Rukshan Vathupola - YSOA Portfolio 2020

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RUKSHAN VATHUPOLA

Architecture portfolio 2020


TABLE OF CONTENTS

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SEED VAULT + C0NTAINER

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GREEK MANUSCRIPT ARCHIVE

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SUSPENDED INFILL CO-HOUSING

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HOMELESS BUILDING PROJECT

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RESTORATIVE JUSTICE CENTER

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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NEXT GENERATION ECOLOGICAL TOURISM

YALE FALL STUDIO 2017

YALE SPRING STUDIO 2017

YALE SPRING STUDIO 2018

YALE SPRING STUDIO 2018

YALE FALL STUDIO 2018

YALE SPRING STUDIO 2018

YALE ADVANCED FALL STUDIO 2019

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PAGE 08

PAGE 12

PAGE 16

PAGE 22

PAGE 30

PAGE 58


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CHALMERS TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLA

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NEW HAVEN CLOCK COMPANY FACTORY

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HOMELESS: HOUSED PAVILION GRAPHICS

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RAVENSBURG ART MUSEUM

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PAINTED WORKS

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WRITTEN WORKS

YALE SUMMER 2019

PAGE 68

GHOST TOWNS 2019

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YALE ARCHITECTURE + COLUMBUS HOUSE 2018

BUILDING TECH. 2018

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PAGE 80

INDEPENDENT 2018 - PRESENT

YALE PAPRIKA 2019 - PRESENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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PAGE 92

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SEED VAULT + C0NTAINER YALE FALL STUDIO 2017 PROF. BRENNAN BUCK

BIR TAWIL INSTITUTIONAL

A vault exists as a singular clearly defined structure that is built to hide precious materials away from the world. But, in these highly connected and highly surveilled times the feasibility of a singular monolith escaping the attention of the world is becoming increasingly unlikely. Now is the time to use anonymity so that a structure may hide in plain sight. This seed container exists as an artificial ruin composed of several separate and amorphous geometries, that may be broken up to construct new and different buildings. This allows the seeds to hide within the structure of any new form or remain as unassuming ruins in a future forsaken landscape, escaping detection unless the very few who are familiar with its purpose encounter it. The seed vault continues this idea of anonymity by placing itself in the location of the Bir Tawil triangle. The triangle exists in a desert area that holds no value in resources or history to anyone, therefore it is not claimed nor owned by any person or government. The seed vault exists on this site as four main structures connected by an exterior walkway. Over time the seed vault will be swallowed up by the sands and erasing its existence on record and on site, protecting the seeds. Therefore removing itself from any conflicts resulting from the shifting forces of ownership.

below 1/2� seed container model opposite page seed container poster

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SEED VAULT + CONTAINER

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current page location, axon section & plan - seed vault opposite page site plan, pivot diagram & seed vault render

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SEED VAULT + CONTAINER

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GREEK MANUSCRIPT ARCHIVE YALE FALL STUDIO 2017 PROF. BRENNAN BUCK

NEW HAVEN, CT INSTITUTIONAL

The archiving, collection and restoration of Greek manuscripts has been as been an ongoing process for several thousand years. Through the home garden of Hellenistic elites, the ancient libraries at Alexandria and medieval monasteries, scholars have been laboring to preserve and record texts. The building adopts the forms of these historical precedents with the existence of cloistered corridors containing viewing rooms and sheltered gardens colliding with large stone towers containing storage space. They all merge into a large interweaving structure representing the continued history of these artifacts, all defined by a central grid. However, just as knowledge can be recorded it can also be lost or distorted in translation. To reflect this the grid manipulates itself creating sharp turns and spaces that interrupt the rectilinear flow of the original grid. bottom 1/16� sectional model opposite page entrance atrium render

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GREEK MANUSCRIPT ARCHIVE

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east-west section cut

current page 1st, 2nd & 3rd level floor plans opposite page elevation & sections

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9

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1 Entrance 2 Office 3 Gallery 4 Reading Room 5 Viewing Room 6 Theatre 7 Restoration 8 Storage 9 Hallway 10 Garden Space

