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The Initiation of a Pakistani Style of Animation By Rumaisa Mughal

Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture


The Initiation of a Pakistani Style of Animation By Rumaisa Mughal

This Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF COMMUNICATION DESIGN, from Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture.

Internal Advisor

:

Tazeen Hussain Arshad Farooqui

External Advisor

:

Khurram Khan

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION DESIGN INDUS VALLEY SCHOOL OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE KARACHI PAKISTAN 2010


“Can the Initiation of a Pakistani Style of Animation be Beneficial?”


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to thank all the people because of whom this dissertation became possible. First and foremost I would like to thank my advisor Tazeen Hussain whose patience never wore off despite my stubbornness especially towards the anime aspect of my dissertation. She backed me up at every point and supported me throughout. Writing this research paper would have been impossible without the overview and guidelines provided by Miss Aisha Dar - so a big thanks to her. My deepest gratitude to Khurram Khan, my external advisor who guided me and put me on track, his genuine concern encouraged me to strive for the best. I would also like to thank all my interviewees who took time out from their busy schedules and shared their experience and knowledge with me regarding this research paper. Last but not the least, the support provided by my family and friends was the only thing that kept me going; particularly my brother who I constantly annoyed and without whose encouragement and help I would have given up. Thank you bhyya!


TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. LITERATURE REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1. Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2. Entertainment’s vis-à-vis Human Psyche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3. Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4. India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.5. France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.6. Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.6.1. Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 3.6.2. Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.6.3. Influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.6.4. Impact on Viewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5. ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6. CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8. APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 8.1. Appendix A 8.1.1. Interview with Khurram Khan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 8.1.2. Interview with Muzummil Ruheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 8.1.3. Interview with Khurram Alavi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 8.1.4. Interview with Saima Zaidi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 8.1.5. Interview with Omar Farooq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 8.2. Appendix B 8.2.1. Anime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 8.2.2. Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62


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LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1: Multiple Cels used for drawing.

(Page 10)

Dat Was Een Super DOmper! Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.kermitthefrog.co.uk/kaiga/artwork/artwork_preview_b1.htm>.

Fig. 2: Farooq Qaiser with his puppet Uncle Sargum

(Page 12)

"Putli Tamasha/Puppet Shows." Lahore Metblogs. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://lahore.metblogs.com/2005/09/16/putli-tamashapuppet-shows/>.

Fig. 3: Nigar Nazar‟s Gogi

(Page 13)

"Gogi's Place - Goodbye!" Gogi's Place - Welcome! Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.gogicomics.com/exit.html>.

Fig. 4: Screenshots from the music video “Freestyle Dive”

(Page 14)

Way... The. "YouTube - Sajid & Zeeshan - Freestyle Dive." YouTube -Web. 10June 2010.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7CgM0yDkU>.

Fig. 5: Commander Safeguard (Post Amazers)

(Page 15)

"Commander Safeguard New Video Exclusive» KhailTamasha"KhailTamasha Web. 10 June 2010. <http://khailtamasha.com/main/sports/pakistan/2414commander-safeguard-new-video-exclusive.html>.


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Fig. 6: Milkateer (Sharp Images)

(Page 15)

BEST CARTOON TV SHOWS IN PAKISTAN." 3d Animation Studio in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Digital Media Works. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.sharpimageonline.com/web_tvshow_2008/home.htm>.

Fig. 7: Screenshot from Knorr Noodle Pot (H2O)

(Page 16)

"YouTube - YouTube - Knorr Quest For The Noodle Pot Epsiode2.flv." YouTube Broadcast Yourself.Web. 10 June 2010 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kgaMok0nE>.

Fig. 8: Screenshots of Bankay Mian Qawaal

(Page 16)

"Pakistani Funny Character Bankay Mian." Rafaqat. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://rafaqat.com/pakistani-funny-character-bankay-mian/>.

Fig. 9: India‟s Hanuman and Ghatotkoch

(Page 17)

"Hanuman Cartoon." Kohei-amarantos. Thewowconspiracy.com. Web. <http://kohei-amarantos.thewowconspiracy.com/style/blog_sg/10060803/ hanuman-cartoon/>.

Fig. 10: Triplets of Belleville, Fears of the Dark and Persepolis.

(Page 17)

"In Your Arms – French Animation « Swaleff.com." Swaleff.com.Web. 10 June 2010. <http://swaleff.wordpress.com/2009/08/14/in-your-arms-frenchanimation/>.


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Fig. 11: Cinematic technique in Osamu Tezukaâ&#x20AC;&#x;s Astro Boy

(Page 19)

Susan J. Napier. "Experiencing Contemporary Japanese Animatione." ANIME from Akira to Princess Mononoke (2001). Print.

Fig. 12: Variation in strokes, an influence of Japanese calligraphy

(Page 20)

"Bleach." Cartoon. Bleach. Video.

Fig. 13: Impressionistic background, enhancing the mood of the scene

(Page21)

"Bleach." Cartoon. Bleach. Video.

Fig. 14: Large anime eyes, an inspiration from Bambi and Betty Boop

(Page 21)

The Official Betty Boop Site. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.bettyboop.com/forums/>.

Fig. 15: Various exaggerated facial expressions.

(Page 22)

"Anime" Cartoon. Video.

Fig. 16: Range of camera angles and movements.

(Page 22)

YouTube-Broadcast Yourself. Web.10 June 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/>.

Fig. 17: Various Anime Merchandise

(Page 23)

"Anime Merchandise." Dannychoo.com - Your Portal to Japan. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.dannychoo.com/post/en/25297/Anime Merchandise.html>.


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Fig. 18: Screenshots from Hollywoodâ&#x20AC;&#x;s Animatrix and Kill Bill.

(Page 24)

YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/>.

Fig. 19: Cocomo (Sharp Images)

(Page 33)

BEST CARTOON TV SHOWS IN PAKISTAN." 3d Animation Studio in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Digital Media Works. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.sharpimageonline.com/web_tvshow_2008/home.htm>.

Fig. 20: Milkateer (Sharp Images) and Ratatouille (Pixar)

(Page 33)

YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 10 June 2010<http://www.youtube.com/>.

Fig. 21: Chase (Putrajaya, Malaysia) and Mayfair Candy (Sharp Images)

(Page 33)

Ahmad Hafiz, Nasrul Hakim, Chan Yi-Hann, and Mohd Rukhairy. "Chase." Cartoon. Youtube. MMU Cyberjaya. Web. <,http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gWpAbMaOuH4>.

Fig. 22: Ding Dong Bubble (Hong Kong) & Paddle Pop Ice Cream (Sydney) (Page 35) YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/>.

Fig. 23: Screenshots from various Indian animations

(Page 36)

YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 10 June 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/>.


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ABSTRACT

Entertainment is essential and generalizable to all age groups and classes whereas Animation is a very vast medium with promising potential. Pakistan is a developing nation and right now it needs investments which bear fruit in the future and animation can prove to be an ideal platform in that regard. Japan is perhaps an apt example of that as it can be witnessed how anime has globalized and promoted Japanâ&#x20AC;&#x;s image and also provided boost to its economy. Pakistanâ&#x20AC;&#x;s animation industry, still in a prolonged embryonic stage, faces a number of unfortunate circumstances and thus, a medium presenting endless possibilities has been restricted to the box of commercialism. We must surpass the boundaries of human perception, enter the realm of imagination and conceive creations that reflect our culture, tradition, values and beliefs. Creating a stylistic identity for Pakistan should be given utmost importance. An animation style which is unique to Pakistan should be pursued so that it would help promote the country and helps us be recognized in the international market.


