TORONTO Canada Green Building Council
ISSUE 18, FALL 2019, Greater Toronto Chapter, CaGBC Regional Publication /
Joyce Centre for Partnership and Innovation at Mohawk College A learning tool for teachers and students
THE WATER ISSUE New Technologies in Water Metering Architecture for Integrated Stormwater Management The Problem With Salt: Making winters safer, but at what cost?
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WELCOME TO TORONTO FOCUS
We are pleased to share with you this eighteenth Toronto FOCUS supplement produced in partnership with SABMag.
Abundant clean, fresh water has always been a luxury for Ontario. But protecting our water is an increasingly important priority for the development industry.
We’re seeing continuously more rigorous regulations around stormwater quality and quantity control. Water utility rates are the fastest increasing utility cost in the Province. And critically, municipal water and sewage represents one the single largest uses of energy and sources of greenhouse gases. This month we’re proud to showcase local leaders in water innovation and preservation.
Jeff Ranson GTA Regional Director Canada Green Building Council
Message from the Greater Toronto Chapter of the CaGBC As the weather gets cooler the Greater Toronto Chapter has a busy season with a variety of programming for you. On November 7th at Arcadian Court in downtown Toronto we’ll be presenting the 10th anniversary edition of our Awards Night. As always, it’s a great opportunity for us to recognize and celebrate organizations and individuals that are pushing the green building industry forward throughout the province. A great variety of leaders in the green building industry will attend, and we hope you can join us.
We’re also excited to be hosting regional events later this fall in five locations: Kingston, Kitchener-Waterloo, Hamilton, London, and Sudbury. These events, sponsored by Enbridge Gas Inc., will serve as opportunities to congregate green building professionals in these cities to network and share ideas. Programming at some locations will include building tours, speakers, and panel discussions. I encourage you to visit cagbctoronto.org to learn more about these events, as well as upcoming training opportunities.
Jim Lord Founding Principal, Ecovert Sustainability Consultants Chair, CaGBC - Greater Toronto Chapter
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See a digital version of Greater Toronto Chapter FOCUS at http://www.cagbctoronto.org/communications/chapter-publications
In this Issue FALL 2019
Professional Development & Events
The Problem With Salt: Making winters safer, but at what cost?
Joyce Centre for Partnership and Innovation: Mohawk College - A learning tool for teachers and students
Water in the WELL Building Standard
Putting the Water Inside The Well
New Technologies in Water Metering
Architecture for Integrated Stormwater Management The Amit Chakma Engineering Building Pivotal project brings big cuts in water and energy use
Printed on Domtar Husky Opaque text offset paper.
Editor: Paul Erlichman, Greater Toronto Chapter of the Canada Green Building Council (CaGBC-GTC) A joint publishing project of the CaGBC-GTC and SABMag. Address all inquiries to Don Griffith: email@example.com Published by Janam Publications Inc. | www.sabmagazine.com | www.janam.net
Cover: the Joyce Centre for Partnership and Innovation of Mohawk College in Hamilton. McCallum Sather Architects in joint venture with B+H Architects. Photo: Ema Peter.
Upcoming Events + Workshops THE CANADA GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL – GREATER TORONTO CHAPTER (CaGBC-GTC) seeks to connect all of the GTA’s green building leaders and supporters by providing all of the latest information you need to accelerate your LEED credentials and to stay at the forefront of the green building industry. Here’s a highlight of Chapter initiatives and upcoming events and workshops. Register for these events at: www.cagbctoronto.org.
GREEN ASSOCIATE EXAM KICKSTARTER WORKSHOP (FULL-DAY) October 16 and November 28, 2019 – Evergreen Brick Works - Toronto Prepare to take your LEED® Green Associate exam and earn the internationally recognized LEED v4 Green Associate credential. CaGBC has developed this condensed 1-day course which will be delivered by highlyqualified Canadian instructors with real-life local and regional experience. This course is intended to provide you with foundational information, which will then be followed up with a post-course study plan. ZERO CARBON BUILDING STANDARD WORKSHOP (HALF-DAY) October 24, 2019 – Evergreen Brick Works – Toronto This half-day workshop will introduce you to zero carbon buildings, with particular emphasis on the CaGBC’s Zero Carbon Building (ZCB) Standard. Participants will be equipped with important foundational knowledge, as well as an understanding of how the ZCB Standard could potentially be used for their current or future projects. CAGBC ONTARIO AWARDS NIGHT November 7, 2019 – Arcadian Court - Toronto The CaGBC Ontario Awards Night brings together more than 250 industry leaders and supporters in Toronto. The Awards Night features an opening networking reception, gala dinner, and presentation of the Green Building Excellence and Leadership Awards at the elegant art deco Arcadian Court.
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The Green Building Excellence Awards recognize outstanding new projects and programs in Ontario that go above and beyond the normal scope of sustainable best practices. The Leadership Awards distinguish individuals that are advancing the green building industry in Ontario through innovation at the corporate, academic, and government levels. 2019 marks the Awards Night’s 10th year anniversary! INNOVATION FORUM November 15, 2019 – Toronto Region Board of Trade – Toronto CaGBC is hosting regional Innovation Forums in Fall 2019 to showcase solutions that address the impact of occupants and tenants on building energy performance and occupant satisfaction. High performance buildings require a rigorous integrated design approach that balances and optimizes each component of the building, while ensuring it’s fit to purpose. Landlords, developers and employers increasingly value occupant satisfaction, wellbeing and productivity. However, occupant behaviour and tenant activity has been shown to significantly impact energy use. These forums will showcase innovative products, services and market solutions that address the occupant/energy nexus and deliver maximum building performance and occupant satisfaction. The in-person forums will take place in November in Montreal (Nov. 5), Toronto (Nov. 15) and Vancouver (Nov. 27).
