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The RTOS Dilemma: Are Open Source RTOSes Economic or Costly? Round Table on the Future of Embedded Software Is Your Software Secure?

Real World Connected Systems Magazine. Produced by Intelligent Systems Source

Vol 17 / No 5 / MAY 2016

The Best Embedded Software of 2016

An RTC Group Publication


CONTENTS

Real World Connected Systems Magazine. Produced by Intelligent Systems Source

2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST

14 The Best Embedded Software of 2016 EDITORIAL 05

How Good is Your Software? by John Koon, Editor-in-Chief

1.0 ROUND TABLE: WHAT WILL THE FUTURE HOLD? 07

Sean Liming

08

Bill Lamie

09

Christian Légaré

10

Dinyar Dastoor

Annabooks, LLC. Express Logic Micriµm

Wind River

13 14 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Esol: eT-Kernel

Express Logic: ThreadX Green Hills Software: INTEGRITY Interval Zero: RTX64 Lynx Software: LynxOS 7.0 RTOS Mentor: Nucleus Micrium: µC/OS RTOS Micro Digital: SMX RTOS MicroEJ: MicroEJ OS Microsoft: Windows 10 IoT Enterprise & IoT Core MontaVista: CGX 2.0 Oracle: Java ME Embedded 8 OAR: RTEMS SEGGER: embOS SYSGO AG: AG PikeOS Real-Time Hypervisor Tenasys: INtime RTOS Wind River: VxWorks

3.0 SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST? 32

The RTOS Dilemma: Are Open Source RTOSes Economic or Costly?

by Jerry Krasner, Embedded Market Forecasters

36

An Industry in Transition: The Impact of Technical Debt on the Internet of Things

by William McCaffrey, Vector Software

40

Safety-critical RTOS Demands Verified Correctness by Greg Rose, DDC-I

44

40 Safty-critical RTOS Demands Verified Correctness

Securing Control Over the IIoT: RTOS Comes to the Rescue by Albert Rooyakkers, Bedrock Automation

47

Can Devices be Secured in the Internet of Things by Dinyar Dastoor, Wind River

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 3


RTC MAGAZINE

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EDITORIAL

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Editor-In-Chief John Koon, johnk@rtcgroup.com

ART/PRODUCTION Art Director Jim Bell, jimb@rtcgroup.com Graphic Designer Hugo Ricardo, hugor@rtcgroup.com

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TO CONTACT RTC MAGAZINE: Home Office The RTC Group, 905 Calle Amanecer, Suite 150, San Clemente, CA 92673 Phone: (949) 226-2000 Fax: (949) 226-2050 Web: www.rtcgroup.com Published by The RTC Group Copyright 2016, The RTC Group. Printed in the United States. All rights reserved. All related graphics are trademarks of The RTC Group. All other brand and product names are the property of their holders.

www.novasomindustries.com

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EDITORIAL

How Good is Your Software? by John Koon, Editor-In-Chief

Good software performs the tasks you specify securely, safely and reliably. Moreover, it has to meet criteria such as application-specific, real-time requirements if your applications need them, meet your cost budget, and, most importantly, it won’t break. Sometime ago, I had a conversation with a Microsoft test manager. I asked him, “Why do I keep getting bug fixes from Microsoft for my Windows? Why don’t you test your software to make it bug-free?” He answered, “Indeed we do extensive tests on all our software products before we would consider releasing it to production. When we find a bug, you can be sure it will be fixed. Why would I want to ship a product with bugs?” Microsoft is the world’s largest software company with a lot of resources. If anyone could deliver bug-free software, it would be Microsoft. I am a hardware guy, I remembered when our team designed a system we made sure everything worked before we released it to production. Additionally, Test Engineering and QA will have to sign off the product to ensure it really worked. If it failed in the field, we blamed it on software. We all know a system is a combination of software and hardware. Software behaves in such a way that when certain combination of sequence of events occur, the software will fail. That is why Dynamic and Static Analysis tools are available to improve software quality. Safety and security are on my mind a lot these days. When I think about driverless cars, I think about safety and security. How do you prevent future autonomous cars from getting into an accident when

we cannot even stop a train from derailing today? According to John Paliotta, CTO of Vector Software, a software quality company, “it is impossible to build completely bug-free applications, but we can build dependable and robust applications if we implement a continuous test process and measure testing completeness using code coverage analysis. The avionics industry has successfully used this approach to quality for years, and the automotive industry is well on its way to adopting a similar approach.” My conclusion is when something happens to a good piece of software, it will have either a backup plan or a way to shutdown orderly to avoid catastrophic consequences. Here is another area of concern. We are all aware of the high profile hacking done to companies like Sony, banks and yes, even a police chief was hacked. I have had first-hand experience of being attacked by malicious individuals. Somehow, my security software was not strong enough. For a long time, hackers stole personal information such as credit cards to sell it on line. Now they’ve come up with a new business model call ransomeware. Recent reports, including that from BBC, indicated the Ransomware has found an easy target, hospitals, to extract money. A local hospital in Southern California gave in and paid the ransom. According to Eric Knight, CEO of SimpleWan, a security software consulting firm, “Today, companies are not proactive enough. You need to have the resources allocated including proper IT knowledge, anti-virus software and the team in place to fight battle. It will

only get worse.” Demand for services form companies like SimpleWan has been increasing as more and more attacks occur. In this special software Edition, we have listed solutions from 17 leading suppliers of RTOS and embedded software for your reference. Additionally, we have invited experts to share their expertise on safety and security. Finally, to look into the future of software we have a round table discussion with participants from Micrium, Express Logic, Wind River and Annabooks, LLC. If you have new ideas to share, let me know.

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 5


1.0 ROUND TABLE: WHAT WILL THE FUTURE HOLD?

Round Table: What Does the Future Hold? Technology is moving very fast. The world is buzzing about how wonderful it will be to have connected, driverless cars, trucks and boats. Communications among Machines, the Cloud and now the Fog are taking place at very high speed. The Internet-of-Things is unstoppable and will connect billions and maybe even trillions things together. All these will require software, good software. Where are we heading? In this Round Table section, we have invited four veteran software experts: Annabooks, Express Logic, Micrium, and Wind River to share their insights, concern and tell us what the future will look like.

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1. To address the needs of connected systems, vechicle-2-vechicle, drone control, AI and M2M, what features do you think should be included in future Embedded Operating Systems?

Obviously, the cloud is taking a big part in the embedded systems. Only a couple of my customers are getting into the cloud today. I anticipate that will change in 5 years. Business decision makers need to determine what data and event triggers are relevant for their business. The process takes time. Once determined then finding companies with the right fit of products is important, and this will influence smart sensors and other connected devices.

Today, the biggest feature is the machine communication protocol. There are 4 to 5 proposed standards: Thread, Alljoyn, Open Interconnect Consortium, Connectivity Foundation, and Industrial Internet Consortium. Some operating system vendors are already integrating some solutions, but each vertical industry segment will most likely define protocols and standards. The operating system will have to have flexible support for the different industry standards. Like all standards and proposed consortiums only time will tell which ones will be left standing.

“Being able to off load data storage and other cloud computing tasks to other levels is a logical step.” 2. Recently there are discussions on moving Cloud Computing to Fog Computing. Instead of having everything done by the “Cloud”, more and more computing and storage will be shared by the local/ regional edge devices. What are your thoughts on this and how would this affect the future Embedded Operating Systems? On big domains, there are different types of servers to handle different types of operations. There is already talk of data overload for Cloud computing. Being able to off load data storage and other cloud computing tasks to other levels is a logical step. My belief is that careful cloud application design to off load data to local resources rather than push up to the bigger cloud will be important. Companies will have to choose what data is important versus what can be discarded. Embedded operating systems only need to support the different cloud APIs. 3. I would like to explore with you what the future will be like in relation to IoT and Embedded Operating Systems. For example, do you believe Cloud will dominate, sensor become smarter (with more local computing power) and/or connected devices will have deep learning capability (Artificial Intelligence)?

Name: Sean Liming Title: Owner Company: Annabooks, LLC. Yorba Linda, CA www.annabooks.com Sean Liming has been involved with embedded systems for over two decades. He has authored over 35 articles and eight books including the popular Windows XP Embedded Advanced, Professional’s Guide To Windows® Embedded Standard 7, and Start Guide for Windows System Image Manager. He has traveled around the world as a featured speaker at Microsoft embedded conferences. In 2001, he became a Microsoft MVP. He received his BSEE from California State Polytechnic University in Pomona, California; focusing on computer architecture and design.

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 7


1.0 ROUND TABLE: WHAT WILL THE FUTURE HOLD?

1. To address the needs of connected systems, vechicle-2-vechicle, drone control, AI and M2M, what features do you think should be included in future Embedded Operating Systems?

are already seeing how wearable medical devices are providing real-time information that helps people avoid behaviors that might trigger adverse medical conditions. As these devices become more integrated into larger diagnostic and treatment systems, we see the need for safe, secure and reliable, real-time operating systems and middleware solutions expanding into new devices to address real-time capabilities and current devices that will be ‘smarter’.

Fundamental features like fast context switching and real-time determinism will continue to be key features for RTOS’s as connected things/systems evolve. More devices will be collecting or generating data than ever before, of course safety and security will play an increasingly important role as more safety-critical and sensitive data is transferred between devices.

“The growing need for data to be collected or generated instantly requires high performance features.” 2. Recently there are discussions on moving Cloud Computing to Fog Computing. Instead of having everything done by the “Cloud”, more and more computing and storage will be shared by the local/ regional edge devices. What are your thoughts on this and how would this affect the future Embedded Operating Systems? We believe Cloud and Fog computing will coexist. Information captured or generated by the burgeoning number of things on the IOT will be a mixture of non-sensitive, sensitive and safety-critical data flowing across both the cloud and fog platforms. The growing need for data to be collected or generated instantly requires high performance features. RTOS’s will need to provide safe, secure, and reliable IoT communication solutions with minimal memory/power requirements. 3. I would like to explore with you what the future will be like in relation to IoT and Embedded Operating Systems. For example, do you believe Cloud will dominate, sensor become smarter (with more local computing power) and/or connected devices will have deep learning capability (Artificial Intelligence)? As mentioned earlier, we believe Cloud and Fog computing will coexist. The IOT is connecting devices that will provide information for ‘intelligent’ interpretation allowing systems and people to make decisions quicker and hopefully better. We

8 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016

Name: Bill Lamie Title: President Company: Express Logic San Diego, CA www.rtos.com William E. Lamie is co-founder and CEO of Express Logic, Inc., located in San Diego, CA. Mr. Lamie is the author of the ThreadX RTOS. Prior to founding Express Logic, Mr. Lamie was the author of the Nucleus RTOS and co-founded Accelerated Technology, Inc. Mr. Lamie has over 35 years of experience in embedded systems development, 30 years of which is in the development of commercial real-time operating systems. For information on Express Logic please visit www. expresslogic.com.


1. To address the needs of connected systems, vechicle-2-vechicle, drone control, AI and M2M, what features do you think should be included in future Embedded Operating Systems?

IoT is the sum of sensors/actuators, microcontrollers/microprocessors, wired/wireless connectivity, multiple programming languages, information technologies, and operation technologies, not to mention interoperability standards. Much advancement in all of these technologies is required to enhance security, performance, artificial intelligence, and fog computing. Clearly, embedded operating systems offer many advantages in terms of size and performance over other operating systems so will have a significant role in the IoT. That being said, the main challenge today is one of cost. Although the IoT can clearly be a business enabler, full-scale IoT penetration can only happen with more economy of scale in a large number of fields.

Embedded operating systems’ greatest need currently are security features that can scale to any processor size. This is challenging, especially on small microcontrollers, but required by emerging security requirements. Achieving secure boot, secure firmware upgrades, authentication, authorization, etc. simply requires more hardware resources than are available on small microcontrollers. As we reach the limits of Moore’s law, the next processor architecture step is to move to multiple cores. Given the emerging security requirements, symmetrical multiprocessing will become a necessity for embedded operating systems.

“Clearly, embedded operating systems offer many advantages in terms of size and performance.” 2. Recently there are discussions on moving Cloud Computing to Fog Computing. Instead of having everything done by the “Cloud”, more and more computing and storage will be shared by the local/ regional edge devices. What are your thoughts on this and how would this affect the future Embedded Operating Systems? A move to fog computing would require the same security and processing performance enhancements outlined above, as well as new, mandatory requirements for improved connectivity. From Micrium’s point of view, we are already seeing a need for an embedded operating system (in our case, an RTOS) to enable scaling from small microcontrollers to large application processors. A system is composed of many components, so having an operating system than can span the complete product architecture offers great economy of scale. This aligns perfectly to the architecture proposed by fog computing. 3. I would like to explore with you what the future will be like in relation to IoT and Embedded Operating Systems. For example, do you believe Cloud will dominate, sensor become smarter (with more local computing power) and/or connected devices will have deep learning capability (Artificial Intelligence)?