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INTRODUCTION

Animation is an essential medium of communication in the 21st century. Various countries use animation for different purposes and it is believed that the animation industry will take over film eventually and there will no longer be a need to hire actors. Therefore, the rapid growth and importance of this medium cannot be ignored. Animation first originated in the west in the 1930's. Mickey Mouse being the first Disney cartoon was followed by more characters as its popularity increased. The cartoons were mainly made for children but they captured the attention of the general public as well since the medium was new and exciting. As time passed and they became popular, other countries started adopting it too. Japan thought of this as a great opportunity, adapted their idea and evolved it to present a new, entirely Japanese style of animation called Anime. Not only their illustration style but also their content reflected Japanese culture, beliefs and history, making it a purely Japanese cartoon. West allocated this medium solely for childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x;s entertainment while Japan went a step ahead and started producing cartoons for all age groups on various subjects like fantasy, real life drama, deception, romance and action. Many other countries, France and India for example, followed this trend and became very successful in achieving their unique styles. Like stories or films, these cartoons became so influential that people started adopting them, by idolizing characters and imitating them. The messages in these stories


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were also well communicated, picked up and followed which shows that having one‟s own style of animation can prove to be quite beneficial for a country‟s promotion and recognition. My dissertation is about the importance of animation mainly as a medium of entertainment for Pakistanis and how affective it will be in conveying ideas and messages. Initially, I will briefly talk about animation in general, the importance of entertainment and the popularity of animation as a medium of entertainment. Later in the same chapter, all sorts of local works in the commercial and non-commercial arenas are explored showing that we lack neither talent nor technology. A glance at the animation styles of France and India while studying Japan‟s animation industry and its evolution in depth will give an insight to how having a unique style has been advantageous to these countries and whether or not, following the same path would be beneficial for us.

Discussions with different professionals like Khurrum Khan, Khurram Alavi, Saima Zaidi and Omar Farooq proved to be very helpful in answering my queries such as; why we are stuck in the realm of commercialism, why do we not possess our own style of animation and if we do initiate how beneficial a proper animation industry will prove to be for Pakistan‟s promotion in various areas. Considering the limitlessness of this strong medium animation should be used to tell stories, communicate messages, instill values, discuss issues and reach hearts but unfortunately in Pakistan it is majorly being used only to sell products. Pakistan possesses talent but people are not ready to experiment and the clients refuse to risk doing something new which is why we keep on producing the same atypical style over


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and over. Additionally, animation brings with it a number of benefits. First and foremost, what cannot be shown in real life like fantasy for example is taken care of through this medium. It has also cut down the cost of extensive sets in filmmaking. Material that is either very controversial or impossible to shoot like sexual abuse or biological features can now easily be achieved. Places that cannot be visited and people that cannot be hired are no longer an issue. It may also turn out to be a highly influential way to promote and propagate a country's traditions, culture, beliefs, values, history, myths, language, ideology, events and more. Hence, anything and everything is possible.


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LITERATURE REVIEW

Animation Animation simply defined, is the movement of images in which, imagery and motion are created and not recorded. Drawings are linked together in a series and usually photographed. The drawings are slightly varied between individual frames so that when played sequentially,1 they generate smooth and faultless illusions of motion. (Bakst) 2D, 3D, cel2, model, and clay animation are just a few of the many types of animation. cel animation is perhaps, one of the first and most widely used types of animation. Though the movements created are constrained by the two dimensions of height and width, the effect of perspective and depth can be created artistically. In cel animation, a sheet of transparent cellulose acetate, also referred to as cel in brief, is used as a medium for painting animation frames. It is made transparent so that it could be laid conveniently over other cels or painted backgrounds, and then photographed. Transparent overlays are used so that the character could be moved without redrawing the background for each frame. (Bakst)

1 2

ideally 24 frames per second a transparent sheet of celluloid on which objects are drawn or painted in the making of animated cartoons


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Fig. 1: Multiple Cels used for drawing.

Walt Disney‟s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) was the first feature length animated film to be released. Decades after its release CGI (Computer Generated Imagery) revolutionized animation. Toy Story (1995) by Pixar was the first film done completely in CGI. No matter what the style, animation lays infinite power in hands of its creator by merging all art genres into one. It blends art, storytelling, drawing, illustration, design, graphics, sculpture, acting, staging, art directing and filmmaking into one wondrous form capable of transforming the artist into a magician. It brings to life visions and ideas freed of mental and physical gravity. Its only limitation perhaps is the creator‟s imagination. It calls for fantasy, lore of tools and grasp of its infinite powers. In exchange it offers total control over a world of artist's creation.

Entertainment’s vis-à-vis Human Psyche In lexical terms, entertainment refers to a form of diversion. Entertainment may refer to any activity, which provides a diversion or permits people to amuse themselves


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in their leisure time. (Stormberg). There is no end to the problems we are subjected to everyday, entertainment might just be a diversion from the daily hectic routine but its importance cannot be ignored. Entertainment through animation has gained wide acclaim from audience across the globe. Considering its vast creative potential, it possesses the power to recreate fantasies and draw us all out from our mundane realities. It makes us experience what could not be experienced otherwise - sending its viewers on a mini expedition with a bunch of awesome characters, travelling through space and time, seeking out new life and new civilizations in other worldly dimensions or audaciously walking into uncharted territories. What is critically essential is its ability to provide a kind of hiatus from our bourgeoisie lifestyle while inspiring the willingness to change oneself and develop an optimistic world view. (Sonia)

Pakistan Pakistan being just 62 years of age though may not have a sound background in animation or illustration, but does not imply either that we completely lack a stylistic identity. The Pakistani Animation Industry is also starting to grow. In the last few years media industry has experienced a great boom and lots of animations and quality post production work has brought Pakistan at a level where we can easily compete with the Asian markets. (Makin) Entertainment has always been a prime objective of our showbiz. Puppets in this regard, have been a very popular source of entertainment in Pakistan. They were


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introduced for the very first time by Farooq Qaiser. Though the traditional Putli Tamasha had been out there since some time but what Farooq Qaiser conceived and shared with the whole nation in the form of Uncle Sargum and Company was very unique and far more interesting. Pakistan is among the very few countries that has its own Puppet character or a show - our very own Kaliyaan. (Farooq Qaiser) Kaliyaan was born in 1976, and ran from Rawalpindi station for four and a half continuous years. It was popular for a number of reasons: It incorporated themes of political satire, highlighted social issues, provided thoughtful entertainment to children as well as teenagers and at the same time, Uncle Sargum always had a message to convey. Somehow Farooq Qaiser managed to say things using his puppets which were otherwise impossible to communicate to the masses during Gen. Ziaâ&#x20AC;&#x;s rule. (Farooq Qaiser)

Kaliyaan has been going strong in some form or the other till today. The success and popularity of such a show in our society proves that people are open to new ideas and mediums as long as they are able to relate to the content and messages conveyed.

Fig. 2: Farooq Qaiser with his puppet Uncle Sargum


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It would be perhaps misleading to assume that no one today is working towards constructing a Pakistani identity in the animation field. Nigar Nazar is one such personality and the first woman cartoonist of Pakistan as well. In this field for over 30 years now, her highly expressive cartoons are an attempt to expose the inherent hypocrisies of our society whereas; comical representations of these give it acceptance within the masses. Her character‟s name is Gogi. She first appeared in Karachi in the early 1970s while her fashion sense kept evolving with the day‟s prevalent trends. Over the past thirty years, Gogi has been internationalized and various representations exist not only in Turkish, Libyan, and Russian languages, but also newspapers, periodicals and television shows in Pakistan. Recently her cartoons have also been placed on the exterior of seven buses in Pakistan. Nigar Nazar has also published two books, "Glad to Meetcha Gogi" and "Gogi on the Go" which are a compilation of her comic strip.

Fig.3: Nigar Nazar‟s Gogi

Another noteworthy achievement in this regard is Pakistan‟s first animated music video “Freestyle Dive” by Sajid and Zeeshan from Peshawar. It was directed by Zeeshan


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Pervez and released in 2005, and was nominated for the Best Music Video category for quite a few renowned music awards of Pakistan. It also won the “Best Music Video” category award at the First Indus Music Awards.