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2

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9 3rd level

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9 2nd level

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6 2

1 1st level

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east-west section

east-west elevation

north-south elevation

GREEK MANUSCRIPT ARCHIVE

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SUSPENDED INFILL CO-HOUSING YALE SPRING STUDIO 2018

NEW HAVEN, CT RESIDENTIAL

The design of these homes mitigate the relationship between individual spaces and family dwellings, as well as interaction and privacy. Spaces accustomed to greater light and noise are placed next to each other and the central light well. Individual spaces are moved to the exterior to provide a greater deal of privacy and partition. To give a material identity to each layer, the central core is defined by a steel structure, a wooden panels act as the second layer and the exterior glass shell encloses the building.

above structural diagrams left 1/2� detail model opposite page detailed section perspective

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Cut 1 Entrance 2 Bedroom 3 Living Room

Beyond 7 Bathroom 8 Lightwell

4 Kitchen 5 Stairwell 6 Outdoor Patio

8 2

6

2

5

5

7 3

4

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3

5

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8 1

1

2

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SUSPENDED INFILL HOUSING

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current page view of home in the snow opposite page 1/8� scale model

SUSPENDED INFILL HOUSING

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HOMELESS BUILDING PROJECT YALE SPRING STUDIO 2018

NEW HAVEN, CT

PROF. MARTA CALDEIRA PROF. JOEB MOORE

RESIDENTIAL

Team C: Ruchi Dattani, Nathan Garcia, Katie Lau, Alix Pauchet, Kelsey Rico, Rukshan Vathupola, Darryl Weimer

As a home for familys transitioning from homelessness, we conceptualized our site as a series of layered public and private spaces; the outermost protective shell, the divided interior spaces, and the second story space that we’ve identified as the most private part of our site. This privacy bar and shell protects our clients, who have experienced the vulnerability of homelessness,from over exposure to neighbors or the street. The interior divided space then provides a communal gathering place between the two homes. The second story space then establishes a material connection with a CLT core that bridges the communal gap.

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above view of home at sunset right CLT assembly diagram opposite page - top sections opposite page - bottom 1st & 2nd level floor plans


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Entrance Kitchen Living Room Communal Space Porch Backyard Bedroom Bathroom Driveway

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7 8

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8 7

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HOMELESS BUILDING PROJECT

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Wanting to integrate the home into the neighborhood we strove to maintain the datums of the porch, first floor and second floor levels. Looking further to the New Haven vernacular we incoporated elements of the roof pitch, facade cladding and window placement to maintain the material continuity of the neighborhood.

right 1/4� material section model bottom neighborhood elevation opposite page 1/4� material section model

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HOMELESS BUILDING PROJECT

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current page 1/2” scale detail model cement + wood + paper opposite page 1/16” scale CLT diagrammatic model

HOMELESS BUILDING PROJECT

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RESTORATIVE JUSTICE CENTER

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YALE FALL STUDIO 2018 PROF. MARTIN FINIO

Sounds constantly permeates the spaces around us, and yet it is often the least tangible element. When designing a restorative justice center, a space where a victim and the offender come together to discuss the harm done, the ability for their voices to be heard is of the utmost importance.

BRIDGEPORT, CT COMMUNITY CENTER

Restorative Justice Space

Preparation space

Multi-Use

The major programs were divided into formal modules and their geometries modified to establish the optimal acoustic resonance in order to create the most harmonious space. These modules were then brought together around the central restorative justice space to protect it from the cacophonous sounds of the surrounding city. Programs were then placed around this core on a range from the loudest and most public to the quietest and most private. right programmatic spatial modules above east-west section opposite page north-south section

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Circulation

Mixed-Media

Communal


HO ME

POWER

RESET

intel inside pentium

Microsoft Windows

intel inside pentium

Restorative Justice - Community Center

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east-west section cut

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Entrance Circulation Mixed-Media Communal Multi-Use Preparation Space Restorative Justice Space Bathroom Plaza

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right floor plan

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opposite page 1� daylighting model

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north- south section cut

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Restorative Justice - Community Center

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bottom 1/16� model opposite page 1/16� model

Restorative Justice - Community Center

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above view of communal space during the day opposite page view of communal space during the night

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Restorative Justice - Community Center

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT YALE SPRING STUDIO 2018 PROF. ANTHONY ACCIAVATTI

NEW YORK, NEW YORK URBAN INTERVENTION

ReBeL Manifesto Team: Rukshan Vathupola, Brenna Thompson, Limy F. Rocha (RBL)

