RUOY U N XU - RI TA
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B .1 G e n e t i c s
According to Branko Kolarevic, genetic algorithms can be described as the inherent logical infrastructure of relations encoded in generative designs that controls its complex forms and performances12. It simulates DNA in biological organisms, which is the essential commander of the generation process. Similarly in this case, architectural forms are automatically generated based on this predetermined genetic algorithms, which make them the true architectural concepts. However, unexpected and unpredictable iterative variations are often inevitable as genetic ‘crossover’ and ‘mutation’ can randomly happen during the design process. Hence, it is the parametric principles that are pursued consistently in genetic architecture rather than a specific final form. In addition to elementary recursive aggregation, genetic algorithms for generating architecture are implanted with biological metaphors of growth and formation, from the organic forms that imitates natural elements to the self-adaptive and evolving properties that respond to surrounding environments. Thus genetic architecture is innately dynamic as the nervous system, since any external influences can transfer down the hierarchical algorithms, reproduced via the recursive loops and finally reflect on its forms and performances. Because of the uncertainty and diversity of possible outputs, the authenticity of concepts must be insisted by architect while selecting the optimum. The common doubt that digital design method may limit the creative and poetic qualities of artists are eliminated in the selecting phase of design process, as it fully relies on the personal aesthetics and sensibilities of the designers. 12 Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (Canada: University of Calgary, 2003), p. 21. 42
Figure 36: Cell-F Assembly, 2011 43
Figure 37: GEOtube Tower, 2009
The GEOtube Tower designed by Faulders Studio is a 43-story tower located in Dubai. The building surface is completed covered with highly salty oceanic water from the adjacent Persian Gulf to create an ever changing skin as the water evaporation and salt accumulation13. The building contained the results automatically emerged from genetic algorithms and explored the relationships among different generations of the recursion. Biological metaphors can be found both in the design process and the final forms it generated. By incorporating genetic design, more abundant variations of forms and structures are made possible.
Figure 39: Detail, 2009
Figure 38: Interior, 2009
Figure 40: Interior, 2009
Figure 41: Concept Diagrams, 2009 13 Faulders Studio, GEOtube Tower (Dubai: Faulders Studio, 2009) < https://www.faulders-studio.com/GEOTUBE-TOWER> [accessed 14 September 2018]. 45
Figure 42: Detail, 2014
ICE is a chandelier designed by Daniel Libeskind for LASVIT company. The basic geometric cellular component is repeated and interconnected via simple recursive algorithms. The complexity is built up as the modules gradually aggregated. The overall shape can easily be twisted and adapted since each individual modules can be plug in or out according to needs and the available space. Due to the special materiality of glass and the geometric shape, each modules can refract light in different directions.
The design was later realised by local craftsman in Czech Republic14 , which represented the combination of modern digital design method and vernacular crafting trades.
Figure 43: Concept Diagram, 2014 14 Daniel Libeskind, Ice ( Czech Republic: Daniel Libeskind, 2014) <https://www.architonic.com/en/product/lasvit-ice/1386502> [accessed 14 September 2018]. 46
Figure 44: Ice, 2014 47
B.2.A L-System L-System, also known as Lindenmayer System, was a formal and logical system designed by Hungarian theoretical biologist and botanist Aristid Lindenmayer in 1968 to imitate the plant behaviour and evolving process. It has been widely applicated in biological, architectural, engineering and mathematical realms to generate varieties of complex structures by arranging self-resembling fractals. Inspired by the growing procedures of different types of bacteria, yeast and fungi, it was initially intended to depict simple multicellular organisms and their interrelationship in a formal way, and was later upgraded to interpret more complicated branching structures of plants. It can be classified as a parallel string rewriting system, which contains an axiom string to define the originating structure, a set of principles to specify the rewriting rules and regulate the growing pattern, and an alphabet of symbols to be aggregated on the string as next generation. The intrinsically recursive system allows the ease and fast speed of defining self-repetitive organic forms while guaranteeing accuracy. It is not only a formal language that generated following the instructions of formal grammar15, since every single iteration of it can respond to numerous principles simultaneously while formal language can only apply one rule per iteration16. Variations of L-Systems have emerged during decades of developing, such as Context-Free L-Systems (rules refer to individual symbol only) and ContextSensitive L-Systems (rules refer to individual symbols and their neighbours). In architecture, L-System is particularly helpful, since both natural organic and geometric intricate forms can be conveniently generated and controlled with it. For example, the computational architectural designer Michael Hansmeyer produced a project to elaborate the possibility of L-System in architecture in 2003. Apart from form generation, it can also contribute to creating systematical logic, space organisation, structural formation and constructional design, etc. It can also be combined with parametric systems to incorporate environmental responsive quality and enhance its adaptability.
