Page 1

~ram mar oca u ar

AND

FOR

AND

FIRST FOR SCHOOLS BARBARA THOMAS LOUISE HASHEMI LAURA MATTHEWS

with answers

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Downloadable Audio and Online resources Go to www.cambridge.org/grammarvocabfirst to download complete audio for the book to your computer or device, and access additional resources.


I

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH Language Assessment

Part of the University of Cambridge

Cambridge English

Gram marAND Vocabulary FOR

AND

FIRST 'MOM with answers BARBARA THOMAS LOUISE HASHEMI LAURA MATTHEWS


Cambridge University Press wynecambridge.org/elt Cambridge English Language Assessment www.camb 'dgeenglishorg Information on this title www.cambridgeorg/97811074131060 Cambridge University Press 2015 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2015 Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-10748106-0 Book with Answers and Audio Additional resources for this publication available at www.cambridgeorgigrammarvocabfirst The publishers have no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet websites referred to in this publication, and do not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but the publishers do not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.


Acknowledgements II

The authors would like to thank their editors, Neil Holloway and Meredith Levy, for their expertise, support, good humour and patience throughout the project. The authors and publishers acknowledge the following sources of copyright material and are grateful for the permissions granted. While every effort has been made, it has not always been possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting. Financial Times for the text on p. 30 adapted from 'Me and My Clothes' by Liz Gill, The Financial Times, 12.02. Copyright @ The Financial Times Limited 2014, All Rights Reserved; The Independent for the text on p. 176 adapted from 'A trip to Patagonia!' by Laura Holt, The Independent, 16.11.13. Copyright 0 The Independent; Text on p. 183 adapted from 'The Importance of Music Education' by Patricia Guth, www.more4kids.info; Life Coach Directory for text on p. 205 adapted from 'The Benefits of Having a Hobby? Reproduced with permission of Katherine Nicholls; Doubleday for the text on p.217 extracted from A Painted House by John Grisham, Copyright 0 2000, 2001 by Belfry Holdings, Inc. Used by permission of Doubleday, an imprint of the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, a division of Random House LLC. All rights reserved; Ten on p.218 from 'How to Make Your House a Home' by Kara O'Reilly, Psychologies, 11.06.12. Copyright 0 KELSEY Publishing Group Text on p.228 adapted from 'Understanding Teenagers' Sleeping Habits' by Kristin Jenkins; Text on p.232 extracted from 'A School with a Difference' by M.J. Prabhu, The Hindu, 14.07.13; Guardian News & Media for the text on p.234 from 'How to Write Fiction: Andrew Miller on Creating Characters' by Andrew Miller, The Guardian, 16.10.11. Copyright Guardian News &Media Ltd 2014; Guardian News & Media for text on p.238 from 'Students: Bring your own technology to Uni; by Mirren Gidda, The Guardian, 11.04.14. Copyright 0 Guardian News & Media Ltd 2014. Corpus Development of this publication has made use of the Cambridge English Corpus (CEC). The CEC is a computer database of contemporary spoken and written English, which currently stands at over one billion words. It includes British English, American English and other varieties of English. It also includes the Cambridge Learner Corpus, developed in collaboration with Cambridge English Language Assessment. Cambridge University Press has built up the CEC to provide evidence about language use that helps to produce better language teaching materials.

Photo Acknowledgements The authors and publishers acknowledge the following sources of copyright material and are grateful for the permissions granted. While every effort has been made, it has not always been possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting. The publisher has used its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of going to press. However, the publisher has no responsibility for the websites and can make no guarantee that a site will remain live or that the content is or will remain appropriate. Photo acknowledpments: p.4: Visions of America, LLC I Alamy; p.6 (L): Adrian Sherratt/ Alamy; p.6 (R): THE FARM: THE STORY OF ONE FAMILY AND THE ENGLISH COUNTRYSIDE by Richard Benson (Hamish Hamilton 2005,2006). Cover reproduced with permission from Penguin Ltd. p. 8: Cultura/Rex Features; p. 9 (T): Artmin/Shutterstock; p.9 (B): SnowWhiteimages/Shaterstock; p.14: Flaming June, c.1895 (oil on canvas) by Leighton, Frederic (1830-96) Museo de Arte, Ponce, Puerto Rico, West Indies/ 0 The Maas Gallery, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; p.18: kjorgen/iStock/Thinkstock; p.19 (L): Wavebreakmedia Ltd/Thin kstock: p. 19 (R): Werner Dietrich/ Alamy p.21: Blend Images/Alamy p.23 (L):Cultura/Rex Features; p. 23 (R): Patti McConville/Getty Images, p.24. Royal Geographical Society/Alamy p.27: Jeff Gilbert/Rex Features; p.28: Jelle-vd-Wolff Shutterstock p. 29: The Thirteenth Tale by Diane Setterfield, The Orion Publishing Group Ltd. p. 31:Tim Sloan/AFP/Getty Images; p. 32: maurice joseph/Alamy; p. 33: sturti/Getty Images; p. 34: Michael Kemp/Alamy; p. 35: Ragnarockffihutterstock p. 36: Lorenzo Fanchi; p. 3& Bettina Strenske/Alamy; p. 39: www.railimages.co.uk; p. 41: Niamh Baldock/Alamy p.43: marc macdonald/Alamy, p.44: RA/ Lebrecht Music & Arts Library; p.46: Courtesy of the Air Force Flight Test Center History Office p.4& Suzi Eszterhas/Minden Pictures/ FLPA; p. 50: H. Mark Weidman Photography/Alamy; p. 51: Courtesy of Boston College, MA, USA p. 52: Andreas Rodriguez/Thinkstock; p. 53: UPPA/Photoshot; p. 54: turtiniStockfThinkstock p. 57: Mahler Attar/Sygma/Carlais p.58: Bettmann/Corbis; p. 60: dirkr/Getty Images; p.62: Ray Robercs/PJamy p. 63: Purestock/Punchstock/Getty Images; p.64 (BL): Alex Segre/Alamy p.64 (TR): VCL/Tim Barnett/ Getty Images; p. 64 (BR): Digital Vision/Punchstock/Getty Images; p.68: Jupiterimages/Thinkstodc; p. 7P Janine Wiedel/Rex Features; p. 72 (T): Roger-Viollet/Rex Features; p. 72 (B): Robert Harding Picture Library/Superstock; p. 73: iStockphoto.com/Remus Eserblom. Cover image: Aleksandr Markin/Shutterstock (front, back). Picture research: Kevin Brown Text design and make up: Blooberry Design Illustrations: Clive Goodyer

Cambridge Dictionaries Cambridge dictionaries are the world's most widely used dictionaries for learners of English. The dictionaries are available in print and online at dictionary.cambridge.org. Copyright 0 Cambridge University Press, reproduced with permission.

3


Contents Introduction Map of the book Exam summary

5 7 10

GRAMMAR SECTION Unit 1 Present tenses 12 Unit 2 Past tenses 18 Unit 3 Present perfect and past simple 24 Unit 4 Past perfect 32 Unit 5 Future (1) 40 Unit 6 Future (2) 46 Unit 7 Adjectives 54 Unit 8 Adverbs 60 Unit 9 Questions 66 Unit 10 Countable and uncountable 72 nouns; articles Unit 11 Modals (1) 79 Unit 12 Pronouns and determiners 86 Unit 13 Modals (2) 93 99 Unit 14 Modals (3) 107 Unit 15 Reported speech 115 Unit 16 The passive 121 Unit 17 Conditionals (1) Unit 18 The to infinitive and -ing 128 Unit 19 Conditionals (2) 135 Unit 20 Prepositions (1) 141 147 Unit 21 Prepositions (2) Unit 22 Relative clauses 153 Unit 23 Linking words (1) 159 Unit 24 Linking words (2) 166 .1

4

VOCABULARY SECTION

Unit 32 My world Unit 33 Moving around Unit 34 flute off Unit 35 Where you live Unit 36 Shared tastes Unit 37 Entertain me Unit 38 Home territory Unit 39 Green planet Unit 40 Read all about it Unit 41 Teenage style Unit 42 School days Unit 43 The world of work Unit 44 University life

172 174 178 181 184 187 190 194 197 200 203 206 209 212 216 219 222 226 230 233 236

Answer key

240

Learning and revising vocabulary Unit 25 Earth, sea and sky Unit 26 Living a healthy life Unit 27 Sound waves Unit 28 Highs and lows Unit 29 Looking back Unit 30 Everyone's different Unit 31 Get active


Introduction II

This book is for students who want to study and practise English grammar and vocabulary, especially if they are preparing for the Cambridge English: First or Cambridge English: First for Schools examination. It offers practice for all the tasks in the Reading and Use of English. Listening and Writing papers. It can be used by students working alone or with a teacher.

What is in this book? This book is updated for the new Cambridge English: First examinations introduced in 2015 and contains two main sections: Grammar (Units 1-24) and Vocabulary (Units 25-44). The book also contains the following Map of the book: This shows the topics that are covered and the exam tasks that are practised in each unit. Exam summary: This explains the aims and organisation of Cambridge English: First and Cambridge English: First for Schools. Learning and revising vocabulary: These pages give useful ideas to make your study more effective. Answer key: This gives the answers for all exercises and for all exam tasks except the Writing ones (for Writing answers, see Model answers below).

What material can I find online? The following resources for use with this book can be found online at [address?] Audio recordings for all listening exercises and for exam practice Listening tasks. Audio scripts: These are the full recording scripts for all listening tasks. Model answers: A sample answer is provided for each of the Writing tasks in the Exam practice sections of the Vocabulary units. Wordlists for Vocabulary units: These contain key words that you need to lean and also their pronunciation in IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). Irregular verbs list: This gives the forms of important irregular verbs for Cambridge First. Phrasal verbs list: This gives the most important phrasal verbs that you need to know for Cambridge First. Phrasal verb exercises: These give extra practice of many of the important phrasal verbs for Cambridge First.

Word-building exercises: These give extra practice of related nouns, verbs and adjectives, which is especially useful for Cambridge First Reading and Use of English Part 3 tasks. Spelling This page helps you to avoid spelling errors commonly made by Cambridge First candidates. Grammar glossary: This explains the words we use to describe grammar.

How do I use the book? You can work through the units in any order, but we advise you to study every unit if you want to prepare thoroughly for the exam. If you are studying alone, you may like to do alternate Grammar and Vocabulary units - this will give you more variety and give you time to absorb each topic.

How are the Grammar units or:anised? Each of the 24 Grammar units has four sections. You should work through Sections A, B and C in order. You can do the Exam practice section immediately after these, or you can come back to-it later for revision. A Context listening This section introduces the grammar of the unit in a short recording. You can listen to the recording, answer the questions and check your answers in the Answer key. This will help you to understand the grammar more easily when you study Section B. It also gives you useful listening practice. B Grammar: This section explains the grammar points and gives examples. You should read it before doing the exercises in Section C and you can also refer to it while you are doing the exercises. C Grammar exercises: The exercises cover the grammar in Section B. Check your answers in the Answer key. This gives the answers and also tells you which parts of Section B each exercise refers to. You will see this symbols in some of the exercises in Section C. It indicates that the sentences are ones in which candidates made errors as identified in the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a database made up of many thousands of exam scripts written by students taking Cambridge English exams in countries around the world. Exam practice There is one exam task, either Listening or Reading and Use of English, for each Grammar unit. These will prepare you for the types of tasks you will face in the exam. Note Some of the Use of English tasks test mainly the grammar taught in the unit, to give extra practice. However, in the real exam each question tests a different grammar point.

5


How are the Vocabula units or•anised? Each of the 20 Vocabulary units has three pages based on a general topic. On the first two pages, key vocabulary is introduced and practised in a range of different exercises. Some of these are listening exercises. To get the most out of the Vocabulary exercises, you will need access to a good dictionary. Use the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (either online or as a book) or another suitable monolingual dictionary. You should try to do each vocabulary exercise without any assistance first, and then use your dictionary to help you with any answers you didn't know. Use the Answer key as a final check. The third page is an Exam practice section with two exam tasks. The first is either a Listening or a Reading and Use of English task, and this is always followed by a Writing task. These tasks give you an opportunity to use the vocabulary from the unit. There is a Wordlist for each Vocabulary unit on the website. When you finish the first two pages of each unit, go through the wordlist and check that you know the meaning of all the words and expressions. Note any words you don't remember and go back through the unit to revise them. You may want to note translations for some words or write them on a mind map, table or word tree (see learning and revising vocabulary on pages 172-173).

How should I use the Exam practice tasks? You may want to do the exam tasks immediately after finishing the exercises in each unit, or you may choose to come back to them later for revision. In the Grammar section, if you do the exam task immediately, you can use the Grammar focus exercise(s) for revision later on if you wish. To check how much you have learnt, it is a good idea to do the exam tasks without referring back to the unit, and then check the answers. Always answer all the questions in an exam task, even if you are not sure, before you check your answers. This is good exam practice, as you may get a mark for a good guess, but you can't get a mark for an empty answer space! Answers for the Reading and Use of English and the Listening tasks are in the Answer key. For the Writing tasks you will find model answers on the website — these show you the kind of answer you could produce, although the content of yours will of course be different.

6

Recordings for the Listening casks follow the format of the exam, with the examiner's instructions included. For Part 1 tasks, the eight short recordings are repeated as in the exam, but for Parts 2-4 you will need to replay the whole recording yourself after you have listened to it the first time.

Note on contractions This book generally uses contractions, for example I'm for lam, wasn't for was not, because these are always used in speech and are common in written English. The hill forms are used in formal written English.

Note to teachers This book can be used alongside a coursebook, in class or for private study. The flexible organisation of the book makes it particularly suitable for revision for students who are taking Cambridge First or for those who are re-taking the exam and also for classes where not all students are preparing for the exam. The Vocabulary units can be chosen to supplement topics in the order in which they arise in your coursebook. The Context listening (Section A) in the Grammar units can be used in class as an introduction, with students working in pairs or groups as preferred. Sections 13 and C and the Exam practice can be used in class or for private study as conditions allow. The Exam practice tasks in this book have been informed by the English Vocabulary Profile, which is an online resource with detailed and up-to-date information about the words, phrases, phrasal verbs and idioms that learners of English should know at each of the six levels of the Common European Framework.


Map of the book II

IP

GRAMMAR SECTION Title

Topics

Exam practice

1

Present tenses

Present simple; present continuous; state verbs; the verb to be

Listening Part 4

2

Past tenses

Past simple; past continuous; used to + verb and would + verb; be/get used to + -ing or noun

Reading and Use of English Part 1

3

Present perfect and past simple

Present perfect and past simple; present perfect simple and continuous

Reading and Use of English Part?

4

Past perfect

Past perfect simple and continuous

Reading and Use of English Part 5

5

Future (1)

Present tenses for future will; future continuous

Listening Part 2

6

Future (2)

going to; future in the past; present tenses after time conjunctions; future perfect; to be about to

Reading and Use of English Part 7

7

Adjectives

Comparative and superlative adjectives; position; orden adjectives ending in -ing and -ed

Reading and Use of English Part 1

8

Adverbs

Adverb forms; adverbs and adjectives easily confused; comparative and superlative adverbs; modifiers; adverb position

Reading and Use of English Part 3

9

Questions

Yes/no questions; short answers; question words; question tags; agreeing

Li

10

Countable and uncountable nouns; articles

Countable and uncountable nouns; (a)n, the and no article; special uses of articles

Reading and Use of English Part 4

11

Modals (1)

Use of modals; rules and obligation; necessity

Reading and Use of English Part 6

12

Pronouns and determiners

Possessives; reflexive pronouns and own; each other and one another; there and it; someone, etc.; all, most, some, no and none; each and every, both, neither and either

Reading and Use of English Part 2

13

Modals (2)

Permission requests; offers; suggestions; orders; advice

Listening Part 3

14

Modals (3)

Ability; deduction: certainty and possibility; expectations

Reading and Use of English Part 3

15

Reported speech

Tense changes in reported speech; reporting in the same tense; verbs for reporting verbs for reporting with to infinitive; reporting questions; references to time, place, etc

Reading and Use of English Part 4

16

The passive

The passive; to have/get something done; it is said that.-

Reading and Use of English Part 4

17

Conditionals (1)

Zero, first, second and third conditionals; mixed conditionals

Reading and Use of English Part 6

Unit

ing Part 1

II

7


18

The to infinitive and -trig

Verb + to infinitive, verb + infinitive without to; verb + -ing verb + that clause; adjective + to infinitive

Reading and Use of English Part 1

19

Conditionals (2)

unless; in case provided/providing that and as/so long as; I wish and f only; it's time; would rather (not); otherwise and or else

Reading and Use of English Part 4

20

Prepositions (1)

Prepositions of place and time

Reading and Use of English Part 2

21

Prepositions (2)

Prepositions which follow verbs and adjectives; prepositions to express who, how and why; expressions with prepositions

Reading and Use of English Part 3

22

Relative clauses

Defining and non-defining relative clauses; relative pronouns and prepositions

Reading and Use of English Part 4

23

Linking words (1)

because, as and since; so and therefore in order to. to + infinitive and so (that); so and such; enough and too

Reading and Use of English Part 1

24

Linking words (2)

in spite of and despite; but, although and though; even though and even t participle clauses; before and after + .ing when, while and since + -ing

Reading and Use of English Part 2

VOCABULARY SECTION Unit

•

8

WOr kase .et...a

Title

Topics

Exam practice

25

Earth, sea and sky

Geography, climate and weather

Reading and Use of English Part 6 Writing Part 2 (email)

26

Living a healthy life

Health and fitness

Reading and Use of English Part 2 Writing Part 1 (essay)

27

Sound waves

Music, sounds

Reading and Use of English Part 2 Writing Part 1 (essay)

28

Highs and lows

Feeling

Listening Part 1 Writing Part 2 (article)

29

Looking back

The past, time

Reading and Use of English Part 1 Writing Part 2 (review)

30

Everyone's different

Personality

Reading and Use of English Parts Writing Part 2 (article)

31

Get active

Sport

Reading and Use of English Part 4 Writing Part 2 (email)

32

My world

Friends, family and relationships

Listening Part 3 Writing Part 1 (essay)

33

Moving around

Travel

Reading and Use of English Part 4 Writing Part 2 (article)

34

Time off

Leisure time, hobbies and games

Reading and Use of English Part 3 Writing Part 2 (email)

35

Where you live

Cities and towns

Reading and Use of English Part 1 Writing Part 2 (article)


36

Shared tastes

Food and art

Listening Part 2 Wilting Part 1 (essay)

37

Entertain me

Television, cinema and theatre

Reading and Use of English Part 7 Writing Part 2 (review)

38

Home territory

Houses and homes

Reading and Use of English Part 3 Writing Part 1 (essay)

39

Green planet

Science, the environment

Listening Part 4 Writing Part 2 (letter)

40

Read all about it

Books and writing

Reading and Use of English Part 5 Writing Part 2 (review)

41

Teenage style

Clothes, rooms

Reading and Use of English Part 6 Writing Part? (story)

42

School days

School and education

Reading and Use of English Part 2 Wlidng Part 2 (story)

43

The world of work

Jobs and personal qualities

44

University life

University courses, expressing opinions

Reading and Use of English Part 3 Writing Part 2 (letter of application)

Readingand Use of English Part ? Writing Part 2 (report)

9


Exam summary II

The Cambridge English: First and Cambridge English: First for Schools exams are for students who are at a 82 level in the CEFR. The for Schools version is for younger students who want to take the exam. Both exams have four papers with the for Schools version having topics that are more suitable for younger candidates. Reading and Use of English 1 hour 15 minutes Parts 1 and 3 of the exam are designed to test vocabulary, Part 2 tests mainly grammar and Part 4 tests both grammar and vocabulary. Parts 5,6 and 7 are reading tasks based on texts of about 550-650 words. The texts can come from fiction or non-fiction sources such as newspapers and magazines, or informational sources like brochures, guides and websites. You must write your answers on a separate sheet. Part

Task information

1

8 multiple choice questions. You choose words from A-D to complete a gap in a text.

2

8 open pp-fill questions. You think of one word to complete each gap.

3

8 word formation questions. You complete the gaps with the correct form of the given word.

4

6 key word transformation questions. You complete a sentence with a given word to make a sentence with the same meaning as another one.

5

6 multiple choice questions. You read a text and then choose the correct answer from options A-D.

6

6 gapped text questions. You read a text which has had 6 sentences removed and you must decide where the sentences go in the text. There is one extra sentence which doesn't belong to the text.

7

10 multiple matching questions. You read a text or group of short texts and match the information in each question to the correct part of the text(s).

Writing 1 hour 20 minutes You must do Part 1 and choose one of the Part 2 casks. You must write your answers in the booklet. Part

Task information

1

You write an essay giving your opinion on the topic You use your own ideas and the ideas given.

2

You may be asked to write an email, a letter, an article, a review, or a report (First only) or story (First for Schools only), based on a specific situation. The topic, purpose and reader will be explained to you. In the for Schools exam you can also choose from a set text.


Listening about 40 minutes You hear and see the instructions for the exam. You hear each part of the exam twice, Recordings are taken from a wide variety of sources. When one person is speaking you may hear news, instructions, a lecture, a report, a speech, a talk or an advertisement. If two people are speaking you may hear a discussion, a conversation, an interview or a radio programme. You must write your answers on a separate sheet.

Part

Task information

1

8 multiple choice questions. You hear one or two people talking in eight different situations of about 30 seconds. You choose the answers from options A—C. 10 sentence completion questions. You hear one person talking and you complete sentences by writing a word or short phrase. The speech lasts for about 3 minutes. 5 multiple matching questions. You hear five short extracts that are linked by a common theme. Each extract is about 30 seconds. For each extract you choose from a list of eight possible answers. 7 multiple choice questions — You hear an interview or conversation between two people lasting for about three minutes. For each question you choose the answers from options A—C

Speaking 14 minutes You usually do the Speaking part of the exam with another candidate. Sometimes you might be asked to do it in a group of three. There are two examiners in the room, but only one of them will ask you questions. Each part of the exam lasts for 3 to 4 minutes.

Part

Task information

1

The examiner asks you some questions about yourself.

2

You talk for one minute about two pictures and then comment on the other candidate's pictures.

3

You discuss some prompts with the other candidate.

4

You have a conversation with the other candidate and the examiner about things connected to the topic in Part 3.

Note that there are no Speaking tasks in the Exam practice sections of this book.)

II


GRAMMAR SECTION

Present tenses PY Nient r .

mple; present continuous; state verbs; the verb to be

Context listening You are going to hear Millie talking on her phone to her friend Lisa. Its Saturday morning. Before you listen, answer these questions. 1 Where is Lisa?

") Where is Millie?

3 Why do you think Millie is phoning Lisa?

Lisa Elikai Listen and check if you were right.

n OE Listen again and answer these questions. Write complete sentences. 1 What's Millie doing this morning'

She's looktng round the shops.

2 What does she do nearly every Saturday" 3 What's she looking for? 4 What's Lisa wearing' 5 What's she doing this morning? 6 What does she do whenever she goes to town? 7 What's Millie looking at right now? 8 What does Lisa want Millie to do now?

4

Look at your answers to Exercise 3 and answer these questions.

1 Look at answers 2 and 6. What tense are they' 2 Look at answers 1, 3,4, Sand 7. What tense are they? 3 Which sentences are about regular actions? 4 Which sentences are about actions at or around the time of speaking? 5 Look at answer 8. Does it fit the pattern' 12


Present tenses 1

Grammar fi Present simple

?

verb / verb + -s

She works in London.

do/does not + verb

He doesn't work in London.

do/does .

Where do you work?

verb?

We use the present simple to say when things happen if they take place regularly. They eat lunch at two o'clock to talk about permanent situations:

work in London. to state general truths:

Those bags sell really fast. The moon goes round the earth. to talk about habits and how often they happen:

You buy new clothes every Saturday. to describe the plots of books and films:

The story begins and ends in Spain. The year is 1937.

fl Present continuous +

am/is/are + verb + -ing

He's working in London this week.

-

am/is/are not + verb + -ing

I'm not working in London this week.

am/is/are ... + verb + -ing?

Are you working in London this week?

We use the present continuous: to talk about the present moment:

I'm wearing a pair of old jeans. I'm looking at a blue bag right now. to suggest that an action is temporary, often with words like now, at the moment, at present or just They're eating lunch at the moment I'm working in London this week (= I don't usually work in London) for an action around the time of speaking, which has begun but is not finished:

I'm cleaning my room. I'm looking round the shops. (Millie isn't looking round at this moment — she has stopped to talk to Lisa — but she plans to continue looking round later.) for changing or developing situations:

Navy blue bags are getting really fashionable. The Earth's temperature is rising with a word like always or continually if we want to criticise or complain: You're always buying new clothes! (= you buy too many) Het always complaining about things. with always when something unexpected happens several times:

I'm always meeting my neighbour John near the station. I guess he works somewhere near there. 13


1

Present tenses

n State verbs These verbs are nearly always used in a simple rather than a continuous tense. They are mostly about thoughts, feelings, belonging and the senses: ... that leather bag you want to get (riot you You don't deserve to hear it. (not you-tr.—A dcs— .06 ty) The following are some important state verbs: thoughts: believe, know, mean, realise, recognise, remember, suppose, understand, feel (= believe), think (= believe): I think you're wrong We feel this decision is right feelings: adore, dislike, despise, hate, like, love, want, wish, prefer They despise me because of the way I'm living. belonging belong have (= possess), own, possess: It belongs to my father. The manager has the biggest company car senses: smell, taste, hear, see: This sauce tastes great. I hear what you're saying to me, but I don't agree. Do you see anything you want to buy here? We use can with these verbs to show we are talking about this moment: I con see you're tired. I can hear someone in the next room. other state verbs: need, contain, deserve,fit seem, look (= seem), look like, matter, weigh: This medicine contains aspirin. Mark weighs 70 kilos.

A Think is not a state verb when it refers to what someone is doing, not what they believe: I'm thinking about my holiday.

A Have can be continuous when it does not mean 'possess': Steve is having a difficult time at college this term. Can I phone you back later? We're having lunch right now

A Taste and smell can be continuous when they refer to what someone is doing I'm tasting the sauce.

A Listen to, watch and look at are not state verbs and can be continuous: We're listening to music and Diane is watching a DVD upstairs.

A See can be continuous when it means 'meet with': Lara's at the medical centre. She's seeing a doctor about her sore throat.

A Weigh can be continuous when it refers to what someone is doing The shop assistant is weighing the cheese.

4

The verb to be

The verb to be is nearly always used in a simple rather than a continuous tense. When it is continuous it emphasises that a situation is temporary. It often describes a person's behaviour: You're being so impatient! (Millie doesn't believe that Lisa is normally an impatient person.) My brother is being very nice to me this week. I wonder what he wants! Francis is filling in a form online, so we're all being quiet as we don't want him to make any mistakes.

14


Present tenses

Grammar exercises

n

Choose the correct sentence from each pair.

a

My brother lives with us until he can find a flat of his own.

I, My brother is living with us until he can find a flat of his own./ 2

3

4

5

6

a

Megan goes to Hong Kong every January.

b

Megan's going to Hong Kong every January.

a

I don't have enough money for a long holiday this year.

b

I'm not having enough money for a long holiday this year.

a

Everyone needs a break from work sometimes.

b

Everyone is needing a break from work sometimes.

a

What period of history do you study this term?

I,

What period of history are you studying this term?

a

The team manager looks bad-tempered in public, but he's always being very kind to young players.

I,

The team manager looks bad-tempered in public, but he's always very kind to young players.

n

Complete these sentences with the present simple or present continuous form of the verbs.

1 My father 2

This pie

3

I

knows

(know) all about mending cars, but nothing about bicycles. (smell) a bit odd. What's in it?

(like) the jacket of this suit, but unfortunately the trousers

(not fit) me any more. 4

You're very quiet this evening. What

5

Who She

(you / think) about?

(be) that man? Why (have) such beautiful manners normally.

(your sister / be) so rude to him?

flFill in the gaps with the present simple or present continuous form of the verbs. 1 Alex:

2

Why are you wearing

Ben:

Oh, I'm sorry. It

Carl:

I Can you translate it?

Donna: No, sorry. I

3

Eddie:

(you / wear) my coat? (look) like mine in this light.

(have) no idea what this sentence

(mean).

(not understand) it either. (you / see) those men near the door? They

(look)

at us very strangely. Fergus: Yes. You're right. Eddie: No, but they certainly across to speak to us. 4

Gina:

What their dessert, and you

Hamid: I just so noisy this evening I

(you / recognise) them from anywhere? (seem) to know us. They (you / do) in the kitchen? Our guests (get) in my wag (want) to be somewhere quiet for a while. Everyone (not know) why — it's very unusual.

(come) (wait) for (be)

IS


1 4

Present tenses

Complete the email using the present simple or present continuous form of these verbs.

behave come cost eat enjoy feel go have like love pay realise say seem serve show smile stay take visit

Dear Stephanie, How are you? We're fine. Our trip round the States (1) (2)

1.4 gang

well and we

ourselves a lot One good surprise is that things (3)

less here than back home. For example, this weekend we (4) a lake and we (5)

(not) much is the food. Restaurants (7)

The only thing we (6) dinner rather early. We (8) (9)

in a motel beside

only $65 per night for a room with a beautiful view.

(never) at six o'clock at home so we

(not) hungry then and American portions (10)

us. Apart from that, we (11) interesting little towns and we absolutely (13) People here (14)

very big to lots of

a wonderful time. We (12) the scenery.

in a very friendly manner towards strangers. All the shop at us, and everyone (16)

assistants (15)

'Have a nice day!'

(always) us bad news stories about the States, but in fact,

At home, the TV (17) when you (19) here, you (19) its a really great place. We (20)

lots

of photos to show you. Much love, Mick and Mary

a 0 Cambridge First candidates made mistakes in the following sentences. Choose the correct verb forms. I want / am wanting to help out at the camp this summer. 2

Most Spanish companies belong / are belonging to multinationals nowadays.

3 I think / am thinking about interviewing my grandfather's friend, who collects vintage cars. 4 My father went to that university, so he knows / is knowing all about it. 5

Ned has / is having a lot of problems with his teacher at the moment.

6

Every town needs / is needing a library, even though everyone has the intemet nowadays.

16


Exam practice

Present tenses 1

Listening Part 4 You will hear an interview with a man called Martin Holloway who is a sound engineer. For questions 113 1-7, choose the best answer (A, B or C). 1

The mistake people make about sound engineers is to think that

5

A It is more portable.

A they spend most of their time working indoors. .

The sound quality is better.

their job is the same as that of a disc jockey. C they are responsible for the quality of the music. 2

C It is less expensive. 6

What does Martin say helped him to begin earning money?

C some people he met 3

good communication skills C practical technical knowledge 7

Martin first gets involved in a project A

What does Martin find most difficult about his job? A

as soon as the band is booked. when he visits the venue.

C while the band is rehearsing. 4

According to Martin, what is the most important quality in a sound engineer? A some musical ability

A the course he did some of the bands he played in

What change in equipment has Martin appreciated the most over the years?

What does Martin often find during a show? A There are problems with the equipment. Very little goes wrong for him. C The performers don't communicate with him.

working in difficult environments being away for periods of time

C waiting for things to happen

it

Exam tip

The question helps you find your place in

the recording. If you miss an answer, listen for the next one and go back later.

Grammar focus task 13 153) Here are some extracts from the interview. Choose the present tense that the speaker uses. Listen again to check. 1

I usually set uo / am usually setting up the equipment before the show.

2

What you hear / am hearing is out of tune.

3 People sometimes call / are calling me a disc jockey. 4

This weekend, I work/am working at a music festival.

5

I mostly work / am working out of doors.

6

Some people think / are thinking we just turn up on the day.

7

Everything gets / is getting smaller all the time.

8

But / always tell / I'm always telling people and they never listen.

9 They just don't realise / aren't realising that what's crucial is being able to get on with people. 10 An interest in music means /is meaning it is more enjoyable.


Past tenses Past simple; past continuous; used to and would; be/get used to + -mg or noun •

Context listening O You are going to hear Jack talking to his grandmother about something he did last week. Before you listen, look at questions 1-5. Guess which things Jack his mother and his grandmother did. Write), M or G. 1 go to London 2 see a famous footballer 3 go up to town alone 4 worry about school work 5 go to a club

ntalO Listen and check if you were right. C101

Listen again and answer these questions.

1 What does Jack say about a a coach'

We caught the coach, it was °nisi 10 return.

b a film' 2 What tense does he use' 3

What does Gran say about a autographs' b going to town? pop concerts?

4 Does she do these things now? 5

Did she do them regularly in the past?

4

C103 Listen again and complete these sentences with the words that the speakers use.

1 We did some revision for our exams while we 2

When we

3

He noticed him except me.

for the cinema, we saw a really famous footballer. a burger and all the crowds

El Which tense is in the gaps in Exercise 4?

18

past but nobody


Past tenses

2

Grammar El Past simple +

verb + -at

I wanted it.

did not + verb

I didn't want it.

?

did ... + verb?

What did you want?

liegu ar verbs add -ed or -d to the verb: want —0 wanted hope —0 hoped Many common verbs are irregular (> See Web page Irregular verbs): think —0 thought make —0 made To be is irregular am /is (not) —• was (not);

are (not) —o were (not)

We use the past simple for completed actions and events in the past: We had an exam on Thursday. We caught the coach. for a sequence of actions or events: I went round the shops, then I went to the cinema. for permanent or long-term situations in the past I really enjoyed myself when I was a teenager. for repeated events: Jack's grandmother went to lots of concerts. She always asked for an autograph when she met someone famous. > See also Unit 3 for further uses of the past simple.

El Past continuous +

was/were + verb + -ing

They were waiting

was/were not + verb + -ing

She wasn't waiting.

?

was/were ... + verb + -ing?

Were you waiting?

We use the past continuous: we were travelling MEM for an activity beginning before a past action and continuing we did some revision until or after it. The action is usually in the past simple We did some revision while we were travelling. we were queuing When we were queuing for the cinema, we saw a famous footballer. we saw a famous footballer for two things happening at the same time He was buying a burger and all the crowds were walking past. he was buying a burger for repeated events, with a word like always or continually, the crowds were walking oast especially if the speaker is criticising the activity: She was always worrying about her homework. (= jack's grandmother thinks she worried too much.) for unfulfilled plans, with verbs like hope, plan, etc: I was hoping to find a new jacket. (= but I didn't find one)

A State verbs are nearly always used in the past simple, not the past continuous (> see Unit 1, 83): I didn't know him. (not I wan's,. know;o8 19


2

Past tenses

nused to + verb and would + verb +

used to + verb

He used to read comics.

—

did not use to + verb

We didn't use to read comics.

?

did ... use to + verb?

Did you use to read comics?

+

would + verb

He would read comics.

—

would not + verb

We wouldn't read comics.

?

would ... + verb?

Would you read comics?

We use used to and would to talk about past habits when we are emphasising that they are no longer true I used to collect all the autographs of film stars when I was a teenager. (= she doesn't do this now) I would go up to town on my own. (= she doesn't do this now) Used to can describe actions and states, but would can only describe actions: All the teenagers used to / would scream at pop concerts. They used to be crazy about the Beatles. (not would-be-m=0

A Notice the position of frequency adverbs (> see Unit 8) with used to: I often used to study on my own (not r .3ed to uf., .01y) A Used to is much more common than would. 4 be/get used to + -ing or noun Be used to means 'be accustomed to It can be past, present or future, unlike used to, which is a past tense. I'm used to working at weekends. (z I often work at weekends, it's normal for me now) The question form is: Are you used to working at weekends? Get used to means 'gradually become accustomed to It can be past, present or future, unlike used to, which is a past tense. My new school starts at 7.30. I'm not used to starting classes so early but I guess I'll soon get used to doing it. (= My previous school started later, but I'll soon become accustomed to the change and it won't bother me.) Be/get used to can be followed by -ing or by a noun/pronoun: He wasn't used to criticism and found it hard to accept. (= People hadn't criticised him before so he didn't like it.) My parents are getting used to a quiet house, now the children have all left home. (= When the children first left, my parents found the house strangely quiet, but it's gradually becoming normal for them.)

20


Past tenses

2

Grammar exercises U Complete the text with the past simple form of these verbs. be begin come drink ear explain feed find get give go have know learn meet read seem speak spread write

leammimpit

----- _

.4 C

,

The mystery of Kaspar Hauser began in Nuremberg, The mystery of Kasper Hauser (1) Germany, about 200 years ago. One morning, the people of the a young man standing alone in the square. town (2) He was holding a piece of paper in his hand.The paper only that he (4) the son of a soldier. (3) Kaspar (5) how to say a few words and when given his name, but he a paper and pencil he (6) completely ignorant about everyday life. At first (7) only water, he (8) only bread and (9) but he gradually (10) used to ordinary meals. He also (11) to talk properly. The real truth about his birth remains a mystery, but it is probable that his father kept him him on bread and in one small room for the whole of his early life. He (12) out, he never him water to drink. Kaspar never (14) (13) other children. In spite of this extraordinary to anyone or (16) (15) discussions books and (18) childhood, Kaspar was not stupid. He (17) with teachers and philosophers. News about Kasper (19) through Europe and visitors (20) from abroad to meet him.

flFill in the gaps with the past simple or past continuous form of the verbs. 1 My parents 2

got

(get) to know each other when they Wert studying

3 I they

4

Lily receptionist.

5

While I

(study) at university.

(travel) widely as a young man and

Doctor Fisher a diary.

(see) my brother and his friend when I (not see) me. (fill) in the application form and

(always keep) (wait) for the bus, but (give)it to the

(meet) a girl who

(wet*) in Rome I

(look) just like your sister. 6

Simon

(buy) a new laptop because his old one (miss) your text because my phone

7

I

8

Anna's feeling depressed because she (not get) one.

(always crash). (charge) in another room.

(hope) for a pay rise last week, but she

21


2

Past tenses

flChoose the correct form of the verbs in this text. My granny is 93 and she's come to live with us at our house. We're all pleased because we love having her near us. She's a very independent person and until this year, she (1) refused/ was refusing to move to the flat on our ground floor. But last month she suddenly (2) changed/ was changing her mind and 1(3) asked / would ask her why. She explained that for years, nobody in her village (4) would lock/was locking their front doors and the place (5) used to feel/ would feel safe, but last month (6) she met/was meeting a neighbour in the street when she (7) was walking / would walk home from the shops and (8) heard / was hearing some bad news. Thieves (9) were breaking/got used to breaking into people's houses while they (10) were sitting/ would sit in their back gardens. She (11) realised/was realising that she (12) wasn't wanting / didn't want to live alone any mom. She (13) isn't used / didn't use to being in the town yet, but it's not as difficult as she (14) was thinking / thought it might be, and she loves seeing us more often.

4

Fill in the gaps with a suitable form of beget used to.

1 Rita's very tired this morning. She isn't used, to 2 Don't worry about the children: they 3 My new boss

(not) going to bed late. going to school by bus.

giving orders, not receiving them.

(not) drinking very strong coffee and it made her ill.

4 She

(you) our climate or do you still miss the sunshine?

5

6 I had never stayed in such an expensive hotel before, but I soon

it.

Ei 0 Complete these sentences by Cambridge First candidates with the past simple or past continuous form of the verbs. 1 Don't ask me about the concert!! was workul was playing (play) 2 I 3 The lights

(look) round the palace when a man (go) out while she (go) quietly out of her bedroom and

4 She she could hear what they were saying. 5 I

(work) in the stadium cafe when the band (stop) me to ask for directions. (have)a party in her house. (stand) behind the door so

(hope) my colleagues would say 'happy birthday' when I got to work, but nobody

(say) anything. 6

0Correct the mistakes with used to in these sentences by Cambridge First candidates. When I was a child I atrmsed to go camping.

2 My parents used to often take me to the zoo. 3 They didn't used to help their parents with housework, but now they do. 4 We use to go to the beach every day last summer. 5 Helen is a teacher at a primary school, so she used to teach children. 6 I would like to be a sports instructor because I was used to train tennis players before I came to England. 22

used,


Exam practice

Past tenses

2

Reading and Use of English Part 1 For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, 13, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

A musician is discovered When Jimmy Yates was a small boy, his family (0) A their holidays on his grandfathers farm. to by mountains. It was during one of these visits that Jimmy's (2) This was in a valley (1) a musical instrument. One evening remember a tune led to the suggestion that the boy should (3) among the adults about the differences between two hit songs. His father tried a discussion (4) of the two tunes by playing them, not very well, on his gutter. No one thought to prove the (5) to the ancient piano that Jimmy, who was only five, was listening, but suddenly he made his (6) which stood in the corner and played first one of the tunes and then the other. The family was amazed began. no one had heard him play any music before. In this way, Jimmy's musical (8) (7) 0

ÂŽ

spent

B

made

C

took

D

went

1

A

surrounded

B

closed

C

held

D

circled

2

A

talent

B

gift

C

ability

D

skill

3

A

take up

B

start up

C

pick up

D

join up

D

arose similarity

4

A

happened

B

came

C

entered

5

A

comparison

B

closeness

C

likeness

D

6

A

path

B

way

C

route

D

line

C

when

D

as

C

career

D

study

7

A

so

B

although

8

A

work

B

living

11

Exam tip

If you are unsure, try to work out which answers are wrong. See what is left, and if you are still unsure, make a guess!

Grammar focus task In the exam task there are some irregular past simple verbs. Without looking back at the text, write the past simple form of these verbs. 5 hear

9

spend

6 hold

10

stand

3 come

7 lead

11 take

4 go

8 make

12

1

arise

2 begin

think

23


Present perfect and past simple Present perfect simple and past simple; present perfect simple and continuous•

Context listeni

S \? Safi p

1=3

nYou are going to hear two people called Mike and Lucy talking to each other. Before you listen, look at the picture. 1 How do Mike and Lucy know each other? 2 What is Lucy's problem? DOI Listen and check if you were right.

EN DOT Listen again and write Mike and Lucy's exact words. Stop the recording when you need to. 1 What does Mike say about finishing work? He says: '

I finished. at IAA nchtirn e today.

2 What does he say about this afternoon? He says: ' 3 What does Lucy say about finishing her essay? She says: ' 4

When does she say she started it? She says: '

5

What does Mike say about studying history? He says: '

6 How long has Lucy lived next door? She says:' 7

How long has Mike lived there? He says:'

8 Why is Mike surprised? He says: '

4

Look at your answers to Exercise 3 and answer these questions.

1 Look at answers 1,4 and S. What tense are they? 2

Look at answers 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8. What tense are they?

3 Which sentences are about a time period which continues up to the moment of speaking? 4 Which sentences are about a period of time which is finished? 24


Present perfect and past simple

Grammar Present perfect simple or past simple? Present perfect simple

2

has/have + past participle

I've written it.

has/have not + past participle

She hasn't written it.

has/have ... + past participle?

Have you written it?

Some verbs are irregular: break -'broken; go —t gone (> See Web page: Irregular verbs.) > For past simple forms, see Unit 2, I31. We use the past simple:

We use the present perfect simple with since or for, about a period of time which continues up to the present moment:

with for, about a period of time which is finished: Ilived there for four years. (= but! don't live there

I've lived there for four years. (= and I still live there)

now)

four years I moved there

now I live there

4— four years

-II.

I moved there

I moved out

now I don't live there

I've lived next door since June. (= and I still live next door now) with questions asking how long

with questions asking when:

How long have you lived here? (= I know you still

When did you move here? (= the move is in the past)

live here) Sometimes we can also use the present perfect continuous. >See B2 in the negative, for unfinished actions and events, often with still or yet:

for completed actions and events in the past, often with ago:

still haven't sent the email. I haven't sent the email yet Still and yet are always used with a negative in the present perfect. Still goes before the verb; yet goes

I sent the email half an hour ago.

after it. for events repeated over a period of time until the present (they may continue):

You've played the saxophone every night. (= until now, and you will probably continue to play every night)

for events repeated over a period of time in the past (they are now finished): You played the saxophone every night. (= but you don't any more)

for events which happened in the past at a time which is unknown and/or irrelevant: I've started my essay. (= we don't know when) I've lost my new camera. (= it's not important when or where) 25


Present perfect and past simple We use the present perfect simple:

We use the past simple

for events that happened in the recent past (often with just): Flight 206 has landed. (= in the last few minutes) She's just gone to the cinema. (= she's on her way or she's already there now)

for events that happened at a particular time in the past: Flight 206 landed at one o'clock. or within a period of time in the past She was at the cinema between midday and two o'clock. (= but she's not there now)

when the time stated is not finished: I've spent this morning writing an essay. (= it's still morning)

when the time stated is finished: ( spent this morning writing an essay. (= it's now afternoon so 'this morning' is in the past)

9 am

midday this morning now

.4

writing an essay The builders have started working on the kitchen this week (= it's still this week)

when we talk about a period of time up to the present: I've been to Los Angeles but not to New York. (= in my life up to now) The team has won several matches. (= and may win more) when we talk about how many times something has happened up to now Alex has phoned Ella three times. (= and he might phone her again) with adverbs like already, before, ever and never Nobody's ever complained before. (= until now) I've never tried Japanese food. (= but I might one day) She's already gone to the airport. I've met her before somewhere Never, ever and already go between the auxiliary and the main verb. Before goes after the verb. after a superlative (n see Unit 7): It's the best cup of coffee I've had here. This is the most exciting place we've been to.

26

9 am

midday writing an essay

4 pm now

I started my essay last week. (= 'last week' is definitely in the past) Ilost my new camera in London. (= the place fixes it at a time in the past) when we talk about past events which are not connected to the present: I went to Los Angeles but not to New York. (= on a particular trip which is in the past) The Chinese invented printing.

when we talk about how many times something happened in the past: Alex phoned Ella three times yesterday.


Present tense and past simple

IN

3

Present perfect simple or continuous?

Present perfect continuous

+

has/have been + verb + -ing

I've been working hard.

—

has/have not been + verb + -ing

She hasn't been working hard.

?

has/have ... + been + verb + -ing?

Have you been working hard?

The present perfect and the present perfec continuous are both used to describe events or activities which started in the past and have continued up o the present, or activities which stopped recently. Some verbs can be used in either the present perfect simple or continuous with little difference in meaning. These are verbs which describe activities which normally happen over a period of time, e.g. live, study, wait, work Martin has lived / has been living in Japan for five years. We use the present perfect continuous:

We use the present perfect simple:

to talk about how long something has been happening lye been driving since five o'clock this morning. The children have been playing happily all morning. We've been worrying about her all week. How long have you been watching TV?

to talk about how often or how many times something has happened: I've driven there several times before. The children have played four games of tennis this morning. I've worried about her every day since she set off I've watched three programmes.

to focus on the activity or event itself (whether it is complete or not is unimportant):

to focus on the present result of an activity or event which is complete: I've read the newspapers. (= I've finished reading them) I've mended the car. (= I've finished so we can go out in it now)

He's been reading that book since he got up. (= we're interested in how he passed the time) I've been mending the car. (= that% why I'm dirty)

A We never use the present tense to talk about how long we have been doing something

I've been learning the piano for a longtime. (not fin lcurning thr.. p;uf fia u lur hare) He's been playing in a band for two years. (not I It's tdaYalg Ui a baud fin btu/ years) AState verbs are not usually used in the present perfect continuous (> see Unit 1, B3):

I've known her since she was four years old. (not sve bra, k,.on'I. I've always hated cold weather (not Scw w y er I u&rs cvlJ arc ecr

27


Present perfect and past simple

Grammar exercises n Match the beginnings and endings of these sentences. 1 He's talked to her on the phone

A for years.

2 This summer the pool was only open

on my way home from school yesterday.

3 The whole team felt exhausted

C since nine o'clock this morning.

4 The rent of my flat has gone up

D when the match finished.

5 She's had nothing to eat

ever since she was very young.

6

I got very wet

by 20 per cent this year.

7

I spent a month in Brazil

G a few minutes ago.

8 She's always enjoyed painting

H from April till September.

9

1

in 2002.

1

every night this week.

I haven't had such a good time

10 This text arrived

nFill in the gaps with the present perfect or past simple form of the verbs. 1 This is only the second time I 'Ye'

en.. th"

(evenly) in an aeroplane.

2 The child

(sleep) from seven till seven without waking once.

3 Gabriella

(grow) five centimetres since last month.

4 I

(send) Ed three emails last week but he

(not reply) to any

of them yet. 5 6

(you / learn) to play chess when you were a child? I

(buy) this bicycle five years ago and I

(use) it every day

since then. 7

How long

8 The train 9

I

(just arrive), so hurry and you might catch it. (never see) such a beautiful rainbow before.

10 I

(dream) about a beautiful desert island last night.

11 On Sunday we 12 When

n

(you / have) that bad cough?

CO Choose

(meet) outside the cinema as usual. (you / get) that jacket? I

(not notice) it before.

the correct verb forms in these sentences by Cambridge First candidates.

1

I think that my friend Andrew has worked / has been working too hard recently and needs a rest.

2

I have been working/ worked with children when I was at university.

3 How many times have you eaten / have you been eating Japanese food? 4 Since I left school in the summer I have been doing / have done a holiday job. Two years ago I did / have done a course in coaching basketball. 6

28

lam so happy to receive your invitation. I have waited / have been waiting for it for ages!


Present tense and past simple

3

Fill in the gaps with suitable verbs in the present perfect or the past simple.

Hi from Richard in Spain 1 (1)

'vs been

here in Spain for two

weeks now and I'm having a great time. When 1(2) 1 (3)

at the airport very lonely. But I

(4)

(already) some friends

and I'm staying with a very nice family. They (5)

me to the seaside last

weekend and we (6) I really (7)

in the sea it. I (S)

some Spanish but I (9)

(not) to any

language classes yet — they start next week. It's now midnight and I need to go to bed as 1 (10) shopping this morning and 1 (12)

1 (11)

a very busy day. football this afternoon.

See you in a month!

nRead this conversation between two people in a sports club. Choose the correct verb forms. Anna: Tim: Anna:

Excuse me. (1) We've waited / We've been waiting to play tennis since 10.30. It must be our turn now. I don't think so. (2) We've stood I We've been standing here patiently watching you and it's time for you to stop. How long (3) have you played 1 have you been playing?

Tim:

Since about 9.30. (4) We've played I We've been playing two matches so far this morning and (5) we haven't finished I we haven't been finishing the third yet. You'll have to wait or do something else.

Anna:

But (6) you've played I you've been playing for more than two hours and it's our turn now.

Tim:

I said you'll have to wait.

Anna:

We're tired of waiting and we haven't got anything to do. (7) We've read 1 We've been reading the magazines we brought with us.

Tim:

Why don't you do something else? (8) Have you tried / Have you been trying the swimming pool?

Anna:

We don't want to swim, we want to play tennis.

Tim:

Well, I always play on a Saturday morning. Anyway, (9) we've already started / we've already been starting the third match.

Anna:

Oh well, it looks like we've got no choice, but (10) we've booked / we've been booking for next Saturday so you'll be unlucky then.

29


Exam practice II

Reading and Use of English Part 7 You are going to read a magazine article about people who like clothes. For questions 1-10, choose from the people (A-D). The people may be chosen more than once.

Which person thinks people don't give enough importance to one kind of clothing?

1

learned something after an experience with some clothing?

2

made a decision to buy something they had always wanted?

3

is happy with the social requirements of their job?

4

admits not giving importance to self-promotion?

5

chooses clothes so as not to draw attention to themselves?

6

did something out of character?

7

never expected to go into their present line of business?

8

mentions circumstances in which it is important to keep a sense of humour?

9

no longer does something which they now consider foolish?

10

Me and my clothes A Paula, a clothes designer When you're young you can get away with cheap clothes, though I think I had expensive tastes even then. In fact I've always spent a lot on clothes and I've always loved what they can do for you but I never anticipated making money from them. At one point when I didn't have a job my husband said, 'Surely you must be able to make something'. That was the kick I needed to get me started. I'm mad about swimsuits. Because I make my own clothes, I'm always thinking about changing a collar on something or changing a fabric, but because I don't make swimsuits they're free from all that. I have several. People take one on holiday and think that's enough, yet they wouldn't dream of wearing the same trousers day after day. I don't understand that. B Len, a businessman I've enjoyed motorbikes since I was 16. But for a long time I didn't own one; I rode my brother's instead. Then about two years ago I bought one. I thought: if I don't get one now, I never will. I always walked to work every morning until I got the motorbike, but now I ride there most days. I bought a leather jacket as a solution to the problem of needing to wear a suit to work and wanting to come in by bike. It would be impossible to be changing all the time. When I was younger I rode a bike several times without a helmet. That was in parts of the United States where it wasn't compulsory, but it's madness. There's enough risk on a bike without adding more.

30


Present tense and past simple

Exam practice

3

II

C Marion, a singer When I was in a musical I wore wonderful skirts made by a designer but they were incredibly heavy, and during the first performance I fell over twice on stage performing in them.That hasn't happened to me again because I know now that you need much lighter clothes to perform in. A little while after that, I was singing at a friend's wedding so I asked the same designer to make a really stunning dress for me. I've worn it just a few times since then — to awards ceremonies — but I feel great in it. My career's never been structured. Perhaps it should have been but I'm hopeless at pushing myself. I went to the United States when a film I was in, Enchanted April was really big but I never dreamed of hiring a publicist or anything. I suppose one measure of success was when I did my first TV advert and I went into the sort of shop I'd always been scared to go into before and bought something without looking at the price. That just wasn't like me. D Tom, chief executive of a charity I worked as a lawyer until I was in my forties but I've been director of a charity for ten years now. I'm out two or three nights a week at dinners to raise money. It goes with a job like this and it's fun too. I wear a suit and tie to most events. They're a kind of uniform, which is helpful because I'm not naturally a stylish dresser. I like to feel comfortable and fit in, and this way I'm not conscious of my appearance. If I was, I'd probably be horrendously shy. One of my big mistakes in my early days was to make a speech that was too serious. People said afterwards that it was very powerful but that wasn't what I'd intended. If you're too serious in my kind of business it puts people off. ) Exam tip There will be at least one answer for each text, so check again if you have one text with no answers in it. Grammar focus task Without looking back at the text, complete these extracts with the present perfect simple or the past simple form of the verbs in the box. anticipate be be buy enjoy fall get happen own spend walk wear work 1

I 'ye etwcup spat (always) a lot on clothes but I never fltirll them.

2

I motorbikes since I was 16. But for a long time I Then about two years ago I one.

3

I always to work every morning until I but now I ride there most days.

4

During the first performance I (not) to me again.

5

I

6

I as a lawyer until I director of a charity for ten years now.

making money (not) one. the motorbike,

over twice on stage performing in them. That

it just a few times since then. in my forties but I

31


You are going to hear a teenage boy called Richard talking to his mother. Before you listen, look at the picture and answer these questions. How has Richard spent the weekend' 2

How does his mother feel? Why?

n agListen and check if you were right n1ER Listen again and fill in the gaps. Stop the recording when you need to. Richard:

10) 'd done (3)

the ceiling, and 1(2) paint.

one wall, when I

Richard: And yesterday afternoon 1(4) bored. I(S) a few hours — you know, round the centre. 1(6) your list — and 1(7) all my homework. Mother:

4

I (8)

for only an hour when the car (9)

Look at your answers to Exercise 3 and answer these questions.

