Walking guide www.yorkconservationtrust.org
OR TE R EN
’S ST. L EONARD
50 PE 49
TE RG AT E
YORK ART GALLERY
GI LL YG AT E
M AR YG AT E
BO O TH AM
BO OT HA M
S ST .M AR Y’
GR OS V
TE RR A
OT HA BO
PO RT LA
CL IF TO N
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START /END ST 1 47 M BARLEY HALL EU 53 S U L E M B
’S ER N T N OA A T M
SE E OUD G BRI
E OUS LOW
TE GA LE 41 K IC 42
ET RE ST
N ST. DSO HU O. GE
M YORK BREWERY
45 44 W RO 46
THE MANSION HOUSE
H RT NO
R IE UG RO
YORK MODEL RAILWAY
ON GT IN LL OW WE R
YORK RAILWAY STATION
ALE NDDG LE RI B
TE GA ER
Approx. route distance: 6¼ miles Estimated walking time: 3 hours
ST RE ET
(plus time to read property pages)
W AL K
ST .M AU
AM G AT E EN M VE A P
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29 30 31
MERCHANT ADVENTURERS’ HALL
WA LM GA TE
NATIONAL CENTRE FOR EARLY MUSIC
D OR IFF
CLIFFORD’S TOWER CASTLE MUSEUM
E ON ST
39 . ST
HO PE S
E LM O SH
CA ST JORVIK LE G AT E
H C R H U C
25 24 23 26
E AT RG IE LL LES CO SHAMB
E AT G W E R SPEN LAN D
PE TE RG AT E
AL DW AL K
HOLY TRINITY CHURCH
10 11 12
ATE D EA N G
G O O DR
MERCHANT TAYLORS’ HALL
GE OR GE
TE GA K ON M
Route Directions Visit York 1 – the start of your journey. After you have viewed both the ground floor and outside of this building, exit from the Museum Street entrance and cross over by the traffic lights into St Leonard’s Place keeping to the left hand side of the road. Follow this road passed the City Art Gallery (worth a visit) and turn left into Bootham. Continue along this road viewing the various YCT properties 2 3 4 until you reach 90 Bootham 5 , cross over the road by the pelican crossing and retrace your steps back up Bootham but on the opposite side of the road. At the corner of Gillygate, cross over by the traffic lights and walk along the right hand pavement 6 7 . At the end turn right into Lord Mayor’s Walk and continue to the next traffic lights. Cross left at the traffic lights to the opposite side of the road and immediately right across the road into Monkgate and follow that road out of the City until you reach No. 40 and No. 38 8 9 . Now retrace your steps and cross by the traffic lights to go under Monk Bar and into Goodramgate keeping to the left hand pavement. You may wish to linger for a coffee or a bite to eat at La Piazza 10 before continuing up Goodramgate 11 12 . No. 60 13 is on the opposite side of the road. At the crossroads turn left into King’s Square and left again into St. Andrewgate. Follow this road until you reach Aldwark and find the Wesleyan Chapel 14 on the right. Opposite is Cuthbert Morrell House 15 , followed by the St Anthony’s Hall 16 and garden complex. Time for another coffee or a visit to the Museum of Quilting 17 and the art studios or simply rest in the garden. Back to Aldwark and cross the road to St Saviour’s Place 18 19 20 keeping to the right hand side. Turn left into St Saviourgate 21 22 using the right hand pavement. At the end turn right into Colliergate the left hand side.
and cross over to
When you reach King’s Square turn left immediately passing the top of the Shambles (another one of York’s famous streets) into Newgate 25 . At the end you exit into Jubbergate and another coffee beckons at Gert and Henry’s 26 or browse around York’s Market. Turn left into Parliament Street passing everyone’s favourite shop and reach Pavement. Before crossing the road, take a look at the main beam supporting Sir Thomas Herbert’s House 27 . Turn right at the side of this to view Lady Peckett’s Yard 28 before returning to Pavement and Sir Thomas Herbert’s. Continue along Pavement turning right into Fossgate 29 . CONTINUED OVER
After another stop at Masons on the left, you will see a green door marked ‘Morrell Yard’ 30 . Enter along the corridor which opens out into a hidden gem but please respect the tenants’ privacy and quiet enjoyment of these premises. Continue along Fossgate 31 and Walmgate 32 33 34 . At Bowes Morrell House 35 cross to the opposite side and retrace your steps 36 37 38 39 until you arrive back at Merchantgate. Turn left, cross over the road and follow the walkway at the side of the River Foss into the Coppergate Centre where you may wish to visit the world famous Jorvik Viking Centre. Exiting the Coppergate Centre into Castlegate (see tourist signpost) immediately on your left you will find Fairfax House 40 . Another ‘must’ for a visit. Follow Castlegate towards the city centre, over Coppergate and left over the pelican crossing into Low Ousegate. Over Ouse Bridge onto Bridge Street and then to Micklegate 41 42 43 . At the top of Micklegate, immediately before Micklegate Bar, turn right into Bar Lane, along Toft Green and follow this road which becomes Tanner Row, crossing Rougier Street/George Hudson Street 44 45 to the continuation of Tanner Row. At the corner 35-41 North Street 46 is on your right but you need to turn left passed the modern Aviva building in Wellington Row, turning left into Tanner’s Moat. At the end of Tanner’s Moat take a sharp right turn into Station Road, crossing over the river on Lendal Bridge into Museum Street. Take the first right over the bridge into Lendal and arrive in St. Helen’s Square where on the right you will see the Mansion House, residence of the Lord Mayor of York. Turn left in St. Helen’s Square and continue into Stonegate 47 , filled with some of York’s most interesting shops and the route to York Minster. At the end of Stonegate turn right for a short distance to view 56 Low Petergate 48 before doing an ‘about turn’ to follow Low Petergate, crossing Deangate into High Petergate 49 50 , with the Minster on your right. Everybody has to visit York Minster. At the end of High Petergate, you pass under the left hand side of Bootham Bar, turning left into St. Leonard’s Place, passing York Theatre Royal after the De Grey Rooms/House 51 . At the left hand corner you reach The Red House 52 (for obvious reasons) and cross over Duncombe Place into Blake Street for the end of your journey on the right at The Assembly Rooms 53 and a well earned rest in ASK Restaurant.
Copyright ÂŠ York Conservation Trust Ltd. All rights reserved. The right of York Conservation Trust to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs annd Patents Act 1988. First published September 2010 York Conservation Trust 54 Bootham York YO30 7XZ www.yorkconservationtrust.org
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher.
Compiled by Philip Thake and Christine Allpress.
Designed and produced by Rubber Band Graphic Design, York www.rubberband-design.co.uk
Please contact York Conservation Trust for more details on Tel 01904 611164 email@example.com
Registered charity no. 504302
York Conservation Trust
Some readers of this guide will have heard about York Conservation Trust but there will be those who may not know us and probably most will not be aware of our aims, objects and history. Dr John Bowes Morrell and his brother Cuthbert had been buying, restoring and rehabilitating medieval properties in York for many years when they formed Ings Property Company Ltd in 1945. Following their deaths this continued under the guidance of Dr Morrell’s son, William, until 1976 when these properties were bequeathed to charity and the company’s name changed to York Conservation Trust Limited. From its beginnings in 1945 with 7 properties the Trust now owns and runs over 85 buildings, consisting of 79 residential and 66 commercial lets. Restoration and conservation has to be balanced with the need to put the building to its best use, both from the point of view of its tenants and in the life of the City. In order to understand the workings of the Trust, it is probably easiest to review its main objects viz; ‘to preserve for the benefit of the townspeople of the City of York in the county of North Yorkshire and of the nation at large, whatever of the English historical, architectural and constructional heritage may exist in and around the City of York aforesaid in the form of buildings of particular beauty or historical, architectural or constructional interest’.
The current Directors and Trustees (all related to the founders) are keen to ensure that where funds permit any significant property for sale, covered by the above objects, should be acquired by the Trust and returned to its former glory rather than being left to fall into disrepair. We also endeavour, where possible, to ensure that such properties do not leave the ownership of York people who have grown up with those buildings and respect their heritage. All our buildings are maintained to a very high standard and all the work is carried out by local businesses thereby generating further wealth for the City. When the economy is booming and commercial firms are expanding, a charity such as ours can offer a more measured and less profit-driven approach. In more austere times, commercial firms are less likely to give the upkeep of ancient buildings high priority but, so long as our rental income covers the costs, we need not do the same. We hope that our established reputation will ensure that we can fill that gap as a safe pair of hands, both for the quality of restoration and for the performance of our stewardship. Finally a brief mention of another question, which we have often asked ourselves: To what extent should the Trust, by its choice of commercial tenants, seek to influence the direction of life and shopping in the City Centre, albeit in a small way? Where all other factors are equal, we probably tend to favour smaller local businesses and shops, especially if they give diversity to the area. Too many city centres have become boring clones of undistinguished (and undistinguishable) shopping malls or high streets. We believe that York should remain different. This may all sound very general and obvious but old buildings are, by their very nature, individuals and the Trust will face future challenges with each new acquisition. Together with the City Fathers, we are determined that no further buildings of architectural or historical importance will be destroyed and lost for the enjoyment of our future generations. 3
1 Museum Street/2 Blake Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
54 Bootham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Bootham Lodge, 56 Bootham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
St. Mary’s House, 66 Bootham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Ingram House, 90 Bootham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
34 Gillygate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
36 Gillygate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Middleton House, 38 Monkgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
40 Monkgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
43-45 Goodramgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Powell’s Yard, Goodramgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Wealden Hall, 49 & 51 Goodramgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
60 Goodramgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Wesley Chapel, 62-64 Aldwark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Cuthbert Morrell House, 47 Aldwark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
St. Anthony’s Hall, Peasholme Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Coach House, Studios, Old School House & St. Anthony’s Garden, Peasholme Green . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
11 St. Saviour’s Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
12 & 13 St. Saviour’s Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
14 St. Saviour’s Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
29 & 31 St. Saviourgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
27 St. Saviourgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
8 Colliergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5 Colliergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
12 Newgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4 Jubbergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Sir Thomas Herbert’s House, Pavement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Lady Peckettâ€™s Yard, Pavement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
13 & 14 Fossgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Morrell Yard, Fossgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
15-16 Fossgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
6 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8/8a Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Bowes Morrell House, 111 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
77 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
17 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Morrell Cottages, (Rear of 15-17 Walmgate) . . . . . . . . . . . 78
13 & 15 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Fairfax House, Castlegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
61 Micklegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
83 Micklegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
85, 87 & 89 Micklegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
7a Tanner Row . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3-5 Tanner Row . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
35-41 North Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
12-16 Stonegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
56 Low Petergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
20 & 22 High Petergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
12-18 High Petergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
De Grey Rooms & De Grey House, St. Leonardâ€™s Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
The Red House, Duncombe Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Assembly Rooms, Blake Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
The distinctive York Conservation Trust green plaque
Take The De a journey Grey Rooms around and historical De Grey properties House in the City of York
Approx. route distance: 6Âź miles Estimated walking time: 3 hours (plus time to read property pages) This publication will not only take you on a journey around the City of York to view the many properties owned by York Conservation Trust, but will also enable you to view, and if time is available, visit the many tourist attractions within this fine old city. Like a city tours bus, you can join and leave the route map at any point allowing you time to visit the other interesting features of York which we have suggested on the route instructions. There is a fold-out route map at the back of this guide where you can view the list of properties and locate them on the map. Enjoy your tour and please visit our website at www.yorkconservationtrust.org to obtain further information on some of our beautiful and historic properties. You will recognise all the Trust properties because each one displays the distinctive green plaque as illustrated on the page opposite and on several pages within this guide.
Other properties owned by York Conservation Trust York 5, 6 & 7 Malt Shovel Court, Walmgate Goathland Brereton House Brereton Cottage Brereton Corner Little Ouseburn Mausoleum
1 Museum Street/ 2 Blake Street
1 Museum Street/2 Blake Street was originally built, in 1860, by Rawlins Gould, a one time assistant to the well known railway architect, George Townsend Andrews, and described by Pevsner as ‘a far less able architect’. Rawlins Gould also designed the Chapel at Bootham Park Hospital in 1865 and York Lodge, off York Road, in 1869. 1 Museum Street/2 Blake Street is a prestigious corner building, of classical detail built in striking orange brick in Flemish bond with fine ashlar detailing. It has a two storey, eleven bay front, with a curved corner bay and a brick balustrading to the roof which was a later addition. The craftsmen who worked on this left their own graffiti initials, SM 1908, EL 1909 and GWB 1930, the latter being for renovation work. All of the windows retain horned sashes and some of the original eight pane sash windows still survive on the Blake Street elevation. There are three doorways, one to Blake Street and two to Museum Street, although there appears to be a fourth on Blake Street which has been filled in subsequently. The most prestigious room is on the first floor, reached by a very grand staircase and boasts one of the most impressive views of York Minster along the length of Deangate. This is quite spectacular on a crisp winter’s evening. Within this room is a large wooden tablet whose transcript reads:
This Tablet was erected by the Guardians of the York Union to perpetuate the Memory of John Hodgson ESQ of Strensall who died 10th of Dec 1890 and by his will Generously bequeathed the sum of £5000, 4 per cent preference Stock North Eastern Railway Company free from duty to the Chairman for the time being of the York Union the income of which is to be given at the discretion of the Board to persons living on small incomes when afflicted by illness and without means to procure comforts and necessaries which they may require to help them in their distress such persons not being in receipt of parochial relief and residing within the York Union and the village of Sheriff Hutton. W Surtees Hornby Esq Chairman Henry King Esq Vice Chairman James Leeming Clerk Unveiled on the 24th May 1894, by Henry King Esq Chairman W Bean York In addition to holding meetings of the York Union, these premises have been a Register Office, Council Offices and rooms for the Conservative Club which housed three snooker tables, committee rooms and a bar. York Conservation Trust purchased the building in March 2010 and upgraded it internally and renovated it externally to be the home for Visit York. This includes a ‘state of the art’ Tourist Information Centre on the ground floor and support offices on the first and second floors. 9
54 Bootham is a grand Victorian house which was built in the 1840’s and reflects the affluent and prosperous living area which Bootham had become by the Victorian era. Bootham was not always such a prestigious and civil street. In the medieval period, the site and surrounding area, which 54 Bootham occupies, belonged to St. Mary’s Abbey (the ruins of which can be seen in the Museum Gardens) and was exempt from the taxes of the city. This made the occupants of St. Mary’s unpopular and resulted in the riots of 1264 to 1265. Houses on Bootham and Marygate were pillaged and burned to the ground while some of the Abbey’s men were murdered in cold blood. The street and houses of medieval Bootham were notorious for being poor and dilapidated. At that time most houses were made of wood and in 1298 it was recorded that some of the houses were so ruinous that they were dangerous to walk past. Complaints about the terrible stench in Bootham were also common. Bootham stank of pigsties and was constantly obstructed by loose animals. The street was uneven and full of dirt and the air was so smelly that it was believed to carry deadly diseases. Today, Bootham is a picturesque and beautiful road with grand and prestigious 19th century houses. 54 Bootham attracted some of the wealthiest and most successful citizens of York such as solicitors, surgeons and civil servants.
