LIVE AUCTION IN BOSTON, MA ON APRIL 26, 2017
JOHN F. KENNEDY
Diary from the Summer 1945
It reveals a man who, not yet thirty, understood not only that a new world drama was taking shape, but that he was destined to play a great role in it
HUGH SIDEY, TIME MAGAZINE COLUMNIST
SPECIAL THANKS TO The John F. Kennedy Library The Princeton University Library Dwight D. Eisenhower Library Globe Photos, Inc., Andreas Weimer Ronnie Paloger Collection
The diary owner and historian, Deirdre Henderson, co-wrote and edited this catalog
Prelude to Leadership: The Post-War Diary
JFK SUMMER OF 1945 LIVE AUCTION WILL BE HELD IN BOSTON, MA WEDNESDAY, APRIL 26, 2017
t is rare that a manuscript of such importance comes to the attention of the auction world. Discovered in a call from its long-time owner, Kennedy’s research assistant Deirdre Henderson, it is of great significance as the only diary JFK ever wrote. We here at RR Auction have become one of the preeminent auction houses for Kennedy documents and are proud to bring this little-known diary to the attention of our collectors in the United States and throughout the world. After the end of the war in 1945, Ambassador Kennedy arranged for his son to work for the Hearst newspapers. This allowed the young veteran to attend the opening session of the United Nations in San Francisco in May and then travel abroad to cover post-war Europe. JFK followed Prime Minister Churchill throughout England during his reelection campaign. He traveled to Ireland, then to the Potsdam Conference in Germany with Navy Secretary James Forrestal. This diary is not a travel log. It is his personal observations of what he saw and perceptions of what would happen in the post-war world. Our name, RR Auction, stands for “Rare” and “Remarkable.” The 1945 diary of John F. Kennedy is rare because there is nothing comparable. Remarkable for the hidden story shown, his insightful views and predictions of the world around him at an early age—sixteen years later America’s 35th President.
JFKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 61-page diary closed above; opened to first handwritten page, reflecting on WWII, below and at right
“ This war has been won
THURSDAY, MARCH 1, 1945
Recently released from active duty, Kennedy
REFLECTS ON WAR KENNEDY WRITES IN HIS DIARY
“‘Salana de Wolfgang once wrote: War is fatal to a democracy if beaten et(c).’ This war has been won—we cannot lose our liberty at the hands of the enemy. But it is still a question whether we shall have it in our own hands. We have been gravely weakened by this war—our values have been changed as never before we have suffered the loss of nearly 8 hundred thousand young men—many of whom might be the leadership that we will so desperately want. To meet the challenges of the post war years we must show far greater concern for the new years of our country than we have ever shown in the past.”
n a letter written to a ‘PT-boat friend’ from the United Nations Conference in San Francisco in June of 1945, John F. Kennedy shows the same abhorrence of war as he did in the first handwritten page of his 1945 diary.
He says: “When I think of how much this war has cost us, of the deaths of Cy and Peter and Orv and Gil and Demi and Joe and Billy and all those those thousands and millions who have died with them—when I think of those gallant acts that I have seen or anyone who has been to war—it would be a very easy thing for me to feel disappointed and somewhat betrayed... You have seen battlefields where sacrifice was the order of the day, and to compare that sacrifice to the timidity and selfishness of the nations gathered at San Francisco must inevitably be disillusioning.”
26/Jun/1945. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Yould.
San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Otto.
San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rosenberg.
San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rosenberg.
26/Jun/1945. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rommel.
San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rosenberg.
