for each successive insect pest generation.  Do not expose more than 50% of the crop duration to products with the same MoA.


Proposed Insecticide MoA Icon on the Label Product Name

MoA 28


Insecticide Resistance Management ( IRM) Strategy Strategy

Cabbage

Eggplant

Rice

Use of resistant varieties Use of natural enemies/ Bio-Control Crop Hygiene / Cultural Practice

*

Rotation by Mode of Action (MoA)

*Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV), only for cutworms


Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) Strategy in Cabbage To ensure susceptible DBM population

Nursery - Transplanting

Leafy Stage

1st Generation

Head Forming

Harvest

2nd Generation

3rd Generation

Diamond Back Moth Insecticide Application (Need – Based) Option 1

MoA 1

MoA 2

MoA 3

Option 2

MoA 1

MoA 2

MoA 1


Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) Strategy in Eggplant To ensure susceptible Fruit Borer population

Fruiting

Nursery – Transplanting 7

14

21

Vegetative 28

35

42

49

Flowering 56

63

1st Generation

70

77

84

91

2nd Generation

98

105 112 119 126 133 140 147 154 161 168 175

3rd Generation

4th Generation

5th Generation

Fruit / Shoot Borer Insecticide Application (Need – Based) Option 1

MoA 1

MoA 2

MoA 3

MoA 4

MoA 5

Option 2

MoA 1

MoA 2

MoA 1

MoA 2

MoA 1


Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) Strategy in Rice

Seedling 0

5

10

Leaf Development 15

20

25

30

35

Tillering 40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

Ripening

Flowering

Stem Elongation - Booting 90

95

100

105

110

115

1st Generation

2nd Generation

3rd Generation

Stemborer

35 Days

35 Days

35 Days

Brown Plant Hopper

32 Days

32 Days

32 Days

Green Leaf Hopper

30 Days

Insecticide Application (Need – Based) Option 1

MoA 1

MoA 2

MoA 3

Option 2

MoA 1

MoA 2

MoA 1

120


To Avoid Development of Insecticide Resistance 1. Incorporate IPM practices 2. Follow GAP Principles 3. Know the mode of action (MoA) of insecticide products / brands 4. Rotate Insecticide MoA group / NOT Active Ingredient (AI) / NOT brands


Maraming salamat po. Daghang salamat. Dios ti agngina. Dios mabalos. Thank you.

Insecticide Resistance Action Committee

IRM in Rice and Vegetables flipchart  

Insecticide Resistance Management in Rice and Vegetables