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The Significant Letter Collection of

Victor Niederhoffer www.RRAuction.com | June 28, 2018


Remarkable Relationships LEAD TO

Remarkable Results

Let’s make history—together For over 40 years, relationships have been the backbone of RR Auction. Lorem ipsum We have made it a priority to keep our consignors informed and involved, encouraging them to share their voices, to instill their knowledge, and to forge a partnership based on our shared passion for history. With a mutual desire to achieve greatness, these relationships are at the heart of our success.

In the fall of 2018 we will be holding our Remarkable Rarities auction, featuring the most treasured names and cornerstone pieces for all devoted collectors. If you are ready to sell and looking for a company that cares about your items as much as you do, call us. Please contact the auction's director, Tricia Eaton, at (603) 732-4280, or via email at Tricia@RRAuction.com.

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CONTENTS Presidents and First Ladies........................................ 4

Notorious Figures .................................................... 98

American Politicians and Leaders ........................... 56

Military ..................................................................... 99

Activists and Social Leaders ................................... 61

Aviation ...................................................................117

Supreme Court ........................................................ 69

Art, Architecture, and Design ..................................119

Businessmen ........................................................... 70

Literature............................................................... 121

Scientist and Inventors ............................................ 71

Music..................................................................... 134

World Leaders ......................................................... 85

Entertainment........................................................ 136

Royalty .................................................................... 91

Sports.................................................................... 134

Explorers and Archeologists.................................... 94

Conditions of Sale................................................. 140

American West........................................................ 95

Bob Eaton CEO, Acquisitions bob.eaton@rrauction.com

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Sarina Carlo Creative Director sarina.carlo@rrauction.com Cameron Johnson Photographer, Media Specialist cameron.johnson@rrauction.com Sylvia Nassy Accounts Payable sylvia.nassy@rrauction.com Dan Robillard IT Administrator dan.robillard@rrauction.com Robert S. Eaton Sr. 1940–2001

Cover photo by Brad Trent


Victor

Niederhoffer

The noted speculator’s collecting inspiration

A family tradition of the written word “Books and letters have always been an important part of my family life. My father was a policeman in the book publishing area of east New York. In those days, they didn’t sell their overstock – they dumped them in the East River. They hired policemen to do the unloading. My father was paid 50 cents an hour to dump them in the river; instead, he saved them. Our house of about 750 feet, plus wife and two children, had his book collection. The whole house and basement were lined with books.”

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“Letters were always a traditional highlight of our family. The parents, the adults have always written letters supporting their children. My grandfather sent one to the coach of the Brooklyn College team when his son was taken out of the football game; I wrote my first letter when my daughter was taken out of a third grade talent contest.” [You can read about both of these, and the uproar they caused, in Niederhoffer’s book “The Education of a Speculator,” pg. 115-116.]


The collection begins “When I learned that books and letters were available, I started collecting at 25. Very eclectic interests. The publishers and sellers have told me that often people collect one or two fields; what’s unique about me is that I collect in every field. Each week, the sellers would come to my office. If I’d had a good week in the market, I’d use my entire winnings. I bought them from key sellers in the area, and from auctions.” “I collected for about 20 years, buying most in the 1970s. I kept them in archival volumes and often looked at them with great longing and nostalgia. I gained a lot of happiness of looking through them and sharing with my family.”

Content is king “I tried to garner the best writing and significance the author could have, [that best displayed] the writer’s contributing to western civilization. I love my letters.”

“The letters form a real tapestry of history” Sharing the Niederhoffer Collection “My collection became so voluminous, that a letter that was the piece de resistance connected with that writer was lost in the myriad. For that reason, I wanted to share the triumphal [examples] of those contributions to western civilization with those [collectors like me] that had a special interest in the area.” “I was pleased RR went through them; I gave them full access of the collection and they chose the ones they thought would be most salient and heroic of western civilization. I think the letters are unique in that they span every field: it’s a good sample of heroic life from the 17th c. to the present.”

“The letters form a real tapestry of history. Nothing was bought just to fill a hole. They all show a tremendous vitality and the key events of their time. Eventually the sellers were aware that I only wanted the most vivid and influential letters, and would bring me those. I didn’t mind paying a premium price for a significant contribution, rather than buying a commercial or mediocre example of a person’s humdrum thinking. That’s important. I evolved so that my collection became very heroic and poignant.”

“When you have many thousands of letters, [you want] them to come to life. I’m happy to sell my best letters because they’ll be the ones more interesting and valuable to those who can appreciate their significance. I never bought a letter just because of a signature, a name or to complete a set. It will be nice to find surrogates who will enjoy them now.”

“What’s amazing is that all the writers were very salient; e.g., presidents Grant or Monroe or Jackson, you never think of them as great intellectuals. Reagan, Teddy Roosevelt... they always wrote great, poignant letters. I prefer letters to historic documents, because by the time they come to the president, they’re antiseptic and for posterity. Letters explain how people were really feeling. It gives you a feeling of what the normal day-to-day life was.”

Endless inspiration

“I particularly enjoyed the letters from wives about husbands. I know almost every great man had a great woman, caring for the reputation and impact of their spouses on the current generation. Since I have seven children, I was particularly interested in letters that described the family life, triumphs and tragedies, and hopes of great men and women. For instance, the letter when Ronald Reagan wrote to his daughter [Patti Davis] asking her where it went wrong... It’s so emotional. Every family has had some uncertainty.”

“The letters are very inspirational. I think about them when I’m trying to do great things. They provide a beautiful background, very resonant. They also come to life often – for example, I just read today a big article about the significance of Superman. I have the first draft of the original Superman. When you collect the great contributions, you see things come back around.”

Curating historic letters into the future “I’m pleased that these letters are going to contribute to awareness of the greatness and impact of these people. I hope the recipients enjoy them and will share them with their colleagues and families, the same way I have.”

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Presidents & First Ladies General Washington resupplies his troops prior to the 1779 Sullivan Expedition: “I am sorry you have met with some disappointments, in respect to Ammunition” 8001. George Washington. Revolutionary War–dated LS

signed “Go: Washington,” one page both sides, 7.5 x 12.5, May 22, 1779. Letter to Brigadier General James Clinton, the body written in the hand of Washington’s military secretary Robert Hanson Harrison. In full: “I have been favoured with your letter of the 13th Inst. by Colo. [Lewis] DuBois with the several inclosures. I have given Colo. DuBois Ords. on the Cloathing department for such articles as the state of our Supplies will admit of, for the Troops which have not been already furnished, and I hope they will reach them, ere it is long. I am sorry you have met with some disappointments, in respect to Ammunition—I trust however you have or will obtain a suitable supply. I have written to Gen’l [Henry] Knox upon the subject of your disappointment. With respect to Drafts or Others who will inlist during the War, they will be entitled to a pecuniary bounty of Two hundred Dollars and the other usual bounties. If any can be enlisted, the bounty money shall be transmitted by the first safe conveyance after notice and your certificate of their names. The affair between Colo. [Philip Van] Cortlandt and [Peter] Gansevoort and DuBois has been sent by Congress to me. It is probable they will send a copy of Colo. DuBois’s Memorial, when the point will be considered. In mean time I flatter myself, the Gentlemen from a spirit of accommodation and their zeal for the service, will not suffer it to be impeded in any instance by their claims. I am sorry to hear Major [Nicholas] Fish may possibly be obliged to leave the service, on the score of indisposition. He is an Officer of merit and his services would be of advantage to his Country, and honourable to himself. I do not know I could

comply with your request respecting the Gentleman who lives with you, under our present Military System—and it is probable you will not be so much engaged in writing for some time to come, as you have been during the course of the Winter. General [Philip] Schuyler transmitted me the particulars of the Excursion to Oswegatchie. I wrote him some time ago on the subject of the prisoners. If it should be necessary to remove them for their security—you will advise with him upon the occasion, and have such measures pursued as may be proper.” In fine condition, with an old mounting strip along the edge, impinging on the ends of some of the sentences. Accompanied by a beautiful custom-made presentation folder with a quarter leather binding. HISTORY In this remarkable letter, Washington writes about resupplying his troops in response to recurring Indian raids on the northern frontier. This was part of the buildup for the ‘Sullivan Expedition,’ led by Major General John Sullivan against a combined force of Indians and Tories throughout the summer of 1779. Two days later, on May 24th, Washington formally placed the recipient of this letter, Brigadier General James Clinton, under Sullivan’s command. Their famous campaign against the Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the ‘Sullivan-Clinton Expedition’) began shortly thereafter, with a goal of ‘taking the war home to the enemy to break their morale.’ Only one major battle was fought during the expedition, at Newtown on August 29, 1779—it was an American victory, and the campaign succeeded in its scorched-earth disruption of the Iroquois. A superb letter by Washington as he oversees the logistical organization of the upcoming campaign. Starting Bid $2,500

June 28, 2018

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Washington faces his first postwar challenge in renting slaves to open the Potomac, after providing “for the hire of Negros, ineffectually it should seem, as I believe we have got none yet” 8002. George Washington. Amazing and extraordinarily well-preserved ALS signed “G. Washington,” three pages on two sheets, 7.25 x 9, Mount Vernon, January 10, 1786. Letter to Bryan Fairfax, Washington’s boyhood friend and nephew of Thomas Lord Fairfax. In full: “I have ordered my Gardr to furnish your Servant with Six of the weeping Willows that have roots; and as many cuttings as he pleases to take. If he does not bring enough for your purposes—or if these should not succeed, you may have a fresh supply at any time. I wish it was in my power to offer you any advice that would be availing in the case of Savage: but the truth is, I do not know where his property lyes—and ’till the receipt of your letter knew not, or did not recollect that, he died possessed of a foot of Land in this, or Loudoun County. If the Law will justify us in it, my opinion would be, that the Execution should be laid, or obtained ready to lay, in as much property as will unquestionably answer the demand—when that is satisfied, we want no more, the residue (if any) being untouched, cannot be injured; especially if it consists of Land. I should prefer beginning the Sale in this County—because least troublesome. By your not mentioning the hound puppies, it is probable you may have altered your mind respecting them; but if the case is otherwise, I am unable to supply you at present, having lost all but one, and the chance of his living not much in his favor. I shall always have great pleasure in seeing you at this place, and shall be equally happy in paying my respects to you at Towlston. I am sorry to hear that my fears, are likely to be reallized by, the Servants which were bought for the use of Potomack Comp’y. To avoid this evil—as much as possible— was the inducement with the Directors to offer such (as we thought) encouraging terms for the hire of Negros, ineffectually it should seem, as I believe we have got none yet. Mrs Washington joins me in Compliments, and best wishes for yourself, Mrs Fairfax & family.” Professionally inlaid into slightly larger off-white adjoining sheets. In fine to very fine condition, with intersecting folds and show-through from writing to opposing sides; it is truly impeccable, beautifully penned in bold ink and remaining as clean as the day it was written.

HISTORY One of Washington’s greatest interests in the period between the end of Revolutionary War and taking office as president of the United States was developing the picturesque Potomac River into a navigable route to the interior of the country via a series of locks and canals, and was named president of the Potomac Company to lead these efforts in 1785. Washington and the company directors had difficulty hiring a competent workforce—in September 1785 the directors decided to supplement their hired laborers and tradesmen with slaves rented from local plantations, citing frequent absenteeism and poor behavior. However, the danger posed by the work made slaveholders hesitant to rent them out—workers were injured and killed in the process, as the raging current occasionally swept a worker downstream, and the construction of locks required unsafe black-powder blasting. A few weeks before the letter here offered, on December 20, Washington again wrote to another company official, Thomas Johnson, to alert him to the difficulties encountered in trying to rent slaves, saying: ‘It is to be apprehended, notwithstanding the great encouragements which have been offered by the Directors of the Company for the hire of negroes, that we shall not succeed in obtaining them. An idea is entertained by the proprietors of them, that the nature of the work will expose them to dangers which are not compensated by the terms.’ This was an ongoing issue—when George Washington took office as president of the country in 1789, Johnson assumed his role at the Potomac Company. In a 1793 report submitted to President Washington he was informed that it was ‘with some difficulty we have obtained about 60 Negroes for the year’—a fraction of the amount they desired. This outstanding letter is an example of Washington’s leadership during this brief period as a private citizen, in which he still served his country with an ambitious attempt to improve its infrastructure. It also lends insight into his misguided views on slavery, as well as the difficulties of organizing and completing large public works—a challenge Washington would continue to face as the nation’s leader, negotiating the complexities of the relationships between state and federal governments while shaping the role of the president of the United States. Starting Bid $2,500

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“The oath you have again, taken, on the altar of freedom, to preserve your Constitution and Government, will be regarded by all who know you as solemn and sincere” 8004. John Adams. LS as president, one page both sides,

8 x 9.75, June 4, 1798. Letter “To the Inhabitants of Medford in the State of Massachusetts.” In full: “Gentlemen. I thank you, for this address, expressive as it is concise, which has been presented to me by your Representative in Congress Mr. Sewall—The advantages and disadvantages of Treaties and the propriety of war or peace, depend commonly upon a System of information so complicated, that it requires all the time of the people to possess themselves of it,—and frequently much of it is of a Nature, which cannot be laid open to public view—It seems therefore inevitable, that those high attributes of national sovereignty, should be delegated to such a number, as is best calculated, to produce and secure the union, of Liberty, with the good Government of Laws—Your declaration, that the system of the late, and present administration, commands your warmest attachment, and is entitled, to your most energetic support because it has been productive of so much national prosperity, is very consolatory—The oath you have again, taken, on the altar of freedom, to preserve your Constitution and Government, will be regarded by all who know you as solemn and sincere, not like those of eternal enmity to Tyranny and anarchy, taken by those Moderns, who by their arts and arms, are daily extending, and propagating both—There is indeed, a point of degradation to which the just pride of Americans will never suffer them to stoop—Sooner than yield our Liberties to anarchical despotism, an appeal to the last reason of Republics, becomes the highest duty of Freemen.” A few dark stains (one just below his signature), show-through from writing to opposing sides, and unobtrusively

repaired edge separations at folds, otherwise fine condition. Accompanied by a letter from Congressman Samuel Sewall, dated June 5, 1798, forwarding Adams’s letter to members of the Committee of the Town of Medford and discussing the impending war with France over their interference with American shipping. HISTORY Despite George Washington’s plea for isolationist policies in his farewell address, his successor was swept into intense international disputes stemming from the war between Britain and France. The United States declared neutrality in the conflict but the support of the people was split between Great Britain and France. French privateers began seizing American ships trading with Britain and refused to accept the new US minister sent to Paris in 1796. Refusing to negotiate, France demanded enormous bribes for the restoration of diplomatic relations in what became known as the ‘XYZ Affair.’ While his fellow Federalists called for war, Adams hoped to preserve peace for as long as possible. Rather than formally declaring war, Congress allowed the arming of merchant vessels and the ‘Quasi-War’ commenced. Adams thanks the people of Medford for their support of his decisions and allegiance to the United States, and would soon pass the Alien and Sedition Acts to silence any outspoken opponents. Speaking in tones that characterize his concern for protecting the fledgling nation, this letter exudes Adams’s patriotic sentiments and brilliant statesmanship in navigating both domestic and foreign affairs. Starting Bid $2,500

June 28, 2018

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As Minister to France, Jefferson successfully reduces taxes on American cargo with the aid of the Marquis de Lafayette 8006. Thomas Jefferson. ALS signed “Th: Jefferson,” one page both sides, 7.25 x 9, February 8, 1786. Letter to Governor James Bowdoin of Massachusetts, written from Paris while serving as minister to France. In part: “Mr. Boylston had come here with a cargo of whale oil, and had wished of the Marquis de la Fayette & myself to procure for him the same exemptions from duty as had been obtained the year before for a company. I was of opinion it would be better at once to obtain an abatement for all our citizens in general than to be thus fatiguing the minister by detail... The Marquis undertook the solicitation, as he does whatever interests America, with the greatest zeal, and very soon obtained a reduction of the duty to about 2 livres on the English hundred, or a guinea & a half the ton as it is estimated in England. This is mentioned to be but for one year; but you need not have the smallest apprehension, in my opinion, of it’s being continued.” In fine condition. Accompanied by a beautiful custom-made presentation folder with a quarter leather binding.

position of successor to Benjamin Franklin’s role as the Minister to France. In his 1821 autobiography, Jefferson summarized his functions: ‘My duties at Paris were confined to a few objects; the receipt of our whale-oils, salted fish, and salted meats on favorable terms, the admission of our rice on equal terms with that of Piedmont, Egypt & the Levant, a mitigation of the monopolies of our tobacco by the Farmers-general, and a free admission of our productions into their islands.’ Not inclined to show favoritism to any particular cargo or company, Jefferson immediately determined that the reduction in duty should be unequivocally across the board. During this period he became a regular companion of the Marquis de Lafayette and soon gained his support, and assistance, in dealing with the French officials in question. Jefferson credited much of his Parisian success to Lafayette: ‘I was powerfully aided by all the influence and the energies of the Marquis de Lafayette, who proved himself equally zealous for the friendship and welfare of both nations; and, injustice, I must also say, that I found the government entirely disposed to befriend us on all occasions, and to yield us every indulgence, not absolutely injurious to themselves.’ Starting Bid $2,500

“The Marquis undertook the solicitation, as he does whatever interests America, with the greatest zeal”

HISTORY In July 1784, Jefferson sailed to Paris to serve as a trade commissioner, but upon his arrival acquired the unenviable

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In light of the repeal of the Non-Intercourse Act, Jefferson remains suspicious of Napoleon Bonaparte’s trickery 8007. Thomas Jefferson. ALS signed “Th: Jefferson,” one page both sides, 7 x 9.5, April 21, 1810. Important letter to his nephew and close friend John Wayles Eppes, written from Monticello. In full: “I found here your letter of the 2nd on my return from a three weeks visit to Bedford: and as I see by a resolution of Congress that they are to adjourn on the 23rd I shall direct the present to Eppington where it may meet you on your passage to Carolina. Mr. Thweatt is to let me know when I am to set out for Richmond. He says it will be in May & perhaps early. This however you can learn from him. My principal compensation for the journey is the visit to my friends at Eppington from which your absence would be a great deduction: for be assured that no circumstances on earth will ever lessen my affection for you, or my regret that any should exist which may affect the frequency of my meetings with you. But here I must brood over my grief in silence. The company of my dear Francis [John W. Eppes’s father] has been a great comfort to me this winter; I shall restore him to you at Eppington, in fine health I hope, and not less advanced in the first elements of education than might be expected. Patsy [Jefferson’s daughter, Martha Jefferson] has the whole merit of this as her attentions to him have been the same as to her own.

and that our accommodation will involve no sacrifice of the freedom of the seas. For this however I can safely trust to the present administration, as well as the republican majority in Congress. I salute yourself & Mrs. Eppes, both the elder & younger with sincere & affectionate esteem & respect.” In fine condition, with neatly trimmed edges. HISTORY As president in 1809, Thomas Jefferson had signed the Non-Intercourse Act, which lifted embargoes on American shipping and reopened overseas commerce with all countries except for France and Great Britain. Shortly after this letter from Jefferson, Congress repealed the Non-Intercourse Act and replaced it with Macon’s Bill Number 2, which reopened trade with both England and France—but promised to reimpose non-importation against either belligerent if the other rescinded its restrictions on neutral trade. Napoleon Bonaparte took this opportunity to deceive the United States—he ordered his foreign minister, the Duc de Cadore, to pledge French cooperation, but he never intended to follow through on the promise. Although the French released a few American ships for the sake of appearances, France continued to prey on American shipping and imposed a new series of tariffs and export restrictions which rendered American trade in Europe virtually impossible.

“This may put us under the ban of the testy emperor, that spoiled child of fortune”

Your letter gave me the first intimation that an accommodation with England was expected. I rejoice at it; for she is the only nation from which serious injury is to be apprehended. This may put us under the ban of the testy emperor, that spoiled child of fortune, and it is true that if excluded from the continent our trade to England will be of no value. But I would rather suffer in interest than fail in good faith. We are neutrals, & have been honestly so. We have declared we would meet either or both parties in just accommodation, and if either holds off, it is her fault not ours. Altho’ connected with England in peace, I hope we shall be so with the other party in principal,

In this important letter, the former president foresees the problems to come from Napoleon—“the testy emperor, that spoiled child of fortune”—and also anticipates the damage that a war with England could bring, noting that England “is the only nation from which serious injury is to be apprehended.” The conflict between America and Great Britain would soon escalate into the War of 1812. A remarkable, prescient autograph letter from Thomas Jefferson. Starting Bid $1,000

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Madison on the impending ratification of Jay’s Treaty and revolutionary Europe: “Nothing remains in the way of a quiet & compleat establishment of a third Republic on the rights of man” 8008. James Madison. ALS signed

“J. Madison, Jr.,” one page both sides, 8.25 x 12.75, April 3, 1795. Letter to Congressman William Branch Giles, a fellow delegate in the House of Representative from Virginia. In part: “I have not forgotten my promise to drop you a few lines on the arrival of the Treaty [Jay’s Treaty] in case it sh’d happen during my day here; but have hitherto omitted to write because the arrival of the Treaty has not added a particle to the public knowledge of its contents. You will have known that the Senate are to meet for the purpose of receiving the communication on the 8th of June. I am chiefly induced to take my pen at present by the pleasure of mentioning the sec’ts just rec’d from Holland. Amsterdam with all that country have bowed to the standard of Liberty. The Stadtholder [William V] has resigned & fled. A Revolutionary system is commenced in form—and nothing remains in the way of a quiet & compleat establishment of a third Republic on the rights of man. It appears that 12 sail of the line with 1000 other vessels & immense stores of every kind, are at the disposal of the conquerers [France]; who have declared that the people shall be free to establish a Govt. for themselves, that property shall be safe; and what will be peculiarly grateful to the Dutch sensibility that assignats [paper currency issued during the French Revolution] shall not be forced on it. It appears also that steps are taken by the present authority of Holland that will immediately reduce G. B. [Great Britain] to the dilemma of combatting the revolutionary powers there, or giving up the war on those of France. None ought to wish so much as herself that the latter may be embraced as the only safe & prudent course.” Addressed on the reverse of the second integral page in another hand. In very good to fine condition, with repaired paper loss to a blank area of the integral address leaf. HISTORY In this remarkable letter, Madison touches upon a number of important world events—first, the Jay Treaty, which had been signed in London on November 19, 1794, but was not yet ratified by the Senate. As a congressman in the House of Representatives, Madison had no deciding vote on the treaty, but was one of its chief opponents. He argued that the treaty could not, under Constitutional law, take effect without approval of the House, since it regulated commerce and exercised legislative powers granted to Congress. Madison lost this early debate on the Constitution, and the Jay Treaty was ratified by the Senate on June 24, 1795. He goes on to discuss the political situation in Europe—William V, Prince of Orange, the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, had recently fled from the Netherlands and was living in exile in England. French troops had overrun the Dutch fleet, and the Batavian Republic was established in January 1795, modeled on the revolutionary French Republic and governed by Dutch Patriots under French influence. An insightful early letter on world affairs. Starting Bid $500

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Penned the very year he helped establish the Democratic-Republican Party

8010. James Monroe. ALS signed “Ja’s Monroe,” one page both sides, 7.75 x 9.75, May 13, 1792. Letter to influential po-

litical economist Tench Coxe, in full: “After adjusting my affrs. here with paying for some articles sent home, altho’ I have not been disappointed in the remittances expected, I find it will not be convenient for me to reimburse what you so kindly advanced me, at present. If however you have immediate occasion for the four hundred dolrs. I shall easily procure the amt. for you—or place it on such footing, that drawing it from the bank, it shall be remit[t]ed in time to answr. by engag’ment. Will it likewise be convenient for you to take my draft on the Govr. of Virginia [Henry Lee] for £40 of the currency of that State, payable at 10 days, & furnish me the money here? I wish the aid of that fund with me on the road to guard agnst. accidents, & know not with whom to negotiate a bill. I had intended to have furnished you with some queries upon an interesting political subject, but have been so engaged during the session & since (in the adjustment of the affrs. of some of my constituents) that I have not been able to make the proper division of the subject, or present it to your consideration in that propitious manner I wd. wish. If however you mean to develop it I will write you advice on it in the course of a few weeks.” In fine condition, with a light block of toning to the first page. Starting Bid $300

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Monroe remains ever wary of “the wicked ambition & gigantic usurpations of Bonaparte” following the War of 1812 8011. James Monroe. ALS signed “Ja’s Monroe,” four pages

on two adjoining sheets, 7.75 x 10, May 28, 1815. Long letter to Secretary of the Treasury Alexander James Dallas, reflecting on the political state of the Western world. In part: “I observe that the squadron has sailed for the Mediterranean, & that the contemplated reduction of the army has been carried into effect. The manner in which the latter measure is announced, is generally & much approved here... Is it not surprising that we hear so little from Europe, of the consequences likely to result from the late changes in France? The more I have reflected, on the probable consequences of that important event, the more confirmed have I been in the first impression which it made on my mind. If Bonaparte has been receiv’d with such unanimity as to prevent a civil war, the foreign war, if it takes place, will probably be confined principally to England, & be of short duration. We must retake Belgium to contrast his reign with that of the Bourbons, and that is a necessary incident to his restoration. It will consolidate his power in France, & confining his views to it, the other powers of the continent will probably acquiesce even without war. Austria, if not a party to his late movement, will be soon reconciled to it, by the interest she takes in the fortune of his son, by accommodations which she may obtain in Italy, and by the obvious policy of looking to France for a counterweight to the otherwise overwhelming power of Russia.

have been her previous menacings, abstain from the contest. Had Bonaparte avoided his continental system, and the attempt to subjugate the continent to carry it into effect, thereby outstripping England in her usurpation & aiming at universal monarchy, he might have engaged Russia on his side in the contest against England. It was equally this interest of Russia, or at least equally consistent with her previous policy, as it was of France, to oppose the maritime usurpations of England, & nothing turned her from that course, but the wicked ambition & gigantic usurpations of Bonaparte. It will be more difficult at this time to accomplish the same object, but still I think it practicable if pursued, with a sincere & frank policy. A part of his plan should be to leave Holland independent. This would be a proof and a pledge of the integrity of his professions in favor of moderation. It would lead also to tranquilize Prussia & to save the honor of England as to the loss of Belgium. Every day we may expect to receive accounts from Europe which will dissipate all doubt, on these important topics.

“If Bonaparte has been receiv’d with such unanimity as to prevent a civil war, the foreign war, if it takes place, will probably be confined principally to England”

Under the Bourbons France affords none. Prussia is in fact in the opposite scale, and England is too much separated from the continent, by her insular situation, & other circumstances, to hold a distinct place & be relied on in such a cause. Of Spain & Naples it is hardly worth while to speak. Ferd[inan]d is in the interest of the Bourbons, but he will be driven out after them, if he does not act with caution. Murat has probably found out, that he cannot incorporate himself with the old houses of Europe, & must rely on the restoration of Bonaparte for his own safety. It seems probable, that if Bonaparte confines his views to Belgium, and acts in so explicit & divided a manner, as to satisfy other powers of it, that it will not be easy if practicable for England to draw Russia into the war against him. The distance is too great for such an enterprise, if it involves nothing more than the simple question, who shall reign in France? If Russia stands aloof, Prussia must, whatever may

Whatever may be the lot of Europe I think that the U. States have gained immense advantages, by their stand against England & France, and the honorable manner in which they terminated the war with the former.” Professionally silked on both sides and in fine condition, with a repaired tear to the left edge of the first page and a minor area of repaired paper loss to lower left corner. HISTORY An integral cabinet member in the administration of President Madison, Monroe influenced the diplomacy, strategy, and even the fighting of the War of 1812, serving as both the Secretary of State and War during a pivotal five-month period from September 27, 1814 to March 2, 1815. Given that much of the external pressures Monroe faced as Secretary of State revolved around the Napoleonic Wars and American neutrality, the news of Napoleon’s return to France from his exile on Elba, exemplifying the “wicked ambition & gigantic usurpations of Bonaparte,” alarmed Monroe to the extent that he requested a special session of Congress. Napoleon, however, on June 18, 1815, lost the decisive Battle of Waterloo and was again forced to abdicate his throne. Monroe’s experience from the War of 1812 and his dealings with Napoleon would shape his presidency and the landmark Monroe Doctrine of 1823. Starting Bid $300

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Monroe writes from Paris less than two months after signing the Louisiana Purchase 8012. James Monroe.

ALS signed “Jas. Monroe,” 8 x 10, June 18, 1803. Letter to Nathaniel Cutting, written by Monroe from Paris as the soon-to-be ambassador to Great Britain, in full: “I have so long sinned by neglecting several of my old friends on this side of the water, since my arrival, that the sense of it has really become a severe reproach to me. Among these is yourself and two or three others in England, who however I well know will not hesitate to pardon me especially when you hear my excuse. I expect to be in England in about two weeks at farthest when I shall have the pleasure to see you, as also Mr. Barlow, Mr. Irvine and Mr. Sumpter, to whom be so kind as make my very respectful regards. On publick matters I shall say nothing, nor indeed have I time to add more than the assurance of my sincere & constant friendship.” In fine condition, with a small hole above the salutation, and some seal-related paper loss to the hinge. HISTORY The “publick matters” to which Monroe declines comment likely relate to the recent American purchase of the Louisiana territory from Napoleon. Although he had been formally expelled from France on his last diplomatic mission, President Jefferson ordered Monroe to assist resident Minister to France Robert Livingston with the negotiations. On April 30, 1803, Monroe, Livingston, and Treasury Minister François de Barbé-Marbois signed the historic transaction and promptly doubled the size of America for the sum of $15 million. Just two weeks after writing this letter, Monroe was appointed as US Minister to the United Kingdom. An exceptional offering dating to a most significant period in American expansion. Starting Bid $300

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The 21-year-old law student: “Surrounded by the learning and ingenuity of three thousand years, a mind in the least stimulated by curiosity or ambition cannot complain of the tediousness of time” 8013. John Quincy Adams. ALS signed

“J. Q. Adams,” one page both sides, 7.5 x 10, November 21, 1788. Letter to James Bridge, written by Adams from Braintree as a 21-year-old law student. In part: “Indeed you were not mistaken when you judg’d what my feelings would be upon the perusal of your animated descriptions of the social engagements in which I have often shared. Your observation was anticipated by an involuntary sigh which came from my heart, and which I am sure you will not attribute to envy. It was the tribute of friendship and has just now been repeated, upon the recollection, that at this instant you are probably renewing the festive scene. Those hours which you are enlivening with the charms of unrestrained conversation, I am passing in the solitary dignity of silence. Surrounded by the learning and ingenuity of three thousand years, a mind in the least stimulated by curiosity or ambition cannot complain of the tediousness of time; yet I often wish I could more effectually vary the sources of enjoyment, and mingle the pleasures of an intercourse with my living friends, to those of a participation in the speculations of the ‘mighty dead.’ In my transactions for a month or five weeks past I have been mechanically regular. My Health is in a great measure restored; but I religiously allot three hours every day to exercise: eight or nine to sleep, which I generally obtain; and the remainder in part to idleness and in part to study, chiefly reading: but I have almost wholly confined my reading to amusing and entertaining subjects. Foster’s Crown Law, and about 100 pages in Harris’s Justinian, are all the fruit of my professional studies that I can boast of hitherto; but I hope to be able henceforward to allow a considerable portion of my time to the occupation the most important to me, since my future support is to depend on it.” Addressed on the reverse of the second integral page by Adams to “Mr. James Bridge, Newbury-Port.” In fine condition, with partial separation along the hinge with its integral address leaf. HISTORY After graduating from Harvard in July 1787, John Quincy Adams studied law in Theophilus Parsons of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He gained admission to the bar in 1790 and began practicing law in Boston, following in the footsteps of his father. A wonderful, early letter from Adams on a topic familiar to any college student—the difficulty of balancing serious studies with his social life. Starting Bid $300

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Adams ridicules the British Whigs and comments on electoral reforms: “The Gypsies are the Romancers of Beggary. The whigs are the Romancers of Liberty” 8014. John Quincy Adams. ALS signed “J.

Q. Adams,” one page both sides, 8 x 10, April 17, 1831. Letter to his friend Richard Rush, who had served under Adams as Secretary of the Treasury. In part: “I had already received, though I know not from whom, the paper containing the Article of Britannus, and had been amused with his defence of the English Whigs. They are a Class of People ‘sui generis’ almost as much as the Gypsies, of whom I suppose you occasionally have met some in England. The Gypsies are the Romancers of Beggary. The whigs are the Romancers of Liberty. What the Gypsies would do with the Country if his Majesty King William the fourth should compose his Cabinet Council of them is not easily imagined, but if they should display as much ignorance of the world, and of their own Country, with as much self-sufficiency, and a propensity to blunder as signal, as the whigs have done when in power for the last half century, no doubt their administration would be equally short. Since the commencement of the Reign of George the third, once in ten, fifteen or twenty years the whigs have obtained possession of the Government, and hold it just long enough to demonstrate to the conviction of the Nation that they are utterly incompetent to the task of managing the Public Affairs. Their present experiment does not appear likely to last longer than those which preceded it, and the House of Commons is already exhibiting majorities against them upon propositions of their Chancellor of the Exchequer. This Lord Althorp begins his career by proposing a duty of a penny a pound upon raw Cotton from the United States—which may be considered as an indication of the ministerial feeling towards this Country... But the great and absorbing interest for the present appears to be concentrated in Lord John Russell’s Plan of Parliamentary Reform. The retrenchment of nearly two hundred members from the House of Commons, with the substitution of nearly an equal number through the medium of Elections really popular, will be in itself so great a Revolution in the British Government, that I can scarcely realize that it will yet be effected. It is a curious spectacle to see a convict for Sedition in Ireland at the same moment seizing the first Rank as the Champion of Reform in the English House of Commons.” In fine condition. Accompanied by a gorgeous custom-made presentation folder with a quarter leather binding. HISTORY In Great Britain, the system of government was undergoing a revolution—spearheaded by Lord John Russell, the Great Reform Act of 1832 was designed to establish a more representative legislative body in Parliament. The Whig government benefitted by enfranchising a large mass of merchants, manufacturers, and other members of the middle class, who were now empowered to elect their representatives. In this letter, written at the advent of of Britain’s ‘Era of Reform,’ Adams marvels at the audacity of instituting a renewed electoral system, but questions whether the leadership can be effective. A wonderful letter on the subject of democracy from the former American president. Starting Bid $200

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President Jackson declines to attend a celebration of “the birth of Thomas Jefferson”

8016. Andrew Jackson. LS as president, one page both sides, 8 x 10, April 12, 1835. Letter to Messrs. Samuel Hart, W. J. Luper, Henry Horn, F. Flower, and T. M. Troutman. In full: “I pray you to accept my thanks for the honor you have conferred upon me, by your invitation to unite with the Democratic citizens of the city & county of Philadelphia, in the celebration, which they propose, of the approaching anniversary of the birth of Thomas Jefferson. It would give me great pleasure to be present on so interesting an occasion but my public duties will not permit me. There can be no tribute to the memory of that illustrious man, manifesting the love and respect of the friends of liberty and equal rights, which does not command my cordial approbation.” In very good to fine condition, with a few edge tears, light toning (somewhat irregular on the signed side), and reinforcement to the central horizontal fold.

HISTORY The day after Jackson signed this letter, the city of Philadelphia celebrated the 92nd anniversary of Jefferson’s birth. Both men shared similar views on an unintrusive government and the rights of the common man, but Jefferson’s thoughts on Jackson’s march towards the presidency were admittedly cold. In an interview with Daniel Webster in December 1824, Jefferson noted how he was ‘much alarmed at the prospect of seeing General Jackson become President. He is one of the most unfit men I know of for such a place. He has very little respect for laws or Constitutions.’ John Quincy Adams won the election, and Jefferson passed away on July 4, 1826, three years before Jackson took office. A wonderful letter connecting two of America’s early statesmen. Starting Bid $300

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Jackson closes his “account with the Government” and mentions the “Seminole War” 8017. Andrew Jackson. ALS,

one page, 7.75 x 9.75, January 6, 1819. Letter to Mayor Milo Mason, Deputy Quartermaster General of the Southern Department in Nashville, Tennessee. In full: “Inclosed you will find a note to Mr. McLamore to advance you one thousand dollars, and I have wrote to Mr. James Jackson Gen’l of the house of James Jackson & Co. to advance you the sum of 1883 dollars. This sum of 2883 dollars will close my account with the Government, with the sums due [me]—I regret I did not attend to it yesterday but not having the accounts with me I did not recollect the amount. I wish to close my accounts in full & take your receipt for the amount and therefore request that you will take the trouble to receive the above mentioned sums & when you reach here I will receipt on the accounts I have & close it with public by your receipt in full.” In a postscript signed “A. J.,” he adds: “Send me the answer with the letter B.B. which I heard mention made yesterday—& the proof sheets of the Seminole War, & write me by return of servant when you & the other gentlemen will be here.” Addressed on the reverse in Jackson’s hand. In very good to fine condition, with minor paper loss along intersecting folds, seal-related paper loss to the left edge, tear to the right edge, and a few seal-related stains.

