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InglĂŠs My fth victory


Inglés Quinto Año Nivel de Educación Media del Subsistema de Educación Básica

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías Comandante Supremo de la Revolución Bolivariana

Nicolás Maduro Moros Presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela Coordinación General de la Colección Bicentenario Maryann del Carmen Hanson Flores

Jorge Alberto Arreaza Montserrat

Coordinación Pedagógica de la Colección Bicentenario Vicepresidente Ejecutivo de la República Bolivariana Maigualida del Valle Pinto Iriarte de Venezuela Coordinación General Logística y de Distribución de la Colección Bicentenario Maryann del Carmen Hanson Flores Franklin Alfredo Albarrán Sánchez Ministra del Poder Popular para la Educación Coordinación Logística Deyanira D’ Jesús Urbáez Salazar Maigualida del Valle Pinto Iriarte Jhonny José Quintero Páez Viceministra de Programas de Desarrollo Académico Yrene Lucrecia Duarte Hurtado

Trina Aracelis Manrique Viceministra de Participación y Apoyo Académico

Conrado Jesús Rovero Mora Viceministro para la Articulación de la Educación Bolivariana Viceministro de Desarrollo para la Integración de la Educación Bolivariana

Maigualida del Valle Pinto Iriarte Directora General de Currículo

Neysa Yrama Navarro

Coordinación General de la serie Inglés Rosa López de D’Amico Coordinación Editorial Ligia Álvarez Isabel Carrillo Autoras y Autores Ligia Álvarez Isabel Carrillo Belkys Blanco Rosa López de D’Amico Isabel Faneyth Rebeca Oropeza Yvemar Peraza M. Yvonne Saulny Manuel Adrián Arrioja

Directora General (E) de Educación Media y Técnica Asesoría Curricular Andrés Carmelo Algara Isabel Carrillo © Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación Isabel C. Faneyth Serrano www.me.gob.ve Jorge Enrique González Esquina de Salas, Edi8cio Sede, parroquia Altagracia, Rosa López de D’Amico Caracas, Distrito Capital Ligia Álvarez Yvemar Peraza M. Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación, 2013 Primera edición: Mayo 2013 Tiraje: 400.000 ejemplares Depósito Legal: lf51620134281792 ISBN: 978-980-218-365-4 República Bolivariana de Venezuela Prohibida la reproducción total o parcial de este material sin autorización del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación

DISTRIBUCIÓN GRATUITA

Corrección de Lenguaje Mark Gregson Coordinación de Arte Gilberto Abad VIvas Diseño Grá8co Gilberto Abad Vivas

Diagramación Manuel Arguinzones Morales Ilustración Braulio González José Alberto Lostalé José Ángel Díaz Julio César Aguiar Morelys Rivas Fonseca Rafael Pacheco Rangel Rosanna Galucci Samuel González Víctor Silva Yassamy Moreno Pérez

Suministro de papel: INVEPAL


as a las y los el do Colocamos en tus manos el libro “My fth Victory”, para que continúes transitando el camino de la consolidación del aprendizaje del inglés como lengua extranjera. Queremos iniciar estas palabras re8riéndonos al consejo que nuestro Libertador Simón Bolívar dio para la educación de su sobrino Fernando, donde expresaba que el aprendizaje de los idiomas modernos era una necesidad y debía ocurrir sin descuidar el materno; es decir, amar una lengua foránea implica amar nuestra lengua primero. De esta manera, la tarea será signi8cativa y amena. El contexto también es importante, por ello partimos de situaciones conocidas de tu vida cotidiana, tu comunidad y tu país, sin obviar el hecho de que tu comunidad pertenece a un país que tiene relaciones con comunidades más allá de las fronteras. Es por esto que te proponemos una óptica transformadora y no reproductora de la sociedad capitalista, que involucra el convertirte en consumidor, sino que buscamos hacer de ti un individuo que, a través de la rePexión crítica sobre tu realidad, puedas ayudar a transformarla para el logro del bienestar común. El idioma inglés no solamente se habla en Estados Unidos, Canadá, Inglaterra y otras potencias, es también el idioma de tierras cercanas a Venezuela como Trinidad y Tobago, Jamaica, Guyana, otros más lejanos como la India y varios países del continente africano; es decir, que el conocimiento de este idioma te permite el intercambio cultural para entrar en contacto con ellos, familiarizándote con su realidad y dándoles a conocer la nuestra. Estás a un paso de tus estudios universitarios, dentro de poco cursarás una carrera humanística, técnica o cientí8ca de tu preferencia, por esta razón hemos pensado que la lectura tenga mayor preponderancia que en años anteriores, como ejercicio y preparación a tu nueva etapa donde tendrás que consultar libros, revistas, sitios electrónicos y otros documentos especializados, escritos en inglés. En cada unidad dedicamos una lección con temas de tu interés y del interés general, escogidos de forma minuciosa para que desarrolles tus destrezas de lectura, abriendo así puertas maravillosas a tu futuro. Para acercarte al pensamiento latinoamericano contemporáneo, todas las lecciones se inician con epígrafes de Simón Bolívar, Luís Beltrán Prieto Figueroa, Mario Benedetti, Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías, Eduardo Galeano, Octavio Paz, Jorge Luís Borges, Ernesto “Che ” Guevara y Simón Rodríguez. Esperamos de todo corazón, que este texto, hecho con amor y responsabilidad, te convierta en un individuo con las competencias adecuadas para el manejo de la lengua extranjera en el idioma inglés y situarte en el mundo que hoy te toca vivir como ciudadano venezolano, latinoamericano y del mundo. ¡Es el momento propicio para que te apropies de este recurso que fue creado pensando en ti!


Palabras de bienvenida a los estudiantes venezolanos Colocamos en tus manos el libro “My fth Victory”, para que continúes transitando el camino de la consolidación del aprendizaje del inglés como lengua extranjera. Queremos iniciar estas palabras re8riéndonos al consejo que nuestro Libertador Simón Bolívar dio para la educación de su sobrino Fernando. Para él, el aprendizaje de los idiomas modernos era una necesidad y debía ocurrir sin descuidar el materno. El amor hacia una lengua foránea debe comenzar con el amor a nuestra lengua. De esta manera, la tarea será signi8cativa y amena. El contexto es también importante, es por ello que partimos de situaciones conocidas de tu vida cotidiana, tu comunidad y tu país. Queremos proponerte una óptica transformadora y no reproductora de la sociedad capitalista. Por ello en My

fth Victory no encontrarás nada que te conduzca a convertirte en un consumidor, más bien buscamos hacer de ti un individuo que a través de la rePexión crítica sobre tu realidad puedas ayudar a transformarla para el logro del bienestar común. Partimos de la comunidad, de tu entorno, de tu realidad inmediata, pero no obviamos el hecho de que tu comunidad pertenece a un país, y tu país tiene relaciones con comunidades más allá de las fronteras. El idioma inglés no solamente se habla en Estados Unidos, Canadá, Inglaterra y otras potencias. Es también el idioma de tierras muy cercanas a Venezuela como Trinidad y Tobago, Jamaica, Guyana, entre otras naciones. Mucho más lejanos tenemos a la India y a varios países del continente africano. Es decir, saber el idioma nos permite entrar en contacto cultural con ellos, familiarizarnos con su realidad y darles a conocer la nuestra como resultado del intercambio cultural que facilita el conocimiento de una lengua extranjera. Esta etapa que vives en la actualidad, te sitúa a un paso hacia tus estudios universitarios. Dentro de muy poco tiempo estarás cursando la carrera humanística, técnica o cientí8ca de tu preferencia. Por esa razón hemos pensado que en este libro la lectura tenga mayor preponderancia que en los textos de los años anteriores porque cuando curses tu carrera universitaria, tendrás que consultar libros, revistas, sitios electrónicos y otros documentos especializados escritos en el idioma inglés. En cada unidad dedicamos una lección a esta destreza. Sin duda esta vía te abrirá puertas maravillosas porque hemos escogido temas de tu interés y del interés en general. Para acercarte al pensamiento latinoamericano contemporáneo todas las lecciones se inician con epígrafes de Simón Bolívar, Luis Beltrán Prieto Figueroa, Mario Benedetti, Hugo Chávez Frías, Eduardo Galeano, Octavio Paz, Jorge Luis Borges, Ernesto “Che” Guevara y Simón Rodríguez. Esperamos de todo corazón que este texto hecho con amor y responsabilidad te abra las puertas necesarias para que te conviertas en un individuo en condiciones de usar el inglés como lengua extranjera para situarte en el mundo que hoy te toca vivir como ciudadano venezolano, latinoamericano y del mundo. Ahora es el momento propicio para que te apropies de este recurso que fue creado pensando en ti.


y though Leccion 3: Getting to know my dictionary

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Leccion 5: I used to play hide-and-seek when I was a child Leccion 6: Enjoying reading

38 46

Leccion 9: Reading about the SimĂłn BolĂ­var Satellite

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e going to speak about our futur Leccion 12: What do Venezuelans think about climate change?

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Leccion 14: I had been listening to a radio program Leccion 15: Reading strategies

108 116

Leccion 18: Reading for pleasure

138

Leccion 21: Cultural diversity

160

Leccion 23: A good solution was found Leccion 24: Reading literature

174 182


Contenidos y Propósitos 5 año UNIDADES

1 First things 8rst

PROPÓSITOS

LECCIÓN

GRAMÁTICA

1.1.Emplear expresiones de interacción personal para saludar, despedirse e indicar buenos deseos.

1 I wish you the best on this special day!

Fórmulas para expresar buenos deseos, saludo y despedida. Presente simple.

2 How fast are my thoughts?

Presente y pasado simple, otros tiempos verbales y contenido gramatical visto.

1.2. Valorar la importancia de comunicarse de manera asertiva con las personas de la escuela y comunidad, fortaleciendo los valores de respeto, igualdad y amor a través de textos escritos, cartas, tarjetas postales… 1.3. Expresarse a través de una carta en inglés. 1.4. Solicitar, y dar información acerca de medidas. 1.5. RePexionar en forma individual y colectiva con la lectura de textos de temas de interés y la importancia que estos representan para la vida.

2 Today and yesterday

2.1. Usar expresiones para dar y solicitar informa4 ción sobre acciones en presente y pasado. Public and private 2.2. Compartir y rePexionar con los compañeros (as) services in my sobre experiencias signi8cativas y su relación con community la realidad. 5 2.3. Narrar historias y anécdotas tradición oral de I used to play hide – la comunidad. and-seek when I was 2.4 Valorar historias locales y regionales, saberes a child populares, tradiciones, y la importancia que esto representa en la actualidad. 6 2.5. Contar acerca de la niñez. Reading poetry 2.6. Interpretar el contenido de un texto literario breve. 3.1. Decir lo que se está y estaba haciendo.

3 Then and there, here and now

3 Getting to know my dictionary

3.2. Socializar y rePexionar sobre experiencias que realizaste en el pasado, tomando en cuenta lo positivo para fortalecer nuevos proyectos. 3.3. Socializar sobre la tecnología en la vida cotidiana. 3.4. Valorar la importancia y el uso adecuado de las tecnologías como medio para promover la investigación y comunicación en todos los espacios

Pasado simple.

Presente simple y otros tiempos verbales. Contenido gramatical visto. Presente continuo

8 I was playing computer games

Pasado continuo

9 Reading strategies

Diversos tiempos verbales y aspectos gramaticales del nivel.

4.1. Expresar acuerdo o desacuerdo en algo o con alguien y mostrar preferencias en el contexto de una conversación.

11 We're going to speak 4.2. Conocer y rePexionar sobre las oportunidades about our future de estudios en la localidad y su pertinencia social. 4.3. Interpretar y analizar el contenido de textos cientí8cos, humanísticos y técnicos.

Presente simple.

7 We're having fun

10 Do you agree with me? 4 Your opinion should go hand in hand with your preference.

Presente simple, otros tiempos verbales y contenido gramatical conforme al nivel.

12 Reading strategies:

Presente simple Preguntas de información y de sí y no, oraciones enunciativas y negativas. Futuro simple Futuro continuo Futuro con Be going to Función de las palabras en la oración: Sustantivo Verbos Adjetivo Adverbio


Contenidos y Propósitos 5 año UNIDADES

5 Time in a bottle

PROPÓSITOS

LECCIÓN

GRAMÁTICA

5.1. Expresar lo que se había estado haciendo y lo que se ha estado haciendo.

13 Have you been learning a lot?

Presente perfecto continuo

14 I had been listening to a radio program

Pasado perfecto continuo

5.2. Socializar experiencias de actividades y proyectos que se han estado realizando en la escuela y comunidad y su aporte a los procesos de transformación social. 5.3. Dialogar sobre su propio aprendizaje. 5.4. Interpretar textos cientí8cos, humanísticos, técnicos y sociales.

6 If you want, you can

6.1. Expresar condición. 16 If I study hard, my 6.2.Hablar sobre diferentes problemas comunitarios dreams will come y sus posibles soluciones. true 6.3. Analizar, conocer y rePexionar sobre la problemática comunitaria y proponer acciones en 17 colectivo que ayuden a buscar soluciones efectivas If I had lived twenty 6.4. Narrar un cuento corto years ago, things 6.5. Analizar en forma crítica y rePexiva cuentos, would have been novelas cortas y su relación con el contexto. diXerent 6.6. Interpretar y analizar el contenido de un texto 18 literario y la importancia que esto representa para Reading a short story la vida.

7.1. Reportar lo dicho por otras personas en dife7 rentes tiempos y contextos What did they 7.2. Interpretación textos de contenido cientí8co, say? humanístico o técnico.

8 We have been given a wonderful gift: life

15 Reading strategies:

8.1. Dar y pedir información sobre eventos en voz pasiva. 8.2. Describir similitudes y contrastes entre la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela y la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos. 8.3. Dramatizar el contenido de un texto teatral breve.

Diversos tiempos verbales y otros puntos gramaticales conformes al nivel.

Forma condicional I y II

Forma condicional III

Diversos tiempos verbales e información gramatical acorde con el nivel.

19 Our teacher said that we had to 8nish exercise 10.

Lenguaje directo e indirecto en presente y pasado. Cambios en verbos, pronombres y adverbios de tiempo y lugar

20 He asked me if I remembered those instructions

Preguntas directas e indirectas

21 Reading strategies

Diversos tiempos verbales y elementos gramaticales. Funciones retóricas Derivación de palabras

22 Rights must be known

Voz pasiva en presente. Voz pasiva con verbos modales

23 A good solution was found.

Voz pasiva en pasado Voz pasiva con auxiliares modales en pasado

24 Reading a play

Diferentes tiempos verbales. Contenido gramatical acorde con el nivel.


I wish you the best on this special day! "Man does not speak because he thinks; he thinks because he speaks. Or rather, speaking is no diXerent than thinking: to speak is to think." Octavio Paz A. Let’s explore Read the following formal letter. Pedro Estévez 23 Sucre Avenue Santa Elena, Bolívar State

Dear Mr Thompson: I am writing to you to wish you the best on this special day! After all that extra work in Boston, you are getting your degree today. Al of us know that it took a lot of eXort and dedication on your part. I am sure it was worth it all, knowing that your achievement will make such a great diXerence in your career path. Congratulations! I hope we can meet and celebrate here in Venezuela next month when you come to visit your parents in Santa Elena. Looking forward to seeing you soon,

Sincerely yours Pedro

B. Activating your mind Read the letter again and answer the following questions in your notebook. 1.- Who is writing the letter? 2.- Was the letter sent by Mr. Thompson? 3.- Is Mr. Thompson getting a new job? 4.- Was it easy for him to graduate?

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5.- Where is Mr. Thompson? 6.- Is Mr. Thompson coming back soon? 7.-Do you write letters to your friends?

Unit 1: First things rst


C. Now let’s practice In your notebook, order the following words to get meaningful statements.

1.- all - it - dedication - that - a - We - eXort - took - and - know - lot - of. 2.- was - of - are - it - us - worth - sure - All - it - all -. 3.- parents - seeing - Your - looking - you - are - to - soon - forward. 4.- students - wish - Your - you - this - the - best - on - day - want to -special - new - !

D. Grammar emphasis These are some expressions to congratulate people, to express politeness and good wishes. Phrases for greetings and farewells are also present. Some of them are: Congratulations! Enjoy your meal! Have a nice trip! My best wishes

All the best! Enjoy yourself! Have fun! Season’s greetings

I wish you well with your training! Have a nice day! Good luck! I’ll miss you!

As you can see, there’s no speci8c grammar to explain in these expressions. They consist of words arranged in the verb tenses that we already studied in other lessons. Now, we are going to practice them!

Examples 1.-Congratulations! You passed the test! 2.- Today you begin the new course. I wish you well with your training. 3.- All the best in your new job! 4.- Thank you for coming! Have a nice day! 5.- I heard you are traveling to Trujillo state this afternoon. Have a nice trip! Enjoy yourself there! 6.- Thanks for your help! 7.- I am very grateful! Thanks a million! 8.- I appreciate it. Unit 1: First things rst

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E. Vocabulary Read the letter again and answer the following questions in your notebook.

There are many expressions we can use in diXerent situations. For instance, in writing letters we have some particular ones according to the type of letter it is. There are formal and informal letters. Let’s start with the parts of a letter: Formal

Informal

Salutation

Your address and the date Dear Sir /Sirs / Madam

Dear Mr. / Ms./ ______.

Body

Message

Message

Complimentary close

Truly / Sincerely yours

Your friend / Love / Kisses

Signature.

Your name and signature Name.

Heading

F. Reading and re?ecting Read the following letter. Answer the questions in your notebook.

General Simón Bolívar: I am writing very fast because General Sandes is leaving for Magdalena in a few minutes. I was told that you are already settled there. How are you doing without me? I am here dying because I want to see you. I adore you a lot but you do not answer my letters. Are you very busy? I am too but I always think of you. Do you think of me? Your Manuela 1. 2. 3. 4.

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Is this a formal letter? Can you identify the parts of this letter? Was it sent by General Simón Bolívar? What's your opinion about the message of the letter? Unit 1: First things rst


G. Let’s apply Write a letter to a classmate on a piece of paper. Then send it to him / her.

H. Discuss and re?ect. A long time ago a letter was the only reliable means of communication between two people in remote locations. Then, the telegraph shortened the time taken to send a letter by transferring a message as electrical signals between distant points. Later, the facsimile (fax) machine made it possible to transfer the letter electrically from the sender's house to the receiver's house by means of the telephone network as an image to be printed. Today, the internet and cell phones allow people to exchange messages in a few seconds. -Talk about the evolution of this type of communication. (Advantages-Disadvantages)

Good luck! In English it has a diXerent meaning than the similar phrase in Spanish, “¡Buena suerte!” : Good luck! = May you be fortunate and successful. Buena suerte! = Favorable circumstance of what happens. There is a book called “MANUAL DE CARREÑO” which teaches you manners and polite vocabulary.