Name: Christian Légaré Title: Chief Technology Officer Company: Micrium. Weston, FL www.micrium.com Christian Légaré is EVP and CTO of Micrium, a leading provider of embedded software. Prior to Micrium, he led the Internet Protocol certification program at the International Institute of Telecom in Montreal, Canada. During his 22 years in the telecom industry, Christian served as an executive in large-scale organizations as well as start-ups, mainly in engineering and R&D. Christian currently also serves as president and chairman of the IPSO Alliance, where he provides guidance on embedded systems to help make the IoT a reality. Christian holds a M.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 9


1.0 ROUND TABLE: WHAT WILL THE FUTURE HOLD?

AN INTEL COMPANY

1. To address the needs of connected systems, vechicle-2-vechicle, drone control, AI and M2M, what features do you think should be included in future Embedded Operating Systems?

network will dominate. Instead, each element will play a key role in the larger system of systems and this role will constantly evolve as new use cases and innovation happens. Yes, devices will become “smarter” because they can analyze things in real-time and at the same time, become “dumber” as more decisions will be made somewhere in the network. OSs will evolve to be flexible to fit such cases. The cloud will move towards providing cheaper storage and compute, networks will continue to boost performance and devices at the edge will continue to find new applications. The sum total of this will lead to new use cases, which we have not imagined yet.

At the very basic level, any device participating in a connected system will need a robust connectivity solution and good enough security to protect it. But that does not give you any benefits unless you have figured out “how to connect,” “who to connect,” and most important “why should you connect.” The OS should be able to seamlessly manage multi-element connectivity. It should provide a framework to cache command signals or data streams should the device go off-line in a preplanned manner or suddenly drop connection. A robust OS will have a device-side management agent embedded inside to take care of exchanging credentials with unique identifiers with a device management cloud service. The OS also needs to provide a framework for easy, “over the air” maintenance upgrade and most important, the ability to roll-back any updates should something go wrong. Finally, the OS should provide open standards based APIs to manage everything we discussed. 2. Recently there are discussions on moving Cloud Computing to Fog Computing. Instead of having everything done by the “Cloud”, more and more computing and storage will be shared by the local/regional edge devices. What are your thoughts on this and how would this affect the future Embedded Operating Systems? While the concept of “fog computing” is not new, it has gained lot of attention recently. The business needs to collect as much data as possible and the need to optimize the cost of transporting this data has to be appropriately balanced. Enter “fog computing.” It does not replace cloud computing; it just creates one layer of localized hierarchy for better management of systems. This localized layer has an advantage of higher connectivity bandwidth at lower cost, localize storage and assurance that data is not leaving a highly secure perimeter. On the flip side, fog compute’s storage and CPU bandwidth is more expensive than cloud infrastructure. For some industries, fog computing solves lot of technical and cost issues. 3. I would like to explore with you what the future will be like in relation to IoT and Embedded Operating Systems. For example, do you believe Cloud will dominate, sensor become smarter (with more local computing power) and/or connected devices will have deep learning capability (Artificial Intelligence)? In my opinion, there is no one utopian vision for future of devices and their embedded OSs in IoT; no one element of the

10 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016

Name: Dinyar Dastoor Title: Vice President and General Manager, Operating Systems Platform Company: Wind River Alameda, CA www.windriver.com Dinyar Dastoor manages the Operating Systems portfolio of products at Wind River. He is actively engaged in the end-to-end elements of the Internet of Things, especially as applied to the industrial, medical, aerospace, and defense markets that require high levels of safety and security. He has nearly 30 years of embedded device industry experience, holding various senior executive positions managing product management, engineering, sales, professional services and customer support. He holds an M.B.A. and Master’s Degree in Control Systems. He is based in Wind River’s Santa Clara, CA office.focusing on computer architecture and design.


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2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST

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eSOL Co., Ltd. Harmony Tower, 1-32-2, Honcho, Nakano-ku Tokyo, Japan 164-8721 Tel: +81 3 5302 1360 www.esol.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

eT-Kernel

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

The eT-Kernel RTOS is designed for embedded systems that require high performance and reliability. eT-Kernel is based on the open TRON architecture which is the most widely adopted in embedded systems in Japan and Asian countries. eT-Kernel is scalable with multiple profiles to fit any system size and purpose. These profiles include POSIX-compliant eT-Kernel/POSIX, enhanced eT-Kernel/Extended supporting memory protection and process model, and basic eT-Kernel/Compact. eT-Kernel Multi-Core Edition is available for multi-core processors featuring its unique Blended Scheduling® that enables the coexistence of both symmetrical (SMP) and asymmetrical (AMP) multi-core processing, in a single system. eT-Kernel has proved its value in a wide range of embedded systems such as car navigation systems, aerospace, consumer electronics, and more.

Supported processors

• Intel x86 • ARM • PowerPC / ISA • SuperH (J Core)

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

The total RAM storage depends on multipleparameters, as the OS allows build-timeoptimization of OS resources based on the OSconfiguration. Minimum required is 54KB with a maximum of 88KB

Minimum storage requirements

230KB

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

BIOS / UEFI. The OS includes self-contained boot loader. It can alsobe adapted to any external boot loading mechanism.

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, but no per unit royalty

Development tools pricing / license

Price per seat

language support

C and C++

Debugger tools

Thread Tracing, JTAG and eSOL’s Eclipse-based eBinder IDE

Built-in cloud API services

No

Cloud Service Providers

None

Development host machine requirements

• Installation to C drive: 8.0GB or above, Installation to other drive: 5.0GB or above • OS - Microsoft Windows 7 Ultimate ServicePack 1 or later • Microsoft Windows 7 Professional Service Pack 1 or later • Microsoft Windows Vista Service Pack 2 or later (only 32bit version)

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

We provide renewable annual support and maintenance. When a new revision is released, the previous revision will be supported for 18 months. Upon request we also provide long-term support and maintenance up to 10 years or more.

eT-Kernel is a core part of the eT-Kernel Platform that integrates the eBinder IDE, middleware components – including network protocols, file systems, USB host/device stacks, and graphics tools – and professional services. eT-Kernel Platform helps OEMs and ODMs to quickly create flexible development platforms for their software product lines and enables them to improve time to market, cost, productivity, quality and other business drivers.

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2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST

Express Logic 11423 West Bernardo Court San Diego, CA 92127 Tel: 858.613.6640 www.expresslogic.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

ThreadX

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

ThreadX is Express Logic’s advanced Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) designed specifically for deeply embedded IoT applications. ThreadX provides advanced scheduling facilities, message passing, interrupt management, and messaging services, as well as many others. ThreadX has many advanced features, including its picokernel™ architecture, preemption-threshold™ scheduling, event-chaining,™ and a rich set of system services. Combined with its superior ease-of-use, ThreadX is the ideal choice for the most demanding of embedded IoT applications. According to VDC Research, ThreadX has been deployed in over over 5.4 billion electronic products in the areas of consumer devices, medical electronics, industrial control equipment, and space probes including NASA’s Deep Impact and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).

Supported processors

• Intel x86 • ARM • PowerPC / ISA • SuperH (J Core) • Other: ThreadX has support for most popular processors

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

ThreadX automatically scales based on usage,i.e., no complicated compile-time configurationis necessary.

Minimum storage requirements

2KB.

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

ThreadX is agnostic in terms of bootloader, i.e., any bootloader can be used.

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, but no per unit royalty.

Development tools pricing / license

We work closely with IAR in terms of integration and customer engagements and support most popular development tools for all processor architectures.

language support

C# and C

Debugger tools

Eclipse, JTAG, Thread Tracing and TraceX is our host-based system event analysis tool.

Built-in cloud API services

Yes, Express Logic is the only ARM mbed RTOS partner,meaning that mbed Client is available for the ThreadX developers to leverage in their designs. In addition,ThreadX and NetX are the foundation for various IoT SoCs, including Avago Technologies’ WICED and GainSpan’s WiFi chips and modules.

Cloud Service Providers

Oracle Cloud Services, Google Cloud Platform, Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure,

Development host machine requirements

N/A

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

Phone/web/e-mail support channels, with current product releases on web, and automatic customer notifications of new service packs and new releases.

We believe in simplicity, which manifests in our elegant API and documentation. We believe in small size and fast, deterministic performance. We believe in safety, which is why ThreadX is the most pre-certified RTOS, including conformance to international safety standards such as IEC 61508 SIL 4, IEC 62304 Class C, ISO 26262 ASIL D, UL/IEC 60730, UL/IEC 60335, UL 1998, and EN 50128 SW-SIL 4. ThreadX is also MISRA-C:2004 and MISRA C:2014 Compliant. All of these attributes are why ThreadX is arguably the most deployed commercial RTOS with over 5.4 Billion deployments worldwide. Please explore further at www.rtos.com!

14 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


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2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST

Green Hills Software 34125 US Hwy 19 North • Suite 100 Palm Harbor, FL 34684 Tel: 800.765.4733 www.ghs.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

INTEGRITY®

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

From inception, the INTEGRITY RTOS was designed so that embedded developers could ensure their applications met the highest possible requirements for security, reliability, and performance. To achieve this, INTEGRITY uses hardware memory protection to isolate and protect embedded applications. Secure partitions guarantee each task the resources it needs to run correctly and fully protect the operating system and user tasks from errant and malicious code—including denial-of-service attacks, worms, and Trojan horses. Unlike other memoryprotected operating systems, INTEGRITY never sacrifices real-time performance for security and protection.

Supported processors

• Altera Cyclone • AMD x86 • Applied Micro (APM) Power Architecture • ARM Ltd. • Fujitsu ARM • IBM Power Architecture • Intel Architecture • Marvell ARM and PXA • MIPS Technologies • NXP Qorivva • NXP QorIQ • NXP ColdFire • NXP I.MX (ARM) • NXP Vybrid (ARM) • Renesas

R-Car • Texas Instruments OMAP • Texas Instruments DaVinci • Texas Instruments Jacinto • Texas Instruments Sitara • Xilinx Zynq

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

INTEGRITY is a scalable micro-kernel based operating system for microprocessors with MMUs. In minimal configurations the RAM requirements can be a small as a few hundred kilobytes. U-velOSity is a light weight kernel for micro-controllers. In its smallest configuration only a few kilobytes of RAM are required. Both of our operating systems come with a scalable set of middleware components like TCP/IP stacks, file systems, USB stacks, and drivers for on board peripherals. The total RAM utilization is dependent on the middleware configuration and the final application, but can range from a few kilobytes to gigabytes. INTEGRITY is 64-bit capable for ARM, x86/Intel, and Power Architecture and can support applications beyond the 4 gigabyte boundary.

Minimum storage requirements

Neither INTEGRITY nor u-velOSity require a file system for storage. Each product has minimal RAM and ROM requirements that range from a few kilobytes of total memory (RAM and ROM) to megabytes depending on the configuration.

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

INTEGRITY can be booted with any bootloader that is available for the target hardware. We have supported all of these in the past. In addition Green Hills Software offers our own bootloader called GILA.

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, but no per unit royalty

Development tools pricing / license

Price per seat

language support

C and C++ through GHS supplied compilers and libraries. Java support is available for INTEGRITY from various third parties. Ada95. Python has also been ported to INTEGRITY.

Debugger tools

MULTI IDE and GHS Probe and SuperTrace Probe

Built-in cloud API services

Available from third parties.

Cloud Service Providers

Any cloud service back end can interoperate with INTEGRITY based target systems.

Development host machine requirements

A modern, multi-core x86 processor with one of the following operating systems: • Windows 10 (64- or 32-bit mode) • Windows 8 or 8.1 (64or 32-bit mode) • Windows 7 (64- or 32-bit mode) • Windows Vista (64- or 32-bit mode) .NET Framework 3.5 and/or 4.5. .NET Framework 4.5 requires Service Pack 2 or greater. • Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS (64- or 32-bit mode) • Ubuntu 12.04.5 LTS (64- or 32-bit mode) • Ubuntu 10.04 (64- or 32-bit mode) • CentOS 7.x (64- or 32-bit mode) • CentOS 6.x (64- or 32-bit mode) 4 GB of RAM, 2 GB of free disk space per installation. Display resolution of 1024x768 or higher.

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

We offer long-term support and maintenance for all products. Major release cycles for INTEGRITY range from 3 to 5 years with maintenance releases in between for new processor and peripheral support. Our current default shipping release for commercial INTEGRITY is version 11.4.4. Email, phone, and on-site support services are available.

Differentiating features for our products can be found on the product web pages below. www.ghs.com/products.htm www.ghs.com/products/rtos/integrity.html www.ghs.com/products/safety_critical/integrity-do-178b.html www.ghs.com/products/micro_velosity.html

16 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


SAFE RELIABLE SECURE

TRUSTED S O F T WAR E FOR E M BEDDED D E V I CE S For over 30 years the world’s leading companies have trusted Green Hills Software’s secure and reliable high performance software for safety and security critical applications. From avionics and automotive, through telecom and medical, to industrial and smart energy, Green Hills Software has been delivering proven and secure embedded technology. To find out how the world’s most secure and reliable operating systems and development software can take the risk out of your next project, visit www.ghs.com/s4e

Copyright © 2016 Green Hills Software. Green Hills Software and the Green Hills logo are registered trademarks of Green Hills Software. All other product names are trademarks of their respective holders.


