Have You Found Gold? Company Profile: Cisco Emerges as an IIoT Power House One-on-One with Xilinx
Real World Connected Systems Magazine. Produced by Intelligent Systems Source
Vol 17 / No 7 / JULY 2016
The Great Industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT) Gold Rush
An RTC Group Publication
Real World Connected Systems Magazine. Produced by Intelligent Systems Source
03: THE IIOT SMART SOLUTIONS 12
3.0: IIoT Creates a New HVAC Business Model
by Mark Kerbel, Encycle & Rod McLane, Ayla Networks
3.1: How OpenFog Consortium Powers Up Fog Computing by Chuck Byers and Tao Zhang, Cisco
3.2: Open-System Standards Are Making the IoT a Reality by Christian Légaré, Micrium
3.3: How Software-Defined Radio Impacts the Internet of Things (IoT) by Stephanie Chiao, Per Vices Corporation
Special Report: Have You Found Gold?
3.4: How Smart is Your City?
3.5: Streamlines Semiconductor Manufacturing Operations with Wireless Sensor Network
by By Aravind Yarlagadda, Schneider Electric
by Ross Yu and Enrique Aceves, Linear Technology
by Peter Thorne, Cambashi
The Great IIoT Gold Rush
by John Koon, Editor-in-Chief
01: ONE-ON-ONE WITH XILINX 06
by Iain Galloway, NXP
4.0: COMPANY PROFILE: Cisco Emerges as an IIoT Powerhouse by John Koon, Editor-in-Chief
02: SPECIAL REPORT
Have You Found Gold?
4.1: Mobile Communications Are Key to Network Edge Design by Steve Gudknecht, Elma Electronic Inc.
by John Koon, Editor-in-Chief
IIoT Creates a New HVAC Business Model
3.7: Can Smart City Get Even Smarter?
04: CISCO SOLUTIONS
One-on-One with Dan Isaacs, Director, Connected Systems and IIoT Ecosystem by John Koon, Editor-in-Chief
3.6: You Can Hack It Does Not Mean It Is Right
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The Great IIoT Gold Rush by John Koon, Editor-In-Chief
On September 9-10, 2011, I attended a “visionary” conference at Ritz Carlton in Laguna Niguel, California. The theme was Internet-of-Things (IoT). The driving force behind this conference was National Semiconductors. There were demos of IoT appliances in different shapes and forms. You could check email in the kitchen as if you were using a tablet. Nothing happened in the next 10 years. On September 23, 2011, Texas Instrument announced the acquisition of National Semiconductors. IoT was new to me then. It was also a concept before its time. Actually the first time I heard about this concept was from Bill Gates of Microsoft. In a conference, he shared enthusiastically the idea of using software to control smart objects. The market would be great because billions of smart objects would be connected. (Google was a tiny unknown company at the time). He was partially right. Billions of things would be connected but not with Windows. He talked about smart refrigerator. In May this year, I saw Samsung advertising a smart, 36 inch, 4-door, French-door refrigerator equipped with Wi-Fi and an IoT camera inside to allow you to see how much milk you have left. (List price is over $5,000). So you can pick up a bottle of milk on your way home. Only time will tell if smart refrigerator is a smart concept or not. Do you remember the dot com era? Venture capital companies were pouring money into dot com start-ups. The bubble burst. Most dot com companies failed. But a few succeeded. Will IoT or Industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT) be another bubble? Most market research firms predict there will be multiple billions of things connected by 2020. You can monitor anything, anytime to get the best performance from your process with reduced costs. In a recent IoT conference, a speaker gave an illustration of the benefit of IIoT. When IIoT was applied in building an airplane, you could record and monitor the movement of a technician using a machine tool. Later on, analytic would be able to
The great IIoT gold rush is happening. Some have found gold and others are still searching. Have you found it?
correlate the movement of the tool and quality of the workmanship. Enlightening. If you are an enthusiast you will think of a million ways how IIoT can be used; better healthcare, preventive maintenance and monitoring your moving assets like a delivery truck. If you are a pessimist, you can think of a million ways how hackers will be able to exploit the weak points of an unsecured connection and there are lots of them. A person attending a medical conference asked, “What if a hacker disrupted the wireless pace maker worn by a head of a country?” Can you imagine when hackers take over the control of your connected car while you are driving? Worse, the outcome of an energy smart grid or nuclear plant being hacked would be disastrous! It does not matter which side you are on, the IIoT revolution is a modern gold rush and is unstoppable.
Will you find gold IIoT? In this special edition, we will discuss the IIoT opportunities, and who are doing it. A report focus on Cisco will highlight their strategy. Finally, there will be articles from the IIoT experts covering various topics; smart energy, Fog computing, IIoT standard, software-defined radio, smart city, design ideas, case study and more. Figure 1.
RTC Magazine JULY 2016 | 5
1.0 ONE-ON-ONE WITH XILINX
One-on-One with Dan Isaacs, Director, Connected Systems and IIoT Ecosystem, Xilinx Dan is Director of Connected Systems at Xilinx. He is responsible for defining and executing the ecosystem strategy for the Industrial IoT and is the representative to the Industrial Internet Consortium. Dan has over 25 years of experience working in mil/aero, automotive, and consumer based companies including Hughes, Ford, NEC and LSI Logic. During his career, Dan has held positions in software design, FPGA design engineer, systems engineer and system verification, applications, other technical related management. He holds degrees in Computer Engineering- EE from Cal State University, B.S. Geophysics from ASU. 1. What does IIoT mean to you? The Industrial Internet of Things represents the non-consumer applications that are segmented into focused areas for Xilinx including Smart Factory, Smart Energy, and Smart City. IIoT takes the traditional closed environment that has existed in Industrial applications for decades, and now enables moving the data to a more open, accessible internet connected environment. IIoT provides new opportunities and improvement in areas of process, implementation and connectivity and communication. Xilinx All Programmable technology and platform solutions provide unique differentiation to address the developing needs of IIoT. 2. There is a mixture of “Hypes” and “Real Opportunities” today. Can you help clarify what are some of these real opportunities in IIoT? There are several areas of opportunity in IIoT. As stated above, the IIoT is about unlocking the data to gain actionable insight into the connected environment(s). Utilizing the actionable insight from sensor fusion and analytics can minimize the potential of unplanned downtime through predictive maintenance, reduce operational expenses, and improve productivity. Opportunities include:
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• Smart Factory/Manufacturing - predictive maintenance achieved by accessing and analyzing voluminous amounts of data for early detection of potential operational issues, manufacturing process deficiencies and design flaws, and reduction of unplanned downtime for more efficient, operation and overall cost reduction • Smart Grid and Alternative Energy - for more efficient control and management of energy generation, distribution and consumption. • Smart City - Transportation management, utilities operation and other related infrastructure with secure communication and safe operation Other opportunities that are applicable across these (and other) applications, include real-time, deterministic command and control of connected “things” including functional safety and security. Functionality that isn’t as time-critical (e.g. cloud-based analytics, machine learning, and data archival) is also a real opportunity. 3. What is the formula for success in IIoT? In other words, what are the key ingredients to have a sustainable, long term IIoT business? There is no one formula for success in IIoT, one must consider the individual application and its corresponding requirements. Monetization of the IIoT is in its initial stages. One thing is for sure, the IIoT is a disruptive force that is bringing more focus on connected systems including securing endpoint to gateway to cloud, operational and management efficiencies, and new applications and business models. 4. What does Xilinx offer in the space of IIoT? Xilinx technology offers key differentiating advantages providing a flexible, standards based solution that combines software programmability, real-time processing, hardware optimization, and any-to-any connectivity with the security and safety needed for Industrial IoT systems. Our portfolio includes FPGAs and Programmable SOCs. These programmable SoCs integrate ARM processors or multi-processor systems and FPGA fabric in a single device. Additionally, on-board A/Ds, hardened peripheral blocks, and high-speed programmable I/O supporting legacy and new protocols and connectivity standards are included, providing a
scalable and upgradeable highly differentiated platform. Xilinx’s Software development environments, SDAccel™, SDSoC™, and Vivado® High-Level Synthesis, enable customers to quickly develop their smarter, connected, and differentiated applications enabling a broad spectrum of solutions to address key IIoT markets including Smart Factory, Smart Grid/Energy and Smart Cities. 5. D o you need strategic partners? If so, can you name some? Xilinx has a comprehensive ecosystem – encompassing design enablement, including HW, SW, IP reference designs to design services to platforms and comprehensive solutions, covering a wide range of applications spanning endpoint to gateway to cloud functionality. The Xilinx Alliance Partner program provides the opportunity for contributors to participate at multiple levels further expanding Xilinx’s extensive ecosystem. 6. I keep hearing that connected IIoT create risks as hackers can explore the weak points in those connections. Can you share with us about risks and challenges in implementing IIoT? What advices would you offer to overcome them? Three key areas of challenges that are obstacles to more widespread adoption of IIoT include: I. Security (overcoming companies’ concerns about connecting their systems and making them accessible over the internet) II. Standardization – considering the infrastructure already in place at a given facility, and costs to change existing connectivity approaches,
III. Data ownership – who owns data once connected.
The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC), a highly collaborative 200+ member strong global consortium of companies, is working on several approaches through reference architectures, security frameworks, and proof of concept test beds to identify and bring innovative methodologies and solutions to address these and other IIoT challenges. More recently, the IIC announced collaborative efforts with the Platform Industry 4.0 Initiative to further address these challengesVery simple. NVIDIA is the world leader in GPU technology. We invest billions of dollars annually in development of new architectures, and because NVIDIA leverages GPU architectures across all product lines, that means that all NVIDIA products, including Jetson, benefit from that multi-billion dollar investment. The same architecture that is in your top-of-the-line gaming system, in your world-class product design workflow, in the Titan Supercomputer at Oakridge National Labs, is also in Jetson. Jetson is like a supercomputer that fits in the palm of your hand and consumes less than 10W. I don’t know anybody else who can do that.
High Speed Image Processing High capacity frame grabber system including: • Four Camera Link ports • Removable storage • Intel® Quad Core™ CPU • miniPCIe expansion site • Ready to run image analysis software
RTC Magazine JULY 2016 | 7 OptiSys.75 Vertical Ad.indd 1
7/6/2016 1:49:48 PM
2.0 SPECIAL REPORT: HAVE YOU FOUND GOLD?
Special Report: Have You Found Gold Yet?
The Gold Rush days are coming back. Except this time the is on Industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT). Why is the industry buzzing about the IIoT? For some, it represents limitless potential and opportunities. This is bigger and better than the dot com era. Dan Isaacs, Director, Connected Systems and IIoT Ecosystem at Xilinx, points out that IoT will provide smart solutions to medical, energy, automotive, manufacturing and other industrial segments. It can potentially reduce unplanned down time and reduce costs of manufacturing. Dell agrees. by John Koon, Editor-In-Chief
Welcome to Industry 4.0, the future of manufacturing. (1.0 was mechanical assistance, 2.0 was mass production, 3.0 included electron and process control and 4.0 is the beginning of M2M and IIoT). This new smart manufacturing called Industry 4.0 promises massive opportunities and it has captured the attention of the industrial world and the developing countries. According to a 2015 European Union paper, Industry 4.0 was intended to provide rapid transformation to manufacturing to reverse the decline in industrialization to a targeted 20% growth. An ambitious goal indeed. According to German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Industrial 4.0 is â€œthe comprehensive transformation of the whole sphere of industrial production through the merging of digital technology and the internet with conventional
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industryâ€?. The World Economic Forum, with its leadership from corporations with revenues over $5 billion and various government bodies, endorsed IIoT. The business trustees include Marc R. Benioff, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Salesforce, Jack Ma, Executive Chairman, Alibaba Group Holding Limited, Jim Yong Kim, President, The World Bank, Christine Lagarde, Managing Director, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Indra Nooyi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo Inc. and more. In its 2015 paper, it defined the adoption and impact path of the Industrial Internet into four different phases. Near term goals included Operational Efficiency and New Products and Services with long term goals aimed at Outcome Economy and Autonomous, Pull Economy. IIoT is not just a clever idea from
one country, it is a worldwide movement. There are many other opportunities besides smart manufacturing; Smart Cities, Smart Buildings, Energy and Smart Grid management, Connected Cars, Healthcare, Process Control and more.