TUESDAY, JULY 10, 1945
The San Francisco Conference
THE CREATION OF THE
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT THE BIG THREE
“The Conference at San Francisco suffered from inadequate preparation and lack of fundamental agreement among the Big Three; from an unfortunate Press which praised it beyond all limit at its commencement which paved the way for subsequent disillusionment both in England and in this country. The finished Charter is a product of these weaknesses—but it is also the product of the hope, and even more, the realization that humanity can ill afford another war. In practice I doubt that it will prove effective in the sense of its elaborate mechanics being frequently employed or vitally decisive in determining war or peace. It is, however, a bridge between Russia and the Western world and makes possible discussions and a personal relationship which can do much to ease mutual suspicion.”
ennedy’s initial assignment as a Hearst reporter was covering the first meeting of the United Nations in San Francisco “from the point of view of an ordinary GI.” He arrived on the opening day of the conference, April 25. This endeavor was arranged by his father, Joseph P. Kennedy, through his connections with the Hearst newspapers. Lt. Kennedy had been released from active duty on March 1, 1945, after three and a half years in the Navy. His health problems with his back forced him to take an early retirement.
Three-page July 10th entry documenting the San Francisco Conference
The young reporter was not sanguine about the future of the UN or its ability to enforce the peace. In one of the stories he filed from San Francisco, May 7, he wrote: “The world organization that will come out of San Francisco will be the product of the same passion of selfishness that produced the Treaty of Versailles. There is here, however, one ray of shining bright light. That is the realization, felt by all the delegates, that humanity cannot afford another war.”
JFK CONTINUES WITH HIS OPINIONS ON “THE CLASH WITH RUSSIA”
“As to the future, I do not agree with those people who advocate war now with the Russians on the argument ‘Eventually, why not now?’ Fortunately, or unfortunately, depending on how you view it, democracies have to go through a gradual disillusionment in their hopes of peace: war must be shown to be the only alternative to preserve their independence—or at least they must believe this to be true. I think that the clash with Russia, will be greatly postponed. It will come perhaps, as its avoidance depends chiefly on the extent of Russia’s self-restraint, and that is a quality of which powerful nations have a limited quantity. The clash may be finally and indefinitely postponed by the eventual discovery of a weapon so horrible that it will truthfully mean the abolishment of all the nations employing it. Thus science, which has contributed so much to the horrors of war, will still be the means of bringing it to an end.”
At the conference Kennedy came in contact with current and future leaders, including Anthony Eden, future Prime Minister of Great Britain, Chip Bohlen of the State Department, Averell Harriman, U.S. Ambassador to Moscow, and Adlai Stevenson, special assistant to the Secretary of State. JFK filed 17 stories between April 28 and May 28. The overall theme of his stories was that the UN would prove unproductive and Russia unsettlingly threatening. He was right on both counts.
Image of an article written by John F. Kennedy courtesy of the JFK library
THURSDAY, JUNE 21, 1945
The British Election CHURCHILL, ROOSEVELT,
Churchill, FDR, and Stalin at Yalta. Image courtsey of Globe Photos, Inc.
rom the historic UN summit in San Francisco, Jack travelled overseas to cover the British Election. Over the course of a month, JFK followed his boyhood hero, Winston Churchill, on the stump witnessing firsthand his oratory and campaigning style, which would invariably influence his own. Kennedyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s June 21 diary entry signaled a deep, insightful understanding of the move to the left, a contrarian view at the time.
Jack’s comments on capitalism and FDR here are quite eyebrow-raising. JFK and FDR, considered perhaps the two most influential Democratic Presidents of all time, render Kennedy’s harsh criticism here notable. The underlying sentiment likely originated from his father, Joe, who had well-documented struggles with Roosevelt as his ousted English Ambassador. Beginning here, and throughout the diary, Kennedy shares a somewhat surprising view of the “left” given his enduring legacy as America’s shiny beacon of liberalism.
IN HIS DIARY JFK WRITES ABOUT THE ELECTION AND FDR
“Tonight it looks like Labor and a good thing it will be for the cause of free enterprise...D— maintains that free enterprise is the losing cause. Capitalism is on the way out—although many Englishmen feel that this is not applicable to England...when times go bad, as they must inevitably will be then that controls will be clamped on—and then the only question will be the extent to which they are tightened. Socialism is inefficient; I will never believe differently, but you can feed people in a socialistic state, and that may be what will insure its eventual success. Mr. Roosevelt has contributed greatly to the end of capitalism in our own country, not through the laws which he sponsored or were passed during his Presidency, but rather through the emphasis he put on rights rather than responsibilities.”