2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST

IntervalZero 400 5th ave, 4th floor Waltham, MA 02451 Tel: 781.996.4481 www.intervalzero.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

RTX64

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

RTX64 is a key component of the IntervalZero RTOS Platform that supports x64 multi-core multiprocessors, and the Windows operating system to outperform real-time hardware such as DSPs and MCUs and reduce the development costs for systems that require determinism or hard real-time. Symmetric multiprocessing-enabled RTX64 takes full advantage of 64-bit memory and performance capabilities. Uniquely, the RTX64 RTOS scheduler enables embedded real-time applications to directly access the 512GB of addressable physical memory available on 64-bit Windows. This is critical to modern day real-time systems and represents a gigantic leap from the 4GB physical memory limit of traditional 32-bit Windows systems. The 4GB barrier has stymied innovation in many industries that depend on real-time systems and that require memory access far beyond 4GB.

Supported processors

Intel x86

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

256MB + Windows OS needs up to 192 GB

Minimum storage requirements

33MB

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

Windows Boot loader

Pricing / license model

Purchase of a SDK to develop your application then a Runtime for each system that you will deploy yourapplication on.

Development tools pricing / license

Development is done in Visual Studio, which has anumber of editions, some of which are free.

language support

C#, C and C++

Debugger tools

Microsoft Visual Studio, internal monitoring functionality.

Built-in cloud API services

No there is no built-in cloud functionality but there is aNetworking Stack for customers interested indeveloping their own solution.

Cloud Service Providers

None

Development host machine requirements

Depends on the VIsual Studio version used andcomponents installed

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

Support development for current major version and one major version back

You can use the same Windows OS features and development tools as a non embedded systems. This can greatly reduce the learning curve to developing real-time application.

18 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


Lynx Software Technologies, Inc. 855 Embedded Way San Jose, CA 95138 Tel: 408.979.4404 www.lynx.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

LynxOS 7.0 RTOS

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

The open standards-based LynxOS RTOS has been powering millions of embedded devices for the last 28 years across all industries and LynxOS 7.0 now adds significant built-in security features to help meet the needs of the billions of next-generation connected devices. These security features help protect embedded systems from the common internet borne threats such as network infiltration, Denial of Service attacks, memory scraping, and password and authentication attacks (e.g. root escalation or “rooting” the system). LynxOS is a deterministic, hard real-time operating system that provides POSIX conformant APIs in a small footprint embedded kernel. LynxOS provides symmetric multi-processing support to fully take advantage of modern multi-core/multi-threaded processors. LynxOS comes with a high performance network stack, including modern encryption technology, and supports many different types of connection methods. LynxOS is available in a safety certified version, and will also run unmodified on top of the LynxSecure separation kernel hypervisor. LynxOS is used in all embedded market segments, including military, aerospace, industrial, medical, automotive, and office automation. LynxOS is available on Intel, PowerPC, and ARM architectures.

Supported processors

• Intel x86 • ARM • PowerPC / ISA

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

A minimum of 16mb of RAM is needed with a maximum of 4GB.

Minimum storage requirements

4mb ramdisk filesystem.

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other: Netboot over tftp

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

BIOS only, BIOS / UEFI, Das U-Boot

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, and a per unit royalty.

Development tools pricing / license

Price per seat.

language support

Java, C and C++

Debugger tools

SPY, Thread Tracing, JTAG, GDB, Eclipse

Built-in cloud API services

No

Cloud Service Providers

None

Development host machine requirements

• Intel x86 • 4GB of RAM • 500MB of storage • 64bit windows or linux

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

First year support is included, additional years can be optionally purchased.

Training is included in the purchase of a LynxOS Development Seat.

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 19


2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST Mentor Graphics 12255 El Camino Real # 150 San Diego, CA 92130 Tel: 858.523.2600 www.mentor.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

Nucleus® Real Time Operating System

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

Nucleus RTOS is highly scalable with a footprint as low as 3KB with vast middleware support. The Nucleus Process model provides memory partitioning to isolate software components for increased system reliability, dynamic loading to maximize the utilization of system resources and device software updates. Nucleus connectivity options include 802.11a/b/g/n, 802.15.4, Bluetooth/BLE, USB 2.0/3.0, and a dual IPv4/IPv6 stack with over 50 protocols support for zero-configuration networking that includes mDNS and DNS-SD.. Nucleus includes CoAP/6LoWPAN and MQTT IoT protocols. Nucleus end-to-end security options including Root of Trust, ARM® TrustZone®, device storage options with password protected databases, encryption through IPSec/IKE and TLS/SSL with support for AES-256, 3DES, DES, RC4 and many other crypto algorithms. Nucleus provides the industry’s only full featured power management framework that directly maps to the lowpower features of the hardware including DVFS, idle, and sleep and hibernate modes. Nucleus RTOS is certifiable to meet the highest level of safety for DO178C, IEC61508, IEC62304 and ISO 26262. Nucleus is integrated with Industrial Field bus support that includes EtherCAT, and EthernetIP with protocol support for OPC-UA.

Supported processors

• Intel x86

- planned • ARM – ARM 9/11, Cortex A, R, M: ARM v7 / ARMv8 (in-progress/planned) • PowerPC / ISA - PPC / QorIQ

• SuperH (J Core) • Other: MIPs, DSP

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

The minimal RAM requirements for Nucleus RTOS are less than 10 KBs. The maximum RAM requirements varies depending on the required middleware. With Nucleus POSIX support, full featured 3rd party middleware components can be run on Nucleus RTOS which will increase the RAM requirements. Nucleus RTOS is a highly scalable RTOS that is designed to allow developers to include only the required software components to minimize RAM requirements. Typical Nucleus RTOS configurations with an IPv4 / IPv6 dual networking stack and USB can easily fit in the internal memory of a MCU.

Minimum storage requirements

Minimum storage requirements for Nucleus File System are less than 30KB.

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

A bootloader is not required; however, a bootloader can be used.

Pricing / license model

Flexible pricing models including royalty free are available for Nucleus RTOS.

Development tools pricing / license

Nucleus RTOS is packaged with a complete development based on Code Sourcery CodeBench with gcc/g++ tools that can be licensed per seat for a one-time fee or leased for a term period of various lengths.

language support

C and C++

Debugger tools

Thread Tracing, JTAG, GDB, Eclipse and SPY are all supported. Nucleus RTOS is packaged with a complete development based on Sourcery CodeBench with gcc/g++ tools

Built-in cloud API services

Yes, Nucleus has been integrated with Cloud Services.

Cloud Service Providers

Various 3rd party clouds are supported.

Development host machine requirements

• Processor Requirements: IAx86 – 64 bit • 4GB Minimum RAM • 2GB Minimum Storage • Windows 7: 32-bit and 64-bit •

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

Mentor Graphics provides 5 Star World Wide Support with 24 x 7 customer portal SupportNET for online access to download Software Product Updates, Patches and documentation. Support is provided via phone, email, and web.

Windows 8: 32bit and 64-bit • Linux: Ubuntu Desktop 12.04: 64-bit only • Ubuntu Desktop 14.04: 32-bit and 64-bit • Ubuntu Desktop 15.04: 64-bit only • Redhat Enterprise Linux 6.5 and 6.6: 64-bit only • Centos 7 and 7.1: 64-bit only • SUSE Enterprise Linux Desktop 11 sp3 and 12: 64-bit only

Nucleus SafetyCert is a safety-certified RTOS and middleware solution that meets the highest level of safety for DO178C, IEC61508, IEC62304 and ISO 26262. Nucleus SafetyCert is a complete package with documents and artifacts that reduces risk and cost for devices that require regulatory approval to meet the stringent safety requirements for avionics, industrial, medical, and automotive.

20 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


Micrium, Inc 8123 Brittany Drive Dublin, CA 94568 Tel: 408.429.9217 www.micrium.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

µC/OS RTOS

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

µC/OS RTOS is a highly portable, ROMable, scalable, preemptive, real-time, deterministic, multitasking kernel for microprocessors, microcontrollers and DSPs. Offering unprecedented ease-of-use, μC/OS RTOS is delivered with complete 100% ANSI C source code and indepth documentation. It runs on the largest number of processor architectures, with ports available for download from the Micrium Web site. µC/OS RTOS allows for unlimited tasks, semaphores, mutexes, event flags, message queues, timers and memory partitions. The user allocates all kernel objects at run time. It provides features to allow stack growth of tasks to be monitored. µC/OS RTOS allows multiple tasks to run at the same priority level. When equal priority tasks are ready-to-run, µC/OS RTOS runs each for a user-specified amount of time. µC/OS RTOS provides extensive range checking which can be disabled at compile time. µC/OS RTOS thus checks for NULL pointers passed in API calls, task level services from ISRs aren’t called, arguments are within allowable range, and specified options are valid. Each API function provides an error code regarding the outcome of the function call. µC/OS RTOS’s footprint can be scaled to contain only the features required for a specific application (typically 6–24 KBytes of code space residing in memory).

Supported processors

• Intel x86 • ARM • PowerPC / ISA • SuperH (J Core) • Other: Available on over 50 MCU architectures

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

Minimum RAM requirements are 500 bytes (kernel) Maximum is 1Kbytes + (kernel), 24Kbyte (typical, withstacks). Memory requirements depends on application and number of tasks and stacks.

Minimum storage requirements

6Kbyte (kernel), 60Kbyte (TCP/IP)

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

Compiled and downloaded by IDE

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, but no per unit royalty. µC/OS RTOS is also available for Free to Makers and Educational Institutions.

Development tools pricing / license

We have a graphical realization tool - Probe, which isavailable for $900/yr/seat.

language support

C

Debugger tools

JTAG, GDB, Probe, IAR, and Keil

Built-in cloud API services

Yes

Cloud Service Providers

We work with several cloud providers. Two of themore popular providers that have been pre-integratedare MediumOne and Amazon Web Services.

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

1 year of maintenance included. Optional for years 2+. We have a dedicated support portal with 24/7 support.

Micrium is known for the quality of our software, as well as our training, documentation and support. We are the most widely deployed RTOS in the world (based on UBM 2015 survey). Over 250K developers use our software. Our sources are freely available for non-commercial applications, and a small fee is required for commercial applications.

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 21


2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST Micro Digital, Inc. 2900 Bristol St., #G204 Costa Mesa, CA 92626 Tel: 714.437.7333 www.smxrtos.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

SMX RTOS

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

SMX is a royalty-free multitasking RTOS for embedded systems, developed by Micro Digital. It supports the most prevalent embedded CPU families, especially those targeted at low-cost 32-bit embedded systems, such as ARM, Cortex, and ColdFire. It offers these modules: Multitasking Kernel with graphical debugger plugin, WiFi 802.11 stack with security options, TCP/IP dual IPv4 / IPv6 stack, FAT and Flash file systems, USB Host stack, USB Device stack, USB OTG, GUI, IEEE 754 Floating Point library, and Bootloader. All are integrated and work well together. Many optional features, protocols, and drivers are available for each, including security. The smx multitasking kernel has been proven in hundreds of products over more than 25 years. It has many unique features and continues to be improved. Full source code is included, and support is provided by the engineers that wrote the code.

Supported processors

ARM

Board support package Source code availability

Yes

No

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

SMX kernel and TCP/IP stack with web serverand some demo code running with acceptableperformance fits in 45KB. Buffers and features scale for increased performance. Task stack sizes are a main user of RAM inmultitasking systems. smx has a system stackthat ISRs, LSRs, and scheduler run on, so thattask stacks are not burdened by this extraoverhead. In middleware protocol stacks, bufferand cache sizes use most of the RAM, soallocating modest amounts can greatly improveperformance. For example, smxFS can runslowly with about 5KB RAM. With 20KB,performance is much better.

Minimum storage requirements

25KB flash for smx kernel

Supported boot media Storage support

SSD

HDD

Flash

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

None. SMX is typically linked with the application andlocated in flash to run from reset.

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, but no per unit royalty

Development tools pricing / license

3rd party tools are offered, usually priced per seat.

language support

C and C++

Debugger tools

JTAG

Built-in cloud API services

No

Cloud Service Providers

None

Development host machine requirements

Typical PC

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

Micro Digital supports customers on the version of software they are using, even many years after newer versions have been released. In rare cases, it may become necessary to upgrade a customer. This is decided jointly between the customer and Micro Digital.

The smx kernel is a key differentiator of the SMX RTOS versus competitive offerings. A great deal of design has been put into it in almost 30 years of development. It continues to be actively developed and has been substantially improved in the v4 work done during the past 5 years. The smx Datasheet, smx Special Features, smx Philosophy, and other links at www.smxrtos.com/special summarize what is special about it. In addition, smxAware is a very good kernel awareness tool with graphical and textual displays that show how the system is running and help to resolve problems. The breadth of the modules offered is another key differentiator of SMX RTOS. In addition to multitasking kernel, file systems, TCP/IP stack, USB stacks, and GUI, WiFi and floating point libraries are offered. Security and many options, protocols, and drivers are offered for each.

