Rutgers Equine Science Center's 2016 Annual Report

Page 1

2015 - 2016

Equine Science Center Annual Report

Table Of Contents

Welcome & Introduction 6



Meet The Staff


Educational Resource Kits


15 Years Of Excellence At The Equine Science Center


Focus Areas


Rutgers University Board For Equine Advancement


The “Community Of 50”

Getting To Know The Center

Supporting The Equine Community 28

Community Outreach & Engagement


2015 - 2016 Events

How Our Research Is Changing The Game 36

Center Funded Grants


Equine Health & Well-Being


Horse Racing


Environmental Impact

Academics 56

Revisions To The Animal Science Undergrad Curriculum


Changes To The Current Animal Science Courses


Veterinary School Acceptance For Graduates


Recognition Of “15 Years Of Excellence”


Doris C. Murphy & Ernest Bell Scholarships


Spirit Of The Horse Award


Gold Medal Horse Farm Award

Awards & Accolades

Welcome From The Center Since its inception, the Center has established itself prominently within state, national, and international equestrian communities through its research and outreach programs, strategic partnerships with state and federal agencies and private entities, dynamic website, and the widespread recognition and acknowledgement it has received as a result of the impact of its programs. The Equine Science Center is the force behind connecting invaluable research findings to the greater community and in promoting best management practices and knowledge to those caring for and working with horses. The Center is currently celebrating its 15 year anniversary of delivering “Better Horse Care through Research and Education”. I personally don’t know how those years flew by so quickly and as I look back I can proudly say that the Center has made a difference in providing the public with information on “everything equine,” worldwide. In this year’s report we are including a timeline of major research and outreach accomplishments by Center faculty, students and staff from the past 15 years.

Dr. Karyn Malinowski Director of the Equine Science Center

During the past academic year we hosted three new events. In September we hosted a ‘Welcome Back to Campus” barbecue for students interested in horses along with a lecture by internationally recognized equestrian Sally Ike.

Ms. Ike entertained the audience with her tales of traveling around the world with the U.S. Equestrian Team and provided aspiring equestrians with insight into making it to the ‘big time’. Sally was honored by the Center with its “Spirit of the Horse” award. In October the Center organized its inaugural symposium on legal, business and insurance issues impacting the equine industry. This symposium was the brainchild of RUBEA chair, Liz Durkin, who assembled a panel of speakers who were experts in their respective fields. This symposium was unique in that it was the first of its kind assembled specifically for horse and horse farm owners and not legal professionals. In November, we hosted the premier book signing event for the renowned scientific journalist Wendy Williams, author of “The Horse: The Epic History of Our Noble Companion”. Ms. Williams provided us with a fabulous lecture and images from around the world, taken as she researched the special bond between horses and humans for her book. Her lecture, “Can Horses Read?” gave attendees insight into the wonderful minds of horses. At our 2016 Summer Showcase, we kicked off our anniversary celebration with recognition from local, state and federal governments. The Center was presented with a Congressional Certificate from U.S. Rep. Donald Norcross (NJ-01), a Joint Legislative Resolution, sponsored by N.J. Senator Bob Smith and N.J. Assemblymen Joseph Egan and Joseph Danielsen, and a ceremonial proclamation from the Monmouth County Board of Chosen Freeholders, sponsored by Lillian Burry. By assembling diverse and multifaceted research teams, we are better equipped to thoroughly investigate equine issues that matter to our stakeholders and advance our mission. Center faculty and staff procured almost $625,000 in restricted grants and contracts during the 12 month reporting period; resulting

in four book chapters and 7 refereed journal articles. Because of the commitment from private donors, the Center was able to fund three graduate student research projects in the past fiscal year. We are also extremely grateful to the estate of Gwendolin E. Stableford with a bequest of over $835,000 which was used to endow an equine research fund in her name, guaranteeing the continuation of equine research at Rutgers University in perpetuity. In 2015 the Center debuted the first volume of equine educational resource series on vaccinations for horses. The resource package, designed by Kyle Hartmann, Center Public Relations Specialist is based upon the recommendations of AAEP and edited by Dr. Mike Fugaro and myself. Laura Kenny successfully defended her Master’s thesis dissertation investigating the benefits of rotational grazing, resulting from work funded by the Equine Science Center. We also were very pleased to present the Gold Medal Horse Farm award to Lord Stirling Stable for their continued commitment to environmental stewardship. Our friends at LLS reciprocated by hosting a fund raiser hunter pace on behalf of the Center in May. In order to continue to address the needs of our stakeholders the Center sent out in February a needs assessment survey. Results will be used to help chart our course in the years ahead. The needs assessment survey also resulted in a refereed journal article which can be viewed here. As you can see, the Rutgers Equine Science Center is poised to celebrate another 15 years of “Better Horse Care through Research and Education” in the years ahead! Best,


Dr. Kenneth H. McKeever Associate Director of Research

Ken joined the faculty in the Department of Animal Sciences at Rutgers University as an Associate Professor in 1995 and proceeded to build, develop, and coordinate one of the most active Equine Exercise Physiology laboratories in the country. Dr. McKeever earned the rank of Full Professor in 2009 and currently serves as Associate Director of Research for the Equine Science Center.

In 1978, Cook College established an equine science program as part of its Department of Animal Sciences. 8 The Equine Science Center

Meet The Staff

Dr. Carey Williams Associate Director of Outreach

Carey joined Rutgers University in July 2003 as its Equine Extension Specialist, and the Associate Director of Outreach for the Equine Science Center taking an active role in teaching, conducting research, and working with the equine and academic communities to ensure the viability of the horse industry in New Jersey.