Fig. 4: Screenshots from the music video “Freestyle Dive”

Pakistan has quite a few animation houses that are producing good work commercially in both the local and the international market. Commander Safeguard is the first ever CGI (Computer Graphics Interface) movie made in Pakistan. It is sponsored by Procter & Gamble Pakistan and is produced and animated by Post Amazers to promote hand washing habits among children. The animated series was created to augment the educational material on health and hygiene and it has proved to be a huge commercial success so much so that in the light of Safeguard‟s success, other products have tried their hand at creating an animated hero/mascot for themselves, albeit unsuccessfully. So far Commander Safeguard‟s 11 episodes of around 20 minutes have been aired on many Pakistani Television channels. It is one of the most popular local TV shows for children and has been very successful in conveying its message. It may not be wrong to say that the Lower-Middle class setting of this show is a big reason for its


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success. The problems addressed and the language used is particularly relatable to the target market. Since the basic message of the show is hygiene, it is targeted especially towards the audience who needed to be taught about cleanliness. (Mitchell)

Fig. 5: Commander Safeguard (Post Amazers) Similarly, Tetra Pack sponsored â&#x20AC;&#x153;Milkateerâ&#x20AC;? is another popular series, which is done by Sharp Images. The big idea of the show it to encourage people to drink hygienically packed milk which they claim is the safest and healthiest choice for every child around the country.

Fig. 6: Milkateer (Sharp Images)


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Knorâ&#x20AC;&#x;s Noodle Pot is yet another new series produced by H2O productions. It is based on 3 episodes and has very quickly gained a lot of popularity.

Fig. 7: Screenshots from Knorr Noodle Pot (H2O) Bankay Mian is a character created by ICE Animations through motion capture3. It is a small comedy sketch which is on-aired on Express News Channel. Bankay Mian is qawaal with 3 members in his party. He is 50 plus and is a cynic figure. He comments about the current social happenings and says it in a very cynical yet plain manner. (Bankay Mian Ki Qawwali)

Fig. 8: Screenshots of Bankay Mian Qawaal

3

Term used to describe the process of recording movement and translating that movement onto a digital model.


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India Animated films have started with their tryst with the Indian markets. Quite a number of animated movies are being released every year along with the staple number of Bollywood releases. Indian animation industry stood at US$ 1.5 billion in 2005 and it is growing by the day. In 2006 India had 300 animation companies. According to forecasts by NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies), animation industry in India will grow beyond USD 1 billion by 2012 from an estimated USD 494 million in 2008. (Report Linker)

Fig. 9: Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x;s Hanuman and Ghatotkoch

France The first French animated cartoon came out in 1908. Emile Cohl (1857-1938) is a very important name in the French Animation Industry. (Chomet) The French have a strong identity, just by looking at their animation one can tell that it is French and neither British nor American. (Bell)

Fig. 10: Triplets of Belleville, Fears of the Dark and Persepolis.


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Japan: Anime (ah-nee-may) is a Japanese word derived from the French word “animated” and is known as “Japanese Animation”. Anime originated around 1917 while the term anime emerged in the 1970s. English-speakers referred to anime as “Japanimation”, but this term now stands antiquated and has been replaced by the term “Anime” globally. (Wikipedia) Anime is basically the adaptation of manga on screen, which is the Japanese word for comics. Anime is truly the Japanese form of animation and is generally characterized by extremely stylized and exaggerated graphics and the use of vivacious and vibrant colors. The graphics used depict energetic and dynamic characters that are set in a large number of scenes and settings. (Pages) Anime has been very successfully globalized which is perhaps one of the main reasons for its popularity. The extent of globalization of anime can be measured by studying its penetration into other societies which is why it is loved by people all over the world and not just in Japan. Various obstacles have been overcome after the origin of anime for example, the lack of Western looking actors made it almost impossible to shoot films set in other countries or fantasy worlds, very much different from Japan. Animation allowed artists to create all sorts of characters and settings. It is spanned over many such genres that audiences in both east and west are accustomed to seeing in liveaction film; romance, comedy, tragedy, adventure, and horror, ranging from childhood adventure to graphic pornography. Anime appeals to various types of audiences and plays a notable role in Japanese popular culture. Anime not only presents a trans-cultural


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aesthetic, but also illustrates the internal human struggles and playfulness of the postmodern era. According to Japanese literary and cultural scholar Susan Napier (2001): â&#x20AC;&#x153;Anime is the ideal artistic vehicle for expressing the hopes and nightmares of our uneasy contemporary worldâ&#x20AC;?. (Napier)

Origin: Japan started producing animations in the early 1910s, but it is said that the noteworthy development of anime began in the 1960s. The current anime style differs from the early animations done in Japan. This particular style was a result of technical and financial issues in animation production also referred to as limited animation. It was Osamu Tezukaâ&#x20AC;&#x;s efforts and approach that led the origination of anime and therefore today is considered the founder of anime and manga. (Finston) Due to these limiting financial factors and technical constraints in the developmental stage of the anime industry, Japanese animators tactically used fewer drawings to illustrate motion and started applying cinematic techniques to enhance the drama and movement in still drawings. These cinematic techniques were the reason anime was established as an art form that expresses human internal thoughts and emotions rather than simply depicting stories or plots.


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Fig. 11: Cinematic technique in Osamu Tezukaâ&#x20AC;&#x;s Astro Boy

The more images an animation uses, the more it costs. Disney used twenty-four images per second in Snow White and the Seven Dwarves (1937), while Tezuka limited his anime to five or six frames per second. It is this motionlessness that evolved into animeâ&#x20AC;&#x;s particular style rather than becoming a creative restriction. It emphasizes more on smooth transitions of plots and interesting storylines than the fluidity of motion.

Style: Many stylistic elements of anime have become so common that despite the different titles and artists pursuing animation in their own styles, people still recognize them as anime in general. However, this does not mean that all modern anime share one strict, common art style. The influences of Japanese painting and calligraphy also depict linear qualities of the anime style.


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Fig. 12: Variation in strokes, an influence of Japanese calligraphy

The popular and recognizable style of anime is very distinctive. Emphasis is often placed on line over form, and the storytelling differs from those in other comics throughout the world. Impressionistic and sketchy backgrounds are very common, as are sequences in which the panel shows details of the setting rather than the characters.

Fig. 13: Impressionistic background, enhancing the mood of the scene

A common approach is the large eyes style drawn on many characters. Osamu Tezuka is believed to have been the first to use this technique as he was inspired by the exaggerated features of American cartoon characters such as Betty Boop, Mickey Mouse


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and Disneyâ&#x20AC;&#x;s Bambi. Tezuka discovered that large eyes style allowed his characters to show emotions distinctly.

Fig. 14: Large anime eyes, an inspiration from Bambi and Betty Boop

Anime art can be incredibly realistic or cartoonish, but the most common form of anime drawings include, exaggerated physical features such as large eyes, small noses, tiny mouths, flat faces, elongated limbs and bizarre and abnormal colored hair. Also dramatically shaped speech bubbles, speed lines, abstract background effects and onomatopoeic, exclamatory typography is unique and affective. Anime characters may employ wide variety of facial expressions to denote moods and thoughts. (Boman)

Fig. 15: Various exaggerated facial expressions.

Anime is often categorized as a form of limited animation. That means that stylistically, even in bigger productions the setting of limited animation is used to fool


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the eye into thinking there is more movement than there is. Camera angles, camera movement, and lighting play an essential part in scenes. In addition, camera angles show depth and perspective. Directors also choose camera effects, such as panning, zooming, panoramic and facial close-up. (Boman)

Fig. 16: Range of camera angles and movements.

Influence: A lot of non-Japanese works that borrow stylization from anime are commonly referred to as "anime-influenced animation". It is quite usual for a viewer who does not know the origin of such material to refer to it as simply "anime". Nowadays, almost all Asian nations have their own editions of Japanese comics and their televisions show Japanese animated series on a daily basis. Merchandise of Japanese cartoon characters, such as Hello Kitty, Dragon ball, Naruto, Pokemon, Digimon, etc. is very popular among Asian children and young people while Asian businessmen also make use of Japanese cartoon characters to promote their products or services.


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Fig. 17: Various Anime Merchandise

Research shows that anime has made significant impacts upon other cultures. Worldwide, the number of people studying Japanese has also increased. In the 1960s anime entered markets beyond Japan and grew as a major cultural export. (Netword)

According to the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), the anime market for the United States alone is worth approximately US$2.89 billion (2007). (Industry). Much of the fandom of anime has expanded through the Internet and therefore, it too has played a significant role in the exposure of anime beyond Japan.

Even Hollywood has started incorporating “anime aesthetics” in recent movies. Kill Bill (2003) and Animatrix (2003) for example. The Wachowski Brothers of Matrix (1999) even claim their film was highly influenced by Akira (1988). (Industry)

Fig. 18: Screenshots from Hollywood‟s Animatrix and Kill Bill.