Kennedy filed a column for the Hearst Newspapers: “Britishers will go to the polls on July 5th in the first general election in almost ten years and there is a definite possibility that Prime Minister Winston Churchill and his Conservative Party may be defeated.” In a surprising upset, and just as Kennedy had predicted, Churchill lost re-election. The harsh realities of a war ravaged people, wary of conservative belt tightening, believed a new house was in order.
Two-page June 30th entry covering legends Eisenhower and Churchill
Eisenhower and deGaulle in June, 1945 Image courtesy of Globe Photos, Inc.
Ike greeting JFK on the steps of the White House in December 1960 Image courtsey of Dwight D. Eisenhower Library
SATURDAY, JUNE 30, 1945
Young Jack had a great admiration for
GENERAL EISENHOWER IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT THE GENERAL
“General Eisenhower has taken a great hold on the hearts of all the British people...At the fall of Tunis in Africa back in 1943, a parade was held of all the forces that had brought the African campaign to a successful conclusion. As the crack Eighth Army filed past, the Desert Rats, the Highland Division, the South Africans—all experienced and excellent troops— Eisenhower, as the supreme Commanding Officer, took the salute. He was heard to say after the Eighth had marched past, ‘To think that I, a boy from Abilene, Kansas, am the Commander of troops like those!’ He never lost that humble way and therefore easily won the hearts of those with whom he worked.”
n the 1960 election, candidate Kennedy criticized President Eisenhower’s national security policy. However, here in his early personal diary, young Jack had great admiration for the general and president-to-be. As Ike’s successor, Kennedy had the responsibility for carrying out the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. Later he grew to respect Eisenhower’s opinion and consulted him during challenging times in his presidency.
SATURDAY, JUNE 30, 1945
President Kennedy’s icon
CHURCHILL IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT CHURCHILL
“Churchill in his book ‘World Crisis’ brings out the same point—the terrific slaughter of the field officers of the British Army—two or three times higher than the Germans. They were always on the defensive in the dark days of ‘15, ‘16, and ‘17, and they paid most heavily. The British lost one million of a population of forty million; the French, one million five hundred thousand of a population of thirty-eight million; and the Germans, one million five hundred thousand of a population of seventy million. This tremendous slaughter had its effect on British policy in the 30’s when Chamberlain and Baldwin could not bring themselves to subject the young men of Britain to the same horrible slaughter again.”
ir Winston Churchill was President Kennedy’s icon. As a young boy he read his books; he was seen in his hospital bed reading ‘The Crisis’ and Churchill’s biography of ‘Marlborough.’ JFK’s college thesis at Harvard and later Pulitzer prize-winning book, ‘Why England Slept’ was based on the wide range of history books he had read and his research on a man he saw as a world leader.
One of President Kennedy’s best days was on April 9, 1963 when he “signed the Congressional Bill granting honorary United States citizenship to Winston Churchill in recognition of his great contribution to saving both the Allied Powers and civilization at large.”* On the steps of the Rose Garden with Sir Winston’s son, Randolph, and his grandson, the President paid tribute to the aging Prime Minister, who was unable to make the journey. He watched with Clementine from his apartment in London.
