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Tech Focus: CompactPCI and

CompactPCI Serial Board Roundup

The Journal of Military Electronics & Computing


Flexibility Drives Latest Power Supply Innovations

Volume 15 Number 2 February 2013

An RTC Group Publication

System Solutions Tackle Security and Anti-Tamper

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Copyright © 2013 RTD Embedded Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. RTD is a co-founder of the PC/104 Consortium and an AS9100 and ISO 9001 Certified Company. All trademarks or registered trademarks are the property of their respective companies.

The products below are a sampling of RTD’s PCIe/104 and PCI/104-Express offering. All of RTD’s board-level solutions are available in ruggedized packaging with advanced heat sinking, internal raceways, and a variety of I/O configurations. Visit to see our complete product listing.

The Journal of Military Electronics & Computing


Boards and Systems for Video Processing

CONTENTS February 2013

Volume 15

Number 2


COTS (kots), n. 1. Commercial off-the-shelf. Terminology popularized in 1994 within U.S. DoD by SECDEF Wm. Perry’s “Perry Memo” that changed military industry purchasing and design guidelines, making Mil-Specs acceptable only by waiver. COTS is generally defined for technology, goods and services as: a) using commercial business practices and specifications, b) not developed under government funding, c) offered for sale to the general market, d) still must meet the program ORD. 2. Commercial business practices include the accepted practice of customerpaid minor modification to standard COTS products to meet the customer’s unique requirements. —Ant. When applied to the procurement of electronics for the U.S. Military, COTS is a procurement philosophy and does not imply commercial, office environment or any other durability grade. E.g., rad-hard components designed and offered for sale to the general market are COTS if they were developed by the company and not under government funding.

Departments 6 Publisher’s Notebook Sequestration: Won’t it Ever Go Away?

Boards and Systems for Video Processing


The Inside Track

10  Video Processing Solutions Step Up to Meet New Challenges


COTS Products

16  VPX Meets Needs of High-Performance Avionics Systems

66 Editorial Open Standards Success

Jeff Child

Akos Csilling, Creative Electronic Systems

22  E xploring New Criteria for Rugged System Testing Wayne Tustin, Equipment Reliability Institute

Coming in March See Page 64

TECH RECON Power Supply Trends for Boards and Systems

28  Power Supplies Evolve to Meet Needs of Boards and Systems Jeff Child

34  Application Needs Drive Power Protection Choices Vince Polino, NOVA Power Solutions

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Anti-Tamper and Security for Electronics

40  Hardware and Software Work Together to Secure Systems Christine Van De Graaf, Lilee Systems

44  Cryptographic Technology Assures Supply Chain Security Richard Newell and Ming-Hoe Kiu, Microsemi

TECHNOLOGY FOCUS CompactPCI and CompactPCI Serial Boards

48  CompactPCI Holds its Ground in SWaP-critical Systems Jeff Child


CompactPCI and CompactPCI Serial Board Roundup Digital subscriptions available:

On The Cover: Part of the DDG 51 Arleigh Burke-class upgrade program includes a video data distribution system that displays all images from remote video cameras on one monitor with channels. The AEGIS fleet modernization program encompasses a series of upgrades using COTS networking system infrastructures and embedded signal processing. Shown here, the guided-missile destroyer USS Kidd (DDG 100) is underway in the Pacific Ocean. (Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy)

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The Journal of Military Electronics & Computing

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COTS Journal HOME OFFICE The RTC Group, 905 Calle Amanecer, Suite 250, San Clemente, CA 92673 Phone: (949) 226-2000 Fax: (949) 226-2050, Editorial office Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief 20A Northwest Blvd., PMB#137, Nashua, NH 03063 Phone: (603) 429-8301



COTS Journal | February 2013

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NOTEBOOK Sequestration: Won’t it Ever Go Away?


f you had asked me before the New a cycle time of at least 12 months. That Year if there was anything that means when we’ve worked current the Congress could do that was military programs as far as we can, we worse than letting sequestration hapneed new ones to take their place. It pen, I would have said no. Then they will take time for primes to reorganize kicked the can two months down the their efforts on programs that will rise road and again showed me how they, to the top once a budget and a military in fact, could do something worse. Evprograms direction are put into place. eryone—the military, industry and the That reorganization will include the populace—would have been better off realization that the prime’s major opwith the execution of sequestration. portunity for profit will be with highly The results would have been so devspecialized technologies unique for astating that government would have Chuck Hagel, former U.S. Senator from Nebraska and each program. They will at the same been forced to actually go in and make nominee for Secretary of Defense. time profit from integrating the more decisions quickly on both the military basic electronic systems, acquired and the public part of our budget to keep the economy from from outside sources, into those programs. collapsing. What we are now labored with is an additional two This scenario takes the country back to where it was in the months of indecision. Add to that the potential that this new mid-90s. And this provides a greater number of opportunities Congress will continue to play this game of chicken with itself for smaller electronic systems suppliers that are willing to adjust and the President for political party ideology—and they might their base product to meet a program’s needs. This flexibility once again kick the can forward. will be needed in order to get programs fielded in the time frame As Defense Secretary Leon Panetta so aptly stated on Janu- demanded by the DoD, in order to recover from this languishing ary 2nd, “We need to have the resources to effectively execute period of indecision. our strategy, defend the nation, and meet our commitments…” Shifting gears slightly, Panetta will be departing shortly, The military electronics suppliers are a major element of what and at the time of this writing, U.S. Senator Chuck Hagel from needs to be protected—especially in a climate of major military Nebraska was being considered as replacement for Panetta as manpower reductions. The SecDef added, “My hope is that in SecDef. As with almost every nomination ever made for any pothe next two months, all of us in the leadership of the nation sition, there is opposition, and only time will tell if his potential and the Congress can work together to provide that stability and nomination even moves forward. Hagel is a combat veteran, a to prevent sequestration once and for all. Our national security two-term Senator and a successful business man. I’m guessing demands no less.” And yet that was something that was not pos- he may be the right person for the job. He’s disliked by people sible in all of 2012. Panetta also noted that if sequestration had from both sides of the aisle—one side because he’s a Republican, been enacted he would have had to provide potential furlough and the other side because he’s not Republican enough. notices to 800,000 civilian employees. Every month that the companies supporting the prime contractors are left hanging not knowing where to direct their efforts, is another month that they get closer to not being able to recover. All the basics are still in play: work what you have, offer small upgrades and technology insertions—don’t think about finding new markets. This is a good strategy, but we can’t forget that no matter how hard we’ve tried to reduce the time Pete Yeatman, Publisher between design-in to full production, most programs still have COTS Journal 6

COTS Journal | February 2013

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INSIDE TRACK Northrop Grumman and Navy Tap Telephonics for Fire Scout UAS Radar Northrop Grumman, under contract to the U.S. Navy, has selected Telephonics to provide a multimode maritime radar system for the Navy’s MQ-8B Fire Scout vertical takeoff and landing tactical unmanned aerial vehicle. A $33 million contract was awarded to provide the development, production, integration and testing of nine radar systems. The new Telephonics RDR-1700B+ radar will give the MQ-8B Fire Scout (Figure 1) critical wide-area search and long-range imaging capability to complement the focused capabilities of its current electro-optical infrared payload. Northrop Grumman is the Navy’s prime contractor for Fire Scout, the only vertical unmanned aerial system program of record. The Navy put the company under contract to assess and select a radar system that would best match the MQ-8B Fire Scout’s maritime operational requirements. Integrating the Telephonics radar with Fire Scout’s other sensors and systems gives the Navy a new level of situational awareness in a tactical environment, and will significantly change how threats are addressed. Figure 1

Northrop Grumman Los Angeles, CA. (310) 553-6262. [].

DARPA Selects Southwest Research Institute Radio for F6 Program The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) recently selected Southwest Research Institute to provide the flight low-rate crosslink wireless communications platform for the System F6 Program. The System F6 Program, which is envisioned to culminate in an on-orbit demonstration in 20152016, is designed to validate a new space mission concept in which a cluster of smaller, wirelessly connected spacecraft replaces the typical single spacecraft carrying numerous instruments and payloads. This “fractionated” architecture enhances survivability, responsiveness and adaptability compared to the traditional monolithic spacecraft. SwRI’s K-band wireless crosslink radio incorporates a continuously active communica8

The new RDR-1700B+ radar gives the MQ-8B Fire Scout critical widearea search and long-range imaging capability to complement the focused capabilities of its current electro-optical infrared payload. tions channel with guaranteed availability and latency via a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) protocol to provide a reliable, robust and flexible solution for a variety of mission communications needs. Unique to SwRI’s K-band radio is a core architecture that accommodates a continuous data link among the cluster members and also supports inclusion of thirdparty, point-to-point, high-rate data links. Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, TX. (210) 684-5111. [].

General Dynamics Awarded $4.6 Billion for Submarine Programs General Dynamics Electric Boat was recently awarded three

COTS Journal | February 2013

U.S. Navy contracts totaling $4.6 billion to design and develop the next-generation strategic deterrent submarine, and to continue construction and purchasing of materials for Virginia-class attack submarines. Electric Boat is a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics. Under a five-year, $1.85 billion Ohio Replacement Program contract, Electric Boat will perform research and development work for this new class of ballistic-missile submarine, which is scheduled for a 2021 construction start. Additionally, Electric Boat will continue development of the joint U.S. Navy / Royal Navy Common Missile Compartment for Ohio Replacement submarines and the UK Successor-class ballistic-missile submarine. The potential value of this contract is $1.995 billion. Electric Boat also received a $2.5 billion award to build two Virginia-class submarines

Figure 2

The Virginia-class attack submarine USS New Mexico (SSN 779) transits the Thames River to her homeport at Naval Submarine Base New London. (Figure 2)—South Dakota (SSN790) and Delaware (SSN-791)— the 17th and 18th ships of the class. Construction of Virginiaclass submarines is shared between Electric Boat, the prime contractor, and its teammate, Newport News Shipbuilding. Under the third award, Electric Boat will receive $308 million


to purchase long lead-time materials for the as-yet unnamed Virginia-class submarines SSN792, SSN-793 and SSN-794. General Dynamics Electric Boat Groton, CT. (860) 433-3000. [].

ViaSat Receives $52 Million SATCOM Contract for Airborne ISR ViaSat will provide broadband airborne SATCOM services for a U.S. government customer under a contract award valued at $52 million. The one-year contract is a renewal for services already provided using ViaSat ArcLight technology over a managed private network established in 2009 to support military missions for the War on Terror. ViaSat mobile broadband systems are designed to provide high-speed, beyond line-of-sight (BLOS) communications for media-rich ISR, C2 and other applications. Typical operational data rates range from 1 to 8 Mbit/s off the aircraft using Ku- and Ka-band SATCOM links. These

systems are flown on over 300 government aircraft such as the C-130 (Figure 3), C-17, U-28 and various King Air models, accumulating over 500,000 mission hours. These same terminals can operate seamlessly on the global Yonder satellite network. In addition, ViaSat offers higher priority regional service overlays to Yonder network coverage with a range of connectivity and performance options. ViaSat Carlsbad, CA. (760) 476-2200. [].

Air Forces Contracts Intelligent Software Solutions for Software Development Intelligent Software Solutions (ISS) has been awarded the five-year, $593 million, Air Space Precision Engagement Research and Engineering (ASPERE) contract to provide an advanced software development framework for building intelligence analysis and data fusion software for the U.S. Air Force. ASPERE

Figure 3

ViaSat mobile broadband systems are flown on over 300 government aircraft including C-130.

was awarded to ISS by the Air Force Research Laboratory, Information Directorate, in Rome, New York. Under terms of the agreement, ISS will expand upon its previous work on the Web Enabled Temporal Analysis System Toolkit (WebTAS-TK) to provide new innovations in key areas such as intelligence analysis and Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance. ISS will perform research, development, integration, testing, demonstration, and operations and maintenance of groundbreaking technologies and concepts in support for the ASPERE effort. The ultimate goal is to develop solutions that provide improved situational awareness to intelligence analysts and the warfighter. Intelligent Software Solutions Colorado Springs, CO. (719) 457-0690. [].

Lockheed Martin Awarded Contract to Sustain Ground Station for GPS With a legacy of more than 30 years supporting the Global Positioning System, Lockheed Martin has been awarded a contract to sustain the ground control segment for the GPS satellite constellation. The U.S. Air Force Space Command Space and Missile Center awarded Lockheed Martin a $100 million contract to support the GPS ground control segment. The contract’s period of performance is from January 2013 through June 2019. The GPS mission is crucial to sustaining the nation’s space superiority and ensuring that precise position, navigation and timing signals are available for worldwide users across numerous

Figure 4

The GPS satellite constellation is crucial to sustaining the nation’s space superiority and ensuring that precise position, navigation and timing signals are available for worldwide users across numerous domains. domains. The demands for near 100 percent system availability, as well as the fiscal constraints being placed on the GPS program, are critical factors in sustaining the GPS control station. To help the GPS program achieve its complex mission, Lockheed Martin will provide sustainment for the GPS control segment, which enables Air Force Space Command 2nd Space Operations Squadron to perform on-orbit operational control of the GPS satellite constellation (Figure 4). Under the new contract, Lockheed Martin will provide organizational and depot sustainment support. This includes support for command and control ground systems, systems engineering, hardware and communications engineering, space vehicle and ground equipment simulation, software testing and hardware maintenance. Lockheed Martin Bethesda, MD. (301) 897-6000. [].

February 2013 | COTS Journal


SPECIAL FEATURE Boards and Systems for Video Processing


COTS Journal | February 2013

Video Processing Solutions Step Up to Meet New Challenges The military has transitioned fully into a major power-user of video—whether for situational battlefield awareness or for new, more automated real-time platforms that interface with video data. A variety of board- and box-levels solutions are putting all those pieces in place. Jeff Child Editor-in-Chief


ideo processing technology has moved front and center now. Driving that is the trend toward every vehicle, every aircraft, every ship, every UAV and every soldier on the ground being able to quickly share video information with almost any level of the DoD’s operation. The important shift is in automating what the military terms Tasking, Production, Exploitation and Dissemination (TPED) processes—which is basically translating vast quantities of sensor data into a shared understanding of the battlefield situation. Today’s TPED processes are manpower intensive. Most full-motion video and still imagery are monitored and used in real time, but then stored without being fully analyzed to exploit all information about the enemy. The direction things are moving toward is using techniques of change detection and automatic target recognition software to enable automated cueing that identifies and calls attention to potential threats. Applications of face recognition software could, for example, enable high-fidelity full-motion video to identify individuals of interest. By accomplishing more of the TPED process on board the unmanned system, the link bandwidth can then be focused on February 2013 | COTS Journal



Figure 1

The Skyquest AVDU-4300 17-inch widescreen display provides full 1080p resolution and an array of digital and analog inputs. The AVDU-4300 is easily connected to the market’s leading electro-optical turrets.

comprehensive functionality that previously required multiple or expensive customized systems, in a single unit optimized for SWaP-C constrained platforms. The VRD1-CC speeds and simplifies the integration of HD VMS for military applications deployed in harsh environments, such as vetronics and avionics. The conduction-cooled VRD1-CC (an air-cooled variant is also planned) is a lightweight, compact subsystem. A single VRD1-CC unit combines six channels of full resolution HD 30fps MPEG4 H.264 compression, video and audio recording with metadata/ event markers, and Ethernet video distribution or storage to disk. A simple, intuitive man-machine interface provides an onboard or remote operator with complete access to the VRD1-CC’s wide range of VMS options and functionality. This VMS supports up to 18 video inputs in a mix of different standards, including HD-SDI, RGB and DVI. These video inputs can then be easily routed to any of the VRD1-CC’s 12 video outputs for real-time viewing or routed to the system’s real-time HD video compression subsystem for recording or distribution over a standard Ethernet network.

Supporting Hi-Res Displays (a)

(b) Figure 2

The helicopter-mounted ADAS system uses multiple high-resolution infrared sensors mounted around the helicopter to let pilots “look through” the airframe for 360-degree situational awareness (a). Imagery sent to helmet mounted displays provides crew members with information customized to their specific roles (b). transmitting only what’s needed, and the overall bandwidth requirements can be reduced.

Complete Video Distribution Box Laying the groundwork for those types of capabilities, the embedded computing industry offers a variety of board- and box-level systems aimed specifically at managing the deluge of 12

COTS Journal | February 2013

acquired video information. Exemplifying this trend are systems like the VRD1-CC from Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions (CWCDS). The box-level VRD1-CC integrates switching, recording and network distribution of High Definition (HD) video for aerospace and defense platforms in a single compact rugged unit. This video management system (VMS) delivers

By integrating new generation widescreen, high-resolution rugged mission displays, Video Management Systems can reach their full potential. Last fall Curtiss-Wright introduced the newest member of its Skyquest family of rugged mission displays. The Skyquest AVDU-4300 17-inch widescreen display provides full 1080p resolution for the best high definition imagery and is designed specifically for the demands of defense applications (Figure 1). With an array of digital and analog inputs, the AVDU-4300 is easily connected to the market’s leading electrooptical turrets. For optimal user experience, the display features hard bezel keys for core controls such as power and brightness, and soft-touch screen keys for customized functions such as video

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recorder control. For surveillance and navigation applications, the AVDU4300 supports optional touch screen control of digital moving maps and the display’s “quad screen” feature enables airborne or ground vehicle crew members to view up to four live video images simultaneously.

means that the ICS-8580 can be configured to support almost any camera input and system configuration.

Support for IPv6

Video Processing on Helicopters

Figure 3

Some of the most challenging video distribution platforms are those that combine multiple camera inputs while on an extremely harsh mobile environment. Case in point is Raytheon’s Advanced Distributed Aperture System. It provides full spherical situational awareness to helicopter crews, greatly improving mission effectiveness and flight safety at low altitude or in poor visibility. Multiple high-resolution infrared sensors mounted around the helicopter let pilots “look through” the airframe for 360-degree situational awareness (Figure 2a). Imagery sent to helmet mounted displays provides crew members with information customized to their specific roles. The wraparound effect is completed by a 3D audio system that issues threat alerts and crew communications from the direction of their source (Figure 2b). Last spring Raytheon selected Mercury Systems to provide an Application-Ready Subsystem (ARS) and integration services for Raytheon’s Advanced Distributed Aperture System (ADAS). The contract called for Mercury to deliver an advanced sensor processing subsystem as part of Raytheon’s Multi-function Image Processor (MIP), and systems integration services to help Raytheon realize unprecedented operational capabilities, allowing aircrews to achieve objectives with the lowest possible risk. Mercury provides a high-performance sensor processing subsystem that leverages best-in-class heterogeneous processing elements including FPGAs, GPGPUs and GPPs, interconnected with various high-speed switch fabrics. Highly ruggedized for harsh and mobile helicopter environments, the system will help improve mis-

An enhanced version of the ICS8580 HD video compression XMC module includes Camera Link, a serial communication protocol standard designed for computer vision applications. This allows seamless connection between the ICS-8580 and Camera Link-enabled high resolution cameras.