15 Michiel Hazewinkel, ed., Encyclopedia of Mathematics, (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2001.
16 G. Rozenburg, Theory of L-Systems: From the Point of View of Formal Language Theory, <https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/3-540-06867-8_1.pdf> [accessed 14 Septe 48
ember 2018]. 49
B.2.B Bloom Project
Bloom Project designed by Alisa Andrasek and Jose Sanchez well interpreted the ever-changing and interactive possibilities of generative architecture. By integrating participatory design process, this large-scale urban sculptural toy challenged the conventional social experience of architecture and reflect the growing process of structure. People are not only spectators or simply occupants of space, but also share the collective role of designers and modifiers in this case, and in some sense the public is incorporated into architecture itself. The modular structure is made up of a series of identical components joined together with joints that similar to Dado Joint in woodwork. Each individual component has three asymmetrical possible joints to allow more potential directions of divergency.The structural system is based on generative aggregations of geometric components, determined by the direction and distance of the connecting joints and their interrelationship. Its design process is controlled and adjusted through digital software Rhinoceros and its plug-in Grasshopper and Python, utilised L-Systems and DLA (Diffusion-Limited Aggregation) algorithmic logics to diversify the possible components, growing sequences, overall structures and their morphological behaviours17. The final pattern is then selected from the abundant range of alternatives to optimise the material properties, compelling effect and structural stability. The formation of structure is inspired by intricate natural systems and contemporary information systems, mainly following the rules of redundancy. By adhering to basic aggregation principles instead of fixed final form intents, this generative design also contributes to the high flexibility and resilience of the project to allow it being adapted according to various site conditions, participants and budget. It developed biological cellular growth within modern game culture by using architectural languages. The final project adopted plastic material and was manufactured by plastic injection mould process to ensure accuracy and public safety while maintaining reasonable cost. A series of projects and products design based on similar logics was later derived from Bloom Project. 17 Alisa Andrasek and Jose Sanchez, Bloom: Distributed Urban Game ( London: The Barlett School of Architecture, 2013) <http://bartlettdesignresearchfolios.com/bloom-distributed62
Figure 46: Bloom: Distributed Urban Toy, 2013
urban-game/read/> [accessed 14 September 2018].
Figure 47: Bloom: Distributed Urban Toy, 2013 63
B.2.C.a Component Design
SHARP & SLENDER 64
UNEVEN & OBLONG
UNEVEN & WAFER-THIN 65
B.2.C.b Manual Recursion AXIOM = ABCDE A=ABCDE B=ACE C=ABCE D=ABC E=BCE
AXIOM = ABCD A=ABD B=ACD C=ABCDE D=AC E=BCD
AXIOM = ABDE A=ABCDE B=BCDE C=CDE D=ABCE E=ACD
AXIOM = ABDE A=ABCDE B=BCDE C=CDE D=ABCE E=ACD
AXIOM = ACDE A=ABD C=CDE C=ABCD D=BDA E=CE
B.3 Component Aggregator INPUT
Reference a point as the start point of aggregation.
The dummy branches are listed as an index in the order of being ref index numbers are converted into their corresponding letters.
