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History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

History of Rush University Rush University Medical Center (RUMC) is an academic medical center that encompasses a 613-bed hospital serving adults and children, the 61-bed Johnston R. Bowman Health Center, as well as Rush University. Unlike most academic medical centers, RUMC owns the university rather than the hospital being owned and operated by the university. With our teacher-practitioner faculty model, this approach allows students to be educated in an environment which thoroughly grounds them in both the academic and clinical aspects of their respective professions. Founded in 1972, the University has expanded from one college and fewer than 100 students to four colleges and over 1,300 students. It now includes Rush Medical College, the College of Nursing, the College of Health Sciences, and the Graduate College. The Armour Academic Center building was opened in 1976 and became the location for laboratories, lecture hall, the library, the learning resource center (media library, academic computing, and classrooms. This building today now also houses student services, college offices, and study rooms. In 2003, the Medical Center officially changed its name to Rush University Medical Center (from RushPresbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center) to reflect the important role education and research play in its patient care mission. The history of the university extends much further back, however, to the founding of elements of the colleges of medicine and nursing. The Colleges: Rush Medical College is named for Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, who was a physician from Pennsylvania. He became a medical and humanitarian leader after the Revolutionary War. George Washington was one of his patients. Dr. Rush pioneered advances in psychiatry and published papers and books about alcoholism. Daniel Brainard, M.D., a New York native educated in Philadelphia, founded Rush not long after his arrival in the village of Chicago. Rush Medical College, like its city, gained its charter the first week of March 1837. It opened officially on December 4, 1843, with 22 students enrolled in a 16-week course.

Daniel Brainard 1812-1866 (Photo: 1847)

Following the 1871 Great Chicago Fire, Rush abandoned its destroyed campus and built anew in the west side neighborhood it occupies today. In the manner of most medical schools in the 1800s, Rush was a

proprietary institution owned and operated by a group of physicians who had joined Dr. Brainard in establishing practices in young Chicago. Presbyterian Hospital, Rush’s teaching hospital, opened in 1884. Within fifteen years, it became the important teaching hospital the faculty had envisioned when they convinced the Chicago leaders of that religious group to organize that facility.

Photograph Collection; Rush University Medical Center Archives, Chicago, IL (RUMC Archives).

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History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

During the nineteenth century, Rush grew with its dynamic city. By the end of that century, Rush was among the nation's largest and most distinguished medical schools. Following a decade-long academic affiliation with Lake Forest University (now college), Rush's faculty "proprietors" accepted a proposal in 1898 to affiliate with the then-new University of Chicago. This was apparently a happy development for both institutions. University affiliation brought Rush the research-academic connection central to twentieth century medical school organization. The University of Chicago, moreover, helped Rush students and faculty to create a "new" Rush whose reputation equaled that of the earlier Rush.

Rush Medical College "Dissection Class� -- Students working with a cadaver in the Rush Medical College anatomy laboratory. Pictured are Porter Bruce Brockway, Hoyt E. Dearholt, Moses Milton Portis, and E. V. Burger. This photograph was taken on February 14, 1899.

During the first century of operation more than 10,000 physicians received their Photograph Collection; Rush University Medical Center Archives, training at Rush Medical College. By Chicago, IL (RUMC Archives). World War II, however, Rush and the University of Chicago became convinced that their affiliation no longer suited their respective missions. In 1942, Rush developed an affiliation with the University of Illinois' College of Medicine. The College of Medicine was the Chicago west side medical district neighbor of Rush and Presbyterian Hospital, its traditional teaching facility. In 1956, Chicago's distinguished St. Luke's Hospital accepted Rush's teaching hospital's invitation to merge in order to organize the critical mass of resources contemporary teaching medical centers needed. Central to this new arrangement was the decision to suspend medical education, except for a role at the Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital for clinical care teaching of advanced students. The agreement included the opportunity to reconsider the arrangement in the late 1960's. At that time, Rush Medical College accepted the proposal of Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital to merge its historic charter with that large teaching hospital and to resume accepting students studying for the doctor of medicine. Rush trustees and alumni were impressed by budding plans for The Rush System for Health. Impressive plans for a new medical complex were presented as the College considered renewing full instructional capabilities as part of the Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center. A renewed and revitalized Rush Medical College would be a key educational component to help guarantee the success of the comprehensive vision for healthcare research, education, and delivery the Rush System for Health represented. The charter of the medical college was reactivated in 1969 when it became part of the Medical Center, and in 1971 it reopened with a class of 66 first-year students and 33 third-year students. First-year entering class size reached 120 in 1976 and recently increased to 128 students in 2005 and to 132 in 2007. 3922 M.D. degrees have been awarded since 1971.