How Big is The Market?
According to BI Intelligence, the IoT market will experience exponential growth to reach 34 billion connected devices in 2020 up from 10 billion in 2015. Within the 34 billion devices, 70% will be directly related to new IoT devices and the rest are traditional smartphone, tablets and smart wearables. VDC predicts the IIoT and connected factory market will grow from $6 billion in 2015 to $20.7 billion in 2020, a CAGR of 28.1%. Figure 1. VDC further explains that various industrial segments including automation & control, energy and utilities would provide the biggest opportunities for IoT gateway and services providers. Cellular and analytics services will reap benefits from the IIoT service segment. The market is big enough for everyone.
Internet is all the connections between Local Networks and the Back-End Services which include servers, analytic software and other devices used to access the Internet. Why the excitements? The connected “things” can create optimal performance and increase productivity worldwide. That is why Industry heavyweights like Dell, GE, IBM, Microsoft, Intel, SAP and Cisco are full steam ahead. Some see it as the next industrial revolution. The big question is what is the ROI?
Where are the opportunities?
Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition defines smart manufacturing as “the integration of network-based data and information that provides real-time understanding, reasoning, planning, management and related decision making of all aspects of a manufacturing and supply chain enterprise.” Smart manufacturing can potentially shift the paradigm. About 50 years ago, industrial countries figured out the way to increase margin was outsourcing manufacturing to places with low labor costs such as China. Today, the skill level of the Chinese labor What is IIoT? has increased and so have the costs. Foxconn, the world’s largest In simple terms, IIoT is a way to connect many devices or contract manufacturing company, builds products for Fortune sensors together using Internet commonly known as the Cloud. 500 companies including Apple’s iPhone, with headquarters in Internet-of-Things covers everything under the sun including Taiwan and manufacturing facilities in China, Eastern Europe consumer products such as smart watches and other fitness wearand other parts of the world, has recently replaced 60,000 ables. IIoT has a similar definition of IoT except it focuses mainly human factory workers with robots. Companies can no long on the industrial aspect such as manufacturing, connected cities, compete based on cheap labor only. They have to rely on IIoT cars and health. Even though some authors may use the term IoT intelligence and automation in the future. in this edition, its focus is on industrial segments. Typical IIoT arIIoT can solve problems in many other industrial segments. chitecture consists of four major components as shown in figure 2. For example, it can reduce the costs of energy of industrial Things refer to the intelligent devices or sensors. Local Networks buildings. Today, Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning include the network and gateway hardware connecting to Things. (HVAC) systems in large commercial buildings use building What we don’t see but included here are the software layers. The management systems (BMS) made by companies such as Johnson Controls and Honeywell to optimize system performance but BMS can be an expensive investment that take years to breakeven. Mid-size and small firms cannot afford it. IIoT can potentially solve that problem. HCL Technologies uses the Intel-based gateways and sensors to monitor the building edge devices including HVAC, security, lighting, water and electrical equipment to optimize energy efficiency using the cloud. Large building control companies are rushing to invest in the IIoT. Smart City is another segment gaining momentum. IIoT can optimize city lights, traffic and synchronize the communication of emergency vehicles. That is why many cities around the world are joining the IIoT movement. Vietnam’s capital city, Ho Chi Minh City, cities in Sweden, Norway and Denmark are among those to pioneer Smart City. An efficient city means less traffic jams, safer and costs less to run. Emergency vehicles such as Figure 1: IIoT and Connected Factory market will reach $20.7 billion in 2020 at a CAGR of fire trucks and ambulance can get to destinations 28.1%. Source: VDC
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2.0 SPECIAL REPORT: HAVE YOU FOUND GOLD? quicker with synchronous traffic signals control by IIoT and the emergency crews can be dispatched more efficiently. Connected car is an area with potential. Only a few automakers are using IIoT as a mean to connect the vehicle to monitor the performance and provide better customer services. Hunyadi now has a solution to allow owners to remotely control some of the functions of the car such as locking and unlocking. Soon cars will be able to communicate with each other to warn other cars of accidents ahead. ATT is getting serious with smart city and has already started its pilot program in seven locations including Atlanta, GA, Chicago, IL, Dallas, TX, Georgia Institute of Technology, Miami-Dade County, FL, Montgomery County, MD and Chapel Hill, NC. They are also investing in connected car, wearables, connected home, connected health, IoT Security and Industrial. Future healthcare will depend more and more on wireless connection for patient monitoring. Connected hospitals will have control rooms to monitor the vital signs of patients 24 hours a day wirelessly to provide better patient experience. Stroke patients can be discharged from hospitals after being stabilized and can still be monitored remotely by their caretakers. These are only a few illustrations of things to come.
What is The Formula For Success?
Companies are trying hard to develop formulas to carve out a piece of the IIoT pie. Here are a few examples of how some
Fortune 500 companies do it. Under the leadership of Satya Nadella, CEO of Microsoft, the company has transformed from Windows to an internet company with Azure as its platform, just in time to stop the revenue decline. IBM uses Watson as its platform to drive AI and IIoT. In March of 2015, IBM committed to invest $3 billion to bring cognitive computing to IoT. In December of 2015, IBM announced that Munich, Germany as the global headquarters for IBM’s new Watson IoT unit. It was IBM’s largest investment in Europe in two decades. It has an army of 1400 IoT business partners to help sell its services. GE introduced the Predix as the industrial internet platform and formed partnership with Microsoft. “Companies don’t want disparate, disjointed systems; they want technology that brings things together,” says Abhi Kunté, global head of technology strategic alliances at GE Digital. “This partnership with Microsoft will provide seamless integration of our technologies that will drive a lot of efficiencies for our customers.” Additionally, its Predix Transform conference has attracted strong support from Deloitte, Intel, Hewlett Packard, Accenture, Dell and more. Most companies will admit that they cannot do it alone. That is why companies are forming partnership. GE is an Operational Technology expert in the Oil and Gas industry. To succeed in providing a total IIoT solution including IT, it partners with companies such as Cisco, Dell or Hewlett Packard to do the job. The IT companies would partner with OT companies for the same reason. Cisco, an IT company, for example, would team up
Figure 2: Typical IIoT connection consists of four major components; Things (smart devices or sensors), Local Networks including gateways, The Internet (Cloud connection) and the Back-End Services. Image courtesy: Micrium
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WHY CHOOSE NOVASOM? with Rockwell, a manufacturing and process expert, to provide an end-to-end solution to manufacturers.
Have You Found Gold Yet?
While there are ways to generate revenue from IIoT, have you found gold yet? Greenwave Systems, a 280-employee company, has offices in Singapore, Irvine, CA, Demark and Korea. Its AXON platform is aimed at smart home, network (both IP and IoT), media entertainment and mobile IoT. The software platform serves as a translator that allows disparate devices in the smart ecosystem to work together seamlessly and has also helped telco companies such as Verizon to capture detailed performance information from devices like wireless hubs. Before customers experience device problems, AXON has already reported the performance data to the service provider. This allows the service provider to be proactive. The future is bright for Greenwave. Earlier this year, the company received another round of funding of $60 million. When Jim Hunter, Chief Scientist and Technology Evangelist, was asked, “In the IIoT Gold Rush, have you found gold yet?” Yes was his reply. Another area of demand is analytic and creating meaning information from the sea of raw data. SaM Solutions, a 600-employee, software consultancy with offices in the USA and Eastern Europe, provides IIoT and Open Source solutions to manufactures have also found gold. According to Alex Vilner, managing partner of SaM Solutions, “IIoT in manufacturing provides management with meaningful data so they can manage and optimize the performance of the connected factories to maximize profit. In the past, manufactures have to rely on old software or manual labor to get the information.” Others are still searching!
It is not easy to navigate through the IIoT maze. There are still challenges ahead. (1) The much needed secured end-to-end connection is easier said than done. Increased connection will only create more opportunities for hackers. (2) The challenge of creating and using meaningful big data cannot be underestimated. With projection of multiple billion “things” to be connected by 2020, massive data will be generated. Who has ownership of these data? If not managed well, big data can potentially cause chaos. (3) Lack of international standard is another big challenge. Today there are quite a few standards being proposed. It will be interesting to see how these standards” will evolve. In summary, IIoT presents both opportunities and risks. Will it be smooth sailing or a long and winding road? Finding the path to generate meaningful ROI is the key.
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3.0 IIOT CREATES A NEW HVAC BUSINESS MODEL
IIoT Creates a New HVAC Business Model
Figure 1: Thermostat Photo Caption: IoT HVAC systems compensate for loads with changes in occupant behavior. For example, they can cool more aggressively when people congregate in a meeting room. connection) and the Back-End Services. Image courtesy: Micrium
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to fundamentally alter our relationships with the products that surround us. The example of energy demand management systems in connected heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment provides lessons for other markets that are being transformed—or soon will be—by the IoT. by Mark Kerbel, Encycle and Rod McLane, Ayla Networks
HVAC equipment represents a multibillion-dollar global market with a nearly ubiquitous presence in everyday life. HVAC also is a major energy consumer, accounting for nearly 40% of the electricity used in commercial buildings and a hefty proportion of residential users’ energy bills. The IoT can potentially revolutionize not only how we use and pay for HVAC, but also the fundamental design of HVAC equipment and even the business models of the manufacturers themselves. Smart buildings, smart cities, and smart homes are among the markets at the forefront of the IoT, and HVAC plays a major role in each. HVAC manufacturers have spent years or decades refining their products’ capabilities within traditional frameworks.
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But creating a connected HVAC product is not as simple as embedding a wireless chip or adding a sensor or two. Manufacturers of connected HVAC equipment need to consider things such as network security, device security, embedded wireless protocols, cloud infrastructure, web or mobile application design, user experience best practices, and data privacy—issues that never arose for traditional products and that manufacturers are unlikely to be able to address using their in-house expertise. What’s more, the IoT raises all these issues to the nth degree due to the need for IoT products to interoperate seamlessly with one another; to be controlled by various mobile device and browser types; to be compatible with multiple cloud infrastructures; to of-
fer enterprise-grade security from end to end, with no weak links; to scale all these capabilities to thousands or millions of connected products; and to stay current with fast-changing and ever-evolving standards and protocols, to avoid product obsolescence.
