OpenVPX SBC Roundup
The Journal of Military Electronics & Computing
Safety and Security Software Meet UAV System Needs Volume 15 Number 7 July 2013
An RTC Group Publication
Military Wrestles with Counterfeit ICs Problem
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AMD Fusion G-Series Single-Core & Dual-Core SBCs
The Journal of Military Electronics & Computing
Pre-Integrated Systems Serve Tech Readiness Needs
CONTENTS July 2013
SPECIAL FEATURE Pre-Integrated Systems Serve Tech Readiness Needs
10 Pre-Integrated Systems Move Closer to End Applications Jeff Child
20 Achieving Technology Readiness Involves Many Factors
COTS (kots), n. 1. Commercial off-the-shelf. Terminology popularized in 1994 within U.S. DoD by SECDEF Wm. Perry’s “Perry Memo” that changed military industry purchasing and design guidelines, making Mil-Specs acceptable only by waiver. COTS is generally defined for technology, goods and services as: a) using commercial business practices and specifications, b) not developed under government funding, c) offered for sale to the general market, d) still must meet the program ORD. 2. Commercial business practices include the accepted practice of customerpaid minor modification to standard COTS products to meet the customer’s unique requirements. —Ant. When applied to the procurement of electronics for the U.S. Military, COTS is a procurement philosophy and does not imply commercial, office environment or any other durability grade. E.g., rad-hard components designed and offered for sale to the general market are COTS if they were developed by the company and not under government funding.
Departments 6 Publisher’s Notebook Is the DoD Too Big to Change? 8
The Inside Track
50 Editorial Summers and Systems
Vincent Chuffart, Kontron
TECH RECON Software for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Systems
28 Software Technologies Boost Safety and Security of UAV System Architectures Dr. Robert Dewar, AdaCore
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Battling against Military Counterfeit ICs
32 In the Defense Market, the Fight Goes on against Counterfeit ICs Steve Martin, Components Direct
TECHNOLOGY FOCUS OpenVPX SBCs
38 OpenVPX Absorbs New Technology as it Paves Way to Higher Performance Jeff Child
OpenVPX SBCs Roundup
Digital subscriptions available: cotsjournalonline.com
Coming in August See Page 48 On The Cover: The tenth and final Nimitz-class supercarrier of the Navy, a year ago the U.S.S. George H.W. Bush began its four-month overhaul at Norfolk Naval Shipyard at Portsmouth, Virginia. This included scheduled tech upgrades, including improvements to the ship’s Combat Systems computer software, classified and nonclassified networks and the Automated Data Processing system. (Photo courtesy of the U.S. Navy).
The Journal of Military Electronics & Computing
Publisher PRESIDENT John Reardon, firstname.lastname@example.org PUBLISHER Pete Yeatman, email@example.com
Editorial EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Jeff Child, firstname.lastname@example.org SENIOR EDITOR Clarence Peckham, email@example.com MANAGING EDITOR/ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Sandra Sillion, firstname.lastname@example.org COPY EDITOR Rochelle Cohn
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COTS Journal HOME OFFICE The RTC Group, 905 Calle Amanecer, Suite 250, San Clemente, CA 92673 Phone: (949) 226-2000 Fax: (949) 226-2050, www.rtcgroup.com Editorial office Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief 20A Northwest Blvd., PMB#137, Nashua, NH 03063 Phone: (603) 429-8301 Published by THEâ€ˆRTCâ€ˆGROUP Copyright 2013, The RTC Group. Printed in the United States. All rights reserved. All related graphics are trademarks of The RTC Group. All other brand and product names are the property of their holders.
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NOTEBOOK Is the DoD Too Big to Change?
n the days when I was directly involved in supplying electronics for the military, we had to file mountains of paperwork substantiating the cost in our contracts. We had extremely knowledgeable and experienced personnel constructing the contracts and preparing all the required supporting documents. A key focal point during any contract review was always the amount of “overhead” attributed to the contract’s performance. The government’s rationale was that such overheard could just be used for padding a contract for greater profit or to assign staff not necessary for the contract’s performance. In our case it was usually reversed—we had to charge off “overhead” personnel needed to fulfill a military contract to commercial groups or accounts within our organization. Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates was determined to cut $100 billion from the military budget by reducing overhead and eliminating some command structures that were not critical or had their tasks performed in other commands. The concept was valiant, but the administrative institutions he was requiring to change just defended themselves. They did so by moving personnel to other areas to avoid losing staff or eliminating little empires. He also attempted to reform the military acquisition process, something that has been unsuccessfully attempted numerous times ever since the end of WWII. Occasionally there have been minor successes like SecDef William Perry moving the military to use commercial technology. In the big scheme of acquisition reform—and reduction regarding back room costs—these successes have produced minimal if any financial results. The most recent effort by the DoD at acquisition reform is called Better Buying Power (BBP). Having expressed an opinion on several previous initiatives like this, I’m compelled to comment on this latest. Every leadership change in the DoD feels obliged to show that they acknowledge a need to reform the current acquisition debacle. They want to show that they are concerned about the problem and are taking action. The result is always the same: more staff added, more reporting and more oversight. The assumption is that doing this will change the behavior of everyone in the acquisition process, even though—just like the last dozen efforts—they’re doing the same thing just using different words and different forms. It’s a shame that all the previous attempts and versions of acquisition reform didn’t use these new words and forms, because 6
COTS Journal | July 2013
the people who put this version together somehow expect it to miraculously work this time. Somewhere it was noted that in the last five years the DoD’s administrative support personnel has expanded by almost 100,000. The actual number is not really relevant. The fact that it has increased rather than decreased is. The Pentagon is unable or unwilling to provide an actual number of the total staff involved in administration. A second key question is, of the total number of administrative staff, what number are uniformed personnel either stationed in the Pentagon or supporting it from outside the Pentagon? First of all let’s consider: Is it the best use of uniformed personnel from a standpoint of cost-effectiveness? Every uniformed service member has to go through basic training. That’s in addition to some form of advanced individual training—no cheap expense. It’s crazy that we’re providing this training to someone whose sole purpose will be sitting at a desk processing paperwork in D.C. as a clerk, lawyer, accountant, etc. We need to let personnel with required military training perform tasks essential in military situations and let civilians cope with nonessential military situations. The primes have reorganized and leaned down staff—especially overhead. Companies in our industry have done the same. Our industry has and is continuing to review itself to ensure that everything it is investing in is essential and targeting efforts that will produce positive results. Some strong and decisive leadership in the Pentagon is absolutely essential in reducing overhead and initiating results-oriented acquisition reform, rather than doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. This is where the function of sequestration needs to focus before any cuts are made in essential programs or to boots in the field. Or is cutting the bureaucracy just a dream that can never be achieved because the DoD is too big for any one or group of leaders to change?
Pete Yeatman, Publisher COTS Journal
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INSIDE TRACK Curtiss-Wright Controls Subsystem Bradley IFV CPU Upgrade Program Curtiss-Wright Controls announced that it has received a contract from BAE Systems to design and develop a rugged embedded processor subsystem for use as the next-generation Central Processing Unit (CPU) on the Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle (Figure 1). This contract results from the Engineering Change Proposal 2 (ECP 2) program for the Bradley, which BAE Systems was awarded in September 2012. The initial contract is valued at approximately $3 million. Shipments under this initial contract are scheduled to commence in June 2013 and continue through the first quarter of 2015. The estimated contract value over the lifetime of the program, which is expected to end in 2028, is $75 million. Under the contract, the Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions group will supply its Turret Processor Unit III (TPU III) subsystem, comprising its Fire Control Processor III (FCP III) single board computer and COTS PMC651 Ethernet Switch, as the baseline solution for the CPU. Additional general purpose and graphics processor cards will be analyzed to support the ECP 2 CPU upgrade program. The TPU III subsystem will provide high-density computing power to support processing for the Bradley’s fire control system as well as additional potential functionality such as embedded training to meet the Bradley’s future operational requirements. The compact, lightweight single chassis solution features hybrid backplane technology that supports both VME and VPX open standards.
Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions, Ashburn, VA. (703) 779-7800. [www.cwcdefense.com].
The TPU III subsystem will provide high-density computing power to support processing for the Bradley’s fire control system.
Raytheon Unveils Excalibur Missile with Dual-Mode Guidance
cus of the at-sea moving target capability using a high-firing rate, large caliber, affordable munition that can be fired from land or sea platforms.
Raytheon has initiated an internally funded program to enhance its combat-proven 155 mm Excalibur GPS-guided projectile with a new guidance and navigation unit (GNU) with a semi-active laser (SAL) end-game targeting capability. Addition of the SAL seeker will allow the munition to attack moving targets, attack targets that have repositioned after firing, or change the impact point to avoid casualties and collateral damage. This new Excalibur variant using SAL guidance paves the way for GPS-guided Excalibur Ib customers to upgrade their Excalibur Ib guidance and navigation units with a GPS/ SAL capability (Figure 2). Recent tests of the SAL seeker have demonstrated the robustness of the design in a severe 8
COTS Journal | July 2013
The new Excalibur variant using SAL guidance paves the way for GPS-guided Excalibur Ib customers to upgrade their Excalibur Ib guidance and navigation units with a GPS/SAL capability. gun-firing environment. In addition to 155 mm artillery land forces worldwide, the GPS/SAL capability will be available for both 155 mm and 5-inch (127 mm) naval guns to address moving targets on land and at sea. Counter-swarming boat capability will be the prime fo-
Raytheon Waltham, MA. (781) 522-3000. [www.raytheon.com].
SAIC Awarded Adaptive Radar Countermeasures Contract by DARPA Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) announced it was awarded a prime contract by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to provide engineering services in support of the Adaptive Radar Countermeasures (ARC) program. The multiple-award, cost-plus, fixed-fee contract has a six-month base period of
performance, 54 option months and a total contract value of $31.5 million for both awardees, if all options are exercised. Work will be performed primarily in Arlington, VA and Clifton, NJ. The goal of the ARC program is to enable U.S. airborne electronic warfare systems to automatically generate effective countermeasures against new, unknown and adaptive radars in real time in the field. Under the contract, SAIC will provide engineering services including the design, development, integration and testing of a viable ARC system that allows independent insertion of additional third-party algorithm developers. SAIC is one of two contractors eligible to compete for task orders under this contract. SAIC McLean, VA, (703) 676-4300. [www.saic.com].
The Smart Weapon Endto-End Performance Model, developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, is a set of files and software that covers all impacts associated with firing a round and anything that affects the delivery of that round. Military analysts now have a tool that brings together unprecedented modeling and simulation features to help them better choose or build weapons to overpower future threats. Such features allow military researchers to analyze, for example, how a grenade, artillery round or any other weapon performs—or falls short—against moving targets in complex battlefield scenarios, which is one of the biggest challenges the military faces today. With SWEEPM, as it’s called, researchers can model the overall effectiveness of all types of munitions throughout the entire target engagement, from target detection through damage estimation with a modular Monte Carlo simulation. Using the model, researchers can look at a conceptual or actual guided artillery round, its guidance
A soldier assigned to the 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, aims his M320 40 mm grenade launcher at a target during Bronco Rumble, a company-level combined arms live-fire exercise.
attack, against a tank or truck for instance, and insight on the current inventory of the round (Figure 3).
system and its performance, for example. Ballistic engineers provide information on how the round would be used in an
ARDEC Arsenal, NJ. (973)724-4021. [www.ardec.army.mil].