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History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

Five graduates of St. Luke's Hospital School of Nursing, June, 1923. Left to right: Flossie Blizard (Mrs. Philip Vollmer), Alma L. Brehm, Dorothea McMillan, Ramona Huddleston (Mrs. James C. Russell), and Kathryn Shaneyfelt. Photograph Collection; Rush University Medical Center Archives, Chicago, IL (RUMC Archives).

The College of Nursing represents a combined heritage dating back to 1885 when its first antecedent, the St. Luke's Hospital Training School of Nursing, opened in 1885 to offer diploma education to nurses. In 1903, the Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing accepted its first students. From 1956 to 1968 nurses were taught at the merged PresbyterianSt. Luke's Hospital School of Nursing. Before the establishment of the College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences in 1973 with the establishment of Rush University, more than 7,500 nurses had graduated from these three schools. The first Rush university students were actually enrolled in the College of Nursing. The first bachelor's and master's degrees were awarded in 1975; the first Doctor of Nursing Practice science degree was awarded in 1980; and the first Doctor of Nursing Practice degree was awarded in 1990. The Ph.D. in Nursing was first awarded in 2007. The College of Nursing became an separate college in 1975. Since the establishment of this college, 5488 baccalaureate, master's and doctoral degrees have been awarded. Today, over 150 baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral nursing students graduate each year.

The College of Nursing received accreditation from the National League of Nursing from November 1975 through June 1999. The most recent accreditation by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) was in 1999. The College was accredited for ten years through 2009, the maximum granted by CCNE. 2002: Rush University Medical Center received Magnet status, the highest recognition given for nursing excellence given by the American Nurses Credentialing Center Magnet Recognition Program. The designation recognizes Rush nursing staff for overall excellence and for providing the very best care to patients. This status was renewed in 2006. Fewer than 50 hospitals in the United States have received Magnet designation twice. In all, a little more than 200 hospitals out of approximately 5,000 hospitals nationwide have ever been awarded Magnet designation since the program was formally established in 1993. Hospitals that receive Magnet status are noteworthy for their excellence and innovation in nursing. Evidence suggests organizations with these characteristics deliver better patient outcomes than non-Magnet organizations. Independent studies of Magnet hospitals have shown that they have shorter lengths of patient stays, higher rates of patient satisfaction, increased time spent with patients, lower patient mortality rates, and increased nurse retention rates. This designation is important to the University as it means our students from all disciplines on the hospital floors will have excellent rolemodels and/or teachers from our talented nursing staff. 2007: The Rush University Medical Center Graduate College and Board of Overseers approved a recommendation to change the Rush University College of Nursing Doctorate of Nursing Science (DNSc) to the Doctor of Philosophy degree (PhD). This program also received approval from the Illinois Board of Higher Education. The College decided to shift its focus to graduate programs and is discontinuing the Bachelor of Science 4-quarter, accelerated program. The last class was matriculated in January, 2008. The 3