Unit 1: First things rst

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I. Activating your mind Match expressions in column A with its translation in column B

1 2 3 4

A

B

To whom it may concern Get well soon! Make yourself at home. Was this letter sent today?

¡Mejórate pronto! Siéntase usted en su casa. ¿Fue esta carta enviada hoy? A quien pueda interesar

J. All ears Listen to your teacher carefully. Then write in the missing words.

1.- Thank you for ____________!

4.-____ yourself ____

________.

2.- My best ____________.

5.- I____ miss you!

3.- I______ very __________ .

6.- ____the ____in your new ____!

Passive voice: The passive voice is used when the subject is not important in the message. What really matters is the object. Then this one becomes the subject of the sentence and the structure changes. It is formed with the verb to be and the past participle of the main verb of the sentence. Was the letter sent by General Simón Bolívar? Was the letter sent by Mr. Thompson? We can also write the same message in active voice which is the one we know so far: General Simón Bolívar sent this letter

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Unit 1: First things rst


K. Let's create Fill in the blanks with the past participle of the verb given in parentheses to complete the following dialogue. Then write a similar dialogue in your notebook and practice it with a partner. Student A:

Tell me Nora, did you write the essay?

Student B:

No, I didn’t. It was _______ (write) by my sister.

Student A:

Oh! I really appreciate it. It was_________ (assign) last week.

Student B:

Yeah. It was very kind of her.

L. Ask me Write questions to the following answers. 1. ___________________________________________________________? Yes, I did. I did it last night. 2. ___________________________________________________________? No, it wasn't. It was assigned last month. 3. ___________________________________________________________? Yes, I did. I sent them the information by e-mail last night. 4. ___________________________________________________________ ? Yes, I do. I always send text messages to my friends on their birthday. Unit 1: First things rst

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Let’s have fun There are many kinds of cards: love, birthday, greetings, farewell, and thank you cards, among others. a.-How about a card for a friend? Give him / her a card with a nice message!

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1.-Hope your burdens are feeling lighter,

2.- With warm wishes

And each day is a little bit brighter

This just comes to say, That I hope you’re feeling better with each and every day.

Unit 1: First things rst


Unit 1: First things rst

15


First things rst

Lesson 2 How fast are my thoughts?

"More than anyone, I desire to see America fashioned into the greatest nation in the world, greatest not so much by virtue of her area and wealth as by her freedom and glory." Simón Bolívar A. Let’s explore Listen / Read the following dialogue Teacher: Student A: Teacher: Student B: Teacher: Student A: Teacher:

Good morning, students. Ready to start? Yes. Did you measure this wall? Yes, I did. It is three meters high. How long is it? It is four meters long. How thick is it? It is 8fteen centimeters thick.

Student C: Wow, you know all the measures. Teacher: Well, I studied them. Now it’s my turn to ask you!

B. Activating your mind Read and practice the following dialogue. Luisa: Sometimes I get confused with measures. Luis: Why? Well, let's practice. Luisa: Ok. So could I say that this dictionary is 10 centimeters thick? Luis: Yes, you are right Luisa: Is the bookcase 1.5 m tall or high? Luis: It is 1.5 m high. But I am 1 meter 70 cm tall. Luisa: Ok, I see. Luis: And this pencil case is 20 cm long Luisa: Thanks for your explanation, Luis.

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Unit 1: First things rst


C. Now let s practice Complete the following dialogue. Norma: Simón: Norma: Cruz: Norma: Simón: Norma: Cruz: Simón:

How tall are you? I am ________________ I am shorter than you. I am _______________ You are kidding, I am _____________________ How do I say about a mountain? Is it tall or high? It is _________ Ok, I see. So Bolivar peak in Mérida state is _____________ Yes, and my city________, is _____________ above the sea level. Thanks. I did not know that.

D. Grammar emphasis

How tall - How high - How long How high / How long / How thick / How tall / How heavy

SUBJECT

OBJECT ? VERB TO BE

MEASUREMENT + ADJECTIVE

Examples

How high is this table? How long is this classroom? How thick is the piece of wood? How tall is your sister? How heavy is this box?

Unit 1: First things rst

It is 90 cm high. It's 6 m long. It's 3cm thick. She's 1m 60 cm tall It's 5 kilograms.

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E. Vocabulary

Length:

1 kilometer(km)

Meter(m)

Centimeter(cm)

Litre(lt)

a quarter(qt)

Millimeter (mm)

Capacity:

Weight:

Kilogram(kg)

18

Gram(g)

Unit 1: First things rst


F. Reading and re?ecting Read the passage and answer the questions.

The units for measure are diXerent in some countries. For instance, while in Venezuela we use kilograms, kilometers, and liters, in other countries they use pounds, miles and gallons. There are math operations to make the conversion from one unit to another. For example: 1 kilometer is 0,6214 mile or 1 mile is equal to 1.61 km. How many pounds are there in 1 kg? How many gallons are there in 1 liter?

G. Let’s apply Look at the picture and write a dialogue about measurements.

Student A: Student B: Student A: Student B: Student A: Student B:

Unit 1: First things rst

_________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________

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H. Discuss and re?ect Read the following paragraph and discuss it. Later write a paragraph related to your own state. Be sure you include information about measures. Venezuela is located in the north of South América. It has a total area of 916,445 square kilometers and a land area of 882,050 square kilometers. It has a 2,800 km coastline in the north. Pico Bolívar is the nation’s highest point with 4,979 m. In the west, there is a mountainous border of over 2,213 kilometers shared with Colombia. The Orinoco River is navigable by oceangoing vessels up to 400 kilometers inland, and connects the major industrial city of Ciudad Guayana to the Atlantic Ocean. Angel Falls is the world’s highest uninterrupted waterfall, with a height of 979 m.

There are two temperature scales: Fahrenheit (ºF) and Celsius (ºC). In Venezuela we use the Celsius scale, which is the most common one.

I. Activating your mind Translate the following sentences into English. 1.-Esta piscina tiene 50 metros de largo. ____________________________________________________________ 2.-¿Cuántos centímetros de ancho tiene esta pequeña mesa? ____________________________________________________________? 3.-Tiene 2 metros de profundidad. ____________________________________________________________ 4.-¿Cuántos kilómetros hay desde aquí hasta el parque? ____________________________________________________________?

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Unit 1: First things rst


J. All ears Dictation. Listen to your teacher carefully. Then write the sentences in your notebook.

Adjectives: Long Wide Nouns: Length Width

High

Deep

Height

Depth

In English they say: “This desk is 70 cm wide”. Do not use ‘have’:

K. Let's create Write your own conversation.

Camila: Let’s play this game of general knowledge, Samuel. Samuel: Is it about measurements? Camila: Yeah. Tell me: How long is the Orinoco River? Samuel: That's easy. It’s 2,140 km long. Now write more questions about general knowledge.

Unit 1: First things rst

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L. Ask me Look at the examples. Then ask questions and answers according to the situation given.

How fast is the cheetah?

It runs as fast as 112 to 120 km/h.

How fast is ______________?

It ____________________________

_____________________________?

The speed of light is 186,000 mi/sec.

How far is Caracas from Quito?

It is 1,755,583 km from Quito.

How far is _______________?

It___________________________. My house is ________ from my school.

Let’s have fun Enjoy these two degree Celsius chants. When it’s zero it’s freezing, When it’s 10 it’s not, When it’s 20 it’s warm When it’s 30 it’s hot!

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Thirty is hot Twenty is nice Ten is cool Zero is ice.

Unit 1: First things rst


Unit 1: First things rst

23


First things rst

Lesson 3 Getting to know my dictionary

Technology is not an image of the world but a way of operating on reality. The nihilism of technology lies not only in the fact that it is the most perfect expression of the desire for power . . . but also in the fact that it lacks meaning. Octavio Paz A. Prereading activities Discuss the following questions: − Did you hear about the sheep Dolly from Scotland? − Do you know anything about cloning? − What is a clone? Let’s read the de8nition of cloning. Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. This means that every single bit of DNA is the same between the two! You might not believe it, but there are human clones among us right now. They weren’t made in a lab, though: they’re identical twins, created naturally. Below, we’ll see how natural identical twins relate to modern cloning technologies. You may have 8rst heard of cloning when Dolly the Sheep showed up on the scene in 1997. Cloning technologies have been around for much longer than Dolly, though. How does one go about making an exact genetic copy of an organism? There are a couple of ways to do this: arti8cial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer. How do these processes diXer? Taken from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/ whatiscloning/ What’s your opinion about the information you just read?

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B. Reading: WHAT ARE THE ETHICAL ISSUES REGARDING HUMAN CLONING?

The cloning debate involves scientists, legislators, religious leaders, philosophers and international organizations, but not always harmoniously. General agreement, if not absolute unanimity, evolved that human “reproductive” cloning − for the purposes of producing a human genetic-copy baby —is unethical. Sir Ian Wilmut explained to the United States Congress that cloning a mammal involved a high failure rate, since of his 277 “reconstructed” embryos, only 29 were implanted in ewes and only one developed successfully. “Similar experiments with humans would be totally unacceptable”, Wilmut concluded. The high failure rates (more than 90 per cent) and high morbidity of animal cloning strongly suggests its inapplicability to humans. Furthermore, cloned animals seem to suXer high deformity and disability rates. Dolly herself was 8nally put down in 2003, at the age of just six and a half years, even though many sheep live more than 10 years. She had developed a progressive lung disease, which is usually found in older sheep, as well as premature arthritis. Some cloning experts have consequently hypothesized that cloned humans might need hip replacement surgery while still adolescents and might suXer from senility by the age of 20.

Imagen de clonación.

The possibility of human cloning has long 8red the popular imagination, including in the world of popular entertainment. For example, a thriller novel, The Boys from Brazil, subsequently made into a 1978 Hollywood 8lm, depicted a Nazi war criminal who raises a colony of young Hitler “clones”. For many others, cloning implied overtones of human immortality or of assembly-line eugenics. Hoaxes, wild claims and media speculation have inevitably intruded into the cloning discussion, sometimes originating more in pure science 8ction than actual scienti8c experiments. Dolly gave added impetus to talk — and concern — about human cloning.

The ethical rami8cations of cloning, especially with regard to humans, seem to defy easy limitation. Even if cloning technique problems are resolved with time, many questions remain. On what grounds could reproducing children by cloning be allowed or prohibited? Should cloning be used for sterile couples or for homosexual couples who want biological oXspring? How would a child born by asexual reproduction experience life, as a unique individual or as a genetic “prisoner”? Is a cloned child simply a twin of its genetic donor, with a certain time lag? Should parents choose the traits of a future child, as is possible with cloning? Those and other such issues now preoccupy scientists and bioethics who see in cloning procedures the potential to endanger human identity (Box 1) Unit 1: First things rst

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Box 1: Ethical Issues regarding Human Reproductive Cloning − − − − − − −

Technical and medical safety Undermining the concept of reproduction and family Ambiguous relations of a cloned child with the progenitor Confusing personal identity and harming the psychological development of a clone Concerns about eugenics Contrary to human dignity Promoting trends towards designer babies and human enhancement

Information taken from: United Nations Educational, Scienti8c and Cultural Organization (2005). Human cloning. Ethical issues (p. 11). France: Author C. Let’s talk about the reading Discuss the following questions in class: −How many paragraphs does it have? −What is this reading about? −Do you understand cloning and ethics? −What is your opinion about this reading?

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Unit 1: First things rst


D. Looking at the reading carefully

please underline those words that you didn’t understand. Now, let’s check them in the dictionary. But 8rst let’s learn how to use it. − Familiarize with your dictionary. Open it and check how it is organized. − On the 8rst page of your dictionary you will 8nd the instructions on how to use the dictionary and you will notice all the elements that it provides to understand the usage of a word. − Proceed to the letter of the alphabet the word begins with. Check for the word that is located at the upper corner, which is called the "guide word"; it will help to get closer to the word you are looking for. − Then check the second and third letter of your word to go through the page until you 8nd your word. − Once you have located your word, you will notice there are several elements in it that identify diXerent entries. This varies according to the dictionary, and it provides a lot of useful information about the word. Look at the examples:

uncountable

pronunciation part of speech

denition

entry Genetics / / noun [u] the scienti8c study of the ways in which diXerent characteristics are passed from each generation of living thing to the next.

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entr

y

ion nciat iation u c n n o u r n p ch h pro erican m Britis A f spee o h t t r r o a n P

Clone/ kl   / noun, verb Noun 1(biology) a plant or an animal that is produced naturally or arti8cially from denition the cell of another plant or animal and is therefore exactly the same as it. 2 (sometimes disapproving) a person or thing that seems to be an exact copy of another. denition 3 (computing) a computer designed to work in exactly the same way as another, denition usually one made by a diXerent company and more expensive. verb 1 to produce an exact copy of an animal or a plant from its cells. 2 to illegally denition denition make an electronic copy of a stored information from a person's credit card or mobile phone/ cell phone so that you can make payment or phone calls but the owner of the card or phone receives the bill.

Now, in groups, check for a word in the reading. Let’s analyze it according to the examples above.

A Dictionary is a book of a collection of words in one or more speci8c languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, de8nitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information. There are several types of dictionaries, such as technical, specialized, monolingual, bilingual, thesaurus, pronunciation, idioms, picture dictionary, etc

E. Let’s practice 1. Fill in the chart with the parts of the speech using the words from the reading. NOUN

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ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

VERB

Unit 1: First things rst


Thesaurus (plural “thesauri”) This is a reference work that is used to avoid using the same word over and over. It helps to 8nd a word that has the same or similar meaning, but also to 8nd the opposite of a word. It is very useful for learning new words. It provides the necessary information to make your writing more interesting or exciting.

F. Closing activity Read and listen in the web page <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ethical-issues-of-cloning.html> the reading “Ethical Issues of Cloning”. After you listen to it, discuss in class the ethical implications of cloning and compare it with the two readings you already read in this lesson. Write a paragraph with your own rePections on this topic.

Unit 1: First things rst

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Today and yesterday

Public and private services in my community and other activities

“Without a real, organized, strong, and conscious popular power, there wouldn’t be socialism” Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías A. Let’s explore Listen to your teacher read this text. Then read it aloud. Preventive medicine Incorporating the Revolution's Comprehensive Community Doctors into Venezuela's growing network of public health facilities is part of a plan to have 85% of all medical needs addressed at the primary care and preventive level, reducing to a maximum 15% the number of people needing secondary or “curative” medical interventions. Curative medicine (…) doesn't solve the people's health problems and the only ones who bene8t are either the pharmaceutical laboratories, owners of clinics, or doctors engaged in private practice. Correo del Orinoco (November 11, 2011) N° 89

B. Activating your mind Circle true or false. T 1. 2. 3. 4.

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F

Preventive medicine and curative medicine share the same objectives. Curative medicine implies an eXort to stop sickness happening. Preventive medicine is an attempt to cure sickness. Owners of clinics, pharmaceutical laboratories and private doctors take curative medicine.

Unit 2: Today and yesterday


C. Now letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s practice Complete the following text. Use these words: measures- medicine-diet-preventive.

Either ________________or curative medicine can bene8t a patient, but only preventive _______ makes eXorts toward disease prevention in the community and the individual. It covers patient interviews and testing to detect risk factors: sanitary__________ in homes, communities and medical facilities, patient education, and ______ and exercise programs as well as preventive drugs and surgery.

D. Grammar emphasis Eitherâ&#x20AC;Śor Either + possibility 1+ or + possibility 2 I go to either a hospital or a popular clinic Either + possibility 1+or + possibility 2 Either hospitals or popular clinics are available to people. Either + possibility 1 + possibility 2 or possibility 3 You can choose among either preventive medicine, curative medicine or nothing.

Examples Preventive Medicine prevents either coronary heart disease in a healthy person, a heart attack in a person with heart disease or disability and death after a heart attack. In Venezuela, people have the right to be seen by a doctor either in clinics or hospitals.

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E. Vocabulary Complete the chart, deciding whether the service is either public or private or both. Service Electricity Gas Security Waste management Infocentros

Public

Private

F. Reading and re?ecting Read the following sentences and choose the correct form of the verb in parentheses.

1. Every child who ( begin- begins) 8rst grade in Venezuela in the public school system (receive-receives) a computer as part of the public education policy 2. Proyecto Canaima (start- started) as part of an agreement signed between Venezuela and Portugal in 2009, when 1,500 schools (received- receive) that bene8t.

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G. Let's apply Now create two sentences saying what you know about Plan Canaima. Use eitherâ&#x20AC;Śor 1.- __________________________________________________________________ 2.- __________________________________________________________________ H. Discuss and re?ect Listen, read and practice this dialogue. Then discuss its content with a partner. Gregorio: Have you seen the garbage truck? Emilia: An hour ago, but now it's not the time to leave a bin bag here. Gregorio: What can I do, then? Emilia: You have to keep it inside until 6 p.m. when the garbage truck comes back.

There are several techniques to recycle plastic bags in order to preserve life and soils. One of them is to make          (Source: http://www.bags.revolt..com/2012/01/20/ recycling-plastic-workshop-in-merida-vzla)

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I. Activating your mind Read the following paragraph and ask one (1) yes/no question and two (2) wh-questions about it. Recycling implies treating products that have already been used, so that they can be used again. The main reason for recycling is the need to reduce our dependency on raw materials that are 8nite. Recycling also reduces pollution and saves money.

J. All ears Listen and complete the sentences with the following words: litter/ground/drain/soaps/insecticides/ streams. How can we keep water as clean as possible? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Don't throw _____ into _____, lakes and rivers. Don't pour chemicals down the ________. Don't pour chemicals down the____sewer. Use_____and detergents carefully. Don't use ________ and chemical fertilizers excessively.

La Misiรณn Vivienda Venezuela aims at solving


K. Let's create Write your own conversation. Ramón and Sonia are discussing the Electricity Service in Venezuela. Ramón thinks that it is necessary to use this service with care in order to save electricity and pay less money for it. Sonia uses it carelessly. Write Ramón and Sonia's conversation.

Ramón: Sonia: Ramón: Sonia: Ramón: Sonia:

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

L. Ask me Write yes/ no and Wh-questions to these sentences.


Let Read the f transla

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Unit 2: Today and yesterday


Unit 2: Today and yesterday

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Today and yesterday

I used to play hide- and-seek when I was a child â&#x20AC;&#x153;Childhood is a privilege of old ageâ&#x20AC;? Mario Benedetti

A. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s explore Listen to your teacher read the following text.

Children's games are not mere pastimes. They play a very important role in the kid's world. When children play, they show their personality and this allows adults either to encourage or mend their behavior. Besides, children develop social skills and physical abilities. Unfortunately, this fact is neither understood nor acknowledged by many members of our communities, who seem to ignore this right of the child: the child has the right to have full opportunity for sports, games and recreation. Finally, we would suggest traditional games as a good choice to ful8ll this right and also to help us maintain our cultural inheritance and richness.