22 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


MicroEJ IS2T - Bat. D, 11 rue du Chemin Rouge Nantes, France 44300 Tel: +33 624 280 885 www.microej.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

MicroEJ OS

Type of embedded OS

Specialized Embedded Operating System

Description

MicroEJ OS enables delivery of app-driven experiences and services similar to smartphones and tablets on devices that can’t afford to run mobile platforms. While a mobile OS typically requires gigabytes of memory and storage, and gigahertz multi-core microprocessors, which leads to high-cost hardware, MicroEJ OS can run on low-power, cost-effective megahertz microcontrollers in the range of kilobytes of memory and storage. MicroEJ OS is a scalable OS for resource-constraint devices running on 32-bit embedded microcontrollers or microprocessors. MicroEJ OS allows devices to run multiple and mixed Java and C/C++ applications.MicroEJ OS is fast – it boots in 2 ms – and is optimized for low-power. The OS engine is very compact (< 30 KB footprint) and OS services can be built to match hardware capabilities and software needs. It runs on ARM Cortex-M and A: from Cortex-M0 with 128 KB flash and 32 KB RAM, to Cortex-A9. MicroEJ OS provides a fully configurable set of services that can be expanded, including: • A multi-application framework • A basic analog and digital IO framework • A sensor framework • A USB stack- A file system (storage) • A network connection with security (SSL/TLS, HTTPS, REST…) • A GUI framework for modern 2D graphics and touch As it runs Java, MicroEJ supports all security, networking and IoT communication protocols and frameworks such as MQTT, CoAP, etc.

Supported processors

• ARM • MIPS32 • TriCore • TriCore • RX

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

16KB

Minimum storage requirements

128KB

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

Any provided by the BSP/underlying kernel

Pricing / license model

No upfront fee, but a per unit royalty

Development tools pricing / license

Price per seat

language support

Java, C and C++

Debugger tools

Eclipse, GDB, JTAG, and IAR Keil

Built-in cloud API services

Yes, Can connect easily to any cloud platform thanks to ageneric data API and agent.

Cloud Service Providers

Microsoft Azure, Amazon Web Services, Oracle Cloud Services, Eurotech, Zebra, Orange, IBM BlueMix

Development host machine requirements

• Intel Core i5 • 2 GB of RAM • Able to run Eclipse

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

Helpdesk included in price, optional support options available

www.microej.com for all details

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 23


2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST Microsoft One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052 www.microsoft.com

2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

Windows 10 IoT Enterprise and Windows 10 IoT Core

Type of embedded OS

General Purpose OS

Description

Windows 10 IoT Core is a version of Windows 10 that is optimized for smaller devices with or without a display. Windows 10 IoT Core utilizes the rich, extensible Universal Windows Platform (UWP) API for building great solutions. For commercial builders Windows 10 IoT Core provides a great platform to build your small footprint and low cost industry devices with the enterprise grade security, management and servicing similar to rest of Windows 10 editions. For Makers popular Maker boards such as Raspberry Pi2 & 3, Arrow DragonBoard 410c & MinnowBoard MAX are available, making Windows 10 IoT Core a great choice for all your Maker projects. Countless innovative projects can be built using the power of Windows on your favorite device. Windows 10 IoT Enterprise Windows 10 IoT Enterprise brings the capabilities of Windows 10 Enterprise to a wide range of industry devices across retail, manufacturing, health, finance and other industries. Windows 10 IoT Enterprise devices run powerful line of business applications and perform a specialized function in a secure, reliable, and streamlined way to support mission critical industry devices. Windows 10 IoT Enterprise supports both Universal Windows apps and Classic Windows applications plus a host of innovative capabilities: advanced protection against modern security threats, full flexibility of deployment, updating and support options, and comprehensive infrastructure, device, and app management features. Companies that require manageability, consistency, and predictability choose Windows 10 IoT Enterprise and Windows 10 Enterprise.

Supported processors

• Intel x86: IoT Core, IoT Enterprise • ARM: IoT Core

Board support package

BSP is provided by board manufacturer. QC, Intel & RPi provide BSP for the boards that work with IoT Core. Not needed for IoT Enterprise.

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

2 GB for Windows IoT Enterprise; 256MB for headless IoT Core version and 512MB for headed version.

Minimum storage requirements

Minimum storage requirements for Nucleus File System are less than 30KB.

Supported boot media

IoT Core: SSD HDD Flash SD Card Compact Flash USB Flash IoT Enterprise: SSD HDD Flash SD Card Compact Flash USB Flash

Storage support

IoT Core: SSD HDD Flash SD Card Compact Flash USB Flash IoT Enterprise: SSD HDD Flash SD Card Compact Flash USB Flash

Required firmware / bootloader

BIOS and BIOS / UEFI

Pricing / license model

Per unit

Development tools pricing / license

Free

language support

C, C++, VB.NET, Python, Javascript and F#

Debugger tools

Microsoft Visual Studio

Built-in cloud API services

Yes

Cloud Service Providers

Microsoft Azure

Development host machine requirements

• Processor Requirements x86/x64 • Minimum RAM 1GB or 2GB for x86/x64 respectively • Minimum Storage 16GB or 20GB for x86/x64

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

The Microsoft Support Lifecycle policy applies to most products currently available through retail purchase or volume licensing and most future release products. Microsoft’s current policies, detailed below, offer a minimum of: 10 years of support (a minimum of 5 years Mainstream Support and a minimum of 5 years Extended Support) at the supported service pack level for Business, Developer, and Desktop Operating System products. A minimum 5 years Mainstream Support at the supported service pack level for Consumer and Multimedia products Please refer to the following site for product specific lifecycle details. https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/lifecycle#gp/gp_msl_policy

respectively • Windows 10

Windows 10 IoT Core, Windows 10 IoT Mobile Enterprise and Windows 10 IoT Enterprise are all part of the Windows 10 IoT family of editions designed to power a wide range of intelligent devices, from small industrial gateways to larger more complex devices like point of sales terminals and ATMs. Windows 10 IoT brings the power of Windows, including security and servicing, automatic updates through Windows Update when connected to the Internet and the Universal Windows Platform (UWP) APIs that give apps easy control over system management features. Partners building solutions based on Windows 10 IoT will realize expanded opportunities when they harness the full breadth of Microsoft technologies to offer end-to-end solutions.

24 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


MontaVista 2315 N. 1st St San Jose, CA 95131 Tel: 408.943.7445 www.mvista.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

CGX 2.0

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

MontaVista® Linux® Carrier Grade eXpress (CGX) 2.0, delivers Linux reliability, security, real-time, and serviceability to embedded Internet of Things (IoT) gateways, Carrier Grade networks, NFV/SDN solutions, Military Aerospace projects, medical devices, and Industrial control systems. CGX will follow rapid release cadence (once per year) to better align with latest Yocto® releases, enabling adoption of newer Long Term Support (LTS) Kernels, Tool-chains, and emerging market technologies. CGX 2.0 leverages Yocto 2.0 and included LTS Linux kernel 4.1, GCC 5.2, and supports the lastest x86 and ARM SoCs (with MIPS and PowerPC on future roadmap). Additionally, CGX offers integrated IoT, Security, Virtualization, Dataplane, Carrier Grade technology profiles enabling developers to quickly get to market. Finally, MontaVista offers Long Term Maintenance of 10+ years on CGX, giving support assurance throughout your product’s lifecycle.

Supported processors

• PowerPC / ISA • ARM • Intel x86 • MIPs

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

1MB for kernel, 10MB for rootfs. The kernel and rootfs environment is very configurable for any application and hardware deployment. Default image size is 5MB kernel, 1GB forrootfs.

Minimum storage requirements

The host tools installation is about 1.3gb including DevRocket. Each toolchain is about 600mb additional.

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

BIOS / UEFI,Das U-Boot, and Secureboot

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, but no per unit royalty

Development tools pricing / license

Project license based. Annual subscription.

language support

Java, Python, C and C++

Debugger tools

Eclipse,GDB,JTAG,Thread Tracing

Built-in cloud API services

Yes, OpenStack and ODL based cloud framework.

Cloud Service Providers

None

Development host machine requirements

• 64 bit x86 dual core processor running at 1GHz+. 8 core processor is recommended foroptimal performance. • 4 GB of RAM (8GB is recommended) • 500MB of storage (1TB is recommended) • 1Mbps boardband network connect (10Mbps recommended). Serial or USB port to target console connectivity (depending on your target hardware).

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

10+ Years

MontaVista has been a leader in embedded Linux for 16 years. We have 100s of man years experience in processor/SoCs, Linux architecture, backporting, testing, and building quality embedded Linux platforms. MontaVista provides frequent maintenance updates on both bug fixes and critical security patches to the kernel, userland, and toolchain. MontaVista as well have various support levels to address your projects needs whether it is just answers day to day questions to embedded a MontaVista engineer into your team to handle custom or difficult Linux requirements. Finally, we are flexible in our approach and licensing and view our customer relationships as a partnership. Our goal is offering the best, high quality commercial Linux platform so you can deliver your valued solution to market.

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 25


2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST Oracle Corporation 10-th Krasnoarmeyskaya, 22a Saint-Petersburg, Russia 190103 Tel: +79219350309 www.oracle.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

Java ME Embedded 8

Type of embedded OS

General Purpose Embedded Operating System

Description

Oracle Java ME Embedded is a Java runtime that leverages the core Java technologies deployed in billions of devices around the world in the Internet of Things. The Java ME Embedded specifications are designed to be rich in functionality, portable to a wide range of devices, flexible, and secure while being very resource-efficient and keeping the demands on the underlying platform low. The product provides dedicated embedded functionality including software provisioning and management and is targeted for low-power, limited memory devices requiring support for a range of network services and I/O interfaces. Java ME Embedded has best-in-class Java Virtual Machine, including advanced multi-tasking capabilities, tuned for efficiency, footprint and robustness.

Supported processors

• Intel x86 • ARM

Board support package Source code availability

Yes

No

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

Java ME Embedded is highly configurablehighly configurable to scale across a widerange of target device The minimal RAM requirement is 128KBs. The maximum RAM requirements 32MB.

Minimum storage requirements

Minimum storage requirements are 1MB.

Supported boot media Storage support

SSD

HDD

Flash

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

Required firmware / bootloader

In many cases bootloader is not required.

Pricing / license model

No upfront fee, but a per unit royalty.

Development tools pricing / license

Free

language support

Java and JVM-based languages

Debugger tools

Eclipse and Netbeans

Built-in cloud API services

Yes

Cloud Service Providers

Oracle Cloud Services and MQTT support

Development host machine requirements

• Intel Core i5 • 4GB of RAM • 1,5 GB of storage

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

Oracle Support

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

• Platform-independent, standards-based, and efficient software environment for embedded devices - enables the rapid development and deployment of intelligent applications across a wide range of device/OS combinations. • Java runtime based on Java ME Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) 8 - features alignment with the Java SE platform for increased development efficiency and code portability, a robust and efficient multi-tasking implementation, advanced tooling, and more. • Java ME Embedded Profile (MEEP) 8 - modern, flexible embedded application platform built on CLDC 8 supports advanced security functionality, enhanced connectivity including cellular, and highly configurable to scale across a wide range of target device. • Software Provisioning and Management Functionality - enables remote software provisioning, updatability, and management • Optimized for Embedded - full headless operation, long-running operation, fine- grain security, auto-start, monitoring, and recovery, and power management • Device I/O APIs – Part of Open JDK Project. Easy access to peripherals as GPIO, I2C, SPI, AT channel, serial/UART, ADC/DAC, Pulse Counter, PWM, SD Card, and more • RESTful Web Services APIs– ready-to-use HTTP Client, JSON, OAuth 2.0 • Support for standard services APIs – File I/O (JSR 75), Wireless Messaging (JSR 120), Web Services (JSR 172), Security and Trust Services Subset (SATSA – JSR 177), Location (JSR 179), XML (JSR 280)

26 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


OAR Corporation 7047 Old Madison Pike, Suite 320 Huntsville, AL 35806 Tel: 256.361.9375 www.oarcorp.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

RTEMS

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

RTEMS is a robust open source single process, multi-threaded RTOS that supports open standard application programming interfaces (API) such as POSIX on over 175 BSPs on over fifteen architectures including ARM, PowerPC, x86, MIPS, Coldfire, and SPARC. Using the GNU tools for development, host environments include Linux, MacOS, MS-Windows, and FreeBSD. It is used in the space, medical, networking, automotive, and scientific instrument domains. RTEMS is a scaleable, highly configurable RTOS with only those features used deployed on the target. RTEMS has multiple filesystems including a RAM filesystem, JFFS2, NFS client, and FAT. Networking includes the LwIP and the FreeBSD TCP/IP stack with IPV4, IPV6, DHCP, ftpd, telnetd, and httpd. State of the art SMP support on PowerPC, ARM, SPARC, and x86 features clustered scheduling and high performance synchronization algorithms as well as OpenMP. Other features include USB, i2c, SPI, tracing, a full test suite with high coverage, and a shell with over 100 built-in commands. The twenty-five year old project is hosted at rtems.org and has a vibrant global community. Commercial support is available from US and European companies. Major decisions about RTEMS are made by the core developers in concert with the user community.