The IoT Beyond Mere Connection
The reasons for overcoming the challenges to joining the IoT only begin with connecting products; the real advantages lie in the data generated by connected products—and what manufacturers can do with that data. For example, HVAC manufacturers can use IoT data to: • Differentiate products in crowded marketplaces, and avoid being left behind competitively. When connected products become the norm, manufacturers that have not figured out the IoT will be at a big disadvantage. • Enhance customer experiences by responding to real-world data on how customers are actually using products in their homes or commercial buildings. • Improve their product designs, also based on real-world data of both in-the-field product performance and customer usage. For instance, if the IoT data shows that a particular air conditioner feature is rarely used, or difficult to find, or wears out quickly, the HVAC manufacturer can decide to fix the feature in future product generations, or eliminate it, or approach it in a better way. • Generate new revenue streams. HVAC manufacturers could offer preventive maintenance or repair services, better warranty services, or advanced add-on features—all based on the data generated by their deployed products. Because energy management is such a huge issue for HVAC equipment, it’s fortunate that this area is one that is ripe for improvement through IoT technologies.
How the IoT Can Improve HVAC Energy Efficiency
A recent ClimateProgress report estimated that if buildings in Boston adjusted their thermostats up one degree in the summer and down one degree in the winter, the buildings could collectively save over $20 million in energy costs each year and cut CO2 emissions by 81,017 metric tons. Imagine extending those savings throughout the country and across the globe, and it’s clear that home and business owners could cut their energy costs while contributing to a more environmentally friendly world. Most HVAC systems today, however, are manually controlled or have only basic automation, tied to time of day or temperature setpoints. IoT-connected HVAC equipment offers new opportunities to improve the efficiency of the products themselves while also creating a better customer experience. For instance, IoT HVAC systems can use sensors and Wi-Fi cloud connectivity to automatically adjust the temperature when rooms are unoccupied. They can also leverage third-party data and services to enhance efficiency. A perfect example is cloud-
based weather service information, which can be integrated with connected HVAC systems to plan for predicted weather conditions and to increase the lead time for response to various weather events. The HVAC systems can also use historical data to eliminate lags in responses that create frustration and inconvenience—and that can diminish energy efficiency. Using such integrated services, HVAC systems in buildings and homes automatically adjust themselves to optimize both energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Data connected from IoT-enabled HVAC equipment can also be optimized to estimate future occupancy, control, and energy usage. For instance, this kind of data can be integrated with web-based calendar applications to automatically make conference and other meeting rooms comfortable just as people are scheduled to begin using the rooms.
Providing HVAC System Control to Everyone Who Needs It
IoT connectivity also addresses another issue: How to provide easy access, as well as controls over access, for the operation of HVAC systems. In the IoT, the process of interacting with HVAC systems changes from a hardware to a software exercise. From here, the possibilities become very interesting. Consider commercial or industrial HVAC systems. People operating or desiring access to the HVAC systems include local and head-office facility managers; energy managers; third-party property management firms; contractors; systems integrators and OEMs of related systems, such as theater equipment or lighting; and utilities and energy service suppliers. The IoT not only makes it possible to provide simple and appropriate access to different individuals or functions, but it also allows the data generated by the connected HVAC system to optimize both energy usage and inhabitants’ comfort. Integrating the IoT HVAC system with an energy demand management system provides unprecedented levels of energy efficiency. In addition, the HVAC control can be integrated with other business services in ways not possible with traditional building control mechanisms. In the IoT, a connected thermostat (figure 1) morphs into more than what we typically consider a thermostat. With an IoT-enabled thermostat and integrated energy demand management software: • F acility managers can ensure occupant comfort via multiple remote access methods. •C orporate facility managers can ensure that all facilities are performing optimally and as expected. • E nergy managers can assess actual utility costs, in real time and historically. •C ontractors can identify maintenance issues—often even before a problem makes its presence known—and fix them quickly, providing excellent customer service. • S ervice integrators can tie energy-consuming devices into the overall operation of a facility.
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3.0 IIOT CREATES A NEW HVAC BUSINESS MODEL • Utilities can control grid stress and use financial incentives to periodically cut back on energy delivery. At the residential level, rather than providing HVAC system control monolithically to homeowners or residents, IoT-connected HVAC systems offer the possibility of multi-layered control options, including role-based access control (RBAC) functionality. RBAC enables, for instance, different HVAC access control privileges to a household’s adult and child residents; guests; maintenance and service personnel; property managers or real estate agents; renters, including vacation renters; and contractors such as electricians or plumbers. RBAC functionality can also be tied to energy demand management systems as another layer of access control. For instance, even if a user has permission to set the thermostat for cooling at a particular time of day, the energy demand management system can be “instructed” to override that setting by a degree or two if it detects that the user’s setting will incur peak-time electrical charges or coincide with a time of extreme demand on the grid. Figure 2. The IoT Demands New Manufacturing Business Models When contemplating a move to the IoT, manufacturers must rethink many fundamentals of their business models. For instance, as in the example of the connected thermostat in HVAC systems, the IoT requires manufacturers to shift from a primarily hardware to a primarily software mindset. Even more dramatically, they need to stop thinking of their offerings primarily as discrete “products” and start considering them more like ongoing “services” instead. The difference between selling hardware and software, and between selling products and services, fundamentally changes business models, from pricing and distribution to organizational
structure and the types of expertise their employees need to have. Manufacturers might need to reevaluate what business they are in with connected versions of their products, and how it differs from their traditional businesses. For example, are they still in the business of selling HVAC equipment? Or are they in the business of providing comfort and energy efficiency to building owners and occupants? IoT-based offerings are no longer one-off product hardware sales. Instead, manufacturers will embark on new relationships with customers that last for the entire lifecycle of the hardware product. Through over-the-air (OTA) communications, firmware updates and feature enhancements can be delivered to IoT products for as long as they are installed. Given this shift, how should manufacturers price their offerings? What services can they monetize? And how much will these software- and services-based offerings contribute to overall revenues? Manufacturers also face questions about how much of the IoT aspect of their offerings they are prepared to handle in-house. IoT technology is extraordinarily complex. Issues such as security, interoperability, and scalability are crucial to any IoT product’s success, yet they are unforgiving. Even minor mistakes or weaknesses can spell disaster for a company’s products, competitiveness, and even its brand reputation. For that reason, perhaps the most important business model-related question is whether to build or buy IoT technology expertise. In almost every case, the answer will be to purchase much or all of this technology from IoT specialists. That way, manufacturers can focus on designing, making, and selling enhanced versions of what has brought them success in the pre-IoT world. About the authors: As chief technology officer and co-founder of Encycle™, (formerly REGEN), Mark Kerbel is an evangelist for the company’s Swarm Energy Management™ platform. He oversees development requirements and specs for new firmware, server, and API features, as well as operational procedures, energy analysis techniques, building-controls protocol integration, and new load applications as part of Encycle’s broader smartgrid integration efforts. He is based in San Marcos, Calif. Information: www.encycle.com
Figure 2: Utility Bill Photo Caption: IoT HVAC systems reduce peak electrical demand by up to 25 percent in commercial and industrial properties, and effectively schedule overnight and weekend loads. Such platforms can complement an existing building-automation system or serve as a cost-effective alternative.
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A frequent speaker at Internet of Things industry conferences, Rod McLane is senior director of product marketing at Ayla Networks in Santa Clara, Calif. He is an accomplished PaaS/SaaS/ IoT marketing professional with more than 20 years of experience Silicon Valley companies. Auto racing is his avocation. Information: www.aylanetworks.com
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3.1 HOW OPENFOG CONSORTIUM POWERS UP FOG COMPUTING
How OpenFog Consortium Powers Up Fog Computing Fog Computing is a system-level horizontal architecture that distributes resources and services of computing, storage, control and networking anywhere along the continuum from the cloud to the things. High-performance, high-scale, high-availability IoT applications, which may have been impossible if run exclusively in the cloud, are enabled via a hierarchical fog system between the things and the cloud. This lets us grow IoT to support the existing and future performance-critical, mission-critical and life-critical applications. by Chuck Byers and Tao Zhang, Cisco
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a multi-trillion dollar opportunity that will fundamentally change our interaction with technology, the world, and each other in the coming years. As billions of sensors, actuators, and other devices are connected to the Internet, our world is becoming increasingly digitized. This pervasive connectivity is expected to make our technology and our applications more powerful, efficient, secure, and safe. Unfortunately, there are many challenges to realizing the full digitization of the planet. Cloud computing has been providing flexible, scalable, cost-effective computation and storage for IoT applications. But sometimes, the cloud is unable to meet the stringent requirements of critical IoT applications, and must be supplemented with localized computation, networking and
storage resources and services. In other words, cloud capabilities will need to be brought “closer to the ground” to meet these challenges – forming the key premise of fog computing. Figure 1 is an overview of a fog computing network in a smart city application. Other fog applications would have similar structure.
IoT Applications that Benefit from Fog
Hundreds of use cases in vertical markets as diverse as transportation, utilities, smart cities, manufacturing, retail, energy, healthcare, agriculture, government, and the consumer space have demonstrated significant business values and the technical necessity of fog computing. The following are several such use cases where fog computing will play an essential role.
Figure 1: Fog Computing Overview. Fog nodes operate between the cloud and things in an IoT network, providing distributed computing, networking and storage capabilities.
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• In intelligent transportation systems, fog nodes are often used along the roadside, at traffic intersections, along rail lines, and at drone or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flyway cabinets to support vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, host sensors, and provide the local intelligence needed to implement critical applications like collision avoidance, autonomous vehicle control, and wireless charging for batteries on electrical vehicles. Stringent latency requirements mandate that some critical computing resources must be local. If the critical sensor readings were transported to the cloud, and the cloud’s responses were transported back to the actuators on the vehicles, several hundred milliseconds of laten-
cy could happen because of network delays, time of flight, and server queue times. During that time, high speed vehicles may travel on the order of ten meters or more, seriously compromising the effectiveness and safety of smart transportation applications such as collision avoidance or platooning. Local fog nodes can achieve response times in the millisecond range, greatly improving performance and safety of these critical applications. • Monitoring of wells and pipelines in the oil and gas industry is a key IoT application. A large production installation could create terabytes per day of raw sensor readings. Since these installations are often in remote areas, the network bandwidth to send this data to the cloud may be unavailable or prohibitively expensive. By installing local fog nodes near the facilities, local computation and storage capabilities can continuously monitor the data streams, perform local analytics to detect potential problems and early warning signs, and distill the readings into much smaller messages that can be efficiently and economically transported over limited long-haul network bandwidth to the cloud-based systems. • Some mobile applications require continuous control or monitoring. In fleet management applications, the location, status, cargo condition, and driving behavior of vehicles is continuously monitored and reported to the cloud. Unfortunately, due to the sometimes patchy cellular network connectivity to these vehicles, we can’t rely on the cloud alone to collect these readings. Local fog nodes, riding on the vehicles, can continuously collect the required data, and immediately send it to the cloud when network connections are available. When they are not connected, the local fog nodes store the readings, and send them to the cloud once network connections are re-established. • Certain IoT applications require nonstop operations over long periods of time, even in the presence of intermittent network connectivity to the cloud and even in cases of catastrophic network failures. Consider a smart city emergency response application that provides wireless connectivity to first responders and to the general public to provide response plans, evacuation routes, or emergency instructions. In the aftermath of a natural disaster, the cloud-based web servers that run the municipal emergency website may be unreachable. If wireless access points distributed across the city have battery backup, and local fog nodes associated with them have pre-cached this information, the
public can receive their vital instructions even though the Internet infrastructure is hopelessly damaged. Fog computing and networking architectures are being developed to support these and many other applications, and meet these challenges. Fog nodes can form a multi-level hierarchy, with local fog nodes close to the things, neighborhood-level fog nodes supporting a group of local fog nodes, and, regional fog nodes covering larger geographic areas (e.g., city-wide). In each level of the hierarchy, multiple fog nodes collaborate with each other, sharing applications, balancing computing and networking loads, and distributing data storage. A variety of networking links, with capacities matching specific application needs, connect things to local fog nodes. High-speed network links will interconnect fog nodes between the local, neighborhood, and regional levels, connect multiple fog nodes at the same level, and interconnect the fog nodes to the cloud. This richly interconnected end-to-end fog system provides the capacity, performance, and reliability scalability of the fog solution. Figure 2 illustrates some of the challenges associated with running applications exclusively in the cloud or in intelligent endpoints, and how a hierarchical fog network can address these challenges.
