TORONTO Canada Green Building Council
ISSUE 19, SUMMER 2020, Greater Toronto Chapter, CaGBC Regional Publication /
MAGNA HALL AT SENECA COLLEGEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S KING CAMPUS High performer designed as a haven for students
MNRF Fire Management Guelph Deep Energy Retrofit Headquarters - LEED Gold facility Sensitive renovation bridges relies on passive systems gap between energy-efficient Seneca College King Campus Magna Hall construction and affordability High performer designed as a haven for students
Taking Action - Why we need to design and build with carbon in mind
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Sponsored by LiveRoof Ontario
Eglinton Maintenance and Storage Facility
Photos courtesy Gingko Sustainability.
LiveRoof Ontario vegetated roof delivers long-term performance and natural beauty
LiveRoof Ontario services a significant portion of the vegetated roof market in Ontario - including the noteworthy podium of the Toronto City Hall, and the Bridgepoint Hospital, both winners of the prestigious Governor General’s Medal for Architecture.
The new Eglinton Maintenance and Storage Facility (EMSF) in Toronto is designed to service the Eglinton Crosstown LRT. Built by Crosslinx Transit Solutions-Constructors (CTSC) for the regional transportation agency Metrolinx, the EMSF consists of four buildings: the Vehicle Cleaning & Inspection facility (VCIF), the Vehicle Cleaning Staff building, the Maintenance building, and the Operations Company (OPSCO).
The LiveRoof system’s modules hold the growing medium and plant material. The modules come in four depths: 2-1/2”, 4-1/4”, 6’ and 8”. The 4-1/4” module was used on the EMSF and is often the preferred product since it has adequate depth to absorb rainwater and reduce storm water runoff while not adding too much dead load to the roof.
The EMSF has a pre-engineered steel structure with a lowslope roof covered by an 80mil TPO roofing membrane. Design of the EMSF roof is important from sustainability and aesthetic perspectives. The roof represents an opportunity to reduce the building’s heat island effect, through a combination of a vegetated roof and lighter-coloured roofing materials. The plant material for the vegetated roof areas was selected to provide year-round colour, texture and seasonal variation. Gingko Sustainability installed the vegetated roof which was supplied by LiveRoof Ontario. The vegetated roof covers 75% or 150,000sf of the total roof area, making it the largest installation in Ontario.
In consultation with landscape architects at Crosslinx Transit Solutions-Design (CTSD), modules were provided with two mixes of sedums, each containing up to 15 varieties: an all-yellow flowering mix, and a red and white flowering mix. These were grown in LiveRoof Ontario’s outdoor nursery and transported ready-to-install at the job site. During installation a plastic soil elevator sleeve is removed from each module so that the plant material grows together as one monolithic green roof. Even so, the system does not lose its flexibility as modules can be shifted to accommodate new services such as plumbing stacks, or completely removed and transported to another roof.
Introduced in 2006, the LiveRoof Hybrid vegetated roof system meets the contractor’s need for ease of installation and the building owner’s need for reliable, long-term performance.
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Side view of the LiveRoof 4-1/4” module in a typical installation 1 LiveRoof Module 2 Moisture Portals™ 3 LiveRoof Engineered Soil 4 LiveRoof Green Roof Plants (Minimum 95% Soil Coverage at Installation) 5 Root Barrier 6 Waterproofing Membrane 7 Cover Board 8 Insulation 9 Roof Deck [Items 5 to 9 provided by others.]
See more projects and technical information at: http://www.liveroofontario.ca and https://liveroof.com
WELCOME TO TORONTO FOCUS
We are pleased to share with you this nineteenth Toronto FOCUS supplement produced in partnership with SABMag.
The Canada Green Building Council announced the launch of Version 2 of the Zero Carbon Building Standard this past March with expanded scope and flexibility to target greenhouse gas emission reductions more holistically. When we first launched the Zero Carbon Program, it was a first-of-its-kind in measuring and validating buildings as carbon neutral from operations. Version 2 builds off that groundbreaking success to capture emissions from the whole lifecycle of a building including upfront, embodied emissions. In this issue of Toronto Focus we are going to explore this issue of embodied carbon and what the industry is doing to tackle it. As always, the Toronto region and CaGBC members are showcasing tremendous leadership in this area and we are proud to highlight their innovative work.
Jeff Ranson GTA Regional Director Canada Green Building Council
Message from the Greater Toronto Chapter of the CaGBC Summer is here and the Greater Toronto Chapter would love to see you at an upcoming online workshop! We are pleased to be hosting a series of FREE online workshops on how to report to Ontarioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Energy and Water Reporting and Benchmarking regulation using ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager. Building owners and property managers who are unfamiliar with this regulation are highly encouraged to attend. The deadline for data submission in Ontario is October 1st. These workshops are generously being funded by The Atmospheric Fund.
On top of this the CaGBC is hosting online and interactive versions of our normal in-person workshops, such as the LEED Green Associate Exam Kickstarter, Intro to the WELL Building Standard, and the Zero Carbon Building Standard Workshop. Stay tuned to cagbctoronto.org for more details.