HISTORY The recovery of foreign markets in the wake of the 1816 ‘Year without a Summer’ took a terrible toll on the American cotton industry, with the value of cotton dropping 25% in a single day and effectually ushering in the Panic of 1819, the first major peacetime financial crisis in United States history. Swift opposition to the handling of the Bank of the United States came from state chartered private banking interests, as well as from Old Republicans holding firm to the principles of Jeffersonian agrarianism and limited federal power. Jackson, whose own experience with faulty land transactions had left him in considerable debt, cast the blame solely on the Second Bank of the United States, an institution he would inevitably conquer as president in 1833. A fascinating missive that presages Jackson’s controversial Bank War. Starting Bid $300

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“The country might be saved”—a former president on the state of the Union preceding the Civil War

8018. John Tyler. ALS, one page both sides, 7.75 x 10, November 19, 1855. Important political letter to his son Robert Tyler. In part: “The course which you suggest for my political conduct, is precisely that which I have adopted. I am in all sincerity for Mr. [Henry Alexander] Wise, and shall truly rejoice if one so correct in opinion and so honorable in action can be elevated to the Presidency. If he surrounded himself by Councillors of the same high order with himself, the country might be saved. But I confess that I am almost in despair, although I bear constantly in mind the Roman maxim ‘never to despair of the Republic.’ Have you read in the Herald of last week the article from the London news under the hand of the Pacific News. It is a direct appeal to the North to break up the Union, accompanied with a long and bitter tirade against the South. If there is not Patriotism enough in New England to revolt against that, or if the scales over their eyes is not remov’d by it, then treason is spread broadcast and there is required no ghost from his grave to tell us that the end is nigh. Rely upon it that the next four years will prove to be the turning point of our destiny,

and that it requires no ordinary man at the head of affairs to weather the storm. I even doubt whether the Presidency would be desirable. He would be but a wreck in history, whose administration should witness a destruction of the government. But I must here end my gloomy reflections as I have to avail myself of the passing boat for this letter.” In fine condition. Accompanied by an attractive custom-made presentation folder with a quarter leather binding. HISTORY With the support of his friend John Tyler, Henry A. Wise had won the 1855 election for governor of Virginia. His sweeping victory was enough to bring his name to the forefront of early Democratic Party conversations for their presidential candidate in 1856. James Buchanan ultimately received the nomination and was elected to the White House, where he proved ineffectual and did little more than preside over a rapidly disintegrating Union. A remarkable, clairvoyant letter by Tyler written during a politically tumultuous period in American history. Starting Bid $200

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Tyler leads a last-ditch Peace Conference in February 1861— “I trust that the Commissioners who are here assembled will act under the influence of its patriotic language and precepts” 8019. John Tyler. ALS, one page, 7.25 x 9.25, February 7, 1861. Letter to “Mr. French,” written from “Brown’s Hotel” on the eve of the Civil War. In part: “Many thanks for the beautiful copy of Mr. Webster’s letter to John Taylor which you… presented to me. I have directed it to be placed in a suitable frame forthwith, and shall hang it up in my parlour here…Be assured, my dear sir, by whatever party name you may prefer to be known by your fellow men, I shall never be able to regard you as other than a patriot because of your devotion to the principles contained in the letter you have sent me. I trust that the Commissioners who are here assembled will act under the influence of its patriotic language and precepts. In that event we shall have but little to fear.” A brief transmittal note by the recipient is penned on the second integral page. In fine condition, with light staining from an old repair to a fold split, and a strip of old mounting residue along the reverse edge. HISTORY Three days before this letter was written, the 70-year-old Tyler headed a Peace Conference at the Willard’s Hotel in Washington in a final effort to resolve sectional division and avert Civil War. The conference featured a total of 131 representatives from fourteen free and seven slave states—none of the seven secessioncommitted Deep South states attended—with Tyler making opening remarks to the audience that included six former cabinet members, nineteen ex-governors, fourteen former senators, fifty former representatives, and twelve state Supreme Court justices. The three week convention culminated with the drafting of a seven-point constitutional amendment that was soundly rejected in the Senate by a 28-7 vote, and a last attempt for negotiations between Unionist southerners and representatives from the incoming Republican government was nullified by the First Battle of Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Tyler, twice a voter for secession, passed away less than a year later. The gifted letter was likely a piece of correspondence between New York Congressman John W. Taylor and New England representative Daniel Webster, who served as Secretary of State under President Tyler from 1841 to 1843. Starting Bid $300

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Governor Polk roots for a Van Buren victory: “With proper vigilance to bring every Democratic voter to the polls— and to guard against fraudulent or illegal voting we must carry the State in November” 8020. James K. Polk. ALS, one

page both sides, 7.75 x 9.75, October 17, 1840. Letter to Colonel Samuel H. Laughlin, in part: “Learning on my return from the District that the prepared meetings in Carman & White had been abandoned, I have written to Tunny & Frick that I would be at Winchester or such other point in Franklin as they might select—on Monday the 26th Instant—if they would get up a meeting for that day. I take it for granted they will do so, and would be glad to meet you there, unless you are more profitably engaged elsewhere. I hope you will not fail to address the people in Bledsoe & Marion before the election. Geo[rge] Carroll’s failure to go to E. Tenn. is most unfortunate. Hollingsworth however started this evening past I think & will be thus at the Public Dinner on the 21st. Our friends in the District speak with great confidence of an increased Democratic strength in that part of the State—Since the election in 1839.—With proper vigilance to bring every Democratic voter to the polls—and to guard against fraudulent or illegal voting we must carry the State in November. The appearances are that Georgia has gone against us. I have great confidence however that we will carry N. York & N. Jersey and all will yet be well. Let our friends be of good cheer—and…all go to the polls on the 3rd of November.” Addressed on the second integral leaf in Polk’s hand. In very good to fine condition, with a tear to the left edge, partial separation along the hinge, and seal-related paper loss to the integral address leaf. HISTORY Following a four-year term as Speaker of the House of Representatives, Polk was elected governor of Tennessee in 1839. His two-year administration was absorbed primarily in national politics, and in this letter he refers to the upcoming presidential election of 1840. The election saw politically inexperienced Whig William Henry Harrison square off against Democrat Martin Van Buren. In spite of Polk’s optimism regarding improved demographics in Tennessee, Harrison easily won the state and the election. A desirable, boldly penned letter boasting exceptional political content. Starting Bid $200

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Taylor bans the sale of liquor to Indians: “I am not in the habit of permitting the laws of the land to be knowingly violated by those acting under my authority”

8021. Zachary Taylor. LS signed “Z. Taylor Col., 1st Regt.

U.S. Infy., Comdg.,” one page both sides, 7.75 x 9.75, December 12, 1834. Letter to Adjutant General Roger Jones, written while commanding Fort Crawford. In full: “I received by the last mail a communication, signed by the Commanding General of the Army, of which the following is an Extract: ‘The Secretary of War has been informed that the Sutler of your post is allowed to keep ardent Spirits in your Garrison for sale to those outside & that he is connected in the Indian trade with one Mr. Baker to whose men he sells liquor as well as to those in the employment of the American Fur Company. As such a proceeding is contrary to law & also to regulations of the army. You will enquire into the facts & should it be so will direct the Sutler to desist on pain of losing his appointment if he further continues any such unlawful practices. You will report to me on the subject of the above allegation.’

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In reply to which I have to state that I do not believe that any of the above practices exist at this post, nor do I know or have ever heard of an individual at or near this Post concerned in the Indian trade by the name of Baker; but whenever I am furnished with the name of the individual or individuals who gave the information referred to, I will take the necessary steps to have the matter properly investigated, as I will then have it in my power to get the necessary evidence touching the same, for I am not in the habit of permitting the laws of the land to be knowingly violated by those acting under my authority where it is my duty to prevent it.” In fine condition, with two stains to the left edge, one impinging on Taylor’s rank. An intriguing letter revealing Taylor’s leadership as a commander on the American frontier. Starting Bid $200


“My views about squatter sovereignty and the restoration of the Missouri Compromise” 8022. Millard Fillmore. ALS, one page, 5 x 7.75, August 29, 1856. Letter to “Haven.” In full: “I have yours of the 26 and herewith return the letters of Robt. K. Taylor of Texas for your advice. My own impression is that I had better write nothing. If you think best you can show Senator Houstin [sic] my letters to you in which I gave my views about squatter sovereignty and the restoration of the Missouri Compromise. It seems a pity that Congress should adjourn without a further attempt to settle matters in Kansas, but you can judge better than I.” Affixed at the left edge to a slightly larger sheet. In fine condition, with intersecting folds (one vertical fold passing through a single letter of the signature) and light scattered soiling. HISTORY The Missouri Compromise of 1820, which established the line between ‘free states’ and ‘slave states’ as the United States expanded westward, was effectively repealed by the Kansas–Nebraska Act passed in 1854. It called for the legality of slavery to be determined by ‘popular sovereignty’—what Fillmore calls “squatter sovereignty”—resulting in the ‘Bleeding Kansas’ violence between pro- and antislavery factions. Disagreement over the Kansas-Nebraska Act within Fillmore’s Whig party led to its demise, with Southern Whigs supporting the act and Northerners against it. The party was irreconcilably fractured and Fillmore and his supporters broke off as the Know-Nothing Party. The great Texas leader Sam Houston, who Fillmore mentions here, was then serving as a Democrat in the Senate and unlike most of his Southern colleagues spoke out adamantly in opposition of KansasNebraska, warning that it would ‘convulse the country from Maine to the Rio Grande.’ Alienated from his party, Houston too joined the Know-Nothings. A letter of great historical interest, especially as it pertains to the issues concerning states’ rights in the years leading up to the Civil War. Starting Bid $300

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“The high-blown hopes of one party gave place to the sober certainty of defeat, while the other is left to rejoice in the cheering prospect of triumphant success�

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Long and intimate letter by the 26-year-old Pierce 8023. Franklin Pierce. Very early ALS, three pages on

two adjoining sheets, 8 x 9.75, November 18, 1831. Letter to his cousin Catharine Kendall in Amherst, New Hampshire. In part: “Friendship keeps loose accounts, and there appears to be no reason why I may not indulge my inclination just now, by throwing off a surplus letter. This is a most splendid evening (that’s news) and I have just returned from a long & very pleasant walk (that too is interesting). I always like to be out on such a night for surely t’is, if ever—‘When the rising moon begins to climb / Its topmost arch, and gently pauses there; / When the stars twinkle thro’ the loops of time, / And the low night—brute waves along the air.’ That the thoughts release themselves from the sordid pursuits and petty schemes of the day and embrace whatever is noble and generous. We then, if ever, call up the objects, which engaged our minds and the trifling amusements, which gladdened our hearts, in our early, our most innocent & best days. We recollect, with a vividness, that comes across the mind at no other time, the qualities, which have endeared to us, the few, whom we have ever met & could truly call friends. In this to be sure there is a tinge of melancholly, but there is a full portion of pleasure, which takes away everything, that is unpleasant. For tho’ we feel, that in the absence of such persons, there is a void, which we may never expect to be filled in this world—we have still the pleasing reflection, that wherever we may be whether wafted on by prosperous gales or fated to encounter the rude surges of adverse fortune—that few will be the same to us; we shall not be forgotten—but you are tired of these commonplace sentiments, common indeed, common to all at this time of life, which has very aptly been compared to Spring, for we surely have neither the flowers of Summer or the fruits of Autumn. I hope & so far as my own experience goes, believe, it is the least happy portion of human existence. In earlier days, if our happiness is not of the highest cast, our evils are few. In after years, we shall probably be less subject to the attacks of the malignant Devil—Ennui—new & more intimate connexions. A sense that the well being of others is closely linked with our own, must inevitably lead with more pleasure to constant vigorous exertions, than when the only object in view is self-aggrandisement. Perhaps you will be disposed to doubt the correctness of this doctrine—but you need not fear any unfavourable influence it may have upon me, for I am determined to make the best of the present—and leave the rest to ‘Time! the corrector where our judgments err, / The test of truth, worth,—sole philosopher.’

On my return from Boston, I found mother quite ill, she is still feeble, but much better. Your other friends are in usual health and await your arrival with a good deal of expectation. Harriet is with us & says we must make Weare in our way when we visit the Capitol, but I have given her no encouragement. You know we intend to cut as great a flourish as possible and I am really afraid, that our appearance would strike the Quakers dumb with astonishment, so that there would be no moving of the spirit for the next six months. I have been much amused since I saw you, in observing the progressive changes in public feeling. At first the bustle of active, ardent exertion, was succeeded by the dreadful calm of anxious suspense, then the high-blown hopes of one party gave place to the sober certainty of defeat, while the other is left to rejoice in the cheering prospect of triumphant success. That the next administration and its supporters may manifest a spirit very different from that, which has been exhibited by the present, is ‘a consummation devoutly to be wished for.’ I believe, that the degree of illiberality & proscription, which has characterised the ‘powers that be’ or the most remarkable, that has ever disgraced a party. The next we trust will not ‘forget to remember,’ that others may differ from them in matters of opinion, without being either fools or rascals. I hope my joy is not that of a partisan, but while, I really regret the disappointment of a few, I should be glad to see it fall with all its weight upon many. We have nothing new here except a Meeting House, which was dedicated the Thursday after I came home, in all the ‘pomp & pride of circumstance.’ We now have the orthodox preaching brought, as it were, to our very doors. Heavens: What a blessing! What have you interesting, always some local news. Why not impart it? Remember me to your Father Mother & Sisters—& present my suitables to my friends (if any).” Addressed on the reverse in Pierce’s hand. In very good to fine condition, with a couple of short fold splits, and light toning to the integral address leaf. HISTORY Written just five days before Pierce’s 27th birthday, this remarkable letter offers an intimate window into the thoughts and feelings of the future president. At this time, he was active in New Hampshire’s hyper-partisan local politics, and carving out a name for himself as a young leader of the state’s Democratic Party. Following some emotive prose and a quote from Byron, Pierce delves into the state of the nation’s politics as the letter comes to a close. A wonderful, lengthy handwritten letter filled with thought-provoking content. Starting Bid $200

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Buchanan seeks the presidency in 1852 8024. James Buchanan. ALS, one page, 7.75 x 10, May 22, 1852. Letter to the Hon. James Campbell, a noted attorney who later served as Postmaster General under Pierce. In part: “Our friends at Washington reconsidered their opinion as to the propriety of my visit to that city and came to a different conclusion. In this, Cave Johnson, Mr. Toucey, Mr. Fomey & Governor Potter all concur, as well as other friends. The reason assigned, which appears to me to be good is, ‘that I should not subject myself to the efforts which would probably be made to commit me, not only as to measures but even to appointments, which myself respect would compel me to refuse & thus probably give offence to some who are now my friends & furnish to others to take ground against me.’ The conclusion of Col. King’s letter is encouraging. He says—‘Some weeks past I almost despaired of your nomination in consequence of the defection of New Jersey. I think now & I am much rejoiced so to think, that your prospects are brightening, and if the South steadily adhere to you, as I cannot doubt it will, you can & will be nominated.’ The Hon. Abraham Rencher, formerly a member of Congress from North Carolina & more recently our charge d’affaires to Portugal, writes me that their state convention unanimously, with a single exception, preferred me. He wishes to confer freely with my friends at Baltimore. I communicate this information so that you may know who he is. I, also, mention the name of Weldon N. Edwards from the same state, the bosom friend of old Nat Macon & one of the most reliable men in the world.” In fine condition, with partial splits to intersecting folds. HISTORY Going into the 1852 Democratic National Convention in Baltimore, Buchanan was one of four favorites for the presidential nomination—Lewis Cass, William L. Marcy, and Stephen A. Douglas were his chief competitors in the race. In this letter, Buchanan refuses to commit himself to any political appointments should he indeed be nominated. On the first ballot cast at the convention, Buchanan received 93 votes and Lewis Cass received 116; Buchanan peaked at 101 votes on the 26th ballot, with Douglas in second at 80; dark horse Franklin Pierce did not receive any votes until the 35th ballot. In the end, Pierce won the nomination with 282 of the 296 convention votes on the 49th ballot. A desirable political letter written only ten days before the start of the convention. Starting Bid $200

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“General Jackson is the man of the age, at least in our country: Van Buren will have nothing to do but walk in the course which he has designated” 8025. James Buchanan. ALS, one page, 8 x 10, February 25, 1836. Letter to “Mr. Sterling,” in full: “I have received yours of the 21st in relation to ‘the Tupper claims or due Bills;’ & should the subject ever come before the Senate, I shall give it that attention which I shall ever be happy to pay to any recommendation of yours. Still I ought not to disguise from you that my impressions are rather against the claim. We have no news here except what you see in the public journals. I am happy to concur in opinion with you that Van Buren will certainly be our next President. All the stormy questions will be pretty well settled by our present chief; & the prudence, the firmness, & the knowledge of mankind which the successor possesses—will make his administration more peaceful & prosperous than any we have had for some time. General Jackson is the man of the age, at least in our country: Van Buren will have nothing to do but walk in the course which he has designated.” In fine condition, with light overall creasing, and the handwriting a bit light but completely legible. At the time of this letter, Martin Van Buren was serving as Andrew Jackson’s vice president; as Buchanan here predicts, Van Buren won the 1836 presidential election with relative ease. Starting Bid $200

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Two weeks after losing his Senate race to Douglas, Lincoln offers legal advice on a disputed patent 8026. Abraham Lincoln.

ALS signed “A. Lincoln,” one page, 7.5 x 12.75, Springfield, November 16, 1858, written on the lower half of a letter to him from Martin Bishop. Before his letter to Lincoln, Bishop has transcribed an agreement whereby the rights to an invention were sold to him in 1856 by the inventors for $2400. Bishop’s letter to Lincoln, in part: “Above please find Copy of County right for ditching machine which I purchased from the parties whose names are attached thereto, and on which right I still owe a portion of the purchase money. They on their part have suffered other parties to infringe on their patent, will not the above assignment of the right to this County be a valid rebut to their claim against me? And as the parties above stated have sued me & they having a Suit now pending in the U.S. Court against others for said infringement will not this act be held as a sufficient cause for Continuance, until the decision of said cause by the U.S. Court. And is it necessary on my part to have the above article recorded in Washington Prior to said decision.” Lincoln’s letter to Bishop follows, in full: “I do not think ‘the above assignment of the right of the County will be a valid rebut to their claim against you.’ I do not think the fact that the Patentees have a suit pending in the U.S. Court can avail you in defence, or for a continuance of their suit against you—Before you can sue, your assignment should be recorded; but the recording has nothing to do with the suits already brought.” In very good condition, with a few small separations to intersecting folds, scattered toning and soiling, and a few light brushes to Lincoln’s signature. HISTORY Having won a suit against the Illinois Central Railroad with Lincoln as his lawyer four years prior, McLean County miller Martin Bishop again sought his help when legal troubles arose in 1858. Facing disputes on the validity of his ownership of a patent for improvements to a plow, and questioning his liability for pending lawsuits involving the invention, Bishop wrote an urgent request for advice to the reputable lawyer. Though Lincoln was feeling the pangs of defeat after his loss to Stephen Douglas in the Senate election two weeks prior, he continued on in his legal practice and promptly replied to his friend’s request. A highly desirable autograph letter from the period that brought him from senatorial defeat in 1858 to presidential success just two years later. Starting Bid $1,000

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An Our American Cousin actress recalls Lincoln’s assassination: “Booth came rushing up from the first entrance with knife in his hand” 8027. Lincoln Assassination: Jeannie Gourlay. ALS signed

“Jeannie Gourlay Struthers,” four pages on two sheets, 8 x 10 and 8 x 8.75, May 1, 1910. Letter to Mr. Mudd, in part (spelling and grammar retained): “There were five members of our family in the Theatre…I knew Booth very well and have always said he took a particular scene of mine to work his way to the President box...The beginning of this scene I saw Booth standing at the back of the Parqutt and remarked to myself how strange he looked before my scene was over I looked again and he was gone at the conclusion of it. I went up to the back and the scene was closed in on me. Ned Spangler was one of the scene shifters, he had just come from holding Booth horse in the Alley & spoke to him and passed to the entrance not a great distance from the door leading to the Alley. I was talking with one of the company when I heard a pistol shot and a great noise I had no idea what had happened. A few minutes after Booth came rushing up from the first entrance with knife in his hand, push me over against the scene and made his exit threw the door to the Alley. I then went to the first entrance and found the President had been shot. A call from the box was made for water. Laura Keene went to the box to take it and have what help she could. She took the President’s head in her arms and it was then that they discovered that the wound was in head by the blood running down her dress. They thought she was shot in the body and were stripping him to find the wound. The last I saw was when they were carrying him from the Box to leave the Theatre. The sadest sight I have ever seen.” In very good condition, with splitting along the somewhat fragile intersecting folds. Accompanied by an unsigned cabinet portrait of Gourlay. HISTORY Scottish-born actress Jeannie Gourlay was a company player in John T. Ford’s Washington theatre on the evening of President Lincoln’s assassination on April 14, 1865. Although the night’s playbill erroneously listed her character as Mary Trenchard, Jeannie played the role of Mary Meredith, with her father, Thomas C. Gourlay, and her sister, Maggie Gourlay, respectively performing as Sir Edward Trenchard and the maid Skillet in the production of Tom Taylor’s Our American Cousin; her two brothers, Thomas Gourlay and Robert Gourlay, both present in the audience and employed by the War Department, were among the first to inform authorities of the assassination. After marrying actor Robert Struthers and moving to Pennsylvania, Jeannie remained in relative quietude; no public statements about the assassination were made by Jeannie or by any member of the Gourlay family until a 1910 article in the Philadelphia Enquirer reported Jeannie’s returned to Washington to visit the former site of Ford’s Theatre. A harrowing, first person account of Lincoln’s murder as witnessed from the Ford Theatre stage. Starting Bid $200

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Riveting eyewitness account of Lincoln’s death 8028. Lincoln Assassination: W. Martin Jones.

Leather-bound ledger belonging to W. Martin Jones and containing his eyewitness account of President Lincoln’s assassination at Ford’s Theatre on April 14, 1865. The ledger measures 7 x 8.25 and is gilt-stamped on the front, “W. Martin Jones, G. W. C. T.—I. O. of G. T., Rochester, N. Y.,” with the first free end page dated “July 4, 1881,” and the balance consisting of 43 pages of detailed narrative relating to Jones’s work in the State Department, the political climate of both 1865 and 1881, and most interestingly, his personal account of the day and moment Lincoln was shot. In part: “Rising to my feet as more than a thousand people rose on that eventful night to waive with kerchief a welcome to, and to join in the glad chorus of cheers in honor of, Abraham Lincoln as he came cheerily and happily into the theatre in the middle of the first scene of the first act of The American Cousin, I observed that he came wholly unattended by guard…The fact of his being so unattended by guard was not due to any neglect of duty on the part of the faithful Secretary of War, Mr. Edwin M. Stanton…he had persistently declined such protection, and had gone for the most part of his administration in and out among his fellow citizens—often with little Tad by his side...How vividly the picture comes before me now, when in the second scene of the third act the American Cousin salutes the retiring English relative with the remark ‘I guess I know enough to turn you inside out,’ and then stands alone upon the stage while the audience clap their hands in admiration. The applause subsides, the American Cousin moves toward the rear of the platform, apparently waiting for some one to join him, and the great house is still. Hark! What is that? Sharp and clear amidst the silence that reigned in that vast theatre, breaking the stillness but for an instant, is the report of a pistol. Then everything is quiet again…I saw a moment after…the well recognized assassin step to the front of the President’s box, place a hand upon the balustrade and instantly spring to the stage below. His foot caught in the folds of the flag that was gathered in graceful festoons about the President’s box and he fell to one side as he struck the stage. Rising quickly to his feet, lifting high above his head a glittering blade, with face almost as white as marble and hissing the words, ‘Sic Semper Tyrannis!’ he strode diagonally across the stage and disappeared behind the scenes.”

“Sharp and clear amidst the silence that reigned in that vast theatre, breaking the stillness but for an instant, is the report of a pistol”

Also of great interest is Jones’s mentioning of the condition of President Garfield, who himself had been the target of an assassin’s bullet only two days prior: “Fifty million united people are waiting tonight to hear the glad intelligence that James A. Garfield is out of danger.” After showing initial signs of recovery, Garfield would die from infection in September. An additional six pages annotated in pencil by Jones are laid loosely within. In fine condition, with wear to the covers and some of the page edges. HISTORY Seated only twenty feet away from the presidential box, William Martin Jones was among the nearly 1,700 spectators packed inside Ford’s Theater on the night of April 14, 1865. A native of Manlius, New York, Jones served as the private secretary for Senator Edwin D. Morgan and then, in 1864, served as the private secretary to William H. Seward, then Secretary of State, and to his son, Frederick W. Seward, positions which led to his promotion as chief clerk of the Consular Bureau in the State Department. An engrossing and extremely detailed eyewitness account of the night Lincoln was killed, and perhaps the very finest and most exhaustive example ever offered for sale. Starting Bid $200

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General Grant issues a proposal for prisoners of war “to purchase food and clothing when they have the means of paying for them” 8029. U. S. Grant. Civil Wardated ALS signed “U. S. Grant, Lt. Gnl.,” one page, lightly-lined, 7.75 x 9.75, Head Quarters Armies of the United States letterhead, January 25, 1865. Letter to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, in full: “If an order is published allowing prisoners in our hands to purchase food and clothing when they have the means of paying for them, a similar order will be made in favor of our men held in the South. I would respectfully recommend that such an order be made to take effect on the 1st proximo and that a copy be telegraphed here to be sent through the lines so that we can get the benefit of it for our men at war.” In fine condition. HISTORY On April 17, 1864, General Grant ordered an end to all prisoner exchanges unless the South recognized that there was ‘no distinction whatever in the exchange between white and colored prisoners.’ Although Grant’s proposal was formally dismissed—as was a second made on October 1—another exchange proposal was announced on January 24, 1865, one which would allow prisoners on both sides the opportunity to purchase food and clothing. Given the mortality rate of prisoners held in Southern camps, Grant estimated that the order would prove more beneficial to Union prisoners who suffered greatly from a shortage of both food and proper clothing. An incredible letter from late in the Civil War that reveals the sound reasoning and leadership displayed by Grant as commander of the Union armies. Starting Bid $300

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The president’s real estate dealings: “I do not think it incumbent upon me to let the public, in this instance the enemy, know before hand who are bidding for me, or how much I am going to bid” 8031. U. S. Grant. ALS as president, four pages on two

adjoining sheets, 7.75 x 9.75, Executive Mansion letterhead, January 18, 1873. Letter to “Dear Ford,” discussing his real estate dealings. In full: “I am in receipt of your letter concerning the sale of the Carondelet property. I do not think Belt or Priest would be good men to bid in property for me, or to have knowledge of what I proposed to bid, or have bid, for me. Nor can I agree with them as to the value of the property. The sale was at a much lower price than I paid for a simple compromise when it was supposed that I held a title of equal value with Burns. My suggestion is that you with, say John F. Long, fix upon the value of each of the lots that I am interested in, and the amount they would have to sell for to give me back the money I have paid out; and have bid up for me, rather than let other parties have any of the lots, a price sufficient to give me back my money if sold to other parties, provided to do so does not require a bid beyond what you appraise the property at. In that case I would bid up to your appraisement. I would suggest also that you select two or three discreet men to bid for me, understanding before hand what lots each were to bid in so they would not bid against each other, and you openly make the first bid on each lot, without any disguise as to who you are acting for, and that you bid in each instance just what the property sold for at the former sale.

To give me back the original purchase money, without interest, and without any return for the taxes I have paid, a portion of the lots would have to bring $150.00 per arpent and a portion $300.00 per arpent. I think Shipley can inform you which lots I paid one, and which two hundred dollars per arpent on. When I go to St. Louis I think I will commence suit against Burns even without hope of receiving anything, but to prove to the public, in a legal way, that he is a rascal not to be trusted, and to secure his removal from his present position of trust & profit.” He adds a lengthy postscript, signed “U. S. G.,” in full: “Let me hear what you think of these suggestions before you act, and what Shipley thinks of them. I do not think it incumbent upon me to let the public, in this instance the enemy, know before hand who are bidding for me, or how much I am going to bid. It seems to be sufficient that they should know that you are acting for me. If however, you think there is the least impropriety in having any other bidder than yourself, or one known to be acting for me, then have it so. I would not do anything of even doubtful propriety for the land. Ask Shipley on this point.” In fine condition, with partial splitting along the hinge. An interesting letter on real estate transactions executed while in the nation’s highest office. Starting Bid $300

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“Our papers are received by the enemy as early as by ourselves” 8032. U. S. Grant. Civil War-dated ALS signed

“U. S. Grant,” two pages both sides, 5 x 8, HeadQuarters Armies of the United States letterhead, November 6, 1864. Letter to “E. Morris,” written from his headquarters at City Point, Virginia. In full: “Your two letters informing me of the condition of my children and the attention they are receiving, in the absence of their mother, were duly received. I feel very greatful to you for the trouble you took in accompanying Mrs. Grant as far as Phil’a on her way West and for your subsequent kindness in looking after my family and informing me. I have received but one letter from Mrs. G. since she reached Mo. She found her father much improved and in a fair way of recovery. She probably left St. Louis this evening on her return home. All the letters I have written her since the receipt of your first have been directed to St. Louis. As I am not now writing to her, and may not until I hear again from her, may I tax your kindness further by asking you to inform her, on arrival in Burlington, that I am well and think it probable I may be able to spend next Sunday at home. I do not want this fact known to any one but yourself and Mrs. Grant. Our papers are received by the enemy as early as by ourselves and learning that I was to be absent in advance they might prepare for some annoyance. I am not vain enough to suppose that another might not command these Armies as well as myself but bringing in a commander suddenly upon an immergency he might not do as well as he would after commanding for some time.” In very good condition, with splitting along the fragile intersecting folds, and the two pages detached along the hinge. Accompanied by a custom-made leatherbound presentation folder. HISTORY While the nation’s headlines focused on Lincoln’s reelection as president, Grant and the Army of the Potomac continued to assert pressure on Robert E. Lee’s forces during the exhaustive Siege of Petersburg. Although this prolonged, nine-month struggle proved a strategic stalemate, with forces on either side weary and starving from weeks of grueling trench warfare, the Union efforts were enough to enable General Sherman’s tide-turning march to the coast and the inevitable capture of the port of Savannah. Four days before writing this letter, Grant forwarded a telegram to Sherman which simply stated: ‘Go as you propose.’ The operation all but dismantled the Confederacy and hastened their eventual surrender. General Grant moved his wife and children to 309 Wood Street in Burlington, New Jersey in 1864 to avoid the conflict of the Civil War. The family resided there until the close of the war, with Grant visiting his family prior to victories at Vicksburg and the Battles of the Wilderness. Starting Bid $300

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A decade before his assassination, the future president declares: “I should prefer to go out of life in my full strength...rather than fade out by the slow process of disease or by the slower process decay from old age” 8033. James A. Garfield. ALS

signed “J. A. Garfield,” one page, 7.75 x 10.5, May 19, 1871. Letter to Wallace J. Ford in Corry, Pennsylvania, in part: “I have read with the deepest, saddest interest, the sketch of the last hours of that brave noble man, whose face I saw for one moment. I shall always count it an honor to have been told that I resembled him in any degree. When I read the account, I said to Crete that I should prefer to go out of life in my full strength as Mr. Staples did, rather than fade out by the slow process of disease or by the slower process decay from old age. Our hearts go out to Mary in the keenest sympathy for her great loss. Not knowing that you were away from Corry, I telegraphed you there last week. I hope you will not fail to come to Commencement and bring Mary. We all want to see you both. Crete joins me in much love.” In fine condition. HISTORY At the time he penned this letter, Garfield was serving in the House of Representatives as a congressman from Ohio. He makes several informal references to his beloved wife Lucretia—“Crete”— and remarks on the unappealing prospect of decay in old age. After assuming the presidency ten years later, Garfield was struck down by an assassin’s bullet on July 2, 1881, and died on September 19th. A remarkable, eerily prescient autograph letter by Garfield. Starting Bid $300

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The progressive reformer casts aside party politics to appoint a Democrat: “While Governor he made so courageous and disinterested a stand against all crimes of violence, especially the crime of lynching” 8035. Theodore Roosevelt. TLS

as president, two pages on two adjoining sheets, 7 x 9, White House letterhead, November 17, 1905. Letter to Captain Charles H. Scott of Montgomery, Alabama. In full: “I have your letter of the 15th instant. There is one point upon which I ought not to keep silence. You speak in your letter of Judge Jones being a Democrat and voting against me. I appointed Judge Jones knowing he was a Democrat. I neither expected nor wished him to vote for me, and if he had done so it would have made me a little uneasy. You make [serious] accusations against Judge Jones. It is a matter of simple justice to the Judge for me to say that the Attorney General and I have followed most closely his conduct as Judge. I appointed him largely because while Governor he made so courageous and disinterested a stand against all crimes of violence, especially the crime of lynching. As Judge he has more than borne out my hopes. What he has done in the matter of peonage alone renders all good citizens of the United States his debtors. I was shocked and surprised at the revelations about Marshal Bryan. I am still having the matter looked up.” In fine condition, with two areas of paper loss, affecting one word of text. HISTORY Thomas G. Jones of Alabama was an uncommonly reform-minded Democrat. As governor from 1890 to 1894, he was often at odds with the state legislature in his efforts to hold sheriffs more accountable for lynch mobs, and for his opposition to efforts to limit funding for black schools. As president in 1901, Roosevelt appointed Jones as a federal judge in Alabama’s district court. Beginning in 1903, Jones presided over a series of trials brought by the government against local officials, landlords, and employers whose corrupt arrangements held many black laborers and poor whites in peonage, or debt slavery. Although Jones found the actions of the defendants outrageous, he meted out mild punishments, convinced that the threat of exposure and future prosecution would serve as a deterrent. This letter demonstrates President Roosevelt’s steadfast commitment to American ideals, rather than party politics—he did not appoint Jones to win a vote, but to improve the lives of “all good citizens of the United States.” Starting Bid $300

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“Unless we were to go back to the Dred Scott decision, I fail to see how the Supreme Court could do otherwise” 8036. Theodore Roosevelt. TLS, one page, 7.75 x 10.25, The Vice President’s

Chamber letterhead, June 3, 1901. Letter to F. G. Fincke, in full: “I inclose the letters. If you think that decision made us lose morally in the eyes of Europe, you have a mighty poor conception of European morality!” Roosevelt adds a lengthy handwritten postscript, in full: “Seriously, unless we were to go back to the Dred Scott decision, I fail to see how the Supreme Court could do otherwise than it did; I should have felt another decision to be a real calamity, and am astounded at the narrowness of the margin in the vote.” In very good condition, with overall creasing and several horizontal folds. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope, which bears a pre-printed free frank. HISTORY Vice President Roosevelt wrote this letter six days after the Supreme Court resolved the issue of whether or not the Constitution covered the Philippines and Puerto Rico. The Court decided that the new possessions belonged to the United States and were therefore under the authority of Congress, but that their inhabitants were not US citizens. In comparison, Roosevelt invokes the infamous Dred Scott case, which declared that no black person of enslaved ancestry could claim United States citizenship. Starting Bid $200

“The men who brought about the defeat of the Treaty of Versailles are incapable of enlightenment” 8037. Woodrow Wilson. TLS, two pages on two adjoining sheets, 7 x 8.75, personal letterhead, May 22, 1922. Letter to William H. Crawford of New York. In part: “There can be no doubt that you are right in thinking that the present universal economic confusion would have been avoided if the United States had accepted the League. I hope and believe that this general truth is becoming obvious even to the slow-thinking and prejudiced business men who have surrendered their individual judgment to the leaders of the Republic party...The men who brought about the defeat of the Treaty of Versailles are incapable of enlightenment. No amount of light would enable them to see.” In very good condition, with moderate overall soiling. HISTORY The fruition of President Wilson’s Fourteen Points famously established the League of Nations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, with the League’s charter later incorporated into the conference’s WWI-dissolving Treaty of Versailles. Representatives of each country signed the treaty in June 1919, but for the United States to accept its conditions, it had to be ratified by Congress. The Senate majority leader, Henry Cabot Lodge, a Republican from Massachusetts, opposed the treaty, specifically the section regarding the League of Nations, and argued that the United States would give up too much power under the League of Nations. As a response, Lodge drafted 14 reservations—to match President Wilson’s Fourteen Points. Wilson’s opposition to any amendments or reservations of the treaty subsequently concluded with its final rejection on March 19, 1920. Starting Bid $200

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“Membership in the Federal Reserve system is a distinct and significant evidence of patriotism�

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Wilson mobilizes America’s banking system for World War I 8038. Woodrow Wilson. Uncommon World War I-dated

TMS, three pages, 7.5 x 10, The White House, October 13, 1917, signed at the conclusion by President Wilson. Declaration urging state banks to join the Federal Reserve System, in full: “It is manifestly imperative that there should be a complete mobilization of the banking resources of the United States. All who are familiar with financial operations must appreciate the importance of developing to the maximum our banking power and of providing financial machinery adequate for meeting the very great financial requirements imposed upon our country by reason of the war. A vigorous prosecution and satisfactory termination of the war will depend in no small degree upon the ability of the Government not only to finance itself, but also to aid the governments associated with it in the war, which must be kept supplied with munitions, fuel, food, and supplies of all kinds. The banking problem involved is one which concerns all banks alike. Its solution does not depend upon the national banks alone, nor upon the state banks. The burden and the privilege must be shared by every banking institution in the country. The important functions of the Federal Reserve Banks in the sale of the government’s securities, in receiving and transferring the billions of dollars involved, in supplying credit facilities, and in protecting the reserves of the country have become so familiar to all that I am sure it is unnecessary to dwell upon or expound them. The extent to which our country can withstand the financial strains for which we must be prepared will depend very largely upon the strength and staying power of the Federal Reserve Banks. The Federal Reserve act is the only constructive financial legislation which we have ever had which was broad enough to accommodate at the same time banks operating under powers granted by the general Government and banks whose charters are granted by the respective states. The unification of our banking system and the complete mobilization of reserves are among the fundamental principles of the Act. The state banking institutions for some reason have until recently seemed inclined to hold aloof. Congress a few months ago prescribed very generous terms for the admission of the state banks into the Federal Reserve system, which have removed the objections heretofore raised by state banks when considering membership. As the law now stands, it leaves member state banks and trust companies practically undisturbed in the exercise of all the banking powers conferred upon them by the states. The law provides also in definite terms the conditions upon which any state bank or trust company may withdraw from the system. Many of the largest state banks and trust companies are now becoming members, realizing that to win the war we must conserve all of the physical, financial, and moral resources of our country;—that our finances must

rest on the firmest possible foundation, and that they must be adequately and completely conserved so as to respond instantly to every legitimate demand. How can this necessary condition be brought about and be made permanently effective better than by the concentration of the banking strength of our country in the Federal Reserve system? May I not, therefore, urge upon the officers and directors of all non-member state banks and trust companies which have the required amount of capital and surplus to make them eligible for membership, to unite with the Federal Reserve system now, and thereby, contribute their share to the consolidated gold reserves of the country? I feel sure that as member banks they will aid to a greater degree than is possible otherwise in promoting the national welfare, and that at the same time, by securing for themselves the advantages offered by the Federal Reserve system they will best serve their own interest and the interest of their customers. I believe that cooperation on the part of the banks is a patriotic duty at this time, and that membership in the Federal Reserve system is a distinct and significant evidence of patriotism. There are probably eight or nine thousand state banks and trust companies eligible for membership which have not yet united with the system. These institutions have it in their power to add enormously to the resources of the Federal Reserve banks, thereby broadening and strengthening the foundation upon which our whole financial structure must rest. Permit me to urge that every bank officer and bank director owes a solemn obligation to the country, which I am sure they wish to discharge. I, therefore, wish again to impress upon them my solemn conviction that they can best measure up to their duties and responsibilities through membership in the Federal Reserve system.” In very good condition, with some staining and toning, and each page laminated on the reverse. HISTORY With Wilson’s support, the Federal Reserve System was established under the authority of the Federal Reserve Act of December 23, 1913, with the doors of the Federal Reserve banks opening for business roughly a year later on November 14, 1914. Initially, state banks were extremely reluctant to adopt the system; only eight state banks had joined by the close of 1914, and a scant 37 just two years later. Those numbers would shift drastically with America’s entrance into World War I in April 1917, attaining a high-water mark of 1,639 members by the end of 1922. This mass acceptance and movement of the state banks into the Federal Reserve System is precisely what President Wilson sought to achieve from this manuscript. Starting Bid $200