One-time American Ambassador to England, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., and Prime Minister Winston Churchill in front of Downing Street in London
The President paid tribute to his idol in the following words: “In the dark days and darker nights when Britain stood alone—and most men save Englishmen despaired of England’s life—he mobilized the English language and sent it into battle. The incandescent quality of his words illuminated the courage of his countrymen.” As author Thomas Maier says, “Both men had spent their lives underlining the importance of courage in life. And President Kennedy made clear his words of praise for Churchill during the Rose Garden ceremony, “when-ever and wherever tyranny threatened, he always championed liberty. His life has shown that no adversary can overcome, and no fear deter free men in the defense of their freedom.” It was one of the finest moments in the waning days of both men’s lives.”*
On the steps of the Rose Garden in April 1963, JFK grants Churchill honorary US citizenship; too frail to travel, his son Randolph (at Kennedy’s left), accepts in his stead. Courtesy of the John F. Kennedy Library
*Thomas Maier, author of “When Lions Roar: The Churchills and the Kennedys, (Crown 2014)
SUNDAY, JULY 1, 1945
FK made contact with Douglas-Home through his sister Kathleen, she being a great favorite of English aristocracy. The significance of this powerfully worded diary entry is the idea that Kennedy picked up from his host on the growing Russian threat in Europe. The phrase, “we made it possible for Russia to obtain that very dominance that we fought Germany to prevent her having,” is particularly thought provoking. He went on to say, “only time can tell.” Sixteen years later, Kennedy would face that very same Russian threat in the White House as he tackled the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
IN HIS DIARY JFK WRITES ABOUT HIS DINNER WITH A FORMER CAPTAIN OF THE BRITISH ARMY, WILLIAM DOUGLAS-HOME
“I had dinner with William Douglas-Home, a former Captain in the British army...He feels that by insisting on the doctrine of ‘Unconditional Surrender’ instead of allowing Germany and Russia both to remain of equal strength, we made it possible for Russia to obtain that very dominance that we fought Germany to prevent her having. He feels that we had great opportunity for a balance of power policy. For my own part, I think that only time can tell whether he was right, but I doubt that William Home will ever meet much success because people distrust those who go against convention. And furthermore, prowess in war is still deeply respected. The day of the conscientious objector is not yet at hand.”
JFK studying at Harvard. Courtesy of the John F. Kennedy Library
JULY 2, 1945 & JULY 3, 1945
Danger of the Left for the “common good”
LASKI AND RADICALS IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ON JULY 2, 1945
“The great danger in movements to the Left is that the protagonists of the movement are so wrapped up with the end that the means becomes secondary and things like opposition have to be dispensed with as they obstruct the common good. When one sees the iron hand with which the Trade Unions are governed, the whips cracked, the obligatory fee of the Trade Union’s Political representatives in Parliament, you wonder about the liberalism of the Left. They must be most careful. To maintain Dictatorships of the Left or Right are equally abhorrent no matter what their doctrine or how great their efficiency.”
ollowing his Choate graduation in 1935, Joe Sr. insisted Jack spend time at the London School of Economics studying under Harold Laski, as his elder brother Joe Jr. had. Due to a mixture of boredom and an impending health scare, he was swiftly sent home from London. However, a decade later, Kennedy would encounter Laski again during the summer of 1945, when he observed just how radically Marxist the formerly distinguished professor had become.
July 2 entry above on â&#x20AC;&#x153;dangers of the leftâ&#x20AC;?; July 3 entry on Laski below
Kennedy’s insights on the “radicals of the Left” prompt consideration of where these viewpoints originated. Jack’s Harvard education was crucial to his intellectual development and his professor Bruce Hopper, author of ‘Pan-Sovietism,’ had particular influence on the future President. In his book, Professor Hopper described the background of Bolshevism and speculated on future Russian-United States relations.
IN HIS DIARY ON JULY 3, 1945, JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT LASKI & RADICALS OF THE LEFT
“I attended a political rally this evening at which Professor Harold Laski, Chairman of the Executive Council of the Labor Party and erstwhile Professor at the London School of Economics, spoke... Odd this strain that runs through these radicals of the Left. It is that spirit which builds dictatorships as has been shown in Russia. I wonder whether dictatorship of the Left could ever get control in England, a country with such great democratic tradition. These Leftists are filled with bitterness, and I am not sure how deeply the tradition of tolerance in England is ingrained in these bitter and discontented spirits. I think that unquestionably, from my talk with Laski, that he and others like him smart not so much from the economic inequality but from the social.”