Bowden Cattley lived here in the late 19th and early 20th century. He was born in York in 1828, son of Mr Henry Cattley – a well respected and renowned citizen of York. Bowden Cattley married Miss Fryer, daughter of his former partner, who practiced as a proctor in York. Cattley was also a member of the York Waterworks company and was an active and influential member and honorary secretary of the St. Leonard’s Club. The renowned poet W. H. Auden was born here in 1907, the son of a local doctor. He grew up in Birmingham and graduated from Oxford University. During the 1930’s Auden taught at two schools and there wrote some of his most famous poems. Auden emigrated to the United States during the War and from 1956 to 1961 became professor of poetry at Oxford University. He died in Vienna in 1973 and is buried near to his holiday home in Kirchstetten, Austria. In 1925, it was recorded that 54 Bootham was the home of the respected doctors and cousins, John Harry Gostling and George Wilfred Gostling. John Gostling was from Halesworth, Suffolk. He was educated at Framlington College and King’s College, London and came to York in 1886 where he entered into a partnership with Dr Tempest Anderson. He was President of York Medical Society and Senior Honorary Surgeon and Chairman of the Medical Board at York County Hospital. Dr George Wilfred Gostling was educated at University College Hospital, London and came to York as a house surgeon at the County Hospital. Soon afterwards, with his cousin John Gostling, he also entered into a partnership with Dr Tempest Anderson. After the death of Dr Anderson the two cousins carried on with the practice from the old house in Stonegate. Just like his cousin, John Gostling, George was President of York Medical Society and also the Senior Honorary Surgeon and Chairman of the Medical Board at York County Hospital. Bootham is now well known because of Bootham School, which was founded by the Quakers and moved to York from Scarborough in 1822. In 1946 the school occupied 54 Bootham together with houses 53 and 55 as a dormitory for the pupils. Before York Conservation Trust bought the property in 1986, 54 Bootham was used as a retreat for Buddhist monks living in or visiting York. 11
56 Bootham or Bootham Lodge was built between 1840 and 1845 by Thomas Walker. This impressive Victorian building housed some of York’s most prestigious and respected individuals during the 19th and 20th centuries. Richard Hewetson, a surgeon and a member of the honorary staff at the York County Hospital, resided here in the late 19th century. He also contributed to the civic life of the City, being a member of the City Council. He was followed by Alderman Lancelot Foster, a well known and influential figure in York’s civic and social circles. He was a successful and wealthy business man – being a partner in ‘Lancelot Foster and Sons,’ an agricultural merchants, founded in 1827 by his father. Lancelot Foster was born in York and was also a Freeman of the City, becoming Sheriff of York in 1892 and its Lord Mayor in 1901. He was much loved by the people and served as Mayor during the coronation year of King Edward VII. He died on 18 June 1913 aged 68.
Bootham Lodge was for many years the Council offices and Chamber of Flaxton District Council (later Ryedale District Council). Following this it became the offices for births, deaths and marriages for the City of York Council prior to its purchase by York Conservation Trust in October 2003. It took six months of renovation to restore the building, the ground floor of which is currently leased to the York Register Office. A new marriage room was built as an extension to the rear of the ground floor and was constructed as a modern nondenominational chapel-like building with French doors leading in to the garden, which has been completely re-landscaped as a suitable back drop for wedding photographs. The upper floors are leased to a firm of solicitors. The whole building was officially opened by the then Lord Mayor of York, Councillor Charles Hall, on 14 May 2004.
St. Mary’s House
St. Mary’s House, Bootham was built when St. Mary’s was constructed, probably between 1852 and 1860. It is believed that the house is situated on or near to the old York Cockpit, a place where people congregated to gamble on Cock fighting – a popular pastime in England. Specially reared and trained roosters were placed in a ring or pit and were forced to fight by their owners. The sport was outlawed in England in 1849 and in most other countries thereafter. Previously on this site was a very popular building throughout the late 18th and early 19th centuries known as The Cockpit House. This house had a very chequered history and was once the scene of much rioting in 1757, culminating in a certain George Thurloe being sentenced to death, but later having his sentence commuted to transportation for life to Australia. St. Mary’s House has had some very important and historic residents in its time. Mr William Wallace Hargrove, the founder of the Yorkshire Evening Press, lived here, and is remembered for his inspiring spirit and self determination which maintained York’s identity as a centre for excellence in newspapers and journalism. This coincides with the co-founder of York Conservation Trust, Dr John Bowes Morrell, who was also Chairman of Westminster Press Group and was the saviour of many regional newspapers from Newcastle to Exeter. 14
By 1891, St. Mary’s House was the home of William Barnby who was a professor of music at the William Wilberforce School for the Blind, which was named after the famous MP, William Wilberforce, who fought hard for the abolition of slavery, and which was located at King’s Manor from 1833. William Barnby had worked with the school from its early beginnings and achieved much recognition for its musical merit. He was a greatly loved and respected professor at the school. On 6th February 1886, Barnby was presented with a ‘chaste bronze timepiece’ from his pupils and fellow tutors in recognition and appreciation of the work he had done for the school throughout his career. He married Maria and together had two children called Louis and Margaret. Barnby also made money from his Railway shares and it was possibly from this money that Barnby could afford St. Mary’s House in Bootham. He died on 24th February 1895, aged 76, and his funeral took place at St. Olave’s Church on Marygate. The Trust bought this house, which had latterly been used as a dental practice, on 26 February 2004 and it is now the home of The Council for British Archaeology, who were previously in residence at another trust-owned property, Bowes Morrell House at 111 Walmgate (see page 72).
90 Bootham is one of the City’s most important mid-seventeenth century buildings composed of eleven bays of two low storeys, but with a four-storey central tower. The middle doorway is late Norman and has been moved from another site, reputedly Holy Trinity Priory. A pre-classical brick building with a large traditional walled garden, it was erected c.1635-40 by Sir Arthur Ingram as almshouses, known as Ingram Hospital. Only four years after its completion came the Siege of York in the Civil War. As it stood some distance outside the city walls, the house was for some time at the mercy of the Parliamentarian forces. It must have received damage from both sides, and the account for the repairs in 1649 is still in existence. Sir Arthur Ingram had adapted the city palace of the Archbishops, on the north side of the Minster, as his town house. He laid out the grounds with such taste that they were one of the sights of York. A visitor in 1634 described them as a ‘second paradise’, with their flower beds, shady walks with statuary, fishponds, bowling green and tennis courts. Charles I stayed there in 1642. Sir Arthur Ingram was a Yorkshireman, born at Thorpe-on-theHill, near Leeds. He bought the manor of Temple Newsham and built the magnificent house which still stands there. In 1612 he was appointed one of the Secretaries to the Council in the North, and was knighted a year later. He was MP for York four times, beginning in 1623, and High Sheriff of the County in 1620. 16
In his will of 1640 Ingram Hospital was not forgotten as he directed that £50 should be paid each year to support the work of Ingram Hospital. An extra £6.13s 4d was paid by the owners of Ingram’s Country Estate at Temple Newsham for prayers being read in the chapel. Ingram Hospital was purchased by Ings Trust Ltd (now York Conservation Trust) in 1957, and in 1959 was converted from a series of almshouses into four modern flats under the name of Ingram House.
Gillygate, which derives its name from St. Giles Church which was demolished after 1547, is an ancient street outside the walls; cleared in 1644; rebuilt; largely late 18th and early 19th century. No. 34 was bought by the Trust in August 2000 because it formed part of a block of Victorian houses Nos. 30 to 36 inclusive and it already owned No. 36. No. 34 is obviously of the same construction as 36 but it had one special attraction at the rear of the property, a ‘banana house’. This was originally used to ripen green bananas prior to sending them to the market for selling. Dilapidated and in disuse for many years, it was decided that as there was not much demand for ‘banana houses’ the property should be converted into a one bedroom maisonette. This was carried out with loving care and the end result is a unique property with a private patio and stunning views of the bar walls and York Minster.
36 Gillygate 7
The plots for Nos. 34 and 36 Gillygate were originally purchased on 11 July 1890 by Mr N Hannon. No. 36 is a Victorian building which, along with the rest of the east side of Gillygate, was under threat of demolition and very run down because the City Council had proposed a scheme for demolishing the whole of that side of the street in order to give a view of the Bar Walls behind. Fortunately that plan came to nothing, although many of the properties in the street had been acquired by the City Council with a view to their demolition, but with the complete change of plan, the Council devised a scheme for people to acquire their premises and restore them with the aid of Town Scheme grants. York Conservation Trust acquired No. 36 in 1980.
Monkgate is one of the original main routes into the City of York from the north-east. The church of St. Maurice was erected during the 12th century outside Monk Bar and contained evidence to suggest an extra-mural settlement had once existed at that time. The church was unfortunately demolished in the 19th century. None of the surviving domestic buildings antedate the destruction which occurred here during the English Civil War (1625 – 1649). This beautiful Georgian house was built in the 18th century for a wealthy property owner called Benjamin West. He owned the two adjoining tenements and used to rent them out to various citizens. West died in 1711 and the later owners of the house included Isaac Johnson, a baker, and Joseph Beckett, a silk weaver. However, it was not until 1798 that Middleton House received its most famous and well respected occupant – the Reverend Charles Wellbeloved. Charles Wellbeloved was born on 6th April 1769 at St. Giles, London. He was raised by his Grandfather, Charles Wellbeloved (1713 – 1782), who was a close friend of the famous Methodist preacher, John Wesley (see Wesley Chapel, Aldwark).
In 1787, Wellbeloved began studying at New College, Hackney, which was a college run by dissenters. This was where he began to acquire his Unitarian Christian attitudes. In January 1792, he was invited to live in York in order to work for Newcome Cappe as his assistant at St Saviourgate Chapel. When Cappe died in 1800, he became the sole minister of the Chapel and continued to hold the post until his death (1858). Wellbeloved took a while to adapt to York but became more settled by 1796, when he had established his own successful school with thirteen day pupils. By 1797 he was offered a new job as divinity tutor at the dissenterâ€™s Manchester College which he initially declined, as the financial situation of the college was too insecure. However, he changed his mind when the post was reoffered in 1803 and later that year it moved to Middleton House, York. Wellbeloved became the principal tutor and the house had to be enlarged for the students. The college was a success and remained in York until he resigned from his post as principal tutor in 1840 when it moved back to Manchester. In 1823 and 1824, Wellbeloved famously challenged the Unitarian Church from the attack by the Archdeacon Francis Wrangham. The confrontation proved that Wellbeloved was an excellent learned scholar, being fluent in Greek and Latin, studied Hebrew, Syriac and Chaldee and could also read Arabic, French, Italian and German. He is known for his revised translation of the Old Testament for Christian families; unfortunately he only managed to publish nine parts of the Old Testament, the first part in 1819 and the last part in 1838. After his death in 1858, his translations were republished in the Holy Scriptures of the Old Covenant complete with the other translated parts of the Bible in three volumes, revised by his fellow tutor and friend, John Kenrick. However, Wellbeloved is more commonly known by his popular Devotional Exercises for Young Persons written in 1801. This book was in its eighth edition by 1838. Wellbeloved was not only a deeply respected tutor; he is also remembered for his great contributions towards social reforms in York as well as conservation of Yorkâ€™s valuable heritage. In 1813, he helped expose the disgraceful and cruel treatment of patients at the York Lunatic Asylum. He helped found the York Book Society in 1794, the Subscription Library, the York Mechanics Society and the York Whig Club in 1827, and the School of Art in 1842. He was also the curator of antiquities at the Yorkshire Philosophical Society from 1823 until his death. He helped to conserve York Minster after the destructive fire in 1829 as well as opposing the relocation of the choir screen. He also opposed the demolition of the City Walls. Charles Wellbeloved died on 29th August 1858 and was buried behind St. Saviourgate Chapel. The Trust acquired and renovated this property in 1990.
40 Monkgate 9
This house stands on the site of one of the three houses owned by Benjamin West (see No. 38) and was in the same ownership as No. 38 throughout the 18th century. The original building was of the second quarter of the 18th century, although the timber doorcase to the entrance and the eaves cornice are early 19th century. The space between No. 40 and No. 38 was originally a carriageway to the rear of the properties but at a later date the ground floor formed an extension of No. 40, with the flying freehold above being part of No. 38. The house is of three storeys of mottled brown brick with red dressings. The staircase has open strings and turned balusters with square knops. The Trust purchased this property on 25 July 2005 in order to protect the flying freehold of No. 38. The property has been sympathetically converted into a one bedroom ground-floor flat, and a two bedroom first and second floor flat.
Goodramgate is an ancient street which runs from Monk Bar to King’s Square. The name ‘Goodramgate’ derives from the Danish personal name for ‘Gutherun’ or ‘Guthrum’. From 1177 to 1181 the street is first recorded in historical documents about the City. The majority of the street lay in the parish of Holy Trinity Church which is concealed behind the Lady Row houses on the north side of the street (see 60 Goodramgate). In 1771, the south end of Goodramgate was widened on the west side in between Petergate and Holy Trinity Churchyard. 15th century houses remain on the east side, however lesser timber-framed buildings were demolished in 1903 when Deangate was created. This street has a mix of buildings from different periods – from the 13th to 14th century Bedern Chapel to 19th century housing associated with the Albion Iron and Brass Works. Although there are some remains of stone-built houses in York, timber-framing was the normal method of construction in the City until 1645, when the use of entirely timber-frame in a building was forbidden by the City Council. This was because there was a high risk of fire with most buildings being made of timber and often built closely together.