Supported processors

• Intel x86 • ARM • PowerPC / ISA • SuperH (J Core) • Other: Blackfin, Epiphany, LM32, M32C, ColdFire M68K,Microblaze, MIPS, Moxie, NIOS2, OpenRISC OR1k,SPARC (ERC32, LEON2/3/4), SPARC64, V850

Board support package

Over 175 BSPs are freely available

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

The minimal RAM requirements is 8 KBs. The maximum RAM requirements varies depending on Maximum varies greatly depending on thenumber of RTOS objects and optional features such as networking, etc., included by the user application.

Minimum storage requirements

The smallest code space for a statically linked executable is on the order of < 16K.

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

SD Card

Compact Flash

USB Flash

Other: RTEMS works with whatever mechanism is availableon the

target hardware including network boot.

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

Compact Flash

USB Flash

Other: Embedded Flash

Required firmware / bootloader

BIOS only,LILO,GRUB,Das U-Boot. RTEMS can be booted directly from CPU reset or by any firmware/bootloader available on the target hardware.

Pricing / license model

RTEMS is a completely free (no cost) open sourceRTOS. A goal of the project is to ensure that allincluded features are free and impose no restrictionsor obligations on the end user such as redistributingsource source. Commercial services are available forsupport, training, and custom development.

Development tools pricing / license

Free

language support

Java, C, C++ , and Python

Debugger tools

GDB,Eclipse

Built-in cloud API services

No

Cloud Service Providers

None

Development host machine requirements

• Any modern CPU (x86, x86_64, ARM,PowerPC,erc.) capable of supporting Linux,MS-Windows, FreeBSD, or MacOS X.Obviously, the faster

the processor, the faster the builds. • 2GB RAM on x86.RTEMS can be built on a Raspberry Pi whichhas only 512MB. • 100GB of storage is recommended to be able to build the development tools from source

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

RTEMS follows an open source community model with all development public. The community supports the development version and two previous release branch series. Support for older releases is available from commercial providers.

The RTEMS Classic API which is based upon the VITA RTEID/ORKID specifications which have a heritage in pSOS+. RTEMS supports Rate Monotonic Scheduling, Priority Ceiling Protocol, and Priority Inheritance Protocol. All source code is provided for RTEMS, optional capabilities, and development tools. A goal of the RTEMS Project is to ensure that users are able to build from source, reproduce test results, and configuration manage the source code for all of this as long as needed by very long life projects. RTEMS supports all 32-bit space hardened CPUs and has been been to Venus, Mars, and the asteroid belt. Missions include the Galileo GPS constellation, Mars Curiosity, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, ISS Express Logistics Carrier for experiments, NASA MMS, NASA SDO, NASA ICESat-2, and ESA Herschel/Planck. The RTEMS Project is active in student programs and has mentored close to 100 students through the Google Summer of Code and ESA Summer of Code in Space programs. The project has also participated in the Google Code-In program for high school students multiple times

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 27


2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST

SEGGER Microcontroller LLC 106 Front Street Winchendon, MA 01475 Tel: 978.874.0299 www.segger.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

embOS by SEGGER

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Supported processors

• ARM • PowerPC / ISA • SuperH (J Core) • All Microcontrollers and Microprocessors

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

The kernel requires approximately 70 Bytes. Additional memory is required for the task stacks.

Minimum storage requirements

embOS requires approximately 1700 bytes of storage

Supported boot media

SSD HDD Flash SD Card Compact Flash is used, the RTOS itself is agnostic of the media it is booted from.

Storage support

SSD HDD SD Card Compact Flash provided by a file system library such as emFile.

Required firmware / bootloader

embOS does not require a bootloader.

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, but no per unit royalty

Development tools pricing / license

Free

One-time fee

Price per seat

USB Flash

USB Flash

Price per company

Other: Any, this depends on whether a bootloader is used and which bootloader

Other: Any, the RTOS itself has its own memory pool which it uses. Storage support is

Other: 3rd party tools are available

language support

Java, C and C++. Other programming languages require an application layer

Debugger tools

Thread Tracing, JTAG, GDB, Microsoft Visual Studio, Eclipse and other 3rd party tools such as Rowley, Atollic, ARM, IAR

Built-in cloud API services Development host machine requirements

Yes

No

• Processor Requirements: Depends on the development environment used, no minimum requirement • Minimum RAM: Depends on the development environment used, no minimum requirement • Minimum Storage: Depends on the development environment used, no minimum requirement • Other Requirements: Development environments are available for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

There are no limitation imposed on the developer. Support is available for older versions as well.

embOS has been deployed in several million devices in a wide range of application areas. It is in the market for more than 20 years. There is no start-up overhead. embOS starts within 85 CPU cycles. embOS task switches are ultra fast. embOS behavior is deterministic and meets hard real-time conditions.

28 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


SYSGO AG Am Pfaffenstein 14 Klein-Winternheim, Germany 55270 Tel: +49 6136 9948 500 www.sysgo.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

PikeOS Real-Time Hypervisor

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System with built-in Hypervisor

Description

The PikeOS real-time hypervisor is based on a microkernel with the performance of a traditional real-time operating system. The hypervisor provides partitions that can host different applications – from a simple yet highly critical control task to a full-fledged operating system such as Linux or Android. As a consequence, embedded and IT applications can coexist on the same platform. Complex systems, consisting of multiple devices in the past, can now be consolidated on a single hardware platform. This saves weight, energy consumption and cabling and reduces the Bill of Material.The PikeOS Hypervisor itself is certified according to the highest industry standards, thus providing the foundation for mission-critical systems with both, functional safety (EN 50128, IEC 61508, DO-178, IEC 26262) and IT Security (IEC 15408) requirements. The safeguard mechanisms are essentially based on two principles: strict separation of applications by time and resource partitioning and control of the communication channels. The individual applications that comprise the overall system can represent different levels of criticality. Due to the protection mechanisms provided by PikeOS, the certification according to industry specific safety and/or security standards can be made separately for each application.

Supported processors

• PowerPC / ISA • ARM • Intel x86 • MIPs • SuperH (J Core) • SPARC

Board support package Source code availability

Yes

No

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

192kb RAM, 192kb ROM minimum requirement. Being a real-time virtualization platform, themaximum memory requirement depends on thepartition content and the number of partitions.Thus it is scalable from a few Kilo-Bites tomultiple Mega-Bytes.

Minimum storage requirements

PikeOS can reside in ROM and can be executed there. Additional storage can be used, but is not mandatory.

Supported boot media Storage support

SSD

HDD

Flash

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

Das U-Boot, GRUB, BIOS / UEFI

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, and a per unit royalty

Development tools pricing / license

Price per seat, Price per company

language support

Java, ADA, C and C++

Debugger tools

Thread Tracing, JTAG, GDB, Health Monitor and System Monitor

Built-in cloud API services

No

Cloud Service Providers

None

Development host machine requirements

• State of the art processor • 2 GB of RAM is recommended • 1GB of storage is recommended • JAVA Runtime for Eclipse

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

As PikeOS is used in many safety critical devices (air-planes, automobiles, trains, medical equipment, traffic control, …), SYSGO provides long-term support for PikeOS and its certified components. Currents contract have a period of 30+ years.

• PikeOS is the first RTOS certified to SIL-4 on a Multi-Core platform • SYSGO offers certification services for PikeOS BSPs and device drivers

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 29


2.0 THE BEST EMBEDDED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS LIST

Tenasys Corporation 1400 NW Compton Drive, #301 Beaverton, OR 97006 Tel: 503.748.4720 www.tenasys.com 2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

INtime® RTOS

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

Designed for Scalable, Multicore PC-based Embedded Solutions INtime® RTOS is an object-based, multitasking, pre-emptive, priority based, hard real-time operating system (RTOS) for creating scalable, distributed, embedded solutions. INtime® RTOS’ explicit hardware partitioning and asymmetric multicore processing (AMP) architecture extends the capabilities of today’s powerful multicore PC platforms, enabling consolidation of deterministic applications onto fewer platforms, while simultaneously providing services for global objects, allowing creation of interoperable, distributed, real time systems. INtime® RTOS runs standalone or alongside Windows and is a complete operating system that includes many services and capabilities that developers expect to see in modern operating systems to enable fast and efficient development of high-performance, reliable applications.

Supported processors

Intel x86

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

Minimum typical 32 megabytes. Up to 4 gig memory per process per node. Each process has its own full memory space, limited only by the platform’s physical memory space.

Minimum storage requirements

Approx 100 megabytes

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

BIOS/UEFI

Pricing / license model

Upfront fee, and a per unit royalty

Development tools pricing / license

Price per seat

language support

C and C++

Debugger tools

Microsoft Visual Studio and Serial Console, Proprietary Windows-based (Spider)

Built-in cloud API services

None

Cloud Service Providers

Various 3rd party clouds are supported.

Development host machine requirements

X86, PC Windows-based in both 32 and 64 bit environments, Visual Studio 2008 and beyond

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

Retain binary-compatibility with previous customer versions. Actively support updates and regular release versions along with bug fixes for major releases.

Tenasys has a long legacy of strong technology expertise (35 years) to its software products. Proven in several decades in fields such as medical electronics, industrial control, robotics, test & measurement, and military applications, Tenasys provides strong networking services, global support and customer expertise in hypervisor and embedded virtualization technologies.

30 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


Wind River 500 Wind River Alameda, CA 94501 Tel: 510.749.2727

www.windriver.com

AN INTEL COMPANY

2016 RTC Software Survey Questionnaire Flagship Embedded OS

VxWorks

Type of embedded OS

Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)

Description

Powering billions of intelligent devices, VxWorks is the world’s most widely deployed real-time operating system (RTOS). It delivers unrivaled deterministic performance and sets the standard for a scalable, future-proof, safe, and secure operating environment for connected devices in the Internet of Things (IoT). Leading global innovators in aerospace and defense, automotive, industrial, medical, and networking industries use VxWorks to create winning, IoT-ready products. VxWorks supports the broadest spectrum of silicon architectures, including ARM, PowerPC, and Intel. Its large ecosystem of validated, thirdparty solutions from trusted partners, enables customers to differentiate their platforms with best-of-breed capabilities, reduce development costs, and accelerate time-to-market.

Supported processors

• Intel x86 • ARM • PowerPC / ISA • SuperH (J Core) • Other: MIPs

Board support package

Yes

No

Source code availability

Yes

No

RAM memory requirements

As low as 300kb

Minimum storage requirements

Minimum storage requirements for Nucleus File System are less than 30KB.

Supported boot media

SSD

HDD

Flash

Storage support

SSD

HDD

SD Card

SD Card

Compact Flash

Compact Flash

USB Flash

USB Flash

Other_____________________

Other (please specify)

Required firmware / bootloader

Wind River Boot Loader, IOS only, BIOS / UEFI, GRUB and Das U-Boot,

Pricing / license model

Wind River offers different operating system productsto fit the varied requirements of customers acrossdifferent industries along with flexible pricing modelsthat range from free to fee based.

Development tools pricing / license

Price per seat

language support

Java, C and C++

Debugger tools

JTAG,and Eclipse

Built-in cloud API services

Yes

Cloud Service Providers

IBM Blue Mix, Wind River Helix Device Cloud, and others coming soon

Development host machine requirements

• Pentium machine • At least 2GB of RAM • 10GB of storage

RTOS/OS product support lifecycle

VxWorks is backed by our award-winning global support organization. Wind River offers a variety of product support offerings to fit the needs of our customers during various stages of their device’s life and to ensure we partner together with our customers to meet the longterm requirements of their end-customers. Wind River offers live help in multiple time zones, the online Wind River Support Network with multifaceted self-help options, and premium services to provide the fastest possible time-to-resolution. We are proud to have achieved Service Capability and Performance certification, recognized as the gold standard for delivering world-class customer support.

The VxWorks product family provides a suite of offerings to cover all ranges of devices from single function, unregulated to the most complex, heavily regulated devices requiring strict certification requirements such as ARINC 653, DO-178, FACE, MILS, IEC 61508 and others. This includes devices built for aerospace and defense, automotive, industrial, medical, space, transportation, and other industries. In addition to unrivaled deterministic performance, VxWorks offers advanced middleware and protocols for security, safety, networking, connectivity, device manageability, user interface, and graphics that customers require to create the most demanding devices for the Internet of Things (IoT).

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 31


3.0 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST?