History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

7-quarter BSN program (which trained students who had completed 90 hours of credit at another institution) is also being discontinued and matriculated its last class in the fall of 2007. The Bachelor of Science in Nursing Completion program, in a distance format, will still be available (for now) for the registered nurse with a diploma or with an associate’s degree who wishes to earn a baccalaureate degree. Faculty of the College of Nursing who teach courses in the PhD program became eligible to join the Graduate College. The College of Health Sciences traces its origins to the School of Medical Technology sponsored by Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital from 1959 to 1972. This school was the second largest of its kind in the city of Chicago. During its operation, it provided a one-year professional internship program to more than 200 baccalaureate students in medical technology. In 1973, the School of Medical Technology was one of the first internship programs in the country to convert to a two-year baccalaureate degree program. The program is built around a core of basic and advanced theoretical knowledge and clinical practice. The School became part of Rush’s College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences in 1973. In 1975, the College of Health Sciences split off from the College of Nursing as its own independent college. The Health Systems Management Program was launched at a time when the operation of a successful academic medical center was balanced on the three-legged stool of medicine, nursing and management. Medicine and nursing had their academic degree programs, but if management were to play as an equal professional partner, it too needed a degree program. The late 1970s and early 1980s were marked with the rapid rise of health systems. Many hospitals were pursuing vertical and horizontal integration of health facilities in hopes of becoming large health care players. The Rush Health Systems Management degree arose through the thinking that the future of health care was going to be health systems containing different types of facilities, rather than hospitals alone. The Rush-prepared manager would be able to efficiently administrate and direct these different entities, being an invaluable complement to the administrative practice. In 1978, University staff began to explore the feasibility of an occupational therapy program. The first class was admitted to the post-professional graduate program in occupational therapy, with a focus on sensory integration in 1980 and had six graduates in 1982. The program was then reconfigured to an entry-level professional program and matriculated eleven full-time and two part-time students in 1986. The Department of Communication Disorders and Sciences was founded in 1980 as well. Today, these departments have been joined by departments of Clinical Nutrition; Medical Physics; Perfusion Technology; Vascular Ultrasound; and Religion, Health and Human Values to form our current College of Health Sciences. The College currently offers two doctoral programs, nine programs at the master's level, and bachelor's programs in clinical laboratory sciences, perfusion technology and vascular ultrasound. More than 1,609 baccalaureate, master's and doctoral degrees have been awarded. 1998: The department of Religion, Health, and Human Values began to offer the Certificate of Graduate Study in Health Care Ethics --the first in the nation -- via the Internet. 2006: Rush University's College of Health Sciences began a master’s program in Perfusion Technology, the first program of its kind in Illinois, and one of only a handful in the nation. The bachelor’s program in perfusion technology has been terminated.

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History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

2006: The National Center for Healthcare Leadership (NCHL) selected Rush as one of six university programs as demonstration sites for its Graduate Health Management Education Demonstration Project, initiating the second phase of a program launched in 2004. 2007: A Specialist in Blood Banking Certificate program was launched in the fall of 2007. This program is designed to be offered through WebCT and be taken online. It is designed for individuals who plan to take the SBB Certification examination based on experience, and for individuals who wish to meet the basic requirements for this certification category. 2008: Plans are underway to start a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) program in Clinical Laboratory Sciences starting in the fall term of 2008. Since the College of Health Sciences was founded, 1844 baccalaureate, master's and doctoral degrees have been awarded. The programs in the college are all accredited by their various professional accrediting bodies (see Appendix 2) The Graduate College was established as a separate academic unit in January 1981, having previously been organized as the Graduate School within the College of Health Sciences. The Graduate College is responsible for educational programs in the basic sciences and offers master's and doctoral degrees in seven disciplines. 302 graduate degrees (not counting Nursing) have been awarded since its inception. 2000: The Graduate College launched the Master's of Science in Clinical Research. This two-year program is designed to provide students with the training needed to apply for, design, carry-out, interpret, and submit final reports on clinical research studies via course work, workshops, laboratory experiences, and mentored hands-on, and clinical research experience. 2007: College of Nursing faculty became eligible for appointment in the Graduate College in tandem with their new offering of the Ph.D. in Nursing. Physical facilities: In the last ten years, there has been a significant enhancement of the physical facilities of the medical center devoted to the University. The Armour Academic Center added two new floors which opened in 1997. These now house offices for the College of Nursing and the College of Health Sciences, the McCormick Educational Technology Center (the merged and expanded units of the Library formerly known as the Learning Resource Center and the Academic Computing Resources), Student Affairs, a large lecture hall, a large multipurpose meeting room, and numerous classrooms and small meeting and study rooms. In addition, the RUMC campus was updated with the demolition of an aged office/classroom/residence hall building and the opening in 2002 of the Robert H. Cohn and Terri Cohn Research Building – a 10 story structure which houses laboratories for many of our basic scientists and provides teaching space for the basic sciences. The new building provided Rush with a single, consolidated site for basic science and translational research activities. It structure anticipated future needs of medical researchers through its use of a modular planning concept with laboratory floors organized into 5


