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AÑO 2 NÚMERO 3 - 2009 / ARTE Y DISEÑO EMPRESARIAL UNIVERSIDAD SAN IGNACIO DE LOYOLA

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Fotografía: Elizabeth Junek

Año II, N° 03 © Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola Carrera de Arte y Diseño Empresarial Título del documento: na!, Año 2, N° 03

Raúl Diez Canseco Terry Fundador OSIL Edward Roekaert Embrechts Rector Henry Barclay Rey de Castro Vicerrector Académico Carmen Blázquez Quintana Decana Facultad de Humanidades

Rita Vidal Chávarri Directora de Carrera Arte y Diseño Empresarial Rafael Vivanco Coordinador Académico Arte y Diseño Empresarial Ricardo Tsuchiya Coordinador Académico Arte y Diseño Empresarial

Comité Editorial Rita Vidal rvidal@usil.edu.pe Rafael Vivanco rvivanco@usil.edu.pe, rvivanco26@gmail.com Ricardo Tsuchiya rtsuchiya@usil.edu.pe Editor Rafael Vivanco Revisión de textos y estilo Ana Matos Concepto, diagramación y diseño

Carlos García, Magno Aguilar, Isabel Bedoya Kiara Pérez, Patricia Vicini. Coordinador de proyectos editoriales Homero Miranda Coll-C.

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¡Diversidad! Es el título que lleva la edición número 3 de la revista na!, que se reinventa en su concepto, siendo una revista de diseño bilingüe, trayendo entrevistas, consejos y las nuevas tendencias a nivel mundial de la mano de los mejores diseñadores y comunicadores visuales. También es un medio por el cual daremos a conocer los trabajos de nuestros mejores alumnos en las distintas especialidades. No hubiésemos podido dar este salto significativo sin el valioso aporte que en su oportunidad le dieron a la revista el grupo de alumnos de la Carrera de Arte y Diseño Empresarial – USIL, formado por Daniel Wong, Raúl Armendariz, Israel Peralta, Andrea Rodríguez y Chiemi Tsukazan; quienes iniciaron este proyecto llenándolo de entusiasmo, energía y mucha pasión. Ahora ellos seden esta responsabilidad a un nuevo grupo formado por Carlos García, Magno Aguilar, Isabel Bedoya, Kiara Pérez y Patricia Vicini. Quienes desde este número junto al Comité Editorial se encargarán de las entrevistas, traducciones y diseño. Diversidad es una palabra que nos pertenece en el día a día, que nos enseña a ser tolerantes y mejores seres humanos permitiéndonos vivir en paz. Por ello no podíamos dejarla de lado en esta nueva etapa porque eso mismo es ésta edición una diversidad de diseñadores, comunicadores y alumnos que traen muchas novedades incluida una muestra fotográfica que expone cuan diversa puede ser nuestra ciudad Lima. Coordinación Arte y Diseño Empresarial

Portada y contra portada, fotografías de: Isaac Pereyra. Alumno Arte y Diseño Empresarial - USIL

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Entrevista a Karina Aricohé. Diseñadora Peruana en Dubai.

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Interview with Christopher Scott. The importance to create a magazine.

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Entrevista a John Moore. El ambigrama como recurso para desarrollar la creatividad.

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Interview with Shorn Molokwane. Inside African Fashion.

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Interview with Ken Donald. Artist, photographer doing what he feels.

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Interview with Antoine Abi Aad. Visual transliterations of oral combinations of languages.

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Interview with Rene Wanner. A poster collector who helps designers around the world.

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Interview with Hervé Matine. The man behind POSTER4TOMORROW. Fotografías: Elizabeth Junek, Ana Caldas, Isaac Pereyra, Larissa Merzthal,Susana Tafur, Solange Carlín.

Ilustración digital: Luis Mora. Ilustración: Francesco Grigoletto

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Entrevista por: Magno Aguilar Aida

Hola Karina, ¿Cómo así terminas trabajando en DUBAI? Una empresa de comunicaciones había decidido formar un área de infografía que pudiera abastecer de información gráfica a tres diarios (dos en árabe y uno en inglés) de circulación nacional. Es así como fueron reuniendo a varios profesionales y tuve la oportunidad de integrar este grupo de trabajo. Además, es preciso señalar que tres diseñadores peruanos ya conformaban el área por lo tanto la calidad del trabajo peruano ya era reconocido. ¿Cómo fue adaptarte en un lugar completamente diferente al Perú? Es impresionante encontrarte con una realidad tan distinta a la tuya, sin embargo el saber que casi el 80% de la población es extranjera me hizo sentir que no era tan extraña como tal vez imaginaba. A pesar de las diferencias políticas, culturas, sociales, económicas, religiosas y demás, el primer elemento unificador para cualquier extranjero en este país es el idioma. El inglés se convierte en el vehículo que de alguna manera te uniformiza. Calificaría a Dubai como un emirato open-mind, por lo tanto en mi caso no fue muy difícil el proceso de adaptación. ¿Es difícil la comunicación? Más difícil que una comunicación práctica lo difícil es la comunicación de ideas. En mi caso, entender la idiosincrasia árabe para evitar las barreras comunicacionales. ¿Qué diferencias encuentras entre el sistema de trabajo en Dubai con el del Perú? Cuando se es profesional uno da el 100% de su esfuerzo y conocimientos para realizar un trabajo de calidad, no importando el lugar donde te encuentres.