COTS Journal | February 2013

sion effectiveness and f light safety at low altitude, in poor visibility and in hostile environments. The standardsbased OpenVPX system is designed to allow for rapid future technology insertions either in terms of processing capabilities or handling new sensors or new modalities.

XMC Video Processing Even as full integrated systems move front and center, board-level video processing solutions are still as sought after a technology as ever. Last fall GE Intelligent Platforms rolled out an enhanced version of the ICS-8580 rugged high definition video compression XMC module (Figure 3). The unit allows very high-quality moving images to be captured, transmitted and stored with very low latency and with minimal consumption of precious bandwidth or disk space—meaning that actionable information is received more quickly and efficiently. The latest enhancements include base level support for Camera Link, a serial communication protocol standard designed for computer vision applications based on the National Semiconductor interface. This allows seamless connection between the ICS-8580 and Camera Linkenabled high-resolution cameras, and

Also new for the ICS-8580 is support for IPv6, the Internet Protocol that will ensure the longevity of IP-based networking by allowing a significantly larger number of the IP addresses on which the Internet is based. This is in addition to the ICS-8580’s support of IPv4. The ICS-8580 can capture video inputs and archive or stream them over Ethernet, managing multiple streams and performing capture, manipulation, conversion, compression, storage, decompression and video display. It is rugged, compact, lightweight and consumes little power, enabling it to be easily deployed in systems destined for deployment in harsh environments that are constrained by size, weight and power (SWaP). The original version of the ICS8580 has been deployed in programs such as NASA’s Global Hawk initiative. In video capture and transmission, the primary challenge is how to maintain video quality in order to maximize critical detail while minimizing the use of bandwidth by implementing highly efficient algorithms: transmitting “raw,” unprocessed high definition video data at very high speed requires bandwidth that is rarely available in, for example, air-toground applications. Similarly, storage of high definition video data—for later review and analysis, for example—in its uncompressed form can require terabytes of disk space. Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions Ashburn, VA. (703) 779-7800. []. GE Intelligent Platforms Charlottesville, VA. (800) 368-2738. []. Mercury Systems Chelmsford, MA. (866) 627-6951. [].

SPECIAL FEATURE Boards and Systems for Video Processing

VPX Meets Needs of HighPerformance Avionics Systems The extreme data movement requirements of today’s military systems, especially where avionics and video processing are involved, push the limits of traditional system architecture. Fortunately a well configured OpenVPX design can overcome such hurdles. Akos Csilling, Product Development Manager Creative Electronic Systems


raditional high-performance computing platforms are limited by the connection bandwidth and latency between the multiple computing elements needed to achieve the performance targets. For the embedded market, the difficulty is compounded by the demanding environmental requirements. The VPX standard resolves this limitation with a large number of highthroughput point-to-point connections between the processing elements in a rugged mechanical structure. For larger systems, the 6U form factor provides more board space and a large number of I/O pins. On the other hand, the 3U format is more adapted for smaller systems, where size and cooling efficiency matter more. For very small systems, several small form factor (SFF) standards are proposed in order to bring the advantages of the high-speed connectivity into a smaller size, weight and power envelope. On top of the VPX standard, OpenVPX defines several slot and module profiles in order to improve interoperability by reducing the number of possible variations. This is essential so that modules produced by different manufacturers can be integrated into the same system. Figure 1 shows an example of a 6U VPX system for 16

COTS Journal | February 2013

Figure 1

Example of a 6U VPX system for processing multiple video input and output streams in an airborne environment.

processing multiple video input and output streams in an airborne environment.

Decoupling Interconnect and Protocol While OpenVPX defines the interconnect topology between modules, it does not define either the protocol to be used on these connections, nor the internal allocation of these links. Thus, the system integrator needs to select modules that are compatible with the specific al-

location of the interconnect channels. CES proposes modules with an integrated protocol-independent switch that is able to route the external links to the appropriate internal endpoint. The choice of the protocol is not an easy one. Both PCIe and SRIO have their own benefits for CPU-to-CPU and CPUto-FPGA interconnections. For FPGA-toFPGA connections, PCIe and sFPDP are both widely used. However, CES recommends its own proprietary interconnect, HYDRA, offloading much of the control tasks to the FPGA, which allows a simple software interface. The different variations of Ethernet are also gaining ground, both for internal and external connectivity. In this plethora of interconnect protocols, multi-protocol support and bridging from one protocol to another becomes an essential feature. CES proposes a 3U VPX switch that integrates dedicated PCIe and SRIO switches on the data plane with a bridge between them, as well as an Ethernet switch on the control plane, with support for 10 GbE links. Figure 2 shows the ETS-8227, which is a multi-protocol 3U VPX switch supporting PCIe, SRIO, GETH and 10 GETH, with the option to bridge PCIe to SRIO.


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Figure 3 Figure 2

The ETS-8227 is a multi-protocol 3U VPX switch supporting PCIe, SRIO, GETH and 10 GETH, with the option to bridge PCIe to SRIO.

FPGAs for Flexibility FPGAs are widely used for I/O customization. Whether it is a high-end ADC providing large amounts of data that need to be read out quickly, or a digital bus that requires precise timing, or even just a very large number of otherwise slow I/Os, the FPGA can do it. In addition, the FPGA can be reprogrammed to change the protocol, and thus reduce the impact of requirement changes. At the same time, the integration of an FPGA into the system also poses two difficulties that need to be resolved. On the physical side, the electrical interface to the external I/O needs to be implemented. On the logical side, the protocol HDL and any processing functionality has to be integrated with the FPGA infrastructure HDL. The FMC standard serves to separate the front-end electronics from the FPGA processing board, via a high-frequency, high pin-count connector, following an established standard. Thus, the applicationspecific electrical interface can be separated from the generic processing element, bringing I/O flexibility to the next level. 18

COTS Journal | February 2013

The RIO6-8092 is a traditional VME board with the Freescale P2020 processor. It features a FlexIO module for easy customization of the I/O configuration. The other important role of the FPGAs is in the actual data processing. Most embedded signal processing applications require some FPGA-based processing, and these complex algorithms often represent the core know-how in the application domain. On the other hand, their integration with the infrastructure and I/O on the board falls more within the competencies of the platform supplier. With that in mind, CES provides an FPGA BSP to make this integration as simple as possible for the user. The FPGA BSP provides a well-defined interface between the application-specific and the board-specific parts of the design, bundled with examples and test benches to support the integration. A special case of signal processing is video processing, where certain typical applications, like video compression and decompression, are so widespread that specialized components providing high performance at low cost and low power are available. Some of these components are fixed function, like H.264 or JPEG-2000 compression; others are programmable, with hardware acceleration for certain typical operations, bringing in more flexibility. When more specialized processing is required, the option to

use general-purpose processing elements, like FPGAs or traditional CPUs, is still open.

The Right Processor for the Job Modern CPUs are highly integrated with multiple, tightly coupled processing cores, caches, various hardware accelerators, memory interfaces and system I/O on a single die, or part of the standard chipset. The high level of integration allows unprecedented processing power at reasonable power consumption, or, at the other end of the spectrum, very reasonable processing power running on a couple of watts. CES is actively pursuing both ends of the spectrum with its 3U VPX modules featuring the latest high-end QorIQ processors, as well as XMC and VME modules using the low-power P1/ P2 series. Figure 3 shows the RIO6-8092, which is a traditional VME board with the Freescale P2020 processor. It features a FlexIO module for easy customization of the I/O configuration. The price to pay is in the complexity of the software, which is mitigated by a large body of software examples and libraries, provided by the chip manufacturers and third parties, to enable these devices for the application programmer.


CES also provides an integrated framework for the end user, whether the customer needs a few hardware access functions and a top-level polling loop, or a full-blown real-time Linux server, with an optimized network stack, or a safetycritical multi-partition VxWorks system. The highest performance can be achieved with bare-metal applications running on several cores dedicated to bulk processing. These run highly optimized code, taking full advantage of the hardware acceleration engines, and do not handle rare events and special cases. Special cases, configuration changes, user interactions and other rare events are typically handled on a dedicated core running a suitable operating system, often Linux. When the platform has to provide a critical function in addition to the highperformance data processing, this can be hosted on a dedicated processor core, running under a real-time operating system. Hardware-supported virtualization helps the separation of different levels of criticality within the same system. The Hypervisor software, supported by specific hardware features, can guarantee that the cores and peripherals involved in the less critical functions do not interfere with the critical functionality. The latest technology always takes time to pass the certification barrier, for the simple reason that building up the detailed knowledge and service history needs considerable time and effort. A parallel approach is to optimize the design at the system level, and thus reduce the criticality of the individual processing elements.

Managing the System The VPX standard for system management (VITA 46.11) leverages the IPMI infrastructure for administrative functions at each level in a VPX system, down to individual mezzanines installed on the modules. These functions are essential in order to avoid manual interventions, which would be prohibitive in embedded systems and large-scale installations. In a flexible configuration, a system controller can automatically retrieve the identity of all the installed modules, and dynamically configure the software accordingly.

Advanced BMC Internal Flash Memory (event log, configuration record) External I/Os i2c Console Ethernet Discrete I/Os External Flash (FPGA configuration, boot loader, user software)

ARM Processor

FPGA Fabric (digital monitoring interfaces)

Analog Monitoring Block

Analog Sensors (temperature, voltage, current)

Local bus to CPU Discrete monitor and control signals

Figure 4

The Advanced Board Management Controller combines an ARM processor with an analog block and FPGA functions for system management, BIT and convenience functions. In a static system, it can verify the presence and revision of the required modules, and retrieve their self-test status and alarm history. Dynamic information, like temperature, voltage and current monitoring can also be reported. The CES Advanced Board Management Controller (aBMC), for example, complements the VITA 46.11 requirements with additional features for data logging, alarm management and other functions (Figure 4). A smaller subset is implemented on some mezzanines, where board space and power consumption are critical. In the deployed state, the system manager may simply raise a flag to report a problem. An external tool, such as the Configuration, Load and Monitor tool (CLM) from CES, is used to retrieve the details, update the configuration tables, and even to update the firmware. For convenience, CLM, running on a PC or laptop, uses a single and simple communication channel, typically Ethernet, to dialog with the embedded system, while still reaching all modules and mezzanines. Optionally, even additional systems attached to the first one, via secondary communication channels, like a serial port or an avionic bus, can be configured through a single connection. In addition to the configuration update process, CLM can also support a wide range of maintenance operations,

such as recover the event log and sensor history data, monitor various operational parameters and help with basic debugging operations.

Form Fit for a Function The enclosure of any system is always important. It defines the external boundaries of the system and provides isolation and protection between the internal components and the external world. On the other hand, it also provides all the connections between the two worlds; it accommodates all the electrical, mechanical and thermal interfaces between the system and its environment. The 3U VPX form factor is well suited for integration into rugged ATR or Arinc-600 enclosures. Depending on the application, ruggedized air-cooled or conduction-cooled systems are both possible, as well as some advanced combinations. CES for instance has delivered sealed systems with various combinations of internal air circulation, heat pipes and heat exchangers, in order to best meet the particular requirements in each case. Figure 5 shows an example of a 1/2 ATR rugged air-cooled system for UAV mission avionics with segregated video and control processing. For its part, CES offers the two-level maintenance (2LM) compatibility option for safe handling on all of its 3U VPX February 2013 | COTS Journal



modules, according to the requirements defined in the VITA 48 (VPX REDI) standard for mechanical and ESD protection. In addition to this, through system management and built-in tests designed to locate failures down to the module level, fast in-the-field LRU repairs are possible via simple module replacement. These system management features are accessible via a single Ethernet or serial interface, using standard protocols. By

avoiding the need for sophisticated test equipment and facilities, 2LM reduces the time to repair and the footprint of maintenance logistics.

Meeting the Challenge With a COTS system approach, the design of each new system starts from one of a few predefined solutions, designed in advance and already verified against a particular set of typical requirements.


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Untitled-4 1 COTS Journal | February 2013 20

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1/29/13 5:24 PM

Shown here is an example of a 1/2 ATR rugged air-cooled system for UAV mission avionics with segregated video and control processing.

The actual requirements are compared to these, and the deviations are analyzed, in order to identify the required changes. The external connectors and the pin assignments may need to be optimized, with spare pins for expansion. Similarly, the electrical protection devices are verified against the required EMI / EMC levels, both for the power supply lines and the signal connections. The I/O implementation is usually modified COTS, with the electrical drivers on an FPGA-based I/O board adapted to the type and number of interfaces. Special interfaces, like video, RF or analog signals may need a first conditioning stage, or direct cabling to the internal processing board. The actual processing functions can usually be implemented using COTS components, leading to savings in overall cost and development time. Delivering high-performance data processing outside of the controlled environment of a computing center is a complicated challenge. The set of VPX standards provides an excellent framework to define a modern solution. CES - Creative Electronic Systems Geneva, Switzerland. +41.22.884.51.00. [].







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SPECIAL FEATURE Boards and Systems for Video Processing

Exploring New Criteria for Rugged System Testing With electronics and computers being the absolute central functionality in today’s military systems, it’s more important than ever to understand system reliability. The advantages of multi-axis testing bring a host of benefits to military system development and test. Wayne Tustin, President Equipment Reliability Institute


onsider an electronic system or other equipment intended for military usage. Stating that the equipment is “rugged” is not sufficient. Rugged really refers to a set of laboratory test intensities. This means the whole gamut of climatic environments including high temperature, low temperature, humidity, altitude and depth. Also important are the dynamic, man-made environments of vibration, shock and sound pressure. Those potentially damaging climatic environments “come at” hardware simultaneously from all directions. Take temperature, for example. In the real world and therefore in the lab, most if not all surfaces are warmed simultaneously or cooled simultaneously. This is the same for altitude. In the real world as in the lab, most if not all surfaces are exposed to partial vacuum simultaneously.

Figure 1

Sequential Axis Shaking Outdated

Twelve-ED shaker system for three longitudinal and three rotational axis shaking.

We should extend that all-directionssimultaneously thinking into dynamic vibrations and shocks. Why should procurement agencies continue to condone last-century one-axis-at-a-time vibration testing? Why should laboratories continue to waste time and money shaking test hardware first in its X axis, then its Y, 22

COTS Journal | February 2013

then finally in its Z axis? Why pay for three tests? Why pay for three fixtures? Why pay for so much risky handling? This common sequential-axis testing, familiar to generations of test engineers and technicians, is time consuming and labor intensive. Further, it necessitates a great deal of

potentially harmful handling. Worse, sequential-axis testing is not as effective nor as quick at finding product weaknesses as simultaneous multiaxis testing (Figure 1). It’s important to question whether the words “simultaneous” and “multiaxis” are important when specifying a

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Figure 2

Multi-EH shaking of platform representing automobile transport.

was possible with mechanical shakers prior to 1950, limited typically to 10 to 55 Hz. Wider frequency range (typically 10 to 200 or to 500 Hz) EH or electrohydraulic (servohydraulic) shakers also are single axis. However, automotive test engineers long ago combined three or more EH shakers for multiaxis shaking, replicating, for example, damaging railroad transport inputs. So did seismic test engineers, replicating multiaxis earthquake inputs to buildings. In Figure 2 we see multiple EH shakers creating realistic simultaneous multiaxis railroad transport vibrations on a laboratory vibrating platform. Nearly every automobile manufacturer has such a vibrating platform. That’s because new automobiles suffer railcar-induced damage (surprises) en route to dealer showrooms. It is far cheaper to find railcarinduced weaknesses before a new model automobile goes into production. Nearly every automobile manufacturer also has a variation of a test in which multiple EH shakers drive the four wheels. Tests represent various road inputs and various vehicle maneuvers at various speeds. It is far better to find roadway-induced weaknesses before a new model automobile goes into production. Reductions in warranty expense far more than pay for testing.

Higher Frequency Shaking

Figure 3

Three electrodynamic shakers at Army Research Lab. dynamic (vibration and shock) test for equipment intended for use aboard military and commercial land, sea and air vehicles. Along those lines, Test Method 527 (multi-exciter testing) in the late2008 “G” revision to the venerable MIL24

COTS Journal | February 2013

STD-810 was long overdue, but certainly is welcome.

Land Vehicle Simultaneous Multiaxis Shaking Only single-axis-at-a-time shaking

Testing to 2,000 Hz is desired for aircraft and missile hardware, also for engine-mounted hardware. This necessitated the development of ED or electrodynamic shakers. In operating principle these resemble electrodynamic loudspeakers. ED shakers are driven by power amplifiers under specialized computer control. At a few U.S. military establishments, three or more existing ED shakers have been on-site combined for simultaneous multiaxis shaking. Figure 3 was taken at the Army Research Lab, Adelphi, Maryland after two ED shakers were added. Earlier, with just one shaker, some field failures could not be replicated in the lab. After adding two more shakers, those field failures were replicated. Other multi-exciter ED shaker systems include White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico, Hill Air Force Base in Utah and Keyport Naval Undersea Warfare Center

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Figure 4

Eight electrodynamic shakers combine to provide three orthogonal and three rotational vibratory motions to aerospace load. (Courtesy Boeing and USAF Hill AFB.) in Washington State. Experience at those facilities led to the new Test Method 527 (multi-exciter testing) mentioned earlier. A system with eight ED shakers at Boeing Ogden, Utah has very recently become a commercial test lab (Figure 4). The four vertical-thrusting units provide thrust-axis translation, also pitch and yaw, to the aerospace load above them. The two pairs of horizontal-thrusting units (one shaker omitted here) provide vertical and lateral translation. Note that each pair is deliberately misaligned in order to provide rotation to that load. At those military facilities, individual ED shakers were contractor on-site combined, at considerable engineering development and much labor expense, over many months.