The Open Fog Consortium (OpenFog)
For fog computing to be truly successful, it must be based upon an open architecture with interoperable standards, supported by a large ecosystem of innovative companies. If fog computing is a closed, single supplier product, application developers and system integrators will be reluctant to invest in it. In November 2015, leading organizations including Cisco, Dell, Intel, Microsoft, ARM and Princeton University launched the Open Fog Consortium (OpenFog) to develop an open reference architecture, demonstrate the business value and
Figure 2: Hierarchy of fog nodes. Running applications exclusively in the cloud or on intelligent endpoints presents many challenges in IoT networks. By configuring a hierarchy of Fog nodes between them, these challenges can be addressed.
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3.1 HOW OPENFOG CONSORTIUM POWERS UP FOG COMPUTING
Figure 3: Pillars of OpenFog. The OpenFog Consortium has identified eight pillars of OpenFog, that together represent the key requirements and driving principles of the OpenFog reference architecture. (Image courtesy of the OpenFog Consortium)
technology necessity, and accelerate market adoption of fog computing. Since then, many more industry leaders, startups, and research institutes have joined OpenFog. Regional teams in different parts of the world are being launched to better address the unique needs in different regions. To boost industry-academia collaboration on fog computing, OpenFog has formed a strategic affiliation with the IEEE to co-create and co-promote fog concepts and architectures and collaborate on marketing, education and standards initiatives. The recently published OpenFog Reference Architecture White Paper (http://www.openfogconsortium.org/resources/) describes the high level properties the OpenFog founding members envision for fog. At the core of this work is a description of eight “Pillars of Fog Computing” that cover the most critical properties of fog computing (see Figure 3). Currently, OpenFog is focused on producing the OpenFog Reference Architecture. This will be a comprehensive guide to the implementation and deployment of standard, interoperable fog computing capabilities. Systems designed in compliance with the OpenFog Reference Architecture should be expected to interoperate seamlessly. Looking beyond today’s cloud computing, you will see the emergence of the fog computing era. Fog computing bridges today’s Internet to the full potential of IoT to support everything from consumer electronics to industrial control systems to drones and pervasive virtual reality.
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About the authors: Chuck C. Byers is a Technical Leader and Platform Architect with Cisco’s Corporate Strategic Innovation Group. He works on the architecture and implementation of media processing systems, Fog Computing platforms, and the Internet of Things. Before joining Cisco, he was a Bell Labs Fellow at Alcatel-Lucent. During his 30 years in the telecommunications networking industry, he has made significant contributions in areas including voice switching, broadband access, converged networks, VoIP, multimedia, video, modular platforms and IoT and is active in several standards bodies; PICMG’s AdvancedTCA, AdvancedMC, MicroTCA subcommittees, and the OpenFog Consortium. Dr. Tao Zhang, an IEEE Fellow, is a Distinguished Engineer / Senior Director of Cisco Corporate Strategic Innovation Group. He joined Cisco in 2012 as the Chief Scientist for Smart Connected Vehicles. Since then, he has also been leading the creation of strategies, technology, and ecosystems for the Internet of Things and Fog Computing. Prior to Cisco, he was Chief Scientist and Director of Vehicular Networking, and Director of Mobile Networks at Telcordia Technologies (formerly Bell Communications Research or Bellcore). Dr. Zhang has held various technical and executive positions in the past 25 years. www.openfogconsortium.org
OPEN-SYSTEM STANDARDS ARE MAKING THE IOT A REALITY
Open-System Standards Are Making the IoT a Reality There are many IoT standards around. Often they are not compatible with each other. IPSO, an open-source, non-profit organization is taking the lead to help the industry to work together to formalize individual standards, identifying requirements that build economies of scale and ensure the IoT’s success that everyone can enjoy. by Christian Légaré, VP, IPSO Alliance and CTO, Micrium
The IoT continues to be at the forefront of the electronics industry’s collective imagination. With predictions of billions of devices involved in every aspect of our lives by 2020, there is clearly promise and opportunity. However, the industry may need to turn the dial back a few notches, since opportunity does not equal readiness. IoT devices will simply require “more” moving forward: They will need more performance, more capability, more memory, more connectivity, more sensors, more security, etc., but with “less” - lower power consumption, lower cost and smaller packages. This is where open-system standards and organizations like the IPSO Alliance come into play, and where they can have the most impact. Open standards and the organizations participating in such efforts work to develop the ideas that will allow the IoT to become a reality; they are able to contribute their collective knowledge to “make it work.” Further, open-system standards offer the only way to achieve the economies of scale required to make the IoT financially possible. There are numerous open-standards organizations actively engaged in supporting the development of the IoT. Some focus on developing the software to link the IoT, others on enabling interoperability, cloud scalability, etc. For example, the IPSO Alliance historically worked to promote the use of Internet protocol for IoT devices; with that work complete, it has evolved to focus on issues related to device identity and privacy. Important too are formal standards organizations that look to develop and formalize the standards they feel are most needed to ensure the IoT’s success. So once the open-system standards are defined, will the IoT be full steam ahead? The reality is that open-system standards organizations establish the goals and targets, and identify and develop the path forward, but it will always fall to commercial organizations to productize this work and make the IoT come to fruition. For example, certain verticals—such as medical and some industrial applications—need additional proof of quality, which is outside the scope of open-systems standards. It is here that the handoff is made to commercial entities to develop proprietary solutions based on the work of standards organizations, but that meet end-customer
“Open standards and the organizations participating in such efforts work to develop the ideas that will allow the IoT to become a reality; they are able to contribute their collective knowledge to “make it work” requirements for documentation and support. Is the IoT a reality? It is: Some systems use the ideas already. However, we’re only partway there, as the IoT is not even close to being ubiquitous. The fact is that it will take time—and new technology—to achieve its potential. Open-system standards organizations are critical to identify the requirements and develop the approaches that will allow the IoT to truly come into its own. Christian Légaré is EVP and CTO of Micrium, a leading provider of embedded software. Prior to Micrium, he led the Internet Protocol certification program at the International Institute of Telecom in Montreal, Canada. During his 22 years in the telecom industry, Christian served as an executive in large-scale organizations as well as start-ups, mainly in engineering and R&D. Christian currently also serves as president and chairman of the IPSO Alliance, where he provides guidance on embedded systems to help make the IoT a reality. Christian holds a M.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. www.ipso-alliance.org
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HOW SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO IMPACTS THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT)
How Software-Defined Radio Impacts the Internet of Things
SDR technology can bridge different wireless devices across different frequencies and protocols. At present time, there is limited spectrum available and effective use of the available spectrum is key. As SDRs can be adjusted to operate on different frequencies with varying bandwidth, it’s the ideal option to help build robust IoT infrastructure that will be connected, maintained, and managed across multiple parts of the spectrum. by Stephanie Chiao, Per Vices Corporation
Although there has been a lot of discussion about the Internet of Things (IoT), we are left with a lot more questions than answers. It’s still early days and as a result, we don’t have any set standards or frameworks for development and security. It’s estimated that 6.4 billion connected devices will be in use this year. So it will be interesting to see how all these connected smart devices will work together. This number will rise to a whopping 21 billion by the year 2020, so there is an urgency to build robust IoT devices. IoT is built on the back of wireless communications systems that bridge the gap for dual direction communication and interaction (control message delivery and data collection). These principles can be applied to any IoT application whether it is a vital industry like an oil refinery or a smart fridge in a smart city. As a result, you can expect a massive volume of data to be 20 | RTC Magazine JULY 2016
communicated via IoT devices in real-time. Further, all these different devices operating on different platforms and standards need to be able to communicate and operate seamlessly. There are several standards groups for IoT, including: • Thread Group • AllSeen Alliance/AllJoyn • IEEE P2413 • ITU-T SG20 • Industrial Internet Consortium • Apple HomeKit • Open Interconnect Consortium/IoTivity For now, all these incompatible technologies are working together using established communications protocols such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and Z-Wave
Figure 1: The Per Vices Crimson SDR has four independent receive chains and four independent transmit chains, each capable of as much as 322MHz of RF bandwidth up to 6GHz.
What are the main issues faced by the IoT industry?
IoT wireless networks have extremely limited spectrum resources. Further, a large number of sensors with distributed sites have to be connected, maintained, and managed. IoT will function in an environment with a lot of interferences, consequently, the communication from these devices need to be seamless and highly reliable. In an outdoor environment, devices need to be built with simple architecture and low power consumption (installation and maintenance need to be made easier as well).
Where does Software-Defined Radio come in?
Software-defined radio (SDR) can enhance interoperability and set up the infrastructure for future devices so that they aren’t restricted by bandwidth or frequency. Some of the current issues faced by the industry can be resolved by providing an end-to-end wireless platform for IoT. This, in turn, can enable optimized communication from a sensor network to a wider area via a radio network. Incorporating an IT-based SDR into IoT devices can handle all base band processing via multi-cores processors (such as x86, POWER, or Cell BE) on a traditional IT platform. This can be tied to acceleration technologies like vector processors, parallel processors, and SIMD. In other words, SDR can act as the central hub or router where several users can connect to the device via Wi-Fi, cellular, or Bluetooth to control or get data from any wireless device. One of the best things about SDR is the fact that you can essentially enhance signal processing with low latency. Further, you can also use some wireless optimization technologies like: • Energy efficiency design • Dynamic spectrum allocation • Interference mitigation IT-based SDR systems like Crimson TNG will be highly adaptable to handle various needs of deployment. Further, wireless optimization like 4G can efficiently enhance the spectrum to enable long distance coverage while being highly resistant to interference. With SDR, various large-scale auto optimization technologies can be built on a self-organize network (SON). As everything can be handled from one platform, it will be much easier to
support and add value to each IoT device. This is what makes SDR special; it can essentially bridge communication and data transfer of many wireless devices including ones that may be thought to be impossible (e.g. baby monitor through Wi-Fi or control your Bluetooth device through a cellular connection). SDR has been around for decades, so it’s a tried and tested solution that offers high stability, flexibility, and reliability. It’s a platform that is ideal to build a communications infrastructure for IoT applications. IoT will Enable SDR to Finally Realize its True Potential It’s all about machine-to-machine communication and this makes SDR best suited for this type of new technology. So far, SDR was primarily used by defense, public and emergency service, and for research and development. With IoT, the potential is limitless as data analytics, social media, and internet of services can all be enhanced by this technology. With everything working effortlessly together, it has a real potential of being something revolutionary. Without wireless communication, there won’t be an IoT to talk about. As a result, design teams are forced to build a device capable of seamless connectivity, enhanced control, and efficien-
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HOW SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO IMPACTS THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) cy. These heterogeneous systems will need to incorporate distributed networks, FPGA computation, and real-time elements. As wireless systems become more complex, algorithms need to be designed to deal with issues surrounding security, coexistence, bandwidth, and power efficiency. As a result, prototypes need to be built with real world signals and not just theoretical paradigms. Currently, the prototyping methods have been inefficient, so SDR innovation has been derailed by inefficient software that has been indirect and disjointed. There needs to be a platform designed to bridge the gap and create a unified design to transfer the algorithm to hardware. That is essentially the next step to build a better IoT solution. New products like Crimson TNG is the right choice as it offers extensive flexibility that can aid rapid prototyping to compute elements that control behaviors in the generic wide bandwidth RF front end, user-programmable FPGAs, and multicore processors. At the moment, the tools to enable rapid seamless transition of algorithms on a processor are non-existent. FPGAs offer this capability using specialization tools, which if used effectively, combine with the flexible radio front end and offer a complete solution. The demand for the end product is insatiable, so as we
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approach 5G, communication system design standards will be improved significantly. About the author: Stephanie Chiao is Product Marketing Manager at Per Vices, a company that specializes in developing high-performance software-defined radio (SDR) platforms for telecommunication providers, networking, and wireless equipment original equipment manufacturers, academic and research facilities, information security analysts, defense, and public safety providers. She brings over eight years of consumer and enterprise marketing experience and is responsible for marketing strategy, technical promotion, and media relations. www.pervices.com