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“In the greatness of Lincoln the people of this nation are lifted up to their own greatness”

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Vice President Coolidge’s commemoration of Abraham Lincoln 8039. Calvin Coolidge. Typescript of Vice President Calvin Coolidge’s speech commemorating the birth of Abraham Lincoln, 26 total pages, signed at the conclusion in black ink, “Calvin Coolidge, February 12, 1922.” Delivered in Springfield, Illinois, on Lincoln’s birthday, the speech, in part: “We see in great men a brighter gleam of the Infinite. Unto them is given the power to show forth to their fellow man not only what he longs to be but what he is. They are the means by which the people raise themselves to a new and higher order of nobility. They see. They do. They inspire. In the greatness of Lincoln the people of this nation are lifted up to their own greatness. As they looked on him they beheld their better selves. They felt with him the bond of a common spirit. He was Father Abraham. They loved him. They followed him. They knew that through his life they came unto a larger knowledge of the truth. Men long have hallowed this day. It brought into the world the miracle of a new life. But it was far more than his nativity. Held within the many great meanings it would come to have was the answer to the prayer which his life made, ‘that this nation under God may have a new birth of freedom.’ On this day was born a man that a nation might be reborn. To some men there are given a few great moments in life, while all the rest is commonplace. Lincoln had his great moments, for ‘he grew in stature and in wisdom,’ but he was never commonplace. He was marked by a solemn grandeur from the rude and lonely hut on the frontier until a nation stood beside his tomb. There was about him a dignity which no uncouthness of surroundings could blot out. He had a mind which no lack of letters could leave undeveloped. He had a faith which could move mountains. Two generations have sought out whatever could be associated with him, have read the record of his every word with the greatest eagerness, and held his memory as a precious heritage. Where he trod is holy ground. Yet never was a man more simply human... It is not to the city of Washington that men must turn if they would understand Abraham Lincoln. The beginning and the end of his nature is here.” This great American, the foremost world figure of the nineteenth century, came out of a frontier clearing and spent his early manhood in a village of a few hundred souls. In the memory of these facts there lies a solid basis for our faith. There is in the people themselves the power to put forth great men. There is in the soul of the nation a reserve for responding to the call to high ideals, to nobility of action, which has never yet been put forth. There is no problem so great but that somewhere a man is being raised up to meet it. There is no moral standard so high that the people cannot be raised up to it. God rules, and from the Bethlehems and the Springfields He sends them forth, His own, to do His work. In them we catch a larger gleam of the Infinite.” In fine condition, with a crease to the lower left corner of the signed page. HISTORY On February 12, 1922, Vice President Calvin Coolidge and General John J. Pershing traveled to Lincoln’s resting place at the Oak Ridge Cemetery for a tribute honoring the martyred president’s 113th birthday. Entitled ‘The Place of Lincoln,’ this moving speech was originally published by Charles Scribner’s Sons in Coolidge’s 1924 compilation The Price of Freedom: Speeches and Addresses. Starting Bid $200

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“The preservation of individual initiative is the basis of our society”

8040. Herbert Hoover. TLS, one page, 8 x 10.5, Department of Commerce, Office of the Secretary letterhead, June 24, 1922. Letter to George Horace Lorimer of the Saturday Evening Post, in full: “This is just a note of applause for your activities on Bolshevism. I have not the remotest fear of the actual Bolshevik in the United States, but what is happening is a sort of gaseous poisoning of the mind of all sorts of people by the surfeiting of the country with ideas of Bolshevik character, the prime essence of which is destruction. The deification of the instinct of destruction has made it an ideal instead of a jail crime. I send you herewith a clipping on this subject. The startling thing is the casual manner by which it is assumed that those of us are wicked who make a suggestion that the preservation of individual initiative is the basis of our society and that if we open our mouths we are spreading propaganda. However, I do not want to go into the subject at length. I am merely registering applause.” Hoover has added “Purely personal” in the upper portion. Includes the referenced newspaper clipping, entitled ‘Blames U. S. Policy Toward Russia,’ affixed to the reverse of a Department of Commerce office sheet, annotated along the top by Hoover in pencil: “Washington Herald, 6/20/22.” In very good to fine condition, with light overall staining. HISTORY Hoover’s mention of “the preservation of individual initiative is the basis of our society” serves as a direct allusion to his book American Individualism, a ringing endorsement of American ingenuity and equal opportunity that was published by Doubleday, Page, & Co., in December 1922. In spite of his staunch opposition to Bolshevism, Hoover’s ARA relief efforts during the Soviet Union famine of 1921-1922 remain one of history’s greatest humanitarian achievements. When a critic inquired if his program was not thus helping Bolshevism, Hoover exclaimed: ‘Twenty million people are starving. Whatever their politics, they shall be fed!’ Starting Bid $200

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The former first lady defends an alleged Communist

8041. Eleanor Roosevelt. TLS, three pages, 7.25 x 10.25,

personal letterhead, August 23, 1954. Letter to Texas Congressman Martin Dies, Jr., who had been the first chairman of the House Un-American Activities Committee. In part: “The fact that you have made statements and speeches for years does not make these statements and speeches truthful. As you recount the conversation which Mr. Lash had in answering the questions, I see nothing which makes Mr. Lash a Communist. You say that because he was close to them and agreed with many of their positions he must have been a Communist. I disagree with you. At that period there were many things in the Communist doctrine with which many people agreed. It is the development of Communism under Lenin and Stalin and the ways of carrying out its doctrines which we are today finding obnoxious and difficult to deal with… You are quite wrong in saying I did not give you the correct evidence about the Student Union…It is true that Mr. Lash and many others were in organizations which were Communist controlled and dominated but that did not make people Communists, and I assure you Mr. Lash has never been a Communist. His admission that he believed in the program and doctrines does not make him a Communist. My memory is not faulty. I remember everything very clearly and I will gladly testify under oath…My husband is dead and I can’t speak for him but I can easily see how he might, in the light of the day in which you were speaking, have said what

you say he said, without meaning what you now imply he meant. It is true there was no hysteria in those days and he may have felt there were a great many liberals who were in sympathy with certain Communist doctrines that he and many others might not have wanted to antagonize. My husband knew what the trends were and the differences between what was developing in the Communist party then and some of the writings and tenets of the Communist party in the past. You seem to forget the change brought about under Lenin and Stalin and the change in attitude that has occurred here in consequence.” Roosevelt makes a few handwritten emendations to the text. In fine condition. HISTORY In 1936 Joseph P. Lash served as the first executive secretary of the American Student Union (ASU), a popular front group created from a merger of the Communist Party-sponsored National Student League and its Socialist Party counterpart, the Student League for Industrial Democracy. Impressed with the diligence and idealism of its officers, Eleanor Roosevelt considered the ASU a valuable breeding ground for young leaders that would serve well in future grassroots social reform efforts. In 1939, when the group became the target of investigation by the Special Committee to Investigate Un-American Activities—then chaired by the letter’s recipient—Roosevelt counseled Lash and other ASU members before joining them at the hearing. Starting Bid $200

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“The repetition of what’s right is just as important to the minds of men as perhaps the lies of Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin and Krusie are” 8042. Harry S. Truman. ALS,

two pages, 7.25 x 10.5, personal letterhead, August 19, 1958. Letter to his former secretary of state, Dean Acheson. In part: “I’m glad you liked my speech to the Eagles in Chicago…I’ve made that speech twice before and the smart news men never seem to recognize it. William J. Bryan made the ‘Cross of Gold and Crown of Thorns’ speech three or four times before he had the chance to make it in Chicago in 1896. I’m of the opinion that the repetition of what’s right is just as important to the minds of men as perhaps the lies of Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin and Krusie are. Sometimes I’m not so sure about that. You are right about Ike’s speech. It is in the same case situation as was Sherman Adams. The plan to take Sherm off the front page was Lebanon. I wonder if Korea was in that class also? I’ve never thought so. It seems now that ‘my war’ in Korea may have been necessary! This President doesn’t know where he is going nor why. Allen Dulles…wanted me to read the President’s speech before he made it to the U. N. I refused to look at it. I had no right to pass on his innocuous remarks and then give him hell about them. I wonder just where we are going and what we’ll do after we arrive, if we ever get there. Guess I’m becoming a pessimist. Hope I’m not.” In fine condition, with staple holes to the upper left corner. HISTORY Although oratory did not come easy for Truman, he became an increasingly able speaker throughout his political career and by the time of his presidential campaign he was drawing massive crowds. Here he offers some insight into his rhetorical philosophy—the importance of repetition. He goes on to criticize his successor to the presidency, Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had recently dispatched American troops to Lebanon in what was the first application of the ‘Eisenhower Doctrine.’ Truman, well known for his candor, goes on to cynically speculate that the Lebanon crisis was merely a political ploy used to distract the public from an ongoing scandal involving Ike’s chief of staff, Sherman Adams. Adams came under scrutiny for accepting gifts of an expensive fur coat and oriental rug from a businessman being investigated by the FTC, and was forced to resign from his White House position in October. A fascinating letter filled with significant observations on affairs foreign and domestic. Starting Bid $300

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Truman campaigns for JFK: “Jack Kennedy was not my first choice for the Presidential nomination. However, he is a very able young man” 8043. Harry S. Truman.

TLS, two pages, 7.25 x 10.5, personal letterhead, October 5, 1960. Letter to Democratic Congressman John A. Blatnik of Minnesota, in part: “This is an urgent plea that you do everything you possible can to help the Democratic ticket and the Honorable John F. Kennedy and the Honorable Lyndon B. Johnson, the Democratic nominees for President and Vice-President. Now, as never before, it seems to me, there is a need for us to submerge whatever differences may exist among us within our own Party and fight for a Democratic victory, National, State and Local. I simply do not believe that the United States can stand four more years of another Republican President in the White House. We have lost much ground in the last eight years under a Republican President—in foreign relations, in domestic affairs, in the national financial situation, in the agricultural situation and in general welfare. Another Republican Administration and a Republican President could only be expected to produce continued stagnation and a backward policy to continue an 1896 program and this is 1960. With Nixon in the White House, there will be a complete breakdown in the domestic and foreign affairs of our Government. I wonder if you want another 1929? As you know, Jack Kennedy was not my first choice for the Presidential nomination. However, he is a very able young man, and, in my opinion, a man of integrity and honor. These qualities I regard as essential in a President of the United States. Also, it is very important to remember that in choosing a President we not only select the man who occupies that office, but we also determine the Party in control of the Executive Branch of the Government. History proves that it is better for the Nation and the people of the United States when the Democrats are in control of the White House and the Congress.” In fine condition. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope, which bears a pre-printed free frank. HISTORY With the 1960 presidential election less than a month away, Truman entreated the Democratic Party to rally around John F. Kennedy and his running mate Lyndon B. Johnson. Although Truman was not initially high on Kennedy, regarding him as too young and too Catholic, he was far less fond of Nixon and his successor, the incumbent President Eisenhower, whose policies Truman often publicly decried. At JFK’s request, Truman actively campaigned for the Kennedy-Johnson ticket, helping the Democrats reassume the White House in one of the closest races in presidential history. Starting Bid $200

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“My running mate, Senator Nixon, who himself contributed valiantly to the fight in the Pacific, holds views much like mine�

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Ike lays out his campaign platform days before winning the 1952 presidential election 8044. Dwight D. Eisenhower. TLS, two pages, 7 x 10.25, personal letterhead, October 27, 1952. Letter to E. K. Irrman, editor of the National Tribune, written from “Aboard the Eisenhower Campaign Special.” In full: “This is in reply to your letter received sometime ago and about which I have given considerable thought. We in America have certain moral obligations to the men who serve this country in time of war. No man should be required to be in uniform for a period longer than represents his fair and just share. To that end, the rotation system, which I supported from the very outset, should be continued. He should, furthermore, be assured that his rate of pay will be adjusted whenever necessary so that it bears an equitable relationship to the price of the things he and his family are required to buy. When he comes home he should have adequate educational and training opportunities and such other services as will help him reach the status he would have attained had he not been called upon to serve his country. Every disabled soldier must have the best care and treatment which this country affords. Such facilities must have the full financial support of the federal government. There must be no compromise with the best available professional skill, hospital care and rehabilitation. In dealing with the Communist menace, I believe that the most effectively aggressive action must be undertaken by the federal government to deal with those who conspire to destroy our country. Such action must be the result of the coordinated efforts of every government agency, particularly the FBI. The program for apprehending every dangerous Communist subvert must be the result of the most carefully devised program adopted as the result of the joint effort of the Congress and the Administration. Whatever it is, the program must be designed to accomplish the maximum results in terms of eliminating this menace. To promote an enduring peace I look to the United Nations as the best available vehicle. It deserves both the support and leadership of the United States. Its powers must not infringe upon the principles and prerogatives of our own Constitution. I am convinced that mutual defense against aggression is sound policy. This does not necessarily surrender any American sovereignty whatever or involve us in plans or commitments impossible of attainment and fulfillment. In matters relating to the Veterans Administration, I will support provisions of the pertinent paragraphs in the 1952 Republican

platform. I believe that the best interests of veterans can be provided under special aid and compensation programs, rather than including them in the Social Security system. No program of economy should overlook the legitimate rights and needs of disabled veterans. As has been clearly stated in the Republican platform, adjustment of compensation and pension payments must be made from time to time with the changes in the cost of living. This responsibility I shall never overlook. I have taken up briefly each of your questions. Certainly, I am committed to a fair and sympathetic treatment of those who have served and are still serving in the Armed Forces of our country. I am well aware of the social problems which are the aftermath of war, and I recognize the responsibility for their solution. I know that my running mate, Senator Nixon, who himself contributed valiantly to the fight in the Pacific, holds views much like mine. His voting record supports this fact. Every serviceman and veteran can be assured that his every problem will have fair and friendly consideration.” In fine condition. HISTORY Written eight days before his landslide victory in the 1952 presidential election, Eisenhower uses this letter to present many of his most pressing campaign issues; he explains how ending “the Communist menace” will arise from a “joint effort of the Congress and the Administration,” and then alludes to the extension of the G. I. Bill to grant returning servicemen the necessary financial aid, education, and training. The matter of the Korean War, however, was the principle concern of the American people, and it wasn’t until late in his campaign, just two days before this letter, that Eisenhower made his famous policy statement on Korea: ‘It will begin with its President taking a simple, firm resolution. The resolution will be: To forego the diversions of politics and to concentrate on the job of ending the Korean War—until that job is honorably done. That job requires a personal trip to Korea. I shall make that trip. Only in that way could I learn how best to serve the American people in the cause of peace. I shall go to Korea. That is my second pledge to the American people. Carefully, then, this new Administration, unfettered by past decisions and inherited mistakes, can review every factor—military, political and psychological—to be mobilized in speeding a just peace.’ Although vague, the announcement was enough to convince large sections of the electorate that Eisenhower would bring the Korean conflict to an end.Starting Bid $200

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“Assuming, as I did then, that Dick Nixon would be elected President of the United States”—Ike addresses atomic testing 8045. Dwight D. Eisenhower. TLS

signed “Ike,” two pages, 7 x 10.25, personal letterhead, June 14, 1961. Confidential letter to Lewis Strauss, articulating his concerns on atomic tests. in full: “I am not familiar with the present Administration’s position on the question of resuming atomic tests, assuming USSR refusal to permit effective reciprocal inspection of any agreement for cessation. I think you are aware of my own attitude, expressed and repeated in governmental circles in the late months of 1960, that the time has come to terminate the moratorium. You will remember, of course, that I have previously announced my Administration’s determination to avoid any kind of tests that would add to the contamination of the air. Even though I believed (and still do) that the contamination created by normal testing is insignificant. It was and is my opinion that all of the information we need could be obtained by underground, supplemented as necessary by outerspace tests. You are also familiar with the conclusion I voiced to you and to others to announce resumption of the tests as of some time late in 1960, assuming, as I did then, that Dick Nixon would be elected President of the United States. Because of the unfortunate outcome of the election and the long term effect of the projected decision which was to be publicly announced, I concluded that the incoming Administration should have a free hand in making its own decision in the matter. I would like to know whether this agrees with your own memory or whether you have any existing documents to which you might refer. The above reflects accurately my memory, but my concern is that I cannot recall the identity of the person or persons with whom I was discussing the subject.” In fine condition. HISTORY Strauss had served has head of the Atomic Energy Commission during the 1950s, during which time he spearheaded the controversial trials that resulted in the revocation of J. Robert Oppenheimer’s security clearance. In 1958, under President Eisenhower, the United States had entered into an informal nuclear test moratorium with the Soviet Union—an idea that had first been proposed by Eisenhower’s 1956 opponent, Adlai Stevenson. Contrary to the wishes Ike expresses here, the Kennedy administration took the moratorium further, formalizing it in the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty—a major step in the historic efforts to end nuclear proliferation. Starting Bid $200

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Streamlining the chain of command— “The single objective of the Defense Department is the nation’s security; in this it must be successful” 8046. Dwight D. Eisenhower. TLS as presi-

dent, two pages, 7 x 10.25, White House letterhead, May 5, 1958. Letter to Russell B. Sterns of National Food Products, Inc., in part: “I am sure it is no news to you that I am engaged in an all-out effort to secure legislation under which the Defense Department may be organized to meet modern security requirements with maximum efficiency and minimum cost... Because of your business experience, it seems to me that you may be particularly impressed by an analogy suggested to me lately by a good friend who heads one of our great corporations. He suggested that present operations within the Department of Defense are similar to a corporate operation... As of today, the Defense Department must operate under a system, or lack of system, similar to one that, as I say, would not be tolerated by a successful business corporation. All of us know that the competition faced by the Defense Department is the sternest in the world, that provided by the military might of the Soviet Union. The single objective of the Defense Department is the nation’s security; in this it must be successful. Of course, in a successful company the Board of Directors operates through its Chief Executive Officer. He is trusted to make, within the limits prescribed by the Board, decisions regarding details of general programs and operations as necessary. I believe that, in a similar manner, the Secretary of Defense must, under broad policies prescribed by the Congress, make sure that the Defense establishment operates under single direction, is responsive to changing needs, and is in addition economically administered. Moreover, he must have the flexibility, within guide lines adopted by the Congress, to make detailed changes in programs, organizations and doctrines as required by the rapidly changing technology of defense. In fact it is this technology, the advance of which is accelerated more and more each year, that is one of the most compelling reasons for according to the Secretary of Defense the necessary authority to keep the entire Defense establishment completely fit and ready for performance of whatever task may fall to it, night or day.” In fine condition. HISTORY On August 6, 1958, President Eisenhower approved the Department of Defense Reorganization Act, which was designed to streamline authority within the department, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize, train and equip their related forces. ‘The Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more clearly defined the operational chain of command over US military forces (created by the military departments) as running from the President to the Secretary of Defense and then to the unified combatant commanders.’ Starting Bid $200

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“If Symington is not willing to enter Democratic primaries to secure the nomination, then he lacks those qualities of backbone & mind essential to the next President” 8047. Jacqueline Kennedy. Handwrit-

ten letter, unsigned, one page, 7.25 x 10.5. Del Monte Lodge letterhead, November 9, 1959. Jacqueline Kennedy attacks a Time Magazine article about Stuart Symington, headed, “Fierce Competitor?” In full: “I would like to take issue with Time—re the SS cover story Nov. 9. How can Time describe Stuart Symington as ‘a fierce competitor with a wild hatred of defeat’ while admitting that the Senator will explain away a possible defeat in the Oregon primary with the excuse that ‘he was not even trying to win.’ If Symington is not willing to enter Democratic primaries to secure the nomination, then he lacks those qualities of backbone & mind essential to the next President.” In fine condition. Accompanied by a typed United States Senate memo slip, in full: “Handwritten letter by Jackie Kennedy written November 9, 1959 taking issue with ‘Time’ magazine cover story of that date. She was at the Del Monte Lodge, Pebble beach, California at the time. This letter was brought back to the Senate Office Building in the Senator’s brief case, where it was discarded.” HISTORY Backed by former President Harry S. Truman, Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri sought the 1960 Democratic nomination for the presidency. Having determined that the candidate would be decided by party bosses at the Democratic National Convention, Symington took an unusual approach and declined to enter any primaries. This cleared the way for Kennedy to win enough primaries to be the frontrunner going into the DNC. Notably, Symington was initially JFK’s favorite for vice president, but he ultimately offered the position to Lyndon B. Johnson. An important letter from the future first lady, preceding the contentious 1960 campaign. Starting Bid $200

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Heartfelt and heartbreaking Christmas Eve letter from Reagan to his estranged daughter: “We ask ourselves, ‘what did we do wrong?’ We were once a loving family”

8048. Ronald Reagan. ALS signed “Love, Dad,” one page both sides, 6.25 x 8.5, personal letterhead, December 24, [1989]. Letter to his estranged daughter, Patti Davis, in full: “Alright I’ll quit bothering you but I had more in mind than arguing politics. The line in the song says it all; ‘The days dwindle down to a precious few.’ On Feb. 6th I’ll be 80 years old. Your mother and I are hard put to understand the separation between us and our first born. It didn’t just happen with your growing up and leaving home. I can recall your mother coming home in tears after driving you to school. She couldn’t understand your complete silence even to the point of your not saying ‘good bye.’ Was it having to share with a new born brother? I remember a loving daughter who never let us leave the house without waving good bye from the window. We have some snap shots that reveal a difference in a little girl. We ask ourselves, ‘what did we do wrong?’ We were once a loving family. Well as I said earlier ‘I’ll stop bothering you’ but I don’t understand the separation of our family. I recall a little girl sitting on my lap and asking me to marry her. Her mother across the room behind her signaled me to say ‘yes.’ So I did

and explained we’d have to wait til she was a little older.” In fine to very fine condition. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope, addressed in Reagan’s own hand and bearing a pre-printed free frank. Also includes a handsome leatherbound presentation folder. HISTORY The eldest child of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, Patti Davis became estranged from her family after years of political activism and public opposition against her father’s conservative policies, adding to the familial strife with a series of thinly veiled autobiographical novels. Written during a particularly trying period, this emotional letter captures Reagan reflecting on his family’s history as well as on his own mortality—“‘The days dwindle down to a precious few.’ On Feb. 6th I’ll be 80 years old.” A moving letter from father to daughter in the hopes of reconciliation, which would come at last in the mid-1990s following the news of his diagnosis with Alzheimer’s. Starting Bid $2,500

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American Politicians & Leaders The Confederate Secretary of War to General Van Dorn on “the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac,” discussing the cavalry command

8049. Judah P. Benjamin. Civil War–dated ALS signed “J.

P. Benjamin,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 8 x 10, Confederate States of America, War Department letterhead, October 31, 1861. As Acting Secretary of War, Benjamin writes to Major General Earl Van Dorn. In part: “In the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac, your Command of the First division was intended by the President to be composed of all the cavalry, two brigades of Mississippians and Hampton’s Legion. The infantry was attached to the cavalry, because we had not enough cavalry to form for you a division...

In addition to this is the consideration that your rank would entitle you to the right wing, and in any battle that may occur in the neighborhood of the present position of the army, the ground to the right is unfavorable for cavalry, which would of necessity be thrown to the center or to the left, thus separating you from either the cavalry or the infantry of your division during actual conflict. The President is therefore inclined to increase your division.” In very good to fine condition, with staining and old tape along the hinge, and minor paper loss to the edge of the last page.

The objections made by General Johnston, and to which the President is disposed to attach great weight, are, ‘that all the cavalry of the army is now employed on outpost duty. The officer at the head of that service (Brig. Gen’l Stuart) should be under the immediate orders of the commander of the army, and make his reports to and receive his instructions from him. In like manner in battle the commanding general must keep under his own control the largest portion of the cavalry, so that Gen’l Van Dorn’s division would actually become the weakest in the army, altho’ he is the senior major-general, with high reputation.’

HISTORY In this letter, Benjamin takes on the task of reorganizing the Army of the Potomac, taking into account General Joseph E. Johnston’s wishes that the cavalry remain a separate command—under Brigadier General J. E. B. Stuart—and that it report directly to him. Later, in the summer of 1863, the various troops of cavalry in the Confederate Army would be consolidated into one division under Stuart, known as the Cavalry Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. A significant Civil War letter connecting several key figures of the Confederacy. Starting Bid $200

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The ‘Great Compromiser’ weighs in on slavery and colonization: “The Fugitive Slave bill is every where taking strong ground against its repeal” 8050. Henry Clay.

Important ALS signed “H. Clay,” one page both sides, 6.75 x 8.5, November 22, 1850. Letter to Thomas R. Hazard of Newport, Rhode Island. In part: “I am afraid with you that the Fugitive Slave bill is every where taking strong ground against its repeal or eventual modification. I fear that your remedy of paying a portion of the value of un-reclaimed Slaves would, if practicable to be adopted, would be liable to serious objections, and lead in operation to fraudulent results. I hope that the law can be maintained, unless it can be shown to have unconstitutional defects, which I do not believe. You overrate, my dear Sir, my ability to allay the agitation; but whatever I have shall be freely devoted to the object, with the most perfect disinterestedness personally. I had intended to direct my exertions, at the coming session, to the great interests of Colonization, and especially to the object of establishing a line of Steamers on an economical plan; but I now apprehend that the agitation and excitement among ours of the Fugitive Law will render the moment inauspicious for any successful effort. The ultra South has seen, in the scheme of Colonization, through the distant vista, a project of general emancipation. That feeling was wearing away, but it is aroused again by what has recently passed and is passing in regard to Slavery. It is only in a period of calm, when the passions are stilted, that an appeal can be favorably made to the South. Without its co-operation to some extent, it would be inexpedient to rely altogether on Northern support. You, in your great delightful retreat at Vaucluse, can form no full conception of the violence of the passions boiling over in Congress.” Includes the original mailing envelope addressed in Clay’s hand, and franked in the upper right, “Free, H. Clay.” In fine condition. Accompanied by a handsome custom-made presentation folder with a quarter leather binding. HISTORY Passed on September 18, 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act was one of the most controversial elements of the Compromise of 1850, of which Clay was a key architect. Made between Northern free-soilers and Southern slave-holding states, the compromise quelled tensions and preserved the Union for a decade. The Fugitive Slave Act, specifically, required citizens to assist in the recovery of fugitive slaves, even in the North—an unpopular provision. As a solution to the racial conflict in American society, Clay believed in ‘colonization’—the migration of black Americans back to Africa—and he had previously served as president of the American Colonization Society, which helped to establish Liberia as a home for former slaves. This historic letter offers exceptional insight into Clay’s thoughts on the most significant political matters of his time. Starting Bid $200

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“I would be dead before the litigation was over”—Darrow draws the line at a “weird and extravagant claim for damages” 8051. Clarence Darrow. ALS, one page, 7.25 x 10.5, personal letterhead, September

29, [no year]. Letter to “Dr. Starr,” in full: “I think I remember Connelly’s letter. If I am right he has a weird and extravagant claim for damages. I felt sure that his mind was affected. I get so many of these from all over the country that I can spot them quite easily, and the trouble is there is nothing can be done for them. Of course if he was all right I could not go to Washington to start a damage case; they need endless time, and I would be dead before the litigation was over. Generally I do not answer these letters as I get so many that I haven’t the time or strength. I am sorry for the poor fellow, but one letter only brings another if my diagnosis is correct. Your Liberia address was excellent. What horrible people our Americans have come to be! They have been terribly chastened but this doesn’t seem to effect them. I hope we shall be here in March. There is no one we would rather see. All good wishes from both of us.” His wife Ruby adds a brief postscript at the bottom, “Greetings from Ruby D. to your sister. Our house phone is:—Hyde Park - 5657.” In fine condition. A fantastic letter from the most famous lawyer in America, whose flamboyant style and exotic cases frequently drew front-page headlines. Starting Bid $200

“It is now thirty years since my Father’s death and I am older than he was when he first took the oath of office” 8052. Robert Todd Lincoln. ALS signed “Robert

T. Lincoln,” four pages on two adjoining sheets, 4.25 x 6.75, 60 Lake Shore Drive letterhead, November 10, 1895. Letter to Dr. Sidney Dyer, in full: “Your recent letter came to me before I was able to acknowledge the first. I have not unhappily the faculty which at least makes one believe that he can criticize a poem but I can say what pleases myself and I assure you that I consider your tribute to my father as one of the most eloquent among the many that have come to me. Of your versions I much prefer the last & I hope you will secure its publication. It is now thirty years since my Father’s death and I am older than he was when he first took the oath of office, but I am hardly for a single day left without some fresh indication, like yours, in feeling at least, of the place he won in the affection & veneration of his countrymen. It is, as you may believe, very affecting to me & I am very grateful to them who write from their hearts as you have done. I congratulate you heartily on being a survivor of the ‘Black Hawk War,’ which seemed ‘Ancient History’ to me when a boy, & I hope that you may long be borne on the Honor Roll. With my many thanks for your kindness in sending me your Poem.” In fine condition, with an erasure to the top of the first page. Like his father, Robert Todd Lincoln became a lawyer and eventually went into government service, acting as secretary of war under Garfield and Arthur. A fantastic letter in which Abraham Lincoln’s son recognizes the lasting and important legacy of his father. Starting Bid $200

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Secretary of State Pickering on intelligence gathering and piracy on the Barbary Coast 8053. Timothy Pickering. LS, one page, 8 x 10, December 24, 1798. Letter to William Eaton, Consul of the United States for Tunis. In part: “In my letter of the 20th instant, I omitted to desire what I wish may receive your early attention—a communication to the department of State of the most correct information attainable, of the naval force of Tunis, the species of armed vessels, the number of their guns and men; also of the nations with which that Regency is at war, the times in the year when those armed vessels usually put to sea…and their modes of attack. It will likewise be very desirable to obtain the most accurate information of the several ports of Tunis, the quality of their roads and harbors, as to the depth of water and exposure to winds, and the manner of entering them with safety. As soon also as you can get correct information of their form of government, their military force, how many regular troops and their state of discipline, and the number and condition of the militia, you will communicate the same. If there be some months in the year when the navigation on the Barbary Coast is more dangerous than in others, you will note them accordingly.” Regarding transmitting this information, the letter concludes: “As the cypher in words will be found less embarrassing than the one in letters with a key word, it will in general be best to use the former, as well between the three Consuls at Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, and William Smith Esq. our Minister at Lisbon as with the department of State. But if there should be any thing to communicate among the Consuls or to the Department of State requiring impenetrable secrecy, then use the letter cypher with the key agreed on. Great care must be taken in writing in cyphers, to avoid errors, which might have injurious consequences.” In fine condition, with overall light mottled toning and a tear to the right edge. A desirable letter brimming with interesting content from the years preceding the Barbary Wars. Starting Bid $200

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Rare Civil War draft-substitute document signed by Boss Tweed 8054. William M. ‘Boss’ Tweed. Civil War–dated partly-printed DS, signed “W. M. Tweed,” one page, 8.5 x 7, September 18, 1863. Document issued by the “New York County Substitute and Relief Committee,” being a “Certificate in favor of Drafted Member in Indigent Circumstances, showing that he has obtained a Substitute and that he is entitled to have the Money therefore paid by the Comptroller.” As a committee supervisor, Tweed certifies that one Abraham Lasker, a minister, “is in indigent circumstances and has a family wholly depending on him for support.” The document names Moran’s substitute as “Henry Franklin”; a receipt signed by Franklin is affixed along the top edge. Signed at the conclusion by committee members William M. Tweed, Matthew T. Brennan, and two others. In fine condition. Starting Bid $200

“Till the fall elections are over, we must fight a general battle, against the common enemy” 8055. Daniel Webster. ALS signed “Danl Webster,” one page both sides, 7.75 x 9.5, May 16, 1834. Letter to John Woods, the Whig editor and publisher of the Hamilton Intelligencer, in part: “We must have a little patience. The Whigs of New York are doing great things, & a few months will place us in a position, from which we can survey our ground, accurately. Till the fall elections are over, we must fight a general battle, against the common enemy. At present, hopes are very high of rescuing the country, thro the elections, from its present difficulties and distresses. Your old friends here are well, and all remember you with respect & affection. Please acknowledge the receipt of this. I think letters of this kind may always be better burned, than preserved.” In fine condition, with splitting along one fold and along the hinge. HISTORY On March 28, 1834, the Senate, led by Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun and Daniel Webster, passed a resolution of censure admonishing President Jackson for his expansion of executive power in regard to his ongoing war against the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson’s protest of the censure the following month served to further galvanize his opponents, with Webster responding with a rousing speech delivered to the Senate on May 7, 1834, just nine days before writing this letter: ‘The paper before us has grown out of the consequences of this interference. It is a paper which cannot be treated with indifference. The doctrines which it advances, the circumstances which have attended its transmission to the Senate, and the manner in which the Senate may now dispose of it, will form a memorable era in the history of the Government…The case before us is not a case of merely theoretic infringement, nor is it one of trifling importance. Far otherwise. It respects one of the highest and most important of all the powers of Government; that is to say, the custody and control of the public money.’ At the same time period, Webster found the support of a large constituency of Massachusetts Whigs eager to see him run for the presidency; after securing a viable mouthpiece in the Boston Atlas, Webster sought the help of other prominent Whig newspapers around the country, which ultimately led him to write to the recipient of this letter, John Woods, the editor and publisher of the Ohioan publication, the Hamilton Intelligencer. A remarkable letter dating to the very formation of the Whig Party. Starting Bid $200

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Activists & Social Leaders Anthony takes aim at Nebraska for an 1882 suffrage amendment: “Help us to bring out guns to bear on the arch enemy‚ ignorance & prejudice” 8056. Susan B. Anthony. ALS, one

page both sides, 8.25 x 11, National Woman Suffrage Association letterhead, May 10, 1882. Letter to Ms. Daney, in part: “Are you well again? Are you at home again? If so report yourself to Miss Rachel G. Foster—to care of Mrs. May Wright Sewall, 405 North Pennsylvania Street, Indianapolis, Ind—as she, Miss Foster, is going to stop with Mrs. Sewall, the Chair Ex. Com. & Cor. Sec’y, to put their heads together to plan how to kill the enemy in Nebraska the November 7th next—and she wants to stop over with you to train, if there is the slightest hope of your helping her to get any ammunition for the war. We must raise $10,000 soon—to fight this battle—and it looks as if we might win in Nebraska…if the rich women will only help us to bring out guns to bear on the arch enemy‚ ignorance & prejudice…Let me know, too, how you are—and if you can give us a good lift now.” In very good to fine condition, with small edge tears and splitting along the mailing folds. HISTORY Nebraska took center stage in the women’s suffrage movement in 1882, as an amendment allowing women to vote was put before the male electorate on November 7th. Despite the best efforts of Anthony and her associates, the measure was swiftly defeated. It would not be until 1917 that the Nebraska legislature passed a limited suffrage act, giving women the right to vote in municipal elections and for presidential electors. Anthony’s dreams finally came to fruition on August 26, 1920, when the 19th Amendment took effect and gave women the right to vote in all elections. Starting Bid $200

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The American Red Cross founder organizes relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood: “Such a calamity was never known among us” 8057. Clara Barton. LS, one page, 8.5 x 11, The American National Red Cross letterhead, June 24, 1889. Letter to P. A. Sinlcair of Ashland, Illinois, in full: “Your favor inclosing a draft for $60 for the benefit of the sufferers of Johnstown is duly received, and I hasten to return any thanks to you and those who have aided you in the very handsome remittance. I also thank you for the confidence which leads you to believe that it will be properly applied in our hands. We will endeavor not to abuse such confidence. The needs are by no means over here whatever you may hear or read to the contrary. I pray you do not believe it. These people need and will need through all the season, aye through all the winter. The country must not withdraw its giving hand. Such a calamity was never known among us, and the careless reports that have gone out in regard to the great quantities which have arrived here are not only wrong, but wicked. I have only time to say this and again thank you in the name of humanity.” In fine condition. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope. HISTORY The result of a catastrophic dam failure, the Johnstown Flood occurred on May 31, 1889, killing over 2,200 people. The American Red Cross, led by Barton, undertook its first major disaster relief effort, and donations poured in from around the world—the collection totaling $3,742,818.78. A superb, early letter on the Red Cross’s historic efforts in the wake of tragedy. Starting Bid $200

John Brown’s son, eight days after his execution 8058. John Brown: Jason Brown. ALS signed “Jason

Brown,” one page both sides, 6.5 x 8, December 10, 1859. Letter to Mr. Orange Noble, concerning the death of his father; John Brown had been hanged on December 2nd for his raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry. In full: “Yours was rec’d a day or two since. We are very glad to hear from you and from our old friends there after so long a time. We are well. There is a good deal of excitement and feeling here and all over the country about the events that have transpired in Virginia. People have most of them appear very friendly to us. My Brother John and family are well and live at Dorset Ashtabula County O[hio] among the warmest friends. The death of my poor Father and of the other true and good men who have fallen and are yet to die for Liberty is a terrible blow to me, but God reigns and I believe that great good will follow, what looks at first to be very disastrous. You cannot imagine how glad we were to hear that 3 of that party were not taken. There will be considerable help raised for Fathers family (and others will not be forgotten) in different parts of the North. We are glad to hear of the welfare of our old friend George. Give my best wishes to him and his family. The longer I stay here the more I think we had better live here, a while longer. I am exceedingly sorry that I cannot send you my what I owe you, but you shall not loose it. Remember me most kindly to your brother. E sends her most sincere wishes to all. If you continue there long, when you write direct as before.” In fine condition, with trimmed edges. Starting Bid $200

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“So what was not possible in India has become possible there”

8059. Mohandas Gandhi. ALS signed “Bapu,” one page both sides, 4.25 x 6.75, personal letterhead, December 8, 1938. Letter to “My dear Shanta.” In full: “So what was not possible in India has become possible there. Evidently God had planned for you to marry in London. I do hope the union will result in a perfect happiness for both of you. Do tell me something of your life partner’s story of his life. He is evidently doing most valuable work. I expect to see Muriel & Dorothy tomorrow. Agatha comes on the 10th. Mohodere is better.” Light toning and soiling, and a fragile central horizontal mailing fold, otherwise fine condition.