History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

zones: offices, conference rooms and lobbies are located on one side of the building and laboratories on the other. Between are core elements including data rooms and laboratory support spaces. This layout resulted in lab floor efficiencies that surpass typical research standards. This building was filled to capacity a year after completion. 1998: The CORE Center, the nation’s first freestanding, specialized outpatient health care facility for HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases, is completed. It combines the resources of Cook County Bureau of Health Services and Rush to prevent, treat and conduct research on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other related diseases that affect men, women and children throughout the metropolitan area. 2002: The Rush University Simulation Laboratory (RUSL) was established through a generous bequest from the estate of Mrs. Alverin M. Cornell. Located on the fifth floor of the Armour Academic Center, RUSL is a new conceptteaching center, which offers clinical simulation education. To facilitate this new educational concept, various exercises are developed to emulate sparse, as well as prevalent in-hospital medical cases. During exercises, participants render treatment to a patient simulator that replicates a myriad of signs, symptoms and conditions. The activity is filmed and projected into a classroom for others to view. Afterwards, participants review their performance with instructors and address related topics. The center’s mission is to provide exceptional curricula focused on the integration of didactics, procedural competencies, critical thinking and teamwork to all medical professions. Over the last few years, RUSL has invested in more simulation devices that cater to the demands of many specialties (e.g., pediatrics and obstetrics). RUSL was awarded the 2007 CHEF Leadership Award for Innovation by the Chicago Health Executives Forum, one of the largest chapters of the American College of Healthcare Executives. 2006: Rush University Medical Center was again ranked among the top ten academic medical centers in the country by the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) in its annual Quality and Accountability Performance Ranking. Unlike other reviews of hospitals that take into account reputation, the UHC study is completely objective; it is based entirely on patient-level outcomes data, measuring patient safety, mortality, efficiency and equity of care. The goal of UHC’s quality and accountability ranking is to assess organizational performance across a broad spectrum of high-priority dimensions of patient care. The UHC has found that top performing medical centers such as Rush have certain key features, including collaborative partnerships between physicians, nurses and other care providers; accountability for service, quality and safety at all levels; and a focus on excellence. This ranking illustrates the quality of our clinical environment in which our students learn at the sides of attendings, residents, nurses and other health care providers. 2007: Four classrooms on the seventh floor of the Armour Academic Center were completely overhauled. These rooms are used for University classes, nursing orientation, departmental meetings and guest 6