Take care and stay safe,
Jim Lord Founding Principal, Ecovert Sustainability Consultants Chair, CaGBC - Greater Toronto Chapter
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Savings by Design | Affordable Housing
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Start with free design assistance, then earn incentives up to $120,000* per project
Why build sustainably? Decrease greenhouse gas emissions Reduce energy consumption
No cost Integrated design process workshop
$7,500 Technical assistance incentive
In this day-long workshop, your team will strategize with energy modellers and sustainable design experts to maximize your buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy and environmental performance.
The technical assistance incentive is provided to offset any consulting fees incurred to bring your design team to the workshop.
Lower operating costs Enhance comfort for residents
Peterborough Housing Corporationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s McRae Project 60,498 kg CO2 GHG reduction
$120,000 Energy performance incentive
Based on the energy performance of the building on completion, you could be eligible to receive financial incentives for each unit, up to $120,000 per project.
$28,766 cumulative annual energy cost savings 24.4% better energy performance than Ontario Building Code
savingsbydesign.ca ÂŠ 2020 Enbridge Gas Inc. All rights reserved. * Home must be located in the former Enbridge Gas Distribution Inc. franchise area. HST is not applicable and will not be added to incentive payments. Visit website for details.
See a digital version of Greater Toronto Chapter FOCUS at http://www.cagbctoronto.org/communications/chapter-publications
In this Issue
Professional Development & Events
MNRF Fire Management Headquarters - LEED Gold facility relies on passive systems
Guelph Deep Energy Retrofit - Sensitive renovation bridges gap between energy-efficient construction and affordability
Seneca College King Campus - Magna Hall High performer designed as a haven for students
Editor: Paul Erlichman, Greater Toronto Chapter of the Canada Green Building Council (CaGBC-GTC) A joint publishing project of the CaGBC-GTC and SABMag. Address all inquiries to Don Griffith: email@example.com Published by Janam Publications Inc. | www.sabmagazine.com | www.janam.net
Taking Action - Why We Need to Design & Build With Carbon in Mind
Turning our Attention to Embodied Carbon in both New and Existing Buildings
CaGBCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s updated Zero Carbon Building Standard fast-tracks carbon reductions by balancing rigour and flexibility
Printed on Domtar Husky Opaque text offset paper.
Cover: Seneca College King Campus Magna Hall. Montgomery Sisam Architects and Maclennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects in Joint Venture.
Upcoming Events + Workshops THE CANADA GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL – GREATER TORONTO CHAPTER (CaGBC-GTC) seeks to connect all of the GTA’s green building leaders and supporters by providing all of the latest information you need to stay at the forefront of the green building industry. Upcoming offerings are described below.
ZERO CARBON BUILDING STANDARD WORKSHOP – ONLINE (HALF-DAY) – August 20; Register at cagbctoronto.org This half-day workshop will introduce you to zero carbon buildings, with particular emphasis on the CaGBC’s Zero Carbon Building (ZCB) Standard. Participants will be equipped with important foundational knowledge, as well as an understanding of how the ZCB Standard could potentially be used for their current or future projects. USING ENERGY STAR PORTFOLIO MANAGER FOR ONTARIO’S EWRB REGULATION – ONLINE (HALF-DAY) – August 5 & September 2; Register at cagbctoronto.org Get ready to roll up your sleeves and dive into this handson, participation-focused workshop on how to report to Ontario’s Energy and Water Reporting and Benchmarking regulation using ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager. This workshop is structured to provide participants step by step guidance on how to comply with the Ministry of Energy’s (MOE) energy and water reporting requirements. The guidance provided will range from understanding which buildings need to report, all the way through how to use ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager to generate the required submission to the MOE. This workshop will include guided examples of how to report for a range of building types, including office, retail, high-rise residential and industrial.
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BUILDING LASTING CHANGE 2020 – ONLINE Five weekly half-day virtual events starting September 22; Register at cagbc.org/blc2020 Canada faces an unprecedented challenge – but also an unprecedented opportunity. We have reached a pivotal point where the transition toward a low-carbon economy must happen. At the same time, we face the social and economic fallout of a global pandemic. Green building offers the most actionable solutions and can reignite the economy by creating skilled jobs and increasing innovation while reducing carbon emissions and enhancing Canadians’ quality of life. In this critical decade, Canada must take urgent and sustained action to achieve its climate change commitments. Success will require accelerating and scaling up our collective impact across the entire building sector to provide healthier, low-carbon, and resilient places to work, live, and learn. Building Lasting Change 2020 (BLC) offers five halfdays of forward-thinking solutions, practical ideas, and education. Join us for real-time, online interactions with the leaders, change-makers, investors, and innovators of Canada’s burgeoning green building marketplace.
LOOKING FOR THE BEST WAY TO GAIN CE HOURS AND GREEN BUILDING KNOW-HOW? CHOOSE CAGBC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; GREATER TORONTO CHAPTER All of our workshops are stringently peer-reviewed by GBCI for high relevance, quality and rigor, and have been deemed as guaranteed for CE hours by GBCI. We also offer a number of different webinars to share local green building knowledge and best practices.
TO LEARN MORE ABOUT ANY OF THESE INITIATIVES AND TO REGISTER FOR WORKSHOPS + EVENTS, VISIT OUR WEBSITE
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Visit the SABMag website, a great resource on high-performance building. And while you’re there, sign up to receive the monthly SABMag newsletter. https://sabmagazine.com/newsletter/
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Guelph Deep Energy Retrofit Sensitive renovation bridges gap between energy-efficient construction and affordability
By Christine Lolley
Three principles guided the design:
The vision of a car-free and sustainable lifestyle led the owners to an empty home in Guelph for its charm, walkability, and easy rail-link to Toronto. Originally, they assumed they would build new, but later realized that renovating was the best way to keep costs and environmental impact low. Previously province-owned council housing, the century-old bungalow was unused for years and is now one of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most efficient homes.