Nos. 43 and 45 Goodramgate are extremely important late medieval buildings which were built around the late 15th century or early 16th century. Originally, medieval houses such as these would have been covered with plaster – concealing the timber framing. However, they are still excellent examples of late medieval houses in York. In 1831 it was recorded that Joseph Lockwood, a shoemaker and grinder, was living at 43 Goodramgate. In the 1850’s a pork butcher called William Stork resided here. From the 1860’s to the 1870’s, it was owned by the chemist and druggist, J. Wood. He would have produced most of his medicines and drugs himself here because medicine was not generally mass produced at this time.
In 1895, it was recorded that Thomas Jackson, a grocer, was living here. However by 1902 to the 1920’s the properties were being occupied by Frank Pool, a baker and confectioner. From the 1930’s to the 1950’s this house was owned by the jewellers and watchmakers, Howden & Sons. A jeweller continued to occupy this property in the 1960’s and 1970’s although no longer the Howdens – A. E. Jones was the new owner. In the late 19th century, No. 45 Goodramgate was mainly owned by the grocer, Frank Pool (mentioned above). However, before that date during the 1830’s and 1840’s, a baker and flour dealer called Thomas Ward lived here. In 1861, another baker was living at this address called Mrs Ann Hammond. Frank Pool had moved in to this house by 1895 and remained here until the 1920’s. From the 1940’s onwards this property was the ‘Minster Café’ also known as the ‘Minster Shoppe & Café’ which included a bakery and restaurant. Cuthbert Morrell purchased these properties in 1929 and transferred them to the company in 1957.
Purchased in 1957 as part of 49 Goodramgate, this derelict building, in a 16th century courtyard, was eventually substantially refurbished to become the offices of the Trust in 1995.
49 & 51 Goodramgate
51 Goodramgate is one of the most important heritage buildings in the City of York. This is because it was constructed of a Wealden type which is very rare in this part of the British Isles. In 1970 there were over 1,000 Wealden Halls still standing in the country although only twenty of these special buildings were found outside Kent and the Home Counties where they were much more common in the medieval period. The construction of No. 51 took place during the heyday of the Wealden Hall method. Characteristics of a Wealden Hall are a centre open hall flanked by two jettied double storey bays. As the jetties are not a structural requirement it was thought that men who were wealthy enough to pay for such indulgencies built them for decorative purposes. There was also a large open hall which further supports the possibility that 51 Goodramgate was originally built as a house for a high status occupant. It is possible that the original owner of the house was a Kentish or Home County merchant where he saw for himself the impressive design and brought it back to York. 49 and 51 Goodramgate were erected in the late 15th or early 16th century. 49 Goodramgate has had a variety of occupants living underneath its roof over the years. In the early 19th century it was recorded that John Jackson, a plumber and glazier, was living here and by 1853 John Bowman, a local cow keeper, had taken up residence. In 1895, J. C. Hague, a tripe dresser, had become the new inhabitant, though he did not live here very long because by 1902 a pork butcher called Harry Bowman was in residence. 28
Throughout most of the next century, 49 Goodramgate was mainly occupied by confectioners although the owners did not remain the same. In 1909, a confectioner called T. Haynes was the occupier and, by 1920, it was recorded that a new confectioner called Mrs E. E. Brownridge was the occupant. In 1965 Mrs M. E. Abbey took over and remained here well into the 1970’s. Number 51 Goodramgate has also seen numerous characters and professions working underneath its roof, from gun makers to hairdressers to gown specialists. As early as the 1830’s it was recorded that John Ward, a shop keeper, was living here. By the 1850’s it was occupied by a painter and glazier named Thomas Lockett but in 1861 James Alexander Hooke, a specialist in gun making including rifles, pistols and blunderbusses, was residing here. However, by the 1890’s there was a new owner called William Chapman, a boot maker by profession. In the early 20th century, the tobacconist, Robert W. Collinson, had taken over residency of 51 Goodramgate. Tobacco shops were first licensed in 1632 and were a lucrative business as smoking was common amongst most people at that time – smoking was a popular pastime and was thought to have medicinal purposes – the dangers not being realised until relatively recently! By 1909, 51 Goodramgate was owned by a hairdresser, A. E. Wilson, and by 1920, it was recorded that Albert Howden, a jeweller, lived here until the 1940’s when the house was taken over by M. Stoner, a gown specialist. In 1955, it was recorded that another gown specialist was in occupancy called ‘Josephine of York’, who remained here until the 1970’s when the antique dealer, D. Butler, became the new tenant. Cuthbert Morrell purchased these properties in 1930 and transferred them to the Trust in 1957. 29
60 Goodramgate is the end house of Lady Row and is part of probably the oldest set of houses in the City of York. It is a wonder that these buildings have survived in such an excellent state for nearly seven hundred years and it is a must see for any visitor in York. The story of Lady Row began in 1315 when the Archbishop of York granted a licence for William de Langetoft, a vicar in the Minster, to erect buildings in the churchyard of Holy Trinity. The rents from the building would support a chantry at the Altar of the Virgin in Holy Trinity Church. A year later, in 1316, the land was granted for the construction of a row of tenant houses formerly called Lady Row. The entire length of Lady Row measured 128 feet and 18 feet wide. It was built to accommodate as many people as possible and consisted of two storeys with eleven bays. Each bay was generally one tenement with one room upstairs and one downstairs. Living conditions would have been extremely cramped and uncomfortable. Whole families would have squeezed into these small houses yet they represent typical urban dwellings for the less wealthy inhabitants of York during the 14th century.
A separate house was built inside the churchyard specifically for the chantry priest. This house however was much more spacious and comfortable compared to the Lady Row tenements as it measured 24 feet by 16 feet. In 1827 this former chantry priest’s house was described as ‘dilapidated cottage’ and was subsequently demolished. In a late 16th century rental ledger, the range consisted of three cottages and one tenement let at 2s each, three tenements at 2s 4d each, one at 4s and one at 6s. By the mid 18th century, the house on the south end was demolished and a new arched gateway to the churchyard was built in its place. The next two houses to the north formed The Hawk’s Crest public house between 1796 and 1819. The second and third bays from the north end were rebuilt shortly before 1784 by John Lund as a pair of three-storey brick houses, and in the second quarter of the 19th century the house at the north end of the range was heightened to three storeys with a narrow extension to it built over the old entrance to the churchyard adjacent. This last house was The Noah’s Ark public house in 1878. In 1827 there was a proposal to open the churchyard out to the street by pulling down the whole range. Thankfully, this proposal was never carried out. Lady Row is perhaps the most important range of houses as it is the earliest timber-framed building surviving in the City. Though the external appearance has been greatly altered, the basic structure of seven bays remains largely intact. The property was purchased by York Conservation Trust in 2001.
This is a unique building that testifies to the surge of popularity of Methodism and dissent away from the Church of England during the 18th and 19th centuries. 62-64 Aldwark is a former Methodist chapel and was built in 1759 to accommodate the growing number of Methodists in York during the 18th century. The intriguing story of the popular Methodist movement in York which led to the subsequent building of the Wesley Chapel began on 25th April 1751. On that day, the famous and influential member of the early Methodist movement in England, John Wesley, came to York to preach in the Countess of Huntingdon’s Chapel on College Street. A year later the services had to be transferred into a larger building to cope with the growing members of Methodism. This building can be seen today as ‘The Hole in the Wall’ pub on High Petergate, north-west of the Minster. However, these new premises still did not cater for the ever growing Methodist community in York. A different building was then used, nicknamed ‘the oven’ and can be found on the corner of Patrick Pool and Newgate (this building was completely rebuilt in 1963 apart from a small portion of the south-west corner of the ground floor). Wesley preached here on 9th May 1753 and is commemorated with a plaque. On 11th July 1757, after Wesley had come to York to preach, a subscription fund was opened amongst the Methodist congregation to have a permanent church erected. Two years later on 27th February 1759, a site was found covering about 800 32
square yards at the junction of Aldwark and Peasholme Green. The site was leased for ninety nine years from the trustees of All Saints Parish at a cost of nine pounds per year. This would be the site of the new Wesley Chapel. The chapel was built extremely quickly by the Methodists. In fact, by the time Wesley had come to preach in York again on 19th April of the same year, he was able to preach in the shell of the new chapel. In his diary Wesley stated that – ‘I preached in the shell of the new house to a numerous and serious audience’. John Wesley opened the new chapel in July 1759. It was filled with plain benches and seated approximately four hundred people. There was a gallery at one end and the whole building was lit by candles. However, with the ever growing congregation the chapel was enlarged in 1775 by adding two extra galleries to fit an extra one hundred people. In 1805-1806, Wesley Chapel was sold for £530, the money contributing towards the erection of the New Street Chapel in York. By 1885, the largest upper window which lit the gallery had been replaced by folding doors which led to the hayloft. The basement had been converted into four tenements which were reached by side passages. York Conservation Trust purchased this property in 1950 and renovated it in 1955. A commemorative plaque was placed on the wall of the building remembering its use as a Methodist chapel. It reads; ‘This building, erected in 1759, was the first and for over 46 years, the only Wesleyan Methodist Chapel in York. John Wesley conducted the opening service on Sunday, 15th July, 1759, and preached here on many subsequent occasions. Its use as a Wesleyan Chapel was discontinued in the year 1805.’ 33
Cuthbert Morrell House
Cuthbert Morrell House consists of three, mainly late 19th to early 20th century, grade 2 Listed, two and three storey brick-built ranges forming three sides of a courtyard with the fourth side being formed by the grade 1 Listed St. Anthony’s Hall on the corner of Aldwark and Peasholme Green. They were built to house the expanding Blue Coat School which was founded in the hall in 1705. The Blue Coat School was founded by the City Corporation in 1705 to provide tuition, clothing and lodging for orphans and children of the poor. It was supported by regular subscriptions by the clergy, gentry and well-to-do citizens of York as a form of benevolence and in the belief that it would instil discipline and religion into the children of the impoverished and keep them away from the vices of sloth, beggary and debauchery. Initially for boys only, starting with 40 in 1705 and peaking at 85 in 1872, it provided schooling in religion and the 3 R’s and taught skills such as weaving and spinning and training for apprenticeships at sea and for domestic service. In 1706 girls were provided for at its sister establishment, the Grey Coat School, first in Marygate and later in Monkgate and by 1924 lessons for both sexes were provided at St. Anthony’s Hall, although the girls continued to live in Monkgate. Outgrowing the confines of St. Anthony’s Hall, the school expanded into a series of buildings surrounding the courtyard which were constructed towards the end of the 19th century. The 34
first, the east wing, was designed by JB and W Atkinson around 1870, originally with classrooms at ground level with a dormitory above. A single storey section at the north end contained privies. The second, west range, extending along Aldwark from the corner of the Hall, was designed by Demaine and Brierley in 1887 and incorporated sections of an 18th century house. It contained a ground floor drying room and larder with two floors of dormitories above. The narrow carriage arch which provides access from Aldwark was widened by York Conservation Trust in 2006 reusing the original moulded hood bricks, bullnose brick jambs and stone hinge blocks and with replica timber gates on the original forged hinges. The pupils wore characteristic uniforms of blue coats, yellow breeches and round hats (based on those of Christ’s Hospital in London) at all times, when out in the town and when attending church services and civic events in order to maintain a public profile, which encouraged new subscriptions and reminded the populace of their benevolence. The school closed in 1946 after 240 years and the buildings, including St. Anthony’s Hall, were sold back to the City Council for the sum of £9,000. From the early 1950’s until it moved to purpose-built accommodation at the University of York campus at Heslington in 2005, the buildings were occupied by the Borthwick Institute for Historical Research. The buildings were purchased by York Conservation Trust from the City Council in February 2006. Extensive renovations and alterations by the Trust have given the three ranges around the courtyard a new lease of life as the headquarters of York Archaeological Trust, who had previously been tenants of part of the building along with the Borthwick Institute.
St. Anthony’s Hall
This ancient and beautiful hall was once the hub of the guild of St. Anthony and is one of four medieval guildhalls which have survived in the City of York – the others being the Merchant Taylors’ Hall, the Guildhall and the Merchant Adventurers’ Hall. In1446, King Henry VI granted a charter which founded the guild of St. Martin. The hall, chapel and hospital were subsequently built on the site which previously housed a chapel for St. Anthony – the name was retained for the hall. The hospital chapel was consecrated in 1453 and was used by members of the guild and patients from the City. The 14th and 15th centuries are commonly thought of as a period of decline in English history when plague, civil strife and a decaying economy and population created a miserable existence for the average medieval person. However, St. Anthony’s Hall suggests otherwise. No other English city can boast so many large and historic medieval guildhalls from the 14th and 15th centuries – St. Anthony’s Hall was proudly built by some of the richest and most successful merchants in York. The City did not decline in this period – it expanded and prospered.
After the dissolution in the 16th century the guild came under the control of York Corporation. The hall was used as a meeting place for many trade guilds which had no guildhalls of their own. The first floor hall was used for such meetings â€“ this was called the Great Hall and would also have been used for indoor sports and entertainment such as archery and plays. In 1623, urgent repairs were needed for the upkeep of the hall. It was recorded that forty-nine guilds contributed to the costs of maintenance which demonstrates its importance for many of these guilds in York.
By 1569 St. Anthony’s was used as a workhouse for the poor, weaving being among the many tedious chores of the work force. In 1586, part of the hall had been converted into a house of correction, a place of detention and work for minor criminals. St. Anthony’s Hall was used as a knitting school for poor children in the early 17th century, but by 1655 the lower part of the hall was back in use as a house of correction and this continued until 1814. During the English Civil War (1625-1649) the hall was also used as an ammunition storeroom, military hospital and as a prison. In 1705, the Blue Coat charity used the main hall for teaching while using the aisles for sleeping and eating. The ground floor was occupied by kitchens and service rooms. The Blue Coat charity occupied St. Anthony’s Hall up until 1946. In 1953 York Civic Trust took over the management of St. Anthony’s Hall and it was subsequently opened as the Borthwick Institute of Historical Research.