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Sin embargo, el estar específicamente en Dubai, por la pluriculturalidad que aquí encuentras, te exige que conozcas muy bien al público objetivo de tu trabajo. Trabajar en Perú siendo peruano tiene la ventaja de conocer y entender el ámbito en el que se desenvuelve tu público. Aquí el trabajo se complica puesto que la gran mayoría, como te explique, es extranjera y abarcan muchas nacionalidades, no solo el mundo árabe, también el occidental y oriental. Por lo tanto, tu trabajo comunicacional debe ser 100% claro, previo estudio y análisis de tu público objetivo. ¿Cómo ves al diseño gráfico en Dubai? Partimos de la premisa que el diseño grafico en Dubai es un producto de diseñadores de diversas nacionalidades. En ese sentido, se puede encontrar diseño de calidad internacional, y a la vez local. Lo primero que llama la atención al visitante es, por supuesto, el idioma; más bien, los idiomas. La condición poliglota de la vida en Dubai no solo se limita al árabe y al inglés, pues la gran masa laboral que proviene de los vecinos India y Pakistán consume productos que utilizan lenguajes con caracteres propios, como el hindi o el malayam (el pashtum y el urdu, utilizan caracteres arábicos). Y aquí entramos al ámbito de lo estrictamente visual, ya que esta universalidad idiomática se expone en el ámbito de lo tipográfico, presente no solo en las zonas turísticas sino en toda la ciudad. Los paneles publicitarios, los pósters, los empaques, logotipos adaptados, todos estos productos gráficos, manejan, en su mayoría de manera obligada, ese doble aspecto


tipográfico de caracteres serpentescos en un idioma desconocido (para nuestro caso) y las formas estandarizadas del alfabeto latino. Dada la tradición caligráfica del mundo árabe, ello cobra aquí particular importancia; el enfoque del ejercicio tipográfico es punto obligado para quien quiera hablar del diseño árabe, las jóvenes generaciones entablan, con los nuevos medios a su disposición, diálogos con las tradiciones de la modernidad, y en este querer ser diseñadores, árabes y contemporáneos, tratando de ejercitar el credo estético entre las sinuosidades de las letras árabes y la rigurosidad geométrica, logran una belleza desconocida al ojo común occidental. Para seguir las disquisiciones y quehacer de estos creadores, aquí unos nombres reconocibles en la web: Tarik Atrissi, Pasqual Zoghbi, Nadine Chahine.

internacionales lo cual le permite afrontar una oportunidad laboral en cualquier parte del mundo. Asimismo, la formación humanística te da la capacidad de enfrentar la posibilidad de desplegar lo aprendido en sociedades distintas a la de origen. Profesionalmente hay requerimientos básicos que son los mismos en todo lugar, y el dominio del oficio es bienvenido en todas partes; no obstante, dado el rango de subjetividad que siempre hay en lo visual, y la variedad de aplicaciones que hay dentro de la profesión, la apertura y la flexibilidad en el manejo de los recursos profesionales de parte del diseñador son bienvenidas en cuanto le facilita tratar con un amplio espectro de clientes y condiciones, aquí o en el exterior. El resto de requerimientos para trabajar en el exterior pasan más por lo personal.

¿Cuál es tu filosofía de diseño? El diseño debe estar guiado por su propósito comunicativo a través de la estética, suscribiendo el lema de “la forma sigue a la función”, y en ese sentido debemos tener un enfoque pragmático, mas ceñido a los resultados y al espectador/consumidor de nuestro trabajo; la flexibilidad es entonces una cualidad inapreciable.

¿Consideras necesario que se debe formar al diseñador para afrontar estos retos o basta con que uno mismo lo aprenda en el campo de acción? La calidad educativa que se imparte en un recinto universitario actualmente se está diversificando, es decir, no solo se piensa en que el alumno se desempeñará como profesional dentro sino fuera del país. Sin embargo, con la amplitud de herramientas con las que cuenta un estudiante de esta época es muy difícil pensar que no las aprovechará para tener no solo referentes locales sino también internacionales.

¿Consideras que hoy en día la formación del diseñador le debe permitir tener las competencias necesarias para aceptar un trabajo en cualquier parte del mundo? Por supuesto, y no solo el diseñador gráfico, sino en todas las áreas. La formación académica que recibe un estudiante debe regirse por estándares

Una correcta formación profesional debería bastarle al diseñador para afrontar estos retos, ciertamente,

Infografía por Karina Aricoché

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Infografía por Karina Aricoché

lo que aprenda va a tener de una u otra forma, que contextualizarlo en el campo de acción, sobre todo en uno tan amplio como el del diseño, donde la adaptación de nuestros códigos visuales a diversos escenarios se hace algo ineludible. Según tu experiencia trabajando en un país culturalmente distinto ¿Qué consejos le darías a los jóvenes diseñadores que hoy se están formando en esta profesión? La comunicación visual, gracias a los distintos soportes existentes, abarca una gran gama de usos y por lo tanto está presente en cada rincón de nuestros espacios. Un estudiante por lo tanto no puede estar exento de esta realidad que lo rodea. Aprender de cada uno de los detalles a su alrededor, investigar, analizar, nunca dejarse atrapar por los arquetipos muchos de los cuales influyen en la percepción a través del subconsciente. Observar que reacción ante determinados arquetipos pueden variar de una cultura a otra: no es lo mismo utilizar una cruz en occidente que en oriente. ¿Vale la pena salir al extranjero? Vale la pena pues tu trabajo se diversifica, se adapta a nuevas realidades, cada situación exige una nueva cualidad, si el mismo contexto del mercado peruano es amplio, en el exterior es infinito. Descubres nuevos aspectos de tu personalidad profesional que se potencian ante nuevas realidades. Finalmente, ¿Qué le recomiendas a las personas que quieren viajar y trabajar en el extranjero? Perseverar en la preparación académica y nunca olvidar que la actualización es la base fundamental

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del profesional, el mundo cambia constantemente, las tendencias tienen que ser un patrón de guía para aquellos que ven en el exterior una opción cercana.

Karina Aricoché Licenciada en Comunicación Social de la Universidad Federico Villarreal, trabajó como periodista y productora en CPN radio y en la Coordinadora Nacional de Radio. Laboró como documentadora periodística del área de infografía en el grupo editorial Epensa. Se desempeñó como profesora del curso de Infografía en la carrera de Arte y Diseño Empresarial de la Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola. Actualmente labora en el área de infografía de Dubai Media Incorporated, que tiene a su cargo tres diarios, uno de circulación en inglés y dos en idioma árabe.


Fotografía Ana Caldas

Alumna Arte y Diseño Empresarial Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola

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nd

ela r I n ther r o N m o r F

Interview by: Kiara Pérez

My name is Christopher Scott a visual

communicator from Northern Ireland. I love to design and I always have it ticking around in my head. Many of my favourite ideas come from me lying in my cosy warm bed.

I have a great passion for simplicity,

typography and publications. My favourite colour is white and this reflects in my clean and clear approach to design.