Military Market Watch U.S. DoD Increasingly Relies on Off-the-Shelf Aircraft According to Frost & Sullivan’s Aerospace and Defense practice, U.S. DoD spending for COTS aircraft totaled $4.71 billion in 2012 (Figure 4). COTS aircraft spending is forecast to spike as the P-8 Poseidon and Boeing KC-46 reach full production between 2013 and 2016, and then decrease to $4.76 billion in 2017. As DoD spending decreases, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) aircraft will become more important to future programs. While growth in the market will be limited, use of COTS aircraft will allow for significant savings in the area of research and development since they do not require the development costs that would be required for completely new aircraft designs. Since new or improved capabilities are often reTotal DoD COTS Aircraft Market Funding Forecast by Procurement Type, quired to react rapidly in dyU.S., 2011−2017 5,000.0 namic war zone conditions, commanders are increasingly 4,500.0 relying on the quick reaction 4,000.0 capability (QRC) to develop 3,500.0 new weapons systems. This allows for delivery of re3,000.0 quested capabilities without 2,500.0 going through the slow and 2,000.0 long DoD program of record (POR) procurement process. 1,500.0 COTS aircraft are widely 1,000.0 counted on to conduct many 500.0 specialized activities within 0.0 intelligence, surveillance 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 and reconnaissance (ISR) Modifications 709.8 455.6 687.2 859.0 872.9 1,035.6 1,010.8 missions to meet combatant Airframes 2,366.8 2,697.4 3,221.0 3,962.4 4,376.2 4,010.4 2,516.6 commander requirements. Year According to Frost & SulNote: All figures are rounded. The base year is 2012. Source: Frost & Sullivan analysis. livan Senior Industry Analyst Figure 4 Michael Blades, planned budget cuts will continue to According to Frost & Sullivan, U.S. DoD spending for COTS aircraft totaled $4.71 force military service leaders billion in 2012. COTS aircraft spending is forecast to spike as the P-8 Poseidon and to consider COTS aircraft Boeing KC-46 reach full production between 2013 and 2016. before committing to significantly higher costs of new aircraft design and development. Currently, a significant factor restraining the COTS market is the fact that the DoD often does not have a set of rules for defining requirements for new aircraft systems. U.S. DoD Commercial Off-the-Shelf Aircraft Market is part of the Aerospace & Defense Growth Partnership Services program, which provides global Mega Trends, information on emerging markets and the latest technology innovations, market, economic, customer, competitive and best practices research. This CEO 360 Degree from Frost & Sullivan can help companies to effectively plan strategies for growth. For more information on this service, contact Joanna Lewandowska, Corporate Communications, at firstname.lastname@example.org. Funding ($ Millions)
Army Tests Lethality against Moving Targets Using Software Model
Frost & Sullivan, San Antonio, TX. (210) 348-1000. [www.frost.com].
July 2013 | COTS Journal
SPECIAL FEATURE Pre-Integrated Systems Serve Tech Readiness Needs
COTS Journal | July 2013
Pre-Integrated Systems Move Closer to End Applications The military’s appetite continues to increase for rugged box-level systems that are available with boards and software pre-integrated. The direction is moving now toward getting even closer to military applications needs. Jeff Child Editor-in-Chief
ore than ever in this new era of constrained budgets and vexing uncertainty about programs, military system developers are hungry for higher levels of system integration. That has put pre-integrated box-level systems front and center in military mindshare. Once just a niche or specialty segment of the embedded computing industry, the rugged box system category of technology has become a staple on par with the single board computer. These systems can take a variety of forms. They are broadly defined as a set of embedded computing and I/O boards put together and delivered as a working system to provide a certain function, but are intended to be used in a military customer’s larger system. Some of these are function specific, whereas others are more generic computing/networking platforms. A key driver of these systems is a desire to feed the military’s need for complete systems that are at a high TRL (Technology Readiness Level). The rise of complete box-level systems ref lects the degree to which prime contractors are increasing their reliance on technology supplier companies like embedded computing vendors. Often they want integration expertise and a level of software development as part of those integration efforts. Part of that trend is fueled by the need for primes to contain their costs—especially in this era of tight budget constraints. Those constraints are felt more acutely now than ever as more and more programs are structured as fixed-price rather than cost-plus. July 2013 | COTS Journal
COTS Journal Chief Editor Jeff Child is briefed on the DuraNET 3000, a ruggedized version of Cisco Systems’ IE-3000 industrial Ethernet switch. The unit has completed military standard qualification testing to extreme MIL-STD-810G environmental conditions, MILSTD-461F EMI/EMC and MIL-STD-1275/704 power requirements.
Untitled-7 1 COTS Journal | July 2013 12
In recent years another factor driving the demand for rugged box-level systems has been the emergence of new DoD procurement policies. For instance, the Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act passed in 2009 demands more demonstration of new technologies. Driven by the desire to avoid banking programs on immature technologies, the policy also pushes for demonstrations earlier in the program development phase. That means that technologies used also have to show higher Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) than previously required. All of that has helped fuel demand for prepackaged and prequalified subsystems as primes find themselves without the time or the DoD funding to develop a prototype subsystem themselves. As TRL becomes a more significant part of military requirements, suppliers are crafting solutions with that specifically in mind. As pre-integrated systems evolve, there are a number of “extra” aspects being adding to product solutions to make
7/9/13 11:03 AM
GE Intelligent Platforms
Delivering on your promises takes more than the latest technology GE has announced a range of single board computers that take advantage of the latest 4th Generation Intel® Core™ i7 processors. More processing power. More 3D graphics capability. More I/O flexibility. But all within the same power envelope as before for optimum SWaP. It’s not just about the processor technology, though, or about perhaps the industry’s broadest range of supporting technologies. It’s about the company behind the technology. It’s about working with a company with the resource, talent and commitment to help customers bring in programs on time and on budget – and a company with a multi-decade track record of helping customers achieve the lowest lifetime cost of ownership. That company is GE.
© 2013 GE Intelligent Platforms, Inc. All rights reserved. All other brands or names are property of their respective holders.
© 2013 GE Intelligent Platforms, Inc. All rights reserved. All other brands or names are property of their respective holders.
them more attractive to military customers. These range from special security or network certification to applicationspecific functionalities such as video processing or storage management. In an example along such lines, in February Eurotech subsidiary Parvus announced that the DuraNET 3000, a ruggedized version of Cisco Systems’ IE-3000 industrial Ethernet switch, had successfully completed military standard qualification testing to extreme MIL-STD-810G environmental conditions, MIL-STD-461F electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/ EMC) and MIL-STD-1275/704 power requirements. With these certifications in place, the DuraNET 3000 saves prime contractors the time and expense of performing such tests on their own in support of government programs (Figure 1). Figure 2
The CompactPCI D2D ¾ ATR, a 7-slot ¾ ATR conduction-cooled chassis, eases the design of 3U cPCI-based systems by enabling the system integrator to use the same enclosure throughout the complete program lifecycle, from development to demonstration to deployment.
Aiding the Development Flow One emerging twist on the pre-integrated systems trend is the concept of using such solutions to streamline the development-to-deployment process. In an exam-
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ple of that, last fall GE Intelligent Platforms rolled out its HPEC Application Ready Platforms (HARP) product family at the IEEE HPEC Conference. According to GE they deliver application-ready platforms that can reduce development time from months to weeks or days. The idea is that system integrators can develop, test and demonstrate this platform confident that its constituent elements—SBCs, switched fabric modules and so on—can be repack-
aged in a range of rugged build levels for airborne, ground and naval applications. GE’s platforms provide modular open system architecture (MOSA) platforms based on industry standard high-performance computing (HPC) hardware and software building blocks to accelerate time to solution and time to deployment. The first member of the new family is the 6U OpenVPX HPEC Starter System. Included with each system is GE’s AXIS
application development framework, which shortens time to solution and reduces risk and cost by providing a user friendly interface to the scalable multiprocessor platform. The new HARP systems can be used to demonstrate technology readiness to Level 6 when integrated into the end user system environment prior to full integration, test and qualification of the production platforms. The fully integrated and tested 6U OpenVPX HPEC Starter Systems feature 2nd and 3rd generation Intel Core i7 processors, CUDA GPGPU processors from NVIDIA, 10 Gigabit Ethernet and PCI Express fabric support, multiple hard disk drives, and full user I/O via the rear panel.
CompactPCI Development-toDeployment Another strategy to smooth the development-to-deployment cycle is to offer two compatible systems that let developers move from one stage to the other. While this idea isn’t new, products on the market have been mostly targeting VME- or VPX-based systems. Last month Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions expanded this development-to-deployment approach to a CompactPCI-based system architectures to reduce risk, schedule and cost (Figure 2). The new CompactPCI D2D ¾ ATR, a 7-slot ¾ ATR conduction-cooled chassis, eases the design of 3U cPCI-based systems by enabling the system integrator to use the same enclosure, via simple configuration upgrades, throughout the complete program lifecycle, from development to demonstration and all the way to deployment. Three standard configurations support Development, Demonstration and Deployment variants. The Development version eliminates the need for a custom cPCI backplane before system design can begin. It uses a standard COTS backplane and I/O cabling, an external power supply and an industrial grade fan. The Demonstration configurations feature a standard COTS power supply backplane that is cabled to a standard backplane, with either an industrial grade fan or a MIL grade fan; a 3U MIL COTS power supply is also available. And the appliUntitled-4 1 COTS Journal | July 2013 16
6/25/13 9:46 AM
Solution for Missile Defense While pre-integrated systems have carved out a solid space as a new product area, equivalent solutions are offered as custom service type of development. And while such services are something many embedded computing vendors have done for years, a lot of these have been given names. Application-ready subsystems (ARS) are what Mercury Systems calls theirs. Last fall Mercury announced just such a solution. Their OpenVPX-based radar processing subsystems are used in Raytheon’s Patriot system, which detected, tracked and successfully intercepted a short range ballistic missile (SRBM) target during the test. Mercury also provides subsystems and technology integration services to Lockheed Martin for the Aegis system, which tracked a SRBM threat and launched an SM-3 Block 1A interceptor in this exercise. The technology was put to the test in the Patriot air and missile defense system and the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system during the U.S. Missile Defense Agency’s Flight Test Integrated-01 (FTI-01) live fire missile defense exercise recently conducted at the U.S. Army’s Kwajalein Atoll/Reagan Test Site in the Pacific Ocean and Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii. Mercury’s Application-ready subsystems (ARS) are integrated as core technologies in both systems.
treme Engineering Solutions earlier this year released a small and rugged fanless embedded box PC that utilizes the Intel Core i7 processor. The XPand6103 was specifically designed for rugged yet processing-intensive vehicle applications, and provides an attractive solution for demanding autonomous vehicle computing requirements (Figure 3). The XPand6103 maximizes processing performance, thermal performance
and modularity while minimizing cost and size by integrating support for the latest industry standard components. This includes support for X-ES’s line of Rugged COM Express modules, such as the XPedite7450, which integrates the most recent Intel Core i7 and Freescale QorIQ processors in a small, thermally efficient and robust circuit board design. The internal 64 Gbyte Slim SATA SSD memory module combines the convenience of
rugged & ready when you are OPEN VPX [ configured and ready to ship
cation-specific Deploy configuration replaces the standard backplanes and cables with a custom backplane and I/O panel, and upgrades the industrial fans to MIL grade units. The rugged D2D ¾ ATR enclosure supports up to seven slots of 3U 0.8” pitch payload cPCI cards. The D2D ¾ ATR simplifies the integration process by providing a single enclosure that can be used equally well for in-lab development and fielded deployment.
enclosures backplanes system integration & custom solutions VME VPX CompactPCI Open VPX...
Smaller Box-Level Systems One aspect of pre-integrated systems becoming more application-ready is the move toward more compact solutions. Such solutions serve as replacements for more complex card-cage solutions in tightly constrained platforms like military vehicles. Along just those lines, Ex-
SIE Computing Solutions | 10 Mupac Drive | Brockton, MA 02301 | 508-588-6110 Untitled-3 1
4/29/13 10:00 AM July 2013 | COTS Journal 17
high-capacity off-the-shelf storage with the reliability and performance of SLC NAND Flash memory.