LOOKING FOR THE BEST WAY TO GAIN CE HOURS AND GREEN BUILDING KNOW-HOW? CHOOSE CAGBC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; GREATER TORONTO CHAPTER All of our workshops are stringently peer-reviewed by GBCI for high relevance, quality and rigor, and have been deemed as guaranteed for CE hours by GBCI. We also offer a number of different webinars to share local green building knowledge and best practices.
TO LEARN MORE ABOUT ANY OF THESE INITIATIVES AND TO REGISTER FOR WORKSHOPS + EVENTS, VISIT OUR WEBSITE
Thank You to our Greater Toronto Chapter Sponsors
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The winners of the 2019 Canadian Green Building Awards
The Awards presentation of the 2019 Canadian Green Building Awards, the annual program of Sustainable Architecture & Building [SABMag], took place in Vancouver on May 27, 2019 where the winning firms were recognized. We especially thank our sponsors who make the Awards possible.
ARCHITECTURAL CATEGORY SPONSORS
1. Muhammad Kashif (right) of Category Sponsor Mitsubishi Electric Sales of Canada presents the Commercial/Industrial [Large] Award for the Evolv1 Building to Dr. Andrea Frisque of Stantec.
2. Jennifer McGill (right), of National Sponsor Masonite Architectural, presents the Institutional [Large] Award for the Okanagan College Trades Renewal and Expansion Project to Michael Leckman of Diamond Schmitt Architects Inc. 3. On behalf of National Sponsor The Canadian Precast Prestressed Concrete Institute, juror Ron Kato (centre) presents the Commercial/Industrial [Small] Award for the Sechelt Water Resource Centre to Brian Wakelin (left) and Robert Drew of Public Architecture + Communication.
4. Ron Kato (right), representing Category Sponsor Enbridge Gas Inc., presents the Existing Building Upgrade Award for the Wellington Building Rehabilitation to David Clusiau of NORR Architects and Engineers. 5. On behalf of National Sponsor, the Canadian Precast Prestressed Concrete Institute, juror Lisa Bate (left) presents the Technical Award for the City of Calgary Composting Facility to Megan Leslie of Stantec.
7. On behalf of Category Sponsor Inline Fiberglass, juror Lisa Bate (left) presents the Residential Building [Large] Award for the Duke Apartment Building to Mark Ostry (second left) and Russell Acton (far right) of Acton Ostry Architects Inc. Pete Edgar of building owner Edgar Development Corp. is second right.
Visit https://sabmagazine.com/ awards/winners for more details.
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6 Jennifer McGill (centre) of National Sponsor Masonite Architectural presents the Institutional [Small] Award for the Radium Hot Springs Community Hall and Library to Shelley Craig and Jordan Edmonds of Urban Arts Architecture Inc.
For details on sponsoring the 2020 Canadian Green Building Awards contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
8. Representing National Sponsor the Canadian Precast Prestressed Concrete Institute, juror Ron Kato (right) presents the Existing Building Upgrade Award for the Bank of Canada Renewal to Zeina Elali (left) of Perkins+Will and Colleen Sullivan of the Bank of Canada. 9. Lindsay Oster (left), principal of Prairie Architects Inc. receives the Institutional [Small] Award for the Building Blocks on Balmoral at Great West Life from Jennifer McGill of National Sponsor Masonite Architectural.
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Mohawk College: Joyce Centre for Partnership and Innovation Zero Carbon Building a learning tool for teachers and students By Joanne McCallum and Lisa Bate
In a direct reflection of the commitment to achieve a 30% reduction of 2007 baseline carbon emissions by 2020, the Joyce Centre for Partnership and Innovation of Mohawk College in Hamilton is the first Institutional building, and second overall in Canada, to be certified under the Canada Green Building Council Zero Carbon Building - Design Standard.
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The project demonstrates that the technology exists today to design and construct affordable, exceptionally high-performing net zero carbon enclosures to meet the UNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 and 2050, without sacrificing design or aesthetic. Sustainability and design are no longer mutually exclusive, and The Joyce Centre is emblematic of this paradigm shift. 1. The Zero Carbon Joyce Centre clad with insulated precast concrete panels and a curtain wall by Schuco. The building has realized a 50% reduction in water consumption for nonpotable uses partly achieved through a rainwater harvesting system by Pumptronics Inc.
The design team defined a process for achieving Net Zero through the establishment of an energy budget that would define the maximum energy upset limit integrated with renewable energy that would match or exceed annual energy consumption. The team realized that business as usual design could not be used and best practice energy efficiency and innovative design strategies would be required. It also strove to avoid overly complicated designs that have historically required significant operator effort to realize the promised performance. The design prioritizes the end-users – Mohawk’s students and staff, and contributes to experiential learning at Mohawk. The ultimate purpose of the building is twofold: to make students cognizant of their energy and carbon footprint, and to train them on how to operate – and eventually develop – the net zero buildings of tomorrow. Daylighting was carefully included in the classrooms, student workshop spaces and laboratories, and occupancy and daylight sensors minimize the need for LED lighting.