I like to have my designs to have substance

that communicate a strong and meaningful message. Due to this mindset I was successful in “Good50x70 2009” and also “Poster4Tomorrow 2009”. Obviously the recognition by my fellow design peers felt good but this was not the primary focus of designing this type of posters. I design from the heart and this is reflected into my work. I trully love what I do and I feel very lucky to have the right side of my brain think in this way.

I want to have an impact on the world

through my visual communication. This reflects in my latest project ‘FAKE plastic’. If I change or help one person in my life through my work, my job is done.

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Why do you choose the magazine as a way of communication? and What advantages do you see in a magazine that other media doesn’t have? In the era of electronic communication, it is rare that you find printed design. I think there is something very special while holding a magazine in your hands which makes the experience very personal and intimate. To me it feels like the design I have created has become alive. This is something that other disciplines in design lack.

What was the necessity to create a Design magazine? I felt the standard of design magazines in general was very poor. Which was very frustrating to me as I thought this is the perfect medium to inspire creatives. But I felt other magazines where sending the wrong


e e c h n T a t r o a p e im reat c n o i o t t a c i l b u p Insid

ASTIC

First

L AKE P issue F

e

agazin

STIC m

E PLA

FAK e page

ine

magaz

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message eg. learning tutorials to create images is wrong as this is not using the most powerful design tool ‘the brain’.

How did you create FAKE PLASTIC? And what is the name reason? I always wanted to create my own publication and I was very frustrated by nobody else believing in my talent apart from a few exceptions. I just finished reading the book ‘H.N. Werkman - Monographics’ in which he had similiar frustrations as myself so he started his own publication ‘The Next Call’. I had no sleep that night lying in bed and thinking to myself. During this restless night I had the whole magazine planned in my head. The next day my first words to my friend where “can you take a photograph of a sheep” The name ‘FAKE plastic’ was inspired by Radiohead’s song ‘Fake plastic trees’. The lyrics in the song where very inspirational to me personally because this is how I feel about the world we live in today, which is FAKE like plastic. I was also intrigued by the relationship between the words fake and plastic. The term fake means false but also something plastic can be described as false.

What is the magazine?

concept

of

this

The concept of ‘FAKE plastic’ is design for communication. The main objective is to inform people of the problems and issue in modern society. The message that this publication communicates is paramount therefore beauty becomes obsolete. I wanted to communicate the message of what various people think about the world we live in today. Each Issue is written and designed by people who are not restricted by laws or rules.

Did the style you use, like typography, illustrations, and the whole design of the publication had been influenced by other magazines? In terms of the graphic style there was two main inspirations. The first was ‘Raygun magazine’ by David Carson because of the play on typography also the ‘no boundary’ feel to the magazine. The second was ‘Plastique magazine’ by Studio8design.

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It was much more simple, clean and professional in it’s approach. But by this simplicity made the magazine even more engaging.

What do I found in FAKE PLASTIC that other magazines do not have? What makes ‘FAKE plastic’ unique is that it makes the reader think. In many aspects this is the case. For example the article titles are like little word games to get the viewer thinking and for them to interact with the publication. The sense of freedom is also what makes this publication different as many magazines especially in today’s climate as they are restricted on what they want to communicate.

What do you think about this sentence “a designer could change the world”? The importance of visual communication in todays society is vital. As more and more the world is becoming isolated which is because of technology. This is a downside to our fast developed modern world, before this advancement we played outside and actually interacted more as a human race. Where as now we stay inside and interact with computer’s, television’s and game system’s. Even when we go outside we have portable technology such as Ipod’s, PSP’s and laptop’s to distract ourselves from other human beings. One thing that designers should consider is they have the power to create visual communication, so they should use this wisely. This is more relevant as the human race does not communicate mouth to mouth so visual communicate in the 21st century is at the foreground which puts the pressure on visual designers to make their designs important. Rather than having a image that means nothing other than having it visually beautiful the design needs substance. So we have the power to change the world but the mindset of the designer needs to be correct.

Have you made something that you consider that contribute in world´s change? I feel ‘FAKE plastic’ has a powerful and meaningful message to contribute to society.


Fotografía Isaac Pereyra

Alumno Arte y Diseño Empresarial Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola

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Marcha por la Paz, cuando utilizamos la creatividad en lugar de violencia.

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Lima - PerĂş, Noviembre 2009

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JOHN MOORE Entrevista desde Venezuela a:

Ambigrama como ejercicio creativo

Entrevista por: Kiara Pérez

Uno de los diseñadores más importantes de Venezuela y de América Latina, nos regala un poco de su tiempo en esta entrevista para hablarnos de una de sus más recientes pasiones el AMBIGRAMA y cómo éste ejercicio resulta importante para ejercitar nuestra creatividad.

¿Como consideras el diseño en la actualidad situándonos en Venezuela? El diseño en Venezuela tiene una larga tradición con una trayectoria preñada de relevantes protagonistas que han permitido dibujar nuestros rasgos de identidad. En mi país siempre se le ha considerado al diseño como un artículo de lujo, razón por la que el diseño se mantiene en un lindero entre la existencia y la desaparición, sufriendo altibajos de apetencia e inapetencia, de capacidad e incapacidad. Tradicionalmente era el estado quien que propiciaba su existencia y su implementación amén de empresas privadas que se nutrían de sus beneficios. No se si debido a la proliferación de escuelas de diseño desenfocadas y desinformadas, los empíricos de la auto edición digital y la ignorancia y por sobre todo la falta de apoyo estatal y a la desaparición progresiva de importantes empresas privadas que ha lesionado el mercado, motivo por el cual, de unos años para acá, se ha visto invadido de un nivel poco profesional, de “diseñadores farmacia”, donde lo escaso es la creatividad o el concepto y lo común, la contaminación visual; donde la cosa gráfica, ha venido mal educando el escaso alfabetismo visual del venezolano promedio y sus gustos y apetencias. Por suerte siempre existe una pequeña elite de profesionales que a través de su oferta permiten pensar que el diseño tiene posibilidades de ganar la batalla a punta de eficiencia. En general creo que aún en Venezuela no se ha