The Equine Science Track within the Animal Science Major provides students with the basic knowledge and skills needed to manage commercial, veterinary, or research enterprises in the horse industry. 9


Dr. Kathleen Rahman Associate Director of Academics

Kathleen joined the faculty in the Department of Animal Sciences at Rutgers University as a Teaching Instructor in 2014. She exhibits a high level of enthusiasm and passion for Animal Science, teaching, and undergraduate advising. She currently serves as Associate Director of Academics for the Equine Science Center.

Horse enthusiasts and industry professionals benefit from the program’s research that is delivered to them through the successful outreach component. 10 The Equine Science Center

Meet The Staff

Kyle Hartmann Public Relations Specialist

Kyle joined the Rutgers Equine Science Center in 2014. Previously working for the university in another capacity, Mr. Hartmann was excited to bring his experience to this new opportunity. Since his start, the Center has seen multiple redesigns and changes on media projects and promotional items.

Research focus areas include: exercise physiology, aging, nutrition, environmental stewardship, and sustainability of the horse industry. 11


Vaccination Kits The Equine Science Center debuted part of its new educational resource series “Volume 1: Equine Vaccinations” in August at the New Jersey 4-H Horse Show. Giving away over 200 copies of the resource packages to each one of the participants of the show, the Center aimed to reach some of the best young equine competitors and enthusiasts in the state. Debuting this to a younger demographic in New Jersey, the Center now hopes to take aim at everyone who owns, or cares for, a horse. This first volume covers basic information about viral and bacterial diseases; vaccination schedules; and warnings, treatments, and prevention methods for “core” and “risk-based” diseases that commonly effect horses. The resource package was based upon the recommendations of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP), and was edited by the Equine Science

Center and Dr. Michael Fugaro of Mountain Pointe Equine Veterinary Services. While New Jersey is quick to respond to potential outbreaks, first-time owners might not realize some of the warning signs of these diseases. Without this knowledge they might not even know that their horse is infected, let alone know that they should report this to their veterinarian who would inform the Department of Agriculture. Some viral and bacterial diseases, considered “reportable diseases” in New Jersey due to their infection and/or mortality rate, must be reported in order to prevent the spreading of the disease. This is where the Center believes education will come in handy. Each resource package is made up of two pull out infographics (broken into “core” and “risk-based” diseases), as well as 9 cards detailing each of these diseases. On each card is information about the

For information about ordering a copy of the package, please visit: for prices and more information. 12 The Equine Science Center

Education Resource Kits

disease on one side, and “warning signs”, “treatment”, and “prevention” on the other. While owners won’t be able to self-diagnose their horse, they will learn what to look out for, and have a starting point for discussions with their vet if horses start displaying symptoms. New Jersey Equine Veterinarians are available to discuss with their clients which viral and bacterial diseases fall under this “reportable diseases” category, and create a vaccination schedule that hopefully will prevent an owner from ever having to go through that process. The best way to prevent these diseases is often vaccination and proper bio-security measures. 13


14 The Equine Science Center

15 Years Of Excellence At The Equine Science Center 15


16 The Equine Science Center

15 Years Of Excellence At The Equine Science Center 17

Getting To Know The Center

Getting To Know The Center

Focus Areas

In 2001, the Rutgers Equine Science Center set a course to become the first-call resource for equine health and management internationally, and the most effective proponent for the economic viability and sustainability of the horse industry in New Jersey. It has developed a team geared to deliver excellent science, applicable to both animal and human health.

20 The Equine Science Center

The focus areas of the Center were determined by its stakeholders in 2003 and are reaffirmed annually by meetings with our constituents and by needs assessment surveys. A role of the Center is to identify impending challenges for the equine industry and to utilize resources to address industry needs in a timely fashion, providing solutions that are science-based and unbiased in nature.

Equine Health & Well-Being We ensure the well-being and optimal performance of the equine athlete. The research of our faculty, graduate, and undergraduate students help carry out this mission by delivering cutting-edge science to horse owners and users around the world.

Land Use Policy & Management Living on the urban fringe poses great hardships to equine operators. The Center works closely with policy decision makers and organizations like the Farm Bureau to ensure sustainability of the horse industry in the Garden State.

Integrity of Equestrian Sport Our work not only helps level the playing field by developing tests for illicit substances, it also protects the horse by assessing the effect of certain agents post-exercise.

Economic Growth & Industry Sustainability We know that the future lies in the hands of our youth – Equine Science 4 Kids entices young people interested in horses to become equine scientists and the “Developing Future Leaders for the Equine Industry” course helps to shape these leaders.

Environmental Stewardship The Rutgers Equine Science Center’s environmental stewardship team leads the nation in developing best management practices that are practical and friendly to both the equine operator and the environment. 21

Getting To Know The Center

RUBEA Rutgers University Board for Equine Advancement

MISSION: RUBEA will become recognized as the advisory, advocacy, and fund-raising organization for the Equine Science Center, meeting the financial needs for its sustenance and growth. 22 The Equine Science Center

In 1992, a committee of stakeholders representing various equine interests formed the Equine Advisory Committee to support the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, formally known as Cook College. The committee secured from the New Jersey Legislature an allocation of $1.2 million in uncollected pari-mutuel winnings for the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station - of which $300,000 was used to support equine research and the facilities and operations of the Equine Science Center. Subsequently, $900,000 in funding to the Experiment Station for Strategic Initiatives was made a line item in the state budget. Unfortunately, in 2010 this line was removed. The Center now relies on the gifts and donations of generous donors and friends throughout the university, community, and beyond.