A Variety of I/O Offerings Figure 3
The XPand6103 was specifically designed for rugged yet processing-intensive vehicle applications, and provides a solution for demanding autonomous vehicle computing requirements.
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The XPand6103 is equipped with a number of I/O interfaces through its rugged and environmentally sealed M12 connectors. The standard configuration includes DisplayPort++ video, two Gigabit Ethernet, USB, four CAN Bus and RS232/RS-422 ports. The system can also be configured to provide up to two 10 Gigabit Ethernet 10GBASE-T interfaces. With three internal PCI Express Mini slots and support for two external antennae, the XPand6103 offers a flexible array of additional I/O configurations, including WLAN, cellular and GPS. Through the implementation of an environmentally sealed and completely rugged design, the XPand6103 can operate within the most demanding environmental conditions. This includes IEC61373, EN50155 and MIL-STD-810 shock and vibration requirements as well as the water immersion requirements of IP67. The XPand6103 also supports operating temperatures from -40° to +70°C ambient. Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions Ashburn, VA. (703) 779-7800. [www.cwcdefense.com]. Eurotech Columbia, MD. (301) 490-4007. [www.eurotech.com].
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Untitled-3 1 COTS Journal | July 2013 18
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SPECIAL FEATURE Pre-Integrated Systems Serve Tech Readiness Needs
Achieving Technology Readiness Involves Many Factors The increasing demand for solutions at a higher level of tech readiness is met by solutions that blend not just well integrated computing, but also provide costeffectiveness and easy to adapt interfaces. Vincent Chuffart, Military & Aerospace Product Manager Kontron
he U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) along with other government agencies years ago developed a set of guidelines called Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) that describe the level of maturity of evolving hardware and software technologies. The goal of the TRA is to determine if a giv en technology is proven and suitable to meet current and ongoing system specifications. This information is a valuable resource for military suppliers as well. With it, they can be assured of presenting the right products and technologies to match the â€œsweet spotâ€? in terms of immediate application readiness that also provide many years of useable deployment life and can be leveraged for multiple system procurements. With higher technology readiness levels in mind, the Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act was passed in 2009 to primarily avoid supporting programs based on immature technologies. This Act requires contractors to adequately demonstrate usability of new technologies, and requires demonstration in the initial development phase. Another newer wrinkle in the procurement of military technology is the 20
COTS Journal | July 2013
The StarVX HPEC system lets military developers bring supercomputing I/O bandwidth and performance to the battlefield. Offering 10x the bandwidth, the application-ready HPEC system ruggedizes mainstream IT technology. implementation of the Agile Acquisition Process, which allows the DoD to match the speed of advanced technology introductions. Instead of the process being lead by individual system or program-specific requirements that often resulted in pricey and outdated technology, the new approach relies on proven COTS-based platforms. By em-
ploying the Agile Process, the military is better prepared to accelerate the pace of network modernization. This process has put the spotlight on technology capability gaps, which allows the military to focus on finding viable solutions through consistent and defined testing that can align with other technology evaluation processes.
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An important element of the Agile Acquisition Process is the Network Integration Evaluation (NIE) exercises that are designed to let soldiers test a mix of technologies in real-world combat situations. The NIE exercises use working prototypes, thereby permitting the military to streamline evaluation of an optimal framework of systems technologies matched against current and future requirements. From there, it is a much quicker and cost-effective process to procure the latest COTS capabilities rather than creating them from scratch for every new system need, and this also ensures long-term operational goals are met. The first NIE 11.2 evaluation was conducted in June and July 2011 and involved nearly 3,800 soldiers and 1,000 vehicles. It was deemed a success and has been followed by semi-annual field evaluations that build upon previous exercises. The latest this spring is NIE 13.2, which took place in May at Fort Bliss, Texas and White Sands Missile Range, N.M.
An ideal solution for both technology readiness needs and shorter procurement cycles is the new selection of application-ready and pre-integrated COTS systems from embedded computing suppliers. The availability of a variety of validated systems reduces the cost and complexity of designing application infrastructures, and helps developers dramatically streamline the process from design to field deployment of next-generation systems. Technology readiness and agile procurement are mutually satisfied with pre-integrated systems as they solve the need to align performance with evolving advanced system specifications or the replacement of outdated or proprietary technologies. These solutions have also done the work required to accommodate many of the development needs inherent in military systems including continued SWaP improvements, efficient thermal management and rugged operation features.
Eliminating Design Steps Pre-integrated systems deliver a proven set of embedded computing and I/O boards, with the most valuable application-ready offerings including all the components required for the early evaluation phase up to long-term deployment. These systems also can be configured and pre-qualified with popular operating systems and software that provide a proven basis for OEMs that need to develop reliable solutions within strict time and cost budgets. Instead of prime contractor manufacturers having to piece together various pieces of subsystems themselves or undertake “custom” offerings designed from the ground up, they can concentrate on their own value-added technologies to complete a military customer’s larger system. Additionally, pre-integration enables OEMs to directly deploy their development system, battle ready, to field trials and gain a critical time-to-market advantage. Some suppliers are now offering preintegrated COTS systems with multiple options that make these solutions more like application building blocks. Developers can select options that include advanced chassis designs that are optimized for both flexible configurability and rugged performance, plus select from a range of cooling methods, bus and backplane protocols, processor architectures, I/O and power supplies. Using a pre-validated building block approach gives developers additional performance level and bandwidth flexibility to satisfy specific application requirements while also reducing program budgets. This range of system options allows contractors to meet DoD mandates of using the most optimal standards-based products that satisfy TRA levels of eight or nine and at the same time reduce risk. Speeding application development also delivers the agility the military needs and open standards-based platforms that offer the scalability that ensure longer program lifecycles and interoperability across multiple applications.
High Performance Systems Today’s modern battlefield programs demand ever-increasing performance
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and connectivity capabilities. High compute density is critical in image-intensive radar and sonar applications and is fast rising to the top of current military system requirements. That is because nextgeneration radar and sonar applications are expected to make a tremendous jump in processing power and data I/O bandwidth. Coming to the aid of these systems that need greater levels of CPU processing and offering an optimal solution where designers no longer need to make performance compromises or are forced to move to proprietary solutions, are new pre-integrated high-performance embedded computing (HPEC) VPX-based systems. HPEC systems deliver the massive computing horsepower, speed, resolution and accuracy many digital signal processing applications call for. In addition, some next-generation HPEC systems boast breakthrough technology that restores matched I/O and CPU performance ratios (Figure 1). Furthermore, pre-integrated HPEC systems have the ability to transform the landscape of military supercomputing by delivering a streamlined platform that allows the military to take the new generation of HPEC algorithms from the large
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IT servers they were originally developed on to the field (Figure 2).
Curtailing Program Costs The advanced features and capabilities of pre-integrated systems also places an increased reliance on integration expertise and compatible software development from COTS solution providers. Suppliers take care of fully testing multiprocessor board configurations in the
chassis so OEMs have immediate access to, for example, advanced I/O such 10 GBE and PCIe over backplane. Military systems developers achieve the benefit of a fast time-to-market with minimum effort, which puts them in line with agile procurement policies that place more cost pressures and fixed price limitations. Modular pre-integrated subsystems provide intrinsic longevity and flexibility. Modular design also provides crucial
customization features that allow the system designers to adapt to the specific requirements of multiple missions, helping secure an ambitious deployment schedule. An important factor in curtailing overall program costs is that various components of a modular building block system are able to be upgraded for future system requirements eliminating the need for a complete system redesignâ€” a very appealing attribute for military primes that are challenged by smaller and smaller budget constraints (Figure 3).
Being Technology Ready Embedded computing suppliers are answering the demand for proven technology readiness and agile procurement processes with a broad selection of applicationready and pre-integrated COTS systems. These pre-validated systems help lower the cost and complexity of designing nextgeneration applications while dramatically reducing the timeline from initial design to field deployment. Pre-integrated systems also deliver the right feature set in terms of continued SWaP improvements, efficient thermal management and rugged operation features that are constant requirements of all military systems. Todayâ€™s military programs require ever-increasing performance and connectivity capabilities with high computing density. Those are essential for meeting the needs of advanced image-intensive radar and sonar applications. Systems developers can now leverage the capabilities of application-ready HPEC systems that offer enormous computing performance demanded by these digital signal processing applications. By restoring matched I/O and CPU performance ratios and ruggedizing mainstream IT technologies in smaller lowpower pre-integrated platforms, new HPEC systems allow OEMs to reduce the design to field deployment process and bring supercomputing out of the datacenter and onto the battlefield. Technology ready? These and more pre-integrated systems are ready to be put to work. Kontron America Poway, CA. (858) 677-0877. [www.kontron.com]. Untitled-4 1 COTS Journal | July 2013 24
3/28/13 1:32 PM
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TECH RECON Software for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Systems
Software Technologies Boost Safety and Security of UAV System Architectures Especially with UAVs and civilian aircraft sharing the same airspace, safety and security issues are a huge concern in UAV designs. By leveraging DO-178C tools and software languages like SPARK, system developers can vastly improve UAV security and safety. Dr. Robert Dewar, President and CEO AdaCore
hree years ago, a video appeared on YouTube that purported to show a near collision between a German Army Luna UAV and an Afghan Ariana A300 with about a hundred passengers aboard over Kabul. At the time there was debate over whether this was a hoax, but a recent article in Der Spiegel confirms that this was a real incident. It is shown from the UAV “pilot” point of view, and what is remarkable is the speed with which the event unfolds, which ended up destroying the UAV but leaving the A300 unharmed. In a few frames the UAV approaches the A300, almost hits its wing, and then is gone, leaving almost no time for the pilot of either plane to react. This incident is a dramatic reminder of the inherent danger of mixed-use airspace between military UAVs and passenger aircraft. The EuroHawk, a development of Northrop Grumman’s Global Hawk that was ordered by the German military, has recently been canceled, ostensibly because of the difficulties of obtaining certification for flight in civil airspace. One of the certification difficulties is that the EuroHawk is not equipped with an appropriate collision-avoidance kit (an ACAS-type device) (Figure 1). 28
COTS Journal | July 2013
The dangers of sharing air space between passenger aircraft and UAVs with uncertified software have been much discussed. The possible consequences of failing to ensure safety at this level seem self-evident. But it is useful to restate this concern in a military framework. If a police surveillance UAV crashed with a passenger jet in U.S. airspace causing loss of life, there would be outrage and major repercussions. But just imagine if a U.S. UAV crashed with a Pakistani civilian jet over Kabul. Then the repercussions would be much more serious, with potential major damage to the foreign policy and security concerns of this country.
DO-178B for Safety From a technical point of view, we have a clear idea of how to make software for civilian aircraft safe, or at least safe enough. The use of the DO-178B standard, though technically imperfect from a theoretical point of view, has in practice produced a remarkable safety record. As far as we know, no lives have been lost because of a software implementation bug in civilian air travel since the standard’s inception several decades ago. The software aboard modern civilian aircraft may not
be perfect, but it is definitely not the weak link in the chain. “See-and-avoid” capabilities are limited when it comes to UAV remote pilots. But a combined approach that formulates appropriate safety-related requirements, applies standard civilian safety-certification procedures, and adds technical capabilities such as collisionavoidance systems, could go a long way to preventing disastrous scenarios. There are many other situations where the failure of either the onboard software or the ground-based software could jeopardize safety. These include collisions with military aircraft, ground collisions with people, incorrect identification of targets and many other possibilities. We really don’t know the extent to which such problems have arisen in practice. We see occasional leaked news about unfortunate incidents, but of course the military use of UAVs is shrouded in secrecy, as we expect and require. We do know that the complex software for these UAVs is developed without adherence to the strict safety standards applied to commercial (and increasingly to military) aircraft. The EuroHawk cancellation is just one piece of evidence of this problem.