HISTORY Written during a time when Gandhi and his followers struggled to end British colonial rule of India, this letter’s positive view of London is quite interesting. The recipient may be the Indian dancer and theater director Shanta Gandhi, who married Victor Kiernan in 1938; a Marxist historian, Kiernan emerged as one of the most outspoken critics of British imperialism and was also an important translator of Urdu poetry. The others mentioned in the letter are some of Gandhi’s closest associates—Muriel Lester, Dorothy Hogg, and Agatha Harrison. A warm, compassionate letter from the important peaceful activist. Starting Bid $300

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“It has taken me all this time to learn how to behave like a free spirit despite my greatest deprivation�

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A month after the death of Anne Sullivan 8060. Helen Keller. TLS, four pages, 8 x 10, November

26, 1936. Written from Synnyside in West Kilbride, Scotland, a letter to Andrea Bereus, in full: “It has taken me all this time to learn how to behave like a free spirit despite my greatest deprivation. Now, however, I have resumed my correspondence and other usual tasks, and after this rallying pause among restful surroundings I shall be ready for more years of endeavor to wear away ‘the impalpable barrier—the mind ‘s night’—that still stands between millions of human beings and their heritage. Meantime in a new way I feel the nearness of friends like you and Conrad with whom I continue to sojourn. How shall I ever thank you both for being so wonderful to us three? The only real thanks is loving you to the height and depth and breadth of what you meant to Teacher. I am thinking not only of the time and skill Conrad put into the effort to restore her sight. With emotion I also recall how often he came out to Forest Hills, tired after a hard day’s work, brightened weary hours for Teacher and, with sympathetic understanding, kept up the hopeful mood so essential to her well-being. I count over the eleven years of his friendship and bless him for the courage Teacher felt in his presence and the tender care even to the end with which he followed the casket from the memorial services to the crematorium.—What can I say? And you too, Andrea—if I should declare all you did—the dear way you stood around watchful of every chance to console Polly and me or lighten our staggering load—your comings and goings to save us fatigue the many kinds of people you entertained with such charming tact—the prepared meals you brought—your comforting presence in Washington and back to New York,—they are past numbering! It is not possible to put through language our deepest emotions, but it seems to me, our clumsy attempts often say more than polished expressions. The devotion with which you expedited our preparations for the voyage softened my grief at the thought that it was the first time we had sailed without Teacher. Polly wrote to you aboard the ‘Deutschland’ and no doubt told you what a smooth passage we were having. The last day the ship went on a rampage wrestling with the first of the winter storms. The listing was so bad we nearly fell out of bed, and went stumbling up to the deck or down to dinner. However, we kept true to form as good sailors and enjoyed the ride on the Southampton tender in glorious sunshine. We stayed in London a week seeing a few friends and trying to reorientate ourselves on life’s changed trails. It was sad yet sweet to be at the Park Lane where Teacher had always been so comfortable and interested. The expressions of sympathy

we received in our loneliness from the very door-men up to the manager touched us deeply. One morning we visited the National Institute for the Blind, and Mr. Cockin, the publicity manager, took me aside for a quiet interview. I wish, Andrea, you had seen the exhibition at the Institute of dolls in the costumes of various nationalities. Among them were two intriguing dolls belonging to Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret Rose. Elizabeth’s is named Pamela— dimple-cheeked, her flaxen curls tied with tiny red bows, a winter suit and cap, also red, leggings and sensible flat shoes. The other, called Bridget, is adorable in a white summer silk dress and bonnet. My picture was taken hugging both. I have to smile wondering whether they would have asked me to hug Their little Highnesses if they had been present… Naturally ‘the whole discourse and expectation of London,’ as Pepys would say, is the Coronation. You would be amused at the astonishment of our friends here to whom we report concerning the King and Mrs. Simpson. Wide-eyed, silent they listen as we retail the gossip from the American newspapers. But the people I meet who are doing their work in the world have no time for such affairs, Anyway they say, ‘Oh, it will pass. Even though the King did marry Mrs. Simpson, he would get tired of her in six months’… At present we are here with Dr. and Mrs. Love whose affection will not let us go without a struggle. They, too, are darling about letting us bring our papers and my typewriter and using the library with a cosy fire. Friday we shall go to see Polly’s sister Margaret in Dundee; and by the way, Andrea, we shall hear more about Alec Keiller there and report to you when we return. Next week will find us ‘parked’ at The Manse until about January 22nd when we shall be in London. On the 29th we expect to be in Paris for the unveiling of the Borglum statue of Thomas Paine, and Mr. Moore, who wished to be remembered kindly to you, is making arrangements for us to fly over. Won’t that be thrilling?” In fine condition. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope. HISTORY The “greatest deprivation” to which Keller refers is the loss of her lifelong companion and teacher Anne Sullivan, who passed on October 20, 1936, only a month before this letter was written. With Sullivan’s death Polly Thomson became Keller’s primary companion, and the two embarked on a prolonged European retreat, visiting France, England, and Thomson’s native Scotland before returning in the early spring of 1937. A touching and wonderfully descriptive letter from Keller during one of the more trying episodes of her life.Starting Bid $200

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“This spring we have been away on another lecture tour for the blind, travelling up to the snows of Maine then down to the citrus groves and gardens of azaleas and camelias in Florida” 8061. Helen Keller. TLS, one

page both sides, 7.25 x 10.5, personal letterhead, April 8, 1942. Letter to Miss Lyla Olson, making frequent mention of her companion Polly Thomson and mentioning a biography of her great teacher, Anne Sullivan. In part: “How sweet you were to share such a precious experience with Polly and me! It gives us a happy picture of you that suffuses a tender warmth through our thoughts. Earnestly we wish you and your beloved every blessing in a beautiful Adventure of Companionship. News that the Face of Happiness shines upon our friends consoles us in the world’s long night. I am glad your little book is to be published. Taffy and Tuffy, I know, will be as adorable in print as they are in my memories of the evening we spent with you. Thanks ever so much for the dear things you say about the book I sent. Encouragement has never meant more to me than it does at present in my effort to strengthen others’ faith in the essential goodness of life and the ultimate triumph of its creative, civilizing forces. This spring we have been away on another lecture tour for the blind, travelling up to the snows of Maine then down to the citrus groves and gardens of azaleas and camelias in Florida. Now we are taking the winter straw off our laurels and roses and eagerly awaiting their blossom-time. At this moment I am jubilant because Polly has picked the first Sweet violet from plants we set out experimentally last year. As soon as I clear my desk of the extra work which always crops up when least convenient I shall again plunge into the ‘Teacher’ biography with a selfish prayer that the war turmoil may shield me from public activities long enough to complete the book. Polly sends her love with mine.” In fine condition, with creasing along the side. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope. HISTORY At the close of the letter, Keller mentions working on the biography of her famous teacher, Anne Sullivan, who taught her how to read, write, and speak; it would not be published for another thirteen years, released by Doubleday in 1955. The recipient of the letter, Lyla Olson, was a nurse at the Mayo Clinic who co-authored Taffy and Tuffy, a story of two King Charles Spaniels who befriended patients at the clinic, including Helen Keller. Keller provided a preface for the children’s book, entitled ‘Tribute to a Dog.’ Starting Bid $200

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“It was a beautiful surprise that Henry Wallace, full of high-soaring, world-encompassing concerns, should even mention me as a lover of impoverished humanity” 8062. Helen Keller. TLS, two pages, 7.25 x 10.5, personal letterhead, no date but circa 1941–1945. Letter to Dr. Kingdon, in full: “Nothing could have made me believe that all these weeks would elapse without my giving a sign of the joy and humility I felt when I received your noble, heart-warming letter and Vice-President Wallace’s address at the National Citizens’ Political Action committee luncheon. My reproachful conscience will not be pacified even by the fact that urgent tasks have claimed each day, and are only now relaxing their hold upon me. I prefer to thank you for your account—more moving than any compliment—of Henry Wallace’s finding something to gladden him in my endeavors towards constructive living. Then I am grateful for the happy incentive your energizing faith imparts—the straight-from-the-shoulder Christianity that does not stop with prayer or intellectual light, but flows outward ‘on kindness bent’ into every region of man’s activity. It was a beautiful surprise that Henry Wallace, full of high-soaring, world-encompassing concerns, should even mention me as a lover of impoverished humanity. Greatly he confirms my own message regarding the primary importance of the spirit ‘to get things done by material means in a concrete, practical way right here on earth.’ He is right about our bondage to the flesh. Too often our senses obstruct and confuse us because we do not use the Spirit to look around and above them and embody the vision in the drive of individual effort. Of course you and I realize how slow the processes of spiritual evolution have been, a little here and there, line upon line, precept upon precept, but now the world is being knitted together so closely by unprecedented methods of speech and example that myriads of different minds can be reached at once through instruction and personal stimulus. If evil powers have taken advantage of this fact with such deadly efficiency the last war years, how much more should we who cherish good be fearless in decision and swift in action to deliver mankind from all darknesses! Confidently I believe that the Word which has gone out of God’s mouth will not return unto Him void, since voices like Henry Wallace’s and your own ring their challenge to those who have ideas, but fail to incarnate them in large scale citizenship. Your message of warm affection to my Polly has made you both fast friends.” In fine condition. HISTORY Keller, who overcame blindness and deafness from an early age, was a great admirer of Wallace’s efforts to secure world peace, and in 1946 wrote to him: ‘Rejoicing I watch you faring forth on a renewed pilgrimage looking not downward to ignoble acquiescence or around at fugitive expediency, but upward to mind-quickening statecraft and a life-saving peace for all lands.’ A fantastic association piece connecting great activists of the 20th century. Starting Bid $200

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Malcolm X on the subject of Negro progress in North America: “He’s not moving; the train is moving” 8063. Malcolm X. Page from the original original typescript of Alex Haley’s

1963 interview of Malcolm X for Playboy magazine, one onionskin page, 8.5 x 11, signed “Malcolm X” in the bottom margin (with a marginal line indicating his approval of the contents). In part: “I don’t want to talk all day about the truth about the progress of the Negro in North America…You talk about the Negro progress, I’ll tell you, sir, because the Negro is in America, and America has gone forward, the Negro appears to have gone forward, that’s all. The Negro is like a man walking on a train doing ninety miles an hour to Chicago. He looks out the window and thinks he’s doing ninety miles. It’s an illusion to confuse the black man’s progress with that of the train in which he’s riding.” At the end, Malcolm X writes: “He’s not moving; the train is moving.” In fine condition, with a rusty paperclip impression to the top edge. HISTORY Playboy’s May 1963 interview with Malcolm X was one of the most famous of Haley’s career, and gave most readers their first in-depth look of Malcolm X’s teachings and personality. Supporters and critics viewed the Muslim minister in very different terms. Admirers saw him as a courageous advocate for the rights of African-Americans and condemned crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, and violence. Nevertheless, he has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African-American leaders in history. Within a year of granting this interview, with America still gripped by ever-growing racial tension, the once-combative black nationalist Malcolm X had repudiated almost every stance in the interview. He had broken with the Nation of Islam movement, fallen out with its leader, Elijah Muhammad, renounced black supremacy, and embraced racial equality and human rights. He was assassinated in Harlem in 1965. Starting Bid $300

Nightingale sends Osler’s work on the bubonic plague and syphilis 8064. Florence Nightingale. ALS in pencil, signed “F. Nightingale,”

four pages on two adjoining sheets, 4.5 x 7, personal letterhead, March 18, 1897. Letter to “My dear Nurse Ruddock,” in full: “This begins & ends with my prayers that our loving Father will give you to ‘run the place that is set before you’ ‘with patience.’ I send: 1. Osler’s book on Medicine which you asked for. I am sorry it is so large a book—There is a short article on the Bubonic Plague in it. And there is one on Syphilis &c. I meant to have told you yesterday (but we were talking of other things) how terrible is the increase of the disease of vice among our men in India. It is not unnoticed. There has been a Commission upon it, of which you may have heard. I am sorry to say that we are not without this increase in London Hospitals. In my younger days poor fellows with this disease were segregated. But I am now told by Medical Officers of large experience that they have sometimes scarcely a Patient in the Men’s Wards without a taint of it. I think Nurses should know more about it than they do. But they are never taught upon this gruesome subject. 2. comes Ll. Roberts’ book—2 vols. 3. the pathetic ‘Old Missionary. 4. a book I cannot help sending you The Hallowing of Work. I think you will like it. Between the books you will find a little paper knife. And now God bless you again. And He will bless you.” In fine condition. Accompanied by the original transmittal envelope. A significant medical letter by the founder of modern nursing. Starting Bid $200

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Supreme Court The first chief justice of the Supreme Court: “Our judicial system is not free from Difficulties, & I think the Judges will often find themselves embarrassed” 8065. John Jay.

Handwritten draft letter, unsigned, one page both sides, 7.25 x 8.75, November 16, 1789. Draft of a letter to the youngest signatory of the Declaration of Independence, Edward Rutledge, who was then serving as a member of the South Carolina State House of Representatives. In part: “Congratulations are pleasant when, as in the present case, their sincerity is unquestionable. Our judicial system is not free from Difficulties, & I think the Judges will often find themselves embarrassed. Your Brother’s acceptance gives general satisfaction—both public & personal considerations rendered it particularly agreeable to me. Your friendly invitation marks Esteem & attachment, & is therefore most grateful. As a man & your friend I should be happy in accepting it but as a Judge I have my Doubts. They will occur to you without Details. I am inclined to think some general Rule on this Subject would be prudent—as yet I have not considered it maturely. Mrs. Jay is equally obliged by yours & Mrs. Rutledge’s attention.” Jay explains that their long absence from their family will prevent them from visiting the Rutledges in Charleston. He continues: “Your son looks hearty and well, and I have Reason to believe does well. I suspect indeed that he is too seldom at church, and you know we have all two worlds to think of and make Provision for—a Hint from you in general Terms, without alluding to this Information might be useful. Since my return from Europe I have been gradually improving & have about 50 miles from hence a number of apple Trees planted.” In fine condition. HISTORY On September 24, 1789, John Jay had been nominated by President George Washington to be chief justice of the Supreme Court; at the same time, Edward Rutledge’s brother, John Rutledge, was named as one of the associate justices. Rutledge would later succeed Jay as the second chief justice of the US Supreme Court. A fantastic association piece from the founding period of the judicial branch. Starting Bid $500

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Businessmen The great showman-promoter pitches an American tour to Jenny Lind: “No man living possesses the same qualifications for a successful appeal to the American public that I do” 8066. P. T. Barnum. ALS, one page both sides, 7.75 x 10, September 2, 1857. Letter to Otto and Jenny Lind Goldschmidt, inviting the famed Swedish opera singer to tour America. In part: “Public sympathy, especially in America is strongly enlisted in my favor, and I feel justified in saying that in consequence of all these circumstances, no man living possesses the same qualifications for a successful appeal to the American public that I do. In this state of affairs I take the liberty of writing you this letter, to say, that should you feel disposed to visit the United States in the summer of 1858 and give a series of Concerts throughout the Union under my personal superintendence (commencing in Sept. 1858) I should be happy to undertake it, receiving therefor a portion of the profits of the enterprise. If you should see fit to entertain this proposition, I will only say I shall spare no efforts to make the enterprise in the highest degree popular and profitable, as well as pleasant to yourselves. I assure you that if I did not feel confident it would prove a ‘great success’ I should have no desire to undergo the trouble and anxieties absolutely consequent upon such an enterprise. Should you receive this proposition favorably it will be important to come to some definite understanding in the course of a few months, in order to afford sufficient time to make certain arrangements in view of the expected appearance in America in the fall of ‘58 of Mr. [Benjamin] Lumley and all the artists of Her Majesty’s Theatre. That Opera engagement made between Mr. Lumley and Mr. Ulman, may certainly by judicious management be made materially to increase your success here. Asking that this may be received in the nature of a somewhat confidential communication, and that you will after mature reflection, favor me with your response.” He adds a brief postscript, “My family are now in London but will return immediately to America.” On the second integral sheet is a draft of Otto Goldschmidt’s response to the letter, explaining that he and Lind “do not contemplate at present to revisit America.” In fine condition. Accompanied by unsigned manuscript and typescript copies of the 1850 contract between Barnum and Lind; a manuscript copy of a passage from W. P. Firth’s autobiography about Barnum; and a newspaper clipping about their contract. HISTORY A highlight of Barnum’s long and storied career was bringing world-famous opera singer Jenny Lind, known as the ‘Swedish Nightingale,’ to America for a tour from 1850–1852. The famous concert series made both of them extremely wealthy, though Lind was determined to donate her earnings to charity. Despite Barnum’s best efforts to recreate the magic at the end of the decade, Lind declined to accept his invitation. A fantastic letter related to one of the great entertainment collaborations of the 19th century. Starting Bid $200

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The ‘father of the automobile’ describes a Morey vacuum engine 8067. Charles E. Duryea. Co-creator of the first commercially produced

automobile (1861–1938). TLS signed in pencil, “Duryea,” one page, 8.5 x 11, personal letterhead, April 4, 1932. Letter to “Mr. Thwing,” describing a type of vacuum engine. In part: “The Morey is a double engine. Vacuum type below the piston an explosion type above. Made from the British drawings which show only the vacuum type...Morey sensed that a full cylinder of explosive mixture was not needed to drive the air out of the cylinder. So he introduced a charger piston. This is perforated and carried by friction, in contact with the true piston on the up stroke to a point ‘1/8 stroke to 1/4 stroke’ below upper DC. There the charger stands while the piston travels on, the air intake valve at the bottom closing as the charger stops. At the same time the fuel mixture valve opens so the further movement of the piston draws in explosive mixture between the charger and piston. As a vacuum engine, this when fired, simply expels the air thru the flap valve at the bottom; water immediately introduced cools down the remainder and the walls and the air freely above drives the piston down. This completes the cycle as a vac eng.” The reverse of the page has a printed essay by Duryea entitled ‘Some Money & Depression Facts. The Right Remedy,’ discussing methods of taxation to relieve the Great Depression. In fine condition, with a small edge tear passing through Duryea’s signature. Accompanied by a small booklet published by Duryea, entitled “The Real Pioneer.” Starting Bid $200

Scientists and Inventors “My contributions to the cause of aviation, in the support of the Aerial Experiment Association, have exceeded forty five thousand dollars” 8068. Alexander Graham Bell. TLS, one page, 8.5 x 11, personal letterhead, March 23, 1916. Letter to Alan R. Hawley of the National Aeroplane Defense Fund, in part: “I find that my financial manager, Mrs. Bell, has been ahead of me in writing you with regard to the contribution of $250 to the National Aeroplane Fund. My contributions to the cause of aviation, in the support of the Aerial Experiment Association, have exceeded forty five thousand dollars and just now we feel that it will not be convenient to contribute further. You know that my interest is always with the movement.” In fine condition, with two small areas of minor paper loss. The Aerial Experiment Association was formed in 1907 under Graham Bell’s leadership, and the group introduced several key technical innovations, including wingtip ailerons and the tricycle landing gear. A significant letter by one of the most innovative minds of his time. Starting Bid $200

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“Many, many are the struggles I have had in life but in all of my ways I have endeavored to acknowledge Him and He has so marvelously directed my paths”

8069. George Washington Carver. ALS signed “Geo. W. Carver,” one page both sides, 8.5 x 11, The Carver Products Company letterhead, March 16, 1925. Letter to “Mrs. Mal Carver Newlin,” in full: “Your letter was such an agreeable surprise. I regret however that I cannot do justice to it as I am ill, with the ‘Flu.’ I spoke in Philadelphia Penna. the 5th of last month and had the pleasure of meeting Mrs. Seebach, as well as the rest of the family. Mr. Seebach came to Tuskegee and spent nearly two weeks in getting the material for the story. Handicapped Winners, by Miss. S. E. Haskin contains an excellent write up. It is issued by the M. E. Church South, and is used in their missionary studies. They came down here and remained until they got the story. How near I feel to you, being a relative to dear, dear Moses Carver, who was just as good to me as if I had been his son, and Mrs. Carver my mother. I went to see him in his 99th

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year. He did not know me at first but as soon as I spoke he recognized my voice. I remained with him several days. I was very conscious that I would never see him alive again, and I parted with him sadly and reluctantly. As soon as I returned here I sent him a nice pair of black pants, in which he was laid to rest. (Many, many are the struggles I have had in life but in all of my ways I have endeavored to acknowledge Him and He has so marvelously directed my paths.) Under separate cover I am sending you a little leaflet which will supplement this very, very poor letter. Praying most earnestly that God will be sensibly near each member of your mission class in April, and that you will have a real soul stirring session.” In fine condition, with small edge separations to folds. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope addressed in Carver’s hand. Starting Bid $200


Colt queries whether Belgium will soon follow the British Government, “having adopted my arms into their service & ordered all I can make” 8070. Samuel Colt. ALS signed “S.

C.,” one page both sides, 8.25 x 10.75, March 17, 1854. Heavily edited draft of a letter addressed to J. Santhill in Brussels, in part: “I enclose you the copy of a note from Mr. Newton, which added to what I have before written, is conclusive as the protection I have in my Belgium patented rights. I want to know in detail what each of the respectable manufacturers of arms at Leige say in answer to the recent instructions I gave reducing my prices for the parts of my arms sent to Belgium...The British Government having adopted my arms into their service & ordered all I can make induces me…as early an answer to the question, whether or not the Belgium Government or the manufacturers at Liege require the parts of arms refired too.” In fine condition. Starting Bid $200

“Such cases certainly occur in non-Jewish families”—Darwin replies to a German physician 8071. Charles Darwin. ALS

signed “Ch. Darwin,” one page, 4.75 x 3.5, January 12, 1880. Letter to physician Alfred Krakauer in Berlin, in full: “I am much obliged for your note. I have heard of other analogous cases, but there remains to doubt whether they may not be accidental or coincidences, for such cases certainly occur in nonJewish families.” In very good to fine condition, with repairs on the reverse of the central vertical fold. An interesting, if rather cryptic, letter from the influential naturalist. Starting Bid $500

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“When the technical history of this Twentieth Century comes to be written it will, I think, be known as the ‘Electronic Era’” 8072. Lee de Forest. Prolific American inventor (1873–1961) often referred to as ‘the father of radio’ for his pioneering work in wireless telegraphy. AMS, two pages, 4 x 5.75, January 16, 1933. De Forest pens a thoughtful, visionary statement on technological progress in the 20th century. In full: “When the technical history of this Twentieth Century comes to be written it will, I think, be known as the ‘Electronic Era.’ The three-electrode vacuum tube, conceived during its first decade, has already remoulded the home-life, the daily thoughts, the political attitude of civilized mankind. For it has brought into the humblest household the counsel and the music of the wide world. Now the photo-electric cell begins to do for the eye what the audion has done for the ear. Together these are achieving Television, safeguarding Aviation, speeding and eliminating guesswork from our manufacturing processes. Tomorrow the Electron may supply all the power needs of man, remoulding Civilization, and offering immeasurable happiness. May the Education of Mind and Character keep pace with this harnessing of the Electron by Science. For, lacking that, the slow and simple life of our fathers would prove far better for the Race!” In fine condition. An incredible, visionary sentiment from a key innovator of the ‘Electronic Age.’ Starting Bid $200

“Man, under the influence of the demon alcohol... will lose his ideas of right and wrong” 8073. Richard Gatling. LS signed “R. J. Gatling,” two pages, 5.75 x 9, February 21, 1898. Written from Cataract, Indiana, a letter to William J. Dornup, in part: “There may be times when stimulants and narcotics, in individual cases become somewhat of a necessity—and for a time give increased strength, but in the end and when used to excess are sure to destroy the manhood and usefulness of those who indulge, weakening and clouding the intellect—until all the manhood is gone!—Man, under the influence of the demon alcohol—will do that which at other times he would scorn to do, and will lose his ideas of right and wrong—will lie, and even steal with impunity—It is in my opinion the cause of more than half the crime and poverty in the land.” In fine condition, with a torn crease to the lower left corner of the second page, and two small bits of old adhesive residue to the top of the first. HISTORY While Gatling railed against the use of drugs or alcohol in excess, he long believed that both proved invaluable for their abilities to dull pain and promote recovery. In an entry from one of his notebooks, dated 1849 and entitled ‘Gun shot wound,’ Gatling expounds on a variety of symptoms and his suggested remedies: ‘If larger joints & bones are much injured, amputation is often necessary—give stimulants, narcotics.’ For ailments such as ‘lockjaw’ or ‘stiffness of muscles about the neck—opium and alcohol in large doses is best remedy.’ A fascinating look into Gatling’s strong views regarding the liberal use of drugs and alcohol. Starting Bid $200

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Freud thanks his niece for “all the tokens of your tenderness” during his recovery from cancer

8074. Sigmund Freud. TLS in German, signed “Sigm.,” one page both sides, 6 x 8.5, personal letterhead, December 24, 1923. Letter to his niece Lucy, in full (translated): “We don’t want to let the year end without thanking you for all the tokens of your tenderness, including the last one. Of all the members of the family over there, you are really the only one on whom the ocean has lost its powers of separation. Go on being so cordially attached to us; we wish that the next year may spare you of experiences of similar difficulty as in the last. As to me, you will of course be informed. I am now regarded as nearly recovered and have been given permission to take up my activities again at the beginning of 1924. So I hope it will go on for a while. In this remaining period of my life I only

want to hear the most pleasing news from you, Felix, and the dear boys.” In fine condition, with two tiny repairs to the reverse top edge. HISTORY In 1923, Freud had undergone seven-hour surgery for cancer of the jaw, and during recovery was deprived of speech for weeks. By this time, Christmas Eve, he had made a nearly complete recovery and was looking forward to resuming his influential work—he had recently introduced his psychodynamic theory of the ‘Ego,’ ‘Id,’ and ‘Super-Ego,’ and was in high demand as a speaker worldwide. A desirable letter boasting an uncommon, informal variation of his signature. Starting Bid $300

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Fulton powers his landmark invention: “For three years I have had it in contemplation to purchase the Ohio coals for my steamboats”

8075. Robert Fulton. ALS signed “Rob’t Fulton,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 8.25 x 9.75, December 28, 1813. Letter to Peter Jay Monroe, in full: “For three years I have had it in contemplation to purchase the Ohio coals for my steamboats, and should have done so had a bank not been thought of. When Mr. Jenet mentioned a mining bank I stated to him where coal could be had, but I never had an Idea that any bank or company should have the exclusive command of them, which might give them the power of putting my boats under heavy tax; nor can I sacrifice any sure interest in my steam boats, for the emolument of a Bank in which I do not clearly see how I am to reap any benefit. For the Coal and land, I have given 4000 and some dollars, the contract is with my attorney and 1000 dollars a year that is equal 1280 dollars a year my boats will in three years require 6000 Chaldron a year and probably more hence those coals would not cost me at the pits 22 Cents a Chaldron. But as I wish to serve and accommodate the bank, one of the plans appears to me to be reasonable and will answer the purpose. The first, That I shall retain the right to take all coals which I may want for Steam boats or Vessels promised for 50 Cents a chaldron—I to dig and take them away, this will yield 3000$ a year.

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Or, I to pay for the coal and land as per contract and let the Bank take as much as the director may think proper, at 75 cents a Chaldron—then if you, doctor Bruce and Dent wish to profit by them—and the price admits of it, you can add 75 cents which will make them at the pits cost 1 1/2$ yet deliver them here under 9 dollars which Selling for 12 would on 12,000 Chaldron give the Bank 36,000$ and you gentlemen 8400 dollars a year. Or, secure to me coals for my boats at 50 Cents a chaldron. We to pay the purchase jointly in 4 portions and charge the bank what the coals will bear, leaving a good profit for the capital employed, Which will always be good and patriotic, when they get 12 percent on the capital employed on this plan could bring 20,000 Chaldron a year. We shall gain from 20 to 30 thousand dollars and thus would become our particular interest to push to its utmost the coal trade and in part make it the principal object. A few individuals thus stimulated by our interest will do more and benefit the public more than if the whole were amalgamed with the Bank whose varied and new directors may not understand the business or feel the like interest to promote it. In very good to fine condition, with minor paper loss (and small tear) to the top of the first page. An enlightening letter revealing Fulton’s business savvy as he attempts to secure coal reserves for his developing steamboat fleet. Starting Bid $300


The namesake of the guillotine

8076. Joseph Guillotin. Manuscript DS in Latin, signed “Guillotin,” twelve total pages, 7 x 9.5, March 8, 1788. Lengthy document compiling a large list of names and qualifications of various students for receipt of baccalaureate degrees. Signed at the conclusion by Guillotin, and countersigned by several others. In fine condition. HISTORY For a man whose surname is most associated with a device used to decapitate people, Guillotin was a famously influential reformer and humanitarian who throughout his life

was in opposition of the death penalty. During a debate on capital punishment on October 10, 1789, Guillotin, one of ten Paris deputies in the Estates-General assembly, proposed that death, if unavoidable, should come swiftly, painlessly, and advocated on behalf of an apparatus designed by the surgeon Dr. Antoine Louis. In a follow-up meeting on December 1st, Guillotin was quoted as saying: ‘Now, with my machine, I cut off your head in the twinkling of an eye, and you never feel it!’ His words made headlines and his lifelong affiliation with an instrument he never created was born. Starting Bid $200

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Heisenberg on the atom bomb and the Nazi government: “I was never in doubt about the fact that the German regime consisted in its most official positions of fools and scoundrels”

8077. Werner Heisenberg. TLS in German, five pages, 8.25

x 11.75, Max Planck Institute for Physics letterhead, January 5, 1948. Significant letter to Professor Samuel A. Goudsmit of the Northwestern University Department of Physics, discussing reactions of uranium and scientific research in Nazi Germany; the letter itself is four pages long, and includes an additional page with hand-drawn diagrams by Heisenberg depicting chain reactions in uranium 235 and uranium in heavy water. In part (translated): “The most pressing difference of opinion between you and me seems to deal with the question whether the German physicists knew that an atom bomb functions because of the chain reaction with fast neutrons, and whether they knew that one can make atom bombs from 235U or 239Pu... The first instance (chain reaction with fast neutrons and 235U) seemed fundamentally self-evident to us since the well-known research of Bohr and Wheeler had been published,—even

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though I fully realized that the factual construction of the atom bomb pre-supposed the solving of several difficult physical questions...The deliberation about the density number 239, as I wrote in my report, can be found in a secret report by Weizsäcker from the year 1940. At that time it was not clear whether the 23-min.-substance 239U, which Hahn has discovered, would result in only one or perhaps two Beta-disintegrations.… I would like to allude to a report...which contains my lecture of February 26, 1942 and which was later repeated for a panel of Luftwaffe members. In this lecture I showed two slides which (adjusted to the niveau of a Reichminister of that time) compared the proliferation of neutrons in pure 235U with that in a pile made up of pure uranium and heavy water. I am enclosing a sketch of the two slides which I reconstructed from memory as well as was possible. I don’t have to explain to you what they demonstrate. Those two slides were kept


I suppose, that just by chance, you have not found the reports which would give you a clear picture about the atom bomb question...I feel that this entire development was practically inevitable after Hahn’s discovery and after the research of Bohr and Wheeler. I think that the great accomplishments by the American and English physicists resulted mainly from the enormous effects of technical performance, in the systematic use of vast resources, which could only be provided by the strong industrial potential of America...

in your letter dealing with the American opinion regarding German science under National Socialism…I have always felt that pure science suffered enormously under the National Socialist regime, first of all certainly because of the expulsion of so many able scientists from Germany; secondly, because of the inroads the absurd ideological theories made…It would never occur to me to believe that the German physicists were different from their colleagues of the Allied Forces. But I can’t imagine that you didn’t realize that the German physicists worked under other psychological conditions than their colleagues in England and America, and that the German physicists stood in opposition to the philosophy of life of their regime in contrast to the Allied physicists who worked for one goal together with their country’s people...

Possibly, I should address some of the points mentioned in your letter. First of all a few words about the four sentences

Perhaps I should also say something about the political attitude here, which you chose to characterize as a compromise with

up to the end of the war in my Berlin institute; they were probably confiscated by the Russians. As far as I know they were mentioned in that report I referred to and which you will probably find somewhere in America.

Continued on the next page.

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Continued from the previous page.

Nazism. During that entire time, I was never in doubt about the fact that the German regime consisted in its most official positions of fools and scoundrels. However, I also knew that, if the German people failed to undermine and ultimately abolish that political system from within, a great catastrophe would befall the country which would take the lives of millions of innocent people in Germany and in other countries. You write: ‘Why didn’t you sense the hopelessness of ever being able to convince Himmler?’—I was not naïve enough to believe that we had any chance to succeed before the catastrophe broke over us. But even now I feel that I would have shirked my duty unpardonably if I hadn’t tried my utmost, at least in my small sphere of influence, to breach the delusions of the political overlords, hoping all the while that others in their positions would then act accordingly in the same manner. Himmler’s letter proves to me that such an attempt was not taken without danger (‘We can’t afford to kill this man’) but also that it was not entirely hopeless. By the way, I had discussed my efforts beforehand with Bohr and he emphatically supported them,—not because he had any illusions about the results, but because he correctly assumed that everything had to be tried... I think that, considering the affairs of the world as a whole, it would have been better if National Socialism could have been replaced by something saner from within instead of being abolished from the outside by force of arms. I also feel that it would have been desirable if the group of people who attempted real opposition to Hitler (about whom you can now read in several books) could have found understanding and support in foreign countries.—It is not easy to guide people toward beneficial objectives through force of arms and, right now, because of the indescribable misery, Germany is not a fertile ground for being influenced by beneficial ideas, which all seriously engaged people know to be necessary. What we need at this time in Germany is not hate-filled reckoning with the past but a quiet reconstruction and the slow beginning of humane living conditions.” In fine condition, with minor edge paper loss. HISTORY By late 1941, the German government began to deliberate the construction of a nuclear reactor, the primary step in assembling an atomic bomb. The Reich Research Council’s House of German Research held a conference for this project on February 26, 1942, and Heisenberg delivered a speech on ‘The Theoretical Foundations for Energy Acquisition from Uranium Fission.’ His nine-page paper discussed topics such as the so-called “fast neutrons” resulting from nuclear fission that have lost little of their energy through collision; “heavy water” (deuterium oxide), used as a moderator in some nuclear reactors; and the release of nuclear power through controlled chain reactions. The included drawings reveal Heisenberg’s theoretical knowledge at the time and appear to be the only remaining record of his above-mentioned slides. While the Research Council’s influential guest list could not have understood the practical relevance of Heisenberg’s remarks to atomic bombs, his talk nevertheless spurred the Research Council to assume control of nuclear research from the army. On May 3, 1945, Heisenberg was one of ten German scientists captured in Urfeld by Operation Alsos, which the recipient of this letter, Samuel Goudsmit, served as chief scientific advisor. In 1947, Heisenberg, now the director of the Max Planck Institute for Physics, published two articles on the failure of the German nuclear weapon project Uranverein in the journals Die Naturwissenschaften and Nature. In addition to stating that it was the lack of resources and technical support that stymied the German effort, Heisenberg insisted that their research was constricted to the investigation of peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Goudsmit dismissed Heisenberg’s claims of any sort of benevolent research, maintaining that the Uranverein’s main objective was to build weaponry, and that the scientists involved simply failed in their execution. A detailed and highly informative letter that finds Heisenberg continuing to defend his role and actions as a member of the Uranverein. Starting Bid $500

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Heisenberg defends his role in Nazi Germany’s nuclear research program—“I understand quite clearly that it has to be very difficult for you to imagine our psychological situation during the war” 8078. Werner Heisenberg. TLS

in German, signed “W. Heisenberg,” two pages, 8.25 x 11.75, Kaiser Wilhelm–Institute of Physics letterhead, September 23, 1947. Letter to Professor Samuel A. Goudsmit, a DutchAmerican physicist at Northwestern University, in full (translated): “I am sending you with the same mail some special publications, among them also the one relating to our work with atoms during the war. In connection with this article I want to write a few words to you. In recent times I have read several of your articles in which you report about the uranium research performed in Germany during the war. From these articles I get the impression that perhaps you didn’t know enough about the details of our research and especially, that you were not aware of the psychological situation during the war for those of us who lived in Germany. Not long ago I discussed this matter at length with [Niels] Bohr and he suggested that I should personally write to you about it. As I told you that time in Heidelberg the mood among us was entirely different. From the very beginning we were convinced (as I vigorously emphasized during official meetings in Germany during the war) that America would be able to resolve the uranium problem much faster and better because of its incomparably superior equipment (for instance, 24 cyclotrons versus none in Germany)—as long as it was officially decided to do so. Therefore we never considered a serious competition. We just thought it possible that this problem might perhaps not be tackled at all in America because we imagined that it would be of little importance to the war effort. And so, when you told me in Heidelberg that the American physicists had worked mainly for the war effort and that they didn’t pursue the questions pertaining to atoms (naturally, you had to give me such an answer then) I felt that this was plausible, and to that extent we rejoiced that we apparently had done reasonably good work for peace. Your portrayal of a ‘race among scientists’ therefore, does not correctly describe the atmosphere of our research, but I understand quite clearly that it has to be very difficult for you to imagine our psychological situation during the war. The problem was that, after all, we knew only too well what terrible consequences a victory of National Socialism in Europe would entail but that, on the other hand, we had no illusions about the results of a total German defeat because of the hate National Socialism had sown. Such a proposition leads naturally to a more passive and modest attitude, and one would be happy to be content with saving, wherever possible, that which can be salvaged in a small circle of influence, and to hope that later, perhaps some useful work can be done again.—Maybe there will be an opportunity, not too far in the future, when we can talk about these issues more thoroughly than was possible at that time in Heidelberg. Regarding the details of the uranium research in Germany, I think the article in Science contains the essentials, in some places even more precise than what you had learned in that by-gone time. If you have additional questions or doubts in connection with this, I would welcome it if you wrote to me about them. In August I visited Bohr for eight days in Tisvilde and I was very happy about the chance to be in touch with Bohr and the other physicists in Copenhagen and to learn more about the progress that had been made in physics, for instance in the area of cosmic radiation. With best regards, also from the other physicists of our group.” In fine condition, with minor paper loss to the top edge. Accompanied by a full English translation. Starting Bid $200

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The telegraph inventor amidst the Civil War: “While so many in our beloved country North & South are in deepest sorrow, our loved family circle are so exempt from trouble”