Board Members: Elizabeth Durkin Esq., Chair Sharon Ortepio, Vice Chair Sandy Denarski, Chair Emeritus David Meirs II, VMD, Chair Emeritus Taylor Palmer Jr., Chair Emeritus Ryck Suydam, Chair Emeritus Dylan Klein Thomas Luchento Karyn Malinowski, Ph.D. Hon. Cathy Nicola Max Spann, Sr. Warren Zimmerman

VISION: RUBEA seeks to assist the Rutgers Equine Science Center in its decisions regarding its equine teaching, research, and outreach; and to promote and support these activities through fund-raising and advocacy efforts. 23

Getting To Know The Center

Community Of 50 The “Community of 50 for Equine Excellence”

The Community of 50 works to: Impact policy maker’s decisions regarding the equine industry; Increase awareness of the value of horses to people around the world; and Provide new opportunities for groundbreaking research. 24 The Equine Science Center

Community Of 50 Members The “Community of 50 for Equine Excellence” is an open group of dedicated people and organizations that understand the importance of supporting serious scientific research and who also want to have a voice in policy-making as it affects horse farms and the horse industry in New Jersey. Members of the “Community of 50” are comprised of individuals, groups and commercial entities. They have committed to donating $10,000 per year for a total of five years. Currently, our 11 individual and commercial members will donate $550,000 to the Center for research and outreach activities.

Brad Benson Hyundai Sandy Denarski Dr. & Mrs. Stephen P. Dey, II Elizabeth Durkin Karyn Malinowski Fair Winds Farm - Mark and Laura Mullen New Jersey Department of Agriculture New Jersey Farm Bureau Standardbred Breeders and Owners Association of New Jersey UHM Properties Pamela Arena Weidel

If You Are Interested In Joining And Would Like More Information Please Contact: The Director of the Equine Science Center, Karyn Malinowski, Ph.D. | | 848-932-9419 25

Supporting the Equine Community

Supporting The Equine Community

Community Outreach & Engagement 28 The Equine Science Center

Community Outreach & Engagement refers to the process by which community organizations and individuals build ongoing, permanent relationships for the purpose of applying a collective vision for the benefit of a community. In the case of the Equine Science Center, our community is the equine industry and equine enthusiasts world-wide! Our annual stakeholder meetings begin the dialogue with leaders in the New Jersey horse industry where challenges impacting the industry are identified. The Center then conducts the research to address the challenges and, in partnership with the equine community, creates the messages and unification needed to ensure a strong horse industry. The Equine Science Center emphasizes outreach and consistently shares research results with the public and the equine industry. We are committed to reaching out to the equine community in a number of different ways including Center hosted events, Rutgers Cooperative Extension programs in every New Jersey county, 4-H Youth Development programs, and a series of horse management seminars, webinars, and field meetings, as well as academic equine science courses open to the public.

The Center’s website includes popular features such as the “Ask the Expert” page, archived webinars and podcasts, and virtual tours brimming with valuable information. “Equine Science 4 Kids,” is an online classroom featuring games, interactive activities, and a little horseplay for children of all ages. The Center uses social media effectively to “get the word out” to all interested in horses. Follow us on Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, and YouTube to catch the latest from “Everything Equine.” 29


2015-2016 Events

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 102 new photos from September to the album: 5th Annual “Open Space Pace” On a beautiful September Saturday the Rutgers University Equine Science Center spent a fun-filled day tabling at Freehold Raceway. #RUESC #EquineScience #15YearsOfExcellence #Horses

Rutgers Equine Science Center welcomes you to a review of all of the events we hosted & attended in: 2015-2016 at the Rutgers Equine Science Center Come take a look at just some of the many photos taken over the last year. From events that were hosted by the Rutgers Equine Science Center, to events that we attended in partnership with our friends and supporters from across New Jersey, we had a very busy year. Part of our mission is to provide “Better Horse Care through Research & Education”, and we do this by meeting with our constituents face-to-face to provide these equine enthusiasts with the most current and up to date information. Please join us as we celebrate our 15 Years of Excellence at the Equine Science Center! #RUESC #Rutgers #EquineScience #15YearsOfExcellence #Horses

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 14 new photos from October to the album: 2016 Equine Legal Symposium This symposium featured legal experts from the Tri-State area who spoke on “Legal, Business, and Insurance Issues Impacting the Horse Industry.” #RUESC #15YearsOfExcellence

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 24 new photos from July to the album: 2016 Summer Showcase The 2016 Rutgers Equine Science Center Summer Showcase was a huge success! Close to 100 people participated in the kickoff celebration of the Center’s 15year anniversary. #RUESC #Rutgers #EquineScience #15YearsOfExcellence #Horses

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 23 new photos from June to: Fair Winds Farm With more than 300 people in attendance, the day was packed with fun-filled activities for people of all ages. The Center tabled throughout the day and distributed “Equine Science 4 Kids” drawstring bags, that look like horses! #RUESC #Rutgers #EquineScience #15YearsOfExcellence #Horses

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 34 new photos from May to: Rutgers Equine Science Center’s 15th Anniversary Benefit: Hunter Pace/Trail Ride Hosted by Lord Stirling Stables, which won the 2016 Gold Medal Horse Farm Award this year, this Hunter Pace/Trail Ride was the first time that the Rutgers Equine Science Center has held a Hunter Pace. #RUESC #Rutgers #EquineScience #15YearsOfExcellence #Horses

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 63 new photos from May to the album: Unique Therapy Trial Connecting Horses and Veterans The Rutgers Equine Science Center completed a five-day data collection trial involving Equine Assisted Activities Therapy (EAAT) to measure the physiological indicators of stress and well-being in humans and horses. #RUESC #EquineScience #Rutgers

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 63 new photos from April to the album: Ag Field Day at Rutgers Day! The Rutgers Equine Science Center had a great time this weekend meeting people from all over New Jersey at Rutgers Day! We debuted our “Equine Science 4 Kids” sports bags to huge success. #RUESC #Rutgers #RutgersDay #EquineScience