History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

presentations. Over five weeks, folding wall partitions were replaced, carpet was replaced with floor tile, walls were painted, four ceiling-mounted projectors and projection screens were installed, four podium stands were added, and new classroom chairs and conference tables were purchased. Rush University reaches record enrollment with 1,627 students registered for the Fall 2007 term. Administrative changes: Since the 1997 North Central Association site visit, we have had a complete turnover of deans for our four colleges as well as a new president. In 2002, Dr. Larry J. Goodman was named president and chief executive officer of the then-named RushPresbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center. In this capacity, he serves as a principal officer of the Board of Trustees, and as president of Rush University and CEO and chairman of the board of the Rush System for Health. Dr. Goodman had previously served as Rush’s senior vice president, medical affairs, and as dean of Rush Medical College. In that same year, Lac Van Tran was appointed senior vice president and chief information officer. He was also named associate dean for information technology for Rush University. We have also added a Provost-level of administration to our structure. Thomas Deutsch, M.D now serves as Rush University’s first Provost. He has also served as Dean of Rush Medical College since 2002 and continues in that role as well. In 2005, James L. Mulshine, MD was named as Vice President and Associate Provost for Research. The following year, Paul Jones, M.D. was named as Associate Provost for Student Affairs. Lois Halstead, PhD, RN was named as Vice-Provost (after serving as interim dean of the College of Nursing) in 2006. In 2004, Paul Carvey, Ph.D., was named as Dean of the Graduate College (and continues as chair of the Department of Pharmacology). In 2006, Melanie Dreher, Ph.D., RN became Dean of the College of Nursing. In 2007, David Shelledy, Ph.D., RRT, FAARC joined Rush as Dean of the College of Health Sciences. Two new University offices were created in 2007: 1) University Assessment and Student Learning seeks to support quality educational programs at Rush University and to foster excellence in educational practices by establishing and maintaining a culture of assessment and improvement at the course, program, and institutional levels and by providing internal and external constituencies with an accurate and complete understanding of how the institution is advancing its mission. The following are the initial objectives that this office is targeting: a) Identify, develop, and conduct ongoing evaluation and research projects to advance collective knowledge about Rush University, student performance, and institutional effectiveness b) Provide relevant, timely, and accurate institutional information to administrators and the university community, the external community, and external agencies c) Serve as a major repository for information on enrollment, faculty characteristics, faculty development needs in the area of student learning, and both program and university accreditation self-studies and reports d) Develop, coordinate, communicate, and strengthen assessment processes and practices within Rush degree granting programs to focus on outcomes assessment as a means for program improvement e) Provide consultation, support and technical assistance to departments and individuals in their assessment efforts 7


History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

f) Foster scholarship of assessment through presentations and publications g) Implement the University Assessment Plan 2) Rush University Office of Global and Community Health Initiatives will be dedicated to coordinating, facilitating and developing service learning opportunities, locally and globally, within Rush University. This new office will benefit Rush through: a) Decreasing administrative costs by working with faculty and staff across the four colleges, b) Improving efficiency by focusing faculty time on developing educational opportunities c) Enhancing the number and type of opportunities, both structured and volunteer, available to students, faculty and staff, d) Promoting interdisciplinary collaboration and service-learning opportunities e) Capitalizing on faculty expertise and contacts across the institution for developing and promoting opportunities, locally and globally f) providing greater visibility to Rush’s educational and service efforts. The University has also committed to upgrading its student information system and will be spending at least1.2 million dollars to purchase the Datatel system and to hire staff to manage this system (and to facilitate the transition from the current Jenzabar/CARS system). Building for the future: The Rush campus is continuing to transform. In the spring of 2004, plans for the most comprehensive construction and facilities renovation program in its history were revealed. Over the next seven years, Rush will build a new hospital facility, an ambulatory care building devoted to orthopedics, and a centralized power plant. Rush will also renovate the Atrium and Kellogg buildings (part of the current Hospital) and Professional Office buildings, build and improve parking, and eventually remove some of the oldest structures on campus. The new hospital will incorporate a new concept called an "interventional platform." Two floors will be devoted to surgery, imaging and specialty procedures. This includes new, larger operating rooms that can accommodate more specialized equipment and technology, including imaging equipment and robotics. Nearby will be facilities and equipment required for interventional radiology, cardiology and neurosurgery, fostering increased collaboration and a multidisciplinary approach for specialists doing similar procedures. Interventional platforms will locate key services close to one another on two easily-accessible levels, minimizing need for patients and their families to travel to multiple locations within the medical center. This innovative concept is important to Rush’s goal of reorienting its facilities and campus around the patient. It will also provide state-of-the art facilities for our students to learn clinical skills in a patientcare setting. In 2002, Rush and the John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County were named bioterrorism preparedness Centers of Excellence by the Chicago Department of Public Health. Each hospital has received grants to improve hospital capabilities in preparedness planning, disease detection and surveillance, infection control, communications, collaborations, education and 8