3.4 HOW SMART IS YOUR CITY?
How Smart is Your City? Municipalities are leveraging big data, the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence to control transportation, resources and services to create a better living environment for residents and businesses. Significant advances have already been achieved, while other technologies continue to mature. See figure 1. by Aravind Yarlagadda, Schneider Electric
As automated control systems migrate from the factory and industry into homes, municipal systems, hospitals, roadways and just about everywhere else, new opportunities emerge for these systems to work together, sharing information that can make the individual systems more effective and more efficient. Smart buildings have embedded control systems that manage heating and cooling, direct elevators to efficiently deliver the best response, while tying both to access control for security and cost savings. The emerging smart power grid makes sure that electricity is delivered exactly when and where it is needed with minimal waste and most effective use of all power generation sources. Learning capable traffic control computers manage flexible commuting lanes and time control signals to minimize delays and wasted fuel. Similar smart controls are being applied to water and gas distribution, directing policing and city services, and much more. The smart city harnesses all of these systems together with powerful software that uses information from each system to make all the others work better. The smart city is the network, the interconnected computing infrastructure that adds synergy to the individual control and management systems. Computerized controls are becoming commonplace in buildings, factories, offices and stores. And these controls are becoming smarter as the Internet of Things (IoT) low-cost connected sensor technology adds a broader and tighter connection between the controller and the physical world it is managing. Increasingly sophisticated analytical capabilities add the ‘smarts’ that elevate a simple reactive program (if inside temperature is below 72 degrees, turn on the heat) to intelligent control (when there are no people currently using the room and no meetings are scheduled for the day, and usage patterns
indicate the it is unlikely that the room will be used in the next few hours, turn off the lights and let the temperature drop to 65 degrees). Now think about how much “smarter” this logic would be if it’s tied in with access control (who is in or out of the building now that often uses this room), transportation (is traffic delaying the normal start of business activity today), weather, power systems (are we generating sufficient solar power or would we have to buy power from the grid and if so are we in a peak rate period), and more. When more of the systems within a building are smart, and they are allowed to exchange information, the benefits increase. Tie the environmental controls to the access control system and individual offices can be optimized (Sally left early today so her office heat and lights can be switched to night settings early). Include elevator controls, humidity control and
Figure 1: Technology, big data and the Internet of Things can be harnessed to create a “Smart City” where services are supplied that better match demand, creating a more positive living experience.
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3.4 HOW SMART IS YOUR CITY?
Figure 2: A Wonderware-based smart building control system handles nearly one million inputs through 80 servers that make up five control environments to manage the terminal buildings, cooling and heating power plant and other buildings at the El Prat airport in Spain.
ventilation, security and fire safety, water and maintenance in the mix and the system can be responsible for improved occupant comfort, efficient operation of all building systems, reduced energy consumption and operating costs, more effective maintenance and longevity of mechanical and electrical equipment, enhanced security and safety, and a healthier work environment for the buildingâ€™s occupants.
Smart Commercial Facilities Spanish Airports and Air Navigation (AENA) is a public company in charge of civil air navigation and airports in Spain. Its subsidiary, AENA Aeropuertos SA, manages 47 airports and two heliports in Spain and participates directly in the management of 28 other terminals throughout the world. In passenger count, AENA is the worldâ€™s leading airport operator with about 200 million passengers per year. Serving nearly 40 million passengers in 2015, the Barcelona-El Prat airport also supports a busy air freight hub and has links to mass transit (rail, metro, bus) and high-speed rail. See figure 2. Starting in 2000, El Prat management engaged a number of integrators to implement a Schneider Electric Software monitoring and control system throughout the airport in anticipation of an expected tripling in the size of the operation. They soon realized, however, that having different systems across 24 | RTC Magazine JULY 2016
the facility made it practically impossible for the facility to function smoothly. Coordination of activities was problematic; management and workers were concerned that they would not be able to respond appropriately to incidents. Plus, additional training was required to teach the staff the unique operation of each proprietary system. A new effort was begun to integrate these disparate systems on a single platform thereby simplifying the entire operation and enabling the synergy that comes from sharing informa-
Figure 3: Transnet operators work smarter by entering the starting and destination points for cargo transported by rail at this South Africa port, relying upon a Wonderware solution to find the shortest route.
tion and coordinating activities. First, 35,000 signals in the lighting, climate control, passenger transport systems and entrances were brought to the new Wonderware-based integrated building control system for the existing terminal. Next, the control systems for services that would support the new, under-construction terminal T1 were integrated. These included the fire brigade, civil guard, waste facilities, water control, pumping and other systems. Wonderware now helps AENA manage 80,000 total signals and monitors the infrastructure of the airport’s power plants as an integrated solution. A subsequent phase of the project integrated the Automated Luggage Transport System (SATE), which included software to manage luggage movement, delivery and incident warning. It is notable that El Prat now has one of the lowest lost-luggage rates in Europe. The final phase of the project integrated the New Terminal Area Power Plant (CENAT) that powers the airport. The system, which originally managed 35,000 signals, now handles nearly one million inputs through 80 servers that make up five control environments that manage the terminal buildings, cooling and heating power plant, as well as auxiliary buildings for luggage transport and other systems. In addition to building Spain’s first smart airport, a significant aspect of this systems modernization project aimed at developing and proving out a platform that would be replicable across the other airports in the AENA system. The systems have, indeed, been rolled out to other airports in the system and are proving to be an excellent platform for smart operations throughout the AENA system.
Transnet is the sole transporter of iron ore in South Africa, operating the country’s extensive rail network spanning across South Africa and connecting with other rail networks throughout the sub-continent. In total, Transnet manages 80 percent of South Africa’s rail infrastructure. See figure 3. Transnet installed a smart system to streamline its conveyor routing system to ensure product is correctly shipped to its final destination, manage the port’s ongoing expansion, enable operations management to keep track of the materials received and maintain accurate shipping and routing records, as well as optimize operations to provide the best service at the lowest cost. The system helps them to immediately address questions covering materials source locations, destination status of raw material shipments, route confirmations and individual conveyor availability. Operators can enter the starting point and the destination and the system finds the shortest route. Operators can now easily control and supervise overall plant operations to ensure productivity remains at peak levels and they can immediately address issues when they arise. Transnet is able to eliminate invalid route selections and increase iron ore shipments to 80 million tons annually. Operations management can check the delivery status of iron ore orders in real-time and update mining company status requests. The system is able to handle potential emergency events. Schneider Electric delivered a highly scalable and flexible software solution which allows for expansion.
From Industry to the City
These same technologies and smart controls are moving into cities and making up the interconnected grid that shares information that can make each system smarter and more responsive. Smart cities tie together individual facilities and departments including municipal offices, schools, hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, transportation systems, utilities, fire safety, emergency services, law enforcement, and other community services so that information from one system can provide context that allows interconnected systems to function more effectively . Smart cities use technology to improve efficiency, conserve resources, improve services and generally improve the quality of life for residents, workers and visitors. Smart cities are better able to handle growth and change because they monitor the environment and use of services and facilities – they detect changes early, adapt to the changing need, and project how trends may affect the use and availability of resources in the future so those responsible can take the appropriate actions early enough to prevent unpleasant surprises. About the author: Aravind Yarlagadda is Vice President Marketing and Product Management at Schneider Electric. In this global role, he is responsible for marketing, communications and product management of the company’s industrial software portfolio. His organization is responsible for positioning Schneider Electric Software’s growth strategy, cultivating opportunities in new and existing customer markets and growing demand for Schneider Electric Software solutions globally. www.software.schneider-electric.com
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3.5 CASE STUDY
Streamlines Semiconductor Manufacturing Operations with Wireless Sensor Network Linear Technology has installed one of its own wireless sensor networks in its Milpitas, California semiconductor “fab” to monitor gas usage. Semiconductor plant operations teams constantly look for new ways to squeeze fractions of a percent more efficiency out of the manufacturing process to maximize uptime, yield and throughput. Real-time gas consumption rates enable technicians to predict precisely when gas cylinders will need to be replaced, reducing wasted gas due to premature cylinder changes. The benefits extend beyond efficiencies in day-to-day operations. With data readily available to plant management, trend analysis identifies opportunities to streamline plant operations. by Ross Yu, Product Marketing Manager, Dust Networks Products, Linear Technology and Enrique Aceves, Remote Office Facilities Manager, Linear Technology
Semiconductor companies carefully manage their semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities (“fabs”) to maximize uptime, yield and throughput. Plant operations teams are constantly looking for new ways to squeeze even fractions of a percent more efficiency out of the manufacturing process (Figure 1). At Linear Technology Corporation’s Silicon Valley fab, over 175 specialty gas cylinders are used in the wafer manufacturing process. These gas cylinders must be closely monitored to ensure uninterrupted supply. An unplanned interruption of gas supply would result in hundreds of thousands of dollars of wafer scrappage, revenue loss and unacceptable delay in product shipments to customers. To avoid downtime, technicians manually log the pressure of each gas cylinder in the fab three times a day. This manual process is prone to human error and is expensive to maintain. This is typically done manually because communications wiring is expensive and impractical in the fab. Cylinders are located throughout the facility, and for most of the cylinders, there are no AC outlets or Ethernet jacks nearby. The building is constructed of concrete walls for safety reasons, making it cost-prohibitive to install new wires. Furthermore, a large construction project to install power and communications wires would disrupt the manufacturing process, causing factory downtime.