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Impact on Viewers: Anime can change lives and deeply influence people and that too, not just in the case of children. Most of the people watching anime are young, in Japan mostly between 10 and 22 and are thus impressionable as children in a number of different ways. Anime is a mirror of society and culture. It reflects the hopes, fears, love and feelings of those who create them and the world they live in. They may be grim at times, or even throughout the entire run, but the characters evolve and grow and subsequently develop more mature personalities. The coming of age story becomes the journey of becoming an adult and hence, not just the characters but also the viewer finds himself growing up with it. (Shen) Most of the Japanese anime characters are strong, just as Hayao Miyazakiâ&#x20AC;&#x;s protagonists of his movies are likewise strong and often in an attacking mood. Girls and women in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x;s Japanese anime are influenced by Miyazakisâ&#x20AC;&#x; independent and strong women in his films. (Eliza)


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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

My research is basically qualitative and empirical. After gathering all the relevant data I will analyze and compare various projects amongst themselves. The dissertation question Iâ&#x20AC;&#x;ve come up with is â&#x20AC;&#x153;can the initiation of a Pakistani style of animation be beneficial?â&#x20AC;? To answer this question I will be going through most primary and secondary research done on animation, the importance of entertainment, the Pakistani Animation Industry and its growing significance. After finding out where Pakistan currently stands and what projects are being pursued, I will move on to other countries and talk about animation styles of Japan, France and India and how they have been successful in achieving their distinctive styles. I will be studying anime in depth because my goal is to draw parallels with it and treat it as a model. A lot of countries despite having a huge animation industry do not have their own distinctive, national style. Animations from France may not be as popular and in demand as the US animation films for example, but their illustration style, especially how the anatomy of their characters vary, is quite distinct and experimental which is the reason I have added France to my research. The Indian animation industry, although small and still passing the embryonic stage, it has managed to make their mark and stand out because of their strong culture which they make sure is present in every project they pursue.


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Japanâ&#x20AC;&#x;s anime being the foremost and the biggest industry of all, is the best model to study and thus serves as a control for my study. I will also be studying the origin, animation style, the impact and influences of anime on it audiences and how Japan has been able to gain benefit out of it. The reason for choosing anime for such a detailed study is its world wide popularity and demand. Studying a popular and successful subject will bring forth the reasons which may help in deciding whether or not Pakistan needs animation of its own and if and how would it prove to be a successful venture The research will mainly be done over the internet. The impact of anime on its viewers will be taken into consideration. My target audience is mainly youth of Pakistan but I will also be looking into children programs because that is the only audience animation in Pakistan is done for. I will be analyzing Pakistani projects like Captain Safeguard, Milkateers, Bankay Mian Qawal along with a few commercials as well. The comparison of their animation style with Pixar and other countries will also give us a better understanding of our originality in design. Even though commercials are not my main concern but I will analyze their animation style and talk about why we get most animation work out sourced when it can be done locally. Captain Safeguard and Milkateers is the most popular example of animation done in Pakistan. Even though it is commercial but it also serves as a source of entertainment for its audiences. Studying its success and impact will help me better analyze the building market in Pakistan and judge where we stand and where we are lacking.


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Once the research phase has been concluded and it becomes evident why and how anime originated with what affects on its viewers, I will approach people from different relevant fields to discuss if Pakistan should initiate animations and whether they will be successful in our culture judging from the already initiated successful animation projects in our region. The people I will interview include Khurrum Khan, Khurram Alavi, Saima Zaidi and Omar Farooq. Khurram Khan, an illustrator by profession, is a graduate of the Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture. He is the coordinator of Graphics at the Visual Studies Department of Karachi University and also teaches Illustration there. Khurram Khan being an illustrator and a teacher would give his point of view regarding animation in general and its importance and effectiveness in our society. Also, being an anime viewer himself, he can better relate to the topic and advise accordingly. Khurram Alavi is also an Indus Valley School graduate and an illustrator by profession. He is currently the head of the Illustration Department at the Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture and is also working at ICE Animation. He has worked for a number of local and international clients and therefore has profound understanding of the business side of this industry works. Another important reason of interviewing him is his series which he has been working on named â&#x20AC;&#x153;Parchamâ&#x20AC;?. The basic plot and all his characters are ready and he is currently in the phase of pursuing sponsors to be able to air his series. He will provide an overview about the way things are done in the market and what issues there are in this field. He is also an intent anime watcher


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therefore his views regarding the topic will hold great relevance to the model set and will help in drawing parallels between the two industries. Saima Zaidi, a communication designer, studied at the National College of Arts (NCA), Lahore, and proceeded to do her Masters in typography from the Pratt Institute, New York. She currently teaches at the Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture and the Visual Studies Department of the University of Karachi. Saima Zaidi following the publication of her book Mazaar Bazaar, which is an inter-disciplinary study on design and visual culture in Pakistan, makes an ideal candidate to guide the research and talk about the Pakistani style of illustration, whether it exists or not and if it is essential. The conclusion will state whether this new medium would prove to be helpful for the Pakistani youth and how this could be achieved. Omar Farooq, a Creative Consultant at PTV heads his own Animation House called DigiNext. He will give an insight to the business side of the animation industry and why only commercial animations are being done and not original ideas are being accepted. He will also highlight the issues that people get to face in this field. Also what are the major factors that have led us to the adoption of western style animations.


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ANALYSIS Animation is a very important medium and its power cannot be denied because of its limitlessness. It has no boundaries and therefore anything can be created using its instruments. It is true that imagination is its only limitation but we must not forget that illustration is the parent and animation is the child. A good animation thus, is always backed by strong illustrations. Some regard entertainment as a waste of time which in my view is not true. It is perhaps an essential getaway, a hiatus from our daily mechanized routines and survival would be so much harder without it. Entertainment through animation is very popular these days as it too allows the viewer to escape reality and experience a new world. Even if it is for some time it can prove to be quite beneficial. Even though there is a lot of animation being done in Pakistan, we don‟t have a unique style. People don‟t regard animation as a very important aspect these days but Khurram Khan says that having a Pakistani style of illustration is as important as having a Pakistani style of Graphic Design. Whatever the field is, Pakistan needs to build its own cultural identity. It is argued by many that Pakistan does not have a market for such a medium. Whereas if past projects are studied we find contradicting evidence and realize that people have been accepting towards new mediums. “Kaliyaan” a very popular muppet show which had aired on PTV in the past years, gained immense popularity in its time and is still loved by all. Communicating through new means and not getting to witness the same real faces was a novel and exciting experience for the viewers which they


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thoroughly enjoyed. Apart from its content which was funny and useful the idea of muppets itself was the main reason of its success. This tells us that deviating from the traditional norms and customs is sometimes necessary and far more appreciated than what is real. Khurram Khan agrees that people sometimes need a change and the success of Kaliyaan proves their acceptance towards a new medium therefore producing an animated series will make people watch it.

“Uncle Sargum became Uncle Sargum just like Kermit became Kermit. We have done this before and we can do this again” - Khurram Khan Even if we revamp and animate Uncle Sargum for today‟s generation, it should be a success. Adults will want to revisit owing to nostalgia and the new generation will watch it not as entertainment alone but to close the intergenerational gap as well. Kaliyaan is recently being on aired on radio and still has a very large listenership. This shows that if there is to be an animated version it will also be a success. In fact, if other Pakistani comedy hits like 50-50 and Aanghan Terha or simply our folk tales and historical events are taken up and reproduced as animated series, they too will be loved by all. Kaliyaan initiated way back in 1976, but now considering more recent non commercial projects, Nigar Nazar stands as an important source of knowledge. She holds varied experiences and has worked in a number of diverse, though related fields. Her character Gogi is young and fun. It has a speck of humor while also conveys important messages. The only drawback of her character is that it isn‟t advertised or publicized adequately, which is why it is not so popular. Not to mention, in a market like


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Pakistan, self generated funding is an extremely rare scenario therefore to make Gogi popular she will have to secure sponsors thus also attach a product to it and hence ending up commercializing it like most other brands. Gogi is humorous and always has a message for both children and adults. For Nigar Nazar, who has been putting unstinted efforts on animating her comic strips, bringing Gogi to life will be perhaps, another big achievement for the industry. “Freestyle Dive” by Sajid and Zeeshan is Pakistan‟s first animated music video. They took considerable risk in pursuing this venture and despite a lot of negative feedback to their idea, they went ahead with it and dared to do what a lot of people wouldn‟t and in the end the risk was worth all their efforts as the video earned them both awards and recognition. Soon they were followed by other artists - Ali Azmat‟s Teri Parchaian directed by Zeeshan Pervez and Gallaan were a big success in this regard. Commander Safeguard of Post Amazers and Milkateers of Sharp Images, even the Noodle Pot by H2O has the same amount of product attachment. The animation is getting better and refining overtime but what we lack is a style. Pakistan does not have any specific style of animation but most of the animation done here is quite similar to the Pixar style, which is why the Pixar style is now erroneously attached to the Pakistani style even though it does not stand out in the international market. The problem remains that the copied Pixar style will never stand out because not just Pakistan but a number of other countries have started reproducing it according to their own contexts and therefore it does not stand out as a unique style or element. The only factors that differ and make it look Pakistani, are the costumes, skin tone, features, language, etc.