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entendido el rol de lo que es diseño y las escuelas han sido cómplices y promotoras de este estado de desinformación aunado a un estado, que ignorante, tampoco entiende ni promueve la cultura de la información ni siquiera para su propio beneficio ideológico. ¿Según su criterio qué significa hacer buen diseño? ¿Existe esa posibilidad? Hacer buen diseño es facilitar a la sociedad de fórmulas de comunicación eficientes orientadas a lograr respuestas acordes del usuario, el diseño es una manifestación de la inteligencia de una cultura, algo que existe para preñar a los pueblos de felicidad y mejorar su calidad de vida. Existe esa posibilidad en la medida en que se incorporen al mercado profesionales comprometidos con la cultura, del diseño, de la eficiencia y la creatividad. ¿Creatividad y Diseño van de la mano o no tiene nada que ver una de la otra? Creo que el diseño nace de la creatividad, es la que hace que tome forma y sean visualizables las ideas transformadas en conceptos. Estamos ante un mundo que cada día demanda como nunca el eficiente uso de la retórica visual. Creatividad y diseño permacerán imbricados en el tiempo porque son sustancias reaccionarias y semejantes. ¿Qué ejercicios considera aplicables para desarrollar la creatividad? Creo que existen juegos que logran desarrollarla como el tangram, el origami, juegos de cuerdas, en general todo juego asociativo de imágenes y palabras son estimulantes; así mismo la geometría, el dibujo y la caligrafía son disciplinas que promueven el conocimiento como plataforma para un placentero desempeño creativo. Un espíritu lúdico es fundamental y una actitud creativa, indispensable.


¿Son los ambigramas una buena manera de desarrollar la creatividad? Después de estar involucrado en la investigación de este interesante tema creo sin duda que si. Creo que existe un universo ilimitado en el terreno de la ilusión que brinda un amplio campo al desarrollo del pensamiento, es una materia poco desarrollada y propicia para brindar nuevas fórmulas de expresión.

amén de la geometría y el dibujo. Siempre he sido un enamorado de la ambigüedad y la ilusión óptica, desde muy temprano en mi carrera, e incluso antes, sentí una fuerte atracción por el trabajo de El Bosco, Giovanni Bautista Piranesi, Archiboldo, De Bry, William Hogarth, RenéMagritte, Salvador Dalí, Peter Newell, H. M. Escher, Joseph Alberts, Oscar Reutersvärd, Bruno Ernst, Shigeo Fukuda, Gerd Leufert y M. F. Nedo, y en 1974 desarrollé un experimento de líneas no encerradas que propiciaban estímulos a una gestalt, en 1980 empecé a investigar un experimento al que llamé “Antiperspectivæ” como una forma inversa u opuesta de proyectar la perspectiva tradicional al suponer que el horizonte bien pudiese ser un plano de proyección anterior; una visión subjetiva del horizonte. Como observador su desarrollo me permitió analizar el fenómeno perceptivo y hacer una investigación teórica y práctica de una situación paradójica que riñe contra nuestra propia intuición en la decodificación del universo visual circundante. ¿Hay algún ambigrama que admires, o el que fue decisivo en el gusto que le tienes a la construcción de los ambigramas?

¿Por qué un ambigrama? ¿Desde cuándo te llamó la atención? Realmente no me había percatado concientemente de su existencia, si me había llamado la atención en los 90 el logotipo NewMan, mas desconocía que a eso se le llamara Ambigrama; hoy en día se que fue creado por uno de sus pioneros: el diseñador Raymond Fernand Loewy en 1969, siendo éste el cuarto ambigrama creado en la historia y el tercero del siglo XX. No fue hasta que vi hace un par de años el blog “Diseño Perú” de mi amigo y colega Gabriel Rodríguez, allí se mostraban los logotipos de la revista “Somos” y del Instituto “Tolouse Lautrec”, cautivado por este descubrimiento y gracias a las facilidades del Internet empecé un trabajo de investigación y práctica hasta sentir gradualmente un cierto dominio en esta materia que me permitió fusionar mis conocimientos de creación tipográfíca y desarrollo de logotipos,

Aire

Amigo

Realmente todo ambigrama logrado es digno de admiración, me encanta el de los fósforos “Chump” tengo predilección por los ambigramas en letras script, son excelentes los trabajos de Scout Kim, Robert Petrick y John Langdon. Decisivo y motivante sin duda el de la revista “Somos” cuyo autor desconozco. Realmente tengo curiosidad por conocer quienes fueron o son pioneros de esta disciplina en Latinoamérica, sólo conozco los trabajos del chileno Juan Pablo De Gregorio. El ambigrama se puede quedar sólo en ejercicio creativo o considera usted que se puede aplicar en logotipos, envases u otras piezas gráficas que sean funcionales y no solo estéticamente agradables. Lo primero que me llamó la atención, como comenté fue el logo de “Somos”, precisamente por mi interés en la identidad, veo amplias posibilidades dada la empatía de la gente por este tipo de curiosidades y creo que queda mucho terreno fértil e inexplorado en esa área. En 1990 durante mi gestión en Leo Burnett Publicidad utilizé una sonrisa que invertida era tristesa, fue un record la cantidad de gente que se vió motivada a voltear el anuncio de prensa y un éxito como campaña. Veo mucho terreno y futuro en el área de la ilusión para todo tipo de expresión visual, desde el arte a la comunicación. Si Joan Costa asevera que una marca debe tener profundidad psicológica, sin duda el ambigrama debe tener mucha pregnancia y lo más importante una alta persistencia en la memoria.

Diseño

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Sabemos que el reto del ambigrama creado con la tipografía, es la legibilidad. ¿Qué piensas de las personas que lo critican? Realmente el término tipografía; una vez derivado al tipo de metal, se ha hecho un génerico de letra, realmente a mi modo de ver es una forma de rotulación o caligrafía, que editado, sin duda logra ser ambigrama en la medida que su lectura sea inequívoca, si es confuso no creo que logre su misión, salvo que sea un ambigrama de múltiples lecturas. Las personas que lo critican o lo elogian lo hacen como convicción de su propia percepción y sobre eso es mejor no opinar. ¿Qué otros usos, aparte de logo, tendría un ambigrama en el área de diseño? Como titulares, es un reto por su capacidad de producir una o varias leturas, como rotulación para motion graphics y video clips, un terreno muy poco explorado pero rico en posiblidades. Además es de acotar que existen muchas variedades de ambigramas, los hay rotatorios de lectura variable desde 45, 90 o 180 grados, los hay de espejo que producen una o varias lecturas al se reflejados, los hay de figura y fondo cuando las contraformas sean ambiguas; existe otro tipo basado en el énfasis o grosores, los hay cinéticos y hasta fractales entre sus muchas alternativas.