The pervasiveness of top-down planning is completely antithetical to the resolution of community problems at the human scale. To combat this, we have set up a system that facilitates a game of improvisation to reintroduce the idea of play into the city: 1. Isolate a need/program shared by the communities of the Upper East Side and East Harlem 2. Find a loophole 3. Establish a spatial connection between Steps 1 and 2 4. Use Step 3 to anticipate a socio-economic shift 5. Repeat Step 1 With this cycle, we embrace New York City as an ever-changing environment that informs the players, site, and repercussions of the JOP disenfranchisement. By expanding upon loopholes concerning mezzanines, mechanical spaces, and linkages, flexible models are deployed which adhere to issues of non-affordable affordable housing and rising market rates, charter school and COOP density, and a persistent food desert in the East Harlem neighborhood. We believe that through the usage of these loopholes the inhabitants are then transformed into generators of space, allowing the city to exist as a series of iterations through time, constantly evolving and adapting from within. The best kept secret in planning has been uncovered, and we look forward to the consequences. opposite page loophole diagrams excerpts

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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0

8’-0”

24’-0”

48’-0”

96’-0”

current page 1st Stage of deconstruction of the Perkins Eastman developement through loopholes - midterm opposite page 2nd Stage of deconstruction - midterm

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8’-0”

24’-0”

48’-0”

96’-0”

ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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0

8’-0”

24’-0”

48’-0”

96’-0”

current page 3rd Stage of deconstruction of the Perkins Eastman developement through loopholes - midterm opposite page Perkins Eastman deconstruction axon - midterm

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1st stage

2nd stage

3rd stage

ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current spread final site loophole aggregation section

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current spread loophole detail moments

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current page loophole section detail axons of tennis court, housing, basketball court & pool opposite page loophole section detail axon of cafeteria

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current page transverse section (1 of 7) opposite page transverse section (2 of 7)

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current page transverse section (3 of 7) opposite page transverse section (4 of 7)

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current page transverse section (5 of 7) opposite page transverse section (6 of 7)

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current page transverse section (7 of 7) opposite page Galfetti Bellinzona operable precedent site model

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current spread 1/8� Galfetti Bellinzona section drawdels

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current spread Galfetti Bellinzona precedent site model

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current spread Galfetti Bellinzona precedent building model

ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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current spread city context model table depicting the mechanical loophole towers of New York, site model & FAR models

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ARRESTED (URBAN) DEVELOPMENT

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NEXT GENERATION ECOLOGICAL TOURISM

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YALE ADVANCED FALL STUDIO 2019

GILI MENO, INDONESIA

PATRICK BELLEW, JOHN SPENCE, HENRY SQUIRE

RESORT HOTEL

The history and economic development of Gili Meno has been deeply entwined with the growth of international tourism, ever since the late 1970’s. This has led to the development of insular infrastructural systems - clean water procurement, construction material shipment, electricity generation, food production and waste management - which are heavily dependent on supply chains originating in the mainland. When considering next generation tourism efforts must be made to better old and outdated systems of environmental cohabitation and local communal engagement as well as introducing ways for Gili Meno itself to become self-sufficient. In response to these conditions the resort acts to become a machine for environmental restoration and provide a new experience for a generation of eco-conscious travelers. And to break the decades long cycle of dependence, new infrastructures must be built and new system must be established to let the island bloom. Therefore the resort acts to close these loops in the supply chain by becoming a generator of resources for the island. Due to the varied local ecologies the resort is divided into four distinct zones to more intimately deal with the issues present. The four zones are defined as the Sea, the Coast, the Greenery and the Back of Site. One would arrive first out on the Sea via houseboat. The houseboats travel the Indonesian archipelago between different resorts, eventually culminating with their arrival at Gili Meno. From there the Coastal zone hosts the arrival desk, sauna, dive center and landed restaurant in the north along with the spa at the south end of the site. Then in the Green zone there are larger island villas surrounded by gardens that grow the food and bamboo construction materials for the resort and local community. Finally at the Back of Site there are modular housing for the resort staff.