Multi-Exciter Systems At least two Japanese firms are supplying factory-assembled arrays of three ED shakers to Japanese automobile manufacturers. One such system was imported by Spectrum Technologies, a commercial environmental testing laboratory at Redford, Michigan. Their multiaxis shaking service is being used by Detroitarea firms that provide on-engine electronics and other hardware. 26

COTS Journal | February 2013

Over-the-road vibration data is acquired from three accelerometers, one sensing fore-and-aft motions, one sensing left-right motions, and one sensing vertical motions (almost always the most severe.) Alternately, one three-axis (or “triax”) accelerometer can be used. X, Y and Z accelerometer signals are recorded, later edited and still later fed to a specialized computer that controls the motions of the X, Y and Z shakers, which together drive hardware being tested. Until recently, a prospective purchaser of a multishaker system had to look abroad. Fortunately, Team Corporation of Burlington, WA has begun deliveries of twelve-ED shaker systems. Such a system will be used for hands-on familiarization by the world’s first training class in Burlington, WA July 16-18, 2013. (See Equipment Reliability Institute website for details.)

Cost of Multiple Shakers A three-shaker system will be approximately three times the price of a one-shaker system. But finding just one weakness in the lab, rather than having an influential customer find it later, in service, can more than pay for the system.

Time savings (one test instead of three) helps pay for it. Many decades ago selling numerous contractors their first shaker, this author felt at the time that these were painfully expensive. But many of those contractors, within a few months, bought additional shakers. That first one found so many weaknesses, and was so busy, that another shaker was needed. That bit of history may well be repeated with simultaneous multiaxis shaking. Is there a less expensive way to get simultaneous multiaxis vibration? Yes, one can use multiple inexpensive pneumatic hammers, on various compass headings, angled up into a softly sprung, large, rather flexible platform, which forms the bottom of a thermal chamber. Devices to be tested (DUTs) are mounted on the top of that platform. They thus receive not only multiaxis vibration but also varyingtemperature stress. A major drawback is the wide variation in vibration intensity across the platform, being received by the units being tested.

Time to Break Some Hardware Rugged hardware is not developed overnight. Early units must fail in the test lab. Root causes of those failures must be sought, found and eliminated, as proven by subsequent tests. We learn from failures. Just passing a spec or a standard is not sufficient. We need to go further and break some hardware. It is far better to learn weaknesses in the lab than in the field, perhaps in combat. It costs little to “go beyond the standard.” You’ve already paid for the use of the shaker, paid for the fixture and installed your DUT (device under test) in the fixture, on the shaker. Apply more force. Or extend the frequency range. Perhaps both, until something fails. Not only will root cause failure analysis identify your weak link, but now you can state the intensities that your hardware survived. Links to a set of videos with shakers can be found at www.cotsjournalonline. com/shakers Equipment Reliability Institute Santa Barbara, CA. (805) 564-1260. [].

TECH RECON Power Supply Trends for Boards and Systems

Power Supplies Evolve to Meet Needs of Boards and Systems As military embedded systems get more complex and powerful, the importance of proper power system design only grows. Power supply and power conversion vendors are keeping pace with new innovative technologies. Jeff Child Editor-in-Chief


one are the days when military system designers could afford to treat choosing power supplies and power conversion electronics as an afterthought. With more and more computing stuffed into smaller spaces, power has direct implications on the size, cooling and mobility of a board- or boxlevel system. Add to that the challenges of multi-voltage electronics and the complexity of distributed system architectures, and it’s clear that military system designers need solutions that address those needs. Often the unsung hero of a military system design, power supplies and converters are critical enablers for meeting today’s rugged requirements. Vendors are smoothing the way with flexible options and robust solutions. The good news is that military power conversion vendors are easing the burden with more efficient products, new partitioning strategies and increased ruggedization. New solutions continue to roll out, not just at the component or brick level, but also at the module and board level. Meanwhile, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are now more critical than ever as computer and network gear pervade the battlefield.


COTS Journal | February 2013

Figure 1

The MicroPACs is an AC/DC power system that meets MIL-STD-810 standards for shock and vibration—up to 7Gs per axis for one hour each, and 40G functional shock—and are therefore well suited for ground vehicle platforms.

Designed for Military Use Exemplifying state-of-the-art power supplies, Vicor last summer introduced its new Westcor MicroPAC power factor corrected AC/DC power system provid-

ing up to 1300W of continuous power at up to 92% efficiency and 25 Win3 power density in a compact 4 x 1.72 x 7.45 inch package. Offering semi-regulated output voltages of 12, 24, 36 and 48 VDC via four


Figure 2

The MCOTS-270H full-brick DC/DC converters are designed to provide isolated DC power for electronics such as power amplifiers, jammers and systems requiring high-powered bus voltages.

factory-configurable isolated outputs, the new Westcor MicroPACs support a wide range of customer power requirements and are ideally suited for distributed power architectures. System designers seeking the flexibility to partition multiple voltage outputs rather than use two separate power supplies can configure MicroPACs with a combination of four high-performance VI Chip BCM high-voltage bus converters, which may be configured as single outputs, parallel outputs, or a series output with integrated current sharing. For applications requiring higher power levels, MicroPACs can be configured in arrays with box-to-box current sharing. MicroPACs operate at full load over a wide temperature range (-40° to +55°C) and are ruggedized for harsh environments. Offering an economical alternative to competing MIL-class power systems, MicroPACs meet MIL-STD 810 standards for shock and vibration—up to 7Gs per axis for one hour each, and 40G functional shock—and are therefore well suited for ground vehicle (Figure 1), aircraft and ship transport and usage.

DC/DC Full-Brick Conversions

Figure 3

The 75W QCM Chassis Mount DC/DC converter is now available with a DIN mount adapter. The QCM Series offers an input range of 18 to 36 VDC and 36 to 75 VDC with output voltages from 3.3 to 24 volts DC.


COTS Journal | February 2013

Brick-style DC/DC converters are still a favorite in military designs. More electronics in military systems mean ever stronger appetites for power. Feeding that need, SynQor has increased the maximum rated power level of its 270Vin MCOTS line of full-brick DC/DC converters by raising the lower end of the input voltage range over which they can operate. The new MCOTS-270H line of full-brick converters can deliver 800W of output power while operating over a continuous input voltage range of 240V to 425V and a transient input voltage range of 240V to 475V. The 240V lower limit complies with the requirements for all of the Steady-State conditions specified in MIL-STD-704(A-F), and the higher limits comply with all of the Steady-State and the over-voltage Surge requirements. These MCOTS-270H converters are particularly useful for high power systems that do not need to operate through a Starting Voltage Transient, or that simply have power sources that are more


Figure 4

Ruggedized wide temperature (-30° to 63°C) extended runtime battery bank options have been added to Falcon Electric’s SSG-RP UPS. The new battery pack gives users over 10 times the battery runtime. tightly regulated than specified in MILSTD-704(A-F). The MCOTS-270H full-brick DC/ DC converters are designed to provide isolated DC power for electronics such as power amplifiers, jammers and systems requiring high-powered bus voltages (Figure 2). These converters use SynQor’s synchronous rectifier-based technology to achieve extremely high efficiencies, up to 92% at 800W. The optional builtin current sharing feature allows for easy paralleling of modules for applications requiring more power or module redundancy with limited external components. Switching frequency is constant to provide predictable EMI performance, and the converters can be paired with SynQor MCOTS EMI filters to meet most requirements of MIL-STD-461. The MCOTS270H converters are offered encased for exceptional performance in harsh environments and can provide full output power at case temperatures between -55° and 100°C. The full-brick converter features include: remote on/off control, very wide +10% to -50% output voltage trim range, remote output voltage sense, input under-voltage lockout, output over-voltage protection, active back bias limiting, thermal shutdown, output current limit, short circuit protection and optional cur-

rent share. The MCOTS-270H series is designed for 4250 VDC and 100M ohm input-to-output isolation, is 5/6 RoHS compliant, and has a calculated MTBF in excess of 1.2M hours at 70°C (MIL-217).

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Chassis Mounted Power Conversion As box-level rugged systems become more common, the demand for chassis-mounted power converters has been on the rise. Satisfying those needs, Calex offers the 75W QCM Chassis Mount DC/DC converter now available with a DIN mount adapter. The QCM Series offers an input range of 18 to 36 VDC and 36 to 75 VDC with output voltages from 3.3 to 24 volts DC (Figure 3). The QCM is fully encapsulated with easily accessible recessed barrier strips. The package size is 2.65 x 4.20 x 1.00 inches. The QCM is fully isolated input to output. The isolation voltage is 1544 VDC. The operating temperature range of the QCM is -40° to +100°C. The storage temperature for all models is -40° to +120°C. All models feature remote ON/ OFF as well as output voltage trim. The voltage trim range is +/-10%. The units are protected by reverse input voltage protection, pulse by pulse current limiting, dead short current limiting and over-temperature protection.

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UPS Technology Moves Forward

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COTS Journal | February 2013

1/31/13 12:02 PM

Innovation is also happening in the UPS side of power technology. For its part, Falcon Electric has added a ruggedized wide temperature (-30° to 63°C) extended runtime battery bank option to its popular SSG and SSG-RP UPS products (Figure 4). The wide-temperature-rated batteries provide long back-up runtimes for protecting connected computers and instrumentation operating in harsh environments during a prolonged power outage. The new battery pack gives users over 10 times the battery runtime, compared to Falcon’s standard 2U extended battery pack option. The new battery bank carries a UL listing when powering Falcon’s unique ULlisted SSG2.5KRP-1. UL is pending for the remaining models in the SSG and SSG-RP Series wide-temperature-rated UPS product line. The SSGB-1S40-5U 40AH battery bank is a rugged battery option that consists of eight deep cycle, valve regulated leadacid, maintenance-free 40 amp hour (AH) batteries and two internal one amp chargers. The batteries and chargers are housed in a sleek rackmount enclosure that takes only 5U (8.75 inches) of vertical rack space. The battery banks may be interconnected or “daisy chained� to provide exceptionally long battery runtimes and can be easily added in the field after the SSG units are installed and in service. The SSGB-1S40-5U 40AH is priced at $2,995. Another interesting trend happening with UPSs is the reduction of size. A recent example from NOVA Power Solutions is the NP560 Series power supply. Only the length and width of a piece of paper, the 1U high unit is an ideal solution for rugged perimeter surveillance, giant voice / indoor voice capabilities, military vehicles, mobile command centers, or any mission-critical equipment. The NP560 provides 560VA/400W of nominal 120 VAC output from an 85-155 VAC 40-70 Hz input with additional 24-30 VDC or 85-260 VAC input options. This wide voltage and frequency tolerance enables the UPS to operate from generators in the field, tactical vehicles or any international power standard. With an optional battery pack, the NP560 operates as a True Online, DoubleConversion Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) that powers your system through utility power interruptions.

Calex Concord, CA. (925) 687-4411. []. Falcon Electric Irwindale, CA. (626) 962-7770. []. Martek Power Torrance, CA. (310) 202-8820. []. NOVA Power Solutions Sterling, VA. (800) 999-6682. []. Pico Electronics Pelham, NY. (914) 738-1400. []. Rantec Power Systems Los Osos, CA. (805) 596-6000. []. RECOM Power Brooklyn, NY. (718) 855-9710. []. SynQor Boxborough, MA. (978) 849-0600. []. TDK-Lambda Americas San Diego, CA. (619) 575-4400. []. Vicor Andover, MA. (978) 749-8359. []. VPT Blacksburg, VA. (425) 353-3010. [].

TECH RECON Power Supply Trends for Boards and Systems

Application Needs Drive Power Protection Choices While it’s tempting to go with low-cost IT-style commercial power backup systems, the particular needs of military applications demand more rigorous alternatives. A variety of military test standards help shape the available rugged UPS solutions. Vince Polino, Applications Engineer NOVA Power Solutions


ecause computers and networks are so vital to today’s military operations, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) can no longer be an afterthought. There are large power supply manufacturers that specialize in producing commercial UPSs. These products are designed for use in indoor, air-conditioned spaces and operate from clean power provided by the same local electric-utility provider that powers our homes and businesses. But while those products are inexpensive and perform well in commercial and residential applications, they were not designed nor manufactured for the harsh environments and strict operational requirements of military applications. To meet the requirements of these more demanding applications, it is essential that a high-quality, rugged product designed to pass strict military standards and made specifically for these harsh operating environments is deployed. There are several different types of UPSs available. The most common are Standby, (or Off-line), Line Interactive and True Online, Double Conversion. Commercial UPSs are typically designed to operate using the clean, stable 34

COTS Journal | February 2013

Figure 1

The SRNDTI Series UPS was the industry’s first power-factor corrected UPS in the late 1990s, with an estimated 15,000 SRNDTI Series UPSs still presently deployed in U.S. Navy shipboard applications.

electricity provided to commercial and residential buildings. Standby (Offline) and Line Interactive UPSs can be a suitable selection for these applications, but Online UPSs should be used when the input power is neither clean nor reliable, in harsh environments, and when the load equipment absolutely cannot fail.

Standby or Offline A Standby UPS typically offers only surge protection and battery backup capability. This type of UPS spends most of its life in standby mode, or off-line,

waiting for a power loss event. It passes input electricity through to the output and performs little, if any, power conditioning during normal operation. When a power loss event occurs, the inverter is switched on and the inverter from a battery provides output power. The time to switch from input electricity to inverter/battery power is typically 8-10ms, so the term “uninterruptible” probably isn’t accurate as this interruption can cause load equipment to shutdown. Additionally, the inexpensive inverter designs typical in Standby (Offline) and Line Interactive UPSs often produce a square or quasi-sine output waveform, and not a true sine wave. The lack of a pure sine wave output power waveform may cause sensitive load equipment to not work properly, constantly cycling on and off or just not working period.

Different Types of UPSs A Line Interactive UPS is similar to a Standby UPS in that Line Interactive UPSs also pass input electricity through to the output with little or no power conditioning, and the inverter only provides power during a power


loss event. The primary difference between a Standby (Off line) and Line Interactive UPS is a Line Interactive UPS may also feature an autotransformer on the input. The autotransformer allows the UPS to ride through brownouts and a wider range of sags, swells and excursions in the input line voltage before switching to inverter/battery backup power. An Online UPS is superior to Standby, Off line and Line Interactive UPS designs because an Online UPS works 100% of the time. Input AC electricity is continuously rectified to a DC bus and inverted back to AC where a true AC output sine wave form is provided. The AC-DC rectification stage eliminates electrical disturbances on the input power line, and the pure sine wave output waveform generated by the inverter provides the clean, reliable output power. A True Online, Double Conversion UPS is truly uninterruptible because the inverter is online all the time so there is no interruption (0ms) in the output power waveform when the AC input source is lost. The inverter seamlessly transitions from AC input utility power to battery backup power without any interruption or disturbances in the true sine wave output waveform. Most military applications are not afforded the luxury of having a clean, stable power source. Electricity for military applications can be generated many ways including but not limited to: shipboard turbine-diesel or nuclear generators, gasoline-powered field generator, vehicular battery power, or from a foreign electrical grid. In these instances, a True Online, Double Conversion UPS should be used to ensure clean, reliable power is provided.

Military Environments There are several military standards products used in DoD systems must meet to ensure survivability in harsh environments. These military standards and specifications outline the minimum re36

COTS Journal | February 2013

quirements products must meet for use in DoD systems. MIL-STD-461, Electromagnetic Interference: The U.S. Navy and Coast Guard shipboard environment is unique in that sensitive, electronic systems are often bunched close together in confined spaces. Individual electronic components may radiate and/or be susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Electronics that emit EMI may cause electronics that are sensitive to EMI to function improperly,

Figure 2

The MIL-S-901D Heavyweight Barge Test is considered the gold standard for shipboard, military applications.

which may cause a failure of the system. Figure 1 shows a typical UPS suited for shipboard operations. MIL-STD-461E was established to identify requirements for the control of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) emission and susceptibility characteristics of electronics used in Department of Defense applications. There are eighteen different sections for conducted emissions, conducted susceptibility, radiated emissions and radiated susceptibility. There are different limits for Army and Navy applications, and there are different limits for surface ships and submarines. MIL-STD-167, Mechanical Vibration: The shipboard propulsion system produces a constant vibration felt throughout the ship that varies by the size, or length, of the ship. This constant vibration will slowly shake apart

or loosen fasteners, connectors, solder joints, etc. and cause premature failures in electronic components. A properly designed cabinet will feature shock-mounts to dampen the vibration, but shipboard vibration can still reduce the life expectancy of sensitive electronic components. MIL-STD-167 simulates ten years of shipboard life in just a few days by sweeping a range of frequencies across all three principle axis, identifying resonant frequencies, and vibrating at those resonant frequencies for at least two hours. The test can take several days to complete and is considered destructive. MIL-STD-1399 SECTION 300, AC Electric Power: A ship floating out in the ocean can’t use the earth as a groundplane, so the shipboard power generator produces a delta, ungrounded electrical system that is very different from the wye, or grounded, power we’re familiar with in residential and commercial (land-based) buildings. Delta power is comprised of two “hot” lines with a 60° phase difference and is not referenced to ground. The two hot lines measure 115 VAC when referenced to each other, but may measure between 45-165 VAC when measured to an unreferenced ground. Wye power is comprised of one “hot,” one neutral and one ground, and the hot measures 115 VAC when referenced to either neutral or ground. Load equipment that is provided delta power and referenced to ground may see voltage swings as low as 45 VAC and as high as 165 VAC where it’s normally expecting 115/120 VAC. The low voltage is enough to cease normal operation (shutdown) and the high voltage is enough to permanently damage many electronic component parts. Also, small, closed shipboard electrical systems should isolate electrical disturbances from re-entering the electrical system. Electrical disturbances such as load harmonics may be generated in one section of the ship and cause electronic equipment to malfunction in another section that shares the same electrical circuit.


Power factor-corrected UPSs and isolation transformers have been shown to keep closed electrical systems clean and prevent load harmonics from reentering the electrical system. MIL-S-901, Shock: The most impressive of the military standard or specification testing is probably the MIL-S-901 Heavyweight Barge Test (Figure 2). This test simulates an instant mechanical shock to the ship’s hull and its effect on nearby ships systems. There are three types: the Lightweight and Medium weight tests are “hammer” tests where a large pendulum swings and hits a platform the system is mounted to, and the Heavyweight test involves a barge f loating in a waterfilled quarry and large explosives. Electronic equipment mounted in a cabinet undergoing the Heavyweight Barge test can be subjected to 10-100Gs of force in all three principle axis depending on whether the cabinet is mounted with shock-absorbing mounts, or hard-mounted to the ship’s hull. These forces are enough to bend and twist steel enclosures and the electronics contained within. This is probably the most difficult test to pass due to the extremely high amount of mechanical stress introduced to the components mounted inside the cabinet and is considered the gold-standard for MIL-STD compliance by many.