JFK’s astute comments here, especially, “The great danger in movements to the Left is that the protagonists of the movement are so wrapped up with the end that the means becomes secondary,” are surprising to hear from a Democrat. It seems Jack was not as mainstream as many historians paint him. Indeed, as a legislator and President, Kennedy showed restraint on social issues and was fiscally conservative. The contents of this manuscript—the only private diary of America’s 35th President—fuel a reevaluation of our previously held beliefs.
Professor Harold Laski
JULY 24, 1945 & JULY 25, 1945
Kennedy leaves England and travels to
Joe Jr., Joe Sr., and Jack Kennedy traveling to Europe in July, 1938. Courtesy of John F. Kennedy Library
FKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s visit to Ireland shows his great interest in the country of his heritage; his knowledge of Irish political and economic history was extensive. Kennedyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s father arranged for him to meet with Prime Minister de Valera. He had first traveled to Ireland with his brother Joe and his father in 1938; he again visited in 1947, 1955 and finally made a triumphant, sentimental tour of Ireland as President in June, 1963 which showed his deep affinity for those, including his relatives, who had grown up with less than he. As a Congressman, Senator, and President, John F. Kennedy was careful not to take sides, but he remained true to supporting the Irish in any way possible in their struggle for freedom from British oppression. JFK knew that the Irish plight was not the most pressing issue on the world scene in 1945, but he recognized it was important to his political future.
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT PRIME MINISTER DE VALERA
“I left England yesterday to come to Ireland... I stayed with Mr. David Gray, the American Minister to Ireland. Mr. Gray’s opinion of DeValera was that he was sincere, incorruptible, also a paranoiac and a lunatic. His premise is that the partition of Ireland is indefensible and once the thesis is accepted all else in its policy is consistent. He believed Germany was going to win. He kept strict neutrality even towards the simplest United States demand.
Prime Minister de Valera
DeValera has a unique political machine. Only one member of his caucus ever voted against him. He has a way of bringing the national issue into every question. He joined neutrality in this war with the independence of Ireland. Either you were for neutrality and against partition or if you were against neutrality you were for partition. As a Parliament and political boss he is unique. Gray states that DeValera expected America and England to follow out again at the end of this war as they did at the end of the last war. If this had happened, he would have been proved right. He did not figure on Russia, which is now holding these two countries together.”
President Kennedy’s 1963 motorcade in Cork, Ireland
Portion of lengthy six-page Ireland diary entries dated July 24 and 25
FRIDAY, JULY 27, 1945
Kennedy’s impression of the
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT THE SURPRISE
“The overwhelming victory of the Left was a surprise to everyone. It is important in assaying this election to decide how much of the victory was due to a ‘time for a change’ vote which would have voted against any government in power, whether Right or Left, and how much was due to real Socialistic strength.”
he British went to the polls on July 5, 1945, promptly issuing Churchill his marching orders, and instead choosing the Attlee-led Socialist Labor Party in a landslide. Kennedy’s smart deduction that English conservatism was on its way out, to be replaced by the left was accurate. The election results came as a terrific surprise to everyone, except Kennedy. Churchill himself was unaware of his loss until late July.
JFK had an uncanny understanding of people, politics, and the way the world worked. He saw something coming that most experts of the time overlooked. The idea of the English people voting out Churchill, the stoic Prime Minister who had led them through the darkness of World War II, seemed unthinkable.