The guildhall of St. Anthony has been altered through its long history. There are different building phases which testify to its ancient origins. The west end of the hall, chapel, the aisled great hall and the tie-beam roof date to the mid 15th century when it was built. In the late 15th century the hall was lengthened and during the 16th century the lead roof was replaced by tiles. During the 17th century the hall was substantially altered for the hospital and house of correction, for example, by 1656 eight fireplaces were built and the timber-framed walls of the first floor had been replaced with brick. The north and east wall had also been rebuilt â€“ it is possible to see where former windows had once been. The period in which the Blue Coat charity occupied the hall saw the old prison cells removed, extensive repairs in 1828-1829 and also the main staircase erected. Further restoration work took place after the Second World War. York Conservation Trust purchased this property in February 2006 and it has undergone major refurbishment, including the underpinning of two sides in order to prevent further movement. The hall is now the Museum of The Quiltersâ€™ Guild of the British Isles.
Coach House, Studios, Old School House & St. Anthony’s Garden
Coach House The Coach House of St. Anthony’s Hall was built of red brick in Flemish Bond in the late 18th century and is of two storeys. In each gable end there is a small segmental arch casement window at first floor level with an oeil-de-boeuf window above. Formerly a printers’ works, the building stood empty and falling into disrepair for many years until the Trust carried out major renovations, which included a very attractive conservatory with a lantern roof. A delicatessen and restaurant now operates from this building.
Studios Beyond this into the garden there were 19th century play sheds, for the children of the Blue Coat School, which were constructed of brick, iron and wood with a Welsh slate roof and skylight windows over each of the three bays. The Trust has sympathetically restored these buildings and managed to retain much of the original structure and roof and converted them into two large studios.
Old School House This single storey building was built in 1913 as a new classroom block and consisted of three separate classrooms, one of which was set aside for the Grey Coat girls when they began to receive their schooling in 1924 at the Blue Coat School. It required minimal alteration and is now used as a studio workshop, open to the public.
St. Anthonyâ€™s Garden In order to improve play facilities for the children, part of the garden was concreted over in 1928 to form a playground. After the closure of the school the garden became neglected and overgrown, until the Trust purchased the whole site in February 2006 and decided to landscape it for the use and benefit of the general public. The garden design was entrusted to the students of Bishop Burton College, whose remit was to retain as much of the original garden layout as possible, with special emphasis on making it user friendly for the disabled, and the partially sighted and blind. Elements of spirituality, practicality, education and historical timelines have all provided inspiration for the garden design.
The Shield Border On entering the garden, a large sandstone shield commemorates the design and restoration of this garden and the links to St. Anthony. The dry stone wall represents a journey through life, starting with enclosure and security, followed by the ups and downs of life’s challenges. It finally rises to a high point at the ‘Tau’ cross, a symbol of healing. The flame, a symbol of passion, inspiration and sacrifice represents St. Anthony’s love for his neighbour. The lily is a symbol of St. Anthony’s purity and his battle against the demon since childhood. Evergreen architectural plants such as the spotted laurels, Fatsia, Escallonia, Ceonothus and Vibernum provide all year structure to the planting. Colour is provided by a profusion of blue geraniums and campanulas flowing over the dry stone walls; pink pincushion-shaped flowers of Astrantia mix with the pink bell-shaped flowers of Penstamon. Heraldic Courtyard Area Transparent grasses catch the light; the scent of lavenders catches the air. Tactile plants such as Lambs Ears make it difficult for the visitor not to touch and interact with the plants. The central ‘wavy’ sculpture mimics the wavy grasses which form a linking theme throughout the garden, adding movement and texture. The sculpture adds height and segregation, whilst also allowing glimpses through to the buildings and planting beyond. The Circle Haven The circle haven is entered through one of the four metal arches which follow the same design as the other metalwork within the garden. Box squares either side of the seating provide all year structure and texture whilst the Katsura trees, Sedum and naturalised meadow planting envelop the visitor with colour and a wildlife haven. The air is filled with the scent of thyme and the red-barked cherry tree and under-planting of pink-leaved Cornus provide a focal point as people sit and relax. Summerhouse Planting Area The original garden contained a dilapidated summerhouse and a modern replacement has been erected on the same site to retain this feature. A transition area with marginal woodland planting including spires of Acanthus, red-berried Skimmia and varieties of Vibernum, Astrantia and Astilbe, add a lighter touch to the backdrop of the woodland. 42
Woodland Planting The upper part of the garden has retained the lines of all the original pathways with the addition of a water rill. These meander their way up to the City walls, from where you can look down and best appreciate the overall pattern of the garden. The walls and an informal variegated holly hedge, with occasional hawthorn trees, provide a strong and unified backdrop to the woodland area. Architectural ferns and specimen evergreen shrubs provide structural unity, with winter interest from the bell-shaped Christmas rose. A profusion of ground hugging Gentians, Primrose, and Epimedium, form a carpet in the dappled shade of the trees. Elegant white flowered Arum lilies extend either side of the water rill down to the trough below. A rhythmical series of yew mounds in a sea of box hedging forms a contemporary feel to the slope between circle and woodland. Seats Several of the seats provided for the public have been dedicated to the memory of the founders and former trustees of this family charitable trust, as well as one donated by Michael Bell, the last caretaker of St. Anthonyâ€™s Hall and The Borthwick Institute.
Award In 2009 the complete St. Anthonyâ€™s Hall site was awarded the York Design Award in the category of Conservation/Re-use, New Build and Open Space/Public Realm.
11 St. Saviour’s Place
St. Saviour’s Place
11 St. Saviour’s Place was built in 1827 as the Red Lion public house. The original public house was first recorded as early as 1783, although an even earlier date for it can be deduced from the obituary of the landlord, Samuel Smith. It was stated that Samuel Smith had been the licensee of the Red Lion pub for over fifty years. This therefore gives the earliest date for the pub of at least 1761. The Red Lion was rebuilt for the brewer, Emanuel Siddall, in 1827, who had agreed to a lease of fifty years with the feoffees of St. Saviour’s parish on 9th February 1827. From then onwards it had various landlords including John Clark in 1843, T. Smith in 1851 and Matthew Jackson in 1858. The Red Lion was last mentioned in 1861 because, like many public houses in York at this time, it closed down due to closer and stricter official public house inspections. However, in 1897, T. P. Cooper, a historian of York’s public houses, mentions a Red Lion Inn on St. Saviour’s Row which is probably the St. Saviour’s Place of today. Cooper states that the Red Lion was part of a grocer’s shop belonging to a man named Smith. The house and its stabling were bequeathed to the parish of St. Saviour’s and the rents were given to the upkeep of St. Saviour’s Church.
Following its purchase by York Conservation Trust in 1950, 11 St. Saviourâ€™s Place was drastically altered in 1963 when it was converted into business premises. This consisted of the addition of a 19th century double shop front from the Westminster Press Office, Fleet Street, London, which was moved here by the late Dr. J. B. Morrell, co-founder of this Trust and the then Chairman of Westminster Press Provincial Newspapers Ltd., the owners of the Fleet Street offices.
12 & 13 St. Saviour’s Place
St. Saviour’s Place
St. Saviour’s Place is located to the east of St. Saviourgate and along the line of Spen Lane. 12 and 13 St. Saviour’s Place were constructed in the second quarter of the 19th century and were used by several people and housed various trades over the years. In the post-War period these houses were mainly used for domestic accommodation and provide a good insight into the average type of buildings which were built in the Victorian period. At No. 12 St. Saviour’s Place in the 1870’s lived a butcher called William Lofthouse. No. 13 St. Saviour’s Place was the home of the Pratt family who ran a bakery business. They were recorded as living here as early as the 1830’s – William Pratt being the baker at that time. In 1861, Mrs Esther Pratt was the baker, and by the 1870’s the business was known as ‘Mrs Esther Pratt & Sons’ bakery. In the early 20th century, 12 and 13 St. Saviour’s Place were occupied together by the Hustwick family. Part of these properties was probably leased out to lodgers visiting or passing through York. Mrs Anna Hustwick was recorded as a shop keeper and Albert Hustwick was the lodging house keeper. However, by 1939, the Hustwicks were only living in No. 13, No. 12 being occupied by H. Moore, a general dealer. York Conservation Trust purchased the properties in 1950 and No. 12 was converted into two apartments during restoration work in 1963. 46
St. Saviour’s Place 14 St. Saviour’s Place 20
14 St. Saviour’s Place was originally built in 1775 as a manse for the minister of the Wesleyan Chapel which is located behind this building (see 62-64 Aldwark). By the 1870’s the house was no longer used as a manse because the Wesleyan Chapel had been closed down and moved to the New Street Chapel in York. Instead it was occupied by Mr Richard Hill who was described as an agent to the British Empire, Mutual Fire and Life Assurance. In 1909, Jane Milner was living at this address, but by 1939 it had been divided into two apartments with Sarah E. Mason living in one and Leonard Hartley living in the other. By 1955, it was recorded that part of 14 St. Saviour’s Place was being used as storage by Rowntree and Company, and James A. Clark lived in the remainder from the 1950’s to the 1970’s. The Trust purchased this property in 1997 to complete the ownership of the corner bounded by Aldwark and St. Saviour’s Place and it has now reverted into a single dwelling house.
29 & 31 St. Saviourgate
29 & 31 St. Saviourgate were built in 1735 and since then have had a distinctive and varied history. There have been a number of different occupants over the years from iron merchants to clergy. However, for the first half of the 20th century, these composite properties had been put to an entirely different use as the location of Haughton’s School. In the 19th century, 29 St. Saviourgate was used as a private house. Through the 1850’s to the 1870’s Mr Thomas Samuel Watkinson lived here. He was a timber and iron merchant for Foss Bridge, Walmgate and Layerthorpe. The Reverend John James Davis also lived here during the 1890’s. No. 31 St. Saviourgate used to be the home of Reverend John Edward Mayne Young who succeeded the Reverend Josiah Croft as the rector of St. Saviour’s Church. Young married Reverend Croft’s elder daughter on 28th August 1858. He was ordained on 6th June 1852 from which date he ministered at St. Saviour’s Church as curate until 1866 following which he was the rector. Young lived in this house from the 1860’s to the 1890’s. He is remembered as a charitable man who worked for the poor at Lady Hewley’s Hospital on Tanner Row. He died on 17th December 1910 aged 84.
29 & 31 St. Saviourgate is also well known as being the home of the respected Haughton’s School from 1901-1956. The founder of the school was William Haughton who was an ex-Sheriff of York. When he died in 1773 he left an endowment of £1,300 in his will to pay for a master to educate twenty poor children in the parish of St. Crux. Since its initial foundation in the 18th century, Haughton’s School changed locations on a number of occasions. By 1819, the school was using a room belonging to St. Crux parish in Whip-ma-Whopma-Gate; later moving to a house in Fossgate, and was still there in 1872. In 1875 it had been moved to a former warehouse in the parish, and in 1897 the school was held in St. Andrew’s House, Spen Lane. The final move here to St. Saviourgate was made in 1901. It remained here for the last fifty-five years of its existence and was a day and boarding establishment for fee-paying pupils. The school was governed by the trustees of the charity which provided an income from the endowment until 1947. It later became a private school until its closure in 1956, after which it was purchased by York Conservation Trust and converted into flats and offices.
27 St. Saviourgate
St. Saviourgate runs north-east from Colliergate towards Peasholme Green. The name of the street is taken from the local church and is first recorded as St. Saviourgate in 1368. However, this street was previously called Ketmongergate, meaning the ‘flesh-sellers’ street’, which was mentioned in historical documents from 1175 to 1290. The street has a diverse mixture of buildings dating from the 15th to the 20th centuries, although most of the buildings in the street were built in the fine and affluent Georgian style of the 18th century. At that time, St. Saviourgate attracted some of the wealthier and influential citizens of York. The historian Francis Drake described St. Saviourgate in 1736 as, ‘one of the neatest and best-built Streets in the City’. 27 St. Saviourgate was one of the grandest buildings in the street and during the 19th century the prosperous Hill family occupied it. Mr David Hill, J. P., lived here and was a highly respected and upstanding citizen of York. He was born in 1809 and was the seventh son of Mr William Hill of Wetherby, a farmer and butcher. In 1828, Hill moved to York where he was an apprentice to the currier, Mr Alderman Meek, father of Sir James Meek. In 1830, after seven years’ service, David Hill commenced his own currier business and soon became well established and prosperous. 50
For over forty years, David Hill enjoyed a thriving business and when he retired, he left the business to two of his sons â€“ Mr J. R. Hill (who also lived here at 27 St. Saviourgate after his father) and Mr E. Hill. Both sons continued to run the business successfully after their father. In retirement David Hill continued to play an important part in the day to day life of the city â€“ he was a director of the York Gas Company and also one of the managing directors of the York City and County Banking Company. Hill not only had interests in making money - he donated generous sums to supporting charities and the church. He was a staunch supporter of the York Blue Coat Boys and Grey Coat Girls Schools (see St. Anthonyâ€™s Hall). Hill helped raise vital funds and increased the number of subscribers so that a greater number of poor children received a decent education. David Hill served as treasurer to the York Dispensary and contributed towards the improvement of the York County Hospital. He also served as a governor to the York Lunatic Asylum and as an auditor to the Yorkshire Fire and Life Insurance Company. During his lifetime he served as councillor for ten years, became an alderman in November 1865 and a Justice of the Peace in 1867. He remained a popular and benevolent citizen of York until he died in August 1876 aged 67 and was buried in York Cemetery. York Conservation Trust purchased this property in 1994. 51
8 Colliergate 23
Bought in February 1998 by the Trust, this Grade II listed property was built in the late 19th century and is very much a â€˜one offâ€™ in Colliergate. The upper floors were converted into two flats in 1999, the first floor window being a three light elliptical bay with a one pane centre sash between. The second floor has two one pane sash windows with painted stone sills and segmental arches. The dormer window at roof level is a segmental gable dormer with a one pane sash. The interior has most of the original cornices and ceiling roses in position, as well as the original fireplaces. The alterations were carried out so as to maximise the use of the property and still retain all the existing features.