Approximately 60-70% of the learning spaces are within 7 metres of a window, with the exception of the largest lecture theatre which was designed to blackout conditions. The project’s annual energy consumption for interior lighting is 10.5 kWh/m2. The mechanical design includes a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) for ventilation delivery. DOAS systems separate the functions of temperature control from ventilation, eliminating simultaneous heating and cooling within the space and maximizing the effectiveness of the exhaust air heat recovery. DOAS systems provide superior indoor air quality because they do not recirculate ventilation air. High occupancy spaces utilize carbon dioxide sensors to tailor the ventilation rate to occupancy of the space. The resulting air change rates vary from 3.0 ACH in high occupancy density lecture halls to 2.5 ACH in lower occupancy density classrooms, and 1.5 ACH in laboratories.
Water and energy Potable water use reduction is a key conservation objective of the design. Strategies include ultra-low flush urinals, low-flow faucets, and rooftop rainwater harvesting for toilet flushing and irrigation needs. The Joyce Centre’s rainwater harvesting system is designed to collect 228,000 litres of rainwater runoff annually to avoid using city water for non-potable uses: a 50% reduction in water consumption for non-potable uses.
3 2 1 6
Main floor plan N 1 Gallery 2 Lecture theatre 3 Cafe 4 Lobby
Site plan 5 Classroom 6 Storage 7 Janitorial
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Energy intensity has been reduced by over 49% through the following features: • A curtain wall system with a thermally-broken frame with triple glazing, • R20 to R25 opaque wall assemblies, as determined by 3D heat transfer analysis, including the spandrel panels of the curtain wall assembly; • Water-cooled variable refrigerant flow heat pumps; • 28 geothermal wells drilled to a depth of 200 metres coupled to the heat pumps. The small peak cooling demands and highperformance enclosure resulted in a much smaller geothermal well field than is typical for a building this size; • LED lighting throughout the building, with occupancy and daylighting controls; • DOAS ventilation with exhaust air energy recovery; and, • A 5,015m2 photovoltaic array producing 500KWp AC; 1,980 individual 330watt panels. 2 and 3. The dramatic elevated roofs give cover to a rooftop observation deck. Walter’s Group provided Design Assist, fast track construction, fabrication, erection and delivery of 931 tons of steel for the main building, and 186 tons of solar panel support steel. 4. An area for student interaction at the ground level. 5 and 6. Daylighting was carefully included in the classrooms, student workshop spaces and laboratories. Dema Woodwork engineered and fabricated the custom fire-rated mosaic acoustic panels for the walls and ceilings. Trillium was the hardware consultant during the project’s planning stages, and supplied and installed doors, hardware and automatic operators, including FSC-certified wood doors. https://trillium.group/content/centre-for-partnership-innovation-mohawk-college/
Exterior panel construction detail
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PROJECT CREDITS Architect: McCallum Sather Architects in joint venture with B+H Architects Structural Engineer: Mantecon Partners Mechanical Engineer: The Mitchell Partnership Electrical Engineer: Mulvey & Banani International Inc. Civil Engineer: WalterFedy Sustainability Consultant: RDH Building Science Inc. Landscape Architect: B+H Architects Construction Manager: EllisDon Photos: Ema Peter
The bulk of the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s embodied carbon is contained within its structure. The steel has a high recycled content, while the concrete mix used higher than normal Supplementary Cementing Materials, specifically slag. For the foam insulation used in the insulated precast panels, roofs and in some of the detailing addressing thermal bridging, low GHG blowing agents were specified instead of the typical hydrocarbon-based blowing agents. The as-modelled energy use intensity of the building is 73.7 ekWh/m2-year and, with the on-site renewable energy of the PV array, the operational energy balance is slightly positive, and the operational carbon emissions are negative 17 kg CO2e per square metre of GFA. The building acts as a carbon sink in operation, offsetting its initial embodied carbon over its life cycle.
In addition, an Athena embodied energy evaluation was performed demonstrating an embodied carbon content for the structure of approximately 480 kg CO2e per square metre of GFA. While few benchmarks exist, this value is lower than the suggested Living Building Challenge requirement for maximum embodied carbon. The facility has created a new paradigm for sustainable building and learning by shifting occupant behaviour from open energy consumption to personal accountability. Through project work students have the opportunity to manage the operations of the building by observing the temperature, humidity, ventilation rates, thermal distribution and lighting performance along with other key building components. In addition, energy metering will measure and verify the expected performance of the building which Mohawk College is committed to publishing, along with lessons learned. Joanne McCallum is CEO at mcCallumSather and Lisa Bate is Global Sustainability Lead, Principal at B+H Architects.
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WATER IN THE WELL BUILDING STANDARD By Sandra Dedesko To date, design and operational measures related to water in sustainable and high-performance buildings have focused on water conservation and managing indoor moisture for durability and occupant comfort. More recently, growing attention has been put towards moving beyond merely preventing unwanted health outcomes, such as Legionnaire’s disease, and designing for enhanced occupant health and well-being in the built environment. The WELL Building Standard (WELL) is the leading evidence-based certification system that puts the focus on indoor environmental quality and occupant health and wellness in the built environment. The current version, WELL version 2 (WELL v2), is comprised of ten core concepts, including one devoted entirely to water that aims to improve the quality and accessibility of drinking water to promote hydration, while also to manage moisture and water systems in buildings to prevent unwanted negative health outcomes. While WELL v2 does contain features that address the more conventional water-based considerations seen to date, such as having a protocol in place to address Legionella throughout the building, in addition to a protocol that addresses interior moisture control, several of WELL v2’s features aim to further enhance the quality of both water for consumption and water-related amenities in the space, all with the intent of improving occupant health and wellbeing. The first mandatory water requirement in WELL v2 is to meet fundamental water quality criteria, which includes testing potable water to ensure thresholds are met for various pollutants, including dissolved sediments, microorganisms, dissolved metals, organic pollutants, disinfectant byproducts, herbicides and pesticides, fertilizers, and public water additives.