Security: Safety Is Not Enough If we do institute measures in which the same strenuous safety-related development procedures and certification standards are applied to UAVs designed for military use, whether in shared airspace or not, we can certainly reduce the likelihood of catastrophic safety-related events. Is this enough? The answer really must be no; we now have to worry about security issues as well. Historically, addressing safety issues was sufficient, with the goal of avoiding defects in avionics software that could compromise aircraft safety. There was a great flurry of concern several years ago about possible security implications of passenger Internet traffic sharing the same communication channels as critical avionics commands. In this instance the FAA imposed special conditions on the design to protect the Aircraft Control and Information Domains from the Passenger Information and Entertainment Domains. More generally, the organizations that developed the DO-178B standard have formed a special group, RTCA SC-216 / EUROCAE WG 72, to address aeronautical systems security; their work is in progress. Security is a significant challenge since we live in a world very different from the early days of DO-178B; we now have to worry about cyber-security at every turn. Any safety-critical system these days must be considered security-critical as well, and we know that there are lots of bad guys out there with expertise in how to attack computer systems remotely.
Malicious Attacks Are UAVs sufficiently protected against malicious attempts to destroy them, capture them, or compromise their missions? It is hard to believe that the answer to this question is affirmative. First we have publicized incidents that are very worrisome. The Iran-US RQ-170 episode of December 2011 raises serious questions (Figure 2). The Iranians captured a U.S. UAV, and claimed
The EuroHawk, a development of Northrop Grummanâ€™s Global Hawk, was recently cancelled, partly because of the difficulties of obtaining certification for flight in civil airspace. Shown here is a RQ-4B EuroHawk mock-up at ILA Berlin Air Show 2012. it had been commandeered by their Cyber Warfare division by jamming both satelliteand land-originated control signals to the UAV, followed up by a GPS spoofing attack that fed the UAV false GPS data to make it land in Iran at what the UAV thought was its home base in Afghanistan. That description is dubious, because GPS spoofing is a well-known risk and thus the UAV is supposed to rely not on GPS, but rather on inertial guidance systems. According to the U.S. Department of Defense, the UAV crashed because of a fault that is apparently still being investigated; Iran had reassembled the pieces and repainted them to cover up the damage. The real facts of the case may never be known, but at the very least it raises the question of whether such attacks might be feasible, and needless to say the consequences of successful external interventions of this kind are very worrisome.
Never Getting to 100% An additional concern is that frankly we do not have the technology to guarantee the construction of systems that
are 100% secure. The approaches we have used for example in DO-178B to assure safety in commercial aircraft basically involve extensive and very carefully controlled testing. By its very nature, testing cannot provide complete assurance of lack of errors, but it can reduce to a tolerably low level the probability of chance events causing a safety-related problem. But with security we are not talking about chance events. If there is a flaw in a system, determined cyber attackers will zero in on that flaw and exploit it. To be sure that a system is not merely safe but also secure, we have to achieve a 100% confidence level that the software has no flaws, or at least no flaws that would compromise security. We can never achieve that goal by testing alone. Instead we need to follow the path of formal mathematical verification of security properties. Only a verified mathematical proof can give us the necessary guarantees. Thatâ€™s easy to say, but the technology of formal proof is not an easy one, and historically it has required specialized July 2013 | COTS Journal
techniques has allowed rapid advances during the past several years. And the recent revision to DO-178B, known as DO178C, includes a supplement on Formal Methods so that these techniques can be better integrated into practice.
SPARK Proves Security
The Iran-U.S. RQ-170 UAV episode of December 2011 raises serious questions about software security. The Iranians claimed they commandeered the UAV by jamming both satellite- and land-originated control signals to it, followed up by a GPS spoofing attack that fed the UAV false GPS data. skills that were not generally part of the background for developers of airborne software. Here, though, we are making great strides. The combination of vastly
SMR 3521 SMR 3522 SMR 3822 SMR 5550 SMR 5550i DXR 5571
increased computing power (needed by proof engines), improved proof techniques, and the development of tools and systems to aid in the application of these
CS 5020 CS 5060 CS 6040 CS 6080
SCR 7204 WJ 8615 WJ8617
Proof of correctness, or at least proof of certain program properties, is indeed more practical than many software engineers may realize. For example, the new iFACTS air traffic control system being deployed in England is written in SPARK, a language designed for formal verification purposes. This large complex application has been formally proved to be free of run-time errors, which guarantees the elimination of “buffer-overrun” or “integer overflow” problems (two of the most common sources of errors and security flaws in software written in C). Another interesting example is a demonstration program sponsored by the NSA, Tokeneer, also written in SPARK, showing that it is practical to prove entire systems free of security defects. Interestingly, NSA
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encouraged the full dissemination of the materials on Tokeneer, as part of the effort to educate people in what is achievable. The challenge of proving the software in a military UAV to be free of any possible security flaws is a formidable one, likely much more difficult than the practical examples that have been attempted before, but we need to address this challenge seriously. The application of existing techniques would certainly help. For example, if we could prove the software of a UAV to be free of possible buffer-overrun errors, using established technology such as SPARK, then we would eliminate one significant vector for cyber-security attack (Figure 3). In the long term, fully achieving this goal requires a massive education program to teach the current and future generations of software engineers the necessary mathematical skills. And we also need to concentrate our research efforts into further extending and exploiting these techniques so that in the future, Defense Minister de Maziere or others in
SPARK Language Technology
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Informationa Flow Analysis • Check input/output variable coupling
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Using established technology such as SPARK, you could prove the software of a UAV to be free of possible buffer-overrun errors. That would eliminate one significant vector for cyber-security attack. similar positions can be assured that the software involved is safe and secure, not simply as a matter of opinion, but rather as a proven fact.
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6/25/13 July 2013 | COTS Journal
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Battling against Military Counterfeit ICs
In the Defense Market, the Fight Goes on against Counterfeit ICs Government and industry are raising the stakes in the battle against military counterfeit components. Steve Martin, Executive Vice President Components Direct
he impact of counterfeit components in the military supply chain is widely known and has led to several incidents in which the safety of military personnel has been compromised, requiring significantly expensive fixes. It is clear that both the government and electronics industry have seen enough of these examples of the danger of counterfeit components to cause great concern. As a result, both have increased their efforts to combat it, with some notable successes. Counterfeiters, and those who enable the entry of counterfeits into the military supply chain, are being held accountable by regulators, while the electronics industry is coming up with safer channels of distribution that guarantee manufacturer-direct parts (Figure 1). Together, these efforts are bolstering the integrity of the military supply chain while serving as a role model for other industries in which counterfeit electronics are a threat.
Government Initiatives In December 2011, President Obama signed the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), which as a reaction to then-recently publicized incidents of expensive and possibly life-threatening failures of military weapons and transportations 32
COTS Journal | July 2013
Example of â€œBlacktoppedâ€? counterfeit component where a thin epoxy coating is applied to the top of a component so that a new part number and date-code can be printed on top. systems caused by counterfeit electronics components, for the first time detailed penalties related to counterfeit parts and their suppliers (Figure 2). The burden was placed on military contractors to more effectively prevent counterfeits from entering the supply chain or risk financial, and possibly criminal, penalties. Contractors were not allowed to pass the costs for this increased enforcement on to the Department of Defense (DoD). The immediate industry response was that regulation had gone too far, and
that the prevention of counterfeits required a more balanced approach. On January 2, 2013, President Obama signed the 2013 NDAA, which in a rare display of bipartisanship, was overwhelmingly passed in both the Senate (98 yes votes to 0 no votes) and House of Representatives (299 yes votes to 120 no votes). The Actâ€™s prompt passage and inclusion of several directives specifically dealing with counterfeits underscores the importance with which the federal government has come to consider the electronics counterfeits problem as it pertains to the military. In addition, the 2013 Act attempts to remedy what many in the electronics industry had considered knee-jerk and extreme regulations in the 2012 NDAA, which introduced harsh penalties for contractors that allow counterfeits into the military supply chain. Pertinent passages of the 2013 NDAA include a number of elements.
Item Unique Identification One thing included was the continuation of the Item Unique identification (IUID) Initiative. This effort to mark and track all assets deployed by the DoD and its contractors is considered to be a key tool in combating counterfeits from entering the military supply chain. Origi-
January 2013 2013 NDAA signed
November 2011 Senate hearings on counterfeits
December 2011 2012 NDAA signed
May 2013 Proposed revisions to DFARS are issued
March 2013 DoD issues DFARS supplement
July 2013 DFARS public comment period ends
Through a series of laws and initiatives, the Government has drawn a line in the sand against counterfeits.
related to counterfeit incursions, must be able to demonstrate “an operational system to detect and avoid counterfeit parts and suspect counterfeit parts that has been reviewed and approved” by the DoD in order to avoid complete liability for replacing counterfeit parts, an expense that could run into the billions of dollars. This regulation puts the onus on contractors to include safeguards in their systems or risk being held financially responsible for any counterfeits that make their way into military projects, and is considered an improvement and a more balanced approach over the previous regulation, which somewhat unrealistically placed all responsibility on the contractor. These safeguards have been further defined in the May 2013 proposed revisions to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation System (DFARS) outlined below.
National Security Strategy
Shown here are some of the leading industry and government agencies leading the fight against counterfeit components.
nally established to improve inventory and acquisition of military equipment, the IUID central registry has increasingly become an important check against unwanted counterfeits by cataloguing supplier and parts data (description, part number, serial number, manufacturer, etc.) and making it easily accessible to government auditors. All suppliers must adhere to the data requirements. A complementary effort was instituted in November 2012 by the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) to require DNA 34
COTS Journal | July 2013
marking of all semiconductors sold to the DoD. This directive was met with opposition by industry groups who argued that the DNA marking was itself able to be counterfeited and this only exacerbates the problem. Discussion between the DLA and industry groups are continuing. A revised set of regulations, carried over from the 2012 Act, holds contractors responsible for the impact of counterfeits in the military supply chain. Contractors, who in the 2012 Act were for the first time held liable for civil and criminal penalties
The prevention of counterfeit parts is explicitly included under the “national security strategy for national technology and the industrial base.” In short, counterfeits are seen as a threat to national security, and will be fought with whatever means necessary. In March 2013 the DoD updated the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). The updates are part of measures intended to regulate the detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts as a portion of the NDAA regulations, which specifically spell out new requirements for analyzing, assessing and acting on reports of counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts, and holding contractors accountable. In order to encourage the reporting of counterfeits, which has lagged due to fear of liability among companies, the NDAA specifically protects procurements professionals and their companies from civil liability based on reporting a suspect counterfeit part. This underscores the increased emphasis on reporting as another tool in the fight against counterfeits. The DoD has been tasked with sharing accountability for counterfeits with suppliers, as long as that supplier agrees to source parts only from original manufacturers or their authorized distributors. In May 2013, the DoD released its pro-
posed revisions to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation System (DFARS). The revisions focus on defining a “legally authorized source” as “the current design activity or the original manufacturer or a supplier authorized by the current design activity or the original manufacturer to produce an item.” “Authorized distributors” do not appear as a term in the proposed revisions but may be considered to be included by virtue of the terminology highlighted above.
Industry groups such as the ERAI have been spearheading efforts to educate some classes of suppliers, such as independent nonfranchised distributors, on how to align their business practices with NDAA requirements (which franchised distributors already adhere to as part of their agreements with manufacturers), and avoid costly counterfeit incursions, which cast doubt on the industry’s willingness to respond to the counterfeit threat. SAE International, a standards organization that is focused on automo-
tive and aerospace industries, in January 2013 announced an updated counterfeits avoidance technical standard that covers military aircraft and equipment. The standard was developed with inputs from the DoD and leading electronics manufacturers and OEMs. While it is too soon to gauge the impact of this new standard in alleviating the spread of counterfeits, it is an important example of military and industry cooperation that strengthens underlying regulatory actions.