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Unit 2: Today and yesterday


B. Activating your mind Match each word in column A with its de8nition in column B. 1) Win 2) Personality 3) Pastime 4) Indoor 5) Game 6) Outdoor

( ( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) ) )

a) Inside. b) Activity or sport. c) Be successful. d) Outside. e) Aspects of a person's character. f) Something you enjoy.

C. Now letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s practice Circle the best option in the following dialogue and practice it in groups of three. Beatriz: Granddad: Beatriz: Grandmom: Beatriz: Grandmom: Beatriz: Granddad:

What (was/were) your favorite games when you (was/ were) a child? Oh, it was a long time ago but I still remember when I used to play marbles. Children prefer video games these days. I remember I (play/ played) with rag dolls and (had-have) a great time Where did your parents (got-get) them? They didn't (bought-buy) them. My mother herself (makes/made) beautiful dolls for me. Fantastic! They were special dolls. (Her phone rings) Excuse me (she answers the phone) When we were children we had (either- neither) video games (or/nor) cell phones but we were very happy indeed!

D. Grammar emphasis

Neitherâ&#x20AC;Ś nor This structure is used in a sentence in the negative sense when you want to say that two or more things are not true. neither + possibility 1+ or + possibility 2 Neither my grandmother nor my grandfather used to play video games. Examples Nowdays, children play neither with little wooden horses nor with spinning tops. Our grand parents had neither online nor cell phone games, but they were happy anyway. Unit 2: Today and yesterday

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E. Vocabulary When I was a child, I used toâ&#x20AC;Ś

jump rope

play hide- and-seek

play with paper dolls

play with rag dolls.



play with marbles and spinning tops .

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F. Reading and re?ecting Read the following text and answer these questions: How can we say nodriza in English?________________________________________ Who were Negra Matea and the Cuban woman in Simoncito's life?_________________________________ Simoncito's childhood Doña Concepción had health problems so she couldn't breastfeed Simoncito. To solve this problem, he was breastfed by a Cuban friend of hers. Later, Negra Matea breastfed him. As a consequence, Simoncito treated both of them with love all his life. G. Let’s apply Complete the following sentences. 1. _______ my mother ______ my grandmother played_______________________ 2. My classmates played neither traditional _______ video games. 3. When I was a child I___________ neither_______ ______ ____________ 4 Neither_______________ nor_______are traditional games. 5 ___________ video games nor online games are________________ H. Discuss and re?ect. Once upon a time, Uncle Rabbit was very hungry when he saw a dog eating some cheese. He asked him: What are you eating? The dog was very proud and opening his mouth widely he replied: cheese! Unfortunately, the cheese fell to the ground and Uncle Rabbit took it and ran away. Some days passed by, and Uncle Rabbit found some cheese too. The dog realized that and decided to take revenge. Imitating Uncle Rabbit, he asked him: What are you eating? But Uncle Rabbit was very astute and pressed the cheese with his teeth and replied, exaggerating the vowel sound: cheese, cheese. So, the cheese did not fall down. (Tale taken from Venezuelan Oral Tradition) Unit 2: Today and yesterday

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Aquiles Nazoa wrote a book titled Once upon a rag doll. It is written in Spanish but there is an English Edition too. This book includes stories about his childhood. At the very beginning, we can read “My creed” in which he says: “…I believe in the creative power of people, I believe in poetry and –8nally- I believe in myself, since I know that there is someone who loves me”.

I. Activating your mind After reading the previous text, create three sentences about it.

1.- _________________________________________________________ 2.- _________________________________________________________ 3.- _________________________________________________________

J. All ears. Minimal pairs: Circle if you hear a short i / / or a long i / i:/

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a) Ship c) Leak e) Chicks

b) Sheep d) Lick f) Cheeks

g) Leave

h) Live

i) Peel

j) Pill

Unit 2: Today and yesterday


Folktales are stories or legends handed down from generation to generation usually by oral retelling.

L. Let's create Write your own conversation. Look at the picture and write three sentences about it. Use neitherâ&#x20AC;Śor

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L. Ask me Write questions to the following answers. 1. A game is an activity with rules ___________________________________________________________________ 2. A marble is a small ball of colored glass that children roll along the ground in a game. ___________________________________________________________________ 3. A rag doll is a girl's toy in the shape of a person . ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Children like to play hide-and-seek. __________________________________________________________________ 5. I like neither online games nor video games. __________________________________________________________________ 6. I prefer video games. __________________________________________________________________ Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s have fun Proverb â&#x20AC;&#x153;Childhood shows the man, as morning shows the dayâ&#x20AC;? John Milton

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Unit 2: Today and yesterday

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Today and yesterday

Enjoying reading “Without popular education, there won't be a real society” Simón Rodríguez

A. Prereading activities 1. Do you know Aquiles Nazoa? What was his occupation? 2. Have you read any of his writings? 3. Have you read his poetry? 4. Where was he born? 5. What do you believe in? 6. What do you think “My creed” is about?

B. Listening and reading 1. Listen as your teacher reads “My creed “ by Aquiles Nazoa

I believe in Pablo Picasso, all powerful , creator of the heavens and the earth; I believe in Charlie Chaplin; son of the violets and the mice, who was cruci8ed, died and buried by time, but who comes to life every day in the hearts of mankind; I believe in love and the arts as a way to enjoy a lasting life; I believe in the crickets that 8ll the night with magical crystals; I believe in the grinder who lives to make golden stars on his marvelous wheel, I believe in the aerial quality of the human being, represented by the memory of Isadora Duncan beating her wings like a wounded dove under the skies of the Mediterranean; I believe in

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Unit 2: Today and yesterday


Orpheus, I believe in the magic of music, I who in the hours of my anxiety saw the magic of Faure's Pavane, who saw the sweet Euridice appear free and radiant from the infernal depths of my soul; I believe in Rainer Maria Rilke, hero of man's struggle towards beauty, who sacri8ced his life in the act of cutting a rose for a woman; I believe in the Powers which bloomed over the adolescent cadaver of Ophelia; I believe in Achillesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; silent tears while facing the ocean, I believe in the far oX thin ship which left a century ago to keep an appointment with the dawn, its captain, Lord Byron, bearing the sword of the archangels, and the dog, in the stars surrounding his forehead; I believe in Ulysses' dog, in the smiling cat of Alice in Wonderland, in Robinson Crusoe's parrot, in Beral8ro, Roland's horse, and the bees who built their hive in the heart of Martin Tinajero; I believe in friendship as the greatest invention of mankind, I believe in the creative powers of the people, I believe in poetry and-8nally- I believe in myself, since I know that there is someone who loves me.

C. Post reading activities 1.Complete the chart saying who/what Aquiles Nazoa believes in.

Person

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Artist

Literature Characters

Thing/idea

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saying who she/he was.

Pablo Picasso was_________________

Isadora Duncan was________________

Rainer MarĂ­a Rilker was_____________

Lord Byron was____________________

Charlie Chaplin was________________

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a) 1. Powerful (

)

1. Fight

b) 2. Creator (

)

2. Very happy

c) 3. Struggle (

)

3. Strong

d) 4. Smiling (

)

4. Honeyed

e) 5. Sweet

)

5. Originator

(

4. Write 8ve sentences in past tense using the words above. a) Heart b) Invention c) Friendship d) Love e) Ship 5. Complete the list with verbs from the text.

Present

Past Bloomed

Know

Past Participle

  To bloom

Known

6.Complete the table with nouns from the text.

Singular Nouns

Plural Nouns Mice

Grinder

Crickets

Night

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1. The smiling cat of Alice in Wonderland

2. Mankind

3. Magical crystals

4. The Heaven

5. The Earth

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U

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9. Answer the following questions about the text “My creed” by Aquiles Nazoa: a) What is the text about? b) What kind of text do you think it is? Literary? Technical? Scienti8c? Why? 10. Underline the sentence you like the most and translate it. 11. Read again the sentence taken from “My creed”: ” I believe in the chocolate coins which I secretly treasure under the pillow of my childhood…” and answer the following questions.

a) Do you like chocolate coins? b) Did you hide chocolate coins under the pillow when you were a child? If not, what did you hide under your pillow when you were a child? 12. Write about what you believe in: a) I believe in _____________________________________________________. b) I believe in _____________________________________________________. c) I believe in _____________________________________________________. Unit 2: Today and yesterday

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Poetry: Haikus What is a Haiku? It's a very short Japanese poem. It is a mix of images and ideas. Generally, it`s about nature. Bitter wind The smell of honey In the empty hive (Ernest Wit in http:withaiku.blogspot.com)

2.After reading the above haikus, complete the sentence: This haiku is about:_______________________

D. Additional activities 1. Listen as your teacher reads the following haikus. When I see you, My red beating stops Its love's calling. MarĂ­a Milagros Sabetta, A Venezuelan poet. 2. After reading the above haiku, complete the sentence. This Haiku is about _______________________________________

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Glittering sight, Smelling rosy icy noses, Pretty pussy cat. Ligia de Ortega, A Venezuelan poet.

4. After reading the above haiku, complete the sentence: This haiku is about__________________________________

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and now

We're having fun

“All people of the world will re8ne their way of life so as to contribute to the essence of their originality, their own vision of life, and by doing so, to give more perfect form to that particular human expression which they represent” Leopoldo Zea A. Let’s explore Listen as your teacher reads the following text. Some advantages of Linux: Cost – The 8rst advantage of using Linux is the fact that it is free, while Microsoft products are available for a hefty and sometimes recurring fee. Security – The security aspect of Linux is much stronger than that of Windows. The Linux operating system has been around since the early nineties and has managed to stay secure in the realm of widespread viruses, spyware and adware for all these years. Freedom– The power of choice is a great Linux advantage. With Linux, you have the power to control just about every aspect of the operating system. Two major features you have control of are your desktop's look and feel by way of numerous Window Managers, and the kernel. In Windows, you're either stuck using the boring default desktop theme, or risking corruption or failure by installing a third-party shell. Software - There are so many software choices when it comes to doing any speci8c task. You could search for a text editor on Freshmeat and yield hundreds, if not thousands of results. My article on 5 Linux text editors you should know about explains how there are so many options just for editing text on the commandline due to the open source nature of Linux. Regular users and programmers contribute applications all the time. Sometimes it's a simple modi8cation or feature enhancement of an already existing piece of software, sometimes it's a brand new application. In addition, software on Linux tends to be packed with more features and greater usability than software on Windows. Best of all, the vast majority of Linux software is free and open source. Not only are you getting the software for no charge, but you have the option to modify the source code and add more features if you understand the programming language. What more could you ask for? Hardware - Linux is perfect for those old computers with barely any processing power or memory you have sitting in your garage or basement collecting dust. Install Linux and use it as a 8rewall, a 8le server, or a backup server. There are endless possibilities. Old 386 or 486 computers with barely any RAM run Linux without any issue. Good luck running Windows on these machines and actually 8nding a use for them. (Taken from http://ubuntu-artists.deviantart.com/journal/8Advantages-of-using-Linux-over Windows-291681914)

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B. Activating your mind Summarize the text, using your own words. Find out among relatives and friends if the governmental sector is using Linux nowdays in Venezuela. If so, name some of these institutions. C. Now let’s practice Student 1: Student 2: Student 1: Student 2: Student 1: Student 2: Student 1: Student 2: Student 1:

Hello! May I speak to Eddy? No, he's out. May I leave a message? Sure. I want to know if he is writing the last part of our essay. Ok, I'm taking note of your message. Ask him if he is printing it today too. Is that all? Yes, that's all. Thank you very much !!!

D. Grammar emphasis Present continuous tense Generally used to express something happening at the moment of speaking Positive statements be + verb + ing It's only used with action verbs e.g. He is drinking orange juice. Negative statements be + not + verb + -ing e.g. He is not drinking orange juice. Questions be + subject + verb + -ing e.g. Is he drinking orange juice? Usage Examples Time expressions Things that are What are you doing? happening at the They are playing in the courtyard At the moment moment/ now She's not standing in the rain Now Today What are you doing this weekend? Near future plans Next week/day/month We're having meetings this evening. and arrangements This week/month/evening/year They are not coming on Sunday. Actions which are I'm reading Doña Bárbara by Romulo Gallegos. On Saturday/Monday, etc. happening around Whose car are you working on? We're studying hard for the 8nal English text. this moment

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What is he cooking? He is playing with our puppy, Dora. What classes are you taking this year? They are not swimming.

What are you studying tonight? It isn’t raining now. She is drinking coXee at Café Venezuela. We’re driving to Coro now.

E. Vocabulary

New cable cars are transporting thousands of people per hour

This train is helping people who live far from work to arrive early.

Computer and the internet are providing information fast.

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Our subway is helping us to reach anywhere in our city quickly

Communication is changing.

Unit 3: Then and there, here and now


F. Reading and re?ecting Some disadvantages of technology Technology is usually helpful but it may also have some disadvantages : many companies are using automatic machines to improve their production with accuracy. As a result many people are losing their jobs. Technology creates dependency in people. The internet, cell phones, television and computers can become a vice and make individuals forget important things. They cause pollution because of misuse of electricity and water. What's your opinion about this? Can you think of another disadvantage of technology?

G. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s apply What is happening right now? Use the verbs below to describe what is happening or not happening right now in your classroom. Write at least 8ve sentences using the present continuous tense. E.g. Right now we are singing in class Marian is playing the Pute Call Listen Talk

Do Look Teach

Dream Write Tell

Drink Play Stand

Eat Read Throw

Feel Say Wait

Go Show Walk

Hold Sing Watch

Lend Sleep Wear

H. Discuss and re?ect. Read the paragraph below and answer the question. Through electronic mail (email), people can get in touch with everybody in a matter of seconds. People don't need either paper or pens. They neither have to go to the post okce nor send letters. People save time and money in communicating with each other. Answer: How does electronic mail in?uence your life and your communication with family members and friends? Unit 3: Then and there, here and now

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I. Activating your mind Fill in the spaces with the correct form of the verb in the present continuous tense. E.g.: I (listen) am listening to music now.

He (swim) ____ ____ in the pool now

We (plan) _____ _____ vacations now

Anna and I (study) ____ _______ hard for the next exam

Eduardo (eat) _____ ______ breakfast with his parents now

Rebeca (do) _____ _____ her homework to be free on Sunday

They (play) ____ _____ with her friends now

Today is Ligia's birthday party. Natty (take) ______ _____ pictures. All of the children (dance) __________ and they (smile) _____ ________. They (get) _____ _____ hungry, so we (eat) ______ _________ pizza and (drink) lemonade. Really we (have) ______ _____ a very good time.

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J. All ears Dictation. Listen to your teacher and write.

K. Let's create Write a dialogue using the present continuous and the following topics:

Sur8ng the internet. Chatting with a friend. Traveling by cable car. Doing the homework on the computer.

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L. Ask me Write questions to the following answers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

No, he isn't. He's 8shing now ______________________________________________ They are swimming in the sea. ___________________________________________ He is riding his bicycle to get to the boat._____________________________________ Yes, they are traveling by subway._________________________________________ Yes, families are keeping in contact today.__________________________________ No, they are not reading on the computer._________________________________

Let’s have fun Find the music to these lyrics on the internet and let's sing this song. Lemon tree lyrics by Fool’s Garden I’m sitting here in the boring room I’m sitting here It’s just another rainy Sunday afternoon I miss the power I’m wasting my time I’d like to go out taking a shower I got nothing to do But there’s a heavy cloud inside my head I’m hanging around I feel so tired I’m waiting for you Put myself into bed But nothing ever happens and I wonder While nothing ever happens and I wonder I’m driving around in my car I’m driving too fast I’m driving too far I’d like to change my point of view I feel so lonely I’m waiting for you But nothing ever happens and I wonder I wonder how I wonder why Yesterday you told me ‘bout the blue blue sky And all that I can see is just a yellow lemontree I’m turning my head up and down I’m turning turning turning turning turning around And all that I can see is just another lemontree

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Isolation is not good for me Isolation I don’t want to sit on the lemon-tree I’m steppin’ around in the desert of joy Baby anyhow I’ll get another toy And everything will happen and you wonder I wonder how I wonder why Yesterday you told me ‘bout the blue blue sky And all that I can see is just another lemon-tree I’m turning my head up and down I’m turning turning turning turning turning around And all that I can see is just a yellow lemon-tree And I wonder, wonder I wonder how I wonder why Yesterday you told me ‘bout the blue blue sky And all that I can see, and all that I can see, and all that I can see Is just a yellow lemon-tree Unit 3: Then and there, here and now


Unit 3: Then and there, here and now

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and now

I was playing computer games â&#x20AC;&#x153;One concept corrupts and confuses the others. I am not speaking of the Evil whose limited sphere is ethics; I am speaking of the in8niteâ&#x20AC;? Jorge Luis Borges

A. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s explore Read and listen to your teacher's reading. Think about your own perspective toward cell phone usage and video games.

Alejandro was telling his parents that he needed a cell phone with video games, but each of his parents took a diXerent position toward this need. Alejandro's father didn't want his son to use a cell phone because he was not sure about whom he would talk to. For him, the Internet was dangerous and uncontrolled. He didn't accept it because games require control, moderation and constant supervision.

Alejandro's mother disagreed with her husband, because she played computers games when she was young and she found them very exciting and useful. She believed that he can play with control, moderation and under constant supervision. She thinks that parents must advise children to use the Internet in an adequate way.

B. Activating your mind Read the above paragraph and answer these questions

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What was Alejandro asking his parents for? ___________________________________

Why did Alejandro's father say no? ___________________________________

Why did Alejandro's mother disagree with his father's opinion ? ___________________________________

Would they get to any agreement? ___________________________________

Unit 3: Then and there, here and now


C. Now let s practice Read ad repeat this dialogue. Then 8nd a partner and practice it. Berta: Alex: Berta: Alex: Berta: Alex:

Alejandro, I just called to ask if you talked to your parents. Yes I was telling them about the cellular phone some minutes ago. Did they accept to buy you the phone? No, they had diXerent positions about it, but â&#x20AC;Ś Mmm I see! Well what are you going to do? I think I am going to use my computer to play video games.

D. Grammar emphasis

Past continuous tense Subject + Past tense of to be (was/were) + verb+ -ing + Complement Generally used to express actions that lasted for a particular period of time in the past. Declarative form Subject + be (was/were) + verb + -ing + Complement E.g. He was drinking orange juice Negative form Subject + be (was/were) + not + verb + -ing+ Complement E.g. He was not drinking orange juice Question form To be (was/were) + subject + verb + -ing + Complement +? E.g. Was he drinking orange juice? Question word + (was/were) + subject + verb + -ing + Complement +? E.g. When was Joe drinking orange juice? USAGE

EXAMPLES

Actions taking place in the past

A. She was dancing all night B. We were working yesterday afternoon. C. Was he sleeping on the sofa last night?

Interrupted actions in progress (when/ while to link sentences)

D. They were singing when Pit felt down. E. While the cat was drinking milk the mouse ran past. F. What was he doing when the phone rang?