1) Restore the original (smaller) building footprint; 2) Preserve the exterior character of the home; and 3) Create a highly energy-efficient, low-impact building envelope.
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1. The owners wanted to keep things simple, preserve the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s original shape and character, and conserve materials and costs. 2. View from the kitchen/dining area back to the front door, and past the half-wall separation of the basement stair. Typically considered inefficient, baseboard heating in this case was low-cost to install, and very efficient thanks to the extremely efficient building envelope. All interior doors supplied by Masonite Architectural.
A key decision for this project was to create such an efficient, air-tight envelope that non-renewable resources werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t a necessity. The homeowners wanted to keep both construction and operating costs low, so active systems are solely electric. The design implements passive solar techniques to maximize daylighting, passive heat gain, and passive cooling. This is especially evident in the Great Roomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new larger southern windows and rear French doors. 100% of the floor space is within seven metres of a window, and there are at least two windows in every room.
To promote natural ventilation, all windows are operable with tilt and turn capability. During inclement weather, an efficient Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV) provides mechanical ventilation. The floor plan corresponds with the flow of use, creating an effortless living environment. Lots of natural light and a centrally-located common area create serenity and intimacy. The basement was underpinned to allow for higher ceilings, and to accommodate a comfortable guest bedroom and full bathroom. The kitchen cabinetry is made with low-VOC and nontoxic materials. Constructed largely of high-quality materials that were easily accessible and found in Guelph, the house is built to last for decades.
Basement, renovated Main Floor, pre-renovation
Main Floor, renovated
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Vapour open (VO) waterproofing membrane under strapping New steel roofing on 2x4 wd strapping New plywood sheathing 1/2” plywood baffle for closed cell spray-applied polyurethane foam (CCSAP) Prefin drip edge lap waterproofing membrane over flashing
New alum. fascia, soffit, and gutter Ex brick and pier wall w new interior furring - Ex brick and pier wall - Drainage membrane to back of single wythe brick - 2x4 wd stud @ 24 o.c. - 4” gap from outer wythe of brick pier - 6” ccsap (avb)to back of brick wall - 1/2” gwb, ptd
Ex ceiling structure repair as req’d
(R60) new steel roof w existing rafters & new insulation - New sheet steel roofing, 26 gauge - New 2x4 wd strapping @ 24” o.c. fastened into ex rafters - VO waterproofing membrane blueskin vp160 - Sheathing, repair where req’d - Ex wd rafters repaired where req’d - 10” ccsap sprayed to underside new sheathing (avb) - Ex wd ceiling josits sistered w new - New 1/2” resillient channel - New 1/2” gwb, ptd
Drainage membrane to overlap vo p+s Cut back ex floor structure and replace Lap up walls and over ex perimeter floor joists (typ.) Retention bar (or sim) to above grade (typ.) Existing or new foundation with new interior furring - Ex rubble foundation wall & new conc foundation wall - Drainage membrane 2x4 wd stud @ 16” - 7” gap from rubble wall or 1” gap from new conc foundation - 6” ccsap (avb) to back of rubble or new conc wall - 1/2” gwb
Floor finish - New 3/8” sheathing - Ex 1-1/4” floor structure repaired where req’d - New 1/2” resilient channel - New 1/2” gwb 6” CCSAP @ joist ends (typ)
Typical wall section The structure of the house is called “Brick and Pier”, an old style of construction typical to Guelph. It comprises one wythe of brick with a double-wythe pier at 4 ft. intervals. The brick on the interior was furred with 2x4 framing offset from the piers by 1”, then spray foam insulation was applied to the inside face of the brick, behind and between the studs. The ceiling joists were replaced because partition walls were moved on the main floor. The roof rafters were left intact with spray foam applied to the underside of the roof sheathing. 12
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PROJECT CREDITS Architect: Solares Architecture Inc Structural Engineer: Moses Structural Engineer Mechanical Engineer: ReNu Building Science General Contractor: Evolve Builders Group Photos: Derek Monson
PROJECT PERFORMANCE EnerGuide Rating: 82 Walk Score: 72 Air Tightness: 1.3ACH@50pa
3. Age-in-place considerations were incorporated by placing all of the living spaces on the ground floor, with a compact design that maintains the feeling of openness.
The sloped steel roofing guides rainwater to the two rear corners of the house, allowing for grey-water collection and irrigation systems to be installed with ease in the future when budget allows. Steel roofing material was chosen because it collects much less aggregate than conventional roof shingles, which keeps collected rainwater as pure as possible. All shower heads, faucets, and plumbing systems are low-flow units.
The ability of Evolve Builders to generate precisely accurate cost models for each architectural iteration or energy model proposition disproved its own anecdotal sense that an air source heat pump (ASHP) would have a better payback over a 25-year term than electric baseboard heaters. An ASHP would have a better carbon outcome but the baseboards, each with individual room thermostat control, reduced construction and operating cost, and eliminated fossil fuel use. Evolve’s accurate costing for both scenarios permitted the owners to make decisions that were right for them.