Proposed Revisions The proposed revisions also would prohibit government reimbursement to the contractor for remedying the impact of counterfeit parts. A key revision would ensure that purchase orders and subcontracts contain flow-down clauses that impact the components manufacturers and their distributors. This truly enlarges accountability not only with the government supplier, but all the way up the supply chain to the manufacturer, making direct traceability vital. The proposed revisions to DFARS are not yet finalized, with the public comments period ending July 15, 2013. The 2013 Act also includes provisions for the notification by the contractor to the military that it has discovered counterfeit parts. With the 2013 Act enshrined in law, the DoD now is tasked with translating the legislation into workable rules for the military branches and their suppliers. The momentum is clearly in the direction of increased regulation and it will only take another major incident to spur Congress to again strengthen the laws surrounding counterfeits. While this is underway, the electronics industry has been coming up with its own recommendations to alleviate the counterfeits problem.
TAKE YOUR VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT TO THE EDGE T A KE Y OUR V IRTUAL E NVIRONMENT T OT HE E DGE
The RES-mini Ruggedized Server ^sǣÞ¶Řs_ ¯Ÿǋ _sŎŘ_ÞŘ¶ sŘɚÞǋŸŘŎsŘǼĶ OŸŘ_ÞǼÞŸŘǣ ɠÌsǋs ǢÞʊsʰ ɟsÞ¶ÌǼʰ Ř_ ƻŸɠsǋ ʹǢɟƻʺ ŸƼǼÞŎÞʊǼÞŸŘ Þǣ ǣsɚsǋsĶɴ ĶÞŎÞǼs_ʰ ǼÌs ǊrǢ˚ŎÞŘÞ OŸŎEÞŘsǣ ǼÌs ǋŸEȖǣǼ _sǣÞ¶Ř Ÿ¯ǼÌsǊrǢǣsǋɚsǋ¯ŎÞĶɴɠǼÌǼÌsĶǼsǣǼrˤˠ˥˟˟Ř_ˡ˥˟˟ÝŘǼsĶɭsŸŘƼǋŸOsǣǣŸǋǣɠÞǼÌ ¯ŸȖǋʰ ǣÞɮʰ Ÿǋ sÞ¶ÌǼ OŸǋsǣʳ ^sǣÞ¶Řs_ ǼŸ Es ¯ȖĶĶɴ OŸŎƼǼÞEĶs ɠÞǼÌ OȖǋǋsŘǼ ɚÞǋǼȖĶÞʊǼÞŸŘ ǼsOÌŘŸĶŸ¶Þsǣ ÞŘOĶȖ_ÞŘ¶ əōɟǋs˖ Ř_ NÞǼǋÞɮ˖ ɭsŘǢsǋɚsǋ˖ʰ ǼÌs ǊrǢ˚ŎÞŘÞ EǋÞŘ¶ǣ ŘsɮǼ ¶sŘsǋǼÞŸŘ ǼsOÌŘŸĶŸ¶ɴ ǼŸ ŎÞǣǣÞŸŘ˚OǋÞǼÞOĶ ŎÞĶÞǼǋɴʰ OŸŎŎsǋOÞĶʰ Ř_ ÞŘ_ȖǣǼǋÞĶ applications.
Industry’s Part to Plan Industry is moving against counterfeits in parallel with the government. Having won a slight victory by lobbying lawmakers to somewhat soften liability regulations in the 2013 NDAA, industry groups recognize that they must continue to be tough on counterfeits or risk losing lucrative military contracts. Some notable developments include those of the Electronics Resellers Association (ERAI), SAE International and others (Figure 3).
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For current Themis product information, please, go to www.themis.com ©2013 Themis Computer. All rights reserved. Themis, the Themis logo, and RES-mini are trademarks or registered trademarks of Themis Computer. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
5/2/13 July 2013 | COTS Journal
ISO 9001 and 14001 ISO (International Organization for Standardization) certification continues to be an important qualifier for suppliers of components to the military. ISO 9001 certification indicates the highest standards in quality management for facilities, equipment, etc., and ISO 14001 pertains to the environmental management system of a supplier. Many suppliers promote their “compliance” with ISO standards while not actually being certified. This may indicate a
lack of safeguards, which enables counterfeits to enter the military supply chain. The Government Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) is a cooperative government-industry group that has been instrumental in the fight against counterfeits, especially given its roots in the defense industry. When surveying members on the obstacles to reporting counterfeit parts, GIDEP found that many respondents were fearful of legal liability issues, or lawsuits by third parties, and, perhaps more damag-
ing, that many organizations prohibit the reporting of counterfeits or other non-conforming materials to outside parties. This fear of liability, which prompted the DoD to update DFAR as explained above, enables counterfeiters to continue to flourish, and is a major area of focus for GIDEP to counter.
Distributors Fight Counterfeits It is interesting that both the government and industry responses to the counterfeit threat recognize the rise of franchised and authorized distributors— those that have entered into a business relationship with and/or are authorized by the original components manufacturer to provide 100% guaranteed direct traceable products—and the key role they play in safeguarding the military supply chain against counterfeits. These franchised and authorized distributors play a key role in meeting the unique needs of the military supply chain and help DoD contractors or customers avoid turning to the broker channel, which in many cases is more susceptible to the inflow of counterfeits. The NDAA also places intense industry focus on end-of-life product solutions that include direct evidence of original component manufacturer authenticity. One unique attribute of the military supply chain is the product lifecycle mismatch, which finds the military seeking components long after the original manufacturers have moved on to newer products. Military programs are often built with the expectation that they will last decades, not years, so long-term access to electronics components for some military projects requires much older date code, obsolete, or end-of-life components. Franchised and authorized distributors that specialize in these parts, and have the ability to hold parts for future processing, serve a vital role in the military supply chain and guarantee against counterfeits. This example of government and private industry cooperation is the key to reaching a future in which counterfeits are a memory and the military supply chain attains a level of security that is deserving of the reputation of the military it serves. Components Direct San Jose,CA. (408) 503-7770. [www.componentsdirect.com].
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TECHNOLOGY FOCUS OpenVPX SBCs
OpenVPX Absorbs New Technology as it Paves Way to Higher Performance Like its much older cousin VME, OpenVPX is proving to be a platform that can easily intergrate new computing technology as it emerges. That plus an ever expanding base of vendors and product choices keep VPX in a strong position. Jeff Child Editor-in-Chief
ver the past couple years, the number of new OpenVPX boards has continued to climb. Early adopters are now on their third or even fourth round of VITA 46-compliant products, and new vendors have joined the game with their first VPX products just in the past year. The OpenVPX spec provides implementation details for VPX payload and switch modules, backplane topologies and chassis products. And most importantly, it provides specific profiles on all the key aspects of an OpenVPX so that users and product vendors now have a clear language defining which OpenVPX are compatible with one another. Like its VME cousin, OpenVPX provides that backward compatibility that is so important in the military where program development cycles span many years. A new board with the latest and greatest processor, memory and I/O can easily be dropped into a slot that could be decades old. Unlike a decade ago, military 38
COTS Journal | July 2013
The Navy’s Integrated Topside (InTop) is an integrated, multifunctional, multibeam topside aperture construct that has a modular, open radio frequency (RF) architecture; softwaredefined functionality; and supports EMI mitigation. embedded computer vendors are well tied in with processor vendors like Intel and are now able to roll out a board-level product the same day a major processor architecture is released. That’s exactly what happened earlier last month with the release of Intel’s 4th generation Core i7 processor. Based on the new Intel microarchitecture, formerly codenamed “Haswell,” the new processor integrates new features such as the Intel AVX2 instructions, which dramatically accelerate floating-point-intensive computations. Also included is the improved Intel AES-NI, which accelerates data encryption and decryption. The processor also features upgraded 3D / media graphics and an OpenCL-programmable onchip GPGPU, while the thermal footprint has remained nearly the same. Several
military embedded computer vendors rolled out new board-level products based on that new Haswell archictecture—five of them specifically on OpenVPX. VPX is gaining design wins in many data-intensive applications where high throughput and high-compute density (size) are critical factors. In support of the VPX family of specifications, VITA members have been building a wide range of products suited to a variety of applications, from backplanes and chassis to 3U and 6U boards of various types. Over 300 products are listed in the VITA product directory under VPX, with more added each month. The Product Roundup on the next several pages shows representative OpenVPX SBC products. VPX, even in its pre-OpenVPX spec era, enjoyed numerous program wins— many more non-public than public. The architecture has even won some mindshare in legacy military platforms— where high data-centric performance needs like those of radar come into play. In one example, Curtiss-Wright Controls earlier this year received a contract from Northrop Grumman to provide an integrated embedded Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) system for use in the U.S. Navy’s InTop (Integrated Topside) program (Figure 1). Under the contract, Curtiss-Wright Controls will supply rugged COTS single board computers and other embedded modules to Northrop Grumman. Curtiss-Wright’s DRFM technology, which integrates with Northrop Grumman’s system architecture, is based on modules in VPX and XMC form factors.
SECURE RUGGED STORAGE
• Up to 4TB Capacity • High Performance • Ultra Small • Rugged Tel.: +1 (281) 769-8211 email@example.com www.galleonec.com
AES-256 Encryption Removable Data Cartridge Servers, NAS, Serial FPDP and Ethernet Data Recorders
TECHNOLOGY FOCUS: OpenVPX SBCs Roundup VPX Cards Serve Up Spartan-6 FPGAs
3U VPX Blade Marries Core i7 and 8 Gbytes of DRAM
Rugged 3U VPX SBCs Boast Hyperthreading Dual-Core CPUs
A new series of 3U VPX FPGA boards provides powerful but economical solutions for high-speed processing of algorithms in embedded computing applications. The VPX-SLX boards from Acromag employ a configurable, logic-optimized Spartan-6 FPGA with 150k logic cells to meet demand for higher performance in cost-sensitive applications. A high-throughput PCI Express interface, generous dual-ported memory for efficient data handling and 64 I/O lines direct to the FPGA enable rapid data processing and great
ADLINK Technology has released its flagship VPX product line, the VPX3000 Series rugged 3U VPX processor blade. The VPX3000 Series is ideal for system integrators who have a need for an advanced VPX board with VPX REDI and OpenVPX compliance in order to deploy high-performance military and aerospace applications requiring quick time-to-market. The ADLINK VPX3000 Series features the 3rd generation Intel Core i7 processor with Mobile Intel QM77 Express Chipset. The VPX3000 Series provides up to 8 Gbytes of
OpenVPX provides a unique mix of ruggedness and extreme data throughput—both critical requirements for network-centric communications, high-definition avionics displays, mission and controls systems computers, data concentrators and condition-based maintenance (CBM) applications. Feeding those needs, Aitech Defense Systems now offers a 3U VPX product family based on the low-power Intel Core i7 processor that enables extremely high computing within very compact environments. The new Core i7 can process data using two cores and four threads via Intel’s hyperthreading technology.
versatility. Ideal for defense, aerospace, or scientific research; typical applications involve signal intelligence, image processing and hardware simulation. All VPX-SLX models use the XC6SLX150 Spartan-6 FPGA chip with 147,433 logic cells and 180 DSP48A1 slices. There are 64 I/O or 32 LVDS lines connected to the FPGA via the rear P2 connector. A series of AXM extension modules are available to provide additional front-end 16-bit A/D, differential RS-485, CMOS, or LVDS I/O processing channels through a mezzanine connector on the front of the card. FPGA code loads from the PCIe bus or from onboard flash memory. A JTAG and Xilinx ChipScope Pro interface are also supported to simplify development tasks. For extended temperature range operation, models can be ordered with a frame for use in a conduction-cooled chassis. The standard model operates reliably over a 0 to 70°C range in an air-cooled or forced convection system. The conduction-cooled version supports a range of -40° to 85°C. And for system compatibility, Acromag’s 3U VPX cards support a number of VITA 65 slot profiles and conform to VPX VITA 46.0, 46.4 and 46.9 specifications. Pricing starts at $5,200 for an air-cooled version and slightly higher in a conduction-cooled format.