Actions in progress at the same time (when/ and/ while/ to link sentences) Polite requests Unit 3: Then and there, here and now

G. He was watching TV and drinking coXee. H. I was painting while she was cleaning. I. Were you studying when he was jumping? J. I was wondering if you could buy the cake. K. We were thinking you might help Sara.

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Joe was watching the World Cup match. Was Rita doing her homework? I was playing chess and drinking wine.

Were they sleeping all morning? She wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t having dinner at the hotel. John wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t feeling good in class.

We were talking about her when she arrived home. While Rosa was cleaning the living room, Alex was washing the dishes.

E. Vocabulary Write sentences in the past continuous tense using each of the following words. E.g.: I was playing computer games when the CPU got damaged.

Keyboard

64

Mousepad

CPU

Hardware

Cursor

Computer

Printer

Scanner

Mouse

USB

Software

Pendrive

Unit 3: Then and there, here and now


F. Reading and re?ecting Read and indicate if you agree or disagree with the statements below, then write your own reasons. Agree

Disagree

Computer technology makes life faster and easier. Having the latest technology is important to succeed in life. Technological advances make life better for everyone. A person who plays with computers thinks that life is like a game. Children should be given more freedom to use the internet. Due to the internet people don’t usually read books.

G. Let’s apply Write the correct form of the verbs and continue this story. Use your imagination. Gregorio was an informatics engineer from Caracas who________ __________(live) in Mérida city some years ago. He loved to walk through the beautiful forest that surrounded the small town of Mucubají. One evening, he _______ _______ (walk) near the garlic plantations, when he met a nice girl named Petra. They decided to walk and get to know each other. One day, Petra_____ __________(wait) for Gregorio and she asked him if he wanted to become part of the agricultural community of Mucubají… Continue this story. Use the past continuous tense.

H. Discuss and re?ect. Read and discuss if you are against or in favor. Then, write your own reasons. Technology impacts today social relations Computers are allowing new forms of social interaction, innovating activities, and organizing other ways to interact. Today, computers are becoming part of our daily lives. Many people consider the Internet as well as mobile phones anti-social. They think they are generating a communication gap due to a reduction of face to face relationships, especially among young people.

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I. Activating your mind Read and answer the following questions. Select one of them to write a paragraph about it. 1. Do you use Internet? 2. Where do you upload your photos? 3. What do you think of social networking sites? (Facebook, MySpace, Twitter) 4. Could you live without the Internet? 5. How has the Internet changed the world? 6. What annoys you about the Internet? J. All ears Copy this paragraph in your notebook, listen and write the missing words Computers allow new forms of _______ interaction, innovating activities, and organizing other ways to interact. Today, __________ are becoming part of our daily lives. In this century, people are __________ technology in their everyday _______. Due to the Internet, SMS _________, e-mail, chat and cell _______ calls family members are keeping regular contact today; more than ever before. Also, the Internet is offering rich sources of __________ which _____ people to learn almost everything very fast. However, ____________ communication is becoming rare among youngsters, so people must keep personal_____to prevent us from losing our humanity.

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K. Let's create Write your own conversation but you must use at least four words of the ones given and select one of the topics. Example Jorge: Hi, Kate. What were you doing yesterday? I called you. Ángeles: Hello, Jorge. I was playing with my computer. Jorge: I never learned to play with a computer. Ángeles: I tried to teach you sometime ago. Jorge: Unfortunately, I never practice. Would you teach me again? Susana: Hi, what were you both doing there? Jorge: We were having fun. Angeles was teaching me how to play. Ángeles: I was teaching Jorge to play with computers and he kept winning !

Unit 3: Then and there, here and now

Words Morning Hurt Class Learn Computer Play Topics Going to the dentist. Studying English. Playing games

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L. Ask me Write questions to the following answers. 1. Yes, they were going home after school yesterday. _________________________________________ 2. No, she was not using the PC. She was using a laptop. __________________________________________ 3. I used to have a Facebook account, but now I like MySpace. ___________________________________________ 4. He prefers to use the internet after school. ___________________________________________ 5. Technology is important for every single fact in this century. ______________________________________________ 6. I could not live without the internet at home. ______________________________________________ Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s have fun Find the following letters in this word soup. CPU/Scanner/Email/Software/Monitor/Mouse/ Hardware/Mouse pad/Chat/Cursor/Internet

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U

I

N

T

E

R

N

E

T

S

S

M

O

N

I

T

O

R

M

C

B

K

L

C

H

A

T

A

O

A

R

Y

R

P

T

H

N

I

U

N

A

X

V

U

B

M

V

L

S

N

C

U

R

S

O

R

S

O

E

E

M

O

U

S

E

P

A

D

P

R

H

A

R

D

W

A

R

E

Q

I

S

O

F

T

W

A

R

E

U

O

E

M

A

I

L

E

M

I

A

L

Unit 3: Then and there, here and now


Either we invent or we err -Organize a program with a time schedule for teaching elderly people from your community to use the internet.                 

Yes

No

Teachers Elderly people Young people Parents Friends Your sister(s) or brother(s)

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and now

Reading about the Simón Bolívar Satellite

“Living is more important than reading, but reading helps you live fully, make your life more beautiful and make you happier.” Luis Beltrán Prieto Figueroa A. Prereading activities What do you know about Simón Bolívar Satellite? What do you want to learn about it?

B. While reading activities Questions to be answered while reading. What is the reading about? Where does it happen? How would you describe the information? What is it talking about? What is a good example of...? What bene8t have you had with…? SIMÓN BOLÍVAR SATELLITE Details: 14 C-band transponders (radio and TV signal), 12 Ku-band (data and high speed Internet) and 2 Ka-band (future digital TV signal transponders to cover most of South American continent and part of Caribbean areas, and provide communications and broadcasting services to Venezuelan as well as the surrounding region Satellite Position: 78° W (78° W) Launch date: 29-Oct-2008 Launch mass (kg): 5049 Manufacturer: China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) Model (bus): DFH-4 Bus Status: active Taken from http: //www.satbeams.com/satellites?norad=33414

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Caracas, 29 Oct. AVN.- Voice and data services that previously could not reach all inhabitants of far-Pung towns like Curiapo and San Francisco de Guayo in Delta Amacuro state or El Yagual in the border state of Apure, are now guaranteed by the wide signal of the Simon Bolivar satellite, through which 3 million 699 thousand Venezuelans are connected. Reaching isolated areas of national territory gave rise to the idea of launching into space the 8rst Venezuelan satellite, a 4-year device in orbit whose major achievement has been the transfer of technology to people in places where making a telephone call or sur8ng the Internet was never believed possible.

The Simon Bolivar satellite was put in orbit on 29 October 2008 to democratize access to telecommunications, technology, education and science, especially in far-Pung places of the country where reception is impossible. This spatial device, operated by talented Venezuelans, arose from the agreement between the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the People's Republic of China through the VENESAT-1 project. Venezuela's Minister of Science and Technology Jorge Arreaza informed a few days ago that Venezuela has to date 5,927 satellite dishes, 1,985 of which are in educational centers, 826 in Bolivarian Centers of Informatics and Telematics as well as in centers of communal management. There are other 617 satellite dishes working in public Internet centers named Infocenters, 485 in health facilities, 181 in border controls, 131 in food markets (Mercal), 60 in the state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), 52 in the Venezuelan food producer and distributor (PDVAL) and 32 in stations of FUNVISIS (Venezuelan Foundation for Seismic Research). Unit 3: Then and there, here and now

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The Simón Bolívar satellite platform is integrated into the National Telephone Company's network of terrestrial telecommunications and contributes to the development of social programs such as teleeducation, telephony, Internet as well as FUNVISIS research projects. Besides, a network of 35 seismic stations (with 24- hours satellite connection) operates in the country to monitor any telluric movement in Venezuela. The Simón Bolívar spacecraft is run and controlled in the national territory by a team of Venezuelan experts belonging to the Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities (ABAE). The main control earth station is located in the Aerospace Base Capitán Manuel Ríos (Bamari), in the central state of Guárico whereas the backup earth station is located in Luepa, Bolívar State. The satellite project began on 1 November 2005 when an agreement with China was signed to develop this device which would open the way towards the technological independence of the country. 100 per cent eScient use This 100 per cent ekcient satellite uses more than 5 thousand dishes to cover seven major areas: 3,500 dishes for education; 160 for security and defense, among other radars helping safeguard domestic airspace, 131 for border protection, 127 for energy and oil, 1,143 for food, 200 for communications and 350 for health, Vice Minister of Telecommunications said. Another great contribution is the training of human talent, with a total of 90 experts trained to operate this spatial device. Since 2008, 2,027 Venezuelan professionals graduated from national universities in disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology, telecommunications and systems engineering, information technology, geology, geography, cartography, among others, have been trained in science and space technology. Venezuela celebrates its 4th year of technological independence on Monday, through the placement of this device in orbit which opened possibilities for the most isolated communities of the country to join telecommunication services. Taken from http://tartaro.avn.info.ve/contenido/simon-bolivar-satellite-benets-more-3-million-people

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C. Reading activities

1. Please 8nd the answers to the following questions.

a). b). c). d). e). e). g). h). i).

When did this satellite project begin? When was the Simon Bolivar satellite put in orbit? What does the Simon Bolivar satellite guarantee today? Which countries are integrating the Simon Bolivar satellite platform? Where are the main control earth station and backup earth station located? How many satellite dishes does Venezuela have? Is this Satellite helpful for monitoring any telluric movement in Venezuela? Why? What has its major achievement been till now? What is the main bene8t of having this Venezuelan satellite?

2. Write the list of verbs, adjectives and nouns you can 8nd in the reading. E.g.: Verb arose

Unit 3: Then and there, here and now

Adjective spatial

Noun satellite

73


within a 10 line paragraph that goes over the main points of the text. 4. In groups of three, report the information given in your paragraph pretending to be part of a TV inter view/ show. 5. Translate into Spanish the following extracts from the above reading.

English

Spanish

Reaching isolated areas of national territory gave rise to the idea of launching into space the 8rst Venezuelan satellite, a 4-year device into orbit whose major achievement has been the transfer of technology to people in places where making a telephone call or sur8ng the Internet was never believed possible Another great contribution is the training of human talent, with a total of 90 experts trained to operate this spatial device This spatial device, operated by talented Venezuelans, arose from the agreement between the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the People’s Republic of China through the VENESAT-1 project The Simón Bolívar satellite platform is integrated into the National Telephone Company’s network of terrestrial telecommunications and contributes to the development of social programs such as tele-education, telephony, Internet as well as FUNVISIS research projects.

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Unit 3: Then and there, here and now


You could start by saying: a). “I was reading an article about the Simón Bolívar Satellite in my English class and it was really interesting / nice/ informative/ important, because … b). “ What I found most interesting about this text was … c). Finally, what did you learn about the Simón Bolívar Satellite?

Additional information Cognates are words in English that look like words in Spanish, and have the same meaning, for example: television and computer. False cognates are words in English that look like in Spanish but don't have the same meaning, for example: Terri c and Terrible. Final activity Scan the previous text about Simón Bolívar Satellite and 8nd as many cognates and false cognates as possible. Use your dictionary, if necessary.

Unit 3: Then and there, here and now

75


C. Now let s practice Read the following dialogue. Practice it with a partner. Pedro: Mario: Pedro: Mario: Pedro:

Do you like baseball? Yes, I do. Why? Which team are you a fan of? I’m not fan of any team. What about you? What? Are you serious? I’m a fan of Los Navegantes del Magallanes. I think it’s the best team ever. Do you agree with me? Mario Well, I don’t think so. They always win at the beginning but at the end they usually lose.

D. Grammar emphasis Expressing agreement or disagreement.

I

think hope expect am afraid

so

I don’t

think expect believe imagine reckon suppose

so

I

hope guess expect believe am afraid suppose suspect

not

Examples 1. Have you got a street map of Barcelona? – No, I’m afraid not. 2. We’ll be there soon. – I hope so. 3. Venezuelan time isn’t the same as British time, is it? – No, I don’t think so.

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The game of baseball was introduced to the country by Venezuelan students who had studied at US universities. Upon returning home after 8nishing their studies, they taught the game to their friends in Caracas, in the early 1890s.  Taken fromhttp://www.baseball-reference.com

H. Activating your mind Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Nosotros vamos para Mérida en las vacaciones. – Nosotros también. _____________________________________________________________ 2. Ellos no aceptarán dólares, ¿o sí? – No, supongo que no. _____________________________________________________________ 3. No me gusta el pescado. – A mí tampoco. _____________________________________________________________

I. All ears Listen to the reading. Answer True (T) or False (F) True (T) False (F)

1. One of the most popular and competitive sport in Venezuela is soccer. 2. Almost all the regions in Venezuela have a baseball team. 3. The professional baseball season starts in November. 4. Many Venezuelan baseball players play on U.S. teams.

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L. Additional activity. Do you agree with these proverbs? Proverb

I think so

I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t think so

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

_________

_________

A golden key can open any door.

_________

_________

A rose is a rose is a rose is a rose.

_________

_________

A thing of beauty is a joy forever.

_________

_________

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Name of the head coach Name of the captain Name of the goalkeeper Position of each player Place and date of the game Score

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C. Now let s practice Choose words from the box to complete the paragraph. technical college

face will (2)

students neither

nor direction

courses most

years

Deciding what_____________career path you__________ follow is one of the hardest questions you will eventually_____________ in life. For this exact reason, you will 8nd so many______________ in college with no direction. ____________students enter into college and simply take the basic___________ for the 8rst couple of_____________ ,thinking that they____________ eventually decide what career they will choose. This is__________ bad___________ good. Entering into____________ with at least some_____________ can save you both time and money. Taken from http://www.itcareerhub.com/

D. Grammar emphasis

   !"       #    $  %&!"           #  

Examples

1. What are you going to study when you graduate from high school?

Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m going to study a technical career.

2. Where are you going to go?

â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m going to the store. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll go with you, if you like.

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G. Let s apply Look at these predictions about the future. Match the sentences in the 8rst column with the correct reaction in the second column. A. Computers won’t replace teachers. B. The world’s climate will change. C. We’ll travel faster than the speed of light. D. There won’t be a third world war. E. There’ll be cities on the moon. F. We’ll live longer. G. I’m sure they’ll 8nd a cure for AIDS.

1. No, we won’t. That’s impossible. 2. Do you think there will? 3. I hope there won’t. 4. Yes, we de8nitely will. 5. I’m sure it will. 6. I agree. I don’t think they will. 7. Yes, I expect they will.

H. Discuss and re?ect. Read the dialogue. Do you know what and where you are going to study? Sandra: What career are you going to study? Soraya: I’m going to study a technical career. It lasts only three years. Sandra: Which one do you have in mind? Soraya: I like Graphic Design. What about you? Are you going to the university? Sandra: Yes. I’m going to study Food Engineering at Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez, in Canoabo. Where are you going to study Graphic Design? Soraya: I’m going to study at Instituto Universitario Antonio José de Sucre in Valencia.

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K. Let's create

You and your friend are going to OPSU to look for some information. Neither of you have a car. You checked th weather report in the newspaper. "It will be 8ne at 8rst, but rain will spread all over the city" by late morning. Write your own conversation.

Student A:

________________________________________________________

Student B:

________________________________________________________

Student A:

________________________________________________________

Student B:

________________________________________________________

Student A:

________________________________________________________

Student B:

________________________________________________________

L. Ask me Write questions to the following answers. 1. ____________________________________________________________. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m going to be a welder. 2.____________________________________________________________. Fundayacucho grants scholarships. 3.____________________________________________________________. Our country needs more technicians. 4.____________________________________________________________. Yes, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m going to go to the medical school.

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CLIMATE CHANGE: A SHARED CONCERN As a country rich in ecological diversity – more than 150,000 plant and animal species can be found in the country – Venezuela is particularly concerned with the long-lasting and irreversible impacts of climate change. A historic drought in 2009 dramatically aXected Venezuela’s hydro-electric capacity – the country relies on water for over 70 percent of its generation of electricity – and highlighted how climate change, if not stopped, can have severe eXects throughout the world. Venezuela recognizes the global scienti8c consensus that climate change is occurring and that more than 70 percent of it is caused by the concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere, 56.6 percent pertaining to the use of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) in the production of energy (25.9 percent), industry (19.4 percent) and transport (13.1 percent). However, Venezuela also believes that the increased concentration of greenhouse gases is a consequence of a resource-heavy development model, and not just the cause of climate change. For Venezuela, the cause of the world’s changing climate is closely linked to the current development model that favors the interests of big capital and unchecked growth at the expense of equitable development and ecological balance. Retrieved from: http://venezuela-us.org/live/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/10-08-2010-Venezuela-andClimate-Change.pdf

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by man. Write the numbers in the chart below.

Caused by nature

Caused by man

These are some common questions about climate change published by the United Nations Environment Programme. Which ones did President ChĂĄvez refer to in the extract of the conference? What did he say? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Has the world warmed? Are human activities contributing to climate change? What human activities contribute to climate change? How do we know that the atmospheric build-up of greenhouse gases is due to human activity? What climate changes are projected? How reliable are predictions of future climate? Are recent extreme weather events due to global warming?

Why do human-made greenhouse gases matter when water vapor is the most potent greenhouse gas? 9. Why should a few degrees of warming be a cause for concern? 10. Why canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t ecosystems just adapt?

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D. Vocabulary These are some words related to climate change. Which ones are mentioned in the text? Find and underline them. climate change â&#x20AC;&#x201C; weather - carbon dioxide - fossil fuels - greenhouse eXects-emissions - global warming - solar radiation - greenhouse gases - energy-drought â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Poods â&#x20AC;&#x201C; temperature - Kyoto protocol - el NiĂąo Climate change

'        greenhouse heat / energy / carbon dioxide / burn / climate / thicker / fossil fuels / thickening / gases / power stations / back

Carbon dioxide, one of the ......................... gases, not only exists naturally in the atmosphere but is also burnt when human fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas). Cars, ...................... and factories all burn................... for ...................... (to make a car move or generate electricity). This adds more.................... .................... to the atmosphere, ................ the blanket of greenhouse gases surrounding the earth. This means that fewer rays of ..................... from the sun are able to get ............ out into space. So, much like a ............... blanket keeps you warmer at night, the thicker blanket of......................... is warming the earth up and changing our............................ Retrieved: http://www.rbkc.gov.uk/coolit_resources/general/teachres02aws4.pdf Unit 4: Your opinion should go hand in hand with your preference

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C. Now let s practice Read and practice the following dialogue.