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Below are screenshots from a Pixar movie, three local animations and another done in Malaysia. Note that the animation style of all five is extremely similar.

Fig. 19: Cocomo (Sharp Images)

Fig. 20: Milkateer (Sharp Images) and Ratatouille (Pixar)

Fig. 21: Chase (Putrajaya, Malaysia) and Mayfair Candy (Sharp Images)

However, the language and the environmental setting of these animations do boast our â&#x20AC;&#x17E;Pakistaniatâ&#x20AC;&#x; at some level. The character names, costumes and buildings are identifiably Pakistani whereas the western element can still be witnessed in a lot of places. However, the interesting thing to note is that the Pakistani element is only visible


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in settings that take place in lower middle class areas whereas the households and environmental settings have a western touch to it. Additionally, to draw parallels through an example, the hero costume of Milkateers is very similar to any other western hero costume. The success of Captain Safeguard and Milkateers is evident and cannot be denied. What we can decipher from this is that the medium of animation is widely accepted because even a lot of adults watch these shows regularly. Captain Safeguard is for children and the messages it conveys are also for the same age group. If an animation is produced for the mature youth with concepts and morals related to their age and issues, perhaps that too will be appreciated. The success of animated shows like Commander Safeguard, Milkateer and Noodle Pot have proven that animation appeals to people of all ages and different social strata; and if a new series as such is initiated and marketed well, people will be interested and follow it. The potential and talent is available, what we lack are people willing to invest in this area. Another issue with these animations is that they being so commercial take the importance of a sound storyline for granted and therefore most of the times, their script is very superficial and generic. To gather an audience one must focus on individuals and what might interest them and thus the story line needs to be strong and more personal so that people are able to relate to it at a greater level. Even though the commercial animation market is doing quite well there are still many animated local television commercials which are being outsourced specially the


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2D animations. The sole reason of the 2D animation works being outsourced is because it simply isn‟t done here. Our industry should work on being self sufficient so we don‟t have to get any foreign help. Walls Paddle Pop Ice Cream (McCann Erickson, Sydney), Mortein, Insurance (Euro RSCG, Sydney) and Hilal Ding Dong Bubble Gum (Film Magic, Hong Kong) are some of the examples of such commercials.

Fig. 22: Ding Dong Bubble Gum (Hong Kong) and Paddle Pop Ice Cream (Sydney)

The development of a style is a very gradual process - It refines overtime and always comes from the surroundings of the region. According to Khurram Khan if our style has to be developed it could be derived from what we own. Our local crafts, miniature or truck art for example because these are the things which we truly belong to us and have a very strong identity therefore an animation style influenced by these will result in being very Pakistani. Even though India‟s animation industry has just begun to grow and despite their not possessing one specific style of illustration or animation, they still manage to stand out. The reason why Indian animation is distinctive is because their culture is very strong and instead of blindly following the West, they prefer clinging to it and promoting it. Their culture can be seen in everything they do, they‟re proud of it and


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they promote it as much as they can. As shown below, the four styles of animation are very different yet stand out as very Indian.

Fig. 23: Screenshots from various Indian animations

The French are very similar to the Japanese. The sort of attitude they have is “since they did it this way, we will do it the other way.” Therefore, like India and France we should also hold on to our culture and promote it, not only in animation but also in other areas. We should take a lesson from this and produce unique work, not just replicating what has been successful in the past. Japan deviated from US‟ “animation is only for kids” theory and moved on to produce animation that is for all age groups spanning over various genres of the likes of fantasy, real life drama, intrigue, romance, action and more. Anime‟s success is due to a lot of reasons. Firstly anime‟s origin is an important aspect of its success. Considering how Osamu Tezuka turned affects of the financial constraints upside down by limiting the anime to 7 frames per second instead of 24, he did so with such dexterity that the


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quality did not get affected at all in fact it grew in popularity because of its unique style. The setting of limited animation is used to fool the eye into thinking there is more movement than there is. Also, the style of illustration is derived from their script; the round ink brush by tradition used for writing Japanese script and for painting, produces a stroke of widely varying thickness which can be seen in anime today. Their distinct facial features and expressions, abstractions and experimental camera angels are what makes the animation interesting and keep the viewer hooked on. Anime has countless merchandise to support and advertise their projects. They don‟t have funding issues which is why this is so easy and perhaps justify their ubiquity. This is the point where Pakistan falls short. The few projects that people did start in Pakistan, Quaid and Flash Graphic Novels from Lahore for example, died out even before maturing due to lack of finances. Merchandise plays a huge role in the promotion of a certain brand but the relation of merchandise‟s successful marketing and brand image development is mutually reinforcing. If we keep these factors into consideration for the future, we might be able to come up with a solid animation promotional strategy. “Good marketing can do wonders and sell almost anything” - Muzummil Ruheel. Research shows that anime has brought a huge boost to Japan‟s economy, the number of people learning Japanese has increased and their culture is also being promoted. Moreover, Hollywood has started to follow the anime style in different aspects. Anime wouldn‟t have been so successful if it were devoid of its strong and unique identity. If the content we wish to represent holds relevance to the society, we might also be able to instigate a process of change, consequently boost our economy and


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promote our culture in other parts of the world. This ambitious aim calls for serious efforts and hence, not merely adoption of other commercialized genres. Khurram Khan believes that any medium can posses the power to instill a process of change within society. He believes that anime by default isn‟t something that can revolutionize but if we do initiate an animation series of our own, its agenda should be bigger than what a normal animation‟s agenda would be. “Media is very powerful. Any form of media can change many things in the society.” - Khurram Khan

The fact that readership is decreasing by the day, the idea of initiating this program aided by comics might not be such a success. Television is the most popular medium and all age groups of all classes view it therefore there is no reason for an animation series to not work on this platform. Sadly the only kind of animation being done in Pakistan is commercial. There are either television commercials or short paid films by sponsors, which have very high involvement of the product. That is why we don‟t see any animation done which isn‟t associated to a product. We need proper business plans and strategies to convince the sponsors to invest in this medium. Perhaps a reason why this would be so difficult is that people are scared of taking investment risks in third world countries, especially when it involves an investment of an intellectual nature. Whereas the people who are in a position to bring about such change, lack a proper vision. They have bigger self conceived agendas and don‟t pay much heed to promotion, reproduction and distribution of their national culture. To sell a concept to the producers who actually make it happen,


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you need a good business plan and rock solid communication convincing them how affective a certain campaign could be. Not until we give it a chance will we be able to find out how beneficial this venture could prove to be. Also Khurram Khan highlights another huge problem we faced which may be the sole reason why we don‟t have a style is because we skipped a complete phase of traditional animation. Animation is not even taught in any of the local institutes. Technical and creative animation is always balanced. People here are technically sound but they don‟t have that creative element because most of them don‟t even know the basics of drawing and rely on 3D templates to initiate their production careers. “All we do is grab this and that from here and there. Nobody teaches traditional animation in Pakistan even though it is so important. Pakistan skipped a whole phase of animation. We started running before we learnt to crawl.” – Khurram Khan

Everything can be traced back to market demands but we must remember that it is us who create the market. If we keep going with the flow and continue to produce the kind of work that is already being done then there will be no substantial progress for our industry. At times clients can be very difficult to deal with but if the designer is good, it is his job to convince the client and tell him what is better and why going with the flow and producing the same old generic stuff isn‟t an intelligent choice.