The structure is conventional stick framing, with six inches of Insulthane spray foam insulation in the walls. The Insulthane product by Elastochem has an ultra-low global warming potential of 1.0, nearly unheard of in spray foam products. The highly insulated home has R-values of R35 in the walls, R20 in the basement slab, and R60 in the roof.
Air conditioning is provided by a highly efficient Fujitsu air source heat pump, made affordable by the former GreenON rebate program. The equipment complements the home’s passive solar design and natural ventilation, keeping the house cool on the hottest summer days.
Air-tightness was achieved by performing multiple blower door tests throughout the construction process so that all air leaks were found and sealed before drywall installation. The final test revealed an air change rate of only 1.3ACH@50pa. Baseboard heating, though unconventional in a sustainable home, was the most effective choice for this project given that the efficient, air-tight building envelope drastically minimizes energy loss.
Energy consumption data for 2017, 2018 and 2019 of 12,822 kWh, 13,362 kWh and 11,216 kWh per year, respectively, shows that the house uses only half the energy of the average Ontario household. Described as the city’s most energy efficient home, the Guelph Deep Energy Retrofit is garnering attention for its success at bridging the perceived gap between energy-efficient home construction and affordability.
Christine Lolley is a principal at Solares Architecture Inc. SUMMER 2020
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SUMMER 2020 Toronto FOCUS 872151_CBCSpeciaty.indd 1
2017-07-18 2:41 PM
KING CAMPUS MAGNA HALL
High performer designed as a haven for students By Daniel Ling The built form of the King Campus Expansion (Magna Hall) takes inspiration from the agricultural history and natural assets of the beautiful Oak Ridges Moraine on which it is sited. It is fundamentally about creating a destination in a rural setting where students benefit from a rich and varied collegial experience. The new Magna Hall is situated on a brownfield site and maintains appropriate set-backs to avoid ecologically sensitive land and wildlife habitat. A LEED-compliant Erosion and Sediment Control plan was developed and implemented by the Design-Builder to prevent loss of soil and sedimentation. A multipurpose pond consolidates fire water storage, stormwater management, and irrigation supply, and is part of a larger plan to minimize pollution and eutrophication of waterways from excess nutrient pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorus.
1. Recently certified LEED NC Gold, Magna Hall is projected to have a minimum 50-year lifespan. CBC Specialty Metals proudly supplied the installer, BothwellAccurate Co. Inc., with the Muntz Metal Wall Cladding Panels [left in the photo]. 2. The King Campus Expansion has a rural setting and is built on a former brownfield site. SUMMER 2020
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Despite its rural setting, the building aims for a 25% reduction in single-occupancy vehicle trips through the addition of 183 bicycle storage spaces, charging receptacles for 14 preferred parking spots, 23 carpool spaces, a new bus layout for improved access to public transportation, and two new vehicle drop-offs. LEED Gold certified and adhering to the Sustainable King Development Standard Checklist, the building features 25 new classrooms, computer labs, specialty healthcare training labs, a library, learning commons as well as new, multipurpose athletic and recreation areas. This rich and varied programming is complemented by a variety of informal gathering and study spaces. Flex-study and circulation spaces are located along the perimeter of the floorplate while program spaces are positioned internally to offer engaging views of the picturesque landscape and invite natural light deep into the building. Floor layouts locate stairways in a manner that encourages their preferred use which has reduced energy usage from building elevators. 3. Flex-study and circulation spaces are located along the perimeter. Exterior cladding consists of architectural aluminum and copper metal panel systems, masonry brick veneer and architectural concrete block. The roof uses the BURmasticÂŽ Roofing System by Tremco. 4. In partnership with Merit Glass, Alumicor supplied thermally-broken ThermaWall 2600 curtain wall with superior thermal performance, contributing to overall building envelope energy efficiency.
Site plan 4
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PROJECT CREDITS Architects: Montgomery Sisam Architects and Maclennan Jaunkalns 8
Miller Architects in Joint Venture
Structural Engineer: Entuitive Mechanical Engineer: Smith+Andersen Electrical Engineer: Mulvey & Banani
Civil Engineer: WalterFedy
LEED/Sustainability Consultant: 1
Morrison Hershfield Landscape Architect: NAK Design
Strategies General Contractor: EllisDon Photos: Shai Gil
As 16% of the King Campus population are students with disabilities, the principles of Universal Design were used to enhance the usability of the facility and create an environment that is welcoming to all.
The building durability plan ensures easy removal and replacement of materials, and systems over time. Enhanced commissioning procedures were stipulated and performed for all building systems.
Floor plans 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Event space Library Atrium / informal study Pub Student federation Cafe Athletic centre reception
8 9 10 11 12 13
Climbing wall Change room Gym Nursing labs Classrooms Informal study
Flexibility is achieved with a 12m structural grid running north-south incorporating 11.6m of column-free spacing for standardized classrooms and the ability to reorganize interior partitions for future pedagogical requirements. The layout also provides for a logical distribution of services and minimal interferences, like main runs of electrical and mechanical services occurring in the corridors, which supports ease of maintenance and future adaptations.