A 32-mote SmartMesh IP™ wireless mesh network is deployed to monitor gas pressure in the gas bunker (Figure 2). Every node is pow-
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Figure 1: Improving Manufacturing Efficiency - Semiconductor companies use real-time monitoring to squeeze more efficiency out of the manufacturing process.
ered by a pair of lithium AA L91 batteries for an approximate 8-year battery life, so no additional wiring and no unnecessary downtime was required to install the network. Despite the concrete construction and prevalence of metal structures in the fab, the network has proven to be extremely reliable. As of this write-up, the network has been up continuously for over 83 days, and has transmitted over 26 million
data readings with >99.99999% reliability, which is 100 times better than the stringent “5 nines” reliability expected of high availability communication and computer systems. In the gas bunker, each cylinder is measured for both tank pressure and regulated pressure and these readings are communicated to a central monitoring system via the SmartMesh® network. Each SmartMesh node is connected to a pair of cylinders and sends readings through the wireless mesh network to a web server across the building. In the control room, the fab’s site management software tools display real-time readings and automatically calculate run rates to establish regular schedules for cylinder replacements (Figure 3). In addition, low-pressure thresholds are set to alert facility technicians if cylinders reach low levels prior to the replacement schedule. Alerts are displayed on the control room monitor and via Internet messaging on a 24/7 basis.
By using real-time gas consumption rates, technicians can precisely predict when gas cylinders will need to be replaced, reducing waste from unused gas due to premature cylinder changes. The benefits extend beyond efficiencies in day-to-day operations. By centrally collecting gas usage data and making it readily available to plant management, this system enables trend analysis which further identifies opportunities to streamline plant operations by correlating readings with specific semiconductor fab processes and geometries. This helps to optimize fab capacity growth as the need arises. “The efficiency gains have more than justified the installation of the SmartMesh gas cylinder monitoring network. As a result, we
Figure 3: Predicting Toxic Gas Usage with Software Analytics – Real-time gas usage readings are wirelessly sent to plant software which predicts gas replenishment schedules and helps in capacity planning.
plan to expand this wireless mesh system across the entire plant to gain further efficiency in our operations,” stated Alex McCann, Chief Operating Officer of Linear Technology.
For semiconductor wafer facilities, optimizing uptime and increasing operational efficiency results in increased production output. Installation must be non-disruptive, fit within existing space confines and work reliably in the metal and concrete structure. In their Silicon Valley semiconductor wafer facility, Linear Technology installed a SmartMesh IP wireless mesh network to streamline manufacturing operations—to monitor gas cylinder usage and relay real-time readings to plant management software. This data enables quick and accurate gas usage estimation, ensuring timely replenishment, reducing downtime and wasted gas. Data points are logged and used to aid capacity planning.
About the author: Ross Yu is the Product Marketing Manager at Linear Technology for the Dust Networks product line. Mr. Yu and his team at Dust Networks have made significant contributions to solving the challenges inherent in the exciting field of wireless sensor networking, and Mr. Yu has been instrumental in bringing to market the industry’s most reliable and lowest power wireless mesh sensor networking solutions. Mr. Yu holds a Bachelor of Science degree and a Masters of Engineering in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. www.linear.com Figure 2: Gas Bunker in Semiconductor Manufacturing Facility – Wireless nodes must perform reliably among pervasive metal and heavy concrete construction.
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3.6 YOU CAN HACK IT DOES NOT MEAN IT IS RIGHT
You Can Hack It Does Not Mean It Is Right Does the Internet of Things need a ‘scale-of-blame’ to help manage security incidents during the years until technology solves the security problem? This article uses a medical equipment example to highlight the dilemmas. by Peter Thorne, Director, Cambashi
It’s sad to say that reports on the vulnerability of Internet-attached equipment are hardly news. They are happening all the time. We all know equipment is vulnerable, we mainly judge the providers and owners of vulnerable equipment by their response when vulnerability is pointed out. But a remark by a security researcher discussing medical device vulnerabilities caught my eye. He said the attackers did not appear to realize they had connected to medical devices. That immediately triggered two questions. First, how did he know? Second, is there a scale of ‘blame’ attached to an attack that depends on the attacker’s knowledge of what is being attacked? So, how did the researcher know that the bad guys didn’t know they’d got into medical equipment? The study was reported at Derbycon 2015 by researchers Scott Erven and Mark Collao. The research involved building ‘honeypot’ systems. These honeypots were Internet-connected computers, acting the same way as the medical equipment selected for the research. So there’s the answer to the first question - the researchers could instrument their honeypot systems so that they could ‘watch’ and measure every attack. They could see that the honeypot-visiting-malware did not look for configuration, application, location, service information and other clues that might identify the equipment as ‘in a hospital,’ or ‘made by a medical device company.’ This answer triggers a follow up question - how did the researchers choose the medical equipment to emulate with honeypots? Of course they needed to identify Internet-visible examples. This involved use of the Shodan search engine (see https://www.shodan.io/). Shodan’s front page points out something that is well known, but often not center stage - websites are not the only content on the Internet, other connected devices are also visible, from smart TVs to power plants. In this case, Shodan helped the researchers identify relevant types of medical equipment. Let me add another data point to confirm there are plenty of inadequately guarded systems out there. I was recently in discussion with someone working for a manufacturing systems integrator. We were talking about the business climate, and I mentioned how Stuxnet had made security a requirement for every industrial control system. “It’s not as simple as that” came the reply. It turned out this system integrator had expected growth in revenue related to firewalls and security-related device and network configuration for their production equipment projects. But growth had been hard to find - even though everyone specifying an industrial control system knew about Stuxnet. “We’ve seen firewalls removed from the specification to reduce costs.” There’s no major need for alarm here, this behavior was unusual, and hadn’t happened in a regulated industry. Sometimes it was even OK, because the IT department had taken over responsibility for security, 28 | RTC Magazine JULY 2016
and were providing a safe network for their manufacturing colleagues. But you’d want to quiz the person making this decision. So on to my second question. Is there a scale of blame related to knowledge of what is being attacked to attach to malware perpetrators? I don’t claim any special knowledge of ethics or morality (actually, I had to check the definitions to see the difference). But I can imagine an insurance company wanting to reduce the payout when they discovered firewalls had been taken off the specification of an industrial control system. And I can imagine a defense attorney pleading that there had been no intention that malware should infect and damage critical infrastructure, “….my client was only trying to access idle desktop PCs ….” My answer? At first sight it looks complicated. You only have to think about a door-lock to realize there are many factors. The lock-maker has a responsibility that it works, and that keys are reasonably unique. The lock-installer has a responsibility. The lock-user has a responsibility. If the door separates a public area from a private area, then even trying the handle is a hint that the intruder has bad intent. But if you were in the jury, before you used the ‘trying the handle’ fact to influence your judgement, you’d probably want to know that no reasonable person could fail to know that this particular door is an entry to a private area. But actually it’s simple. The bad guys are the ones who build and distribute malware tools, and the people who use those tools. The rest of us have a professional responsibility to know our choice of equipment, configuration, installation and use is not negligent. If we’ve been negligent, there will be consequences. But none of these consequences should reduce the blame directed at the bad guys. Ignorance of the consequences of launching malware is not a shield from blame. Unless you are working with the good guys, stop checking if other people’s doors are locked. About the author: Peter Thorne is the Director for research analysis and consulting company Cambashi. He focuses on addressing the business needs of engineering and manufacturing organizations through information and communications technology. Peter has 30 years of experience, holding development, marketing and management positions for both user and vendor organizations. Prior to joining Cambashi, he spent seven years as head of the UK arm of a global IT vendor’s Engineering Systems Business Unit. He has a master’s degree in Natural Sciences and Computer Science from Cambridge University. www.cambashi.com
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3.7 CAN SMART CITY GET EVEN SMARTER?
Figure 1: Increasingly, citywide software and apps help convey traffic, transportation, and activities to their citizens. This is the work of municipal willpower partnering with smart companies bringing new ideas to life through technology within the smart city.
Can Smart City Get Even Smarter? This year’s Smart City Challenge, launched by the U.S. DOT to spur a new wave of innovation, proved that no major city is alone in its quest for improved mobility. Iain Galloway from NXP Semiconductors explores what may be coming to a smart(er) city near you. by Iain Galloway, Engineer, Technology Strategy, NXP
At South by Southwest 2016, the U.S. Department of Transportation announced their Smart City Challenge (SCC) contest, calling upon cities around the country to convene entire ecosystems to develop the most innovative, productive use of $50M dollars awarded to the winning proposal. When the contest came to my attention, my initial thoughts of a Smart City were science fiction images of a gleaming city of the future full of flying cars, autonomous shuttles, and automated payment systems creating an idyllic place to live and work. But that’s not reality, is it? It should be no surprise that the winning city, Columbus, Ohio, outlines their vision not in terms of the flashy technology, but by the goals of a city that is: “healthy, prosperous and beautiful, and to see that vision grow through access to jobs, sustainable transportation, smart logistics, connected citizens and connected visitors.” Cities endure over time in an environment of boom and bust cycles, economic disparity, prosperity and hardship, constantly changing demographics, and challenging politics. Given this 30 | RTC Magazine JULY 2016
reality, we strive for what can be done within fiscal constraints. Winning the challenge alleviates some of those constraints and allows for a leap forward in attaining those planning goals, particularly when the city is able to leverage millions of additional dollars through technology partnerships.
Why Smart City?
Many cities already have systems that are incredibly connected and smart. We don’t often hear about it, but most large cities have hundreds of miles of fiber optics in place, video monitoring of intersections, complex systems that drive our commuter traffic and public transit. Smart card payment systems are available for public transit. And increasingly, citywide software and apps that help convey traffic, transportation, and activities to their citizens. This is the work of municipal willpower partnering with smart companies bringing new ideas to life through technology. (Figure 1) This funded leap forward working with new technology al-
lows for implementation of advances like an intelligent corridor infrastructure system which can help change city commuter patterns for the better. Better so that 80 percent of commuter traffic is no longer from single-occupancy vehicles, so that last mile commutes are by e-bicycles or electric micro busses, and public transit safety is enhanced with pedestrian-detecting vision processing sensors.
The Road to Smarter Cities May be Paved by What’s Already Possible
People adapt surprisingly quickly to change. Today, we are quite comfortable with the incredible GPS systems that allow us to fearlessly navigate cross-country, never having to worry about getting lost. We also don’t think much about traffic systems that coordinate lights based on observed traffic patterns, or the idea that your mobile phone can communicate with any computer in the world, including your vehicle. We see sparks of innovation from companies morphing from things like ‘simple GPS’ into vehicles with augmented driving assistance or autonomous driving. We will inevitably also see electric people movers that you can hail with a press a button, or not with the press a button, but that have just maneuvered independently and are already waiting, anticipating picking you up. One of the new technologies quickly coming into play is Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2X) radio communication. Known as Dedicated Short Range Com-
munications or DSRC radio, it allows communications directly between your vehicle and other things like police, emergency vehicles, traffic lights and overhead signage. What it enables are advances like a standardized method for an extra-long bus to communicate with traffic signals, platooning of multiple semi-autonomous vehicles together to save fuel and real-time traffic monitoring and messaging. By connecting this new, real-time V2X data source to city infrastructure systems, deep learning programs can optimize traffic flows between different modes of transportation, and help city planners make data-driven decisions. Enhancing public safety is another focus of DSRC. Think of what happens today when you hear the wail of a siren in downtown traffic, it’s not a smooth process as drivers try to determine where the sound is coming from, and exactly what they should do. Imagine instead a pop-up warning message on your dashboard display, and on overhead roadway signs ahead alerting you (with plenty of advance notice), “There is an ambulance behind you, pull over now and wait seven minutes.” Imagine the marvelous sight of a completely clear path forming for the ambulance to safely get to its destination without all the confusion. And while this scenario may seem futuristic, General Motors, Mercedes Benz and others are adding 802.11P DSRC radios to select 2017 model vehicles. Like so many things in tech, we may not have to wait long before it proliferates and become ubiquitous. (Figure 2)
Figure 2: General Motors, Mercedes Benz and others are adding vehicle-to-vehicle protocol such as 802.11P DSRC radios to select 2017 model vehicles. This would allow vehicles to receive information of emergency vehicles such as patrol cars or ambulance is approaching so the road can be cleared ahead of time.