Building upon these fundamental quality criteria is an enhanced water quality feature, with the intent of meeting additional testing thresholds related to various chemicals that impact the taste and aesthetic properties of water. The intent of these features is to provide safe, high-quality drinking water, with enhanced taste properties to promote hydration, which is furthered by the inclusion of quantity and spatial distribution requirements for hydration/water bottle-filling stations. Beyond consumption, WELL v2 also addresses handwashing considerations to help promote hygiene and prevent the transmission of gastrointestinal diseases. Sink and water column dimensions and bathroom amenities, such as fragrance-free soap with hand-drying media instead of air dryers, are optional features for enhanced hygiene in WELL v2. Further information behind the motivation and scientific evidence to support these building design and operation features is available on WELL’s webpage. Including all or any of these features is a proven approach to improving both water quality and control in the built environment, which in turn creates healthier human outcomes. You can learn more about WELL v2 at www.wellcertified.com. CaGBC – Greater Toronto Chapter will be hosting its next WELL Building Standard Workshop in early 2020.
Sandra Dedesko is a Sustainability Consultant with RWDI. She is an instructor for CaGBC’s WELL Building Standard Workshop.
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The Problem With Salt: Making winters safer, but at what cost?
Salt accumulates along a curb in a commercial parking lot.
By Pam Strong and Bill Thompson Staff from Ontario’s 36 Conservation Authorities go out each month and sample water at 400 long-term monitoring stations, to track the health of Ontario’s rivers and streams. Over time, one signal of declining water quality has become clear: salt. Salt (i.e. sodium chloride) is used on virtually all paved surfaces to keep people from slipping in winter, but has led to increases in chloride at monitoring stations across the province, particularly in urban areas (see graph). Some rivers and creeks in these areas have become as salty as sea water, which is unhealthy for our native fish and other aquatic plants and animals. In addition to the impacts on creeks, salt can also cause extensive damage to our cars, and to our built infrastructure. A 2014 study out of Minnesota estimated that each tonne of salt that’s applied can cause between $1,000 and $5,000 in damage to infrastructure. Considering that over seven million tonnes of salt are applied in Canada each winter, it’s worth taking a step back to look at the financial and environmental costs of our reliance on salt, and what we can do to reduce its impacts. 16
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Much of this salt is coming from roads and highways, but parking lots can be a significant source as well. Estimates from cities around North America have suggested that anywhere from 20 – 40% of the chloride in local watercourses was originally applied on parking lots. Managing parking lots in the winter is challenging; public and customer expectations of bare pavement at all times, fear of lawsuits, increasing insurance premiums, and even a lack of understanding of how salt works all lead to a tendency to err on the side of caution, and just “put down a little more to be safe.” In reality, higher application rates rarely make conditions safer, but they can cause significant damage to parking lot and building infrastructure. This includes the corrosion of railings and door frames, staining and damage to flooring and masonry, and loss of landscaping materials. These damages, combined with the higher costs of using excessive volumes of salt, can result in significant costs. A recent case study estimated that the infrastructure damage in a single “big box” parking lot where salt was being over-applied would be between $1.1 million and $5.7 million dollars for a single season.
The results of monitoring chloride concentrations in Ontario streams since the early 1970s. (Source – Government of Ontario, Water Quality in Ontario, 2011 – data updated to 2016).
A number of groups, including trade associations, academics, and environmental organizations have been working to tackle the issue of over-application of salt in parking lots. This has resulted in the development of a number of best practices that can help contractors apply the right amount of salt – the implementation of these practices will reduce the amount that they’re spending on salt, as well as the damage to built infrastructure. These practices include using calibrated salt spreaders that are set to apply the recommended amount of salt, the use of brine or salt alternatives, timing salt application appropriately, and plowing surfaces before salt is applied. Training and certification programs outlining these practices are also available. Looking at it from a different perspective, the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority commissioned the development of Parking Lot Design Guidelines to Promote Salt Reduction in 2017 to highlight how improved parking lot design can help to address this issue.
These guidelines look at how design factors such as effective grading, proper snow pile placement, sidewalk design and pedestrian flow, and landscaping features can be optimized to reduce the amount of salt needed on a site while maintaining safe conditions. The bottom line is that there are many tools and practices that contractors and property owners can draw on to reduce the impact of our winter maintenance activities. Their implementation will go a long way toward taking a chunk out of our annual winter maintenance and repair costs and protecting our freshwater resources. You can find more information on this issue on our website’s salt page at https://www.lsrca.on.ca/watershed-health/salt.
Pamela Strong is a Specialist of Integrated Watershed Management, and Bill Thompson is Manager of Integrated Watershed Management with the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority.
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Architecture for Integrated Stormwater Management
The organic matter (typically compost) in green roofs adds yellow/brown colour to the runoff water.