History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

training, and more. The new hospital will include a state-of-the art emergency services facility designed to care for victims of major catastrophes (to be named the McCormick Tribune Center for Advanced Emergency Response in recognition of the foundation's $7.5 million contribution in 2004). In June, 2007, groundbreaking of a new orthopedic ambulatory care building was celebrated. This is the first visible phase of construction in the medical center’s seven-year comprehensive redevelopment of the Rush campus. The new 222,000 square foot orthopedic ambulatory care building will house outpatient offices and related facilities of the department of Orthopedics on the first four floors of the five story building, as well as physical and occupational therapy; a sophisticated imaging center (MRI, CT); the Gait Laboratory; orthotics and prosthetics services; offices for orthopedic surgeons and staff; and a conference and learning center. Construction began in summer 2007 on a new parking structure and a new power plant for the Rush campus. Related underground construction will give Rush a new loading dock and materials delivery system for the campus. Together, with the orthopedic building, this first phase of construction will cost $137 million and is expected to be completed in 2009. Construction of the new hospital, including the new emergency medicine center, is expected to begin in 2008. Renovations on the existing Atrium and Kellogg buildings will follow. The campus redevelopment also includes implementation of a new information technology system. New electronic software applications (Epic) will ensure integration of clinical and financial information, providing streamlined registration and scheduling, faster and more accurate test results and real-time access to complete medical histories. The potential for advanced information technologies to improve patient safety, aid in swift diagnosis and treatment, and allow patients and families a more substantial role in health care is tremendous. By planning and launching our facilities project in conjunction with the implementation of our new software applications, we can create a dynamic new healing environment that empowers caregivers to provide even more effective treatments and diagnoses. Students from almost all programs are being trained to use Epic as an aspect of their clinical training experiences. Systems such as Epic are expected to become standard in hospitals over the next decade and training on this system will prepare our students to use similar systems at other facilities during off-campus rotations and after graduation. In the design plans for Rush, special attention is being paid to environmental efficiency and responsiveness. Rush is seeking Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality. Image provided by Perkins and Will

The estimated $810 million Rush project is being financed through a variety of sources including philanthropy, income from operations, federal and local grants, debt financing and private funds for the ambulatory care building. In addition to the gifts from the Herb Family, John and Mary Jo Boler, and the McCormick Tribune Foundation, Rush has received other major gifts or pledges for the current campaign: $13 million in unrestricted support from an anonymous donor; $10 million in pledges from the Woman’s 9


History of Rush University -Dave Barnett, 2007 (Approved by the Rush Archives)

Board of Rush to create a Woman’s Board Heart and Vascular Center; and a $10 million pledge from the Rush medical staff and faculty (the largest medical staff gift in Rush’s history). In addition, twenty million dollars of this capital campaign is being designated as an endowment for scholarships for students of Rush University and fifty million dollars is being designated to create endowed research funds, seed funding for research, and financial support for shared resources for four interdisciplinary core research centers (neuroscience, heart, cancer and orthopedics).

For more information about the history of Rush University Medical Center and its predecessor institutions, please contact the Rush Archives. www.lib.rush.edu/archives 312-942-7214 Rush_Archives@rush.edu

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History of Rush University, 2007  

History of Rush University written by Dave Barnett for the Higher Learning Commission in 2007.

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