DDR3-1333/1600 dual channel ECC memory soldered on board, one PCI Express x8 XMC.3 site with VITA 46.9 rear I/O and onboard soldered 16 Gbyte SLC SATA solid state drive. The processor blade provides two Gen2 PCI Express x4 (or 1x PCIe x8) to P1 with DMA and Non-Transparent Capability. Rear I/O via P1 and P2 includes 1000BASE-T, HD audio (line-in, line-out), 2x SATA 6 Gbits/s, 1x SATA 3 Gbits/s, USB 3.0, USB 2.0, GPIO, VGA, DVI, RS-232 and RS-422. The VPX3000 Series is rugged conductioncooled with conformal coating to support the requirements of mission-critical applications in military and aerospace, and supports VITA 46, VPX REDI 48, OpenVPX VITA 65, as well as VITA 47-2005 environmental specifications. A VPX-R300 Rear Transition Module is available to access rear I/O signals from the VPX3000, and a tBP-VPX3000 Test Backplane supporting three payload slots is available for users to validate VPX3000 functionality.
Based on the latest in OpenVPX serial fabric architecture technology, the new 3U VPX family includes the C870 SBC with a Core i7 dual-core processor configured to run at either 2.53 GHz for high performance, 2 GHz for low power or at 1.33 GHz where ultra low power is required. As standard, the board provides up to 4 Gbytes of DDR3 SDRAM with ECC operating at 1066 MHz, 4 Mbytes of BIOS Flash and 8 Gbytes of onboard SATA SSD for mass storage. Standard onboard I/O is also plentiful with four GbE ports (two 1000Base T, two 1000Base BX/KX), two SATA II ports, four USB 2.0 ports and eight discrete I/O lines as well as two UART ports and HDMI/DVI and CRT interfaces for graphics requirements. As part of the 3U VPX family of products, the OpenVPX-compliant CM870 is a low-power, rugged PMC/XMC carrier board designed to plug into an adjacent 3U backplane slot in order to expand system functionality by enabling the addition of I/O, graphics and SSD memory PMC/XMC cards. Both the SBC and carrier card are single-slot modules and are available in air- and conduction-cooled formats, per ANSI/ VITA 46.0-2007 and ANSI/VITA 65.0-2010 respectively. The carrier card weighs less than 0.7 lbs in both formats, while the air-cooled SBC weighs 0.66 lbs and the conduction-cooled version weighs 0.7 lbs.
Acromag Wixom, MI. (248) 295-0310. [www.acromag.com].
COTS Journal | July 2013
ADLINK Technology San Jose, CA. (408) 360-0200. [www.adlinktech.com].
Aitech Defense Systems Chatsworth, CA. (888) 248-3248. [www.rugged.com].
PMC and XMC Board & FPGA Processing Board Gallery Virtex®-6 FPGA Module Reconfigurable Xilinx® Virtex-6 Up to 365K logic cells Dual 8-lane high-speed interfaces for: PCIe, GbE, SRIO, and Aurora Dual SFP ports for Fibre Channel or Gigabit Ethernet 94 I/O direct to FPGA via rear ports Front and rear I/O versions Conduction-cooled or -40 to 85°C versions available
Featuring the latest in PMC and XMC Board & FPGA Processing Board technologies Acromag Inc. Phone: (877) 295-7084 Fax: (248) 624-9234
8-Channel MIL-STD-1553 XMC Card! BU-67112
The FIOV-2310 is the latest FPGA processor board from CES. It is a rugged 3U OpenVPX™ board with a Kintex™-7 FPGA and an FMC site for front-end I/O customization. It allows the flexible configuration of the high-speed links between the FMC connector and various backplane profiles.
CES - Creative Electronic Systems SA Phone: +41 22 884 51 00
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.ces.ch
Data ata a aD Device i e Corporation o p ra on Phone: (800) DDC-5757 Web: www.ddc-web.com
Matrix Series XMC Card for ARINC 818
Phone: (505) 881-6262
Phone: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904
Up to 3rd. Gen Intel Core i7 Ext. temp. -40°C up to +85°C No fan & full power 8 - 36/48 VDC OEM and customized solutions Open frame up to IP67 housing 10+ years availability Expansions with PMC & XMC modules
MPL AG Switzerland E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.greatrivertech.com
Phone: +41 56 483 34 34 Fax: +41 56 493 30 20
Cobalt Highest-Speed Data Acquisition XMC Board with Wideband DDC
Delivers maximum performance and reliability with the world’s most advanced MIL-STD-1553 technology — Total-AceXtreme®! Reduced SWaP & Increased MTBF Compared with FPGA-Based XMC Cards Fewer Parts = Higher MTBF & Lower Power Consumption Lower Power Enables Smaller Power Supply & Easier Cooling High Channel Count Saves XMC Sites/ Sockets
Long-term Embedded Intel Solutions expandable with PMC & XMC
GRT’s Matrix Series XMC card supports ARINC 818–compliant interfaces to 4.25 Gb/s. Configured to match link speed, image resolution, and pixel format of your interface control document, these cards can capture or transmit ARINC 818 or convert it to DVI.
Great River Technology
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.acromag.com
Single-channel 3.6 GHz data acquisition with 12-bit resolution Dual-channel 1.8 GHz data acquisition with 12-bit resolution 2 GB deep on-board memory and high-speed serial I/O Programmable one- or two-channel DDC (Digital Downconverter) Clock/sync bus for multiboard synchronization Pentek ReadyFlow® board support and GateFlow® FPGA design kit COTS and ruggedized options up to and including conduction cooling
E-mail: email@example.com Web: pentek.com/go/cots71641
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.mpl.ch
DDR3 / DDR4 Protocol Analyzer Supports ECC SODIMM Kibra 480 protocol analyzer - test and debug DDR3/DDR4 Easy setup - no calibration needed Analyzes and triggers on JEDEC timing violations Supports DDR3 ECC SODIMM as well as U-DIMM / R-DIMM Allows faster DDR test and integration for real-time and embedded applications
Teledyne LeCroy Phone: (408) 653-1262 Fax: (408) 727-6622
E-mail: PSGsales@lecroy.com Web: lcry.us/190W4G4
OpenVPX SBCs Roundup
6U OpenVPX Card Has Stratix V FPGAs and Anemone Coprocessors BittWare offers a 6U VPX board powered by Altera’s 28nm Stratix V FPGAs. The S5-6U-VPX (S56X) is a rugged VITA 65 6U VPX card providing a configurable 48-port multi-gigabit transceiver interface supporting a variety of protocols, including Serial RapidIO, PCI Express and 10GigE, and two VITA 57 FMC sites for enhancing the board’s I/O and
processing capabilities. When combined with the optional BittWare Anemone floating point coprocessors, the board packs a powerful punch for those applications requiring flexible FPGA processing in a rugged form factor. By leveraging the Stratix V GS FPGA’s floating point DSP blocks, which deliver up to one TeraFLOP of computing performance, combined with the FPGA’s low-power, multi-gigabit transceivers and a high-density, high-performance architecture, BittWare’s S56X board delivers a rugged and completely flexible signal processing solution capable of driving innovative new capabilities in military applications. The board also sports an 800 MHz ARM Cortex-A8 control processor and two Anemone floating point coprocessors (optional). I/O includes 48 multi-gigabit transceivers along with GigE, SerDes, LVDS and RS-232 links. Up to 8 Gbytes of onboard DDR3 memory are included also.
BittWare Concord, NH. (603) 226-0404. [www.bittware.com].
3U VPX Serves Up 4th Gen Intel Core Processor
3U OpenVPX Module Provides 24-Core QorIQ T4240 CPU
Concurrent Technologies offers its first processor board based on the quad-core 4th generation Intel Core processor family (previously codenamed “Haswell”). The TR B12/msd is a 3U VPX board featuring the Intel Core i7-4700EQ processor and the associated mobile Intel QM87 Express chipset. With up to 16 Gbytes of DRAM and a rich assortment of I/O interfaces, this board is an ideal processor board for 3U VPX solutions requiring the latest in processing performance. 3U VPX is particularly well suited to high-end compute-
A 3U OpenVPX single board computer in a compact, rugged form factor is targeted for extremely challenging applications that require very high performance, both in I/O and computation. The RIOV-2440 from Creative Electronic Systems features the Freescale QorIQ T Series T4240 communications processor, with 12 dual-threaded cores supporting 24 virtual cores. The RIOV-2440 provides the T4240 processor with up to 12 Gbytes of high-speed DDR3 memory in three separate banks, 2 Gbytes
intensive applications in military embedded, aerospace and transportation systems for data acquisition, control systems and video signal processing. The 4th generation Intel Core processor family is based on 22nm process technology. This quad-core processor provides enhanced CPU and graphics performance over previous generations at TDP levels up to 47W. The TR B12/msd is a 3U VPX processor board featuring this latest quad-core processor and supporting chipset, with up to 16 Gbytes DDR3L DRAM with ECC. Additional features include 4 x SATA600 mass storage interfaces, onboard SATA Flash, serial and USB interfaces, graphics and stereo audio interfaces. The wide range of I/O interfaces can be further expanded by the addition of an XMC module. The board supports a configurable control plane fabric interface (VITA 46.6) and a flexible PCI Express (PCIe) data plane fabric interface (VITA 46.4) supporting up to Gen 3 data rates and can be used in systems defined by OpenVPX (VITA 65). The TR B12/msd processor board is released as a commercial air-cooled board, while later releases will include dual-core processor options and ruggedized variants.
of onboard flash and direct I/O connections to the backplane. The overhead of additional switches and bridges is eliminated, while flexibility is provided by the multiple processor I/O configuration options, including the T4240 processor’s PCIe, SRIO, GbE, 10GbE and SATA II ports. It is compatible with most OpenVPX payload slot profiles. The RIOV-2440 provides easy access to the essential I/O on the front panel, as well as complete connectivity on the backplane. Various rear transition modules (RTMs) are available to access the wide range of I/O and debug signals. The RIOV-2440 is compatible with the other 3U VPX boards from CES, including the ETS-8227 multi-protocol switch, the VCP-2864 video compression board and the FIOV2310 FPGA processor board. An Advanced Board Management Controller (aBMC) is implemented for VITA 46.11 support, configuration management, event logging and other supporting tasks. It is fully compatible with the CES Configuration, Load and Monitor (CLM) tool. The RIOV-2440 is delivered with the classic CES PPCMon bootloader and monitor application, and an extended BSP for Linux, VxWorks or Integrity. In addition, a wide range of development tools and software is available from Freescale and third parties.
Concurrent Technologies Woburn, MA. (781) 933-5900. [www.gocct.com].
COTS Journal | July 2013
Creative Electronic Systems Geneva, Switzerland. +41 (0)22 884 51 00. [www.ces.ch].