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY CONTINUES WITH HIS OPINIONS
“My own opinion is that it was about 40 per cent due to dissatisfaction with conditions over which the government had no great control but from which they must bear responsibility— 20 per cent due to a belief in Socialism as the only solution to the multifarious problems England must face—and the remaining 40 per cent due to a class feeling—i.e.; that it was time ‘the working man’ had a chance. For too long a time now England has been divided into the two nations...the rich and the poor. The Labor Party will stay in for a long time if the conservative wing of that party... remain in office. But if the radical group like Laski...become the dominating influence...there will be a reaction and the Conservatives will come once again to power. Labor is laboring under the great disadvantage of having made promises to numerous groups whose aims are completely incompatible. The Conservatives may pick up some of these votes, at least those of the middle class when conditions make it impossible for Labor to implement many of its promises.”
Although Jack idealized Churchill, the young reporter was able to assess the English post-war political climate. War-shocked Britians were desperate for the assurance of a socialist state, with the promise of food, health care, and comfort.
Image courtesy of Globe Photos, Inc.
July 27 British Election Results entry at left; July 28 France entry above and below
SATURDAY, JULY 28 , 1945
Kennedy writes about Charles de Gaulle and
NOTES ON FRANCE
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT CHARLES DE GAULLE
“People are disappointed with DeGaulle. He has not pleased any group (which may be a sign of fair government) and has made himself extremely unpopular with most. Any movement against DeGaulle will take the form of a swing to the Left—the victory of the Socialists in Britain may accentuate the swing.”
t the time Kennedy visited France in the summer of 1945, the country was recovering from the humiliation they sustained during World War II. After the French government failed to effectively mobilize their mighty army, they signed an armistice with Hitler in June, 1940 and de Gaulle was provided refuge in Britain. JFK’s reflection that the “people are disappointed with DeGaulle” represented the general view of the French leader abroad. The British were fed up with de Gaulle’s ego during the war. Churchill referred to him as “his Cross of Lorraine.” However, Truman recognized France’s strategic role in the post-war recovery, allowing them a place in the UN and in the reconstruction of Germany and, by doing so, quashing Russia’s plans for neutralizing France.
IN HIS DIARY JFK WRITES ABOUT THE STRUGGLES OF THE FRENCH
“Food is hard to get for people in the city because of lack of transportation. This lack of transportation has contributed greatly to the difficulties all throughout Europe. United States unpopularity is strengthened by the fact that we control most of the rolling stock (railroad, cars, trucks, etc) and use it to feed and supply our own forces. The French have nothing…”
” Sixteen years later, President Kennedy travelled to France and met face to face with de Gaulle as a fellow world leader (see image upper right of this page). JFK’s wife, Jackie, dazzled the country and their President. Jack famously declared, “I am the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris,” a sentiment he invoked during the last speech he ever gave at Texas’ Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce breakfast on November 22, 1963.
President Kennedy, the First Lady, and de Gaulle during their 1961 trip to Paris. Courtesy of Cecil Stoughton White House Photographs, John F. Kennedy Library
Three pages of JFKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic four-page Potsdam, Germany diary entry
SUNDAY, JULY 29, 1945
Truman, Ike, JFK, & Stalin in
Frankfurt, Germany airport upon arrival for the Potsdam summit; Forrestal and Eisenhower in foreground and Kennedy in background
his excerpt, dated July 29, 1945, chronicles the first day of JFKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s visit to Germany with Navy Secretary James Forrestal. Less than three months after the surrender of Germany to the Allies, Kennedyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recollection of this portion of his trip is extraordinary because, like many of his diary entries, he is not only reporting conditions on the ground, but listening to those who truly knew what was going on. JFK was also analyzing the possible future outcome of events; this is significant because much of what he predicted became reality during his presidency.
Kennedy listened to Forrestal’s conversation with Eisenhower and provides us the Supreme Allied Commander’s report on the current complicated situation in Germany. This is, of course, the leader he would follow as president and come to know as a trusted advisor.