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CONCLUSION Entertainment today is not regarded as something of peripheral importance rather it has taken the shape of a multibillion dollar global industry. Animation though may not be regarded as a genre of entertainment, has come up as an exciting platform to represent our realities and fantasies. Its importance has grown manifold and will keep on exponentiating owing to its limitlessness and the freedom of experimentation it avails to the modern cinema industry. Animation is a skill that is not impossible to learn and thus makes it possible for everyone to become creators. Alas, the effortlessness associated with reproduction of creative thought through animation has made it an easy target for opportunistic capitalists who use it to multiply their fortunes. Also, its usage as a medium of expression in backward countries too remains tenuous at best. This is so, as these nations are unwilling to invest in something, the return of which lies in the far away future for them. The same goes for Pakistan, an economically progressing country but still intellectually impoverished. Entertainment in Pakistan has suffered owing to many factors such as political instability, lack of funds and the failed cinema experiment. More than art entertainment has become more of a business that pays. Thus it does not stand by itself but relies on the rationalizations and justifications residing in its ability to generate wealth. However, even when such factors have been accounted for and brought into consideration, it is not impossible to conceive Pakistanâ&#x20AC;&#x;s own animation industry and perhaps, its own animation brand in the longer run. What needs to be done is


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develop a long run strategy based on achievable short term goals. These short term goals if reached successfully, will eventually lead to more ambitious projects and this gradual evolution will thus pave way for the development of a clear vision for the industry where it holds a unique stylistic Pakistani identity. Acquisitive capitalists may not be seen as a barrier or threat, rather as a means to an end. Sadly so, only they can help realize the long term goals by pouring in their finances. They need to be made aware of the industries lucrative potential and that; talent does exist locally to make it happen. Even so, there is no denying of the fact that talent is only half trained. The infrastructure that would produce exemplary illustrators, visualizers, copyrighters, animators is nonexistent and only sporadic efforts have been made to organize the industry. Further it is impossible to create such an infrastructure unless individuals see a future within it, coupled with financial stability. These are the factors that have to be taken into consideration. Question still remains if the form of animation should be one reflecting local nuances or one borrowed from the western countries. As a beginning, it is important to replicate and learn though it would not contribute towards the formation of a separate identity for the Pakistani animation industry. Once, the talent has been refined enough and the industry reaches a sustainable level of maturity, it would not be too difficult to initiate our own style of animation. Only that would be a fair representation of our culture and values as the current level of skill can only allow shallow and distorted representations.


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My suggestion here does not imply the impossibility of creating our own style but what I propose is to pursue that goal systematically, gradually and simultaneously establishing ourselves financially and infrastructurally. It would allow penetration of Pakistani culture into other world regions and let them be aware of our existence. Analysis of animations by different countries and what they have achieved due to their unique styles in animation shows what all we can achieve by creating our own style. Our animation industry is doing quite well commercially. If more attention is paid towards creativity we can do wonders and it will definitely benefit Pakistan. This is perhaps the only vision that takes precedence over the vision of creating a self sustaining animation industry.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Bakst, Edward. The Power of Animation. Unknown. 5 March 2010 <http://www.ad-mktreview.com/public_html/docs/fs031.html>.

 Sonia. The Importance of Entertainment. 5 Feb 2009. 5 March 2010 <http://sonia1203.essentialwriters.com/2009/02/05/the-importance-of-entertainment/>.

 Stromberg, Peter G. Is Entertainment Bad for You? . 12 March 2010. 20 March 2010 <http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex-drugs-and-boredom/201003/isentertainment-bad-you>.

 Makin, Indie-Film. 3D ANIMATION ! THE GRWOING INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN . 13 June 2008. 20 March 2010 <http://indie-filmmaking.blogspot.com/2008/06/3danimation-grwoing-industry-in.html>.

 "Farooq Qaisar, Uncle Sargum, PTV and Putli Tamashas." ALL THINGS PAKISTAN. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://pakistaniat.com/2007/01/20/uncle-sargam-kaliyan-farooqputli-puppet-faizan-pirzaada/>.

 Ghayur, Adeel. Computer Animation and Gaming Industry. Animation and Gaming. N/A: N/A, 19 Sep 2007.


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 Mitchell, By Anthony. "E-Commerce News: Software: Pakistan's Software Industry Celebrates Achievements." Welcome to E-Commerce Times. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/65046.html?wlc=1274675380>.

 Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development. pide.org.pk. unknown. March 2010 <http://www.pide.org.pk>.

 "Bankay Mian Ki Qawwali – 7 February 2010 | Pakistan Politics." Pkpolitics. Web. 24 May 2010. <http://pkpolitics.com/2010/02/07/bankay-mian-ki-qawwali-7-february2010/>.

 ReportLinker. The Global Animation Industry. Industry reports, Company profiles. N/A: ReportLinker, Nov 2009.

 Chomet, Sylvain. "The Triplets of Belleville." Movie Review (2003): 38-42.

 Bell, Anne-Laure. "France: the land of animation!" MINISTÈRE DES AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES ET EUROPEENNES (2009): 1-2.

 Wikipedia. Anime. Unknown. 15 March 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anime>.

 Shen, Lien Fan. "The Pleasure and Politics of Viewing Japanese Anime." Ohio State University (2007).


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 Albert, Aaron. Manga 101 - Basic Walk-through of the Manga World. Unknown. 15 March 2010 <http://comicbooks.about.com/od/manga/ss/manga101.htm>.

 Napier, Susan J. From Akira to Princess Mononoke. USA: Palgrave Publishers, 2000.

 Boman, Jeff and Jennifer Wand. Anime Iconography. 28 June 2006. 20 March 2010 <http://www.fpsmagazine.com/feature/060628animeiconography.php>.

 Finston, Laurence D. The GNU 3DLDF Animation Page . 21 February 2007. 20 March 2010 <http://www.gnu.org/software/3dldf/animatn.html>.

 Frazier, Scott. Serious Stuff. Unknown. 15 March 2010 <http://www.ex.org/2.8/12bts1.html>.

 Industry, Journal of Japanese Trade &. "Unknown." Journal of Japanese Trade & Industry (August 2000).

 Network, Anime News. World-wide Anime Market Worth $100 Billion. 12 February 2009. 15 March 2010 <http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2005-02-19/worldwide-anime-market-worth-$100-billion>.

 Eliza. Hayao Miazaki and Japanese Animation. 24 January 2007. 15 March 2010 <http://www.romow.com/art-blog/hayao-miyazaki-and-japanese-anime/>.

 Pages, Hub. HubPages.com. 2010. 20 March 2010 <http://hubpages.com/>.


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APPENDIX Appendix A: (Personal Interviews)

Khurram Khan: Khurrum Khan, an illustrator and a teacher at Karachi University says that having a Pakistani style of illustration is as important as having a Pakistani style of Graphic Design and Advertising. We currently don‟t have any animation style. There is a field in Graphic Design called Vernacular Design where you basically pin point the elements that keep continuing in a particular region‟s design. They are the elements that make up a region‟s cultural identity. He says he‟s sure that if someone applies that to our material we could come up with these elements. He says it is not really about animation or illustration; it is about creating a stylistic identity which Pakistan lacks. When the elements of anime are pointed out, you can also find them in other animations. Pakistan also has precedence in comics. In past, Flash comics from Lahore and Graphic Novels of the Quaid came out but they went defunct solely because they weren‟t advertised properly. Other than that, the west has had so much influence over our society that people don‟t want anything that isn‟t western. We don‟t have a market which is the reason why the comics I just mentioned went defunct. Reading is a very niche market and within that there is a niche market of people who read comics and even among those there are very few who will pick up something that is local. They might work only if you have a good marketing strategy. Targeting the upper class only may not