Environmental MIL-STD-810 Tests U.S. Army, Marine Corps and Air Force applications may include groundbased and vehicular applications deployed in geographic regions prone to high heat, high humidity, shock and blown sand/dust. There is a slightly different but similar group of tests for these conditions in the MIL-STD-810 requirements. Figure 3 shows an example compact UPS designed for tactical, mobile operations. SECTION 501.4, High Temperature: Most of the component parts used in electronics generate heat as electricity passes through them. Some integrated circuits (ICs) get so hot that

they require a heat sink to dissipate that heat energy even at room temperature. Overheated electronic component parts may be inefficient or not function properly, and if they are allowed to overheat they may combust causing a hard failure. Heat reduction and airf low are included in the design process of most electronic components nowadays, but the heat requirements of military applications typically far exceed anything most commercial products are designed for. Whereas most commercial UPSs are designed for a maximum temperature of 35°C (95°F), rugged, military UPSs should be designed for a maximum temperature of 50°C (122°F) or higher. SECTION 510.4, Blown Sand and Dust: Most electronic manufacturers dissipate heat energy generated by electronic component parts with forced-air (fans) as the simplest and most straightforward solution. Military systems are deployed in the hottest geographic regions of the world where even most plant life is unsustainable and the landscape is covered in sand and fine dust. Electronic systems with forced-air cooling deployed in desert regions will accumulate a large amount of sand and dust on electronic circuit boards and contacts. The accumulation build-up can short out electronic circuits, corrode contacts causing electronic components to fail, and otherwise shorted the life expectancy of electronic parts. There are designs that use a combination of conduction and forced-air cooling that prevents environmental elements like sand, dust and precipitation from being introduced directly to electronics, like f low-through heat sink designs. These designs are ideal for these applications. SECTIONS 516.4 AND 514.5, Shock And Vibration: Many U.S. Army and Marine Corps applications are mounted in field-deployable transit cases. These transit cases are transported in vehicles designed for rough terrain where roads may not exist yet.

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Power & EMI Inductors

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Pulse Transformers

10 Nanoseconds to 100 Microseconds. ET Rating to 150 Volt Microsecond, Manufactured and tested to MIL-PRF-21038.

Multiplex Data Bus Pulse Transformers

Plug-In units meet the requirements of QPL-MIL-PRF 21038/27. Surface units are electrical equivalents of QPL-MIL-PRF 21038/27.

DC-DC Converter Transformers Input voltages of 5V, 12V, 24V And 48V. Standard Output Voltages to 300V (Special voltages can be supplied). Can be used as self saturating or linear switching applications. All units manufactured and tested to MIL-PRF-27.

400Hz/800Hz Power Transformers

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Untitled-2 1

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E Mail:

February 2013 | COTS Journal


1/17/13 10:36 AM


The mechanical shock and vibration electronics mounted in a transit case in these applications can be very different from the mechanical shock and vibration experienced in shipboard applications. There are a series of different tests designed to introduce similar shock events, including a “drop” test where the transit case or component is tested to ensure it works properly should human handlers drop the case or component from a short height. Even at a just a few feet, the mechanical shock can be enough to permanently damage components. These environments and conditions were not factors during the design of commercial UPSs like they are in the development and design of Rugged UPSs. To install a commercial product into a military application is to introduce an inherent weakness into IT architecture. Military applications require compliance to at least some part of the eighteen different sections, so electromagnetic interference, vibration, electricity, shock, temperature and blown sand/ dust should be a design consideration of any electronic manufacturer supporting the DoD.

Lifecycle Costs The initial investment of a Standby or Line Interactive commercial UPS will look, on paper, to be cheaper than a True Online rugged UPS. That perception, however, masks the true total cost of ownership. The lifecycle cost of the True Online rugged UPS will likely be much lower as it has been designed to operate in a military environment subject to shock, vibration, EMI and harsh temperature conditions. It has been manufactured and tested to meet these application requirements. By definition, they will last much longer than a commercial product that was designed for use in a commercial, air-conditioned server room. It is therefore important that other considerations besides initial purchase price be factored into your UPS selection criteria, including: How often am I 38

COTS Journal | February 2013

Figure 3

The NP560 Series UPS is 1U-high and measures the same size as a standard sheet of copy paper. It’s intended for mobile, tactical applications or where space is a premium. replacing a UPS due to failure? Do I have to replace my UPSs during every Tech Refresh? How much am I spending on my spare UPS inventory? What is the logistics and supply chain cost to rush out a replacement when a UPS fails? What is the impact of downtime while we wait for a replacement UPS? A commercial UPS with a much lower initial price can end up being much more expensive to replace several times during the lifespan of a single Rugged UPS. The initial investment in a Rugged UPS may be 2x-5x higher than a commercial UPS, but if your Rugged UPS lasts 5-10 years and you are replacing your commercial UPS every 1-2 years (or less), the commercial UPS will cost more over the life of your system. The purchase price is the most obvious expense, but the logistics involved in maintaining spare inventory and shipping replacements can quickly add up. Components that fail regularly are stocked in higher quantity in anticipation of frequent failures/replacements, so if you use a commercial UPS, you may be already stocking 2-3 times more commercial UPSs than you would if you used a Rugged UPS. Most deployed systems are in remote locations where delivery is difficult, dangerous and expensive. In some cases the cost alone of shipping a replacement could well exceed the value

of the commercial UPS you’re replacing. The most expensive hidden cost, however, may be system downtime while waiting for a replacement commercial UPS. Uninterruptible Power Supplies are a critical component of IT and network architecture because Military personnel rely on their electronic systems, and those systems can be rendered useless if they don’t have dependable, reliable power.

Right Tool, Right Job The DoD has commissioned hundreds of military standards detailing the different electrical, mechanical and environmental conditions products used in military applications must pass. These standards typically far exceed the technical specifications of commercial UPSs, and compliance to these standards usually requires a rugged UPS. While a commercial UPS may have a lower initial investment than a rugged UPS, you may pay much more over the total life cycle of the UPS for that commercial UPS. If your commercial UPS can’t survive the harsh environment because it wasn’t designed to pass the military standards, your sparing and logistics costs to replace that inventory is going to be high, but so is your system downtime as you deal with a failure or wait for a replacement. When choosing an uninterruptible power supply, power conditioner, battery backup or power distribution system for military applications, it is critical to the mission that reliability and survivability in harsh operating environments be considered in the context of the true life cycle costs of the purchasing decision. The UPS with the lowest initial investment may cost much more over the life of the system when replacement, sparing, logistics and downtime costs are considered. NOVA Power Solutions Sterling, VA. (800) 999-6682. [].

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Anti-Tamper and Security for Electronics

Hardware and Software Work Together to Secure Systems It’s no simple challenge to manage security and anti-tamper issues for electronics while enabling remote monitoring, management and configuration. Security assurance and anti-tamper methods used must apply both hardware and software to the solution. Christine Van De Graaf, Sr. Product Strategy Manager Lilee Systems


Trusted Platform Modules In terms of hardware-based security, a solution design can look to implement a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) security device. A TPM security device would be 40

COTS Journal | February 2013

Cryptographic processor

Persistent memory Endorsement Key (EK)

Random number generator

Secured input - output

onnected technologies and solutions are becoming ever-more prevalent across many markets. This includes some of the most sensitive and vital infrastructure applications in public, private and government spaces. The more vital the system, the more attractive it is for hackers and those with malicious intents. To safeguard the security of these applications without sacrificing remote manageability, there are a number of hardware- and software-based anti-tamper methods that can be employed jointly or stand-alone. According to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), anti-tamper (AT) “encompasses the systems engineering activities intended to prevent and/or delay exploitation of critical technologies… These activities involve the entire life-cycle of systems acquisition, including research, design, development, implementation, and testing of AT measures.” For the sake of focus, here we’ll explore solution security that pertains to design and implementation.

Storage Root Key (SRK) RSA key generator

Versatile memory Platform Configuration Registers (PCR)

SHA-1 hash generator Attestation Identity Keys (AIK) Encryption-decriptionsignature engine

Storage keys

Figure 1

A Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Security Device used in a solution adds an element of designed-in hardware security. designed into the board level design of the solution (Figure 1). The TPM’s function is to ensure the integrity of a platform. This means that the TPM is making sure the system is behaving as it was intended to.

TPMs contain several Platform Configuration Registers (PCRs) that allow secure storage and reporting of relevant security metrics. If a change has been made to the configuration that wasn’t authorized, the



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Figure 2

The WMS-2000 Intelligent Connectivity and Application Controller has an optional TPM as well as employing software-based encryption and security methods to safeguard data and application-specific functionality.

Figure 3

The Lilee Systems TransAir PTC3000 Intelligent Connectivity Solution enables IPsec with ESP and uses the remote access connection tunnel mode. TPM detects it and gives the system direction about how to proceed. The TPM and the system BIOS work together to form this “Root of Trust.” Thus, the system starts in a trusted condition at power up and this extends through the period when the operating system is fully booted and the application starts running. If the TPM and BIOS detect a fault in the configuration then the system does not go into the application. TPM also can be used to enable disk encryption and password protection. When determining if TPM implementation is possible, it needs to be confirmed that the silicon platform supports 42

COTS Journal | February 2013

TPM. Also, the selected TPM security device needs to meet the environmental requirements of the solution—for example industrial grade for applications that will be used in harsh environments. Unfortunately, there are some regional restrictions for TPM device use. Legal restrictions prohibit the use of TPMs in China, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Other anti-tamper measures that can be taken include role-based access control (RBAC), system partitioning, rapid shutdown enablement as well as secure erase measures. In RBAC implementation, the access of various users is assigned according to their role. Those who are assigned an “Administrator” role have full access to control/change system behavior. Users without Administrator status have limited system access for less-intrusive operation. These limited-access and anti-tamper measures lead us to more software-based means of securing remotely monitored and managed systems: Encryption. Systems such as the Lilee Systems WMS-2000 (Figure 2) support multi-level user privileges via role-based access control (RBAC). Roles are created and managed as part of the system software configuration.

Advanced Encryption Most systems have some form of encryption. However, the method of encryption used is greatly determined by the vitality of the application where the solution is employed. Mission-critical networks must employ the highest security with 64-bit and 128-bit AES (Advanced Encryption standard) encryption and powerful policy-based filters plus access control lists. Hash-based message au-

thentication code (HMAC) is one method of safeguarding that should be used for all control and maintenance messaging. When a packet is transmitted it must be accompanied by the correct key such that the recipient knows that the packet has come through from the known originator without being tampered with. HMAC should be combined with additional security protocol to be more robust. IPsec, Internet Protocol Security, is a means of protecting application traffic across IP networks that checks for authentication, integrity and confidentiality in each packet. Two types of protocol under IPsec are Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). ESP is the more robust of these two protocols. AH authenticates packets over the connection and protects devices against replay attacks. ESP protects against replay attacks and encapsulates packets over the connection. For both AH and ESP there are two common modes: Transport and Tunnel. Transport mode secures connections between two endpoints on a single network and encrypts/authenticates an IP packet’s payload to ensure the packet’s integrity. Tunnel mode secures connections between two networks and it encrypts/authenticates the entire packet into a new IP packet with a new IP header. In some mission-critical systems, a special case of tunnel mode is needed, called remote access connection. This is the type of IPsec using ESP that is supported by the Lilee Systems TransAir PTC-3000 solution for intelligent connectivity (Figure 3). An “access-gateway” device is assigned a predetermined IP address. The devices that are enabled to communicate with the access-gateway


are configured to “access-clients.� Accessclient devices are allowed to connect with one and only one access-gateway.

IPsec VPN Network A secure connection can be established through the creation of an IPsec VPN with Ethernet, 3G and/or Wi-Fi depending on the application. Through the establishment of an IPsec VPN, a secure network connection is created between two separate networks over an untrusted network. This is ideal when the assets that need to be connected may be a significant distance from one another and/or moving. The topology of the IPsec VPN Network will look like that illustrated in Figure 4. On their own, each of the security and anti-tamper methods discussed has its pros and cons. The best anti-tamper solutions utilize a combination of methods including hardware-based security via the integration of TPM and softwarebased methods such as AES encryption and HMAC, signed Operating System images, etc. Though hackers may become

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VPN Client

Gateway NAT

Gateway NAT

VPN Gateway

Internal Network

Internal Network

Figure 4

Network topology for an IPsec VPN-enabled solution where the data flow is protected between pairs: host-host, network-host and network-network. even more savvy in their efforts, the combination of anti-tamper and security measures will make it more difficult for them to remotely administer industrial control systems (ICS) and/or supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems that manipulate machine-tomachine communications in various set-

tings from transportation and industrial to military and government and even commercial applications. Lilee Systems Santa Clara, CA. (408) 988-8672/ [].

1/29/13 February 2013 | COTS Journal

5:14 PM


SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Anti-Tamper and Security for Electronics

Cryptographic Technology Assures Supply Chain Security The problem of counterfeit electronic devices is only getting worse. Solving the problem requires consideration of the whole supply chain. Cryptographic solutions smooth the way. Richard Newell, Senior Principal Product Architect Ming-Hoe Kiu, Senior Software Manager Microsemi


he counterfeiting of electronic devices has become a real problem in recent years. This fraudulent activity has affected high-value components where the highest profit can be made. Using intelligent ICs, it is possible to minimize or totally alleviate fraud that could arise in the supply chain. The mechanisms commonly used for counterfeiting highvalue devices include a number of types. First is upgrading components, where less expensive device variants are remarked as more expensive ones. Then there’s the reclaiming and reselling of used components as new devices. These offer no guarantee of reliable operation after removal from a used system. Third is the overbuilding by foundry or test suppliers or rogue insiders. This includes possible fraudulent supply of parts that failed test. In military or other secure systems, the burden for counterfeit components was previously on the end user. The cost of replacing, redesigning or rebuilding equipment to correct the deployment of a counterfeit device would rest on the individual service branch and its budget. With the increase of counterfeit components, the military, in the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012, Sec. 818 Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit 44

COTS Journal | February 2013

Figure 1

The SmartFusion2 System-onChip (SoC) FPGA is a cryptographic solution for the problem of supply chain assurance to ensure the highest levels of security and prevention of counterfeiting. Electronic Parts, places the burden of corrective action on the DoD prime contractor.

Two Forms of Solutions Suggested answers to the counterfeiting problem come in two forms. First are process solutions. You can buy only from authorized distributors. It reduces risk considerably by buying only from approved suppliers. If the components

stocked by an approved channel are counterfeit there is still a risk. The technical solution is to positively identify legitimate devices. This requires strong tamper resistance and a hard-to-spoof technique. And such methods are only as good as production controls, such as chain-ofcustody of ID technology. Depending on the component being protected, different technical solutions for supply chain assurance are possible. Some identification techniques are easier to forge than others; some may only identify the device as a member of a broad class, not individually. In any case, the critical elements of the ID technology used must be controlled. If they become available to counterfeiters, the identification technique may become nearly worthless. The strongest known techniques can be applied by an intelligent IC that has at least some of the following characteristics: embedded nonvolatile memory; sufficient computation power to implement cryptographic algorithms in real time; digital communication interfaces for data interchange; and built-in hardware-level security. Microsemi has developed a cryptographic solution for the problem of supply chain assurance to ensure the highest levels of security and prevention of counter-


Extend TRUST Through Entire Supply Chain


Wafer Test

Assembly & Binning



Digital Certificate

Key Injection Original Component Manufacturer (OCM)

Certificate Injection

Hardware Security Module (HSM) Figure 2

Any intelligent electronic component undergoes several stages in its supply chain. feiting in SmartFusion2 System-on-Chip (SoC) FPGAs (Figure 1). SmartFusion2 SoC FPGAs from Microsemi are ideal for the creation of a strong technical anticounterfeit solution because they possess all the above features. The Microsemi solution has a cryptographic device certificate that identifies legitimate devices individually. The devices offer extremely strong tamper resistance and are hard to spoof. They are also protected by FIPS PUB 140-2 Level 3 cryptographic controls being installed in Microsemi facilities. The National Institute of Standards and Technology’s FIPS PUB 140 standard specifies controls used to protect very high-value assets, up to and including state secrets. A device identification technology whose security rests on cryptography and these well-proven controls is very strong compared to any other process-based or technical identification technology.