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT THE ATMOSPHERE IN POTSDAM ON JULY 29, 1945
“With Secretary of the Navy Forrestal and others of his party, we left Paris at about three o’clock in the Secretary’s C54 plane for Berlin...At the field at Berlin where we arrived, Prime Minister Attlee came in just ahead of us. There was a large crowd, and he inspected the same Guard of Honor which Prime Minister [Churchill] had inspected only a few days before. We drove immediately to Potsdam through miles of Russian soldiers. We stopped in front of the President’s house which was in a peaceful Potsdam square untouched by war. The Secretary talked to the President for a few minutes and then we drove to a house on the Kleine Wann See—a beautifully furnished house on a wonderful location along a beautiful lake. It was untouched by bombs, but during the evening as we drove along the lake in a speed boat, many of the houses in this residential section were badly hit.”
This diary entry confirms that the young reporter Kennedy was in Potsdam and stayed in the same house as Secretary Forrestal. JFK said, “We stopped in front of the President’s [Truman’s] house which was in a peaceful Potsdam Square…The Secretary talked to the President for a few minutes and then we drove to a house on the Kleine Wann See.” Forrestal was not an official member at the Potsdam Conference; he had come to give advice to the Commander-in-Chief.
Hearst Newspaper letter showing the same photo and stating, “This is to certify that Mr. John F. Kennedy is a special correspondent for the Hearst Newspaper.”
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY CONTINUES ABOUT THE RUSSIANS
“One opinion here is that the Russians are never going to pull out of their zone of occupation but plan to make their part of Germany a Soviet Socialist Republic. The question, therefore, is whether the other three occupying forces can afford to leave their zones. So far, the British seem to be encouraging a German economic revival. (The new British government may change this.)”
Eisenhower was in Potsdam to prevent Truman from begging the Russians to come into the war in the Pacific. At the Potsdam Conference, JFK witnessed his two predecessors-to-be, President Truman and General Eisenhower, as the Allied leaders grappled with Stalin over the future of the post-war world.
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT THE BIG FOUR
“If a split among the Big Four develops as far as long-time administrative procedure, it will be serious. Germany will be unable to build and maintain communications, roads, canals, trade coal, and food. If we don’t withdraw and allow them to administer their own affairs, we will be confronted with an extremely difficult administrative problem. Yet if we pull out, we may leave a political vacuum that the Russians will be only too glad to fill.”
“ Hitler’s Reich Chancellery was a shell. The walls were chipped and scarred by bullets. ”
JFK viewing Hitler’s ravaged bunker. Courtesy Princeton University Library
SUNDAY, JULY 1, 1945
Impressions of the ruins in
IN HIS DIARY JFK WRITES ABOUT HITLER’S BUNKER
“Hitler’s Reich Chancellery was a shell. The walls were chipped and scarred by bullets, showing the terrific fight which took place at the time of its fall. Hitler’s air-raid shelter was about 120 feet down into the ground—well furnished but completely devastated. The room where Hitler was supposed to have met his death showed scorched walls and traces of fire. There is no complete evidence, however, that the body that was found was Hitler’s body. The Russians doubt that he is dead.”
he words of John F. Kennedy, a young man raised in affluence and privileged to travel throughout the world, do not reflect those of a wealthy, debonair tourist looking for adventure. As a young reporter, he was a disciplined thinker who looked at a world in crisis and reported the facts. But, beyond this, he could look at the conditions in a devastated city and feel empathy for the German people who were in dire straights. He comments on their “colorless faces—a yellow tinge with pale tan lips.” Then he says: “They sleep in cellars. The women will do anything for food.” In college, John F. Kennedy had been in favor of the Lend-Lease program, and urged his father, then Ambassador to the Court of St. James and a known isolationist, to drop his opposition to it. This compassion for people followed Kennedy into his presidency where he was the architect of the Peace Corps.
On some of the streets the stretch—sweet and sickish from dead bodies—is overwhelming
A sharply dressed JFK, in sunglasses, touring the Berlin ruins with Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal. Courtesy Princeton University Library.