¿Qué tan difícil es que la caligrafía, como recurso de la construcción del ambigrama, sea legible y fácil de entender? ¿Representa un problema o le da originalidad? Como todo trabajo de diseño requiere de un proceso y un análisis evaluativo, sin duda representa mucho más trabajo que una rotulación de lectura única cuya mayor dificultad sería la de buscar las letras adecuadas o resonantes con los signos o frase. El ambigrama requiere de una particular atención en las artimañas para engañar al ojo, estas responden a algunas premisas fundamentales: 1) El cerebro no ve letras, ve palabras, muchos engaños o artimañas se basan en esa simplicidad de la vista que no suele reparar mucho en detalles. 2) La mayoría de la palabras tienen su rasgos reconocibles en la mitad superior, en el caso de la mayúsculas sólo la Q es descendente, en las minúsculas los casos descendentes son mayores, como la “g, j, p, y, q, z” que suelen ser descendentes según su forma y estilo.

¿Qué ventajas crees que tiene ante cualquier otro logotipo común? Como comenté antes, creo en su capacidad de persistir en la memoria y eso ya es una forma de inducción a la persuasión.

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Historia

Kendy

Religión

Peace

Music


Signos

3) El cerebro no pone reparos si una misma letra se presenta de formas diversas siempre que estas sean legibles aunque estas se aparezcan simultáneamente, es posible combinar suertes de caja alta o baja combinadas o no y una infinita variedad de estilos que pueden combinarse indistintamente siempre y cuando no produzcan interferencias o ruido. El estilo suele mimetizar las diferencias. 4) El ambigrama se compone de muchos monogramas de dobles letras invertidas o de tríos como cuando una letra es ancha como la “m” o la “w”, estas unidades se entremezclan como enlaces permitiendo en casos la simulación de rasgos decodificables o esconder otros que no lo sean.

Ejemplo de ambigrama

5) El cerebro reconoce como letra aquello que le brinda semejanza, si algún trazo no se reconoce como tal se considera adorno y siempre que no existan interferencias que dificulten su lectura o decodificación. 6) Muchas letras según su estética son ambiguas de por si, ya sea en el espejo o al ser giradas, esa capacidad es mayor en unos estilos que en otros. 7) Las nociones constructivas de estilo, típicas de la correcta arquitectura tipográfica-caligráfica suele dar unidad y coherencia disimulando el engaño y maximizando su ambigüedad.

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FotografĂ­a Larissa Merzthal

Alumna Arte y DiseĂąo Empresarial Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola

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Inside African Fashion, a view from Botswana Interview by: Magno Aguilar Aida

Hi Shorn, thanks for the interview. We know that you are from Botswana; can you tell us how your country is? Well, it’s a landlocked country, about the size of France, bordered by South Africa to the south and east, Zimbabwe to the east, Namibia on the west, and Zambia to the north. With just under 2 million inhabitants, it has some of the most beautiful variety of wildlife, spread across the Kalahari desert, Okavango delta and many game reserves. How did you get into fashion design? I grew up in a clothes making family, my grandmother, aunts and mum were tailors by profession. So I learnt all the hands on aspects of the profession before studying formally. It was difficult? No, it was quite natural for me, growing up in an ambiance where there was so much opportunity to play and experiment textiles and dressing the human form. What inspired you to get into fashion design? The pleasure of making somebody’s life a little happier through a garment was just irresistible! What skills do you need to be a fashion designer? Well, to be able to conceptually transform two dimensional fabrics to a “second skin” form that will part cover the variegated human bodies is a must, to envision how the “dress” will behave and move as the person goes about their activities, the impact on the user and those that they will interact with. Which is your design philosophy? Manage the complexity to deliver simplicity, to be in touch with the regular person.

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Interview with : shorn molokwane Design Coordinator University of Botswana

What is creativity for you in fashion terms? Exploring different inspirations, cultural, natural etc‌, and integrating them into modern and present day lifestyles, successfully interpreting new styles for the progressive dress sense of our era. How important is the identity in any kind of design? It is very important, in that we always need to relate the work to some identifiable reference, be it a designer style, culture, era, etc. Which influences you get from your country? The mural decorations of traditional huts (called lekgapho la setswana in one of my languages), basketry patterns (inspired by nature, especially wildlife), traditional music and dance.., ah! many things. How do you think that fashion design have evolved in Botswana? I think fashion design is evolving well in Botswana. In the generation of my grandmother, the main activity was simple clothes manufacturing, mostly traditional clothes and uniforms. These people were self-taught. Now there are formal schools which teach design basics, fashion designers and businesses have been mushrooming, the fashion and textile market and even for export is growing, fashion conciousness on the street, in the office and at galas has taken on a twist of the modern look interpreting the traditional materials, which is exciting. Having said that, I think the glamour aspect is still to come. Being a Design Coordinator at University of Botswana. How do you think a student should be prepared? I think that besides having a formal education in appreciation and interpretation of form, sensitivity to materials and their manipulation, contextual understanding of design processes+outputs and relation to the society, the student should be a curious and interested student of all that surrounds him/her, continually integrating interesting aspects of the natural and man made world to inform their own growth as a young designer.

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What do you think about using animal fur in fashion world? I believe animals should not be killed for the fur, but fur may be harnessed as a secondary or tertiary product from animals, for example those killed for human sustenance. Are you against that? I for one am not against the use of fur, although I do not use it in my work. And before the sensationalist campaigners come after my hide, I am against cruelty to animals. Finally, what advice do you have for all the people who are interested in fashion design? It is an exciting, rewarding but highly competitive profession. Pack a lot of passion if you’re coming along. You will need a lot of perseverance, but with some creativity, open mind, resourcefulness, the other pieces for success in this industry usually come together during the journey.