By Jenny Hill In the densest urban areas, municipalities have more access than developers to ground space for infiltrating stormwater to the soil and emulating natural processes. Linear systems designed to divert excess stormwater underground, e.g. infiltration trenches, are becoming routine practice on road retrofits. On lot-line developments, there are several alternatives for property developers, which capture and treat rainwater. Unlike more arid parts of the world, it is stormwater management rather than fresh water scarcity which is driving adoption of rainwater harvesting and peripheral systems in our region.
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Building integrated stormwater management includes a range of vegetated and abiotic systems. To meet increasingly stringent water balance requirements captured rainwater must be used on site rather than discharged in following days. Popular options are to irrigate landscapes, flush sanitary fixtures or to supply an evaporative cooling tower. Washing facilities for vehicles or laundry of linens or clothes (typically commercial) are increasingly of interest too. When selecting an end use for harvested rainwater, other building components will affect the maintenance and energy expenditure required to operate the whole system. Factors to consider are: How much rainwater is landing on each roof area? Can water be retained on higher floors to reduce plumbing and pumping? What other functions does each roof area have? How do these functions affect the water quality for reuse?
Rainwater harvesting for HVAC cooling tower
Rainwater harvesting for flushing sanitary fittings
Green roofs increase the The compost components of planting yellow color of the media contribute organic matter into harvested water. This can the water which impedes disinfection be removed with required for HVAC use. The mineral additional treatment or components of planting media can can be an opportunity for add hardness which reduces the educational signage efficiency of the cooling cycles. about water reuse inside the facility.
Rainwater harvesting for irrigation
Consider increasing the water quality treatment to permit spray irrigation (rather than drip or capillary). Spray provides a more even distribution onto the planting media and maximizes evapotranspiration.
This could be an ideal pairing, where the planters are at a lower level than the green roof. Particularly where the green roof coverage is limited due to mechanical or other rooftop systems.
Proprietary scaffolding type systems have been developed to keep green roof components out of ponded water. Their primary purpose is to prevent waterlogging of the vegetation. Drainage controls are also required.
An effective combination for buildings with all-season cooling needs. Storing water on the roof permits passive evaporative cooling and can help offset indoor cistern size requirements.
Where the building has Permitting rainwater to remain daily flushing on the rooftop until drawn down requirements, a system for irrigation could eliminate the that retains the head of requirement for a cistern and all water on the roof long energy costs associated with enough to flush it away pumping. The receiving could permit a significant landscape must be robust reduction in the volume during periods of inundation. balancing cistern.
The compost components of planting media contribute organic matter into the water which impedes sterilization for HVAC use. The mineral components of media can add hardness which reduces the efficiency of the cooling cycles.
The combination of storage cistern and planted landscapes May provide a passive is common practice. An irrigation solution where optimized configuration would decks or balconies have have rainwater pass through planted areas planned building integrated planters to already. The planting fully saturate the planting media medium adds additional before the excess is stored. This yellow color to the water. could reduce the cistern sizing and pump energy required.
Rainwater harvesting for irrigation
Rainwater harvesting for flushing sanitary fittings
Water quality requirement for irrigation is lower than for HVAC cooling.
Flushing is a year-round use and has lower water quality requirements. Supplying an HVAC system requires less plumbing.
Retaining water on an upper level and slowly discharging it down into the planters over a longer period helps optimize stormwater retention by providing time for additional evapotranspiration and capitalizing on the wetting properties of the compost.
Water quality for sanitary reuse should be higher than for drip irrigation but may be of lower quality than spray irrigation.
Stormwater: The water that lands across the whole site during a storm. Rainwater: Just the water that lands on rooftops and inaccessible areas; typically, the much cleaner part of stormwater. In a lot-line project this may be most of the stormwater requiring management. Water balance: An annual calculation of how much stormwater landed on the site and how much entered the storm sewer. To find out more: â&#x20AC;˘ https://sustainabletechnologies.ca/app/uploads/2018/06/Opportunities-forBuilding-integrated-LID-1.pdf â&#x20AC;˘ https://wiki.sustainabletechnologies.ca/wiki/Constrained_spaces
Jenny Hill is a Research Scientist with Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, and Stormwater Specialist with Sustainable Buildings Canada.
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The thermal storage tank being built amid construction at The Well site in June 2019. Image courtesy Enwave Energy Corporation.
Putting the water inside The Well
By Enwave Energy Corporation
At first glance, pedestrians won’t notice that there is a type of “well” being built inside The Well development at Front Street West and Spadina Avenue in downtown Toronto. Only by climbing down to parking level 6 in the open construction site would someone be able to get a peek at the large thermal storage facility being built under one of Toronto’s most dynamic modern construction projects to date. Originally spearheaded by Enwave Energy Corporation (Enwave) and supported by joint developers Allied Properties REIT (Allied) and RioCan REIT (RioCan), the idea of putting “water into The Well” in the form of a thermal battery was, initially, a tough sell.