This street was named ‘Colliergate’ by the charcoal dealers or ‘colliers’ who commonly resided in this area by 1303-1304. Medieval colliers were not coal-miners, very little pit coal being dug before the 16th century. The colliers produced and sold charcoal which was used for fuel. Other common medieval fuels included peat and wood. Colliergate has changed much from the 12th and 13th centuries when the north east side of Colliergate formed part of the edge of a green. This open space stretched from King’s Square to the Shambles and to Lady Peckett’s Yard. A statue of Ebrauk once stood at the corner of Colliergate and St. Saviourgate to act as a boundary marker between the two streets during the 15th century. Ebrauk was supposedly the mythical founder of York, the statue may once have been part of a Roman monument but it unfortunately has not survived into the 21st century. It was removed and put into the Guildhall, Coney Street, at around the 15th century for protection. The inscription that went with this monument can be found in the Yorkshire Museum. 5 Colliergate was built around the 16th century. It has housed a diverse number of people with various professions – from general shop keepers to marine store dealers and artificial florists. In the early 18th century, 5 Colliergate was the home of a paper box maker called Elizabeth Jackson.
By the 1850’s, John Habie was living here. He carried out a variety of jobs from working as a general shop keeper to being a joiner and a builder. Habie would not have been without work as during the 19th century there was much redevelopment in York. Parliament Street was opened in 1836 and many of the suburbs were facing redevelopment at that time. By 1861 this property was occupied by a Mr William Elliker, who changed his main profession more than once whilst living here. During his life he specialised as a wardrobe dealer as well as being a general dealer. William Elliker was married to Mrs Jane Elliker and they both died in 1896. By the beginning of the 20th century, both 4 and 5 Colliergate were amalgamated by C. E. Walker, a general merchant. Walker was also a second hand book seller and an agent for Foster’s Parcel Express Co. which was based in London. In 1909, 5 Colliergate was split into two apartments which were occupied by Henry Barber, a hairdresser. Andrew Wells lived in the other apartment and was a general dealer. In the 1920’s, 5 Colliergate was owned by A. Hollingsworth who was an artificial florist. Throughout the 1940’s and 1950’s, 5 Colliergate was owned by Walpamur Co. Ltd which was a paint and enamel store. During the 1960’s and 1970’s Mollie Coates traded here as a florist. York Conservation Trust purchased the property in 1957 and its current tenants are electrical retailers, Blackwell and Denton. 55
The street of Newgate was first recorded in 1337 and it is believed that the name derives from when the street was widened or paved. The north-west side of the street has a row of surviving timber-framed cottages which were built in 1337 in the churchyard of St. Sampson. Part of the east side of the street was destroyed in 1952-1955 when the new market place was laid out between the Shambles and Parliament Street. No. 12 Newgate is the second oldest property owned by York Conservation Trust. Built in 1337, it represents one original tenement that was part of a row of cottages originally numbering ten or twelve in total. Each building contained one room upstairs and one downstairs. If all the tenements on Newgate were like No. 12 then each tenement was entered by a doorway at the north-east end of the front wall. There would also have been a straight, steep staircase along the internal north-east wall that led to the upper room. These cottages were constructed in the churchyard of St. Sampson in order to raise funds through rents to support the chantry of the Blessed Virgin Mary. During the 14th and 15th centuries, many chantries were being created in churches in York. A chantry was a place where mass and prayers were spoken regularly in order to help the dead who were believed to be residing in Purgatory. Purgatory was where the souls of the deceased went to after death where their sins could be purged from their bodies before entering Heaven. The repetitive prayers spoken in chantries were believed to reduce the 56
time needed to be spent in Purgatory. Chantries therefore were big business in this period and tenement houses such as 12 Newgate are a reminder of when churches were desperate to fund this unique institution. In around 1336, Sir Hugh Botner, chaplain of York, was granted a licence to build houses on part of the cemetery along the street called ‘Le Newgate’. The block ran 130 feet in length and was 20 feet deep. 12 Newgate and its neighbours would have looked similar to the row of tenement houses on Lady Row, Goodramgate, probably the oldest domestic buildings in the city (see Goodramgate). The records for the occupants of this property are scant and unclear, however, in 1851, 12 Newgate had been split into two apartments. It was recorded that Christopher Lyon (a greengrocer) and Edward Charles were living in this house. Christopher Burton lived here from 1872 to 1909. He had different trades – being registered as a miller in the 1870’s but by 1909 he was a wardrobe dealer. He died here on 19th October 1912 aged 84. After Burton, the Close family were the next inhabitants, being recorded as living here in 1920. W. B. Close was a turf commission agent and Miss I. Close was a confectioner. In 1974, 12 Newgate was ‘The Wool Shop’ and has for many years been an opticians. The Trust has owned this property since 1970 and it was extensively restored in 1974.
4 (formerly 9) Jubbergate
The street of Jubbergate was first recorded as ‘Brettegate’ in 1200. The word ‘Bretar’ is thought to derive from Scandinavia meaning ‘Britons’ and could be a reference to when the Cumbrian Britons first accompanied the Vikings when they arrived in York over a thousand years ago. However, by 1280 the street was called ‘Joubrettegat’ which meant ‘the street of the British in the Jewish quarter’. The street name was changed because it needed to be distinguished from the other ‘Bretgate’ which is now called Navigation Road near Walmgate. The north-eastern part of Jubbergate at the junction with Peter Lane was known as High Jubbergate and to the south-west it was known as Low Jubbergate. No. 4 Jubbergate is a large and impressive medieval house. In its early days and up to the 19th century this building could have contained up to six families. Although today 4 Jubbergate is free standing, it was not so in the past when it was built. The building used to have adjoining neighbours and stood at the end of Jubbergate at the junction between Newgate and the Little Shambles. These days, 4 Jubbergate is no longer lived in – since the 20th century the building has become primarily used as a café and restaurant and is one of the oldest and most beautiful buildings in this part of York. York Conservation Trust bought the property in 1957.
During the 19th century, the street of Jubbergate was in a poor and unsanitary state. In 1868, it was recorded that a total of £1,350 was drastically needed for the improvement of Spurriergate, Jubbergate and Feasegate. In the 1830’s, No. 4 Jubbergate was owned by Taylor, Cook & Co. It was a chemists as well as being an art shop. When Parliament Street was built and opened in the 1830’s, 4 Jubbergate was in a prime position overlooking the busy market. This made the property an excellent location for business as potentially hundreds of people would walk past on market days. By the 1870’s, this building was occupied by a hatter called Thomas Sanderson. He had previously lived at 55 Stonegate but later moved here, perhaps because of its perfect situation opposite Parliament Street. Sanderson and his family were remembered in the York Gazette in September 1857 when their second daughter, Sarah-Ann, died, aged 5. By about 1929, this house began to be used as a restaurant – in the 1930’s it was called ‘White Rose Café’ and remained established here more or less unchanged into the 1970’s. In 1939 it was recorded that F. Murfin was the proprietor of this establishment. The ‘Coach and Horse’ public house is also mentioned here in the 1940’s and into the 1970’s. However, by 1974, ‘Goads Maps’ only show the ‘White Rose Restaurant’ as occupying this property.
Sir Thomas Herbert’s House
Pavement lies between the two ancient churches of All Saints and St. Crux which existed prior to the creation of Pavement. The south-west end of Pavement was extensively transformed when Parliament Street was created in 1836 and also when Piccadilly was extended in 1912, losing many of the historic buildings to demolition and clearance. The name Pavement means a paved area and the street was not recorded as this until 1329. Before this date Pavement was known as Marketshire – one of the seven shires named in York after 1086. Sir Thomas Herbert’s House is one of York’s most historically interesting buildings, the past owners being the Herbert family who were of national importance throughout the English Civil War and afterwards. Thomas Herbert was the right-hand man of Charles I who was defeated in the English Civil War and subsequently executed – with Thomas Herbert standing loyally by his side. The first documentary evidence for Sir Thomas Herbert’s House dates from 1557 in a deed which recorded the purchase of the house from the Merchant Adventurers’ Company by Christopher Herbert. He had been made a Freeman of the City in 1550 and was already living in the house when he bought it. He was a City Chamberlain in 1557, appointed Treasurer of the Merchant Adventurers in 1563 and was Governor of the Company from 1573 to 1575. He was also Lord Mayor of York in 1573. He died in 1590 and was buried in St. Crux Church. 60
Sir Thomas Herbert, born in the house in 1606, was a true seventeenth century Cavalier, traveller and adventurer. He joined the Earl of Pembroke in a mission to the Shah of Persia in 162629, and described his experiences in his Travels (1634), a volume illustrated with engravings of ‘a batt hanging from a coco-tree’ and a ‘tropique bird’ in flight. The Shah gave him a Persian costume and a black pageboy, both of which figure prominently in a portrait of Thomas Herbert by an unknown artist. This painting was lost for many years, turning up in about 1926 when it was bought and identified by a descendant, George E. Herbert of Upper Helmsley Hall, near York. To mark his appointment to the Governorship of the York Merchant Adventurers’ Company some years ago, Mr Herbert presented the company with a framed photographic copy of the Persian portrait.
Thomas Herbert at first supported the Parliamentary cause and accompanied Lord Herbert, who had been commissioned to receive the King’s person from the Scots at Newcastle. In 1647 he became an avowed Royalist and for the next two years was a constant personal attendant on the King. Though he remained in London until after the restoration of Charles II, he spent his last years in York, having left the capital at the onset of the plague in 1665. On his return to York he bought No. 9 High Petergate where he wrote his memoirs. Royal gifts he owned included the cloak that Charles I removed from his shoulders on the scaffold in Whitehall in 1649 and a collection of books, among them a Shakespeare folio. Thomas died in 1681 and joined his ancestors in St. Crux churchyard. The main part of Herbert House is an early to mid-seventeenth century timber and brick building fronting Pavement. Under the south-west end runs an alleyway, Lady Peckett’s Yard, and fronting this is the second house, of mid-sixteenth century date. Though the main house has twin gables, a drawing of 1827 by George Nicholson shows three gables, so it is possible that it originally included the block to the east now occupied by the Golden Fleece Inn. Fragmentary wall-paintings were discovered in what is supposed to have been the Banqueting Room. It is possible that this room was used by the members of King Charles I’s retinue when they were entertained during the royal visit to the City in 1633 and also in 1639. The occupant at this time was Roger Jaques, Freeman of the City in 1618, Chamberlain in 1625, Sheriff in 1628 and Lord Mayor in 1639. Knighted by Charles and elected MP for York, he was later dispossessed by the Commonwealth. Jaques was the great-great-grandfather of Laurence Sterne, the clerical wit and novelist of the mid-eighteenth century. The Trust acquired this property in 1946. 62
Lady Peckett’s Yard
The area around Pavement was one of York’s ancient medieval market places. However, by the early 19th century Pavement was becoming overcrowded as more and more stalls were being set up by shopkeepers, hawkers and illegal tradesmen. Running south-east from Pavement and connected to Fossgate, Lady Peckett’s Yard gets its name from Alice Peckett who was the wife of John Peckett, the Lord Mayor of York in 1701. The Yard was referred to as an open space into which the different lanes led. These lanes are recorded as early as 1301 and 1312 as Bacus gail and Trichour gail which meant ‘Bake-house’ and ‘Cheats Lane’. One of these lanes was also recorded as Osmond Lane in 1410. The house at the bottom of Lady Peckett’s Yard, No. 11, was built in the mid 16th century. It is of 3 storeys with attics and was originally timber framed. The property was acquired by this Trust in 1946. The first floor consists of a hairdresser’s salon and the upper floor (formerly offices) was converted into a flat in 1997.
13 & 14 Fossgate
One of the oldest streets in York, Fossgate is a continuation from Petergate and Colliergate towards the River Foss. Over the bridge is Walmgate leading to Walmgate Bar. The street of Fossgate is first recorded in 1122. In 1420, the Church of St. Crux and its churchyard were recorded as being on Fossgate and the street itself was considered part of the main axis of the parish. Few buildings have survived from the medieval period, there being only one medieval house on Fossgate, together with the Merchant Adventurers’ Hall which is set back from Fossgate. 13 & 14 Fossgate were built around the early 18th century. One of the occupants of 13 Fossgate in the early 19th century was a corn miller called George Ward. By 1851, William Jackson, a shopkeeper, was living at this address and by the 1860’s there was already a new occupant called Mr James Parker Sleightholm, a provision merchant. During the 1870’s, 13 Fossgate was owned by Matthew Sellers, who was a boot and shoe maker by trade. From the 1890’s to the 1920’s, 13 and 14 Fossgate was called the ‘Little Dust Pan’ and advertised that it was ‘the cheapest house in the city for all kinds of Glass, China, Earthenware and Ironmongery’ and had ‘the largest stock in the city’. John Parkes was the proprietor and the company was also known as ‘Parkes & Sons Ltd’. John Parkes worked here until he died in 1919 aged 72.
By 1928, the property was a grocer’s shop owned by George Mason who lived at this address until the 1960’s after which it became a carpet store owned by Sylvia Styles. In 1975, it became a restaurant called Lambourne Restaurant. In the early to mid 19th century, George Lockey, a joiner and cabinet maker, lived at No. 14 Fossgate. In addition to making cabinets and furniture he would also have been employed by the members of his own parish to make coffins, as task cabinet makers were expected to do. In the 1870’s, the house was occupied by Thomas Waite, a corn and cake dealer. At the same time a joiner named John Beckett was occupying the rear of the property and by 1876, was advertising himself as an undertaker as well as a joiner demonstrating how joiners and cabinet makers were also commonly employed for disposing of the dead in the parish. ‘Parkes and Sons Ltd’, who were Ironmongers, occupied 13 and 14 Fossgate from the 1890’s to 1909. However by 1922, the business only occupied No. 13. In 1922, Nos. 14 and 15 Fossgate were both being used together by a butcher, Linfoot. During the 1930’s, 14 Fossgate was the residence of Northern Windows Display Co., Ltd and Eclipse Copper Co. York Conservation Trust purchased this property in 1996 and less than two years later purchased 15-16 Fossgate which led to the re-development of Morrell Yard in 2000.