14 15 16 17 18 19
Group study rooms Fitness + multipurpose rooms Climbing wall Cardio Weight room Mechanical space
Magna Hall uses high-efficiency LED lighting with occupancy and daylighting controls throughout, supporting Seneca in its implementation and management of a Low-Mercury Lighting policy. Separate lighting control strategies are included in the design for individual and shared multioccupant spaces.
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3 2 1 13 4 1 15mm exterior-grade plywood 2 Rigid insulation 3 125mm c-channel parapet support 4 22 gauge metal liner panel 5 Peel + stick air/vapour barrier 6 150mm semi-rigid mineral wool insulation 7 10mm thick stiff plate 8 C-channel 130mm x 10mm 9 Outrigger 10 Mineral wool block roof deck infill 11 Metal deck
6 13 5
Mechanical ventilation meets ASHRAE 62.12007 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. The design allows for monitoring CO2 concentrations within all densely-occupied spaces, and direct outdoor airflow measurements for all other spaces. All mechanical equipment meets the Global Warming Potential and all the fire suppression systems are Halon-free. The provision of fresh air in changes per hour is 0.72 ACH (48,550 CFM outdoor air).
12 152mm wind-bearing metal stud 13 Continuous thermally-broken fibreglass green girt 14 Stainless steel sub-panel 15 Copper alloy flat-lock panel 13
16 Copper alloy flashing 17 Wood veneer panel 18 Prefinished aluminum curtain wall system 19 Aluminum flashing 20 Below slab air/vapour barrier
WATER AND ENERGY CONSERVATION Magna Hall uses a 98% efficient condensing boiler to serve its domestic hot water loads. The installation of low-flow and lowflush water has resulted in 38% water use savings relative to the LEED Baseline. Permanent water meters measure all potable water use for the entire building and associated grounds. Water for irrigation is drawn from the multipurpose pond.
5. Leisure and athletic facilities, such as the climbing wall, are integrated with academic spaces.
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The buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s layout promotes openness, interconnectivity and natural light in tandem with the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s systems design to achieve excellent indoor air quality and a pleasant indoor environment.
The reduction in energy intensity of 57% is achieved through: high-efficiency magnetic bearing variable speed chillers and condensing boilers; enthalpy wheel heat recovery on the 100% outdoor air units; demand control ventilation; variable speed drivers on all major fans and pumps; high-efficiency LED lighting fixtures noted earlier; and improved envelope thermal performance.
The building features an R-30 roof, R-27.4 exterior walls with all assemblies performing between effective R 21.5 – R 24.1, based on 6” semirigid insulation with thermally broken sub-framing on steel studs, and double pane, low-E coated, argon-filled glazing with thermally-broken aluminum framing and an effective system-wide thermal performance value of U=0.33 btu/h·ft2·°F The exterior cladding consists of architectural aluminum and copper metal panel systems, masonry brick veneer and architectural concrete block. The roofing system consists of conventional modified bitumen roof with white reflective granule topping on structural steel deck. These materials were selected for their compatibility with the surrounding buildings and for their proven durability and life cycle maintenance. 25% of building materials are recycled and 43% were extracted, processed and manufactured within the region. A Construction Waste Management Plan, including proper processes and documentation from the waste handler, was developed prior to demolition and enforced by the Design-Builder resulting in 75% of construction waste diverted from landfill. Upon completion, an easilyaccessible area for the collection and storage of materials for recycling was provided in accordance with LEED requirements.
Daniel Ling, B.Arch., OAA, Architect AIBC, MRAIC, AIA, LEED AP, NSAA is a Director and Principal at Montgomery Sisam Architects.
6. Flexibility is achieved with a 12m structural grid running north-south incorporating 11.6m of column-free spacing for standardized classrooms and the ability to reorganize interior partitions for future pedagogical requirements. 7. Entrances and internal streets connect to the main campus circulation system, while views within the building frame the landscape’s natural assets.
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MNRF FIRE MANAGEMENT HEADQUARTERS LEED Gold facility relies on passive systems By Jean Philippe Larocque Serving the northeast region of Ontario, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (MNRF) Fire Management Headquarters in Haliburton is a single-storey 1,750 square metre facility on a 3.14 hectare parcel of land at the Stanhope Airport. Certified LEED Gold, the energy-efficient building consolidates all of the northeastern Ontario staff, equipment and fire operations under one roof. With all of the forest fires in British Columbia in 2019 and the devastating fires in Australia, this project brings to light the importance of welldesigned emergency response facilities. Construction of the new facility, including the building, potable water well, geothermal field bed, underground rain water storage cistern, storm water management pond, septic system and field bed, parking areas and airside asphalt aircraft parking and taxi areas, necessitated a long, linear building footprint and the clearing of much of the site.
Off-grid site services were thoughtfully incorporated into the relatively small site footprint without compromising on the demanding operational needs of the MNRF and the stringent requirements of airport authorities. Excavated soils were stockpiled and reused wherever possible. Drought-tolerant native plants, sod and hydraulic seed mixes were selected in the best interest of rehabilitating the site to its natural state. Interior space planning of the building respects airside and groundside operations typical of airport facilities with administrative and training spaces generally separate from warehouse, storage and service-type spaces. 1. The proportions of the site necessitated a long, linear building footprint, carefully positioned between the geothermal field beds and parking areas to the north and the fixed wing aircraft and helicopter parking pads to the south. 20
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2. Generous roof overhangs on the east-west building orientation shelter the interior from the unwanted heating effects of the summer sun. Photo: Mike Willis of AerialBEST. 3. Sun pattern diagram demonstrating the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s solar passive gains.