1 Look at answers 1,2 and 3. Did 3 happen before or after 1 and 2? What tenses does Richard use? 2

Look at answers 4, 5, 6 and 7. Did 4 happen before or after 5,6 and 7? What tenses does Richard use?

3

Look at answers 8 and 9. Which happened first? What tenses does Richard's mother use?

32

to town for the shopping — everything on


Past perfect

4

Grammar El Past perfect simple Present perfect simple

+

?

had + past participle

He'd painted the ceiling

had not + past participle

He hadn't painted the ceiling

had ... + past participle?

Had he painted the ceiling?

We use the past perfect simple: when we are already talking about the past and want to make it clear that we are referring back to an even earlier time: Yesterday afternoon I was bored. I'd been to town, I'd done the shopping and I'd finished all my homework so I decided to paint my room. Yesterday morning (= earlier) T H E I'd been to town I'd done the shopping I'd finished my homework

Yesterday afternoon (= later) P A S T I was bored I decided

Today

NOW Richard is speaking today

in some sentences with time expressions (when, after, by the time, as soon as) when one event happened before the other:

I'd painted one wall when Iran out of paint. By the time Richard's mother got home, he'd finished painting the room. with the adverbs just, already, ever and never. They go between the auxiliary and the main verb (n see also Unit 8):

He'd just finished painting when his mother came in. When she got home he'd already finished painting the room. Until last weekend he'd never painted a room. Had he ever done any painting before? We don't use the past perfect: if one action happened at the same time as another: ace??...) if one action happened immediately after the other and was connected to it. In sentences like these, the first action is often the cause of the second: . ) When jilt heard the baby cry, she ran to pick him up. (not Wm,

When Richard's mother saw the room, she was horrified. (not Wi

33


4

Past perfect

A Notice the difference in meaning between these two sentences: When Richard's mother came into the room, he stopped painting. (= she came in, so he stopped)

Richard's mother came into the room.

Richard stopped painting.

When Richard s mother came into the room, he'd stopped painting. (= he stopped some time before she came in)

Richard's mother came into the room.

Richard stopped painting.

Past perfect continuous had been + verb + -ing

I'd been working hard.

—

had not been + verb + -ing

She hadn't been working hard.

?

had ... been + verb + -ing?

Had you been working hard?

We use the past perfect continuous:

We use the pa t perfect simple:

to emphasise a continuous activity or how long it continued:

when we do not need to emphasise a continuous activity or the period of time:

He had a headache because he'd been playing computer games for hours.

He'd played all of the computer games and wanted to do something different.

when we talk about how long something happened up to a point in the past:

when we talk about how many or how often up to a point in the past:

How long had you been driving when the car broke down? By the time she arrived I'd been waiting for two hours.

I'd driven six kilometres when the car broke down. By the time was 78 I'd visited Canada six times.

A State verbs (r. see Unit 1, B3) are not usually used in the past perfect continuous: I'd known her since she was four years old. (not I'd tie" , AnUrV;n5 LC' ...)

34


Past perfect

4

Grammar exercises 101 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the past perfect simple. 1 The new school building hazl only bees 2

(order) online because they were too small.

I sent back the trainers that I

(plan) to arrive early, but we overslept as usual.

3

We

4

As soon as I tasted the curry, I realised I

5

How many questions

6

Luckily, the band

(you / answer) when the bell rang?

(not start) playing when we reached our seats.

(forget)

(post) the parcel that I realised I

It was only after I to put my address on the back of it.

(change)?

(anyone / not tell) Andy that the bus times

9 10

(leave) the garlic out.

(you / already / book) tickets when you heard the match was cancelled?

7 8

(only I be) open for a month before it was destroyed in a fire.

(never do) very well before, they were delighted to reach the

Because the team final.

flComplete the sentences with the correct form of the past perfect continuous. 1 I

'd been hopial

(hope) no one would notice I wasn't at the meeting. (you / eat) that made you so ill?

2

What

3

The students

4

We couldn't understand where the cat

5

Alexi gave the wrong answer because he

6

Where

7

Nobody

8

Why was Jeff in such bad temper'

9

We were so disappointed when the hotel closed. We was a small child.

10

'not expect) a test that day. (live) for the past twelve months. (not pay) attention. (Anya's family / live) before they moved to this street? (watch) the television for some time so I turned it off.

It wasn't until) got home that I noticed that I

1r

(the other boys / tease) him again? (go) there for holidays since I (wear) odd socks all day.

35


4

Past perfect

El Fill in the gaps with suitable verbs in the past perfect continuous. 1 The phone

had been ringing

2 Katya

for several minutes before I heard it.

(not) German with Mr Fauser for very long when he retired.

3 liz didn't know about the surprise party which her parents

for weeks.

4 I was very pleased when the bus finally arrived because I for work.

that I would be late

5 When the doctor eventually called my name I 6 My brother lost his job because he 7 The band 8 We

for 40 minutes. jokes to everyone in the office by email.

(not) for long when the lights went out. our money to buy a car but we decided to go to Brazil instead.

9 I finally got through to Ellie but we 10 How long

(only) for a few minutes when we got cut off. (they) for the car keys when Peta found them in her pocket?

4 Each of these sentences has a verb in the past perfect simple. Is it possible to replace it with the past perfect continuous? 1 I'd worked for the engineering company for three months before I realised my neighbour also worked there. Yes - I'd been workiAg 2 As soon as George had finished the race, he drank three glasses of water.

3 Everything was white because it had snowed heavily during the night.

4 My parents were delighted when I qualified because they had always wanted me to be a doctor.

5 She was exhausted when she got out of the pool because she'd swum three kilometres.

6 Wed only just sat down at our table when the waitress came to take our order.

7

I could tell immediately from their faces that they had argued about something.

8 Our dinner wasn't cooked because Id forgotten to switch the oven on.

9

10

36

The tourist guide hadn't spoken loudly enough for all the group to hear what he was saying.

When I got to the cafe, my blends had already left, so I had to run to catch up with them.


Past perfect

4

n Fill in the gaps with the past simple, past perfect or past perfect continuous form of the verbs. id. never Heiken

(never ride) a bike until I

(go) to live in Amsterdam.

(come) into the room, his mother nearly (not see) him for nearly 20 years.

2 When Martin (faint) because she 3

went

We were held up in a traffic jam so the concert (arrive).

(begin) by the time we (get)

(you / apply) for jobs when you

4 How long this one? 5

(not see) Lisa when I went round last night because she I (go) to stay with her grandmother.

6

I completely lost

7

When I

8

After he to dry.

9

(discover) that Jane was a thief. Up until then, The manager was shocked when he he (believe) that she was completely honest.

(drive) for about four hours when I

(realise) that I was

(go) into the room everyone (look) at me.

(stop) talking and

10 (you / ever do) that cupboard?

6

(hang) them outside

(wash) his clothes he

(build)

any carpentry before you

Fill in the gaps with the past simple, past perfect or past perfect continuous form of these verbs.

agree answer arrange arrive bang come forget have hear move phone play

The band played on ...

41

•

I had a rather embarrassing experience last year. At that time I played in a band with some friends of mine and, rather nervously, we (1) 'ci afeeA to provide the music at a friend's wedding. We (2) together for about three months and it was the first booking we (3) (ever) so we'd been practising really hardlhe wedding was on a Saturday. furniture The day before the wedding I had moved to a new flat so 1 (4) all day and gone to bed exhausted. At nine o'clock on the Saturday morning the rest of the band met, as we (5) to practise. They kept phoning me but I round (not). So in the end one of them (7) (6) on my door for fifteen minutes until I woke up. and (9) me all morning. 1 (10) He told me that they (9) anything and I nearly missed the wedding.Then, when I finally (11) my guitar. at the wedding, I realised that 1 (121

(not)

37


Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 5 You are going to read an extract from a novel. For questions 1-6, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

Falicon Park was a typical English suburban road, some fifty years old. The individuality of the properties had increased over the years as successive owners had remodelled and added to their homes. Garages had been converted into kitchen extensions and lawns had become parking spaces while adventurous gardeners had experimented with rocks and olive trees or palm trees. About halfway along the southern side of the road was number 18. It was a detached house, double-fronted. The paintwork was in good order although it was not fresh. The concrete driveway was scarred with cracks and oil stains, and the space for parking had been extended with gravel. A yew hedge straggled across in front of the gravelled area. The curtains were firmly closed and the windows too. The place had an unloved air, unlike the majority of its neighbours. It was a quiet morning. About eleven o'clock, a car drew up outside number 18. It was a grey saloon, not very new, not very clean. There were two men in it. They had an air of determination about them, with a hint of aggression. They could have been debt-collectors. The driver got out and walked to the front door. He rang the bell. It echoed and re-echoed inside the house. No one opened the door. The air was still and the house seemed deserted. The man took out his phone and called a number He listened, then turned away from the house, went back to the car and drove away. Around midday the sky clouded over and a nippy little wind started. The children who had been playing a fairly unenthusiastic game of football around various parked cars therefore decided at that point to take themselves off to see if the weekend sport had begun on television. The street was almost empty when a large dark green van parked outside number 18 and three men in matching fleeces got out. The tallest of them approached a woman working in the garden of number 20 and asked her if she had a water meter. 'We've had a report that there may be a leak round here,' he explained.

line 26

!me 33

38

The woman at number 20 was no doubt mindful of a crime prevention circular she had received very recently and said that she would expect them to know whether she had a water meter if they were genuine employees of the water company. The tall man from the van showed a card to the sceptical woman, which seemed to satisfy her. She went into her house and left them to it. The three men busied themselves in the driveway of number 18. They raised a manhole cover, then one man got a toolbox from the van, went round the side of the house and into the back garden. After a few minutes the front door opened and he appeared at it, signalling to his colleagues. The tall man closed the manhole cover, took another toolbox from the van and went to the doorstep. He glanced around, then he also entered the house, leaving the front door ajar. The third man reversed the van into the driveway. Suddenly, the two men came running out of the house and scrambled into the van as it accelerated out of the drive and disappeared up the road, narrowly missing a teenager who was sauntering across it. Ten minutes later, a police car turned sharply into Falicon Park and drew to a halt outside number 18. Two uniformed officers got out and entered the house. Someone had forced the door on a locked cupboard in the study and the police found the contents scattered on the floor and in the kitchen at the end of the hall the frosted glass in the back door had been neatly removed and placed under a bush.


Past perfect

Exam practice

4

II

1

were almost identical.

What made the woman at number 20 suspicious?

had large gardens.

A

4

Most of the houses in Falicon Park A C

She didn't like the way the tall man spoke to her.

were well looked after. belonged to large families. C

2

The writer suggests that the driver of the grey car A

She had heard a news report about thieves.

She was surprised to be asked about her water meter. She knew nothing about a leak in the area.

had visited number 18 before.

What does 'it' in line 26 refer to?

5

might threaten the residents in some way.

A

C had been invited to call by the owner.

the tall man's card the driveway of number 18

was upset when no one answered the door.

C the house next door 3

The children decided to go indoors because A

there were too many cars in the road. C

the work they had to do

there was a change in the weather.

The word 'scrambled is used in line 33 to emphasise the fact that the men were

6

they had finished their game of football.

A

trying not to make a noise.

C

out of condition.

they were missing the sport on television.

It

in a great hurry.

Exam tip

being chased by somebody.

The questions follow the text but there may be more than one question on a paragraph.

Grammar focus task 1

Without looking back at the text, complete these sentences with the verbs in the box. Use the correct tense - past simple, past perfect or past perfect continuous. Then check your answers in the text. play receive remodel

be become decide experiment find force i 1

The individuality of the properties hat increased

over the years as sucessive

their homes. parking spaces while adventurous gardeners

2

Lawns

3

The children who

4

The woman at number 20

with rocks and olive trees or palm trees. a fairly unenthusiastic game of football therefore to take themselves off.

she 5

Someone

no doubt mindful of a crime prevention circular very recently. the door on a locked cupboard in the study and the police

the contents scattered on the floor. 2

Why do you think the men came running out of the house? What had happened?

39


Present tenses for future; will; future continuous

Context listening

nYou are going to hear a man called Tom having four conversations. Before you listen, look at the pictures. What do you think Tom's job is?

O DE

Listen and check if you were right As you listen, match the conversations with the pictures. 1

2

n

3

4

DE Listen again and write the verbs.

Conversation 1 1 Tom's plane 2 It

Conversation 3 Ixaves

at Amsterdam airport at 13.40.

3 The conference at 9.30.

4 I

with Paul. to a conference in Amsterdam

tomorrow morning. 6 I afternoon.

9 I

a meal in town. breakfast in my room.

10 In a hundred years' time, the world a very different place. 11 There 12 People

my eyes tested on Saturday

Look at your answers to Exercise 3 and answer these questions.

1 Which sentences are about events fixed by a timetable? What tense is used? 2 Which sentences are about actions being decided or still not certain? What tense is used? 3 Which sentences are about arrangements people have made? What tense is used? 4 Which sentences are about general predictions about the future?

What tense is used? 40

back in time.

Conversation 4 badminton in a few minutes

5 I

8 I think I

on Wednesday

Conversation 2

4

7 I probably

at 11.05.

much oil available for energy.

much longer.


Future (1)

Grammar In English, several different tenses are used to talk about the future: the present simple (> see Unit 1), the present continuous (> see Unit 1), will/shall, the future continuous and going to (> see Unit 6 forgoing to).

nPresent simple We use the present simple for scheduled events with a future meaning: for timetables (planes, buses, etc. leaving and arriving): My plane arrives at Amsterdam airport at 13.40. The London train leaves in half an hour from platform 2. for programmes (when a conference, a course, a football match, a film, etc. begins and ends): The conference starts on Wednesday at 9.30. The match ends at about five o'clock. for people if their plans are fixed by a timetable The students have their written English exam on Monday and the oral on Tuesday. Jo starts her drama course in two weeks' time.

nPresent continuous We use the present continuous: for plans which have already been arranged: People are travelling from all over the world. What are you doing tomorrow evening? I'm flying to a conference in Amsterdam. (= already arranged) I'm having my eyes tested on Saturday afternoon (= I have an appointment)

flwill future +

?

will + verb

They'll arrive soon.

will not + verb

They won't arrive today.

will ... + verb?

Will they arrive soon?

In formal English, shall is occasionally used with l/we instead of will. (> For the use of shall with offers and suggestions, see Unit 13, B3-4.) We use will: for decisions made at the moment of speaking No, actually, Ill have breakfast in my room. (he changes his mind) Thanks for telling me. 111 ring the office now. These plates aren't clean. 111 put them in the dishwasher for anything which is uncertain, especially with probably, maybe, I think, I expect and I hope:

I probably won't be back in time. I think I'll get a meal in town. expect you" be tired after the match. We hope you'll visit us again soon.

5


Future (1) for situations that we predict will happen but which are not definitely decided or arranged: In 100 years the world will be a very different place. There will be millions more people but there won't be much oil available for energy. (= nobody knows definitely what the world will be like in 100 years)

A Compare I'm taking my History exam again tomorrow (= arranged) get higher marks this time. (= not something which is arranged or decided in advance - a hopeful prediction) for something in the future which doesn't depend on personal judgment: I'll be 23 on my next birthday. (= I can't change this, it will just happen) There'll be a full moon tomorrow.

4

Future continuous

+

will be + verb + -bog

She'll be working at 7.30

-

will not be + verb + -big

She won't be working at 7.30.

?

will... be + verb + -ing?

Will she be working at 7.30?

We use the future continuous for an event which is going on at a particular time or over a period of time in the future I'll be working at seven o'clock. (= I will start before seven and I will continue after seven)

41maime 7 Pm 111 be wotidng By the time you read this postcard I'll be walking in the mountains.

A Compare I'll be interviewing him at 6.30. (= the interview begins before 6.30 and continues afterwards) 6.30

Interview begins

Interview ends

I'm interviewing him at 6.30 (= the interview is arranged to begin at 6.30) 6.30

Interview begins

42


Grammar exercises Choose the most suitable form of the verbs.

Mark To Subject Trip Hi Mark, VVhy don't you come with us to Yorkshire? It's all arranged. Jo (1) comes/is coming to my house at six so we can go to the station together. The train (2) doesn't leave / isn't leaving until 6.45 but we don't want to be late. It 131 stops/is stopping a lot on the way so it (4) doesn't arrive / isn't arriving until three in the afternoon. We 151 stay/are staying in a youth hostel and we (6) spend/ are spending five days there. We can catch a bus some of the way from the station but it

(7) doesn't go / isn't going all the way so we have to walk the last two miles from the village. We (8) have /are having breakfast and our evening meal at the youth hostel. It's in a beautiful spot with lots to see. On the way back we need to set off early as there's only one bus and it (9) leaves/is leaving at 8.30. The train back is faster so it (10) arrives/is arriving just after lunch. Let us know if you can come. Leo

nComplete these dialogues. Use the present continuous or the will future form of the verbs. 1 Tim: Julie: Tim:

Where are you going? To the cinema. Wait for me. I think I 'LL come

(come) with you.

2

From next week all enquiries should be sent to Mary because Frances

3

Rachel: Fiona:

I give) her? I

(leave) on Friday.

(give)Sophie a CD for her birthday. What

(you /

(probably get) her a new purse. She keeps losing money from her old one.

4

John: Peter:

(move) tomorrow and there's I need to finish packing today because we still lots to do. Don't worry. I (come) round tonight and help you.

5

James: Kay:

Never walk under a ladder or you Rubbish!

6

Details of the president's visit are now confirmed. He two days.

7

(have) ten years' bad luck.

(stay) at the Castle Hotel for

Assistant: We have milk chocolate, plain chocolate, with nuts, with fruit. (have) a bar of milk chocolate, please. Er ... what a lot of choice!!

Man:

8 Sarah: Lee

(you / do)anything special next Saturday? Yes, lam. My cousin (arrive) from Italy so I to the airport in the afternoon to meet him.

9

Have you finished that book I lent you? Oh, sorry. I forgot all about it. I

Carol: Sam:

(drive)

(get) it now. 43


S

Future (1)

PI 0 Complete the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates. Use the present simple, present continuous, will future or future continuous form of the verbs. leaves

1 Theresa special bus to the conference centre, which 2

We're going to Miami! This time tomorrow we

3 I think I

(leave) the hotel at Sam. (sit) on a boat fishing.

(apply) for a job when I have finished university.

4 I'm worried about the meeting because we 5

My friends

6

You should meet me at 7 o'clock, the concert

(speak) English for the whole two hours.

(have) dinner at my house tonight and I haven't started cooking yet! (start) at 7:30.

7

I can't meet you on Saturday because a cousin of mine

8

I have just bought a new bicycle, so maybe I

(come) from Bologna. (lose) some weight.

4 Look

at the pictures and fill in the gaps with suitable verbs in the present continuous, will future or future continuous.

HAPPY 0 tips \ RTH DAY

1 I expect my parents 2

Sam

3

My grandfather

4

I think I

5

At midday tomorrow 1

6

This time next week we

7

We

8

Maybe my father

44

wilt gWe

me books again for my birthday.

the doctor tomorrow morning at ten o'clock so he can't meet us then. eighty on his next birthday. a teacher when I grow up. over the Atlantic. in Austria. to Ireland by ferry this summer. me the money I need.


Exam practice

Future (1)

5

II

Listening Part 2 OCE3 You will hear a tutor talking to a group of students about a geography trip to New Zealand. For questions 1-10, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.

GEOGRAPHY FIELD TRIP New Zealand was chosen because of the range of (1)

which can be seen.

The first week concentrates on changes in (2)

over the last thirty years. on the west coast.

The second week is spent studying the (3) There is a limited chance of seeing a particular kind of (4)

on the boat trip.

People are often not prepared for the (5)

on the west coast.

Students should try to take a photograph of the (6)

if possible. before they leave for New Zealand.

Students need to write a (7)

on their free weekend.

Most students choose to go (8) Everyone needs to bring at least one (9)

with them.

Accommodation will be in (10)

for most of the trip.

I?

Exam tip

Listen for words in the recording which mean the same as the words around the gap. Grammar focus task

10E3Complete these extracts from the Listening task with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Then listen again to check. 1 Our flight

deports

(depart) at 10.30.

2 During our first week we 3 We 4 I expect we 5 They 6 We

(stay) in a very rural area. (go) on a couple of boat trips. (have) some rain. (wait) for us. (work) all day.

7 I hope you

(get) some good shots.

8 Maybe we

(see) some of the fishing boats too.

9 We probably 10 We

(not get) a chance to buy much. (hire) everything we need.

45


Future (2) going to; future in the past; present tenses after time conjunctions, future perfect; to be about to

Context listening MI You are going to hear a man called Simon Trite talking to a group of people on the remote and uninhabited island of Wildrock in the North Atlantic. They went there as an experiment in survival. Simon has just come to the island. Before you listen, look at the picture and answer these questions. 1 Why do you think Simon has come to the island?

2

What do you think it is like to live on this island?

Listen and check if you were right.

Listen again and answer these questions. Stop the recording when you need to. 1 How long were they going to stay on Wildroc0 2

Why are the people going to leave Wildrocki

3

When are they going to leave?

4

By the end of this week, what will they have achieved?

for at Least a year

5

By the end of this week, how long will they have been living on Wildrodc?

6

When are they going to eat a big hot meal?

7

Who is going to stay on the island? Why?

4

Look at Exercise 3 and answer these questions.

1 Which questions refer only to the future? 2

Which question is about old plans which have been changed?

3

Which questions are about actions which are incomplete now but will be complete at some future time?

46


Future (2)

6

Grammar II

going to

+

am/is/are going to + verb

I'm going to leave

-

am/is/are not going to + verb

They're not going to leave.

F

am/is/are ... going to + verb?

Are you going to leave?

It is often possible to use going to to exp ess the future instead of the present continuous or will (> see Unit 5). Going to is used extremely often in everyday speech. In formal and written English, will and the present tenses are generally used more often than going to. We use going to: for future actions which we have already decided about. Compare We're going to pack up our stuff we're going to send a message to the mainland and we're going to leave. (= the speaker says they already have a clear plan) Oh dear! We can't get everything in the boat. We'll leave this stuff behind. (= the speaker decides at that moment) b. see Unit 5) I'm going to buy a new phone at the weekend because I lost my old one last week and nobody's found it. (= the speaker has decided to replace his phone because he doesn't expect it to be found) Look at this phone - it's really cheap. I think I'll buy it. (= the speaker has just seen this phone and is making the decision as he speaks) to predict something, when we already see evidence for our prediction: It's going to rain soon. (= the speaker knows it's going to rain because he can see the clouds) I'm going to enjoy this meaL (= the speaker can see some delicious food on her plate) There are many situations when either going to or will can be used for predictions with no real difference in meaning. Pronunciation note going to is often pronounced gonna. You may see it spelt this way in comic books and pop songs.

S Future in the past (was/were going to) We use was/were going to: to talk about something which was planned but did not or will not happen: You were going to stay here for at least a year. (= but now you have changed your mind) to show that we don't mind changing our plans: Ben: Are you busy this evening? Jim: Well, I was going to watch a film. (= Jim may forget about the film if Ben suggests a more exciting idea)

nPresent tenses after time conjunctions In clauses referring to future time and beginning with when, until, before, after and as soon as we use: a present tense (for actions at the same time as the other verb or following the other verb): Everyone's going to be very surprised when you arrive. Will you phone me before you go on holiday?

47


6

Future (2)

the present perfect (for actions completed before the other verb): And were not going to talk to any reporters until we've had a long sleep. I'm going to have a shower after I've answered these emails. Sometimes we can use either a present or present perfect tense with the same meaning Were going to eat a big hot meal as soon as we find a restaurant. We're going to eat a big hot meal as soon as we've found a restaurant.

4

Future perfect simple and future perfect continuous

+

will have + past participle

I'll have finished by six o'clock.

—

will not have + past participle

He won't have finished by six o'clock.

?

will ... have + past participle?

Will you have finished by six o'clock?

We use the future perfect simple to say that an action will be complete before a point of time in the future. It is usual to mention the point in time: By the end of this week well have survived longer than anyone else, Ill have cycled twelve kilometres by lunchtime. This time next year, she'll have finished university. You'll soon have earned enough to replace your phone. +

will have been + verb + -ing

By one o'clock, I'll have been waiting for three hours.

—

will not have been + verb + -ing

She won't have been waiting for long

?

will ... have been + verb + -ing?

Will they have been waiting for a long time?

We use the future perfect continuous to emphasise how long an action will have lasted at a point in the future. It is usually necessary to mention the point of time and the length of time: By the end of this week, well have been living here for six months. I'll have been cycling for three hours by lunchtime. State verbs (s. see Unit 1, B3) are not used in the future perfect continuous.

la to be about to +

am/is/are about to + verb

I'm about to go out.

—

am/is/are not about to + verb

He isn't about to go out.

am/is/are ... about to + verb?

Are you about to go out?

We use to be about to to talk about something which is going to happen almost immediately and for which we are already prepared: Actually, we're about to leave. I need to talk to you but if you're about to start dinner I can phone again later In informal language, the negative often means 'do not intend to' do something We aren't about to change the rules just because you don't like them. (= we refuse to change the rules just because you don't like them) Barbara wants me to go sky-diving with her, but I'm not about to do that!

42


Future (2)

6

Grammar exercises Look at these pictures and predict what is going to happen. Complete the first sentence using going to

and the second using about to.

They

3 He

They

He

It

It

She

It

ft

She

She

to fall asleep

She

about to fat/ asleep

2

These are a researcher's notes, with predictions about how the world will have changed by the year 2100. Use the notes to write sentences in the future perfect simple.

By the year 2100 I

human beings / travel / to Mars

2

robots / replace / most manual workers

3

we / use / all the oil resources on Earth

4

doctors / discover / a cure for the common cold

5

scientists / invent / new sources of energy

6

sea temperatures / rise / by several degrees

1 Human beings will, have frravelltii to Mars. 2 3 4 5 6 49


6

Future (2)

n

Choose the correct sentence from each pair.

1 a I'm not going to pay you until you have cleaned up all this mess! ./ b I'm not going to pay you until you'll have cleaned up all this mess! 2

a

Paul will probably arrive after all the others will have started work.

b Paul will probably arrive after all the others have started work 3

a When you'll see David, will you ask him if he wants to come to the cinema? b When you see David, will you ask him if he wants to come to the cinema?

4

5

a

I'll collect your things from the cleaners when I go to the shops tomorrow.

b

I'll collect your things from the cleaners when I'll go to the shops tomorrow.

a

Margaret's going to phone as soon as shell have found out what the tickets will cost.

b Margaret's going to phone as soon as she's found out what the tickets will cost.

4 These people work in a hotel. It's now 12 o'clock. At 2 o'clock, how long will they have been worldngt Write a sentence about each person, using the future perfect condnuous.

1 chef / cook meals (started work at eight o'clock) The. chef wilt have been cooking meats for sbx hours 2

gardener / cut hedges (started work at ten o'clock)

3

manager / interview new staff (started work at eight thirty)

4

waitress/ serve customers in the dining room (started work at eleven o'clock)

5

cleaner / vacuum floors (started work at seven o'clock)

50


Future (2)

6

O Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs. Use going to, future in the past, the present simple, about to or the future perfect

A John:

Sue:

What are your plans for the weekend? Well, we've just changed our plans, actually. We (1) were awl to hwee, (have) a barbecue on Sunday. But the weather forecast says it (2) we (3)

Beth: Nick:

(be) cold and windy, so

(stay) indoors and watch a film.

Is it all right for you to use the boss's office while he's on holiday? I don't think he'll mind when he (4)

(find out) how many cars I've sold

this week.

c Terry: Eddy

Are you very busy this afternoon? Well, that depends on why you're asking. I(S)

(wash) the car. Do you

have a better idea?

Terry

Yes. I (6)

(look round) the new sports club. Do you want to come? You

can wash the car tomorrow.

Eddy. D Ben:

Mary Ben:

Sure. Let's go. Hurry up! We (7)

(miss) the beginning of the concert.

Don't be silly. We've got plenty of time. But it starts at nine. I want to arrive before the hall (8) otherwise other people (9)

(get) full,

(take) all the good seats by the time we get

there.

Chloe

E

Next month 1(10)

(work) in this office for three years. Nobody has

ever thanked me for anything I've done, so 1 (11)

(start) looking for

another job!

6

CO Correct the mistakes in the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates.

1 Do you remember lam going to buy a computer with the money learned in the holidays? Well, I changed my mind and I've bought a bike! 2

I'll tell you all about it as soon as I will see you.

3

Some scientists say by the year 3000 women will take over the world.

4

When he will come to my house I will ask him to fix my TV.

5

She is retiring next month, so this time next year she will have been leaving the company.

6

When you are going to finish the job, the invoice will be paid.

7

I need the money today because I will buy a present for my sister after college.

W0.5

51


Exam practice II

Reading and Use of English Part 7 You are going to read an article about young people who have started their own businesses. For questions 1-10, choose from the people (A—D). The people may be chosen more than once.

Which person advises not giving up at an early stage? is doing something in a way they didn't expect? mentions an advantage they sometimes have over other people in their business? went through a period when they felt unable to cope? realises that their own ways of doing things might not always be the best? realises that their fascination with their present business may not last? says their success has not followed a steady path? mentions how determined they are when they decide to do something? received positive encouragement to start their own business? became aware of how much knowledge they already had in a particular area?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I STARTED MY OWN BUSINESS We talked to four young people who started successful businesses when they were teenagers A Santiago has a business designing websttes I was going to do a course in graphic design when I left school but I started doing websites for some of my dad's friends when I was about 17 and realised I had acquired a lot of expertise from doing the school website. Since then I've hardly been without work. I once had a client who didn't find out my age until after they had hired me and they mentioned that they might not have hired me if they had known my age. But I've also often had clients who have done so because of my age so it can work in my favour. When I asked them why, they said it was because they wanted a 'fresh, younger approach' to business. B Lucas started a magazine about skateboarding I wanted to do something that nobody else around me was doing and I love writing so I started my own magazine. I'm like my dad if he says he's going to do something, nothing will get in the way of that. I started the magazine when I was 13, so by the end of this year I'll have produced 24 editions in four years. At one point recently, I wondered if it was putting too much strain on me with homework and everything. I thought I might have to stop, despite the fact that the magazine was doing well, but I got through that by asking for help from my family and I bounced back. I'll move on to something else if I get bored with it — maybe a blog or something related — but for the moment I still find it inspiring.

52


Exam practice

Future (2)

6

II

C Yana has a business making videos of musicians Young and inexperienced go together in a lot of people's minds but that's not the way I see it. It's a kind of prejudice. I've certainly come up against it and most young people will face some prejudice before anyone recognises their talent and expertise. When I left school I told my parents I didn't want to go to college. I wanted to be creative and make videos. They told me to give it a go and if it didn't work out after a year, I could reconsider my options. They thought I would always regret it otherwise. I'm not sure I would have gone ahead without them behind me. Some people say, This isn't a success and I've been trying for a week' but you have to give it more of a chance. Next month I will have been making videos for a year and they're now getting thousands of hits a day online. D Annie has a photography business You won't know until you try whether a business will work. It's like riding a roller coaster at the funfair. At every turn you take there is another twist to throw you off track. The lows for me have been low, but the highs can be really high and I'm now where I want to be. There will be times, though, when you need to accept advice. If you're still in or just through those teen years and you think you know everything, it's difficult to say to somebody 'You're right about that. How can I improve the way I'm doing this?' It's not something I'm really comfortable with but I've figured out that it is really important if I want to succeed. I always knew I wanted to do something I felt passionate about - and that's photography. I really wasn't interested in business but I ended up starting my own just so I could spend my time doing what I enjoy.

Grammar focus task Without looking back at the text above, complete these extracts with the correct form of the verbs. was going to do

(do) a course in graphic design but I started doing websites.

1

I

2

If he says he

3

By the end of this year I

4

I'll move on to something else when I

5

Most young people will face some prejudice before anyone (recognise) their talent and expertise.

6

Next month I

7

You won't know until you

8

There will be times, though, when you

(do) something nothing will get in the way of that. (produce) 24 editions in four years. (get) bored with it.

(make) videos for a year. (by) whether a business will work. (need) to accept advice.

53


Adjectives Comparative and superlative adjectives; position; order; adjectives ending in -mg and -ed

Context listening

n

You are going to hear some advertisements. Before you listen, look at the photos and guess what will be advertised. 1

og listen and check if you were right.

In Di)Listen to the advertisements again and write the words which describe these people and things. Stop the recording when you need to. I The sort of person you can become _ 2 The lions and monkeys: 3

The way you feel before phoning The Sparklers: _

4 The variety of games:

4 ELIO ' Listen again and fill in the gaps with the words that describe these people and things. Stop the recording when you need to. 1 2

professional, advisers day out

route

welcome

wildlife park

facilities

brochure

offers 3

carpets

4

savings

sinks and surfaces

finger marks

prices

battles

54

road races and fantasy lands

_ graphics


Adjectives

7

Grammar flComparative and superlative adjectives Adjectives are words which describe nouns (things and people). Compare with adverbs in Unit 8. Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

one syllable strong great

add -er stronger

add -est the strongest

two syllables, ending in -y tidy funny

drop -y and add -ier tidier

two/three/four syllables famous beautiful self-confident

more + adjective more self-confident

You can become stronger at Transformers Fitness Centre. We've got the greatest variety of games ever! drop / and add -iest the tidiest

Their flat is ddier than ours. They're the funniest monkeys you've ever seen. the most + adjective the most self-confident

You can become a more self-confident person. He is the most famous actor in the film.

A few two-syllable adjectives (e.g. quid, pleasant, common, polite) sometimes also use -er or -est It's quieter than any garden I've visited before. Two-syllable adjectives ending in ow and -er can usually add -er or -est: narrow -P he narrowest clever —0 cleverer Two-syllable adjectives ending in le usually add -r or -st: simple -0 simpler —0 the simplest Most one-syllable adjectives ending in one vowel + -6,-d, -g, -n, -p or -t double the last letter before adding -er Or -est: big —0 bigger

sad -0 the saddest

A few adjectives have irregular comparative and superlative forms: far —0 farther/further —0 farthest/furthest bad —0 worse -4 worst good —0 better —0 best

flComparative structures We can use comparative structures to say that: things are more: Our prices are better than those of our rivals. We have a more exciting range of games than you'll see anywhere else. things are less: Pre-owned games usually aren't as/so expensive as new ones. The games in the sale are much less expensive than usual. or things are equal: Fantasy games are as popular as football games with our customers.

55


7

Adjectives

flAdjectives ending in -ing and -ed Some common adjectives are formed from verbs and have both -ing and -ed forms. We use the -ed form to describe our feelings: Frn tired. (= a description of how I feel: I've used up all my energy so I need a rest) We use the -ing form to describe the things which make us feel like this: This work is tiring. (= a description of the work it takes a lot of energy to do it) Compare these sentences: Its a boring film.

The visitors are bored.

(= there's no action in it)

(= they have nothing to do)

We had a relaxing holiday.

Good driving instructors always have a relaxed manner.

(= the atmosphere was restful)

(= they don't seem nervous)

That was a very satisfying meal.

The airline has many satisfied customers.

(= there was plenty to eat)

(= the customers feel happy)

4

Adjective position

Adjectives in English usually go in front of the word they describe We visited an old house. We saw some beautiful paintings and some elegant furniture. Adjectives can also follow verbs such as be, get, become, look, seem, appear, sound, taste, smell and feel: Everything seemed pleasant when we started. The flowers smelt beautiful and the gardens looked wonderful. But the weather got very hot and we all felt exhausted by the end of the day

There are many nouns in English which are used as adjectives: a diamond ring a library book a seaside hotel

folk music strawberry jam

nAdjective order When we use more than one adjective, we usually put diem in a certain order. We say a strange old wooden chair (not a We usually begin with adjectives which give an opinion or general impression: a dangerous old car a delicate oval tray a valuable silver spoon Adjectives giving factual information usually follow the opinion/impression adjective and go in this order Size

Age

an

enormous

old

a

small

an

/ Shape

I Colour

Origin

Material

red oval

antique

car French

mirror silver

Two colour adjectives are separated by and: a black and white photograph When we put more than one adjective after a verb, we use and before the last one: The day was hot and tiring. Lord Byron was described as mad, bad and dangerous to know.

56

Purpose

soup

spoon


Adjectives

7

Grammar exercises II Complete this email with the comparative or superlative form of the adjectives and any other words (e.g. the, as, so, than) that are needed.

Hi Lily targer Well, we've moved at last! When we first got here, the house seemed (1) than we remembered, because it was empty, but now it's got our fumiture in it, it doesn't (large) (spacious) before We've got to do some decorating, and that feel (2) (expensive) we expected because the walls are in a will be (3) (bad) condition than we thought. But we'll manage somehow, and soon (t) (smart) house in the town. And if your Uncle Bob has his way, we'll have (5) (lovely) garden as well. We'll also be (7) we'll have KO (exhausted) householders in the country, but never mind. We still (poorland (8) (good) thing we've done for years. We can't imagine now think moving here is (9) (young) why we didn't do it when we were (10) Come and see us soon. Catch a train if you can, because it's almost (11) (near) our end of town. the bus, and the railway station is (12)

(cheap)

Love, Auntie Rosie

E1 Choose the correct adjectives. 1 James told us some fascinating/fascinated stories about the music business. 2

Why are you looking so depressing / depressed? What's wrong?

3 Sarah's got an amazing / amazed collection of computer games. 4

Felix has this really annoying / annoyed habit of reading my emails.

5

The boring / bored students started causing trouble in class.

6

I watched the show for a while, but it wasn't really interesting / interested, so I left.

7

The food in this canteen is absolutely disgusting! disgusted.

8

The astronaut gave a relaxing / relaxed wave and entered the space capsule. Correct the mistake in each of the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates.

1

I would like to join the club as I have been interesting in local history for a longtime.

2

Young people find it bored to visit art galleries at the weekend.

3

The hotel is situated in a place that is as beautiful than any other place in the country.

4

It is easyer for me to do my studies now that I have bought a computer.

5

It's more quicker to learn a language if you study in that country.

6

I think that animals are more safe in zoos than in other places.

7

If we plant more trees, the city will be greenner and pleasanter.

ustexesterl

8 She feels even more worse now that everybody knows about her bad news. 57


7

Adjectives

4

Choose the correct sentence from each pair.

1 a That was the worse film I've ever seen! b That was the worst film I've ever seen! if 2 a Michael's got a fantastic new leather jacket b Michael's got a leather new fantastic jacket. 3 a I didn't eat any bread because I thought it looked as stale. b I didn't eat any bread because I thought it looked stale. 4 a Our last holiday wasn't so enjoyable than this one. b Our last holiday wasn't so enjoyable as this one. 5 a The frightening teenagers locked the door and called the police. b The frightened teenagers locked the door and called the police. 6 a Lucia should catch an earlier train if she wants to get to London by five. b Lucia should catch a more earlier train if she wants to get to London by five. 7 a Our hockey team plays in blue white striped shirts. b Our hockey team plays in blue and white striped shirts. 8 a I think your new dress looks beautiful. b I think your new dress looks beautifully. 111 Look at this designer's sketch of a costume for a film and complete the notes. Fill in the gaps with adjectives for each part of the costume.

enorniCu5

Chinese

AVect silk tight

yettow Leather

eLegant

ridal long

1 an

enormous round blue

hat

2 a

shirt

3

a

ring

4

a pair of

boots

5

a pair of

trousers

s8


II Exam practice

Adjectives /

Reading and Use of English Part 1 For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Welcome guests? My wife Penny and I usually love to (0) A our friends but we will never invite my old friend Fred from the weekend they spent with us. We've known and his wife Kate again! We are currently (1) So although we rarely see them, you'd think we'd have a fairly them both since our school (2) idea of what sort of people they were. However, we discovered that our lives have (3) very different directions. (4) and we work long hours. At weekends we try to We have good jobs but they are very (5) in between catching up with the housework. Kate and Fred are snatch a few moments of (6) meals for them postgraduate students and they live with his parents. His mother cooks their (7) weekends as leisure time and never think of offering to and does all their washing. So they (8) help with daily chores. By the time they left, we were both cross and worn out! 0

ÂŽ entertain

B

visit

C

receive

D

host

1

A repairing

B

recovering

C

revising

D retiring

2

A terms

B

days

C

times

D

ages

3

A fine

B

strong

C

good

D

right

4

A taken

B

left

C

chosen

D

gone

5

A exhausted

B

tired

C

demanding

D

caring

6

A extension

B

relaxation

C

expression

D

reflection

7

A major

B

essential

C

key

D main

8

A regard

B

believe

C

think

D

expect

Grammar focus task 1

The words in the box are from the exam text. Which of them are adjectives and which of them are nouns that can be used as adjectives? daily different good leisure long main old school postgraduate

2

Without looking back to the text, match each word from the box with the noun it describes in the text. 7 students idea 4 d1tJ9 chores

I 2

friend

5

directions

3

days

6

hours

8 9

meals _ time

59


Adverbs Adverb forms; adverbs and adjectives easily confused; comnarnti,T., rd superlative adverbs; modifiers; adverb position

Context listening ElYou are going to hear the beginning of a radio commentary on a football match. Before you listen, think about what you can see and hear at a match. Tick the words you think you might hear. 0 ball 0 chair 0 goal Dground 0 helmet 0 loudly 0 peacefully 0 quiddy 0 racket 0 scored shyly 0 stadium 0 spectators 0 whistle

n DE listen and check if you were right. Number the words in the order you hear them and cross out the ones you don't hen 111 DE Listen again and fill in the gaps. Stop the recording when you need to. 1 And 2

fimalbi

the players are coming onto the pitch.

There were such terrible traffic jams

that the match is starting

3 Most of the spectators have been waiting

since two o'dock.

4 As the players come out they're cheering 5

Rossi has the ball and is running

down the pitch.

6 He's fallen 7

He's so experienced in these kinds of conditions that he

falls.

8 Parker is playing incredibly 9

he scored the winning goal.

10 It's

Parker who scores that important goal.

4 All the words you have filled in for Exercise 3 are adverbs or adverbial phrases. They tell us about when, where, how or how often something happened. Write them in the correct place in the table below. When?

Where?

How?

How often?

finally

al the city

patiently

rarely

There are four adverbs in Exercise 1. Which column do they go in? 60


Adverbs

8

Grammar O Adverb forms Adjectives (happy) tell us about a noun. Adverbs (happily) tell us about a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs can give us information about time (when?), place (where?), manner (how?) and frequency (how often?). Sometimes we use a phrase instead of one word:

This morning I feel happy because the weather is pleasantly warm. Some children are playing happily in the street and a blackbird is singing very beautifully. Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective: sad —0 sadly

safe —0 safely

hopeful —0 hopefully

There is a spelling change in adjectives ending ty or -able/-ible when they become adverbs: angry —0 angrily

miserable —0 miserably

An adjective ending in -ly (friendly, likely, lively, lonely, lovely, silly, ugly) cannot be made into an adverb. We have to use an adverbial phrase instead: She started the interview in a friendly manner. He laughed in a silly way.

II Adverbs and adjectives easily confused Some adjectives and adverbs have the same form. Some common ones are fast, early, hard, late, daily He always arrives early. (adverb) He caught the early train. (adjective) She's a hard worker. (adjective) The bus is always late. (adjective) My daily coffee costs E2.50. (adjective)

She works hard. (adverb) Igot home late. (adverb) I swim daily. (adverb)

A Hard and hardly are both adverbs but they have different meanings. Hardly means 'almost not' and it is often used with ever and any. It can go in various positions in the sentence She hardly noticed when he came into the room. (= she almost didn't notice) I had hardly finished my breakfast when they arrived. (= only just) Rachel is hardly ever absent. (= almost never) There was hardly anyone in the cinema. (= almost nobody) Hardly any of the children could read. (= almost none of them)

A Late and lately are both adverbs but they have different meanings. Lately means 'recently': I haven't read any good books lately.

A The adverb for good is well, but well can also be an adjective which means the opposite of ill: It was a good concert. The musicians played well. (= adverb) I had a bad headache yesterday but I'm well today. (= adjective) Some verbs are followed by adjectives, not adverbs see Unit 7, B4).

nComparative and superlative adverbs Most adverbs use more or less to make comparatives and the most or the least to make superlatives: My brother speaks Italian more fluently than me. I speak Italian less fluently than my brother does. Of all the students, Maria speaks English the most fluently.

61


8

Adverbs

Adverbs without -ly make comparatives and superlatives in the same way as short adjectives (). see Unit 7, 131): hard harder-.' hardest high '"4 higher -s highest late -s later-.' latest I work hard, my sister works harder than I do but Alex works the hardest A Note also: early-.' earlier -+ earliest (not mere-eewly/ the Some comparative and superlative adverbs are irregular: well-.' better-.' best badly-.' worse -s worst for -4 farther/further

farthest/furthest

Adverbs use the same comparative structures as adjectives: I can't add up as quickly as you can. They arrived later than us. irr Modifying adverbs and adjectives Some adverbs are used to change the strength of adjectives or other adverbs. incredibly extremely really very rather fairly quite slightly â–Şâ–Ş stronger

weaker

He plays extremely well. The weather was very hot. He spoke to her rather fiercely. The house was quite old. Some adjectives (e.g. perfect, impossible, excellent) can only be strengthened with adverbs like completely, absolutely, totally, entirely: This crossword puzzle is completely impossible. (not vet -impossible)

flAdverb position The most common position for most adverbs is after the verb, or after the object of the verb if there is one. However, they may also go before the verb or at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis: He packed his suitcase carefully. (end-position) He carefully packed his suitcase. (mid-position) Carefully, he packed his suitcase. (front-position)

A An adverb does not usually go between a verb and its object: (not Hepeeked-ecinfally-his-saireese.) If there are several adverbs and/or adverbial phrases in the end-position, we usually put them in this order: how? where? when? The meeting took place unexpectedly in the Town Hall last Tuesday. Frequency adverbs (which tell us how often) are usually in the mid-position before a single word verb: I usually travel by train. but after am/is/are/was/were: am often late. If the verb has two or more parts, the frequency adverb usually goes after the first part: I have never been to this part of town before. Adverbs can sometimes go in the front-position to give special emphasis to how, when or how often: Angrily, she stormed out of the room. Sometimes we shop at a supermarket, but usually we go to the market. Opinion adverbs, which tell us about the speaker's attitude to the situation, usually go in the front-position, often followed by a comma: Luckily, we found the money which I thought I'd lost Actually, I don't agree with what you said. In fact, the weather was better than we'd expected. 62


Adverbs

8

Grammar exercises O Fill in the gaps using the adverb form of the adjectives in brackets. 1 Franca picked up the sleeping baby 2

gently

(gentle).

When she handed him his lost wallet, he smiled at her

(grateful). (anxious).

3 Irma couldn't see her son anywhere and called his name

(easy).

4 They followed the directions to the hotel 5

(sincere).

Tomo admitted his mistake and apologised

6

I can't text as

7

You have to press the button

as my sister. (fast)

8 The taxi driver was

to make the machine start. (hard) rude to the man with the big suitcase. (terrible)

n Choose the correct words. 1 Eleni stepped confident / confidently onto the stage to begin her talk. 2

The meeting at lunchtime was a complete / completely waste of time.

3

Marushka did good / well in the exam and she won a prize.

4

Mark tried hard / hardly to make the hotel receptionist understand him, but his Spanish wasn'tfluent / fluently enough.

5

After looking at the computer screen all day, I had an 01411 I awfully headache.

6

Even though Deborah did the job efficient/ efficiently, they sacked her after two months.

7

The doctor couldn't understand why Carol felt so hot because her temperature was normal / normally.

8

The boy behaved bad / badly on a school trip so the school refused to take him on any more.

9

The hotel was far /further from the station than we'd expected.

nRewrite these sentences with the adverbs and adverbial phrases in suitable positions. 1 Pavel plays the guitar well for his age. (incredibly) Paset views the. guitar Incredibly welt for his age. 2

They eat steak because it is so expensive. (rarely, nowadays)

3

My grandfather used to take us swimming. (in the summer holidays, in the lake)

4

There is a good film on TV. (usually, an Sunday evenings)

5

My mother insisted that good manners are important. (terribly, always)

6

The party had started when the sound system broke, which meant we couldn't perform. (hardly, all evening)

63


8 4

Adverbs Complete the text below with these adverbs. always earlier hardly now rather silent4y skilfully stiffly very warmly

She shut the door (1) (2)

silieilau

after her. Her father wasn't expecting her — she had arrived

than she had said. He was sitting where he (3)

armchair by the window. It was (4)

sat in his favourite

old but had been repaired (5)

so that

he could continue using it. The room had been redecorated since her last visit and was looking (6)

elegant. On the shelves were all the books which her father (7)

ever

looked at any more. She called his name. He stood up and she noticed that he moved very (8)

He smiled

and held out his arms to her. She hadn't been in touch with him for five years but (9) welcomed her as (10)

he

as he always had.

Choose the correct sentence from each pair. 1 a

2

3

4

5

6

6

The child spread the jam thickly on the piece of bread.

b

The child spread thickly the jam on the piece of bread.

a

My grandmother drives more careful since she got older.

b

My grandmother drives more carefully since she got older.

a

I never have bought anything from that expensive shop over there.

b

I have never bought anything from that expensive shop over there.

a

Unfortunately, we can't come to the party after all.

b

We can't unfortunately come to the party after all.

a

My uncle speaks Spanish very well because he lived in Peru for a while.

b

My uncle speaks very well Spanish because he lived in Peru for a while.

a

My sister doesn't make friends as easily than I do.

b

My sister doesn't make friends as easily as I do.

Q Correct the mistake in each of the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates.

1 The new trains will help them to get back to their homes quielther. 2

The new computer system means that you can find what you are looking for more easy.

3

The teacher was happy with our work because we had worked hardly all day.

4

I like shoes really much because they say so much about a person.

5

We had a party on the beach and it was very fun.

6

You have to pay attention very well carefully to your health and eat properly.

7

If you go and live in Paris for a year, you will be able to speak French fluent.

8

You need to dress good for the interview, so they think you are professional.

64

more. quickly


Exam practice

Adverbs

8

II

Reading and Use of English Part 3 For questions 1-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

ASTRONAUTS commanders and There are two types of astronaut. Some people are (0) they fly the spacecraft. Others are carefully trained specialists who conduct experiments of various kinds and also carry out spacewalks to repair damaged (2) Astronauts must pass a lot of medical tests and be queried in a relevant subject. small space and work well They have to be willing to live in an (3) wrong, with other people. It is possible for experiments to go (4) of the astronauts. They have to be able threatening the (5) to react calmly in a difficult situation and they must also be prepared to work hard. The first British astronaut was (6) , a woman - most astronauts are male. Helen Sharman got the job after hearing an announcement on the radio. for Helen, she was chosen. There were 18,000 applicants and, (7) thing for her was seeing the Earth from She said that the most (8) 120 miles into space.

COMMAND SCIENCE EQUIP

EXTREME DANGER SAFE

USUAL LUCK AMAZE

Exam tip You will need to make more than one change to some words.

Grammar focus task Find eight adverbs in the completed text above. Write the adverb and the adjective which it comes from. 1

carefu4

careful

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

65


Questions yes /no questions; short answers; question words; question tags; cicroa, fry

Context listening n

You are going to hear a telephone conversation between Mina and her father. Before you listen, look at the picture. Why do you think her father is phoning?

al Listen and check if you were right.

n13.R Listen again and answer these questions. 1 What did Mina forget to do'

charge her phone

2 How many times did her father text Mina and get no answer? 3 What had Mina promised to do" 4 How do Mina's parents feel when she's away at college? 5 What's happening at the weekend' 6 Where will they meet' 7 What are Mina and her father looking forward to"

4 Listen again and write down the question for each of these replies. Then drcle the verbs in the questions and the replies. 1

9cm

your phone at last?

Yes, le

2

No, I haven't.

3

Yes, I did.

4

Yes, of course I do.

5

Don't worry, I will.

6

Yes, I can.

7

Yes, it does.

8

No, she doesn't

9

Oh yes, lets.

66


Questions

9

Grammar O Making yes/no questions To make questions which can be answered with yes or no: we put the auxiliary verb before its subject: You're going on holiday soon. -0 Are you going on holiday soon? He's packed his case. -0 Has he packed his case? in the present simple or past simple (> see Units 1 and 2), we use the auxiliary verb do/does or did to make the question: I like Italy. —. Do you like Italy? Does she prefer Greece? (not Dees-she-prefers) She prefers Greece. They went to Corsica. —. Did they go to Corsica? with the verb to be, we put to be before the subject: They're in Madrid today. —. Are they in Madrid today? with modal verbs, we put the modal verb before the subject: Can we stay here? We can stay here. Negative questions often express surprise Don't they like big cities? (= I thought they liked big cities. Am I wrong?) Can't she stay here? (= I thought she could stay here. Is that impossible?)

n Short answers foryes/no questions We answer a yes/no question using the same auxiliary or modal verb as in the question: Is she staying in Spain? Yes, she is. / No, she isn't. Yes. I have / No, I haven't Have you been to New York? Yes, lam. / No, I'm not. Are you going to Greece? Yes, they did. / No, they didn't Did they like the hotel? Yes, we can. / No, we can't Can we book our flight online? Yes, you should. / No, you shouldn't. Should: contact the police?

Ei Making questions with question words When we use What, Which or Who to make questions about the subject of the verb, we do not change the word order (unlike yes/no questions): The pool looks too small. -0 What looks too small? (Answer The pool.) Which hotel offers the best view? (Answer This hotel.) This hotel offers the best view. In a subject question, who is always followed by a singular verb: Who is coming to your party? (not Whe-an.-t.--;,.51) unless two or more people are actually mentioned in the question: Who are your favourite singers? When we use What, Which or Who to make questions about the object of the verb, we change the word order (as in yes/no questions). This hotel offers the best view. —.What does this hotel offer? (Answer: The best view.) Compare these subject and object questions: Molly's visiting Shirin Who's visiting Shirin? Molly. (Who = subject) Molly's visiting Shinn. —. Who's Molly visiting? Shirin. (Who = object)

67


9

Questions

When we use otter question words (When, Why, How, etc.) we change the word order in the same way as in yes/no questions: They'll be in Madrid tomorrow. -4 When will they be in Madrid? (Answer Tomorrow.) We can't stay here because its full. —0 Why can't we stay here?(Answer: Because it's full) She prefers to travel by train. —0 How does she prefer to travel? (Answer By train) A Remember the difference between these questions with like: What does Molly like?( = what does she enjoy?) She likes playing. What does Molly look like? (= tell me about her appearance) She's pretty. What is Molly like? (= tell me about her character and/or appearance) She's intelligent and pretty

4

Question tags

We often make a statement into a question by adding a question tag at the end. The verb in the tag must match the form of the auxiliary verb in the statement. If the statement is positive, the tag is negative They're going to Greece, aren't they? (the speaker expects the answer yes)

If the statement is negative, the tag is positive You aren't going to Greece, are you?(the speaker expects the answer no)

We make question tags: with do/does or did for all verbs in the present simple or past simple except to be: You like the seaside, don't you? You don't like the seaside, do you? Molly prefers Greece, doesn't she? Molly doesn't prefer Greece, does she? Your friends are in Madrid, aren't they? Your friends aren't in Madrid now, are they? with the same auxiliary or modal as in the statement for verbs in other tenses: They haven't arrived yet, have they? We can stay here, can't we? The question tag for lam is aren't It I'm doing the right exercise, aren't I? The question tag for I'm not is am It I'm not in the right place, am I? The question tag for let's is shall wet Let's go to France, shall we?