8079. Samuel F. B. Morse. ALS signed “Sam’l F. B. Morse,”

two pages both sides, 5.25 x 8, March 11, 1862. Letter to his sister, Mrs. Cornelia Goodrich, written from New York. In part: “I find it difficult to find a moment from my studies and writing, even to write to you and the dear ones about you, but I am consoled with the belief that in your beloved Mother you have an unfailing source of domestic news. But I have seized my pen to say a few words amid the din of uproarious children, dear little Eddy among them, who are enjoying themselves in the ‘red room’ adjoining my office, and if they in any way interrupt the smooth current of thought, they make it the pleasantest of all interruptions, in that while so many in our beloved country North & South are in deepest sorrow, our loved family circle are so exempt from trouble except in the profound sympathy which every American heart must entertain, not entirely callous to all feelings of humanity… I do not write to you on political matters, for it would require more than one or a dozen letters, so clearly to define my views as not to be misunderstood. In a contest where there is so much wrong doing on both sides, so much self righteous pharisaism, so much clear-sightedness in seeing the wrong in our neighbor, and blindness in discovering or rather in acknowledging our own, it is no easy task to keep the mind steadfast upon the right, and less easy to rebuke wrong in either party without at once being accused of going wholly over to the views of the other side. The nation now is in its paroxysm of fever, and delirium. When the excitement subsides, and the calm of returning reason, has put the mind in a state to receive counsel, we may hope again for national health. This can alone be given by the Great Physician. In the mean time

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the heart staid on him can be kept, and will be kept in perfect peace. I long for the time when love and mutual forgiveness shall restore our two sections to a warm embrace, all the more ardent from the present unnatural estrangement. ‘An enemy hath done this.’ Mutual explanation of mutual misunderstandings with God’s blessing will accomplish what to man now seems an impossibility… So soon as I get the cross I will comply with your request for a photograph to be taken with all my decorations, five orders of Knighthood from five different Sovereigns. Sarah has gone with Mother this evening to Mrs. Spring’s. We are all well. All the dear children bright and improving…Charles Willis was at our party last evening, and so were Mrs. Stewart & Miss Kennedy. We had a strange mixture of secessionists and abolitionists, (for I suppose I must call the Curtises & Springs by the latter epithet,) and yet we did not come in collision, but I suppose it was from ignoring the subject on which they differed; at any rate all seemed pleased. Wouldn’t I rejoice if I could bring together in the same way all the brethren of the same family from Maine to the Rio Grande. This was my advice at first, but others thought differently and so we are, as we are. Oh that we were as we were.” He adds a postscript in the left margin, “Mathew has begun a letter to you to send by a gentleman who sails in the next steamer, on Saturday.” In fine condition, with some light edge staining. Morse’s telegraph proved critical to both the North and South for tactical communications during the Civil War, and its use—along with advancements in weapons, transport, and other technologies—has led the conflict to become known as the first modern war. Starting Bid $200


Pasteur’s “Notes on the Cell Structure of the Silk Worm” 8080. Louis Pasteur. AMS in French,

signed “L. Pasteur,” one page, 5.25 x 8.25, March 1867. A page of notes headed “Notes on the Cell Structure of the Silk Worm,” in part (translated): “In the findings relative to silk worm diseases reported during the month of January 1867 to the Imperial Commission for silk culture which were then printed in the February issue of the Messenger for Agriculture in the South of France, I mentioned the existence on each corpuscle of a median line in the direct of the long axis. A sufficiently powerful and sharp microscope makes it possible to see the line along the axis. What you can clearly distinguish is a sharply delineated oval, with the entire portion delineated within the oval line being much brighter than the rest of the corpuscle…I asked myself if that oval line could not perhaps be the contour of an opening for the secretion of some amorphous substance needed for the reproduction of the corpuscles. It is nothing of the kind. That oval line is nothing but the contour of a cell nucleus enclosed by each corpuscle which has the exact same shape as the corpuscle itself. It is very easy to make that nucleus visible by means of various reagents, especially iodine.” In fine condition. HISTORY Beginning in 1855, a widespread epidemic among silkworms nearly brought the French silk industry to ruin. As the crisis reached its peak in 1865, Pasteur—then serving as the professor of geology, physics, and chemistry at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris—was asked by the Department of Agriculture to head a commission to investigate the devastating disease infecting the worms. Within five years, he had determined that temperature, humidity, ventilation, quality of the food, sanitation and adequate separation of the broods of newly hatched worms all played a role in susceptibility to the disease, and was able to create new methods breeding that would preserve healthy eggs and prevent contamination. An important topic in Pasteur’s career, his research with the silkworms helped shape his future concepts on the influence of environment on contagion, leading to his most significant contributions in the study of causes and prevention of disease. Starting Bid $1,000

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“I cannot bear this responsibility after this Government, with evil intention, committed, according to my feeling and best knowledge, an act that should not have been done: it turned itself into a judicial authority and violated one of the foundations of a democratic state�

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World Leaders In a secret letter to Israel’s former prime minister, Ben-Gurion announces his intention to resign in the wake of the Lavon Affair 8081. David Ben-Gurion. ALS in Hebrew, four pages, 5 x

8.5, January 27, 1961. Important letter to Moshe Sharett, who had served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Prime Minister of Israel, marked “Personal and Secret.” In part (translated): “I will perhaps finish my vacation in ten days, but on my return I will submit my resignation from this Government. I am saying this only to you, and I trust you that nothing will be ‘leaked,’ as when I told the Government after the conclusions of the Committee of Seven were approved, and they granted me six weeks’ vacation. I will resign from the Government, for there is here a matter of collective responsibility, and I cannot bear this responsibility after this Government, with evil intention, committed, according to my feeling and best knowledge, an act that should not have been done: it turned itself into a judicial authority and violated one of the foundations of a democratic state, in which there is total separation between the executive authority and the judiciary, and it confirmed the conclusions that included distortion of justice, half-truths, and injustice screaming heavenward. From this report, you will not be able to see the cover-up the castration of truth, and the distortion of justice. In any case, I will not have a share in this responsibility, which includes shaking the moral foundation of our very existence. It became clear to me (and I know well that I am as capable of erring as any mortal. So are others, even if they are Seven) beyond any shade of doubt, that the secretary of the Histadrut [Pinhas Lavon] is a person of intrigues and deceit. It is possible to accuse me that this became clear to me belatedly, and Shaul blames me that he had already warned me about this fellow seven years ago, but what am I to do, if until the beginning of October, or more accurately—until I heard about Lavon in the last days of September—I continued defending him—indeed, they might blame his rival in this controversy—Benjamin Gibli, and I refused to rehabilitate him, because the rehabilitation would mean the accusation of Gibli. I know that Gibli is perceived now as a notorious criminal, and perhaps he is like one (I am not yet sure about that). As Minister of Defense, I did all that I could to bring even him to a trial and remove him from the army—out of a doubt founded more or less. However, I do not have any doubt about Lavon. He is a dangerous intriguer, and we are abusing the most precious thing in the country (except the State itself) if we let him continue at the head of the Histadrut. However, that is not my business as Prime Minister or as leader of the Society. I am just one out of hundreds of thousands of members, and as one member,

I will do my duty for Histadrut and defend its honor, but I will not pressure, and I do not have any means of pressure, and even if I had, I would not use them; I have never used such means, no matter what the ‘Humanists’ claim. I would say: ‘A person like me will not be frightened’—even were I much humbler than I am, although I do not pretend be a humble man. However, I will not give a hand—even in a passive manner—to the terrible moral error that most of the Government’s members committed (out of good intentions). I believe in the Truth—and it will appear! Excuses from the Humanists and students will not silence it. The revealing of the truth—if indeed the truth is as I see it—will not bring about the dissolution of the Party, but rather the opposite. I was embarrassed this week to see how this fellow maltreats the Party, and how the Party Members were embarrassed and frightened. I don’t have in my heart any confusion or fear, and will be ready, if it is imposed on me, to establish a new government, but with my complete freedom to fight to discover the truth.” In fine condition, with a rusty paperclip mark to the top. Ben-Gurion’s important letter relates to the conclusion of the ‘Lavon Affair,’ a botched 1954 Israeli espionage operation conducted in Egypt; in consequence of its failure, Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon had been forced to resign in 1955. New testimony came to light in 1960, and a ‘Commission of Seven’ established to investigate the affair found that Lavon was not guilty of wrongdoing. Prime Minister Ben-Gurion was outraged at this outcome, questioning the legality and objectivity of the new inquiry. On January 31, 1961, four days after he wrote this letter, Ben-Gurion resigned from his high office. Echoing what he says here to Sharett, Prime Minister Ben-Gurion wrote in his resignation letter: ‘My understanding of my obligations forbid me to bear responsibility for the Cabinet decision on December 25 [the decision to accept the report that exonerated Lavon], as this would be incompatible with fundamental principles of justice and the basic laws of the State.’ The central committee of Ben-Gurion’s Mapai Party immediately begged him to reconsider, and promptly expelled Lavon as a member of the group and as secretary-general of the Histadrut. New elections were held in August 1961, with Maipai winning 42 seats and Ben-Gurion returning as prime minister. Despite this reaffirmation of his political power, Ben-Gurion’s popularity was severely reduced and he never completely recovered from the Lavon Affair. Starting Bid $200

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Burke on the Whig party rift—“The unfortunate division in Ministry is no secret to the World”

8082. Edmund Burke. Statesman, author, orator, political

theorist, and philosopher (1729–1797) who, after relocating from Ireland to England, served for many years in the House of Commons. Considered a philosophical founder of modern conservatism, he is mainly remembered for his support of the American Revolution, and his later opposition to the French Revolution. ALS signed “Edm. Burke,” one page both sides, 7.25 x 8.75, November 4, 1794. Letter written from the Nerots Hotel, addressed to Henry Dundas, Viscount Melville, in full: “The unfortunate division in Ministry is no secret to the World, & consequently it is [is] known to me. To some it may be an object of indifference; to others perhaps a matter of exultation. But I must regard it, & feel it too, as a dreadful misfortune. In what a tremendous state of our affairs abroad & at home does this calamity fall upon us? I am sure, under this sense of things, you will not think it a breach in my purpose of retirement, in which I am fixed by age, inclination, & the heavy hand of God, if I so far interfere (though I confess with too much hope of success) as to do all in my poor power to promote union amongst those, on whose mutual good understanding the very being of mankind depends. Perhaps if I had not been as active as I have been in forwarding this coalition I might have beheld its rupture with a greater degree of tranquility. Whilst I

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was yet in the world, you have been so kind as sometimes to bear me with patience on matters of some moment’s thought at that time you might well enough suspect that my judgment was warped by my many common Motives. Now, with less claim perhaps to vigour of understanding, I have the claim of a mind free from all Bias. In the Character, not of an able but an impartial man, I wish to lay before you such thoughts as occur to me. You will be so good as to let me know, when I can (or whether I can have at all) an Hour’s conversation with you? I have the honour to be with sincere respect & regard.” In fine condition. HISTORY Despite retiring from Parliament some four months prior, Burke, perhaps eager to busy himself in the wake of his son Richard’s recent death, remained involved with governmental affairs. This letter was written during the early part of the first Napoleonic wars, and was an attempt on Burke’s part to conciliate the dissenting ‘old’ and ‘new’ Whig factions in William Pitt the Younger’s ministry. Melville was Pitt’s right hand man, and at that time Secretary of War and President of the Board of Indian Control. A rare political missive from a founder of modern conservatism. Starting Bid $500


Prime Minister Churchill’s message to the president of South Korea: “I too look forward to friendly co-operation between our two Governments in our common resistance to the forces of aggression” 8083. Winston Churchill. TLS signed “Winston S. Churchill,” one page, 7.5 x 9.5, 10 Downing Street letterhead, November 12, 1951. Letter written two weeks after his election as prime minister, to South Korean ambassador Dr. Myo-Mook Lee. In full: “I write to thank you for your letter of October 27, in which you sent me a message from His Excellency the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea. I should be grateful if you would thank Mr. Chang for his good wishes and assure him that I too look forward to friendly co-operation between our two Governments in our common resistance to the forces of aggression. Please accept also my warm thanks for your own congratulations.” In fine condition, with a small hole to the upper left corner. HISTORY Written less than six months after the start of the Korean War, this significant letter represents Churchill’s steadfast commitment to the containment of the Communist threat. When the Korean invasion occurred the summer before, it was Churchill who stood in the House of Commons to deliver the Conservative Party’s support to the government to deploy troops to the Korean peninsula and fight what he viewed as unprovoked aggression on the part of the North. A particularly relevant piece today, given the current state of global affairs. Starting Bid $200

Mirabeau on a citizen’s rights and freedom of the press 8084. Honore Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau. Controversial leader of

the early stages of the French Revolution (1749–1791). ALS in French, signed “Le Comte de Mirabeau,” one page, 6 x 7.75, December 19, 1789. Letter to Monsieur Venter, a citizen who felt his rights had been violated with regards to freedom of the press. In part (translated): “[Your letter]…informs me of the treatment you received in Dax. I acknowledge…that in your case the decrees of the Assembly have been violated, and I believe you to be justified in seeking redress from the municipality of Bayonne which was the source of the blows delivered to you. Such tyrannical conduct cannot be tolerated nowadays, and it is not to curry favor with the powers that be that perceptive men invoked the freedom of the press. You have been the beneficiary of its advantages. If you are a slanderer, you must be punished. If you are an impartial informer, punishment must fall on the heads of your prosecutors, whatever their influence and credit. I sincerely wish…you receive prompt satisfaction and the rights of man and citizen have not been set upon in vain.” In fine condition. Mirabeau was a courageous supporter of the concepts of liberty and democracy, and an ardent defender of freedom of the press. A superb letter from French Revolution. Starting Bid $200

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Trotsky aims to bolster the Communist League of America

“We need somebody to observe the world economy attentively day in and day out”

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8085. Leon Trotsky. TLS in German, signed “With best and friendliest regards and wishes, Yours, L. Trotsky,” one page both sides, 9 x 14.25, October 20, 1932. Letter to “the Directors of the Communist League of America (Opposition).” In full (translated): “I am answering your letter of October 7, 1932 on the Field case: 1.) You seem to place the Field case in a certain context with the Weisbord case. I must thus begin with the latter. The Weisbord group lodged a formal request with the International Secretariat to intervene. Weisbord came to me on his own initiative. The International Secretariat wanted to know my opinion on this question, and I had no formal possibilities of evading giving an opinion, also I saw no political reason for such a course. Of course, I thought it my duty in this special, delicate case to do everything to bolster the position and authority of the League toward the Weisbord group. As of now I see no reason to regret anything that was done on this question in Prinkipo. In the most important issues, the Weisbord group had to realize the incorrectness of its own position toward the League. That is a significant political gain. Your reply to Weisbord’s letter can only further bolster your position and authority. I saw that already as exemplified by Comrade Field: he recognized that your reply was tactful and correct. So what could you complain about in this case? 2.) The Field case is an entirely different matter—different and more complicated: simpler because it is only about a single comrade; more complicated because our practical goals seem not to coincide completely. After conversations with Comrade Glotzer, after pertinent articles in the Militant, and after personal discussions with Comr. Field, I had gained the definite impression that Field’s work in the League has not become more difficult and impossible just because you regard him as a politically or morally unworthy person or as a type of person who is alien to us in his core, but because due to his past he has not been trained for a leading role in a revolutionary organization, but is being urged on this path because of his intellectual qualities. This contradiction, which is by no means a rare occurrence, could be surmounted in a large organization. But as the League continues to be a small pioneer organization, it feels compelled to take more severe steps for its own self-preservation. This is approximately my view of the matter. On the other hand, it seems to me that Comrade Field could be of very important service to the Leftist Opposition on the whole because of his economic and statistical expertise. We need somebody to observe the world economy attentively day in and day out and who is capable of interpreting it for himself and others. I had been looking for such an economics expert for the Leftist Opposition for some time. In vain. I hardly think we could now find somebody else with Field’s qualifications. I have of course noted the significance of the fact that Comr. Field has been expelled from the New York local organization. But a formal act such as expulsion must be evaluated not only formally, but also politically. Somebody can be expelled because he is a spy, someone

else because he is morally corrupt, a third person because he represents a fundamentally hostile trend. But a person can also be expelled because he—although as such honest and fully capable—disturbs the unity of the organization in the given circumstances and jeopardizes its capability to act. In this last case (and that is the case with Field), it would perhaps be good to appeal to the international organization for help from the beginning so as to neutralize a comrade of this kind for the national organization and yet not lose him altogether. This is not a reproach, but rather a suggestion for the future. These are the general thoughts I base my case on. The cases of Landau, Gorkin, etc., which you mention and you use with great polemic skill (from which I derived much private pleasure), have no bearing here. Landau was never expelled; he tried to expel the majority of his own organization. When this was objected to, he constituted his own faction. Two ‘leftist oppositions’ competed with each other for followers. Taking up Landau’s cause would really amount in this case to betraying our German organization. Gorkin left the leftist opposition to become a comrade-in-arms of the most suspicious political organizations. Even with the right-wing opposition. According to the accusations of the Spanish comrades, Gorkin was involved in dirty personal matters (financial matters, etc.). The Weisbord group can to a certain degree be regarded as a rival organization. But in no way can Comrade Field be. Also, Field didn’t contact Muste or the Lovestone people to oppose the League. The difference is really great. That he circumvented the Directors of the League, is not correct as regards the organizational standpoint. That he went to Europe to find the way to the Leftist Opposition, does not speak against him, but for him. This proves that he is serious about the matter. All of this has moved me, after serious deliberations, to send Field’s work on America to the sections as discussion material. The work contains important ideas and suggestions and deserves to be read and thoroughly discussed. Even if an international decision on the Field case should be arrived at, this work could serve as important information material for the sections. The fact that articles by Comrade Field have been printed in the opposition press without previous notification to you, is really not correct. In this I assume my part of the responsibility myself and am willing to send all sections an apology to this effect, if you think that would be constructive. But I persist in feeling that the Field case should be decided individually; not only from the standpoint of the organizational committee in New York, but also from the standpoint of the international organization. I would be very grateful to you if you would translate this letter into English so as to make it accessible to all the members of the Director’s Committee.” In very good to fine condition, with light staining, and splitting along folds. Accompanied by a typescript of the League’s response.Starting Bid $200

June 28, 2018

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Talleyrand to Louis XVIII, offering New Year’s wishes “for the glory and prosperity of your reign” 8086. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand. Scarce ALS in French, signed “Le p’ce de Talleyrand duc de dino,” one page, 8 x 12.25, January 1, 1818. Crisply penned letter to King Louis XVIII, in part (translated): “All the moments in my life are devoted to experience, the honorable and invaluable marks of goodness that Your Majesty is kind enough to grant me. I thus dare take the liberty, at the beginning of a new year, to present my most ardent wishes to Your Majesty for your happiness as well as for the glory and prosperity of your reign. I am confident that the sense of gratitude and devotion that inspires these wishes will protect them from being regarded as disrespectful to Your Majesty.” In fine condition, with a light circular stain. A significant piece of correspondence from France’s key diplomat to the king.Starting Bid $200

Trotsky arranges for serialization of his History of the Russian Revolution, hoping for the second volume to “be more interesting in workers’ circles than the first” 8087. Leon Trotsky. TLS in German, signed “With best regards, Yours, L. Trotsky,” one page, 8.5 x 11, June 1, 1931. Letter to Comrade Shachtman, in full (translated): “I received a letter from the Fischer publishing house today stating the absolute impossibility of reprinting the first volume, but at the same time suggesting reserving a serial publication of the second volume for the New Yorker Volkszeitung [Peoples’ Newspaper]. The publishers are also willing to provide you with the German translation and will I hope be more interesting in workers’ circles than the first. The New Yorker Volkszeitung could print a few essays giving a brief resume of the events described in the first volume and then do the serial publication of the second volume. I think this would be a very good solution to the problem. If you agree to this, please write to Dr. Bermann, Fischer Publishers, and express the gratitude he deserves for this cooperation, for I must really say that the Fischer publishing house is really the only decent publisher I know, not excluding the Americans.” In fine condition, with light creasing to the upper left corner. Trotsky’s three-volume History of the Russian Revolution, translated into English by Max Eastman, was published in 1932. Starting Bid $200

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Royalty

The czar applauds a key diplomat’s “indefatigable zeal and his loyalty”

8088. Czar Nicholas I. Czar of Russia (born 1796) who reigned from 1825 until his death in 1855. By crushing the Decembrist

Uprising, he confirmed the autocracy of czarist rule, but disastrous losses in the Crimean War marked the collapse of his foreign and domestic policies. Scarce ALS in French, signed twice, “Nicholas,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 4.75 x 7.25, July 24, 1831. Letter to Countess Orlov, the wife of Russian statesman Aleksi Orlov, in part (translated): “The most difficult tasks with which I have charged him…are additional opportunities to give proof of his indefatigable zeal and his loyalty…This time he is rendering an immense service to me as well as to the Fatherland…he is acquitting himself in an admirable fashion…a few more days will be required before everything is done…just a few hours ago I had the happiness of seeing my wife safely delivered. She has given me a son.” The third page is the concluding line of a postscript. In fine condition, with scattered light staining. Aleksi Orlov was engaged in concluding the war with Turkey, to which he became ambassador in 1833. A fantastic twice-signed letter from the czar. Starting Bid $200

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Historic archive of over 30 letters from the empress to her son-in-law, touching upon politics, history, and family

8089. Maria Theresa. HImpressive archive of 31 handwritten letters in French by Empress Maria Theresa, including 25 signed (most “Marie Therese,” and occasionally “MT”) and six unsigned, on black-bordered mourning stationery, many undated but circa 1766–1778. All are to her son-in-law Prince Albert Casimir August of Saxony, the husband of her favorite daughter, Maria Christina. The correspondence reveals her deep understanding of domestic and international politics and her appreciation for maintaining the balance of power in Europe, covering a wide range of topics including the notorious Esquilache Riots in Madrid, the Russo-Turkish War, War of Bavarian Succession, and the modernization of her empire. These letters also include discussions of various family matters, touching upon Maria Christina’s physical and emotional health. A brief outline of these subjects: The Esquilache Riots, 1766: In March 1766, Maria Theresa breathlessly recounts the details of the Esquilache Riots,

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which had forced her in-law, Charles III of Spain, to flee Madrid temporarily. The riots were sparked by a decree issued by Leopold de Gregorio, Marquis of Esquilache, banning long capes and broad-brimmed hats, a traditional Madrid costume, which allowed weapons to be easily concealed. This measure caused a riot when the government began enforcing the ban. Maria Theresa writes: “News of tumult in Madrid that happened on March 23. People gathered by the dozen and more, shouting bread bread, prices were excessive for some time. They went to the palace of Squilacci [Esquilache] to club him but having found a way to escape they ransacked the house and went to the King’s palace demanding bread and death to Squilacci…Tumult increased even more in the morning when it was known that the king had left. Misfortune had it that there were only 2 battalions in all of Madrid and couriers were sent to get troops but all this did not help at the time. More than one hundred persons were already dead. The King was forced to speak to them from a balcony capitulate and


sign that Squilacci would be chased first from all of Spain; he left right away to Cartagena; that bread and all food be at half price and that the Spanish coats and round hats that the king had forbidden to wear be restored and that he uses only Spanish ministers in the future no strangers.” Russo-Turkish War, 1768–1772: Austria endured financial difficulties following the the Seven Years War, which had engulfed Europe from 1755 to 1763. Maria Theresa spent the next fifteen years rebuilding her empire’s finances and reforming its institutions. When war erupted between Russia and the Ottoman Empire in 1768, she was justifiably worried. Although Austria was a longtime enemy of the Turks, Austria joined with Prussia and Great Britain to mediate the conflict. One of her advisors, Maria Theresa complains in a circa 1771 letter, ”is not in agreement. He would like to crush these poor Turks with the Russians and share the cake to which I will never go along.” Part of the mediation strategy involved Austria mobilizing a large body of troops in order to pressure Russia into making peace. Maria Theresa laments that the operation “would require 3 or 4 millions. It would be a high price to pay for a simple demonstration.” The demonstration would, however, pay off—Frederick the Great of Prussia, worried that Austria would enter the conflict on Russia’s side and upset the balance of power in Europe, engineered the first partition of Poland in 1772. In exchange for staying out of the war, Austria gained sovereignty over the Kingdom of Galicia.

of her children, she did not behave the same way toward Maria Christina. Maria Theresa’s concern for her daughter’s well being is evident in this correspondence; while briefing Albert on developments in the War of Bavarian Succession, she confides to him: “I do not spoil her [Maria Christina] by offering her all that I show you, but I owe her this justice in regards to you deserving to be informed, unique reward for her. Her health has repented a little for it, not for being sick but for this discomfort, such as headache, coughing but that do not keep her at home, but a note from you makes her get over it right away. I have loved my late adorable spouse very much but she still wins me over in affection and strength. I will never stop on this subject making my whole comfort.”

War of the Bavarian Succession, 1778–1779: Maria Theresa’s greatest rival for dominance in Central Europe was Frederick the Great of Prussia, and they had already fought twice during her reign. At the start of 1778, another war erupted between the two great German powers in a conflict involving the succession to the Bavarian throne. Though hundreds of thousands of Austrian and Prussian troops were involved, no significant battles took place and most casualties were the result of disease and starvation. With a huge army of Prussians in Moravia, Maria Theresa confides to Albert on June 14, [1778], that, “although the surrender of Moravia pains me but I am almost starting to believe that we will spend that campaign in the most disagreeable incertitude but however to be preferred to a torrent of blood effusion.” The Austrian and Prussian armies continued in place in Moravia through the end of the year, but no advantage was gained by either side. Despite the lack of major hostilities, each army lost about 10,000 soldiers—the conflict became known as the ‘Potato War’ due to the hungry troops. Still, Maria Theresa preferred this over a large-scale conflict, writing on August 13, 1778: “I prefer a thin peace to a glorious war depriving me of my children and my crack good generals and soldiers. It is the thoughts of an old mother and wife but also of a Christian sovereign and friend of these friends.”

Reforming and modernizing the Austrian Empire: Despite her outspoken political and religious conservatism, Maria Theresa made impressive efforts to centralize the fragmented Austrian dominions. However, the nature of the diverse empire often thwarted her ambitions for reform. She discusses some of these frustrations: ”If we must stop at what people say or at critics of parties nothing would be done in this world and whom could expose themselves [to danger] if we hesitate to take upon ourselves to do good without looking if others find it good or bad…If you are not convinced of this necessity then we can leave everything but it is necessary that we represent nothing on this subject and let it be known which council with best knowledge of what is right for the good of the country is responsible. I am so shaken that they do not always take timely countries interests which results in hardship afterwards, like the one of Bohemia and Moravia and next nobody wants to be responsible.” When Maria Theresa ascended the Hungarian throne, she promised to maintain residences both in Austria as well as in Hungary. There, she made her home at Pressburg (now Bratislava), residing in Bratislava Castle. Prince Albert, as governor of Hungary, also made his home at Bratislava Castle. During the 1760s, she embarked on ambitious renovations to the castle and the city, employing the great inventor Johann Wolfgang von Kempelen to design and implement a new water system to supply the castle and its gardens. Von Kempelen also designed the first bridge to span the Danube at Pressburg in 1770. The subject of a bridge comes up several times in the correspondence. A 1766 letter concerning the long overdue project encapsulates the difficulty of the project: “Everything you tell me for the bridge is so true but expenses are excessive…in all justice it could not be put against the city and I. I could not be in charge of it either. With time to think about it carefully maybe some ways can be found but for this year a flying bridge is necessary.” It appears that the “flying bridge” was not built in 1766, but in 1770 when Von Kempelen constructed a pontoon bridge over the river; the first permanent bridge would not be completed until 1891.

Maria Christina, the empress’s favorite daughter: Despite the press of politics, Maria Theresa did not ignore her maternal side. While she enjoyed a reputation for being highly critical

In overall fine condition. Accompanied by complete translations. A fantastic research archive from one of the most significant European rulers of the 18th century. Starting Bid $1,000

June 28, 2018

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Explorers & Archeologists Stanley refutes a detractor who accused him of cannibalism 8090. Henry M. Stanley. Very

rare ALS, two pages on two adjoining sheets, February 28, 1894. Written from Richmond Terrace, Whitehall, a letter to Major James B. Pond, in part: “Your last letter, as doubtless you were assured of, is most surprising and the clipping from the ‘New York Sun’—re Westmark—is still more so. You ask me who he is, and what I know of him. I had quite forgotten the name, but I looked into the Congo & the Founding of its Free State, published by Harpers, into my Congo Correspondence, official & private, and closely examined my private journals of the period he seemed to refer to. Westmark is not mentioned in the book, nor could I find any allusion to him in my private journals. In the official correspondence from Brussels I ascertained that he left Liverpool April 4th, 1883 to take service on the Congo with six other officers, that he had previously been an attaché of the Consulate General at Brussels—& that he was to be appointed as a junior assistant on one of our stations... The only period during which I could possibly have met Westmark was between January 20th & February 10th 1884—just 21 days—many of which were so occupied with five months correspondence, that it was not likely I should have become acquainted with a Sub–Lieutenant. For the remainder of the period, say 12 days, that he stayed at Leopoldville, my memory is a positive blank as regards Westmark. Consequently if the above facts are true, and the records are open to the inspection of anyone, Mr. Westmark cannot have been three years in my service—and during these 12 days that we appear to have been at the same station—nothing—in connection with him, occurred of sufficient consequence to merit any record either privately or officially. For the rest of the romance contained in your clipping—Why, ‘though you should bray a fool among wheat in a mortar yet will not his foolishness leave him.’” In fine condition, with a few small repairs to fold splits. On April 7, 1894, the front page of the San Francisco Chronicle ran with an article bearing the headline: ‘Libels on Stanley, A Lecturer Says He Was a Cannibal, Poor Record of Lieutenant Westmark, No Authority for His Claims That He Explored the Congo Region.’ The report follows a narrative told by Lieutenant Theodore Westmark of his time spent with Stanley in the Congo a decade earlier, impressing upon several lecture halls of Stanley’s trading of native women in the European exploration camps, and then to Stanley’s desire to sample human flesh. The second half of the article, with subhead ‘Westmark’s Record, A Petty Officer Who Was Exposed as a Fraud,’ references the earlier New York Sun story and, as does Stanley within this letter, discredits Westmark’s timetable and various haughty claims. To sum up the matter, Stanley quotes Proverbs 27:22, which asserts that no course of extreme action can purge the fool of his inherent folly. Starting Bid $300

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American West Handsome 1836 “Texian Loan” document supporting the Revolution 8091. Stephen F. Austin.

Partly-printed DS, signed “S. F. Austin,” one page, 7.75 x 10.75, January 11, 1836. Ornate financial document headed “Texian Loan,” in part: “Received of Thos. D. Carneal Thirty-two Dollars, the First Installment on a Loan of Three Hundred and Twenty Dollars, made by him this day to the Government of Texas for Five Years.” Boldly signed at the conclusion by Austin and countersigned by two other commissioners, Branch T. Archer and William H. Wharton. In fine condition, with areas of light toning, and a triangular cancellation hole at the center affecting a couple of words of text. HISTORY Austin’s provisional government issued these certificates to raise money to finance the ongoing Texas Revolution. January 11, 1836, is the earliest known date for these Texian Loan documents, coming just six weeks before the infamous Battle of the Alamo. The recipient of this certificate, Thomas D. Carneal, was one of the primary subscribers. These ‘loans’ were essentially land purchase contracts redeemable at fifty cents per acre, a cheap price designed to attract large investments. As a document representing the Revolution and foundational stages of the state’s government, this is of the utmost desirability. Starting Bid $300

June 28, 2018

95


Love letter from prison by a legendary outlaw: “When I last wrote I told you that I expected it might be the last”

8092. Frank James. ALS signed “Your true and devoted

husband, Ben,” one page both sides, 8 x 10.5, May 8, 1883. Letter to “My Precious Darling,” his wife, Annie James, written from jail in Gallatin, Missouri, while awaiting trial for murder during a train robbery; James signs using an alias to prevent the letter from falling into the wrong hands. In full: “When I last wrote I told you that I expected it might be the last. I know you did not belive it, did you? I have been out to the well this morning and drawed three buckets of water stayed until breakfast. The morning air felt ‘so good’ I am feeling splendid and when my precious darling comes I will be just as happy as a man could possibly be. I am so anxious to have you here with me. Hope you will come sooner than you expected. I think if I were you that I would make my own selection of a hat Mrs. Kenny can fix you up in style. I want you to get a dandy wont you? I guess you want a nice pair of shoes or slippers wont you? Get the very best of everything, I want our little man fixed up just a little nicer than any body’s boy. You and he is all I have in this world to love and I desire that you both look charming. Bless your dear life you know just as wife is so will the husband be so you fix and look sweet and huby may do so too. You dont think you will ware the satin hoods until I get out. I will try and see that you do. Wont we be fine when we get on our good

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clothes. I will be sure to love to death. I know you think I am a regular monky, but no matter I think you a daisy. There was only eight young Ladys to see me last Sunday, one of them gave me a nice boquet with this line ‘Accept the flowers—their sweet breath has a language more eloquent than words.’ Yet with all this I would not give my little common sense wife for all the women in the world. I want you to remember I am awaiting your coming very impatiently. I will now put my arm around you and kiss you good bye.” At the conclusion, he adds: “Love to all the family.” In fine condition. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope, addressed in James’s hand to “Mrs. A. F. James, Independence, Mo.” HISTORY In September of 1882—five months after his brother Jesse was gunned down by fellow gang member Robert Ford—James turned himself in to Missouri governor Thomas Crittenden in Jefferson City, tired of running and hoping to avoid the same gruesome fate. He was held and put on trial in Gallatin, Missouri, for participating in two murders during a train robbery. However, having reached folk-hero status within the general population, he was acquitted by the jury. Starting Bid $300


Days before the overthrow of Agustin de Iturbide

8093. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. ALS in Spanish,

signed “Ant. Lopez de Santa Anna,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 5.75 x 7.75, March 15, 1823. Santa Anna writes to another officer just days before the Army’s successful overthrow of Augustìn de Itúrbide, (Augustine I) paving the way for the First Mexican Republic, in full (translated): “I was particularly glad to have received your letter of the 9th of this month, in which you communicate your liberal ideas, your love for the well-being of the country and the cooperation and uniformity of feelings that you have to offer, liberating our country from the disaster into which the tyrant of Mexico was leading us…I have much appreciated the kind treatment you gave my officers and troops in this fort, especially Colonel Foro, who early on indicated to me your fine qualities and clear devotion to our plans, the fulfillment of which particularly that of the sixth of December calls for all possible influence in its furtherance, since the prosperity of the nation depends on it. I am officially asking you to see to the reimbursement of the 228 pesos in this fort to the picket of number 8, and I herewith ratify the prompt payment on sight, which I have arranged for in the office, for within a few days I will undertake a military move-

ment at Barlovento, disembarking in Tampico with a division of 650 men of the Eighth, and 4 pieces of artillery, retaking the zone threatened by Gomez Pedraza y Guitian under orders from ltúrbide…I have set up this expedition not only with the purpose indicated but also to withdraw the surplus troops of the garrison, now that the season of unbearable heat is starting.” In fine condition, with scattered light foxing. HISTORY After aligning himself with Vicente Guerrero and formulating the Plan of Iguala, Iturbide engineered Mexico’s independence from Spain on March 28, 1821, and was soon declared constitutional emperor. Mexico suffered as an independent country, and Iturbide’s despotic regime and dissolving of the Constituent Congress led to Santa Anna’s public opposition to Iturbide with the Plan of Veracruz in December 1822. No longer girded by the support of his military, Iturbide had no recourse but to reopen Congress and offer his resignation on March 19, 1923, only four days after this letter was written. Starting Bid $200

June 28, 2018

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Notorious Figures “My judiciary adventure was so vulgar, barefaced and evidently a premeditated legal murder,” Vanzetti writes from prison, “We are still as near to the electric chair as we were when pronounced guilty”

8094. Bartolomeo Vanzetti. ALS signed “Bartolomeo V.,” three pages on two sheets, 6 x 9.5, June 18, 1924. Letter to John and Virginia G. Bournan of Stephen City, Virginia. In full: “Your fraternal missive, sent for my birthday, has reach me just in time and in good company. I appreciate it and I am grateful to you for all that I realize that is beyond it. Justice must be done, my friends, and greater and greater will be the sacrifice of the lovers of liberty till her final triumph. My judiciary adventure was so vulgar, barefaced and evidently a premeditated legal murder—that to chained and killed from it—is something unspeakable. And yet, after having spended for years in prison and over $200,000 we are still as near to the electric chair as we were when pronounced guilty. They do what they like and they were rendered so unconscious and degenerated by the deadly consequences and influences of their education, office and environment that only fear—the fear for the only three things which they hold as sacred: their purse; their power; and their skin—can stop them to satisfy they ferocy and greed—by any sort of offence and violences to the lovers of freedom and their old folks, women and children. Where not for your help and solidarity—for the world wide solidarity and protest—Nick and I would have been burn alive long ago. But, just for this help they may not dare to kill us

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little by little with chains’ torture. Well I have decide—if it will be so—to live at least 125 years—and I want you, too, to keep along—We are the warriors of life—and we must live—live long and godlike for life’s and ours victory. I knew of the terrible reaction acting in California—but I hope that a good campaigne will begin for the liberty of all. Now, soon the bell will ring, so I my close and I will close, my dear John and my dear Virginia by clasping your hands fraternally and with a strong shake I send to you my most hearty regards and sentiments.” In fine condition. Accompanied by an address panel accomplished in Vanzetti’s hand. HISTORY In the famed Sacco and Vanzetti case, the anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were convicted of killing a guard and paymaster during the 1920 armed robbery of the Slater and Morrill Shoe Company in South Braintree, Massachusetts. Vehemently proclaiming their innocence, the pair soon became the center of a worldwide cause celebre in which many prominent writers, artists, and academics pleaded for their pardon or a new trial. Despite years of motions and appeals, the men were put to death in the electric chair on August 23, 1927. Starting Bid $1,000


Military As “Col: of King’s own Regiment,” Burgoyne authorizes the purchase of an officer’s commission 8095. John Burgoyne. British army officer, politician, and dramatist (1722–1792) best known for his role in the American Revolution, where he surrendered his army of 5,000 men to American troops on October 17, 1777. Partly-printed DS, signed “J: Burgoyne, Col: of King’s own Regiment,” one page, 7.25 x 10.25, no date [but docketed on the reverse, “Rec’d 18 Febr’y 1788”]. Burgoyne endorses a request by Thomas Winckley for the purchase of an ensign commission. The first section of the document reads, in full: “I beg you will be pleased to obtain for me His Majesty’s Permission to purchase the Ensigney in the succession to Lieutenant Thomas Russell. In case His Majesty shall be graciously pleased to permit me to purchase I do declare and certify, upon the word and honour of an officer and a gentleman, that will not, either now or at any future time, give, by any means, or in any shape whatever, directly or indirectly, any more than the sum of £400 being the price limited and fixed by His Majesty’s regulations, as the full value of the said commission.” This is signed below by Thomas Winckley, Colonel of the 4th Regiment of Foot. Burgoyne signs the following endorsement below: “I beg leave to recommend the above, and I verily believe the established regulation with regard to price is intended to be strictly complied with, and that no clandestine bargain subsists between the parties concerned.” In fine condition, with clipped corner tips. HISTORY The purchase and sale of officer’s commissions was standard in the British Army from 1683 to 1871, by which someone could buy their way into an officership rather than being promoted by merit or seniority. Burgoyne himself had purchased his commissions early in his career: in August 1737 he bought a commission in the Horse Guards, a fashionable cavalry regiment, which he sold three years later to settle gambling debts. In 1745 he was able to join the 1st Royal Dragoons as a cornet, a commission he did not have to pay for as it was newly created; by 1747, he had scraped together enough money to purchase a captaincy. In keeping with common practice, these purchases were made primarily to enhance social status rather than out of sincere military aspirations. As an officer in the Revolution, Burgoyne is remembered for leading a lavish lifestyle during the Saratoga campaign and is often cited as a classic example of the marginally competent aristocratic British general who acquired his rank through political connections rather than ability. Despite the Saratoga surrender, his image was rehabilitated when his political friends came into office and he was given the colonelcy of the King’s Own Royal Regiment in 1782. Starting Bid $300

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Rare 1778 letter from Greene as Quartermaster General 8096. Nathanael Greene.