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 6 new photos from April to the album: Thinking With Animals - SAS Interdisciplinary Honors Seminar Students from “Thinking With Animals”, a SAS Interdisciplinary Honors Seminar, visited the Equine Exercise Physiology Lab yesterday to get a “Hands-On” day for their seminar. #RUESC #Rutgers #Horses #EquineScience

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 1 new photo from March from: Rutgers Volleyball Recruitment Trip for HS Student Looks like the Equine Science Center will have a Rutgers top Women’s Volleyball recruit joining its herd. As a part of her recruitment trip, Kamila Cieslik, a High School junior from Tennessee, visited us, and then decided to come to Rutgers! #RUESC #Rutgers #EquineScience #Horses

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 5 new photos from March to the album: Our Week With The Douglass Externs We were pleased to host two Douglass Residential College program externs during spring break. Externs Arianna Quinones and Yvette Israel spent three days horsing around with Dr. Karyn Malinowski and her colleagues. #RUESC #Rutgers #EquineScience #Horses

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 5 new photos from March to the album: New Jersey Youth Institute of the World Food Prize Rutgers hosted the first New Jersey Youth Institute of The World Food Prize on March 4, 2016 in New Brunswick. The Equine Exercise Physiology Lab was selected as one of the optional tours, at which STEM education was emphasized. #RUESC #Rutgers #EquineScience #Horses #Science

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 2 new photos from March to the album: Visit to the Purnell School Take a look at Dr. Malinowski’s visit to the Purnell School on March 1st where she gave a presentation about equine research to the Animal Ethics class. #RUESC #Rutgers #EquineScience #Horses #Science

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 44 new photos from February to the album: 2016 Horse Management Seminar Hosted by the Rutgers Equine Science Center and Rutgers Cooperative Extension, the seminar drew in over 100 attendees and was one of the most successful seminars in recent years! #RUESC #Rutgers #EquineScience #Horses

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 45 new photos from November to the album: “An Evening of Science and Celebration” 2015 Our “Evening of Science and Celebration” was a successful night with almost 200 guests in attendance! Congratulations again to Lord Stirling Stables of Somerset County Park Commission, winner of the Gold Medal Horse Farm Award. #RUESC #Horse #EquineScience #Rutgers

Rutgers Equine Science Center added 21 new photos from November to the album: Book Signing with Wendy Williams We had a FANTASTIC turnout for the premier book signing and lecture by science journalist, Wendy Williams, author of the new book, “The Horse: The Epic History of Our Noble Companion”. #RUESC #Rutgers #Horses #EquineScience

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

Effects Of An Acute Bout Of Maximal Exercise Before And After Chronic Training, As Well As After Detraining, On The Unfolded Protein Response And Its Role In The Beneficial Adaptations Of Skeletal Muscle To Exercise In Mature Standardbred Horses PIs: Kenneth H. McKeever, PhD, FACSM, Tracy Anthony, PhD, and Dylan Klein

This research project aims to address the following stakeholder’s needs: horse health and integrity of equine sport. We propose to accomplish these aims by defining the impact of exercise training on the adaptive events within the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Specifically, we propose to characterize the unfolded protein response (UPR, also called ER stress response)

in response to an acute incremental exercise test (GXT) both before and immediately following 16 weeks of chronic exercise training, as well as after a period of detraining in Standardbred horses in order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate the hormetic response of equine skeletal muscle to exercise. The UPR is activated in various inflammatory conditions and metabolic disease states in an attempt to regain cellular homeostasis.

The purpose of this experiment is to define the response of skeletal muscle, at the cellular level, to exercise. 36 The Equine Science Center

Center Funded Grants

Furthermore, recent studies in the skeletal muscle of mice and humans identify activation of the UPR as germane to the beneficial adaptive response to exercise and exercise training. Data generated by this research will contribute importantly to the field of equine health and performance by clarifying the relationship between the

UPR and muscular work in the Standardbred horse. By understanding this adaptive process, novel nutritional and training interventions can be designed to improve the health and longevity of the horse, as well as increase its performance as an elite athlete. Further, findings can potentially be translated to the health and longevity of the human athlete as well.

By understanding the adaptive process of muscle to exercise, training interventions can be designed to improve horse performance. 37

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

Effect Of Acute Exercise And Exercise Training On The Equine Microbiome PIs: Kenneth H. McKeever, PhD, FACSM and Ali Janabi, DVM

Exercise has a significant effect on different physiological systems in the body of humans and animals. Only limited numbers of published studies in laboratory animals or humans have shown the effect of exercise on the gut microbiota, and no studies have been conducted to show this effect in horses. In this study, 8 horses (4 mares, 4 geldings) were exercise trained for 12 weeks, and 4 additional mares were used as a parallel seasonal control. To identify bacterial community changes over time for both groups, rectal fecal samples were collected, DNA was extracted, and the 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4) was sequenced using the IIllumina Miseq platform.

The exercise training group showed significant changes in the levels of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes phyla, while there were no changes in the gut microbiota of the seasonal control group through the three months of the study. Moreover, two genera significantly changed in their relative abundance over time, namely Clostridium and Dysgonomonas. Dysgonomonas spp. was significantly changed in abundance during the exercise training period. Treponema spp. showed significant changes during the exercise training period. Shannon diversity index was significantly decreased in the exercise group at the beginning of the study, but

Exercise may have a significant impact on the horse’s gut microbiota. 38 The Equine Science Center

Center Funded Grants

then returned to pre-training levels. Principle coordinate analysis showed significant separation between time points of the exercise training group as far as the levels of genera and species represented.

These results suggest that exercise training influences the gut microbiota especially at the beginning of training.