OpenVPX SBCs Roundup
OpenVPX Multiprocessing DSP Module Leverages 4th Gen Core i7 Processors
Core i7 OpenVPX SBC Features Rich I/O
Xeon Quad-Core 6U VPX SBC Includes Ethernet Switch
Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions has introduced its new CHAMP-AV9, the industry’s first rugged, high-performance OpenVPX (VITA 65) DSP (digital signal processing) engine based on the latest quadcore Intel Core i7-4700EQ processor. The CHAMP-AV9 is specifically designed to operate in extreme environmental conditions for rugged, deployed applications at the highest possible performance level. Using the enhanced Intel Advanced Vector Extensions (Intel AVX)
Intel processors have shed the past hurdles to acceptance among military system designers. Low-power offerings are the main reason. Emerson Network Power has released a set of OpenVPX (VITA 65) SBCs. The iVPX7220 (shown) and iVPX7223 feature the new second generation Intel Core processors and are part of a growing family of VME and OpenVPX/VPX (VITA 46) boards for rugged applications from one of the leaders in embedded computing. The 6U iVPX7220 and 3U iVPX7223 boards feature the dual-core 2.20 GHz Intel Core i7 2655LE processor with integrated graphics and memory
A rugged, high-performance 6U VPX (VITA 46) SBC features a quad-core Intel L5408 Xeon processor and integrated 10 Gigabit Ethernet switch to support full-mesh backplane data layer interconnectivity for up to eight SBCs integrated into a single chassis. Available in air-cooled or conduction-cooled formats, the CPU-111-10 from Eurotech conforms to the OpenVPX (VITA 65) payload module profile MOD6-PAY-4F2T-184.108.40.206 with four
2.0 instruction set, the CHAMP-AV9 offers 614 GFLOPS per board, not including the on-chip GPGPU numerical coprocessors, to deliver more than double the performance of previous DSP solutions. CHAMP-AV9 is also the first OpenVPX DSP engine to use a 40 Gbit/s Ethernet or InfiniBand data plane fabric, providing 14 Gbyte/s full duplex throughput with RDMA to support scalable, distributed, real-time computing. The 4th generation Intel Core i7 processors contain substantial improvements over previous generations: The CHAMP-AV9 engine has been upgraded to DDR3-1600 and rugged implementations of the module will incorporate thermal management solutions that eliminate CPU throttling at our benchmark 71°C air-cooled and conduction-cooled 85°C card-edge environments. This contrasts with alternative solutions in which the CPUs throttle severely or are simply unable to operate at an 85°C card-edge. The CHAMP-AV9 incorporates the enhancements of the OpenVPX (VITA 65) standard with a complete suite of data plane, expansion plane and control plane interfaces. With up to 14 Gbytes/s of data plane fabric and 32 Gbytes/s of expansion plane performance, the CHAMP-AV9 has the bandwidth required to effectively harness the power of the processors. Pricing for the CHAMP-AV9 starts at $20,000. Availability is Q3 2013.
controller, and the Intel QM67 PCH chipset for advanced I/O functionality. The iVPX7220 also supports the quad-core second generation Intel Core i7 2715QE processor. Both of the products are rugged SBCs for extreme environments with extended shock, vibration and temperature ratings and conduction-cooling. The iVPX7223 and the dual-core variant of the iVPX7220 feature up to 8 Gbytes DDR3-1333, while the quad-core processor variant of the iVPX7220 is designed to support up to 16 Gbyte DDR3-1333 memory. Fabric connectivity includes Gigabit Ethernet to the control plane and PCI Express to the data plane, while the iVPX7220 also offers PCI Express to the expansion plane. The iVPX7220 also offers 4 Gbytes of embedded USB flash and 256 Kbytes of nonvolatile Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (F-RAM). Additional connectivity includes up to nine USB 2.0 ports, five serial ports, five SATA ports, ten GPIOs, three DisplayPort connections, VGA and dual XMC sites for maximum flexibility. An optional 2.5-inch SATA solid-state disk is also available. The iVPX7223 offers 4 Gbytes of embedded USB flash and 256 Kbytes of non-volatile F-RAM. Additional connectivity on this board includes three USB 2.0 ports, two serial ports, three SATA ports, eight GPIO, one DisplayPort connection, one VGA and one XMC site.
fat pipes (10 GBase-BX4) and two thin pipes (1000Base-T). The CPU-111-10 serves as a suitable openarchitecture building block for next-generation command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) applications on board (un)manned air / ground vehicles and shipboard platforms. Standard onboard I/O resources include up to 8x 10 Gigabit Ethernet, 2x 1 Gigabit Ethernet, 4x SATA, 2x USB 2.0, 1x RS-232/485 and 1x VGA video ports. Dual XMC / PMC expansion module sites enable additional I/O expansion, including 10G XAUI lanes from each XMC card to the 10G switched fabric. Offered in both convection-cooled and ruggedized conduction-cooled variants, the CPU-111-10 is designed for use with ANSI/ VITA 46 1.0” pitch VPX form factor backplanes.
Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions Ashburn, VA. (703) 779-7800. [www.cwcdefense.com].
Eurotech Columbia, MD. (301) 490-4007. [www.eurotech.com].
Emerson Network Power, Embedded Computing Carlsbad, CA. (407) 241-2751. [www.emersonnetworkpower.com/ embeddedcomputing]. July 2013 | COTS Journal
OpenVPX SBCs Roundup
6U VPX SBC Blends Freescale 8-Core P4080 and Five Other QorIQ Processors Extreme Engineering Solutions offers the XCalibur1641, a 6U VPX Single Board Computer (SBC) supporting Freescale QorIQ P3041, P4040, P4080, P5010, P5020 and P5040 processors. With support for a wide range of QorIQ processors, the XCalibur1641 is an ideal solution for a variety of conduction- and aircooled, high-end military applications. The XCalibur1641 is an OpenVPX-
compliant, conduction- or air-cooled, 6U VPX SBC. The stock processor is a Freescale P4080 with eight PowerPC e500mc cores at up to 1.5 GHz. The XCalibur1641 is also available with a quad-core P3041, quad-core P4040, single-core P5010, dual-core P5020, or quad-core P5040 processor. It supports up to 16 Gbytes of DDR31333 ECC SDRAM in two channels, up to 512 Mbyte of boot flash (with redundancy), up to 64 Gbytes of user flash and up to 256 Gbytes of optional SATA user flash. Standard I/O for the XCalibur1641 includes four Gigabit Ethernet ports, up to five SATA 3.0 Gbit/s ports, two USB 2.0 ports and two RS232/422/485 serial ports. Application-specific I/O is added easily via dual PMC/XMC sites with a PCI Express interface (x8) to each XMC site. Supported Board Support Packages (BSPs) are available for Green Hills INTEGRITY and INTEGRITY-178B tuMP, Wind River VxWorks and Linux. The XCalibur1641 joins the X-ES Freescale P4080 product line, which includes the XCalibur1600 6U CompactPCI module, XPedite5430 3U CompactPCI module and XPedite5470 3U VPX SBC, as well as the XPedite5400 and XPedite5401 PMC/XMC modules.
Extreme Engineering Solutions Middleton, WI. (608) 833-1155. [www.xes-inc.com].
COTS Journal | July 2013
Core i7 3U VPU Card Takes Aim at ISR, Sonar and Radar Apps
3U OpenVPX Virtex-6 FPGA Board Features FMC Site
The VPXcel3 SBC326 Rugged SBC from GE Intelligent Platforms delivers enhanced processor performance, enhanced graphics performance, superior connectivity and improved security—but within the same power envelope as its predecessors. These improved capabilities will allow the SBC326 not only to address existing command/control applications, but to be deployed in more demanding signal processing applications such as ISR (intelligence, surveillance and
A 3U OpenVPX front-end processing board boasts a flexible Virtex-6 FPGA and an FMC site (VITA 57.1). The IC-FEP-VPX3b from Interface Concept is suitable for applications such as radar, sonar, electronic warfare, imaging and communications. The FMC site, being VITA 57.1 compliant, interconnects ADC, DAC, general I/Os, video, Serial FPDP cards, or additional FPGA FMC modules. In terms of
reconnaissance), sonar and radar. The SBC326 is form, fit and function compatible with earlier models, providing a straightforward, costeffective technology insertion opportunity that enables current systems to benefit from Intel’s 4th Generation Core i7 processors. The SBC326 single board computer benefits from the 4th generation Intel Core i7 processor’s support of PCI Express Gen3 technology and USB 3.0, providing even greater bandwidth for on-board and off-board connectivity and enabling the high bandwidths required by today’s applications. In particular, this high-performance PCI Express interface makes the SBC326 an ideal host to drive GE’s CUDA-enabled GPGPU boards, such as the IPN251and NPN240.
processing unit, the board, based on a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA, offers two banks of 40-bit 1.25 Gbyte DDR3 memory and a Spartan-6 control node. Complying with the VPX standard, the IC-FEP-VPX3b features four 4-lane fabric ports on the P1 and general-purpose I/Os (on P2). The board is available in standard, rugged and conduction-cooled grades and comes with the Xilinx ISE design tool. The IC-FEP-VPX3b is compliant with the several OpenVPX profiles (VITA 65). The company’s FPGA boards could be delivered with a firmware demonstrating all the capabilities and performance of the boards. The aim of these packages is to accelerate the design cycle and enable FPGA designers to spend less time developing the infrastructure to focus on their value-add design. These firmwares are built around Interface Concept’s AXI DMA IP, Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA Integrated Block for PCI Express, memory controllers (DDR3 and DDRII+) and FMC High Speed Data Transfer examples.
GE Intelligent Platforms Charlottesville, VA. (800) 368-2738. [defense.ge-ip.com].
Interface Concept Briec de l’Odet, France. +33 (0)2 98 57 30 30. [www.interfaceconcept.com].
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Bridge System Links ATDS over Ethernet Sabtech has announced the ability to transparently extend Airborne Tactical Data Systems (ATDS) serial (MILSTD-188-203-1A, Appendix D2) data communications over a network with its new PowerNet ATDS Bridge System. ATDS is used in equipment that supports Tactical Digital Information Link-A (TADIL-A) or its NATO designation, Link-11. The PowerNet Bridge provides a transparent hardware and protocol conversion that allows Data Terminal Set (DTS), Tactical Data System (TDS) and cryptographic equipment to communicate over a network without modification to either end. Moving the ATDS link to a network architecture eliminates cable length limitations and allows for implementation of redundant paths through the network fabric, greatly improving the survivability of the interface. The PowerNet Bridge System consists of two PowerNet servers, one connected to the legacy ATDS device at each end of the interface. The servers connect together over a dedicated or shared Ethernet network. In operation, the servers convert the ATDS channel protocol into Ethernet packets that are transmitted and converted back to ATDS at the distant end. The PowerNet server is typically mounted near the legacy equipment to make the ATDS cable run as short as possible. Designed with redundant capability, the PowerNet Bridge System is equipped with dual Ethernet ports to significantly increase reliability. When configured to operate in dual port mode, if one interface or network path is not available, operation continues without delay or interruption on the surviving path. For ease of integration, several form factors are available including a 6U VME board, a 19-inch rackmount system or an enclosed ruggedized version. PowerNet ATDS is also available as a standalone system.
Sabtech Industries, Yorba Linda, CA. (714) 692-3800. [www.sabtech.com].
250W Convection-Cooled Power Supply Boasts Low Profile, High Efficiency
High-Speed Clock Generator Marries Virtex-7 FPGA and XMC
TDK has announced the release of TDK-Lambda’s new CUS250LD series low-profile AC/DC power supplies. These single-output supplies provide 250 watts of output power with convection-cooling (no fans required). This design eliminates the need for fan maintenance and reduces acoustic noise and vibrations. In addition, they feature a low profile of only 1.18 inch and a compact footprint of 4.0 x 7.8 inches. The supplies operate from a universal input of 85-264 Vac, 47-63Hz, with PFC, enabling them to be used anywhere in the world. Moreover, they can operate from a 120-370 Vdc input. These units have an input-to-output withstand voltage of 3 kVac. The CUS250LD series are available with an output voltage of 3.3V, 4.2V, 5V, 12V, or 24 Vdc, all of which have a +/-10% user-adjustment range. The convection-cooled operating temperature range is from -25° to +70°C with derating above +40°C. The power-saving efficiency is up to 90%. Other standard features include overvoltage and overcurrent protections plus a green LED indicator that is lit when the supply is on.