Revolutionary War-dated ALS signed “N. Greene,” one page, 7.25 x 9, September 29, 1778. Letter to Colonel Ephraim Bowen, Deputy Quartermaster General and Quartermaster General of the Rhode Island militia, in full: “Mrs. Greene will be exceedingly oblige’d to you to get a good stove made for her. She wishes it to be lined with tin. The sooner you can get it done the greater will be the obligation. If you have any safe conveyance please to forward it. I hope you have sent off all the horses, agreeable to the conversation you and I had the other day. The censorious times will require double diligence to save yourself from reproach and there are not a few who wish to find you tripping. My best regards to your good Lady your Cousin & his Lady.” In fine condition. HISTORY In the winter of 1777–78, a group of senior Continental Army officers deemed the Conway Cabal made several attempts to replace George Washington with General Horatio Gates as commander-in-chief of the Army during the American Revolutionary War. Among the officers was Quartermaster Thomas Mifflin, Washington’s former aide-de-camp whose frequent absences were soon entrusted upon that of Nathanael Greene; on March 2, 1778, at Valley Forge, Greene reluctantly accepted the difficult office of Quartermaster General while retaining all commanding rights. As part of his stipulations, Greene requested that he personally appoint all of his future subordinates, such as Ephraim Bowen, whom Greene commissioned in June 1778. An exceptional letter from the Revolutionary War hero regarding his unenviable task as Army Quartermaster General. Starting Bid $300

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“Our friend Fulton has hoisted his flag on the waters of the Mississippi”—an incredible 1811 letter from Lafayette on world affairs 8097. Marquis de Lafayette. ALS in English, signed “Lafayette,” one page, 7.75 x 10, December 26, 1811. Letter to Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, one of the ‘Committee of Five’ who drafted the Declaration of Independence. In part: “This letter will be delivered by M. de Correa, a Portuguese Gentleman whom his distinguished merit, liberal sentiments, and amiable disposition, have recommended to the regard and friendship of the best men in this country. His departure from France is lamented by all who had the pleasure of a personal acquaintance with him—but no where would they so much like to see him direct his course as to the Land of Liberty and Happiness of which he will be a worthy inhabitant—permit me to recommend him to your kind reception and through you, my dear sir, to the attention of the whole family— I am sure you and they all, when Mr. Correa is well known, will thank me for the introduction. While I was lately in town every symptom seemed to announce a speedy and pleasant answer to the representations of Mr. [Joel] Barlow. I hope our expectation has by this time been fulfilled— and as the frigate will not be detained longer than necessary, I hasten this letter to Paris.It had been thought the defeat of the Turks on the Danube would bring on a peace between them and the Russians. The probability is now against it, the more so as preparations are making in France and Germany which point out towards a Russian War... My best respects and compliments wait on the ladies of your family, and the sons and brothers on whose kind remembrance I most gratefully depend.” In a short postscript, he adds, “I am very well pleased with the intelligence that our friend [Robert] Fulton has hoisted his flag on the waters of the Mississippi. I beg you to introduce Mr. Correa to him.” Addressed on the reverse of the second integral leaf in Lafayette’s hand. In fine condition. Accompanied by a handsome custom-made leatherbound presentation folder. HISTORY Such lengthy letters by Lafayette are quite scarce and this example features excellent content that touches upon American foreign affairs, warfare in Europe, and the innovative steamboat developed by Robert Fulton with Livingston as a patron. Early on Lafayette discusses Joel Barlow’s arrival in France, where he was representing the US in hopes of negotiating a more generous commercial treaty with Napoleon. The meeting never took place, however, as Napoleon was caught up in the disastrous retreat of the French Army from Moscow. Meanwhile, Russia was fighting the Russo-Turkish War in addition to their battles with the French Empire; Lafayette observes that, although the Russians had recently dealt a serious blow to the Ottoman Empire on the Danube, it did not seem as though peace was near. Perhaps most interesting is his brief but important mention of Robert Fulton, who has “hoisted his flag on the waters of the Mississippi.” Livingston, Fulton’s uncle-in-law and the primary investor in his initial steamboat ventures, owned the recently constructed New Orleans, the first steamboat to travel the waters of the Mississippi River. It launched from Pittsburgh in October 1811 and arrived in New Orleans in January 1812, ushering in a new era of commerce in America. Covering a wide range of subjects, this utterly fascinating letter offers excellent content with Lafayette’s reflections on several of the most noteworthy historical events of the day. Starting Bid $200

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Benjamin Lincoln supplies Washington’s nascent Army in 1775, requesting gunpowder if it “is to be had in any part of America” 8098. Benjamin Lincoln. Revolutionary

War–dated ADS, signed “Benj’n Lincoln,” one page, 7.5 x 12.5, July 1, 1775. Document headed “Committee of Supplie, Chamber, Watertown,” directed to “Mr. Elbridge Gerry,” requesting gunpowder for the Massachusetts militia. In part: “You are desired by this Committee to repair immediately to the Country of Essex & procure Bills on England…to the Value of Two Thousand Pounds Sterling, you will dispatch with all possible speed the Brig Rockingham…to Bilboa or some other part of Europe you will deliver the cash & bills to Capt. Jonston Master of said Vessell or to such other person or persons that you shall appoint to proceed with him & direct that it be invested in Powder in Bilboa or elsewhere.” At the conclusion, Lincoln adds a note dated July 2, 1775, in full: “Mr. Gerry: Sir, you are also desired if powder is to be had in any part of America to procure it in such way & manner as you shall think best & we will confirm what you shall do relative to this matter.” Also signed at the conclusion by committee chairman David Cheever. In very good condition, with old tape repairs to the back of fold separations. HISTORY As a member of various important Revolutionary committees, Benjamin Lincoln was deeply involved in ensuring that supplies of all sorts—from blankets to gunpowder— reached the Continental Army as they lay siege to the British in Boston. On the date of this document—July 2, 1775—General George Washington rode into Cambridge, Massachusetts, to take command of the new American army. A remarkable document from an early and significant date in the American Revolution. Starting Bid $300

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8099. Turner Ashby. Confederate cavalry commander (1828–1862) who

achieved prominence as Stonewall Jackson’s cavalry commander in the Shenandoah Valley before being killed in the Battle of Good’s Farm. Civil War–dated partly-printed DS, one page, 8 x 10, January 26, 1862. A “Special Requisition” document for “One Camp Kettle. One Iron Pot,” signed at the conclusion by Ashby as commanding officer. The lower portion confirms receipt of the items at Martinsburg. In fine condition, with a small red dot affixed to the right of the signature. A scarce war-dated autograph from one of the most skilled cavalry commanders of the Confederacy. Starting Bid $200

In a telegram to Jefferson Davis, General Beauregard vows to defend Fort Sumter at all costs: “It shall be held if necessary with muskets & bayonets” 8100. [P. G. T. Beauregard].

Civil War–dated manuscript telegram signed on Beauregard’s behalf by a telegraph clerk, “G. T. Beauregard, Gen’l Comd’g,” one page, 7.75 x 4.25, The Southern Telegraph Companies letterhead, August 21, 1863. Important message to “Pres’t J. Davis,” in full: “Gen’l Gilmore hs gone to Savannah he has been teleg’hed to return. Everything practicable with our means has been done to protect Sumter it shall be held if necessary with muskets & bayonets.” In fine condition, with old mounting remnants on the reverse. Accompanied by a gorgeous custom-made presentation folder with a quarter leather binding. HISTORY The Union’s attempts to retake Fort Sumter began on April 7, 1863, when Rear Admiral Samuel Francis DuPont led a naval attack on the fort with nine ironclad warships. Under Beauregard’s command, the Confederate troops effectively repelled the attack, dealing enough damage to the USS Keokuk to sink it the next day. The men strengthened their position throughout the summer, always prepared to respond to an attack. On August 17th, the fort was fired upon again by Union General Quincy Adams Gillmore in a bombardment that lasted for seven days. Although five immense Parrott guns reduced Fort Sumter to rubble, Beauregard’s men refused to surrender and held the fort. In this historic telegram, Beauregard is fully aware of the symbolism of holding the position and promises to defend it at all costs. In reply, Davis confirmed Beauregard’s decision to fight to the last. The Confederates held onto Fort Sumter, under almost constant heavy bombardment, until mid-February 1865.Starting Bid $200

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“In the secluded life I lead, seldom leaving home except when business forces me to do so, much opportunity is afforded for reflection on published events, and I am sorry to say little gratification or hope is derived from the study”

8101. Jefferson Davis. ALS, three pages on two adjoining sheets, 6 x 9.5, July 25, 1882. Written from Beauvoir, Mississippi, a letter to Georgia Congressman V. H. Manning, in full: “I have received your kind letter of the 20th inst., and also the valued gift of the 4th Vol. of War records. The three preceding vols. sent by you were duly received, and acknowledged, as I the more distinctly remember from replying from your offer to continue to send the series while you remained in Congress, by the expression of the hope, that for our country’s sake I hoped your term would continue long beyond the probable duration of that publication. You also generously offered to send to me any other publication I might desire; to that I did not reply, because of unwillingness to tax you so heavily, and being mindful of the influence such attention has on constituents, I wished you to have the benefit of it. In the secluded life I lead, seldom leaving home except when business forces me to do so, much opportunity is afforded for reflection on published events, and I am sorry to say little gratification or hope is derived from the study. It is the proverbial vice of old men, to think the times worse than they were, and I would

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be glad to believe that the mists of age distort to me the aspect of public affairs. I cannot rejoice in the colossal wealth acquired by some men and some corporations. Our fathers expected by abolishing primo geniture to secure the more equal distribution of wealth. They reckoned not exactly of the ‘progressive’ generations which should succeed, and looking on the so called progress unreal because it is in material not moral advancement there is ever ringing in my ears as prophetic of our fate, ‘the land to hastening ills a prey where wealth accumulates and men decay.’ But I did not intend to inflict on you a homily, would rather cheer you in the race you are running for that distinction, which will not be less because it is the fruit of the exceptional method of honorable, unselfish endeavor.” In fine condition, with old mounting traces on the reverse of the final page. A heartfelt letter from the 74-year-old Davis, who addresses many of the great themes that dominated the transformation of the South—the growth of personal and corporate fortunes, the increasing focus on materialism over morality, and the decline of the republican goals of the founding fathers. Starting Bid $300


A tour of the Confederate front leaves President Davis unimpressed: “Neither of them communicated to me any plan of operations or appeared to know what troops were in front” 8102. Jefferson Davis. Civil War–

dated ALS signed “Jeffer. Davis,” one page both sides, 5 x 8, May 23, 1862. Letter to General Joseph E. Johnston, written after surveying the battlefront during the Peninsula Campaign. In full: “I went yesterday afternoon to Mechanicsville and was there during the artillery firing which you no doubt heard. Genl. Lee was with me and at my request will see you. Col. Johnston A.D.C. accompanied by and will deliver this note to you, to him I refer you for any facts you may desire to learn. I saw Genl. Stewart and Genl. Cobb but as neither of them communicated to me any plan of operations or appeared to know what troops were in front as we approached I suppose neither of them could have been commanding in chief at that locality. My conclusion was that if as reported to be probable Genl. Franklin with a Division was in that vicinity, he might easily have advanced over the turn pike towards if not to Richmond.” In very good to fine condition, with edge staining and a edge small separation to one horizontal fold. HISTORY Having personally toured the front lines with General Robert E. Lee, President Davis sent this letter to General Joseph E. Johnston with his observations—namely, that if, as reported, Union General William Buel Franklin been in the vicinity, the enemy might have easily advanced into the Confederate capital at Richmond. Johnston remained passive throughout the month of May, even though, by the time of this letter, George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac had advanced to within twenty miles of Richmond. A week later, Johnston was wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines and subsequently replaced by Robert E. Lee. A significant piece of battlefield correspondence that demonstrates the disorganization of the Confederate troops under Johnston’s command. Starting Bid $300

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“I knew Generals Lee and Jackson as Christian soldiers, patriots, and gentlemen, who had a profound sense of duty to guide them in defense of the cause they espoused” 8103. Jubal A. Early. Partial ALS signed “J. A. Early,” one page, 8 x 7.5, no date. Conclusion of a letter to Allen Thorndyke Rice, editor of the the North American Review. In full: “I knew Generals Lee and Jackson as Christian soldiers, patriots, and gentlemen, who had a profound sense of duty to guide them in defense of the cause they espoused, and the highest regard and consideration for the men they commanded. Neither of them ever indulged in buffoonery, and they did not find it necessary to seek for examples in the beasts of the field or forest to inspire their soldiers or subordinate commanders with a proper sense of duty. There is nothing I could say in regard to either which would not be regarded as an antagonism however inadequately expressed, and you must therefore not expect a contribution from me for your proposed publication.” In fine condition, with trimmed top edge, and a small hole and small tear touching two letters of text. A remarkable testimonial piece connecting some of the South’s most famous generals of the Civil War—Jubal A. Early, Robert E. Lee, and Stonewall Jackson. Starting Bid $200

Twice-signed letter from ‘The Grey Ghost,’ mentioning a Confederate reunion and remarks “made by Colonel Robert E. Lee” 8104. John S. Mosby. ALS signed twice, “Jno. S. Mosby,” one page, 8.25 x 10.75, Southern Pacific Company letterhead, January 10, 1893. Letter to “Dear Chinn,” in full: “I have just mailed to Alice a novel—Quo Vadis—which is having a great run—it is after the style of Ben Hur. After she reads it I want her to lend it to Kate Critcher. I take a great pleasure in directing the reading of my favorite girls. In Jan’y 1895—at the time of our re-union Johnnie Beckham got me a transcript from the ledger of Ubler & Co. (I think that was the name) of some remarks (written down at the time) which were made by Colonel Robert E. Lee when he paid a small bill. It was just at the time when Virginia seceded. I lost it. Now I want you to copy it literally for me—give date &c. I have not received a line from Alexa since I left.” In fine condition. A fantastic letter by the legendary Confederate ranger. Starting Bid $300

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Eight days before earning the nickname ‘Stonewall’ at the First Battle of Bull Run 8105. Thomas J. ‘Stonewall’ Jackson. Civil War–

dated ALS signed “T. J. Jackson, Brig.,” one page both sides, 5.5 x 8.75, July 13, 1861. Letter to a colonel, written from “Hd qs 1st Brigade Winchester.” In full: “Yours of the 8th is at hand and I have written to Governor Letcher as requested, and have also requested Major Harman to use his influence whilst in Richmond to have you ordered here. I am gratified to hear of your promotion and my gratification will be increased if through the blessing of Providence upon our united efforts we may be privileged to serve together during the remainder of the war. Massie’s place is supplied during his absence. But unless Col. Jones receives a commission he will soon leave me, and if so, I should like very much to have you in his place. At present all the Regts of my Brigade have their compliment of Field officers. But whether you enter the staff in Line, I know of no better place than this for preparation: as both are theoretically taught and practically applied. I would gladly assign you up here, to any vacancy that may occur on my staff, and if you will get here the probabilities are, that we will not be separated before the close of hostilities. I am thankful, & I hope very thankful to our kind Heavenly Father as he withholds no good thing from those who love him, for having given me such a choice brigade. Kindest regards to Marjorie & inquiring friends. Please let me hear from you unless you are ordered here forthwith.” In very good condition, with toning across the front center and paper loss to the lower left corner; the letter has been professionally silked on both sides. Accompanied by a handsome custom-made presentation folder with a quarter leather binding. HISTORY The First Battle of Bull Run was fought on July 21, 1861, about seven miles southwest of the town of Centreville, Virginia, and just 25 miles from Washington, D.C. Under political pressure to end the rebellion as fast as possible, Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell led his unseasoned Union Army across Bull Run against the equally inexperienced Confederate Army of Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard camped near Manassas Junction. The Union’s surprise flank attack was poorly executed and Confederate reinforcements arriving from the Shenandoah Valley by rail quickly turned the tide of the battle. With Union forces still advancing, a Virginia brigade led by Thomas J. Jackson stood their ground on Henry House Hill. It was during this repulse that Brig. Gen. Barnard Bee, in regard to Jackson’s decision to stand pat and fight, delivered the quote that gave Jackson his famous nickname: ‘There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Rally behind the Virginians.’ A phenomenal letter that predates the first major battle of the Civil War by a scant eight days. Starting Bid $1,000

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“The number of desertions are truly lamentable. What can be done to arrest them?�

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Letter from the future Confederate general, penned just prior to the Civil War 8106. Robert E. Lee. ALS signed “R. E. Lee,” four pages on two adjoining sheets, 8 x 10, September 15, 1857. Lengthy letter to Major Earl Van Dorn, written from San Antonio, Texas. In part: “I am delighted to hear that your ‘Statement of differences’ has dwindled down to such a manageable amount, & that the number of suspended workers has been reduced to the singular. When I call to mind the trouble you have had in the matter, I can conceive the relief you must experience at the present exhibit of the hands of the Treasury. You have my sincere Congratulations. The number of desertions are truly lamentable. What can be done to arrest them? I have always thought these long payments were injurious & have advocated, & shall continue to do so, payments every month. The English system of weekly payments perhaps is better, but in our wide extended Country, & widely separated Posts, perhaps that is not practicable, but I think the U.S. are able to pay their regular employis, civil & military, monthly. It is practiced in the Several State Depts. of the Army, & ought to be in the Regts. I do not mean to say that these deferred payments are the cause of desertions, but they afford facilities; and do not predispose men to be faithful to their engagements. When I speak to Gen’l [David Emanuel] Twiggs on the subject, he refers to the long payments of former times, a year 1–18 months, in the War of 1812 &c; & the fidelity of the men of those periods; & attributes the present faithlessness to the worthlessness of the men of these days. We have lost by desertion the past month 38 men from the Regt. At Camp Cooper they have carried off 8 or 10 horses in addition to their arms. [George] Stoneman has lost some 15 men since I left there, & [Nathan George] Evans 8 or 10—while, Stoneman’s Farrier deserted leaving $250 in money behind him. Stoneman attributes his desertion to his having been detailed in the Qr Mrs. Dept. to repair, or prepare the train for Capt. Caldwell’s arrival. A thing that would be but temporary & no great hardship at best. The month before the last we lost 41 men. We now require 150 men & 58 horses in the Regt. I hope you will be able to get up your stables & quarters, & make yourself comfortable by winter. Then perhaps your men will be better reconciled. I am very sorry that [Fitz-John] Porter could not come up with the party of Indians of which he was in pursuit, as I am sure he would have given a good account of them. Tell him he had our best wishes here from the Comm’t

Gen’l down. The Gen’l asked every man nearly if any account had been rec’d of him. I think when he reached Camp Cooper he was not far from a portion of his fugitives. Jack Potter got a pass from the Agent before I left Camp Cooper for 5 days. He was down on Hubbies Creek as I came along on the 18th Inf’y, hunting with his party. He has just got back. What Controul has the agent over them? I believe the Indians from the Reserve, form a part of nearly all the marauding parties, that infest that part of the frontier. They are joined by some of the Nokonies & the plunder is sent to that market where it is least liable to be recognized. That taken from the Rio Grande is carried to the Reserve, & that from your frontier to the Ouachita—Major Neighbours very naturally dissents. We have heard nothing official of Col. [Albert Sidney] Johnston’s movements. But the telegraphic despatch, which you will see published in the Picquine, appears to be authentic. It is there stated he is assigned to the Command of the Utah Expedition. That Gen’l Harvey will remain in Kansas. That the 1st Cav’y Several comp’ys Of the Artl’y & of the 6 Inf’y will form his Command. I suppose the 2nd Dragoons will go with Col. Johnston. I have heard the Gov’r Walker wished Harvey to be detained with him. I do not think they could get a more suitable person for Utah than Col. J. I hope he may prove equal to the emergency, though I am very sorry he is taken from the Regt. & sent so far. I should not be surprized if we follow in the spring. Tell Mrs. Van D. she must catch up her ponies & prepare herself & her little children. I am not going out there without the ladies of the Regt. Sunday night (13th) news arrived that a government train with governm’t stores had been attacked on the Goliad road, 50 miles below here & several men killed, & that it was unable to proceed. The authorities of the town called on Gen’l T. for aid & Lt. Graham & 20 men were despatched immediately with the sheriff to their relief. The next morn’g, Major Howard, Mr. Gilbeau, Col. Wilson & others went down to the scene of action. We have heard nothing from them since. You are probably familiar with the Cart War. I feel highly flattered Major at the high position you have placed me in your estimation. I wish I could feel I deserve it. I can say with truth as regards yourself it is more than reciprocated & that none.” In fine condition, with a thin strip of mounting remnant along the left side of the first page. Starting Bid $500

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“The fighting has been unusually destructive of life”

8107. Edmund Kirby Smith. American military officer

(1824-1893) who, after serving as lieutenant and captain in the Mexican-American War, became an officer in the Confederate Army. A key participant at Bull Run and Richmond, he was placed in charge of the Trans-Mississippi Department in 1863 and ultimately reached the rank of full general. Civil War-dated ALS signed “E. Kirby Smith,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 7.5 x 9.25, May 21, 1864. Written from Shreveport, a letter to Missouri governor Thomas C. Reynolds, in part: “I thank you Governor for your solicitude in my behalf but do not believe I did nor will I unnecessarily expose myself. I enclose you a letter from Gen. Marmaduke regarding the appointment of a Brig. to his Brigade. I shall make no more appointments untill the approval or disapproval of the President has been received to those already made. I believe them necessary and that the morale & efficiency of the army would be increased by acting promptly whilst…the Battles was strong upon the troops. The other appointments are promotions dependent upon the validity of those already made and if the President does not sustain me to disapprove, these will only increase the amount of mistification inflicted. Gen’l Parsons, Marmaduke & Clarke were all recommended by yourself or I should have referred to you before publishing their promotions. In any future appointments I will…consult you before the determination is made. Taylor’s campaign has by this time has critically slowed on Red River Banks…the 16th & 17th corps probably for

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Vicksburg, the 13th & 19th for New Orleans. I have instructed Taylor to prepare for a movement with the men of his Command to Ark & for operations in the Ark Valley; this requires some little time and preparation…The news from Virginia is terribly interesting—8 days fighting—a general battle on the 11th & 12th at Spotsylvania C. H. The Federals claim a victory but on the 13th day Lee was only four miles from C. H. I do not fear the result, but with their superiority in numbers and power of moving troops to supply losses they have a fearful advantage—the fighting has been unusually destructive of life.” In fine condition, with ink erosion affecting several words of text, not overall readability. HISTORY The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House between May 8–20, 1864, proved the costliest of General Grant’s Overland Campaign, with both sides suffering heavy losses and the final result proving tactically inconclusive. Kirby was accurate in his assertion that Spotsylvania had been “unusually destructive of life”—the estimated 32,000 casualties, with over 4,000 soldiers killed, lands in the top five battles of the Civil War. The close of May also marked the final days of the Red River Campaign, a two-month siege along Louisiana’s Red River that is perhaps most notable for Smith’s questionable decision to send half of General Richard Taylor’s troops north to Arkansas following the Battle of Pleasant Hill.Starting Bid $200


Amid major Union shakeups, Smith reports to Lee of enemy forces “8 to 10000 strong” 8108. Gustavus W. Smith. Civil War-dated LS and

set of four telegrams, each signed “G. W. Smith,” four pages on two sheets, 7.25 x 10.75. The letter is dated November 9, 1862, and addressed from Richmond Headquarters to General Robert E. Lee, informing him of troop movements and that the “enemy are at Hamilton, 8 to 10000 strong…Gen French estimates the enemy at four to one against him, and considers his force unequal to holding the rich seaboard counties with their large supplies…His instructions are to protect Weldon, Petersburg and the Rail Road. I think he can do this at present with the force he has. But a portion of this force must be sent to Wilmington in a few days…The question of supplies for the Winter has I know engaged your attention. With an increased force we might secure in Eastern North Carolina several millions of pounds of Pork & beef and a large amount of corn & forage… The enemy’s Cavalry dashed into Fredericksburg to-day, but were driven across the river and chased several miles. We lost one killed, three wounded, we took two prison[ers].” The first telegram, addressed to Lee and dated November 10, 1862, in part: “General French telegraphs that the enemy have fallen back to Plymouth. The transportation of the N. C. Regiments will be kept here.” The second telegram, also from November 10, is addressed to Colonel Ball: “Communicate all information of importance to General R. E. Lee at Culpepper C. H. as well as to me. See that your pickets on the left are in communication with those of General Lee.” The third, November 11, sent to Major General Samuel G. French, in part: “The Secretary of War directs that you send four regiments to the vicinity of Wilmington immediately.” The final telegram, November 11, addressed to Lee, in part: “The enemy are within thirty five miles of the place, one column at McDowell and one at Raleigh Springs. Both columns amounting to five or six thousand. Can you send me more troops.” In overall fine condition. HISTORY On November 5, 1862, President Lincoln relieved George B. McClellan as Commander of the Army of the Potomac following McClellan’s failure to aggressively pursue Lee after Antietam, replacing him with Ambrose Burnside the day Smith’s letter was written. Lee responded to Smith on the following day, in full: ‘Your letter of the 9th has been received. I directed the Mississippi regiments to return to Richmond the evening the North Carolina regiments arrived, and Colonel Corley reported to me the following morning that they had gone. I did not learn until that night that Colonel Corley had been mistaken, the report to him by the quartermaster of General Hood’s division having been intended to convey the intelligence that the regiments had been marched to Mitchell’s Depot to take the train. I regret that they were detained at the station until cars could be procured for their transportation after I had been informed of their detention. I am glad to receive your opinion that General French will be able to protect Weldon, Petersburg, and the railroad with his present forces. His strength could be increased if the regiments of Evans’ brigade could be filled by conscripts from South Carolina, and I desire that you will request the Secretary of War to endeavor to do so. If the new troops in North Carolina could be at once brought into the field, they could surely, in addition to those you now have, enable you to secure the forage, beef, and pork in the eastern part of the State. This is not only important, but will be necessary, in my opinion, to insure a supply of provisions for the army, and I beg you will use every effort to accomplish it. It would be very desirable to increase our forces in Fredericksburg, and I would be very glad to send the Sixty-First Virginia and the Norfolk Blues, as you propose, to that place, but I am really unable to replace them on the Upper Rappahannock at this time. The diminution of the cavalry from a disease among the horses is lamentable. I learned from General Stuart’s adjutant–general to-day that the colonel of the Ninth Virginia Cavalry reported only 90 effective men for duty. While the pressure of service is so great upon the cavalry, I see no means of recruiting it. I am glad to learn from the report of Mr. Ould that the officers and men delivered at Aiken’s Landing are exchanged.’Starting Bid $200

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Custer as a newly appointed brigadier general— “I trust every man knows best how to promote his own interest”

8109. George A. Custer. Civil War-dated ALS signed

“Armstrong,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 5 x 8, no date but circa summer 1863. Written from “Headquarters, 2nd Brigade, 3rd Div. Cav Corp, A. P.,” a letter to John Bulkley of Monroe, Michigan, a childhood friend Custer sought to include on his staff. In full: “Your letter declining my offer is just rec’d & cannot find fault with your decision as I trust every man knows best how to promote his own interest. I have always made it my rule of action to decide for my self and & never yet have had occasion to regret this counsel. I sincerely regret that circumstances are such that you deem it best to decline nothing would have given me greater pleasure than to have welcomed you as a member of my staff. I do not think the fact of your being without experience is or should be regarded as any obstacle to your entering the service particularly in the capacity of A. D. C. which does not require an accurate knowledge of details and routine, so much as an energetic active disposition. However you have decided otherwise and as you say may be ‘for the best.’ Capt Green is becoming well posted in regard to his new duties and is rapidly becoming one of the most efficient Adgt Generals I ever saw. I could not have obtained his equal anywhere. I hope soon to see Jim Christiancy. I saw Henry C. a few days ago also Fred Morris. Remember me to Anna D and all other

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friends who take enough interest in me & inquire for me. Want of time prevents me writing a very extensive letter, let me hear from you soon. Tell me all the news concerning our mutual friends etc etc.” Custer adds a brief postscript: “Green sends his love.” In fine condition, with small splits to folds repaired with small pieces of old tape. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope, addressed in Custer’s own hand. HISTORY Following Custer’s gallant efforts at the Battle of Aldie, Major General Alfred Pleasanton, the commander of the Army of the Potomac’s cavalry corps, observed in Custer the potential for a great cavalry leader. On the strength of Pleasanton’s recommendation, the 23-year-old Custer was commissioned to rigadier general of volunteers on June 29, 1863; he was assigned command of the Michigan Cavalry Brigade in General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’s division, and thus became one of the youngest generals in the Union Army. Three days later, Custer led his men in the Battle of Gettysburg where he assisted in preventing J. E. B. Stuart from attacking the Union rear. John Buckley was Custer’s deskmate at Alfred Stebbins’ Boys and Young Men’s Academy in Custer’s adopted hometown of Monroe, Michigan. A sensational handwritten letter from one of the most storied military leaders in American history, penned at a crucial turning point in his career. Starting Bid $500


Nelson downplays the passions of Napoleon— “The New Emperor may think differently, and I should not be surprized if we have a speedy Peace for he must want to settle firmly his new Dignity, brave Corsican”

8110. Horatio Nelson. ALS signed “Nelson & Bronte,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 7.5 x 9.5, no date. Letter to Admiral Skeffington Lutwidge, written from his flagship “Victory.” In part: “Many many thanks for your kind letter of April 3rd and I beg you will thank good Mrs. Lutwidge for hers for in truth by one conveyance I can only write to one in a house, and both your letters arrived the same day by the Leviathan. You are sure that I shall always be happy in paying attention to your recommendations and shall certainly see Mr. Baker but I have not the smallest chance of being useful to him for it is not two French fleets that will clear the way of what are on the admiralty and my list. I think the admiralty has had a hard run and if Pitt goes on I do not think my friend Addington can stand the united parties of Pitt & Fox. Our dear Lady Hamilton for ever speaks of your & Mrs. L’s kindness to her, her good heart is feelingly alive to such acts. Our ships have been very unfortunate latterly; the loss of Apollo & Conroy is shocking. At Brest I am only surpriz’d more are not lost or rather that any are sound. I am truly sorry for your nephew for I see no prospect

of our exchange of prisoners with the Republick but the New Emperor may think differently and I should not be surprized if we have a speedy Peace for he must want to settle firmly his new Dignity, brave Corsican.” He adds a postscript: “I sent Dalton his letter & have since seen him. Retains the separate address leaf with red wax seal, accomplished in Lord Nelson’s hand: “Admiral Lutwidge, 17 Argyle Street, London.” The letter is in fine condition, with some light staining; the address leaf is in very good condition, with paper loss and splits to folds. HISTORY Napoleon commenced his reign as the first Emperor of France on May 18, 1804, only six days before this letter was written. During this period, Nelson, recently promoted to Vice Admiral of the White on April 23, 1804, continued the integral blockade of the Franco–Spanish fleet at Toulon, a decisive measure in keeping Napoleon’s invasion of the United Kingdom from ever coming to fruition. A fascinating letter dating to the nascency of the War of the Third Coalition. Starting Bid $500

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While in Mauritius, Gordon affirms his discovery of Eden and “the tree of knowledge” 8111. Charles ‘Chinese’ Gordon. Magnificent ALS signed

“C. G. Gordon,” ten pages, 4.5 x 7, January 12, 1882. Written from the island nation of Mauritius, a letter to Harry Parkes, in part: “Thanks for your kind note from Aden, 26 Dec. received yesterday, here. I am very glad to hear you have the Miss Parkes with you. The affairs of Egypt are owning to our own people having no policy. They, both conservative & liberal, live from hand to mouth. This is the result of our accomplished mission. We have enough and consequently occupy ourselves in trying to ward off the results which result from other nations working out their line of policy. I quite despair that we shall ever change, till some great disaster occurs, and when we may get rid of the official Red tapists we have. I like this place fairly well, but am glad I shall not have many months more here. I hope to get away in April or March. I am glad I came for I have found out much, at least I think so, both about myself and about Eden, & the two trees of Life & knowledge. It is a long story, & was built up by degrees, but the substance is this. That, of the Four Rivers of Eden, they flowed into Eden not out of it, that the Euphrates is Euphrates, Haddekel is Tigris, [both] Persian Gulf. Gelem is Brook Gelem/ Pesm is Neb (Bhu), [both] Red Sea. That the Four Rivers met near Torotra, & flowed down forming a lake, 100 Miles West of Seychelles. The soundings of Indian ocean show this, Persian or Bab el mundo, Gates of world. Aden i.e. Eden [Mussulim] tradition all point to the site of Eden being in these parts. The flood was caused by the change of axis, which melted the ice of the N. & S. Hemispheres & submerged the site of Eden. The tree of knowledge is the Coco de Mer, the tree of life is the Bread fruit. When they had fulfilled their purpose they were relegated back to their normal condition as trees. This is, in short, what I think. The M. S. is not altogether finished, and will not be published, but a Scotch clergyman is going to pick out the plums. I shall go to Syria when I am relieved. I am sorry I cannot come & pay you a visit, but China would only awaken my old enemy, & as he is dormant now, I will not risk disturbing him. I am glad to hear about my godson. I would not think of the Army, it is in a very rotten state, from what I see & hear. We have some troops who were at Majuba, etc, etc, here. They do nothing at all in the soldiering line or in using their limbs, & yet they are supposed to meet the Brass & men who can walk, ride etc

etc, for hours together. I shall be very glad to get free of the army, & much more so, than I was. I feel I never could serve again in any place whatever. It would altogether go against my grain, and one feels it is not worth it. I believe that for the little good one may have to do in this earth, one can do as much out of office as in office. I see no inducements to serve again. You know this, my dear Sir Harry, look at the F[oreign] O[ffice] and the C[olonial] O[ffice] with their stuck up prejudices, and attempts to whitewash every thing they do, an idle ignorant lot, too lazy to listen or think, all sham. Lord G’s dispatch, ‘the object of England is the welfare Egypt,’ as if the Egyptians would or could be so humbugged. I wonder whether Lord G laughs over it himself. I expect he does. Look at the way [Kells] have been given to those Egyptian Employee’s. At one turn they are Egyptian at another they are Europeans. I must however congratulate you on your G. C. M. S. I will say no more about these things. I had sooner I would no longer criticize the world. For it must be that these things are mysteries, which we shall afterwards find, were quite right. I dare say you will laugh about Eden etc etc, but if you saw the whole reasoning, I do not think you would. Odd it is not, that every one who had my part in dethroning Ismail, has come to grief. Upsetting of Princes never thrive.” In fine condition. HISTORY In 1881, while stationed as a Royal Engineer in the British Indian Ocean colony of Mauritius, Gordon embarked on a voyage to the nearby Seychelles archipelago. A religious man and a Christian cosmologist, Gordon visited the small island of Praslin, and recognized this land from descriptions in the Book of Genesis. Entranced by the isle’s unique flora and fauna, in particular, the Coco de Mer palm tree—which only grew on Praslin and one other island—Gordon soon identified the region as none other than the Garden of Eden. In a letter similar to the one offered here, Gordon explained to a Christian missionary: ‘In Praslin, near Seychelles, and only there in the whole world, is a magnificent tree, curious beyond description, called the Prince of the Vegetable kingdom.’ Although historians and archaeologists alike refuted Gordon’s claims of a paradisiacal discovery, Gordon remained an adamant believer of his “tree of knowledge” for the remainder of his life. Starting Bid $300

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“The Evening Telegram of the 18th...said that we had flown three miles at Kitty Hawk with a machine that had two screws, one for lifting and one for propulsion�

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Aviation

Orville recalls reportage on his historic Kitty Hawk flight 8112. Orville Wright. TLS, two pages, 7.25 x 10.5, December 11, 1943. Letter to Lester D. Gardner of the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences in New York, setting the record straight on newspaper reports of his Kitty Hawk flight of some forty years earlier. In part: “I received a letter a few days ago from a friend and neighbor of Carl Dientsbach. This called to mind a letter I received from you last July in which you inclosed a ‘copy’ of a ‘letter of Carl Dientsbach on the 18th’ of December, 1903. I do not understand just what this ‘copy’ is supposed to be. It is not a copy of Dientsbach’s letter to us dated December 19th, 1903, and written in longhand. At the time of writing that letter he had read the Evening Telegram of the 18th, which said that we had flown three miles at Kitty Hawk with a machine that had two screws, one for lifting and one for propulsion. He also had read the New York Herald of the 19th, which said we had flown 59 seconds with a machine having two screws, both of which were for propulsion. He was very much impressed with the idea of the lifting screw, and seemed to think it probable that the Telegram’s description of the machine was more accurate than that of the Herald. We never had a letter from him written on the 18th. The ideas expressed in the ‘copy’ you sent, excepting for some omissions, are almost identical with those in the letter of the 19th, though expressed in somewhat different language and order. Either he must have kept a copy of the letter sent us, or he must have kept copious notes on it. I hope Dientsbach has not represented your copy to be an exact copy of the letter sent to us. I consider Dientsbach reliable and trustworthy, one of the most trustworthy among the writers with whom we have had experience. Sometimes he has been fooled by people who were not as trustworthy as was he himself—for example, Herring and Zahm. I remember Chanute told us in 1904 that Dientsbach became very angry when Chanute, in conversation with him, called Herring a ‘blackmailer.’ Chanute had seen a letter written by Herring to us; Dientsbach had not seen that letter.