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B. Shorn J. Molokwane hion and product designer, Shorn Molokwane is a fas ather &Textiles design at lecturing in Aesthetics, Le a since 1994, and runs his the University of Botswan ce in Botswana and Spain own fashion design practi ly orn has worked extensive for the past 10 years. Sh as tile tex the industries in with variegated creative cts, in projects, research du pro well as craft based tile rking in the family tex and teaching. After wo MA d die stu orn ge years, Sh business during his teena shion Design practice, at Fa s plu Industrial Design, d of Art and Design (UK) an the Birmingham Institute in ng lisi cia spe n Projects, Technological Innovatio d preciation at Universida Ap d an cs Product Aestheti Barcelona. Politécnica de Cataluña,

nal ed in design promotio Shorn has been involv h wit ng rki wo , since 1998 activities in Botswana di Oo e lik Os based NG the country’s best design tists, Botswana Craft, Ar l ua Vis g Weavers, Thapon promotional shows with plus leading and holding tural institutes like the other designers and cul o Botswana. Shorn has als Alliance Française in ws sho d an ns tio onal exhibi participated in internati al Design Festival in St. on ati ern like Biennale Int of ernational presentation Etienne, France (An int uth So ), rld wo ers of the 100 representative design d Pasarela Gaudi at the an s, ard Aw African Fashion l well as designs for nationa Spanish Fashion week, as ns. tio osi cultural exp theatre productions and


LUIS GUIZADO BENZAQUEN Cel: 9950-49661 Nextel: 98130*7650 guizo.contacto@gmail.com

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Artist, photographer doing what he feels Interview by: Isabel Bedoya How did you start in this world? I have been drawing and painting since I was very young and pursued my interest in art through college, I am a painter, photography came much later. Why did you specialize in photography? ¿In what area of the photography are you specialized? I don’t specialize with this. I paint, make collage and small sculptures from found material and sometimes make hand prints. Art is very interlinked in visual terms the medium will always reflect the artists’ interests and background. Many of my photographs are similar to my abstract paintings. What characteristics do you think a photographer should have? Any artist in any medium, in any place, requires both time and passion which is more like obsession and in my view these are linked to a lack of personal ego nothing is so good that it cannot somehow be made better of course at a certain point the passion takes on a different form and the artist does things so naturally that value judgments become irrelevant the work just is. What topics do you prefer to express in your work? The beauty of natural decay, the nature of Nature, making wonderful things without the effort attached to the “ego”. What do you think makes your work different from the rest? Everything has been done before the cave painting made by early man is as beautiful in every way as anything produced today I don’t think my work is so different from many others I don’t try to be “different” I just do what I feel. Do you work alone or with a team? Always alone What is the process that you follow to develop a photo? My images are digital of course. I sometimes use software to make changes but I’m not a digital artist.

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Do you retouch the photos? If you do so, what program do you use? Which is the technique that you mostly use to achieve the best picture? Keeping my eyes open. Which one do you prefer? Analog or digital camera, why? Both have advantages digital is easier but is lacking the depth of analogue, like listening to cd’s or vinyl neither our eyes or ears are developed to process digital work biologically that will take a long time to happen, if ever. How do you think your work contributes to today’s world? It doesn’t do anything other than please me and a few others we can count on our fingers the number of artists/photographers who have actually altered the perception of the community at large. What problems, difficulties encounter you every day when you have to take a picture? Very little this is what I do, and most people understand that even if many of them secretly think it is strange! Since I only work with natural light there can be some problems weather can be an enemy, but many good photographers have turned it to advantage. On what project are you working on now and what are your future plans? I am making an installation using very large prints and music there is some discussion about a book in 2010, as director of a cultural association I will be curating expos by others How do you see the future of the photographers? Technology is the constant factor and that is fine, as long as the software is not allowed to take the place of individuality. What are your recommendations for future photographers? Keep looking, keep listening, keep communicating, don’t try to copy, keep working and your passion will lead you to a place where you feel at home.


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Por: Luis Mora

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Fotografía Susana Tafur

Alumna Arte y Diseño Empresarial Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola

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Antoine Abi Aad

Visual transliterations of oral combinations of languages in Lebanon Interview by: Isabel Bedoya How was your inspiration for this research? I was a doctoral student in Japan and researching about the directions of writing in Japanese ads: the vertical and horizontal directions. I wanted to apply this in Lebanon, and due to the linear writing we use (be it through the Latin letters or Arabic), I did not want to write Arabic and latin letters vertically (it is not correct to write letters vertically). The common keyword was the direction, but instead of the vertical/ horizontal direction, I chose the right/left direction: right left with Arabic writing and left right with Latin letters through English and French languages. I started writing my name, connecting the Arabic to the French (e.g. Arabic Family name with French given names). Then my advisor, Professor Nishikawa Kiyoshi, recommended me to find solutions to every possible connection in order to be able to attach any Arabic letter to any Latin letter and vice versa. And this is how I started my research. Can you tell us something about “Visual transliterations of oral combinations of languages in Lebanon “? In Lebanon, people mix languages all the time. It is a characteristic of Lebanese colloquial speeches. Teachers in schools use trilingual communication, friends mix languages, and even a president of the republic finds it hard to speak one language without mixing it with one or the two others... It is just the way we talk. Then I thought: if the mixture of languages is so common in Lebanon, than why the mixture of the script is not? All the tendencies, through typography, are to harmonize the two systems of writing, or to confront them. I just want to mix them as we mix the languages they represent.

Connecting expressions meaning: how are you madame?

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Connecting expressions meaning: very fast computer.

Do you think when someone speaks two or three languages maybe could lost his or her identity? In our Lebanese history, which stretches from 5000 to 7000 years old, the mixture of languages is a heritage; we changed so many languages and writing systems during our relatively long history that mixture of language became genetic. Lebanese people, or the people who inhabited Lebanon during its history, spoke, knew, got familiar with, or mastered: English, French, Arabic, Turkish, Aramaic, Greek, Persian, Old Egyptian, Phoenician, Roman, and Mesopotamian… among other languages. Logically, passing from one language to the other creates a big mixture of languages that became our culture. So I may say that mixing languages in Lebanon is our Identity . Lebanon has received multiple influences since hundred years ago, so can you say which the Lebanese identity is in this era? It is difficult. Lebanon has always and will always be a mixture of cultures. It is the border between the sea and the land, between the east and the west, a roundabout between Asia, Europe and Africa. Lebanese people today are as Middle Eastern as Arabs, Francophones or Mediterranean. We share the characteristics of all these cultures, our culture could not be but a mixture. So our era today, as our Era yesterday, is a mixture of cultures, an identity of mixtures: we had the francophone games this year in Beirut, we already had the Arab games years before, Mediterranean (from Spain passing through Greece till Morocco passing through Egypt) events are frequent… and we feel the same toward all these groups. What is our Era today? A mixture as it has always been.