Pentek has announced the Model 7194 high-speed clock generator in a PMC/XMC form factor. The Model 7194 provides fixed frequency sample clocks to up to four Pentek analog-to-digital Cobalt and Onyx modules in multiboard systems. It enables synchronous sampling, playback and timing for a wide range of multichannel, high-speed data acquisition and software radio applications. As a standard PMC/XMC form factor module, the Model 7194 uses PMC P14 or XMC P15 connectors solely for power and can be mounted in any PMC or XMC site. The optional PCIe style 6-pin power connector allows it to be powered without a PMC/XMC site and can be used in virtually any chassis or enclosure. Carriers adapt the Model 7194 for PCIe, AMC, CompactPCI, VME and VPX. The board requires no programming. Delivering clock frequencies up to 2 GHz, the Model 7194 is an ideal companion clock generator to a selection of high-speed products and their commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and rugged PCIe, AMC, Compact PCI, VME and VPX derivatives. The Model 7194 starting price is $1,995.
TDK-Lambda Americas, San Diego, CA. (619) 628-2859. [www.us.tdk-lambda.com].
Pentek, Upper Saddle River, NJ. (201) 818-5900. [www.pentek.com].
SO-DIMMs Serve Up 2 to 8 Gbytes of DDR3L Memory Swissbit has announced new members of its INDUSTRIAL family of DDR3 SODIMMs compatible with the JEDEC DDR3L standard running at 1.35V. DDR3L will allow an up to 15% reduction in power consumption over DDR3. Swissbit now offers DDR3L SODIMMs and DDR3L SO-UDIMMs (72b SODIMMs) with 2 to 8 Gbytes and speed grades up to DDR3L-1600 based on multiple DRAM suppliers. The modules are available in both commercial 0° to +85°C (TCase) and industrial -40° to +95°C (TCase) temperature grades and with ECC (error correction support) on demand. The Swissbit DDR3L modules are backward compatible with the DDR3 standard. Thus, they can be used for 1.35V operation as well as in older systems that still operate at 1.50V.
Swissbit NA, Eagle, ID. (208) 938-4525. [www.swissbit.com]. 46
COTS Journal | July 2013
Networking Platform with 14 GbE LAN Embeds Intel Sandy Bridge WIN Enterprises has announced the PL-80470, a 1U rackmount hardware platform designed for high-performance network service applications. PL-80470 supports Intel Sandy/Ivy Bridge Core i7/i5/i3 processors with Intel Advanced Vector Extensions and Turbo Boost Technology. The platform will support 6 to 14 GbE Ethernet LAN ports via PCIe x8. The platform supports two DDR3 1066/1333 MHz unbuffered non-ECC DIMM sockets with memory up to 16 Gbytes. Storage interfaces support one 3.5-inch or two 2.5-inch SATA HDD, one mSATA and one CompactFlash card. To prevent network problems during platform shut-downs, PL-80470 supports two segments of LAN bypass function through WDT and GPIO pin definitions.
WIN Enterprises, North Andover, MA. (978) 688-2000. [www.win-ent.com].
LynxOS Version 7.0 Provides New Security Features for Connected Devices LynuxWorks has announced LynxOS 7.0, the next generation of their most popular real-time operating system (RTOS), enabling embedded developers to add security functionality to their connected devices. The open standards-based LynxOS has been powering millions of embedded devices for the last 25 years across all industries and now adds significant new features to help meet the needs of the billions of next-generation connected devices. With cyber threats being more sophisticated, and more of the critical infrastructure being controlled by these embedded devices, security protection will be required on each device rather than just relying on the network protection that is in place today. LynxOS 7.0 provides the ability for developers to embed militarygrade security directly into their devices by utilizing features such as access control lists, audit, quotas, local trusted path, account management, trusted menu manager and OpenPAM. It also contains networking support for long haul networks with TCP/ IPV4, IPV6, 2G/3G/4G cellular and WiMax communication stacks. It also supports the shorthaul networks common with M2M applications such as 802.11 WiFi, ZigBee wireless mesh and BlueTooth. In many market segments, a more advanced communication mechanism will be required to offer extremely low latency, high throughput and high availability for application-to-application communications to help satisfy demanding real-time Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. LynuxWorks partners with key middleware providers such as Real-Time Innovations (RTI) to offer these advanced middleware products ported on the LynxOS operating system.
PCI Express Interface Offers Optically Isolated Serial Ports Sealevel Systems offers the 7203e, a PCI Express serial interface that provides two optically isolated serial ports, each individually configurable for RS-232, RS-422, or RS-485. Each serial port utilizes a high-performance UART with 128-byte Tx/Rx FIFOs that enables data rates to 460.8 Kbits/s for reliable highspeed communications in data-intensive applications. The board’s 16C952 UART includes 9-bit framing support and is register compatible with legacy 16550 software applications. In addition, the board derives a 62.5 MHz clock from the PCI Express link. This ultra-high-speed clock is divided by a flexible 8-bit clock prescalar with 1/8 steps to provide support for the widest range of standard and non-standard baud rates. The 7203e is a PCI Express X1 board compatible with any PCI Express slot. The 7203e is immediately available and priced at $379.00.
Sealevel Systems Liberty, SC. (864) 843-4343. [www.sealevel.com].
LynuxWorks, San Jose, CA. (408) 979-3900. [www.lynuxworks.com].
Oscillator Features Ultra-Low Phase Noise Performance Bliley has introduced a third product in the Olympian Family of Oscillators—the Poseidon Series OCXO. It is specifically designed to provide superior phase noise performance under static and dynamic vibration prone environments. Bliley’s Poseidon series OCXO features ultra-low phase noise performance under static conditions with minimal degradation when subjected to dynamic vibration conditions. In addition, this product offers excellent temperature stability in a modular package. The Poseidon series can be provided with any customer specified output frequency between 5 MHz and 130 MHz. Designed for demanding vibration environments, the typical Acceleration Sensitivity is less than 2e-11/g. For applications requiring superior noise performance out to 1 MHz offset, Poseidon is well suited for ground mobile, airborne and shipboard environments.
Bliley, Erie, PA. (814) 838-3571. [www.bliley.com]. July 2013 | COTS Journal
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Coming Next Month Special Feature: Rugged Box vs. Slot Card Systems for Technology Upgrade Programs A trend has been building in the past couple years where traditional embedded board vendors are adding stand-alone rugged box-level systems to their military market offerings. These complete system boxes provide a complete, tested and enclosed computing solution that eliminates complex integration chores for customers. This section looks at this critical product class and the trade-offs versus slot-card solutions, and how system consolidation is impacting the choices made in technology upgrade programs across land, air and sea military applications. Tech Recon: Rugged Laptops, Workstations and Display Systems for Military Applications There’s been a major upward trend in the military toward systems that require sophisticated graphical user interfaces. Often in the form of rugged laptops, workstations and display systems, this is where the warfighter gets the complex situational awareness data—maps, video, images and text—interfaced directly to military weapons platforms on networks. This section explores the technology trends and capabilities of these mission-critical products. System Development: Space-Qualified Electronics and Subsystems With the Space Shuttle program over and the commercial space industry taking the baton, the space electronics industry is certainly in a period of transition. Feeding those systems, space-based semiconductors and board-level systems must be capable of withstanding everything from intense radiation due to high-energy atoms to bombardments from neutrons and other particles. Articles in this section explore the radiation concerns facing space designers, and update readers on radiation-hardened boards and subsystems as well as ASICs, FPGAs and power components designed for those applications. Tech Focus: COM and COM Express Boards The Computer-on-Module (COM) concept has found a solid and growing foothold in military embedded systems. COM Express adds high-speed fabric interconnects to the mix. COM boards provide a complete computing core that can be upgraded when needed, leaving the application-specific I/O on the baseboard. This Tech Focus section updates readers on these trends and provides a product album of representative COM and COM Express products. 48
COTS Journal | July 2013
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EDITORIAL Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief
Summers and Systems
uly is a month nicely associated with relaxation and time off from working. And my team on COTS Journal—and all within our organization that directly or indirectly support us—deserve the vacation time taken in months like this one. They deserve it for all the hard work they do all year, and for helping me keep COTS Journal in its industry-leading position. But this time of year we also schedule important meetings to discuss and plan our areas of editorial coverage for the upcoming year. Part of that focuses on coming up with our 2014 Editorial Calendar, but it’s always a deeper and broader discussion about “directions.” By that I mean the directions electronics and computing technology are going in, and how that impacts our military system developer readers. An awareness of what types of product areas are important to today’s developers is important. But because we’re not just a generic product magazine, we’re always looking at how various parts fit together in a system. And part of that discussion—this year especially—is looking at how the definition of a “system” is changing. On one hand, technology integration has shifted the level of functionally on the chip, board and box level. And interconnects between those new “system” blocks constantly have to keep those processing elements fed. The new levels of compute density, functionality and networking available today are opening up new options for defense applications. Highly integrated FPGAs, comprehensive software development tools, high-speed fabric interconnects and turnkey box-level systems are just a few of the players in this story of embedded system evolution. On the other hand, it’s become more important than ever to look at military electronics from a systems level. Whether the platform is a UAV, a manned aircraft, a ground combat vehicle or a warship, every platform is unique in its mission and its environmental and operational requirements. This means tailoring a specific mix of technologies for optimal platform design and performance. System-level issues span a host of areas including choice of box-level system formats, open architecture vs. proprietary, fiber vs. copper system interconnects, traditional cooling vs. exotic approaches such as liquid cooling, and so on. What’s changed significantly at this level of design is that the out-sourcing of system box designs is moving to the forefront. The argument to design box-level systems in-house is less defensible than ever. What should be pleasing to our industry is that this rise of complete box-level systems exemplifies the degree to which prime contractors are increasing their reliance on technology supplier companies like embedded computing vendors. They are looking for integration expertise and a level of 50
COTS Journal | July 2013
software development as part of those integration efforts. Part of that trend is fueled by the need for primes to contain their costs—especially in this era of tight budget constraints. Those constraints are felt more acutely now than ever as more and more programs are structured as fixed-price rather than cost-plus. There are also DoD mandates for higher technology readiness levels (TRLs). This enables demonstrations earlier in the program development phase. And with today’s financial realities, primes find themselves without the time or the DoD funding to develop a prototype subsystem themselves. As TRL becomes a more significant part of military requirements, suppliers are offering solutions with that specifically in mind. Because we see this box-level perspective growing more important, COTS Journal will keep on top of where it is headed. But we’ll also never give up our analysis of “inside the box” technology. At the board level, integration levels are causing shifts as well. COM boards for example are adding new choices to developers’ options. Computer-on-Module boards provide a complete computing core that can be upgraded when needed, leaving the application-specific I/O on the baseboard. COM Express adds high-speed fabric interconnects to the mix. As complete systems become more doable using those technologies, they’re beginning to replace some platforms that once relied on slot-card systems like VPX, VME and cPCI. That said, for many military applications, the advantages of a slot-card approach take precedence. In this era where tech insertion and tech upgrades will see more action than new-start programs, standardsbased slot cards are more important than ever. Meanwhile, the sophistication of embedded computing is growing beyond just increases in compute density. An emerging trend is the notion of applying supercomputing strategies and techniques for so-called High Performance Embedded Computing (HPEC) solutions. While the strict definition of HPEC varies, the basic idea is to leverage technologies like VPX and PCIe to provide massive processing power for compute-intensive systems. Such systems can meet immense throughput and processing requirements in space-constrained applications handling more than a teraflop of data. Those are just some of the thoughts we’re tossing back and forth in our meetings this month. We’re still smack in the middle of having our discussions about which technology trends are the priorities for next year. Constant change is a fundamental aspect for technology. But it’s selecting the nuances and issues that apply to the military that we revel in at COTS Journal. As we squeeze in our vacation time and planning time, July for us will be as busy as ever.
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