Reference a single polyline curve containing two perpendicular segments as axiom handle to locate original components.
The text entered for specifying starting branch and growth rule is br of dummy branches. Thus, the corresponding relationship between t
Reference a set of polylines each containing two perpendicular segments as dummy branches to control the lvocation and orientation of the first generation.
Real axioms in the intended aggregation site are generated using ve branches. Planes that perpendicular to the first segments of dummy start and end point of the first segment of axiom to help reorient com
Reference a closed polysurface or closed mesh as the component to be generated.
If the length of dummy branches is standardised, the dummy branch
Reference a set of closed polysurfaces or closed meshes as obstacles to be avoided while generating (optional). Enter the number of generations of aggregation. Select if the length of each dummy
ENGINE ROOM Branches are grown based on specified rules and length heuristic.
New branches of three segments are created by combining axiom a
Component is oriented according to initial plane and new branches components are tested by finding the intersections of branches, and
The components intersecting the referenced obstacles are also remo detected by finding the closest point to the surfaces of obstacles.
Data generated at end of aggregation loop is combined with new a
Component is placed according to the end plane of each branch ge
Final branches are tagged alphabetically, which are converted from 76
ferenced, and the
roke into individual characters and matches the index the text input and polylines is established.
ectors obtained from dummy branches are drawn both at mponents.
hes are redrawn using
and standardised length data.
s. The possible collisions between each d removed by culling the branches.
oved after being
axiom data to finalise axiom branches and their end planes.
m integral index values.
OUTPUT Tags are generated for each branch and axiom to specify their types. Final dummy components and real components are oriented in place. Component with socket is created by boolean difference the original component and its reoriented first generation. Socketed components are re-oriented in place according to branches and ready to be baked! 77
B.4 Tec hniq ue Development AXIOM = ABCD A=ABD B=ACD C=ABC D=AC SECONDARY COMPONENT SCALE FACTOR: 0.1 - 5
AXIOM = ABCD
A=ABD B=ACD C=ABC D=AC SECONDARY COMPONENT SCALE FACTOR: 0.1 - 5
AXIOM = ABCD
A=ABCE B=ABC C=ABC D=AB E=CD SECONDARY COMPONENT SCALE FACTOR: 0.1 - 1
AXIOM = ABCD
A=ABDE B=ABC C=BDE D=CE E=ABD SECONDARY COMPONENT SCALE FACTOR: 0.1 - 1
AXIOM = ABCD
A=ACD B=BD C=ABC D=AB SECONDARY COMPONENT SCALE FACTOR: 0.1 - 5
AXIOM = ABCD
A=ACD B=BDE C=ABC D=ADE E=BC SECONDARY COMPONENT SCALE FACTOR: 0.1 - 3
B.5 Prototyping MATERIAL SELECTION Metal is chosen as the main structural material for this project since its matellic property can convey the sharpness of the components, and provide a cold, edgy and dangerous atmosphere to the space. Polyethylene is adopted to wrap around the metal structure, to add transparent characteristic to the project while prevent people actually being hurt by the sharp components.
PLASTER MOLD CASTING Due to the curvilinear and flucturating nature of component 1 and 3, plaster mold casting might be the best and most cost-effective fabricating method to achieve its intended form. However, it limited
LASER CUTTING Component 2 can easily be laser cutted since it is essentially a flat surface and only have straight edges. The secondary components of component 2 and 3 can be laser cutted as well.
CNC MILLING Since the sockets on components are not perpendicular to the surface and are slightly tilted, 5-axis CNC mIlling technologies can be used to produce the precise sloping recesses.
3D PRINTING The secondary component of component 1 can be 3D printed since it is irregular and stretched with different angel and direction.