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work because that‟ll be too small a market. You won‟t need to target only the upper class if the marketing strategy is good. In Khurram Khan‟s opinion animation houses will do anything as long as they get the money. Every year there are students who wish to animate or start comic books of their own but soon they realize that product placement is the only place where funding comes from. This problem is only present in Pakistan. We don‟t see a single animation that isn‟t associated to a product. The biggest problem we‟ve faced as an industry is the extreme jump we‟ve made from one level to the other. Initially we had no sort of animation in Pakistan and now suddenly Maya and 3DMax came out and our generation skipped a complete phase of 2D animation. The illustrators and animators of our industry are not properly trained, they don‟t know the basics of drawing, they aren‟t even aware of the human anatomy and yet they are out there producing work through templates of software‟s like Maya and 3DMax. One can never be original by working through templates as such. Before jumping to the advanced stage we should get out basics fixed first. “Pakistan has skipped a whole phase of animation. We started running before we learnt to crawl.” If we initiate an animation series of our own, its agenda should be bigger that what a normal animation‟s agenda would be. Khurram Khan believes that any medium can change many things in society. He says that anime by default isn‟t something that can revolutionize. I believe anything can change anything. Keeping the country‟s current scenario in mind, a lot of people think animation should be the least of our worries right now. Khurrum Khan justifies its importance by


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saying, “Media is very powerful. Any form of media can change many things in the society.” It is not about getting animation to work here or people to start reading comics. It is about creating a stylistic identity. Ding Dong and other animations that we even do have are all outsourced. We don‟t have cell animation in Pakistan at all. To be able to do cell animation you need to know how to draw and more than half the animators we have don‟t know how to draw. They are the animators who come in this field by getting excited on watching a few animated films or by playing video games. They aren‟t even interested in this field. We won‟t be left with anything unless we make our base strong. All we do is grab this and that from here and there. Nobody teaches traditional animation in Pakistan even though it is so important. Everything comes out from market demands. But we forget that we create the market. We prepare our kids that „this is what‟s happening in the market these days, so do this‟ instead we should tell them „this is what‟s not happening in the market so do this‟. At the end of the day you have to make money so you can completely get away from commercialism but you can always experiment. If you‟re a good designer you need to convince the client and change the ethics of the agency by telling him what‟s new and best for him instead of just going with the flow and producing the same old generic stuff. You just might get more successful by changing things. A style develops over time. It is a very gradual process and it isn‟t easy. Our style can be derived from our local crafts or truck art. We literally have a very strong truck art identity because it has been there for so long. If not truck art, you can bring in miniature.


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It‟s not necessary that just because anime came after manga our animation will follow our comics too. Firstly, we need to know what makes a comic a comic. It is basically sequential art. A comic is made up of images divided by panels. Each image has a key sequence and there is text accompanying it. If this is what a comic is, then how is it different from our miniature art? That is exactly what patrons in olden days used to do. Saima Zaidi would be an excellent person to point you towards different design styles and guide you and tell you what the cultural things we have are. India is good model to study. You should also definitely look into France. The French also have a very strong identity. Just by looking at them you can tell that they‟re French and neither British nor American. They are very similar to the Japanese. The sort of attitude they have is “Since they did it this way, we will do it the other way.” Khurrum Khan also says that right now, animation in Pakistan is only being done on a commercial level. Finances are the major reason why sponsors don‟t invest in this field. The other reason is that no one is making people realize what a flexible medium this is that is why they think it‟s not important enough. Khurrum Khan also talked about the success of the very popular muppet show, Uncle Sargum in the early days of Pakistan Television. Uncle Sargum was loved by all and holds his status high to this day. He was so popular that he even came in other shows at a time. There was no famous voice over artist behind Uncle Sargum; he just became Uncle Sargum like Kermit became Kermit. He says that “Kaliyaan” is a great


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example which attests to the fact that an animation series can also work in this region. We have done this before and we can do this again. Media has ruined us all. It is showing all sorts of nonsense these days. Neither our English nor our Urdu is any good anymore. If an animation series is initiated with a proper strategy, it certainly holds the power to have an influence on the change makers of this country that is people between the ages of 16 and 30. He also says that Pakistan right now being just 62 years old cannot have its own identity. It is too early to be creating new things. He strongly emphasizes that we cannot break away from our roots which lie in the subcontinent. We should start engaging ourselves in it. Even the stories which didnâ&#x20AC;&#x;t originate in Pakistan have been here so long that we can call them our own. Cinderella and Aladdin were Chinese stories and Disney just adopted them. If we start by taking up the subcontinent stories we can do well because we canâ&#x20AC;&#x;t create an identity in vacuum, our roots are in the subcontinent and that cannot be ignored. A Pakistani style of illustration must come from within our surroundings. Miniature and truck art are the most original forms of art which truly belong to us. Therefore, an illustration style derived from truck art can said to be very Pakistani.

Muzzumil Ruheel: Muzummil Ruheel is a bachelor in Fine Art (Visual Studies) from BNU (Beacon house National University) and a teacher at Indus Valley School says that selling a


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cartoon series with a local setting may be a very difficult task but it is not impossible. Targeting only the upper class might work but if a series is meant to bring a social change, it should start from the grass root level. If sponsors invest in this cause and the series is marketed well there is no reason for it to fail. “Good marketing can do wonders and sell almost anything”, says Muzummil. It is very important for a country to have its own identity says Muzummil Ruheel. He agrees that to put a mark on the world we must work towards developing our own style in the different mediums of art. He says it is true that all sorts of initiations and investments right now can prove to be beneficial for Pakistan in the future but at the same time he also says, “Investing in our animation industry at this point is like adding unnecessary creamer to the tea.”

Khurram Alavi: Khurram Alavi a teacher and an illustrator says that having a unique Pakistani style of animation is definitely important but unfortunately due to our labor not being trained, somewhere along the line we started copying the Pixar style which has now started to be known as our own. People often abuse their inspirations and start using it as source material. This is exactly what has happened with the animation style we currently have. The style is exactly like Pixar, costumes, skin tone, features, language, etc. Are the only things that make it look Pakistani. Technical and creative animation is always balanced. People here are technically sound but they don‟t have that creative element because they don‟t know the basics of


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drawing, form or structure. And that is because traditional drawing isn‟t considered seriously anymore; people think it‟s not important that is why they just use templates because it‟s easier. Nobody has a degree, they are mostly self taught. Companies need to invest in skilled people and train them so they produce better and original work in future. ICE is currently working on training people on character modeling. Mostly, people in Pakistan always give opinions and ideas but nobody does anything to change the situation. He says a Pakistani style of animation would definitely be beneficial but the drawback is that we don‟t have the people for it. Lack of people is also the reason why we don‟t have any original concepts. It is because people are scared of taking risks in this third world country. Sadly, the people who are in a position to bring this change don‟t have a vision. They have bigger agendas and they don‟t care about promotion and distribution. To sell a concept to the producers who actually make it happen, you need a good business plan and rock solid communication convincing them how effective a certain campaign will be. If an animation series for pure entertainment purpose is initiated, it must be kept in mind that the major percent of the masses will not see it. The market always grows slowly. The mature audience is always a very small percent but as long as the content and story is good, the audience will not be a problem. The people between ages 11 to 25 need to be targeted because they are the major percent of this country. For a start, cultural stories and history should be animated. As long as there‟s drama and action to capture people‟s interest, they will watch anything.


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As for anime, it took a lot of years for it to mature. Anime has aesthetic sense and no commercialism. It will take a lot of time for our industry to mature. Fortunately Commander Safeguard has made a market which Sharp Images is keeping stable. Japan and China as a nation are very hardworking people, while us, on the other hand are quite impatient. A single person cannot do all the required labor. One person needs to lead and train a team. The producer needs to be convinced first so that one gets to do things his way and not in a sellout manner. The characters of a story depend on the audience. Language and the script attract the local market hence the style of illustration comes later. People in Pakistan are not fond of reading books therefore the manga strategy Japan started with will not work in our society. Interesting story line is the basic thing that needs to be kept in mind. Both the story and the cinematography of anime are very dramatic and extreme which is the reason people hold on to it. Dragging scenes, extra zoom and pan are what grasp the viewerâ&#x20AC;&#x;s attention and good content makes them come back to it. Some people love Akira and some hate it. Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x;s often no grey area when anime is concerned. Also the huge reason for animeâ&#x20AC;&#x;s success is because it targets individuals and not masses. It gives one a sense of ownership. Other animations are too widespread and commercial while anime is unique, mature and a real commodity. Khurram Alavi says that anime has had a huge influence on him and that is the main reason he joined this field. Anime characters are very strong; their technique enhances their story telling and stylization has been applied really well. He says that Princess Mononoke changed his approach and showed him how diverse anime can be.