5 6 4
A Main floor plan
1 Main entrance 2 Vestibule 3 Multipurpose room 4 Office 5 Corridor 6 Bathroom 7 Sector response breefing room
8 Central filing 9 Shower/washroom 10 Lockers 11 Change room 12 Crew laundry room 13 Boot drying area 14 Camp wash area
15 Crew laudry room 16 Crew recycling room 17 Mechanical room 18 Custodial 19 Electrical room 20 Server room 21 Equipment recycling room
22 Compressor room 23 Small parts storage 24 Dirty receiving/holding area 25 Rest area 26 Pilotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lounge 27 Kitchen 28 Crew alert room
29 Lunchroom 30 Training room 31 Dry storage 32 Walk-in fridge/freezer 33 Assembly area 34 Equipment warehouse
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North elevation PROJECT CREDITS Architects: Larocque Elder Architects, Architectes Inc Structural Engineer: WSP Group Electrical and Mechanical Engineer: JAIN Sustainability Consultants Inc. Civil Engineer: AECOM Commissioning agent: HRCx General Contractor: Quinan Construction Ltd Photos: Larocque Elder Architects, Architectes Inc
Office, administrative and training spaces capitalize on natural light, views to the exterior and solar heat gain in the winter months, with generous roof overhangs sheltering these spaces from the unwanted heating effects of the summer sun. Over 92% of regularly-occupied areas have clear views to the exterior. The building’s bright interior reduces the use of artificial lighting which is controlled by light and occupancy sensors. Non-emergency interior lighting input power is reduced by 50% through automatic controls between 11p.m. and 5a.m. daily, contributing to an overall lighting power density of only 7.05 W/m2 for the building.
4. Over 92% of regularly-occupied areas receive abundant natural light which reduces the use of artificial lighting. 5. A large, energy recovery ventilation unit in the central mechanical room introduces fresh air into the entire building. 6. Looking east, opposite to the view of photo 1.
Strong connections to the outdoors and abundant natural light increase human comfort. And, strict dust control measures, the use of only low-volatile organic compound (VOC) interior products, and an air quality ‘flush’ prior to occupation have ensured a healthy interior. 4
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Building section A
Building section E
Building section C
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A Green Housekeeping Policy demands environmentally-friendly cleaning methods and cleaning product requirements. A large, energy recovery ventilation (ERV) unit in the central mechanical room introduces fresh air into the entire building contributing to an overall building airflow rate of 1,761 L/S; exceeding the ASHRAE 62.12007 design standard by over 15%. Measures to reduce demand on the potable water well include low-flow water closets and shower heads, infrared sensor lavatories, and a highly engineered rainwater collection system which diverts water from the roof to an underground cistern where it is treated and used in the water closets. Potable water savings of 72% are projected (as compared to LEED 2009 baseline conditions), or up to 230,000 litres of water per year. Passive solar heat gain aided by an east-west building orientation, large roof overhangs and the incorporation of thermal mass, notably increase building performance and human comfort. A highly efficient geothermal ground source heat pump system of 12 - 400 ft deep wells provides the primary heating and cooling system, eliminating fossil fuel dependency.
The mechanical system design incorporates numerous heating and cooling zones allowing for maximum temperature control relative to building occupancy which peaks during the summer fire-fighting season. All of the above cuts energy consumption to 189 KWhr/m2/ year, representing a reduction in energy intensity of 53% compared to the Model National Energy Code for Buildings (MNECB 1997). The structural steel frame and load-bearing concrete block masonry infill, along with durable wood, metal and aluminum exterior cladding and a reflective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) roof, meet the demanding climatic and seismic conditions of the region. Over 50% of the materials used were sourced from within an 800km radius of the site, and 92% of all construction waste materials were diverted from landfill.
Jean Philippe Larocque Architect OAA, OAQ, MRAIC, LEED AP BD+C is a principal at Larocque Elder Architects, Architectes Inc in North Bay.
7. The open roof canopy and rock garden at the main entrance. 8. The boardroom. The mechanical system incorporates numerous heating and cooling zones allowing for precise temperature control as occupancy changes during the year.
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Claude Bourbeau, Senior Partner, OAQ, OAA, MIRAC, LEED AP Provencher_Roy
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TAKING ACTION Why We Need to Design and Build With Carbon in Mind By Lisa Conway
In recent years, human-centered design and biophilic design have been key initiatives in commercial architecture. In the industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mission to consider both how individuals experience a space and the effect of materials within the space, a building's impact on climate change beyond operational energy became an afterthought in some cases. Today, the building sector is the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s single largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs), accounting for nearly 40% of total global GHG emissions according to the International Energy Agency. Experts say that carbon emissions from the built environment must peak within the next 15 years for Earth to stay below the global warming tipping point.
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Architects and designers in Canada and across the globe have an opportunity to help curb emissions in the built environment by specifying products that promote green chemistry, a circular economy and a healthier climate across the billions of square metres of new buildings and major renovations worldwide. Buildings produce two types of carbon emissions. The first is operational carbon, which is defined as the carbon dioxide emitted during the life of the building, such as the energy used for heating, cooling and lighting. The second is embodied carbon, which is the carbon dioxide emitted as building materials are manufactured, transported and constructed.