How is the world of design in Lebanon? Is it different from the rest? One should think of Lebanon as a gate rather than a country. Lebanon is one of the smallest countries in the world (10453 square Km). However, since the time of the Phoenicians, our ancestors, Lebanese have been spreading their culture around the world. In the 21st century, things did not change. Lebanese are still spreading around the world. One of their destinations is the Arabic Gulf: Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait, Qatar, KSA… in advertising companies in these countries Lebanese designers form a majority, and this is due to a reason: the Arabic language. We speak Arabic, but we equally speak English and French making the Lebanese a good link between the international advertising agencies (such as JWT, Saatchi, Leo Burnett etc.) and the Arab countries of the Gulf. Besides that, Lebanon as a crossroad between the East and the West is as Eastern as Western, and this is another asset we share to be good advertising designers in the Arab world. As for typography design, I will try to be brief,

Meaning: I bought a swimming suit.

Meaning: good night my love.

Meaning: my dad is a general manager in the Orient newspaper.

but it is worth mentioning it. Letters in Lebanon, evolved differently than in the world. While the typographic traditions started in the fifteenth century in Europe, typography is relatively young in Lebanon. Arabic letters were written by hand until the end of the nineteenth century. A reason was the handicap that the connected Arabic letters present through typography (the mechanical type, not the computerized), and another reason was religious. Being a part of the ottoman empire, Lebanon (as all the other Arabic countries of the Ottoman Empire) was banned to use typography for Islamic writing, since the Ottoman Sultan decided that typography is esthetically not worth writing Arabic religious text. Ironically, Arabic typography started in Europe (this is how we inherited the flipped punctuation system), and spread by the Arabic Christians, mainly Lebanese. This is why the first examples of Arabic typography are biblical texts. So earliest researches (or searches) of Arabic typography started in Lebanon, basically with the Christians that are called the Eastern Christians. Today, Lebanese typography is still leading the research of typography in the Arab world.

From Lebanon

How do you think your work contributes to your country? It will enrich our visual communication. It will show others what we have and what they don’t. Instead of being second to the west (in the best option) through their own culture, I am trying to be genuine, to communicate what Lebanese people use; it is just a visual mirror of the Lebanese society. Foreigners come to Lebanon to eat falafel and shawarma (local food), not to eat French cuisine. It is all about understanding. I think that we always have tendency to imitate the west and it is not a good solution (if it is a solution). I always give the example of the Iranians: when they communicated genuinely their own culture they amazed the world. The most famous Iranian who spread this recognition would be Reza Abidini; but today it became a style, and a lot of Iranian Designers are excelling and getting worldwide recognition. I would even say that they are followed rather than following.

What are your influences and sources of inspiration? My influences… well, my research is relatively young. I already taught 10 workshops in 7 universities in Lebanon and in Tunisia, and I am planning to spread this research furthermore. So I think it will take time to start spreading. I would love to work with Iranians, I think it would take another dimension! My inspiration, of course the Arabic calligraphy and other researches of letters (mainly Latin), but surprisingly, it is with the Chinese Calligraphy that I evolved my research. I took 3 years of Chinese calligraphy courses during my 7 years of studying in Japan (Japanese use Chinese characters) and it was through these courses that I learned about the rhythms of black and white, I learned how to write/ draw with the emptiness of the white rather than with the black ink… and other notions such as the harmony, the balance etc… that I try to apply in my research and I try to communicate it to my students. What was your most difficult project?

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It was the drawings that I did for a series of books to teach Japanese language. I had to make illustrations from Japanese characters, so each character of the 66 I did, had an idea and took me time to find 66 ideas. I don’t know if i should elaborate more here since it is out of context. But to answer your question in the other way: no, my connection research was the most difficult project. What was the your most rewarding project? “Nihonten”. A workshop followed by an exhibition that I did with my students 2 years ago. It was my Homage to Japan after coming back to Lebanon: I wanted to share some of the things I learned in Japan with my students so I decided to make a workshop to show Japan through the eyes of Lebanese (http:// www.posterpage.ch/exhib/ex201leb/ex201leb.htm). It opened the world to me. I made so many connections through this project. One of the connections was Prof. Langer. He worked on a similar project, Japanese/German cultural exchange. We had this similar project that led to a collaboration work, and then he introduced me to Prof. Vivanco, whom in his turn introduced you to me. So you are interviewing me now somehow because of Nihonten What are your recommendations for future designers? Be yourself. Illustrations made from Kanyi Hip

To turn

To hear

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To see

To ride

To go out

Antoine Abi Aad Personal Lebanese, born in Beirut, Lebanon, April 5, 1976 Address: Lebanon, Beirut, Achrafieh, Sioufi, Gebran bldg. Email address: t.a@japan.com Education 2007, March: Ph.D., Comprehensive Human Sciences, Art and design, University of Tsukuba, Japan 2004, March: Master of Arts in Visual Communication Design, University of Tsukuba, Japan 2000, December: DES in Advertising, ALBA, Beirut, Lebanon 1995, August: Lebanese Baccalaureate degree in Mathematics 1995, July: French Baccalaureate degree, scientific, Mathematics option Research and Teaching 2007, from October: Lecturer and Coordinator, Advertising and Graphic Design, ALBA, Lebanon 2009, February to June: teaching Advertising Design, Lebanese American University, Lebanon 2008, February to June: teaching Advertising Design, Lebanese American University, Lebanon 2007, April to 2008, January: Postdoc, Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan Publication A. Abi Aad; Visual transliterations of oral combinations of languages in Lebanon, Icograda, Oct. 2009 A. Abi Aad; A visual conversion of the mixture of languages in Lebanon, Patras University, to be published Hasegawa, N. Kobayashi, M. Ono; 『コロケーショ ンで増やす表現-ほんきの日本語-』, くろしお出 版, 2009 illustrations M. Boutros, Dot-Font: Talking About Arabic, pp.6063, Mark Batty Publisher, Jan. 2009 A. Abi Aad; Nihonten, Japan seen by Lebanese, exhibition booklet, ALBA, May 2008 A. Abi Aad; Connecting Arabic to Latin script, The science of Design, Bulletin of JSSD, 53, No 6, p.4554, 2006 A. Abi Aad; Characteristics of letters in Japanese Ads,Tsukuba Studies in Art and Design, 9, p.139147, 2005