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Street Fighter showed him how attentive to detail Japanese are because muscles and forms don‟t get distorted in any frame. Cowboy Bebop shows how original and interesting their story can be. He says that the Japanese mythical stories, specially Hayao Miyazaki‟s work and our childhood stories have quite a lot of similar content and characters like the ghosts and fairies. Khurram Alavi has been working on an animation series of his own, called “Parcham” for past four years. The story revolves around the suicidal bombing in Pakistan and the birth of a hero, called Parcham. Despite having a very relatable plot to our society, Parcham being a 3D animation is quite expensive which is the reason why sponsors are not ready to invest in it. Post Amazers agreed to buy Parcham on the condition that they‟d change the Pakistani flag of Captain Parcham and sell it to another country. Khurram Alavi straight up refused. He says, people acknowledge you only if you show them your worth. America has no specific style of animation, Japan does. Japan‟s style is very anatomy intensive because people Japanese are very hardworking people and they can produce that kind of work where as we can‟t. Anime reflects that the Japanese society is very violent and perverted. Anime‟s content isn‟t morally sound therefore it is not for kids. In fact, it may not be wrong say that Japanese youth has become more violent after anime. The reason it is so mature is because that‟s how their market and culture and society is. Kids in Pakistan cannot take that sort of violence thus the content will have to be adjusted accordingly.


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Cartoon Network also has mature themes. Mr. Bean for example, is quite off morally. Therefore, the thing to note here is that all these cartoons reflect their society, therefore if a similar thing is initiated here, the style can be picked up but the content will have to be modified in relevance to our society for it to work. Our content should have a moral code so the people follow it. There should be flexibility in the content. Our storytelling needs to be improved so the people relate to it more. Instead of fake flowery language, scripts should be original like the ones in movies “Dil Chahta Hai” and “3 Idiots”. Anime in general, is quite negative. For a lesson to be learnt there are always two approaches, the negative and the positive which depend on the target market. If the target market is kids, they need to be shown good with bad but if it is for adults, just showing the negative can work. Either way, the audience needs to be controlled. The ratings system in Pakistan isn‟t strict at all. If an adult theme cartoon is to be on aired, it should have ratings and a watermark.

Saima Zaidi: Saima Zaidi, a communication designer, studied at the National College of Arts (NCA), Lahore, and proceeded to do her Masters in typography from the Pratt Institute, New York. She currently teaches at the Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture and the Visual Studies Department of the University of Karachi. She says Pakistan doesn‟t really have an illustration style of its own but according to me the illustration style of Akhbar-e-Jahan


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and other fictional Urdu digests as a Pakistani style because it is look very Pakistani and is very distinct. Lollywood movie posters and other hoardings done a few years ago is also what I would categorize as a Pakistani style of illustration. She says Japan has a huge following and it didn‟t just happen suddenly. Anime is from the culture by the culture. Animation on its own as a medium may not bring any sort of revolution but it can bring a change especially in rural areas. It all depends on where you want to apply the style. For example, the text books are all illustrated now and it helps understanding things better. But I don‟t see why you feel photography isn‟t good enough and why we need illustration. Why do you feel animation is more important? Illustration is just another way of communication in which you can apply certain ideas and put them across. Painters are not being able to utilize their art work since photography has taken over. Why don‟t you feel that‟s an issue? Safeguard type stuff is much more fun but think about how this medium can be more productive than others.

Omar Farooq: Omar Farooq, a Creative Consultant at PTV heads his own Animation House called DigiNext. He says the reason animation is difficult is because major human resource is needed which is also why 2D could not take place in a country like Pakistan. An extensive team is required for cel animation which is very hard to maintain because it is expensive. Clients approach us with a fixed mindset most of the time which is very hard to change. They would come and tell us “make something like Toy Story or


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Transformersâ&#x20AC;?. This preconceived image in their head is mostly west influenced because west is now so widespread. Omar Farooq believes that gaming industry will soon hit Pakistan and the animation industry will be raised high. An animation series can certainly work in our region but only if it is for children. According to him funding is the sole reason why the only stories being told here are related to product advertising. Also since animation is time consuming clients prefer live action over it in most scenarios.


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Appendix B: Anime: Cell animation was invented by Bray and Hurd in 1910. Manga, literally translated, means "whimsical pictures". It is considered as an artistic storytelling style and is used as a generic term for all comic books and graphic novels that were originally published in Japan. Manga are mainly printed in black and white although some full color manga also exist. Anime borrows many of its elements from manga.

The style of character design in anime follows the proportions of the human body. The height of the head is considered as the basic unit for measurement. Most anime characters are seven to eight heads tall, while extreme heights are set around nine heads tall. The large majority of anime uses traditional animation, which allows division of labor, pose to pose approach and checking of drawings before they are shot in a far affective way. This practice is also favored by the anime industry. Below is a page from manga.


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Anime characters may employ wide variety of facial expressions to denote moods and thoughts. There are numerous other stylistic elements that are common to conventional anime as well but more often used in comedies. Love-hearts, stars, spirals, Xâ&#x20AC;&#x;s and doe-eyes are sometimes used as an indication of the state. A face fault, vein or stress mark, a bloody nose, massive sweat-drop and a visibly red blush are also some of the many examples of exaggerated facial expressions used in anime, although some anime, usually with political plots and other more serious subject matters, have abandoned the use of these techniques.


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According to Tezuka himself, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I felt that existing comics were limiting. Most were drawn as if seated in an audience viewing from a stage, where the actors emerge from the wings and interact. This made it impossible to create dramatic or psychological effects, so I began to use cinematic techniques. I experimented with close-ups and different angles, and instead of using only one frame for an action scene or the climax (as was customary). I made a point of depicting a movement or facial expression with many frames, even many pagesâ&#x20AC;?.

The character's eye sizes and shapes are sometimes symbolically used to represent the character. For instance, bigger eyes usually symbolize beauty, innocence, or purity, while smaller, narrower eyes typically represent coldness or evil. Psychological and social research on facial attractiveness has pointed out that the presence of childlike facial features adds to attractiveness. Then again not all anime have large eyes. For example, some of the work of Toshiro Kawamoto and Hayao Miyazaki are known for having realistically proportioned eyes, as well as realistic hair colors on their characters. However, many audiences do associate anime with large detailed eyes.

Japanese script strokes are similar to the anime illustration strokes


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Like all animation over the world, the production processes of storyboarding, voice acting, character design, and cel production still apply. With advancements in computer technology computer animation increased the efficiency of the whole production process. Akira (1988) is a legendary film written and directed by Katsuhiro Otomo based on his hit manga. Most anime is notorious for cutting production corners with limited motion, such as having only the characters' mouths move while their faces remained static. Akira broke from this trend with detailed scenes, lip-synched dialogue - a first for an anime production - and super-fluid motion as realized in the film's more than 160,000 animation cels.

Screenshots from Akira (1988) The anime market for the United States alone is worth approximately US$2.89 billion (2007) according to the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). The report suggests that, over time, the North American market may grow to twice the size of the Japanese market. And that the worldwide anime market will soon be worth US$100 billion. The Internet has also played a huge and significant role in the exposure of anime beyond Japan. Much of the fandom of anime grew through the Internet. As the Internet


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gained more widespread use, Internet advertising revenues grew from 1.6 billion yen to over 180 billion yen between 1995 and 2005. Typically the villains in Japanese Anime are most likely ambiguous characters with redeeming values, as with Miyazakiâ&#x20AC;&#x;s villains. Miyazakiâ&#x20AC;&#x;s more pronounced influence of Japanese anime was by promoting the exaggeration of the situations of Japanese anime.

Pakistan:

Chulbulli, another outsourced television commercial for Clinic Plus Shampoo from India.

Screenshots from Milkateers The above references show how Pakistani element has been incorporated in the Pixar animation style.


The initiation of a pakistani style of animation (2010) rumaisa mughal