We use question tags: to check that what we have just said is true - our voice does not rise at the end: They're going to Greece, aren't they? (= I'm almost certain they're going there, but will you confirm this?)

to ask for information - our voice rises at the end: They're going to Greece, aren't they? (-= I'm not sure if that's where they're going - will you tell me?)

nAgreeing with statements To agree with statements we use so for positive statements and neither or nor for negative statements, and we put the verb before its subject. We can do this with the verb to be or with a modal: He was really angry. So was I. He can't speak French. Nor can we.

68

. with an auxiliary verb: I went to Spain last year. So did they. don't want to have a fight about it. Neither dot.


Questions

9

Grammar exercises IA Choose the correct verb forms in these sentences. 1

Who did make / made the cake for the wedding?

2

We haven't got to do the washing-up, do we / have we?

3

Does your sister live with your parents or she has got / has she got a flat of her own?

4

Why can't you walk / you can't walk faster?

5

You went to school in Paris, didn't you / haven't you?

6

What does / is Julie's brother look like?

7

A: Can Sylvia come to the barbecue?

8

Which shoes do you prefer / prefer you — the flat ones or the ones with high heels?

9 10

B: No, she doesn't / cant

k Are they going to record a new album?

8: Yes, they do / are.

A: Who did you invite / invited you to the party? B: Robbie. He called me last week.

O 49 Correct the mistake in each of the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates. Why Pre-deesnit call me directly if he is having problems? 2

daesn't he

How much costs it to study English in London?

3

What you are bringing on the trip with you?

4

What does annoy you most about your job?

5

Where was you going when you saw James?

6

Who did paint the picture you have on the wall?

7

Why you don't come to visit me next weekend?

8

How long it lasts the cookery course?

n Add the correct question tags to these questions. 1

The teachers didn't see me

2

He always forgets his homework,

3

You would like to come with us

4

l'ye got plenty of time,

5

Let's have another coffee,

6

It couldn't possibly rain

7

Those men played really well

8

Molly will have to tell the truth

9 10

did. they

We can't stop here, You promise not to tell anyone,

69


9

Questions

4 Read this article and write questions to match the answers given below.

LAST NIGHT BRIAN BAINES was celebrating his appointment as manager of Farley City Football Club. He says he is particularly happy to be going back to Farley, where he was born in 1978, after playing for a number of European teams. Baines telephoned his wife Shirley as soon as he had signed the contract. He said that she is really pleased that their three children will be able to settle at schools in the city. Their many old friends are looking forward to welcoming them back to Farley.

1 What was Brian Baines celebrating Last night? His appointment as manager of Farley City Football Club. 2 In Farley. 3 His wife Shirley. 4 As soon as he had signed the contract. 5 Three. 6 Because their children will be able to settle at schools in Farley. 7 Their many old friends.

nMatch the statements with the short answers. 1 I started learning English when I was ten.

A

So am I.

2 I didn't find it very easy.

B

Neither will I.

3 I was always trying to sing English songs.

C

Nor did I.

4 But I couldn't understand the words at first.

I) So did I.

5 I'm quite good at English now.

e

So must I.

6 I've read a couple of novels in English.

F

So have I.

7 I won't have many problems in England. I guess.

G

Neither could I.

8 I must do my homework now.

H So was I.

70


Questions

Exam practice

9

II

Listening Part 1

aR You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer (A. B or C).

1

You overhear a girl leaving a voicemail message. Why is she calling?

You hear a girl talking about a website. What pleased her about it?

5

A how easy it is to use

A to issue an invitation

how detailed the information is

to ask for some advice

C how up to date it is

C to change an arrangement 2

You hear two friends talking about the weekend. What is Martin annoyed about?

You hear a man talking about his job. What does he dislike about it?

6

A working at night

A The adventure camp wasn't what he expected.

getting no exercise C dealing with customers

He didn't have any friends with him. C His brother hadn't explained his plans fully. 3

You hear a teacher talking to a group of students. What will the weather be like tomorrow?

7

You hear two students talking about a school project. What do they decide about their projects?

A It will get warmer during the day. There will be some rain in the morning.

A They will do the project together.

C There might be thunderstorms later.

They will do projects in the same field. C They need more time to plan their projects. 4

You hear two people talking about someone they met. What do they agree about?

8

You hear two people talking about a gym. What do they agree about?

A He talked too much. He had interesting things to say.

A It should provide a wider range of classes.

C He was amusing.

It should have better equipment. C It should have longer opening hours.

Exam tip Grammar focus task

The question tells you who the people are and exactly what to listen for.

These sentences are from the recording. Complete the missing question tags. 1

You know what I mean,

2

That wasn't why we went,

3

We can help each other out,

don't 90“

9

4

They'd get more people using the gym then,

5

You've looked at the websites Mrs Wilson recommended,

6

You're not working today,

7

You won't forget them,

8

You didn't really think his jokes were funny,

71


10

Countable and uncountable nouns; articles Countable and uncountable nouns, a(n), the and no article, special uses of articles

Context listening nYou are going to hear four people talk about their jobs. Look at the pictures and guess what jobs they do. 1

2

3

4

O ai Listen and check if you were right. UR Listen again and answer these questions. 1 What does Angela's company make' 2

What important part of her work does she mention?

3

What does she care about?

4 Which drivers really annoy Ken? 5

What does he say motorists should have'

6

Why does Charlie deliver pizzas?

7

What subject is he studying?

8

What is terrible, according to Hazel?

9

Why does she say she mustn't grumble?

4 Listen again and answer these questions. 1 What does Angela avoid eating? 2 Where does Ken work' 3 What does Charlie deliver? 4

What does Charlie usually avoid?

5

What sort of job does he want when he graduates?

6

What does Hazel say about her family'

n

Look at the nouns in your answers to Exercise 3 and compare them with the nouns in your answers to Exercise 4. Can you say how they are different?

72


Countable and uncountable nouns; articles 1 0

Grammar,. flCountable and uncountable nouns Countable nouns: can be singular: a company, a job, a biscuit or plural: many companies, few jobs, some biscuits Uncountable nouns: cannot be plural: health, advice, luggage, scenery (not heaftits, advices, fuggage), 1,..==y; ) take a singular verb: Petrol is expensive. Exercise is good for you. use expressions like a piece of to refer to quantity: a piece of furniture, a piece of advice, a sum of money, a litre of petrol (not erftimittere, an advice, a-wieney, a-peerel)

A News is uncountable and takes a singular verb, even though it looks plural. We say: an item / a piece of news (not-a-news) Many nouns can be countable and uncountable, but with different meanings: These grammar exercises are easy! (= tasks for practising grammar) Exercise is good for you. (= taking exercise in general) The gallery was showing works by several artists. (= paintings, sculptures, etc.) I don't enjoy hard work (= the activity of working) The French produce some wonderful cheeses. (= different types of cheese) Do we have any cheese in the fridge? (= cheese in general)

na(n), the and no article Means:

Introduces:

Use it with:

a(n)

I • one of many • anyone/anything like this

• • •

a person/thing we haven't identified before an unspecific person/thing a general type of person/thing

singular countable nouns

the

• the particular one(s) • the only one(s)

a person/people/thing(s) we have mentioned before

singular countable nouns plural countable nouns uncountable nouns

• someone/something that is unique

no article

• •

all of these the quantity is uncertain or unimportant

someone/something that the speaker and listener already know about

• •

things/people in general a general type of substance, quality, etc.

plural countable nouns uncountable nouns

73


1

0 Countable and uncountable nouns; articles

Compare the use of articles in these sentences: There's a supermarket in most towns nowadays. (= one of many that exist) We buy most of our food from the local supermarket (= one particular supermarket near our house) Have you got a pen? (= one of many that exist) The pen is on the table. (= the only pen here; the only table here) don't like the music my brother plays. (= that particular music) Music helps me to concentrate when I'm working. (= any music) We planted the trees in our garden five years ago. (= the particular trees in our garden) Trees are easily damaged by pollution. (= all trees; any pollution) Trees are good for the environment (= all trees; the only environment we have)

The cheese is in the fridge. (= the cheese you need; the only fridge here) I like cheese. (= all kinds of cheese)

People used to believe the moon was a goddess. (= people in general; the moon that goes round this planet; one of many goddesses)

nSpecial uses of articles Look out for special uses of articles. Here are some common examples. Maces We use the with the names of: oceans, seas and rivers: the Pacific, the Black Sea, the Danube regions the Far East, the Midlands groups of islands the Philippines countries that include a word such as Republic, Kingdom, States or Emirates: the United States, the People's Republic of China, the United Arab Emirates deserts and mountain ranges: the Kalahari, the Alps We say: the sea, the coast, the seaside, the country(side), the mountains, the hills:

We do not use the with the names of: lakes: Lake Garda continents, most countries, states, cities, towns and villages: Europe, France, Florida, Rome

A but we say the Netherlands, The Hague most buildings and places such as schools, universities, stations and airports that use the name of their town in the name Manchester Airport, Cardiff station, Edinburgh Castle, Durham University, Chelmsford High School, Wembley Stadium

A but when the name includes of we use the the University of Rome, the Museum of London

My parents spend their holidays on the coast, burl prefer walking in the mountains.

Fixed expressions Some fixed expressions use the and some have no article We travel by train/bus. (not by-the-trainibas) We have lunch/dinner, but if there is an adjective, we use a:1 had a big breakfast today. We listen to the radio. but We watch television. We play the guitar. (= a musical instrument) but We play tennis. (= a sport). We go to the cinema or the theatre. We say My mother is at work but My mother 15 at the office (= the office where she works)

74


Countable and uncountable nouns; articles 1 0

A We use the or no article before some places, with a difference in meaning The children are at school now. (= they are students there) My father is at the school now. (= he is visiting it)

Peter spent a lot of time in hospital as a child. (= he was a patient)

Dr Dibble has an office in the hospital and another at home. (= she works there)

This also applies to at church, in prison, at college and at university, but we always say the mosque, the temple Jobs We use a(n) when we talk about someone's occupation: I'm a doctor. (not An tint, ) She's a website designer. I'm a student Publications and organisations We use the for most newspapers: The Australian, The Guardian, The Dartmouth Chronicle and many organisations, in words or initials: the UN / United Nations, the BBC / British Broadcasting Corporation, the WHO / World Health Organisation but not for most magazines: Vogue, Wired, Sports Illustrated or companies: Volkswagen, Apple, Microsoft, Gucci Online We say the Internet and the web but Wildpedia, Facebook, Twitter. Definitions We use a(n) to give a definition of something A department store is a shop which sells a wide range of goods. (not Exclamations We use a(n) with a singular noun in exclamations: What an exciting film! (not What ekcitingfilm0 What a gorgeous dress! but no article if the noun is uncountable or plural: What fun! (not What-trim!) What lovely flowers!

75


1

0 Countable and uncountable nouns; articles

Grammar exercises Ell Match the phrases on the left with the uncountable nouns on the right. Some of the phrases match more than one noun. A glass 1 a tube of

meat

2

a sheet of

paper

3

a drop of

news

4 a bar of

E

5

an item of

F oil

6

a grain of

toothpaste

7

a slice of

chocolate

rice

bread Complete the diagram with the words that belong in each group. accommodation advice cheese coffee experience experiment glass ban hobby homework information journey leisure luck luggage meat scenery time traffic vegetable Always countable

Can be countable or uncountable

Always uncountable

11111 Complete the recipe with a, an, the or - (for no article).

PANCAKE RECIPE To make (1)

-

of flour, (2)

--- egg, a little milk and 25 grams

pancakes, you need 100 grams egg with (4)

of butter. Beat (3) flour. Add (5) (6)

milk until you have smooth mixture. Heat (7)

butter in (8)

frying pan. Pour (9)

large spoonful of (10)

(11)

pan and cook for about (12)

and cook a little longer. Serve hot, with (14)—

76

minute. Turn (13) sugar and (15)

mixture into pancake over lemon juice.


Countable and uncountable nouns; articles 1 0 4

Fill in the gaps with the words in brackets, adding a or the where necessary. the West Indies We've got some important visitors flying in from '(West Indies, Birmingham Airport) them at

2

next week. Can you meet

to

How long does it take to sail across from ? (Mediterranean, Naples, Corsica)

3 My brother's idea of a holiday is trekking across . Personally, I'd rather explore shopping (Sahara, Andes, Paris) 4

Have you met Cora's new friend? He's (ski instructor, Switzerland)

5

What even use

or exploring and do some

from

!Our train broke down and there was no wifi so I couldn't Luckily, another passenger lent me a magazine called It had an article about some new software that has developed. (terrible journey, intemet, Computer User, Microsoft)

nCorrect the mistakes in this email. ee Hi Monique a We had k great trip to the France last weekend. We went to little hotel that you recommended and it was very pleasant. Foods at the hotel weren't so good, as you warned us, but we strolled down to city centre on Saturday evening and had lovely meal there. In fact, we ate so much for the dinner that we didn't want a breakfast on Sunday] Thanks again for the advice. The Wikipedia gave us some good informations about the town, but your local knowledge really helped. Now I must unpack and do the washings. Here is photo of the hotel to remind you. xx Freda

6

GO Choose the correct words (or - for no article) in these sentences by Cambridge First students. I thought that he would eat all the food because it / they looked really nice.

2

If I have to give you an / - advice, I think you should give up sport for now.

3

Yesterday I finished work early and did some shopping / shoppings.

4

I would like to have some information / informations about the courses that you are offering.

5

I think I will sell the bedroom furniture / fumitures when I move house.

6

We should feel - / a respect for the man who invented this machine.

77


II

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 4 For questions 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). 0

The hotel staff had permission to use the tennis courts on Mondays. ALLOWED The hotel staff

1

were o.thotwe4 to pay

tennis on Mondays.

Alison loves to buy presents for her grandchildren. PLEASURE Alison

2

presents for her grandchildren.

My boss advised me which computer I should buy. GAVE choosing a computer.

My boss 3

We've been queuing for an hour and we still have another hour to wait. WAITING By the time we get to the front of the queue we two hours.

4

Although Toby keeps his room tidy he seldom cleans it. EVER cleans it

Toby keeps his room tidy 5

Can you tell me precisely how much money was stolen? EXACT that was stolen?

Can you tell me 6

The announcer began the news with a story about the prince's visit. ITEM a story about the prince's visit.

The first

Exam tip Contracted words like they've count as two words so make sure you don't write more than five words.

Grammar focus task

Which of these nouns from the exam task are countable (C), which are uncountable (U) and which can be both (B)? Use your dictionary if you need to. 1

permission

4

queue

7

item

2

pleasure

5

room

8

news

6

money

3 advice

78


Modals (1) Use of modals; rules and obligation; necessity

I Context listening n You are going to hear a conversation between a man called Krish and a boy called Ahmed. Look at the picture of Krish. What can you guess about his daily routine?

n 0151 Listen and check if you were right. Listen again and answer these questions. Because he's Left school..

Why isn't Ahmed at school?

How many rich and famous people does Krish meet?

2 3

Why isn't Krish at work today?

4

How is this job different from Krish's last job?

5

What does Krish offer to do?

4

Listen again and match the beginnings and endings of these sentences. Stop the recording when you need to. You need 2

Chefs have

3

I needn't

A

think about the hotel kitchen today. to work every day except Monday.

C

to spend their time in the kitchen.

ID

come to the hotel one day.

5

I need

E

to talk to me if you want to know what the job is like.

6

I have

F

to work longer hours.

7

I had

to work all day.

8

I'll have

go now.

4 You don't have

9 Imust

10 You must

to get up early. j

to stay until all the food is cooked and served.

Look at your answers to Exercise 4. Which verbs in 1-10 are not followed by to?

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1 1

Modals (1)

Grammar O Use of modals The modal verbs can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will and would: are always used before another verb: He can swim.

never change — they do not add -s or -ed or -ing. are followed by a verb in its infinitive form without to: You should get up earlier (not You 3hould to gtt except for ought which must be followed by to: You ought to get up earlier

are immediately followed by not in the negative: You should not / shouldn't be late for college. You ought not to be late for college.

go immediately before the subject in a question: Could you wake me up?

a

Rules and obligation

must and have to

+

must + verb

We must leave now.

?

must ... + verb?

Must we leave now?

+

have to / has to + verb

He has to leave now.

?

do /does ••• + have te + verb?

Do we have to leave now?

For obligation, we can often use either must or have to: I must go now or Ill miss the bus. or I have to go now or I'll miss the bus. We use must to give orders, for written notices or for strong advice, including to ourselves: You must tell me everything. (= I feel strongly about this) Lucia must be home by midnight. (= these are my instructions) You must come to the hotel one day (= I strongly advise you to) I must go now. (= I have decided to do this, or it's important for me to do this) When the obligation does not come from the speaker, must is possible but have to is more usual: You have to pay to park your car here. (= the local council has made this rule) I have to stay until the food is cooked. (= this is part of my job) We usually use have to for habits: I have to get up early to cook breakfast. Franco has to practise the piano for twenty minutes a day.

We only use must in one form and it refers only to the present or future. For other verb forms, we use have to: I had to work every day (past simple) I'll (will) have to work longer hours. (future) I avoided having to speak to him by crossing the street. (verb + -Mg) If! got the job, I'd (would) have to buy a car (conditional)

80


Modals (1) 1 1 mustn't and don't have to must not + verb

We mustn't be late.

do/does not have to + verb

We don't have to be early.

A Although must and have to both express obligation, mustn't and don't have to have different meanings. Mustn't means 'don't do it' and don't have to means 'it's not necessary to do it': We mustn't make a lot of noise. (= it is wrong to do this, it isn't allowed) You don't have to stay at school until you're 18. (= you are not obliged to but you can if you want) have/has got to In speech and informal writing, we often use have/has got to instead of have/has to. Have/has got to normally refers to a particular action rather than a general situation. We can say: We have to work very hard this afternoon. or We've got to work very hard this afternoon. Don't you have to finish that essay today? or Haven't you got to finish that essay today? Teachers have to work very long hours in my country. (not reachees-Itave-gebteiverk very long hours)

A When we refer to the past we use had to. I had to get up early when I was your age. (not

up)

should When we are talking about the right thing to do, we use should: Adam should take more care when he's cycling (= it's the right thing to do but he doesn't do it) I shouldn't spend so much time watching TV (= it's the wrong thing to do but I still do it) To talk about the past, we use should have + past participle should have told the truth. (= this was the right thing to do but I didn't do it) We shouldn't have lent her that money. (= this wasn't the right thing to do but we did it) It is also possible to use ought to or ought to have in these sentences, but it is less common. (> See Unit 13, BS for more on the modal verbs in this section.)

ni Necessity We can use need (+ to infinitive) as a normal main verb in all the tenses, but it also has a modal form in the negative. We can say: She doesn't need to come. or She needn't come. (= she doesn't have to come - its not necessary) In positive statements, we say: She needs to come. (not She need curse) To talk about the past, we say: Oliver needed to buy a computer (= it was necessary because he didn't have one) Oliver didn't need to buy a computer. (= it wasn't necessary because he already had one) Needn't have has a different meaning Oliver needn't have bought a computer (= he bought a computer but his parents gave him one so now he has two!)

81


I.

1 1

Modals (1)

Grammar exercises

nFill in the gaps with the correct form of have to

1 Most students in Britain

have to or must. Where can you use have got to?

pay to go to university.

2 Joe

get up early on Fridays as he has no lectures in the morning.

3 You

talk during the film because other people will get annoyed.

4 My library books are overdue so I 5 Luke

pay a fine when I return them.

drive to work these days because the buses don't start early enough any more.

6 Because Sue could play the guitar, she 7 You

practise much when she took up the ukulele.

borrow this film — you'll enjoy watching it.

8

(you) work every Saturday in your new job?

9 Non-swimmers

go into the deep end of the pool.

10 You

come to the rehearsal with me tomorrow if you want to be in the play.

11 When I was a child, I

keep changing schools because my parents moved house a lot

12 We've moved into a smaller flat and I 13 I

share a room with my sister.

stop eating so much chocolate or none of my clothes will fit.

14 They provide towels at the pool so I

take one.

flMatch the beginnings and endings of these sentences. 1 I shouldn't

A wear a helmet when he's cycling on a busy road.

2 Do I need to

to take any money for the funfair or is it free?

3 We don't need

C to ask his boss before he leaves the office.

4 They needn't

take sandwiches with them because Jenny's cooking lunch.

5 Konrad should

E

6 Should you

F

to send them our new address because they already have it. fill in my application form now? I'm busy at the moment.

7 Lewis needs

spend so much time playing computer games.

8 Do they need

carry that suitcase with your bad back?

nAlex has made some silly mistakes recently, but he's decided to tell his parents and ask for help. Write what he says, using should/shouldn't have and the past participle of the verbs in the box. 1 He lost his expensive new phone. I

sho(Atii Flage kept

it somewhere safe.

2 He didn't look after his bike carefully and someone stole it. it. 3 He borrowed some money from a schoolfriend. you for money. 82

ask keep lie lock revise

4 He made up a story about why he hadn't done his homework about my homework. 5

He didn't prepare for his exams and he failed. thoroughly. I'll do better in future, I promise. Please can I have a new phone and a new bike?


Modals (1) 1 1 Read this article about a pop star. Complete the sentences below.

The diary column Pop star lee Divine travelled from London to New York yesterday by plane. lee had visited his hairdresser before he went to the airport and wore his latest designer clothes, as he likes to look his best in photos. Press photographers usually follow him wherever he goes but the weather was very bad yesterday and, to Lee's obvious disappointment, there were no photographers at the airport. Because he is famous, he didn't stand in the queue and his bodyguard carried his luggage for him. Although most people have to walk from the car park, Lee has a driver who drove him right to the door. Even this did not seem to make him happy. Lee got angry with his driver on the way because he said she wasn't driving fast enough. Of course, they arrived at the airport in plenty of time.

He needn't have

Yi6Ite4- his hairdresser

4 He didn't need to

He needn't have

5 He didn't need to

He didn't need to

6 He needn't have

fl Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of must, need, should or have to. 1

It's her fault that she's lost her watch because she didn't look after it. She

2

should. have looked after her watch

I don't expect you to phone me before you come. You

3

It is essential for students to buy a good dictionary. Students

4

It was wrong of you to take money from my purse without asking. You

5

I was getting ready to drive to the station to pick up my sister when she arrived in a taxi.

6 It's not fair that I do the washing-up on my own. You 7 Students aren't allowed to use their phones during classes. Students 8 She turned the music down to avoid disturbing her neighbours but they'd gone out. She 9

I think she's wrong to make promises which she doesn't keep. She

10 You can give the tour guide a tip but it is not necessary. You 83


II

Exam practice -'771111111C Reading and Use of English Part 6 You are going to read a magazine article about schools. Six sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

Find your energy again Even the best designed of today's schools and colleges represent artificial environments where it can be difficult to stay positive and bursting with energy. Complaints about feeling tired or ill or having no energy are commonplace. Students and teachers often say that health problems are the inevitable consequences of being in a school all day long. 1 While there may be little you can do about the noise or the behaviour of those around you, you don't have to feel unwell. There is plenty you can do to restore those energy levels and feelings of well-being. The first thing you must address is tiredness. If at the weekend you stay up late with your friends, going to parties or playing games online, and then sleep all the following morning, you can't expect your body to adjust on a Monday morning to a completely different routine. 2

For most of us, however, it's a

very bad idea. Our diets are another way we mistreat ourselves. Many teachers, and even some children, say they don't have breakfast - but you really should eat something, however small, before you leave home. And if you don't eat a proper lunch, or worse, you skip it altogether because you're busy, you will get to the evening and suddenly realise how hungry you are. 3

The sooner you do, the better because nothing is

more important than eating and drinking regularly. You should also take exercise regularly in the evenings. 4

Recent American research has

established that frequent, vigorous exercise is a good way of improving your mood and that the effects last far longer than the session itself. It has to be vigorous, though - walking or tennis have to be kept up for at least an hour to have a positive effect. All the advice on exercise says you should choose something you like doing. 5

If you don't want to fall into the same trap, you need to keep reminding yourself of the advantages. You should also spend

as much time as possible in daylight - advice which is often ignored. We now know that lack of sunlight can cause depression. Time spent out of doors, even if it's only a few minutes, is never wasted. You may be bothered by some of your friends' or classmates' negative attitudes towards staying healthy. Take a few moments to think about how they affect your own state of mind. 6

You are much

more likely to enjoy your free time if you leave school feeling positive and it's the same for your friends. Take steps to make sure school is a place where you look foiward to going. You will spend many hours of your life there!

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Exam practice

Modals (1) 11

II

A

Most people start off with good intentions but soon lose interest. This is, of course, a disastrous way for anyone to run their life and you need to realise that.

C

Always remember that you don't need to behave in the same way. That solution to the problem may not work for everyone. However, this is not the case

F

This will help you to get to sleep later that night and wake up refreshed. Some people seem to be able to keep this up without any negative effects on their health.

It Exam tip If you think two sentences fit in a gap, leave it and continue with the other questions. Then go back and fill in the ones you are unsure about.

Grammar focus task Look at these sentences and find expressions in the text (including sentences A—G) which mean the same. 1

it is not necessary for you to feel ill. You don't have to feel unwell..

2

It is essential first of all for you to deal with tiredness.

3

It is important that you exercise regularly after school.

4

It is essential that the exercise you take is vigorous.

5

It is essential to walk or play tennis for at least an hour.

6

It is important that you do a form of exercise that you enjoy.

7

It is necessary that you don't forget the positive things.

8

It is not necessary for you to behave like them.

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Pronouns and determiners Possessives; teliexive pronouns and own; each other and one another; there and it; someone, etc.; all, most, some, no and none; each and every; both, neither and either

Context listening

n

You are going to hear a man talking to a woman on a holiday website helpline. Before you listen, look at the picture of the two people and the photos of places below. 1 Where do you think the woman went last year? 2

Which place do you think the man would prefer?

n cE

Listen and check if you were right.

gi rig Listen again and fill in the gaps. Stop the recording when you need to. 1 Have you looked at any of our special deals? Are you interested in 2

I went to a fantastic place

3

of those would suit me.

4 Are you going on your own? Yes, I'll be 5

That's better, because you get to know

6

AIII want is

7 86

arlykillere

last year with some friends

quiet. of these holidays appeals to me at all.

really well.

in particular?


Pronouns and determiners

12

Grammar n

Possessive 'sand of

We use 's with people, countries and animals: The girl's clothes were very dirty. (not the-clothes-of theigirl) Britain's roads get more crowded every year. I nearly trod on the cat's tail. and with time expressions: I want to go on a week's holiday. They're last year's tours. but we usually use of instead of 's with things: What's the price of that holiday? (not dre-holidars-price) A The position of the apostrophe is important my brother's friends (= one brother) my brothers' friends (= more than one brother) When we speak we often omit the second noun if we are referring to someone's home or business: I stayed at Simon's. (house is omitted) I stopped at the newsagent's. (shop is omitted)

n

Possessive adjectives and pronouns

Possessive adjectives

my

your

his

her

its

our

their

Possessive pronouns:

mine

yours

his

hers

—

ours

theirs

Possessive adjectives are used before a noun: Those are your keys. Where's my phone? Possessive pronouns take the place of a possessive adjective + noun, usually to avoid repeating the noun: There's a coat on the chair Is it yours? (= your coat) That's not your umbrella, it's mine. (= my umbrella) We use a possessive adjective rather than the with parts of the body and clothes: My father broke his leg. (not Myfather brokrthe-iew) She tore her favourite jeans. (not She tart the ft. vuw,tt We sometimes use of + possessive pronoun or possessive form of a noun instead of a possessive adjective: I went with some friends of mine/yours/Tim's. (notfi;c,,,is vf inclyvv/T;,,t) (= some of my/your/Tim's friends) la Reflexive pronouns and own Reflexive pronouns:

myself

yourself

himself

herself

itself

ourselves

themselves

We use a reflexive pronoun: to make it clear that we are talk ng about the subject of the verb: Amy blamed herself for what had happened. butAmy blamed her for what had happened (= Amy blamed another person, not herself) for emphasis I went to this place myself to see what it was really like. with a number of common expressions like by (your)self, enjoy (your)self, behave (your)sg, help (your)seY, make (your)self at home: You can help yourself to as much food as you want. The resort's got everything you need to enjoy yourself 87


1

2 Pronouns and determiners

A We only use a reflexive pronoun after wash, shave and dress for emphasis: She dressed quickly. but The little girl managed to dress herself (= it was difficult for her) We use a possessive adjective + own to emphasise possession: I'd rather have my own apartment. or I'd rather have an apartment of my own. (= belonging just to me)

On (your) own means 'alone' and can be used instead of by (your)self went diving on my own. or I went diving by myself

4

each other and one another

There is a difference between the reflexive pronouns and each other/one another The two boys hurt themselves. (= e.g. when they fell off their bicycles) The two boys hurt each other / one another (= e.g. when they had a fight) The two boys hurt someone else. (= e.g. when their football hit a man on the head) There is also a possessive form of each other / one another They borrow each other's / one another's shoes because they take the same size.

O there and it + the verb to be We use there + the verb to be to say that somebody/something exists, especially when we refer to somebody/something for the first time

There are some lovely apartments. There's a tour guide.

A Note that the verb after there agrees with the noun which follows. We use it + the verb to be to refer to a particular thing, action, situation or place already mentioned: There's a page called Walking Tours. It is full of useful tips.

to introduce information about time, weather and distance:

It's twenty past five and it's sunny here in New York. It's only a few metres from here to the beach. to avoid using a phrase with -ing or to infinitive as the subject It's surprising to see you here. (= to see you here is surprising) It's a waste of time looking at your webs ite. (= looking at your website is a waste of time)

6

someone, anywhere, everybody, etc.

Words like someone, anywhere, etc. follow the same rules as some and any.

Some is used in positive sentences: I want to go somewhere sunny. Some is sometimes used in questions, especially requests and offers, when we expect the answer yes: Can I have something cold to drink? Would you like something to eat? Any is used in questions and negative sentences: Are you interested in anywhere in particular? We haven't got anything like that this year.

Any is also used in positive statements to show It doesn't matter which thing/person/place': Anywhere that I can relax will be fine.

A Words like someone, everybody, etc. are followed by a singular verb: Everyone's going for them this year. Nobody wants to go on those tours 88


Pronouns and determiners

12

a all, most, some, no and none These words are all used with plural and uncountable nouns. No can also be used with a singular noun.

Things/people in general

Things/people in a particular group

all + noun: All hotels have bedrooms. (= hotels throughout the world)

all (of) + the/my/this/those (etc.) + noun: All (of) the hotels (in this street) have a restaurant.

most/some + noun: Most hotels provide breakfast. Some hotels have a private beach.

most/some of + the/my/this/those (etc.) + noun: Most of the hotels (in this town) are expensive. Some of the hotels (on the website)have a pool.

no + noun: No hotels are perfect. No hotel is perfect.

none of + the/my/this/those (etc.) + noun: None of the rooms (in this hotel) has/have a balcony. When none of is followed by a plural noun, the verb can be singular or plural - both forms are correct.

We can omit of after all, but not after some, most or none.

We can use all/most/some/none + of + pronoun: Some of them have a private beach. (not Sate -them) All can sometimes stand alone All I want is somewhere quiet. (= the only thing) Most, some and none can also stand alone, but only if the noun they refer to has just been mentioned: The rooms are well furnished, but some are rather dark. (= some of the rooms) Whole is used instead of all before a singular noun: The whole trip was spoilt by the weather. (not atite-tritt)

8

each and every

Each and every can be used with the same meaning Every/Each apartment has a balcony. but sometimes they have different meanings: Each is used for individual things or people in a group Each child drew a picture of her own parents. The customs officer checked each passport in turn. Every emphasises that all the people or things in a group are included: Every holiday you've mentioned is the kind of holiday I'd hate. Each (but not every) can be followed by of + a plural noun or pronoun: Each of the apartments / Each of them has a balcony. (not &ay-at:he-van-mew-5 / ftoecte-of-therh)

A Notice the difference between every and all: He sat by the river every morning. (= regularly) He sat by the river all morning. (= one complete morning)

9

both, neither and either

We use both, neither and either when we refer to two items. We use a plural verb after both: Both places are too noisy. or Both (of) the places are ... or Both of them are ... We use a singular verb after either and neither Either/Neither place suits me. or Either/Neither of the places / them suits me. We use both ... and, neither ... nor and either ... or to connect two things or actions: Both the Hotel Flora and the Grand Hotel have good restaurants. (= the Flora and the Grand) Neither the Hotel Flora nor the Grand Hotel has a good restaurant. (= not the Flora or the Grand) We could stay at either the Hotel Flora or the Grand Hotel. (= the Flora or the Grand)

89


1

2 Pronouns and determiners

Grammar exercises

nFill in the gaps with it is, there is or there are. Sometimes I dream of a place where I'd like to live.

(1)

It is

at the top of a mountain and on the

south-facing side (2)

a little house.

very pretty and (4) (3) flowers all around it. (5) nearby but (6)

no other houses

lots of sheep and goats and

wonderful vegetables growing. (7)

always

sunny and warm and it only rains at night. (8) not far from a little village where (9) a restaurant which serves my favourite food. Unfortunately

(10)

just a dream!

nChoose the correct sentence from each pair. 1 a

I saw your advertisement in yesterdays' newspaper.

b I saw your advertisement in yesterday's newspaper. ./

2 a I always enjoy when I visit my friends in Madrid. b

I always enjoy myself when I visit my friends in Madrid.

3 a A friend of mine recommended this film. b

A friend of me recommended this film.

4 a The college decided to publish the students' results online because they had done so well. b

The college decided to publish the student's results online because they had done so well.

5 a

Nobody wanted to come to the cinema with me so I went on myself.

b

Nobody wanted to come to the cinema with me so I went by myself.

flChoose the correct words. I'm going to tell you about a party game you might want to play with a new class of students. It's a game (1) most I most of people enjoy and it's a good way for people to get to know (2) each other I themselves when they first arrive. You have a pile of cards and (3) all/every card has the name of a famous person on it. (4) Every / Each of the famous people has a partner; for example, Romeo's partner is Juliet. It's important that they're people that (5) all/everyone has heard of. (6) Everyone/Someone has one of these cards pinned to their back and they have to find out who they are by questioning (7) every/ all the other people in the room. The first two students to find (8) each other/ the other get a prize. (9) The whole/All the game takes about twenty minutes and by the end (10) nobody/anybody is feeling shy any longer.

90


Pronouns and determiners

4

12

Fill in the gaps with the words in the box.

all each every most no none some whole

octi(

19 tX)

Tickets going fast for Bimblers tournament Next week sees the start of Bimblers tennis tournament which has become increasingly well-known since whole tournament lasts ten days and there is great

it was first held five years ago. The (1)

demand for tickets throughout. Up to sixty players take part and (2) E50 to enter. Although it is not a professional competition, (3)

of them pays the umpires have

professional qualifications. The prize money is not an enormous sum, but winning the tournament is seen as a great achievement, so competition is fierce and (4)

of the players likes losing.

competitor is invited to a pre-tournament party

It's a great social event as well and (5)

and a final celebration dinner. The facilities for spectators are good, and they're guaranteed some exciting of the spectators shout rudely at the players, but

matches. From time to time (5)

of them clap and cheer politely. To avoid disturbing the concentration of the

(7) players, (8)

spectators may enter or leave while play is in progress.

nLook at the pictures of three brothers, Pete, John and Rob. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences describing them. beard earring short hair moustache

1 Both John and 2 Both

Rob have fair hair

and

3 Neither 4

All of them

5

They all

6

None of them

6

glasses

nor

c

o Correct the mistake in each of the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates.

1

I can lend you some swimming trunks if you have forgotten yew.

2

I'd rather have a computer of mine than share with my sister.

3

It was hard working together until we all knew us.

4

There is a great thing to have someone you can rely on.

5

I feel myself very close to nature and I know that a lot of people are like me.

6

Suddenly she woke up. It was a strange noise coming from downstairs.

yours

91


Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2 For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Names If, like me, you're called John Smith and live in England, you have the same name (0) thousands of other people. As a child, I thought that (2) (2) names, but when I started school I found (3)

as

in the world had their were other boys with

my name. Intact, one of them became a close friend of (4)

Strangers often think they have met me before, but then realise that they're thinking of somebody — another John Smith. In hotels or banks, people often look at me suspiciously when (5) I give my name as (6) is often the name used by people who don't want to give their real one!

On the whole, though, I've decided it's better to have a common name. I recently met two people called Honey Moon and Holly Bush' (7) although they (8)

of them appeared to mind having an unusual name agreed that people sometimes did not take them seriously.

Exam tip Think about what kind of word is needed in the gap and read the whole sentence to make sure the word you choose fits grammatically.

Grammar focus task Look at these phrases and find expressions with the same meaning in the completed text above.

92

1

all the people

2

names that were unique to individuals

3

one of my best friends

4

a different person

5

both of them seemed happy

6

two people said the same thing

everyoneleverybodij


Modals (2) 911ission,

requests, offers; suggestions, orders; advice

Context listening

nYou are going to hear a girl called Sophie asking her mother to do five things for her. What do you think Sophie might ask?

an) Listen and write Sophie's questions. Were any of your guesses right? Sophie says:

1

Her mother agrees (I) or doesn't agree (X)

mu you taut me ten pounds?

2 3 4 5 017 , Listen again and put a tick (/) in Exercise 2 if Sophie's mother agrees to do U something and a cross (X) if she doesn't agree.

D

E Listen again. Sophie asks her mother two things for a second time at the end of the 4 conversation. What does she say? Why does she ask differently the second time?

93


13

Modals (2)

Grammar In Asking for and giving permission We can ask for permission by saying Can I? Could I? or May lh Can! leave my bag here while! look round the museum? (= a simple request which expects the answer yes) Could I borrow your car for a few days? (= more polite or a request which is less sure of the answer being yes) May I sit here? (= a more formal request, particularly to a stranger) We usually answer by saying Of course (you can). / OK. / Certainly. I'm afraid not. (= polite) / No, you can't. (= not very polite) May is often used in written notices to say what is or is not allowed: You may borrow six books from the library. You may not keep any book for longer than three weeks.

nMaking requests We use Can you?, Will you?, Could you?, Do you think you could?, Would you? Would you mind? to ask someone else to do something. We often use Can you? or Will you?, especially in informal conversation: Can you pass me the bread? Will you get me some stamps from the post office? To be more polite, we use Could you? and Would youh Could you tell me where the station is? Would you lend me your camera? We usually answer by saying (Yes) of course (I can/will). or OK. or Maybe. I'm sorry, I'm afraid I can't. (not No, I wont, which sounds rude) We often use Do you think you could? (not Do you-think-yam-ate) to make requests: Do you think you could move your things off the table?

A We never use May you? to ask someone to do something. (not Mdy yOu give inc a lit?) We use Would you mind (not) -ing? when we want to be very polite: Would you mind moving to another seat? Would you mind not talking so loudly?

A The reply to a question with Would you mind? is negative Not at all. (= I don't mind moving to another seat. / We don't mind talking more quietly.)

O Making offers There are several ways of offering help to someone: Can I/we help you to cook dinner? Shall I/we clean the car for you? I can II could / lend you some money. Why don't I carry that bag for you? Would you like me to do the washing up?

94


Modals (2)

13

4 Making suggestions To make a suggestion, we can use all the following expressions: Let's

drive to the city centre today.

Shall Hwe Why don't 1/we/you How about What about

drive to the city centre today?

driving to the city centre today?

If we are less sure of what we are suggesting, we can say: I/We/You could drive to the city centre today.

nGiving orders and advice To give orders and advice, we use: must

had better

ought to/should

stronger

could less strong

You really must start looking for a job. (= an order — lam telling you to do this, or this is my opinion which I feel very strongly about) You'd better start looking for a job. (= advice — otherwise you may regret it) You should / ought to start looking for a job. (= advice) You could start looking for a job. (= this is only a suggestion) For the negative we normally use had better not or shouldn't. Ought not to is also possible but less common: You'd better not forget to send that application form. You shouldn't / ought not to wear those clothes for the interview

A We don't use mustn't or couldn't when giving advice. To talk about the past we say: You should have / ought to have accepted that job. (= it was a good idea to accept it but you didn't) For the negative we say: You shouldn't have worn those clothes. (= you wore them but it wasn't a good idea) We can use all these verbs to talk about the right thing to do: Imust try harder not to be late. She should / ought to be more thoughtful. He'd better go and say sorry. I'd better not upset her today. They shouldn't / ought not to talk so much To talk about the right thing to do in the past we say: They shouldn't have talked so much. See also Unit 11, B2 for more on these modal verbs)

95


1

3 Modals (2)

Grammar exercises fl Mar* the sentences on the left A (advice/warning), 0 (offer), P (asking perrnission), R (request) or S (suggestion). Then match them with the replies on the right. P

1 May I check my email on your laptop? 2

a

Would you mind buying me a sandwich?

Yes, let's. This one isn't very good. Of course. Let me just save this document first.

3 Shall I make you a copy of my notes?

Of course not. What sort would you like?

4

How about going out for a coffee?

Oh thanks, that'll save me a long walk.

5

You ought to buy a new dress for your cousin's engagement party.

OK, I could do with a break.

6 Can you text me after the exam? 7

I'm afraid not, I forgot to charge it.

I can give you a lift in my car if you need one.

8 Could I use your phone to make a call, please? 9

Well, I just can't afford one.

You'd better not touch anything on the desk.

01<, I won't I'm sorry, I can't. We're not allowed to take phones with us. No, it's OK. I've got all the information I need.

10 Why don't we try a different website, 111 Choose the correct words in these sentences.

1 Students ought / may not use phones in any part of the library. 2

Why don't you send / sending me a text when you finish your class?

3

Please may / can you cut me another slice of bread?

4

How about spend / spending the weekend at my parents' beach house?

5

We shouldn't have given / gave our address to that salesman.

6

Your brother really shouldn't / ought not to eat so much ice cream!

7

Shall / Could they meet us on the beach, or is that too far from their house?

8

I knew I should / better have brought a warmer coat with me - I'm freezing!

fl Fill in the gaps in these sentences. There is more than one possible answer for most of these. Can

1 2

I look at your timetable, please?

cycling to town today for a change? It will be good for us.

3 4 We

ask Paula if she'd like to come riding with us. What do you think? I think she'd enjoy it. you get that tin down from the shelf for me, Dad? I can't quite reach.

5 6

I leave my scooter in your garage?

I'm sorry to bother you.

I

post your parcel on my way to work if you want. we go sailing at the weekend? The weather's going to be fine.

7 8

Excuse me,

9

Passenger:

you tell me where the nearest tube station is? I take this bottle onto the plane?

Security officer No, I'm afraid not 10 96

turning that television down? I need to use the phone.


Is (2)

1

3

Complete the dialogue with the phrases in the box. Can I do Gan-l-help Could I see I'm afraid Shall I ask Would you exchange You can't have You shouldn't have done You should ask You could give You'd better not Assistant: Laura: Assistant: Laura: Assistant: Laura: Assistant: Laura: Assistant: Laura: Assistant Laura: Assistant:

Can I hetp (1) you' that at this checkout? I'd like to get a refund on these headphones. (2) the receipt please Yes, you can. (3) (4) not I haven't got one, you see, because they were a present. a refund without the receipt. Sorry (5) them for something else, then? (6) What brand are they? Oh, but you've taken them out of their box. that if you wanted to return them. (7) Christabel did that before she gave them to me. Did you say Christabel? Does she work here at weekends? I don't know. She's got dark hair and glasses. her where she got them. She was probably given them free because they (8) the manager what he thinks? haven't got a price on them. (0) do that I don't want to get Christabel into trouble. (10) them to someone else for their birthday or something, I suppose. (11)

nWhat would you say in the following situations? Write sentences using the words in brackets. 1 You have just started work in a new office and you want to know how the coffee machine works. Ask someone. (could) 2

Cool& you tea me, how the coffee machine works, pLease,?

Your sister has just moved into a new flat and you offer to help her clean it. (shall)

3 Your friend is trying to decide what to buy her mother for her birthday. Suggest she buys her some perfume. (what about) 4 Your brother puts lots of salt on his food. Advise him not to use so much. (ought) 5

You want a book which you can't find in your local bookshop. Ask the assistant to order it for you. (could)

6 You are buying something in a market and you want to pay by credit card. Ask the assistant if this is possible. (can) 7 Your friend is always missing calls because he forgets to charge his phone. Advise him to charge it every night. (should) 8 You've been at a party at a friend's house and the kitchen is in a terrible mess. Offer to help clear up. (would / like) 9

Your sister is going shopping. You need a tube of sun cream. Ask her to get some for you. (can)

10 You need a lift home. Your friend has a car but lives in the other direction. Ask him politely for a lift. (would / mind) 97


Exam practice II

Listening Part 3

DE3

You will hear five short extracts in which people are talking about advice they received. For questions 1-5, choose from the list (A-H) what each speaker says about it. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use.

A

I didn't listen carefully enough to the advice.

8

I received advice I didn't ask for.

C

It was a mistake to follow the advice.

D

I didn't get the advice I'd hoped for.

E

I wish I'd taken the advice.

F

Speaker 1

1

Speaker 2

2

Speaker 3

3

The advice was too confusing.

Speaker 4

4

G

I was given the advice too late.

Speaker 5

5

H

The advice wasn't relevant to me.

Exam tip Read the options before you listen.

Grammar focus task 013 What advice were the people on the recording given? Rewrite the sentences below using the words given. Listen again to check whether your new sentence is the same as what the speaker said. 1

What about going skiing in Whistler? (really should)

2

You really should go skiing. in Whistler.

Why not go hiking in Cape Breton? (could)

3

I advise you not to do that course. (shouldn't)

4

It's not a good idea to cycle along those roads. (better not)

5

I suggest you take these tracks access the fields instead. (don't)

6

That was the wrong thing to do. (have)

7

It is essential that you wear your life jacket. (must)


Modals (3) A bility;

deduction: certainty and possibility; expectations

Context listening You are going to hear two college students called Clare and Fiona. They're on their way to college when they see someone sitting in a cafĂŠ. Before you listen, look at the picture. Do you think the man is with his sister, his friend or his mother?

fl1111 Listen and check if you were right.

El DE Listen again and answer these questions. 1 Who does Clare think Danni is with at first? 2

Fiona doesn't agree. Why not?

3

What do the two girls decide to do?

4

What does Clare want to get?

5

Why doesn't Fiona want to?

6

What does Fiona want to sell?

7

What is Clare's opinion of Fiona's idea?

4

DE Listen again and fill in the gaps.

1 Clare

It

ought be.

Danni.

2

Clare

She

his mother.

3

Fiona:

She

his mother.

4 Fiona:

He

5

Fiona:

She

6

Fiona:

It

me on my own. his friend him after alL

nLook at the sentences in Exercise 4. In which sentences does the speaker seem sure that something is true? 2

think something is possible, but isn't sure?

99


1

4 Modals (3)

IN Grammar nAbility can and be able to — present forms +

can + verb

I can swim.

+

am/is/are able to + verb

Pm able to swim

can't + verb

She can't swim

am/is/are not able to + verb

He's not able to swim.

?

can ... + verb?

Can you swim?

?

am/is/are ... able to + verb?

Are you able to swim?

We use can or be able to to say that someone has the ability to do something. Can is more common than be able to in the present. We usually use can: to talk about an ability in a general war James can play chess, although he's only six years old. Humans can't see very well in the dark. to talk about a situation which makes someone able to do something. This may refer to the future as well as the present: The manager can't see you right now — she's in a meeting You can get tickets to the festival on this website. I can meet you tomorrow because I have a day off can and be able to — past forms +

could + verb

I could swim.

+

was/were able to + verb

I was able to swim.

couldn't + verb

She couldn't swim.

was/were not able to + verb

I wasn't able to swim.

?

could ... + verb?

Could you swim?

?

was/were ... able to + verb?

Were you able to swim?

We use could or was/were able to: to talk about someone's ability in the past: He could / was able to read when he was three but he couldn't / wasn't able to catch a ball when he started school.

to talk about a situation which made someone able to do something I was able to meet them yesterday because I had a day off

A We do not use could to talk about one situation in the past, but we can use couldn't She was able to (not eauld)come to the meeting but she couldn't / wasn't able to stay for lunch. They were able to (not could) see the match because they had a day off

be able to — other tenses For ability and situations which makes someone able to do something, can is only used in the present tense and could is only used in the past. In all other tenses we use be able to: We'll be able to sell the photo to a newspaper (will future) They haven't been able to contact Mary because of the storms. (Present perfect) If you saved enough money, you would be able to visit me in New Zealand. (conditional) They hope to be able to visit me next year. (infinitive)

100


Moda:s (3) 1

4

Deduction: certainty and possibility Talking about the present

Certainty We use:

must when we are sure something is true: It must be from Steven because he's in Australia. (= I'm certain it's from Steven) can't/couldn't when we are sure something is not true It can't be / couldn't be from Steven because that's not his writing. (= I'm certain its not from Steven) Possibility To talk about possibility, we can use may, might or could. The meaning is usually the same, but might sounds a little less certain than may or could. She may be his sister. (= I think there's a good possibility that she is his sister) They might have some money. (= I think there's a slight possibility that they have some money) We use.

may, might or could when we think something is possibly true The parcel may be / might be / could be from Dad's friend Tony, because he moved to Australia recently. (= it is possible, not certain, that the parcel is from him) may not / might not (but not could not) when we think something is possibly not true It may not be / might not be from someone we know. (=it is possible that it 'snot) Present

True

Not true

Certainty

must + infinitive without to

can't/couldn't + infinitive without to

Possibility

might/may/could + infinitive without to

might not/may not + infinitive without to

A Notice that could means the same as might and may, but couldn't is different from might not and may not. All the verbs in the table above can also be followed by be + verb + -ing for a situation which we think is happening now

Steven might be travelling home at this moment. He must be looking forward to seeing his friends and family. Talking about the past

Certainty We use

must have + past participle when we are sure something is true

Steven must have arrived in Perth by now (= I'm certain he has arrived)

can't/couldn't have + past participle when we are sure something is not true

He can't/couldn't have got there yet because it will take at least two weeks. (= I'm certain he hasn't got there)

105


14

Modals (3)

Possibility We use might have / may have / could have when we think something is possibly true: He might/may/could have stopped for a few days on the way. (= it is possible that he stopped) might not have / may not have when we think something is possibly not true He might/may not have had time to do everything he wanted. (= it is possible he didn't have time) Past

True

Not true

Certainty

must have + past participle

can't have / couldn't have + past participle

might have / may have / could have +

might not have / may not have + past

past participle

participle

Possibility

A Notice that could have means the same as might have and may have, but couldn't have is different from might not have and may not have. Talking about the future We also use might (not), may (not) and could (but not eauld-net) when we are talking about a possibility in the future

James may go out to see Steven in Australia next month. We might get into a lot of trouble, in my opinion. I think there could be a storm tonight. Should we get a bigger bag for the potatoes? This one might/may not be strong enough. (not could-not-be)

nExpectations When we expect something will happen, we can use should (not) + infinitive without to: Steven should email us soon. (= I expect he will email)

It shouldn't be too long before we hear from Steven. (= I expect it will not be too long) We also use should when we discover that a situation is not as we expected:

This email from Steven says he's in Melbourne but he should be in Sydney this week. (= I'm surprised because I expected him to be in Sydney) When we talk about a past situation, we use should (not) have + past participle

He should have left Alice Springs several days ago. (= I expect he left Alice Springs) He shouldn't have had any trouble finding places to stay. (= I expect he didn't have any trouble)

102


Modals (3)

14

Grammar exercises Complete the article with can, can't, could, couldn't or the correct form of be able to. Sometimes there are two possible answers.

THE MATHS GENIUS Rhiannon Kennedy speaks to Nick Evans about her amazing talent

'One day when I was four years old, my father was telling my mother how much money he'd spent and while he was talking I added it all up. They coact do that because 1(2) didn't believe that 1(1) still add up read or write. I'm now at university and 1(3) complicated sums in my head. I did a maths exam once which I finished so quickly that I eat a meal in the canteen before the others had finished. (4) do that because I 'Next year we have to write essays and I'm not sure whether 1(5) use my mathematical spell very well. I would like (7) (never) (6) be a maths teacher â&#x20AC;&#x201D; I'd enjoy skill in a job but I haven't decided what yet. 1(8) the maths but I'm not sure about the children! I entered a maths quiz show on TV once but when they think of the answers because I was just too nervous. asked me the questions 1(9) always get work in a imagine myself as a TV star. 1(11) So 1(10) supermarket when the tills break down, I suppose!'

El Read about what has happened on a camping trip. Two teenage boys are camping with their families near a lake. One day they find an old boat and decide to row out to an uninhabited island. They explore the island until suddenly they realise it's getting dark. They run to find the boat, but it's gone. Here are some of the things their families say when they don't come back. Decide if each sentence refers to the present, past or future. 1 There can't be much to eat on the island

Rreserth

2

People may have seen them rowing across the lake.

3

They could be stuck there for days.

4

Someone in a fishing boat might see them.

5

They must have forgotten how late it was.

6

They must be getting scared.

7

There may be a cave or hut they can shelter in

8 The boat could have sunk. 9 10

Someone may have taken the boat. They can't have tied the boat up properly.

Now write the number of each sentence next to the correct meaning, A or B. A

I feel certain about this

1.

B I think this is possible. 103


1

4 Modals (3)

fi Complete these sentences with a modal verb and the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1 Jenny's brother

can't be

(be) a doctor because he's only 18.

2 Samantha said she'd go for a swim as soon as she reached the seaside so she (swim) in the sea right now. 3 I can't think what's happened to Annie. She left home hours ago so she (be) here by now. 4 These football boots don't fit me any more. My feet

(grow).

5 My neighbour remembers when there were fields here instead of houses so he (be) very old. 6 Alan

(forget) that it was my birthday yesterday because it's the same as his!

4 Complete these dialogues with a modal verb and the correct form of the verb in brackets.

1 A: I can't get the TV to record any programmes. B: You

must be doing

(do) something wrong.