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Rainwater Collection Solar Panels Solar Panels

Rainwater Collection Solar Panels


above ecological diagrams below site master plan

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NEXT GENERATION ECOLOGICAL TOURISM Solar Panels


above Sea Zone Rendering with House Boats, Entrance & Desalination Sauna opposite page House Boat and Coral Reef ecological sections

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Solar Panels

Electricity Grey Water Re-use

Living Wall

Salt Brine

Desalination

Coral Reef Restoration

Coral Transport Ocean Plastic Clean up

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Recycle Plastics

O C

House Boat

NEXT GENERATION ECOLOGICAL TOURISM

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current page Desalination Sauna and Seawater Greenhouse Spa renderings opposite page Desalination Sauna and Seawater Greenhouse Spa ecological sections

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Wave Stabelizers

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Desalination Sauna

Solar Panels Solar Panels

Evaporative Desalination Fresh Water Electricity Electricity

Wave Stabelizers Electric Coral Biorock

Wave Stabelizers

6. 7. Solar Panels

Desalination Sauna

Coral Dive Site

Solar Panels Crops Fresh Water

Electricity Hydroponics

Salt Brine Sea Water Greenhouse Desalination

Electricity Cross Ventilation

Electric Coral Biorock

Wave Stabelizers

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Wave Stabelizers

Solar Panels

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Coral Dive Site

Seawater Greenhouse Spa

Crops Fresh Water Hydroponics Salt Brine

Electricity Cross Ventilation

NEXT GENERATION ECOLOGICAL TOURISM

Sea Water Greenhouse Desalination

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current page Restaurant structural model opposite page Restaurant ecological sections

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Rainwater Collection Solar Panels

Solar Panels

Electricity

s Ventilation Crop Irrigation

Ecological Restoration

Cross Ventilation

s Ventilation

Potable Water

Mangrove Cultivation

Crops

Wave Stabelizers Water Filtration

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Restaurant - Dining Rainwater Collection

Solar Panels

Solar Panels

Electricity

Crop Irrigation

Ecological Restoration

Cross Ventilation

Potable Water

Mangrove Cultivation

Crops

Wave Stabelizers

Water Filtration

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Restaurant - Kitchen Rainwater Collection

Solar Panels

Solar Panels

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NEXT GENERATION ECOLOGICAL TOURISM Electricity


current page Island Villa & Community Module renderings opposite page Island Villa & Community Module ecological sections

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Solar Panels

Rainwater Collection

Electricity

1.

Grey Water Re-use

Cross Ventilation

Ec R

Crop Irrigation Living Wall Cross Ventilation

Crop Irrigation

Leach Field

Potable Water

Blackwater

Water Filtration

Septic Tank

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Island Villa

Solar Panels

Rainwater Collection

Livin

Crop Irrigation

Potable Water

Crop Irrigatio

Crops

1.

Water Filtration

Community Module

Ec Re

Crop Irrigation

NEXT GENERATION ECOLOGICAL TOURISM

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CHALMERS TEKNISKA HĂ–GSKOLA YALE SUMMER 2019

GOTHENBURG, SWE

PROF. ALAN PLATTUS CRIT. ANDREI HARWELL

RESEARCH

Team: Hamzah Ahmed, Will James, Baolin Shen, Rukshan Vathupola

Chalmers is a technical university focusing on programs in sciences, engineering, and architecture. It serves about 11,000 students, and is located in Gothenburg, Sweden. It has long had close ties to the important industries of the region, receiving donations and research funding,and supplying engineers and executives. This project traces the development of its campus, and how itsrelationship with industry has previously and continuesto influence it. Chalmers’ Johanneberg campus has large urban frontages, abuts residential neighborhoods andjostles with topography. The campus operates along acomplicated set of axes that describe the precarious logic of a university restricted by its physical bounds. While the hilltop campus on the north has a central axis that landscape the hill topography, the south campushas divide pedestrian axes and vehicular streets that cutthrough its center. bottom Chalmers in modern Gothenburg opposite page developement of Chalmers over time

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1921

1949

2019

2050

CHALMERS TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLA

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above Gothenburg 1830-1870 opposite page Gothenburg 1950-1970

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CHALMERS TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLA

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above SFK Gamlestaden factory axon opposite page Chalmers Johanneberg south campus axon

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CHALMERS TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLA

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NEW HAVEN CLOCK COMPANY FACTORY GHOST TOWNS 2019

NEW HAVEN, CT

ELIHU RUBIN

WEBSITE

url: https://campuspress.yale.edu/nhccf/

This interactive website was made as the final project for Ghost Towns in conjuction with being an exhibition for the International Festival of Arts and Ideas to show the ghosted networks that permeate New Haven. Looking at the history of the New Haven Clock Company, it has exsisted as an international site facilitating the connection of the city to the larger world through trade, immigration, labour as well as sports. Please visit the site at the link above. current page detail graphics opposite page webpage graphics