Results demonstrate that the equine gut microbiota is changed at the beginning of training but returns to pre-exercise levels shortly after the onset of training. 39

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

Impact Of The Type Of Grazing System On Forage Carbohydrates And Horse Metabolism PIs: An V. Le, Laura B. Kenny, Amy O. Burk, Carey A. Williams There has been research showing the benefits and drawbacks of rotational (R) versus continuous (C) grazing in livestock. Due to the horse’s unique grazing behaviors, data derived from studies using other livestock cannot be applied to horses. Equine grazing affects the health of the horses and pasture. There has been a lack of research conducted on the nutritional impact in horses grazing on different pasture systems. The objective of this project was to determine the effects of different grazing systems on forage carbohydrate fractions and on glucose dynamics by evaluating plasma glucose and fecal pH in horses grazing either C or R systems. The hypothesis was that in R systems, the taller grasses would contain higher fiber/lower sugar fractions

and therefore the horses grazing R systems would have a lower glucose response than those grazing C systems. This project was conducted at the Rutgers University Ryders Lane Best Management Practice Demonstration Horse Farm using a replicated C and R system, each consisting of 1.6 ha. Horses in the C systems had access to all areas of the pasture, a run-in shed, hay feeders and a water source. Horses in the R systems utilized a central sacrifice area, which contained a run-in shed, hay feeders and a water source and then were allowed access to one of four smaller pastures. Only one pasture was accessible at a time, allowing grasses to rest and regrow between grazing bouts. The trial took pace in June 2015, on previously established Camas Kentucky bluegrass, Potomac orchardgrass and

This work determined the effects of different grazing systems on forage carbohydrate and on equine plasma glucose. 40 The Equine Science Center

Center Funded Grants

Jesup MaxQ endophyte-friendly tall fescue pastures. Twelve mature Standardbred mares were split into four groups and assigned to either a C or R system. Horses were housed for 12 hrs overnight in stalls prior to sampling and fed a moderate quality grass hay to meet half of their daily requirement. The first sample of blood, forage and feces was taken at 0800. Samples were collected every four hours thereafter. Blood was collected through jugular catheters, aliquoted for plasma and serum and stored at - 80ÂşC until further analysis. Hand-clipped forage samples were analyzed for acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ethanol soluble carbohydrates (ESC), water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and starch. There were no significant differences in the ADF, NDF, starch, WSC or ESC between treatments. Overall, plasma glucose was higher in the C horses compared to the R horses. The C horses had a corresponding lower fecal pH compared to R horses. Our hypothesis was supported for glucose response; however, there were no differences in sugar fractions between systems. Further analysis of data (insulin concentration) and more trials are needed to give a more complete picture of the relationship between forage carbohydrates and

horse metabolism in response to grazing systems. In addition, another objective of this study was to quantify the effects of rotational and continuous grazing systems on horse metabolism and sugar content of the grasses, and to share these effects with the scientific community and the horse-owning public. This project resulted in the successful defense of Laura Kenny’s Master’s thesis in 2015.

Plants showed no difference between type of grazing strategy and sugar fractions in the grass. 41

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

Equine Science Center Announces Unique Therapy Trial Connecting Horses And Veterans Suffering From Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PI: Karyn Malinowski

In April, 2016 Center Director Karyn Malinowski and SEBS students partnered with Special People United to Ride (SPUR), Sunnyside Recreation Area (a division of the Monmouth County Park System), Monmouth University, and the Lakewood Veterans Affairs to conduct a five-day data collection trial involving Equine Assisted Activities Therapy (EAAT) to measure the physiological indicators of stress and well-being in humans and horses. While many research studies have been conducted looking at the impact of EAAT on humans, very few have looked at the effect on the therapy horses.

This trial is the G.H. Cook Honors Project of Michael Yee who is a senior at SEBS. It marks the first time that oxytocin, an indicator of well-being and bonding, will be measured in horses after interaction with humans. Plasma samples were processed over the 2016 summer months, correlated with other measurements taken (such as heart-rate in humans, and heart-rate variability in horses) to see if there is evidence of a positive impact of EAAT on both humans and horses.

This research is the first of its kind to investigate the effect of EAAT on the horse. 42 The Equine Science Center

Equine Health & Well-Being

This will be the first time oxytocin (a hormone of well-being) to be measured in horses. 43

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

The Effect Of Oxidative Stress During Exercise In The Horse PI: Carey A. Williams

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance of the oxidant to antioxidant ratio in the body. Research involving oxidative stress in horses has been a focus of the Williams’ laboratory for almost a decade. An increase in oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant status has been shown during endurance, intense exercise, and eventing competition in horses. Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, and protein that must be synthesized in the body or obtained from the diet. Therefore, exercise level and diet are both factors that play a role in influencing the oxidative stress and antioxidant status of the equine athlete. Along with exercise intensity, duration and diet, age and conditioning programs also affect oxidative stress in the horse.

The “free radical theory of aging� states that longterm effects of the degenerative changes associated with aging may create oxidative stress. However, in old horses (20 - 24 yr), the amount of lipid peroxidation and blood antioxidant concentrations were found to be similar to those found in mature but younger (10 - 14 yr) horses. Williams and her students hypothesized that young, growing horses may require dietary intervention to help combat oxidative stress to the extent of older horses. Studies conducted at Rutgers demonstrate that female yearlings (16 - 20 mo) did not begin their exercise training with higher levels of oxidative stress in muscle or blood when compared to mature mares (11 - 15 yr). Prior to exercise conditioning, yearlings had lower lipid peroxidation and higher antioxidants than mature

Exercise and diet are factors that influence oxidative stress in horses. 44 The Equine Science Center

Equine Health & Well-Being

mares. Conditioning reduced oxidative stress and improved antioxidant status in mares, while few effects were seen in yearlings. This suggests that age alone was the biggest defense against oxidative stress after exercise. Other studies during competition (endurance, jumping, eventing, and racing) have investigated the influence on oxidative stress with varying results.