WELDING Components can be insterted into designed sockets and welded together to be fixed in place accurately and firmly. 90
COMPONNET 3 91
B.6 Tec hniq ue Proposal
Most of the current staircases in MSD are uncomfortable and inconvenient to use, even can be confusing sometimes. This particular stair connecting first floor to second is chose as site of the space attacking project since its layout usually cause awkard encounters when people from different directions are gathered in the centre. The concept driven this project is to worsen the experience of encounters happened in the space by narrowing the intersecting paths down into a dangerous portal constructed by sharp and spiky elements. And to remind users how awful the space is designed. 93
B.7 Learning Objectives
By experimenting with parametric design processes, especially L-System, I feel I have been introduced with a totally unfamiliar approach, which requires me to abandon old thinking habit and incorporate new perspectives. The most challenging and also the most interesting part for me is the unknown and unpredictable outcomes. With computational design, I have to adapt myself to the actual outcome instead of having intended forms in mind beforehand. At first, I was almost taken away by the auto-generated forms, because the significantly diverse outcomes are very confusing and overwhelming, especially in a limited time. Then I realised that I have to established a criteria to help selecting the outcomes. The clarity of structure and the asymmetry of component are especially important as this can help deriving random yet not messy structures. In the next phase, I will stick to the criteria to help further detailing my project and hopefully deepen the concept and reflect it in every details of the project.
Figure 48: Hanging Model of Colonia GĂźell, 1889
B.8 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches
Andrasek, Alisa and Jose Sanchez, Bloom: Distributed Urban Game ( London: The Barlett School of Architecture, 2013) <http://bartlettdesignresearchfolios.com/ bloom-distributed-urban-game/read/> [accessed 14 September 2018]. Daniel Libeskind, Ice ( Czech Republic: Daniel Libeskind, 2014) <https://www.architonic. com/en/product/lasvit-ice/1386502> [accessed 14 September 2018]. Faulders Studio, GEOtube Tower (Dubai: Faulders Studio, 2009) < https://www. faulders-studio.com/GEOTUBE-TOWER> [accessed 14 September 2018].
Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (Canada: University of Calgary, 2003)
List of Figures Figure 36: /NCODON, ‘Cell-F Assembly’, (2011), <https://ncodon.wordpress. com/tag/generative-forms/> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 37: Faulders Studio, ‘GEOtube Tower’, (2009), <https://www.fauldersstudio.com/GEOTUBE-TOWER> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 38: Faulders Studio, ‘Interior’, (2009), <https://www.faulders-studio.com/GEOTUBE-TOWER> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 39: Faulders Studio, ‘Detail’, (2009), <https://www.faulders-studio.com/GEOTUBE-TOWER> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 40: Faulders Studio, ‘Interior’, (2009), <https://www.faulders-studio.com/GEOTUBE-TOWER> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 41: Faulders Studio, ‘Concept Diagrams’, (2009), <https://www.fauldersstudio.com/GEOTUBE-TOWER> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 42: Daniel Libeskind, ‘Detail’, (2014), <https://www.designinsiderlive.com/ lasvit-motions-daniel-libeskind/> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 43: Daniel Libeskind, ‘Concept Diagram’, (2014), <https://www.designinsiderlive. com/lasvit-motions-daniel-libeskind/> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 44: Daniel Libeskind, ‘Ice’, (2014), <https://www.architonic.com/en/product/lasvit-ice/1386502> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 45: Michael Hansmeyer, ‘Parametric L-System’, (2003), <http://www.michaelhansmeyer.com/l-systems> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 46: Andrasek, Alisa and Jose Sanchez, ‘Bloom: Distributed Urban Toy’, (2013), <http:// bartlettdesignresearchfolios.com/bloom-distributed-urban-game/read/> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 47: Andrasek, Alisa and Jose Sanchez, ‘Bloom: Distributed Urban Toy’, (2013), <http:// bartlettdesignresearchfolios.com/bloom-distributed-urban-game/read/> [accessed 10 August 2018] Figure 48: Gaudi, Antonio, ‘Hanging Model of Colonia Güell’, (1889), <http://b-processor.dk/ papers-2/b-processor-ecaade-2011-ljubljana/> [accessed 10 August 2018] All other figures credit to author.