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3.7 CAN SMART CITY GET EVEN SMARTER? This same DSRC technology can also be quickly retrofitted into commercial vehicles and even help with pedestrian traffic. This means better control of traffic lights responding to emergency vehicles. The disabled or groups of schoolchildren can use a small RFID tag in their backpack that communicates with traffic lights, signaling to nearby cars to be additionally cautious.
Data-driven Decision Making is the Key to Making Cities Smarter
All this connectivity generates data, and data-driven decision making is a smart way to operate a city. We might also see experiments which provide invaluable data to city planners. For example, 80,000 people attending a concert can have a disposable UCODE RFID tag embedded in their ticket. With this type of real-time data following a large event, a city can understand the movement of pedestrians to better position and schedule public transit, and adjust traffic signaling around the concert arena. These sorts of data experiments do need to address privacy concerns, and the idea of potentially tracking 80,000 people may not sit well with some, even when well executed and the tag is made secure and decoupled from the individual themselves. RFID and NFC-enabled devices also help with parking woes. Circulating vehicles in search of parking in cities may represent as much as 20-40 percent of the traffic on the streets. This is wasted time and causes frustration, unnecessary pollution and potentially economic loss to the city. Smart cards and easy-touse multimodal systems will ease the burden, but there will always continue to be the need to actually find available parking in the city. Systems exist now for parking garages which use ultrasonic sensors that indicate with red and green lights and overhead signage available parking spaces. New companies like Fybr are able to provide similar parking management curbside with sensors embedded into the pavement, and also communicate this information back into the V2X infrastructure. When these parking systems are coupled with the citywide infrastructure, this street and garage parking information can be sent directly to your car’s navigation system. You might even be able to reserve the space while you circle around the block. Artificial intelligence software can use the same real-time data to suggest an alternative approach to parking and offer alternative efficient parking-plus-public transportation options. When you get to a garage, RFID in the license plate or window can take care of automated payment. In the case of commercial vehicle delivery access, it can also be used for authorization and authentication of the vehicle. Today, we have easily connected internet devices, low-cost embedded computing and cloud infrastructure, and can consider the idea of “big data” for everyone. The DOT’s Smart Cities Challenge proposals all included the idea of Open Data centers, in order to ultimately drive innovative Urban Analytics with new sources of information. Urban Analytics leads not only to smart decisions on infrastructure spending, but also to decisions impacting other activities like freight and logistics services, which impacts traffic flow around ports and business
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delivery street access vs. parking. We might not stop to appreciate the many ways location-aware data and mapping systems like Google Maps have changed how we interact with our world. And I’m not talking about the inhabitation of location-appropriate Pokémon creatures, but rather how it changes the way we navigate and find the restaurants, events and things that we want to buy, see and do.
A continuation of foundationally good work
As Columbus puts it, “A prosperous city connects workers to jobs and employers to workers, gets goods to market, supports world-class institutions, and provides reliable travel options affordable to a range of household budgets.” Cities have a diverse population to support and serve. The issue of economic disparity needs to be taken very seriously. Transportation is a keystone to people’s lives everywhere, but particularly high stakes in poorer neighborhoods. Being able to get to a job, to a doctor’s appointment to school or training, this is what enhances the city of the future - fair opportunity. Neighborhoods can improve economically by making transportation more accessible. One idea is to provide secure, multipurpose smartcards or apps that work seamlessly for public transportation across multiple modes of transportation: busses, subways, e-bikes, electric-on-demand people movers, remote parking lots and ride sharing. The ease of transition from one mode to another, and the focused travel card assures people movement from home to work to recreation and learning. The proposals of the Smart City Challenge finalists are not a new start, but an acceleration of their blueprints and continuation of the work done to address the many difficult challenges our cities and society as a whole face every day. It is encouraging for us to take this jump closer to the smart city of the future, where new technology, hard work, and political willpower strives to create an even better, safer, cleaner and more prosperous place to live and work. About the author: Iain Galloway manages strategic technical marketing at NXP and is based in Austin, Texas. Before the merger between Freescale and NXP (December 2015), Iain held similar roles at Freescale since 2014. Prior to NXP, Iain was Systems and Software specialist as part of the Advanced engineering FAE Team at Future Electronics Inc., a global distributor of electronic and electro-mechanical components headquartered in Pointe-Claire, Quebec. In this role he provided strategic insight into ecosystems surrounding semiconductor solutions. Iain earned his Electrical Engineering and Computer Science degree from the University of New Brunswick in Canada and is P.Eng certified. www.nxp.com
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4.0 COMPANY PROFILE
Cisco Emerges as an IIoT Powerhouse Cisco is a company in transition. It is positioning to be an IIoT end-to-end solution provider with its full line of networking software and hardware products, along with partners in almost every industry segment including Rockwell Automation, GE, Fanuc Robotics, Siemens, Emerson, Honeywell, ABB, Cablevision, Actility and more. What is Cisco’s gold-hunting formula? by John Koon, Editor-In-Chief
Cisco is the largest networking company in the world with annual revenue of $49 billion. Much like the PC market a few years ago, hardware costs are coming down and competitors everywhere are trying to gain market share. At the high-end, there are HP, Palo Alto Networks and Alcatel-Lucent SA while Chinese companies like ZTE and Huawei are working hard to compete on low cost networking hardware. Cisco is trying to transition from being a networking hardware provider to an all-in-one IIoT Solution Provider.
customer’s transform their IoT data into business value. We are delivering an end-to-end IoT solution built on secure connectivity, service management and data delivery to cloud applications,” commented John Reno, IoT product and solutions marketing at Cisco. “Customers in segments such as manufacturing, transportation and energy have worked with our ecosystem partners to achieve important results ranging from improved overall equipment effectiveness to new customer services.”
The Cisco Formula
To solve problems in other segments such as manufacturing, Cisco partners with Rockwell, a manufacturing expert, to provide a complete IIoT “smart manufacturing” solution. This is Cisco’s IT (information technology) plus OT (operation technology) formula. By teaming up with other OT experts in various fields, Cisco can solve problems in Manufacturing, Industrial Automation, Smart Cities, Smart Building, Healthcare, Connected Automotive, Oil and Energy, Smart Grid and the list goes on. Cisco continues to invest internally and externally to build up its strength. In March of 2016, Cisco acquired Jasper, a provider of global cloud-based Internet of Things (IoT) service platform. Its platform services are used by more than 27 mobile operator groups and 2700 companies including GE, Coca-Cola and Amazon. This new addition allows Cisco to expand its IIoT services to enterprises, service providers and its entire ecosystem. While Cisco offers IIoT solutions in almost every industrial segment, it has highlighted three major applications with its new product offerings in Connect Machines, Connected Factory and the LoRaWAN. Cisco’s main goal is to help customer create value using IIoT as a tool. “Cisco has a significant growth opportunity in helping our
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Figure 1: Connected machines increase productivity in smart manufacturing. Currently, 92% of the 64 million machines are not connected. These offer vast opportunities to companies who provide solutions in this area.
Cisco promotes the idea of Industrial Transformation using IoT in which everything will be connected, monitored and managed to produce the optimal results with lower costs. Smart manufacturing builds on connected machines and factories. The performance of machines will be monitored continually in real-time and early warning will be provided if a machine is about to shut down before it actually occurs. Preventive maintenance is an important contribution of IIoT because it can avoid a production line shutdown. These machines (devices) can be connected securely and machine data can be transferred in real-time so management can manage and act instantly. The connected machine (Figure 1) approach will provide machine and tool makers to grow their business with the help of Cisco. A true partnership.
To support the connected factory, Cisco has recently introduced the new industrial switches IE4010 and IE1000 along with enhancement to the industrial security appliance ISA3000. The IE4010 is a 24 port, multi-gigabit ruggedized switch with the capability of in-line power over Ethernet (PoE) while the IE1000 is an eight port version while ISA3000 enables the Common Industrial Protocol (CIP). Figure 2. These solutions also provide surveillance security using IP cameras throughout the factory. Here is an example how Cisco adds value to its partner. Mazak Corporation is a machine and tool company that wanted to provide their end customers products with IIoT capability. Working with Cisco, Mazak was able to develop the Mazak SmartBox technology. Figure 3. The application needed to run on the factory connecting to the network backbone. Real-time analytics were required to handle data on high frequency vibration, temperature, coolant and sound input. The data would be processed to deliver optimal machine performance. In this solution, Cisco Industrial Ethernet 4000 (IE4000), switch along with the Cisco Connected Streaming Analytics and other software were used. As a result, Mazak is able to offer its customers a connected machine service, a new revenue opportunity.
Cisco is a strong supporter of the LoRa Alliance, a non-profit organization focuses on developing the low power, wide area network (LPWAN) specification. Its data rate is from 0.3 to 50 kbps perfect for transactions involves infrequent small packets and it can be very low cost. A battery powered device would be able to work for 10 years without battery replacement. Applications include assets tracking like a moving truck, transportation, equipment used in the factories as well as in supply chain management, smart buildings, metering and irrigation management. “We are seeing dramatic growth in a new class of IoT sensors that require low power and low cost secure connectivity. LoRa is enabling new services for a whole host of IoT applications. LoRa’s ability to communicate
CEO Profile Chuck Robbins is the Chief Executive Officer of Cisco and a member of its Board of Directors. He assumed the role on July 26, 2015. As CEO, Chuck leads an Executive Leadership Team focused on Cisco’s vision to change the way the world works, lives, plays and learns. Under his leadership, Cisco is empowering its customers to create and deliver value as every country, city and company becomes digital. Chuck joined Cisco in 1997 as an account manager and quickly advanced to the roles of regional manager and operations director. Prior to joining Cisco, he held management positions at Bay Networks and Ascend Communications.
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4.0 COMPANY PROFILE
Figure 2: The IE4010 and IE1000 industrial switches are among the new Cisco products introduced in the Connected Factory solutions. These secured end-toend connections also provide surveillance capability using IP cameras.
without draining excessive power makes it ideal for smart city and industrial asset monitoring and management use cases”, commented Vikas Butaney, General Manager, IoT Systems and Solutions of Cisco, “This extends the lifetime of those devices and makes them viable to deploy at a large scale. Cisco is incredibly excited about the possibilities of LoRa and the growth of the LoRa partner ecosystem led by the LoRa Alliance.”