The project began with a conversation between Enwave and existing customer Allied about The Well site and the potential to incorporate a district energy network that would feed the new development. Many discussions later, the partnership successfully set aside “business-as-usual” and is doing things differently, on a significant scale. Innovative proposals like thermal storage can feel risky to many business leaders, yet challenging expected norms in the construction, development, and energy industries is necessary when organizations strive to do things smarter and to provide better solutions. The Well will feature seven towers of mixed-use space housing, 102,193 square metres (1.1 million square feet) of retail and food service space, 46,451 square metres (500,000 square feet) of office space, and nearly 2,000 residential units. FALL 2019
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Below the lowest level of the construction site, in a hole that reaches 43 metres (140 feet) deep, one 7.6 million litre (2,007,707 gallon) tank will store temperature-controlled water fed by Enwave’s existing Deep Lake Water Cooling (DLWC) system, which draws water in from Lake Ontario to provide cooling to much of Toronto’s downtown core. A new high-efficiency hot water network being built westward will also take advantage of the storage onsite. By using water to store, move, and transfer energy around the network, meeting customer demand can be optimized and shifted to off-peak times thus reducing stress on the City’s energy systems.
COOLING To fill or “charge” the tank, chilled water comes in from Enwave’s DLWC district and cools down the thermal storage water loop to 5.5°C (42°F) through a heat exchanger. On-site chillers cool this water down further by utilizing a supercooling solution in the loop that takes the temperature down below the freezing point. This water is injected slowly into the bottom of the thermal storage tank using a specially designed diffuser system to ensure warm and cold water do not mix and the narrow thermocline is maintained. Meanwhile, the warmer water is removed from the top of the tank and brought back to pick up rejected heat from the chiller, which eliminates the need for cooling towers. Finally, this warmer water circles back to the DLWC heat exchanger and cooled down to 5.5°C (42°F) and the process begins again. In the discharging process, water is taken from the bottom of the tank where the cool water is at its most dense, and the charging process is reversed. This water now provides cooling for the buildings at The Well and for export to Enwave’s district cooling system through the same heat exchangers used to charge the tank. The resulting warm water is then injected back into the top of the tank.
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Summer daytime cooling. Image courtesy Enwave Energy Corporation, RioCan REIT, and Allied Properties REIT.
HEATING The same tank is used in the winter months for heating as hot water from Enwave’s district will be used to heat the thermal storage loop. The process of charging the tank for heating is similar to the cooling process. Water as hot as 82°C (180°F) is injected into the top of the tank while cooler water is removed from the bottom. To discharge, the less dense, hotter water is pulled from the top of the tank and sent to the district heat exchangers. Hot water is then exported to Enwave’s district hot water loop to heat customer buildings after heating those at The Well.
SUSTAINABILITY HIGHLIGHTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT: • Targeting a mix of LEED Platinum and Gold level building certifications • Construction materials to consist of 20% recycled and 30% regional content, by cost • 50% or more of the wood purchased will be FSC certified • 75% of the demolition and construction waste will be diverted from landfills • Commercial buildings to utilize reused rainwater to flush toilets and urinals, reducing potable water demand by 63% • Engaging occupants on environmental sustainability and health and well-being • Focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions • Contributing to and increasing city and community resilience • Decentralizing energy supply and reducing load on electricity grid
Winter heating at different times of the day. Image courtesy Enwave Energy Corporation, RioCan REIT, and Allied Properties REIT.
The collaboration is the first of its kind in Canada and will be an example of how likeminded partners can pursue and implement future-focused, clean energy initiatives. Thermal storage facilities and district energy networks like these can enable Toronto to decentralize the energy supply and will reduce the load on the electricity grid during peak summer periods. Increased resilience for the development and neighboring communities, coming from the use of DLWC, reduced energy use, and redundancy built into the district energy network, is another impactful benefit to all involved. The Well acts as a hub for growth and is a significant step in Enwave’s district energy system expansion. This westward expansion means there are more opportunities to provide sustainable energy to a new area of Toronto where intelligent energy planning can help ensure the responsible future growth of our communities.
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New Technologies in Water Metering By Mike Easton Although water metering has a long history of use in Canada by water utilities for single-family homes and commercial properties, water submetering of multi-tenant spaces has only been deployed extensively for the last decade. The increase in water submetering can be attributed to the continuous increases in the cost of water and the realization that direct water metering has the potential to reduce consumption by 20-30%; homes and businesses will consume less of any utility when they are financially accountable. New technologies in wireless water submetering have allowed the industry to meter more locations, and in more diverse settings, especially in retrofit applications. Retrofitting apartment buildings is a great example. Previously, water submetering was deemed too cost prohibitive as it would mean contractors would have to open up walls and add wiring to install tenant water meters. The advent of several wireless technologies available in the market today allows property and facility managers to explore cost-efficient wireless options. Range, signal penetration, and battery life have all benefited from significant technology improvements over the past 5 years, with some battery systems lasting up to 20 years. Another significant improvement in wireless water metering has been the increased use of â&#x20AC;&#x153;register readâ&#x20AC;? systems, also known as encoded technology, as opposed to pulse-based systems. Widelyused pulse-based systems send a signal every time a specific volume of water has been measured by the meter.
Encoded water meters can reduce consumption and increase cost recovery.
Pulse output metering has two main drawbacks: 1) the reading on the display of the meter seldom matches the readings collected since the remote data collection usually starts well after the meter is installed and measuring, and 2) the metering system typically cannot detect if a pulse meter has been disconnected, so there is no way of telling how much consumption was missed during the disconnect period. Both of these can lead to billing disputes and, eventually, the need to send technicians to investigate the meter. Encoded technology allows wireless meter systems to collect the read as seen on the meter. This ensures the tenant bill always matches the tenantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s meter, and the remote meter reading system is alerted if a meter is disconnected from the system.