Supply Chain Assurance Any intelligent electronic component undergoes several stages in its supply chain (Figure 2). The design and fabrication of the device by an OCM is the most trusted part of the process. However, wafer test, assembly and binning without strong anti-counterfeiting solutions are less so, and distribution channels, espe46

COTS Journal | February 2013

designed in at the lowest transistor and interconnect levels. Then and only then does it generate a secret key that is injected into the device. This key is unique to an individual device and prevents upgrading of such components by authenticating only components with the exact parameters specified in the traveler. Using public key methods, all communications between the HSM and the device can be validated and protected by encryption.

cially those not authorized by the OCM, are fraught with risk. The aim is to build on the trust available in the earlier stages and extend the trust in the first stages of this process further and further down the chain so that ultimately counterfeit devices cannot be injected into the supply chain and end up in an electronic system. By using external hardware it is possible to authenticate wafers, inject unique cryptographic keys and sign digital certificates that are specific to each individual device. A hardware security module (HSM) is a tamper-resistant, tamper-evident, security-hardened computer that is used to perform the wafer authentication, key injection and certificate signing functions at a remote wafer test or assembly location. Although it is located within the potentially less secure remote location, the HSM can be used to securely store and manipulate private keys. If the HSM is tampered with, it will erase any sensitive data it contains—such as cryptographic keys—before it can be extracted. Fear of leaving evidence of tampering is a strong incentive to play by the rules for a contract manufacturer who does not want to lose business over trust issues. The HSM initially verifies that the device and wafer being tested are the expected ones using authentication features

After a secret key has been injected into the device at the wafer test stage, a digital certificate is injected into the device at the assembly and binning stage. This certificate contains many fields, including OCM identifier, device serial number, model number with grading information and assembly date code. There’s also data binding the certificate with the secret key previously injected. The HSM ensures only good devices receive a certificate, which prevents the representation of failed components as good ones. The HSM securely logs each certificate so the OCM knows exactly how many have been issued. The certificate is injected after test and binning so it contains authenticated device grading information. This facilitates user detection of devices tested to a lower speed or temperature grade than indicated by package-top markings, which could potentially be fraudulent (modified). The date code tells when a device was assembled and, similar to the grading information, can be compared to the part marking to detect fraud. This comparison may assist in electronically identifying older devices that require additional screening to ensure they are new and have not been previously used. The certificate is signed by the OCM (Microsemi, in this case) using a secret key known only to the OCM, but the key to verify the certificate can be made public. Anyone with the right technology and the OCM’s public key can read and verify the device certificate, thus proving with cryptographically high assurance levels that the data fields in the certificate have not been tampered with, and proving the certificate was signed by the OCM. The certificate can be interrogated on various occasions:




DDR User I/O

Multi-Standard User I/O (MISO)

SPI x 2 MMUART x 2 I2C x 2 Timer x 2

System Controller AES256 SHA256 SRAM-PUF



NRBG In-Application Flash*Freeze Programming





Multi-Standard User I/O (MISO)


Micro SRAM (64x18)

Figure 3


Serial 0 I/O

MSS DDR Controller + PHY






SMC_FIC Config

Large SRAM (1024x18)

Large SRAM (1024x18)




Micro SRAM (64x18)

Serial Controller 0 (PCIe, XAUI/XGXS) + Native SERDES

DDR Bridge



Math Block MACC (18x18)

Multi-Standard User I/O (MISO)



Instruction Cache

AHB Bus Matrix (ABM)


FPGA Fabric






ARM Cortex-M3

Microcontroller Subsystem (MSS)

Math Block MACC (18x18) AXI/AHB/XGXS

Serial Controller 1 (PCIe, XAUI/XGXS) + Native SERDES


Serial 1 I/O



Fabric DDR Controller + PHY

Standard Cell/ SEU Immune Flash Based/ SEU Immune

DDR User I/O

The complete SmartFusion2 SoC FPGA anti-counterfeit solution provides the functions and production controls needed for a complete secure supply chain. As part of a screening process, such as checking the delivered device against the order, SmartFusion2 SoC FPGAs can be authenticated several ways. One is through the certificate’s integrity and signature, using the Microsemi public key. Also the certificate can be checked for listing on a certificate revocation list (CRL). Another way is verifying the device knows the device-unique secret key stored in the device and bound to the certificate. This proves that the certificate belongs to that particular device and is not a copy of a certificate belonging to another device. The device can also check that any data fed to it matches parameters in its certificate.

Physically Unclonable Function To provide true device binding, an intrinsic physical property with a high degree of repeatability and individuality

can be used. Such a behavior is known as a physically unclonable function (PUF). In an electronic circuit, any internal SRAM memories, when powered up but before being written to, will contain a random collection of 1s and 0s (Figure 3). These are largely due to the nanoscale individual manufacturing differences of each memory cell (plus some noise), and are replicable to a high degree from power-up to power-up (typically more than 80% repeatability over all test conditions). This unique pattern of 1s and 0s, specific to an individual device, can be used to identify that particular device, analogous to the way fingerprints can provide biometric identification of people. Cryptographically binding this “silicon biometric” with the digitally signed device certificate provides the strongest, most tamperresistant and difficult to forge method

known today for assuring the pedigree of intelligent devices. During programming of SmartFusion2 SoC FPGAs, the configuration bitstream is authenticated against the parameters certified by the device certificate and the unique device secret key. Using this technique provides the best assurance available that the device being programmed is free from supply chain counterfeiting issues. The complete SmartFusion2 SoC FPGA anti-counterfeit solution provides the functions and production controls needed for a complete secure supply chain, from design and fabrication to user programming and deployment to field operation. Microsemi Aliso Viejo CA. (949) 380-6100 []. February 2013 | COTS Journal


TECHNOLOGY FOCUS CompactPCI and CompactPCI Serial Boards

CompactPCI Holds its Ground in SWaP-critical Systems Now an accepted and trusted embedded computing architecture, CompactPCI remains a thriving mainstay form factor option for military system designs. Jeff Child Editor-in-Chief


he CompactPCI embedded form factor has achieved the maturity and broad product range that military system designers so crave. Now well into its second decade of existence, the 3U flavor of cPCI is particularly attractive to space/weight-constrained applications like avionics. The new serial version of cPCI adds new levels of bandwidth. PICMG’s original CompactPCI specification was adopted in 1995 and is mechanically based on the proven Eurocard form factor. It’s not likely that cPCI will ever match the legacy of VME in the military market, but its mindshare remains solid. The marketplace offers a wide collection of cPCI products that are available from a variety of vendors in every category including single board computers, I/O boards, slot-card power supplies, storage subsystems, mezzanine carriers, DSP engines and many others. The “CompactPCI and CompactPCI Serial Boards Roundup” on the following pages showcases some examples of the current crop of CompactPCI single board computer products. In many cases this group of cPCI boards includes air-cooled versions that offer a companion conduction-cooled version that’s electronically an identical design. The PCI Industrial Manufacturers Group (PICMG) developed performance upgrade paths for cPCI, such as PICMG 2.16 and CompactPCI Express, and the PICMG 48

COTS Journal | February 2013

Figure 1

Rockwell Collins’ integrated cockpit flight and mission display system for the U.S. Army’s UH-60M Black Hawk enables reduced pilot workload, full battlefield situational awareness and net-centric connectivity for the Army’s airborne assault and utility missions. 2.30 specification, called CompactPCI PlusIO. PICMG upped the ante announcing the successful completion and adoption of the CompactPCI Serial (CPCI-S.0) specification. This specification adds greater support for serial point to point fabrics like PCI Express, SATA, Ethernet and USB in the classic CompactPCI form factor. The specification contains definitions for both system and peripheral slots in 3U and 6U board sizes. It also includes definitions for eight PCI Express links, eight SATA/ SAS serial buses, eight USB 2.0/3.0 buses and eight Ethernet interfaces at system slots. The CompactPCI Serial specification developed by PICMG member companies enables that same form factor to benefit from the lat-

est I/O enhancements found in all modern computer silicon, and extends the life of CompactPCI form factors for years to come. CompactPCI technology has been used for several years as part of Rockwell Collins’ Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS). Initially developed for the SOA MH-47G Chinook and MH-60L/M Black Hawk aircraft (Figure 1), CAAS has a fully integrated flight and mission management capability that provides exceptional mission effectiveness. As the common digital architecture for rotary wing aircraft for the U.S. Army, CAAS is one of the first fully open, non-proprietary systems that completely embraces existing commercial standards on large platforms.

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CompactPCI and CompactPCI Serial Board Roundup Core i7 6U CompactPCI Blade Features Remote Management

Space-Qualified, Low-Power SBC Provides 1.0 GHz Processing

6U cPCI SBC Combines 3rd Gen Core Processors and Rich I/O

ADLINK Technology has announced the availability of the cPCI-6520, a 6U single-slot CompactPCI processor blade designed for use by robust computer makers and intelligent system integrators in mission-critical applications such as those developed for the military sector. The board sports a 22nm 3rd generation quad- and dual-core Intel Core i7 Processor and Mobile Intel QM77 Express Chipset and has dual channel DDR3-1333/1600 ECC memory up to 16 Gbyte capacity. The cPCI-6520 is a performance computing

Aitech Defense Systems offers the high-performance SP0, a space-qualified, radiation-tolerant 3U CompactPCI SBC with an exceptionally low power of only 10W for manned spacecraft and unmanned satellite subsystems and platforms. The compact MPC8548E, PowerQUICC-III PowerPCbased SBC provides high levels of onboard functionality and integration combined with low power dissipation. It can achieve a processing speed of 1.17 GHz and 333.3 MHz of

Concurrent Technologies offers their latest high-performance 6U CompactPCI processor board utilizing 3rd generation Intel Core processors. The PP 91x/x1x is a single-slot air-cooled Single Board Computer (SBC) expanding on the success of the previous generations of 6U CompactPCI SBCs, allowing customers to easily migrate to the latest generation of Intel Core processors while reaping the benefits of significantly improved performance per watt and extending the

solution with enhanced management features such as PICMG 2.9-compliant IPMI, remote management based on Intel vPro technology and optional Trusted Platform Module (TPM) for security management. Wide temperature range support is available up to -40° to 85°C (operating). Support for three independent displays is provided via two dual-mode DisplayPorts and DVI/VGA graphics interfaces. The DisplayPort interface supports single-link DVI or HDMI with a passive adapter cable and analog VGA output via an active adapter cable. When coupled with an ADLINK XMC-G460 graphics module installed in the XMC site, or an ADLINK cPCI-R6700 Rear Transition Module, the cPCI-6520 Series supports up to four independent displays. On-card connectivity includes two front panel Gbit Ethernet egress ports, three USB 3.0 ports, bootable CompactFlash socket, onboard 7-pin SATA 6 Gbit/s connector for external storage device and SATA 6 Gbit/s direct connector for an onboard 2.5” drive to provide flexible storage capabilities. The cPCI6520 also provides a PMC/XMC expansion site supporting 64-bit 133 MHz PCI modules or PCI Express x8 XMC modules.

core complex bus (CCB) and DDR-1 memory speeds, while adhering to the low power and small form factor requirements necessary in most satellite and spacecraft, mission-critical applications. The SP0’s processor includes an e500 Systemon-Chip (SoC) integrating both an L1 cache with 32 Kbyte instruction and 32 Kbyte data and a 512 Kbyte L2 cache. A large user Flash of 1 Gbyte is standard, with the option to expand up to 8 Gbytes. Supporting both processor and application needs, the large onboard memory also includes up to 512 Mbytes of fast DDR1 SDRAM with ECC protection for high data integrity as well as 512 Kbytes of redundant Boot Flash. This compact board’s extensive I/O, all of which is routed to the rear panel connectors for application usage, reduces the number of additional peripheral cards needed for a fully functional subsystem. An included industrystandard PMC slot, either air- or conductioncooled, accommodates additional modules and onboard functionality. In addition, up to eight PCI Express lanes or four Serial RapidIO lanes as well as dual PCI buses further help increase onboard high performance and exceptional functionality.

lifecycle of already deployed solutions. The PP 91x/x1x supports the dual-core and quad-core 3rd generation Intel Core i7 processors along with up to 16 Gbytes of ECC SDRAM. The PP 91x/x1x integrates the newly released Mobile Intel QM77 Express chipset, which provides enhanced connectivity. The board provides USB 3.0 connectivity, which allows for faster data delivery. Coupled with up to 6 Mbytes of on-die cache and a faster memory controller, it provides a peak bandwidth of 25 Gbytes/s. The PP 91x/x1x maintains both rear and front I/O compatibility with the previous generation PP 81x/x1x. The board can operate as a system controller board, a peripheral board or as a satellite board (blade). Support is also provided for PICMG 2.16 (Ethernet fabric), PICMG 2.9 (IPMI) and PICMG 2.1 (hot swap); the CompactPCI backplane interface operates at 33/66 MHz PCI signaling speeds. The board is designed to scale from commercial temperature grade 0° to +55°C (N-Series) through to extended temperature grade -40° to +85°C (K-Series).

ADLINK Technology San Jose, CA. (408) 360-0200. [].

Aitech Defense Systems Chatsworth, CA. (888) 248-3248. [].


COTS Journal | February 2013

Concurrent Technologies Woburn, MA. (781) 933 5900. [].

CompactPCI and CompactPCI Serial Board ROUNDUP

Flexible I/O Scheme Enhances 3U Board

6U SBC Delivers 2.16 GHz Core 2 Duo

Space and weight constraints for embedded technology in military and aerospace applications have created difficult compromises between size and a full complement of I/O. The SCP/DCP-124P from Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions takes advantage of the compact 3U CompactPCI SBC format and I/O flexibility to overcome these challenges. Utilizing PICMG 2.3, the SCP/DCP-124P routes I/O signals and supports mapping of PMC I/O through the backplane. It features Freescale’s

Compute density is the goal of many of the latest military embedded computer applications. Along those lines, Dynatem, a subsidiary of Eurotech, is now shipping the Intel Core2 Duo-based CRD CompactPCI/ PICMG 2.16 SBC. The CRD is a 6U single-slot CompactPCI-compatible platform based on the Intel low-power Core2 Duo processor. The CRD takes advantage of the L7400 Core2 Duo’s low power consumption as a rugged SBC. Versions

Altivec-enhanced 7448 PowerPC supported by 1 Mbyte of internal ECC L2 cache running at core processor speed and up to 1 Gbyte of ECC DDR SDRAM. The board’s cPCI bus operates at 33/66 MHz and supports both 3.3V and 5V signaling. System expansion is provided by an onboard 64-bit, 100 MHz PCI-X-capable PMC site. The SCP/DCP-124P is available in both conductioncooled and air-cooled versions with optional rear transition cable sets to facilitate system integration and development. Conductioncooling is rated up to -40° to +85°C (Level 200). Ruggedization levels available include L0 and L100 air-cooled, and L100 and L200 conduction-cooled. Storage temperature is -50° to +100°C, and humidity rating is 10 to 95 percent RH non-condensing. Software support includes BSPs for VxWorks 5.5.x/Tornado 2.2.x and 6.x/Workbench 2.x for PowerPC, CWCEC Linux and Integrity. Support is also provided for SSSL, Curtiss-Wright’s Altivec-optimized signal processing library. Pricing starts at $6,030.

supporting the T7400 2.16 GHz Core2 Duo are also available. The CRD is a conduction-cooled module with wedge locks and a full-board heat sink for high shock/vibration environments and temperature extremes. Extended temperature and versions with conformal coating are available. The CRD comes installed with 2 Gbyte or 4 Gbyte DDR2-400 memory, supporting ECC. Memory is BGA for the best shock/vibration spec. The E7520 Memory Controller Hub (MCH) and 6300ESB I/O Controller Hub (ICH) chips support PCIe and PCI-X expansion, respectively. Two or four onboard Gbit Ethernet ports are controlled by two PCI Express-based 82571EB dual 10/100/1000BaseTX controllers. Two Ethernet PICMG 2.16-compliant Gbit Ethernet ports are routed to the backplane. Standard conduction-cooled CRD boards have no front panel I/O due to the cooling plates. A special version has been developed with additional 2 Gbits of Ethernet routed through the front cooling plates. The two onboard PMC mezzanine card interfaces are accessed through the 6300ESB’s 64-bit PCI-X bus. One of the two PMC sites also accommodates an XMC module supported by x8 PCIe. Pricing for the CRD starts at $6,938 in single quantity.

Curtiss-Wright Controls Defense Solutions Ashburn, VA. (703) 779-7800. [].

Dynatem Mission Viejo, CA. (949) 855-3235. [].

CompactPCI Serial SBC Features Quad-Core i7 and up to 16 Gbyte ECC Memory A rich-featured, high-performance 4HP/3U CompactPCI Serial CPU board is equipped with an Intel Core i7 Ivy Bridge + ECC (dualor quad-core) mobile processor based on 22nm technology. The front panel of the SC1-Allegro from EKF Elektronik is provided with two Gigabit Ethernet jacks, two USB 3.0 receptacles and two Mini-DisplayPort connectors for attachment of high-resolution digital displays.

The SC1-Allegro is equipped with a set of local expansion interface connectors, which can be optionally used to attach a mezzanine side board. A variety of expansion cards is available, e.g. providing legacy I/O and additional PCI Express-based I/O controllers such as SATA, USB 3.0 and Gigabit Ethernet, or a third video output. Most mezzanine side cards can also accommodate a 2.5-inch drive. The module is equipped with up to 16 Gbyte RAM with ECC support. 8 Gbyte memory are provided for rugged applications, and another 8 Gbyte are available via the DDR3 ECC SO-DIMM socket. As an option, a low-profile mezzanine module with dual mSATA SSDs may serve as a high-speed RAID mass storage solution. The SC1-ALLEGRO backplane connectors comply with the PICMG CompactPCI Serial system slot specification. Typically, the SC1-Allegro and the related side card would come as a ready-assembled 8HP unit. As an alternative, low-profile Flash-based mezzanine storage modules are available that fit on the SC1-Allegro while maintaining the 4HP profile. The C42-SATA module is equipped with a very fast 1.8-inch SATA Solid State Drive (SSD), which is suitable for installation of any popular operating system.

EKF Elektronik Hamm, Germany. +49 (0)2381/6890-0. [].

February 2013 | COTS Journal


CompactPCI and CompactPCI Serial Board ROUNDUP

CompactPCI SBC Features 3rd Gen Intel Core i7 Processor

Multicore PowerPC Climbs onto 3U CompactPCI

6U 2.16 GHz Core 2 Duo Board Boasts Health Monitoring

Extreme Engineering Solution has introduced the XCalibur4402, a 6U CompactPCI Single Board Computer (SBC) supporting the 3rd generation Intel Core i7 processor. Available in conduction- or aircooled versions, the XCalibur4402 uses the processor’s dual- or quad-core technology with Intel Hyper-Threading Technology and Intel QM67 Express chipset. Processor configurations supported range from the dualcore i5-2655LE: 2.2 GHz with 4 Mbyte cache to

CompactPCI is no longer the new kid on the block for military embedded systems. GE Intelligent Platforms has announced the IMP3A, a 3U CompactPCI single board computer featuring the latest dual core QorIQ processor technology from Freescale. The IMP3A takes advantage of the QorIQ P2020 processor to deliver dual core performance in a single core power envelope. By coupling the P2020 with an extensive range of memory resources and I/O features, and implementing

An increasing number of military applications are requiring computing that can operate autonomously. That means the system has to monitor its own health. With that in mind, General Micro System’s “2nd Coming” is the industry’s first 6U, 2.16 GHz Core 2 Duo, Conduction-Cooled cPCI SBC to provide full System Health Monitoring and reporting to meet all PICMG 2.9 specifications, while adding a slew of additional health monitoring and reporting system status to an external device. The CC276 supports up to 4 Gbytes of 667 MHz DDR-2 memory and vast onboard

ploration your goal k directly age, the source. ology, d products

a quad-core i7-3612QE: 2.1 GHz with 6 Mbyte cache. Memory includes up to 16 Gbytes of DDR31600 ECC SDRAM in two channels and up to 128 Gbytes of NAND flash and 32 Mbytes of NOR flash. Rear panel I/O is comprised of dual rear-panel Gigabit Ethernet ports, USB d 2.0 ports, four SATA 3.0 Gbit/s ports, graphics ports and optional RS-232/485 serial port. Two PrPMC/XMC sites are on board, and the card complies with PICMG 2.0, 2.1, 2.3, 2.9 and 2.16. Wind River VxWorks and Linux Board Support Packages (BSPs) are available, as well as Microsoft drivers. nies providing solutions Windows now

new features such as SATA and NAND Flash memory, the IMP3A offers innovative technologies for programs committed to the 3U CompactPCI architecture as well as a highly cost-effective technology insertion opportunity for GE’s existing IMP1A/IMP2A customers. A typical application would see the IMP3A deployed as part of a control system on board a tank, armored vehicle or helicopter. The IMP3A supports a choice of either the QorIQ P2010 single core processor or the QorIQ P2020 dual core processor, operating at up to 1.2 GHz. Both symmetric and asymmetric processing are supported, enabling customers to scale performance through either threadion into products, technologies and companies. Whether your goal is to research the latest Extreme Engineering Solutions level or application-level parallelism. A PCI-X tion Engineer,Middleton, or jump to a company's technical page, the goal of Get Connected is to put you WI. PMC expansion capability enables customers you require for whatever type of technology, 833-1155. to configure the IMP3A to their requirements and products(608) you are searching for. without exceeding the capacity of a single []. CompactPCI slot. Up to 4 Gbytes of soldered DDR3 ECC memory is featured for maximum system throughput and reliability, while flexible connectivity is provided with two Gigabit Ethernet channels, up to 16 GPIO ports, two SATA channels, two COM ports and USB 2.0. The IMP3A is available in five build levels from office/benign to conduction-cooled with a maximum operating temperature of +85°C.