Morrell Yard was officially opened by The Lord Mayor of York on 8 May 2001. It was bought by the Trust in 1996 as the rear to 13 and 14 Fossgate. Morrell Yard was named after the Morrell Family, the founders of York Conservation Trust, who did much in maintaining and renovating historic buildings in York. Their descendants are currently the trustees of the Trust. In the 19th century a cabinet workshop was built next to the yard. Internally the workshop was of little interest, having only two large rooms, one on the ground floor and one on the first floor. This workshop was used by a cabinet maker until its conversion by the Trust, in early 1999, into two flats and a maisonette as part of the residential development in the Yard. Also bought at the same time as 13 and 14 Fossgate were three cottages at the rear which were in a very poor structural condition. After much careful consideration these were demolished and rebuilt again as three individual units, utilising most of the bricks from the original cottages. A further extension was created by the purchase of land at the end of the Yard from the Macdonald family to make a new build development of four flats, bringing the total number of dwellings in Morrell Yard to ten. Within the Yard itself was discovered a medieval well which was full of earth, rubbish and possibly antiquities. After consultation with York Archaeological Trust, and due to cost implications of excavating such a confined space, that could be as deep as 16 metres, it was decided simply to cover this over with a grill. 66
15-16 Fossgate 31
These houses were built around the late 16th to early 17th century. Like most historic houses in York, the history of the various people who lived here only became commonly recorded in the 19th century. Most of the people specialised in one particular trade or product – there were no supermarkets at that time and the occupants lived and worked in these properties. The butchers, Linfoot, amalgamated both 15 and 16 Fossgate together during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the 1820’s a brazier and tinner called Robert Cook lived at 15 Fossgate. During the 1850’s and 1860’s this address was being used by the butcher, George Seymour. In the 1870’s another butcher called John Ratcliffe had taken over the business. From the 1890’s to the 1920’s yet another butcher, Mark Linfoot, owned both 15 and 16 Fossgate and was using them as his shop. Linfoot was the son of J. Linfoot who was also a butcher on King’s Square. In the late 1920’s to the 1930’s, these houses were occupied by a grocers store called ‘Meadow Dairy Co’. Throughout most of the 19th century number 16 Fossgate was owned by the Scadlock family who ran a whip making business. Initially from the 1820’s John Scadlock was in charge, but by the 1860’s he had been succeeded by his son, Henry. The Trust purchased these properties in 1998 following their purchase of 13-14 Fossgate in 1996. 67
Walmgate, running south-east for 600 yards from Foss Bridge to Walmgate Bar, is first recorded c.1080 as Walbegate, perhaps from a person called Walbe. No. 4 Walmgate was acquired by the Trust in 1986. It has three storeys and was built in the second quarter of the 19th century. The front has been much altered with a modern shop window and rendering above, and the original interior arrangement has also been destroyed.
6 Walmgate 33
This property was rebuilt in the late 18th century on an L-shaped plan interlocking with an early 18th century wing which was part of No. 8. It was one of two messuages acquired in 1779 by Joseph Hick, blacksmith, and Martin and James Crofts, plumbers and glaziers, and had a blacksmithâ€™s shop, with a granary above it. The property was let to Thomas Todd, tallow-chandler, and later to Thomas Goodell, peruke-maker, who then bought it in 1797. The upper floors were merged with No. 8 and have now been converted into residential flats. The trust acquired this property in 1992, at a time when it was in serious risk of being demolished on the grounds that it was unsafe. The City Planning Office did not accept this and took professional advice, which is when the Trust became interested in the property.
8/8a Walmgate 34
Originally all numbered 8 this property, built in the early to mid 18th century, was probably two dwellings, one of which was occupied by Mr John Ash in 1797. In 1830 it was acquired by William Plows, stonemason, who had previously occupied part of the premises. The front of the building seems to have been remodelled, with new sashes and a new eaves cornice, in 1767; this date appears on a rainwater head. The lower part is now a shop front. The back is irregular with projecting wings, one of which overlaps No. 6. The easternmost is mainly of the 19th century. Inside, two original staircases remain. Behind the house and 5 feet below ground level, a short length of stone walling, probably medieval, was uncovered in 1960. This property was acquired by the Trust in 1984 and is now occupied by a shop on the ground floor with residential flats above, which are combined with the Trustâ€™s neighbouring property, No. 6.
Bowes Morrell House
This mysterious and beautiful looking building is located on the long street of Walmgate which runs south-east from Foss Bridge to Walmgate Bar. The street is first recorded in 1080 as ‘Walbegate’ which was perhaps named after a person called ‘Walbe’. Walmgate Bar and its defences were constructed by AD1150. By the medieval period (AD1067-1550) a large number of people lived along the River Foss which resulted in numerous churches being founded on Walmgate to cater for the large congregations. However, only two churches from that period now survive – St. Denys and St. Margaret. St. Peter-le-Willows was demolished in 1550 and St. Mary, which was first recorded in 1150, was closed in the 14th century. However, the two churches of St. Margaret and St. Peter-le-Willows may have been related to Bowes Morrell House and its history.
The intriguing story of Bowes Morrell House begins in 1396 when a licence was granted for the building of four houses in the churchyard of St. Peter’s. One of these was to be ‘by the King’s highway in Walmegate 90 feet long by 30 feet broad’. The dimensions of Bowes Morrell House match those stipulated in the licence, suggesting that the house is the only survivor of the four houses. Bowes Morrell House is situated some 90 yards west, near where St. Peter-le-Willows stood before it was demolished in 1547, further suggesting the two were related. The house was possibly used as a vicarage – the home of the local chantry priest for the church of either St. Peter-le-Willows or St. Margaret. For many years Bowes Morrell House was used for common lodgings. Itinerant workers passing through York often stayed in lodging houses such as these. In the 19th and early 20th century it was owned by the O’Hara family. The other two lodging houses on Walmgate were called ‘Thackeray’s’ (now Walmgate Pine) and ‘Saddlers’. In the early 1900’s, Bowes Morrell House was nicknamed ‘the Doss House’ – how the building received this name is unclear. By the 1930’s, the new owners were the Kilmartin family – a sign used to hang above the door saying ‘Good lodgings down this passage’ however, the establishment was notorious for damp and uncomfortable accommodation.
Today, Bowes Morrell House can be seen on the south side of Walmgate. It is one of the few remaining buildings which testify to Walmgate’s long history. The property was purchased from a private Leeds company in February 2004 with a sitting tenant, The Council for British Archaeology. This was a particularly nostalgic purchase for the Trust as the building had been named after one of its co-founders, Dr John Bowes Morrell, by York Civic Trust who purchased the building in the 1960’s. Morrell was also a co-founder of the York Civic Trust. Against the odds, Bowes Morrell House has survived the post-war destruction and remains standing proudly – rather surreal-like along the busy road of Walmgate.
77 Walmgate 36
77 Walmgate is a timber-framed structure with exposed timbers. The building is in two main sections of differing dates. A 15th century structure stands aligned north-south at right angles to Walmgate and presents its north gable to the street. To the east is a late 16th sixteenth century range. The form of the roof truss has been used to date the earlier block, using similar examples in York as a guide. In the same way the 16th century addition has been dated by comparison with other roof truss examples, and also by the ogee-shaped timber braces to be seen on the north front of the first floor. The Trust purchased the property in 1957.
17 Walmgate was once the Britannia Inn and it was first mentioned in 1818. Public houses would commonly alter or change their names completely – in 1820 the Britannia was also known as the ‘Britannia Coffee House’. The Britannia was one of many public houses which used to trade on Walmgate. In fact, Walmgate was famous for its legendary number of public houses and beer shops. The Victorian historian, T. P. Cooper, writing about Walmgate in 1897 described how: “almost every other house has a license. Very few public-houses, if any, have been closed during the last forty years, and the number today in this street exceeds a score, amongst which are The Angel, The Black Bull, The Black Horse, The Blue Bell, The Brewer’s Arms, The Britannia, The Clock, The Duke of York, The Golden Barrel, The Ham and Firkin, The King William, The Lord Nelson, The Old Malt Shovel, The Spotted Dog and The Three Cups”. These days it seems extraordinary that such a large number of public houses could simultaneously exist and produce a profit at the same time. Houses such as this were often cold, draughty and expensive to heat. Instead, most people would go to their local pub where there was a warm fire and relatively cheap beer or spirits, talk to their friends and neighbours and catch up on local gossip. Trade in public houses on Walmgate did especially well because of the cattle market which often took place near Walmgate Bar. Many farmers brought their cattle to York from 76
afar and visited the numerous public houses such as the Britannia on Walmgate. It was also the main route to the large market on Parliament Street where they sold their produce. Farmers would leave their ponies and horses in the traps and pub yards and enjoy a drink or two at the end of the market day. There were many tales about how often it was the ponies rather than the masters who remembered the way back home! The 1880â€™s saw the peak in the number of public houses in Walmgate â€“ it has been estimated that up to fifty may once have existed at one time! After this period closer official inspections were made and subsequently many of the inns in York were closed due to lack of hygiene or landlords allowing too much drinking after hours. The Britannia Inn was victim to these stricter inspections when, in 1900, it was refused the renewal of its licence at the Brewster Sessions. It subsequently closed down in 1901 when the licence finally expired. Since this date the property was transformed into a ground floor shop with living accommodation above on the upper two floors. York Conservation Trust purchased and renovated this property in 1980.
Rear of 15-17 Walmgate
These two cottages were built by York Conservation Trust in 2006 on waste land at the rear of 15-17 Walmgate (properties also owned by the Trust). They are both of two bedrooms each and were built in reclaimed bricks. The land on which they are situated was once known as Britannia Yard, part of the Britannia Inn which was situated where 17 Walmgate is now. It was first mentioned in 1818 and again in 1820 when it had changed its name to Britannia Coffee House. In the 19th century Walmgate was one of the worst disease ridden slums in the city. The area had become increasingly overcrowded and unhealthy when hundreds of Irish families immigrated to York, after the devastating Irish potato famine which took place between the years 1846 and 1851. It is recorded that sixteen cottages in Britannia Yard housed fifteen Irish families and one English family; in total there were over one hundred and seventy one Irish people in this one yard.
The architect, Richard Parkin, and the Trust won the York Design Award for New Build in 2007 for the construction of these cottages. Unfortunately, for security reasons, it is not possible to view them close at hand.
13 & 15 Walmgate
13 Walmgate was built around the middle of the 18th century and 15 Walmgate was built around 1830. Both these houses have witnessed Walmgateâ€™s sad history when the mass Irish immigration took place here during the 19th century and also when much of Walmgate was an over-crowded slum. These houses are extremely important because they are some of the few remaining historic houses that have survived in Walmgate. Most of Walmgateâ€™s historic buildings were lost through post-war demolition and clearance when its importance as a heritage site was not realised. They were bought in 1980 by York Conservation Trust. During the 18th and 19th centuries the wealthy citizens of York began to move away from the cramped and polluted city centre into the suburbs such as Bootham and Micklegate. As usual the poor were left behind in slum areas such as Walmgate where they were crammed together in unsanitary conditions. 13 and 15 Walmgate probably housed more than one family at the same time when they were built. In the 19th century, Walmgate was one of the worst disease ridden slums in the city. The area became increasingly overcrowded and unhealthy when hundreds of Irish families immigrated there, where there was already a small Irish community, after the devastating Irish potato famine which took place between the years 1846 and 1851. Millions of people starved to death and hundreds of thousands of Irish people emigrated to Great Britain and the USA in hope of a better life. 80
Over a quarter of the Cityâ€™s population was crammed into Walmgate making it one of the poorest and most poverty stricken places within the City. There was usually little or no running water, no street lighting and no street cleaning. The death rate was shocking, in 1888, the infant mortality rate was 337 per 1000. In 1845, a report was written on the state of the City of York by James Smith. In this report Smith criticised how the nobles and gentry only commenced cleaning the slum areas such as Walmgate when they themselves feared for their own health. The welfare of the poor was never the concern of the higher classes of society. In Britannia yard, near to 13 and 15 Walmgate, it was recorded that sixteen cottages housed fifteen Irish families and one English family. In total there were over one hundred and seventy-one Irish people in that one yard. Since then the yard has been demolished but this example highlights the scale of the overcrowding crisis. During the 1860â€™s it was estimated that there were fifty-three yards running off Walmgate which were full of hovels and tenements squeezed tightly together. In 2006 the Trust excavated this land and discovered remains from Viking times and has now built two self-contained cottages on the site.
Fairfax House was originally built in the second quarter of the 18th century, probably before 1735. It was acquired by Charles Gregory, Ninth Viscount Fairfax, in 1759 from whom its name derives. Together with the famous Yorkshire architect, John Carr, and his outstanding team of craftsmen, he set about the total transformation of the interior which is still visible today. One of the reasons that Lord Fairfax bought the house was to provide a home in the City centre for him and his only daughter, Anne, and that is where he lived until he died in 1772. Following his death, and without any sons, unfortunately the title became extinct and during the next 200 years the house changed ownership on many occasions. For nearly 60 years prior to the 1970’s the building, then known as St. George’s Hall, was used as part of a cinema and dance hall and allowed to fall into a sad state of decay. However, when the cinema closed, City of York Council purchased the property realising the architectural importance of such a house and wanting to safeguard it for future generations. In 1981 the Noel Terry trustees approached York Civic Trust, whom they knew were looking for a scheme to secure the future of Fairfax House, and offered them the entire private collection of the late Noel Terry’s 18th century furniture, which was acknowledged to be one of the finest private collections in the Country. Noel Terry, who had been Chairman of the once famous York chocolate firm, had died the previous year and his lifelong hobby for over 55 years had been collecting antique furniture. 82
With its future guaranteed, the Council agreed to sell the house to the Civic Trust, which enabled the restoration to go ahead. It is now recognised as one of the finest Georgian town houses in England, with a museum containing probably the grandest private collection of 18th century furniture in the Country. York Conservation Trust purchased the house from York Civic Trust in October 2008 and leased it back to them at a nominal rent in order that the Civic Trust could continue to run the Fairfax House Museum without the burden of the upkeep of a Grade 1 Listed building. This act guaranteed the preservation of the building for posterity, and ensured its ownership remained within York. The house is notable for its fine fittings, and both the plasterwork and carved woodwork combine rococo motifs and naturalistic forms. It is probable that much of the decorative plasterwork is by Joseph Cortese, the Italian master stuccatore. This building has so many magnificent and interesting features that a visit to the Museum is a must on any touristâ€™s visit to York.