The RTOS Dilemma: Are Open Source RTOSes Economic or Costly? Developers are barraged with claims that developments based on open source software are less expensive that those developments using commercial OSes. This paper presents data based on development information from more than 2700 developers that discuss this issue by Jerry Krasner, Embedded Market Forecasters

Overview

Theodore Levitt, the renowned Harvard professor used to tell his students “People don’t want to buy a quarter-inch drill; they want a quarter-inch hole”. Following this line of thought, prices may vary depending on the type of drill required but the true cost of getting their quarter-inch hole depends more on the cost of the drill used as well as the time required of someone to drill it. Similarly, the acquisition of the RTOS is not for the RTOSes sake – but rather a choice in search of a cost effective and time sensitive design/development solution. 32 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016

The RTOS enigma can be seen in the same light. It matters little if the drill bit is free or if it comes at a price. The true cost includes more than the acquisition cost. Intuitively, the idea that a “free” RTOS reduces development costs can be no more than fanciful thinking – it depends on facts, not on anecdotes. Anecdotes are not data – they supplement ideas for which no data exists (true or false) to provide guidance to developers, managers and CFOs Every day developers are barraged with claims and count-


er claims regarding the use of RTOSes, development tools, programming languages, and more. FUD has become less than an idea and more of an institutional malaise. It frequently masquerades as a reasonable idea – open source software, for example, is “free” or so their proponents proclaim. But is there any comprehensive source of user data that can validate this claim? In this paper we will present a financial comparison (Cost of Development) between the RTOS industry, a specific example of a commercial RTOS, Linux developments and open source developments. The results may be surprising to some and not so to others. The data presented herein is based on the results of the 2016 Annual EMF Embedded Developer Survey (1298 respondents) and is nearly identical to the data derived from 1337 respondents in 2015. In developing this cost data (using our unique EMF Dashboard www.embeddedforecast.com) we were able to do a simultaneous comparison of the data presented in the following Tables by determining the number of software developers per project, the time period from design start to project/product shipment, and the percentage of designs completed behind schedule. EMF, based on the responses to their 2016 Survey of Embedded Developers (1298 respondents), created six cadres of data by filtering the responses to developers using any RTOS; those using a commercially available (3 examples); those using Linux and those having reported using open source software. As this is a vendor agnostic paper, the commercial RTOSes are referred to as Commercial A, Commercial B and Commercial C. THE DATA IS ACCURATE – JUST THE NAMES HAVE BEEN WITHHELD. Simultaneously arranging them in matrix format comparative data was derived from the database as follows: • Number of software and hardware developers per project • Number of months between project start and project

completion (development duration) • Percentage of developments completed behind schedule and the number of months of behind schedule activity THESE DATA CAN BE USED TO CALCULATE THE AVERAGE TOTAL COST OF DEVELOPMENT. • Multiplying the number of developers per project by the development duration yields “Base Development Cost in Man Months” • Multiplying the number of developers per project by the percent of behind schedule completions and by the number of months the development was behind yields “Behind Schedule Costs in Man Months” • Combining these “Costs in Man Months” yields “Total Cost of Development” measured in man months. By assuming that on average a developer man month (salary plus overhead) equal to $10,000, the comparative Total Cost of Developments for the six cadres can be shown in dollars. WHAT WE LEARNED FROM TABLE I: • One needs to look at the factors that create total direct costs – not at any one particular data point. Developers can improve time-to-market by adding more developers to the project – but at an increased cost. Comparing behind schedule completions to each other can also be misleading. The cost of the loss in schedule time depends on the number of project developers as well as the number of months lost to schedule • The Average Cost of Development (measured in man months) is measured by multiplying the number of developers required for a project by the number of months required to complete the project. • Although the average number of developers/project is better for Commercial RTOSes A and C , Commercial RTOS B

2016

RTOS INDUSTRY

COMMERCIAL RTOS A

COMMERCIAL RTOS B

COMMERCIAL RTOS C

OPEN SOURCE

EMB LINUX

Development time in months

12.5

12.2

13.8

12.8

12.6

13.6

% behind schedule

36.7%

30.3%

24.4%

36.0%

39.0%

38.9%

Months behind

3.6

4.0

3.8

3.7

3.8

4.0

SW Developers/proj

8.3

6.5

7.9

6.3

9.7

9.3

Average Developer months/project

103.8

79.3

109.0

80.6

122.2

126.5

Developer months lost to schedule

11.0

7.9

7.3

8.4

14.4

14.5

Total developer months/ project

114.7

87.2

116.3

89.0

136.6

141.0

Average developer cost/project

$1,037,500

$793,000

$1,090,200

$806,400

$1,222,200

$1,264,800

Average cost to delay

$109,660

$78,780

$73,249

$83,916

$143,754

$144,708

Total developer cost/project

$1,147,160

$871,780

$1,163,449

$890,316

$1,365,954

$1,409,508

At $10,000/developer month

Table 1: Total Costs of Development: Comparing Developent Costs of Commercial Oses with those of Open Source and Embedded Linux Developments

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 33


3.0 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST? WITHIN 10% FOR:

RTOS INDUSTRY

COMMERCIAL RTOS A

COMMERCIAL RTOS B

COMMERCIAL RTOS C

OPEN SOURCE

EMB LINUX

Performance

46.0%

68.4%

47.6%

49.7%

53.7%

56.5%

Systems Functionality

45.0%

57.9%

52.4%

37.6%

48.2%

54.7%

Table 2: Comparing Design Outcomes between Commercial Oses and those of Open Source anad Embedded Linux Developments

had many fewer behind schedule completions and yet RTOS A had a 33,4% lower cost of development than RTOS B • What is important to cost sensitive managers (including CFOs) is the 6 cost figures presented in Table I. Namely Average Man Months/project; Man Months lost to behind schedule completion; Man Months lost to Cancellation; and Total Average Man Months required for completion. • In addition, it makes sense that projects that require few months to complete don’t experience the burden of lost opportunities that longer projects may incur. Our data cannot account for this • To complete the cost analysis one needs to include the RTOS acquisition cost. To be fair in calculating comparative costs between commercial RTOSes and open source developments, one needs to add acquisition costs to the cost figures

IS AM HIL IS DDOLORERE PERNATIA seri in exerovi duntia vent. Ilitatque dolecto enet lam accae nobitincid eatur.

presented in Table I Looking at Table I might lead some readers to conclude that the average cost of development is the same for all RTOS developments, which includes Linux developments and open source developments. This is not necessarily so. There are a number of high power commercial RTOSes for which the cost of development is very high as well as a number of commercial RTOSes whose development costs are much lower than those of Linux or open source developments. The important take away from Table I is that although most Linux and open source software is free – that is free of acquisition costs – it can’t be really free if the actual cost of development is greater than the cost of a commercial RTOS. What Table I doesn’t take into consideration is whether the design was compromised (by removing features and capabilities) in order to meet a target window of opportunity. In such

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34 | RTC Magazine MAY 2015 2016


a design might appear to be cost effective but fail to reach its intended capabilities. The 2016 survey and associated data address this possibility. EMF calls this “Design Outcomes” in which developers indicate how close their final design outcome compares with their pre-design expectation. Developers are given choices from within 10% to within 50% with 10% intervals and a final data point “not within 50%”. Clearly “within 10%” represents the best possible design outcome and shows that feature and capability requirements were met.

Summary

In an increasingly competitive embedded environment where cost containment and time to market are keys to success, it is important to inform developers and financial managers to the realities that extensive and comprehensive surveys can reveal. The use of Linux and open source software can be very effective – but there are reasons why developing with them is more expensive. This is a topic for a future discussion. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to put forward a rational discussion regarding the use of commercial and so-called “free” software. The data presented in Tables I and II are based on data derived from a broad user base. Certainly, we may find that for certain verticals and for specific projects open source outcomes may prove to be less costly. The 2016 EMF database

includes 32 different design projects reported by developers. In addition, we can break out developments into 4 distinct levels of complexity as well according to whether or not cadres of developers are working on IoT applications. We did not pursue these possibilities. For example, when looking specifically at automotive/transportation applications, open source developments have been found to have the same or slightly better costs of development than those using a commercial RTOS. What we have presented here is data regarding costs of development between commercial and free RTOSes based on yearover-year data derived from over 2600 survey respondents. Let’s base future discussions on these or other statistically accurate information – not on anecdotal stories. About the author: Jerry Krasner, Ph.D., MBA is VP and Chief Analyst at Embedded Market Forecasters, a Division of American Technology International, Inc. Before moving to the analyst side of the marketplace he was the co-founder of 4 medical device companies, two of which were taken public. www.embeddedforecast.com

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RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 35


3.1 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST?

An Industry in Transition: The Impact of Technical Debt on the Internet of Things Software testing is an industry in transition as we become increasingly dependent on products whose functionality is controlled by software. For example, the industry is learning to adapt to the effects of Technical Debt on IoT as more devices become interconnected. by William McCaffrey, Co-founder and Chief Operating Officer of Vector Software

Introduction

Software was once seen as the “holy grail;” since it is not mechanical, many organizations figured it could be written once and used many times without breaking down. But problems began to appear, ultimately caused by the continual development of software without the correct quality control processes, typically due to incredible business pressures to release new products. This has resulted in legacy software applications carrying an enormous amount of technical debt, a metaphorical term for latent defects introduced during system architecture, design or development. The accumulated liability of technical debt created when organizations take design and test shortcuts in order to meet short-term goals eventually make software difficult to maintain. As technical debt increases, developers spend a majority of their time fixing bugs and struggling with fragile code, rather than building new features. For this reason, legacy code bases are one of the biggest challenges in software today. Many organizations are finding that legacy software typically has a waning lifespan; after that, they are forced to decide whether to throw it away and start again from scratch or try to salvage it. In most cases, a substantial financial investment has been made in the code base, and there is tremendous pressure to re-use it.

Security Concerns Increasing in an IoT World

When software was held in proprietary systems or closed enterprise environments, technical debt issues could stay somewhat contained. However, with the Internet of Things (IoT) enabling the interconnection of the physical and virtual world based on interoperable communication technologies, technical debt becomes a more serious problem. Gartner predicted that there would be “4.9 billion connected things in 2015, up 30% from 2014, and… [could] reach 25 billion by 2020. Note 1” In IoT, essentially every electronic device will have network 36 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016

connectivity. That means every manufacturer of electronic devices will also be in the software business. This redefines the need for security by expanding the scope of responsibility into new platforms and services. The demand for predictable behavior is paramount, especially if the safety of users or the environment is at risk. However, in a fiercely competitive industry such as IoT, first-to-market advantage is huge, and developers will be under intense pressure to get products released quickly. It has been proven time and again in software development that this thinking sacrifices quality for speed. This tradeoff can be dangerous with regard to many IoT-enabled products such as smart cars, medical devices and home safety systems. Malfunction of these systems can put lives at risk. Stricter software quality measures and a focus on testing are going to be a top priority for many senior executives.

Characterizing the Behavior of Software

The key to reducing technical debt is to refactor components (the process of restructuring application components without changing its external behavior/API) over time, but developers are often hesitant to do so for fear of breaking existing functionality. One of the biggest impediments to refactoring is the lack of tests that formalize existing behavior, or a testing environment that proves the correct behavior of the component. Without refactoring, an application’s code becomes overly complicated and difficult to maintain. As new features and bug fixes are bolted onto existing functionality, the original design often loses its simplicity. According to a Gartner study, “a lack of repeatable test cases limits an organization’s ability to demonstrate functional equivalence in an objective, measurable way. Note 2” This is a growing problem as there are many deployed/fielded applications based on legacy code bases that don’t have test cases to run against. The reason companies are facing an issue in the first place is often that they want to deploy software in a new platform/product and they have essentially broken the existing test frameworks needed


Figure 1: Approach to paying off technical debt. Once the behavior of software has been baselined, developers can make modifications to the code with confidence that application behavior has not regressed.

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RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 37


3.1 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST? to validate the software. There is a massive quality gap that needs to be addressed along with insurmountable work ahead – and companies usually don’t know where to start or don’t have the resources needed to address the problem. The lack of sufficient tests typically means that a software application cannot be easily modified since, unfortunately, changes frequently break existing functionality. If some existing capability is broken, the developer needs to understand if it was because the original software was written incorrectly or missed a requirement that wasn’t adequately captured in the original implementation. Baseline testing, also known as characterization testing, can be done to characterize the current behavior of software and is useful for legacy code bases that have inadequate test cases. Once the current behavior of the software is understood, it is then reasonable to look at the source code as a basis for defining test scenarios. By using automatic test case generation to quickly provide this baseline set of tests that capture existing behavior, testing completeness of legacy applications is improved and refactoring can be done with confidence that application behavior has not regressed.

Approach for Paying Off Technical Debt

The baseline testing process will determine how much technical debt an application is carrying. To address it, an organization will usually attempt to go through an exercise of refactoring. Once the behavior of the software has been characterized through baseline testing, a developer can start making updates and modifications to the code. Change-based testing can then be used to run only the minimum set of test cases needed to show what effect the code changes have on the integrity of the whole system. It is not uncommon for a company to take one to two weeks to run all of its test cases. With change-based testing, a developer can make a “one-line” change and get feedback on its impact to the entire application within a few minutes. (See Figure 1) As a result, developers are able to make quick increments on the code while knowing that they have the test cases needed to capture the existing behavior of the software. They are also able to do further analysis if something is broken to work out if a bug has been introduced, a capability has been removed that actually should be there, or if there is a bug that should be addressed because it may have other ramifications.