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New Haven Clock Company Facctory

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HOMELESS: HOUSED PAVILION GRAPHICS

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YALE ARCHITECTURE + COLUMBUS HOUSE 2018

NEW HAVEN, CT

Team: Michelle Badr, Camille Chabrol, Deo Deiparine, Helen Farley, Matthew Liu, Maya Sorabjee, Kay Yang, Rukshan Vathupola

EXHIBIT

This interactive exhibit was made for the Festival of Arts and Ideas in conjuction with Columbus House to explore the issues of homelessness and housing through visual graphics, audio recordings and live demonstrations. The pavilion was also used with Mothers (and Others) for Justice, the Be Homeful Project, the New Haven Legal Assistance Association, the Connecticut Fair Housing Center, and the Connecticut Coalition to End Homelessness. bottom diagram of pavalion graphic layout opposite page New Haven shelters & homeless resources map poster

Post Cards Slots for post cards Drawing Supplies

Brochures

Brochures

Keys

Block 1 Background information on Housing in CT -Affordable Housing Map -Income Map

Block 2 Kids

-Housing Cost/ Income Graphs

Prompt for drawings

-Units in Structure graphs/ Diagrams

Block 5 Housing Rights -Know your rights: Renting Block 3 Organizations working to end homelessness -Columbus House Timeline -map of New Haven with shelters + resources for people experiencing homelessness

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-Columbus House data visualisations

Block 4 Legislation -Mothers for Justice Legistlative agenda -PSC 2018 Legislative recommendations -Recent actions

-Know your rights: Evictions and Lockouts -Fair Housing Act -Housing Discrimination -Types of housing and eligibility requirments


560 Whalley Avenue

1465 State St

610 Ella T Grasso Blvd

586 Ella Grasso Blvd

645 Grand Ave

442 Legion Ave

54 Adeline Street

124 Sylvan Ave

109 Frank Street

130 Davenport Ave

164 Howard Ave

168 Davenport Ave

226 Cedar Street

62 Grant Street

149 Rosette Street

HOMELESS: HOUSED PAVILION GRAPHICS

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spread photo of pavalion during the International Festival of Arts & Ideas photo credit: Camille Chabrol

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HOMELESS: HOUSED PAVILION GRAPHICS

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RAVENSBURG ART MUSEUM BUILDING TECH. 2018 Team: Gioia Connell, Alix Pauchet, Maya Sorabjee, Rukshan Vathupola

RAVENSBURG, GER PREDCENT ANALYSIS

For this project we analyzed the assembly methods and construction material of the Ravensburg Art Museum, designed by the firm Lederer + Ragnarsdòttir + Oei Architekten. As a passive museum we broke down what technology and structural elements contributed to the design of the building.

bottom material section axon opposite page material construction sequence of museum roof

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RAVENSBURG ART MUSEUM

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current page 3/4� scale model opposite page 3/4� scale model

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RAVENSBURG ART MUSEUM

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PAINTED WORKS INDEPENDENT 2018 - PRESENT


PAINTED WORKS

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PAINTED WORKS

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PAINTED WORKS

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PAINTED WORKS

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WRITTEN WORKS

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YALE PAPRIKA 2019 - PRESENT

PAPRIKA! publications - yalepaprika.com McDonald’s Rap - August 29, 2019 The Aesthetics of Surveillance - September 19, 2019 Rukshan Vathupola on Bali, Indonesia - October 17, 2019 Under the Rails - November 14, 2019 The Legacy of Lead - December 5, 2019 A Border in Transition - January 30, 2020 Bosnia’s Shadow - February 6, 2020 The Invention of Blue: the First and Last color - March 26, 2020 The Sophistry of Mapping - September 24, 2020 To the Matchgirls and Women of the 1888 Strike - October 29, 2020 PAPRIKA? Rolling - Summer 2020 publications - www.paprika-rolling.com Privilege and its Context in the Shaping of American Collegiate Architecture - July 3, 2020 Erasing Death and Memory in New York City -August 14, 2020

current page publication listing opposite page A Border in Transition text sample