Situated on a hill rising away from the city centre on the south side of the River Ouse, the ancient street of Micklegate is perhaps the best example of a road which illustrates the changing architecture from the medieval period to the 18th and 19th centuries, and is the only major road on the south side of the river. Originally it was laid out by the Vikings and was named the â€˜Great Streetâ€™ because it was considered so long at the time. In the medieval period, merchants usually built on Micklegate while the wealthy were more commonly based nearer to the city centre. Hugh de Selby was Mayor of York in 1230 and lived on Micklegate in a grand stone house (typical of wealthy merchants during the 12th and 13th centuries) called Mountsorrell. This house was later demolished in 1866. In the 18th and 19th centuries, York once again became an important cultural and social centre in the North of England. The northern nobility and gentry were once again on the lookout for spacious and clean places to build their new houses in York. Micklegate was a much more attractive place to live for the wealthy and prestigious people as it was separated by the river Ouse from the cramped, dirty and smelly slums such as Walmgate and Peasholme Green.
Today, Micklegate boasts a fine selection of Georgian period houses. However, business and trade expansion in the 19th and 20th centuries have had a damaging effect on the Georgian and late medieval houses on Micklegate. The ground-floors of many of these buildings have been altered and modified into shops and restaurants. No. 61 Micklegate was built late in the 18th century. George Telford, a member of a family of York nurserymen, lived here from 1786 until 1809. After his death, the house passed to his son, Colonel Charles Telford, J.P. who lived here until his death in 1894. Colonel Charles Telford made the newspapers in December 1881 when he accidentally shot dead a teenager. He had been visiting his friend, Colonel Paget, in Suffolk and had been out shooting when he accidentally shot the teenager in the head. The teenager had been his loader for the day and had stood up suddenly as Colonel Telford fired his gun for the second time. Colonel Telford provided evidence at the inquest and the county coroner gave the verdict of an accidental death.
61 Micklegate was also the home of the famous and well respected Dr. W. A. Evelyn, physician and antiquary. Evelyn is still remembered and honoured to this day for his noble contribution to conserving Yorkâ€™s heritage at a time when it was unprotected and under threat of demolition. Dr Evelyn was born at Presteigne, the capital of Radnor in 1860. He was educated at Charterhouse and studied medicine at Cambridge University. Evelyn eventually came to York in 1891 to practice with Dr J. W. Jalland. Later, Evelyn entered into partnerships with Mr Gerald Hughes, Dr Reginald Lister and Dr C. Mackenzie. He had a successful career and eventually became senior physician at the County Hospital. 85
The plaque commemorating Dr Evelyn unveiled by Faith Brook in 1985 outside 33 Bootham Evelyn spent the greater part of his life as the honorary secretary of the York Archaeology Society. It was said, when he first arrived in York in 1891, he fell deeply in love with the City and fought hard to retain the historic character of York at a time when planning legislation was minimal and its past was not appreciated. Evelyn saw that Yorkâ€™s future lay with its unique and impressive heritage and organised and encouraged movements against the demolition and disfigurement of historic buildings. He also opposed the removal of the cholera burial ground when it was proposed that the road should be widened. Evelyn campaigned against the building of a war memorial on the city wall ramparts and even fought against the demolition of Yorkâ€™s churches. As well as protecting the architecture and archaeology of the city, he also helped to raise awareness of, and vital funds for, the St. Stephenâ€™s orphanage. Dr Evelyn died in York on 6th January 1935. On the 50th anniversary of his death, a plaque commemorating his life was unveiled by his granddaughter, the actress, Faith Brook. This can be seen outside 33 Bootham, his home before 61 Micklegate. York Conservation Trust acquired this property in 1993, and totally refurbished it and extended the rear in 1996, including sympathetically incorporating a lift to all floors.
83 Micklegate 42
This building was probably built in the second quarter of the 18th century. During the 1830’s a Mrs Jane Kidd lived at this address. In the 1860’s and 1870’s a brush maker lived here called Richard Rawdon. In 1893, it was recorded that Edward Stansfield & Co, professional boot makers, occupied the property. In 1922, the house was used for selling fish, poultry and game by a dealer called Mrs Neilson. York Conservation Trust purchased the building in 1967.
85, 87 & 89 Micklegate
85, 87 and 89 Micklegate are a wonderful and well preserved row of tenant houses which were built in the 15th century. These houses are special because they were built for Holy Trinity Priory in order to provide rental income after the relative poverty of the 14th century. The 14th century was notoriously known as a difficult and melancholy hundred years, plague being one of the main causes of misery and suffering in the country. The most deadly outbreak of plague was 1348-1349 when it was estimated that up to a third of the population of England died. 85, 87 and 89 Micklegate illustrate how the country was once again beginning to recover as more houses were being erected to cater for new immigrants and the increasing population. Holy Trinity Priory occupied an area of about seven acres and was situated within the southern section of the city wall adjacent to Micklegate. The priory gateway was demolished in 1854 and once stood where Priory Street now joins Micklegate. It is also believed that the ancient tower of Bootham House once formed part of Holy Trinity Priory (See Ingram House). The priory was founded in 1089 and over the next three centuries the church and conventual buildings were erected. After the Dissolution by Henry VIII, in the 16th century, the priory was shut down and the buildings were granted to Leonard Beckwith. After the priory was dissolved, 85, 87 and 89 became private tenements no longer owned by the church. Beckwith probably initially owned them for a period of time, however, the Holy 88
Trinity building continued to be used as the parish church. In the 17th century the priory was bought by Sir John Goodrick of Ribston (W.R.) and was named Trinity Gardens. In 1855, the priory was sold for building purposes and for the construction of Trinity Street. 85, 87 and 89 Micklegate were built along the edge of the precinct of Holy Trinity Priory. The remarkable survival of the houses in a comparatively unaltered form may be due to their use for the butchers’ trade as they did not require much alteration to the fabric of the building. No. 85 was probably occupied by butchers from the middle of the 18th century, and was certainly so used in 1838 when William Stodart Stoker was assessed on the house and slaughter-house. No. 87 was occupied from 1708 by George Chapman, butcher, and his successor in business, and No. 89 was used by the butcher William Pearson between 1777 and 1796. However, there is a degree of controversy about the actual date of the houses. John Speed’s map of York, drawn in 1610, does not show these houses – instead there is a gap between Holy Trinity Church and the gateway to the demolished Priory (the site of the present Priory Street). It is in this gap that the houses now stand, and because of Speed’s accepted accuracy it has been suggested that the houses must have been built after 1610, although the style of the buildings suggest they cannot be much later than 1500. An explanation of Speed’s gap is that any attempt to draw the houses between the Priory Church and the gateway would have hidden the portrayal of the conventual buildings which are actually shown. There are few remains of Holy Trinity Priory but the nave of the old priory church has been incorporated into the present church. Sections of the old choir wall have been preserved in the rectory garden, and part of the priory’s boundary wall can be seen from the vicarage garden of St. Mary’s, Bishophill Junior.
7a Tanner Row
The Old Rectory
Tanner Row used to be part of North Street and also marked the northern row of tofts on Micklegate. It was mainly used as a service road with warehouses, stables, coach houses and other buildings linked to the main burgages (leased property) on Micklegate. However, over time Tanner Row developed into an independent street as it slowly cut off its links with Micklegate. The street is named ‘Tanner Row’ because it was a prime area devoted to the leather industry. Most houses on this street were owned by tanners and were usually kept distant from the main population of York because the process of tanning leather created repulsive fumes and was very unpopular with the rest of the citizens. 7a Tanner Row is perhaps one of the oldest and most intriguing buildings found on Tanner Row. It was built around 1600 and was probably first used as a warehouse because it was not built for human habitation. There were no internal partitions or chimney. The building is also situated near to the River Ouse which further suggests that it was probably used to store goods transported from the river. 7a Tanner Row is also called ‘The Old Rectory’. On the back of the house are some curious dates embedded onto the modern plaster – ‘1498-1937’. The latter date probably refers to when the Reverend P. Shaw undertook restoration on the property. However, what the first date of 1498 refers to remains a mystery to historians. 90
The Reverend Patrick John Shaw lived in 7a Tanner Row in the 20th century. Shaw was educated at New College and was awarded with a B. A. in 1892 and an M. A. in 1894. He was ordained in York in 1893 and was the rector at All Saints, North Street. From 1895, Shaw also worked as curate at St. Olave’s Church on Marygate. It is probable that he had lived here from 1937 when, as mentioned above, he carried out much of the restoration work on this property. He retired in 1950 and died on 29th January 1952. From the 1950’s to the 1960’s the Kennedy family occupied 7a. The Reverend Alban C. M. Howard, the vicar of St. Mary’s, Bishophill Junior, lived here in the 1970’s. In 1996 the Trust purchased, restored and converted 7a into two units, both with full facilities, without detracting from this historic building in any way. A small inner yard serves the front property and a larger paved yard serves the smaller rear unit, where a large stone cross is situated.
3-5 Tanner Row 45
The space for 3-5 Tanner Row, when it was originally donated to the Trust by Dr J B Morrell in 1946, was the garden to 35-39 North Street and 1 Tanner Row. Much earlier illustrations show that a property was in existence prior to the 20th century as a dwelling house, brew house, stables and cow house. A new build took place in 1961, from coloured drawings by architects J G L Poulson of Newcastle, and consisted of a single unit forming part of the Tanner Row terrace. The building is constructed with faced bricks under a clay pantile covered pitched roof. The building was further refurbished in 1994 when a new glass frontage and a first floor were added which is reached by a spiral staircase. The property is currently leased as a cafĂŠ.
35-41 North Street
In 1090, North Street used to be known as ‘Nordstreta’. By the 13th century this name was applied to the whole street running north from Micklegate, near to the west bank of the River Ouse, and then turning west on a line parallel to Micklegate. The last part of the street is now known as Tanner Row because of the leather industry which once flourished on the outskirts of the city in the medieval period. William Stead and Son, stone and marble masons, occupied Nos. 36 and 38 North Street in 1802. William Stead was a prosperous and respected craftsman in his trade. In the 19th century it was socially expected that the wealthy invested in elaborate and expensive forms of commemoration. These memorials can be seen in cemeteries, graveyards and on the walls of most churches in York. Such memorials expressed their social status and love for the deceased individuals. Stone and marble masons, such as William Stead, were employed to carve memorials for some of York’s more wealthy inhabitants. In Holy Trinity Church, Micklegate, there is a monument dated 1793 to Henry Jubb and his wife. This memorial was signed by William Stead himself. In the church of St. Cuthbert, Peasholme Green, there is a monument to Thomas Kilby which was also signed by William Stead.
In 1799, William Stead was mentioned in the ‘York Herald’ when he bought the late Mr C. Dalton’s business, which was also located on North Street. It is possible that Mr Dalton was also a stone mason because William Stead continued that business in addition to his own. Although the historical documents are incomplete, William Stead’s son, Henry, was still living at this address until 1829. These properties were acquired by York Conservation Trust in 1946.
Stonegate is one of the finest and most attractive streets in York. It boasts perhaps the best preserved medieval buildings in the City – even better than the Shambles. The street runs from St. Helen’s Square to Petergate and has a wide range of both medieval timber-framed houses and Georgian buildings. Archaeological research has shown that the street of Stonegate roughly follows the line of the via praetoria of the ancient Roman Fortress of York. Its name means the ‘stone-paved street’ and was first recorded in 1118. Many of the properties on Stonegate belonged to the church or had businesses that were dependent on the church. It is a main route to the Minster, where civic dignitaries, from the Guildhall, can often be seen in procession. It was also used as a venue during the famous Corpus Christi plays. Stonegate has even received Royal visitors in the past. In 1486, Henry VII was greeted outside 12-16 Stonegate by a pageant when on his way to visit York Minster. The front of 12-16 Stonegate was built in the 17th century and there is also a medieval wing towards the back of the property forming an L-shaped building.
These properties have been the homes of many different and interesting people over the years. Although the records are scant and incomplete, it seems that in 1830, George Nicholson, a tailor and draper lived here. Twenty-one years later the new occupants were Eliza and J. Briskham. In 1861, a dress maker, James Baines, lived at 12 Stonegate. During the 1870’s Thomas Noble, a stone mason, and William Scott who sold poultry, both lived here and a Miss Murphy lived here in the late 1870’s. By the beginning of the 20th century, 12 Stonegate was occupied by a woollen draper and tailor, E C Milterne, and was replaced in 1920 by Percy Paine, another tailor, who occupied the property well into the 1930’s. In 1949-1950 Godfrey Butler, an optician, lived here. The British School of Motoring was also based here in 1955, alongside the opticians. Since the 1960’s, 12 Stonegate has traded as Annette, beauty therapist. 12a Stonegate was used by Mildred Walker who specialised in ladies fashion during the 1960’s. In the early part of the 19th century, 14 Stonegate was a straw hat shop owned by James Cloak. By 1851, there was a new owner called Matthew Blythe. The records are unclear about Blythe’s profession although it is possible that he was an engraver and printer. A shoemaker called Robert Dobinson was the next occupant in the 1860’s.
In 1872 Mrs Mary Sykes, a confectioner and provision dealer, owned this property and was still running the business with her daughter, Emma, in the 1920’s. Emma Sykes was still living and working as a baker at this house in the 1930’s. By 1950, the house was being used as a bakery, estate agents office and a building society. In 1955, it was a shop called ‘Peatland’s Childrens Wear’. During the 1970’s, 14 Stonegate was a fashion shop called ‘Pussycat Boutique’. It had ceased to be a home and had become purely a centre for business. According to historical documents in the 1830’s, 16 Stonegate was the home of an organ builder called Andrew E. Ohman. By the 1850’s the house was occupied by two people with different trades, Frank Moore, a carver and gilder, and William Hirstwood, whose occupation is unknown, was the other occupant. Frank Moore continued to live here during the 1860’s but by 1872, it was recorded that there were two new occupants, Isaac Brown, a cabinet maker and upholsterer, and Joseph Shepard, a boot and shoemaker.