IoT and Legacy Software: When Consumer-Grade Systems Become Safety-Critical

There has been an interesting shift driven by IoT that has resulted in a new generation of software that previously did not have safety-critical requirements but now does. For example, in the era of self-driving cars, the telematics system is becoming one of the most critical in-vehicle systems. Autonomous driving capabilities have shifted this software-driven system from a consumer-grade communication application to safety-critical as certain autonomous driving capabilities are reliant on telematics information. This telematics information is enabling potentially life-saving applications. For example, if a vehicle five cars in front of yours brakes, instead of you having to wait for a visual cue from the

38 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016

vehicle directly in front, the vehicle five cars ahead will send a broadcast to your vehicle over the telematics interface that it is braking –and that your vehicle also needs to start braking now. In this case, faulty software has severe ramifications, so quality is no longer an option -- it is a necessity. Existing software usually has to be updated to accommodate these new capabilities and there often isn’t evidence to demonstrate how the software worked correctly in the past. Baseline testing can be used to characterize the behavior of the existing software and to build the test cases needed to enable developers to make needed updates with quality and confidence. In this example, the telematics system could possibly have latent system defects (technical debt) that may not be critical in its current environment -- but if the product were to be deployed in another environment, those errors could manifest themselves as critical. Baseline testing has two main benefits here: it will uncover the latent bugs, and when developers are doing a new revision in the software, they can more easily make those changes without worrying about new issues as a result. Note 1: Gartner, Concurrent Software License Metrics Are Disappearing and Require Proactive Negotiation to Minimize Material Budget Risk, Rob Wilkes, July 10, 2015 Note 2: Gartner, Monitor Key Milestones When Migrating Legacy Applications, Dale Vecchio, May 18, 2015

About the author: William McCaffrey co-founded Vector Software in 1990. McCaffrey teamed with John Paliotta in 1994 to develop the initial VectorCAST® dynamic testing product. He is currently the COO overseeing worldwide sales and marketing operations and business development activities at Vector Software, and has over 30 years of experience in software development specializing in safety-critical embedded systems. www.vectorcast.com


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3.2 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST?

Safety-critical RTOS Demands Verified Correctness The real-time operating systems used in safety-critical applications must offer more than fast, deterministic real-time response. They must offer time and space partitioning facilities that ensure that critical tasks run to completion and prevent errant and malicious code from corrupting critical functions. They must also undergo rigorous design and development processes that verify correctness by Greg Rose, Vice president of marketing, DDC-I

From avionics and automotive control to medical instrumentation, there is a special class of applications where fast and available are not enough. In these life or death applications, the software must also exhibit safety criticality. This heightened level of reliability ensures that the software is verified correct to minimize failure, and that if it does fail, that the design level and system safety assessment minimize the threat to life and limb.

40 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016

Undergirding this special breed of software is the safety-critical real-time operating system, which ensures that applications have guaranteed access to computer resources, and that if they fail, the damage is contained and the most critical functions continue to run. These RTOSes must be not only fast, secure, and reliable, but exhibit verified correctness through a rigid design and development process. A safety-critical RTOS must


adhere to the most stringent development, analysis, verification, and test methodologies, and undergo the most extensive certification processes by industry and governmental certification authorities.

Verifying and certifying safety criticality

Nowhere is the demand for safety criticality greater than in avionics, where DO-178C sets the guidance for verification and certification. DO-178C specifies five levels of design assurance (Level A to Level E), with Level A being the most stringent. Software that can result in a catastrophic failure and loss of life must meet Level A, where the probability of failure cannot exceed more than one in 109 per operating hour. At the other end of the design assurance level (DAL) spectrum is Level E, which applies to software that canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t impact safe operation of the aircraft, such as passively collecting maintenance data over time for later analysis. DAL A verification ensures that software performs its intended function to an appropriate degree of confidence, detecting and reporting software errors that have been introduced during the software development process. It confirms that all executable code traces to system, software architecture, and source code requirements, and that 100% of the code paths have been tested. This becomes particularly important as the RTOS and application software evolve, making it easier to identify and eliminate dead code that can creep into the design as new features, upgrades and fixes are added. Verification consists of three activities: review, testing and analysis. Review is a qualitative assessment of compliance with requirements, architecture and verifiability to ensure accuracy, correctness, consistency and completeness. Testing demonstrates that the software meets requirements, and to a given degree of confidence, that errors that could lead to unacceptable failure conditions (i.e., incorrect software, incorrect requirements, incorrect test case) have been removed. Hardware/software integration tests verify correct operation in the target environment. Software integration tests verify

software interfaces and interdependencies such as initialization, control and data coupling. Analysis is a quantitative assessment of accuracy, correctness, consistency and completeness that utilizes test analysis, coverage analysis, and traceability analysis. The purpose of structural coverage analysis, which encompasses statement coverage, decision coverage, and modified condition decision coverage (MC/DC), is to ensure adequacy of the test set -- that sufficient testing has been done for the desired assurance level.

Traceability

Traceability analysis makes it easier for designers to verify that software developed using techniques like UML and mathematical modeling, object-oriented programming, and formal methods achieves the desired level of safety criticality. It ensures that every requirement is implemented and tested, and that every line of code has a reason to be (all code traces to at least one requirement). Traceability must be top-down and bottom-up, from models and requirements down to each line of code, and back from the code to the requirements and model, including all interceding work products and test cases. Traceability also requires that the executable code be intact relative to the source code. Many compilers, for example, add branch points in the executable code that are not present in the original source code. These branch points must be identified and tested. Conversely, some optimizations can remove constructs, data in particular, especially static data.

Time and space partitioning

Unlike conventional RTOSes, which utilize purely pre-emptive, interrupt driven scheduling, safety-critical RTOSes like Deos may utilize a hybrid approach that combines pre-emptive scheduling with time partitioning. In this model, safety-critical tasks are budgeted a fixed period time that guarantees sufficient time to execute. If they exceed their budget, an exception will be raises that can be handled appropriately by the system. Remaining tasks run within their time budgets to completion, or until

Figure 1: By reducing cache interference, cache partitioning reduces both worst-case execution time (WCET) and the delta between WCET and average case execution time (ACET). This not only speeds cache access for critical tasks, but increases budgeting efficiency and CPU utilization.

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 41


3.2 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST? they are pre-empted by a higher priority task. Most safety critical RTOSes utilize a partitioned memory architecture that allows programmers to run the kernel and all critical application tasks each in their own separate memory partitions, where they cannot be corrupted by code running in other partitions. This not only enhances safety by isolating and containing failures, it also enhances security by preventing lower design assurance or malicious user code from accessing the memory allocated to critical tasks. RTOSes such as Deos afford an extra level of protection that prevents developers of lower design assurance code or less experienced developers from allocating and accessing critical portions of memory. Typically, it is the least skilled developer who poses the greatest risk to system integrity. The Deos platform integrator prevents novice developers who would likely be working on tasks with the lowest safety criticality requirements from allocating memory reserved to critical tasks or critical resources by defining their access privileges in the system registry.

Performance considerations

While the ability to respond quickly to external events is key to any real-time system, it is the ability to minimize worst-case execution time for critical tasks while guaranteeing those tasks sufficient time to execute that characterizes safety-critical systems. For developers, managing shared resources is essential to minimizing worst case execution times (WCET) for critical tasks. For example, on-chip cache allows processors to run at onchip memory bus speeds and increases overall compute power. However, task switching and competition for cache resources can degrade cache performance and dramatically increase WCET. Benchmarks show that WCET can be three times higher than average-case execution time (ACET) on single-core processors, and an order of magnitude (or more) higher on multi-core

processors due to cache effects. To help programmers isolate safety-critical tasks from detrimental cache effects, DDC-Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Deos safety-critical operating system utilizes a technique called cache partitioning (Figure 1). By setting aside dedicated sections of the cache for critical tasks (or groups of tasks), developers can reduce interference and provide timely, deterministic access to cache. This reduces WCET, thereby decreasing the amount of time that must be budgeted for critical tasks, maximizing the â&#x20AC;&#x153;guaranteedâ&#x20AC;? execution time available to safety-critical tasks, and increasing CPU utilization. Slack scheduling further increases performance by enabling programmers to harvest the unused time budgeted to time-critical tasks (Figure 2). While cache partitioning reduces the delta between WCET and ACET, time-critical tasks will on average still use less time than they are budgeted. Slack scheduling enables that unused time to be recouped on the fly and made available to other threads.

FACE brings interoperability to safety critical software

No discussion of safety critical software development would be complete without a word on cost and time to market, where vendor lock and proprietary interfaces have exacerbated the already steep costs and long delays associated safety-critical verification and certification. Leading the charge for cost containment in the software realm is the Future Airborne Capability Environment (FACE), a collaboration of government and industry charged with enhancing interoperability and portability across DoD avionics applications and platforms. By establishing standards for software interfaces, interoperability and certification, FACE will reduce vendor lock, opening what have historically been sole-sourced software solutions from one vendor to interoperable solutions from multiple suppliers. This increased competition not only lowers per-program cost, but also makes it easier for program managers to take advantage of best-in-class technology and services. The new standards will also enhance portability and reuse, further reducing cost by making it easier to utilize software components across multiple platforms and programs. As part of the FACE initiative,

Figure 2: Time-critical tasks typically use less time on average than they are budgeted worst case. Slack scheduling enables that unused time to be harvested in real time and made available to other threads, thereby boosting CPU utilization.

42 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


the consortium has developed a base profile for RTOSes that combines ARINC-653 and POSIX scheduling. The ARINC-653 interface provides the rigid fixed-in-time scheduling required for tasks with high safety criticality, while POSIX enables developers to quickly access third party code for less critical functions such as maintenance functions with lower or no safety criticality requirements. DDC-I and On-Line Applications Research (OAR), the original developer of the RTEMS real-time operating system, have announced an integrated solution for the FACE Safety Base Profile that incorporates ARINC-653 and POSIX functionality running on DDC-Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Deos. The integration features RTEMS hosted in a Deos time partition, giving safety-critical developers a DO-178C certifiable RTOS solution that delivers hard real-time response, time- and space-partitioning, and both POSIX and ARINC-653 interfaces.

Reverse engineered or safety critical by design

Most so-called safety-critical RTOSes are actually generic RTOSes reverse engineered to comply with DO-178C. Rather than starting with safety-critical requirements and producing RTOS code that is optimized for those requirements, this bandaid approach starts with RTOS code and generates requirements

that are optimized for the code. RTOSes like Deos, by contrast, was developed from the ground up for safety-critical applications using RTCA DO-178B, Level A processes. This not only enhances safety critical performance and functionality, but provides a streamlined path to DO-178 Level A certification. Performance, functionality, cost and time to market will always top the list for developers seeking an optimal safety-critical COTS RTOS solution, but what really separates safety-critical RTOSes from their generic counterparts is verified correctness. Where safety is paramount, developers must be confident that their RTOS of choice has been scrutinized at the highest level, run the gauntlet of analysis, test, and verification, and can meet the most demanding certification requirements. About the author: Greg Rose is the vice president of product management and marketing at DDC-I. He has over 30 years of experience in marketing, product management, business development and engineering in embedded software, hardware and intellectual property licensing. Greg is a graduate of the Iowa State University, where he earned a bachelor of science in electrical engineering. www.ddci.com

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RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 43


3.3 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST?

Securing Control Over the IIoT: RTOS Comes to the Rescue The increasing connectivity of intelligent industrial devices presents a tremendous opportunity to transform industry. The opportunity, however, brings potential new vulnerability. Building ICS cyber security into control systems at birth can provide the deep protection that must accompany the advance of the Industrial Internet of Things. by Albert Rooyakkers, Founder, CTO, VP Engineering, Bedrock Automation

Instrumentation and Control System (ICS) vendors have been delivering Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) solutions since mid-1990s. But now, as the tentacles of Moore’s law, software and communication standards spawn more powerful, more connected – and potentially more vulnerable devices, it is time to reexamine the fundamental assumptions about protecting this modern technology and the data that courses through it. Legacy ICS systems, such as DCS, PLC, and SCADA systems, were engineered using electronic technologies and tools from as far back as the 1970s and 1980s. These ICS systems are now vulnerable to rogue actors and nations armed with cyber weapons orders of magnitude more sophisticated than the traditional ICSs they target. Typical legacy systems expose pins, connectors, communication ports, circuit boards and a host of back door operating system, communication and application vulnerabilities. Cyber-attack vectors of legacy platforms involve message flooding, eavesdropping, message spoofing, message alteration, message replay, malformed messages, server profiling, session hijacking, rogue servers, module counterfeiting and compromised user credentials. They intend to achieve remote control of the system or process, steal intellectual property or both The best alternative and most modern approach to ICS cyber security is ensuring that it is designed in. This requires layering strong authentication of the ICS hardware, firmware, software, communications and applications that comprise ICS computation, designing out most attack vectors and their consequences. Following are some of the fundamental cyber building blocks of a secure by design ICS.