A: OK. Where are the instructions? 2 A: I don't seem to have my wallet B: Did you forget to bring it? A: No I for my train ticket.

(leave) it at home because I had it when I paid

3 A: I sent Camilla a text an hour ago but she hasn't got back to me yet. B: She

(not see) it if she's at work today.

4 A: I found this watch in the changing rooms. B. It 5

(be) Peter's. I think he's got one like that.

A: I don't really like James. Why did you invite him? B: Well you don't have to talk to him and he anyway. He said he wasn't sure what his plans were.

6

(not come)

A Did your team win their match yesterday? B: Yes, we did! We (lose) really, but their best player hurt herself in the first five minutes so they only had ten players. She (be) furious with herself! A: That was lucky for you, though.

104


Modals (3)

14

ffir, Read this police report about a stolen painting. Crime report Theft:

The Celebration by James Patrone â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a 17th century painting, 15 x 20 centimetres, worth ÂŁ150,000 Time: between 6.00 and 7.30 on Friday evening

Location: Sidcombe Art Gallery Suspects (all have keys to the art gallery): The caretaker Sam Willis Sam, who has worked at the gallery for 32 years, locked up at 6.30 as usual after the cleaners had left.

The director. William Reea William was on the phone in his office between 6.00 and 7.00. He says he left the gallery at 7.15 but nobody saw him leave.

A cleaner Sandra Thompson Sandra cleaned the offices and the galleries with two other cleaners. They finished at 6.00 and had a chat in the cloakroom before leaving together at 6.15. She says the picture was still there at 6.00.

A research student. Daniel Foreman When the gallery shut at 5.30 Daniel begged the caretaker to let him stay a bit longer to finish his work. The caretaker saw him coming out of the toilets at 6.30 and told him to leave. He bought an expensive car on Saturday.

The shop manager. Sophie Christie Sophie closed the museum shop at 5.30, but had to stay and wait for a delivery. The driver got delayed in the traffic and arrived at 6.05. He left straight away and Sophie said she left at about 6.15 but nobody saw her leave the building.

The cloakroom attendant. Josie McCartney The cloakroom closed at 5.30 and Josie tidied up. She was just leaving when the cleaners arrived and she stopped to have a chat with them. They all left together at 6.15.

Who had the opportunity to steal the painting? Complete these sentences using must have, can't have,

couldn't have, might have, may have and could have. Use each structure once. 1 Sam Willis

rim.lht have stolen

2 Sandra Thompson

3 Sophie Christie

4 William Rees

the painting because he was there until 6.30. the painting because

the painting because

the painting because

5 Daniel Foreman

the painting because

6 1i:isle McCartney

the painting because

105


II Exam practice Reading and Use and English Part 3 For questions 1-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

The woman on the hill A (0) niNsterous woman has lived completely alone in a large house on a hill in north Yorkshire for the last fifty years. She (1) visits the nearby village to buy fruit. She walks (2) down the main street but she only speaks briefly to one shop assistant. She doesn't with anyone at all and no one has ever been to visit her. (3) Local people say that she receives (4) of food and fuel but they assume she makes all her orders and (5) online, so they don't even know her name.

MYSTERY OCCASION CONFIDENCE SOCIAL DELIVER PAY

She gives the (6) from the way she behaves that she might once have been famous. She must have been very (7) when she was young but she appears to be well over 70 now. Nobody in the village knows who she is and they are (8) ever to find out.

IMPRESS ATTRACT LIKE

Grammar focus task What do you think the villagers say about the woman on the hill? Complete the sentences using must, might (not), may (not), could(n't) or can't.

cie

can't be

1

I'm sure she isn't happy. = She

2

I think perhaps she's shy. = She

3

I strongly believe she's lonely. = She

4

It's not possible that she has any family nearby. = She family nearby.

5

No doubt she moved there when she was very young. = She here when she was very young.

6

She probably has an interesting background. = She interesting background.

happy. shy. lonely. any

an


15

Reported speech Tense changes in reported speech; reporting in the same tense; verbs for reporting; verbs for reporting with to infinitive; reporting questions; reference to time, place, etc.

You are going to hear a radio interview. Rachel, a reporter in the studio, is talking to a man called James Baker, who is sailing in a round-the-world yacht race. What do you think she is asking him?

n n

020 Listen and check if you were right.

/0 Later, Rachel tells a colleague about the conversation. Read what Rachel says, then listen again and fill in the gaps with James's actual words. 1 Rachel: James told me he was about 100 kilometres off the coast of Australia. James: 2

about 100 kilometres 'I 'el off the coast of Australia:

Rachel: He said he hadn't seen another boat for a few days. James:

'I a few days:

another boat for

Rachel: He said he thought he might win. James:

'I

win'

Rachel: He said there had been a terrible storm. James: 5

'There

a terrible storm:

Rachel: He said he hadn't slept for three days. James:

'I

R Rachel: He told me the sea was calm, the sun was shining. James:

calm, the sun :

'The sea

7 Rachel: He said that he could sometimes see sharks and dolphins swimming. James:

sometimes see sharks 'I and dolphins swimming:

R' Rachel: He said he would spend two hours in a hot bath. James:

two hours in a

'I hot bath!

Rachel: He said he had to get his hair cut. James:

my hair cut:

'I

for three days!

psv SA20 Complete the questions that Rachel asked. Then listen again to check. 1 I asked him where he was. 'Where

?' to win?'

2 I asked him if he thought he was going to win. 'Do you 3

I asked him what the weather was like. 'What

4 I asked him if he could see dolphins there.'

like? __ dolphins there?

Can you see any pattern to the changes to the tenses in Exercises 3 and 4? 107


1

5

Reported speech

Grammar

n

Tense changes in reported speech

When we report what someone else said, we are usually reporting at a later time so we change the tenses used by the original speaker. Direct speech

Reported speech

present simple 'I'm (am) about 100 km from Australia:

He said (that) he was about 100 km from Australia.

present continuous 'The sun's (is) shining:

He said (that) the sun was shining

past simple 'There was a terrible storm:

He said (that) there had been a terrible storm.

present perfect 'I haven't (have not) seen another boat:

He said (that) he hadn't (had not) seen another boat.

past perfect 'I hadn't (had not) expected the storm!

He said (that) he hadn't (had not) expected the storm.

am/Is/are going to 'I'm (am) going to win.'

was/were going to He said (that) he was going to win.

will future 'I'll (will) spend two hours in a bath:

would

can 'I can see sharks and dolphins:

could

may 'I may win:

might

might 'I might win:

might

must 'I must get my hair cut:

had to

past simple

past continuous

past perfect

past perfect

past perfect

He said (that) he'd (would) spend two hours in a bath.

He said (that) he could see sharks and dolphins.

He said (that) he might win.

He said (that) he might win.

He said (that) he had to get his hair cut.

A The following verbs do not change when they are reported at a later time could, would, should, might, ought to, used wand verbs in the past perfect You ought to buy a new coat in the sale. My mum said I ought to buy a new coat in the sale. They used to live in California. —0 He said they used to five in California. When we report must, we can use either must or had to in the reported speech but had to is more common: Kate must buy some fruit' '"4 Kate said she had to / must buy some fruit

A We use must, not had to, when we report: a negative: Paul: 'You mustn't tell Sally our secret' —o Paul said we mustn't tell Sally our secret a deduction: Sarah:

1a3

must be tired after the flight' —0 Sarah said Jim must be tired after the flight


Reported speech

u

15

Reporting in the same tense

If the reporting verb is in the present tense (e.g. says), we use the same tenses as the original speaker: Amy 'I've missed the bus so I'll be a bit lateâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;,Amy says she's missed the bus so shell be a bit late. lithe reporting verb is in the past (e.g. said), we sometimes use the same tenses as the original speaker if the situation is still true: Robert: 'I have three sister?

Robert said he has three sisters. or Robert said he had three sisters. Carlo: 'I'm getting married in June: If we report what Carlo said before June we can say â&#x20AC;&#x201D;0 Carlo said he is getting married in June. or Carlo said he was getting married in June.

A But if we report after June, we must change the tense Carlo said he was getting married in June.

111 Verbs for reporting We often use say and tell to report what somebody said: With say, we must use to if we mention the person spoken to: He said to me (that) he was going to win. (not I k St1;ci me)

Tell is always used without to, and it must be followed by the person spoken to: He told them (that) he was going to win. (not Ile tad hi tl,c,tt / I k odd Unit) A With say and tell, we usually omit that, especially in spoken English. We can use other reporting verbs instead of say and tell. Some verbs are like tell:

He reminded me (that) it was his birthday. She persuaded me (that) I should buy a different car. He informed me (that) he had a new job. They warned us (that) the bridge was in a dangerous condition. Some verbs are nearly always followed by that and we use to il mentioning the person spoken to: Imentioned (to my uncle) that Nicholas had found a new job.

The attendant pointed out that the pool would be closed on Saturday. She complained (to the waiter)that the food was cold. He explained (to us)that volcanic activity often caused earthquakes. After agree we use with for the person spoken to: Jack agreed (with me)that the film was brilliant

Jack agreed with me that the film was brilliant

Some verbs are nearly always followed by that but do not mention the person spoken to:

He answered that he had already read the report. She replied that she didn't know my cousin. 109


1

5

4

Reported speed-

Verbs for reporting with to infinitive

We usually report orders and requests by using tell or ask + object + to infinitive 'Be quiet? —k The teacher told us to be quiet. (= an order)

'Don't stay out late: —0 Dad told me not to stay out late. (= an order) ?lease help me!' —k He asked us to help him. (= a request) 'Could you carry my bag. please? —0 She asked me to carry her bag. (a request) Some other reporting verbs are also used with the to infinitive (> see also Unit 18):

'You should vote for me: —0 He advised us to vote for him. 'We could help you: They offered to help me 'I'll be a good leader: —0 He promised to be a good leader. 'OK. I'll help you do the shopping: —0 He agreed to help me do the shopping

n

Reporting questions

Questions are reported using the word order of a statement rather than a question. Questions with question words (who, what, etc.) keep these words in the reported speech:

'How do you feel?' —s Rachel asked James how he felt (not Iww did feel) What's the weather like?' —0 She asked (him) what the weather was like. (not whut win the wwthc, 'like) Yes/no questions are reported with if or whether: 'Can you hear me?' -* Rachel asked James if/whether he could hear her. 'Is the sea calmr —k Rachel wanted to know if/whether the sea was calm.

A We use the same structure when we ask politely for information: Can you tell me what time the next train leaves? I'd like to know if there's a flight to Australia next Thursday.

6

References to time, place, etc.

Depending on how close in time we are to the original situation, we often have to change references to time when we report what someone said:

yesterday today

tomorrow next week now

—4 —o

the day before / the previous day that day / the same day

—0 4

the next/following day the next/following week (right)then / right away, immediately, etc

We didn't do any work yesterday —0 They admitted that they hadn't done any work the day before 'Will the library be open tomorrow?' —0 She enquired whether the library would be open thefollowing day 'I have to go now or I'll miss my bus: —k He explained that he had to go right then or he'd miss his bus. Other changes may include

here —0 there this that/the 'I saw him here yesterday: —k She explained that she had seen him there the day before. 'What's this red box?' —* He wanted to know what the red box was.

'Jo


Grammar exercises

Reported speech

15

El You talk on the phone to a friend, Luke. This is what he says. 1 'I've given up my job: 2 'I can easily find another one: 3 'I'm going to travel round Africa: 4 'I lived there as a child: 5 'I might get a part-time job there: 6 'I'm packing my bag: 7 'I'm really excited: 8

'I'll be away for a year!

9 'I may stay longer: 10 'You could come too: After your conversation with Luke, you tell another friend what he said. Change the verbs above to complete the sentences below. 1 He said he 2

He said he

3

He said he

hat given up his job

4 He said he 5

He said he

6

He said he

7

He said he

8 He said he 9 He said he 10 He said I Is it possible to report what Luke said without changing the verbs? Why?

nMatch the beginnings and endings of these sentences. She told

A I could help my neighbour mend his car.

2 My sister asked

B whether my sister could give me a lift.

3 I said

c me she couldn't afford to come to the theatre.

4 My parents said

D to phone home regularly.

5

My teacher advised

E to me, 'You shouldn't watch so much TV

6

I wanted to know

p if I wanted to go on holiday with her.

7 I told

G the dentist that Thursday was the only day I was free.

8 My brother promised

H me to revise my work more thoroughly.

In


15

Reported speech

fl Las-t year you worked at a children's holiday camp. During your interview for the job the organiser asked you the following questions. 1 Are you married? 2

How old are you?

Work abroad

3

Which university are you studying at?

We are looking for enthusiastic and lively young people to work in a children's holiday camp over the summer.

4 Where do you come from? 5

Have you worked with children before?

6

What sports do you play?

7

Will you work for at least two months?

8

Can you start immediately?

9

Do you need accommodation?

10

NOV,-

Would you like any more information?

A Mend of yours called Miguel is going to apply for a job at the same camp. Complete the email, telling him what questions you were asked.

Hi Miguel Good luck with the job application! These are the things the organiser asked me about he'll probably ask you the same sorts of questions. He asked me (1) ik I was roathea He wanted to know (2) university (3)

at and where (4)

which Then he asked

(5)

with children before and what sports (6) He wanted to know (7) at least two months and (8)

immediately. He asked (9) accommodation and wondered (10) any more information. Let me know how you get on.

4

Correct the mistake in each of the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates.

1 I didn't know she had said you about the problem with my university. 2

I asked him how he did feel about it, but he hasn't replied to my email.

3

I told her not to worry about the damage, but she replied me that it was her father's car.

4 Juan asked me if you did wanted to come. 5

She asked me did I want to go to the cinema.

6

He asked me for giving information about an interesting place to visit in London.

7

I reminded him he told me that there was a ghost in the castle.

8

He asked me if I will go to the concert with him.

112

told


Reported speech , A teacher is talking to Andy, a student. Later, Andy tells a friend what the teacher said. Complete his sentences. 1-

2

You need to work harder.

4

You could do well.

Sâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; You won't get good marks.

Do you study every evening?

6

Th

You spend too much time with your friends.

What time do you go to bed?

7 Have you decided on a career yet?

1 She said I nceaci to work hatter 2 She told 3 She wanted to know 4 She wondered 5 She warned 6 She complained 7 She asked

6

Read what happened to Suzie the other day. Then write the conversation that she actually had.

I travel to college on the same bus every day. The other day when! got on the bus I realised that I had left my purse at home and didn't have the money for the bus fare. But the woman sitting behind me told me not to worry because she would lend me some money. She said the same thing had happened to her the day before. I asked her what she had done. She said someone had lent her the fare and she was going to give it back that afternoon on the bus, so she was happy to do the same for me. She told me! could give the money back to her the following day. I thanked her very much and told her! was very glad she was there.

Woman: Don't

Stale: Woman:

Stale:

warns, ea tend you some money.

15


Exam practice II

Reading and Use of English Part 4 For questions 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. Here is an example (0).

0

The tourist guide said to us: 'Take a map if you go walking in the hills.' ADVISED The tourist guide walking in the hills.

1

advised 145 to take

a map if we went

The weatherman forecast that it would be sunny all day. SHINE all day.'

The weatherman said: 'The 2

'I haven't heard from Helen for a long time,' Paul said to me. TOLD Paul

3

not heard from Helen for a long time.

'Did you book a room with a balcony?' I asked my mother. IF I asked my mother

4

a room with a balcony.

Jack wanted to know what time they would leave the next day to catch the train. WE Jack asked: 'What time

5

The little boy said he could dress himself without any help. The little boy said. '

6

to catch the train?'

without any help.'

'Are we meeting David in the morning or the afternoon?' Karen asked. WHETHER Karen wondered afternoon.

in the morning or the

Grammar focus task In three of the sentences above, the reporting verbs can be replaced with complain, insist and predict. Write the reported sentences again using these verbs.


The passive Passive verbs; to have/get something done; it is said that ...

Context listemn Ei You are going to hear a radio news bulletin. Before you listen, look at the pictures and decide what happened. Put the pictures in the correct order.

1

Eit

2

3

4_

21 Listen and check if you were right.

na 21' Read this article from a news website. Then listen again and fill in the gaps. Stop the recording when you need to.

Burglars' luck' was well planned bang FOUR BURGLARS have escaped from custody only hours after (1) sentenced to ten years in prison. They (2) transferred from the law courts in Manchester to Strangeways Prison. They (3) found guilty of stealing electrical goods and money from shops in the Manchester area. It (4) thought that they were all members of the same gang. They escaped from the van in which they (5) transported when the driver (6) forced to stop because of a tree across the road. It (7) believed that the tree (8) placed there by other members of the gang, who (9) informed of the route (10) taken by the van. A full investigation of the events leading to the escape (11) ordered and anyone with information (12) asked to contact the police to help with their inquiries.

fl How many of the verbs that you completed in Exercise 3 are in the passive? 115


16

The passive

Grammar Er The passive How the passive is formed We form the passive by using the verb to be followed by the past participle Active:

Passive:

The police officer saw the robber at the airport. She's following him. Shell catch him soon.

The robber was seen at the airport. He's being followed. He'll be caught soon.

Active to catch to have caught catching having caught catch(es) am/are is catching will catch am/are/is going to catch has/have caught caught was catching had caught would catch would have caught

Passive

-0 —• —• —• —• —, —• —• •—• •—• —4 —• —• —•

to be caught to have been caught being caught having been caught am/are/is caught am/are/is being caught will be caught am/are/is going to be caught has/have been caught yeas/were caught was being caught had been caught would be caught would have been caught

When the passive is used The passive is used quite often in English, both in speech and writing. We use the passive when: we don't know who or what did something

My phone has been stolen. (= Someone has stolen my phone.) The first tools were made in Africa two million years ago. (= People made the first tools ...) the action is more important than who did it:

Income tax was introduced in England in 1798. it is obvious who or what did something

The thief has been arrested. 116


The passive

16

We can use by + person/thing to show who/what did the action if this information is important The robber was seen by the police officer. (= The police officer saw the robber.)

Verbs with two objects Some verbs (e.g. give, send, buy, bring) can have two objects: Active: A witness gave the police some information. A witness gave some information to the police. Lots of fans sent the footballer birthday cards. Lots of fans sent birthday cards to the footballer

Either of the objects can be the subject of a passive sentence Passive The police were given some information by a witness. Some information was given to the police by a witness. The footballer was sent birthday cards by lots of fans. Birthday cards were sent to the footballer by lots of fans.

El to have/get something done When we ask someone else to do something for us, we often use the structure to have something done. It is not usually necessary to say who did the action: The president had his speeches written (by his staff). (= The president's staff wrote his speeches.) I had my hair cut (= The hairdresser cut my hair.) I'm having my kitchen painted. (= The decorator is painting my kitchen.) They want to have their carfixed. (= They want the garage to fix their car.) In informal speech, we often use get instead of have I got my hair cut (= I had my hair cut.) When are you getting that window repaired? We need to get something done about this leak in the roof

Ei it is said that ... We often use it + passive + that when we report what people in general say or believe It is believed that the tree was placed there by other members of the gang (= Everyone believes that ...) We can use a number of verbs in this pattern, e.g. agree, announce, believe, decide, report, say, think It's (is) said that a famous singer used to live in this house. (= People say that ...) It was agreed that the theatre must be closed (= The theatre's owners agreed that ...) It's (is) reported that the damage will cost millions of pounds to repair. (= The news media report that ...) It's (has) been announced that a new road will be built along the river (= The council has announced ...) Until the 16th century it was thought that the sun revolved around the Earth. (= People generally thought that ...)

117


16

The passive

Grammar exercises ER Choose the correct words. 1 The children wanted to be / been allowed to stay up late and see the fireworks. 2 Our flight was delaying / delayed by fog and we missed our connection. 3 Lauren was sulking because she wasn't / hadn't been invited to Ralph's party. 4 By the time we arrived at the market, the best fruit had be / had been sold. S While the meal was being / been prepared, we had a drink on the terrace. 6 The new library will be open / opened by the Mayor next Saturday. 7 The rock star was sent a chocolate cake by / of one of his fans. HI Fill in the gaps with the passive form of the verbs. 1 A government minister

!vas found,

(find) guilty of fraud yesterday.

2 It was a lovely surprise to find that all the washing-up 3 These souvenirs summer holidays.

(make) by children from the local school in their last

4 Wait for me! I don't want 5 It

(do) while I was asleep.

(leave) on my own! (say) that the Prime Minister's husband plays the piano quite well.

6 The votes 7 As he 8 In the past it but now it

(count) right now and we should know the result before midnight. (sack) from his previous job, he found it hard to get another. (think) that the population of the world would always increase (agree) that this may not be true.

9 The judges still have to decide which design 10 This parcel appears

(award) the top prize. (open) before it

(deliver).

111 Match the two halves of the conversations and fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

1 I thought those chairs were broken. 2 Your bike's got a flat tyre! 3 This carpet's filthy.

AI Yes, you need to C I can

4 What's happened to your hair?

Yes, we should

5 I don't like this room. It's too dark.

I've had. them mended.

6 These trousers are much too loose.

F We

7 What a beautiful garden!

We must

8 Why is your car at the garage?

Thanks! We

118

(have / colour). (have / take in). (get / fix) at the cycle shop. (have / redecorate). (have / mend). (have / check) before we go away. (get / clean). (have / design) by an expert.


The passive

In

16

Read this report in the Cybernian News. corn

www.cybernia

HOME

NEWS

VIDEO REPORT

WEATHER

SPORT

ENTERTAINMENT

BUSINESS

CYBERNIAN NEWS 22 October 3008 Victory for Cybemia! The victorious Cybemian Inter-galactic Forces report: Yesterday we invaded Planet Upstart with a large force. We have completely crushed the year-old rebellion there. Our space ships have destroyed ninety per cent of the Upstart space fleet. A special Cybernian task force landed near the central communications building and captured it without difficulty. Our spokesperson immediately broadcast a message to the population. We announced that we had liberated them from the illegal Upstart government and we asked them to cooperate with the new government of their planet. We have arrested the rebel leaders and we are taking them back to Cybernia where the government will put them on trial.

Complete the report below so it matches the report in the Cybernian News. Use the passive form of the verbs. UPSTART NEWS...22 OCTOBER 3008...

Yesterday our planet (1) rebellion (2)

wasp L,wo.d erl.

(invade) by a large force from Cybernia. Our year-old

(crush).

(destroy). The central communications building Ninety per cent of our space fleet (3) (capture) without difficulty by a special Cybernian task force and a message (announce) that we (7)

(5)

(broadcast). It (5)

(liberate), and we (8)

(ask) to cooperate with our new government. Our leaders (take) to Cybernia where it (arrest)and they (10) (pubon trial. (claim)that they (12)

(11)

Correct the mistake in each of the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates. 1 The mark on the ceiling was -appeared last week. 2

He escaped without having being recognised by anyone.

3

A shopping mall was been built in the town centre about 20 years ago.

4

Most of the problems was happened when we arrived at the hotel.

5

Yesterday I went to your barber's shop to cut my hair and I was very disappointed

6

I can get my computer fixing at the shop next to the bank.

appeared,

n9


Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 4 For questions 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. Here is an example (0).

0

My grandfather hasn't spoken to me since Sunday. SPOKE My grandfather

1

last spoke to me on

Sunday.

The students gave a concert after their exams. WAS A concert

2

students after their exams.

My computer needs to be repaired before the weekend. HAVE I must

3

before the weekend.

We heard reports last week that the dictator had fled the country. IT Last week

4

the dictator had fled the country.

No one gave my message to the shop manager. NOT My message

5

the shop manager.

The teacher said Simon had cheated. ACCUSED Simon

6

his teacher.

The address the tourist office gave us for the hotel was wrong so we got lost. RIGHT We so we got lost.

address for the hotel by the tourist office

Grammar focus task 1

Which of the sentences can these phrases be added to? a by an expert

2

What effect does this have on their meaning? a

120

b by the foreign press


17

Conditionals (1) Zero, first, second and third conditionals; mixed conditionals

A Context listening E.

You are going to hear a spy, known as Double X. talking to his boss, Mrs Seymour, about a photograph which she gives him. Mrs Seymour is asking Double X to do something. Before you listen, guess what she is asking.

n

Listen to the beginning of the conversation and check if you were right.

an, Listen to the whole conversation and answer these questions. Stop the recording when you need to. 1 What is wrong with the photo? Why doesn't Mrs Seymour give Double X a better photo?

2

3 Who sent the photo to Mrs Seymour? 4

How is it possible to make the picture clearer"

5 Who is in the photo? 6 Can you guess why the photo was sent to Mrs Seymour'

4

Listen again and fill in the gaps.

1 If you 2

&id

If we

3 If she

extremely pleased.

him I a better picture, we

it to you.

us that, I

to ask for your help.

4

It

me somewhere to start if I

S

It

a bit clearer if you

n 2

at it with your eyes half closed.

Look at Exercise 4 and complete these sentences.

In sentence 5, the

tense is used after if

In sentence 1, the

tense is used after if.

3 In sentences 2 and 4, the 4

her phone number.

In sentence 3, the

tense is used after jf tense is used after if

121


17

Conditionals (1)

Grammar Conditional sentences tell us a condition (L f...) and its consequence. The tenses we use depend on: whether the condition and its consequence are possible, unlikely or imaginary. whether they are generally true or are linked to a particular event. > For other words like if which introduce conditions, see Unit 19. Often the condition comes before the consequence and in this case the condition is followed by a comma: If you ring that bell, someone will come to the door Sometimes the consequence comes first and in this case we don't use a comma: Someone will come to the door if you ring that bell. We can divide conditionals into four groups.

nZero conditional If + present tense, + consequence using present tense If the economy is bad, there are few jobs for young people. Consequence in present tense + if + present tense There are few jobs for young people if the economy is bad. We use this to state general truths. ff means the same as when in zero conditional sentences If/When you're in love, nothing else matters. = Nothing else matters if/when you're in love. If/When it rains, we get terrible traffic jams. = We get terrible traffic jams if/when it rains. If/When we heat ice, it melts. = Ice melts if/when we heat it.

El First conditional If + present tense, + consequence using future tense If pass this exam, my parents will give me a motorbike. Consequence in future tense + present tense My parents will give me a motorbike if I pass this exam. We use this for a condition which we believe is possible. We use a present tense after y.even though we are very often referring to a future possibility: If you visit me, I'll take you to the Tower of London. (not ffythal ait)(= it's possible you will visit me) If it snows, we'll go skiing. (= it's possible that it will snow, we can't be certain) VI see Ruth, I'll give her your message (= it's possible I'll see her but I might not) if does not mean the same as when in sentences like these: When you visit me, I'll take you to the Tower of London (= I know you're going to visit me) When it snows, we'll go skiing. (= it will definitely snow, I'm certain) When I see Ruth, I'll give her your message. (= I know I'm going to see her) Sometimes we use the imperative followed by and to express this kind of condition (the imperative always comes first). This form is more common in spoken English. We usually use it for promises and threats: Pass this exam and well give you a motorbike. Wait a minute and I'll be able to help you. Break that jug and you'll have to pay for it.

122


Conditionals (1)

17

nSecond conditional If + past tense, + consequence using would + verb If you lived in London, I would visit you at weekends.

Consequence using would + verb + + past tense I would visit you at weekends if you lived in London. We use this for an imaginary condition, which we believe to be impossible or very improbable.

We use the past tense after if even though we are referring to the present or future The world would seem wonderful if you were in love. (= but you're not in love, so the world doesn't seem wonderful) If it snowed, we'd (would) go skiing. (= I think it's very unlikely that it will snow) A We often use were instead of was in the if clause, especially when we write. It is more formal: Ifs wasn't/weren't so tired, Id go out with my friends this evening. The product would attract more customers if it was/were less expensive.

We always use were in the phrase If I were you, used to give advice If I were you, I wouldn't phone him.

4 Third conditional y'+ past perfect, + consequence using would have + past participle If I'd (had) seen Karen, I'd (would) have given her your message. Consequence using would have + past participle + y+ past perfect I'd (would) have given Karen your message if I'd (had) seen her.

We use this to talk about past events which cannot be changed, so we know that the condition is impossible and its consequence is imaginary The world would have seemed wonderful if you'd (had) been in love. (= but you weren't in love so the world didn't seem wonderful) If it had snowed, we'd (would) have gone skiing. (= but it didn't snow, so we didn't go skiing) I'd (would) have visited you every weekend if you'd (had) invited me. (= but you didn't invite me, sot didn't visit you.) A Other modal verbs like might and could are sometimes used instead of would in second and third conditional sentences: I might visit you if you invited me. I could have visited you if you'd (had) invited me. If it had snowed, we could have gone skiing.

fl Mixed conditionals We sometimes meet sentences which contain a mixture of second and third conditionals because of their particular context: If you lived in London, I'd have visited you by now (= but you don't live in London so I haven't visited you) If the weather had been fine last week, there would be roses in my garden. (= but the weather was bad last week

so there are no roses in my garden now) Lesley wouldn't have missed the bus if she was better organised. (= she missed the bus because she is a badly

organised person) You could have used my car yesterday if the battery wasn't

flat. (= the battery is still flat)

123


17

Conditionals (1)

Grammar exercises

n

Match the beginnings and endings of these sentences.

1 The house wouldn't have been such a mess

A if she wasn't such a jealous type.

2 If Mike had listened to his father,

I'd probably try to get into a local team.

3

they usually wait until the weather is good.

I would quite like Juno

4 If Dave didn't work so much,

and you'll never forget his face.

5

We would have arrived early

he wouldn't have got into trouble.

6

If I were as good at tennis as Nancy,

I still wouldn't love you! she'll get a nasty surprise.

7

If people want to have a barbecue,

8

If Sally opens that door,

if the roads had been less busy.

9

Take one look at Alan

he wouldn't get so tired.

1.0 If you were as handsome as a film star,

if the guests hadn't been careless.

n

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1 I won't help you with your homework if you 2

You'll need a visa if you

3 If he 4 She

(wont) to travel to China.

(not be) successful if she doesn't learn to control her temper.

5

If I'd known you were such a gossip, I They would work harder if they

7

The boss

8

If the temperature

9 If they Open the envelope and you

124

(not tidy) your bedroom.

(core) about other people's feelings, he wouldn't behave that way.

6

10

don't ticlij

(not tell) you my secret. (not be) so tired.

(be) furious if he'd found out what you were up to. (fall) below freezing, water turns to ice.

(not expect) delays, they wouldn't have set off so early. (discover) what prize you've won.


Conditionals (1)

17

EiComplete the sentence for each picture using the third conditional, to show how missing her bus one day resulted in a new job for Zoe.

rIllgolnto

En sit opposite that man. acD

1? C

k.this cafe. SU 5

STOP

The service is really slow!

Shibacl to wait frhr â&#x20AC;˘ff .

0(1'm bored.

She noticed an advertisement.

She picked up the man's magazine.

i. If she hadn't missed her bus, she

wouldn't have oone, into the cake

If there had been a free table, she

2 3

, she wouldn't have had to wait for her coffee.

4

she wouldn't have picked up the magazine. If she hadn't noticed the advertisement, she

5

4 0Complete the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates with the correct form of these verbs. apply be come earn get go have

1 If I 2

had

to choose a present, I would like to have a new skirt. (not) for it in the first place.

If he hadn't been interested in the job, he

you I would try to organise water skiing for my students.

3

If I

4

If we had seen her during the holidays, we

5

If I

If she

8 Ill

her to the castle.

more money, I would buy a new phone. to my birthday party.

6 I'll be really happy if you 7

stay take

at home on Saturday, she wouldn't have met Andrei at the party. camping with my father, we will probably go fishing.

9 If I watch too much TV before school, my father

angry with me.

125


JI

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 6 You are going to read a magazine article about a young woman who works in a nursery school. Six sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

CHANCES Nursery school teacher Sarah Oliver tells how a chance meeting changed her life. I really enjoy my job, it makes me feel good at the beginning of every week, because I love working with small children and I enjoy the challenges that arise. But there was a time when I thought I would never have that sort of career. I wasn't very good at school: I mean, I didn't like studying much, so I didn't try very hard. I thought I was the sort of person who couldn't do school work, I suppose. 1 But in my final term I started thinking what I might do and 1 realised that I didn't have much to offer. If I'd worked harder, I would have had better grades, but it was too late. I just accepted that I wasn't the type to have a career, Then I thought, well, I've spent every holiday for the past five years helping my mum - I've got two brothers and a sister, all much younger than me. 2 Their father worked abroad and their mother had some high-powered job in an insurance company. I did most of the housework and I had a lot of responsibility for the children although I was only sixteen. The problems began really when I agreed to live in, so that I would be there if my boss had to go out for business in the evening. What was supposed to happen was, if I had to work extra hours one week, she'd give me time off the next. But unfortunately, it didn't often work out. because if I walked out, there wouldn't be anyone to look after them.

3

I felt trapped,

Anyway, one Sunday I was in the park with them, while their parents were on yet another business trip, and I met a girl called Megan I used to be at school with. 4 I was telling her howl loved the kids but hated the job and she said, 'If you want to work with children, you ought to do a course and get a qualification.' I thought you couldn't do courses if you hadn't done all sorts of exams at school, but she persuaded me to phone the local college and they were really helpful. My experience counted for a lot and I got on a part-lime course. 5 I was really short of money and I even had to get an evening job as a waitress for a while. But it was worth it in the end. Now I've got a full-time job. Most of the children in this school come from families where there are problems like unemployment or poor housing. 6

The children benefit, but also the parents. It gives them time to sort things out, go for training or job interviews, and so on. I'll always be grateful to Megan. If I hadn't bumped into her, I would have stayed on where I was, getting more and more fed up.

126


Conditionals (1)

Exam practice A

17

I had to leave my job with the family, but I got work helping out at a nursery school. I find that the work we do helps in lots of ways.

C

I was getting more and more tired and fed up, because I had too many late nights and early mornings with the little ones. So I found myself a job as a nanny, looking after two little girls, We weren't particularly friendly before, but we chatted about what we were doing.

F

If I'd had more confidence, I would have done that. I was just impatient to leave as soon as I could.

Grammar focus task Without looking back at the text, match the beginnings and endings of these extracts. A

there wouldn't be anyone to look after them.

1

I thought you couldn't do courses

2

If I'd worked harder,

B

you ought to do a course and get a qualification.

3

If I hadn't bumped into her,

C

I would have done that.

4

If I'd had more confidence,

D

she'd give me time off the next.

5

If you want to work with children,

E

I would have stayed on where I was.

6

If I walked out,

F

I would have had better grades.

7

If I had to work extra hours one week,

G

if you hadn't done all sorts of exams at school.

127


18 The to infinitive and -ing Verb 4- to infinitive, verb + infinitive without to, verb + -ing, verb + that clause; adjective + to infinitive '

Context listening

, You are going to hear a TV chef telling a group of people how to cook something. Look at the picture, which shows the things he uses. Can you guess what he is going to make?

_

Listen and check if you were right.

n cu Listen again and fill in the gaps. Stop the recording when you need to. 1 Continue 2

Avoid

3

Keep

4

Don't forget

(tool

5

I recommend

6

If you prefer

7

Some people like

8

If you decide

9

Remember

10

I suggest

11 Don't try 12

Don't expect

4

128

this until the mixture begins to look pale and fluffy. the eggs all at the same time. all the time. the baking powder. sultanas and apricots. dates or raisins, that's fine. some nuts too. nuts chop them up small. if the fruit cake is ready after about an hour. a little lemon juice as well. the cake until it's completely cold. much fruit cake left after a couple of hours.

What do you notice about the forms of the verbs you have filled in?


The to infinitive and -ing

&

Grammar When one verb follows another, the second verb is always either an -ing form or an infinitive, with or without to. The form of the second verb depends on the first verb. All the verbs in this unit marked " can also normally be followed by a that clause with the same meaning (n see 137). 111 Verb + to infinitive (can/can't) afford 'agree aim appear 'arrange attempt choose "decide `demand deserve fail 'hope learn manage neglect offer omit plan prepare 'pretend refuse seem tend threaten (can't) watt wish If you decide to add nuts ... I hope to see you later. Notice how the negative is formed: If you decide not to ice it ... The following verbs + to infinitive always have an object before the to infinitive: "advise allow encourage forbid force invite order permit 'persuade 'remind 'teach 'tell *warn Her father taught her to play tennis. The teacher reminded the children to bring their swimming things. The school allows students to wear jeans. Advise, allow, encourage, forbid and permit can also be followed by -ing when there is no object: I advise you to add nuts. or I advise adding nuts. The following verbs + to infinitive sometimes have an object: ask beg 'expect help 'intend 'promise want We expected to be late. or We expected Tom to be late. We wanted to stay longer or We wanted them to stay longer

A Would like, would love, would prefer, etc. are also followed by the to infinitive (a see B4).

Ea Verb + infinitive without to Modal verbs (can, could, may, might, must, needn't, shall, should, will, would), had better and would rather are followed by the infinitive without to (> see also Units 11, 13 and 14): You should add the eggs slowly. You needn't include nuts. Help can be followed by the infinitive with or without to: We helped them (to) start their car Make and let (always with an object) are followed by the infinitive without to: Let the cake cool for half an hour I made my sister help with the cooking (= I forced or obliged her to help)

129


18

The to infinitive and -ing

El Verb + -ing 'admit avoid can't face can't help can't stand carry on *consider delay *deny detest dislike enjoy fancy feel like finish give up *imagine involve keep (on) *mention (not) mind miss postpone practise put off *recommend risk resist *suggest enjoy making it. Avoid adding the eggs all at the same time. Keep beating the eggs. I suggest adding a little lemon juice. Notice how the negative is formed: If you don't leave immediately, you risk not catching your plane Can you imagine not having a car nowadays? 4

Verb + to infinitive or -ing (with no difference in meaning)

begin cant bear continue hate dislike like love prefer *propose start Continue adding the flour or Continue to add the flour I prefer using apricots. or I prefer to use apricots. g love making cakes. or I love to make cakes. Two -ing forms do not usually follow each other: I was starting to make a cake when the phone rang. (not

A Like, prefer, hate and love can be followed by the to infinitive or -ing, but would like, would prefer, would hate and would love are always followed by the to infinitive She would like to go out but we would prefer to stay in.

A Like + to infinitive has a slightly different meaning from like + -ing: I like to catch the early bus on Mondays. (= this is a good thing to do or is a habit, but not necessarily something I enjoy) I like swimming (= I enjoy it)

El Verb + to infinitive or -ing (with a difference in meaning) The following verbs have two different meanings depending on the verb form that follows: *remember *forget *regret try stop mean go on

Verb + to infinitive

Verb + -ing

Remember to check whether the cake is ready. (= remember an action you need to do)

I remember checking that I had my keys when! left the house. (= have a memory of a past action)

Don't forget to add the baking powder (= fail to remember something you need to do)

I'll never forget going to school on my own for the first time. (= lose the memory of something you did)

I regret to inform you that your application was unsuccessfuL (L- I am sorry to tell you ...)

We regret sending our daughter to that schooL (= we wish we hadn't)

She stopped to have a rest. (= in order to have a rest)

Stop beating when the mixture is pale and fluffy. (= finish doing it)

130


The to infinitive and -ing

They don't mean to upset you. (= they don't intend to)

If you go by train, that means taking a taxi to the station. (= it involves)

He went on to tell us how to make a different cake. (= the next thing he did was to tell us ...)

They went on cycling until they reached the farm. (= they continued)

Try to ice the cake quickly. (= attempt to do it quickly if you can)

Try adding nuts as it will improve the flavour (= do it as an experiment)

L.,

18

Verb + -ing or infinitive without to (with a difference in meaning)

The following verbs connected with the senses may be followed by an object and either -ing or the infinitive without to: feel

hear

noi ice see

varc h

Notice the difference in meaning between verb + -ing and verb + infinitive without to: I watched the boys playing football. (= an activity continuing over a period of time) I watched the boy kick the football into the road. (= a short completed action) She heard her mother singing as she came downstairs. (= a continuing action) She heard the doorbell ring. (= a short completed action)

Fal Verb + that clause All the verbs marked â&#x20AC;˘ in this unit can also be followed by a that clause with the same meaning She admitted taking the money. = She admitted (that) she had taken the money. Imagine sitting on a tropical beach with a cool drink. = Imagine (that) you're sitting on a tropical beach ... I suggest adding some lemon juice. = I suggest (that) you add some lemon juice. I recommend using sultanas and apricots. = I recommend (that) you use sultanas and apricots. They agreed to leave early. = They agreed (that) they would leave early.

L. Adjective + to infinitive Many adjectives can be followed by the to infinitive. These are some common ones: afraid cheap 'dangerous delighted 'difficult 'easy expensive happy *hard impossible interesting 'mar pleased possible safe sorry surprised I'm surprised to see you here. The book was hard to understand and at times I found it almost impossible to read. The adjectives marked â&#x20AC;˘ can sometimes also be followed by -ing with the same meaning It's nice meeting friends after school. or It's nice to meet friends after school. n See also Unit 21, B1 for adjectives followed by a preposition + -ing or a noun.

131


1

8 The to infinitive and -ing

Grammar exercises fl Complete this conversation using the verbs in brackets.

to

Lean

Andy:

I've decided (1)

Sally:

But I thought you enjoyed (2)

Andy:

Oh, I do. But I feel like (3)

Sally:

Didn't you promise (4)

Andy:

Yes, I did but I just can't stand (S) (6)

(leave) my job next month (work) in an architect's office. (do) something different for a while. (stay) there at least two years? (work) with those people. One of them refuses

(stop) talking while she works, another one keeps (7)

to himself. And then there's a man who; which he always gets wrong. I detest (9) Sally:

(sing)

(tell) awful jokes all the time, (work) with all that noise around me.

It sounds quite a cheerful place to me. Can't you manage (10)

(ignore) them and

get on with your work? Andy:

No, I can't. I just can't carry on (11) (12)

Sally:

(go) there every day. I'm hoping

(go) abroad for a bit.

Well good luck.

n

Choose the correct form of the verb.

1

I noticed the man drop / dropping Ito drop his ticket so I picked it up for him.

2

The tour guide advised the tourists not take / taking Ito take too much money out of the hotel with them

3

I heard the horses come / coming / to come down the lane so I waited for them to pass before driving on.

4 The old man said he would love have / having / to have the chance to fly in an aeroplane again. 5

Don't make the children come / coming / to come with us to the shops if they don't want to.

6

I saw the boy jump / jumping / to jump into the lake before anyone could stop him.

7

I recommend phone / phoning/ to phone the restaurant before you set off.

8

We were so pleased hear I hearing I to hear that Josh can come to the wedding after all.

9

The school only allows students eat / eating / to eat in the dining room.

10

It was my drama teacher who encouraged me become! becoming! to become an actor.

132


The to infinitive and -ing

18

El Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in the box. book buy chat finish get go inform leave lend make send throw watch wear write buying

a new dress.

1

If I go to my friend's wedding it will mean

2

Please try into the arrivals hall.

3

Will you stop

4

I forgot for ages.

5

The children went on times to stop.

6

We regret

7

Tommy says he doesn't know where my jacket is, but I clearly remember

8

When you go out of the hotel, remember we've only got one between us.

9

Why don't you try

10

to the airport in good time - I'll be nervous if I don't see you when I come

a table at the restaurant and it was full when we got there, so we had to wait

their ball against the wall, although they had been told several

you that the course you applied for is now full.

the room key with reception because

I saw Philip when I was in the park so I stopped

to him.

you a text when I got to the hotel but I didn't have time.

I meant

12

I regret not

13

After getting a degree in biology, my son went on I'll never forget

it to him.

sunglasses? Then you might not get so many headaches.

11

14

this book before I go to bed.

that noise? I'm trying

to Egypt with my sister because she says it was a really great trip. a book about monkeys.

the sun come up over the mountains when I was in the Himalayas.

by Cambridge First candidates have mistakes. If a sentence is correct, fl io Some of these itsentences is incorrect, mark it with a cross (X) and correct it. mark it with a tick (/). If

1

Not all of the students can afford geitig abroad on the trip.

2

I hope to visit the museum the next time I visit you.

3

He pretended knowing nothing about it, but I knew he did.

4

The guard refused to sell me a half-price ticket for the journey.

5

I didn't feel well, but I managed getting downstairs.

6

x to go

Famous people deserve to have a private life without journalists following them everywhere.

7

He wrote the letter because he wanted to avoid to be found out.

8

I don't know why the teachers delayed to tell us the results.

9

I don't feel like going camping because I like holidays where I can relax,

10

I think that a lot of women dislike going shopping.

11

I've put off writing you this letter for months, but finally here it is.

12

They suggested to take the trip to Williamstown on the first day.

133


IIEr Reading and Use of English Part 1 For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Balloon adventure A Brian Jones and Bertrand Piccard were the first team to go (0) the world in a balloon. Nobody (1) them to finish their astonishing 19-day expedition, especially as they had to

with poisonous fumes and temperatures of -50°C.

(3)

Brian had run a business, but he got tired of it and (3) to buy a balloon. Before long he was one of the country's (4) balloon instructors and pilots. Why did he risk everything for one trip? He says he was not a very confident child: 'When I was seven a friend (5) me go down a water slide with him. I still (6) being absolutely terrified. I've never learnt to swim properly. He thinks everyone should face their greatest (7)

and that is one reason why he went up in the balloon. Six of the 19 days were spent over the Pacific Ocean. Brian says he won't to do it again because there are so many other things he wants to do. (8) 0

ÂŽ round

B through

C across

D above

1

A expected

B hoped

C intended

D admitted

2

A do away

B get along

C keep up

D put up

3

A thought

B considered

C afforded

D decided

4

A unique

B preferable

C leading

D suitable

5

A demanded

B made

C encouraged

D persuaded

6

A forget

B remind

C remember

D regret

7

A fears

B suspicions

C disturbances

D frights

8

A delay

B imagine

C attempt

D suggest

Grammar focus task These are some verbs from the exam task. Without looking back, put them into the table below. Three of the verbs can go in two columns. afford admit attempt consider decide delay demand eneettrage expect hope imagine learn persuade remind suggest want

134

Verb + to infinitive

Verb + -big

Verb + object + to infinitive

afford-

admit, encourage

EVICC,ACUE.

7


Fi

Conditionals (2) unless, in case; provided/providing that and as/so long as; I wish and if only, its time; would rather; otherwise and or else

Context listening Ell You are going to hear a man talking to a group of people about something they are going to do

tomorrow. Here are some of the things they are taking with them. What do you think they are going to do?

fI Dli; Listen and check if you were right.

El DE Listen again and fill in the gaps. Stop the recording when you need to. 1 We're going

unless

the weather gets much worse.

that it doesn't snow too heavily tonight, I'll see you back here at six o'clock.

2 3

We won't reach the top of the mountain

4

You need a whistle

we set out early. you get separated from the rest of the group,

5

you didn't bring large cameras.

6

we all stay together, we'll have a great time.

7 8

I

you'd come a few weeks ago. we had dinner now! Look at sentences 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 in Exercise 3. What do you notice about the tense of the verbs

which follow the words in the gaps?

135


19

Conditionals (2)

Grammar O unless Unless means 'if not and is used with the present tense to talk about a condition in the present or future Were going unless the weather gets much worse. (= if the weather doesn't get much worse) We won't have time to reach the top of the mountain unless we set out early. (= if we don't set out early) Unless you drive more slowly, I'll be sick. (= if you don't drive more slowly) This water isn't safe to drink unless you boil it. (= if you don't boil it)

El in case In case shows that an action is taken to prepare for a possible event or situation. We use the present tense after in case when we explain that a present action prepares us for a future event: Take a whistle in case you get separated. (= there's a chance you might get separated and a whistle will help us find you) Make sure you have my phone number in case you miss the bus. (= I expect you'll get the bus, but if you miss it, you'll need to phone me) We use the past simple after in case to explain a past action. It often shows that you did something because another thing might happen later: He took his surfboard in case they went to the beach (= he took his surfboard because he thought they might go to the beach) shad taken plenty of cash with me in case the shop didn't accept credit cards.

A In case does not mean the same as Compare: I'll cook a meal in can Sarah comes over tonight. (= I'll cook a meal now because Sarah might visit us later) I'll cook a meal if Sarah comes over tonight. (= I won't cook a meal now because Sarah might not visit us)

fl provided/providing that and as/so long as These expressions are used with a present tense to talk about the future. They have a similar meaning to if As long as we all stay together, we'll have a great time. You'll do very well in your interview so long as you don't talk too fast. Provided (that) it doesn't snow too heavily, see you here at six o'clock. My father says he'll meet us at the airport, providing (that) we let him know our arrival time.

A If unless, in case, provided/providing that and as/so long as are all followed by the present tense to talk about the future. Some conjunctions (when, until, after, before, as soon as) are also followed by the present tense to talk about the future (> see Unit 6,83). 4

wish and only

I wish and if only are both used to express a wish for something. They have the same meaning, but g. only is less common and is usually stronger. Wish / if only + the past simple is used when we express a wish about a present situation: I wish you loved me. (= but you don't love me) I wish I knew the answer. (= but I don't know the answer) If only he could drive. (= but he can't drive) If only we had a bigger flat! (= but our flat is small)

A Notice that we use the past tense, even though we are talking about now.

136


Conditionals (2)

19

We can use were instead of was after land he/she/it

I wish I was/were clever like you. (= but I'm not clever) I with the weather wasn't/weren't so wet here. (= but it is wet) If only my sister was/were here! (= but she isn't here) Wish / ffonly + the past perfect is used when we express a wish or regret about the past. It's like the third conditional - the event can't be changed: She wishes she'd (had) never met him. (= but she did meet him) I wish we'd (had) come a few weeks ago. (= but we didn't come) If only I hadn't broken that priceless vase! (= but I did break it) Wish / if only + would is used when we express a wish: for something to happen now or in the future: wish you would stay longer

If only the rain would stop! for someone to do something (often when we are annoyed): I wish you wouldn't leave your bag in the doorway. I wish the waiter would hurry up. I'm so hungry! Notice the difference between I hope + will and I wish + would when talking about the future Ihope he will phone. (= there's a good chance he will phone) wish he would phone. (= it's unlikely he will phone)

Ei it's time and would rather (not) These expressions are followed by the past simple with a present meaning

It's time we ate dinner now. It's time I went home. I'd rather you didn't bring large cameras. We'd rather the flat was bigger, but it's all we can afford.

A When the subject of would rather is the same as the subject of the following verb, we normally use the infinitive without to: They'd rather eat at home as they have a small baby. I'd rather go home by taxi at this time of night. We'd rather not spend too much money as we're saving for a new car 6

otherwise and or else

These words mean 'because if not': I have to go to bed early, otherwise I get too tired. (= if I don't go to bed early, I get too tired) Back up your work as you go along otherwise you could lose it all. (= if you don't back up your work, you could lose it all) Carry that tray with both hands or else you'll drop it. (= if you don't carry it with both hands, you'll drop it) They have to have a car or else they wouldn't be able to get to work. (= if they didn't have a car, they wouldn't be able to get to work)

137


19

Conditionals (2)

Grammar exercises n Rewrite these sentences using unless instead of if not. 1 Sam will pass his driving test if he doesn't drive too fast. Sam

pass his &Sing test ptess he drives too fast.

2 They'll be here soon if their plane isn't delayed.

3 If you're not in a hurry, you could take the bus.

4 I won't be able to come to see you tomorrow if my brother can't give me a lift.

5 If the factory doesn't increase its production, it will dose down.

6 If you don't write your address down for me, I'll forget it.

7 I won't stay in that hotel if it hasn't got a good restaurant.

8 If I don't hear from you, I'll meet you at six.

O Fill in the gaps with in case or U. 1 Elaine will post the letters 2 I'll go for a swim 3 I'll teach you to windsurf

she goes out I finish college eady. you teach me to play golf.

4 I always check my phone when I come out of school 5

I'll take Tim's address with me

I have time to visit him while I'm in London.

6 Our team will win the match

our goalkeeper plays like he did last week.

7 It's a good idea to back up your contacts list 8 I'll leave these films here

I've missed a call.

you lose your phone.

you have time to watch them.

O 4F.) Choose the correct words in these sentences by Cambridge First candidates. 1 The journey doesn't take too long unless / if it rains, and then it takes ages. 2 I think it's safe for children to go to school by bike unless / provided that they don't live too far away. 3 The police gave the orders to close all the doors as long as / in case the robbers were still hiding in the building. 4 Zoos should be allowed unless / as long as the animals are well looked after. 5

Bring your passport provided that/in case we go to Copenhagen on the boat.

6

People don't work more than ten hours a day unless / provided that it is really necessary.

138


Conditionals (2)

19

4 Chloe is on holiday in a foreign city. She's been so busy admiring the sights that she has got lost. What is she thinking? Complete her sentences. 1 I haven't got a map. I wish I hod2 The streets all look the same. If only the streets alan't all Lock the. Same' 3 I didn't bring my phone. I wish 4 I can't speak the language. If only 5 I didn't buy a phrase book. If only 6 I'm hot and thirsty. I wish 7 I came here alone. I wish 8 I need someone to help me. If only 9 I'm sorry I came here. I wish 10 I want to be back in my hotel. If only

Es Complete the email with the correct form of these verbs. You will need to make some of the verbs negative.

be be behave bring can change finish have learn know miss use

Joe To: Subject: Party! Hi Joe a bigger MeI'm having a birthday party on Saturday in my uncle's flat. I wish I (1) my own place but anyway, flat myself but I haven't. Of course I'd rather (2) no more than thirty people my uncle has offered me his flat so long as there (3) by midnight. So please come and bring a friend, and provided that the party (4) Matthew with you because he always causes trouble. but I'd rather you (5) I wish he (6) unless everyone (7)

to behave better. I had to work hard to persuade my uncle and well, he won't let me use his place again.

the road where my uncle lives. If you I'm attaching a map in case you On find it, just ring me. So I'll see you on Saturday unless my uncle his mind! By the way, has Katherine changed her phone number? I can't get hold of her. I wish rude to her last week, 1 (11) as she's not speaking to me now. Must go or else I (12) the bus to college I See you Saturday. Robin

139


II

Reading and Use of English Part 4 For questions 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. Here is an example (0).

0

Simon now regrets doing a part-time course. WISHES Simon now

1

wishes he haat. done

a part-time course.

The engine won't start if you don't press both buttons. UNLESS The engine won't start

2

both buttons.

We anived in good time as we were afraid the coach might leave without us. CASE We arrived in good time

3

without us

You can use my laptop but I must have it back by ten o'clock. PROVIDED You can use my laptop

4

it back to me by ten o'clock.

If we don't start cooking now, the food won't be ready in time. ELSE It's time we

5

the food won't be ready in time.

Stop playing your drums at night, otherwise the neighbours will complain. KEEP The neighbours will complain

6

your drums at night.

The students don't really like eating in the school canteen. RATHER The students

in the school canteen.