In the 1880’s four people partly owned 16 Stonegate – a painter, John Thomas, a gentleman called John Winter, an auctioneer, Thomas Mills, and George Hunter who was an accountant. Henry England and Arthur Goodwill lived here in the 1930’s in addition to five other occupants, John Thomas, the painter and decorator, George Croft, Annie Welburn, Percy Henry and the owners of a shop called ‘Salon de Paris’. It is, therefore, probable that 16 Stonegate covered a larger area than the present 16 Stonegate does today to accommodate all these people and businesses. By 1949 this property was used by the optician, G. M. Heath, and the hairdresser, J. R. Spence. The York District Supplies Co. and the York Medical and Surgical Co. were also both operating from here. By the 1970’s 16 Stonegate was a popular tourist shop called ‘Ye Olde Coin Shoppe’. The Trust purchased these properties in December 2002, having previously sold the long leasehold in 1976. 98
56 Low Petergate 48
With its neighbours, Nos. 58 and 60, 56 forms a five-bay, timber framed range of three storeys and attics, built in the late 15th or early 16th century for Alderman John Stockdale and mentioned in his Will in 1507 as his new house in Petergate. The property was once owned by The Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St. Peter in York, the revenue from which went towards the preservation of York Minster. In the early 19th century, No. 56 was re-fronted with brick. In the early 17th century, the property was divided into three and chimney stacks were inserted. The upper two storeys of No. 56 are in Flemish bond, and the hung sash windows have projecting sills and stuccoed heads. Above them is a moulded dentilled cornice. Inside are to be seen 18th century fireplaces and doors and a 17th century plaster overmantel with the Stuart arms. The Trust purchased this property in 1968.
20 & 22 High Petergate
These two houses were built for The Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St. Peter in York by the Minster Stoneyard staff under the supervision of the head mason, Mr Taylor, in the first half of the 19th century. Originally both properties had an entrance doorway to the left of the ground floor window leading to a through-passageway to the rear of the building. This still exists at No. 20 and leads to a rear yard and also to a staircase serving the flats above. This building has an L-shaped, three room plan which is currently let as a tea room. Above this is a two bedroom flat on the first and second floors. Under the building there is a cellar which consists of 18th century brickwork. At No. 22 the passageway is enclosed and is now simply a corridor to the upper floors, which are offices. The ground floor consists of a shop with a yard at the rear and two other storerooms. The two properties form a four-bay range, three storeys high, built of Flemish-bonded stock brick with hung-sash windows. The Trust purchased these buildings along with 12-18 High Petergate from The Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St. Peter in York on 26 October 2007.
High Petergate 12-18 High Petergate 50
These properties are of timber-framed construction (mock Tudor) and were built in the early 20th century as a replica of the twostoreyed, late medieval buildings, which previously stood on this site. They do, however, incorporate some of the original re-used timbers, which were presumably from the earlier buildings. The properties were originally built as houses but the ground floor accommodation is now occupied by various retail businesses, with the upper floors having been converted into flats for residential use. The Trust purchased these properties on 26 October 2007 from The Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St. Peter in York, along with 20 and 22 High Petergate.
St. Leonard’s Place
De Grey Rooms and De Grey House
The De Grey Rooms and De Grey House were designed and built in 1841-1842 by P. F. Robinson and G. T. Andrews. These highly prestigious and fashionable rooms were primarily constructed to accommodate the annual visit to York of the Yorkshire Hussars regiment. The rooms were also used for concerts, balls, public entertainment and meetings. The rooms were named after the colonel of the regiment – Earl De Grey. The De Grey Rooms were built on St. Leonard’s Place – an affluent area of York. During the 19th century the area around St. Leonard’s Place and Museum Street was a popular place for the wealthy and influential to live. There was uproar in 1859 when the poor-law guardians proposed to build new offices on Museum Street near to St. Leonard’s Place where the newly built De Grey Rooms were situated. The wealthy men and women of York were furious that the poor would congregate around the upper class area of the city spreading disease and lowering the standards of the area. It was argued that the new offices would be better suited near the poorer areas of the city such as Walmgate, Fossgate and Peasholme Green.
The De Grey Rooms have passed into the hands of different tenants over the years and have continued to be used mainly for public entertainment and meetings. The bar maid of the De Grey Rooms, Edith Keech, recorded in ‘Public Houses, Private Lives’ that: “I really wonder how I did it (running the bar, restaurant and dance hall at the De Grey Rooms) because we didn’t get to bed ‘til half past two, three o’clock, because there was dancing ‘til two, and then I was up about seven o’clock – there were letters to see to and the phone and one thing and another. We led a very busy life”.
The first annual dinner party of the Licensed Victualler’s Association (LVA) was held at the De Grey Rooms in 1848. Founded in 1845, the York branch of the LVA was one of the oldest in the country. It was the trade union for the publicans and was renowned for its lavish outings, dinners and dancing, which were attended by over one hundred publicans. However, the De Grey Rooms have not always been the venue for assemblies and parties. In 1925, it was believed that the rooms were used as the City’s treasurer’s office. During the Second World War these rooms were also used by the military as offices.
De Grey House was built for William Blanshard to designs dated 1835 by P. F. Robinson and G. T. Andrews. It was the only one built of a projected terrace of three. It was bought by York Central Conservative Club in 1909 and extended to the rear in 1910. The De Grey Rooms and De Grey House were purchased by York Conservation Trust from the City of York Council on 31 March 2005. The De Grey Rooms are currently occupied by York Theatre Royal and the ballroom is used by their actors for rehearsals. De Grey House has for many years been occupied by various departments of the City of York Council.
The Red House
Duncombe Place runs from Blake Street to Petergate. Records of 1346 show that the street used to be called Lop Lane, which supposedly originates from the names given to fleas and spiders, although this is unclear. Today Duncombe Place is about 100ft wide but in the past it used to be much narrower. The houses on the north-west side of Duncombe Place belonged to the former lane, which was renamed after Dean A. W. Duncombe. The Red House supposedly stands on the 13th century east gate of the ancient St. Leonard’s Hospital. In its heyday St. Leonard’s was one of the largest hospitals in Medieval England. All that remains of this once famous hospital are the ruins on Museum Street next to the City Library. The stone used in construction of the house is said to have been taken from the ruins of the hospital and can be seen today on the side of the building. The distinctive and bright colour of The Red House is perhaps the most prominent and visible house in Duncombe Place. It was built in the early 18th century for Sir William Robinson, Baronet, Lord Mayor of York in 1700 and MP for York from 1697 to 1722. In 1675, the City Council bought the Mint Yard from the nobleman, George Savile, Viscount Halifax for £800. Robinson leased the house on the current site from the City Council in 1701 and later went on to rebuild it incorporating the lower portions of the earlier stone building. It has been argued that the designer of The Red House was the famous William Etty, who later designed Robinson’s prestigious country house at Newby, now called 106
Baldersby Park. William Etty made his name when he was employed by the renowned architect, John Vanbrugh, on two of his great houses, Castle Howard, Yorkshire and Blenheim Palace, Oxford. In 1723, Robinson renewed his lease on The Red House for a further twenty-one years, but the City Council demanded Robinson surrender The Red House for use by the people of the city. Robinson refused and the Council instead built the other red house – Mansion House – on St. Helen’s Square. Robinson died at Baldersby Park and The Red House was passed on to his relative, Richard Elcock. In 1740, Dr John Burton was granted a twenty year lease on ‘Sir William Robinson’s house’ and this was renewed in 1761 for a further twenty-one years. Burton was the Dr Slop of Sterne’s Tristram Shandy and was appointed the prestigious title of Freeman of York in 1754. Burton was buried in Holy Trinity, Micklegate, in January 1771. Later occupants of The Red House included Dr Baldwin Wake, who was a physician at Bootham Park Hospital, York, from 1815 to 1839. Wake took the lease in 1835. The Trust bought the house in 1999 from the City of York Council, who had previously used it as their Leisure Services Department.
The Assembly Rooms is one of the earliest and most influential examples of neo-classical architecture in Europe. Both inside and out, the Assembly Rooms boasts exquisite taste and reflects its main function as the predominant meeting place of the rich and famous of York and its visitors during the 18th century. By around 1710, assemblies began meeting on a regular basis for dancing and card playing. However, the story of the Assembly Rooms began in 1730 when the organisers of the assemblies wrote to Lord Burlington asking him to design a dancing room larger than 90 feet long with additional rooms for playing cards, performing plays and taking refreshments and coffee. The Rooms were carefully designed to cater for York’s social events such as race-week meetings and concerts. Funds for the building work were raised through subscribers to the Assembly Rooms and by Lord Burlington himself. Blake Street, on which the Assembly Rooms is located, had to be widened so that access to the Rooms and the Mansion House could be reached by Hackneys and coaches. Many have argued that the York Assembly Rooms was Burlington’s masterpiece. Burlington copied what the famous scholars and minds of old – the Roman Vitruvius and Palladio – described as the ‘Egyptian Hall’, which can be seen today as the Great Assembly Room surrounded by large pillars. The smaller rooms around the Great Assembly Room were based on Roman 108
baths and houses. However, Burlington only designed the inside of the Assembly Rooms and not the outside façade – that was added in 1828 by the architects Pritchett & Watson.
Lord Burlington Richard Boyle was the third Earl of Burlington. He lived at Burlington House, Piccadilly and Chiswick and had property in Yorkshire. Burlington was famously known as ‘the architect Earl’ and played a huge role in the revival of Palladian style architecture. Palladianism used classic styles from Roman antiquity as a source of inspiration for modern architecture – the ancient Roman world was seen as a bygone age of excellent taste and civilisation. During adolescence Burlington embarked on three Grand Tours of Europe (1714-1719) where he made numerous observations and recordings of classical architecture. Palladian style buildings such as the Assembly Rooms were seen as a sign of high class and respectability. The Assembly Rooms are a prime example of copying classic architectural styles such as pillars and symmetry in order to reconnect to the civilisation of the ancient world. Some of Burlington’s other works include; Burlington House, London, Chiswick House Villa and Castle Hill, Devonshire.
In 1709, horseracing began meeting on a regular basis in York. The Assembly Rooms were first used for the race meet in August 1732 although they were not fully completed until 1735. Many meetings and concerts took place here during the heyday of the Assembly Rooms’ popularity. The Assembly Rooms fashionable and prestigious reputation was not to last and over the next two hundred years it was to have an unstable future. By as early as 1747, the shareholders of the Assembly Rooms noticed falling profits as the Rooms were declining in use and popularity. During the 1770’s there were attempts to revitalise and re-establish the Assembly Rooms’ primary function and purpose of housing concerts and assemblies. After a brief success through the 1780’s and 1790’s, the Rooms again declined in use and by the early 19th century subscribers showed a lack of interest by failing to attend meetings and assemblies. Even the race-meet assemblies were poorly attended. The 1820’s and 1830’s saw an increasing use of the Assembly Rooms for dancing and concerts after a reform of management but this success did not last and by the late 1840’s the use of the Rooms was again in decline. The secretary and steward of the Assembly Rooms, Arthur Anderson, managed the Assembly Rooms from 1893 to 1925. During this time Anderson acquired as many shares in the Rooms as possible until he was the second largest shareholder, the largest being the County Hospital which had bought its shares from the Duke of Devonshire (who had bought all of Lord Burlington’s shares). In 1925, the corporation bought all the shares of the Assembly Rooms and leased the Rooms out to Anderson until his death in 1927. After the Second World War the corporation restored the building and it was reopened in 1951 with a ball which was attended by many of the descendants of the original subscribers of 1730. Since then, the Assembly Rooms have been used for different social events of the City and is now a trendy restaurant. The Trust purchased the property and its contents on 22nd November 2002, since which time it has embarked upon a restoration programme of all the antique artefacts displayed in the different rooms within the building. 110
Bibliography ‘And Proud of it too! Stories from Walmgate’. City of York – Volumes lll, IV & V (1972-1981) Royal Commission on Historical Monuments. Cooper, T. P. (1897) Old Inns and Signs of York. Kelleher, Shane – M. A. Thesis on ‘Buildings of the Blue Coat School and St Anthony’s Hall’. Race, Mike (1999) Public Houses, Private Lives. Raine, Angelo, Medieval York – a Topographical Survey. Smith, James Esq of Deanston (1845) A Report on the State of the City of York. The Encyclopaedia of People. ‘The Little Dust Pan’ advert in the 1909 York Directory. The York Herald, York Gazette and Yorkshire Evening Press. The York Directories and Goads maps. Who’s Who in Yorkshire and the East Riding (1912).
Acknowledgements John Lunan, for the initial research Richard Parkin, the Trust’s architect Council for British Archaeology Rubber Band Graphic Design Richard Brown Dr Annette Parkes Visit York Information Centre
Assembly Rooms, Blake Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 54 Bootham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Bootham Lodge, 56 Bootham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Bowes Morrell House, 111 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Coach House, Studios, Old School House & St. Anthony’s Garden, Peasholme Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5 Colliergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 8 Colliergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Cuthbert Morrell House, 47 Aldwark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 De Grey Rooms and De Grey House, St. Leonard’s Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Fairfax House, Castlegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 13 & 14 Fossgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 15-16 Fossgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 34 Gillygate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 36 Gillygate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 43-45 Goodramgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 60 Goodramgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 12-18 High Petergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 20 & 22 High Petergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Ingram House, 90 Bootham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4 Jubbergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Lady Peckett’s Yard, Pavement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 56 Low Petergate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 61 Micklegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 83 Micklegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 85, 87 & 89 Micklegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Middleton House, 38 Monkgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
40 Monkgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Morrell Cottages (Rear of 15-17 Walmgate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Morrell Yard, Fossgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 1 Museum Street/2 Blake Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 12 Newgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 35-41 North Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Powell’s Yard, Goodramgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Sir Thomas Herbert’s House, Pavement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 St. Anthony’s Hall, Peasholme Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 St. Mary’s House, 66 Bootham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 27 St. Saviourgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 29 & 31 St. Saviourgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 11 St. Saviour’s Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 12 & 13 St. Saviour’s Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 14 St. Saviour’s Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 12-16 Stonegate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 3-5 Tanner Row . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 7a Tanner Row . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 The Red House, Duncombe Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 4 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 6 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 8/8a Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 13 & 15 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 17 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 77 Walmgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Wealden Hall, 49 & 51 Goodramgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Wesley Chapel, 62-64 Aldwark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
However, York has not stood still in history but also has a modern vitality as a cosmopolitan city with an extraordinary choice of specialist shops, restaurants and café bars. Shopaholics can enjoy first-class shopping in major high street stores, traditional gift shops and independent boutiques alike. With over 30 museums, galleries and tours to choose from, and the Yorkshire Dales and Moors on your doorstep, England’s Best Historic City offers something for everyone whatever the time of year.
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