The Interface office in Toronto. Interface is working toward being a carbon negative company by 2040.
It’s crucial that we reduce both emission types, but reducing embodied or “upfront” carbon is the most urgent opportunity as it stands today. Knowing that, architecture and design firms have an immense opportunity to push climate change initiatives forward by proactively working to reduce embodied carbon. Through carbon-action organizations, such as materialsCAN, as well as careful research and strategic material specification, we can create spaces that produce measurable benefits backed by science. In fact, those specifying and manufacturing products for the built environment have the opportunity to create a positive impact on the planet and the health of society at large. Here are four strategies to keep in mind that reduce embodied carbon: • Reuse materials, material waste and buildings whenever possible to eliminate the need to create new materials and construction. The use of recycled content does more than simply divert waste materials from landfills. By replacing virgin materials with pre- and post-consumer recycled content, manufacturers can reduce energy consumption, GHG emissions and more. However, recycling isn’t only about what goes into products, but also what happens at end-of-life. In some cases, manufacturers will reclaim and recycle building materials through product take-back programs, so look for third-party verified programs to ensure products enter a closed loop system. • Understand high-impact materials from a carbon standpoint and pay attention to the embodied carbon of those materials, including concrete, steel, wood, glass, insulation, carpet and more. In fact, there are new resources available that compare the amount of embodied carbon emitted by each potential product, such as the Embodied Carbon in Construction Calculator (EC3) tool. The EC3 tool enables users to measure their project’s carbon footprint as well as compare and evaluate building materials that will help lower embodied carbon emissions.
• Look for transparency documentation, such as Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) and Health Product Declarations (HPDs), on the products and materials specified. Take note of recycled and bio-based content as this can point to reduced embodied carbon. Manufacturers should disclose this information about their processes, product contents and overall impacts on the environment and human health. However, it’s important to dig deeper and proactively ask manufacturers about their processes to better understand the strengths and weaknesses before specifying products. • Engage and educate suppliers, partners and other vendors about embodied carbon and ask for their current and future strategies to reduce their carbon footprint. While this might seem like a moonshot strategy, purposedriven results are not beyond reach. For example, Interface founder Ray Anderson committed to making the company one of the most environmentally sustainable and restorative brands in 1994 – despite the negative impact that the carpet manufacturing industry was known to have on the environment at the time. Today, Interface is working toward being a carbon negative company by 2040 by changing our relationship with carbon and using it as a resource and creating products and manufacturing processes that have a positive impact on the planet. There is immense power in smart specification decisions and understanding what is behind the materials that we use in built environments. Sourcing materials that limit or reduce carbon emissions is a vital step, and manufacturers and specifiers must take action to reverse global warming.
Lisa Conway, Vice President of Sustainability for the Americas, Interface. (www.buildingtransparency.org).
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TURNING OUR ATTENTION to embodied carbon in both new and existing buildings By Scott R Armstrong When I started in the green building industry, I recall a conversation with a developer that went something like this: (me) “What’s your construction waste diversion strategy?” (client) “BFI.” (citing a then-popular waste hauler). Driven by the climate imperative, our industry has changed: energy efficiency, energy use intensity, thermal energy demand, carbon emissions are now top of mind. And it’s through this same imperative that we are now realizing how important construction materials are to the overall carbon impact of new buildings. New buildings are perceived as being inherently more energy efficient and responsible for emitting less operational carbon than existing buildings. While this may be true in many cases, the past decade of operational efficiency gains has focused almost exclusively on the implementation of newer and more efficient mechanical solutions rather than enduring enclosure-first solutions or more integrated passive and active design strategies. Programs like Passive House, Toronto Green Standard, and the Zero Carbon Building Standard are changing this mentality – with requirements like TEDI designed to obligate attention to enclosure and ventilation load. This focus, though broader, potentially still does not fully account for the implications of embodied carbon. With a diminishing timeline for climate action, the 2020s must be the decade of action and assessing material choices using life-cycle emissions is vitally important. A report on global embodied carbon indicates that building materials account for 11% of carbon emissions in Canada1. Further, embodied carbon likely represents 50% of a code-compliant building’s total carbon emissions over a 30-year horizon2. Thus, selecting low embodied carbon materials today influences greatly a building’s emissions profile during this critical period. On a recent project, a thermally-efficient and air tight building enclosure with optimal passive heating and daylighting helped enable simpler, more efficient mechanical and electrical systems. Since these systems are not typically included in embodied carbon accounting, further study could focus on whether ‘bonus’ embodied carbon reductions are obtainable by using such systems. In some instances, a photovoltaic system could be sized such that it exports more energy than needed by the building, potentially achieving credit for reducing peak grid emissions.
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A recent project demonstrated that a focus on low embodied carbon versions of the insulating and structural materials reduced the upfront/embodied carbon to the point where it was possible to show a net positive performance over a 30-year timeline. The practical combination of integrated energy system design, renewable generation, and material selection allowed for a new kind of low-carbon performance optimization.