Fred Kelly stopped over for a few hours in passing through Dayton last week. I let him read the letter I had written to you about the Langley motor. He told me he thought you were inclined to believe we were mistaken about Manly having visited our flying field in 1905. There can be no question about that in my own mind. That is shown in a letter I wrote to Kelly some months ago, a copy of which I inclose. While I am about it I shall inclose also a letter written some weeks ago about one of the two persons named in this letter as having fooled Dientsbach.” In fine condition, with light soiling to the lower right corners. HISTORY An interesting missive with references to a group of men the Wright Brothers viewed as either trustworthy allies or troublesome adversaries. Carl Dienstbach, the New York correspondent of the German aviation and aeronautics journal Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen, shared a correspondence with the Wright brothers since their earliest flights in January 1904, and Fred C. Kelly, a former newspaperman, author, and old friend of the Wrights, published in 1943 the only ‘authorized’ biography of Wilbur and Orville Wright; he later edited a collection of their letters and papers in 1951 entitled Miracle at Kitty Hawk. Octave Chanute was an American aviation pioneer who had conducted his own glider experiments in the late 1890s and later became an avid supporter of the Wright Brothers, frequently offering them engineering advice and visiting them at Kitty Hawk. Wright’s mention of “Herring and Zahm” point to Augustus M. Herring and Albert Francis Zahm, men of whom the Wright brothers would grow increasingly weary. After the Wrights filed for their ‘flying machine’ patent in 1903, Herring wrote to them claiming that he held a prior patent on a similar machine. He offered to form a joint company to market the Wright Flyer on the basis of 1/3 interest for him and 2/3 interest for them, a tender the Wrights promptly ignored. Zahm, noted as building the first scientific wind tunnel in America in 1901 at Catholic University, served as an aeronautical expert in the 1910–14 lawsuits between the Wright brothers and Glenn Curtiss; Zahm testified on behalf of Curtiss after declining to testify for the Wrights. Starting Bid $300

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“I believe the theory of Unions basically wrong— there should be no need for such organizations”

8113. Amelia Earhart. TLS, one page, 7.25 x 10.5, personal letterhead, August 18, 1934. Letter to Miss Mary W. Hillyer of the Shirt & Collar Workers Union in New York. In full: “I have just returned from Wyoming and find your letter asking me to come up the Hudson. Unfortunately August is entirely used up with air activities and I cannot possibly add any Union ones to the schedule. I am sorry. Perhaps later on I can come if you think I can help. You may or may not know I believe the theory of Unions basically wrong—there should be no need for such organizations. However, I quite realize there is under the present economic scheme no other way for

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workers to obtain what human beings are entitled to. I therefore shall lend what aid I can wherever no discrimination against women exists. Until civilization is wiser, jails and unions as they are known today will exist—both makeshift institutions in a changing social order. At least I hope it’s a changing order. I like your little ‘Shirt Tales’ and hope whether or not I get to Albany while you’re there, that you will be successful in your work.” In very good to fine condition, with scattered light creasing, and several vertical folds. Accompanied by a handsome custom-made presentation folder with a quarter leather binding. Starting Bid $200


Art, Architecture, & Design

Eiffel evaluates an “impossible” tower

8114. Gustave Eiffel. ALS in French, signed “G. Eiffel,” four pages on two adjoining sheets, 5.25 x 8.25, personal letterhead, July 31, 1885. Letter to Admiral Ernest Mouchez, director of the Paris Observatory. In full (translated): “I thank you for your letter relative to Admiral Serre’s tower, and I saw with pleasure that you remain true, hence this new project, to the one that we have presented. I think as you do that it cannot be submitted to a very serious discussion. It would be quite that it be otherwise surprising since Admiral Serre is simply changing the scale of a ship metallic mast; to demonstrate its degree of impossibility it would suffice to increase coefficient and to suppose that one could do a 3000 meter tower by taking a 50 coefficient instead of 5—There are lots of elements that are taking a preponderant part in a large construction while this part was insignificant in a small one: Cables, for example, that can be stretched rather easily with a length of 60 m. at low angle, and which with a length of 300 m take huge deflections and give considerable initial stress by their own weight effect. The wind stress on these cables is far from remaining negligible, and one is amazed, by calculation, to see what influence wind has even on these cables. Moreover, it is absolutely impossible even by theory to suppose an even acceptable stress distribution between these different cables. In all cases of wind pressures no stability is possible on cables of this type which must take several meters stress due to

their length. The entire conception is also as impractical as possible and concurrence to our project do not seem to me quite redoubtable. I do not even believe that at this time it be quite useful to make refutation of it above all in the presence of low saving resulting from this project—If by any chance, it would become useful, I would be glad de be able to relay on your opinion. I am sending you the Civil Engineer’s No. in which the entire M. Serre’s project is outlined. You will see that to him it is simply a scale drawing change; It is also inefficient that if to make a battleship one would multiply by ten or twenty a steam-powered boat type. In practice things are not as simple, unfortunately.” In fine condition. HISTORY During this period, Eiffel was working on preliminary plans for his iconic tower in anticipation of the 1889 Exposition Universelle. He had presented his idea to the Societe des Ingenieurs on March 30, 1885, discussing potential engineering problems and emphasizing the practical uses of the tower. In this lengthy, technical letter, Eiffel seems to evaluate the engineering obstacles for a much larger tower proposed by Admiral Serre. Though Eiffel’s project made little progress for some time, the tower finally broke ground in January 1887. Today, his tower is perhaps the most iconic landmark in the world. Starting Bid $200

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An interview with Diego Rivera—“The ruling class has controlled or tried to control the production of art, thru the market, helped by fashions, legislation corruption and finally by force” 8115. Diego Rivera. Lengthy manuscript in pencil, 15 total

pages, 5.5 x 8.5 and 6.5 x 9, January 28, 1949, consisting of an interview with Diego Rivera, who signs at the conclusion and adds his initials nine times throughout; the manuscript is in the hand of the interviewer, Andre Visal, and reads, in part (grammar and spelling retained): “All through the history the ruling class has controlled or tried to control the production of art, thru the market, helped by fashions, legislation corruption and finally by force. Only escape to this power of control the art production who make blood & bombs with the insurrection of groups or classes fighting against the rulers. Naturally, now when the fight for Agrogion democratic bourgeois revolution has stopped to give place to consolidation of the new bourgeoisie—typically represented by Miguel Aleman and his govt—has not the same need of demagougy of the preceeding govt. Therefore they have established a mural painting commission but they dont commission any more mural painting and the commission intergrated [David Alfaro] Siqueiros, [Jose Clemente] Orozco, Rivera has his own work stopped in govt buildings of Mexico City. On the other hand the new bourgeoisie has discovered the new French style—the ultra modern new academician Le Corbusier. Being a half colonial country Mexico has a petty bourgeois & bourgeoisie who never dare to employ any style belonging to herself unless his foreign masters approve. This is why now, after having tried French style for houses, they have passed to California & Colonial (as they call themselves) and now they build houses in French Corbusier style—especially because being more simple they are more inexpensive. The accumulation of money, around 10000 declared new millionaires, and the new type of architecture has established a certain need of painting not only to be enjoyed esthetically but also to play as furniture—and especially—to accomplish its basic function of exchange value susceptible to rise in value & to sell good interest to investor. This need help by the interest of the recently established art dealers, int. decorators art critics, his helpers and in general all apparatus of control belonging to new bourgeoisie including the fine arts institute—has provoked a production in accord with the needs of the buyers. That is the real reason and the truth about the so-called crisis of Mexican painting.” In very good to fine condition, with toning and edge tear to the final three sheets. HISTORY A lengthy and introspective interview that captures the inexhaustible passion of Rivera, a lifelong Marxist whose art expressed his outspoken, often uncompromising commitment to left-wing political causes. One of the leading members and founders of the Mexican Muralist movement, Rivera used the walls of universities and other public buildings throughout Mexico and the United States to wield his socially and politically broad artistic vision, depicting such subjects as the Mexican peasantry, American workers, and revolutionary figures like Emiliano Zapata and Leon Trotsky, who for two years resided at Rivera and Frida Kahlo’s La Casa Azul in the Coyoacan area of Mexico City. Starting Bid $200

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Literature Scarce letter by the author who inspired Fiddler on the Roof 8116. Shalom Aleichem. Russian-born Jewish humorist, born Solomon Naumovich

Rabinovich (1859–1916), whose stories and plays, originally written in Yiddish, were the basis for the musical Fiddler on the Roof. ALS in Cyrillic, signed “S. Rabinovich,” one page, 5 x 8.25, stamped personal letterhead, December 14, 1902. In full (translated): “At long last I have come home, to my warm, dear, quiet hearth and found everyone, thank heaven, alive and well. Let’s say not everyone. Some have a slight fashionable influence, and some are likewise a little sick. Oh, you don’t know the charm of the family hearth when there are half a dozen kids around you, a little boy, a little girl, even more little. I am your friend—surely you don’t doubt me in this? I wish you half a dozen children, not right away, but in the course of a decade of happy married life! I will spend a couple days here, all in all. My address is Vilnius, available upon your request.” In the left margin, he adds: “Greetings to Anna Yosifovna. I wrote today to Rogachev, to Mr. Zelkind, to father.” In fine condition. Accompanied by a gorgeous custom-made presentation folder with a quarter leather binding. Starting Bid $200

“Where our fathers saw an external arbitrary, omnipotent creator who called the universe into being by the fiat of his power, science sees an internal, eternal, principle of life in no wise separable from the universe” 8117. John Burroughs. Handwritten manuscript in pencil, unsigned,

three pages, 5.5 x 9, no date. Burroughs writes some philosophical musings on the nature of man, in part: “Seeing with the mind’s eye is one thing, and seeing with the corporeal eye is quite another. We do not expect persons to think alike or to reach the same results in their thinking. In politics, in religion, in philosophy, they are bound to differ as day from night. But in matter can we surprise the mind in the act of clothing its ideas with words? Do we have the idea first and the words afterward? Is it not true rather that the two are never separated, that the two are one and that we think in words? Our feelings, our emotions are independent of language. Our…nature expresses itself in action. We should experience fear, pleasure, pain, hunger, joy, love, anger if we had no language and we might communicate them to others by our looks and gestures. But our thoughts and emotions as rational beings, all that distinguishes us from the brute is dependent upon abstract terms. We cannot go behind matter as matter turns out in its final analysis to be pure…or one with spirit itself. If we try to go behind energy to find intelligence we are lost in a vast profound. It is like going behind matter to find gravity, or chemical affinity. Intelligence too is inherent in matter and ever active there. Where our fathers saw an external arbitrary, omnipotent creator who called the universe into being by the fiat of his power, science sees an internal, eternal, principle of life in no wise separable from the universe, and in which all things live and move and have their being.” An additional paragraph, written on the reverse of the third page, has been struck through by Burroughs. In very good to fine condition, with light toning and creasing. Starting Bid $200

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The Alice in Wonderland author replies to the editor of Vanity Fair: “I have such a quantity of irons in the fire that I see little or no chance of being of any use to you as a writer”

8118. Charles L. Dodgson. ALS signed “C. L. Dodgson,”

three pages on two adjoining sheets, 4.5 x 7, January 12, 1885. Letter to the editor of Vanity Fair, Thomas Gibson Bowles. In part: “Forgive my delay in writing about your newly-projected Journal [The Lady]…I have such a quantity of irons in the fire that I see little or no chance of being of any use to you as a writer: still, if some ‘happy thoughts’ should occur, on a subject germane to your scheme, I will try to set it down for you…I would suggest the omission of the dogma ‘to look beautiful is one of the first duties of a lady,’ which excited the scornful criticism of the first two ladies to whom I showed it. I don’t think ladies care to be told that—at least, not publicly. To the newly-married wife you might usefully suggest, in some

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article on ‘the Home’ that she must make it one of her chief objects to make her husband’s home pleasant and beautiful: and that one chief element in the picture is herself: so that it becomes her duty ‘still to be neat, still to be dressed’ in whatever fashion best becomes the face and figure God has given her. But the maid does not need to be thus counselled: and to the elderly, whose charms are matters of history, such words are a mockery. So I would not put it as an axiom in the forefront of your scheme.” In fine condition, with toning along top edges, a pencil and ink notation to top of first page, and a few creases. A charming letter from Dodgson, who was in the midst of his mathematical writings, but still sought after by literary magazines. Starting Bid $300


“Have been working on a Shirley Temple picture,” Fitzgerald writes to his secretary, “Strange as it may seem she’s a lovely child, very well brought up and not at all the smirking brat she has been in her last pictures”

8119. F. Scott Fitzgerald. TLS signed “Scott Fitz,” one page, 8.5 x 11, August 16, 1940. Letter to his secretary, Mrs. Isabel W. Owens, in full: “Thanks ever so much for all you did about the storage things—especially for the extra work in digging out Zelda’s play. I know what that means in Mid-summer heat in Baltimore. They sent me the encyclopedia but I’m rather glad to have it as it always furnishes entertainment and the charge was not bad considering its weight. Have been working on a Shirley Temple picture, which is sort of a gamble, that is I was paid a minimum and will get more if she does it. Strange as it may seem she’s a lovely child, very well brought up and not at all the smirking brat she has been in her last pictures.” In fine condition. HISTORY During this period, Fitzgerald was working on a screen adaptation of his classic short story ‘Babylon Revisited,’ tailored specifically for Shirley Temple. The script, called ‘Cosmopolitan,’ ultimately went unproduced, despite Fitzgerald’s high hopes—he referred to ‘Cosmopolitan’ as his ‘great hope for attaining some real status as a movie man and not a novelist.’ An excellent letter shedding some light on the great Jazz Age author’s experiences in Hollywood. Starting Bid $300

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“I sometimes wonder whether the conscientious objector who gets off most easily isn’t the one without a conscience” 8120. T. S. Eliot. TLS signed “T. S. E.,” one page, 8 x 10, Faber & Faber let-

terhead, June 12, 1943. Letter to renowned composer Michael Tippett, in full: “As you put it, the conclusion seems foregone. I sometimes wonder whether the conscientious objector who gets off most easily isn’t the one without a conscience. I am, indeed, as apprehensive as you of the future powers of the Ministry of Labour (after the war). Planners tell us, from the point of view of their own optimism, that human nature can (with modern techniques) be re-moulded—a belief which very much encourages them—but I rather hope that the time will come when the ordinary Briton will suddenly discover that he cannot stand any more regimentation. Meanwhile, all I can say is that if you are incarcerated anywhere about the London area I shall be very happy to visit you. (I went to see Bertie Russell in the last war—the only other prisoner on my visiting list was a murderer, I think).” In fine condition, with toning along extreme edges. HISTORY During World War II, Tippett had registered as a conscientious objector and refused an assignment to non-combatant duties. In June 1943, he was sentenced to three months’ imprisonment at Wormwood Scrubs in London, where he ultimately served two months. Bertrand Russell had similarly been imprisoned for his pacifism during World War I. Starting Bid $200

Limited edition 1924 printing of Frost’s “Several Short Poems” 8121. Robert Frost. Scarce bi-fold pamphlet entitled “Several Short Poems,” four pages, 5.75 x 9, signed on the front in black ink pen by Robert Frost. Printed in a limited edition of 2000 copies by Henry Holt in 1924, this pamphlet was designed for distribution at Frost’s college lectures on the east coast. It features the poems ‘The Pasture,’ ‘Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening,’ ‘The Oven Bird,’ ‘An Old Man’s Winter Night,’ ‘The Runaway,’ and ‘Nothing Gold Can Stay,’ along with two handsome woodcut vignettes by J. J. Lankes. In fine condition. A handsome signed example of a scarce piece of Frost ephemera. Starting Bid $200

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Beautifully inscribed “Freedom’s Plow” by Langston Hughes 8122. Langston Hughes. Scarce booklet for the Langston Hughes poem “Freedom’s Plow,” published by Musette Publishers of New York in 1943, fourteen pages, 5.25 x 7.75, signed and inscribed on the copyright page in fountain pen, “For Marius Risley, Sincerely, Langston Hughes.” In fine condition, with the cover detached from the inner pages. Starting Bid $200

Hemingway quotes Shakespeare: “I care not; a man can die but once” 8123. Ernest Hemingway. Signed

book: A Farewell to Arms. First edition, first printing. NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1929. Hardcover, 5.5 x 7.5, 355 pages. Signed on the first free end page in blue ballpoint with a quote from William Shakespeare’s Henry IV, “’I care not; a man can die but once; we owe God a death and let it go which way it will, he that dies this year is quiet for the next.’ Well, well, well, Mr. Shakespeare and how did your women die Mr. Shakespeare? Nicely I hope, E. Hemingway.” Autographic condition: very good to fine, with a block of toning to the left half of the signed page, and a small repaired tear to the right edge. Book condition: VG/None, with a slightly loose front hinge, light wear to the gold title labels, and a bit of scuffing and rubbing to boards. Accompanied by a handsome custom-made slipcase with a quarter leather binding. A marvelous presentation copy of Hemingway’s classic work, which has drawn comparisons to Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. Just as many of Shakespeare’s tragic heroines—Juliet, Ophelia, Desdemona—met tragic fates, so does Hemingway’s Catherine Barkley, whose sad death closes A Farewell to Arms. A truly spectacular example. Starting Bid $300

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Hemingway returns to Europe in 1948, where he aims “to eat and to drink and find a good café where you don’t know anybody where you can read and write” 8124. Ernest Hemingway. TLS signed “Papa,” two pages,

8.5 x 11, Finca Vigia, San Francisco De Paula, Cuba letterhead, August 8, 1948. Letter to screenwriter Peter Viertel, in part: “You have to get out of the fnucking coast. You said good bye to it in the first book. Think Europe will be good for all of us. For a change anyway. I always get stink homesick for it and the last time was there we had lots of fun…but before that it was rugged and after that it was as bad as first war (not quite as bad but still bad). Am so happy in anticipation of seeing it now civilized and being able to see the pictures again and go into the old joints and have there be something to eat and to drink and find a good café where you don’t know anybody where you can read and write. Charley Sweeny and I always had our own cafes where we did not know anyone but the garcon. Then once a week or so he would meet me at my café and I would meet him at his. Then we would eat at wonderful places where we knew nobody. I think the main awfullness of NY which I dislike same as you the coast is the corruption of going places where everybody knows everybody. That is fine in Ketchum. But with a whole big city to be able to pick your spots in is different. We used to go to places where knew people when were lonesome. But a good man shouldn’t be lonesome all the time any more than he should be scared all the time. Man should do his work and love that the most; then his woman and his children, then his friends, then all the things he likes to do, then—shit none of this makes very good sense. It isn’t ordered that simply. Anyway will be wonderful to see youse guys. I will be good and kind to John and if he wants me to work out something just on the Zelia Parla deal ever will be glad to do. Sylvester is a Broadway heel. But John knows I’m straight I think. That girl was married in our house. I have handled by request of both parties all sorts of things, financial and otherwise, between her and the man who is father of her child for some years now. Sylvester cannot imagine anyone doing that sort of thing without getting at least ten percent. Her husband is one of my best friends in Cuba. Naturally I do not think it is just funny for

Sylvester to libel her with complete irresponsibility and impunity. Also he made the mistake of sending me an advance copy of the book telling me who the principal character was. This gets up into evidence. He also went out to Winston Guest’s house on Gardner’s Island (where our boys and I have shot many times). Also if you have no religion, do not love your wife, do not give a shit and have a sound professional grounding it is not so difficult as if you had some religion, loved your wife and had never learned the trade. Anyway for me. It was not until read his book on Infantry Tactics that knew had fought Rummel [sic] in Italy. Also kicked shit out of same. He didn’t notice, like lots of krauts, that they did not get where they had to get and that everything else was cabbage.” In fine condition. HISTORY In late September 1948, a 49-year-old Hemingway and his fourth wife, journalist Mary Welsh, sailed into Genoa’s harbor aboard the Polish ship Jagiello. Some twenty-four years after his last visit, 1948 also served as the first year that his classic A Farewell to Arms was published in the still recovering country. Upon his return, Hemingway regained his stride as a novelist and completed several works over the next few years, including The Old Man and the Sea, for which he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1953. Though Finca Vigia remained his permanent home, Hemingway continued to travel extensively, indulging in the outdoor pursuits so vividly described in these lines to Peter Viertel, who wrote the screenplays for his novels The Old Man and the Sea and The Sun Also Rises. On this particular occasion, he was accompanied buy his son “Gigi” (Gregory), like his father, an avid marksman. In Constantinople, in 1922, Hemingway met Colonel Charles Sweeny, a soldier of fortune who was said to have fought in seven wars with the armies of five countries, and Sylvester is likely the novelist and short story writer Harry Sylvester, whom Hemingway had known since the 1930s. An exceptional, content-rich letter from ‘Papa,’ one brimming with Hemingway’s colloquial style and a slew of personal connections. Starting Bid $300

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Jack London explains “the threads of the plot” and the logic of stories 8125. Jack London. Unique pairing of items signed by Jack London, comprising a TLS and an inscribed galley proof for one of his short stories:

TLS signed “Jack,” two pages, 8.5 x 11, February 6, 1908. In full: “I’m glad Bob really thinks the ending of the story is all right. To be frank with you it did not suit my own ideas of what a magazine serial finale should be. But then it was the only honest ending. More and more I discover that there is a certain logic which cannot be got around. It is true that in real life we twist the logical threads into a rope and hang ourselves thereby. But it cannot be denied that what is technically known as ‘the threads of the plot,’ however closely woven they may be during the story, must inevitably separate again. The trick is to end your story just at the inch before the division. My story wouldn’t end that way. It ended an inch after it. I am sure that the time will come when the ‘live happily every after’ will be relegated to the fairy tale pure and simple. As a matter of fact the great vital stories of this world do not end (most of them) end in marriage. Some of them do. If this were heaven they all would. Also the climax of a man’s life does not necessarily imply that he goes into silent and blissful contemplation of what he has done. If he is healthy he passes it up as another stage in the journey and packs his pillow for the next night’s snooze. Therefore, my dear boy, the ending of ‘The Last Stand.’ One can see that Colonel Biggers had finished his course, so far as we are concerned. But that didn’t mean contentment, or happiness or a warmer bed. He was still here. That was all. Ready for another bout. Maybe a little stronger for it and a little wiser and with profounder memories. But I am sure that Colonel Biggers, however fully he may have carried out his honorable and inflexible purpose, still fought the same old fights and had the same luck. This brings me to a point in the short-story and the novel as well (and the painting and sculpture) too little recognized. This life ceases when change ceases. Like the small boy with the measles we all have to have ‘em and be sat up with. Some changes mean more than others. It is the place of art to depict, as clearly as possible, some moment in our lifes. But the Art ceases, thrown aside the pencil and the colors—the life goes on. It is wrong, false technique, to insinuate that when the pencil ceases the human

problem ceases. A gorgeous example of this error is in a story like Churchill’s Crises. I think that is the most vilely written tale I have ever read with interest. The man wouldn’t know how to conduct himself if there weren’t a policeman handy. His story is rank sophistry and his style the outcome of miscegenation of ardent oratory with cold chicane. I can see how it sold. But I can also see why the writer will have to change his course if he desires to be read fifty years hence. All this apropos of my own slight attempt. I am half through a novel of the timber country down here now. I’ve done a good 40,000 wor[d]s of it and have the rest all laid out. Next week will see it done. As it is of the other style—John Burt—I am rather amused with it. Elena thinks it splendid. The Lord knows what it will turn out to be. I have threatened to sell it for $100 cash and she rages. In a way it is good. It has more plot and local description etc than Archibald Clavering Gunther at his best together with some of the inimitable qualities of your humble servant. By the way, hear of the failures in the East? Appleton, BobbsMerrill, The Circle etc? I got quite a list the other day. Thank God none of them touch me. But from the passionate letters I have received I think the Pacific must be doing pretty well. If you should be in need of a serial by the new writer, John Burt, lemme know and I’ll get him to send you a copy of his latest Salall McCarthy’s Claim, A Tale of The Oregon Timber.” Galley proof sheets for “When God Laughs,” 13 pages, 12 x 9.25, signed and inscribed on the title sheet in fountain pen, “Dear Fred Lockley, Here’s the proofsheets of the yarn. Keep them. Jack London, Glen Ellen, Calif., March 22, 1910.” A note by Lockley written on the left side reads, in part: “One time when I was visiting Jack London at his home in Glen Ellen I asked him which of all the stories he had written he liked best. He said ‘Come up in my den and I will read what I consider my best story.’ This is the one he read to me.” Additionally includes a four-page TLS by London’s friend Ninetta Eames to Charles H. Jones of the Pacific Publishing Co., reflecting on London’s view of his works The Iron Heel and Martin Eden. In overall fine condition. An exceptional grouping of material from the noted American author. Starting Bid $200

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“I am about to sign up with Disney for the script of an Alice in Wonderland, which is to be a cartoon version of Tenniel’s drawings and Carroll’s story” 8126. Aldous Huxley. TLS

signed “Aldous,” one page both sides, 8.5 x 11, October 13, 1945. Written from Los Angeles, a letter to famed screenwriter Anita Loos, in part: “It is essential, I think, to anchor the brave– new–worldian events very firmly to the present, so as to show that even the most extravagant pieces of satiric phantasy stem inevitably and logically from present-day seeds and are the natural end-product of present-day tendencies. This will give the picture a strong topical interest and will give a specific point to its satire. Something about the atom bomb will of course have to be brought in. But the point of the original story must be kept—namely, that the really revolutionary changes will come about from advances in biology and psychology, not from advances in physics… I am about to sign up with Disney for the script of an Alice in Wonderland, which is to be a cartoon version of Tenniel’s drawings and Carroll’s story, embedded in a flesh-and-blood episode of the life of the Rev. Charles Dodgson. I think something rather nice might be made out of this—the unutterably odd, repressed and ridiculous Oxford lecturer on logic and mathematics, seeking refuge in the company of little girls and in his own phantasy. There is plenty of comic material in Dodgson’s life and I think it will be legitimate to invent some such absurd climax as a visit of Queen Victoria to Oxford and her insistence on having the author of Alice presented to her, in preference to all the big wigs—the scene dissolving, in Carroll’s fancy, to the end of Alice: ‘They’re nothing but a pack of cards’—and the Queen and her retinue become ridiculous cartoon figures and are scattered to the four winds.” In fine condition. HISTORY Huxley and Loos became acquainted with each other when the former initiated a correspondence praising Loos for her hugely successful 1925 comic novel Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. The writers met in person a year later when Huxley and his wife Maria visited New York, and then, in 1937, when the Huxleys moved to Los Angeles, Loos introduced them to her contacts at MGM. Huxley went on to co-write several screenplays throughout the 1940s and 1950s for films like Pride and Prejudice, Madame Curie, and Jane Eyre. In 1945, shortly after the war ended, Huxley was hired to rewrite a script for an animated/live-action production of Alice in Wonderland, but the version was ultimately canceled when Walt Disney felt that Huxley’s version was too much of a literal adaptation of Lewis Carroll’s book. A content-rich letter between two famous writers. Starting Bid $200

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Lossing’s centennial celebration of the Battle of Bunker Hill

View additional pages online at www.RRAuction.com

8127. Benson Lossing. Prolific and popular American historian (1813–1891) known for his illustrated books on the Revolution and Civil War, as well as features in Harper’s Magazine. AMS titled and signed at the top, “Our National Centennials, No. 3, By Benson J. Lossing, The 17th of June, 1775,” 12 onionskin pages, 5 x 8, no date but circa 1875. A significant essay on the Battle of Bunker Hill, beginning “’America to frighten / The tools of power strove, / But ministers are cheated, / Their schemes abortive prove. / The men they told us would not fight / Are to the combat drove, / And to our gallant officers / It proved a bitter pill / For numbers drop’t before they reach’d / The top of Bunker Hill.’ So chanted an American Loyalist, one of the internal foes of American Patriots, a hundred years

ago, after the sanguinary battle on Breed’s Hill (called Bunker Hill), the centennial anniversary of which was celebrated with great pomp and parade on Thursday, the 17th of June, 1875. That battle is a notable event in the American Centenary. The King and his ministers, by their obstinacy and stupidity, had begun a revolutionary war at Lexington and Concord a few weeks before.” The essay goes on to discuss the seedlings of the Revolution in New England and the Battle of Bunker Hill. In fine condition, with a corner crease to the first page. Accompanied by a mailing envelope addressed to Lossing, marked in Lossing’s hand: “Bunker Hill, 1875.” Also includes a complete transcript of the essay. Starting Bid $200

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Rand greenlights a film adaptation of Atlas Shrugged

“Once Rand has approved the final screenplay for the Picture, no changes in the final screenplay may be made” 8128. Ayn Rand. DS, six pages, 8.5 x 11, May 30, 1980.

Contract between Henry Jaffe Enterprises, Inc., and Rand in regard to the latter’s “book entitled ‘Atlas Shrugged,’” which reads, in part: “This agreement contemplates the production of one feature length motion picture…based upon the Book. The Picture shall have a length of not less than 180 minutes and not more than 200 minutes…The writer engaged by Jaffe to write a screenplay for the Picture and the writing schedule shall be subject to Rand’s approval…If at any stage of the writing process Rand and/or Jaffe does not approve the work product…then Jaffe may engage Rand to write (or rewrite, as Rand may see fit) the final screenplay for the Picture… All drafts of the screenplay submitted by any writer engaged to write the screenplay shall be submitted immediately to both Rand and Jaffe. (No third party other than Rand, Jaffe and his associates…shall be allowed to read any draft of the screenplay (or the treatment) prior to Rand’s approval of said draft.)…Once Rand has approved the final screenplay for the Picture, no changes in the final screenplay may be made in the course of production of the Picture without Rand’s approval which may be granted or withheld in her sole discretion.” The contract details numerous financial considerations pertaining

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to Rand’s supervision fees, payments to Rand in the event the picture is produced, out-of-pocket expenses, net profits of the picture, production and distribution fees, and provisions relating to a prior mini-series agreement for the book. Signed at the conclusion by Rand, who also adds her initial on pages two and five. In fine condition. HISTORY Rand was apprehensive about the commercial adaptation of her magnum opus Atlas Shrugged, fearing that her message and meaning would be compromised by Hollywood, which is evidenced by the various provisions controlling the text of the screenplay. As such, a film adaptation remained in ‘development hell’ for nearly 40 years until 1978, when Henry and Michael Jaffe negotiated a deal for an eight-hour Atlas Shrugged television miniseries on NBC. They obtained script approval for Rand and hired Sterling Silliphant, the screenwriter of the Sidney Poitier movie In the Heat of the Night, to adapt Atlas Shrugged. When the project was scrapped a year later with the ascension of Fred Silverman as the new NBC boss, Rand took it upon herself to write the script, but she died in 1982 with only one third finished. Starting Bid $200


Rand blames Mayer for the dropped adaptation of ‘We the Living’— “He is afraid of producing an anti-Soviet play” 8129. Ayn Rand.

TLS signed “Ayn,” two pages, 7.25 x 10.5, October 14, 1937. Letter to Marcella Bannett Rabwin of Selznick International Pictures, in part: “I have spent this summer in Connecticut and have just moved back to New York. We have taken an unfurnished apartment and are now driven mad with problems of furniture, of which we have two beds and a table at the present moment...There are no immediate prospects for our return to Hollywood, and I have two plays on my hands, which, if all goes well, may be produced this season. One is a new play I finished this summer. The other—my adaptation of ‘WE THE LIVING.’ You ask me about its production. Well, Jerome Mayer, who had it, has dropped his option on it recently, and for a very sad reason: he is afraid of producing an anti-Soviet play. When taking the option, he had assured me that he was not afraid of it, but he has a great many Red friends and they got the best of him. I am somewhat indignant about it, because it appears as if the Reds have established a nice little unofficial censorship of their own, and it is very hard to get ahead with anything anti-Communistic. But we shall see what we shall see. Right now, I have a very big producer interested in the play and expect to hear from him definitely within the week. If the politics do not stop him, he would be much better for the play than Jerome Mayer could have been.” In fine condition. Accompanied by the original air mail envelope. HISTORY Rand’s debut novel, We the Living, was published by Macmillan on April 7, 1936, nearly two years after its completion. Originally titled Airtight, the novel explores the struggles of the individual against harsh communist rule in Soviet Russia, and was later described by Rand as the most autobiographical of her novels. Not long after its release, Rand began to negotiate with producer Jerome Mayer on a theatrical adaptation of the novel. While Rand completed her initial draft in January 1937, Mayer struggled with both casting and raising production funds. These constant setbacks ultimately led to the production’s cancellation, and Rand’s assertion that Mayer was “afraid of producing an anti-Soviet play.” George Abbott eventually took over the production, and the play opened under the title ‘The Unconquered’ at the Biltmore Theatre on February 13, 1940. The play closed after just six performances due to universally negative reviews. An insightful letter from the revered scribe during the very height of America’s ‘Red Decade.’ Starting Bid $200

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Music The virtuoso’s praise of Napoleon III— “The fact is that no one in the world admires him more deeply”

8130. Franz Liszt. ALS in French, signed “F. L.,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 5 x 7.5, April 26, [1866]. Letter to an unnamed recipient expressing his admiration for the emperor, Napoleon III, in full (translated): “What a swarm of enchanting things. Gimpel is suffocating from it and sings your praises. It is all very well for him to say it’s impossible, he’ll believe it all the more. Only if one doesn’t ‘turn the page’ for any other reason than to oppose ‘the little composer.’ At every line, at every word of the marvelous writing one would like to stop, so much does this overabundance of grace captivate the soul and the attention! That you speak well of the Emperor, and how can I thank you for what you said to him about me! The fact is that no one in the world admires him more deeply—as a whole and in detail, in his deeds and words—than your very humble servant. It has already been about fifteen years that this has been going on, and I am quite resolved to continue without interruption. Bülow and his wife (and a third person whom I shall not name), who know by heart what I keep in mine, share my sentiments for the Emperor, and if chance had had it that it was otherwise, our intimacy would have suffered from it. Has Sax begun the bust? It seems to me that Phidias himself wouldn’t have done it.—Like Schwanthaler, they said in Amsterdam ‘that laurel suits me better,’ and yesterday, after the performance of Psalm XIII, a magnificent crown of laurel

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was given me (in silver, in beautiful workmanship). Tomorrow (Friday), the Preludes are going to be performed and on Sunday (at the Church of Moses and Aaron) the Mass of Gran. On when you will give him the pleasure of visiting him.” After signing, Liszt adds a lengthy postscript: “The Léonards came here with Mme St. to hear yesterday’s concert. At their departure this morning I promised to dine with them in Brussels on Monday, where I will arrive toward 6 in the evening. If you have any commission to give me for Brus., just command—until Tuesday noon Hotel Bellevue.” In fine condition. HISTORY Liszt’s admiration for the French emperor, Napoleon III, was well documented. On May 22, 1861, during a particularly memorable dinner encounter at the Tuileries, Napoleon expressed his thanks to Liszt for the goodwill he always bore France. The emperor, as he spoke, took on air of melancholy as he explained to Liszt the heavy burdens of his office, affirming to him that ‘there are days when I feel as if I had lived for a hundred years.’ Liszt’s response, ‘Sire, you are the century,’ made a visible impression on the emperor, and his subsequent playing of Chopin’s Funeral March brought Eugénie de Montijo to tears. A week later, Napoleon III made Liszt a Commander of the Legion of Honor. Starting Bid $300


A rare trio from Puccini— “Boheme,” “Butterfly,” and “Tosca”

8131. Giacomo Puccini. Extraordinary triple AMQS on a light blue 6.25 x 9.75 sheet of his personal letterhead, inscribed at the top in fountain pen to “Jandor Klein,” and signed at the conclusion, “Giacomo Puccini, 2.1.08.” Puccini pens brief musical quotations from three of his most beloved operas, writing the titles above: “Boheme,” “Butterfly,” and “Tosca.” Addressed on the reverse in Puccini’s hand. In very good to fine condition, with light toning along the trimmed side edges. Immensely desirable and undoubtedly one-of-a-kind, this unprecedented triplet of musical quotations represents the sum of Puccini’s most renowned, revered, and towering masterpieces. Starting Bid $500

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Entertainment “I am now trying out a new Invention of mine,” Houdini writes of his famed Chinese Water Torture Cell trick, “which I have all reason to believe will be the greatest sensation I have ever created” 8132. Harry Houdini. TLS, one page, 8 x 10.5, personal letterhead with engraved portrait, June 4, 1912. Letter to Boston area magician Edwin Fay Rice, in full: “Your letter with enclosures to hand and hasten to answer, as I am now trying out a new Invention of mine, which I will produce in Europe, and which I have all reason to believe will be the greatest sensation I have ever created. I found that Blitz plate and enclosed you will find a few of the cards printed ‘therefrom.’ I shall thank Mr. Marston personally, but what I would like to have had was the ‘act.’ When I get time will pluck up courage to ask for same. I shall be in New York until August 5th when we sail for Germany, and expect to be gone one year. Nothing else for the present with kindest regards best wishes to both Mrs. Rice as well as yourself in which Mrs. Houdini joins me I remains sincerely your friend.” In fine condition, with light offsetting in the lower left from the image in the upper left. Accompanied by an original ‘Houdini, King of Handcuffs’ mailing envelope addressed to a different recipient. HISTORY The “new invention” to which Houdini is referring is his famous ‘Chinese Water Torture Cell.’ Constructed of a large steel-and-mahogany tank with an inch-thick plateglass front, the cell was filled with water and an upright metal cage was placed inside. With his ankles fastened and secured in stocks, Houdini was then lowered into the tank upside-down, the top cover shut and padlocked, and a cabinet wheeled around the tank to hide the struggling magician. Two minutes later, a soaked Houdini emerged from behind the cabinet to a bewildered audience. On April 29, 1911, Houdini gave a single performance of the trick as a one-act play in Southampton before an audience of one; an ingenious maneuver that allowed him to file a copyright for the stunt in August of 1911, legally prevented imitations without explaining how the trick worked. The ‘torture cell’ trick, which Houdini claims “will be the greatest sensation I have ever created,” was first publicly shown at the Circus Busch in Berlin, Germany, on September 21, 1912. The curator of the Boston Public Library, Edwin Rice was a magician, book collector, and friend of Houdini who wrote articles about magic that were published in ‘M-U-M,’ the periodical for the Society of American Magicians, whose motto was ‘Magic-Unity-Might.’ Starting Bid $200