The user portal for Meterconnex, an energy/water reporting platform that allows you to manage building and portfolio-level utility data.
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The ideal wireless water metering loop: Actionable data leads to actionable results.
As most utilities are now standardizing on encoded register systems, these meters are also manufactured to comply with NTEP, MID, AWWA, and NSF-61 regulations. This ensures consumers are protected, and can trust the data they will receive. Additionally, an encoded system produces more data: users can set data collection intervals from every 15 minutes to every day, depending on the granularity of data needed.
Three types of wireless water meter systems To compliment encoded register technology, three configurations of wireless water meter systems have emerged: LTE, LPWAN, and Wireless Mesh. Cellular Cellular (LTE) modules work by utilizing cellular networks with a low monthly cost, instead of utilizing a building’s internal network. Ideally used in commercial and municipal settings, they are able to send data wirelessly in 15-minute intervals based on user consumption, and can integrate easily with both new and existing meters. With an average 20-year rated battery life, they are compatible with various encoded registers, such as GWF, Sensus, Neptune, Badger, and more. One of the most common uses at this point is for irrigation system monitoring, as this solution removes the need for costly wiring of the meter and can provide leak detection reporting. LPWAN Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) modules work by utilizing an existing LPWAN network. The main technologies, LoRaWAN and SigFox, have an effective range up to 10-20 kilometres, making them the perfect choice for deploying a dispersed water meter system. An example would be irrigation meters, campgrounds,
campuses or placement in commercial shopping centres. While LPWAN networks are in their infancy in Canada, they are quickly gaining traction due to their significant effective range, and low cost to deploy. Wireless Mesh Wireless Mesh modules differ from the two types above by eliminating network fees: they work by creating a ‘mesh’ network that speaks to one another from the water meter to the gateway, where data is processed. This local network is perfect for single buildings or campus projects. The metering industry has evolved rapidly in response to the increased needs of utilities and property managers. From incorporating wireless networks such as LoRaWAN to localized networks such as wireless mesh, it is becoming more and more cost efficient to deploy and install water meters to measure utility consumption. Regardless of a wireless or wired system, it’s important to point out that encoded meters are the most effective meters to deploy in your projects. An encoded water metering solution can increase your level of customer service and improve overall performance while lowering your operations cost.
Mike Easton is Co-Owner and Vice President, Eastern Sales of QMC Submetering Solutions.
About QMC From providing hardware, software, and services, QMC has been at the forefront of the submetering industry for the last 25 years. Through constant innovation and development, we work tirelessly with property and facility managers, building owners, utilities and other stakeholders to deliver metering solutions for their unique needs. QMC is headquartered in Vancouver, with offices in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, Edmonton and San Francisco. FALL 2019
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The Amit Chakma Engineering Building Pivotal project brings big cuts in water and energy use By Andrew Frontini
The 100,000 sq.ft. Amit Chakma Engineering Building (ACEB) transforms how the engineering experience is delivered at Western University. The building is a practical and inspiring place where undergraduate students integrate classroom theory with hands-on learning as they design, build, test and refine ideas. The university has over 12 LEED projects on campus. This was the first one to pursue LEED for New Construction – Platinum, demonstrating a leap in commitment. Its placement and orientation facilitates the building’s role as the new heart of the Western Engineering campus. Students enter via the south entrance, which connects students arriving to the campus by foot, transit, bike and car, or via the north entrance which directly connects students from the existing Spencer Engineering Building to the ACEB atrium. This new campus heart provides a place to celebrate the Faculty’s culture through events, outreach and celebrations, that is at once educational, social and cultural. Careful consideration was given to the building’s circulation space to enhance the student public realm for the engineering campus. The arrangement of corridors, stairs, landings and lobbies creates opportunities for ‘creative collisions’ and places of exchange, education and exhibition. In pursuing LEED NC Platinum, the ACEB building is designed with a thermally robust envelope to decrease energy usage and optimize passive heating and cooling. Daylight is carefully balanced with the high-performance envelope strategy to maintain envelope thermal performance. A 30:70 glazing to solid wall ratio was maintained throughout design. Glass placement is strategic, with larger glazing areas located adjacent to social and active programs. In place of blinds, a combination of self-shading SageGlass Gelectrochromic glass as well as external fritted glass fins allows daylight into spaces yet minimizes glare and solar gain, allowing daylight to still penetrate.
Water and Energy Water consumption of 248 litres/occupant/year, including both base building and process consumption, represents a significant reduction of 82%. This was achieved through use of low-flow fixtures supplemented by harvested rainwater. Stormwater management design meets LEED SWM requirements which includes a swale along the front of the building at Western Road, and a 36,000 litre cistern that reduces water consumption through a stormwater catchment and reuse system and diverts it to flush fixtures.
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Landscape design incorporates drought tolerant and native plants, to eliminate the use of a permanent irrigation system. Permeable paving allows infiltration of stormwater in the forecourt. Building-specific plant equipment was selected for optimal efficiency, despite the availability of a campus-wide steam and chilled water system. Both open and closed spaces use radiant floor heating, and are cooled by passive chilled beams. Ventilation and latent cooling happen through a demand controlled variable air volume (VAV) system, served by air handling with energy recovery. Ventilation is provided by a variable volume dedicated outdoor air system which includes energy recovery and desiccant dehumidification. Air is delivered to the spaces through low-level displacement diffusers, and modulated and dehumidified through controls for latent cooling capacity of the ventilation air volume that’s delivered to each space to match occupancy and expected latent cooling load of the occupants. 1. The copper box overhang shelters the main entrance at left in the photo, creating a more intimate south forecourt. 2 and 3. The west elevation showing the variations in glazing sizes, fritted glass fins, and continuous SageGlass electrochromic glazing..
Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Engineering Courtyard Spencer Engineering Building South Forecourt Threec + Engineering Buliding
Site plan 2
Western Road 3
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PROJECT CREDITS Architect: The Toronto Studio of Perkins and Will in association with Cornerstone Architecture Inc. Structural Engineer: VanBoxmeer & Stranges Engineering Ltd. Mechanical/Electrical Engineer: Chorley + Bisset Consulting Engineers Civil Engineer: Development Engineering (London) Limited
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Commissioning: Agent JLL LEED Consultant: Fluent Group Consulting Engineers Landscape Architect: Ron Koudys Landscape Architects Inc. General Contractor/Construction Manager: Norlon Builders Photos: Lisa Logan Photography
SAINT-GOBAIN NA HEADQUARTERS LEED PLATINUM
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI - FROST SCHOOL OF MUSIC LEED GOLD
PA HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY PASSIVE HOUSE
UNIVERISTY OF NEW MEXICO - DOMENICI CENTER LEED GOLD
THE LUMINARY LEED GOLD
AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION NET-ZERO
BOWIE STATE UNIVERISTY - CENTER FOR SCIENCE, MATH & NURSING LEED PLATINUM
SUSTAINABLE DESIGNS WITH SMART GLASS The Amit Chakma Engineering Building recognized what so many other projects have: superior energy efficiency, along with ample glazing and daylight, is made possible by using Smart Glass. By tinting automatically in response to the sun, smart glass saves energy while delivering superior comfort and occupant well-being.
sageglass.com / 877.724.3321
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4 and 6. Abundant daylight animates social spaces and many of the lecture rooms and labs. 5. The atrium periphery is programmed with active spaces that make it a dynamic hub for student engagement.
Lighting, cooling, heating, and general power are metred individually to ensure consumption is not exceeded. Daylight penetration combined with daylight and occupancy sensors achieve a Lighting Power Density savings of 30% lower than ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The roof has a 105 kW rooftop solar PV system, which is also used for research. The result is a reduction in energy intensity of 68%. Wellness was considered in use of materials: local maple for doors, cabinetry, and acoustic wrapping in the atrium as well as limestone quarried from Wiarton, as biophilic features. Over 20 interior finishes were screened against an internal Precautionary List: a database of 56 chemicals that have negative impacts on health. Circulation space is generous and used to connect various social and community nodes. Students are welcomed by a feature stair connecting to the second floor. The building’s long, 10 to 15ft-wide west façade corridors double as collaboration spaces, programmed with work surfaces adjacent to a rhythm of glazing with views. The atrium’s feature stair to the second and third floors provides easy connection from the student lounge to classrooms. Interior glazing is used for classrooms and labs along the corridors to admit daylight. Skylights allows for daylight penetration deeper into the floorplate Locally sourced and highly recyclable or reusable building materials were incorporated, including wood and local quarried stone. It is anticipated that the building could achieve upwards of 90% combined recyclability or reusability rate at the end of its life. Andrew Frontini is a principal at Perkins and Will and the Design Director of the Toronto and Ottawa studios. 5 30
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To learn more, visit SavingsByDesign.ca
Dig deeper into sustainability and earn incentives for your building project. North York Women’s Shelter,
Evergreen Brick Works, KILN BUILDING
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By participating in the Enbridge Savings by Design Workshop, we were able to discuss real costs of choices, both for construction and long-term operating. The overall building massing and layout was set by very complex program and siting restrictions, so the areas in which we benefited greatly were in rethinking storm water management on site, window type and performance, exterior wall assembly, and healthy materials. The mechanical engineering part was also indispensable and so instructive; highlighting important and easy changes, discussing more complex upgrades, and understanding the long-term and performance impacts of our systems, both as climate change worsens and as building systems need replacement and upgrades. The Enbridge charrette provided the perfect opportunity to make clear and informed choices that brought our project to the next level of energy, health and operating performance. It saved construction and operating costs and made for a healthier building. — Chantal Cornu, LGA Architectural Partners
In 2018, Evergreen Brick Works was in the midst of an ambitious effort to transform the historic Kiln Building – and make it carbon neutral by using the right energy at the right time. Early in the process, Enbridge led a Savings by Design workshop for the project. On a fast track project, this provided a tremendous opportunity for the integrated design team to reflect on the early trajectory set in the project, and obtain informed perspectives from invited experts on enhancing it. The workshop also provided a spring board to brainstorm how the Kiln Building project could serve as a catalyst to transform the entire Brick Works campus to be carbon neutral, which has been a longstanding vision of Evergreen. The Savings by Design workshop struck a great balance between both blue sky and detail level thinking. It was informative, fruitful, and an overall positive experience. We’d highly recommend Enbridge’s Savings by Design workshop program for anyone thinking about making more sustainable buildings. — Drew Adams, Associate, LGA Architectural Partners
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2020 JUNE 3 – 5, 2020 BEANFIELD CENTRE, TORONTO For sponsorship opportunities contact | Sarah Burns | 613-288-8097 | email@example.com