Teacher: Have you read about any social program? Student A: Yes, I have been reading about a program that supports people with disabilities Student B: It is a mission called "Sons and Daughters of Venezuela" Student A: I’m interested in that one as I’m going to study Special Education Student C: I also know about Mission Housing and Habitat. Teacher: How did you know about it? Student C: My family is a bene8ciary of this social program

D. Grammar emphasis Present perfect continuous Subject

Have/ Has

Been

Verb + ing

Complement

Have / Has

Subject

Been

Verb + ing

Complement?

Examples I have been reading about the MDGs recently. Have you been reading about the MDGs recently? No, I haven’t. I haven’t been reading about that. How long have they been waiting here? They have been waiting for an hour. They haven’t been waiting for so long. Has Maritza been working in any social program? Yes, she has. She has been working on educational social programs. No, she hasn’t. She hasn’t been working on any program lately. Unit 5: Time in a bottle

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E. Vocabulary Match the vocabulary with its de8nition. Write the appropriate number on the blank 1. Poverty _____

a. Very serious lack of food

2. Hunger _____

b. The state of being a partner

3. Famine _____

c. Lack of equality

4. Partnership ______

d.The state of being poor

5. Community program ___

e. Elimination, an end to something bad

6. Eradication ______

f. The wish or need for food

7. Inequalities _______

g. A plan for the neighborhood.

F. Reading and re?ecting Read the following passage and express your opinion about it. According to the United Nations, there are several areas of concern related with the Millennium Development Goals progress, such as: a) About 850 million people are estimated to be undernourished. b) Projections indicate that in 2015 almost one billion people will still be living on less than $1.25 per day. c) In 2010, there were 71 million young adolescents (typically aged 12-15 years) out of school around the world. d) Gender inequality persists and women continue to face discrimination in access to education, work and economic assets, and participation in government. e) An estimated 287,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010 worldwide. f) Comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission remains low among young people, along with condom use. g) 783 million people remain without access to an improved source of drinking water. G. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s apply Check the suggested web page and review what has been taking place with at least one of the millenium development goals. Write a paragraph <http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/MDG%20Report%202012.pdf>

Incorporar una foto que rePeje los objetivos del millennium

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Unit 5: Time in a bottle


H. Discuss and re?ect. ‘Sport within the Suburb’ (Barrio Adentro Deportivo) is a social program in which medical services, recreational and sport practices and education are combined. It started from the need to provide health service, physical activities and recreation to the population from depressed areas. This program is based on the universal right of people to participate in physical activity and recreation to bene8t their quality of life. The activities are aimed at people from diXerent age groups. Have you ever heard about this?

The resident representative of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) indicated that Venezuela …” has really good performance through its missions, where the issues of nutrition, the reduction of poverty, education, access to health, are really on track. Some [of the MDGs] have already been met and others are on the way to being met”. http://venezuela-us.org/2012/02/24/un-recognizesvenezuela%E2%80%99s-progress-on-millennium-developmentgoals/

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I. Activating your mind In your notebook order the words to write meaningful statements 1. increasing - Venezuela - have - programs - in - Social - been 2. in - She - been - projects - has - community - participating - recently 3. housing - been - long - have - taking – you - part -program? - How - in -the 4. activity - students - been - The - any - lately - missing - haven’t

J. All ears Listen to the teacher and mark in your notebook True or False

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Usage of Present Perfect Continuous − An action started in the past and has continued until now without interruption. − Some time expressions commonly used: Lately, recently, until now, these days, since yesterday, for 2 hours.

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K. Let's create Write a conversation in which you invite a friend to participate in a community program

L. Ask me In your notebook write questions to the following answers. 1. __________________________________________________? Yes, I have. I have been participating in social programs. 2. ___________________________________________________? No, she hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t. She hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t had time to get involved. 3. __________________________________________________? We have been doing exercise with the community group. 4. __________________________________________________? We have been working hard in our research project. Unit 5: Time in a bottle

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Let’s have fun Let’s play STOP

The teacher will say a verb aloud. The students have to write a sentence in present perfect continuous tense in the notebook. The 8rst one to 8nish says ‘STOP’. He or she has to read the sentence aloud, and if it is correct, he or she scores a point. The one who gets more points at the end is the winner

More fun

Let's play Imagine that you are interviewing a government leader about the goals of the millenium that have been met in Venezuela. Write 8ve questions that you would like to make. 1. __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. __________________________________________________________________________________

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B. Activating your mind Answer the following questions 1. Why did you think community radio has become a global phenomenon? 2. What does the paragraph indicate about community radio? C. Now letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s practice Read and practice the following dialogue. Carla: You knew the answer because you had been working with community radio, right? Adrian: Yes, I treasure that experience Carla: Good for you! What is the main characteristic of community radio? Adrian: They are non-pro8t organization groups. Arnaldo: Besides, they are owned and controlled by the community. Adrian: It is an example of organized community participation. D. Grammar emphasis

Subject

Had

Had

Subject

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Been Verb + ing Been

Verb + ing

Complement Complement?

Examples They had been broadcasting the news before you arrived Had they been broadcasting the news before? Yes, they had been broadcasting the news before you arrived He had been working with the community radio for 1 year before he moved here. How long had he been working with the community radio before he moved here? How long had you been waiting to get on the bus? I had been waiting for more than half an hour I had not been waiting for so long when the bus arrived Unit 5: Time in a bottle

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E. Vocabulary

Community radio station

It has a very good signal

Radio broadcast

F. Reading and re?ecting Read the following passage. We also drew inspiration from the rich history of community broadcasting in Latin America, that dates back to the Bolivian miner’s radios of the late 1940s, and today has a presence in almost every Latin American country – not only worker’s radios like those of the Bolivian miners, but educational radios, indigenous people’s radios, women’s radios, radios in almost every major urban centre and in some of the remotest rural communities. Over the years, the Latin American experience has profoundly inPuenced the growth of the international community radio movement particularly as we have come to better understand the role of media in development. http://www.unesco.org/new/leadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/WPFD2009/pdf/wpfd2008_ steve+buckley+community+media+-+maputo+wpfd.pdf Did you know about this? What’s your opinion?

G. Let’s apply In your notebook, complete the following sentences using the past perfect continuous. You can use the following verbs: listen, create, produce, and read. 1. In Bolivia they ______ ________ ________ miner’s radios for many years. 2. They ____ ______ ________ several types of radio program. 3. They ______ ________ _________ educational program for two years when they changed coordinator 4. I _____ ________ ___________ a book before you arrived

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H. Discuss and re?ect. Read the following paragraph and discuss about this community radio project. Community communication for the eradication of violence against indigenous women of Mexico, Nicaragua and Guatemala is a project that focuses on equipping them with increased knowledge and tools to help end violence against women in communities, particularly against indigenous women. It is based on common characteristics that aXect the lives of indigenous women in their communities. The project has been devised by representatives of the Women’s Networking Association of Community Radio Broadcasters in all three of the above countries. http://www.unesco-ci.org/ipdcprojects/content/community-communication-eradication-violence-againstindigenous-women-mexico-nicaragua-and

Discuss this community radio project.

“The historical philosophy of community radio is to use this medium as the voice of the voiceless, the mouthpiece of oppressed people and generally as a tool for development. Community radio is de8ned as having three characteristics: non-pro8t making, community ownership and control, community participation. It should be made clear that community radio is not about doing something for the community but about the community doing something for itself, ie. owning and controlling its own means of communication.” Taken from <http://www2.amarc.org/?q=node/47>

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I. Activating your mind Based on the previous information, prepare a dialogue in which you will use the past perfect continuous form. Please write it in your notebook. Then you will practice it in class J. All ears Listen to the passage and mark either True or False in the following statements T

F

1. Community radio stations aren't oXering a variety of contents 2. Community radio is 90 percent radio and 10 percent community 3. Community radio should focus on getting the community talking

We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. “For 8ve minutes” and “for two weeks” are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. The duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past, e.g. She had been studying here for more than 3 years before she moved.

K. Let's create Read the following information. Then, write your own conversation based on an existing community radio in Venezuela Community and alternative media in Venezuela includes a series of community television stations and community radio stations, as well as other alternative media. “Community media” is one of three types of media de8ned in Venezuelan law (the others being “public” and “private”). In Venezuela there are more than 270 radio community stations, representing 25% of the radio stations in the country. By 2009 there were nine community radio stations serving Venezuela's indigenous peoples.

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L. Ask me Translate the following statements about the purpose of the community radio. Then write the appropriate question to each statement 1. Sí, promover la participación local. 2. Sí, profundizar la democracia en todos los ámbitos. 3. Sí, promover el desarrollo local. 4. Motiva la integración local, regional y nacional. Let’s have fun Find the words! Community radio, rural, cooperative, participatory, free radio, alternative, popular, educational, environmental, human rights, social conditions, voluntary, social bene8t, diversity, communication, opinion, inclusive, chance, dynamic.

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B. Reading Progress in reducing distributive inequality It is widely known that income distribution in the countries of Latin America is among the most unequal in the world. Moreover, during the 1990s and early 2000s, inequality in the region was marked by stubborn downward rigidity or a slight upward trend. There was a turning point in 2002 and 2003 when inequality began to trend down in many countries. While this decrease was slight and not enough to change Latin Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ranking as the most unequal region, it was noteworthy in view of the prolonged absence of overall distributive improvements. The trend towards distributive improvement in the region did not change in the wake of the economic crisis. Before 2008, which basically rePects pre-crisis levels, the Gini coekcient was falling by 1% or more per year in 10 countries, with Guatemala posting the only appreciable increase (data to 2006). The 8gures for 2010, which rePect, approximately, the immediate post-crisis scenario, show that inequality did not increase signi8cantly in any of the 11 countries for which there is information. Quite the opposite: in three countries (the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Mexico and Uruguay) the Gini coekcient fell by more than 2% per year, and in two other countries (El Salvador and Peru) it fell by at least 1% per year (see 8gure 2). The decline in inequality in the region over a period of several years provides a good opportunity to examine the factors behind it. Studies of this issue have tended to agree on at least two points. First, that most of the decline in inequality can be traced to the labour market, due above all to a more equitable distribution of labour income per person employed. Second, public cash transfers have been a source of income that has helped to deconcentrate per capita income distribution. This issue of Social Panorama assesses these factors in the light of available evidence for the countries of Latin America for the 2000s. The periods under review are those in which income distribution improved most signi8cantly in 15 countries of the region. The examination focuses on comparing the gaps between the 8rst and 8fth quintiles for a group of variables, particularly the diXerent income streams and labour market indicators. To do so, income was broken down by pairs of factors in order to simulate what would have happened with inequality if one of the factors had not changed during the period under review. The 8rst breakdown, where per capita household income is the number of adults in the household multiplied by the income received by each adult, gauges the proportion in which changes in per capita income distribution are due to distributive changes in the amount of income received or to changes in household demographic structure. The results indicate that while the demographic factor did help narrow the gaps between quintiles, especially in countries with the most distributive improvements, its impact was slight.

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Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys conducted in the respective countries. a. Corresponds to 2004-2006 in Argentina, 2001-2008 in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru, 2000- 2006 in Chile, 2001-2044 in El Salvador 2002-2007 in Honduras. b. Corresponds to 2006-2010 in Argentina, 2004-2010 in El Salvador and 2007-2010 in Honduras. c. Urban areas. d. Urban areas only for 1990-2002

Taken from: http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/5/45175/PSE2011-Social-panorama-of-Latin-America.pdf United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. (2011). Social Panorama of Latin America (pp. p. 17â&#x20AC;&#x201C;18). Chile: autor

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C. Let s talk about the reading Let’s scan the reading! Scanning is a reading technique to be used when you want to 8nd speci8c information quickly. In scanning you have a question in your mind and you read a passage only to 8nd the answer, ignoring unrelated information. So answer the following questions: − Is Latin America among the most equal regions in the world? − Has inequality in Latin America decreased? − Was inequality in Latin America lower in the 90s or in the 2000s?

The steps for scanning are: – State the speci8c information you are looking for o Try to anticipate how the answer will appear and what clues you might use to help you locate the answer o Use headings and any other aids that will help you identify which sections might contain the information needed. o Selectively read and skip through sections of the text Discuss the following questions in class: o Do you understand social inequalities? o What is your opinion about this reading?

The Gini coekcient (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) is a measure of statistical dispersion developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper "Variability and Mutability" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gini_coeOcient

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D. Looking at the reading carefully 1. Skimming Read only the main ideas in the text to get an overall impression of the content on a reading. Do it by following these steps: oRead the title oRead the introduction or the 8rst paragraph oRead the 8rst sentences of every paragraph oNotice the 8gure oNotice any italicized words or phrases oRead the last paragraph

The topic sentence is a grammatical term to describe the sentence which summarizes the main idea of a paragraph. It is usually the 8rst sentence in a paragraph. The topic sentence acts as a kind of summary. The main idea is the "key concept" being expressed

E. Now let’s practice 1. Let’s look at the reading “Progress in reducing distributive inequality” and 8nd: The main idea (Underline the main idea) The topic of the reading The topic sentence 2. Skim the reading in this lesson, and write a paragraph in your notebook. Discuss it with a partner. Present it to the class.

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Pre8x: inequality Sukx: distribution

“The State of Cities in Latin America and the Caribbean (2012), uses the Gini coekcient to measure inequality, and 8nds that Venezuela has the region's lowest 8gure of 0.41, followed by Uruguay. Its rate of inequality has fallen signi8cantly since 1990. Despite progress in reducing inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean in the last ten years, 124 million people still live in poverty in the region's cities http://venezuela-us.org/2012/08/22/un-says-venezuela-has-thelowest-inequality-in-the-region/

F. Now let’s practice Watch one of the suggested videos below. They are organized by level of complexity. You have to choose only one and after you watch it, discuss it in groups and write a paragraph with your own rePections on this topic. How do you relate this with your science research project? 1. Social Inequality in the world (2’16”) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gwM2_t17yOA 2. Inequality in America (2’53”) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzXZ23YuDds 3. Social Inequalities (3’) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zr1betcW3Z4&NR=1&feature=endscreen 4. Social inequality holds back economies and societies (9’16”) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2MDbCHlS5V8 5. Social Inequalities in Children’s Health: Ethical and Policy Implications (31’31”) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NzlN904abUI

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C. Now let s practice Complete the following dialogue with the correct verbs: happen, have, want, make, suXer, do, change, made

1. If we ___ something wrong today, it will _____ consequences in our future. 2. When we are young we can do anything we ____, nothing bad will _______ to us. 3. If we ______ the wrong decisions today, we will ______ the consequences. 4. So, if I _____ a mistake today, probably it would ______ my life forever

D. Grammar emphasis Conditional sentences Conditional sentence type I has two clauses If-clause (Simple Present)+ Main clause (Will–Future) Conditional Sentences type II has two clauses If-clause (Simple past)+ Main clause (would+in8nitive) Examples If we plan our future today, we will have better opportunities tomorrow. If we don’t plan our future today, we won’t have better opportunities tomorrow. If we planned our future, we would have better opportunities tomorrow. Would you go the theatre with me, if I invited you?

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E. Vocabulary

Brain

Lie on a couch

Adolescents /Teenagers

Neuroscience

Play video games

Reading

F. Reading and re?ecting Read the following text and rePect about the implications of your decisions. Start planning your future now. First, you have to be aware of the impact your present decisions will make on your life. Next, you will think about diXerent topics, such as: sex and pregnancy, drugs and alcohol, studies and physical exercise, family and relationships, and your participation in the community. If you seriously think now about what you want, you will secure your goals and objectives. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t forget, you are valuable for your family and country. Think!

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G. Let s apply Complete the following questions with the words in parentheses. 1. 2. 3.

What ____ _________, ___ you _____ pregnant now? (get-will-if-happen) How __ drugs _____ your life, __ you _____ them now? (aXect-may-if- take) What ___ ______ to the oceans, __ we ______ rivers? (happen- if- will-pollute)

H. Discuss and re?ect. Read the following text and answer the questions below.

José: I’m reading that the Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Juventud is calling high school students to a contest called Young Art. If we participated, we could win a Promotion Party here in the school. Luis: Let me read. If we participated, we could also win individual prizes like: video cameras, tablets, and art courses. José: We could work on creative videos, poetry, photos, ecologic art, etc. Luis: If we won the prize, our Promotion would be the best. Have you participated in a contest like the one mentioned here? Would you participate in one? Why?

In Venezuela, we constitutionally acknowledge the original and historical rights of the indigenous people. Organic laws also acknowledge indigenous law administration, as well as their territories and educational systems.

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I. Activating your mind Translate into Spanish the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Can you imagine what I would do if I could do all I want? Take risks: if you win, you will be happy; if you lose, you will be wise. If I get up early, I'll drink clean water. If we don't invent, we will err. If we work together, we will make it.

J. All ears Listen to a passage from Cuentos del AraĂąero and write:

The 8rst conditional is used to express possible results. On the contrary, the second conditional is used to express unreal possibilities or dreams. When you use the second conditional, it means you are not working for a result.

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K. Let's create Write your own conversation A group of teenagers are planning their future life in the university, each one thinking about his/her profession.

L. Ask me If I were a doctor, I would heal people. If I respect every one, I will be a good citizen. If we travel to La Patagonia, we will see whales. If we visited la Gran Sabana, we could visit the tepuyes. If I read the newspaper every day, I will be well informed. Unit 6: If you want, you can

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C. Now let s practice Complete the dialogue with the verbs: have, enroll, be,

Mother: If I had got the chance, I would have________ a doctor. Teenage daughter: Why didn’t you become a doctor, if grandma says that you were a good student? Mother: Because, in the 90s university opportunities _____ very limited and dikcult to get. Your grandparents would ______ sent me to the university, if they had had the money. Teenage daughter: That’s sad. But you are still young, and you can______ your university degree.

D. Grammar emphasis Conditional sentence type III Conditional sentence type III has two clauses If –clause (Past Perfect)+ Main clause (would have+past participle) Examples If she had had a map, she would have lent it to me. (She didn't have the map) She would have understood the math exercise, if she had paid attention to the class. (She didn't pay attention) If I had studied, I would have passed the test. (I didn't study) Unit 6: If you want, you can

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E. Vocabulary Enrollment

Train network

University degree

Heal (v)

Tuition fees

Olympic medalist

F. Reading and re?ecting Complete the following sentences using your imagination. 1. If I had been born in 1824, ________________________________ 2. If cell phones had not been developed,______________________ 3. If BolĂ­var had not liberated our countries,_____________________ 4. If I had had the power to heal, _____________________________

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G. Let s apply What should have happened for this dream to come true? 1. I would have been an Olympic medalist, ________________________ 2. We would have completed the task, ___________________________ 3. Our country wouldn't have defeated illiteracy, ____________________ 4. The train network wouldn't have been built, ______________________

H. Discuss and re?ect.

Venezuela is one of the countries in the world that protects and promotes a life free from violence. That is why, in April 2013, La Gran Misiรณn a Toda Vida Venezuela was created. Our Bolivarian Constitution guarantees respect for human rights to all its citizens. Therefore, this Mission is part of a public policy aimed at promoting life as the highest value of all men and women in our country.