Grammar focus task Compare these sentences with the sentence pairs above. Is the meaning the same (S) or different (0)? 1 You must press both buttons or else the engine won't start. 5

140

2

We arrived at the correct time because we were worried the coach might leave without us.

3

It's essential that I have my laptop at ten o'clock, but you can use it till then.

4

It's a pity the food won't be ready in time.

5

Keep playing your drums at night unless the neighbours complain.

6

The students aren't very keen on eating in the school canteen.


Prepositions (1) Prepositions of place and time

Context listening You are going to hear a news broadcast. Before you listen, look at the pictures and guess what the news stories are about.

Listen and check if you were right. As you listen, put the pictures in the order in which you hear the stories. 2

1

cE

Listen again and answer these questions. Stop the recording when you need to.

Where will the Prime Minister be for the next two days? 2

When will he fly to Mexico?

3

Where did Moira MacNab's plane hit bad weather?

4

When does she say she will be quite well?

5

How far do the traffic jams stretch?

6

How long will part of the motorway remain closed?

7

Where was the security man?

8

When was the manager released?

fl Look at your answers to Exercise 3. 1 Which prepositions are used in the answers about time? 2

Which prepositions are used in the answers about place?

at a, conference in WAshillfon


20

Prepositions (1)

Grammar

But compare: Their eyes me

O Prepositions of place in, at and on In is used: for someone or something inside a limited area (e.g. a town, a country, a garden):

Fred jumped over the gate

The Prime Minister is in Washington. She is due to appear in Edinburgh There are some lovely trees in this park. for someone or something inside a building, room or container: They heard shouting in the manager's office. Do you keep your credit cards in this wallet?

The plane was flying across the Mediterranean.

On is used: for a point on a fixed line (e.g. a road, the coast):

above and over

She's holidaying on the north coast of Africa. We stopped at a cafĂŠ on the road to Brighton. for a point on a surface:

Above or over is used if one thing is higher than another:

want to hang this picture on the wall. with floor and ceiling

Over is used when one thing covers another

There's a spider on the ceiling. for public transport vehicles, such as buses, trains or planes:

Above is used when the two things are not directly on top of each other

They met on a plane. I can't read on the bus. but we use in for cars and taxis:

Above is used in documents:

He came home in a taxi. At is used: when we think about a place in terms of its function or as a meeting place He will have talks at the White House. I keep my tennis racket at the sports club. I'll see you at the theatre. for an event: He will remain at the conference. There were a lot of strangers at the party. across and over

They built an extra room above/over the garage. Put this rug over that old chair.

The hotel is above the beach Please don't write above the line. under and below Under or below is used if one thing is lower than another: The garage is below/under the workshop. Under is the opposite of over There's a beautiful old chair under that rug. Below is the opposite of above The beach is below the hotel. Below is used in documents: Please don't write below the line.

There are some places where either across or over can be used:

along and through

a footbridge across/over the motorway a route across/over the mountains a view across/over the valley

There were cheering crowds along the route of the procession. We strolled along the river bank at dusk

142

Along is used for something which follows a line:


Prepositions (1)

20

Through means passing from one side of something

On is used for dates and days (including special days):

to the other side of it:

on Monday, on 3rd December (note that we say 'on the third of December'), on New Year's Day, on Christmas

The road goes through Birmingham. I struggled through the crowd to reach the cafe. We could see the sea through the trees. The train went through the tunnei by and beside

By can be used in the same way as beside, meaning 'next to:

Day, on my wedding anniversary In is used for all or part of a period of time: in the afternoon, in winter, in the twenty-first century, in the Middle Ages by and until

A security man was standing by/beside the door.

By means that something happens not later than, and probably before, the time mentioned:

Ed love to live by/ beside a lake.

She intends to be in Chile by the end of the year. (= on

between and among Between is used when we talk about two places, things or people the motorway between London and Oxford The dictionary is between the grammar book and the atlas. Among is used to identify something as part of a group: Is there a dictionary somewhere among these books?

31st December at the latest, but probably before that) Can we finish this work by four o'clock? (= not later

than four o'clock) Until means that something continues up to, but not

later than, the time mentioned: Part of the motorway will remain closed until this afternoon. (= it will open this afternoon) Until is often used with a negative, meaning 'not

before': We can't eat until all the guests arrive. (= we can eat

beyond and behind

when they are all here)

Beyond is used for something that is further away from us than something else (we may or may not be able to see it):

A Till is often used instead of until in informal speech:

Traffic jams were stretching beyond the motorway. You can't see the lake, it's beyond the forest. Behind is used for something that is partly or completely hidden by an object in front of it: The robber stood behind the door, hoping he wouldn't be seen.

nPrepositions of time at, on and in

At is used: for a point of time at the start of her tour of Europe

for the time of day: at six o'clock, at dawn, at lunchtime

for seasonal holidays:

We can't eat till all the guests arrive. in, during and for In and during are often used with the same meaning In/During the summer we often go for long walks.

but during shows a particular event against the background of a period of time The manager was released during the night.

especially if it is an interruption: They walked out of the hall during the politician's speech. (= while the politician was giving a speech) For shows how long something lasts: He will remain at the conference for two days. We went to Spain for the summer. In shows how soon something happens: In less than an hour we had heard all about his adventures. I'll meet you in ten minutes.

at Christmas, at Easter

in the following expressions: at the weekend, at first, at last, at present (= now), at the moment (= now), at times (= sometimes), at once (= immediately)

43


20

Prepositions (1)

Grammar exercises

nChoose the correct word in each sentence. 1 She hid below / under the bed until the visitors had gone. 2

We arrived at our destination at / in dawn.

3

During the night, we heard strange noises in the room over / above us.

4 The gymnast sailed through / along the air and landed lightly on the mat. 5

The detective found an earring on the path along / between the pool and the house.

6

I need to get some cash so I'll see you at the cinema in / by ten minutes.

Sara is on the train and she's phoning her friend Rebecca. Complete the conversations with the n prepositions in the box. at at by by during for n in on over till

In Rebecca's office, 11.30 am. Rebecca: Rebecca White. on Sara: Hi, it's Sara. I'm (1) the train. Can you meet me (2) the station? Rebecca: What time? Sara: Three. Rebecca: I think so. The cars got a puncture. If I can arrange to get it fixed (3) my break, VII be there. Sara: Thanks, that's great. At the garage, 1.40 pm. Rebecca: Can you fix this puncture for me? Mechanic: Yes, probably. But my assistant won't be back from lunch (4) half an hour and I'll be working on this other job (5) then Rebecca: Well, I've got to collect someone from the station (6 three. Mechanic Oh, that's no problem. Well have it done half past two easily. (7) Rebecca: Thanks. ni be back (8) an hour, OK? Mechanic: Fine. See you then. On the train, 2.10pm. Sara: Hello? Rebecca: The car's being fixed now. I'll wait for you (9) the main door of the station, so I can help carry your stuff. Sara: No, don't worry. I haven't got anything heavy. I'll see you (10) the car park. It's just (11) the footbridge, isn't it? Rebecca: Yes, all right. See you there. Sara: Bye.

144


Prepositions (1)

20

Fill in the gaps in this email with suitable prepositions.

e Hi everyone!

At the moment we're still How are you? Were having a great time in Thailand. (1) the north of the country. This evening we're flying to Bangkok where well visit the (2) the morning and then well probably go shopping (4) amazing palaces (3) a few hours. the weekend were heading south to Phuket. We're going to book a morning (5) !midday at the latest. We'll go to Phi Phi island from there flight so we'll be there (6) the Monday. We've booked a bungalow. The tourist office says it's (8) (7) the beach the middle of gardens which lie (10) end of a long beach (9) and the hillside. We're going to go snorkelling and we can't wait to go swimming (11) about a week and then it will be time to come the tropical fish! We're staying there (12) home. See you all then! Love, Emmy and Sam

4 A hotel owner is showing visitors round his new premises. Fill in the gaps with prepositions. the lounge, a beautiful room, with is We're now standing (1) the ceiling and a view (3) paintings (2) it. The cellar is being decorated the park to the hills (4) present and we're going to open it as a restaurant (5) then we are a few months' time. (7) (6) serving meals (8)

the dining room only.

the sides of the road Do you see the trees planted (9) up to the front door? They're going to be hung with coloured lights that special occasions. If we go (11) (10) wooden door, we'll reach the rose garden, where you can see some the bushes. interesting sculptures on display (12)

ci

Correct the mistake in each of the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates.

lam going to see an English film in the cinema this evening. 2

Hook forward to seeing you in the weekend.

3

Both of the courses are in the same day, so I will have to miss one.

at

4 A TV company was on our school yesterday. S

I'll come to your house in the holidays during a few days.

6

I want to know why the departure of the train was delayed by 8:15 pm.

7

I advise you to have a rest during a week and then start again.

8

I need to finish this letter because I must post it until 3 o'clock.

9

I enjoyed meeting your family for my short stay at your house.

20

I was travelling from Latvia at 10th December.

145


II

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2 For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

New residents on the farm There is a new arts centre on the road between Salisbury and Winchester on what (0) used. to be a farm. The old farm buildings have been made (1) artists' studios and workshops for people producing a variety of work such (2) jewellery.

pottery, furniture and

One barn has been made into an attractive gallery, displaying work produced at the arts centre, in to holding exhibitions by more famous artists (4) (3) present there is a lovely exhibition of modern glass from Scotland. When the artists are in their studios, visitors can talk to them about (5) they are doing. For artists, who can feel lonely at times, (6) is good to be in a place where they are among people who understand their work. They can go across the yard for coffee and share their problems with (7) other. The centre is open to visitors (8)

weekdays and at weekends from 12.00 to 4.00.

Grammar focus task After you have checked your answers to the exam task, read the text once more. Then, without looking back at the text, complete these sentences with the correct prepositions. on 1 The arts centre is the road Salisbury and Winchester.

146

2

There is an attractive gallery displaying work produced

3

When the artists are

4

Artists can feel lonely

5

It's good to be in a place where they are

6

They can go

the arts centre.

their studios, visitors can talk to them times. the yard for coffee.

people who understand their work.


Prepositions (2) Prepositions which follow verbs and adjectives; prepositions to express who, how and why; expressions with prepositions

Context listening

n

You are going to hear a man called Andy telling his wife Dawn about a fire. Before you listen, look at the pictures. What is happening in each one?

A

ci*

Listen and decide which picture best fits what Andy tells Dawn. What is wrong with

the other two pictures?

n cg

Listen again and fill in the gaps. to

7

I covered my face

2

There's no need to shout

8

You could have been

3

I had a bit of an adventure home.

9

Then the fire brigade were

4

I called the fire brigade

5

I got in

6

I smashed a window hammer.

What's happened

my phone.

breaking a window. hitting it with a

a handkerchief. real danger. control. saving their

10 I hope they thanked you property. 11 Do you forgive me 12 I can't be angry â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

being late? you now.

4 Look at your answers to questions sand 6 in Exercise 3. Which preposition is used to show how something is done? 147


21

Prepositions (2)

Grammar Er Prepositions which follow verbs and adjectives Verb + preposition Some verbs are nearly always followed by a particular preposition. These include approve of: Yasmina doesn't approve of children having too many toys. enquire about I am writing to enquire about your advertisement. insist on: She insisted on paying for the taxi look forward to: IM really looking forward to eating it. succeed in: Did Pierre succeed in finding accommodation? Notice that prepositions are followed by a noun or by the -ing form of a verb: We enquired about our reservation at the hotel. We enquired about booking a room. Verb + object + preposition Some verbs are nearly always followed by an object and a particular preposition. These include accuse someone of: The rock group accused their manager of stealing their money. congratulate someone on: Heidi congratulated me on my exam results. forgive someone for: She can't forgive Maurice for all the lies he told. prevent someone/something from: The bus strike hasn't prevented people from coming to work. suspect someone of: I suspect Maryann of being dishonest. Verb + different prepositions Some verbs can be followed by different prepositions with a change in the meaning. These include: agree with someone and agree about something I quite agree with you, I think you're right. (= with a person) My father and! don't agree about politics. (= about a subject) ask for something and ask about something He asked me for some money (= he requested) She asked me about my plans for the summer. (= she enquired) laugh about and laugh at I was late but he wasn't angry, he just laughed about it. (= found it funny) I can't wear this hat. Everyone will laugh at me. (= make fun of) think of and think about: 'What do you think of my new jacketr 'It's great: (= what is your opinion?) 'What are you thinking about?' Lunch - I'm hungry!' (= what is on your mind?) throw at and throw to (also shout at / shout w and point at / point to): The little boy threw the ball to his father. (= expecting him to catch it) Don't throw toys at your sister - you might hurt her. (= intending to hit her) to be + adjective + preposition Some adjectives are usually followed by particular prepositions, for example angry about (something): She's angry about the theft of her purse. angry with (someone): He's very angry with his assistant good/bad at (something): She's good at drawing flowers. pleased about (something): My parents weren't pleased about my bad report. pleased with (something or someone): Granny was very pleased with the book you sent her. rude / polite / (un)kind to (someone): Don't be rude to anyone at the party.

148


Prepositions (2)

2

Prepositions used to express who, how and why by, with and for We use by with passive verbs, for the person or thing which does the action: The window was smashed by Andy. The fire was started by an electrical fault

We use by + -ing to show how something is done: He smashed the window by hitting it with a hammer. He got in by breaking a window We use with + noun for a tool (or other object used for a purpose): He smashed the window with a hammer. He covered his face with his handkerchief We usefor + -ing or a noun to explain the purpose of a tool or other object: Hammers are normallyfor knocking in nails, notfor smashing windows! He keeps a bag of tools in his car for emergencies. We can also usefor + -ins or a noun to explain the reason for something The owners of the house thanked him for saving their property. He received an award for bravery.

El Expressions with prepositions We use prepositions in the following fixed expressions: ways of travelling by air, by plane, by road, by car, by bus, by rail, by train but on foot ways of contacting people by post, by email, by phone but to be on the phone (= using the phone) ways things can happen: by chance, by accident, by mistake but on purpose conditions and circumstances: in love, in trouble, in debt, in charge (of) in secret, in private, in public in/out of control, in! out of sight, in/out of danger, in/out of difficulties in a hurry, in a temper at peace, at war, at work, at home on holiday, on/off duty, on business

A Don't make mistakes with these expressions: on the way and in the way: I'm going to my office so I'll call and see you on the way. (= between two points on a journey) I can't move the table because that chair's in the way. (= blocking a path between objects/people) on time and in time If the train's on time, I'll be home at six. (= punctual) If we leave now, we'll be home in time to see the news. (= at or before the correct time) in the end and at the end: She didn't want to come with us, but in the end we persuaded her. (= the final result) It was a great show and the audience applauded loudly at the end. (= the last thing to happen)

149


21

Prepositions (2)

:Grammar exercises Write sentences describing what happened in each of the pictures, starting with the words given and using a preposition from the box. Well done, Laura! You certainly deserved to in the tournament.

Henry, you've been reading my diary!

VV1/4

Liz, I'm so sorry I ‘‘,..21orl:c_f to i L

Can you tell me what trains there are to Scotland?

I didn't enjoy that book at all.

•••111111

k

4, 4

No, young man, you can't come in here.

It's OK, Mike, I'm not angry.

about about for from of on 1 She accused

Henry of reading her diary

2 She congratulated 3 He enquired 4 They prevented 5

Liz forgave

6 They agreed

fl Choose the correct preposition in each sentence. You know you shouldn't phone me in / at work! 2 Yvonne doesn't approve of! on wearing real fur. 3 The mermaid was combing her hair with / by a silver comb. 4 I had to tidy my room in / with a hurry before I went out. 5

Did you drop that dish by/ on purpose?

6

What do you think of/about Matt's new hairstyle?

150

10 ,41, 1 Afr

al •


Prepositions (2)

21

Fill in the gaps in these news articles with suitable prepositions. A

1.1....81111111111W The wedding took place last Saturday of a couple who fell

(1)

love through the internet. Penny and Peter

tt

O'Donnell communicated (2)

email for six accident that

months until they discovered (3)

the same building. Actually, I had

they worked (4)

noticed her before and liked her, but I was too shy to speak public,' said blushing Peter. When I

to her (5)

realised she was my internet friend, at first I suspected her laughing (7)

(6)

it But luckily she succeeded

quite angry (8)

(9)

me and I was

persuading me that I was wrong. Now we're

looking forward (10)

spending our lives together:

8 An elderly brother and sister were reunited today

charge of the home where Mia was. She said that some

for the first time since they were children. Mia and

of the girls were sent abroad to be (6)

David's parents had been (1)

danger during the war and many of them never

debt and

the children had been put in children's care

returned. When I thought I'd found Mia in Canada,

homes until their family was (2)

I wanted to tell Dad immediately, but I decided to meet

difficulties. But the country was (3)

her (7)

war, the children were separated, and their papers

But I was right.'

secret first, in case I was wrong.

were lost.

Two days ago. David travelled (8)

David's daughter began trying to find Mia five years

for the first time (9)

ago. 'It was hard, but (4)

sister. 'We've got a lot of catching up to do,' he said.

last I found the

air his life to meet his

daughter of the woman who had been (5)

n 0Correct the mistake in each of the following sentences by Cambridge First candidates. 1 I didn't go because his parents didn't approve with me. 2

I am not sure why your brother is always rude with me.

3

Maria insisted in driving him home.

4

I accused him about cheating in the game.

5

Many people will feel angry of cars being banned in the city centre.

6

Could you please forgive me with being late in sending this letter to you?

7

We didn't succeed on winning the competition.

8

He congratulated my sister with passing her exams.

of

151


Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 3 For questions 1-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that ids in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

The clothes we choose to wear communication The clothes we wear can be a form of (0) Clothes like a (1) language, give out a message. This can be simple, for example, when we choose clothing for keeping warm, to attend a football match or (2) ceremony to announce our views or just to look attractive. (3)

It isn't always this simple, however. As with speech, our masons for making any statement have a (4) to be quite complex. The man who buys an expensive coat may want it not only to offer (5) from bad weather but also to magically surround him with the qualities of an international film star. (6) people rarely succeed in satisfying both these requirements at once. Even (7) that both these statements could actually be made by one single coat, this ideal item of clothing may not be available and, if it is, it may be (8) for people who have limited money to spend on clothes.

COMMUNICATE SPEAK GRADUATE POLITICS

TEND PROTECT NATURE SUPPOSE AFFORD

Grammar focus task Without looking back at the text, complete these sentences with the correct prepositions. 1

The clothes we wear can be a form

2

Our reasons

3

He wants it to magically surround him

of

making any statement have a tendency to be complex. the qualities of a film star.

4

People rarely succeed

5

Both these statements could actually be made

6

It may be unaffordable

152

communication.

satisfying both these requirements. one single coat.

people who have limited money.


22

Relative clauses Defining and non-defining relative clauses; relative pronouns and prepositions

C

Context Hs

At Lt

iwl

You are going to hear a man showing ome visitors round the castle where he lives. He's talking about some paintings. Before you listen, look at each painting and answer these questions. 1 Can you guess when the people lived?

2 Do you think they were members of the same family?

El CIE Listen and check if you were right. As you listen, match the corect names with the paintings. Andrew Edmund George Henry Jane Jasper Margaret William and

A and

with their children

n 1022 ) Listen again and complete the answers to these questions. Stop the recording when you need to. 1 What do we learn about the ship in the picture of Edmund? It's the one which hee, commancte4 during a famous naval, balite Which is the picture of Henry and William?

2

It's the picture 3 How do we know who William is? He's the one 4 Which side did Henry support in the Civil War? It was the side In which year was the picture of Jane and her children painted?

5

It was the year

4

Underline the first word in each of the answers to Exercise 3. They are all words which can introduce

relative clauses. What does each word refer to? 1

2

3

4

5 153


22

Relative clauses

Grammar nDefining relative clauses with

who,

Non-defining relative clauses with

which and that

who and which

Defining relative clauses tell us some essential information about the things or people they refer to: The picture that hangs next to Margaret's portrait is the

Non-defining relative clauses tell us some extra information about the things or people they refer to:

one I like best.

The next painting shows Edmund's wife Margaret, who he married in 1605.

If we remove the words that hangs next to Margaret's portrait we don't know which picture Jasper is talking about.

If we remove the words who he married in 1605, we still know who Jasper is talking about. It is Edmund's wife Margaret.

Defining relative clauses:

Non-defining relative clauses:

use the relative pronouns who for people, which for things and that for things and people

always use the relative pronouns who for people and which for things:

There's the woman who sold me the bracelet. I'm looking for a website which has the words of pop songs.

My friend Tom, who works for a software company, earns a good salary.

Where did you get the coat that you were wearing? They're the people that run the local cafĂŠ.

This company makes all kinds of phones and chargers, which are sold in fifty different countries.

may have who, which or that as the subject or object of the relative clause

may have who or which (but never that) as the subject or object of the relative dause

The picture which/that hangs next to Margaret's portrait...(which/that is the subject of the relative

The building which is very old, costs a lot of money to repair (not thet-is-VOyeld) The castles owner who we've just seen, enjoys meeting visitors. (not that-weve-pest-seen)

clause) She's the woman who/that he marrieu (who/that is the object of the relative clause, and he is the

subject) very often omit the relative pronoun when it is the object of the relative clause: The painting were looking at shows Edmund. The painting which/that we're looking at shows Edmund.

are never separated from the rest of the sentence by commas:

(not

never omit the relative pronoun: This small cafĂŠ, which was opened three years ago, has the best coffee in town.

must be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas:

Edmund.)

My best friend, who works at the cafe on Saturdays, says its always busy,

are used in writing and speaking.

are more common in writing than in speaking.

A The relative pronoun refers back to a person/thing mentioned previously. We do not add any extra pronoun in the relative clause This is the painting that I like best (not the painting eitat-l-kke-Mbest) The painting shows Edmund's wife, who he married in 1605. (not Edmund's wife, whe-he-MatnedElef) This cafe, which opened two years ago, has the best coffee in town. (not This cafe, which-it-opened) x54


Relative clauses

22

nwhose, whom, when, where and why in relative clauses Both defining and non-defining relative clauses can: begin with whose (instead of his/her/their), when (for times) and where (for places): William, whose wife Jane was a famous beauty, had nine children. Here they are in this picture from the year when the youngest was born. This has been my family's home, where we've lived for over 400 years, since the time of Edmund Claremont. begin with whom (for people) as the object of the clause (this is mainly in written English, and is increasingly rare): The man whom we asked for directions was extremely helpful. His friend, whom he neglected, became very depressed. A defining relative clause can: begin with why after the words the reason: This victory was the reason why he became a national hero. often omit the words when and why (but not where): I remember the day (when) I met you. That was the reason (why) we went there. She returned to the village where she was born. (not tli,

4

shy ,,as L.

Prepositions in relative clauses

When there is a preposition attached to a relative pronoun: we usually put the preposition at the end of the clause: Shad a friend I shared everything with. Peter Frost, who (or whom) my father used to work for, has become a government minister in formal English, we sometimes put the preposition at the beginning of the clause, followed by which (for things) or whom (for people): I had a friend with whom I shared everything. Peter Jones, for whom my father used to work has become a government minister. The family history, about which I cared very little, was Jasper's main interest. There may be a fault in the cable to which the printer is connected.

A We cannot use that after a preposition in a relative clause: The Conference Room, in which the meeting was held, was not really big enough. (not in tht-tIFury alg was-held) We can sometimes use preposition + which instead of where: This is the house where jasper used to live. = the house in which Jasper used to live / the house (which) Jasper Junin 434.1 to live) used to live in. (not dc She showed us the town where she was born. = the town in which she was born / the town (which) she was born in. (not tht haw, .ALL 3h4 .4s burn)

nNumbers and pronouns + of whom / of which Non-defining relative clauses can start with a number or a pronoun such as all, some, most, none, each, a few, neither + of whom or of which. This is more common in writing than in speech: The castle contained a lot of paintings, two of which were extremely valuable. The best students, all of whom are over eighteen, will go to university in the autumn. Free tickets were given out to a group of football fans, one of whom was my brother. The cakes, each of which was decorated in a different colour, looked very appetising. My uncle's stories, most of which I'd heard before, were extremely boring. I was offered a choke of two rooms, neither of which looked very clean.

155


22

Relative clauses

Grammar exercises Complete this email with who or which. If who or which can be left out, put it in brackets.

CJTOnewworld.com To: Decontrotteakwikmail.co.uk Subject: decorating job problems Dear Mr Trotter, I have a number of complaints about the work whLch your company did in my house (1) during the past week. -warAt.

You promised that the men (2) carried out the work would arrive by 8.00. As I explained to you, I have to catch the bus leaves at 8.15. On three days the men arrived after eight, so I missed my bus and some of my customers, (4) were waiting to talk to me, were extremely annoyed. Your foreman lost the written instructions (5) I gave him, none of he appears to have understood. The paint (7) he used (8)

for the hall was the one (8) should have been used in the kitchen. The sitting-room wallpaper, (9) I had chosen with great care, is the wrong way up. My bathroom, (10) you and I agreed did not need redecorating, has been painted. These mistakes must be put right immediately. Please contact me as soon as possible. Yours, Cecil J. Trubshaw

n Use a relative pronoun from the box and match the two halves of these sentences. where when which which which who whose why

1 I don't really enjoy films 2

which

A you didn't tell me about your engagement.

I often go to parties

3 My teacher usually explains vocabulary

I was late for school? C

4 Can you remember any occasion

show a lot of violence. speaks five languages?

5

I can't understand the reason

E

involved working in the evenings.

6

Have you ever met anyone

F

they play very loud music.

7

I envy people

8 I would hate to have a job 156

I don't understand. parents buy a car for them.


Relative clauses

22

n Choose the correct sentence from each pair. la

Have you ever been back to the town where you were born in?

2a

My left ankle which I broke last winter is still giving me trouble.

Have you ever been back to the town where you were born? bt

I, My left ankle, which I broke last winter, is still giving me trouble. 3 a b 4 a

5

6

7

Is that the man you were talking about? Is that the man you were talking about him? I'm looking for the book you lent me last week.

b

I'm looking for the book what you lent me last week.

a

This expensive silk jacket, that I only bought last week, has lost three buttons.

b

This expensive silk jacket, which I only bought last week, has lost three buttons.

a

The laptops, two of which belonged to teachers, were taken from the school office.

b

The laptops, two of them belonged to teachers, were taken from the school office.

a

The friend that I want to introduce you to her is away this weekend.

b

The friend I want to introduce you to is away this weekend. Combine each pair of sentences by making the second sentence into a non-defining relative clause.

4

1 My aunt loves ice cream with chocolate sauce. She is rather greedy. My aunt, who i6 rather greedy, Loves (44 cream with chocolate sauce. 2

My uncle's cottage has been damaged by floods. We usually spend our holidays there.

3

The chemistry exam was actually quite easy. We had been worrying about it.

4

My brother got into a fight near the school. His classmates had been teasing him.

5

There are dreadful traffic jams during the summer. Everyone goes on holiday then.

6

My parents enjoyed that film very much. They don't often go to the dnema.

E

Complete the sentences with these phrases.

CI LP

,, l u.n,i

none of whom most of which neither of which one of which

The company was founded by three brothers

olt of whom

2

The thieves took my bike and my sister's

3

The four students,

4

We bought several computer games,

5

The in-flight entertainment consisted of foreign films,

became millionaires. was insured.

spoke Spanish, had travelled all over South America. we had to return as it didn't work. had subtitles.

157


Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 4 For questions 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. Here is an example (0).

0

The same person bought the three paintings Katie had put in the exhibition. WHICH Katie had put three paintings in the exhibition

1

all of which were. bought

by the same person.

That's the hotel where we had lunch last Sunday. IN That's the hotel

2

last Sunday.

Being an airline employee, my sister sometimes gets cheap flights. WORKS My sister

3

sometimes gets cheap flights.

I don't like Jim because he's so mean. REASON Jim's meanness

4

I don't like him.

Last week Gerry borrowed the book from me and now he's lost it. Gerry's lost the

5

last week.

The concert which Ben took me to wasn't very enjoyable. WENT I didn't enjoy

6

to with Ben.

The mother of that boy is a well-known actress. WHOSE That's

a well-known actress.

Grammar focus task Look at your answers to the exam task. 1

Which of the sentences you have written contain relative clauses?

2

Are they defining or non-defining relative clauses?

3

How do you know?

I58


Linking words (1) because, as and .ipice; so and therefore; in order to, to + infinitive and so (that); so and such; enough and too

66 n

You are going to hear two friends, Josie and Adam, talking at their sports club. Before you listen, look at the picture. Can you guess which sports they take part in?

flCIE3 Listen and check if you were right.

n Eff

Listen again and fill in the gaps. Stop the recording when you need to.

1 Josie thinks Tom Castle was chosen

because

2

Adam believes that Tom is certainly

3

Adam suggests Josie ought to be in the team herself much about the subject.

4

Josie objects that she isn't

5

Adam points out that Melanie is

6

Josie says that going to judo once a week gives her

he's the coach's nephew. to be captain. she seems to know so

to play volleyball. that she's one of the best players.

7

She thinks that volleyball would take

8

She adds that they have

after school.

9

Adam says that he has been training every day

be really fit.

10

The coach told Adam that he plays

11 Some of the older players may drop out

they've got

to do

4 Look at your answers to questions 2, 4, 6 and 10 in Exercise 3. What do you notice about the position of the word enough?

159


23

Linking words (1)

Grammar

n

Expressing reason and result

because, as and since Because, as and since introduce the reason for an action or situation. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence: They had to choose him as/because/since he's the coach's nephew. As/Because/Since he's the coach's nephew, they had to choose him. Notice that if they go at the beginning, there is usually a comma at the end of the clause: As/Because/Since I hadn't done my homework I didn't understand the lesson.

A Because (but not as or since) can be used to begin the answer to a question with Why Question: why didn't you understand the lesson? Answer: Because! hadn't done my homework. (not AsiSince-l-hodn't ...) so and therefore So and therefore introduce the result of an action or situation. So usually goes in the middle of a sentence: They may need a new goalkeeper so ! want to be ready. Therefore goes at the beginning of a new sentence: They may need a new goalkeeper. Therefore I want to be ready. We could also say. I want to be ready because they may need a new goalkeeper. Compare these sentences, which have the same meaning (hadn't done my homework so I didn't understand the lesson. hadn't done my homework. Therefore (didn't understand the lesson. As/Since/Because I hadn't done my homework, I didn't understand the lesson. So is more common in speaking. Therefore is more common in writing.

a

Expressing purpose

(in order) to + infinitive and so (that) + verb (In order)to and so (that) are used to link an action and its purpose. So always goes in the middle of a sentence, and is followed by a clause, often with will, would, can or could: I've been training every day so (that) Ill be really fit joined the tennis club so (that) I could play whenever I wanted. I phoned to say the train was late so (that) my parents wouldn't worry. (In order) to goes in the middle, or occasionally at the beginning, of a sentence and is followed by the infinitive: I've been training every day (in order) to be really fit (In order)to be really fit, I've been training every day. In order wand so that are more formal than to and so on their own. To and so are more usual in spoken English.

A Remember, in sentences like these we do not use for to express purpose: (not I have been uti g cue, y day fur to be wally fit.)

16o


Linking words (1)

23

A Sentences with so can sometimes have two meanings, depending on their context, for example I've been training every day so be ready for the next match. This could express purpose I've been training every day in order to be ready for the next match. or it could express result: I've been training every day. Therefore I'll be ready for the next match. (> See 81.) FE Explaining cause and effect so and such So and such mean as much as this'. We can use them before a that clause to talk about cause and effect He walked so slowly that we arrived late. (= we arrived late because he walked very slowly) He was such a slow walker that we arrived late. We often omit that, especially in speech: It was such an untidy office we couldn't find our books It was such an untidy office that we couldn't find our books. We can use so and such for emphasis, often after because Her teachers sent her home because she had behaved so badly. I love those shoes. They're so cook Her teachers sent her home because she was such a naughty child. Did you hear what he said? He's such an idiot So is followed by: an adjective or an adverb: Her father is so rich (that)she's never travelled by bus. He spoke to her so rudely (that) she walked out of the room. the words many, much and few, with or without a noun: He's invited so many people to the party (that) there's nowhere to sit down. I've got so few books (that) I can keep them on one shelf You complain so much (that) everyone gets bored. Such is followed by: a/an (if necessary) + adjective + noun: Her father is such a rich man (that) she goes everywhere by taxi. The cafĂŠ always charges such high prices (that)students can't afford to eat there. We weren't used to such luxurious accommodation. a/an (if necessary) + noun only They were treated with such kindness (that)they were reluctant to leave. The concert was such a success (that) they decided to give another. the expression a lot (of), with or without a noun: He's invited such a lot of people to the party (that)there's nowhere to sit down. I spent such a lot last night (that) I can't afford to go out at the weekend. > See Unit s, 84 for other words which modify adjectives and adverbs. Very and so/such can be used with a similar meaning for emphasis: She is very annoying. / She is so annoying. / She is such an annoying person. But very is not followed by a that clause: The sun was so hot (that) we had to sit in the shade all day. (not

x6t


23

Linking words (1)

enough and too Enough means 'sufficient, the right quantity'. Too means 'more than enough'. I don't want to swim in the sea today - it's too cold/ it isn't warm enough.

Phrases with too and enough are often followed by: to + infinitive This bag is too heavy to carry. I'm not strong enough to carry this bag. He wasn't running quickly enough to catch us. for something/someone: This bikini is too small for me. Have you got enough money for the car park? There isn't enough cake for everybody to have a piece. It was raining too heavily for the match to continue. Enough goes: before a noun: I've got enough sandwiches for lunch. (= as many sandwiches as I need) We haven't got enough time to go to the cafĂŠ before the film. after an adverb: Are we speaking loudly enough to be heard? (= Can everyone hear us?) after an adjective warm enough for me. (= the right temperature)

Too goes: before many/much + a noun: There are too many books fo me to carry. (= I can't carry all of them) I've got too much work (= I can't do it all) before an adverb: Are we speaking too loudly? (= Are we disturbing the other students?) before an adjective This room Is too warm for me. (= the temperature is uncomfortably high)

A Very does not mean the same as too: This jacket is very expensive, but I can afford it. This jacket is too expensive, so I can't afford it. 162


Linking words (1)

23

Grammar exercises II Fill in the gaps with the words and phrases in the box. bccaesc enough in order to so so so that too

as

1 A: Why are you staring at me like that?

B.

Because

you've got a large black mark on the end of

your nose! 2 A: It's only eleven o'clock. Why aren't you still at school? revise for our exam tomorrow.

B: We've been sent home early 3 A: How was the trip to the museum?

several galleries were closed for repairs, it was rather disappointing.

B:

4 A: What are all those students doing in the park? B: The university term has ended

we'll catch the early train.

5 A: Come on! If we run fast B: Sorry, I've got

they're having a picnic to celebrate.

many bags I can't run.

A: Oh, never mind. If we're we wait for the next one.

late for that train, we can have a drink while

6 A: Why are you working late today? B: I want to finish this essay

I'll be free to go out tomorrow.

151Do these pairs of sentences have the same meaning? Write S (same) or D (different). 1

a

It was such a sad film I couldn't stop crying at the end.

b The film was so sad I couldn't stop crying at the end. 2

a

We're packing our cases tonight as we're leaving very early tomorrow.

b

We're leaving very early tomorrow so we're packing our cases tonight

3 a

My father says I'm too young to have a motorbike.

b My father says I'm very young to have a motorbike. 4 a

I've lost weight. Therefore I can wear this tight skirt at my party.

b I can wear this tight skirt at my party because I've lost weight. 5 a Since I've never been to New York, I can't tell you much about it. b I can't tell you much about New York as I've never been there. 6

a She's been given so much advice that she doesn't know what to do. b She's been given enough advice so she knows what to do.

7 a

He was speaking too softly for us to hear him properly.

b He wasn't speaking loudly enough for us to hear him properly. 8 a b

I revise in the college library so that I can concentrate on my work In order to concentrate on my work, I revise in the college library. 163


23

Linking words (1)

El Match the beginnings and endings of these sentences. 1 Tessa's got so much homework

A he should be in bed.

2 Stephens so arrogant that

to make sandwiches for us all.

3 Jessie has so many hobbies that

C he can buy any clothes he wants.

4 The lecture wasn't too difficult

she neglects her schoolwork.

5 Saskia hasn't got enough money

E for us to understand.

6 Keith earns so much money

F to come on holiday with us.

7 I think there's enough bread

he thinks every girl fancies him.

8 Peter has such a bad cold

she can't come out with us.

4

Choose the correct words in these sentences by Cambridge First candidates.

1 The city's quite interesting but it isn't enough big / big enough to get lost in. 2

It would be lovely if you came here therefore / since we could do millions of interesting things.

3 The concert was such / so exciting that the time went by very quickly. 4 We should apply to work there so / as it would be a good way for us to practise English. 5 They think the project is a waste of time. Therefore / Because it will be cancelled. 6

It has been so / such a long time since I last wrote to you.

7 Why is shopping so popular? Because / As it can help us to relax.

n

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first, using enough and any other words you need. 1 The hall only had two hundred seats but two hundred and fifty people came to the show. There weren't

ellOblgh 5e0Âą5 or

all the people who came to the show.

2 Jim couldn't keep up with the other runners because he was unfit. Jim wasn't

keep up with the other runners.

3 Can the whole team travel in that little minibus? Is there

the whole team to travel in that little minibus?

4 Nicky is sixteen now so she can fly to New York on her own. Nicicy is

fly to New York on her own.

Do the same with these sentences, using too and any other words you need. 5

I can't afford to buy designer jeans. Designer jeans are

buy.

6

He's such a good player I can't beat him.

7

We weren't able to walk to the beach because it was a long way away.

He plays

The beach was

beat him.

walk to.

The wind's extremely strong today so the ferry can't operate. It's 164

operate today.


Exam practice II

Reading and Use of English Part 1 For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

World English The term World English' has been (0)

by some people to describe the kind of English used all

A

around the world. If we read English language newspapers or (1) in different (2)

to newsreaders who use English

of the world, we may gain the impression that one kind of English is so (3)

used that it will soon unite all the different varieties. Is there enough (4)

to support this impression? In fact, a version of English which is exactly the

same throughout the world does not yet (5)

. For one thing, people whose first language is English

it from the of their particular version of the language. Therefore they try to (7) are (6) influence of other forms of English. Moreover, there are too many regional differences in vocabulary for the language to be the same everywhere, as people need specialised words in order to (8)

local

politics, culture and natural history. 0

E6 proposed

B offered

C presented

D allowed

1

A look

B listen

C watch

D hear

2

A divisions

B parts

C sections

D places D normally

3

A widely

B extremely

C totally

4

A knowledge

B witness

C belief

D evidence

5

A exist

B happen

C arrive

D occur

6

A confident

B jealous

C proud

D attached

7

A hold

B possess

C preserve

0 insure

8

A argue

B talk

C mention

D discuss

Grammar focus task Without looking back, complete these extracts with the words in the box. enough in order to so that therefore to too

widely used

1

One kind of English is

2

Is there

3

People are proud of their particular version of the language.

4

There are

5

People need specialised words

50

evidence

it will unite all the different varieties.

support this impression? they try to preserve it.

many regional differences for the language to be the same everywhere. discuss local politics, business, culture and

natural history.

165


Linking words (2) in spite of and despite; but, although and though; even though and even if; participle clauses; before and after 4- -ing; when, while and

Context listening C1 You are going to hear an interview with a young woman. Look at the newspaper headlines from two years earlier. One of the headlines has the correct facts, the rest are wrong. Listen to the interview and tick the correct headline.

New star signs contract to make three films in a year 15-year-old given leading role in new film TEENAGE FILM ACTOR WINS STARRING PART o

GIRL WITH NO ACTING EXPERIENCE IS NEW FILM STAR

O Es

Listen again and fill in the gaps. Stop the recording when you need to.

1 You've been world famous

sunce makulq

2 I got the part 3

the film Starshine two years ago.

no film experience.

The director chose me to play the part

4 I had a long talk with my parents 5 I was offered two more films 6 ... but

Starshine far from home. I sometimes felt very lonely.

7 Id be happy to do another film later 8 Its actually a comedy,

several schools. it.

booked up for the next few months. called Dark Days.

nWhat form of the verb follows since, in spite of, despite, after, before and while in the sentences Exercise 2?

166


Linking words (2)

24

Grammar n

in spite of and despite

These words: are used to explain an unexpected event I got the part in spite of having no experience. We enjoyed the trip despite the bad weather go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence In spite of / Despite having little money, we were very happy. (notice the comma) We were very happy in spite of / despite having little money. If they go at the beginning, there is usually a comma in the middle of the sentence. are followed by -ing or a noun: He continued to work in spite oft despite being ill. He continued to work in spite of / despite his illness. are often followed by the fact that + subject + verb: I got the part in spite of the fact that! had no experience. Despite the fact that! had no experience. I got the part. In spite of is more common in speaking than despite. EI but, although and though These words contrast two events or ideas. Though is more common than although in speaking. But usually goes in the middle of the sentence I like making films but I'm really a stage actor. Although and though can go in the middle or at the beginning of the sentence-. I like making films though/although I'm really a stage actor Although/Though I'm really a stage actor,! like making films (notice the comma) A We can't use though/although and but in the same sentence: (not We sometimes use though at the end of a sentence: I like making films. I'm really a stage actor, though.

n

even though and even if

Even though makes a stronger contrast than although/though. It emphasises the speaker's surprise that two facts are both true She was given the part even though she had no experience. (= it's surprising she got the part in these draunstances) We use even gwhen we are not certain about our facts I'll support my team even if they don't win the Cup. (=I don't know whether they'll win the Cup, but YU support them anyway)

167


24 4

Linking words (2)

Participle clauses

The -ing form or the past participle: can be used to combine two sentences when both sentences have the same subject. replaces a subject + verb:

I work far from home. + I sometimes feel lonely. —0 Working far from home, I sometimes feel lonely. AU was asked about the play. + AU said it was great. —0 Asked about the play, Ali said it was great. These structures are more common in writing than in speaking. The -ing form: replaces an active verb:

He refused to apologise. + He left the room. —0 Refusing to apologise, he left the room. links two things happening at about the same time (present or past): The girl used all her strength. + The girl pushed open the heavy doors. —0 Using all her strength, the girl pushed open the heavy doors. can begin the first or second half of the sentence: She writes a blog. + She uses her experiences at work. —0 She writes a blog using her experiences at work. The past participle: replaces a passive verb:

The boys were refused entry to the club. + The boys walked slowly home. —0 Refused entry to the club, the boys walked slowly home. links two connected events or situations:

'Greensleeves' was written in the 16th century. + treensleeves' is still a famous song. —s Written in the sixteenth century, treensleeves. is still a famous song.

flbefore and after + -ing Before and after + -ing. show the order in which things happen. are used to combine two sentences only when both sentences have the same subject can replace the subject + verb of either sentence: Ihad a long talk with my parents. (= first event) + I accepted the part. (= second event) —+ I had a long talk with my parents before accepting the part. or —0 I accepted the part after having a long talk with my parents.

Before and after + -ing can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. If they go at the beginning there is usually a comma before the main clause

Before accepting the part, I had a long talk with my parents. After having a long talk with my parents, accepted the part.

6

when, while and since + -ing

We can use when, while and since + -ing in a similar way to before and after + -ing. When + -ing links two actions happening at the same time When leaving the train, passengers should ensure that they have all their possessions with them. You must try to make a good impression when starting a new job. While + -ing links a longer action to an action which happens in the middle of it: I was offered two more films while making 'Starshine: While making 'Starshine; I was offered two more films. Since + -ing links an ongoing situation or action to the event or action when it began: She hasn't been in touch once since moving to New York. Since leaving school, she's completely changed. 168


Linking words (2)

24

Grammar exercises

n

Match the beginnings and endings of these sentences.

I.

I know Shanghai quite well,

2

In spite of injuring his foot,

A you should read it carefully. B he retired to an island in the Mediterranean.

3 He doesn't earn very much,

C he scored three goals.

4 Although he always takes his laptop,

D in spite of being so talented.

5 Smiling broadly,

E this book is still very useful.

6

When changing the torch battery,

F our uncle welcomed us into his house.

7

Before signing that document,

G but I've never been to Beijing.

8 After selling his business, 9

Despite the fact that it is very old,

H Dad rarely emails us when he's away. I be careful not to damage the bulb.

n

Do these pain of sentences have exactly the same meaning? Write S (same) or D (different).

1 a Although Sharon quite enjoys musicals, she really prefers more serious drama. b Sharon quite enjoys musicals, but she really prefers more serious drama. 2

3

4

5

6

a

Asking for directions, Sam showed the farmer the map he'd been given.

b

Asked for directions. Sam showed the farmer the map he'd been given.

a

Brian continued to work long hours, in spite of being ill.

b

Even though he was ill, Brian continued to work long hours.

a

Chloe's father promised her a car, even though she didn't pass her final exam.

b

Chloe's father promised her a car, even if she didn't pass her final exam.

a

Despite searching everywhere, I didn't find the money.

b

I searched everywhere, but I didn't find the money.

a

Warning of storms ahead, the mountain guide led us back to the hostel.

b

Warned of storms ahead, the mountain guide led us back to the hostel.

169


24

Linking words (2)

nCombine each pair of sentences, using the -ing form or the past participle. 1 Arnold was faced with a difficult decision. Arnold decided to consult his boss. Faced mkh a. dufficuLt derision. Angola. clecteleci to consult hte boss. 2 The singer waved to her fans. The singer got into her car.

3 Simon grumbled about the amount of homework he had. Simon took out his grammar book.

4 The school buildings were designed by a famous architect. The school buildings won several prizes.

5 Wendy was a sensible girl. Wendy didn't panic when she cut her hand.

6 Paul heard cries for help. Paul dived into the linter.

7 This song was recorded only last week. This song has already been downloaded a million times.

4

Complete the sentences with these words and phrases.

before even if even though in-spite-of since though while 1 I quite enjoy playing tennis, 2

ill spite of

the fact that I usually lose.

painting my room, I made quite a mess of the carpet.

3 It's essential to train regularly 4 I hardly ever receive any emails 5 They insist they'll have a barbecue

attempting town a marathon. I write lots. it rains.

6 Jane enjoys cooking. She's not much good at making cakes, 7

arriving in this country, I've made lots of new friends.

O 0 Choose the correct version of these sentences by Cambridge First candidates. 1 a I thought the restaurant was expensive in spite the fact that the manager had told me it was cheap. b I thought the restaurant was expensive in spite of the fact that the manager had told me it was cheap. 2

a Although I enjoyed the book, but I found the ending very disappointing. b Although I enjoyed the book, I found the ending very disappointing.

3

a You can think before to choose which one you will buy. b You can think before choosing which one you will buy.

4

a He allowed me to go into the concert despite the fact that I was an hour late. b He allowed me to go into the concert despite of the fact that I was an hour late.

5

a After receiving the visa, I will come and visit you in Canada. b After received the visa, I will come and visit you in Canada.

170


Exam practice

Linking words (2)

24

Reading and Use of English Part 2 For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Antarctica wexe

The first people known to have seen Antarctica (0)

hunters on ships in 1819. Two

though the conditions years later, Captain John Davis managed to land there, (1) exploring very far. Other expeditions followed were difficult and prevented him (2) and by the late nineteenth century scientists had succeeded in mapping the coastline, in spite of that Antarctica is almost entirely covered by a thick layer of ice

the (3)

stretches far beyond the edge of the land in places.

(4)

from scientific research.

Something else attracted people to Antarctica (5)

This was the South Pole. Several attempts to reach it were made early in the twentieth century the first person to succeed was a Norwegian, RoaId Amundsen, in 1911. Travelling with dogs (7)

pull the sledges carrying his party's supplies, he arrived

at the pole five weeks before a rival British group. (8) Antarctica.

the terrible weather conditions, many nations now have scientific bases in

Grammar focus task Without looking back at the text, match the beginnings and endings of these extracts. 1

Captain John Davis managed to land there, even though

2

Scientists had succeeded in mapping the coast of the continent, in spite of the fact that

3

Several attempts to reach it were made early in the twentieth century,

4

Travelling with dogs to pull the sledges carrying his party's supplies,

5

Despite the terrible weather conditions,

A

Antarctica is almost entirely covered by a thick layer of ice. the conditions were difficult and prevented him from exploring very far.

C

many nations now have scientific bases in Antarctica. but the first person to succeed was the Norwegian RoaId Amundsen. he arrived at the pole five weeks before a rival British group.

171


VOCABULARY SECTION

Learning and revising vocabulary It is a good idea to keep a record of all new words in a vocabulary notebook. Make a note of the main features of the word so that you can use your notebook for reference.

or a word tree, for example:

The example below records all the main features of the word. If you can't complete all the boxes when you first record the word, leave them blank and complete them later. If there is no word for this in your own language, you can leave the translation box blank. orchard definition:

pronunciation: part of speech: /10:tfacti countable noun an area of Land where frubt trees grow

translation: example sentence

We saw some people picking apples in the orchard.

I You may need to review/use a word up to 20 times before you have really learnt it. So even if you have already recorded some of the vocabulary in a unit, it is useful to write it down again to help you revise. You can do this as you work through a unit and as you go through the wordlists as revision.

Try to put all the nouns together, all the verbs together, etc When you think you know the words in your mind map or word tree, draw it again and try to fill it in again without looking. Divide words into groups and write them in circles or boxes. Some of these may overlap, for example

THEATRE

CINEMA auctience.

stage

Here are some ideas: Draw a mind map, like this one for learning food words:

rehearsal,

soundtrack costumes 5Cretri

pasta When you think you know the words, draw the circles or boxes again and see how many you can remember.

.rphydrate

ftbre fruit

172


Learning and revising vocabulary For word-building, tables are useful, for example Noun

fear

amazement

Verb

to frighten

to amaze

Adjective

frightening, frightened

amazing, amazed

Write down several phrasal ve bs together, for example:

Many common expressions should be learnt as whole phrases rather than as individual words. When you come across expressions like this, highlight them and then write them down in your notebook Some words are always followed by a preposition so write the word and the preposition together (e.g. worried about, afraid of in Unit 28).

elextririity

Write down words with similar meanings together, e.g. surprised = amazed, astonished. It is also useful to write opposites together, e.g. hardworking z lazy.

On

M pal airtst

Use other simple drawings to remind you what words mean; for example, smiley faces are good for positive feelings and negative feelings ÂŽ or for likes and dislikes or agreeing and disagreeing.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; RUN Choose one word and note down other words that are often used with it, for example: someone

a. probLem

Put the words onto a drawing for example roof

173


Learning and revising vocabulary For word-building, tables are useful, for example Noun

fear

amazement

Verb

to frighten

to amaze

Adjective

frightening, frightened

amazing, amazed

Write down several phrasal ye bs together, for

Use other simple drawings to remind you what words mean; for example, smiley faces are good for positive feelings and negative feelings or for likes and dislikes or agreeing and disagreeing. Many common expressions should be learnt as whole phrases rather than as individual words. When you come across expressions like this, highlight them and then write them down in your notebook.

example Some words are always followed by a preposition so write the word and the preposition together (e.g. worried about, afraid of in Unit 28). Write down words with similar meanings together, e.g. surprised = amazed, astonished. It is also useful to write opposites together, e.g. hardworking t lazy. Choose one word and note down other words that are often used with it, for example:

a, problem

Someone

Put the words onto a drawing, for example

173


Earth, sea and sky Geography, climate and weather

A

Look at photos A and B. Where do you think the places are? Choose from the list below. Brazil France India Kenya Morocco Thailand

pEi Match the description below with one of the photos. Then complete it with the words in the box. bank orchards peaks pine slopes springs streams tracks valleys vegetation Manali is surrounded by towering snow-capped mountain (1) Peaks and dense forests of (2) trees. Shallow (3) of clear mountain water flow into the Beas River. Around the town the landscape is breathtaking. The (4) which covers the gentle wooded of the hillsides is mainly wild flowers and fertile apple (6) . Above Manali, (5) travellers can walk along the winding (7) through the narrow (8) and high mountain passes to the Himalayas or take part in the adventure sports on offer. They can also relax in the village of Vashisht, on the left (9) of the Beas River just a few kilometres from Manali, where hot (10) emerge from the rock at about 50 degrees centigrade.

37) ) Listen to this description of the other photo and complete it with the words you hear. This is a tropical rainforest. It's also sometimes called a (1) jungle. . The trees are probably very old as they have very thick (2) . It's usually quite dark in the forest as not much (3) gets through the trees. The (4) that grow under the trees tend to have large (5) in an effort to get as much light as possible. The (6) in the rainforest is often very poor so the trees have shallow (7) but some of them still manage to grow very tall with few near the bottom. They put all their energy into reaching the light! Rainforests are full of (8) wildlife, from (9) and snakes on the forest floor to monkeys and (10) higher up. 1.4 Match the adjectives with their opposites. cultivated deep mountainous muddy steep straight wide 1 shallow deep

2 narrow

3 winding

5 wild

6 flat

7 gentle

174

4 clear


Earth, sea and sky

25

Write two or three sentences in your notebook about the place in this photo.

V Vocabulary note Some words can have more than one meaning, and the second meaning may be idiomatic: I've got a mountain of work to do. (= a huge amount of work) There was a flood of applications for the job (= suddenly a large number of applications)

Read these sentences about two different climates. Decide which are about photo A and which are about Hp photo B in 1.1. 1 It is always hot and humid. 2

Summers are mild and wet.

3

As it is near the Equator, there is hale difference in temperature between the warmest and coolest months.

7

The heavy snowfall in winter attracts skiers and tourists.

8

By mid-afternoon every day it pours with rain and thunderstorms are also common.

9

The area is often cut off because of snow. Floods sometimes occur in July and August during the wet season.

4

Rain falls nearly every day and there is no dry season.

10

5

In winter it becomes cold and frosty and the temperature falls to below 0°C.

11 The temperature at night is 20-2St but during the day it rises to above 30°C.

6

In the rainforest, as dawn breaks and the sun comes up, there is a clear blue sky.

12

HEI

Skies are often cloudy in the mountains, whether it is summer or winter.

The sentences make two separate descriptions. Which sentences can you join with and or but?

A Summers are mild ant wet, but Lei wmter

CIDI Listen to a description of the climate in another country. Which part of the world do you think it is?

2.4

Ile

Using 2.1-2.3 to help you, write a list of vocabulary you can use about your country's climate. WORD BUILDING Complete the sentences with new words made from the words in the box.

freeze globe mist SEOMI tropic warm

Yesterday the weather was so

stormy

that the waves were crashing against the houses by the beach.

2

They were able to skate on the lake because it was

3

We climbed to the top of the mountain but it was so

4

Everybody is staying inside as the forecast says a

5

We always appreciate the

6

It is thought that some unusual weather is caused by

we couldn't see much. storm is on its way.

of the sun after a long cold winter. warming.

175


Exam practice

II

Reading and Use of English Part 6 You are going to read a newspaper article about a trip to South America. Six sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need.