Analytic and Data Services
Analytic and Data Services are crucial to the success of IIoT implementation. Simply sending raw data to the cloud or connected devices has no real value unless the data is consumed in a meaningful way. Getting the insight is the key. Cisco’s solution is to help customers get that insight via cloud data and edge product management. For example, as in the case of an oil and gas offshore drilling platform application, the goal of the customer is to obtain optimal performance from each well. There is no value to send the raw data of measuring temperature, vibration and moisture of each well every second to the server via the cloud. The big question is what to do with all the data generated? Where is the insight? The better approach will be to process the raw data by the edge products such as using an intelligent Cisco router and run the analytic per well onsite. Then send the results to the server. Another meaningful insight will be to compare the results of each well and from that data determine the parameters of a high performance well. By doing this, Cisco will be able to help customers to achieve the best performance. In June of 2016, 36 | RTC Magazine JULY 2016
Cisco joined force with the IBM Watson team to further the insight capability. “The way we experience and interact with the physical world is being transformed by the power of cloud computing and the Internet of Things,” said Harriet Green, General Manager, IBM Watson IoT, Commerce & Education. “For an oil rig in a remote location or a factory where critical decisions have to be taken immediately, uploading all data to the cloud is not always the best option. By coming together, IBM and Cisco are taking these powerful IoT technologies the last mile, extending Watson IoT from the cloud to the edge of computer networks, helping to make these strong analytics capabilities available virtually everywhere, always.” Additionally, in June of 2016, Cisco added another tool, Cisco Tetration AnalyticsTM Platform, to help customers gain visibility of the performance of operations in real-time.
How does Fog computing fit in?
In a simple case, cloud computing will be able to provide all the computing and storage needs one desires. But as the IIoT application complexity increases, cloud computing may not be able to meet demands. This is where Fog Computing comes in. The name Fog was developed as it resides between the Cloud and the ground. Recently the Open Fog Consortium (OpenFog) was established with the cooperation of Cisco, Dell, Intel, Microsoft, ARM and Princeton University. Part of Cisco’s IIoT strategy is to promote Open Fog. To implement Fog Computing, local networking devices with computing power will be implemented. This will potentially help Cisco with future sales
Figure 2: The Mazak SmartBox technology provides real-time analytics of data on high frequency vibration, temperature, coolant and sound input.
of networking solutions. “Fog Computing brings data processing, networking, storage and analytics closer to devices and applications working at the edge of the network. The maturing cloud technologies and the rapidly widening spectrum of services required to support the emerging Internet of Things means that fog computing will have a key part to play in the coming years, bringing cloud computing capabilities to the edge of the network and the vast number of devices that are consuming cloud services and generating massive amounts of data”, continued Helder Antunes, OpenFog Consortium Chairman and Sr. Director - Corporate Strategic Innovation Group at Cisco, “Significantly, Fog Computing also tackles another key issue in cloud computing, reducing the need for bandwidth by only sending critical information over networks to the cloud. This type of distributed strategy will introduce new computing and networking capabilities; lower costs, improve efficiencies, extend the life of existing computing and networking infrastructures; make the exponentially large amounts of data much more manageable; and ultimately help businesses successfully get to grips with emerging IoT trends.”
Cisco Systems, based in San Jose, California, designs, manufactures networking equipment provides Internet-of-Things solutions in many segments including IT, manufacturing, medical, industrial automation and smart buildings. Their strategy is to focus on end-to-end secured IT plus OT solutions.
Cisco Vital Statistics Snapshot: Cisco Systems, Inc., in San Jose, California, designs, manufactures networking equipment provides Internet-of-Things solutions in many segments including IT, manufacturing, medical, industrial automation and smart buildings. Founders: Sandy Lerner, Leonard Bosack CEO: Chuck Robbins Founded: 1984 Headquarters: San Jose, CA Revenue: $49.01 billion USD (2015) Employees: 71,883 worldwide Market Cap: $ 155 B (source: Morningstar); NASDAQ symbol CSCO Stock Price: $31.79 (source: Yahoo) URL: http://www.cisco.com
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4.1 MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS ARE KEY TO NETWORK EDGE DESIGN
Mobile Communications Are Key to Network Edge Design Mobile networking needs solutions tailored for their operating environments, yet most mobile applications have severe space and power limitations. These can pose design challenges for even the best enclosure suppliers. This article discusses ways to overcome them. by Steve Gudknecht, Elma Electronic Inc.
As the Internet-of-Things (IoT) continues to expand to all aspects of life, it becomes apparent that many functions normally required at the core of the network are now necessary at the outer edges of the network. When the requirement of mobility at the end points is added, it becomes necessary to use networking solutions that address key areas of network traffic management. This is especially true for mobile users who operate beyond the reach of a fixed network infrastructure, but still need the ability to share information at the local level, and to do so knowing that data security is tantamount. It is equally necessary to work with solutions partners who provide a strong mechanical foundation to build products for
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use in often rugged environments found at the network edge. First responderâ€™s communications gear in disaster recovery, mining and transportation equipment are a few examples of applications that need communication capabilities that can survive in severe conditions. So where does one start in evaluating the building blocks for these mobile networking solutions?
Two Top Level Keys to Success
The first key is to include underlying networking protocol solutions from a supplier who leads the industry in not only the basic networking capabilities that all IT professionals look for, but who also understands the critical demands of mobile, secure
networking and is a proven leader in the fast-emerging IoT arena. One such supplier is Cisco, with their Embedded Services Routers (ESRs). All ESR products run Cisco IOS software and support Cisco’s Mobile Ready Net platform of protocols used for secure and seamless information sharing between mobile users. The second key to success is in packaging these networking functions in a chassis built to survive the environmental rigors found in demanding applications where edge equipment may be deployed. Extreme environmental factors such as high shock, vibration, temperature and ingress protection are important considerations in computer designs. Size, weight and power are common considerations for mobile products, so working with packaging designers with proven experience is a must. Cisco partners like Elma Electronic design computing platforms for use in mobile environments. This effort requires unique skills beyond simply mounting a board in a box and wiring the connectors. The CISCO ESR board requires a dedicated, custom designed module to bring out the I/O, so integrators must be capable of supporting this in addition to having the ability to package for the end environment. For post-sale support of the system, the integrator must offer a method to handle reported issues. This includes the ability to duplicate a reported issue on Cisco qualified platforms custom-built for troubleshooting and simulation.
Mobility with Guaranteed Connectivity
Expanding on some of the protocols supported by Cisco’s Mobile Ready Net platform, helps better understand and highlight its capabilities: mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), Cisco® Radio Aware Routing (RAR) and Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP). MANET is a key protocol required for mobile devices that need to join self-forming, self-healing clusters, made up of mobile routers and nodes communicating over wireless links. A node is generally anything that moves – ground vehicles,
aircraft, watercraft, even humans on foot. In disaster recovery operations, mining operations and other applications with mobile assets, networks frequently need to be set up on the fly. Such network nodes move randomly and form arbitrary topologies that can change rapidly and often need to operate outside of a fixed network infrastructure. Cisco’s twist on MANET includes enhancements to the Open Shortest Path First Protocol version 3 (OSPFv3) standard. Those enhancements improve performance and reduce protocol overhead resulting in faster, more efficient and seamless network changes and link exchanges.
Radio Aware Routing
To ensure effective integration of router and radio networks, this protocol enables routers and radios to share link-quality metrics and neighbor status. Based on the industry’s first router implementation of RFC 4938bis, it defines a cross-layer signaling mechanism between routers and radios. The overarching goal of RAR is to deliver sensitive network traffic to high priority users as quickly and as efficiently as possible without delay or signal breakup. A subset of RAR is another protocol called Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol or DLEP. This provides seamless real-time link exchange or changeover where link speed or link quality makes it necessary to switch data paths to use the fastest, most reliable link available. DLEP monitors 5 metrics: maximum and current link speed, link quality, latency and battery power.
Mobility with Security
Critical communications means there’s no shortage of security protocols. IOS provides encryption support including Suite-BGCM-128, Suite-B-GCM-256, Suite-B-GMAC-128, and SuiteB-GMAC-256. Secure collaborative communications and threat control are included in Cisco’s IOS Suite. Managed endpoint identity plus a host of additional security protocols supported by
Figure 1: Expandable package designs and tailored I/O integration enable a wide range of quick turn solutions.
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4.1 MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS ARE KEY TO NETWORK EDGE DESIGN Cisco IOS round out one of the best such suites available.
Toughness and Size
Targeted packaging for the end environment Mobile routing equipment needs to operate in environmentally hostile installations - no longer is networking equipment confined to the central office or a server / router farms where +5°C to +40°C is the norm and where shock and vibration mitigation is handled at the rack or room level. Rack-mounted equipment in the central office has comparatively generous amounts space for powerful airflow systems and air conditioning that provide optimized environments. Mobile networking needs solutions tailored for their operating environments yet has severe space limitations and scarce available power along with harsh operating environments. These limitations can pose design challenges for enclosure suppliers, yet a few are up to the task. System designers can satisfy these often conflicting requirements by designing computer platforms that use the latest thermal design / imaging techniques. The “Big Five” environmental considerations include shock, vibration, thermal, altitude and humidity. Depending on the application, systems may be required to operate over a -40°C to +75°C temp range with operating shock that exceeds 40Gs. IP65 or higher levels for ingress protection against dust and water are commonly required. Not all applications used in the IoT revolution require such packaging. Cisco packaging partners offer custom and off-the-shelf enclosure solutions that span a wide range of designs from lite industrial to ultra-rugged.
Built to Fit the Space Allowed
Sometimes applications can use an off-the-shelf solution; others need to fill a specific space and therefore need a custom enclosure. Yet others need to add their own applications into the solution – perhaps adding more computing or I/O alongside the router function. Such additions may necessitate future expansion. Packaging designs that conquer size, weight and power constraints that are modular and expandable with multiple mounting options can be cost savers when it comes time to upgrade or reconfigure as an application evolves. Elma Electronic has developed a line of PCI/104 based Cisco routing chassis which address a wide range of environmental demands while offering an expandable design to easily add features needed for specific applications. Figure 1. Cisco offers its partners hardware and software options for packaging mobile routing. These enable a wide range of packaging designs. Cisco’s 5915 is PCI/104 based and provides three switching and two IP routing ports. Several manufacturers have developed PCI/104 systems around the 5915. Others take advantage of the stackable architecture of PCI/104 and add computing and additional Ethernet ports or storage for more full-featured systems. Cisco and other suppliers offer PCI/104 Ethernet products that can add 26 or more ports to a system. Most PCI/104 SBCs are used for the computing power. Ultimate flexibility in packaging however is achieved via software implementation of the routing features. Cisco’s 5921 40 | RTC Magazine JULY 2016
Figure 1: Cisco’s Linux-based software router opens the door to custom packaging designs suitable for any deployed space.
is intended to run IOS software on Linux-based platforms and is form factor agnostic. The 5921 requires a minimum of three Gigabit Ethernet ports plus at least a dual core CPU to handle the protocol stack. Figure 2 shows a full-featured system incorporating software based Cisco Mobile IP routing in a small box intended for rugged industrial vehicular applications. The system adds Wi-Fi and CANbus features with Core i5 / i7 CPU options. Figure 2.
Predictions of vast efficiency and reliability improvements in disaster recovery, homeland security, energy exploration, manufacturing, transportation, and health cares are driving demand for connectivity of “things”. Mobile assets make up a large list of things requiring guaranteed network access, especially in challenging situations. To meet these demands, suppliers must work together to create end products that reflect the best of their individual capabilities in order to meet the needs of the various target markets regardless of the end use environment. Successful products in the new IoT and IoE world order will be the result of a combination of the right functionality supported by partners like Elma with tailored packaging designed to bring that functionality to the places where it’s needed most. About the author: Steve Gudknecht is product marketing manager at Elma Electronic. He has held positions in field application engineering, product management and technical marketing in the embedded computing and semiconductor equipment industries. Steve has an associate’s degree in business administration. His responsibilities include product development, product marketing, training and sales support. www.elma.com
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