Even though there have been many studies examining the levels of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and other related metabolites in the horse during exercise, there still exists many unanswered questions as to the role antioxidant supplementation plays in managing equine athletes.

Age alone was the biggest defense factor against oxidative stress after exercise. 45

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

Hydration, Feed Intake, And Fecal Output In Horses Fed Hay Biscuits, Blocks, And Long-Stem Hay PIs: Carey A. Williams, Laura B. Kenny, and H. Anderson

The objective of this study was to test three different sources of forage on horse hydration, water intake, manure output, fecal moisture, body weight, and total forage consumption. Twelve Standardbred mares aged 14 years were used in a crossover design experiment. Horses were randomly assigned to one of three groups with treatments including hay biscuits, hay blocks, and long-stem moderate quality grass hay. Horses were fed their respective treatments in both stalls (4:00 PM – 8:00 AM) and paddocks (8:00 AM4:00 PM) daily, free-choice or up to 3 percent body weight.

The biscuits and blocks had water added according to manufacturer recommendations. Horses were fed and data collected for five days followed by a ten day washout period where horses were maintained in paddocks and fed only long-stem hay. Feed intake, water consumption (water in buckets plus water added to feed), manure output (feces minus urine was collected from non-bedded stalls), and fecal moisture were collected during the stalled portion of the day only. Horse bodyweight, body condition score, and packed cell volume (PCV) were taken on the mornings of days one and five of each collection period. There were no differences in PCV over the course of

Horse hydration status is important for good health and well-being. This research tested three difference forage sources on hydration status. 46 The Equine Science Center

Equine Health & Well-Being

the study. The block group lost weight after the five day collection while the biscuit group gained and hay group maintained body weight. This could be due to the lower average feed intake observed over the five day collection by the block group, compared with hay and biscuit groups. Water intake over the collection period was higher in the biscuit vs. the block and hay groups. The average manure produced during the overnight collection period was different between the groups

with the biscuit group being the highest and the block group being the lowest with the hay group falling in the middle. However, fecal moisture was not different between treatments. In conclusion, when horses were fed free choice forage the commercially available hay biscuits with water added created higher water and feed intake, which could be beneficial in feeding older horses or during times of stress, traveling or winter conditions where water consumption and weight loss is a concern.

Feeding hay biscuits with water resulted in higher water and feed intake, which is important when water consumption is a concern. 47

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

Horse Racing

48 The Equine Science Center

Equine Health & Well-Being In September, 2015, the Equine Science Center partnered with the University of Minnesota’s Equine Genetics Laboratory in procuring blood samples from over 700 Standardbred horses in New Jersey and New York for a new group of studies aimed at identifying genetic factors underlying musculoskeletal diseases in horses. The studies will also look at performance traits, such as gait and speed, and how a horse’s genetic makeup affects these traits. Sampling done in New Jersey took place at Gaitway Farm in Manalapan Township, Joie de Vie Farms in Jobstown, Winner’s International Farm in Chesterfield, and White Birch Farm in Allentown. Sampling was also done in New York at Split Brook Farm in Hurleyville and at Ray Schnittker Racing Stable in Goshen. The Equine Science Center was proud to be able to show our colleagues from Minnesota some of the best Standardbred horses in the country. Sampling in New Jersey and New York took place from September 10th to September 13th, and will be added to a larger sampling conducted by the University of Minnesota team. The first results of these studies should be available in a 12-18 month timeframe. Broken into four distinct studies, the

researchers will examine the genetic risk factors for recurring exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) and osteochondritis dissecans (OC/OCD), and will investigate modifying loci associated with trotting and pacing and those affecting performance in Standardbred horses. When the genetic risk factors contributing to OCD and RER are found, better treatments and management recommendations can be designed for those horses. Researchers also hope that identifying the genetics that contribute to traits such as gait, speed, and elite performance will allow trainers, breeders, and owners of Standardbred horses to breed for desirable traits, select the best racing prospects, and train Standardbred horses to their fullest genetic potential.

This research aims to identify genetic factors underlying musculoskeletal diseases in horses. 49

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

Effects Of Rotational Versus Continuous Grazing On Horse Condition And Plant Performance PIs: Laura B. Kenny, Amy O. Burk, and Carey A. Williams

This project is a collaboration with Amy Burk from the University of Maryland. Rotational grazing is often recommended but not widely adopted by horse operations in the Northeast United States. In addition, equine specific research is lacking as to the benefits of rotational compared with continuous grazing. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of rotational and continuous grazing systems on horse health and vegetative performance. Two continuous systems were established with shelters, feeders, and waterers. Two rotational systems were established with 4 rotational pastures and a stress lot containing a shelter, feeder, and waterer.

Twelve mature Standardbred mares were used with 3 horses in each system for a stocking rate of 0.52 hectares per horse. Rotational horses were allowed to graze a pasture when forage height was 7.6 cm and confined to the stress lot and fed hay when forage height was less than 7.6 cm or during inclement weather. During those times, horses were fed to meet or exceed NRC requirements using grass hay fed at 2% BW along with concentrate during the winter months. Horse condition was assessed by monthly BW, BCS, and rump fat as measured by ultrasound. Plant performance was assessed monthly by

This work compared horse health benefits of rotational versus continuous grazing systems. 50 The Equine Science Center

Environmental Impact

estimating vegetative cover composition, herbage mass, and sward height. Out of 184 days, horses in the continuous systems grazed 184 days, where rotational horses grazed for 97 days. During the winter months, the continuous system horses were offered less total hay than the rotational horses. System had no effect on horse condition; however BW, BCS, and rump fat differed between each month (highest in September to November and lowest in January). Sward height differed between months, grazing system, and their interaction, where in each month except for November, the rotational system had higher sward heights than the continuous system. Herbage mass varied with month, but not by system. Ground cover consisted of a higher percent of grasses and lower percent of litter/bare ground in the rotational system as compared with continuous. In conclusion, despite differences in grazing days and amount of hay offered, horse condition was similar between systems. Rotationally grazed pastures resulted in taller forage

heights, but with no difference in dry matter available to horses during the study. We would expect to see more differences between treatments during the following grazing season.