Venezuela has reached education gender equality. In primary education for each 100 boys there are 109 girls and in university for each 100 boys there are 144 girls. And nondiscrimination is a human right.

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I. Activating your mind Translate into English the following sentences about gender equality. 1. Sin los procesos de cambio social en Venezuela no se habrían logrado las Metas del Milenio en educación e igualdad de género. 2. Si los seres humanos hubiésemos deseado una paz real, la discriminación hubiese sido erradicada hace muchos años. 3. Si el analfabetismo no hubiese sido erradicado, en Venezuela habría más de cuatro millones de analfabetas. 4. Si en Venezuela la educación no fuera gratuita, el acceso a las universidades sería limitado. J. All ears Listen and write down the information obout Misión Sucre

Sometimes in the 3rd conditional, we use should have: I should have helped, if I had wanted a better result. could have: I could have bought a new dress, if I had had money. might have: She might have won, if she had participated.

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K. Let's create Write your own conversation A person is talking to a friend about what authorities should have done in the past to avoid violence in our world.

L. Ask me Write questions to the following answers.

1. I would have lived in the Pharaoh times. __________________________________________________ 2. Venezuela would have eradicated gender violence. _______________________________________________ 3. Our rivers and oceans could have been clean. _______________________________________________ 4. Yes, she could have been a doctor, if she had studied Medicine. _______________________________________________ 5. Our world would have lived in peace. _______________________________________________ Unit 6: If you want, you can

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Let's have fun This is a song that a mother sings to her child. Regina Belle - If I could lyrics. Visit this site and listen to it: http://www.lyrics007.com/Regina%20Belle%20Lyrics/If%20I%20Could%20Lyrics.html

If I Could

I would help you make it through the hungry years

I'd protect you from the sadness in your eyes

but I know that I can never cry your tears

give you courage in a world of compromise

but I would, if I could

Yes I would, If I could

if I live in a time and place where you don't want to be

I would teach you all the things I've never learned

you don't have to walk along this road with me

and I'd help you cross the bridges that I've burned

my yesterday won't have to be your way

Yes, I would, if I could

if I knew

I would try to shield your innocence from time

how I'd try to change the world I brought you to

but the part of life I gave you isn't mine

and there isn't very much that I can do

I've watched you grow so I could let you go

but I would, if I could

if I could

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B. Reading MANUELA SÁENZ (1797-1856)

“Alive I adored Bolívar, dead I worship him”

Manuela Sáenz was born in Quito on December 27th, 1797. She was an unconventional and rebellions woman who supported the independence movement since she was 12. She met Bolívar at his Welcome Ball to Quito on June 16th, 1822. In the Ball, he told her “Madam, if all my soldiers had your aim, we would have already won the war with Spain”. Later, they became lovers and partners for eight years, until his untimely death in 1830. She saved his life twice and fought tirelessly for his ideals, even after his death. She was a fervent defender of the Liberator, and because of that she was expelled from Colombia and Ecuador and went to live in Puerto Paita, Perú in exile until her death in 1856. In Cuentos del Arañero, Comandante Chávez tells us the story of how she saved Bolívar's life in Bogotá: “History is very sexist, women are concealed, but they rode on horseback too, like Manuela Sáenz. She was described as Bolívar's lover. She was not (only) Bolívar's lover. First, she was Knightess of the Sun, Captain of San Martin's armies and Colonel in Ayacucho. Antonio José de Sucre promoted her in the battle8eld together with a large group of other men and women; because the Colonel (Manuela Sáenz) went on horseback, gun in hand, sword in hand to force Spanish troops to surrender there in the Ayacucho battle8eld." "She was a woman of battle. She went out, sword in hand, the night that they almost killed Bolivar in Bogotá. She practically forced him to jump out of the window. Surely because of dignity he did not want to jump. But as an English saying reads: If your woman tells you to jump out of the window, you better move to the 8rst Poor. That night Bolívar’s enemies almost killed him. They killed Ferguson, his aide-de-camp, and injured Diego Ibarra. They were on their way to his room, but Manuela distracted them and told them: “He is downstairs in the meeting room.” She lied, he was getting dressed and taking his pistol to come out. She forced him to jump out of the window ...” After that Bolívar called Manuela: The Liberator of the Liberator. Venezuelan people, as act of gratitude and recognition towards her contribution to Independence, brought her symbolic ashes to the Panteón Nacional in 2010." Unit 6: If you want, you can

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C. Scanning Scan the text and 8ll the chart with all the information. Proper nouns Ex. Manuela Sáenz

Dates

Places

D. General questions Answer the following questions a) Where was Manuela Sáenz born? b) How old was she when she met Bolívar? c) When and where did she die? d) Why do you think that she was called “La Libertadora del Libertador”? e) Was she a conventional woman? f ) Did she participate in the independence movement? g) Why did she die in Peru? E. Derived words Find derived words in the text, underline the pre8x or sukx, classify and translate them. Look at the example.

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Word

Classi8cation

Translation

Ex. Movement

Noun

Movimiento

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F. Reading aloud Read aloud the following events and dates a.

Battle of Ayacucho: December 9th, 1824

b.

Attempt to assassinate Bolívar: September 25th, 1828

c.

Battle of Pichincha: May 24th, 1822

d.

Manuela Sáenz lived for 26 years after Bolívar’s death.

e.

In 2010, Manuela’s symbolic ashes were loid beside Bolívar

G. Reference Analyze the text and say what the underlined words refer to: a.

Antonio José de Sucre promoted her in the battle8eld

b.

They became lovers and partners

c.

They were on their way to his room, but Manuela distracted them

d.

They were on their way to his room

e.

After that Bolívar called Manuela: The Liberator of the Liberator.

H. Descriptions Look at the following pictures and describe Simón Bolívar and Manuela Sáenz

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I. Sentence translation Translate into Spanish the following sentences from the text. a. Madam, if all my soldiers had your aim, we would have already won the war with Spain. b. She saved his life twice and fought tirelessly for his ideals, even after his death. c. History is very sexist, women are concealed, but they rode on horseback too, like Manuela Sáenz. d. If your woman tells you to jump out of the window, you better start moving to the 8rst Poor.

J. Supporting ideas Find in the text the facts that support the following statements a.

She was an unconventional and rebellious woman.

b.

She was a woman of battle.

c.

She was a fervent defender of Simón Bolívar.

K. Drawing In the following spaces draw a cartoon describing how Manuela Sáenz saved Simón Bolívar’s life.

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L. Summary Summarize the text in a mental map.

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B. Activating your mind Read the sentences about the interview with Sir Mark Walport and write True (T) or False (F) in the blanks. Sir Mark Walport said that… researchers are in charge of doing research _____. it's not necessary to identify important questions _____. scientists need to work alone _____. good scientists recognize tractable questions _____. scientists need time, facilities and equipment to do their work _____.

C. Now let’s practice Fill in the blanks with the appropriate verb form. Rubel: Hi. _______ you _______ (read) the interview to Sir Mark Walport? Leo: No, I _______. Why? Rubel: Mr. Pantoja said that _______ (be) the exercise for next class. Leo: Oh, really? When ______ he ______ (say) that? I didn’t ______ (hear) him! Rubel: He said it at the end of the class. Oh, I remember. You ______ (leave) early that day. Leo: But I asked Lucía to take notes for me. She _______ ______ (tell) me anything about it. Rubel: Well, we have some time. You can read it now.

D. Grammar emphasis Analyze the following chart about direct and indirect speech Direct speech

Indirect speech

Present simple She said, “It’s cold.”

Past simple She said it was cold.

Present continuous She said, “I’m doing the research.”

Past continuous She said she was doing the research.

Present perfect simple She said, “I’ve done the research”

Past perfect simple She said she had done the research.

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Direct speech

Indirect speech

Present perfect continuous She said, “I've been doing the research.”

Past perfect continuous She said she had been doing the research.

Past simple She said, “I did the research yesterday.”

Past perfect She said she had done the research yesterday.

Past continuous She said, “I was doing the research.”

Past perfect continuous She said she had been doing the research.

Past perfect She said, “The research had already started when he arrived.”

Past perfect NO CHANGE - She said the research had already started when he arrived.

Past perfect continuous She said, “I'd already been doing the research.”

Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been doing the research.

Some other possible changes this (evening) Today these (days) Now (a week) ago last weekend Here next (week) Tomorrow

that (evening) yesterday ... those (days) Then (a week) before the weekend before last / the previous weekend There the following (week) the next/following day

E. Vocabulary

Can you think of other reporting verbs? Make a list.

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F. Reading and re?ecting Read the text below. Underline the reporting verbs. Science and Technology used to satisfy social needs in Venezuela Published: 02/23/2011 Over the last 12 years, advances in technological infrastructure and access to it have produced considerable increases in the satisfaction of the social needs of the Venezuelan people, according to a presentation made by Venezuela’s Minister of Science, Technology and Intermediate Industries to the National Assembly. He presented the state of his portfolio alongside the ministers of Basic Industries and Mining, Agriculture and Lands, Tourism, and Commerce. The minister said that the Venezuelan government has democratized access to new technologies and that access to indispensable services; including land- and mobile-lines and the Internet, have been extended to far-away areas. Retrieved. http://venezuela-us.org/2011/02/23/science-and-technology-used-to-satisfy-social-needs-in-venezuela/ About the text 1. Discuss the relevance of the advances referred to in the text. 2. Make a list of more technological advances in Venezuela.

G. Let’s apply Change this direct speech into reported speech. 1. “He works in a laboratory”, she said

3. “I didn’t go to the conference”, he told me

2. “We went out last night”, he said

4. “Lucy’ll come later”, she said

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H. Discuss and re?ect. Interview: “We will make relations with the USA positive”: Venezuelan Deputy to Panorama By Thiany Rodriguez in Caracas Thursday, April 25, 2013 “We are going to do absolutely all that is possible and within our reach and understanding in order to make these relations positive. This designation that falls upon me is a clear demonstration that Venezuela government wants to establish relations on these terms. A message is being sent to the United States”. What did the deputy say about Venezuela-USA relations? What do you think about his answer?

Scienti8c fact? The misconception that people were ignorant of the shape of the earth comes from the partially 8ctional text ‘The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus’ (1828), which incorrectly stated that Columbus set out to prove the earth was round. Retrieved: http://listverse.com/2011/05/27/10-things-youought-to-know/

I. Activating your mind Rewrite the sentences in direct speech. Change pronouns and time expressions where necessary. 1. She said that she was reading. 2. They said that they were busy. 3. He said that he knew a better restaurant. 4. She said that she had woken up early. 5. He said that he would ring her. 6. They said that they had just arrived. 7. He said that he would clean the car. 8. She said that she had not said that. 9. She said that she did not know where her shoes were. 10. He said that he would not tell anyone.

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J. All ears Listen to the teacher and change the sentences to indirect speech. 1. They said 2. She said 3. He said 4. You said 5. She said 6. They said 7. They said 8. He said 9. He said 10. She said

Backshift may not be necessary in indirect speech. For example: No Backshift Backshift Simple Present (He says…)

Simple Past (He said …)

K. Let's create Group work: Write your own conversation. Task: Use at least two of the quotes below in a dialog. Then role play it. 1. The President said, “We want to ensure peace in Venezuela”. 2. Foreign Minister said, “These projects will be e\ective”. 3. Sports Minister said, “I will assume that challenge with the same commitment as an athlete who defends his homeland at all costs.” 4. Sports Minister said, “Today starts a new challenge”.

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L. Ask me Write questions to the following answers. 1. The teacher told me that I passed the test. _________________________________________________________. 2. Yes, he asked me to 8nish the research. _________________________________________________________. 3. He said that in the morning. _________________________________________________________. 4. They said that they would come next month. _________________________________________________________. 5. No, I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t tell her your phone number. _________________________________________________________. 6. She said that she had bought the laptop in Caracas. _________________________________________________________. 7. He told me that he needed a pen drive. _________________________________________________________. 8. I asked them to send me the chip.

Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s have fun Read the joke below. Then write one of your own in indirect speech.

The doctor said to the patient that he was very sick. The patient asked the doctor if he could get a second opinion. The doctor replied again saying that he was very ugly too. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _____________________

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C. Now let s practice Phones are not working properly and people cannot understand clearly what others say. Fill in with the corresponding form of the verb and complete the exchanges. 1. A: Do you want salad for dinner? B: Excuse me? A: I asked if you ________salad for dinner. 2. A: What time are you going to the gym? B: Sorry, I didn’t catch that. A: I asked what time you ________ going to the gym. 3. A: Will you help me exercise this afternoon? B: Pardon me? A: I asked if you ________ help me exercise this afternoon. 4. A: Are you walking for an hour every day? B: Excuse me? A: I asked if you ________ walking for one hour every day. 5. A: Did you drink eight glasses of water today? B: What was that again? A: I asked if you________ eight glasses of water today. D. Grammar emphasis Reported Questions Information Questions “What did you order?”

She asked me what I had ordered.

“When does he go grocery shopping?”

Tania asked when he went grocery shopping.

“Where will you eat your salad?”

He asked where I would eat my salad.

“Who are you calling?”

Antonio asked who you were calling.

“Why do you want to eat healthy food?”

Ramón asked why I wanted to eat healthy food.

Yes-No Questions “Do you drink a lot of water?”

The doctor asked me if I drank a lot of water.

“Did you tell the doctor about it?”

She asked me if I had told the doctor about it.

“Will you stop smoking?”

He asked me if I would stop smoking

“Are you eating junk food?” “Is Anita jogging tonight?”

The nurse asked me if I was eating junk food. My brother asked me if Anita was jogging tonight.

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E. Vocabulary Melindaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mom is a doctor. Melinda asked her what she should do to stay healthy. She recommended that she shouldâ&#x20AC;Ś

Burn up as many calories as you take in.

Eat nutritious food from all the food groups.

Eat less of the nutrient-poor food.

Avoid smoking and stay away from smokers.

Keep a regular physical activity.

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F. Reading and re?ecting Read and report orally to your classmates what the World Health Organization (WHO) said about poverty and health. Poverty is associated with the undermining of a range of key human attributes, including health. The poor are exposed to greater personal and environmental health risks, are less well nourished, have less information and are less able to access health care; they thus have a higher risk of illness and disability. Conversely, illness can reduce household savings, lower learning ability, reduce productivity, and lead to a diminished quality of life, thereby perpetuating or even increasing poverty. Taken from http://www.who.int/topics/poverty/en/ Think about what has been done to eradicate poverty in Venezuela. G. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s apply Gather in pairs and read the questions from a cardiologist to her patient. Report the questions to each other. 1. How often do you call your relatives? 2. Do you usually get depressed?

3. Is there any new project in your life? 4. Which was the last funny movie that you saw?

H. Discuss and re?ect. Read the following and discuss about the appropriate kind of exercise considering the age or health conditions. What type of exercise is best? Exercise can be divided into three basic types: Stretching: slow lengthening of the muscles. Stretching the arms and legs before and after exercising helps prepare the muscles for activity and helps prevent injury and muscle strain. Cardiovascular or aerobic: This type of exercise strengthens the heart and lungs and improves the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to use oxygen. Aerobic exercise has the most bene8ts for your heart. Over time, aerobic exercise can help decrease your heart rate and blood pressures and improve your breathing. Strengthening: repeated muscle contractions (tightening) until the muscle becomes tired. For people with heart failure, many strengthening exercises are not recommended. Taken from http://www.medicinenet.com/8tness Unit 7:What did they say?

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The “Dr. Gilberto Rodríguez Ochoa” Latin American Cardiological Children’s Hospital was inaugurated by President Chávez in Montalbán, Caracas in August, 2006. He said that the hospital was the largest of its kind in the world, where they would have the capacity to carry out 4,500 operations annually, and hoped to save 1,000 lives per year. Taken from: http://venezuelanalysis.com/news/1901

I. Activating your mind Translate the following questions and reports into English. 1. ¿Qué haces para estar en forma?__________________________________. 2. Ella dijo que hace ejercicios aeróbicos._____________________________.. 3. ¿Todo el mundo puede hacer ejercicios aeróbicos?____________________. 4. Ella dijo que no todo el mundo puede hacer aeróbicos._________________. J. All ears Listen and answer True (T) or False (F). T

F

1. Eating plenty of food guarantees getting the nutrients that you need. 2. Fruits are high in 8ber, minerals and vitamins. 3. Whole-grain food may help you manage your weight. 4. Eating oily 8sh may increase your risk of death from coronary artery disease.

The verb ask can have two meanings: o To get information from somebody: She asked him if he ate sh. oTo demand an action from someone: I asked him to stay

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K. Let's create

K. Let's create Melinda’s mom works at the Hospital Cardiológico de Maracay. Look at these reports and write the questions that she asked her patients. She asked … 1. if they usually talked to their relatives. ___________________________? 2 . if they had ever volunteered. 3. how often they exercised.

_________________________________? __________________________________?

4. if they were learning something new. _____________________________? 5. what they had done to reduce stress. _____________________________?

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Let s have fun Translate these words into English and then write them on the criss – cross. Across 5. Vegetales 7. Ejer 4. S 9. F 8. O

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Down 1. Coronaria ón arse úsculos

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B. Let s apply Linguistic Diversity

The spread of multilingualism and the spread of English Multilingualism can be the result of diXerent factors. Some of them are the following: – Historical or political movements such as imperialism or colonialism. In the case of the spread of some languages, such as Spanish to Latin America, it results in the coexistence of diXerent languages. – Economic movements in the case of migration. The weak economics of some areas and countries results in movement of the population to other countries and to the development of multilingual and multicultural communities in the host countries. – Increasing communications among diXerent parts of the world and the need to be competent in languages of wider communication. This is the case with the development of new technologies and also with science. English is the main language of wider communication but it is used by millions of people who use other languages as well. – Social and cultural identity and the interest for maintenance and revival of minority languages. This interest creates situations in which two or more languages co-exist and are necessary in everyday communication. – Education. Second and foreign languages are part of the curriculum in many countries. Unit 7:What did they say?