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COTS Journal | February 2013

GE Intelligent Platforms Charlottesville, VA. (800) 368-2738. [].

I/O. The standard I/O included are dual Gbit Ethernet on PCIe bus with TCP/IP Offloading Engine, dual IDE, quad SATA with RAID (0, 1, 5, 10 and 50) capabilities, five USB-2.0, 1 Mbyte of user/Boot flash and two serial ports. Additional standard I/O included are: one PMC/XMC site with rear I/O, 16 bidirectional Digital I/O lines and dual COM ports with RS232/422 buffers (jumper selectable). The C276 module is fully compliant to IEEE Std. 1101.2 and ANSI/VITA 2-0 2001. The 2nd Coming operates from -40° to +85°C at the rails with relative humidity of 5-95 percent at 40°C, and may be exposed to shocks of up to 100g for 5 ms, or 40g for 11 ms in 3 axis. The 2nd Coming supports extremes; vibrations range from 5 Hz to 2 KHz for up to 30 minutes at 15g RMS in each axis.

General Micro Systems Rancho Cucamonga, CA. (909) 980-4863. [].

CompactPCI and CompactPCI Serial Board ROUNDUP

3U CompactPCI Board Boasts 1.7 GHz Core i7 CPU The Kontron CPS3003-SA is a highly integrated 3U CPCI-S.0 CPU board based on Intel’s 3rd Generation Core i7 technology. The CPU board comes with a multicore CPU package scalable from the dual-core ULV 1.7 GHz Intel Core i7-3517UE up to the quad-core 2.1 GHz i7-3612QE processor. The powerful PCH Intel QM77 provides a huge number of interfaces that are either routed to front, onboard or backplane connectors. Memorydemanding applications can make use of up to

CompactPCI PlusIO SBC Gives Legacy Systems Serial Capabilities MEN Micro’s hybrid F21P is a 3U CompactPCI PlusIO (PICMG 2.30) single board computer (SBC) for embedded systems using legacy CompactPCI (PICMG 2.0), highspeed CompactPCI Serial (CPCI-S.0) or a combination of both. Equipped with the latest 64-bit, quad-core Intel i7 processor running at 2.1 GHz and the Intel QM67 platform controller hub (PCH) chip set, the new F21P supports second generation PCI Express

3U CompactPCI SBC Provides Multi-Function I/O The 75SBC4 from North Atlantic Industries is a single-slot 3U cPCI low-power and high-performance Single Board Computer (SBC) with dual high-speed/performance function module slots for configurable multifunction I/O interface expansion. Powered by the Freescale 1.2 GHz QorIQ P2041 Power Architecture processor, the 75SBC4 offers an extremely low-power, cost-conscious

Ad Index Get Connected with technology and companies providing solutions now Get Connected is a new resource for further exploration

and third generationand SATA as wellWhether as faster technologies companies. your goal SBC solution for today’s demanding, space16 Gbyte 1600 MHz DDR3 SDRAM with Error into products, TurboBoost up to 3 GHz and improved AMT is to research the latest datasheet from a company, speak directly constrained and resource-limited embedded Checking and Correction (ECC). As another (Active Management It alsopage, offers with an Application Engineer, or jump to aTechnology). company's technical the security feature the CPS3003-SA provides a systems. four “genuine” eight virtual viaresource. Hypergoal of Get Connected is to putoryou in touch withcores the right Trusted Platform Module (TPM). Two I/O module slots enable integrators Threading and a faster monolithic graphics Whichever level of service you require for whatever type of technology, For graphics-intensive applications, the to mix-n-match a variety of I/O and core. Get Connected will help you connect with the companies and products CPS3003-SA offers an excellent graphics communication functions. This unique, Standard rear I/O includes four ports each you are searching for. performance with integrated DirectX 11, COTS configurable design offers a broad of PCI Express x1 and USB 2.0 as well as two OpenGL 3.1 and OpenCL 1.1 support. assortment of signal interfaces, including 3 Gbit/s and two 6 Gbit/s SATA interfaces and Additionally, now three independent graphics Digital I/O (Discrete, Differential, TTL/ one Gbit Ethernet port. A VGA graphics port, outputs are supported. At the front panel the CMOS); Analog I/O (A/D, D/A, RTD, two Gigabit Ethernet ports and two USB 2.0 CPU board offers communication interfaces Strain Gage); Motion Control and Sensor interfaces are available on the front. Additional such as two DisplayPort, two USB 2.0 and Interfaces (Synchro/Resolver/LVDT/RVDT functions, such as digital video interfaces via two Gigabit Ethernet ports. Serial interfaces Measurement and Simulation, Encoder/ DVI and a multitude of UARTs, USBs, SATA available via the backplane connectors P1 to P5 Counter) andnow Communications Interfaces Get Connected withbe technology and companies providing solutions or HD audio, can attached through the are ten USB ports, four SATA interfaces, one (Serial RS-232/422/423/485, MILconnection extension Theexploration board into products, technologies and companies.CANBus, Get Connected is aofnew resourcecards. for further Whether your goal is to research th DisplayPort, 17x PCI Express links and two datasheetfeatures STD-1553 and ARINC 429/575). The 75SBC4 up to 8 Gbytes of soldered from a company, speak directly with anDDR3 Application Engineer, or jump to a company's technical page, the goal of Get Connect Gigabit Ethernet interfaces. Optionally, via the SBC configured up to two modules allows in touch with the right resource. Whichever you require for whatever type ofwith technology, DRAM memory with ECC aslevel wellofasservice an mSATA P6 backplane connector, the CPS3003-SA Get is Connected integrators willahelp you connect the companies and productssystems you are searching for. to confidently manage, disk and microSD cardwith connected via a SATA able to offer Rear I/O functionality. The board monitor and process a host of sensor interfacing channel and USB interface. supports up to 32 Gbytes of SATA NAND Flash. requirements with NAI’s flexible, leadingAll components are soldered to withstand The version for extended temp operates from edge, fully programmable and continuous shock and vibration and are prepared for -40° up to +85°C. background built-in-test (BIT) enabled I/O conformal coating against humidity and dust. modules. Maximum operating temperature range is -40°

Kontron America Poway, CA. (858) 677-0877. [].


to +85°C in 95% non-condensing humidity. The F21P weighs less than 0.5 lb (without heat sink) and can withstand shock up to 50 m/s2 at 30 ms as well as functional vibration of 1 m/s2 and lifetime vibration of 7.9 m/s2 from 5 Hz to 150 Hz. Pricing for the F21P is $3,213.

MEN Micro Ambler, PA. Get Connected with companies and (215) 542-9575. products featured in this section. [].

North Atlantic Industries Bohemia, NY. (631) 567-1100. [].

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February 2013 | COTS Journal




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PRODUCTS Get Connected

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Modular Remote Digital Processing Platform Is ARM-based

Connected withfor companies in this article. Aitech Defense Systems offers the RIO-NG, a modular digital processing platform that canGet be easily customized a varietymentioned of high-reliability military, and space applications that require ultra-low power and a compact form factor. The Freescale Cortex M4 ARM-based RIO-NG is Getindustrial Connected with companies and products featured in this section. designed using distributed processing and parallel task completion principles, which are implemented through multiple concurrent DMA channels. The efficient CPU core allows the clock rate to run much lower and still provide the performance of a much larger CPU in a higher power system. This leaves the processor free to run algorithms or to compute and process the incoming data—critical tasks in tight control loop, embedded systems. The RIO-NG uses a common digital processing platform (CDPP) that provides standard functionality to handle all aspects of data acquisition. Personality Modules (PM) can be added to manage such process control functions as A/D and D/A conversion, RTD sensors and LVDT drives and high current interfaces. The PMs can also manage servo amp, motor and mechanism drives, providing custom, system-specific analog and digital interfaces. These standard PMs are easily “stacked” onto the CDPP base processor platform. The RIO-NG employs Freescale’s exceptional series of ARM 120 MHz Cortex M4 CPU, which draws less than 300 mW of power while supporting up to 128 digital channels and a variety of built-in digital bus and analog interfaces for increased system integration and optimized system performance. Standard interfaces include 10/100 Base-T Ethernet—with a Power over Ethernet (POE) option—RS-422 serial ports, LVDS, CANbus and USB. Aitech Defense Systems, Chatsworth, CA. (888) 248-3248. [].

Plastic Enclosures Meet Rated IP66, IP67 and NEMA Standards

Boundary-Scan Controller Rides Compact PCI Express

The move to rapid force deployment has boosted the need for lightweight mobile electronic systems. Plastics have made significant inroads into the electronic battlefield. OKW has launched INBOX—its toughest ever range of industrial-strength plastic electronic enclosures. IN-BOX has been designed to cope with extremely demanding industrial environments. Typical applications will include digital and analog instrumentation, sensors, interfaces and security systems. The unit is a smart and modern design that features concealed mounting screws. All the lids—including the transparent Polycarbonate models—feature a recess for mounting a large membrane keypad or product label. Sixteen standard sizes are available with external dimensions ranging from 3.30” x 3.22” x 2.16” to 11.89” x 9.13” x 4.33”. The housings are rated IP66, IP67 and NEMA 4X, and are offered molded in ABS (UL 94 HB) or Polycarbonate (UL 94 V-2). The standard color is light gray (RAL 7035). The ABS models are impact-rated to IK07 (2 joules) while the stronger Polycarbonate models are rated to IK08 (5 joules). Internal screw pillars are provided in the top and base for fitting PCBs, displays, mounting plates or DIN rails. The lids are mounted by quick action stainless steel locking screws. Prices for the enclosures start at $18.

JTAG Technologies offers the latest extension to its line of highperformance boundary-scan IEEE Std. 1149.1 controllers. Known as the DataBlaster JT 37x7/PXIe the new unit offers support for the increasingly popular PXIe/ Compact PCI Express slot format that now features in some of the latest Automatic Test Equipment based on the PXI(e) standards. JTAG Technologies has developed the new boundary-scan controller to satisfy the growing requirements for high-speed In-System Programming (ISP) of flash memories, serial memories and CPLDs as well as complex digital circuit testing. The new DataBlaster JT 37x7/PXIe offers users sustained test clock speeds of up to 40 MHz by use of JTAG Technologies’ proprietary ETT (Enhanced Throughput Technology) system and features an onboard flash image buffer memory. Supplied with the complementary QuadPOD system, the new DataBlaster/PXIe offers four synchronized TAPs (Test Access Ports) able to support multi-TAP test targets or gang programming of four single TAP targets. QuadPOD can also house the full range of JTAG Technologies’ SCIL modules, allowing the user to deploy custom test interfaces or the mixed signal DAF (Digital, Analog Frequency) measurement module.

OKW Enclosures, Bridgeville, PA. (412) 220-9244. [].

JTAG Technologies, Easton, MD. (410) 770-4415. [].

Rackmount Power Converters Built for Harsh Environments Schaefer has announced a 19” rackmount configuration for its Raptor Series of military power supplies. The Raptor’s robust construction and high reliability make it an ideal choice for harsh military applications such as shelters, armored vehicles, avionics, naval and open air applications. The Raptor Series’ output voltage range can provide DC outputs from 12 VDC to 52.5 VDC, or 270 VDC, with power ratings from 1200W to 3360W. Single and three-phase input ranges span from 88 VAC 265 VAC. Other input or output voltages are available upon request. The Series specifies high efficiency (85% nominal) and high power factor correction. The Series meets MIL-STD-810C/D/E for operating temperature conditions, vibration and shock and also meets other critical MIL-STD-461C/462C ratings for EMI, Navy MIL-STD-1399 and aircraft electrical power MIL-STD-704D, and environmental test methods.

Schaefer, Hopkinton, MA. (508) 436-6400. []. 54

COTS Journal | February 2013

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AC/DC Supplies 25W of Fully Get Connected withDeliver companies and products featuredRegulated in this section. Power

ConTech, a Division of Calex Mfg., has announced the CM25 Series of AC/DC switching power

supplies. The CM25 Series offers 25W of fully regulated output power in a chassis mount case, which makes it well suited for many applications. The easily accessible terminal block and output voltage adjustment potentiometer give it the versatility to be used as a power solution in a large assortment of applications. The CM25 series has a universal input voltage range of 88 to 264 VAC. The series offers output voltages of 5, 12, 24 and 48 VDC, with efficiencies up to 83%. The CM25 series has protective features such as, Short Circuit, Over Voltage and Overload protection. The metal cage type chassis mount case is designed for free air convection cooling. Pricing for the CM25 Series is $10.50 each.

ConTech, Concord, CA. (925) 609-1193. [].

Multiband RF Downconverters Offer Right-Sized Solutions Not all military applications need an RF receiver that tunes across a wide spectrum, but rather just a slice or “slot.” With that in mind, Pentek has announced a line of multiband, modular RF slot receivers: the Model 8111 series accepts RF signals over the range of 800 MHz to 3 GHz, downconverting them to a 225 MHz IF signal suitable for A/D conversion by any of several Pentek signal acquisition modules. The internal frequency-synthesized local oscillator can be locked to an external 10 MHz reference signal for precise tuning accuracy. Alternatively, an onboard, low noise 10 MHz oven-controlled oscillator (OCXO) can be used as the frequency reference. For custom applications, an external local oscillator signal can also be supplied. Each tuner is provisioned with one of seven different 400 MHz bandwidth preselector filters covering the RF input range from 800 MHz to 3 GHz. The preselect filters overlap slightly to ensure that there are no gaps in RF spectrum coverage. An 80 MHz wide IF output is provided at 225 MHz, suitable for A/D conversion using Pentek’s high-performance signal acquisition products. Low noise figure amplifiers and two programmable attenuators accommodate RF input signals from -60 dBm to -20 dBm, and deliver a nominal IF output level of 0 dBm. Higher-level signals can be attenuated prior to input. The Model 8111 modules are designed to be used as stand-alone or integrated on carrier modules in a 3U VPX size or larger. The module features a MicroUSB port for programming, a Micro-D connector for power and SMA connectors for signals, all in a high-performance, shielded enclosure. Future modules from Pentek will be available on a range of popular open standard form factors. The Model 8111 starts at less than $5,000.

DC/DC Suits Low Power Vehicle Applications Green Watt Power, a division of Calex Mfg,. has announced the 450 watt EVD-89-S450-G3201 DC/DC converter. The EVD is a ruggedized DC/DC converter suitable for applications that draw power from a bank of batteries or another high voltage DC power source. The input range of the EVD is 50 to 125 VDC. The output voltage range is 13.6 VDC to 14 VDC, making the unit ideal for powering onboard accessories, lights, instruments, etc. The output current rating of the EVD is 33A with output surge capability up to 45A. The EVD-89-S-450-G3201 is isolated input to output. The isolation voltage is 1500 VAC. Overall output voltage accuracy is +/- 3%. Line and load regulation is +/-0.02% and 5% respectively. Output ripple is 130 mV peak to peak. The efficiency of the unit is 90%. The ambient operating range is -40 to +55°C.

Green Watt Power, Concord, CA. (925) 687-4411. [].

Pentek, Upper Saddle River, NJ. (201) 818-5900. [].

Power Supply Supports High-Power LEDs and More Axelsys has announced the latest addition to its line of Axelerator Products and IP—the AXPS3000, HighLumens LED Lamp power supply unit (PSU). Developed as a complete system power supply solution, the Axelerator AXPS3000 has been designed as a ready COTS or customizable to specific requirements. Integrating a medically certified (IEC60601-1) power supply with High Power LED Driver, the AXPS3000 provides up to 20 AMPS of LED lighting supply current with dimming provided via analog or digital control. Additionally, the unit provides 12V and 5V regulated power for additional system requirements for items such as cooling fans, motors, indicator lights and so on.

Axelsys, Fremont, CA. (408) 600-0871. []. February 2013 | COTS Journal


COTS PRODUCTS Get Connected with companies and products featured in this section.

3U CompactPCI Serial Cards Provide 16 Get GbitConnected Ethernetwith Ports companies and products featured in this section.

MEN Micro offer two 3U CompactPCI Serial-based Gigabit Ethernet switches for high data processing and versatile I/O implementations. Each switch provides up to 16 Gigabit Ethernet ports on the back or three ports on the front panel and 13 on the rear. Both the managed G302 and the unmanaged G303 switches support full or half duplex operation, fast non-blocking store-and-forward switching and auto-negotiation as well as Layer 2 switching. Compliant to EN 50155 for railway operation, the new switches are ideal for use in rugged applications. Operating temperature is -40° to +85°C with shock and vibration tested in accordance with EN 61373. The built-in test mechanism increases the switches’ reliability in communication-based operations. The switches’ CompactPCI Serial architecture provides flexible integration into any rugged system. In a peripheral slot, the G302 and G303 can take over typical tasks for connecting external devices without any software overhead. When used in the system slot, these full-mesh switches foster powerful multi-computer architectures, where CPU cards are plugged into the peripheral slots. The fault-tolerant G302 has the ability to restore itself. If a link is temporarily unavailable, frames can be sent via backup or redundant links, eliminating data loss. The G303 can function similar to a managed switch with fixed settings via an application-specific configuration EEPROM. This allows the switch to offer features atypical of an unmanaged switch, including 802.1p priority and port-based priority, port-based VLAN or IEEE 802.1q VLAN IDs. Pricing for the G302 starts at $810; pricing for the G303 starts at $538.