Type of grazing system had no effect on horse condition in this study. Horses did lose body weight and rump fat during winter months. 51

How Our Research Is Changing The Game

Environmental Impacts Of Equine Operations The Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states are home to more than 428,000 horses, ponies, and mules living on about 65,000 farms. These farms can have far-reaching environmental effects. Poor horse pasture and trail management combined with heavy horse hoof traffic can lead to problematic soil erosion. Runoff can carry eroded sediment and pollutants (like nitrogen, phosphorous, and bacteria from horse feed, manure, and bedding) off the farm and deposit them in nearby soils and bodies of water. Each horse produces approximately 50 pounds of manure per day, for a total of over 3.9 million tons of manure in the region each year.

To avoid the cost of disposing of waste off the farm, many horse owners apply manure to pasture and hay fields. Because horse stall manure often contains bedding material and parasites, over-applying manure can limit the growth of pasture grasses and hay. Horse owners need affordable, environmentally friendly alternatives for waste disposal. With nutrient analyses of different kinds of forage, farmers would know how to better meet horses’ dietary needs and minimize excretions of excess nutrients. The impacts of horse farms can spread far beyond the individual farm, affecting the surrounding area’s soil, water, and air quality.

Horse farms in the Northeast can have far-reaching environmental effects. 52 The Equine Science Center

Environmental Impact

NE-1441 USDA Regional Project Project Leaders The NE-1441 USDA Regional Project, Environmental Impacts of Equine Operations, began its second five-year project cycle in 2014. This group, led by Rutgers faculty members Michael Westendorf and Carey Williams, as well as more than 15 scientists at other institutions, conducts research and outreach concerning the impact of horses and farm management upon the environment and water, air, and soil quality. At its 2014 annual meeting the group reviewed objectives on the new project and assigned leadership for each objective.

Pasture and Grazing Management: Carey Williams Manure Storage: Mike Westendorf Feeding Management Effects on Manure Characteristics: Bridgett McIntosh Stable and Housing Facilities, Air Quality: Ann Swinker and Betsy Greene Other BMPs: Krishona Martinson Determine Impact of Programs, BMP Adoption: Rebecca Bott and Rebecca Splan

The NE-1441 USDA Regional Project is a multi-state effort to help horse farm owners be good environmental stewards. 53



Revisions To The Animal Science Undergraduate Curriculum In 2015 the Curriculum Committee, comprised of Drs. Kathleen Rahman (Chair), Wendie Cohick, Carey Williams, Sarah Ralston, Barry Jesse, and Carol Bagnell, was charged with updating and revising the undergraduate Animal Science program. The 2015-2016 academic year was busy for the committee as several major changes were implemented. Starting this past Spring semester, the Companion Animal Science, Endocrine Physiology and Health Science, and Equine Science minors were no longer offered and the single, Animal Sciences minor was revised to include all elective courses under the old minor curricula.

To be in compliance with SEBS Program Assessment, a new, comprehensive assessment of all Animal Science courses was designed, approved by departmental faculty, and implemented for the 2015-2016 academic year. As part of this annual assessment, a new Senior Exit Survey was drafted and circulated to graduating seniors. Results revealed that over 90% of students were happy selecting Animal Science as their major and rated the quality of our teaching as high. Over 85% of students agreed that our program was challenging and prepared them well for future career plans. After graduation, the majority of students were planning on attending veterinary school (40%) while

To learn more about the undergraduate and graduate program visit: 56 The Equine Science Center

others were seeking employment (37%). Of those seeking employment, the majority of students were interested in veterinary or research technician positions within private veterinary clinics, pharmaceutical companies, or government organizations. Furthermore, novel SEBS policies on experiencebased education led the committee to design, receive faculty approval, and implement stricter guidelines for the Research and Studies in Animal Science courses. To advance our curriculum offerings, two new courses were approved and placed on the Master Course List: Animal Assisted Therapy and Horse Management

Laboratory. Animal Assisted Therapy, with Professor Jennifer Tevlin, was such a success in the Fall semester that it is now offered in the Spring semester as well. Horse Management Laboratory, with Dr. Elias Perris, is new for this Fall 2016 semester, but already seems promising as the course closed within the first days of registration. Additionally, Dr. Perris became the sole course professor for Advanced Equine Health Care and Management, taking over for Dr. Mike Fugaro. As a matter of fact, the students marked this advanced equine class as being a favorite among the courses offered in the Spring 2016 semester. 57


Changes To Current Animal Science Courses The introductory Animal Science course underwent an overhaul in the 2015-2016 academic year to include new lectures as well as additional trips to the Cook Campus farm. As a matter of fact, a new lecture on the Horse Industry was presented by the Equine Science Center’s Director, Dr. Karyn Malinowski! Careers in Animal Science transformed from a one-credit course to a three-credit offering that dispels students’ stereotypes of careers in the animal science field, prepares students for interviews, and creates a myriad of career-networking opportunities. Technology and social media are making their way into our Animal Science classrooms with instructors using programs such as Adobe Connect to hold online

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review sessions/meetings and Facebook to allow students to actively share articles, video clips, pictures, and thoughts on topics covered in class. Dr. Marshall Stern, a speaker from the University of Minnesota, inspired the faculty with his seminar talk titled “Using Innovative Teaching Methods and Technology to Enhance Learning by Undergraduate Students”. The Department is now seeking to convert some courses, like Animal Science, to an online format with guidance from Dr. Stern. Overall, this is a dynamic time for the Department and the Undergraduate Program as there are new and exciting changes underway. The 2016-2017 academic year will surely be a success!