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“Been working all day and night on my new Vanishing Elephant mystery and think I have a world beater” 8133. Harry Houdini. TLS signed “Houdini,” one page, 5.5 x 6.5, January 6, 1918. Letter to Alfred Becks, in full: “Sorry I have not been able to see you, thought you might have called up and ‘visited’ us. Been working all day and night on my new Vanishing Elephant mystery and think I have a world beater. Open Monday matinee. Call and see me at the Hip. Stage door man will tell you where I am. Generally am in front of Theatre.” In fine condition, with some light edge creasing. HISTORY Houdini first performed the “Vanishing Elephant mystery” on the day after he wrote this letter, January 7th, at the New York Hippodrome. Jenny, a 10,000-pound elephant, was paraded around a huge, brightly painted wooden cabinet. Houdini then announced that Jenny would vanish, walked her into the cabinet, and when the curtains opened, the elephant was gone. The trick confounded all onlookers, including other magicians who knew there was no trap door in the floor of the Hippodrome. Houdini’s friend, Charles Morritt, had first conceived of the trick as a lessimpressive ‘vanishing donkey’ mystery. When he described it to Houdini, the legendary illusionist immediately bought the rights and used it with an elephant instead. Starting Bid $200

“Secure Knots, Secures Not Houdini” 8134. Harry Houdini. Interesting and bold AQS on a beige 5 x 4.25 album page, in full: “Jan 28/1925, 3.33 PM, Hippodrome, N.Y., Secure Knots, Secures Not Houdini, The Original.” In fine condition, with light show-through from an unidentified signature on the reverse. Famed for his skill as an escape artist, this is a fantastic example of Houdini’s autograph. Starting Bid $200

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“My beefs are very simple,” writes Wayne to RKO boss Howard Hughes, “I suggest and urge that I be paid a fair amount of money for my time from now on” 8135. John Wayne. TLS

signed “Duke,” one page, 7.25 x 10.25, personal letterhead, April 29, 1954. Letter to C. J. Tevlin of RKO Studios, in full: “Enclosed you will find copy of a letter I’ve sent to Howard Hughes. The facts in that letter you have admitted to me are true. I want you to be sure to confirm this to Mr. Hughes.” A brief postscript reads: “I am awaiting word from you as to the time of the meeting.” Included is the referenced carbon copy typed letter addressed to RKO studio head Howard Hughes, unsigned, four pages, 8.5 x 11, marked in the upper right corner, “Recd by Howard Hughes, 2–4–54.” The letter, in part: “My beefs are very simple. At the other studios and for my own company, in which I have a huge stake, I seldom get involved on a picture for more than eight to ten weeks over-all. I am paid top terms for this time. At RKO, for obvious reasons, I wind up giving six months of my time—for a fraction of the compensation paid me by the other studios… Are you aware of the fact that I completed my services on ‘Flying Leathernecks’ for RKO on January 27, 1951? Under the terms of my contract, RKO was to have been ready with its next picture no later than March, 1952. No suitable material was submitted to me. Any stories I suggested were frowned upon and ignored. I still had to hold the beginning of ’52 open for an RKO picture…Because of your studio’s inertia, I have not only lost considerable sums of money by being forced to wait around, but, what is more important, I have been unable to make any dealings ahead of time for pictures on exact dates…I am speaking of outstanding quality pictures. These are the very essence and lifeblood of an actor’s existence. I could have long since had another John Ford picture, which I loved, ‘The Long Gray Line,’ in production and by now a completed entity…One after the other, I have lost important pictures at the other major studios because of the great length of time you tie me up in each picture… To sum it all up, so far this picture has cost me five months in 1952, three months in 1953, and it’s a cinch it will be four months in 1954. I say this is ridiculously unfair. I suggest and urge that I be paid a fair amount of money for my time from now on…I wish to remind you that in my 25 years in the business I have never acted in any way unreasonable that would cause me to be put on suspension by any studio, and that I have to date never been in a picture that was not momentarily successful. Every top director I have ever worked with has had complimentary things to say about my cooperation and enthusiasm on a picture. Because of these things, I say that RKO has no excuse for treating me in the manner they are now doing. Therefore, I feel I am deserving of an immediate answer as to assignment and money in my dealings with RKO.” In fine condition, with light irregular toning. Starting Bid $200

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Sports Cobb prepares a book on the fundamentals of baseball—“Actual instructions outlined from the great players of the greatest era in baseball”

8136. Ty Cobb. ALS signed “Ty,” three pages, 7.25 x 10.5,

personal letterhead, March 25, 1946. Letter to his ghost writer, Stoner McLinn, regarding a possible book on baseball fundamentals. In part: “I find most of what you had is right and good on base running. I have made some corrections, not many, have added some ideas also put in some elaborations...As to batting stress the important things to begin with, position of hands, elbows away from body, the arm towards pitcher whether right handed hitter or left, elevated, bat must not be on shoulder, but back in proper position to hit only forward. Also position of feet, use these fundamentals. Don’t try to use all I have outlined in the beginning. It would confuse and affect proper concentration. Use these fundamentals & never try to copy some favorite players stance or style. For instance just two players who got results but should never by copied, Simmons & Heine Groh as example. I like the batting thing. If you can get these old boys lined up to do their positions, to them they were little things, position of body bent over on infield, position of feet, how to pull the ball in, blocking the ball, double plays, the proper throw manner or style, all such would be very interesting & would sell syndicate, book etc.,

and how about a short Radio instruction, Eddie Collins said so & so, Sisler, Cochrane, etc. Sure get Tinker and Frank Chance and Joe Dugan. Get all the best you can then if fail get someone good, not a fill in...tell them you wanted to get the true fundamentals of their position play back when they had the real fundamentals which many do not use or have today...Good pictures, autographs and I believe the kids will go for it. Actual instructions outlined from the great players of the greatest era in baseball.” In fine condition. HISTORY One of the game’s greatest hitters, Cobb batted .320 in 1906, the first of 23 straight years in which he hit .300 or better. In that period, he led the league 12 times, including nine straight seasons, and three times he hit better than .400—a feat equaled by only two other players— Rogers Hornsby and Ed Delahanty. A fantastic letter that boasts incredible playing content on both hitting and base-running—Cobb’s foremost specialties—elevated furthermore by his mention of some of the “old boys” like Eddie Collins, George Sisler, and Joe Tinker. Starting Bid $300

June 28, 2018

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“I do feel there has been lots of garbled things not true that has been written, some down right rotten and damaging” 8137. Ty Cobb. ALS signed “Ty,” five pages, 7.25 x 10.5, personal letterhead, October 28, 1952. Letter to his ghostwriter, Stoney McLinn, in part: “I know you think me a hell of a guy I plead guilty on some counts, I should have written you long ago, but possibly the delay might help in negotiations, etc. I am truly sorry as I know what [it] means to wait and expect an answer, etc. But Stoney you know that I would let no one else other than you do a book and we will exact every recompense possible. I have read two of three communications from Putnams and haven’t answered but am today, telling them I will cooperate and that you are the one that I would do this for. I have had letters from Harcourt & Brace I believe it is also some other company also for moving pictures, I would not do this because would not be able to control subjects etc. Those jews are tough and develop some sensational angles to one’s discredit. The book am in no way anxious but will do it. I would like it right and that would have to be our aim. I do feel there has been lots of garbled things not true that has been written, some down right rotten and damaging…I would like as I said to have something done that would clear up such as coming officially from me…The following is in confidence as am not ready for it to be known, though not sure that I have written you of it. Next year before July, I hope to have everything in order to announce a Ty Cobb educational fund in Georgia to finance worthy high school graduates into higher educational institutions, university, technological and manual arts.” Cobb adds a postscript to the reverse of the last page: “Just found last letter from Putnams. Mr. Jonathan King, editorial Dept., wrote condolence relative to Ty Jr’s passing also still interested in book etc and that John Winters would be out on coast in November and would contact me still.” In fine condition. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope, addressed in Cobb’s own hand. HISTORY Considering the later disservice to Cobb’s legacy done by another of his collaborators, this is a particularly noteworthy letter. He brought on sportswriter Al Stump as a collaborator for a 1961 autobiography, and Stump went on to write prolifically on Cobb—describing him as ‘the meanest man in baseball.’ Stump’s sensational and controversial claims gave rise to an undue notoriety that has only recently begun to be recognized as largely false. This desirable letter reveals the dichotomy of Cobb’s character—while he makes an offhand anti-Semitic remark in one instance, he discusses his generous charitable contributions in another. An intriguing piece from the hand of the legendary Detroit hitter. Starting Bid $200

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From Eisenhower and the Kennedys, important civil rights letters to Jackie Robinson 8138. Jackie Robinson. Historically interesting archive of six TLSs to Jackie Robinson, two by Dwight D. Eisenhower as president and four by Robert F. Kennedy as attorney general, totaling six pages, dated from 1957 to 1962. The first Eisenhower letter, October 7, 1957, in part: “Thank you for the note you sent me following the decision I had to make regarding the difficult situation in Little Rock. I greatly appreciated knowing of your prayer-which is also constantly mine.” Eisenhower’s second letter, written on January 18, 1961, just two days before leaving the White House, in part: “Before leaving this office, I wanted to thank you for the important contribution you made to a better understanding of our country by holding a reception for African delegates to the United Nations last fall. Your recent letter suggesting that this kind of informal people-to-people contacts, particularly between Americans of African descent and United Nations delegates, has great merit, and I hope that you will continue this actively in the future.” Robert F. Kennedy’s letters all boast significant civil rights content. The first, signed “Robert F. Kennedy” and “Many thanks, RFK,” May 11, 1961, in part: “We intend to follow through with vigorous enforcement of the civil rights laws and I believe we will make progress. However, the record will speak for itself three or four years from now. You will make a judgment and so will the people of the United States, as well as those overseas. You have made a great contribution in the civil rights field and you can be of considerable assistance in seeing that we keep moving ahead.” His second letter, signed “Bob Kennedy,” June 2, 1961, in part: “It is going to be a long struggle but I am certain we will make a good deal of progress.” In a letter signed “Bob,” November 13, 1962, Kennedy writes, “There is no question in my mind that the progress which was made in the last 22 months will be sustained and accelerated in the next two years. It is good to know that we have the support of men like yourself who are making such a positive contribution to the advancement of civil rights and human liberties.” His fourth letter thanks Robinson for his efforts in supporting the Prince Edward County Free School Association, developed to provide education to black students in Virginia in the wake of public school closures following the Brown v. Board decision. Also includes secretarially signed letters by Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Richard Nixon. The two-page secretarial Kennedy letter boasts excellent Civil Rights content defending his voting record, closing: “I agree with you that Negro voters, like any other citizens, should consider what is best for Americans. Foreign policy, farm policy, national defense, labor legislation, and other crucial problems must be weighed along with the stand of a candidate upon civil rights. This is the way to make democracy work.” In overall fine condition. Accompanied by a custom-made leatherbound case. In addition to Robinson’s importance in the integration of America’s national pastime, this fabulous group of letters reveals his considerable political influence and leadership in the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. Starting Bid $1,000

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CONDITIONS OF SALE ANYONE EITHER REGISTERING TO BID OR PLACING A BID (“BIDDER”) ACCEPTS THESE CONDITIONS OF SALE AND ENTERS INTO A LEGALLY, BINDING, ENFORCEABLE AGREEMENT WITH R&R AUCTION COMPANY OF MASSACHUSETTS, LLC (“RR AUCTION,” TOGETHER WITH BIDDER, THE “PARTIES”). The following terms and conditions (“Conditions of Sale”) constitute the sole terms and conditions under which RR Auction will offer for sale and sell the property described in the catalog of items for auction (the “Catalog”). These Conditions of Sale constitute a binding agreement between the Parties with respect to the auction in which Bidder participates (the “Auction”). 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signor, as the case may be, until the lot is paid for in full by Bidder. RR Auction reserves the right to require payment in full before delivering any lot to the successful Bidder. It is the Bidder’s responsibility and obligation to have the lots fully insured while in their possession. Bidder assumes any and all RISK OF LOSS once the lot(s) is in Bidder’s possession. Bidder grants to RR Auction or its assigns the right to offset any sums due, or found to be due by RR Auction, and to make such offset from any past, subsequent or future consignment, or items acquired by Bidder in possession or control of RR Auction or from any sums due to Bidder by RR Auction. Bidder further grants RR Auction a purchase money security interest in such sums or items to the extent applicable, and agrees to execute such documents as may be reasonably necessary to grant RR Auction such security interest. 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All property must be removed from RR Auction’s premises by the Bidder at his/her expense not later than thirty (30) business days following its sale and, if it is not so removed, RR Auction may send the purchased property to a public warehouse for the account, at the risk and expense of the Bidder. Payment is due upon closing of the Auction session, or upon presentment of an invoice. RR Auction reserves the right to void an invoice if payment in full is not received within thirteen (13) calendar days of the Auction or within twelve (12) calendar days of the invoice date. In cases of nonpayment, RR Auction’s election to void a sale does not relieve the Bidder from their obligation to pay RR Auction its fees (seller’s and Buyer’s Premium) on the lot and any other damages pertaining to the lot. All sales are strictly for cash in United States dollars (including U.S. currency, bank wire, cashier checks, eChecks, and bank money orders), and are subject to all reporting requirements. All deliveries are subject to good funds; funds being received in RR Auction’s account before delivery of the Purchases; and all payments are subject to a clearing period. RR Auction reserves the right to determine if a check constitutes “good funds”: checks drawn on a U.S. bank are subject to a ten (10) calendar day hold, and ten (10) business days when drawn on an international bank. Clients with pre-arranged credit status may receive immediate credit for payments via e-Check, personal or corporate checks. In all circumstances, the Auction House prefers payment by Bank Wire transfer. In the event that a Bidder’s payment is dishonored upon presentment(s), Bidder shall pay the maximum statutory processing fee set by applicable state law. If Bidder attempts to pay via check and the financial institution denies the transfer from Bidder’s bank account, or the payment cannot be completed using the selected funding source, Bidder agrees to complete payment. 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any other property of the Bidder then held by RR Auction or its affiliates to secure payment of any Auction invoice or any other amounts due RR Auction or affiliates from the Bidder. With respect to these lien rights, RR Auction shall have all the rights of a secured creditor, including but not limited to the right of sale. In addition, with respect to payment of the Auction invoice(s), the Bidder waives any and all rights of offset he might otherwise have against RR Auction and the consignor of the merchandise included on the invoice (the “Consignor”). If a Bidder owes RR Auction or its affiliates on any account, RR Auction and its affiliates shall have the right to offset such unpaid account by any credit balance due Bidder, and it may secure by possessory lien any unpaid amount by any of the Bidder’s property in their possession. All checks, cashiers checks, bank checks, or money orders are payable to R&R Auction Company of Massachusetts, LLC. Delivery; Shipping; and Handling Charges: Bidder is liable for shipping and handling. RR Auction is unable to combine purchases from other auctions or affiliates into one package for shipping purposes. Lots won will be shipped in a commercially reasonable time after payment in good funds for the merchandise and the shipping fees is received or credit extended, except when third-party shipment occurs. Bidder agrees that service and handling charges related to shipping items which are not pre-paid may be charged to a credit card on file with RR Auction. Successful international Bidders shall provide written shipping instructions, including specified Customs declarations, to RR Auction for any lots to be delivered outside of the United States. NOTE: Declaration value shall be the item’(s) hammer price and RR Auction shall use the correct harmonized code for the lot. Domestic Bidders on lots designated for third-party shipment must designate the common carrier, accept risk of loss, and prepay shipping costs. Title: Title shall not pass to the successful Bidder until all invoices are paid in full. It is the responsibility of the Bidder to provide adequate insurance coverage for the items once they have been delivered to a common carrier or third-party shipper. Rights Reserved: RR Auction reserves the right to withdraw any lot before or at the time of the Auction, and/or to postpone the Auction of all or any lots or parts thereof, for any reason. RR Auction shall not be liable to any Bidder in the event of such withdrawal or postponement under any circumstances. RR Auction reserves the right to refuse to accept bids from anyone. Conducting the Auction: RR Auction reserves the right to postpone the Auction or any session thereof for a reasonable period of time for any reason whatsoever, and no Bidder or prospective Bidder shall have any claim as a result thereof, including consequential damages. RR Auction’s Discretion: RR Auction shall determine opening bids and bidding increments. RR Auction has the right in its absolute discretion to reject any bid in the event of dispute between Bidders or if RR Auction has doubt as to the validity of any bid, to advance the bidding at its absolute discretion and to determine the successful Bidder in the event of a dispute between Bidders, to continue the bidding or to reoffer and resell the lot in question. In the event of a dispute after the sale, RR Auction’s record of final sale shall be conclusive. RR Auction also may reject any bid if RR Auction decides either that any bid is below the reserve of the lot or article or that an advance is insufficient. Unless otherwise announced by RR Auction at the time of sale, no lots may be divided for the purpose of sale. Reserves: Lots may be subject to a reserve which is the confidential minimum price below which the lot will not be sold. Consignors may not bid on their own lots or property. RR Auction may, from time to time, bid on items that it does not own. Off-Site Bidding: Bidding by telephone, facsimile, online, or absentee bidding (advance written bids submitted by mail) are offered solely as a convenience and permitted subject to advance arrangements, availability, and RR Auction’s approval which shall be exercised at RR Auction’s sole discretion. Neither RR Auction nor its agents or employees shall be held liable for the failure to execute bids or for errors relating to any transmission or execution thereof. In order to be considered for off-site bidding in any manner, Bidders must comply with all of these Conditions of Sale and the terms contained on the Registration Form. RR Auction’s Remedies: Failure of the Bidder to comply with any of these Conditions of Sale or the terms of the Registration Form is an event of default. In such event, RR Auction may, in addition to any other available remedies specifically including the right to hold the defaulting Bidder liable for the Purchase Price or to charge and collect from the defaulting Bidder’s credit or debit accounts as provided for elsewhere herein: (a) cancel the sale, retaining any payment made by the Bidder as damages (the Bidder understands and acknowledges that RR Auction will be substantially damaged should such default occur, and that damages under sub-part (a) are necessary to compensate RR Auction for such damages); (b) resell the property without reserve at public auction or privately; (c) charge the Bidder interest on the Purchase Price at the rate of one and one-half percent (1.5%) per month or the highest allowable interest rate; (d) take any other action that RR Auction, in its sole discretion, deems necessary or appropriate to preserve and protect RR Auction’s rights and remedies. Should RR Auction resell the property, the original defaulting Bidder shall be liable for the payment of any deficiency in the purchase price and all costs and expenses associated there with, including but not limited to warehousing, sales-related expenses, reasonable attorney fees and court costs, commissions, incidental damages and any other charges due hereunder which were not collected or collectable. In the event that such Bidder is the successful Bidder on more than one lot and pays less than the purchase price for the total lots purchased, RR Auction shall apply the payment received to such lot or lots that RR Auction, in its sole discretion, deems appropriate. If RR Auction does not exercise such discretion, the lots to which the payment shall be applied will be in descending order from the highest purchase price to the lowest. Any Bidder failing to comply with these Conditions of Sale shall be deemed to have granted RR Auction a security interest in, and RR Auction may retain as collateral such security for such Bidder’s obligations to RR Auction, any property in RR Auction’s possession owned by such Bidder. RR Auction shall have the benefit of all rights of a secured party under the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.) as adopted by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Warranties: RR Auction does not provide any warranties to Bidders, whether expressed or implied, beyond those expressly provided in these Conditions of Sale. All property and lots are sold “as is” and “where is”. By way of illustration rather than limitation, neither RR Auction nor the Consignor makes any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to merchantability or fitness for intended use, condition of the property (including any condition report), correctness of description, origin, measurement, quality, rarity, importance, exhibition, relevance, attribution, source, provenance, date, authorship, condition, culture, genuineness, value, or period of the property. Addi-

tionally, neither RR Auction nor the Consignor makes any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to whether the Bidder acquires rights in copyright or other intellectual property (including exhibition or reproduction rights) or whether the property is subject to any limitations or other rights. RR Auction does not make any representation or warranty as to title. All descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and terminology including but not limited to words describing condition (including any condition reports requested by Bidder, see also Terminology), authorship, period, culture, source, origin, measurement, quality, rarity, provenance, importance, exhibition, and relevance, used in the Catalog, bill of sale, invoice, or anywhere else, represent a good faith effort made by RR Auction to fairly represent the lots and property offered for sale as to origin, date, condition, and other information contained therein; they are statements of opinion only. They are not representations or warranties and Bidder agrees and acknowledges that he or she shall not rely on them in determining whether or not to bid or for what price. Price estimates (which are determined well in advance of the Auction and are therefore subject to revision) and condition reports are provided solely as a convenience to Bidders and are not intended nor shall they be relied on by Bidders as statements, representations or warranties of actual value or predictions of final bid prices. Bidders are accorded the opportunity to inspect the lots and to otherwise satisfy themselves as to the nature and sufficiency of each lot prior to bidding, and RR Auction urges Bidders to avail themselves accordingly. All lots sold by RR Auction are accompanied by an Auction Certificate (“AC”). On any lot presented with an AC issued by RR Auction, the certification is only as to its attribution to the person or entity described or to the lot’s usage and only as explicitly stated therein (the “Certification of Authenticity”), to the exclusion of any other warranties, express or implied, including but not limited to those pursuant to the Uniform Commercial Code. The Certification of Authenticity inures only to the original Bidder (as shown in RR Auction’s records). Bidder may not transfer, assign, or otherwise convey the Certification of Authenticity, and such purported transfer, assignment, or conveyance shall be null and void. The Certification of Authenticity is valid from date of the Auction in which Bidder was awarded the lot (the “Auction Date”) until five (5) years after the Auction Date, without exception. FIREARMS. RR Auction complies with all Federal and State rules and regulations relating to the purchasing, registration and shipping of firearms. A Bidder is required to provide appropriate documents and the payment of associated fees, if any. Bidder is responsible for providing a shipping address that is suitable for the receipt of a firearm. Limitation of Damages: In the event that RR Auction is prevented for any reason from delivering any property to Bidder, or Bidder is otherwise dissatisfied with the performance of RR Auction, the liability, if any, of RR Auction, shall be limited to, and shall not exceed, the amount actually paid for the property by Bidder. In no event shall RR Auction be liable for incidental, special, indirect, exemplary or consequential damages of any kind, including but not limited to loss of profits, value of investment or opportunity cost. Unauthorized Statements: Under no circumstances is any employee, agent or representative of RR Auction authorized by RR Auction to modify, amend, waive or contradict any of these Conditions of Sale, any term or condition set forth on a registration form, any warranty or limitation or exclusion of warranty, any term or condition in either the Registration Form or these Terms and Conditions regarding payment requirements, including but not limited to due date, manner of payment, and what constitutes payment in full, or any other term or condition contained in any documents issued by RR Auction unless such modification, amendment, waiver or contradiction is contained in a writing signed by all parties. Any statements, oral or written, made by employees, agents or representatives of RR Auction to Bidder, including statements regarding specific lots, even if such employee, agent or representative represents that such statement is authorized, unless reduced to a writing signed by all parties, are statements of personal opinion only and are not binding on RR Auction, and under no circumstances shall be relied upon by Bidder as a statement, representation or warranty of RR Auction. Bidder’s Remedies: Under no circumstance will RR Auction incur liability to a Bidder in excess of the purchase price actually paid. This section sets forth the sole and exclusive remedies of Bidder in conformity with the Warranties and Limitation of Damages provisions of these Conditions of Sale, and is expressly in lieu of any other rights or remedies which might be available to Bidder by law. The Bidder hereby accepts the benefit of the Consignor’s warranty of title and any other representations and warranties made by the Consignor for the Bidder’s benefit. In the event that Bidder demonstrates in writing, in the sole discretion of RR Auction, that there was a breach of the Consignor’s warranty of title concerning a lot purchased by Bidder, RR Auction shall make demand upon the Consignor to pay to Bidder the Purchase Price (including any premiums, taxes, or other amounts paid or due to RR Auction). Should the Consignor not pay the Purchase Price to Bidder within thirty days after such demand, RR Auction shall disclose the identity of the Consignor to Bidder and assign to Bidder all of RR Auction’s rights against the Consignor with respect to such lot or property. Upon such disclosure and assignment, all responsibility and liability, if any, of RR Auction with respect to said lot or property shall automatically terminate. RR Auction shall be entitled to retain the premiums and other amounts paid to RR Auction - this remedy is as to the Consignor only. The rights and remedies provided herein are for the original Bidder only and they may not be assigned or relied upon by any transferee or assignee under any circumstances. If Bidder wishes to challenge the AC within the period of the Certification of Authenticity, Bidder must present written evidence that the lot is not authentic as determined by a known expert in the field. If RR Auction agrees that the lot is not as represented, Bidder’s sole and exclusive remedy shall be a refund of their purchase price, with no other costs, liabilities or amounts recoverable. If RR Auction does not agree with the claim by Bidder, then the Parties shall follow the dispute resolution procedures of these Conditions of Sale. Any such challenge concerning an AC or Certification of Authenticity must, without any exception, be brought within one (1) year of Bidder’s notice to RR Auction of Bidder’s contention that the lot was not authentic, or six (6) years from the Auction Date, whichever is sooner. If the description of any lot in the Catalog is materially incorrect (e.g., gross cataloging error), the lot is returnable if returned within five (5) calendar days of receipt, and received by RR Auction no later than twenty-one (21) calendar days after the Auction Date. If there is any discrepancy between the description in the Catalog and the AC, then the description in the AC shall control. This paragraph shall constitute Bidder’s sole right with respect to the return of items, and no refunds shall be given


for any items not returned to and received by RR Auction. NO RETURN OR REFUND OF ANY AUCTION LOT WILL BE CONSIDERED EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN THESE CONDITIONS OF SALE. RR Auction’s Additional Services: For Bidders who do not remove purchased property from RR Auction’s premises, RR Auction, in its sole discretion and solely as a service and accommodation to Bidders, may arrange to have purchased lots packed, insured and forwarded at the sole request, expense, and risk of Bidder. RR Auction assumes no and disclaims all responsibility and liability for acts or omissions in such packing or shipping by RR Auction or other packers and carriers, whether or not recommended by RR Auction. RR Auction assumes no and disclaims all responsibility and liability for damage to frames, glass or other breakable items. Where RR Auction arranges and bills for such services via invoice, RR Auction will include an administration charge. Headings: Headings are for convenience only and shall not be used to interpret the substantive sections to which they refer. Entire Agreement: These Conditions of Sale constitute the entire agreement between the parties together with the terms and conditions contained in the Registration Form. They may not be amended, modified or superseded except in a signed writing executed by all parties. No oral or written statement by anyone employed by RR Auction or acting as agent or representative of RR Auction may amend, modify, waive or supersede the terms herein unless such amendment, waiver or modification is contained in a writing signed by all parties. If any section of these Conditions of Sale or any term or provision of any section is held to be invalid, void, or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction, the remaining sections or terms and provisions of a section shall continue in full force and effect without being impaired or invalidated in any way. Governing Law and Enforcement The Parties agree that any agreements between the Parties including but not limited to these Conditions of Sale are entered into in Boston, Massachusetts, no matter where Bidder is situated and no matter by what means or where Bidder was informed of the Auction and regardless of whether catalogs, materials, or other communications were received by Bidder in another location. The Parties agree that these Conditions of Sale, and any other related agreement(s) are governed by the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, without regard for its conflict of laws principles. The Parties agree that any dispute related to or arising out of these Conditions of Sale, or related to or arising out of any other related agreement(s) shall be submitted to confidential binding arbitration (the “Arbitration”) before a single Arbitrator of the American Arbitration Association (the “AAA”). The Parties agree that the Arbitration shall be conducted pursuant to the commercial rules of the AAA. In the event that the Parties cannot agree on the selection of the Arbitrator, then the Arbitrator shall be selected by the AAA. The prevailing Party in the Arbitration shall be entitled to recover all of its related costs, whether before or after the formal institution of the Arbitration, including but not limited to its reasonable attorneys’ fees and, if RR Auction prevails, the Buyer’s Premium as defined in these Conditions of Sale. The Parties agree that Bidder shall have no right to recover consequential or indirect damages, or lost profits damages. The Parties consent to the enforcement of the decision in the Arbitration pursuant to the Federal Arbitration Act in either the courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Except as provided in Bidder’s Remedies with regard to the Certification of Authenticity, any dispute, claim, cause of action related to or arising out of these Conditions of Sale or any other agreement(s) between the Parties must be brought within one (1) year of the acts, omissions or circumstances giving rise to the alleged claim, without exceptions. This provision is intended as a full, complete and absolute release of any claims after one (1) year of such acts, omissions or circumstances. The Parties agree further that these waiver provisions are intended to be binding on all parties in the event of any dispute, specifically including but not limited to third party claims and cross-actions brought by either RR Auction or Bidder. These provisions are consideration for the execution of these Conditions of Sale. The Bidder hereby agrees that RR Auction shall be entitled to present these Conditions of Sale to a court in any jurisdiction other than set forth in this paragraph as conclusive evidence of the Parties’ agreement, and the Parties further agree that the court shall immediately dismiss any action filed in such jurisdiction. Notwithstanding the foregoing, RR Auction may, in its sole discretion, enforce its rights pursuant to these Conditions of Sale in the courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts rather than in an Arbitration related to or arising out of any Auction of an item sold for less than $10,000. This right shall relate to the individual item price, such that RR Auction may, in its sole discretion, enforce its rights pursuant to these Conditions of Sale in the courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts rather than in an Arbitration for items that in the aggregate exceed $10,000. The prevailing Party in such a proceeding shall be entitled to recover all of its related costs, whether before or after the formal institution of the proceeding, including but not limited to its reasonable attorneys’ fees and, if RR Auction prevails, the Buyer’s Premium as defined in these Conditions of Sale. This right of enforcement is unique to RR Auction, and these Conditions of Sale are a waiver by the Bidder of any right to enforcement or adjudication outside of an Arbitration. CONDUCT OF AUCTION Estimate Prices: In addition to descriptive information, each item in the Catalog sometimes includes a price range which reflects opinion as to the price expected at auction (the “Estimate Prices”). In other instances, Estimate Prices can be obtained by calling RR Auction at (603) 732-4280. The Estimate Prices are based upon various factors including prices recently paid at auction for comparable property, condition, rarity, quality, history and provenance. Estimate Prices are prepared well in advance of the sale and subject to revision. Estimates do not include the Buyer’s Premium or sales tax (see under separate heading). Owned or Guaranteed Property: RR Auction generally offers property consigned by others for sale at public auction; in very limited occasion, lots are offered that are the property of RR Auction. Before the Auction: Bidder may attend pre-sale viewing for all of RR Auction’s auctions at no charge. All property to be auctioned is usually on view for several days prior to the sale. Bidder is encouraged to examine lots thoroughly. Bidder may also request condition reports (see below). RR Auction’s staff are available at viewings and by appointment.

Maximum Bids – All Auctions: To maximize Bidder’s chance of winning, RR Auction strongly encourages the use of maximum bids. RR Auction will then bid for Bidder until the lot reaches Bidder’s specified maximum. Maximum bids are strictly confidential. Placing arbitrary, non-incremental bids on lots with prior maximum bids may result in these lots being sold for less than 10% above the under Bidder’s bid. Successful Bids: The fall of RR Auction’s hammer indicates the final bid. RR Auction will record the paddle number of the Bidder. If Bidder’s salesroom or absentee bid is successful, Bidder will be notified after the sale by mailed or emailed invoice. Unsold Lots: If a lot does not reach the reserve, it is bought-in. In other words, it remains unsold and is returned to the Consignor. RR Auction has the right to sell certain unsold items after the close of the Auction. Such lots shall be considered sold during the Auction and all these Terms and Conditions shall apply to such sales including but not limited to the Buyer’s Premium, return rights, and disclaimers. Bidding—Timed Auction: Bidder may open, monitor, and/or raise bids at any time before the close of a lot through www. rrauction.com. RR Auction offers a callback service the day of the Auction, but Bidder is responsible for supplying a correct telephone number(s) where Bidder can be reached until the Auction closes. Bidder must request this service in writing. RR Auction will make reasonable efforts to ensure that Bidders who request a callback are contacted if outbid; however, RR Auction does not guarantee this service and it is merely a courtesy and not an enforceable right. The auctioneer may also execute a bid on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve, either by entering a bid in response to salesroom, telephone or absentee bids. Under no circumstances will the auctioneer place any bid on behalf of the consignor above the reserve. The auctioneer will not specifically identify bids placed on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve. To ensure proper registration, those Bidders intending to bid via the Internet must visit www. RRauction.com and register accordingly at least one full day prior to the actual auction. Winning bidders will be notified by RR Auction. RR Auction is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids. Any Bidder may bid on any lot prior to 6 pm EST/EDT. At that time, an extended bidding period goes into effect. If Bidder has not bid on a lot before 6 pm EST/EDT, Bidder may not bid on that lot after 6 pm EST/EDT. Only those Bidders who have placed bids on a lot before 6 pm EST/EDT will be allowed to bid on that lot after 6 pm EST/EDT. If Bidder is the only Bidder on a lot at 6 pm EST/EDT, that lot is awarded to Bidder. During the extended bidding period, a lot will remain open only to those who bid on that lot prior to 6 pm EST/EDT. All lots WITHOUT an opening bid at 6 pm EST/EDT will remain OPEN to ALL Bidders until 7 pm EST/EDT or until they receive their first bid. These lots will close immediately upon receipt of a bid or at 7 pm EST/EDT, whichever comes first. For all lots that are active after 7 pm EST/EDT, bidding will remain open until 30 minutes pass without a bid being placed on THAT lot (the “30 Minute Rule”). The 30 Minute Rule is applied on a PER LOT BASIS; each lot in the Auction closes individually based on bidding activity after 7 pm EST/EDT. On a PER LOT BASIS, the 30 minute timer will reset each time a bid is placed after 7 pm EST/EDT. If Bidder is the high Bidder, raising Bidder’s maximum bid will NOT reset the timer. RR Auction reserves the right to close the Auction at any time at its sole discretion. Bidding - Internet – Live Auction: Bidder may open, monitor, and/or raise bids at any time before the close of a lot through www. rrauction.com. RR Auction offers a callback service the day of the Auction, but Bidder is responsible for supplying a correct telephone number(s) where Bidder can be reached until the Auction closes. Bidder must request this service in writing. RR Auction will make reasonable efforts to ensure that Bidders who request a callback are contacted if outbid; however, RR Auction does not guarantee this service and it is merely a courtesy and not an enforceable right. To ensure proper registration, those Bidders intending to bid via the Internet must visit www. RRauction.com and register accordingly at least one full day prior to the actual auction. Winning bidders will be notified by RR Auction. RR Auction is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids. Property is auctioned in consecutive numerical order, as it appears in the catalog. The auctioneer will accept bids from those present in the salesroom or absentee bidders participating by telephone, internet or by written bid left with RR Auction in advance of the auction. The auctioneer may also execute a bid on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve, either by entering a bid in response to salesroom, telephone or absentee bids. Under no circumstances will the auctioneer place any bid on behalf of the consignor above the reserve. The auctioneer will not specifically identify bids placed on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve. During live Auctions, internet bids can be placed in real time through one or more of the following Third Party services: www.liveauctioneers.com, www.invaluable.com and www.icollector.com. RR Auction is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids. RR Auction treats any third-party site bids as floor or telephone bids. Floor bids and telephone bids are always considered first over third party sites bids, and floor bids are considered earlier than telephone bids. All RR Auction lots purchased through the third party sites carry an additional Buyer’s Premium. Miscellaneous: Agreements between Bidders and Consignors to effectuate a non-sale of an item at Auction, inhibit bidding on a consigned item to enter into a private sale agreement for said item, or to utilize RR Auction’s Auction to obtain sales for non-selling consigned items subsequent to the Auction, are strictly prohibited. If a subsequent sale of a previously consigned item occurs in violation of this provision, RR Auction reserves the right to charge Bidder the applicable Buyer’s Premium and Consignor a Seller’s Commission as determined for each auction venue and by the terms of the seller’s agreement. Acceptance of these Terms and Conditions qualifies Bidder as a client who has consented to be contacted by RR Auction in the future. In conformity with “do-not-call” regulations promulgated by the Federal or State regulatory agencies, participation by the Bidder is affirmative consent to being contacted at the phone number shown in his application and this consent shall remain in effect until it is revoked in writing. RR Auction may from time to time contact Bidder concerning sale, purchase, and auction opportunities available. Rules of Construction: RR Auction presents properties in a number of collectible fields, and as such, specific venues have promulgated supplemental Terms and Conditions. Nothing herein shall be construed to waive the general Conditions of Sale by these additional rules and shall be construed to give force and effect to the rules in their entirety.


Your collection is invited INTERESTED IN YOUR OWN FEATURE CATALOG? RR Auction has helped many individuals and families share cherished collections built over the course of a lifetime. We honor the collector’s passion by offering these items to others who consider them just as significant.

Thank you and your team for putting together such a great auction…As I continue my evolution in wisdom of life, I am happy to realize that it is who I am—not what I have—that defines me.”

WANT TO LEARN MORE? Contact us today to see about your own specialty auction or featured section.

Tom Gregory sold his collection with RR in 2016

Tom Gregory

Sell@RRAuction.com

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(800) 937-3880

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www.RRAuction.com


WE ARE CURRENTLY SEEKING CONSIGNMENTS FOR MANY OF OUR EXCITING SALES

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T. 1976 ES

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ANIMATION WORLD WAR II ROYALTY RARITIES

www.RRAuction.com

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(603) 732-4280

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Boston, Massachusetts

RR Auction: The Significant Letter Collection of Victor Niederhoffer  

Victor Niederhoffer is more than a hedge fund manager, champion squash player, bestselling author and statistician. He is also a world-class...

RR Auction: The Significant Letter Collection of Victor Niederhoffer  

Victor Niederhoffer is more than a hedge fund manager, champion squash player, bestselling author and statistician. He is also a world-class...