A trip to Patagonia Laura Holt goes in search of pumas, the large wild cats of South America Taking in a large area of Chile and Argentina, running along the Andes and down to where South America flicks its tail towards Antarctica, is a region called Patagonia and I was there on holiday. It was only my first day in the Torres del Paine National Park, a wild portion of Chilean Patagonia that's lavished with towering glaciers, snow-clad valleys and dramatic peaks. Some other intrepid travellers come here to tackle the formidable 'W' circuit - an extended trek that links five key points in the national park over several days of scrambling up and down mountains. 1 I therefore planned to take a more leisurely pace, in the back of a chauffeur-driven van. We gathered around a fire on the first night at camp. 2 A mother and her cubs had been spotted in the valley days before and a lone male had been seen casually strolling across the camp's wooden walkways. But by far the most startling tale was of a young puma cub which had found its way through an unlocked door into a hotel. The next morning, we drove into the Patagonian plains. Overhead, majestic birds of prey carved black shadows against a brilliant blue sky. At Lake Sarmiento, oystercatchers squawked as we approached and elegant ostrich-like rheas pranced past like ballerinas. 3 It was too large to be a grey fox and too small to be a guanaco, the curious llama-like creature that roams these lands. 'Did you see that?', my guide, Felipe, pointed. 'Puma?' I replied. 'I think so,' said Felipe. A sighting of this size was so lucky. Even if it was over in a flash. But I suddenly felt vulnerable, out there in the wilderness, with nothing but a stick to defend myself if it came near. 4 Even so, I hoped I wouldn't have to put the theory to the test. After a hearty barbecue beside the Blue Lagoon, it was time to set off again. We hurtled down unmade mountain roads at breakneck speed, past the milky green glacial flow of the Paine River, 5 But I was soon back at the camp, exhilarated and utterly exhausted. Over the next few days, the pace picked up steadily. There was a walk up to the Mirador Cuemos, through silent valleys of grazing animals, to a startling lookout point. 8 On the way down, we watched herds of horses gallop past isolated farms with red corrugated roofs. On the final day I said goodbye and drove out of the park. The closest I had come to seeing a puma may have been a fleeting glimpse but I realised it mattered little. For my search had made me study every crag and cave, bush and boulder in this vast, ultimately unknowable land all the more intensely.

176


Exam practice A

At that point, I was more focused on staying uptight than spotting pumas. Suddenly, a fleeting shadow sent a bolt of excitement through us.

C

Earth, sea and sky

Ii

25

Exam tip

Read the whole paragraph and then all the options. Make sure the one you choose fits before and after the gap.

My goal, on the other hand, was to spot Patagonia's rare big cats and other wildlife. The thunderclap of a distant avalanche was the only disturbance of the peace. But with only 50 of these large cats in a huge area, there were still no guarantees.

F

Apparently, the best thing to do is stand completely still and all should be well. Rumours of recent puma sightings were plentiful.

Writing Part 2: email You have received this email from your English friend Joe.

r From: Subject

Joe your climate

Hi, can you help me with something? We're doing a project at college about the climate in different countries. Please could you write and tell me about the climate in your country? Is the weather very different at different times of year? What do you like and dislike about it? Thanks a lot. Joe Write your email (140-190 words).

it

Exam tip

You have several questions to answer here. Make sure you answer them all, and close your email in a friendly way. Plan your answer before you start, and make sure you write 140-190 words.

177


gEl Look at the two pictures. Why are these meals healthy or unhealthy? Use the words in the box to complete the sentences below. fat vitamins protein fibre , carbohydrate sugar calories

salt

Meal A is high in salt,

and low in

Meal 13 is high in

and low in

a

ii) Listen to a sportsman talking about his lifestyle and underline the things he mentions.

going on a diet eating lean meat needing carbohydrate for energy eating substantial portions not putting on weight cutting out fat doing regular training drinking coffee getting enough sleep handling stress

lig ta

Listen again. What would the sportsman say to these statements? True or false?

1 I eat lots of fruit and vegetables. 2

I've stopped eating dairy products.

3

I've cut down on chocolate.

4

I occasionally eat junk food.

5

Igo to the gym regularly.

6

I've recently given up smoking.

7

I drink lots of water.

8

I don't get much sleep at the weekend.

True

V Vocabulary note Diet can mean the food and drink normally eaten by an individual or a group of people: rm an athlete so I eat a healthy diet. Rice is the staple diet of many people in India. Diet is also used when particular food is eaten for medical reasons or to lose weight: The doctor put me on a low-salt diet. My jeans are tight, so I'm going on a diet.

1.4 Are the statements in 1.3 true or false for you? Rewrite any false statements to make them true for you.

Ea

PHRASAL VERBS Complete the paragraph below using the correct form of these phrasal verbs.

come down with cut down on get round to go for keep 40 live on put on take up If you want to stay healthy, you need to (1) keep to a healthy diet. Eat plenty of fruit, vegetables and salad and (2) salt, fat and processed sugar. And if you want to avoid (3)

weight, it's definitely best not to (4) junk food, because it contains all those things. Also, doing exercise on a regular basis, so think about whatever your age, it's important to (5) a sport, or (7) a regular walk or run. By doing all these things, you (6) should build up a healthy immune system and avoid (8) colds all the time.

17 8


Living a healthy life

26

Match the phrases for minor medical problems (1-6) with the possible causes (A-F). 1 get a blister

A You're just recovering from flu. You've had a bad cough.

2

have a stomach upset

B

3

have a sore throat

C You've eaten some undercooked meat.

4

feel run down

D You've just done a long flight.

5

lose your voice

E

You're getting a cold.

6

be jet-lagged

F

You've been wearing new shoes.

es

Choose the correct words in these sentences.

1 If you have burnt yourself badly, you go to the casualty department I local surgery. 2

If you cut your hand and need scars / stitches, the doctor will give you a local anaesthetic.

3

If you suffer from hay fever, the doctor will give you antihistamines I antibiotics.

4

If you need medicine, the doctor will give you a recipe 1 prescription to take to the local pharmacy.

5

If you break your leg, the doctor will put it in plaster 1 bandage as soon as possible.

6

When travelling to some countries, you might need a protection / vaccination for a disease like yellow fever.

7

If you need weighing, the nurse will ask you to step on the weights I scales.

8

If the symptoms 1 treatments of your illness are obvious, it is easy for your doctor to decide what's wrong.

The words prescription, receipt and recipe are often confused. A prescription is the piece of paper on which the doctor writes the medicines you need: The doctor gave me a prescription for antibiotics. A receipt is the piece of paper you receive to show you have paid: I always keep the receipt when I buy clothes in case I want to change anything later A recipe is a set of instructions telling you how to prepare and cook food: My mother gave me a really good recipe for bread.

Els

PHRASAL VERBS Underline the phrasal verbs in 1-5 and match them with the descriptions.

1

I didn't want to play hockey, so I made uo a story about twisting my ankle.

2

She didn't visit me when I was ill, but she made up for it by sending me some flowers

3

Sophie didn't know which ward her brother was on, so she made for the information desk.

4

The nurse spoke so softly that I couldn't make out what she was saying about my medicine.

5

The old operating theatres are no longer used, so the hospital has made them into accommodation for nursing staff.

A

Someone did something good to compensate for something they hadn't done before. Someone headed in a particular direction.

C

Someone decided to use something in a different way. Someone invented a reason for something which happened to them. Someone was unable to understand what another person was saying.

179


II

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2 For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). The importance of physical activity The pace (0)

of

modern life is very fast, and most people have busy and demanding lives.

Consequently, eating (1) overall health. (2)

balanced diet and doing physical activity make a big difference to we are all aware of how important exercise is for us, from our brains to

our bones, many people spend far (3) (4)

little time exercising. The good news is that

is easier than you think to fit physical activity (5)

you can do it at (6)

your day because

time and wherever suits you.

Remember that your feet were made for walking, so use them (7)

you get the chance.

Walk around town, ignore lifts and escalators, and build up your leg muscles by climbing stairs. Next, get out and have fun. For example, kicking a ball about is a great way to spend time together (8) a family, or with friends.

It

Exam tip

Read the text first to get a general impression of what it is about.

Writing Part 1: essay In your English class you have been talking about how to be fit and healthy. Now your English teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay (140-190 words) using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view.

What is the best way to stay fit and healthy? Notes Write about: 1 eating a healthy diet 2 making time to relax 3 (your own idea)

it

Exam tip

Remember to read the question carefully and plan your essay before you write. When you

have finished it, read it carefully and check for grammar and spelling mistakes.


BB Read these words. Which is the odd one out in each group? Why? 1 choir composer conductor guitarist

orchestra

2 beat lyrics rhythm chapter tune

Ele Q 1

J Listen to a woman talking about music. Yes

Is she musical?

2

Does she come from a musical family?

3

Can she play a musical instrument?

4

Has she ever sung in a choir?

5

Does she ever go to concerts?

Complete the woman's statements. Then listen again to check. 1

I've always been able to

2

The rest of us

3

I

4

When I was at school, I

stag it tune our hobbies. in cello and violin. in the school choir. with a friend.

5 1

in the car, or else I have

6 I've

BEI Read the music reviews below. Match the types of music with the reviews. rode 1

classical:

pop:

Having produced an album of African rumba runes, the group have turned to Cuba for inspiration. But instead of using the original lyrics, they've added their own. The rhythm and lead guitars and the variety of arrangements effectively maintain interest. A brilliant addition to their repertoire.

3 This is much better than their first album, and nothing here is a cover version. Some of the tracks feature heavy music guitar solos, and the drums are alive with rhythm. A

marvellous album that gets better with every listening.

world music:

2 This album is built around the work of legendary composers Andersson and Ulvaeus, whose songs defined much of 20th century music. Yet their fans may be surprised by these arrangements. Old favourites with catchy tunes from the 1970s and 1980s are effortlessly transformed into the band's own distinctive style with some very pleasing harmonies. Buy this one for your collection!

4

This is an album of Argentinian chamber songs, written in the early 1900s, and exquisitely accompanied by violins. There's everything here, from a beautiful duet to a passionate tango. It's all superbly recorded and packaged with an imagination and care that do the designers credit. Fantastic.

181


27

Sound waves

Effii Look at the words in bold in the reviews. Find the correct words for these definitions. 1 a song sung by two people 2 a combination of voices singing together in tune 3 a collection of recordings 4 people who write music 5 individual recorded songs 6 a re-recording of another musician's song 7 the special way someone does something 8 people who are really keen on a particular singer or group 9 familiar songs that everyone likes 10 the words written for a song EN Use words and expressions from 2.1 and 2.2 to write a short description of an album you particularly like.

gig I9 Listen to four people describing different kinds of music. Which type is each person describing? jazz folk rock n roll country and western 2

3

ic&

V Vocabulary note

4.1 Each of these words describes a sound, and can be used as a verb or a noun. Listen and write the correct word for each sound you hear.

Many of these words can be used in a range of different contexts: Itapped on the car window to get her attention. She tapped her foot in time to the music.

bang Writ smash sneeze snore splash tap whistle bark

1 5

4

2

3

4

6

7

8

ae Make sentences by matching 1-8 with Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;H. 1 It was really difficult to sleep

A

2 There was so much dust in the house 3 As Peter fell head first into the pond

it whistled through the cracks in the old front door. that I started to sneeze almost as soon as I arrived.

C

4 I knocked over the enormous vase

with a loud bang that made everybody jump. and barked out instructions to the students.

5 The sports instructor was very strict

E

and I heard my dad tapping his foot to the beat.

6 When the wind blew

F

because my brother snored so much.

7

The tune was very catchy

8 The door slammed shut

182

there was an impressive splash. and it made a terrible noise as it smashed.


Sound waves

Exam practice

27

II

Reading and Use of English Part 2 For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Music and its effect on children For all children, music provides an obvious opportunity for both self-expression (0)

oLnd,

creativity. But researchers have now also shown that a strong musical education provides so (1)

more. For example, music develops self-discipline: the child who devotes time to

practising (2)

relation to other

day is known to develop similar habits (3)

subjects as well. Organisational skills increase and the child learns (4)

is needed to be

'good at something. In addition, band or choir members learn the importance of being a reliable member of a group and becoming a true team player, and (5)

necessarily always the star'.

Scientists have also discovered that learning to read music or play a musical instrument develops higher thinking skills. Any child (6)

is skilled at music also excels in problem-solving, evaluation

the area used in and analysis. The part of the brain used to read music is the same (7) so many capable musicians are also good at mathematical thinking. This explains (8) maths.

Writing Part 1: essay In your class you have been talking about the importance of learning to play music. Now your English teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay (140-190 words) using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view.

Should everyone learn to play a musical instrument? Notes Write about: I whether playing music is enjoyable 2 whether everyone can learn to play an instrument (your own idea) 3

183


ell C131 Listen to a boy called Nick talking about something that happened recently. Answer these questions. 1 Who came to watch Nick's team play? Why? _ 2 What happened after the match' 3 Who was chosen? El look at the adjectives below. Which are positive and which are negative? Write P above the positive adjectives and N above the negative ones.

1=IIIII=!=lntariatzsrafais,6a. Listen again. How do you think Nick felt: 1 after he scored the goal?

2 at the end of the day?

CIE

1.4 Now listen to Nick continue his story. Choose three adjectives from 1.2 to describe how he felt at the end of Saturday.

Read the email. The underlined adjectives have similar meanings to those in the table below. Write them in the correct column.

Hi Helga Just wanted to tell you that I went to the seaside last Saturday with my friends. I was really glad that they phoned me because I was feeling fed up and I was relieved to have something to do. But when we got to the seaside I realised they were going to the theme park and I've always been scared of the big rides. I got a bit angry with them because they hadn't told me. But in the end they persuaded me to go with them. As I sat there waiting for the first ride to begin, I could feel my heart beating faster and faster, but as soon as it started I forgot to feel anxious about it because it was such fun. When I got off I was surprised to realise how much I'd enjoyed it and I went on all the other rides too! You must come with me next time. Love, Tina

amazed

annoyed

depressed

frightened

pleased glad.

184

worried


Hiohs and lows

28

EL, The adjectives below also have similar meanings to the ones in the table in 2.1. Write them in the correct column. If there is one adjective in a column which is stronger than the others, underline it. afraid astonished concerned delighted miserable furious terrified

gie Look at the people in the picture. How are they feeling? Write as many adjectives as you can. Paul:

Don:

BEI Think about something you did recently, e.g. a sports match you played in, a place you visited, a party you went to. Choose two of the phrases for feelings below and write a sentence with each one. worried about surprised that afraid of upset that pleased to annoyed with

4.1 Choose the correct adjectives in these sentences. 1 I was really boring I Pored on holiday. There was nothing to do. 2

Last night's show was really disappointing (disappointed we wasted our money.

3

We were very surprising I surprised when we got to the hotel and it was closed.

V

Vocabulary note

Many adjectives for feelings can also be followed by (that) + subject + verb or infinitive (to Maria was sorry (that) she had missed the party. Maria was pleased to get the invitation.

4 Tom was so exciting I excited when he received your letter with the good news. 5 He hated talking in public so he left very worrying I worried about giving a speech. 6 Rahim gave me a ride on his motorbike. It was absolutely terrifying / terrified. 7 I didn't find the holiday relaxing / relaxed because my friend wanted us to go out all the time.

4.2 Complete these tables. Noun

fear

Verb

frighten

Adjective

Noun Adjective

annoyance

amazement

excite

frightening

embarrassing

pleasing

exciting

frightened

embarrassed

pleased

excited

depression

pride

anxiety

angry

misery jealous

185


II Exam practice Listening Part 1

a31You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer (A, B or C).

1

2

Exam tip

[

Listen carefully for words which mean the same as words in the questions, e.g. if frightening is in the question you might hear scary or terrifying in the recording.

You hear a woman telling a friend about a conversation she had with her parents.

4

You hear two friends talking about a football match.

How did her parents feel about her news?

How do they feel?

A furious that she wouldn't complete her studies astonished that she hadn't consulted them C pleased that she'd made a good decision

A concerned about the future astonished at the result C upset at their team's performance 6

You hear a voicemail message.

You hear a man talking about an activffy holiday.

What problem does the boy have?

What opinion does he give of the holiday?

A He's had all his money stolen. He needs a lift to the shop. C He needs to borrow some money.

A It was more suitable for teenagers. The activities were too demanding for him. C The teaching was disappointing. 3

5

7

You hear two people talking about a film.

You hear two people talking about a new colleague.

How did they react to the ending?

What does the man say about her?

A They found it frightening. It took them by surprise. C They felt it was unclear.

A She often misses deadlines. She sometimes loses her temper. C She seems distracted.

You hear a couple talking about their hotel.

8

You hear an actor talking about her work.

What are they slightly dissatisfied with?

What does she find most difficult about it?

A the type of breakfast B the view from the room C the lack of entertainment

A doing publicity interviews B wearing heavy make-up C remembering her words

Writing Part 2: article You see this notice in an international magazine. What makes you feel really happy? Going on holiday? Being successful? Playing music? Seeing friends and family? Write us an article telling us what makes you happy and why. The best articles will be published in our magazine next month. Write your article (140-190 words).

Exam tip Make the article lively and interesting for people to read. Talk about your own feelings and experience.

186


Looking back OB What do the photos show? Eal CI 31 Listen to a teacher talking to his class about the photos. Write the information. A Location: France

Age:

Purpose

B Location:

Age.

Purpose

UM Read what this student has written. Underline phrases you could use in your own writing. Then write a similar paragraph about a famous construction in your own country. One of the oldest things you can see in Egypt is the Great Pyramid of Giza. It was built about 4,500 years ago as a tomb for a king called Khufu. It's absolutely enormous, and for centuries it was the tallest man-made structure in the world. Ifs very famous because it is the only one of the seven ancient 'Wonders of the World' that has remained intact. There are lots of ancient sites all around it, and archaeologists have discovered temples and many other buildings there.

Eloi Read this text and choose the correct words. The early history of Brittany (France) We have archaeological (1)evidenre / facts that people were living in Brittany, in north-western France, about 12,000 years ago. This period is known as prehistory, and there are no written (2) catalogues / records which go back this far, although the stone circles and monuments that the people built are still standing today in places like Carnac. The (3) population / community must have been very small in these prehistoric times. Historians have no precise (4) scores /figures, but there were certainly far fewer (5) residents I inhabitants than there are today. They belonged to different Celtic (6) tribes / teams and they are the (7) ancestors / relafives of modern French people. They survived by (8) hunting / chasing animals and gathering berries and fruit in the wild. About 4,080 years ago, people in Brittany began to (9) keep / settle down rather than constantly moving around, and farming techniques improved. People began to grow crops and keep animals to provide meat, wool and milk. They also made (10) tools / gadgets out of iron, and this period is known as the Iron Age. The people of this time had quite sophisticated (11) beliefs / opinions and a strong tradition of telling (12) histories/stories orally, but they left no trace of a written language behind.

History means all the events that happened in the past: She's studying for a degree in ancient history because she's fascinated by it. A story is a description of real or imagined events, often told to entertain people: The story is about three boys who explore an old castle.

Story is also used to mean a news report: The main story on the news today is about the election. 187


29

Looking back

gra WORD BUILDING Complete the tables.

Noun

history

prehistory

archaeology

evidence

politics

presidency

civilise

invade

reside

believe

survive

Noun (person) historian Adjective

historicat historic

Verb

populate

Noun Noun (person)

Historic means important (or likely to be important): c event/day Historical means connected with the study or representation of things in the past: a historical novel, historical documents

Complete the sentences using the correct form of these verbs. Some of them can be used more than once.

V Vocabulary note We use last to say how long something goes on for:

last pass spend take

The film lasts for an hour. 1 Several years have

passed since I saw my friend Jenna.

2

Driving lessons usually

3

I

4

If I travel during the rush hour it get to the city centre.

5

Food

6

I

for about an hour.

last weekend camping with friends. me an hour to

longer if you keep it in the fridge.

_ _ _ three hours writing the report for today's meeting.

If you spend time doing something, you do it from the beginning to the end of the lime: He spent all day planning the trip.

The verb pass refers to time going by: Time passes quickly when you're enjoying yourself. If something takes time, you need that amount of time to do it: It may take us several weeks to get back.

4.1

Match each of the expressions in bold with its meaning.

1 The party started at eight, and we arrived on time.

A

sometimes but not often

2

We've lived here for some time

B

very soon

3

I'm just getting off the bus so I'll be there in no time.

C

not early or late

4

Ellie doesn't live near me now but I still see her from time to time.

for quite a long period

Now do the same with these expressions. 5

I have no time for Lisa - she's so rude and negative!

to do something while waiting

6

I try to make time for sport at least three times a week.

to do something without hurrying

7

I killed time playing on the computer until you got here.

to have no respect for someone

8

Take your time deciding which course you want to study.

to leave enough time to do something

188


Look back

Exam practice

29

Reading and Use of English Part 1 rExam tip e

For questions 1-8 read the text below and decide which answer (A, B. C or D) best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Look at the words before and after the gap, choose your word and then read the whole sentence.

The first people of Britain _ The time from the arrival of the first modern humans to the beginning of recorded history was a (0) then because these ancient of about 100 centuries, or 400 generations. We know little about what (1) people left no written records. What we know about them comes from the (2)

that archaeologists

have found at different (3) riving in the British islands. These groups Throughout prehistoric times there were many different (4) with their neighbours and frequently attacked each other. However, they also had were often in (5) contact with people in other parts of Europe and (6)

_ with them regularly.

from the time when Julius Caesar and his army invaded over The first written accounts of Britain (7) 2,000 years ago. Interestingly, the Romans did not increase the number of people in Britain by any great only about 150,000. extent. To a population of three million, Caesar's army and administration (8) 0

A

duration

B

D

stretch

C

went through

D

passed by sign

@ period

length

went on

B

passed out

A

claim

B

proof

C

evidence

D

A

sites

B

positions

C

settings

D

grounds classes

1

A

2 3 4

A

families

B

descendants

C

tribes

D

5

A

contest

B

fight

C

battle

D

conflict

A

traded

B

dealt

C

exchanged

D

bargained

7

A

belong

B

exist

C

begin

D

date

8

A

grew

B

added

C

developed

D

raised

6

Writing Part 2: review You see this notice on an international travel website.

ri

Exam tip

Give your review a title (the name of the museum) and use positive adjectives and phrases when you make recommendations.

Reviews wanted: museums across the world We're doing a series on museums in different countries. Have you visited a museum that you found really fascinating? Describe it, and say why you found it so interesting. Recommend some exhibits that you think other visitors would enjoy, and explain why. The best reviews will be published on our website.

Write your review (140-190 words).

189


OH OE)

Listen to three people speaking about women they admire. Match them with the photos.

EE ra-, Listen again and write down the adjectives used to describe each woman. 1 cheerful,

2

3 M:cheIle Obama

Eig Write two sentences about a famous person you admire, using some of the adjectives above. 1.4 Read the descriptions that two students have written about a friend. Choose the best word for each gap. I used to love playing with Sam when we were kids because he's very (1) C

so he was really good at making up exciting games to play. But he didn't enjoy being in large groups because he was very (2)

and he didn't like other children playing with us. He's become a bit more (3) since then and as a result he's got more friends now. But we had an argument the other day because I made a joke about his clothes. He's much too (4) so it's really easy to upset him. I have to be careful what I say.

I met Emma quite recently. The best thing about her is that she's great fun to be with as she's always (5) and she never seems to be in a bad mood. She's always got something to say - in fact, she's the most (6)

person I've ever met. She never gets anxious but in some ways she's far too (7)

about everything. For example, she nearly always arrives late when we meet up. I don't mind that, though. The only thing I dislike about her is that she can be (8) to other people - she sometimes makes fun of them, which isn't nice. 1 A easygoing

B thoughtful

0 imaginative

2 A shy

B selfish

C hopeless

3 A stubborn

B outgoing

C bossy

Sensitive = being easily upset:

Tim is sensitive - he cries at a sad story.

4 A sensitive

B sensible

C sympathetic

5 A caring

B cheerful

C demanding

Sam is sensible - he always makes wise decisions.

6 A talkative

B generous

C considerate

7 A competitive

Sympathetic = understanding other people's problems:

B lively

C relaxed

8 A impatient

B unreliable

C unkind

190

Sensible = showing good judgement:

She was sympathetic when I explained why I was late.


Everyone's different

30

Using some of these expressions from 1.4, write two positive and two negative sentences about someone you know. He's very/really ... He's so ... He's a bit ... He's much/far too ... She never/always ... The only thing I dislike about her is that she ... The best thing about her is that she ... She can be ... SO Match the adjectives in A with their opposites in B. amusing - senous A aintnierg adventurous generous gentle hard-working modest polite relaxed self-confident B aggressive arrogant cautious lazy mean rude serious shy tense

pm Choose the correct adjective from 2.1 for each sentence. arrogant

After Steve won the prize, he became rather

with their money rarely leave a tip.

People who are

2

and expected everyone to look up to him.

to walk into someone's office without knocking.

3

Ws

4

She could be a really good musician but she's too

5

The day before my driving test I couldn't concentrate on anything because I felt too

6

Animals are only

to practise.

towards people if they are frightened or hungry.

Ng Look back at all the personality adjectives. Choose some that describe you and make a list Eill WORD BUILDING We can add a prefix to some adjectives to make

an opposite. The most common prefix is un-. Others are dis-, in-, it' and im-. Write the correct prefix above each group of adjectives. 2

3

4

5

popular kind imaginative

considerate convenient expensive

honest satisfied

relevant responsible regular

polite patient possible

V Vocabulary note These prefixes can be added to some nouns (e.g. unhappiness, disapproval, impatience). The prefixes un- and discan also be added to some verbs (e.g. unlock, dislike).

gig With some nouns, we can add -ful to make adjectives meaning 'having' and -less to make adjectives meaning lacking'. Complete the sentences by adding -pi or -less to these nouns. care colour grace harm pain power thank 1

We were really

thankful

that we'd reserved seats as the hall was full.

2

That's the second wallet you've lost. Why are you so

3

The president is the most

4

My foot is still

5

You needn't be afraid of that snake. It's quite

6

I love watching Mary performance because she's so

7

Water is a

person in the country. from when I hurt it last week.

liquid. 191


Exam practice II

Reading and Use of English Part 5 You are going to read an extract from a novel. For questions 1-6, choose the answer (A, El, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

line 3

Jenny half opened her eyes to stare at the glowing numbers of the clock radio on the bedside table. As it was still dark, she assumed that it was fairly early, but squinting at the clock she realised that it was nearly time for her to get up. She was irritated that the winter darkness had beguiled her into thinking she still had a few hours in bed.

As she turned over, she heard a noise from the other bedroom. The sound bore no relation to the images in the dreams she was leaving behind as she slowly woke up. Still half asleep, she realised it was the creak of a cupboard door This was followed by footsteps padding around the room next to hers and then another creak. It was her father opening and closing his cupboard doors as he prepared for the day. He was always the first one up in the morning. She imagined that he would already have his tracksuit on and was picking up his trainers, about to put them on. The squeak of line 11 the bed as he sat down confirmed that. Her father was predictable, she thought to herself fondly. The night before he had announced that he was going for his usual run by the lake, as he did every morning, no matter what the weather or what other people might want him to do instead. Jenny really admired the fact that he would stick to his plans, whatever obstacles were in his way. He'd do a few exercises to warm up on the terrace outside the house, and then he'd jog down the winding, tree-lined lane to the woods, where he would pick up speed before coming to the lake. He'd run twice around the lake, which at this time would inevitably be covered in mist, before coming home and having two boiled eggs for breakfast. But first of all, before even leaving the house, he'd have to find the woolly hat he always wore and fill his water bottle. This procedure would take.a few minutes as he always threw his hat and bottle down on a chair in the kitchen when he came back, but he never remembered this the next morning and would therefore spend several grumpy minutes looking for them before he set off on his morning ritual. Jenny heard her father go downstairs and waited for a few moments while she knew he would be filling his water bottle and fetching the back door key from a large hook. She then got out of bed, throwing on an old jumper that hung on the back of the door, in order to fend off the cold that enveloped the big old house at this time of year. She walked over to the window, and just at that moment, as she had anticipated, her father came out onto the terrace, stamping his feet to warm them up, his water bottle in his hand. How reassuring this was, in a world which sometimes seemed so confusing! Jenny's father did his stretching exercises and, after a few minutes, he set off at a jogging speed down the line of leafless birch trees. As usual at this time of year, his movements were the only sign of life on the country lane as he headed off towards the woods and ultimately the lake. Then Jenny noticed something different. It was the figure of a man, his grey jacket camouflaged by the trunks of line 34 the birch trees. Once her father had passed, the man melted out from behind the trees and started to follow him.

192


Everyone's different

Exam practice

II

1

4

What is meant by 'beguiled her' in line 3? A

How did Jenny feel about her father's behaviour? A

tempted her to wake up deceived her into a wrong conclusion distracted her from the clock

C She didn't understand why things never went wrong for him.

What is suggested in the second paragraph about the noise Jenny heard? A

She thought it might be good for him to vary his routine.

She could identify from it what was happening. 5

She was unsure at first where it came from.

Jenny went to the window in order to A make sure her father had everything he needed. see if the weather was suitable for her father to go running.

C She was annoyed because it had disturbed her sleep. C

She wondered if it meant she might still be dreaming. 3

A the fact that her father had already got up the part of the house her father was in

6

The word 'melted' in line 34 is used to emphasise the fact that the person in the trees A didn't realise they had been seen. had been waiting there a long time.

what her father was going to do next where her father had sat down

check that nothing unusual was happening outside. confirm that her father was keeping to his usual habits.

What does 'that' refer to in line 11?

C

She respected the fact that he always did what he intended. She found it imitating that he forgot where he had put things.

C attracted her immediate attention

2

30

C had to hurry to keep up with Jenny's father. didn't want to make any sudden movements.

Exam tip Read each paragraph carefully before you answer the question as it may test more than one or two sentences.

Writing Part 2: article You see this announcement on an international website. Articles wanted What qualities do you look for in your friends? Do they have to be reliable and honest, amusing and good company, or something completely different? Write and tell us what you look for in your friends in general, and describe one of your closest friends. The best articles will be posted on the website. Write your article (140-190 words).

193


E1Copy the table in your notebook and write these activities in the correct column. 'unifies volleyball skating cycling jade squash jogging yoga rugby aerobics walking swimming badminton athletics climbing skateboarding skiing diving hockey snorkelling football table tennis baseball gymnastics sailing snowboarding hiking martial arts surfing ice hockey

go

play

do

running

volleybaLt

judo ...â&#x20AC;&#x201D;.................

GB Complete the sentences below with words from boxes A and B. Some words are used more than once. A a course a court a pitch a track 1 Golf is played with 2 You play squash on 3 You play hockey on 4 Tennis is played on 5 Cricket is played with

clubs

B

a bat clubs a racket a suck

on with using and you need on

One word in the boxes Is not used in sentences 1â&#x20AC;&#x201D;S. What is it, and which sport is it associated with? ilE1 Answer these questions about people who play sports. Someone who goes running is a runner. Which of the other sports in 1.1 add -ea skater, 2 Someone who plays volleyball is a volleyball player. Which of the other sports add player?

3 What is the word for someone who does these each of these sports? cycling

gymnastics:

athletics:


Get active

31

CE listen to three people talking about different sports/activities. Which sports do they describe? Speaker 1:

Speaker 2:

Speaker 3:

Ea ICE Listen again and write the adjectives used to describe each sport Speaker 1:

Speaker 2:

Speaker 3:

E1Write four sentences about a sport you play. Say how you feel about it, what you do and what equipment you use.

a Complete these sentences with the correct form of win or beat. 1 They beat the favourites in the second round and went on to the semi-final. 2

After years of training, Alison finally final and the trophy.

her great rival in the

3

Peter a gold medal in the 10,000 metres, world record by two seconds.

4

Fitzpatrick went on to tenth of a second.

5

There is no one who can the cup.

the race

the his rival by a

them now â&#x20AC;&#x201D; they're bound to

V Vocabulary note We use win for competitions and prizes: win a race, a semi-final, a cup, a medal, a trophy We use beat for people and records: beat another team, an opponent, a rival, a record, a time We use beat (someone) at a game or sport: My brother always beats me at chess.

4.1 The verb run can be used in different ways. To show the meaning in each of these sentences, replace run with one of the verbs below in the correct form. flow manage go do work 1 My cousin has been nirdlig a small restaurant for several years now. 2

Tears of laughter ran down her face as she watched the film.

3

The washing machine is running much better since the electrician came.

managing

4 The mechanics go a final check on the car before the Grand Prix started. 5

There's a bus to the beach which runs several times a day in the summer.

al PHRASAL VERBS Write the correct noun and choose the correct phrasal verb in each of these sentences. children families friends petrol problem teachers 1 If you criticise the frachexs at your college, you run them down / run over them. 2

You often find that dark hair runs in / runs on certain

3 When you meet some 4 When 5

unexpectedly in the street. you run into / run over them.

are very naughty, their parents sometimes run up against / run out of patience.

If you're facing a difficult

you've run up against / run through it.

6 Most cars these days run on / run into unleaded 195


II

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 4 For questions 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Jane Ashdown won the final, pushing Olga Nemitov back to second place.

0

BEATEN Olga Nemitov

was beaten into

second place in the final by Jane Ashdown.

Jill's boss explained all the details of the contract to her, but it took a long time.

1

RUN all the details of the contract with her.

It took Jill's boss a long time 2

France managed to win the trophy at the end of a very tough match. SUCCEEDED the trophy at the end of a very tough match.

France 3

The local garage fixed my car and now it is working well. RUNNING was fixed by the local garage.

My car has 4

The builders faced many problems when they started laying the foundations. RAN of problems when they started laying the foundations.

The builders 5

I first took up sailing seven years ago. WENT time seven years ago.

6

I think Susie has inherited her musical ability from her parents and grandparents. RUNS I think being musical

family.

Writing Part 2: email

Exam II

tip

You must always use the word in the same form as it is given.

You have received this email from your Canadian friend Michael. From: Michael Subject: sport I'm hoping you'll help me with a project I'm doing on sport. Could you write and tell me which sport is most popular in your country and why? And what about you - do you prefer playing sport or watching it? Write soon - thanks a lot! Michael ••••••••MMIIMPINIIi

Write your email (140-190 words).

196


Friends, family and relationships

113 Listen to four people talking about a friendship. How well do they know the person they are talking about? Write A (very well), B (quite well) or C (not well at all). Speaker 1:

Speaker?:

Speaker 3:

Speaker 4:

Use these verbs to complete the extracts from the recording. Then listen again to check enjoy fell fell get get have keep lost make make spoken told

Speaker 1: 1(1)

fe.A.

out with Mike over money. to each other for three months.

We haven't (2) I should (3) We (5)

Speaker 2: 1(6) We (7)

in touch with him to (4) each other everything. madly in love with her. on really well together.

I'd really like to (8) Speaker 3: We (9)

to know her.

each other's company.

We (11)

in touch now.

We (13)

V Vocabulary note

touch for a while.

We (10)

Speaker 4: I don't (12)

up.

We say get engaged/married to someone, but get divorced from someone. We also say go out with someone and propose to someone.

friends easily. things in common.

EN Read what Speaker 1 and Speaker 3 said. Which adjectives do they use withfriend(s)? We were very Our fathers were

friends. friends.

2 He was my 4 Jasmine and I became

friend. friends.

El Here is part of an email. Choose the correct words. As you know, my family moved two months ago. During the summer holidays, my (1) parents/relatives were both busy at work and I didn't know anyone. So I joined a music class to get to (2) know/ meet some people. I very quickly (3) got/made some new friends, although I soon found out that I would never (4) get/ become a brilliant performedOne girl is a (5) neighbour/ colleague who lives in the flat next door to ours and we have lots of things (6) in/on common. We see (7) the /each other nearly every day. We get (8) on/with well together

and we almost never fall (9) down/out! So the move is working out well for me so far.

197


32

My world

Re Which of the people in the box below are relations? Underline them. classmates colleagues cousins partner nephew widow flatmates couple acquaintance neighbours aunt stepfather sister-in-law friend grandparents fiance(e) penfriend

II34 Listen to a teenage girl talldng about her family and friends and mark the statements T (true) or F (false). Correct the sentences that are false. 1 She gets on very well with her stepsister. 2 She thinks family are more important than friends. 3 She and her friends have different interests. 4 She rarely has disagreements with her friends. 5 She met her friend Meena at primary school.

EN Read this biography and choose the correct words. Then put Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;F in the correct order. BIOGRAPHY: David Davies (1818-1890) David Davies made an incredible journey during his (1) lifetime / generation. A He then changed direction and became involved in building railways and then bought more land. His (2)outlook I destiny was decided when he found coal underneath. B In fact, he left school at 11 to work on the land. His father died when he was 20 years old and, as the (3) eldest I older of nine children, he was expected to (4) support I provide the family. C He later became a well-known politician but he never lost touch with his (5) roots / ancestors. He was popular, inspiring (6)obligation / loyalty among his friends, family and workers, paying for schools and chapels in his local (7)household I community. D He worked hard to do so and he managed to buy several farms in the area where he had been (8) brought/grown up. E He became the richest man in Wales even though he didn't come from a wealthy (9) condition / background. F It was from the mines which he set up there that his family made their (10)fortune / funds. After his death, his granddaughters spent some of the money they had (11) inherited/granted from him on paintings, which have since become very famous. When they died, they (12)saved /donated 260 of these paintings to their country and they are now in the museum for everyone to see.

4.1 There are lots of expressions with the word life. Choose one expression to follow each sentence below. She's always enthusiastic and loves being busy.

A That's life.

2 There's no point worrying about things that might not happen.

B It's her life.

3 You should go out more instead of studying every weekend.

C She's full of life.

4 I haven't seen you for ages.

D Get a life!

5 I don't want my daughter to give up her job but it's her decision.

E How's life?

6 The only day it rained last week was the day we chose for our picnic.

F Life's too short.

198


My world

Exam practice

32

Listening Part 3 You will hear five short extracts in which people are talking about a family party. For questions 1-5, choose from the list (A-H) what problem each speaker mentions about the party. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use.

A

The arrangements were unclear. There was no public transport to the venue.

C

The party was less formal than expected.

Speaker 1

1

Speaker 2

2

Speaker 3

3

Speaker 4

4

Speaker 5

5

The quality of the food was poor. Someone fell ill during the party. F

There wasn't enough for the children to do. The venue was unsuitable for some people. There wasn't enough space.

IE

Exam tip

Several speakers may mention something connected to a statement, e.g. something about children or food, but only one speaker will say something which exactly matches it.

Writing Part 1: essay In your English class you have been talking about families. Now your English teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay (140-190 words) using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view.

'You have to be strict to be a good parent.' Do you agree with this statement? Notes Write about: 1 whether it's good for children to have rules to follow 2 whether children need to learn from their own mistakes (your own idea) 3

it

Exam tip

Remember to write about both the points in the notes and an idea of your own. There should be a clear conclusion at the end of your essay.

199


141 Moving around Big The words in the box are from the text below, Is the text about a journey by train, car, plane, bus or underground? board control crew gate headset pass passport security terminal visa

Now read the text and complete it with the words in the box. First of all, don't forget to check that your (1) passport is up to date and to find out whether you need a (2) for the country you are visiting. Also, if you are travelling from a large airport, make sure you go to the right (3) as there is sometimes more than one. When you arrive at the check-in desk, your bags will be weighed and you will be given a boarding (4) with your seat number, if you haven't already checked in online. You then proceed to the departure lounge after going through passport and undergoing a (6) (5) check. Look at the departure (7) in the lounge so you know which (8)

number you must go to when it's time to board. The cabin

(9) will direct you to your seat on the plane, and you have to fasten your seat belt before take-off. You will be served refreshments and most companies provide an entertainment system with a (10)

iJ Listen to four descriptions of journeys. What form of transport is each person describing? 1

2

3

4

cg

Listen again and underline the words below as you hear them. Then look at the words you didn't hear. What form of transport are they associated with? carriages commute double-deckers escalators fares landing meter pass platform rank runway rush hour season ticket seats single-deckers sliding doors stop tip wing

Use these words to complete the sentences below. accommodation carpark cash coin equipment hotel luggage parking suitcase tent transport vehicle 1 There's no need to take a lot of

2

There's plenty of

3

You need to take quite a lot of

luggage

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; you should be able to pack all your clothes into one

available in Paris and we found a really nice on a camping holiday, like a

4 You don't need to have a lot of

near a metro station. and a sleeping bag.

with you when you travel, but make sure you've got a

for the trolley at the airport. 5

I realised that

6

I found that public

200

was impossible on the street, so I drove into a in Barcelona was excellent, so I never needed a

as soon as I saw one. to get around.


Moving around

33

Eig Check your answers for 2.1 and then decide whether the words in the box are countable or uncountable. Mark them C or U in the box. BB Complete the sentences with travel, journey or trip. trio

to Mexico City with

They set off on the difficult they didn't arrive until after dark.

before dawn, and

1 In August, I'm going on a my brother. 2

round the

3 We went on a three-hour boat island.

all next week, but I'll 4 He's away on a business give him the message when he returns. 5

I know rail but I really enjoy it.

takes longer than going by plane,

to New 6 I'm really looking forward to my Zealand. I'll have lots to talk about when I get back. makes you

7 My parents have always said that more independent. 8

V Vocabulary note Travel can be a verb or a noun. When it is a noun, it is uncountable and describes the activity of travelling: Air travel is becoming increasingly popular We use journey to describe going from one place to another. It is a countable noun. The journey from home to work takes two hours. We use trip to describe a short journey somewhere when you go for a short time and then come back. It is a countable noun. My friend and I went on a weekend trip to Amsterdam. We go on a trip or a journey. We also make a journey and take a trip.

to college each morning?

How long is your

MB CR Listen to a woman and a boy talking about the kind of holidays they like. Write the answers they would give to the questions below. Woman:

1

Boy:

1

5

2

3

4

5

6

2

3

4

5

6

1 How do you usually travel when you go on holiday? A by road 2

C by boat

Where do you usually go for a holiday? A to a quiet spot near home

3

B by train

B to a resort in my own country

C somewhere abroad

What kind of holiday do you usually take? A an activity holiday

B a seaside holiday

C a sightseeing holiday

B getting fit and doing exercise

C relaxing and having fun

B at a relative or friend's home

C at a campsite

4 What do you like doing on holiday? A visiting museums and sites 5

Where do you stay on holiday? A in a hotel or guesthouse

6

What is the best thing about having a holiday? A getting to know new places

B getting away from routine

C getting together with family

eel How would you answer the questions in 3.1? Write a paragraph about what kind of holiday you usually take, which activities you enjoy doing and why.

201


Exam practice 11

Reading and Use of English Part 4 For questions 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). 0

The report contains a few details that need explaining. INFORMATION is some, information in There

1

the report that needs explaining.

We travelled from Edinburgh to London by car. JOURNEY We

2

from Edinburgh to London by car.

My friend and I took a short break in Copenhagen last week. TRIP My friend and I went

3

Copenhagen last week.

Have you succeeded in booking a room in London yet? ACCOMMODATION Have you managed

4

in London yet?

I prefer flying to taking the train. TRAVEL I'd

5

train than fly.

For me, visiting new places is the best thing about a holiday. ON I personally think that the best thing to

6

to visit new places.

The flight I made to Australia was the longest I've ever been on. TAKEN I've never

the one I went on to Australia.

Writing Part 2: article You see the following announcement in an international magazine. Articles wanted The longest journey What is the longest journey you have ever made? Write an article describing your journey, explaining how you felt about it and why you were making it. The best articles will be published next month. Write your article (140-190 words)

202


Time off Leism time, hobbles and games

zw)

Listen to two people, Christa and James, talking about what they do in their free time. What

do they prefer doing going out or staying in? Speaker 2 (James):

Speaker 1 (Christa):

BEI (34J Listen again and mark what each person says they do: C for Christa and J for James. 7 watch sport on TV

13 go to the beach

2 go to a party

8 paint and draw

14 go surfing

3 cook with friends

9 collect old postcards

15 go swimming

1 eat out with friends

J

4 have a takeaway

10 go to junk shops

16 watch DVDs

5 play music

11 go clubbing

17 play online games

6 cook for myself

12 go to the cinema

18 read a book

Which of the phrases above could you use to describe your leisure time?

MI Put the expressions in the correct place in the table below (some can go in more than one place).

Then add any expressions from 1.2 to the table.

a barbecue cards a club a concert a coffee a drive a film friends round games a match a party a play a quiet night in a restaurant shopping the theatre TV a walk

staying in

going out

have a party

go

watch TV

go to

play

go for

1.4

Write two sentences about the things you prefer to do in your free time. Use some of the expressions

from 1.2 and 1.3. When I have some free time, I prefer to

and I also enjoy ... and ...

I don't really like ... or... 203


3

4 Time off

0 0 0

Match the pictures with the words for games and pastimes. 1 jigsaw G

2 crossword

4 dominoes 7 chess

3

5 scrabble

V Vocabulary note

computer game

We play games, e.g. chess. We do puzzles, e.g. a crossword. We collect objects, e.g. stamps.

6 backgammon

8 sudoku

Es Complete this paragraph about hobbies, using the correct form of play, do and collect. Everyone in my family has a hobby. My brother (1) plays chess; he only took it up recently and he is really good at it. My sister (2)

unusual shells and my parents (3)

the crossword in the

newspaper every day. As for me, someone showed me how sudoku puzzles work and I've really taken to them, so I (4)

them all the time now. When we're all together, we often (S)

we sometimes (6)

scrabble and

board games like snakes and ladders or backgammon too.

El! PHRASAL VERBS Match these phrasal verbs with an object and a meaning. take after take off take out take over take to take up take on

Object a few days a business someone you've just met money space

Meaning withdraw accept resemble fill up develop a liking for gain control of spend time away from work

someone in your family responsibility

V Vocabulary note Take up means to begin doing something as a hobby: I took up chess last year. Take to means to really enjoy doing something: I've really taken to sudoku puzzles.

la Use the phrasal verbs with take to complete these sentences. 1 I 2

took to

Gemma's flatmate, Kate, as soon as I met her.

I couldn't pay for my courseboolcs by card, so I

some cash at lunchtime.

3 Peter

several days so that he could attend his sister's wedding.

4 Luke

his father â&#x20AC;&#x201D; he looks and sounds just like him at times.

5 Amanda's decided to

some more teaching now the children are older.

6

GDC Electronics has finally

7

The piano

204

its rival, Telectrical.

a lot of space downstairs, but we all enjoy playing it.


Time off

Exam practice

34

Reading and Use of English Part 3 For questions 1-6, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. Them is an example at the beginning (0).

The benefits of having a hobby evilysnent

Hobbies can add (0)

to everyday life. Sometimes the daily routine

EXCITE

at work or school starts to drag, making you feel that everything is a bit (1)

, and in these circumstances a hobby offers fun and escape

POINT COMMIT

from your regular (2) In fact, (3)

pastimes such as watching Nor listening to music,

LIKE

if there is a

ADD

a hobby usually involves learning new skills. In (4)

social element to the hobby, you will have to interact with other people and so go . It is also very positive to feel that you are

on to form new (5) making progress with your own (6)

development, and as well as

FRIEND PERSON

giving you the chance to learn new skills, a hobby will be a way of building on the (7)

you already have. It's certainly the case that the more different

STRONG TRUE

activities you try as hobbies, the closer you'll get to being (8) fulfilled and the better you'll get to know yourself.

If Exam tip Think about what type of word is needed grammatically, e.g. an adjective, noun or verb.

Writing Part 2: email You have received this email from your English-speaking friend Karen.

From:

Karen Subject: new hobby Hi I'm interested in taking up a new hobby, and I wondered if you could help. What hobbies are popular in your country? And could you tell me which hobby you would advise me to try, and why? Thanks a lot, Karen

Write your email (140-190 words).

205


E!! Which of these phrases describe the place where you live? a port a market town a new town/city a seaside town a capital city an industrial town/city a rural area a historic town/city

09 Match each sentence with one of the cities in the photos.

1

In addition, its wide open spaces and the latest leisure facilities make it an ideal location for a family day out.

2

But now that cars have been banned from the narrow stone streets, a walk through the picturesque centre is even more pleasant.

3

The city is in the heart of one of the country's fastest growing regions and is only about 60 years old.

4

You'll certainly want to stop for a while in the beautiful old market square which is completely unspoiled.

5

During that time it has grown into a modern city with up-to-date shopping centres and lively nightlife.

6

The city has always been famous for its ancient churches and impressive medieval buildings.

Og The sentences in 1.2 are from two tourist information brochures but they are mixed up. Put them in the correct order. City A: Sentences

6

,

City B: Sentences

ea Underline any words or expressions in 1.2 which you could use to describe your home town or city or the town nearest to where you live. Which words below could you also use about your town or city? many attractions delightful parks huge temple cosmopolitan atmosphere ancient mosque famous art gallery interesting museum ruined castle quiet and peaceful full of life

206


Where you live

a 4ES

35

Listen to a woman talking about living in a city. Which of the cities in the photos does she live

in now, A or 8?

igE

Listen again and mark these statements T (true) or F (false).

She lives on the edge of the city. The part of the city where she lives is very crowded.

2

3 She lives within cycling distance of the shopping mall. 4

She takes the bus to the centre because it's hard to park there.

5

She moved because she wanted to live somewhere more peaceful.

6

The area where she used to live was well looked after.

Complete the sentences with words you heard in the recording. Then read the script to check En your answers. estate is where people

estate is a large group of houses or flats and an i 1 A housing district. work, often in a b 2

area is a part of a city or town where people live. People often live on the edge of a city Ar Or S which is sometimes called the o

3

An office b

is another name for a building with many offices. with a wide range of stores.

4

Modern towns usually have a shopping m

5

A car park on several levels is called am

6

Areas or buildings that are in bad condition have been n

7

Bicycles and buses are sometimes separated from other traffic in a bus/cycle I

-s

car park.

ElEl Where do people do the things below (1-10)? Each answer is two words. Choose the second word from the box and write both words in the puzzle. alley centre centre centre gallery ground hall park rank rink stadium 1 go swimming and do other fitness activities 2

visit the doctor

3

leave their vehicle

4

look at paintings

5

listen to music

6

hire a cab

7 watch matches 8

go skating

9

compete in an indoor ball game

10

buy a variety of things

OBUUMREI MOMBREI MN= IMMO MN WM MMM MMMMIMM MMIZIMMMI MMIIM MMMM MOW. all MUM OMMIIMMM MM. in MUM MEM

Find one word going down the puzzle and match it with the remaining word from the box above. ea What do people do there?

207


Exam practice

II

Reading and Use of English Part 1 For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

New York City New York City has (0)

B

into the second largest city in North America. It has long been a major

business cultural and shopping centre (1)

millions of visitors each year. Most tourists stay in the

of the city, Manhattan, where you can see the sights on foot or take a tour bus. In the main residential areas are on the (4) some districts are quite in (5)

of the city where, as in all large cities,

of repair.

During your visit you may want to take a boat trip to Ellis Island, where you can stop for a (6) to read about the history of immigration. Many tourists also visit Queens, which has some interesting art galleries, and Brooklyn for cafĂŠs, shops and (7) Central Park, a huge open (8)

nightlife. Finally, you will certainly want to visit

which is ideal for relaxing on a hot summer day.

0

A become

0 grown

C increased

D extended

1

A appealing

B advancing

C arriving

D attracting

2

A heart

B interior

C focus

D root

3

A response

B practice

C contrast

D reality

4

A suburbs

B surroundings

C borders

D outskirts

5

A demand

B wish

C need

D requirement

6

A period

B while

C duration

D piece

7

A vivid

B cheerful

C bright

D lively

8

A extension

B region

C space

D estate

Writing Part 2: article You see this notice on an international travel website. Articles wanted My local town or city We're looking for articles about the town or city where you live. Write us an article about the places of interest there, both old and new. Say whether you think it is a good place to live, and explain why / why not. The best articles will be posted on the website next month. Write your article (140-190 words)

208


BEI CR

Listen to three people. What kind of food is each person describing Mexican. Italian or Chinese?

Speaker 1:

Speaker 2:

Speaker 3:

Listen again and write down the words that gave you the correct answers. BEI on The verbs in bold describe ways to prepare food. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence.

2

3

4

I poured myself a glass of orange iuice / coffee.

5

To make an omelette, beat the potatoes / eggs in a bowl.

Grate the cheese / meat before putting it on the pizza.

6

You'll need to melt the butter / cream.

Chop the vegetables / salad for the soup into small pieces.

7

Slice the lemon / nuts very thinly.

8

Stir the cereal /sauce regularly while it cooks.

You can't eat a(n) banana / apple without peeling it first!

EH Read this text from a restaurant website. Mark the sentences below T (true) or F (false). Correct the sentences that are false.

fresh juices soft drinks tea coffee

We have listed some of our best-selling starters and main meals to help you decide what to order on yourfirst visit. You will find an explanation of these dishes by clicking here. Our restaurant serves a range of popular dishes from different parts of Asia. Our menu consists of starters, main meals, side dishes and desserts. Your order is taken on a handheld computer and sent to the kitchen, where it is cooked immediately. We want to ensure the freshness of your food so your dish will be delivered to your table as soon as it is ready. This means different dishes may be delivered at different times to your table. Don't wait - just tuck in and share!

1.

Various dishes are described on the website.

2

The restaurant prepares unusual recipes from a variety of places.

3

This is a self-service restaurant.

4

Food is microwaved to ensure speed of service.

5

This restaurant caters for family dining.

6

Some of the meals served are straightforward to make at home.

We provide a number of dishes designed specifically for children. Come and check out the specials, which change each week. You can buy our cookbook and easily re-create some of our dishes at home by following the recipes.

A cooker is what you cook on: Don't touch the cooker â&#x20AC;&#x201D; its hot. The person who cooks is a cook My husband is a very good cook.


36

Shared tastes

EH We use the word taste literally when we talk about food. But we also use it to express our preferences in other areas, like an, fashion or films. Match the two halves of these sentences. A as I thought it was really tasteless.

1 The sauce smells lovely

although portraits are more to my taste.

2 I've always loved

C so I told her she had good taste in clothes!

3 I enjoyed the meal last night 4 I loved Joanna's new dress

but I'll taste it to see if it needs salt.

5 I didn't enjoy the film

because its really tasteful.

6 I like abstract paintings

because everything I ate was really tasty.