Veterinary School Acceptance For Graduates A total of 70 students graduated from the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences (SEBS) majoring in Animal Science. Of those Animal Science students, 36 concentrated in Prevet Medicine/Research, 16 in Companion Animal Science, 11 in Laboratory Animal Science, four in Equine Science, and three in Production Animal Science. Further, six Animal Science 2016 graduates successfully completed and defended a George H. Cook Honors Thesis.

A total of ten Animal Science majors from the Class of 2016 and three students from previous years were accepted to a College of Veterinary Medicine for Fall 2016. In addition, one student from the Class of 2016 was accepted into medical school. Several Senior Scholarship awards were given to graduating seniors. These included, three Departmental Senior Awards for excellence in research, service, and academics and one Rex Gilbreath award for a student demonstrating excellence in academics and swine research. 59

Awards And Accolades

Awards and Accolades

Recognition Of “15 Years Of Excellence”

In recognition of the Equine Science Center’s contributions to the New Jersey Horse Industry and its “15 Years of Excellence”, it was presented with a Congressional Certificate from U.S. Representative Donald Norcross (NJ-01), and a Joint Legislative

62 The Equine Science Center

Resolution, sponsored by N.J. Senator Bob Smith and N.J. Assemblymen Joseph Egan and Joseph Danielsen. The Center was also honored with a ceremonial proclamation from the Monmouth County Board of Chosen Freeholders, sponsored by Lillian Burry.

The Doris C. Murphy Endowed Scholarship

Ernest Bell Memorial Scholarship

The Doris C. Murphy Endowed Scholarship in Equine Science was created to honor the memory of a woman who loved animals. Shortly before Ms. Murphy’s death in 1998, she contacted her financial advisor Kate Sweeney and expressed her desire to support animal science education. Ms. Sweeney, a Cook College alumna, suggested the equine science program as an appropriate beneficiary. Similarly to Ms. Murphy, Kate is also very supportive of women’s education. The endowed scholarship is offered to female undergraduate students majoring in Animal Sciences with an equine science interest. Students must have a financial need and also be a New Jersey resident. The scholarship recipients for 2015-2016 were Ruleena Barreto & Kelly Hogan.

Alyssa Lehman, a senior at the Rutgers’ School of Environmental and Biological Sciences (SEBS), was presented with the Ernest C. Bell Memorial Scholarship for 2016 by the New Jersey Department of Agriculture. The award, presented by Dr. Carey Williams, recognizes outstanding scholarship and commitment to the New Jersey horse industry. The Ernest C. Bell Memorial Scholarship Fund was established to perpetuate Mr. Bell’s memory and legacy in the New Jersey Horse industry. The scholarship is awarded to a senior at SEBS who is majoring in Animal Science with an emphasis in Equine Science. The recipient must be a New Jersey resident and demonstrate a high level of scholastic achievement, involvement with New Jersey’s horse industry, and financial need. 63

Awards and Accolades

Sally Ike Honored With Rutgers “Spirit Of The Horse” Award The Equine Science Center at Rutgers University was proud to name internationally renowned equestrian, Sally Ike, as the 2016 recipient of the “Spirit of the Horse” award. The “Spirit of the Horse” award recognizes individuals whose lives have been profoundly changed because of their involvement with horses and who have acknowledged the impact by giving back to the horse industry. Sally Ike is internationally for her roles as an Olympic Games competitor, USET’s and now USEF’s Director of Three-Day Eventing and Show Jumping Activities. In 2013 Sally transitioned out of the sport aspects

64 The Equine Science Center

directly to become USEF’s Managing Director of Education and Licensed Officials. “The Spirit of the Horse Award is very meaningful to me because it recognizes people whose lives have been profoundly changed because of their involvement with horses. Without a doubt, I am that person,” said Sally Ike. “My whole life has been wonderfully rewarding because of my involvement with this marvelous animal and the places it has taken me. It is especially significant that this award is through the Equine Science Center at Rutgers; my hope is that my experiences will inspire young people to, like me, follow their passion because you just never know where it will take you.”

Lord Stirling Stable Receives The 2015 Gold Medal Horse Farm Award The 2015 winner of the Gold Medal Horse Farm award was Lord Stirling Stable, part of the Somerset County Parks Commission System, located in Basking Ridge. The award and overall program gives recognition to outstanding equine farms for their dedication to environmental sustainability and management. It also underscores the efforts of the New Jersey equine industry to maintain the beauty of the Garden State. Established in 1968, Lord Stirling is located on the site of the former John Jacob Aster estate within the Great Swamp Watershed. Home to 80 horses and

ponies, Lord Stirling Stable serves the recreational equestrian needs of Somerset County residents and other nearby counties. A large effort has been made by staff and management to increase natural resource conservation awareness through implementation of environmentallyfriendly equine best management practices. Lord Stirling Stable was given the award from the Equine Science Center at Rutgers University during its annual “Evening of Science & Celebration� on November 12th, 2015. 65

The work that we do wouldn’t be possible without the amazing student staff & volunteers who are a part of our Rutgers Equine Science Center family.

A very special thanks to them for all that they do to make each event a success, and for helping to make the Equine Science Center what it is today!

Better Horse Care through Research and Education Serving the Equine Community World-Wide Acknowledgments: Equine Science Center Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Administrative Services Building II 57 US Highway 1, South New Brunswick, NJ 08901

Produced by: the Rutgers Equine Science Center Designed by: Kyle Hartmann - Public Relations Specialist Photography provided by : Bill Denver - EQUI-PHOTO, INC. Michael Lisa - Lisa Photo, Inc. Rutgers Equine Science Center Photo Library

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