MEN Micro, Abler, PA. (215) 542-9575. [].

28 nm System-On-Chip Devices Provide 32-bit ECC Altera has announced the first shipments of its 28 nm SoC devices, which combine a dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 processor system with FPGA logic on a single device. Altera SoCs include several distinctive features that enable developers in the wireless communications, industrial, video surveillance, automotive and medical equipment markets to create custom SoC variants optimized for system power, board space, performance and cost requirements. The first devices Altera is shipping are low-power, low-cost Cyclone V SoCs. The SoCs offer 32-bit error correction code (ECC) support, which helps ensure data integrity throughout the embedded system. ECC support is a requirement for customers who must have high performance and reliable systems. ECC functionality is built into the SoC’s external DRAM memory interface and an extensive number on-chip memory instances and peripheral interfaces, including L2 Cache, scratch RAM, Ethernet MACs, USB ports and flash memory interfaces. Other unique features in the device family include a highbandwidth memory controller with built-in memory protection, flexible boot capability and integrated PCI Express (PCIe) across all SoC devices. Altera is currently shipping initial samples of the Cyclone V SoC FPGA (5CSXA6), which features 110K logic elements (LEs). Broader sample availability will be in the first quarter of 2013, followed by production device availability later in the year.

Altera, San Jose, CA. (408) 544-7000. [].

Bluetooth-Capable SD COFDM Transmitter Is Ultra Compact Integrated Microwave Technologies has introduced its CTx-II COFDM Transmitter, which now features Bluetooth capabilities. The CTx-II is an ultra-small, low-power, SD, COFDM video/audio transmitter with standard selectable modulation bandwidths of 6, 7 and 8 MHz. It features H.264 SD encoding and operates in the standard 2k DVB-T COFDM mode. Its low power consumption makes the CTx-II ideal for integration with cameras going into very small concealments. It is also versatile enough to be applicable to the robotics and UAV markets. The IMT CTx-II Transmitter can be operated in 1.25- or 2.5 MHz narrow bandwidth COFDM (NBCOFDM) modes (optional). Users can program the video test pattern generator built into the CTx-II to turn on automatically if video input is lost. The CTx-II also features industry-standard BCRYPT AES encryption, preventing unauthorized viewing of the transmitted video. The CTx-II requires little setup and is easy to use. Simply connect an antenna, apply power and video, and select a preset. Using IMT’s Smart Phone App, one can make configuration changes on the fly without accessing the unit buried inside concealments.

Integrated Microwave Technologies, Mt. Olive, NJ. (908) 852-3700. [].

SAW Clock Oscillator Feature -40° to +85°C Operation Crystek Crystals has announced a 250 MHz to 1090 MHz SAW Clock Oscillator (in single frequency band), the CCSO-914X. Crystek designed the module using proprietary circuitry and SAW (surface acoustic wave) resonator technology to provide ultra-low jitter/phase noise performance with true SineWave output. The resulting oscillator (250 MHz variant) features -153 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 KHz offset and a noise floor of -173 dbc/Hz. Crystek’s CCSO-914X comes in a 9x14 mm SMT package. With 3.3V and 5V input voltage available, it generates a true-sinewave with +8 dBm min. output power. The new CCSO has no sub-harmonics; second harmonic is -20 dBc typical. The CCSO-914X operates from -40° to +85°C. The CCSO-914X is priced at $36.96 in single-piece quantities through distribution.

Crystek, Ft. Myers, FL. (239) 561-3311. []. 56

COTS Journal | February 2013

COTS PRODUCTS Get Connected with companies and products featured in this section.

MMIC Amplifiers Offer High Output Power and Positive Bias Get Connected with companies and products featured in this section.

Custom MMIC added three GaAs MMIC power amplifiers covering 5 to 11 GHz to their growing standard product library. The CMD169P4 (5 to 7 GHz), CMD170P4 (7.5 to 9 GHz) and CMD171P4 (9.5 to 11 GHz) each have an output 1 dB compression point of greater than +28 dBm, with gain levels from 20 to 30 dB. All three designs require only positive bias, thereby eliminating the need for costly and complicated sequencing circuitry. They also offer an on-chip detector for applications where power leveling is required. The amplifiers are housed in Pb-free RoHs-compliant 4x4 QFN plastic packages and are 50-ohm matched on the input and output ports. DC blocks are not required.

Custom MMIC, Westford, MA. (978) 467-4290. [].

Modular Cooling Solutions Serve OpenVPX Needs Because more and more heat is generated by increasing levels of performance, discharging that heat out of today’s advanced computing solutions is more challenging than ever. Feeding that need, Mercury Systems has announced a set of thermal management solutions for air-cooled, conduction-cooled and VITA 48 subsystem chassis. Mercury’s improved air-cooled integrated XMC thermal solution addresses the need for a standards-based approach to draw heat away from today’s high-powered mezzanine cards, then onto the carrier module and ultimately out of the system in air-cooled environments. By adding “hooks” that connect to a thermal bridge between the card and module, the solution typically reduces mezzanine card temperatures by more than 5 degrees C. Meanwhile, Mercury’s new conduction-cooled solution tackles the industry’s need for an effective way to remove heat from mezzanine cards, while staying within the ANSI/VITA 20 requirements for conduction-cooled PMCs. By leveraging flexibility built into the specification, Mercury’s advancement calls for the removal of the optional thermal ribs and the addition of a mezzanine cold plate that attaches to the carrier module. This creates a cooling area that is up to six times the area of the legacy solution. Once implemented, maximum power levels of the mezzanine site that can be cooled are increased from 15 watts per mezzanine site to an impressive 50W. The third solution, Air Flow-By (AFB) cooling techniques for VITA 48.7/48.1 circuit card assemblies, reduces module weight by more than 20 percent. The AFB covers wrap around existing modules to create a sealed environment for protection against dust and contaminants, Level-2 Maintenance (L2M) and EMI shielding. AFB modules are offered in 1-inch pitch and attain industry-leading levels of thermal performance, providing over 200 watts per-slot of 6U cooling capacity—even when deployed in rugged environments.

Video Wall Processor Controls Complex Data from Multiple Sources Christie has introduced the Christie TVC-700 display wall processor, a powerful manager of the most complex information sources. At the heart of Christie’s control room solutions, the Christie TVC-700 is PC-based and easy-to-use, purpose-built for the rigors of 24/7 control room environments. Using the PCIe bus architecture and state-of-the-art GPU technology, it provides ample graphics and processing power to support multiple inputs and outputs. Like all Christie video processors, it can manage hundreds of sources simultaneously and display them in high resolution anywhere, at any size, and in any number of windows across the video wall, with content that can be controlled either at the wall or over a networked remote client.

Christie Digital Systems, Cypress CA. (714) 236-8610. [].

Mercury Systems, Chelmsford, MA. (866) 627-6951. [].

Hard Metric Female Connector Enables High Data Speeds ERNI has developed a high-speed differential hard metric connector system that enables data rates of over 20 Gbits/s with excellent crosstalk behavior. The ZDplus connector combines an optimal signal routing configuration with the pressfit termination of a female connector option to allow for a better layout on daughter cards. Available with 40 differential pairs per linear inch, the ZDplus connector’s low noise, dual beam, leaf contacts use one ground blade for every signal pair, with a 2.5 mm pitch from wafer-to-wafer. In-line ground arrangement at termination and grounding shield allows for improved pre-alignment guide and polarizing features via four rigid blades in all modules. The ZDplus connector system is currently available in 3- and 4-pair female versions for daughter cards. Pricing typically starts at $8.75 in volume.

ERNI Electronics, Richmond, VA. (804) 228-4100. []. February 2013 | COTS Journal


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Thermal Weapon Sight Systems Leverage Technology GetOLED Connected with companies and products featured in this section.

American Technologies Network has introduced the THOR Thermal Weapons Sight System. The new THOR thermal weapons sight series has been designed to meet the needs of individuals to aid in ground-based night operations at an affordable price. Three new THOR Thermal Weapon Sights are available to fit the mission and the weapon: the THOR 100 mm (Heavy), the THOR 30mm (Light) and the THOR 50mm (Medium). The THOR Heavy offers basic sighting features such as a digital retical with five colors and five patterns and windage and elevation adjustability. The THOR Light is designed for small caliber weapons such as the M4/M16. The THOR Light has a 30 mm lens with a 15-degree field-of-view that allows for 2x magnifications and up to 8x digital magnification. The very compact THOR weighs just 25 ounces and is 6.75 inches long by 2.90 inches high and 2.75 inches wide. The THOR Medium is designed for larger caliber weapons such as the 7.62 and .308. This slightly larger but still compact sight has a 50 mm lens with a 10-degree field-of-view that provides 3x magnifications and up to 12x digital magnification. The THOR Heavy is a rugged sight with a highly accurate FLIR sensor behind a 100 mm high precision lens. Built for the use and abuse from light to medium machine guns and large caliber sniper rifles, the THOR Heavy offers a 5 degree field-of-view that has a 6x optical magnification and up to 24x digital magnification available. All of the THOR Basic Kits include an ARMS #17 Weapon Base, eyecup ring, shuttered eyeguard, type 123 battery module, 3-each batteries, objective lens cap, lens tissue, demist shield and operator manual with the THOR thermal weapon sight of choice in a hard, portable storage case. MSRP ranges from $5,699 to $11,199 for the 640x480 resolution models.

American Technologies Network, South San Francisco, CA. (650)-989-5100. [].

Solid-State Power Controllers Work without Bias Supply

Rugged-UPS Meets Demands of Harsh Environments

Data Device Corporation (DDC) has introduced its latest and most advanced generation of solid-state power controllers (SSPC) featuring onboard DC-to-DC converters to simplify power supply requirements, a new command interface to reduce bus traffic, and enhanced digital discrete control capability designed to improve system integration. The card eliminates the need for an external bias supply. It also features a new serial rs-485 bus interface option along with new command interface. The RP-26401000N0 provides 8 Channels and 25 Amps per Channel (200 Amp Total Power). The RP-2621X000 offers 16 Channels with 8/10/25 Amps per Channel (238 Amp Total Power). DDC’s Solid-State Power Controllers provide advanced programmability to simplify crew operation, automated power control to optimize power utilization, and automated prognostic/diagnostic reporting, which eliminates the need for scheduled maintenance. The cards offer intelligent power management advantages such as accurate over-current protection, programmability, load monitoring, and network control to simplify vehicle power management. They also provide Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) savings, with higher reliability and longer life compared to electromechanical circuit breakers and relays.

Designed for worldwide deployment in harsh physical and electrical environments, Acumentrics’ Rugged-UPS ACG3000 offers clean AC or DC power to protect communications and surveillance equipment from shutdowns or data loss. The ACG3000 produces 3000VA/2400W of nominal 115 VAC output from an input range of 80 VAC to 265 VAC / 47 Hz to 440Hz. This wide voltage and frequency tolerance enables users to power-up with field generators in any international power standard to provide seamless active powerfactor correction and clean, reliable AC power. This true on-line, double conversion uninterruptible power supply continually creates a pure sine wave AC output from a DC bus, protecting sensitive equipment from surges, spikes, brownouts, blackouts and noise. Additionally, DC output options are available. The unique Flo-thru heatsink design provides maximum cooling while sealing components from the damaging effects of water, airborne particles, and other contaminants in the operating environment. Lithium-Ion or low-maintenance, valve-regulated lead acid batteries are enclosed in a user replaceable battery pack for rapid, hot-swap field replacement. With a rated operating temperature range of -18° to +50°C (0° - 122°F), the ACG3000 is the product of choice for high power in extreme environments. It also meets accepted military standards for electromagnetic interference (MIL-STD 461-F), shock (MIL-S-901-D) and vibration (MIL-STD-810-G).

Data Device Corp., Bohemia, NY. (631) 567-5600. [].

Acumentrics, Westwood, MA. (781) 461-8251. [].

Advanced Video Annotation Controller Rides PC/104 Advanced Micro Peripherals (AMP) has introduced the eVAC2000, a real-time NTSC/PAL video overlay and video annotation controller for the PCI/104 systems. Advanced features include: a high resolution graphics accelerator, digital NTSC/PAL TV decoder, digital NTSC/PAL TV encoder and video overlay controller, all contained within a single PC104 card. Accepting up to four composite NTSC or PAL analog video inputs including video cameras, digital video recording equipment or regular TV broadcasts, the eVAC2000 is ideal for a wide range of applications that require titles, dynamic grids or visible watermarking. The high throughput, low latency eVAC2000 uses a high-performance 64-bit 2D graphics accelerator combined with an 8 Mbyte frame buffer to deliver rapid video graphics processing.

Advanced Micro Peripherals, New York, NY. (212) 951-7205. []. 58

COTS Journal | February 2013



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COTS Journal | February 2013 1/28/13 10:04 AM

Recessed Chassis Options Aid EMC A new enclosure option from Pixus Technologies can be recessed in various depths according to the customer’s requirements. The design allows the subrack and boards to be completely protected inside the enclosure frame, preventing damage to the modules, limiting exposure to dust, and reducing the susceptibility of EMI/RFI. An optional side or bottom-hinged door allows the case to be fully enclosed or even locked. The first in the recessed series are 7U and 9U versions, which accommodate 6U pluggable boards (with 1U-3U of space for various fan/airflow configurations). Versions for 3U pluggable boards in a 4U overall height are also available. Backplanes are available in OpenVPX, CompactPCI/2.16, PCIe Gen2 or Gen3, VME64x, VXS or custom. In many applications, engineers will utilize a portion of the subrack area for the embedded computer boards and the other section for their specialized devices. Provisions for mounting of custom devices are easily implemented in the modular enclosure. Cooling options for the recessed enclosure series are dependent on the application requirements. Front-to-rear or bottom-to-top cooling options are standard in the 7U to 9U sizes. A wide range of AC or DC power supplies are available. System monitoring and management is also an option. Pricing for the 7U recessed enclosure starts under $1,500.

Pixus Technologies, Waterloo, Ont., Canada. (519) 885-5775. [].

Data Acquisition Software Adds Application-Based Features Elsys Instruments has added many new features to its client-server-based transient recorder application and signal analysis software, TranAX 3.4 (formerly TransAS), making it one of the most complete data acquisition, analysis and automation solution available. The updated software adds many unique functions, geared toward individual application needs that are not currently available through other programs, to its already feature-rich platform. Specialized applications that benefit from the enhancements include ballistics measurement, crash testing, structural health and seismic research and field testing as well as stray voltage detection, variable frequency drive diagnosis, connector conductivity testing, high voltage switching, rail and automotive control and monitoring.

Elsys Instruments, Monroe NY. (845) 238-3933. [].

COTS PRODUCTS Get Connected with companies and products featured in this section.

SoC Family Powers Precision Analog a Single-Cell Battery Get Connected with companies and products featured with in this section. New applications needing single-cell battery performance and

precision analog can take advantage of a new family of programmable SoCs that incorporate precision programmable analog on an ARM Cortex M-3 device, which also incorporates over 80 components that can be configured with the device’s development kit. The PSoC 5LP devices from Cypress Semiconductor offer programmable analog precision with differential 12-bit SARs and a 20-bit DelSig ADC supported by a 1.024V±0.1% accurate internal voltage reference. The ADCs include 62 channels, fully functional analog from 1.71 - 5.5V and the widest input signal range from 0 - 5.5V of any ARM Cortex-M device. PSoC Creator allows users to configure PSoC programmable hardware into a personalized, one-chip solution. The free IDE comes with production-ready components and APIs for easy and fast configuration of the device.

Cypress Semiconductor, San Jose, CA. (408) 943-2600. [].

Digital Down Converter Targets Wideband Radar and SDR Applications A very high-speed data acquisition XMC is capable of digitizing one 12-bit channel at 3.6 GHz, or two channels at 1.8 GHz, and comes preconfigured with a programmable one- or two-channel digital down converter (DDC) loaded into the onboard Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA. The new Model 71641 member of the Cobalt family from Pentek is suitable for wideband radar and software defined radio (SDR) applications. Within the Virtex-6 FPGA is a powerful Pentek-designed DDC IP core. The core supports single and dual channel modes, accepting data samples from the analog to digital (A/D) converter at the full 3.6 GHz rate in single-channel mode or 1.8 GHz in two-channel operation. Each DDC has an independent 32-bit tuning frequency programmable from DC to ƒs, where ƒs is the A/D sampling frequency. In single-channel mode, DDC decimation can be programmed to 8x, 16x or 32x. In dual-channel mode, both channels share the same decimation rate, programmable to 4x, 8x or 16x. The decimating filter for each DDC accepts a unique set of user-supplied 16-bit coefficients. The 80% default filters deliver an output bandwidth of 0.8*ƒs/N, where N is the decimation setting. In single-channel mode, the maximum output bandwidth is 360 MHz. Rejection of adjacent-band components within the 80% output bandwidth is better than 100 dB. Each DDC delivers a complex output stream consisting of 24-bit I + 24-bit Q or 16-bit I + 16-bit Q samples at a rate of ƒs/N Pentek’s ReadyFlow Board Support package for Windows, Linux or VxWorks operating systems includes C-callable libraries, drivers and example code for easy access to all of the Model 71641 features. The Model 71641 starts at $23,695. Pricing varies depending on the options chosen.

Socket Supports 0.65mm Pitch BGA 140-pin IC Ironwood Electronics has introduced a highperformance BGA socket for 0.65 mm pitch BGA 140-pin ICs. The SG-BGA-7249 socket is designed for a Renesas Code PVBG0140JA-A package and operates at bandwidths up to 10 GHz with less than 1 dB of insertion loss. The sockets are designed to dissipate up to several watts without extra heat sinking and can handle up to 100 watts with custom heat sink. The contact resistance is typically 20 milliohms per pin. The socket connects all pins with 10 GHz bandwidth on all connections. The socket is mounted with a patented technology that allows for mounting with no holes in the target PCB, no soldering, and minimal footprint. Pricing for the SG-BGA-7249 is $633 at qty 1; with reduced pricing available depending on quantity.