7 I like the way the gallery is decorated

the taste of garlic

Igig Write these adjectives with their definitions below: tasty, tasteful, tasteless. 1 in bad taste

2 delicious

3 in good taste

Oa Complete each paragraph with the words in the box above it. prints oil paintings deawings water colours you'll need a drawings ,you'll need a pencil, but to do 1 If you want to do brush and some water. Many of the famous pictures which are on public display, like the Mona Lisa, are of them . Even if you can never buy these pictures, you can often get so you can have a copy of your favourite picture on the wall. sculptures textiles jewellery pottery 2

to describe objects made out of clay, like vases. Materials woven by We use the word . Since ancient times, people have worn hand or machine are known as of their gods and animals. such as necklaces and bracelets and made still life abstract portrait landscape

3

is a picture of objects that is a picture of a person, but a(n) A(n) is a picture of the countryside, but a(n) do not move, like fruit, flowers or bowls. A(n) painting shows line, shape and colour and does not attempt to be realistic

Big Choose the correct words in this text. Then underline any phrases you could use in your own writing. I'm fairly artistic. I do some painting, mostly (I) sketches/pill lifes but my big interest is (2)pottery / jewellery and I make a lot of vases and bowls. I also go to art (3) collections / exhibitions, mostly small ones in the local area; I don't go to big (4) galleries/studios very much these days.

I don't like abstract paintings because they seem to be just shapes and lines. I prefer something more (5) creative / conventional in (6) style / presentation, and what I really like is (7)countrysides /landscapes. although I sometimes find portraits interesting too. My favourite picture is Niagara Falls', by an artist called Albert Bierstadt It is so (8)picturesque / realistic that when I look at it I can almost hear the waterfall and feel the water. The (9) shades/colours are fantasti and it's absolutely (10) extensive / huge, which is what makes it so (11) effective / impressive. Write a paragraph about your own skills and taste in art. Use vocabulary from 3.1 and 3.2 to help you. 210


Shared tastes

Exam practice

36

Listening Part 2 OE,You will hear a talk by an art student about an Australian artist called Anna Roberts. For questions 1-10, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.

Anna has become well known for pictures of really (1)

places.

if she can.

Anna often walks to these places, but sometimes she gets there by (2) In her paintings Anna always tries to show that (3)

is extremely beautiful.

Her paintings tend to be very realistic, particularly those of (4) Anna has recently done some paintings of the (5)

which look like photos. using yellow and orange. is shown.

Her paintings are said to be special because of the way the (8) rather than on other surfaces.

Anna prefers painting on (7)

Although she has worked with other types of paint, Anna prefers to use (8) Anna's paintings are sold to (9)

paint.

as well as private collectors.

In addition to being a painter, Anna has written (10)

if

about painting.

Exam tip

The answers for the gaps will be exactly the same as the words you hear. You do not have to make any changes.

Writing Part 1: essay In your English class you have been talking about eating habits now and in the past. Now your teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay (140-190 words) using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view.

Do you think people in your country eat better or worse than they did 50 years ago? Notes Write about: 1 what kind of food people eat 2 how much food people eat 3 (your own idea)

211


Television, cinema and theatre

Effl t

win Listen to three people talking about their favourite TV programmes. What types of programmes are they/ Choose from the words in the box. chat show comedy costume drama current affairs documentary reality TV show soap opera

Speaker 1:

Speaker 2:

Speaker 3:

lag Match the types of programmes in 1.1 with these definitions. comeaq

1

a programme which aims to be humorous

2

a programme which consists of discussion and analysis of recent events

3

programmes with episodes broadcast daily or several times a week, following the lives of a cast of characters

4

a factual programme giving information about a certain subject

5

a programme telling a story set some time ago in the past

6

a programme or series in which people are filmed without a script in a particular situation to see how they behave

7

an informal programme in which famous people are asked questions about themselves and their work

EE Does your favourite TV programme fit into one of the categories in 1.1? Tick the expressions below that you could use to talk about it. It makes me laugh. It's so entertaining. The acting is brilliant. The storylines are gripping. ICs really good drama. I love the characters. The plots are good. It's quite compelling.

Write a brief paragraph about your favourite TV programme. Use words/phrases from 1.1. and 1.3. Complete the sentences with these verbs. heard listened to looked at read about saw saw watched

1 He turned round and suddenly 2

Sadie always

Abby standing in the doorway.

music while she was working. the map to see where they were.

3

Tim

4

I

5

We

6

Kate stood by the window and

7

I

212

sow

an advert in the newspaper yesterday for a course in jewellery-making. the sound of a motorbike coming down the road. It was Mark. her children playing in the snow.

Johnny Depp's new film in a magazine.


Entertain me

37

V Vocabulary note We can see things without trying: I saw Rob when I was in the supermarket. When we look at, watch or read about something, we make an effort She looked at the clock to see what the time was. We watch things for a period of time and they are usually moving or changing: Ispent Saturday afternoon watching Jake playfootball. We hear things without trying but when we listen to something we make an effort: We stopped playing when we heard the whistle. I like to listen to the radio on Sunday mornings.

giu Look at the words below. Write C if they are for the cinema/films, T if they are for the theatre/plays or B if they are for both. 1 actor 2

13

audience

8

director

15

reviews

9

interval

16

scenery screen

3

box office

10

location

17

4

cartoon

11

musical

18

soundtrack

5

cast

12

performance

19

special effects

6

costumes

13

plot

20

stage

7

critic

14

rehearsal

21

subtitles

MI ICU Listen to two people talking about whether they prefer going to the cinema or the theatre. Which does each one prefer, and why? The girl prefers going to the The man prefers going to the

because because

lag Which do you prefer, and why? Write a short paragraph. 4.1 135-3) listen to two people each talking about a film they have enjoyed. Underline the adjectives they use. Listen again if you need to. brilliant confusing convincing delightful dramatic dull fascinating gripping imaginative irritating lively memorable moving outstanding predictable stunning superb tedious uninspired

nr â&#x20AC;˘

All the adjectives in the box above can be used with the words film, play and story. Mark them P if they have a positive meaning and N if they have a negative meaning.

4.3 Choose the appropriate adjectives in this paragraph. Friends had recommended a new thriller called 'Green Line'. They said that the plot was absolutely (1)foscinating/ predictable and that lead actor Gene Bruno gave a really (2) dull/brilliant performance. But I was bitterly disappointed when I went to see it. I found the plot totally (3) imaginative/confusing and hard to follow. The directing was very (4) uninspired/gripping as well â&#x20AC;&#x201D; probably because the story, which was based on a case of mistaken identity, was horribly (5) tedious /stunning. 213


Exam practice

II

Reading and Use of English Part 7 You are going to read an article about four people describing their favourite type of media. For questions 1-10, choose from the people (Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;D). The people may be chosen more than once.

Which person says that they ignored someone else's opinion?

1

mentions how they started to develop a daily routine?

2

is aware that their interest in a type of media is illogical?

3

describes a type of media that has lasted although it wasn't expected to?

4

describes a feeling of anticipation?

5

appreciates being shown a lifestyle they will never have?

6

does not share a common reaction that people have?

7

mentions how much mental effort is required by a type of media?

8

appreciates being able to find something to suit their mood?

9

mentions the increasing popularity of a type of media?

10

A Eleanor Radio is still alive, despite all the predictions. It has been around for so long that it is part of the scenery. However much TV opens the eyes, I still love to close mine and listen. And I'm not the only one, as listening figures are rising again. In fact, despite 1Pods and downloads and podcasts, 91% of us still listen to a radio station each week. For me this comes as no surprise. It's the only medium that still requires my imagination to work hard. We can't see the people talking; we have to picture them and, more importantly, to really listen to what they're saying rather than getting distracted by their haircut or clothes as you might do watching TV. And of course, the voices we hear age slower and change less than faces. A Theo It may be unfashionable, but I love my daily newspaper. I know I could get the same things on my iPad or smartphone, but for me, nothing quite beats the feeling of sitting down with my newspaper every morning. It's like that moment when the orchestra starts to play, before the theatre curtain rises. You're not sure exactly what's going to happen, but you know you'll enjoy the experience. I didn't discover newspapers until I first began working in the city. While my bus journey lasted 45 minutes, the emotional journey of reading the newspaper took me much further. By the time I arrived, I would feel interested, informed and ready to face the day. While I often look at online news for the latest updates, it is simply not the same as turning the pages of a newspaper.

214


Entertain me

Exam practice

37

II

C Alessandro TV is my favourite, much more than newspapers, radio, or even the internat. An evening on my sofa with the TV guide in front of me - I love it. There's so much to choose from! Sometimes if I'm tired or fed up, I'll watch a silly comedy but if I've had a boring day, I'll look for something more exciting or maybe informative. A lot of people say they feel guilty when they're watching television. That's because it's easily available and requires a minimum amount of effort, whereas for other forms of entertainment you might have to go out or dress up or talk to other people. I have to say I don't feel this way - for me its pure pleasure. D !Catarina Although my parents never actually banned my sister and me from buying glossy magazines, they didn't approve of them either. They thought thern silly and irrelevant, but from the first moment I flipped through a fashion magazine, I was hooked. It's strange really, as I don't particularly care about fashion. Yet each month I read articles about beauty treatments and look at dresses that cost more than my monthly rent. I am very aware that I am an outsider, looking in at a life I don't live. But from the very beginning, these glimpses into other lives have been a large part of why I love glossy magazines: they provided different perspectives, different ways to exist in the world. Of course, they aren't perfect. They are the end product of several thriving industries: advertising, entertainment, big business. I've stopped purchasing many of them because they became just too distant from my lifestyle, but I could never give them up entirely.

Exam tip Underline the answer to each question in the text and check that the words in the text mean exactly the same as the question.

Writing Part 2: review You see this notice on an international website.

TV reviews wanted Is there a TV series in your country that has been popular for a long time? Write us a review describing the series. Explain why it is popular, whether it is suitable for different age groups and whether you think viewers in other countries would enjoy it too. The best reviews will be posted on the website next month.

Witte your review (140-190 words).

2I5


ge Look at these groups of words about houses. Which is the odd one out in each group? Why? 1 cellar basement loft

Tho o under the roof-, the others cut below the house.

2 lounge mansion staircase 3 flowerbed hedge fence 4 shutters curtains carpet 5 cement wardrobe wood 6 shed lobby garage

FE Look at the pictures of houses and label them with these words. bricks chimney fence gayage gate hedge shutters terrace

Mil051 Listen to a girl talking about her home. Which picture is she describing?

Elp CIE Listen again. Then, in your notebook, list the ways in which the house described is similar to yours, and the ways in which it is different. OM Use your notes from 1.4 to write a paragraph describing your house/flat.

V

Vocabulary note

In Britain, the word flat is used. In the US, apartment is always used, and this word has become common in British English too.

216


Home territory

38

Ell Read this extract from a novel quickly and answer the questions below. Don't worry about any words you do not understand. As we neared Black Oak, we passed the Clench farm, home of Foy and Lever' Clench and their eight children, all of whom, I was certain, were still in the fields. No one worked harder than the Clenches. Even the children seemed to enjoy picking cotton and doing the most routine chores around the farm.The hedges around the front yard were

perfectly manicured into shape. The fences were straight and needed no repair. The garden was huge and its legendary yield fed the family all year. And their house was painted. Our house had been built before the first War, back when indoor bathrooms and electricity were unheard of. Its exterior was built from clapboards made of oak, probably cut from trees on the land which we now farmed. With time and weather the boards had faded to a pale brown colour, pretty much the same colour as the other farmhouses around Black Oak. According to my father and grandparents, paint was unnecessary.The boards were kept clean and in good repair, and besides, paint cost money. My mother vowed to herself that she would not raise her children on a farm. She would one day have a house in a town or in a city, a house with indoor plumbing and flowers around the porch, and with paint on the boards, maybe even bricks. 'Paint' was a sensitive word around our farm.

1 What was the main difference between the Clenches' house and the writer's? 2 Where would the writer's mother have preferred to live? Why?

ElEl When you don't understand a word you should try to guess its meaning. Look at these words in the text above and try to answer the questions without a dictionary. 4 Oak is a kind of

1 Routine chores are

A brick.

B repetitive games. A everyday tasks. C time-consuming jobs.

5 Vowed means

2 The words perfectly manicured refer to the hedges and mean A well watered. C carefully cut.

B cement. C wood.

A encouraged.

B promised. C dared.

6 'Paint' was a sensitive word around the farm because the writer's mother

B heavily fertilised.

A had a row with the rest of the family about it. B desperately wanted to live in a painted house. C was jealous of the neighbours' farm.

3 The legendary yield of the garden refers to A the flowers grown there. B the vegetables it produced. C the animals that lived there.

EEI Who do you call to deal with problems around the house? Match each expert with a problem (1 -5). builder decorator electrician

service agent

1 The tap in the kitchen is dripping and the pipe under the kitchen sink is leaking.

Plumber

2 You'd like some new lighting installed. 3 Your dishwasher has broken down while it's still under guarantee. 4 You'd like a new patio made outside your house. 5

You'd like your living room painted and you don't have time to do it yourself. 217


Exam practice

II

Reading and Use of English Part 3 For questions 1-6, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

What makes a house a home? From an (0) "thAtif)Plani

point of view, creating a home is all about the very

EVOLUTION

basic need to have somewhere warm and safe where you can raise a family. These days, however, our domestic (1)

are where we can truly find a way

SURROUND

to express ourselves. Turning a house into a home is less about the building itself and where it is than the (2)

connection and sense of comfort we're able

EMOTION

to establish there. According to experts, making a house a feel-good space is about (3)

SURE

that it reflects both our lifestyle and our (4)

whether that means a

PERSON

apartment. Some people,

LUXURY

shared student house or an absolutely (5) for example, are very (6)

to visuals, so feel disorientated when things

SENSE

are out of place. For others, having a peaceful spot to sit and read will be the main Yet whatever home means to us individually, we all have high (8)

of it because many of our most significant memories are

REQUIRE EXPECT

created there.

Writing Part 1: essay In your English class you have been talking about the advantages and disadvantages of riving in a house or an apartment. Now your teacher has asked you to write an essay. Write an essay (140-190 words) using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view.

Is It better to Dye in a house or an apartment? Why? Notes Write about: 1 where you want to live 2 what facilities you need 3 (your own idea)

218


Green planet Science the,enronrnent

These are things that scientists do as part of their work. For 1-3, match each verb with a noun or phrase. Check your answers, then tick the things you have done while studying science. work

data into a computer

collect exciting discoveries

make

as part of a team

make do

enter observations

-) make

conferences statistics

data

attend

experiments

interpret predictions

Write the words for scientists with the things they study (1-7). astronomer biologist chemist ecologist geologist mathematician physicist 1 rocks:

geologtse

2 substances:

3 stars:

7 numbers and shapes:

6 matter and energy:

5 living things:

4 the environment.

Ein WORD BUILDING Complete the table. Person (noun) astronomer

biologist

chemist

ecologist

geologist

mathematician physicist

Subject (noun) astronomy Adjective

astronomical.

1.4 Read the texts about two famous scientists. Answer the questions below with N (Newton), L (Lovelock) or B (both). Isaac Newton (1642-1727) had a profound impact on astronomy, physics and mathematics. He was raised by his grandparents and it was thanks to an uncle that he went to university to study mathematics. He made the first modern telescope and developed a branch of mathematics known as calculus. He is also famous for developing the scientific laws of motion and the law of gravity, which formed the basis of all models of the cosmos. James Lovelock (b. 1919) first graduated as a chemist, and then obtained degrees in

medicine and biophysics. He produced a range of technical instruments, many of which are now used by NASA in space exploration. He is most famous for the Gaia Theory, which considers planet Earth as a living being, capable of changing and restoring itself. He brought his concern about climate change to the attention of both the public and the scientific world. Which scientist ... 1 obtained a degree in chemistry?

1

4 developed theories of global importance?

2

invented a scientific instrument?

5 had a keen interest in green issues?

3

worried about the future of the Earth?

6 showed a talent for mathematics? 219


39

Green planet

El There are currently many problems with the environment. Match the two halves of the sentences. 1 Global warming means that the weather

A pollute the air in most cities.

2 Heavy traffic and exhaust flumes

B is taken to rubbish dumps.

3 The emissions produced by factories

C have caused serious flooding.

4 The chemicals used on crops in the countryside

D create acid rain which destroys crops.

5 Heavy rain and rising water levels in rivers

E is becoming more extreme.

6 Most households produce large amounts of waste which

F are dangerous to birds and other wildlife.

ElE1 Underline the problems in 2.1 which exist in your area/country, and then write a short paragraph about them.

[El CIE Listen to a student talking about how he tries to live in a green way. Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). Correct the false sentences. 1 He recycles as much of his rubbish as he can. 2

He switches off electrical equipment to avoid wasting power.

3 He never sleeps with the air-conditioning on. 4 He puts an extra sweater on instead of turning up the heating. 5

He buys organic food which is produced in his local area.

6

He mostly walks or uses public transport rather than driving. Write a short paragraph about yourself, explaining how green you are.

al Read this text from a town council leaflet and choose the correct words. It is now widely accepted that pollution (1) injures/hurts / harms humans, the environment and buildings. Some pollution spreads across local and national (2) barriers / boundaries/ limits and lasts for many generations. For example, if the crops in our fields are sprayed carelessly, the chemicals have an immediate effect on local wildlife and can ultimately (3) turn out/ end up/put down in our food. Burning fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal also (4) causes / gives / begins pollution, in particular carbon dioxide, which contributes to global (5) heating/ warming / melting. In our region eight out of the ten hottest years on (6) account / record / report have occurred during the last decade. We should therefore (7) develop / stimulate / assist the use of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy, because these do not (8) bring / create / invent carbon dioxide. However, the biggest single cause of pollution in our city is traffic. Poorly maintained, older vehicles and bad driving techniques (9) increase / make / do the problem worse, and this pollution has been directly (10) combined / associated / linked to the rising number of asthma sufferers in our region. We should be aiming to gradually (11) keep out/ take in /cut down vehicle use in the city and educate the public on the importance of purchasing environmentally friendly vehicles and maintaining them to a high (12)grade/ mark / standard.

220


Green planet

Exam practice

39

Listening Part 4 OE You will hear an interview with an Australian sheep farmer called Gina Ellis, who is talking about her work and plans for the future. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer (A, B or C).

1

What does Gina say about sheep farming in Australia?

5

What made Gina become interested in a new source of energy? A She wanted to help other farmers in her area.

A It is a growing source of employment. It takes place all over the country.

It fitted in with her green view of life.

C It is restricted to cooler areas.

C She hoped to make money from it. 2

What is the main challenge facing farmers who produce wool? A

6

competition from artificial materials

A It has encouraged her to lead a more ecofriendly lifestyle.

falling production levels C increasingly dry weather 3

insulating buildings. C making clothes. 4

It has taught her to analyse financial issues.

Gina says that in the future wool will have most potential in A manufacturing carpets.

What alternative form of energy is Gina investigating? A

What does Gina say about the advice she has received in England?

C It has convinced her that she has to give up farming. 7

How does Gina feel about her project? A She's worried about high costs. She's aware that her plans need adapting. C She's confident that she can succeed.

solar power water power

C wind power

it Exam tip The questions come in the order you hear the information.

Writing Part 2: letter You have received a letter from your English-speaking friend Alice.

My college is aiming to become as environmentally friendly as possible, starting with recycling and anew heating system. The students have been asked to make suggestions too, so I'm looking for ideas. Is your college green? Do you do anything to help the environment which might be useful at our college too? Thanks, Alice

ft Exam tip Remember, you can express any opinion you like. You could say that your college is very green, and explain in what ways. But you could also say that your college isn't green at all and explain why.

Write your letter (140-190 words). 221


NMI

FISiur SCecipts

Injn NMI MERE

("Liere

M ATH

° ° ° ° °

^AA", 0

Write these publications in the correct category. atlas biography brochure catalogue cookery book detective story fantasy ghost story guidebook romance science fiction novel textbook thriller Reference: Galas Fiction: Publicity: Quickly read this extract from a book. Don't worry about words you do not understand. What kind of book do you think it is from? Choose from the list in 1.1. I peered into the barn. A man was crouching in the corner, alive but groaning. As I crept towards him, I heard a shriek from behind me and a dark figure darted across the path with another one following. I dashed out of the barn, yelling at them to stop. Suddenly, several torches were shining in my eyes and I stumbled and fell, whimpering in pain as! twisted my ankle.

Find three verbs and a noun which describe sounds. Underline them. Find four verbs which describe ways of moving. Circle them. If there are words you don't understand, guess what they mean. Read the extract again and guess the meaning of the words you have marked. Then check in a dictionary.

1.4

Here are some more words often used in fiction. Which is the odd one out in each group? Why?

1 notice

glimpse

2 nod

gaze

peer

3 spot

blink

view

4 tremble

witness

stare

5 observe

sigh

glance

222

breathe


Read all about it

40

El Read this review and choose the correct words, Then underline any expressions you could use in a review about a book you like.

My (1) favourite/best thriller is by the (2) novelist/journalist Sophie Hannah and it is (3) called/named Taint of Rescue'. It was the first psychological thriller I read and I will always (4) remember/remind it for that reason. It's a great example of totally believable (6) non-fiction / fiction, and it has a cunning and unpredictable plot. The story is so well written you feel as though you are in the same room as the (6) characters/personalities and the (7) relationships / relatives between them are brilliantly developed. If you don't want to buy it, you may be able to (8) borrow/ lend it from a (9) library/ bookshop if you (10) request/ask it. Sophie Hannah puts together a tightly written tale which is a thoroughly (11) entertaining/entertained read. It's a book you won't be able to put down until you have finished the last (12) chapter / verse.

ica 57 Listen to a girl talking about her favourite crime novels and answer the questions below. 1 Why does she enjoy reading crime novels? 2

What is special about the novels of her favourite writer?

Ell CB

Listen again and complete these sentences with the words the girl uses. crime novels.

Well, I'm 2

I'm on a long flight.

I read a lot of them,

when I read those stories, so it's like doing a crossword.

3

It

4

I feel that all the scientific detail is a

5

I

6

His stories

7

His hero is a

for me.

read something by Lee Child.

EE Write a short paragraph abou your own reading and taste in books algi WORD BUILDING Complete the table. Crime

burglary

Criminal

burglar

murder

theft

steal

Verb

4.2

robbery

shoplift

A person steals something (e.g. a car or some money), but robs someone or a place (e.g a wealthy person or a bank). Steal is often used in the passive: My bike was stolen yesterday.

Complete these sentences with words from the table in 4.1. Put the verbs in the correct tense.

Most stores will prosecute people who

2

Five men in masks

3

The cashier

shopfia

.

a bank in the main street.

ÂŁ100 from the till in the supermarket.

4 The gang admitted they had committed four recent bank admitted Willing two people and the judge sentenced him to life imprisonment.

5

The

6

When I got back from holiday I found that the radio had been

from my car.

223


Exam practice II

Reading and Use of English Part 5 You are going to read an extract from a newspaper article about writing fiction. For questions 1-6, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

How to write fiction: Andrew Miller on creating characters

line 5

First, a note of caution. To slice up fiction into categories such as 'character', 'plot', 'voice' or 'point of view' is to risk presenting it in a way that neither writer nor reader normally experiences it. The suggestion might seem to be that the writing of a story or a novel is a strongly divided or layered activity, something orderly, dry and technical. But stories come with character tangled with plot, plot with setting, setting with bits of language embedded and so on. But laying that aside, there are a few remarks that might be usefully attempted under the heading of 'character'. First off, let it be loudly asserted that characters, strong characters, are at the heart of all great literature and always will be. Plot, even in detective fiction, is a very secondary matter. Not many readers could outline the plot of the Sherlock Holmes story The Sign of the Four but many people have no difficulty bringing Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson to mind. A writer who does not create convincing characters will fail. A writer who creates thrilling, troubling, insistent characters need not worry too much about any other aspect of writing.

line 18 line 19

Luckily, the raw material is close to hand. For every writer, it is his own being that constitutes the focus of his research. Year after year, he sits on a kind of umpire's chair watching the antics of his body, listening to the bubbling of his thoughts, sifting the material of his dreams. And when he wants more - other bodies, other thoughts - he simply looks up at those around him. Think, for a moment, of your own family. Almost everybody has one. You might never need to go beyond them. You could store them all in a kind of mental aquarium, sketching them into stories all your writing life. Change their names, of course, their hair colour, move them from that little town in the south you grew up in to a little town in the north you once drove through and wondered about ... But a writer is not confined to such a tactic. It may even be that such a tactic is not particularly common. In my own work I have very rarely set out to present a character who is knowingly based on someone familiar to me, someone whose name I might find in my address book. The great majority of my characters - and I would guess this is true for most writers of fiction - are 'inventions'. They emerge, quickly or slowly, shyly or boisterously, in the writing. They are members of that shifting population of men, women and children (not to mention cats, horses, etc.) who inhabit our inner worlds. Where they come from, whether they are curious versions of ourselves, figures out of the collective unconscious, reconfigurings of those we did indeed once know but have now forgotten, or a mix of all such, no one, to my knowledge, has ever convincingly answered. There is, of course, another great reservoir of characters: those ready-made for us in books. A painter who wants to paint a tree needs to do two things: look at trees and look at paintings of trees. The first task shows what trees are like, the second shows the possibilities of the medium. Likewise, as a writer, it is by reading that you learn how, in language, a character can be presented - through dialogue, through action, through physical attributes, interior monologue, etc. - a process that continues until you have absorbed these methods, and they have become a reflex so embedded in your apprehending of the world that you will never notice anything about anybody without secretly assessing its potential for fiction writing.

224


II

Exam practice 1

Read all about it

40

In line 5, 'that' refers to the fact that A

it is difficult to separate the characters of a story out from other aspects. stories and their characters often fail to represent what happens in the real world. C successful novels need to contain several different elements apart from characters. it is important that writers of novels take time to plan their characters carefully. 2

What is said about the role of characters in the second paragraph? A

They need to be carefully integrated into a novel's plot. They are less important in detective stories than other fiction. C They can ensure the success of a novel if they fulfil certain criteria. They must be appealing so readers want to learn more about them.

3

The expression 'mental aquarium' in line 18 is used to give the idea of A C

4

being methodical when researching for a particular novel. ideas from events and people being kept in mind for use in novels. the best suggestions for stories being made by other people. making sure the ideas for different stories are separated.

Why does the writer mention That little town in the south' in line 19? A

to demonstrate that many authors come from ordinary backgrounds to suggest that reality can be used with details changed C to show that the smallest details are the most useful to an author to emphasise the importance of setting a novel in a real place

5

What does the writer say in the fourth paragraph about the characters in his own books? A C

6

He is unclear about where their origins lie. He mixes aspects of people he knows to make one character. He likes to have planned them before he begins writing. He makes sure they are different from characters in books he has read.

The writer compares a novelist to a painter because they both A C

have a natural talent for the work they produce. base their work on what happens in real life. need a lot of time to think about a new project. learn by looking at the methods used by others in their field.

Writing Part 2: review You see this advertisement in an English-language magazine. Book reviews wanted Send us a review of an interesting book you've read recently. It can be any kind of book, fiction or non-fiction. Briefly explain the story or tell us what the book is about. Say what made the book interesting for you and whether you would recommend it to other people.

Write your review (140-190 words).

225


Teenage style

Elil Read Jasmine and Karim's messages. Which of the pictures above did they each put on the website?

riJasmine: My favourite outfit for parties is a knee-length silk dress. It's sleeveless and has a V-neck. It's light blue and I've got a neddace and some earrings to match. I wear it with some silver sandals with high heels. I love the colour and the material and it makes me feel good.

E

Karim: I always wear my favourite pair of dark blue jeans when I go to somewhere special. They've got straight legs and they fit really well. I like to wear a plain white t-shirt with them. When I go out I usually wear my leather jacket - it's old now but it's very comfortable.

Es Underline all the vocabulary about clothing in the messages above. Then write a short paragraph for the website about your favourite outfit.

Ell aii) Listen to four customers in a clothes shop. Why don't they buy what they try on? Match each customer with a reason.

Customer 1 Customer 2 Customer 3 Customer 4

Vocabulary note Note these phrasal verbs with wear: Joe's passion for football has worn off - he's into hockey now (= to gradually

A It's a waste of money. B It doesn't fit.

disappear)

C It doesn't match another piece of clothing.

These shoes are worn out. (= too old and

damaged from being used so much)

D It doesn't suit him/her.

ElE1 The sentences in each pair below have the same meaning.

have to work long hours - it wears me ou t. (= to make someone tired)

Complete them with the verbs in the box. dress dressed get got had put took wear wearing wore

I

2

a

I got dressed in a hurry.

b

I put

a

I have to

smartly for work.

b

I have to

smart cloches for work.

226

my clothes on quickly.

3 a

The performers were all

in black.

b

The performers were all

black

a

He

He She 5 a She

undressed in the bathroom. off his clothes in the bathroom. her new shoes on yesterday. her new shoes yesterday.


Teenage style

41

gn Which of these items can you find in your room? Tick them. air conditioning armchair bookcase or shelves carpet heating chest of drawers computer cushions desk duvet lamp mirror pictures or posters wardrobe Other things not in the list: _ Read these comments that three teenagers have made about their rooms. Answer the questions below.

A

My favourite room in the house is my bedroom. I sleep there, read there, do homework and relax there. It's like a safe haven. It's a nice, dimly-lit place where I can listen to the rain outside, or sit and look out of the window and daydream. I light candles occasionally or sit silently with my favourite books. Its very restful so I can escape the stresses of daily life. No one tries to bug me or ask anything of me when I'm in there. I wouldn't alter it, even if I could design my own room.

B

My bedroom is where I do my homework because its so calm and quiet. I can concentrate and get my work done. It's where I take naps and play my guitar, which relaxes me. I sleep well there because I know my family are around me. But at the same time I can talk to my friends on my phone when I'm stressed about something and know my family aren't listening. lam surrounded by all the things I like, such as my posters. When it gets really messy, I spend a whole day tidying it up

C

My favourite place is my room. I feel very comfortable and it has all of my favourite things. I always do my homework and hang out there with my mates. I think it's good to have your own room. I have my computer and TV within easy reach and can watch whatever I want without having to argue with anyone. I also like my room because the stuff in it is an expression of me as an individual. I'm always adding things and throwing out things I'm tired of.

Which of the teenagers 1 invites friends to their room?

4

appreciates not having to compromise?

2 sees their room as somewhere they can get away from their worries?

5

says they aren't easily distracted in their room?

6

says they like their room just as it is?

3

thinks their room is a reflection of their personality?

4.1 Write a brief description of your room, describing the things in it, how you feel about it and why it is important to you. 227


Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 6 You are going to read an article about the way teenagers sleep. Six sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

Understanding teenagers' sleeping habits As we enter adolescence our sleeping patterns change drastically. It is a phase of our lives when we seem to be able to go into the deepest sleep and not move for hours on end. As any parent knows, rousing a sleeping adolescent can be, to put it mildly, difficult. Grumpy and uncommunicative until later in the day, it can be just as much of a struggle to get a teen to go to bed at night, what with homework, instant messaging, email and general late-night wakefulness. 1 So should we be concerned about this antisocial rite of passage? Or is there something more to an adolescent's sleep habits? Relax. There is good news. Landmark studies into the adolescent brain have revealed that a teen's biorhythms are in fact just what nature intended. 2 As one adolescent health care specialist comments, most parents will be familiar with the situation where the kid who used to jump out of bed now has to be dragged out just to get on school on time'. Importantly, it's not just a teen's shoe size that's getting bigger. 3 While it has been well documented that 95% of brain development takes place by the age of five years, research indicates that there is a second wave of brain growth, which continues into the teen years and even into the 20s. During this time, new brain cells and neural connections or 'wires', which connect the right and left sides of the brain and are critical to intelligence, self-awareness and performance, grow like branches on a tree during the latter stages of sleep. 4 In other words, if you want to function really well, the best thing to do it is to get a good night's sleep. Experts say that the average amount of sleep needed by teens is 9.5 hours. However, the reality of a typical teen life - early morning sports practice, homework and perhaps a part-time job after school - means that most are lucky to get 7.5 hours. 5 Yet since there is a good deal of variation in the amount of sleep individuals need for optimum performance, how do you tell if a teen is getting enough sleep to live up to his or her learning potential? Dr RogerTonkin, an adolescent health care specialist, suggests that while some teens seem to be able to cope with chronic sleep deprivation, others become initable and apathetic. The treatment? Let him or her sleep whenever they can, including the weekends. 'If a teen wants to sleep until noon on Saturday,' advises Dr Tonkin, 'let him.' 6 If you study something on Tuesday and are short of sleep until Saturday, it's too late. You've got to get that sleep the same night.

228


Exam practice

Teenage style

41

II

A

His or her brain is also developing rapidly at this stage. But according to the report, this doesn't mean that it is normal for teenagers not to get enough sleep.

C

The result is that, at the weekend, the door to their bedroom remains shut until noon â&#x20AC;&#x201D; or even later â&#x20AC;&#x201D; while everyone else in the family, up for hours, goes about their business

D

Cut these short and performance is likely to suffer the next day. However, catching up on sleep at the weekend, while perfectly normal for most teens, may not help learning.

F

According to new research, daytime sleepiness and latenight alertness are the result of a change in the sleep/ wake cycle as growth hormones start to work.

G

This mismatch is important because lack of sleep can affect mood and make it difficult for a teen to perform or even react appropriately.

Writing Part 2: story (Note that writing a story is an option only in the Firstfor Schools Writing paper)

Your English teacher has asked you to write a story for the college magazine. Your story must begin with this sentence: As soon as she walked into her room, Susanna knew that something was wrong. Your story must include: a necklace a misunderstanding

Write your story (140-190 words).

11

Exam tip

Remember to plan your story and divide it into paragraphs. Make sure you include the two points. Check carefully and correct any mistakes when you have finished.

229


School days School and education

On Look at these groups of words. Which word in each group is the odd one out? Why? 1 primary secondary state streamed comprehensive private 2 canteen laboratory library classroom gym playing fields 3 teachers lecturers principal head teaching assistant 4 classes housework curriculum timetable uniform subjects

LEI

Listen to a girl talking about her school. Tick the words in 1.1 that she uses.

Elm QJ Listen again and write down: 1 what the girl likes about her school: 2

what she dislikes about her school-

1.4 Choose the correct words in this email to a penfriend.

eeÂŽ Hi Paco You asked me about the education system in my country. I'm still at (1) school / the school because it's (2) essential/compulsory here up to the (3) age /year of 16. We go to a kindergarten or nursery school first and then, when we're four or five years of (4) old / age, we (5) start/join primary school, where we spend seven years. I now (6) go /attend a state secondary school, which has about 1,000(7) pupils / undergraduates. We have six lessons a day and each subject is (8) taught/learnt by a different teacher. We have a lot of homework and projects, and if we (9) lose / miss an important deadline, we have to stay (10)following /after school to finish the work and hand it in. We have to wear a uniform until we're 15 but after that we're (11) let/allowed to wear our own clothes. When we're 16 we (12) take/pass some exams. Then we can either (13) leave/depart school and go to a different college or stay on for two more years. During those years we (14) learn/study just three or four subjects. There are also (15) opportunities/occasions to do vocational courses like sport or mechanics at a college of further education. I haven't decided what to do yet. All the best David

Rewrite the email in your notebook so that it is true for your country.

230


School days

42

Ell look at this list of school subjects and cross out any that are not taught at your school. Add any extra subjects taught that are not on the list. English art business studies drama computing geography history literature maths music psychology science physical education

E

Tick the subjects you like best. Write a short paragraph giving reasons why you enjoy a particular

subject. Use some of the phrases in the box below to help you give reasons. The teacher is fantastic. I like to use my imagination. It's an interesting subject. I'm better with numbers than words. I'd like to study it at university. I'm good at it. I enjoy doing practical things. I find it very stimulating. I enjoy working in groups.

Look at the photos and answer the questions.

1

Which subjects do you think are being taught? k

2

What differences are there between the two lessons?

B:

Lesson A Ls very proximo! 3

Which method of learning do you prefer? Why?

IS Complete the text below with the correct form of these verbs. Use each verb only once. de fail give pass take retake revise study

aang some important exams in a few weeks' time. They're called I'm 16 now, and I'm (1) GCSEs, and my teachers have entered me for nine subjects, which is what most pupils at my school thoroughly for these exams, because do. I'm going to go through all my notes to (2) any of them next year. I've always thought it's better to I don't want to have to (3) them. I'm certainly hoping I all exams the first time you (5) (4) my maths exam. I've never been very good at maths, and I want to won't (6) history, it up at the end of the year and spend more time (8) (7) geography and two foreign languages. I'm much better at those!

231


II Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2 For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

A different approach to education in Tamil Nadu, India Kaumaram Sushila International Residential School is a school with (0) a difference Every academic year, it makes a point of informing parents (1) children are seeking admission that it gives more importance to organic fanning and productive work (2) to formal marks-based education. This is (3) of those rare schools where children can ride horses as well as do some mountaineering and keep ducks, goats and bees. It is pointed (4)

to parents that if they are only

keen on their children getting top marks in exams, the school may (5) A small portion of the playground has (6)

be suitable for them.

turned into an area for growing vegetables, with

students aged 4-8 being taught the importance of consuming healthy food. Organic farmers also come and talk to pupils about (7)

important it is to preserve the local environment. Finally, all

children are encouraged to take responsibility (8)

the animals and crops in their care, and

to understand the complex relationships of the natural world.

Writing Part 2: story (Note that writing a story is an option only in the First for Schools Writing paper.)

Your English teacher has asked you to write a story for the school website. Your story must begin with this sentence: Richard could not believe what he saw when he looked out of the classroom window Your story must include: a flood a rescue Write your story (140-190 words).

232


The world of work Jobs and personal qualities

EB3 co) Listen to the two people in the photos talking about themselves. Which speaker does which job? Speaker 1 is a Speaker 2 is a

Egg

-in Listen again and write down the words

which helped you to answer. Can you think of any more personal qualities that are useful for each job? a Below are some adverts for job vacancies. Which job is each one advertising? Choose from this list. accountant architect builder cleaner mechanic nursery assistant receptionist sales manager

A You need to be efficient, well-organised and selfmotivated and be able to work without supervision. You should also have good communication skills to deal with our customers. Salary is dependent on qualifications and experience. Training will be given. If you would like a permanent job in a local hotel, call 0987 864829 for an application form.

Temporary job available in a local store for a reliable and flexible person. Previous experience preferred but not essential as training can be given. You will be required to do shift work when the shop is closed (early mornings and evenings) and some overtime. Excellent wages for an honest hardworking person. Please contact James Havard to obtain an application form and a job description.

Enthusiastic person required to join our team. We are looking for a caring, creative person. A full training programme will be given to the successful candidate so no previous experience with young children is necessary. Good rate of pay and possible promotion in the future. Further details and an application form are available from office@mpr.co.uk .

la Answer these questions and write the words from the adverts which give you the answers. 1 Which job is not forever?

B,

temporary

2

Which job is for a long time or forever?

3

Which job suggests you may get a higher position'

4 Which job has hours which change' 5

Which job needs you to get on well with members of the public?

6

Which job may involve working extra hours? 233


43

The world of work

Each advert in 2.1 mentions how the person will be paid. Write salary, rate of pay and wages in the definitions below. a fixed amount of money agreed every year, usually paid into a bank account every month 2

a fixed amount of money usually paid every week, often for work which does not require a lot of qualifications

3

the amount of money someone will be paid per hour

2.4 Complete the letter of application, using the correct form of the words in brackets. Dear Sir/Madam l(i) the (2) (3)

recent.

(recent) saw your advertisement on the website and I am interested in (vacant) for assistant manager in your hotel restaurant. I attach an (apply) form.

I have worked in the (4) (cater) industry for several years and I am (5) (passion) about good food. I have several (6) (profession) qualifications and enjoy working with people. I am also (7) (rely), efficient and hard-working. I have just finished a (8) lam very (9) you with excellent (10)

(train) course at the local college in administration, because (enthusiasm) about having a career in the hotel business. 1 can provide (refer) from my previous employers.

Yours faithfully Anya Piekarski

OM OE Listen to some people talking about work. Write I for people who have a job and X for people who don't have a job. 1 _4_ 2

3

4

5

1E1 DE Listen again and answer these questions. 1 Two people decided to leave their jobs. What do they say'

2

One person had to leave their job. What does he/she say?

DB Complete these sentences from the recording with work, Job or career. Listen again if you need to. 1 I'm trying to change caner as a teacher.

and I'm looking for

2 I've just applied for a

at the theatre.

3 I had a long

in the police force.

Occupation is formal and is usually only used on forms: I enjoy my job. (noti-enjoy-nreeettpetien7)

4 I do four long days, which is very hard 5 The journey takes an hour each way so I don't have time to do much after 6 I gave up my

as a chef a year ago and I'm still out of

7 I'm going to get some unpaid

experience soon in an agency.

8 I was promoted last week so that's very good for my 234


II

Exam practice

The world of work

43

Reading and Use of English Part 3 For questions 1-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Feelings run high in the workplace In the workplace, jealousy can of course have a wide (0)

varietA4

of

emotion and it can make people behave in

causes. It is a (1)

ways It could be that you are bitterly disappointed that

totally (2)

that you wanted in your department and as

you didn't get the (3)

VARY WORRY PREDICT PROMOTE

a result you can't bear to watch someone else succeed instead. The appropriate is to congratulate them warmly and not to reveal your

(4)

RESPOND

jealous feelings. In a different situation, jealousy may have its origins in the close personal nature , such as when a friend of yours succeeds in

of a particular (5)

RELATION

getting a job that you both applied for. You simply have to accept that the world You should try not to show your

of work is always (6)

COMPETE

(7)

as this can make you look really small-minded, and will be

ANNOY

(3)

embarrassing for the other person, who should not be blamed

ORDINARY

for their success.

Writing Part 2: letter of application (Note that writing a letter of application is not one of the options in the First for Schools Writing paper.) Make a difference this summer! Enjoy travel? Enthusiastic and energetic? Work well in a team? We are looking for volunteers to spend 6 weeks abroad working on various building projects in different countries. Food and accommodation will be paid, but not flights. Write to Mrs Okawa, Volunteers International, explaining why you would be suitable as a volunteer. Write your letter of application (140-190 words).

17

Exam tip

Remember to begin a letter of application with Dear Mr... or Dear Mrs ... or Ms ... and end it with Yours sincerely. Include any relevant information about your experience, qualifications and personal qualities.

235


University life University courses; expressing opinions +If

Read this text from a university website. Who is it aimed at?

1.en( The unwersay is on one campus which covers an area of 200 acres. There are five faculties â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Humanities, Science and technology, Social sciences, Law and Medicine â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and these are dMded into departments like geography, art history, etc.You will have already looked at our website, but when you arrive, you can pick up a prospectus and book which tour you want to go on, according to your subject of interest. Your tour will begin with a talk by one of the lecturers, who will tell you more about the courses. All our courses consist of a mixture of formal lectures, seminars in groups of up to twenty students, and at least two tutorials per term where groups of two or three students have the opportunity to discuss things in more detail with their own tutors. Most degree courses require students to write a dissertation of at least 6,000 words in their last year. The tours will show you the halls of residence where students live, the students' union where lots of social events take place, and other useful facilities like the supermarket and launderette. Our undergraduate courses all begin in October and most of our students are school leavers â&#x20AC;&#x201D;just four per cent are mature students of 21 and over At present the university year consists of three terms but we are changing to semesters (two a year) in three years' time. We will have different vacations as a result: slightly longer in spring and shorter in summer. We have separate open days for graduates who want to go on to do a postgraduate course.

Elle Complete these sentences with words from the text. 1 The buildings of a university and the land that surrounds them are called a 2 The university is organised by subject into different

3 Information about the university can be found in a booklet called a 4 Students attend

and

5 Students are taught by

camws

.

and a group of these form a or on the website. where they are taught about their subjett.

and

6 A long piece of written work is called a 7 Students live in

and attend social events arranged by the

8 Students who are at least 21 are referred to as 9 The university year is divided into

students. Or

10 Students who are studying for a first degree are called

,

The breaks are called

,When they finish they are called . A student who continues to study after a first degree is called a

236


University life

CE Listen 1.

to two students describing their courses at university and answer the questions below.

Student 2:

What subject is each student studying? Student 1: architecture English literature biology law

2

44

psychology

history economics chemistry medicine

How does each student say they learn? lecture seminar

tutorial

essay assignment

experiment

dissertation

presentation

Student Student 3

What does each student think is good about their course? Student Student

V

Vocabulary note

An essay is a short piece of writing about a particular subject. A dissertation is a much longer piece of work, often a requirement of a degree course. A thesis is usually written for a higher degree over an extended length of time and involves personal research.

ciR Listen again and fill in the phrases the students use to express opinions. about the course I'm doing now.

1

I

2

They

3

But

4

I

the timetable.

students having to plan their own time. you've got to spend lots of time reading and thinking things through.

5

I

the lectures are very good.

6

I

it's a very good way of learning.

7

Now I

the system really works.

8

I

having the lectures each morning.

9

I

concentrating on the experiments for now.

SE Look at your answers in 2.2. Mark the phrases P if they are used only for positive opinions, N for negative opinions, and B for both positive and negative opinions.

133 There are lots of idioms and expressions using the verb think. Match the two halves of these sentences. III were you. I'd think through the implications

A when you said you'd finish everything by Monday.

2

You've really got to think it over carefully

about applying for a better job with a higher salary.

3

I'm sure you weren't thinking straight

you'll realise how much progress you've made.

4

If you think back to this time last year,

of accepting a job involving a lot of travel.

5

Personally, I wouldn't think twice

as no one is going to make the decision for you. 237


Exam practice

II

Reading and Use of English Part 7 You are going to read an article about the use of technology in university lectures For questions 1-10, choose from the sections Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;D. The sections may be chosen more than once.

Which section mentions the view that students have always tended to lose attention in university lectures?

1

the idea that expecting students to provide their own technology may lead to a form of discrimination?

2

the increase in the number of students learning in other ways apart from listening to lectures?

3

technical problems reducing the amount of teaching which takes place?

4

the advantages for students of using technology they are accustomed to?

5

a lack of progress in adapting study materials to make best use of students' technology?

6

the disadvantage of students having access during lectures to material unconnected to their studies?

7

the economic advantage for universities if students use their own devices?

8

university studies requiring the kind of concentration which is hard to find nowadays?

9

universities being unable to impose restrictions on what students look at during lectures?

10

Students bring their own technology to lectures A A trend known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) has swept across countless universities and institutions. The idea is that technology can allow students to access online learning tools and interactive resources: students will no longer sit passively in the lecture hall, but instead will be engaging with complementary material online. While supplying (and routinely upgrading) enough technology so that all students can access virtual learning environments is too costly, building a network that allows them to use online resources via their personal devices is less of a financial burden. The practice also allows students to use technology that they're familiar with, according to Jason Lodge, lecturer in higher education in learning futures at Griffith University in Brisbane. 'BYOD eliminates quite a bit of the cognitive load associated with learning. For example, any activity requires multiple levels of understanding in order for students to engage effectively. By using devices they are already familiar with, they have more resources available to understand what they are being asked to do and what the actual content of the task is.'

238


Exam practice

University life

44

Lodge admits that the BYOD trend does have a number of problems. His biggest concern? It encourages students to use technology during teaching time: The major downside of BYOD is the potential for distraction. Students' own devices are likely to include all the applications they use on a regular basis. This cannot be controlled like it can be with computers provided by the institution.' Tim Cappelli, a senior project manager at Manchester Medical School, disagrees. He explained: '93% of our students said they use their Pads for accessing social networks. I'm surprised it's not higher. Are they doing this in lectures? Probably. But is this any different from me reading a novel at the back of the lecture theatre, or doodling on my notepad, when I was a student?' However, of course the difference is that iPads offer a multitude of distractions far exceeding those of a novel or a biro. C You don't have to look far to find studies warning that constant access to technology can damage an individual's concentration. A study by Professor Lany Rosen, California State University, found that people could only focus on a given task for six minutes before utilising some form of technology. This of course is particularly problematic at universities, where deep, analytical thinking is highly valued. The other aspect which can waste time is the issue of compatibility. Students utilise a multitude of laptops, mobiles and tablets, all of which may have different operating systems. Consequently, lectures and seminars can be dominated by struggles to make everything work properly. Not only does this take up valuable time to sort out, but most professors lack the specialised knowledge to resolve these issues While technology is undoubtedly changing the way students learn, there's still some way to go before students' mobiles and tablets are seamlessly interwoven into the classroom environment, says Lodge. The emphasis of BYOD thus far has been more on infrastructure, i.e. making sure there is sufficient wireless bandwidth, rather than incorporating students' own devices into the learning activities they do. Teaching practice is notoriously slow to change in a university setting. To my knowledge, designing effective courses, subjects and activities that incorporate the students' devices happens very seldom at the moment.' Professor Steven Furnell, head of Plymouth University's school of computing and mathematics, points out another possible obstacle to universal access. Relying on students to buy their own devices could 'result in a situation of the "haves" and "have nots" amongst the student population'.

Writing Part 2: report (Note that writing a report is not one of the options in the First for Schools Writing paper.)

Your English teacher has asked you to write a report on a study course or training course you have attended. In your report you should: give a brief description of the course explain what you learnt from it say whether you think any improvements are needed

Write your report (140-190 words).

fir Exam tip Give your report a title (for this question it could be the name of the course). Then give each section of the report a heading, one for each point you have to write about.

239


Answer key Grammar section

4 1 were travelling 2 were queuing 3 was buying, were walking 5 the past continuous C: Grammar exercises

A: Context listening 2 1 in her room / at home 2 in a shopping centre/mall / outside a shop 3 She's phoning to ask Lisa if she wants her to buy a bag. 3 2 She buys new clothes. 3 She's looking for a new skirt / one of those new skirts. 4 She% wearing a pair of old jeans. She's cleaning her room. 6 She looks for a blue bag. 7 She's looking at a navy blue bag (the one that Lisa wants). 8 She wants Millie to buy the bag. 4 1 the present simple 2 the present continuous 3 sentences land 6 4 sentences 1, 3, 4, 5 and? 5 No. It is in the present simple but is not a regular action. C: Grammar exercises I 2a 3a 4a Sb 6b)' 81-4) 2 2 smells 3 like, don't fit 4 are you thinking 5 is, is your sister being, has (> 131-4) 3 1 looks 2 have, means, don't understand 3 Do/Can you see, 're (are) looking, Do you recognise, seem, 're (are) coming 4 are you doing, are waiting, 're (are) getting, want, 's (is) being, don't know (a 81-4) 4 2 're enjoying 3 cost 4 're staying 5 're paying 6 don't like 7 serve 8 never eat 9 don't feel 10 seem 11 're having 12 're visiting 13 love 14 behave 15 smile 16 says 17 is always showing (shows is correct but does not make clear that she is criticising) 18 come 19 realise 20 are taking)' 81-3) 5 2 belong 3 am thinking 4 knows S is having 6 needs (> 81-3) Exam practice Listening Part 4 18 2C 3A 48 SA 68 7C Grammar focus task 2 hear 3 call 4 am working S work 6 think 7 is getting 8 I'm always telling 9 don't realise 10 means

1 2 found 3 explained 4 was 5 knew 6 wrote 7 seemed Sate 9 drank 10 got 11 learnt/learned 12 fed 13 gave 14 went 15 spoke 16 met 17 read 18 had 19 spread 20 came)' 81) 2 2 travelled, always kept 3 saw, was waiting, didn't see 4 filled, gave S was working, met, looked 6 bought, was always crashing 7 missed, was charging 8 was hoping, didn't get)' 81-2) 3 2 changed 3 asked 4 would lock S used to feel 6 met 7 was walking 8 heard 9 were breaking 10 were sitting 11 realised 12 didn't want 13 isn't used 14 thought)' 81-4) 4 2 're/are used to 3 is used to 4 isn't used to / wasn't used to Are you getting used to / Have you got used to 6 got used to)' 84) 5 2 was looking, stopped 3 went, was having 4 went, stood 5 was hoping, said (a 131-2) 6 2 tiled-to-often often used to 3 used use 4 use used 5 used te-teac-h is used to teaching 6 was-used used)' 83-4) Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 1 14 2C 3A 4D SD 68 7D 8C Grammar focus task 2 began 3 came 4 went 5 heard 6 held 7 led 8 made 9 spent 10 stood 11 took 12 thought

Unit 3 A: Context listening 2 1 They live next door to each other. 2 Mike plays a saxophone and Lucy can't concentrate on her work. 3 2 I've been at the gym this afternoon. 3 I still haven't finished it. 4 I started it last week. 51 never enjoyed studying history at school. 6 I've lived next door since June. 7 I've lived here for two years. 8 Nobody's ever complained before.

A: Context listening

4 1 the past simple 2 the present perfect 3 sentences 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8 (Note that in sentence 2 the time period 'this afternoon' is still continuing - he has only recently returned from the gym.) 4 sentences 1,4 and 5

2 2) 3G 4M Si

C: Grammar exercises

3 1 b We went to see a film. 2the past simple 3 a I used to collect all the autographs of film stars and singers. b I would go up to town on my own. c I used to scream at pop concerts. 4 No, S Yes.

2 2 slept 3 has grown 4 sent, hasn't replied 5 Did you learn 6 bought, 've (have) used 7 have you had 8 has just arrived 9 've (have) never seen 10 dreamt/dreamed 11 met 12 did you get, haven't noticed)' 81)

Unit 2

240

2H 3D 41 SC 6871 SE 9A 10 G(> 81)


Answer key 3 2 worked 3 have you eaten 4 have been doing 5 did 6 have been waiting (>131-2) 4 2 arrived 3 felt/was 4 'ye (have) already made 5 took/drove 6 went/swam 7 enjoyed / loved / liked 8 'ye (have) learnt/ learned 9 haven't been/gone 10 've (have) had 11 went 12 played (> 61) 5 2 We've been standing 3 have you been playing 4 We've played S we haven't finished 6 you've been playing 7 We've read 8 Have you tried 9 we've already started 10 we've booked (>92) Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 7 1A 2C 313 4D SC 60 7C 8A 90 108

Grammar focus task 1 anticipated 2 've enjoyed, didn't own, bought 3 walked, got 4 fell, hasn't happened S 'ye worn 6 worked, was, 've been

6 2 'd (had) been playing 3d (had) ever had 4'd (had) been moving S 'd (had) arranged 6 didn't answer 7 came 8 banged 9 'd (had) been phoning 10 hadn't heard 11 arrived 12 'd (had) forgotten (> 81-2) Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 5 1C 26 3A 4C 5 613

Grammar focus task 1 1 had remodelled 2 had become, had experimented 3 had been playing, decided 4 was, had received 5 had forced, found 2 Sample answer We can't be sure. Perhaps they'd realised there was someone in the house. Perhaps they'd heard a police siren. Perhaps they'd seen a ghost!

Unit 5 Unit 4 A: Context listening 2 1 He's been painting his room. 2 She's angry because there is paint on the carpet. 3 2 'd painted 3 ran out of 4 was S 'd been 6 'd done 7 'd finished 8 'd been driving 9 broke down 4 1 3 happened after 1 and 2. He uses the past perfect for 1 and 2 and the past simple for 3. 2 4 happened after S. 6 and 7. He uses the past simple for 4 and the past perfect for 5,6 and 7. 3 8 happened first. She uses the past perfect continuous for 8 and the past simple for 9.