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â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Religion movements that result in people moving to a new country. English is the most important language of wider communication in the world as the result of British colonial power in the nineteenth century and the 8rst decades of the twentieth century and the leadership of the USA in the twentieth century. English is also the main language of science and technology in the world and its spread is advancing in many countries and regions where English has not been traditionally spoken. English is also the main language of popular culture and globalization as can be seen in advertising. Nowadays multilingualism usually implies English and other languages. English has also been considered a threat for linguistic diversity (Philipson, 1992). The spread of English has been visualized in terms of three circles representing the historical and sociolinguistic pro8le of English in diXerent parts of the world (Kachru,1985). The inner circle includes the countries that are traditionally considered the bases of English, where English is the 8rst language for the majority of the populations: UK, USA, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Australia. Nevertheless, English is not the only language spoken in these countries because it is in contact with heritage languages or languages that are spoken as the result of immigration. The outer circle includes those countries where English is not the 8rst language of the majority of the population but English is a second language that is used at the institutional level as the result of colonization. The expanding circle includes those countries where English has no okcial status and is taught as a foreign language. The contact between English and other languages in the three circles and the spread of English in the outer and expanding circles has important sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic implications. At the sociolinguistic level, the spread of English has important implications regarding the ownership of English and the varieties of English. The spread of English as a lingua franca threatens the traditional ownership of English as a property of native speakers. At the same time, new non-native varieties of English (Indian English, Nigerian English, etc) have been developed as the result of the contact between English and other languages in diXerent parts of the world. Furthermore, the contact between English and other languages and the spread of English also has implications at the psycholinguistic level. English is being learned by many individuals not only as a second language but also as a third or fourth language and in many cases English is one of the languages in the multilingual â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s linguistic repertoire. Retrieved from http://www.susdiv.org/uploadle/RT1.2_ Durk.pdf

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C. General questions Answer the following questions about the content of the reading. 1- Are multilingualism and language diversity considered as synonyms? Explain. 2- Is learning English a necessity in today’s world? Explain. 3- Should we view English as a language that belongs to a speci8c country or culture? 4- Is learning English considered a threat for native languages around the world? D. Reference Read the text again and write what the underlined words refer to. 1. ‘Them’ in line 1: __________________________________. 2. ‘It’ in line 4: __________________________________. 3. ‘This’ in line 11: __________________________________. 4. ‘It’ in line 13: __________________________________. E. Grammar o Fill out the chart below with vocabulary from the reading in part B above. Use your dictionary if necessary. Verbs

Nouns

Adjectives

Adverbs

Prepositions

Pronouns

Other

F. Filling in Reread the parts suggested and say what is being done: comparing and contrasting, classifying, de8ning or argumenting. 1. “Multilingualism can be the result… result in people moving to a new country.” ______________ __________________. 2. “English is the most important language … considered a threat for linguistic diversity.” ________ __________________________. 3. “The spread of English has been visualized… English has no okcial status and is taught as a foreign language. _______________________________. Unit 7:What did they say?

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G. Identifying ?ags Write the name of the country that corresponds to the Pag.

Country:_______________

Country:_______________

Country:______________

Country:________________

Country:_________

Country:_________________

H. Translation Translate the following extracts from the text. 1. At the sociolinguistic level, the spread of English has important implications regarding the ownership of English and the varieties of English.

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2.English is also the main language of scienc echnology in the w ld and its spr many countries and regions where English has not been traditionally spoken.

ancing in

I. Synonyms and antonyms Match the synonyms and write the antonyms for them. 1- DiXerent

leading

2- Population

renewal

3- Create

people

4- Revival

diverse

5- Main

disseminate

6- Spread

generate

123456-

______________________. ______________________. ______________________. ______________________. ______________________. ______________________.

J. Finding out Mention some other countries diXerent from the ones mentioned in the text whereâ&#x20AC;Ś 1. English is the 8rst language. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ 2. English is a second language. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ 3. English is taught as a foreign language. _____________________________________________________ Unit 7:What did they say?

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B. Activating your mind Answer the following questions: 1. How is our Republic organized? 2. In which way will the political division of the territory be regulated? 3. What will be guaranteed by a Law? Investigate: Number, names and capitals of Venezuelan states

C. Now letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s practice Read the following article from The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and 8ll in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. Article 17 Federal dependencies are the maritime islands which _____(be) not_______ (incorporate) into the territory of a State, as well as any island that may form or appear in the territorial sea or that covering the continental sheaf. Their regime and administration shall be _______ (provide) by law.

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D. Grammar emphasis Passive voice Tense/verb form Present perfect

Active voice Have/ has kept

Passive voice Have/has been kept

With modal verbs

Must/may/can/keep

Must/may/can/be kept

Examples Statement

Question

Negative form

The envelope has been Has the envelope been kept No, it hasn’t been kept by kept by the man. by the man? the man. The envelopes have been Have the envelopes been No, they haven’t been kept kept by her. kept by her? by her The envelope must/may/ Must/may/can/ will/shall No, it must/may/can/will/shall can/ will/shall be kept by the envelope be kept by not be kept by her mother. her mother. her mother?

E. Vocabulary Match each phrase with an image. Symbols of the native land

a) The national Pag with its yellow, blue and red stripes and its eight stars.

168

b) The National Anthem “Glory to the Brave People”.

c) The coat of arms of the Republic.

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F. Reading and re?ecting Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. Article 9: Spanish is the okcial language. The use of native languages also has okcial status for native peoples, and must______ (be)___________ (respect) throughout the territory of the Republic, as constituting part of the cultural heritage of the Nation and humanity. Answer this question: Is there only one okcial language in Venezuela? Explain. G. Let’s apply Connect A with B to make sense. A

B

a) The treaties, pacts and conventions relating to human rights

a) except for diplomatic forms.

b) Anyone has the right to access to information and data concerning him or her or his or her

b) which have been executed and rati8ed by Venezuela have a constitutional rank…

c) People will only be okcially addressed as Citizens,

c) goods which are contained in okcial or private records, with such exceptions as may be established by law…

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H. Discuss and re?ect. Omaira Isaac Omaira

Do you know Mr. Solórzano? The Colombian teacher? Sorry! He's Venezuelan!

Isaac

He was born in Colombia but was taken to Venezuela by his parents when he was two years old.

Omaira

He is Venezuelan. According to the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela anyone who was born in a foreign territory and is the son or daughter of Venezuelan parents is Venezuelan by birth.

Isaac Omaira

Oh, thank you for the information. Our constitution must be known by each Venezuelan. You have to read it.

Think about this: – Have you read the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela? – How many of its articles have been discussed and analyzed by you and your classmates?

The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the current and twenty-sixth constitution of our country. It was drafted in mid-1999 by a constituent assembly that was created by popular referendum. It was adopted in 1999 and it replaced the 1961 constitution. It was promoted by President Hugo Chávez Frías.

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I. Activating your mind Change the following sentences into passive voice 1. My classmates have discussed several articles of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. 2. Has the teacher read the Preamble of our constitution aloud? 3. The government has assigned 10 million bolivars to the project.

In colloquial speech get is sometimes used instead of be: The eggs got broken. You'll get red if you take any more time oX. Shall is similar to will. It indicates future. In spite of the fact that it is old-fashioned, it can be used formally.

J. All ears Listen to your teacher and write the following extracts from the CBRV:

1.

2.

3.

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K. Let's create

Some students use part of their free time to read the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela but some of their classmates neither know nor read the Constitution. At the moment, they are discussing how to make them change their attitude. Create a conversation of 2 or 3 participants in your notebook.

L. Ask me Write WH- and Yes /No questions to the following answers 1. Everyone shall freely transit by any means throughout the national territory (WH-question) __________________________________________________________________________ 2. The State is obligated to facilitate the exercise of this right. (WH- question) __________________________________________________________________________ 3. Everyone has the right to express freely his or her thoughts, ideas or opinions orally, in writing or by any other form of expression. (Yes/No question) __________________________________________________________________________ 4. The use of weapons is not permitted.(Yes/No question) __________________________________________________________________________ Let’s have fun Fill in the spaces with the letters of words de8ned by the clues below. The system of laws and basic principles that C_ _ S T_T_ T_ON a state or a country is governed by Activities involved in protecting a country against any attack

SEC___TY

A country considered an organized political S_A_ E community controlled by one government.

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Introduction of new things or ideas.

I N _ O _ A_ _ _ N

Related to Simón Bolívar’s ideas.

B__ _ I V_ R I A_ Unit 8: We have been given a wonderful gift: life


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B. Activating your mind Review the text above and answer the following questions: What kind of document is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? Use your own words. Who participated in its elaboration? Where did these participants come from? When was the document proclaimed? Who proclaimed the document? What does this document establish? What was the number of its resolution? C. Now letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s practice Organize the following sentences logically: (a) This will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections (b) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government (c ) and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures (d) which shall be by universal and equal suXrage (Taken from article 21 of The Universal Declaration of the Human Rights) Order:_____ ______ _____ ______ D. Grammar emphasis Passive voice

Tense/verb form

Active voice

Passive voice

Past perfect

Had kept

Had been kept

Perfect conditional

Would have kept

Would have been kept

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They had read the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The universal Declaration of Human Rights had been read by them.

They hadn’t read the Universal Declaration of Human rights.

The universal Declaration of Human Rights hadn’t been read by them.

Had they read the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

Had the Universal Declaration of Human Rights been read by them?

I would have read the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The universal Declaration of Human Rights would have been read by them.

E. Vocabulary Look at the pictures shown and connect them with the underlined rights established in the article 25 of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care …"

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F. Reading and re?ecting Read the text and answer the question: One of the rights established in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is housing. In the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, this right is also established: “ Every person has the right to adequate, safe and comfortable, hygienic housing, with appropriate essential basic services, including a habitat such as to humanize family, neighborhood and community relations. The progressive meeting of this requirement is the shared responsibility of citizens and the State in all areas" (Article 82). In your opinion: What was La Gran Misión Vivienda de Venezuela created for? G. Let’s apply Answer the following questions about the previous reading. 1.

Is housing considered a constitutional right in Venezuela?

2.

Is adequate housing for all the shared responsibility of citizens and the State?

3.

Hadn’t you read the Universal Declaration of Human Rights before this lesson?

H. Discuss and re?ect. Article 26 of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states ”(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit…(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups… Does everyone have the right to study in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela? Support your answer. Taken from: http: // www. europarl. europaeumeetdocs /2009_2014/ documents wgmedv/ 201/ 201103/20110309_ declarationhumanrightsen.pdf Unit 8: We have been given a wonderful gift: life

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The adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a signi8cant international commemoration marked each year on December 10th. It is known as International Human Rights Day.

I. Activating your mind Change these sentences into the past tense 1.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ekcient Energy Campaignâ&#x20AC;? has been designed to give a new cultural focus to the use of electricity.

2.

20 million bolivars have been allocated to the completion of a pedestrian boulevard.

3.

According to okcial data, 1.2 million patients have been attended by Miracle Mission.

4.

Advances have been seen in areas such as dental care and child cardiology in recent years.

J. All ears Listen and circle the words you hear.

178

1. Society-Societies

3. Resources-Resource

5. Bright-Right

2. Through-Thought

4. Each-Teach

6. Our-Ours

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Present In nitive used with passive voice Noun + to be + past participle of main verb + by + noun Example: Information to be kept in mind by 8fth year students.

K. Let's create Write a brief paragraph in which you compare The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Write some sentences in passive voice: had been + past participle of verb/ would have been+ past participle of verb. (See Grammar Emphasis on page 2)

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L. Ask me Make questions to the following answers.

1.

Poverty, disease, war and discrimination are among the many causes of human rights violations. _______________________________________________________________________________

2.

Because of his 8ght for equal rights for his people, Nelson Mandela was held in prison for 27 years. _______________________________________________________________________________

3.

A World Bank survey estimated that 2.7 billion people (almost half the world population) live on less than $2 a day. _______________________________________________________________________________

4.

The Millennium Development Goals have been promoted to implement the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. _______________________________________________________________________________

Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s have fun Match the two phrases to complete a human right and draw an image for each one.

1. No Torture.

Nobody has any right to make us a slave.

2. No Slavery.

Nobody has any right to torture us.

3. We Are All Born Free & Equal.

I am a person just like you!

4. Right to a Nationality.

We all have the right to belong to a country.

5. You Have Rights No Matter Where You Go.

We are all born free.

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cushioned by sawdust, and seductively wrapped in the softest tissue paper. They had been brought by plane from far away, and they still seemed a bit dazed from the trip, which made them seem even more appetizing and enchanting. “Me they bring in sacks, by burro, and then they throw me in a corner on the bare ground”, complained Little Apple tearfully, stewing in her own bitterness. (… the next morning ) They're rotted! They've rotted all in one night! And Little Apple laughed; she laughed and danced on one foot. Meanwhile, the poor fruit seller was tossing his spoiled apples in a basket, and putting the still usable ones in the refrigerator, so as not to lose them too in the heat. “Here they can't survive except in refrigerators, and I bet in their own land they're nobodies", she said, disdainfully So now Little Apple felt better, and deep in the core of her being she forgave the others for their beauty. Her indignation subsided unexpectedly, she had already accepted, deep in her heart, the attractiveness and successes of her rivals. … Through the refrigerator window, Little Apple and the northerners smiled at each other. The stout Mamey gave her a kiss on the forehead. The ripe Tomato gave her arm a squeeze. And even the wasps and the bees that buzzed around in search of sweetness danced frenetically.

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C. General questions 1. What's the point of view of the narrator of this short story? : Who is telling the story? 2. Where does the story happen? 3. How many characters does this short story have? 4. Who's the main character? 5. Why is Little Apple unhappy? 6. Does she have any rivals? Why? 7. What are the characteristics of the apples from the North? 8. Do clients prefer apples from the North? Why? 9. Why is Little Apple happy at the end of the story? 10. Is there any problem with the apples from the North? D. Approaching the text 1. Read through the extracts below from Little Apple and choose the alternatives. Select the one you consider most suitable in each case.

a) The Mamey's words (asked/produced/gave) a momentary silence. The other fruits exchanged nervous glances. The 8rst to recover his composure was the eminent SeĂąor coconut.

b) Some boys on their way home from school -(occurred/ drew/entered) the fruit shop noisily and asked for some apples-Northern apples, of course.

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c) This (be/was/is) interrupted by Banana from one of the stalks that hung from the ceiling, which fell right on top of a Guanabana. But the Guรกnabana didn't get mad or protest...

d) It never (occurred /occurres /occurring) to the Pineapple that this was because of the scales and prickly ridges that adorned her on all sides... E. Vocabulary 1. Write a brief composition about Little Apple. F. Acting out 1. Write a conversation between you and Little Apple and act it out. You: Little Apple: You: Little Apple: You: Little Apple: You: Little Apple: Unit 8: We have been given a wonderful gift: life

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G. Prereading activities 1. Have you gone to the theater? 2. Which theaters have you visited? 3. Which plays have you seen? 4. Do you remember the names of the actors, the director or the author of the play? 5. Are there theaters near your community?

H. Reading 1. You are about to read an adaptation of an excerpt of the play The Cherry Pickers by Kevin Gilbert. The Cherry Pickers was written in 1968 and is historically the most signi8cant play in Aboriginal/Autralian literature for it is the 8rst drama to be written in English by an Aboriginal person and it became the 8rst dramatic production of modern theatre, creating a three

act drammatization perfomed publicly by a black cast. Kevin Gilbert (10 July 1933 - 1 April 1993) was a 20th century Indigenous Australian activist, artist, poet, playwright and printmaker. He is also a past winner of the National Book Council prize for writers.

An adapted excerpt from act three, scene one. Characters: Tommlo and Zeena. Tommlo: (complaining) What the hell is wrong with Bubba? (…) It's no good. It's no good this year. They're right –but we gotta 8ght it somehow. It's all 8nished. Zeena: (pulling her handkerchief from her bag and blowing) Bubba and the gang have probably gone down to look at the cherry trees to see if the orchard is coming OK. Tommlo: A lot of good that will do'em. The whole thing is 8nished. When we can't give a living any longer from seasonal work, then we're 8nished too! Zeena: There'll always be season work, Tommlo. People will always have to eat and there's always factories. Tommlo: Factories? For Bubba and Subina, Emma? We aren't people in this land yet. They don't give "social welfare" pensions to Blacks! We aren't humans. We aren't Citizens. The whites don’t count us on the census as humans-as citizens. Know where they count us Zeena? With their bloody bullocks and their pigs! We aren’t fucking Human-We don't count –we aren’t nothing! Zeena: We're seasonal workers but we manage to eat. We get the dole when we 8nd a good police station.

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on a Holy-Mission. We have to swallow our pride and go for a bludger. I 'm not a "no – hoper". Whenever I could give a job I took it so I could one day give together something "decent" for you and our kids. What did I give? About four month work in a year. When the money runs out I gotta sit and watch you give nothing. I had to watch while our two kids died because you couldn't make enough milk for them. White kid's fathers can buy fancy tinned stuX for their kids. I can't, so my kids die! Zeena: (tiredly) It's alright. Tommlo. We can only do our best. You do yours. I do mine. Tommlo: You know I'm not a real drunk , Zeena. I don’t hit it except when things give real bad. It's real bad now. It's only when there’s no hope left. I’ve got nothing else to keep me going. I’ve lost the old ways of the Old People. Zeena: It's always been slave-wages and dying’ for us blacks. But we’ve managed to survive so far mate. We’ll get through it again. Tommlo: Get through to what? To become imitation whiteman? Poor black imitation whitemen? My skin’s black but I’m me. I’m a man! I`m not gonna be a poor imitation whiteman-not when even the real thing of them is shit! They let kids die. They let you starve because they won't give me my rightful place as a man. Am I supposed to become like them?? Zeena: Time itself will change their minds. Tommlo. Time and understanding. They will come to understand us and we will learn to understand them. People together in our own right. Tommlo: And where is God Zeena? Why doesn't He stop the 8lthy sell-out of humans? Who is God? Why doesn't He teach them a lesson that life and love is for all of us? That this land is for all of us? That us blacks want our place, our rightful place in this land that the whiteman stole orf us? I tell you. God is not to be found amongst the whitemen. We are nished. We are far from home and completely rooted fucked-8nished!!!! Zeena: Perhaps we're just beginning Tommlo. This may be the start of our real beginning and not just our death as you claim. Tommlo: We'll nd our beginning then. We'll make our beginning! We'll 8nd our own God! Come on Zeena. Come on! If there's nothing better left to live for - if we can't 8nd it - let's have the guts to die for something better then! (He grabs Zeena's arm and pulls her frantically to exit, with his wine bottle clutched in one hand. Zeena and Tommlo exit). Silence. Stole my country killed the kangaroo now I live on bit o' land like Jacky in the zoo...

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1. Answer these questions supporting your answers with a quotation from The Cherry Pickers and the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. a) What happens in this scene? b) What are they complaining about? c) Compare these people's situation to how indigenous people in Venezuela.