Existing Buildings Turning our attention to embodied carbon means that we cannot ignore the emissions represented by existing buildings. Cumulative emissions from global concrete production “from 1928 to 2016 were 39.3 ± 2.4 GtCO2, 66 % of which have occurred since 1990”3. In other words, buildings constructed in the past 20 to 30 years represent a significant contribution to CO2 emissions currently contributing to climate change. Toronto’s Tower Renewal project involves approximately 1,200 apartment buildings, 8-storeys or taller, housing approximately 500,000 people. These buildings typically comprise a concrete structure and a mix of concrete and/ or masonry cladding. The form (shape, height, and windowto-wall ratio) is well suited to deep energy retrofits, perhaps approaching EnerPhit-level performance. While retrofits represent additional embodied carbon (particularly from cladding replacement, insulation upgrades, or structural improvements), the use of low-embodied carbon or carbon-storing materials would limit the effect and lessen the life-cycle emission burden. Importantly, deep energy retrofits coupled with on-site renewable energy would significantly reduce ongoing operational carbon emissions with the potential to ‘pay back’ the new embodied carbon investment. Think about it: a climate positive building that is deleting its past contribution to the climate emergency!
Scott Armstrong is a Project Principal, Building Sciences at WSP. 1 Global Alliance for Buildings and Construction, 2019 Global Status Report for Buildings and Construction (Nairobi : UN Environment, 2019). 2 Opportunities for CO Capture and Storage in Buildings, Magwood, C. 2 October 2019. 3 Global CO2 emissions from cement production, Andrew, Robbie M., Published: 26 January 2018.
CaGBC’s updated Zero Carbon Building Standard fast-tracks carbon reductions by balancing rigour and flexibility By Mark Hutchinson In this critical decade for climate change, which calls for urgent and sustained action in order to achieve Canada’s carbon targets, zero carbon buildings represent the best opportunity for cost-effective emissions reductions. At the same time, investments in zero carbon buildings will generate opportunities for innovation and job creation. To take advantage of these opportunities and future-proof Canada’s cities and communities, industry and governments must adopt low-carbon strategies now. With the newly released Zero Carbon Building (ZCB) Standard v2, CaGBC is striking a balance between rigour and flexibility to help advance the goal of decarbonizing Canada’s built environment by 2050. Version 2 offers a more flexible approach to enable a greater number of buildings to reach zero carbon, while at the same time, it raises the bar on emission reductions and promotes innovation in design, building materials and technology. CaGBC launched the made-in-Canada ZCB Standard in 2017 to provide a path for both new and existing buildings to reach zero. Since then, more than 30 real-world projects have registered to pursue certification – either in design or in full operation – across a wide spectrum of building types, including schools, offices, multi-residential, commercial, and even industrial buildings. Eleven projects have already certified. Version 2 draws from the learnings of these projects as well as from consultations with building industry experts, government and academia, all of which demonstrated that the building industry is ready to raise the bar on expanded requirements for embodied carbon and energy efficiency. At the same time, the updated Standard aims to get more buildings to zero, faster, by providing more options for different design strategies and by recognizing high-quality carbon offsets when necessary.
What’s new in v2: Embodied carbon, new tools, more innovation The ZCB Standard provides two pathways for any type of building to get to zero carbon. ZCB-Design guides the design of new buildings, as well as the retrofit of existing structures, while ZCB-Performance provides a framework for verifying that buildings achieve zero carbon annually.
The updates introduced in ZCB Standard v2 focus on the following key components: Embodied carbon: Projects must now account for and offset carbon emissions across the entire project life-cycle, including those associated with the manufacture, use and even end of life of construction materials. Refrigerants: The Standard also tackles refrigerants like those used in heat pumps. While heat pumps are extremely efficient and run on electricity, the refrigerants in most heat pumps are “near-term climate forcers” – greenhouse gases that last a short time in the atmosphere but trap a lot of heat, helping accelerate the impact of climate change. ZCB Standard v2 encourages the implementation of best-management practices to minimize potential leaks, and any leaks that might occur must be offset. Energy efficiency: ZCB Standard v2 promotes the efficient use of clean energy sources with more stringent energy efficiency requirements. At the same time, the addition of energy efficiency options that recognize different design strategies ensures that all projects have a path to zero.
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Airtightness: ZCB Standard v2 also introduces a requirement for airtightness testing that is intended to drive improvements in the energy efficiency of the building envelope. Impact and innovation: ZCB-Design Standard v2 encourages new technologies and design approaches by requiring projects to demonstrate two impactful and innovative strategies to reduce carbon emissions. Applicants can propose their own strategies, providing broad flexibility while helping to build skills and develop markets for low-carbon products and services. Carbon offsets: ZCB Standard v2 allows for the purchase of high-quality carbon offsets, opening the door for more projects to achieve zero. New tools: To aid projects, the ZCB Standard v2 also introduces new tools and resources, including helpful reporting workbooks, an embodied carbon reporting template and a lifecycle cost calculator. The Standard also includes resources and case studies. A way to begin future-proofing cities and communities The updates in ZCB Standard v2 are designed to fast-track the decarbonization of Canada’s built environment, with a proven path forward for the building industry. Given the long lifespan of buildings, it’s critical that zero-carbon construction and renovation projects start today – Canada cannot wait if it hopes to meet its carbon targets. To learn more, visit cagbc.org/zerocarbon.
Mark Hutchinson is Vice President, Green Building Programs, Canada Green Building Council.
Scotia Plaza’s 40 King St. W. in Toronto is ZCB-Performance v2 certified. Photo: KingSett Capital.
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