Ironwood Electronics, Eagan, MN. (952) 229-8200. [].

Pentek, Upper Saddle River, NJ. (201) 818-5900. [].

6-Dimensional Motion Sensor Enables Precise Control A new motion sensor features six degrees of freedom to sense translational movement in three perpendicular axes (surge, heave, sway) and rotational movement around three perpendicular axes (roll, pitch, yaw). Because the movement and rotation along the three axes are independent of each other, such motion is said to have “six degrees of freedom.” The 6DF Series IMU from Honeywell Sensing and Control is designed to provide motion, position and navigational sensing from a durable single device over six degrees of freedom. By using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology, the unit measures the motion of the equipment onto which it is attached and delivers the data to the equipment’s control module using an industry-standard CAN SAE J1939 communications protocol.

Honeywell Motion and Control, Minneapolis, MN. (800) 537 6945. []. February 2013 | COTS Journal



Power Conversion Products & Rackmount Blade Systems Gallery Featuring the latest in Power Conversion Products & Rackmount Blade Systems technologies CMN4800DC-PC

CLARY Corporation Phone: (626) 359-4486 Fax: (626) 305-0254

The CMN4800DC-PC is a microprocessor controlled UPS system specifically designed to back-up 48Vdc Blade Servers. The CMN4800DC-PC features 120Vac inputs and 48Vdc, 4,800 watt Power Factor Corrected output. The system requires 4Us and is 19” rack or transport case mountable. Stackable Battery Chassis SNMP TCP/IP configurable Designed for non-linear loads 32°F to 131°F (0°C to 55°C) Audible Alarms Visual Indicator: Battery Level, Load Level, AC Output, On Battery, Cold Start, Replace Batteries

Icon Labs has announced that its Floodgate Embedded Firewall provides network security for Zilog’s newly announced ZGATE family of protected microcontrollers. Zilog, a pioneer supplier of application-specific, embedded microcontroller (MCU) system-on-chip (SoC) solutions, is using Floodgate to add a critical layer of security for network devices built with their new ZGATE architecture. Floodgate provides security to Zilog’s eZ80Acclaim-based products used in today’s wired and wireless Internet connected devices and adds deeper protection from dangerous network attacks. As more embedded applications, devices and products connect to the Internet, there is an increased demand for the security that Zilog’s eZ80Acclaim, embedded with Icon Labs’ Floodgate technology, addresses.

E-mail: Web:

Icon Labs, West Des Moines, IA. (515) 226-3443. [].

VPX55-3 DC/DC POWER SUPPLY 300W, 3U, VPX VITA 62 compatible +28Vdc input (+18vdc to +36vdc range) Rugged/Conduction-cooled (-40°C to +85°C Operation) I/O and pinouts per VITA 62 EMI Filtering designed to MIL-STD-461F Transient Protection per MIL-STD704F & MIL-STD-1275 (optional) Remote Error Sensing Current Share 0.08” pitch

North Atlantic Industries, Inc. Phone: (631) 567-1100 Fax: (631) 567-1823

E-mail: Web:

New MULTIGIG RT 2-R Connector Quad-Redundant Contact System Rugged Survivability… High level shock and vibration beyond VITA 47 Modular, lightweight, high-speed connector system “Pinless” Interface tested to 10,000 mating/unmating cycles Backward compatibility to VITA 46 connector system

TE Connectivity Phone: (800) 522-6752



COTS Journal | February 2013

cots1302_scv4.indd 1

Firewall Solution Brings Embedded Security to Zilog MCUs

Core i7-Based Fanless Embedded Computer Offers Versatile I/O ADLINK Technology has released its latest fanless embedded computer, the MXC-6300. Equipped with 3rd generation Intel Core i7/ i5/i3 processors and a QM77 chipset, the MXC-6300 solidly delivers topof-the-line computing power and superior graphics performance on up to three high-resolution independent displays, with versatile expansion capability from three PCI/PCIe expansion slots accommodating a variety of I/O cards. ADLINK MXC-6300 doubles graphics performance with the integrated Intel HD Graphic 4000—offering front-running 3D graphics processing power with up to 40% increased performance per watt compared to designs based on the 2nd gen Intel Core processors—and supports three simultaneous independent displays via two DisplayPorts with VGA or DVI-D. The MXC-6300 enhances high-precision imaging applications in medical, surveillance and industrial automation. The ADLINK MXC-6300 provides three PCI/PCIe high-speed expansion slots in a compact enclosure, enabling integration of various applications. For high-resolution imaging applications, the MXC-6300’s unique design reserves sufficient space for wide PCIe x16 graphic addon cards with fan. Additionally, the MXC-6300’s rich I/O interface, including six USB ports (4 USB 3.0 + 2 USB 2.0), 4 serial ports, 16-CH digital I/O and 2 Gigabit Ethernet ports, is 100% accessible through the front panel, making access for installation and maintenance easier and more convenient than ever before. The ADLINK MXC-6300 improves on competing products with a proven ruggedized design delivering operating shock tolerance up to 50G, and an extended operating temperature range of -20° to 60°C.

ADLINK Technology, San Jose, CA. (408) 360-0200. [].

2/1/13 11:44 AM

COTS PRODUCTS Get Connected with companies and products featured in this section.

EtherCAT Master Solution DIN Rail Mounting Get Connected with companies and Supports products featured in this section.

A powerful and flexible EtherCAT Master solution for DIN rail mounting uses the proven protocol software from acontis for EtherCAT Master Class A and B devices. With the IXXEC-100 from IXXAT, a specially optimized link layer allows it to operate with cycle times of less than 1 ms. The selected EtherCAT Master implementation, as well as the included drivers and the Linux operating system, enable the fast implementation of customized EtherCAT applications and rapid adoption of existing applications to the compact and powerful IXXEC-100. The unit has an extended temperature range from -40° to + 70°C, and enough power and interfaces to become the optimal solution for various applications. The basic version has four Ethernet interfaces, two CAN interfaces and two USB ports. Customer-specific interfaces or functional enhancements can be implemented quickly and easily using expansion slots or the implemented FPGA.

IXXAT, Bedford, NH. (603) 471-0800. [].

3U OpenVPX Module Provides 24-Core QorIQ T4240 CPU A new 3U OpenVPX single board computer in a compact, rugged form factor is targeted for extremely challenging applications that require very high performance, both in I/O and computation. The RIOV-2440 from Creative Electronic Systems features the Freescale QorIQ T Series T4240 communications processor, with 12 dual-threaded cores supporting 24 virtual cores. The RIOV-2440 provides the T4240 processor with up to 12 Gbytes of high-speed DDR3 memory in three separate banks, 2 Gbytes of onboard Flash, and direct I/O connections to the backplane. The overhead of additional switches and bridges is eliminated, while flexibility is provided by the multiple processor I/O configuration options, including the T4240 processor’s PCIe, SRIO, GbE, 10GbE and SATA II ports. It is compatible with most OpenVPX payload slot profiles. The RIOV-2440 provides easy access to the essential I/O on the front panel, as well as complete connectivity on the backplane. Various rear transition modules (RTMs) are available to access the wide range of I/O and debug signals. The RIOV-2440 is compatible with the other 3U VPX boards from CES, including the ETS-8227 multi-protocol switch, the VCP-2864 video compression board, and the FIOV-2310 FPGA processor board. An Advanced Board Management Controller (aBMC) is implemented for VITA 46.11 support, configuration management, event logging and other supporting tasks. It is fully compatible with the CES Configuration, Load and Monitor (CLM) tool. The RIOV-2440 is delivered with the classic CES PPCMon bootloader and monitor application, and an extended BSP for Linux, VxWorks or Integrity. In addition, a wide range of development tools and software is available from Freescale and third parties.

Advanced Video Annotation Controller Board Rides PC/104 A real-time NTSC/PAL video overlay and video annotation controller for the PCI/104 systems offers advanced features that include a high-resolution graphics accelerator, digital NTSC/PAL TV decoder, digital NTSC/PAL TV encoder and video overlay controller, all contained within a single PC/104 card. The eVAC2000 from Advanced Micro Peripherals accepts up to four composite NTSC or PAL analog video inputs including video cameras, digital video recording equipment or regular TV broadcasts. The high-throughput, lowlatency eVAC2000 uses a high--performance 64-bit 2D graphics accelerator combined with an 8 Mbyte frame buffer to deliver rapid video graphics processing, making it applicable for a wide variety of situations.

Advanced Micro Peripherals, Cambridge, UK. +44 (0) 1353 659 500. [].

Creative Electronic Systems, Geneva, Switzerland. +41 (0)22 884 51 00. [].

Solution Offers Jumpstart to x86 Developer Community for APUs With the introduction of a small development kit, a group of four companies has launched GizmoSphere to foster innovation and development for x86-based embedded accelerated processing units (APUs). APUs integrate a CPU and a graphics processing unit (GPU) on the same piece of silicon. GizmoSphere is an independent initiative created to meet the open source development needs of embedded developers around the globe. GizmoSphere offers the Gizmo Explorer Kit, which brings the powerful 52 GFLOP computing and the I/O capabilities of a microcontroller to the x86 open source embedded development community in one integrated, affordable package. The collective goal of GizmoSphere—as constituted by Advanced Micro Devices, Sage Electronic Engineering, Texas Multicore Technologies and Viosoft—is to drive and enable technology projects of interest to independent developers with a focus on stimulating and encouraging innovation for existing and new applications that leverage APUs. At the heart of GizmoSphere is Gizmo, a 4-inch by 4-inch x86 development board available with coreboot that can run a variety of operating systems including Android, Linux, RTOSs and Windows. The Gizmo board is offered as part of a comprehensive development kit for only $199, a price that includes the development board, an I/O expansion board and development tools.

Advanced Micro Devices, Sunnyvale, CA. (408) 749-4000. []. February 2013 | COTS Journal


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COTS Journal (ISSN#1526-4653) is published monthly at 905 Calle Amanecer, Suite 250, San Clemente, CA 92673. Periodicals Class postage paid at San Clemente and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to COTS Journal, 905 Calle Amanecer, Ste. 250, San Clemente, CA 92673.

Coming Next Month Special Feature: Where OpenVPX and VME Overlap and Diverge for Evolving Military Systems No other form factor boasts the rich, successful legacy in military systems that VME enjoys. That’s in part because of its unique ability to remain backward compatible and facilitate technology refresh in military programs. Meanwhile the VPX standard (VITA 46) or OpenVPX emerged with a different set of characteristics for system bandwidth and backward compatibility. VPX is decidedly aimed more at high-bandwidth, data-intensive military applications. Yet VME is still more suited used in applications that are event-driven. This section looks at where VME and VPX overlap and at the strategies for hybrid VME/VPX military systems. Tech Recon: DoD Budget Report: Major Programs With budgets cuts a certainty—whether sequestration happens or not—the DoD budget is seeing a real upheaval. Many advanced programs are likely to see some shifts in funding—but tech refresh and upgrade programs are already seeing an increase in activity. This section examines what has happened in the DoD’s major military programs and what the opportunities are for embedded computing and electronics technologies. System Development: Annual EOL and Component Obsolescence Directory Unique coverage of key military technology issues in a way that you can’t find elsewhere; that’s what COTS Journal is known for. Exemplifying that unique character is our Annual End-of-Life Directory. Now in its 14th year, the EOL Directory lists both key DoD organizations and commercial firms involved in solving the problems of component obsolescence. Tech Focus: Rugged Ethernet Switch Boards Ethernet is becoming entrenched as the favorite interconnect fabric in compute-intensive applications like sonar, radar, or any application that networks sensor arrays together. This section updates readers on the product and technology trends driving boardlevel Ethernet switch products, and will include a product album of representative Ethernet switch board products in form factors such as VPX, VME, cPCI, MicroTCA and more. 64

COTS Journal | February 2013

WinSystems’ DesignSolutions

SBCs with advanced CPU chipsets employing sleep modes and active power management. Also, the unit can operate in a +85°C ambient temperature environment using normal convection cooling and no fan. The outputs are +5V@10A, +3.3V@10A, +12V@3A, -12V@500mA, and

PC/104 ATX-compatible DC/DC Power Supply offers Wide Input Range and -40° to +85°C Operation WinSystems’ PPM-DC-ATX is a PC/104-Plus DC/DC power supply for PC/104, EPIC, and EBX single board computers (SBCs) that support ATX power controls. It features a wide voltage input range from 10 to 50 volts, which allows the unit to operate with 12, 24, or 48 volt batteryoperated or distributed DC power systems. It JHQHUDWHV¿YHUHJXODWHG'&RXWSXWYROWDJHVIURP one common DC input, plus supports the software controlled shutdown and power monitoring for

+5VSTBY@2A. Each output is short circuit protected and current limited. A minimum load is not needed to bring the the supply into regulation. When power is applied to the ERDUGÂżYH/('VZLOO illuminate providing a visual status that power is available. WinSystems, Inc. (817) 274-7553

PC/104 Analog In/Out Module Does Not Require Calibration WinSystems’ PCM-MIO-G is a versatile, PC/104-based analog input, analog output, and digital I/O board designed for high-accuracy and high-channel count analog and digital I/O. It includes a 16 channel, 16-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, 8 channel, 12-bit digital-to-analog (D/A) converter, and 48 lines of digital I/O. Its design is unique since it requires no trimpots for calibration of the analog FLUFXLWU\WRUHPDLQZLWKLQLWVVSHFL¿FDWLRQV






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The input ranges are 0-5V, ¹5V, 0-10V and ¹10 volts. The board will support up to 16 single-ended or 8 differential channels or various combinations of both. Eight independent, 12-bit D/A converters are also on the board. The output voltage ranges are 0-5V, 0-10V, ¹5V, and ¹10V. The PCM-MIO-G has 48 lines of digital I/O programmable for input, output, or output with UHDGEDFN7KHOLQHVDUH77/FRPSDWLEOHDQG can sink 12 mA. The PCM-MIO-G will operate from -40° to +85°C. WinSystems, Inc. (817) 274-7553


EDITORIAL Jeff Child, Editor-in-Chief

Open Standards Success


s I write this column, I’m still feeling the good vibes of January’s Santa Clara RTECC show. Thanks to all of you—exhibitors and attendees alike—who attended our company’s event. It’s good to see people coming out in great numbers to these events where we can kick our year off together. One highlight for me was being invited to moderate a roundtable discussion on open standards versus proprietary solutions. The panel consisted of three long-time embedded computing industry heavyweights, each representing their respective standards group—Jeff Munch for the PC/104 Consortium, Joe Pavlat for PICMG and Jerry Gipper for VITA. One morning I joked to a group of folks I was chatting with that I was going to ask the panelists, “Which is better? VME or Multibus II?” This drew laughs from the old timers and blank stares from the younger folks who don’t remember the days of the “Bus Wars.” I was referencing the bygone era of the late 80s and early 90s when heated debates at shows such as these pitted one bus architecture against another. Unlike today, proponents of VME and those of the now mostly gone Multibus form factor, were firmly drawn along company lines—with no vendor making products for both. Today, there are many more companies that offer products based on PICMG standards and on VITA standards than there are vendors that focus on only one of them. And likewise, the days when a company made only PC/104 products are long gone, with many of those vendors playing in the PICMG or VITA realms or both. Instead of bus wars, the panel discussion shined a light on the tradeoffs of systems built with open standards versus a proprietary approach. While embedded computing form factors such as VME, CompactPCI and PC/104 have enjoyed decades of success in military systems, the idea of open architecture systems is by no means universal in the defense realm. But in this current climate of reduced budgets, the argument for embracing standards-based boards and systems is more compelling than ever. Primes can no longer afford to do everything themselves, and they need a long-term approach that doesn’t require expensive redesigns every time computing technology shifts to a new level of speed and density. One of the points discussed was the notion that not all “standards” and standards bodies are created equal. Standard can mean many different things. Microsoft Word, for instance, is a defacto standard because it’s so widely used, but it’s far from “open.” At the other extreme are standards specifications crafted by groups like the IEEE. IEEE standards, while always of good quality, suffer from the problem of having far too many cooks al66

COTS Journal | February 2013

lowed to build the recipe. The result is that most IEEE standards take an unreasonably long time to develop and release because such a wide number of individuals get their say in the particulars. I distinctly remember being in on the press conference announcement back in 1997 when the IEEE released its 802.11 wireless LAN spec—or Wi-Fi as we call it today. That standard took almost 9 years to develop, precisely because too many hands were allowed to shape its details. Assuming the chip technology came together at a similar pace, it’s interesting to imagine how life would have been if the world had Wi-Fi technology nearly a decade earlier. Other standards like PCI took a more right-sized approach. PCI, Intel, DEC and a handful of other companies developed PCI fairly fast and released it as an open standard when they got it working. For their parts, the standards development track records of PC/104, VITA and PICMG fall somewhere in between the IEEE’s and the fast track work of an Intel developed standard. As a panelist pointed out, there are certainly cases when an “open” standard is based on what a single company has already implemented as a product. But for the most part, all three organizations have a nice list of success stories when it comes to standards development—with some taking as little as a year, and others somewhat longer. But the positive effects these standards have had on the defense industry should not be ignored. The best example of the contribution of these open standards communities—and one I often cite—is how over the past ten years they’ve implemented switch fabric technology into their embedded computer form factors. As far back as 20 years ago, switched fabric technologies were around in niche, high-end embedded applications. Fortunately the VITA, PICMG and later the PC/104 communities started the ball rolling on their own to bring serial switched fabrics into rugged embedded computing. Among those standards were VXS and VPX under VITA; CompactPCI Express, COM Express and ATCA under PICMG; and PC/104Express and PCI/104-Express under the PC/104 Consortium. At the speeds of today’s processors, serial switched fabrics are simply necessary in order to build any computing systems that make sense. It’s our industry that did the work to marry fabric technologies to embedded computing architectures. Any proprietary military system not leveraging those open standards would be both expensive and pointless. And while none of this is earthshattering news to those within our industry, the good news is that now open standards-based products from our industry are gaining notice from the holdouts in the defense industry. Those holdouts won’t be able to afford to opt toward proprietary approaches when open standards solutions provide a way forward.


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COTS Journal  

February 2013

COTS Journal  

February 2013