J. Writing 1.Write a short story out of this play: write Zeena and Tommlo's story.

K. Acting out 1. Act out the excerpt above with a partner.

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Unit 8: We have been given a wonderful gift: life


I. Creative writing Look at the following images and write a brief story about each one.

Unit 8: We have been given a wonderful gift: life

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Brief (adj) lasting only a short time, short. Broadcast (v) to transmit or make public by means of radio or television. Bring (v) to come to a place with somebody or something. Burn (v) to produce Pame and heat. Ceiling (n) the top inside surface of a room. Challenge (n) something that needs a lot of skill, energy, and determination to deal with or achieve, especially something you have never done before and will enjoy doing. Chick (n) a baby bird, especially a baby chicken. Citizen (noun) a person who has the legal right to belong to a particular country. Citizenship (n) the legal right to belong to a particular country. Cloud (n) a grey or white mass made of very small drops of water, that Poats in the sky. Coastline (n) the shape of a coast specially as seen from sea. Committed (adj) willing to work hard and give your time and energy to something. Complimentary close (n) term prior to your signature in an email message or letter. Conceal (v) to hide something. Concern (v) to worry. Creed (n) a set of principles or religious beliefs. Creole (n) a person of mixed European and African race, especially one who lives in the West Indies. Current (adj) happening now, of the present time. Cut down (v) to cut through the trunk of a tree in order to make it fall to the ground. Data (n) information, especially when examined and used to 8nd out things or to make decisions. Deal with (v) to take action on. Decline (v) to slope downward, descend. Deep (adj) having a large distance from the top or surface to the bottom.


Defeat (v) to win against somebody in a war, competition, sports game, etc. Defy (v) to be ready to 8ght against. Demand (n) a very 8rm statement that you want something. Devise (v) to form in the mind by new combinations or applications of ideas or principles. Dignity (n) a calm and serious manner that deserves respect. Disability (n) a physical or mental condition that means you cannot use a part of your body completely or easily, or that you cannot learn easily. Distract (v) to take somebody's attention away from what they are trying to do. Diving (n) the sport of diving into water with your head and arms 8rst. Draft (v) to write the 8rst rough version of something as a letter, speech or book. Draw (v) to make pictures, or a picture of something. Edge (n) the outside limit of an object, a surface or an area, the part furthest from the centre. Enable (v) to provide with the means or opportunity. Endanger (v) to cause danger to. Endow (v) to give a large sum of money to a school, a college or another institution to provide it with an income. Enrollment (n) the act of okcially joining a course, school, etc. The number of people who do this. Entry (n) a headword with its de8nition or identi8cation. Equality (n) the state of being equal. Eradicate (v) to destroy completely and put an end to something bad. Essay (n) a short piece of writing by a student as part of a course of study. Etymology (n) the history of a particular word. Everywhere (adv.) (pron.) (conj.) at every place, all places. Evolve (v) to develop gradually, especially from a simple to a more complicated form. Excerpt (n) a short piece of writing, music, 8lm, etc. Taken from a longer whole. Exchange (v) give and receive.


Excitement (n) the state of feeling excited. Frailty (n) weakness and poor health. Expel (v) to okcially make somebody leave a school or an organization. Facilities (n) buildings, services, equipment, etc. Factory (n) a building or group of buildings where goods are made. Failure (n) lack of success, not working correctly. Faith (n) trust in somebody's ability or knowledge. Fall (v) to drop down from a higher level to a lower level. Far (adv)(adj) at a great distance. Fast (adv)(adj) quick. Fight (v) to take part in a war or battle against an enemy. For instance (n) give an example of. Forehead (n) the part of the face above the eyes and below the hair. Freezing (adj) very cold, icy weather. Ful8ll (v) to reach a particular standard or have the qualities that are necessary for something. Funding (n) money that a government or organization provides for a speci8c purpose. Further (adv) at or to a greater distance. Furthermore (adv) besides. Gap (n) a space between two things or in the middle of something, especially because there is a part missing. Gauge (n) an instrument for measuring the amount or level of something, a measurement of the width or thickness of something. Gender (n) the state of being masculine, feminine or neuter. Glance (v) to look quickly at something or somebody. Goal (n) the end toward which eXort is directed: aim God (n) the being or spirit that is worshipped and is believed to have created the universe.


Goods (n) possessions and personal properties, articles of commerce, merchandise. Grant (v) to allow someone to have or do what they want. Ground (n) the solid surface of the earth. Guarantee (n) a 8rm promise that you will do something or that something will happen. Gun (n) a weapon that is used for 8ring bullets or shells. Habitat (n) the place where a particular type of animal or plant is normally found. Handicap (n) a permanent physical or mental condition that makes it dikcult or impossible to use a particular part of your body or mind. Hang (v) suspend or be suspended from above with the lower part dangling. Headings (n) the words written at the top of each part of a piece of writing. Heal (v) to become healthy again. Health (n) the condition of a person's body or mind. Healthcare (n) the service of providing medical care. Healthy (adj) having good health and not likely to become ill or sick. Heat (n) the quality of being hot. Height (n) the quality or degree of being tall or high Heritage (n) the history, traditions and qualities that a country or society has had for many years and that are considered an important part of its character. Hiking (n) the activity of going for long walks in the country for pleasure. Hoaxes (n) deceives, lies. Hold (v) to carry something, to have somebody or something in your hand. Honeyed (adj) soft and intended to please, but often not sincere. Horseback (n)(adj) sitting on a horse. Household (n) a social unit composed of those living together in the same dwelling. Huge (adj) extremely large in size. Illiteracy (n) a person who doesn't know how to read or write.


Improvements (n) the act or process of improving. Improving (v) to enhance in value or quality: make better. Inches (n) a measure on length. Income (n) money which one receives regularly for oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s daily expending. Increase (v) to make or become larger in amount or number. Indeed (adv) used to emphasize a positive statement or answer. Indoor (adj) located, done or used inside a building. Inequality (n) lack of equality. Injury (n) harm done to a person or animal. Inland (n) inside the country, not near the coast. Issue (n) the act of coming out, an aspect. Knightess (n) a woman of high social rank. Lag (n) comparative slowness, an interval of time between two related phenomena (as a cause and its eXect). Launch (v) to send a missile, space vehicle, satellite, or other object into the air or into space. Leak (v) to allow liquid or gas to get in or out through a small hole or crack. Leave (v) to go away from a person or a place. Length (n) the measurement from one end to the other or of the longest side of something. Lesser (adj) not great in size, amount or importance as something or somebody else. Lick (v) to move your tongue over the surface of something in order to eat it, make it wet or clean it. Locksmith (n) someone whose job is to 8x locks on doors and windows. Long (adj) measuring a good deal from end to the other. Looking forward to (v) to expect to feel pleasure. Loss (n) the state of no longer having something or as much of something, the process that leads to this. Lie (v) to be or put yourself in a Pat or horizontal position so that you are not standing or sitting.


Mad (adj) having a mind that does not work normally. Mark (v) to write or draw a symbol, line, etc. on something in order to give information about it. Meanwhile (adv) while something else is happening. Measure (n) a system for calculating amount, size, weight, etc. Message (n) a written or spoken piece of information. Mile (n) a measure of length or distance equal to 1609 meters. Mold (n) a container that you pour a liquid or soft substance into, which then becomes solid in the same shape as the container, for example when it is cooled or cooked. Motherhood (n) the state of being a mother. Mouthpiece (n) one that expresses or interprets another's views: spokesman. Murmur (v) to say something in a soft quiet voice that is dikcult to hear or understand. Neuroscience (n) the science that deals with the structure and function of the brain and the nervous system. Nonpro8t (adj) not run in order to make money. Noteworthy (adj) notable. Oceangoing (adj) of, relating to, or designed for travel on the ocean. Overtones (n) things that are suggested but not shown or stated clearly. Ownership (n) the possession of something. Pace (v) to walk up and down in a small area. Pastime (n) something that you enjoy doing when you are not working. Path (n) a way from one place to another that people can walk along. Peel (v) to take the skin oX fruit, vegetables, etc. Play (n) a piece of writing performed by actors in a theater or on television or radio. Playwright (n) a person who writes plays for the theater, televisiรณn or radio. Plumber (n) someone whose job is to 8t and repair tubes through which liquids and gases can Pow. Poetry (n) a collection of poems, poems in general.


Pollute (v) to add dirty or harmful substance to land, air, water, etc. that is no longer pleasant or safe to use. Pounds (n) any of various units of mass and weight; equal to 0.4536 Kilogram. Pour down (v) to Pow quickly in a continuous stream. Prickle (n) a small sharp part on the stem or leaf of a plant or on the skin of some animals. Pride (n) a feeling of pleasure or satisfaction that you get when you or people who are connected with you have done something well or own something that other people admire. Print (v) to produce letters, pictures, etc. on paper using a machine that puts ink on. Profound (adj) very great; felt or experienced very strongly. Prophet (n) a person sent by God to teach the people and give them messages from God. Proudly (adv) to show pride or satisfaction for what you have done. Pull (v) to hold something 8rmly and use force in order to move it or try to move it towards yourself. Purpose (n) intention, aim or function. Quintile (n) any of the four values that divide the items of a frequency distribution into 8ve classes with each containing one 8fth of the total population. Quit (v) stop doing something. Radar (n) a system that uses radio waves to 8nd the position and movement of objects, for example planes and ships, when they cannot be seen. Raw (adj) in the natural state. Record (n) written account of something that is kept so that it can be looked at and used in the future. Regarding (prep) on the subject of. In connection with. Relevant (adj) closely connected with the subject you are discussing or the situation you are thinking about. Reliable (adj) 8t to be trusted. Replacement (n) something in the place of someone or something else. Require (v) to need someone or something. Requirement (n) something that you need or want. Resource (n) a supply of something that a country, an organization or a person has and can use, especially to increase their wealth.


Ridge (v) to make narrow raised lines or areas on the surface of something. Right (n) a moral or legal entitlement to have or do something. Ripe (adj) fully grown and ready to be eaten. Risk (n) the possibility of something bad happening at some time in the future, a situation that could be dangerous or have a bad result. Roll along (v) to turn over and over and move in a particular direction. To make a round object do this. Rubbish (n) things that you throw away because you no longer want or need them. Salutation (n) an expression of greeting, goodwill, or courtesy by word, gesture, or ceremony. Save (v) to keep somebody or something from death, harm, loss, etc. / To keep money instead of spending it. Scarcity (n) shortage, a situation when there is not enough, of things that are needed. Scholarship (n) an amount of money that an organization gives to someone so that they can study at a particular school or university. Seasonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s greetings: a generic greeting for the holiday season. Seasonal (adj) happening or needed during a particular season, varying with the seasons. Shape (n) the form of the outer edges or surfaces of something. Share (v) to have or use something at the same time as somebody else. Sheep (n) an animal with thick coat, kept on farms for its meat. Short story (n) a story, usually about imaginary characters and events, that is short enough to be read from beginning to end without stopping. Shortage (n) a lack of something you need or want. Since (conj)(prep) from a de8nite past time until now. Skip (v) to move with quick steps and jumps. Slave (n) a person who is owned by another person and is forced to work for them. Soil (n) the top layer of the earth in which plants, trees, etc. grow. Soldier (n) a member of an army, especially one who is not an okcer. Speed (n) the magnitude of a velocity irrespective of direction.


Spoil (v) to change something good into something bad, unpleasant, useless, etc. Square kilometer (n) itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a surface that measures 1 kilometer on every side, giving the shape of a square. Squeeze (n) an act of pressing something, usually with your hands. Squeeze (v) to press something 8rmly, especially with your 8ngers. Stage (n) a period or state that something or somebody passes through while developing or making progress/ part of a process/ in theater, a raised area, usually in a theater, where actors, dancers, etc. perform. Stalk (n) a thin stem that supports a leaf, Power or fruit and joins it to another part of the plant or tree, the main stem of a plant. Step (n) the acts of lifting your foot and putting it down in order to walk or move somewhere. Strain (n) an injury to a part of your body such as a muscle. Strand (n) a single thin piece of thread, wire, hair, etc. Struggle (v) to try very hard to do something when it is dikcult or when there are a lot of problems. Stubborn (adj) unreasonably or perversely unyielding. Subsequent (adj) happening or coming after something else. SuXrage (n) the right to vote in political elections. Surgery (n) a branch of medicine concerned with diseases and conditions requiring or amenable to operative or manual procedures. Surrender (v) to admit that you have been defeated. Survive (v) to continue to live or exist. Swallow (v) to make food, drink, etc. go down your throat into your stomach. Sweetness (n) the quality of being pleasant. Sword (n) a weapon with a long metal blade and a handle. Task (n) a piece of work that somebody has to do. Tear (n) a drop or liquid that comes out from your eye when you cry. Thick (adj) having a large distance between opposite surfaces. Thin (adj) having a small distance between opposite surfaces.


Thirst (n) the feeling of needing or wanting a drink. Thriller (n) a book, play or 8lm that tells a very exciting story. Throes (n) violent pains, especially at the moment of death. Through (prep) from one end or side of something or somebody to the other. Throw (v) to send something from your hand through the air by moving your hand or arm quickly. Topic (n) subject for a conversation, talk or writing. Toss (v) to throw something carelessly/ to move your head suddenly upwards, especially to show that you are annoyed or impatient. Toward or towards (p) in the direction of somebody or something. Trait (n) an inherited characteristic. Trembling (v) (tremble): shake involuntarily, typically as a result of anxiety. Trend (v) to show a tendency. Trick (n) something that you do to make somebody believe something which is not true, or to annoy somebody as a joke. Truly (adv) in all sincerity. Turning point (n) a point in time in which a very important change takes place. Twig (n) a minute branch of a nerve or artery. Twin (n) two children born of the same mother at the same time. Undermine (v) to weaken or destroy by stages. Undernourished (adj) supplied with less than the minimum amount of the foods essential for sound health and growth. Untimely (adj) happening too soon or sooner than is normal or expected. Valuable (adj) things that are worth a lot of money, especially small personal things such as jewellery, cameras, etc. Van (n) a covered vehicle with no side windows in its back half, usually smaller than a lorry/truck, used for carrying goods or people. Vessel (n) a watercraft bigger than a rowboat; especially a ship. Wasp (n) a black and yellow Pying insect that can sting. Waste (n) not good use. Waterfall (n) water falling straight down over rocks, sometimes from a great height. Wealth (n) a large amount of money and possessions. Weigh (v) to 8nd the weight of.


Weight (n) the heaviness of anything, especially as measured by certain system. Welder (n) someone whose job is to join pieces of metal together by heating. Welfare (n) the general health, happiness and safety of a person, an animal or a group. Whereby (adv) by means of which. Wide (adj) large from side to side. Width (n) size from one side to the other. Wind (n) a natural current of air that moves fast enough for you to feel it. Wise (adj) able to make sensible decisions and give good advice because of the experience and knowledge that you have. Worldwide (adj) extended throughout or involving the entire world. Yard (n) a measure of length that is a little less than a meter (90 centimeters).

Expressions All the best! To wish people success. By means of with the help of / by using something. Congratulations!: An expression of joy in the success or good fortune of another. Enjoy your meal!: An expression used by food servers after they serve the food. Enjoy yourself! : Experience pleasure. Good luck! : It’s a parting phrase that wishes you success. Have a nice day! : It’s a parting phrase uttered by service employees to customers at the end of a transaction. Have a nice trip! : It’s a parting phrase. Have fun!: Be happy . I wish you well with your training!: To wish someone success. I’ll miss you! To feel sorry or unhappy at the absence or loss of something or someone. My best wishes: I am sending you my best wishes. Sincerely yours: a polite sign-oX. I wish you the best: to send my best wishes to you You are kidding me: are you being serious?


Unit 3

Then and there, here and now


Unit 4

Your opinion should go hand in hand with your preference

Lesson10 Do you agree with me? Baseball is the most popular competitive sport in Venezuela. There is no city or town, however small that does not have a baseball team. From these small teams originate many of the Venezuelan ballplayers that go to the Major Leagues in the USA and in countries like Italy, France, Mexico and Japan. Venezuela has more players in the USA major leagues than any other country besides the Dominican Republic. In Venezuela, the professional baseball season starts in the middle of October and ends in the last week of February. Because it is a â&#x20AC;&#x153;winter league,â&#x20AC;? some Venezuelan players who play on USA teams return home to participate. Taken from http:// venezuela-us.org

Lesson 11 We're going to speak about our future Administrator System Manager Security Professional Construction Worker Plumber Salesman Therapist Virtual Assistant


Unit 5

1. The UN report indicates that there is no famine in the world anymore. 2. One of the MDGs advocates for pregnant women 3. Famine means that there is plenty of food 4. Women continue to face discrimination

F X X X X

Passage: Community radio stations are oXering their listeners a variety of contents that is not necessarily provided by the larger commercial radio stations. Community radio is carrying news and information programming oriented toward the local area. Community radio should be 10 percent radio and 90 percent community. This means that community radio stations should focus on getting the community talking.


Unit 6


Unit 7

What did they say?

Lesson 19 The teacher said that we had to nish exercise 10 1. They said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;This is our project.â&#x20AC;?  They said___________________________________________. 2. She said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I went to the cinema yesterday.â&#x20AC;?  She said___________________________________________. 3. He said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I am writing the report.â&#x20AC;?  He said___________________________________________. 4. You said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I will do this for him.â&#x20AC;?  You said___________________________________________. 5. She said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I am not hungry now.â&#x20AC;?  She said___________________________________________. 6. They said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;We have never been here before.â&#x20AC;?  They said___________________________________________. 7. They said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;We were in Trinidad last week.â&#x20AC;?  They said___________________________________________. 8. He said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I will have 8nished this paper by tomorrow.â&#x20AC;?  He said___________________________________________. 9. He said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;They wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t sleep.â&#x20AC;?  He said___________________________________________. 10. She said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is very quiet here.â&#x20AC;?  She said___________________________________________.

Lesson 20 He asked me if I remembered those instructions You may be eating plenty of food, but your body may not be getting the nutrients it needs to be healthy. Nutrient-rich foods have vitamins, minerals, 8ber and other nutrients but are lower in calories. To get the nutrients you need, choose foods like vegetables, fruits, whole-grain products and fat-free or low-fat dairy products most often.                       Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables may help you control your weight and your blood pressure.       

                 you feel full, which may help you manage your weight.          ! "                # fatty acids (for example, salmon, trout, and herring) may help lower your risk of death from coronary artery disease.


Unit 8

We have been given a wonderful gift: life

Lesson 22 Rights must be known 1. Have-been-made 2. Has- been 3. Can â&#x20AC;&#x201C;be- made 4. Must- be- promoted 1. The secrecy (...) of private communications in all forms are guaranteed. 2. No person shall remain under arrest after a release order has been issued. 3. No person shall be subjected to slavery or servitude.

Lesson 23 A good solution was found 1. Societies 2. Thought 3. Resource 4. Teach 5. Bright 6. Ours

Coleccion bicentenario libro de ingles 5to año  
Coleccion bicentenario libro de ingles 5to año  
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