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In Response to Tijuana/San Diego by Alejandro Duran in Vol. 3, Issue 06: “Horizon” In recent history, the development of the nation state has led modern borders to manifest and strengthen themselves through heightened social divisions between and within communities. These rend our common humanity along lines of race and religion, class and global identity to establish ideal cultural boundaries that soon metastasize into contentious geo-political realities. However, from those rigid classifications and the hard lines that have split the American continent between the US and Mexico on paper, a more fluid image of that common border begins to emerge. From the shifting forces of nature governing the tides of the Rio Grande and the blooming biodiversity that navigates its shores to the flow of those individuals who have walked between the lines, the border joining these two nations begins to appear as neither absolute nor stationary—a fluid entity, constantly in motion. For those who grew up in its shadow, the consequences of the border are of the utmost importance. It is not just the divide between a common land, but a catalyst that draws together the people, goods and natural wildlife around it. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo’s placement of the border along the centerline of the Rio Grande River in the aftermath of the 1848 Mexican-American War is the prime historical antecedent for the location of the modern US-Mexico border. However, natural borders—particularly waterways—are never static and tend to shift and meander due to heavy rain, dry spells, soil erosion, ease of flow as well as deliberate engineering and terraforming. Over time, different sections of the Rio Grande began to extend further north and south, taking the border along with it. This resulted in several conflicts over issues of governance, land ownership, and citizenship as people began to settle along the shores of an ever shifting international boundary. To resolve this issue, the US and Mexico selectively exchanged nearly 30,000 acres and 247 shifted parcels of land, known as “bancos,” along the Rio Grande from 1907-1976.[1] Particular contention surrounded a community called the Chamizal. This banco first emerged after a series of especially heavy floods shifted the Rio and the US border south, despite legally belonging to a Mexican landowner. [2] The site became so politically charged that, in 1909, it was temporarily deemed neutral territory during the meetings of Mexico’s President Díaz and the United State’s President Taft in nearby El Paso.[3] Throughout the 1920’s and the rise of Prohibition, the Chamizal became a casual border crossing for US citizens to legally drink in Mexico. By the 1930’s, Cold War propaganda was spread in Mexico, emphasizing the status of the Chamizal as a stolen territory. In 1964, under those pressures, the two governments came together and agreed to attempt a recreation of the original river pathway in order to resolve the dispute and solidify the border. This was done by re-extending the river north and building a cement canal through the Chamizal neighborhood, erasing it from the maps and minds of the populace, all while forcibly displacing its inhabitants.[5] As the Rio Grande begins to dry up due to rapid climate change, this natural boundary shall slowly fade from the landscape. In response to the need for conservation, the U.S. and Mexican Wildlife Service have purchased land along the river in an effort to preserve the diverse natural environments present. National Forests, including the Coronado, are now some of the most ecologically diverse in North America, hosting a wide variety of wildlife. However, further fortification of the border shall only exacerbate the adverse effects present. It will cut off those ancient migratory paths, isolate adjacent populations, and degrade the already depleted river, leaving behind a desolate and dusty corridor between the two nations. As that time comes to pass, we must ask ourselves what we would want from such a border. Manifest walls built on further divisions born from the creeds and privileges, unevenly divided unto us through accidents of birth, or draw upon our common humanity and that ceaseless desire for hope. 1 (Kramer, Paul. “A Border Crosses” The New Yorker, 21 September 2014, https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/moving-mexican-border, Accessed 16 January, 2020.) 2 (“Did You Know… Massive Flood in 1864 Altered Course of Rio Grande Resulting in Border Dispute?” U.S. Customs and Border Protection, The Department of Homeland Security, 20 December 2019, www.cbp.gov/about/history/did-you-know/flood. Accessed 16 January, 2020.) 3 Ibid. 4 (Payan, Tony. “How a Forgotten Border Dispute Tormented U.S.-Mexico Relations for 100 Years.” Americas Quarterly, Winter 2016, www.americasquarterly.org/content/how-forgotten-border-dispute-tormented-us-mexico-relations-100-years. Accessed 16 January, 2020.) 5 (Staff, NPR. “50 Years Ago, A Fluid Border Made The U.S. 1 Square Mile Smaller.” NPR, NPR, 25 Sept. 2014, www.npr.org/2014/09/25/350885341/50years-ago-a-fluid-border-made-the-u-s-1-square-mile-smaller. Accessed 16 January, 2020.)

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