Fotografía Solange Carlín

Alumna Arte y Diseño Empresarial Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola

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Ilustraci贸n: Francesco Grigoletto

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RENE WANNER

A POSTER COLLECTOR WHO HELPS DESIGNERS AROUND THE WORLD Interview by: Isabel Bedoya

RENE WANNER grew up in Zurich and studied in Switzerland, Canada, the United States and Germany, finishing with a PhD in experimental physics. During my professional life I have worked in pure and applied science, the army, in marketing research, crop protection, strategic business planning, database management and other projects too numerous to mention, none of them having anything to do with posters or graphic design. Although I covered the walls of my room with posters in my early youth already (to the despair of my dear mother), I only began to collect them - as a hobby - in large numbers in 1977 during a business trip. The story of my life as poster collector is the subject of my first web poster exhibition, which also shows the type of works that I collect. Since September 1997, I am in so-called early retirement (not quite voluntary), and spend my time on Rene Wanner’s Poster Page and various other poster activities, but I am neither a poster dealer, graphic designer, art historian nor journalist and run this page for fun, and at my own expense, so far. In addition to collecting posters, I also collect information on posters and their designers for a Poster Bibliography, an activity that brought me in contact with many poster centers and libraries and specialists and designers throughout the world. What is a poster, and how many types of posters do you think exists? Originally, a poster was a piece of paper, larger than about 20x30 cm, printed in several copies, usually with a picture and a message. Now the definition has expanded considerably, and I can no longer give a useful definition. There are many different types of posters, and new ones are appearing constantly: Commercial posters, movie posters, music posters, political posters, election posters, tourist posters, theater posters, propaganda posters, social posters, peace posters, religious posters, football and sports posters, self promotional posters, health posters, fashion posters, “I want a haircut like that” posters, internet posters that are never printed, anti terrorism posters, posters about disasters, sex posters, “My cat got lost” posters, exhibition posters, art reproduction posters, billboards, electronic posters, murals and posters as large as a house, posters presented at scientific conferences, interactive posters, 3-D posters, smelling posters, etc.

A poster should be understood by anybody without the important of culture or nationality? No, today very few posters are understood across culture, not even in the same country. Many posters are understood by nobody. Coca Cola and Toyota posters are an exception. Do you consider the poster a tradition or a necessity? Both Multi cultural, Social Inclusion, Eco Design, Slow Design are words that many designers are using as themes to create or make posters exhibitions. Do you think that visual communicators are taking the initiative to create a better world? Many try, and think they are saving the world, and most fail miserably. Do you think that visual communicators are turning into political life? Visual communication has sometimes a small influence on politics, but even very powerful graphic designers like Shepard Fairey were not decisive in electing Barack Obama, nor did the collective effort of all graphic designers prevent the election of George W. Bush. In your web page you promote many events about poster exhibitions. How was the reason that motivates this initiative? I like posters, people, the world, the internet, and projects that have a big impact with modest investments. And: “The reason I climb a mountain is because the mountain is there”. Can you tell us which international poster or biennials exhibitions are coming where designers from every part of the world can participate? Major exhibitions are listed on Posterpage http:// www.posterpage.ch/whatex09.htm, and also major international competitions http://www.posterpage. ch/compet/compsum.htm. I use Twitter to announce minor or local events. What are your future plans in the world of design? First clean up the mess on my desk, then save the world.

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ANKARA, BEIRUT, BELGRADE, BRUSSELS, BUENOS AIRES, CHUNGNAM, DERRY, GDANSK, HEIDELBERG, LA PAZ, LIMA, LISBON, LOSANGELES, MARRAKESH,

MILAN, MONTREAL, PARIS, QUITO, SEVILLE, STOCKHOLM, STRASBOURG, TBILISSI, VIENNA.

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Interview by: Carlos García Acha How important is the poster in these days? A poster can always transport a message easier and faster. It has the same power that an image. It’s a talkative tool and that helps. Why did you create POSTER4TOMORROW? Tomorrow is our very next and closest future. Tomorrow is ours right now. We don’t have to wait tomorrow to come. It’s already here, we can feel it, touch it and make it. To start so we chose poster. Tomorrow needs us, all of us.

A new international poster exhibition was opened at San Ignacio de Loyola University. The Art & Design programme due to the experience doing events related to posters was selected as the oficial organizer in Perú. The theme was FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION, celebrating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Bring to our students the opportunity to see what other designers around the world are doing is very valuable. At the same time they can appreciate different cultures gathered around the poster.

Where and how did POSTER4TOMORROW start? The project started at the beginning of the August in Paris , It has mostly to do with 10th Tehran International Poster Biennial, witch was under boycotting precess. Why is the most important reason to create a networking with designers from diferent places of the world? You cannot initiate an international move, without a network support! Good 50X70 was the key and access to this network. What is the best thing that you have ever achieved with this contest? Giving 100 selected posters the possibility of being seen all at the same time in 24 cities of the world! Do you think that POSTER4TOMORROW is changing our world? The world is too big to be changed by poster4tomorrow! The world is changing every second and need good ingredients to succeed, poster4tomorrow is at least one of them. How was POSTER4TOMORROW selection process’? After being surprised by receiving more than 1800 posters, by composing a pre-selection jury, and after

48 hours working, we left 900 posters to our Jury. They went trough an online jury and end up with a selection of 350 posters. Witch were printed for a live jury in Paris /Arts Décoratif on November 26th during day. What it´s coming now for POSTER4 TOMORROW? Lets wait and analyze this great and fantastic experience first! We need time to enjoy the JOY. What are your future perspectives with POSTER4 TOMORROW? Going trough “morethings4tomorrow”. What do you think is the principal reason to being a designer? Need to talk, create, communicate and promote ideas.


Article 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. 39


Av. La Fontana 550, La Molina - Lima, Perú Teléfono: 317 1000 - 3250

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www.usil.edu.pe

na! MAGAZINE  

Revista de diseño, realizada por los alumnos de la carrera de Arte y Diseño Empresarial de la Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola

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