Pins and interconnections

ICS backplane and module pins provide another simple means for a host of cyber attacks including snooping and inserting communication traffic via these pins. Replacing the ICS backplane and module pins with a pinless electromagnetic interconnection, which is keyed and protected against snooping and insertion of unintended data packets, is an effective way to counter a frontal assault through pinned interconnections. (Figure 1) ICS module and backplane pins serve as power and communication terminals that route, receive and radiate DC to RF energy. Every pin is an antenna susceptible to RFI bursts from handheld radios; and EMI from motors, variable frequency drives and other electrical equipment. In addition, most ICS system modules are constructed of vented plastic. These factors make systems so susceptible to RFI that even a handheld radio

Secure by Design: The basics

Legacy ICS system modules are often left with multiple communication ports including serial RS232, RS422, RS485 and/or multiple USB and Ethernet ports for debugging, diagnostic and interconnection purposes. Most of these ports provide potential access to system resources and cyber-attack. A modern ICS design, fundamentally, should eliminate all but the essential network ports and then secure and authenticate all devices and networks that connect to it.

44 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016

Figure 1: The pin-less electromagnetic backplane of the Bedrock™ industrial control system has a parallel architecture that supports ultra-fast scan times regardless of I/O count. The removal of I/O pins improves reliability and increases cyber security while forming a galvanic isolation barrier for every I/O channel.


can distort and disrupt communication and computation. From crude “RFI bombs” to complex EMP weapons, electromagnetic radiation is an ICS cyber vulnerability. A pinless backplane and sealed all-metal modules counter this threat without expensive, complex secondary containment.

Counterfeiting protection

Module counterfeiting is widespread. Rogue actors, companies and nations incorporate malware into counterfeit hardware modules. It is virtually impossible detect a fake from a real factory module. Bolted-on cyber protection cannot defend against this, but deeply embedded module hardware, firmware and software authentication built upon very strong encryption can identify and reject even sophisticated fakes instantly, disallowing the counterfeit module from booting compromising software.

Digging deeper

Security begins with the modular components of the system. The first requirement is a secure boot. No unauthorized party should be able to tamper with the software while the processor is starting up – protection that cannot be just bolted-on. A secure boot starts with an initial phase loaded from on chipmasked ROM, so it must be built into the microprocessor silicon. Numerical crypto keys that authenticate, decrypt, load and start additional levels of encrypted software would be stored in this secure memory. A secure ICS must be able to start up and decay in a secure state. Intentional or unintentional power cycling must not degrade the level of cyber protection and cyber security. Secure boot of every system-wide microprocessor is essential to meet this requirement.

ware and digital component technology. All this imposes further requirements on the processor silicon. It must not only support a secure method to store private keys but also be able to perform the required encryption and decryption calculations. Hardware mathematical acceleration is required to ensure that built-in security does not degrade the primary objective of an ICS to perform real-time process control and monitoring.

Random numbers

High quality random numbers are fundamental to modern cryptography. They are used in real time to generate symmetric keys or as an initialization vector for an authentication protocol. An example is a nonce, an arbitrary single use number used in authentication to prevent the reuse of older communications, a vulnerability known as a replay attack. There are two types of random number generators: pseudo random and true random. Pseudo random numbers (PRNG) are mathematically generated in software while true random numbers (TRNG), also called entropy engines, are hardware based and far less vulnerable to discovery. The strength of the system security can be directly correlated to the quality of the randomness of the numbers. A secure ICS should be built with every microprocessor having its own advanced hardware based TRNG.

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Going long

ICS modules must be designed for a service life of many years, often decades. Because of Moore’s Law, the strength of encryption methods degrades over time, so a modern secure ICS design must use the strongest encryption available today.

Encryption fundamentals

There are two basic methods for encryption: symmetric encryption, also known as secret key encryption, and asymmetric encryption, also known as public key encryption. Symmetric encryption requires that both parties share a secret key that can be compromised on even the most tightly coupled networks, while asymmetric encryption uses a public key and a private (or secret) key pair. The public key can be shared and accessed without compromising the private key and message. The private key provides the means to create digital signatures, which can only be verified with the associated public key. Digital signatures then provide the means by which other entities can verify the integrity and authenticity of data sent with a particular private key. A secure ICS uses a combination of the two methods, depending on many factors. Importantly every individual system module and digital component requires private key(s). Security depends upon keeping the private keys secret. This can only be achieved if the key protection is deeply embedded and built into the hard-

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挀漀渀最愀ⴀ吀匀㄀㜀    ⴀ 㘀琀栀 䜀攀渀攀爀愀琀椀漀渀 䤀渀琀攀氀글 䌀漀爀攀∡    ⴀ 䤀渀琀攀氀글 䜀攀渀㤀 䠀䐀 䜀爀愀瀀栀椀挀猀    

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 45


3.3 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST?

Figure 2: Layered and embedded security is outlined by this array of the cyber technologies that are combined in Bedrock system modules. With these cyber tools, deep authentication of the module components, hardware, firmware, operating system and applications occur.

Operating systems and cyber security

One of the more important technology selections in a secure-by-design system is the operating system. A general purpose operating system (OS) manages a computer’s basic functions and provides services to other applications running on the computer. An RTOS (real time operating system) provides more deterministic event driven scheduling of computer resources. An ICS will use an RTOS in the control, I/O and network computers and a general purpose OS in the workstation application computers. (Figure 2) Operating system cyber vulnerabilities are many and can wreak havoc on system security because they directly affect all aspects of the hardware computing engines. While Windows™ and Linux dominate the OS market, there are actually more than 50 commercially available RTOSs and choosing the right one will have a significant impact on the cyber strength of control, I/O and network computing. The operating system must have the inherent architecture to support integrated and validated middleware, secure communication stacks, network security protocols and embedded encryption libraries for safety and security applications. In Bedrock Automation’s patented OSA™ secure architecture, for example, backplane power paths are parallel, redundant and channel independent for every slot versus a typical ICS serial multi-drop power bus. Each OSA™ power path to each slot is individually monitored and controlled by the Secure Power Module and Controller. A user can shut off the power to a single slot if required and the system does it automatically if the slot is empty.

Success metrics

One metric test that can help determine if the OS is robust enough for intrinsic cyber security protection is Evaluation

46 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016

Assurance Level (EAL1 through EAL7). EAL is a numerical grade assigned following the completion of a Common Criteria security evaluation, an international standard of security testing in effect since 1999. An increasing assurance level denotes increased assurance requirements required to achieve Common Criteria certification and to provide higher confidence that the system’s security features are reliably implemented.

Conclusion

Achieving a modern secure by design automation platform is a complex challenge but when properly designed and executed, the resulting system cyber security is not only more effective but can be much simpler for users and easier to implement than the bolted-on status quo at significantly lower security lifecycle costs… and when simplicity reigns, security wins. About the author: Albert Rooyakkers has more than 30 years of process control and electronics experience. Before founding Bedrock Automation he directed business and application development teams for Maxim Integrated Products, including serving as Japan country manager. He has also served in product and business development capacities for Invensys (now part of Schneider Electric). Albert holds more than 50 patents in electronics, automation systems and cyber security, with an additional 30 pending. www.bedrockautomation.com


3.4 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST?

Can Devices be Secured in the Internet of Things? Security breaches at the device operating system level in the Internet of Things (IoT) can have severe consequences, including steep financial losses, damage to credibility and trust, or even endangerment of human life. Several high-profile data compromises illustrate that large-scale breaches typically result from not one but multiple points of failure. Closing any one of these gaps can help mitigate a breach or at least minimize the damage. by Dinyar Dastoor, Wind River VP and GM of Operating Systems

Securing the Point of Interaction

Device security in the Internet of Things is of paramount importance. After all, devices are the “things” in IoT that actually perform the system function and generate the data the system relies on. They are often the points at which humans interact with the system. Securing devices is particularly problematic because they are vulnerable to both physical tampering and network-borne threats. The consequences of a compromise can be severe. Large-scale consumer identity theft can destroy a commercial enterprise’s reputation and credibility. A breach of a process controller on an industrial shop floor can cause costly downtime and safety hazards. And in the case of networked medical devices, a breach can put lives at risk. When a large-scale breach of devices occurs, it is typically not the result of a single point of failure but a series of failures at multiple points of vulnerability. Closing the gap at any one of those

Figure 1: Three criteria for designing “just enough” security

points can go a long way toward preventing a breach altogether, or at least detecting an attack in progress and limiting the damage. Developers need to address security at the device design phase, which requires identifying those potential vulnerabilities based on how and where the device will be used. There are a number of security measures device manufacturers can take. The challenge is determining how much or how little security is needed, and which measures will be most effective.

Designing for “Just Enough” Security

Designing security into devices for IoT applications poses different challenges from securing enterprise software or networks. Embedded devices generally have a small footprint, and computing resources are limited. Too much security functionality can hinder the performance of the device or the system and increase the overall cost of development. Yet too little can leave critical points unprotected. The trick is building “just enough” security to mitigate a breach—and the challenge for developers is figuring out how much is “just enough” (see Figure 1). The answer depends on three key criteria: 1. The environment in which the device will be deployed: Is the device in a shopping mall, visible to thousands of people and at risk of tampering? Or is it behind locked doors in a secure facility? These contrasting scenarios raise different types of security considerations. 2. How the device will connect and communicate: How is the device connected to a network? Will it communicate over the air via a protocol such as ZigBee or Wi-Fi, which may necessitate some form of encryption? Is it behind a firewall?

RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 47


3.4 HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD SOFTWARE THAT IS SAFE, SECURE AND ROBUST?

Figure 2: The four pillars of device security

Is it connected to the public Internet or to a private intranet, where it would be less vulnerable to outside interference? 3. The type of data the device is storing: Is the device collecting sensitive data, such as personal financial or medical information? Or is it capturing less-sensitive information such as weather conditions? The latter case would likely require a lower level of security than the former. The answers to these questions will help you determine the security features you need to integrate into the device’s operating system to ensure the appropriate level of security. To give yourself optimal flexibility, it is helpful to use a real-time operating system that does not lock you into a set of prescribed security functions, but instead gives a menu of security functionality from which you can choose the features you need.

The Four Pillars of Device Security

In addition to addressing these three key criteria for determining the right level of security, developers need to account for security at each phase of the device lifecycle (see Figure 2). •D  esign: At the inception, it’s critical to prevent the introduction of malicious code during the development process. Prevention measures might include signed binary delivery, assuring the authenticity and non-alteration of code, and developing on a software platform that has been certified

under industrial security standards such as IEC 62443 and IEC 27034. • Execute: In the execution phase, the goal is to establish a “root of trust” to prevent untrusted binaries from running, which in turn ensures that the right software is in place on the right hardware and that they trust each other. Establishing a root of trust might entail the use of secure boot technology and cryptographic key signatures to prevent unsigned code from executing. • Operate: Multiple measures can be deployed to prevent malicious attacks in operation mode, including controls to prevent unauthorized access and securing networks using encryption. • Power down: When the device is at rest, measures such as encrypted storage and secure data containers should be in place to prevent onboard data access.

A Scalable Approach to Device Security

Security does not always require preventive measures at every point of vulnerability. Often it makes sense to start with a few measures to secure the device for deployment, then add security functionality as you progress through the device lifecycle. You can achieve this with an operating system that allows you to scale and add features over time as new threats become apparent. Security Profile for VxWorks® is an example of a technology that allows this type of scalable approach. Security Profile provides a set of security capabilities designed for easy integration into the

Figure 3: Security Profile for VxWorks addresses the four pillars of device security

48 | RTC Magazine MAY 2016


core VxWorks real-time operating system. As shown in Figure 3, the profile enhances the VxWorks Core Platform with features that address each of the four pillars of security across the device lifecycle typical of any type of networked device (the same vulnerabilities exposed in the retail breach case study). With Security Profile, developers can select the security features they need based on their design criteria: deployment environment, communication and connectivity, and sensitivity of data stored. It enables them to implement blocking features at various levels to make it more difficult to break through security and breach the device. And it gives them the flexibility to add security functionality over time.

Conclusion

Security of devices has to be a prime concern of IoT system developers and device manufacturers, and needs to be addressed at the design stage. Building security into devices poses unique challenges—devices require “just enough” security to mitigate intrusions without compromising device performance. Experience shows that attacks on devices typically exploit multiple points of vulnerability. Closing even a few of these gaps can mitigate the damage. Fortunately, technology such as Security Profile allows developers to take a scalable approach to security, adding as much or as little as the device requires for its purposes, making it possible to control costs and deliver devices on schedule while reducing the risks of security breaches. About the author: Dinyar Dastoor manages the Operating Systems portfolio of products at Wind River. He is actively engaged in the endto-end elements of the Internet of Things, especially as applied to the industrial, medical, aerospace, and defense markets that require high levels of safety and security. He has nearly 30 years of embedded device industry experience, holding various senior executive positions managing product management, engineering, sales, professional services and customer support. He holds an M.B.A. and Master’s Degree in Control Systems. He is based in Wind River’s Santa Clara, CA office.

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RTC Magazine MAY 2016 | 49


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RTC Magazine  

May 2016

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