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 'd (had) ordered 3 'd (had) planned 4 had left 5 had you answered 6 hadn't started 7 Had you already booked 8 'd (had) posted, 'd (had) forgotten 9 Hadn't anyone told, had changed 10 had never done (>91) 2 2 had you been eating 3 hadn't been expecting 4 had been living 5 hadn't been paying 6 had Anya's family been living 7 had been watching 8 Had the other boys been teasing 9 'd been going 10 'd been wearing (> 62) 3 2 hadn't been learning/studying 3 had been planning/ organising 4 'd (had) been worrying 5 'd (had) been waiting 6 'd (had) been sending 7 hadn't been playing 8 'd (had) been saving 9 'd (had) only been speaking/talking 10 had they been looking/searching (>82) 4 2 No 3 Yes - had been snowing 4 No 5 No 6 No 7 Yes - had been arguing 8 No 9 Yes - hadn't been speaking 10 No (> 81-2)

A: Context listening 2 1C 26 3D 4A Tom is a journalist. 3 2 arrives 3 starts 4 'm playing 5 'm flying 6 'm having 7 won't be 8 '11 get 9 '11 have 10 will be 11 won't be 12 will live 4 1 sentences 1,2 and 3; the present simple 2 sentences 7, 8 and 9; the will future 3 sentences 4, 5 and 6; the present continuous 4 sentences 10,11 and 12; the will future

C: Grammar exercises 2 doesn't leave 3 stops 4 doesn't arrive 5 are staying 6 are spending 7 doesn't go 8 are having 9 leaves 10 arrives (>131-2) 2 2 is leaving 3'm (am) giving, are you giving, 'II (will) probably get 4 're (are) moving, 'II (will) come 5 '0 (will) have 6's (is) staying I'll have 8 Are you doing, is arriving, 'm (am) driving 9 11 Bet (> 82-3) 3 2 'II (will) be sitting 3 '0 (will) apply 4 'II (will) be speaking 5 are having 6 starts 7 is coming 8 '11 (will) lose (>81-4) 4 2 is seeing 3 will be 4 '11 (will) be 5 '11 (will) be flying 6'11 (will) be skiing 7 're (are) going 8 will lend/give (>131-4)

Exam practice Listening Part 2 1 landscapes 2 agriculture 3 beaches 4 penguin S insects 6 sunset(s) 7 questionnaire 8 walking 9 notebook 10 tents

Grammar focus task 2 're staying 3 're going 4 '11 have S 'Ube waiting 6 'II be working 7 'II get 8 '11 see 9 won't get 10 're hiring

5 2 came, fainted, hadn't seen 3 had begun, arrived 4 had you been applying, got 5 didn't see, 'd (had) gone 6 'd (had) been driving, realised 7 went, stopped, looked 8 'd (had) washed, hung 9 discovered, 'd (had) believed 10 Had you ever done, built (>81-2)

241


Answer key

Unit 6 A: Context listening 2 1 He's come to interview the people on the island. 2 It's very tough (especially because of the weather). 3 2 Because they're fed up with the cold, the wind, the mud and the rain. 3 as soon as possible 4 They'll have survived there longer than anyone else. 5 for nearly six months 6 as soon as they find a restaurant 7 Simon â&#x20AC;&#x201D; because the other people take his boat. 4 1 questions 2, 3, 6 and 7 2 question 1 3 questions 4 and 5

C: Grammar exercises 1 Sample answers: 2 're (are) going to / about to arrest him. 3 's (is) going to / about to score a goal. 4's (is) going to / about to sink. 's (is) going to / about to crash. 6's (is) going to / about to kiss him. (>81. BS) 2 2 Robots will have replaced most manual workers. 3 We will have used all the oil resources on Earth. 4 Doctors will have discovered a cure for the common cold. Scientists will have invented new sources of energy. 6 Sea temperatures will have risen by several degrees. (> 84) 3 2b 3b 4a 5b(> 83) 4 2 The gardener will have been cutting hedges for four hours. 3 The manager will have been interviewing new staff for five and a half hours. 4 The waitress will have been serving customers in the dining room for three hours. 5 The cleaner will have been vacuuming floors for seven hours. (> E14) 5 2 's (is) going to be 3 're (are) going to stay 4 finds out 5 was going to wash / was about to wash 6 'm (am) going to look round 7 're (are) going to miss 8 gets 9 will have taken 10 'II (will) have been working 11 'm (am) going to start / 'm (am) about to start (> 81-5) 6 2 I will-see see 3 take have taken 4 will-ernecomes 5 been-letwiss left 6 are finish/have finished 7 will 'm/am going to (> B2, 84)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 7 1C 20 3A 48 50 68 7D 813 9C 10A Grammar focus task 2 's going to do 3 'II have produced 4 get 5 recognises 6 will have been making 7 try 8 need

Unit 7 A: Context listening 2 1 a fitness centre 2 a wildlife park 3 a cleaning service 4 a games centre/shop

3 1 stronger, slimmer and more self-confident. 2 the most magnificent lions, the funniest monkeys you've ever seen 3 tired (trying to keep the house clean) 4 the greatest variety of games ever 4 1 sensible, friendly, excellent 2 wonderful, the best, amazing, special 3 fresh, shining, (no) sticky, reasonable 4 fantastic, the latest, stunning, the most thrilling

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 as/so spacious as 3 more expensive than 4 worse 5 the smartest 6 the loveliest 7 the poorest 8 (the) most exhausted 9 the best 10 younger 11 as cheap as 12 nearer (> 81-2) 2 2 depressed 3 amazing 4 annoying 5 bored 6 interesting 7 disgusting 8 relaxed (> 83) 3 2 bored boring 3 as-beatitiful-than as beautiful as or more beautiful than 4 easyer easier 5 more quicker quicker 6 more safe safer 7 greermer greener 8 mera-wefse worse (>81-3)

4 2a 3b 4b 5 b 6a 76 8a(> 131-5) 5 2 beautiful blue Chinese silk 3 magic gold 4 elegant long leather riding 5 tight yellow (> 85)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 1 1B 28 3C 44 5C 68 7D BA

Grammar focus task 1 adjectives: daily, different, good, long, main, old nouns used as adjectives: leisure, school, postgraduate

2 2 old 3 school 4 good 5 different 6 long 7 postgraduate 8 main 9 leisure

Unit 8 A: Context listening 2 1 stadium 2 spectators 3 whistle 4 ball 5 ground 6 quickly 7 goal 8 scored 9 loudly 3 2 in the city today, late 3 patiently in their seats 4 happily 5 steadily 6 heavily on the ground 7 rarely 8 well 9 Last week 10 often

4 When: today, late, last week Where: in their seats, on the ground How: happily, steadily, heavily, quickly, well How often: often The adverbs in Exercise 1 go in the How column.

242


Answer key C: Grammar exercises

C: Grammar exercises

1 2 gratefully 3 anxiously 4 easily 5 sincerely 6 fast 7 hard 8 terribly (> 81-2)

1 2 have we 3 has she got 4 can't you walk S didn't you 6 does 7 can't 8 do you prefer 9 are 10 invited you (> B1-4)

2 2 complete 3 well 4 hard. fluent 5 awful 6 efficiently 7 normal 8 badly 9 further (> 81-2)

2 2 eests4t does it cost 3 yeitare are you 4 delesamsay annoys 5 was were 6 diel-pajni painted 7 yeti-46414 don't you Sit-lasts-theeeekerii-eetwse does the

3 2 Nowadays they rarely eat steak because it is so expensive. / They rarely eat steak because it is so expensive nowadays. / They rarely eat steak nowadays because it is so expensive. 3 My grandfather used to take us swimming in the lake in the summer holidays. / In the summer holidays my grandfather used to take us swimming in the lake. 4 There is usually a good film on TV on Sunday evenings. / On Sunday evenings there is usually a good film on TV. 5 My mother insisted that good manners are always terribly important. / My mother always insisted that good manners are terribly important. 6 The party had hardly started when the sound system broke, which meant we couldn't perform all evening. (> 82, /35) 4 2 earlier 3 always 4 very/rather 5 skilfully 6 rather/very 7 hardly 8 stiffly 9 now 10 warmly (> 81-5) 5 2b 3b 4a 5a 6b(> 131-5) 6 2 easy easily 3 hardly hard 4 really very 5 vex./ great/good/ really 6 attentien-verlay attention very carefully / very careful attention 7 fkieRt fluently 8 gaael well (> B1-5)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 3

cookery course last (> B1, 83) 3 2 doesn't he 3 wouldn't you 4 haven't I 5 shall we 6 could it 7 didn't they 8 won't she 9 can we 10 don't you C> 84) 4 2 Where was he born? / Where is he going to live? 3 Who did he telephone? 4 When did he telephone her / his wife! Shirley? 5 How many children do they have / have they got? 6 Why is she/Shirley really pleased? 7 Who is looking forward to welcoming them back to Farley? (> B3) 5 2C 3 H 4G 5 A 6F 7 8 8E(> BS)

Exam practice Listening Part 1 1 B 2C 38 4A SC 68 7A S A

Grammar focus task 2 was it 3 can't we 4 wouldn't they S haven't you 6 are you 7 will you 8 did you

Unit 10

1 scientific 2 equipment 3 extremely 4 dangerously 5 safety

A: Context listening

6 unusually 7 luckily 8 amazing

2 Sample answers: 1 She's a sales executive. 2 He works for a garage. / He's a mechanic,! He drives a recovery truck. 3 He delivers pizzas. / He's a pizza delivery man. 4 She's a taxi driver.

Grammar focus task 2 extremely, extreme 3 well, good 4 dangerously, dangerous 5 calmly, calm 6 hard, hard 7 unusually, unusual 8 luckily, lucky

Unit 9 A: Context listening 2 He's a bit worried because Mina didn't phone yesterday or answer his texts this morning. 3 2 three 3 to phone yesterday 4 They miss her. 5 It's Mina's mum's birthday. 6 at the station 7 seeing Mum's face 4 2 Have you been checking up on me?laic 3 You promised to phone me yesterday, didn't you? cid 4 You know your mother and I miss you when you're away at college, don't you? (IQ 5 And you'll definitely come home for mum's birthday at the weekend, won't you? will 6 You can meet me at the station, can't you? can 7 Your train g= in at six, doesn't it? does 8 Mum doesn't know I'm coming, does she? doesn't 9 Let's keep it a surprise, shall we? let's

3 2 travel 3 her health 4 the ones who run out of petrol 5 insurance 6 Because he needs cash. 7 chemistry 8 the traffic 9 Because there's a kit of unemployment. 4 1 biscuits and sweets 2 at a garage 3 pizzas 4 traffic jams 5 a job with a reasonable salary 6 She's got three kids/ children. 5 The nouns in Exercise 3 are uncountable; the nouns in Exercise 4 are countable.

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 A,C 3F 4H SD 6E 78.1 (> EH) 2 Always countable: experiment, hobby, journey Always uncountable: accommodation, advice, homework, information, leisure, luck, meat, scenery, traffic Can be countable or uncountable: cheese, coffee, experience, glass, time (> B1) 3 2 an 3 the 4 the 5 the 6a 7 the 8 a 9a 10 the lithe 12a 13 the 14- 15 - (> 82) 4 1 Birmingham Airport 2 the Mediterranean, Naples, Corsica 3 the Sahara, the Andes, Paris 4 a ski instructor, Switierland 5 a terrible journey, the internet, Computer User, Microsoft (> 83)

243


Answer key 5 We had a great trip to the France last weekend. We went to the little hotel that you recommended and it was very pleasant. Feeds The food at the hotel werei4 wasn't so good, as you warned us, but we strolled down to the city centre on Saturday evening and had a lovely meal there. In fact, we ate so much for the dinner that we didn't want-a-breakfast on Sunday! Thanks again for the advice. The Wikipedia gave us some good informations information about the town, but your local knowledge really helped. Now I must unpack and do the washings washing. Here is a photo of the hotel to remind you. (>81-3) 6 2- 3 shopping 4 information 5 furniture 6- (>81-2)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 4 1 takes (great) pleasure in buying / gets (great) pleasure from buying 2 gave me (some) advice about/on 3 will havebeen waiting (for) 4 but/although/though he hardly ever the exact sum/amount of money

5 didn't need to / didn't have to drive to the station to pick up my sister 6 should help me (to) do the washing-up 7 mustn't use their phones during classes 8 needn't have turned the music down 9 shouldn't make promises which she doesn't keep 10 don't have to / don't need to / needn't give the tour guide a tip (>81-3)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 6 1E 2G 38 41 SA 6C

Grammar focus task 2 The first thing you must address is tiredness. 3 You should also take exercise regularly in the evenings. 4 it (The exercise) has to be vigorous. 5 Walking or tennis have to be kept up for at least an hour. 6 You should choose something you like doing. 7 You need to keep reminding yourself of the advantages. 8 You don't need to behave in the same way.

6 item of news was/news item was / item on the news was

Grammar focus task 28 3U 4C 586U 7C 81)

Unit 11

Unit 12 A: Context listening 2 1 She went to the beach last year (photo A). 2 He would prefer the quiet mountain holiday (photo C). 3 2 myself; of mine 3 Neither 4 by myself 5 each other

A: Context listening 2 Suggested answer He starts work early every morning and he has to stay until all the food is cooked and served in the evening. 3 2 hardly any 3 Because it's his day off. 4 He has two days off every week instead of one. 5 He offers to show Ahmed the kitchen. 4 2C 3A 4G 51 61 78819H 10D 5 needn't, must

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 doesn't have to / hasn't got to 3 mustn't 4 'II (will) have to has to / has got to 6 didn't have to 7 must 8 Do you have to / Have you got to 9 mustn't 10 must / 'II (will) have to 11 had to 12 have to / 've got to 13 must 14 don't have to / haven't got to (>81-2) 2 21 3E 4D 5A 6H 7C 8 B(>82-3) 3 2 should have locked it 3 should have asked 4 shouldn't have lied 5 should have revised (>132) 4 2 worn his latest designer clothes 3 stand in the queue 4 carry his luggage 5 walk from the car park 6 got angry with his driver (>83) 5 2 needn't / don't need to / don't have to phone me before you come 3 must / need to buy a good dictionary 4 shouldn't have taken money from my purse without asking

244

6 somewhere 7 None

C: Grammar exercises 1,2 there is 3 It is 4 there are S There are 6 there are 7 It is 8 It is 9 there is 10 it is (>85) 2 2b 3a 4a 5 b(> B1-3) 3 2 each other 3 every 4 Each 5 everyone 6 Everyone 7 all the 8 each other 9 The whole 10 nobody (>84.86-8) 4 2 each 3 all 4 none 5 every 6 some 7 most 8 no (>137-8) 5 2 Both John and Rob have an earring. 3 Neither Pete nor John has a moustache. 4 All of them have short hair / wear glasses. 5 They all have short hair / wear glasses. 6 None of them has/have a beard. (>87,89) 6 2 mine my own 3 us each other 4 There It 5 feel-nwsetf feel 6k There (>82-5)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2 1 everyone/everybody 2 own 3 there 4 mine 5 else 6 mine/it 7 Neither 8 both

Grammar focus task 2 their own names 3 a close friend of mine 4 somebody else 5 neither of them appeared to mind 6 they both agreed


Answer key

Unit 13 A: Context listening 2 2 Can you lend me your new jacket? 3 Can you give me a lift to town now? 4 Will you get me some shampoo later? 5 Can you collect me from the city centre at midnight tonight?

3 21 3 1 4 1 5 4 Would you please give me a lift? Could you collect me? She asks differently because she wants to be more polite.

C: Grammar exercises 1 2R 30 45 SA 6R 70 8P 9A 105 2c 3j 4e 5f 6i 7d 8g 9h 10 a(> 81-5)

2 2 send 3 can 4 spending 5 given 6 ought not 7 Could 8 should (> 61-5) 3 2 May/Could 3 Howl What about 4 could S Will/Can/ Would! Could (Would and Could are more formal, less likely for a simple request to a family member.) 6 can/could/11 (will) 7 Shall / Why don't 8 could/would/can (Can is less polite, so less suitable when speaking to a stranger.) 9 Can/May 10 Would you mind (> 61-4) 4 2 Can I do 3 Could I see 4 I'm afraid 5 You can't have 6 Would you exchange 7 You shouldn't have done 8 You should ask 9 Shall 1 ask 10 You'd better not 11 You could give (> 61-5)

5 2 Shall I help you clean your new flat? 3 What about buying her some perfume? 4 You ought not to put so much salt on your food. Could you order the book for me? 6 Can I pay by credit card? 7 You should charge it every night. 8 Would you like me to help you clear up? 9 Can you get me a tube of sun cream? 10 Would you mind giving me a lift home? C> 131-5)

Exam practice Listening Part 3 1D 26 3C 4G 5E

Grammar focus task 2 You could go hiking in Cape Breton. 3 You shouldn't do that course. 4 You'd better not cycle along those roads. 5 Why don't you take these tracks across the fields instead? 6 You shouldn't have done that. 7 You must wear your life jacket.

Unit 14 A: Context listening 2 The woman isn't his mother, but she could be his sister or his friend - Care and Fiona aren't sure. 3 1 his mother 2 The woman can't be his mother because she's much too young. 3 to walk across together and pretend they're looking in the shop window 4 Danni's autograph 5 Because the young woman could be Danni's friend. 6 a photo of Danni 7 She thinks they might get into a lot of trouble. 4 2 must be 3 can't be 4 might notice 5 could be 6 can't be

5 1 sentences 2.3 and 6 2 sentences 1,4 and 5 C: Grammar exercises 1 2 couldn't! wasn't able to 3 can 4 was able to 511 (will) be able to 6 've (have) never been able to 7 to be able to 8 could 9 couldn't! wasn't able to 10 can't 11 could/can (> 81-2) 2 2 past 3 future 4 future 5 past 6 present 7 present 8 past 9 past 10 past A 5, 6,10 Et 2, 3,4,7,8, 9 (> 62)

3 2 should/must be swimming 3 should be 4 must have grown 5 must be 6 can't have forgotten (shouldn't have forgotten is also possible, but with a different meaning see Unit 13.) (> 62-3)

4 2 can't/couldn't have left 3 might not / may not have seen 4 might/may/could be S might not! may not come 6 should have lost, must have been (> 82-3)

5 Sample answers: 2 can't have stolen, she was with the other cleaners after 6.00. 3 may/might/could have stolen, she was alone there between 6.05 and 6.15 and nobody saw her leave. 4 could/may/might have stolen, he was there until 7.15 and was alone after his phone call. 5 must have stolen, he stayed after the gallery was shut and he bought an expensive car. 6 couldn't have stolen, she was with the cleaners and they left together. C> 62) Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 3 occasionally 2 confidently 3 socialise 4 deliveries 5 payments 6 impression 7 attractive 8 unlikely

Grammar focus task 2 might/may/could be 3 must be 4 can't have 5 must have moved 6 might/may/could have

245


Answer key

Unit 15 A: Context listening 2 She's asking him about his position, his chances of winning the race and the conditions on board the yacht. 3 2 haven't seen 3 think I might 4 was 5 didn't sleep 6 's, 's shining 7 can 8 'II spend 9 must get 4 1 are you 2 think you're going 3's the weather 4 Can you see 5 When one speaker uses a present tense, the other reports with a past tense. When they use a past tense or the present perfect, it is reported with the past perfect.

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 4 1 sun will shine / is going to shine 2 told me (that) he had 3 if she had booked 4 will we leave tomorrow 5 I can dress myself 6 whether they/we were meeting David

Grammar focus task Paul complained (to me) that he hadn't heard from Helen for a long time. (sentence 2) The little boy insisted (that) he could dress himself without any help. (sentence 5) The weatherman predicted (that) it would be sunny all day. (sentence 1)

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 could easily find another one 3 was going to travel round Africa 4 had lived there as a child 5 might get a part-time job there 6 was packing his bag 7 was really excited 8 would be away for a year 9 might stay longer 10 could come/go too Yes, it's possible here to report without changing the verbs because Luke's situation is still the same. (>81-2) 221 3A 4E 5H 68 7G 8 D(>133-135) 3 2 how old I was 3 I was studying 4 I came from S whether/ ill had worked 61 played 7 whether/if I would work 8 whether/if I could start 9 whether/if I needed 10 whether/if I would like t> 81 and 5) 4 2 did-he-feel he felt 3 repLied-rne replied 4 did -wanted wanted did-l-want if/whether I wanted 6 for-giving to give (him) / for 744 had told 8 will would or if-I-will to (> B3-5) 5 2 me (that) I could do well 3 if/whether I studied every evening 4 what time I went to bed 5 me (that) I wouldn't get good marks 6 that I spent too much time with my friends 7 (me) if/whether I had decided on a career yet (>131, 83, (45) 6 Woman: The same thing happened to me yesterday. Suzie: What did you do? Woman: Someone lent me the fare and I'm going to give it back this afternoon on the bus, so I'm happy to do the same for you. You can give the money back to me tomorrow. Stale Thank you very much. I'm very glad you're here. (>B1,133-6)

Unit 16 A: Context listening 2 1D 2 B 3A 4C

3 2 were being 3 had been 4 is 5 were being 6 was 7 is 8 was 9 had been 10 to be 11 has been 12 is 4 all of them

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 delayed 3 hadn't 4 had been 5 being 6 opened 7 by ( >81) 2 2 had been done 3 were made 4 to be left S is said 6 are being counted 7 had been sacked / was sacked 8 was thought, is agreed 9 will be awarded 10 to have been opened, was delivered (>81,83) 3 2 C, get it fixed 3 G, get it cleaned 4 A, 've (have) had it coloured SD, have it redecorated 613, have them taken in 7 H, had it designed 8 E 're (are) having it checked (>82) 4 2 has been (completely) crushed 3 has been destroyed 4 was captured 5 was broadcast 6 was announced 7 had been liberated 8 were asked 9 have been arrested 10 are being taken 11 is claimed 12 will be put (>81-2) 5 2 having-being being / having been 3 was -been was 4 was happened happened S cut have my hair cut 6 rodwg fixed (>131-2)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 4 was given by the 2 have my computer repaired 3 it was reported that 4 was not / wasn't given to 5 was accused of cheating by 6 weren't / were not given the right

Grammar focus task 1 a sentence 2 b sentence 3 2 a It identifies the type of person who must do the repair. b It identifies the source of the reports.

246


Answer key

Unit 17 A: Context listening 2 She is asking Double X to find the man in the photo. 3 1 Its out of focus. 2 Because she doesn't have a better one. 3 a woman 4 Look at it with your eyes half closed. 5 Double X 6 Sample answer: Perhaps Double X's former friend sent it, because she was angry with him and wanted to cause trouble. 4 1 'II be 2 had, 'd give 3 'd told, wouldn't have needed 4 would give, knew S is, look

5 1 present simple 2 present simple 3 past simple 4 past perfect

C: Grammar exercises 1 11 3A 41 SH 60 7C 8G 9D 10 F(> B1-4) 2 2 want 3 cared 4 won't be S wouldn't have told 6 weren't 7 would have been 8 falls 9 hadn't expected 10 'II (will) discover (>131-4) 3 2 wouldn't have sat opposite that man 3 If the service hadn't been really/so slow 4 If she hadn't been bored she wouldn't have applied for that job (> 04) 4 2 wouldn't have applied 3 were 4 would have taken 5 earned 6 come I'd/had stayed 8 go 9 gets (> 01-4)

Grammar focus task Verb + to infinitive: attempt, decide, demand, expect, hope, learn, want Verb + -in& consider, delay, imagine, suggest Verb + object + to infinitive expect, persuade, remind, want

Unit 19 A: Context listening 2 They're going to climb a mountain 3 2 Provided 3 unless 4 in case S I'd rather 6 As long as 7 wish 8 It's time 4 The verbs are in the present tense.

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 They'll be here soon unless their plane is delayed. 3 Unless you're in a hurry, you could take the bus. 41 won't be able to come to see you tomorrow unless my brother can give me a lift. Unless the factory increases its production, it will close down. 6 Unless you write your address down for me. I'll forget it. 7 I won't stay in that hotel unless it's got a good restaurant. 8 Unless I hear from you, I'll meet you at six. (>01)

2 2 if 3 if 4 in case 5 in case 617 in case 8 in case (>82)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 6

3 2 provided that 3 in case 4 as long as 5 in case 6 unless

1G 2D 3C 4E 54 60

4 Sample answers:

Grammar focus task if 3E 4C 5B 6A 70

Unit 18 A: Context listening 2 a fruit cake 3 2 adding 3 beating 4 to add 5 using 6 to use 7 to add 8 to use 9 to check 10 adding 11 to ice 12 to have 4 Some of the verbs are the to infinitive and some are the -ing form.

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 working 3 doing 4 to stay 5 working 6 to stop 7 singing 8 to tell 9 working 10 to ignore 11 going 12 to go (> Bl, 83)

2 2 to take 3 coming 4 to have 5 come 6 jump 7 phoning 8 to hear 9 to eat 10 to become (> 131-4, 36, B13)

3 2 to get 3 making, to finish 4 to book 5 throwing 6 to inform 7 lending 8 to leave 9 wearing 10 to chat 11 to send 12 going 13 to write 14 watching (>85) 4 3 knowing to know 4/ Sgettic.gtoget 6/ 7 Ee-be being 8 to tell telling 9/ 10/ 11 ./ 12 ee-Eake taking (> 01.83)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English 1A 2D 3D 4C 5B 6C 7A 8C

(> 01-3) 3 I'd brought my phone 41 could speak the language I'd bought a phrase book 6 1 wasn't! weren't hot and thirsty / I had something to drink 7 I hadn't come here alone / I'd come here with someone else 8 someone would help me 9 I hadn't come here 101 was/were back in my hotel (>134) 5 2 use 3 are 4 finishes 5 didn't bring 6 would learn 7 behaves 8 don't know 9 can't 10 changes 11 hadn't been 12 'II (will) miss (> 81-5)

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 4 1 unless you press 2 in case the coach left 3 provided (that) you give 4 started cooking (now) or else 5 if you keep (on)playing 6 would (really) rather not eat

Grammar focus task 2 D (In good time means early.) 3 5 4 D (The sentences above are about making sure the food will be ready.) SD (This sentence suggests that the neighbours may not complain about the drumming, whereas in the sentences above it is certain that they will complain.) 65 247


Answer key

Unit 20 A: Context listening I Suggested answers: A a pop star B a bank robbery C traffic jams on a motorway D something about the US President 2 1D 2A 3C 4 B 3 2 at the weekend 3 as it was flying across the Mediterranean 4 by the weekend 5 beyond the beginning of the motorway 6 until this afternoon 7 by the door of the bank 8 during the night 4 1 at, by, until, during 2 at, in, across, beyond, by

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 at 3 above 4 through 5 between 6 in (> 81-2) 2 2 at 3 during 4 for Still 6 at 7 by Sin 9 by loin 11 over (> 81-2) 3 2 in 3mn 4 for 5 At 6 by 7 on 8 at 9 in 10 between 11 among 12 for (> B1-2) 4 2 on 3 across 4 beyond Sat 6 in 7 Until Sin 9 along 10 on 11 through 12 among (> 81-2) 5 2inat 3 in on 4 RR at 5 donog for 6 by until/till 7 dioing for 8t:m*446y 9 fa* during 10 at on (>131-2)

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 Laura on winning the tournament 3 about trains to Scotland 4 the young man from coming in / entering the club 5 Mike for not phoning her 6 about the book (> Si) 2 2 of 3 with 4 in Son 6 of (>131-3) 3 A 2 by 3 by 4 in Sin 6 of 7 at 8 about 9 in 10 w B 1 in 2 out of 3 at 4 at Sin 6 out of 7 in 8 by 9 in (> 81-3) 4 2 with to 3 iR on 4 about of 5 of about 6 with for 7 BR in 8 with on (> 81-3) Exam practice Reading and Use of English 1 spoken 2 graduation 3 political 4 tendency S protection 6 Naturally 7 supposing 8 unaffordable

Grammar focus task 2 for 3 with 4 in 5 by 6 for

Unit 22 A: Context listening 1 1 They lived in the 17th century. 2 Yes, they were.

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2

2 A Edmund B Margaret C Henry and William D William and Jane

1 into 2 as 3 addition 4 At 5 what 6 it 7 each Son

3 2 that hangs next to Margaret's portrait 3 who's holding the book 4 which lost 5 when their youngest son was born

Grammar focus task 1 between 2 at 3 in 4 at 5 among 6 across

Unit 21 A: Context listening 1 Suggested answers: A A man is on a ladder and he is breaking a window. Fire is coming from the door. B A man is taking a toolbox out of a car. Fire is corning from an upstairs window. CA man is looking out of an upstairs window. Smoke is coming from downstairs. 2 Picture B fits best. Picture A is wrong because the fire was upstairs and Andy broke in downstairs; also he didn't put his handkerchief over his face until he was inside the house. Picture C also shows the fire downstairs; and there is someone upstairs, but Andy didn't go upstairs and there was no one else in the house. 3 2 at 3 on 4 on 5 by 6 by 7 with Sin 9 in 10 for 11 for 12 with 4 by

4 1 Which refers to the one (= the ship). 2 That refers to the picture. 3 Who refers to the one (= William). 4 Which refers to the side. 5 When refers to the year.

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 who 3 which 4 who 5 (which) 6 which 7 (which) 8 which 9 which 10 which (> 131-2, BS) 2 2 where, F 3 which, G 4 when, B 5 why, A 6 who, D 7 whose, H 8 which, E (> 81-3) 3 2b 3a 4a 5b 6a 7 b()'131-S) 4 2 My uncle's cottage, where we usually spend our holidays, has been damaged by floods. 3 The chemistry exam, which we had been worrying about, was actually quite easy. 4 My brother, whose classmates had been teasing him, got into a fight near the school. 5 There are dreadful traffic jams during the summer, when everyone goes on holiday. 6 My parents, who don't often go to the cinema, enjoyed that film very much. (> 132-4) 5 2 neither of which 3 none of whom 4 one of which 5 most of which (> 85)

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Answer key

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 4

Unit 24

1 in which we had lunch! (which/that) we had lunch in

A: Context listening

2 who works for an airline 3 is the reason (why) 4 book (which/that) I lent him

1 B (A is wrong because Gemma didn't sign a contract and hasn't made any more films. C is wrong because she was not a film actor before she got the part. D is wrong because she was already at theatre school â&#x20AC;&#x201D; it was only in films that she

5 the concert (which/that) I went 6 the boy whose mother is

Grammar focus task 1 all of them 2 Sentence 2 is non-defining; all the others are defining. 3 We can tell by the punctuation. The clause in sentence 2 is enclosed by commas and if we remove this clause, the sentence still makes sense. In the other sentences the relative clause is necessary in order to identify the thing/person we are talking about.

Unit 23 A: Context listening 2 losie does judo and Adam plays volleyball. 3 2 good enough 3 since 4 tall enough 5 so quick 6 enough exercise 7 too much time 8 too many practice games 9 in order to 10 well enough 11 as, so much revision 4 It goes after an adjective or adverb but before a noun (good and tall are adjectives, well is an adverb and exercise is a noun).

C: Grammar exercises 1 2 in order to 3 As 4 so 5 enough, so, too 6 so that (>81-3) 2 2 5 3 D (In 3a we understand that his father doesn't allow him to have a motorbike, but in 3b he may have one although he's unusually young.) 45 55 6 D (In 6a we understand that she's confused by too much advice, but in 6b she's had as much advice as she needs, no more, no less.) 75 85(> 61-3) 3 2G 3D 4E SF (B is also possible, though less likely.) 6 C (G is also possible, though less likely.) 78 8 A (> 83)

had no experience.) 2 2 in spite of having 3 after visiting 4 before accepting 5 while making 6 working 7 but I'm 8 despite being 3 the -ing form

C: Grammar exercises 1 2C 3D 4H 5F 61 7A 88 9E(>I31-2and4-6) 2 20 (In la Sam showed the map to the farmer and asked the way, but in 117 the farmer asked Sam the way and Sam showed him his map.) 35 40 (In 4a Chloe's father promised her a car after she'd failed the exam, but in 4b he promised it before she took the exam.) 5 $ 6 D (In 6a the mountain guide warned us, but in 6b the guide received the warning from someone else.) (>131-4) 3 2 Waving to her fans, the singer got into her car. 3 Grumbling about the amount of homework he had, Simon took out his grammar book. 4 Designed by a famous architect, the school buildings won several prizes. 5 Being a sensible girl, Wendy didn't panic when she cut her hand. 6 Hearing cries for help. Paul dived into the water. 7 Recorded only last week, this song has already been downloaded a million times. (>64)

4 2 While 3 before 4 even though Seven if 6 though 7 Since (> 61-4,136) 5 2b 3b 4a 5a(>131,135) Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2 1 even 2 from 3 fact 4 which/that 5 apart 6 but Ito 8 Despite

4 2 since 3 so 4 as 5 Therefore 6 such 7 Because (> 81-3)

Grammar focus task

5 2 fit enough to 3 enough room/space for 4 old enough to 5 too expensive for me to 6 too well for me to 7 too far (away) (for us) to 8 too windy for the ferry to (> 83)

18 2A 3D 4E SC

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 1 113 213 3A 40 SA 6C 7C BD

Grammar focus task 1 that 2 enough, to 3 Therefore 4 too 5 in order to

249


Answer key

Vocabulary section Unit 25 1.1 A India B Brazil 1.2 Photo A 2 pine 3 streams 4 vegetation 5 slopes 6 orchards 7 tracks 8 valleys 9 bank 10 springs

1.3 2 trunks 3 sunlight 4 plants 5 leaves 6 soil 7 roots 8 branches 9 insects 10 butterflies 1.4 2 wide 3 straight 4 muddy 5 cultivated 6 mountainous 7 steep 2.1 2 A 3B 49 SA 6B 7A 8B 9 A 10 A 11 8 12 A 2.2 Join land 3, 10 and 12 with and. Join 2 and 5.6 and 8,7 and 9 with but. (See Web page for the full texts.) 2.3 It's in the Arctic. (The speaker is talking about Greenland.)

Unit 27 1.1 1 composer. A composer writes music, the others perform it. 2 chapter. This word relates to books; the others relate to music. 1.2 2 Yes 3 Yes (the cello and violin) 4 Yes 5 Yes (but only occasionally) 1.3 2 have always counted it among 3 got to quite a high standard 4 sang solo sometimes make a special trip 6 always got something playing, my headphones on 2.1 rock: 3 pop: 2 classical: 4 world music: 1 2.2 2 harmonies 3 album 4 composers 5 tracks 6 cover version 7 distinctive style 8 fans 9 old favourites 10 lyrics 3.1 1 rock W roll 2 jazz 3 country and western 4 folk

3.1 2 frozen 3 misty 4 tropical 5 warmth 6 global

4.1 2 whistle 3 tap 4 sneeze S snore 6 bang 7 splash 8 smash

Exam practice

4.2 2B 3G 4H 50 6A 76 8C

Reading and Use of English Part 6 1C 2G 38 4F SA 60 Writing Part 2: email See Web page for model answer.

Unit 26 1.1 Meal A is high in salt, fat, protein, carbohydrate, sugar and calories and low in vitamins and fibre. Meal B's high in vitamins, protein and fibre and low in salt, fat and sugar. 1.2 eating lean meat needing carbohydrate for energy not putting on weight doing regular training getting enough sleep handling stress 1.3 2 False 3 True 4 False S True 6 False 7 True 8 False 1.5 2 cut down on 3 putting on 4 live on get round to 6 taking up 7 going for 8 coming down with 2.1 2 C 3 E 4 A 5 13 6 D 2.2 2 stitches 3 antihistamines 4 prescription 5 plaster 6 vaccination 7 scales 8 symptoms 3.1 2 made up for, A 3 made for, B 4 make out. E made (them) into, C Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 1 1 a 2 Although/Though/While 3 too 4 it S into 6 any 7 when/whenever/if 8 as Writing Part 1: essay See Web page for model answer.

250

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2 I much 2 each/every 3 in 4 what S not 6 who 7 as 8 why Writing Part 1: essay See Web page for model answer.

Unit 28 1.1 1 A coach from the national team came to choose the three best players. 2 Nick tripped and broke his leg. 3 his brother 1.2 positive: confident, excited, proud, relaxed negative: ashamed, disappointed, embarrassed, guilty, jealous, upset 1.3 1 excited, confident, proud 2 disappointed upset, jealous 1.4 ashamed, embarrassed, guilty 2.1, 2.2 amazed

annoyed

depressed

surprised astonished

angry furious

fed up miserable

frightened

pleased

worried

scared afraid tad

glad delighted

anxious concerned


Answer key 3.1 Sample answers: Paul: happy, keen, excited, thrilled, eager, enthusiastic Don: nervous, scared, frightened, anxious, worried, apprehensive 4.1 2 disappointing 3 surprised 4 excited 5 worried 6 terrifying 7 relaxing 4.2 Noun: embarrassment, pleasure, excitement Verb: amaze, embarrass, please, annoy Adjective: amazing, amazed, annoying, annoyed Noun: anger, jealousy Adjective: depressing, depressed, proud, anxious, miserable

Exam practice Listening Part 1

aggressive hard-working - lazy modest - arrogant polite - rude relaxed - tense self-confident - shy 2.2 2 mean 3 rude 4 lazy 5 tense 6 aggressive 3.1 1 im- 2 un- 3 in- 4 dis- 5 irim- is added to some adjectives beginning with p ir- is added to some adjectives beginning with r 3.2 2 careless 3 powerful 4 painful 5 harmless 6 graceful 7 colourless

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 5 1B 2A 3C 4A 5D 6D

Writing Part 2: article See Web page for model answer.

1C 2 8 3C 4A SA 68 7C 8A

Writing Part 2: article See Web page for model answer.

Unit 29 1.1 A (prehistoric) paintings of animals in a cave B a long wall and a tower (Great Wall of China) 1.2 A Age: 17,000 years Purpose: to show the importance of animals to people's survival 13 Location: China Age: 2,000 years Purpose: to protect the border / prevent invasion 2.1 2 records 3 population 4 figures 5 inhabitants 6 tribes 7 ancestors 8 hunting 9 settle 10 tools 11 beliefs 12 stories 2-2 prehistory: prehistoric archaeology: archaeologist, archaeological evidence: evident politics: politician, political presidency: president, presidential populate: population civilise: civilisation, civilian invade: invasion, invader reside: residence, resident believe: belief, believer survive: survival, survivor 3.1 2 last 3 spent 4 takes 5 lasts 6 spent 4.1 2D 38 4A 5G 6H 7E 8F

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 1 1A 2C 3A 4C SD 6A 7D 8B

Writing Part 2: review See Web page for model answer.

Unit 30 1.1 1 B 2 C 3 A 1.2 1 energetic, relaxed, determined, ambitious, outstanding 2 fashionable, fit, self-confident, charming, sympathetic, dedicated 3 versatile, talented, graceful, courageous, devoted 1.4 2 A 38 4A 5 8 6A IC SC 2.1 adventurous - cautious generous - mean gentle -

Unit 31 1.1 go: skating, cycling, jogging, walking, swimming, climbing, skateboarding, skiing, diving, snorkelling, sailing, snowboarding, hiking, surfing ploy: squash, rugby, badminton, hockey, football, table tennis, baseball, ice hockey do: yoga, aerobics, athletics, gymnastics, martial arts 1.2 1 a course 2 a court, a racket 3 a pitch, a stick 4 a court, a racket 5 a bat, a pitch The word not used is a track. It is associated with athletics/running. 1.3 1 jogger, walker, swimmer, climber, skateboarder, skier, diver, snorkeller, footballer, snowboarder, hiker, surfer 2 volleyball, squash, rugby, badminton, hockey, football, table tennis, baseball, ice hockey 3 cyclist, gymnast, athlete (Note: There is no word in English for someone who does judo, yoga or aerobics.) 2.1 Speaker 1: yoga Speaker 2: squash Speaker 3: hockey 2.2 Speaker 1: great, varied, relaxing Speaker 2: demanding, exciting, challenging Speaker 3: satisfying 3.1 1 win 2 beat, won 3 won, beating 4 win, beating 5 beat, win 4.1 2 flowed 3 working 4 did 5 goes 4.2 2 runs in, families (run on something means to work or function by means of it: Most motor boats run on diesel.) 3 friends, run into (run over someone/something means to hit and drive over: I dropped my hat on the road and a car ran over it.) 4 children, run out of (run up against something means to face an obstacle: The council ran up against a lot of opposition when they decided to cut down the tree.) 5 problem, run up against (run through means to read or practise something quickly from beginning to end: Before the meeting Iran through what was going to say.) 6 run on, petrol (nun into also means to hit accidentally: I lost control of my bike and ran into a tree.)

Exam practice 251


Answer key

Reading and Use of English Part 4 1 Co run through/over 2 succeeded in winning 3 been running well since it 4 ran up against / ran into a lot / lots went sailing for the first 6 runs in Susie's Writing Part 2: email See Web page for model answer.

Unit 32

Reading and Use of English Part 4 1 made the journey / went on a journey 2 on a short trip to 3 to book (some/any) accommodation 4 rather travel by 5 do on (a) holiday is 6 taken a longer flight than

Writing Part 2: article See Web page for model answer.

1.1 Speaker 1: A Speaker 2: C Speaker 3: A Speaker 4: B 1.2 2 spoken 3 get 4 make 5 told 6 fell 7 got 8 get 9 lost 10 enjoy 11 keep 12 make 13 have

1.3 1 close 2 best 3 old 4 good 2.1 2 know 3 made 4 become 5 neighbour 6 in 7 each 8 on 9 out

2.2 nephew, widow, aunt, stepfather, sister-in-law, grandparents 2.3 1 F She and her stepsister often fall out. 2 T 3 F They share a lot of interests. 4 T 5 F They met when Meena moved in next door. 3.1 2 destiny 3 eldest 4 support 5 roots 6 loyalty 7 community 8 brought 9 background 10 fortune 11 inherited 12 donated Correct order: E, B, D, A, F, C 4.1 IF 30 4E 5 8 6A

Exam practice Listening Part 3 1H 2A 3G 4F SC

Writing Part 1: essay See Web page for model answer.

Unit 33 1.1 by plane 2 visa 3 terminal 4 pass 5 control 6 security 7 board 8 gate 9 crew 10 headset

Unit 34 1.1 Speakerl: staying in Speaker 2: going out 1.22C 31 41 SC 6C 71 SC 9 C 10 C 11 1 12 .1 13 1 14 I 15J 16C 17) 18J 1.3 have: a barbecue, a coffee, friends round, a quiet night in (1.3); a takeaway (1.2) watch: a film, a match, a play (1.3); sport on TV, DVDs (1.2) play: cards, games, a match (1.3); music, online games (1.2) go: shopping (1.3); clubbing, surfing, swimming (1.2) go to: a barbecue, a club, a concert, a film, a match, a play, a restaurant, the theatre (1.3); a party, junk shops, the cinema, the beach (1.2) go for: a coffee, a drive, a walk (1.3) 2.12F 3c 4E 50 6I3 7A 8 H 2.2 2 collects 3 do 4 do 5 play 6 play 3.1 take off a few days: spend time away from work take out money: withdraw take over a business: gain control of take to someone you've just met: develop a liking for take up space: fill up take on responsibility: accept 3.2 2 took out 3 took off 4 takes after S take on 6 taken over 7 takes up

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 3

1.2 1 train 2 bus 3 underground 4 taxi

1 pointless 2 commitments 3 unlike 4 addition 5 friendships 6 personal 7 strengths 8 truly

1.3 Words not used: landing, runway, wing. They are associated with planes.

Writing Part 2: email See Web page for model answer.

2.1 1 suitcase 2 accommodation, hotel 3 equipment, tent 4 cash, coin 5 parking, car park 6 transport, vehicle 2.2 Countable: hotel, vehicle, suitcase, tent, car park, coin Uncountable: equipment, transport, luggage, cash, accommodation, parking 2.3 2 journey 3 trip 4 trip 5 travel 6 trip 7 travel 8 journey 3.1 Woman: 2 C 3 C 4 A SA 6 B Boy: lA 2B 313 4C 5C 6C Exam practice

252

Unit 35 1.2 2A 3B 4A 5B 6A 1.3 City A: Sentences 6, 2, 4 City 8: Sentences 3,5. 1 2.1 B 2.2 2F 3T 4F ST 6F 2.3 1 industrial, business 2 residential, outskirts, suburbs 3 block 4 mall 5 multi-storey 6 neglected 7 lane


Answer key 3.1 2 health centre 3 car park 4 art gallery 5 concert hall 6 taxi rank 7 football stadium 8 ice rink 9 bowling alley 10 shopping centre 3.2 recreation ground. People play games there.

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 1 1D 2A 3C 40 SC 69 7D 8C

Writing Part 2: article See Web page for model answer.

Unit 36

31 The girl prefers going to the theatre because there's more atmosphere and every performance is special. The man prefers going to the cinema because of the darkness in the cinema, the film music and the locations in the films. 4.1 Speaker 1: lively, moving, dramatic, superb Speaker 2: delightful, memorable, convincing, outstanding 4.2 brilliant P confusing N convincing P delightful P dramatic P dull N fascinating P gripping P imaginative P irritating N lively P memorable P moving P outstanding P predictable N stunning P superb P tedious N uninspired N 4.3 2 brilliant 3 confusing 4 uninspired S tedious

1.1 1 Chinese 2 Mexican 3 Italian

Exam practice

1.2 1 prawns, ginger, spices, soy sauce, stir fries, rice, noodles 2 hot spicy food, chilli, corn, tortillas, beans 3 herbs, tomatoes, pasta, olives

Reading and Use of English Part 7 1D 28 30 4A 58 6D 7C 8A 9 C WA

1.3 2 eggs 3 vegetables 4 banana 5 cheese 6 butter 7 lemon 8 sauce

Writing Part 2: review

2.1 2 F The restaurant serves well-known (popular) dishes, not unusual ones. 3 F Dishes are delivered to your table by waiters. 4 F The food is served as soon as it has been cooked. 5 T 6 T 2.2 2G 3F 4C 5A 6 8 7 E 2.3 1 tasteless 2 tasty 3 tasteful 3.1 1 water colours, oil paintings, prints 2 pottery, textiles, jewellery, sculptures 3 portrait, still life, landscape, abstract 3.2 2 pottery 3 exhibitions 4 galleries 5 conventional 6 style 7 landscapes 8 realistic 9 colours 10 huge 11 impressive

Exam practice Listening Part 3 1 remote 2 plane 3 nature 4 beaches 5 desert 6 light 7 board 8 oil 9 companies 10 (magazine) articles

Writing Part 1: essay See Web page for model answer.

See Web page for model answer,

Unit 38 1.1 2 mansion. This is a huge house; the others are found inside a house. 3 flowerbed. This is in a garden; the others enclose a garden. 4 carpet. This is on the floor; the others are at a window. 5 wardrobe. This is a piece of furniture; the others are building materials. 6 lobby. This is the entrance area inside a public building the others are structures outside a house. 1.2 1 shutters 2 garage 3 gate 4 fence 5 terrace 6 chimney 7 bricks 8 hedge 1.3 A 2.1 1 The Clenches' house was painted but the writer's house wasn't. 2 In a modern house in a city or town, because she wanted one with painted walls, an indoor bathroom, electricity and flowers round the porch. 2.2 1A 2C 3B 4C 5 13 68

Unit 37

3.1 2 electrician 3 service agent 4 builder 5 decorator

1.1 Speaker 1: reality TV Speaker 2: comedy Speaker 3: costume drama

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 3

1.2 2 current affairs 3 soap opera 4 documentary 5 costume drama 6 reality TV show 7 chat show

1 surroundings 2 emotional 3 ensuring 4 personality/personalities 5 luxurious 6 sensitive 7 requirement 8 expectations

2.1 2 listened ICI 3 looked at 4 saw heard 6 watched 7 read about 3.1 2 13 39 4C 5 B GB 78 88 99 10 C 118 129 138 149 159 16T 17 C 18C 19 B 20 T 21 C

Writing Part 1: essay See Web page for model answer.

253


Answer key

Unit 39 1.1 1 make observations, enter data into a computer 2 collect data, make exciting discoveries, do experiments 3 make predictions, attend conferences, interpret statistics

Writing Part 2: review See Web page for model answer.

Unit 41

1.2 2 chemist 3 astronomer 4 ecologist 5 biologist 6 physicist 7 mathematician

1.1 jasmine: C Karim: A

1.3 biology, biological; chemistry, chemical: ecology, ecological; geology, geological; mathematics/maths: mathematical; physics, physical

2.2 2 a dress b wear 3 a dressed b wearing 4 a got b took 5 a had b wore

1.4 2 8 3 1 4 B 5 1 6 N

2,1 2A

30 4F 5C 68

3,1 1 T 2 F In easier to leave them on. 3 T 4 T 5 F He can't afford to buy it. 6 T 4.1 2 boundaries 3 end up 4 causes 5 warming 6 record 7 develop 8 create 9 make 10 linked 11 cut down 12 standard

Exam practice Listening Part 1 lB 2C 3B 4c sc GA 7C

Writing Part?: letter See Web page for model answer.

Unit 40 1.1

Reference: biography, cookery book, guidebook, textbook Fiction: detective story, fantasy, ghost story, romance, science fiction novel, thriller Publicity: brochure, catalogue

1.2 thriller or detective story 1,3 Sounds: groaning, shriek, yelling, whimpering Movements: crept, darted, dashed, stumbled 1.4 1 breathe 2 nod 3 blink 4 tremble 5 sigh In each group the other two words are connected with seeing. 2.1 2 novelist 3 called 4 remember 5 fiction 6 characters 7 relationships 8 borrow 9 library 10 request 11 entertaining 12 chapter 3.1 1 Because they make you think (like a crossword puzzle). 2 His stories move fast and he has a great hero. 3.2 1 mad about 2 especially when 3 makes me think 4 bit too much 5 'd rather 6 move really fast 7 real tough guy 4.1 Crime: shoplifting Criminal: robber, thief, shoplifter, murderer Verb: burgle, rob, murder 4.2 2 robbed 3 stole 4 robberies 5 murderer 6 stolen

Exam

practice

Reading and Use of English Part 5 1A 2C3B4135A60

254

2.1 1 C 2 8 3 D 4 A

3.2 1C 2A 3C 4C SB 6A

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 6 1C 21 3A 4D 5G GE

Writing Part 2: story See Web page for model answer.

Unit 42 1.1 1 streamed. Classes are streamed if the pupils are divided into different groups according to ability; the other words describe different types of school. 2 playing fields. These are outdoors; the other places are indoors. 3 lecturers. They work at a university; the other people work in a school. 4 housework. This is work done at home (e.g. cooking, cleaning); the other words are related to school. 1.2 1 secondary, state, comprehensive 2 laboratory, playing fields 3 teachers 4 timetable, uniform, subjects 1,3 1 living nearby / being able to walk there, science lessons, the varied timetable 2 having a lot of homework, uniform 1.4 2 compulsory 3 age 4 age 5 start 6 attend 7 pupils 8 taught 9 miss 10 after 11 allowed 12 take 13 leave 14 study 15 opportunities 2.3 1 A: (chemistry] 8: (geography] 2 Suggested answers: In lesson A the students are working in a group, but in lesson 8 the teacher is talking to the whole class. In lesson A the students are wearing special clothes and protective glasses. 3.1 2 revise 3 retake 4 pass S take 6 fail 7 give 8 studying

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 2 1 whose 2 than 3 one 4 out S not 6 been 7 how 8 for

Writing Part?: story See Web page for model answer.


Answer key

Unit 43 1.1 Speaker 1 is a hairdresser. Speaker 2 is a carpenter. 1.2 Suggested answers: Hairdresser: cheerful, friendly, on my feet all day, salon Carpenter: physically fit, good with my hands, creative, design cupboards or shelves 2.1 A receptionist 8 cleaner C nursery assistant 2.2 2 A, permanent 3 C, possible promotion 4 B. shift work S A, good communication skills 6 8, overtime 2.3 1 salary 2 wages 3 rate of pay 2.4 2 vacancy 3 application 4 catering 5 passionate 6 professional 7 reliable 8 training 9 enthusiastic 10 references 3.1 2 ./ 31 41 5/ 6/ 71 8/ 3.2 1 Speaker 1:1 resigned. Speaker 7:1 gave up my job. 2 Speaker 3:1 was made redundant. 3,3 1 work 2 job 3 career 4 work S work 6 job, work 7 work 8 career

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 3 1 worrying 2 unpredictable 3 promotion 4 response relationship 6 competitive 7 annoyance 8 extraordinarily

Writing Part 2: letter of application See Web page for model answer.

Unit 44 1.1 It is aimed at people who are thinking of coming to the university as undergraduates. 1.2 2 departments, faculty 3 prospectus 4 lectures, seminars, tutorials 5 lecturers, tutors 6 dissertation 7 halls of residence, students' union 8 mature 9 terms, semesters, vacations 10 undergraduates, graduates, postgraduate 2.1 1 Student 1: English literature Student 2: chemistry 2 Student 1: lectures, seminars, tutorials, essays, presentations Student 2: lectures, experiments 3 Student 1: studying on his own / reading and thinking things through, the timetable, the lectures, seminars and tutorials Student 2: the system - morning lectures and afternoon laboratory experiments 2.2 1 'm really enthusiastic about 2 are totally against 3 in my view 4 approve of 5 personally think 6 believe 7 'm convinced that 8 really appreciate 9 'm in favour of 2.3 1P 2N 3 El 4P 5 B6B 78 8P 9P 3.1 10 2E 3k 4C 5 8

Exam practice Reading and Use of English Part 7 16 2D 3A 4C SA 6D in A 9C 106

Writing Part 2: report See Web page for model answer.

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Grammar and Vocabulary for First and First for Schools with answers Be confident you have covered all of the grammar and vocabulary for your exam!Comprehensive coverage of the grammar and vocabulary for Cambridge English: First (FCE) and Cambridge English: First (FCE)for Schools also includes plenty of exam practice. Presents language in a listening context in a variety of situations Contains clear and reliable explanations with lots of examples Contains error w,arnings to help you avoid common mistakes made by real exam candidates Practises the range of exam tasks from Reading and Use of English, Listening and Writing papers Encourages language analysis Develops techniques for leaming and remembering vocabulary CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH CORPUS

Audio for the listening activities and exam practice is available online for download

lhe Cambridge English Corpus is a multi-billion word collection of watt' and spoken English. It includes the Cambridge Learner Corputw a unique bank of exam candidate papers. Our authors study the Corpus to see how English is really used, and to identify typical learner mistakes. This means that Cambridge materials help students to avoid mistakes, and you can be confident the language 'aughlisusnetial, natural and fully up to date. www.cambridge.org/corpus

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First ISBN 9 8-1-107-48106-0

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Grammar and Vocabulary for First  

A second best book for grammar and vocabulary.

Grammar and Vocabulary for First  

A second best book for grammar and vocabulary.

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