IN HIS DIARY JFK WRITES ABOUT THE DEVASTATION HE SEES
“The devastation is complete. Unter der Linden and the streets are relatively clear, but there is not a single building which is not gutted. On some of the streets the stench—sweet and sickish from dead bodies—is overwhelming. The people all have completely colorless faces—a yellow tinge with pale tan lips. They are all carrying bundles. Where they are going, no one seems to know. I wonder whether they do.”
Kennedy viewing Berlin ruins along with Forrestal. Courtesy Princeton University Library
IN HIS DIARY JFK CONTINUES ABOUT THE DEVASTATION
“They sleep in cellars. The women will do anything for food. One or two of the women wore lipstick, but most seem to be trying to make themselves as unobtrusive as possible to escape the notice of the Russians. The Russians were short, stocky, and dour looking. Their features were heavy and their uniforms dirty.”
IN HIS DIARY JFK CONTINUES ABOUT REBUILDING BERLIN
“One of the debatable questions in Berlin is whether Berlin will be built up again into a larger city. If Germany remains divided into four administrative units as she is now, Berlin will remain a ruined and unproductive city. In any case, it will be many years before Berlin can clear the wreckage and get the material to rebuild.”
JFK viewing Hitler’s ravaged bunker with Secretary of the Navy Forrestal and Ambassador Harriman
Kennedy’s “Impressions of Berlin Ruins” above and below; July 31 entry on Bremen visit at right
TUESDAY, JULY 31, 1945
Kennedy tours German E. Boats in
Kennedy viewing Bremen factory. Courtesy John F. Kennedy Library
n Bremen, the Forrestal team made an inspection of German hardware and, according to JFK, had discussions with Navy officials. Naturally since JFK had served on PT boats in the Pacific, which were of very poor design and durability, he was interested to learn that the comparable German E boat was of superior quality.
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE BOATS AND THE PT BOATS
“Spent the day in Bremen talking to Navy officials and to the heads of military government in this area. Among other things, the Navy had accurate reports on German E boats which correspond to our PT boats. The German boat was approximately 105 feet—engines developed 6,000 horse power—had four torpedo tubes and some light machine guns. In Speed they ranged from 42 knots to 49 knots in actual trials. Their cruising range was about 700 miles at 35 knots—their displacement about 115 tons—their engines were Diesel. These figures demonstrate that the German E Boat was far superior to our PT Boat…”
This fascination with how things were made and what made them work was a trait that JFK showed throughout his career. In his book ‘Let Us Begin Anew,’ an oral history of the Kennedy Administration, Glenn Seaborg, chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, confirmed this fact. He reported that the President asked to visit the commission headquarters in February 1961 and showed a sound technical grasp. Later, in December 1962, President Kennedy asked Seaborg to arrange a visit to the laboratory at Los Alamos; they traveled together in Air Force One. At the site they went out to the crater by helicopter. According to the chairman the crater was “half a mile across and maybe several hundred feet deep.” The President said to the pilot, “This is very interesting. Let’s land in this and look at it more closely.” Seaborg and the pilot managed to discourage this venture.
Three pages of JFK’s August 1 entry assessing Hitler’s retreat in Berchtesgaden
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 1, 1945
Kennedy visits the mountain top home of
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT GERMANY
“We flew from Bremen to Frankfurt and were met at the airport by a Battalion of Paratroopers and General Eisenhower...We drove to the Farben building which was completely untouched, though surrounded by ruins. Eisenhower talked with Forrestal for a few minutes...He said that the situation was complicated by the Fact that the Russians in the East have the major food-producing area in Germany.”
he Princeton-held Forrestal papers confirm that on August 1, 1945, at the Farben Building, Eisenhower briefed Forrestal and JFK was reporting. Frankfurt had become Eisenhower’s headquarters in May of 1945, and the Farben Building was a luxurious office complex which had not been bombed out as had much of the surroundings. In his diary, JFK wrote: “From Frankfurt we flew to Salzburg.” Salzburg, Austria, considered one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, is located on the German border, near the Northern Foothills to the Alps. From there, JFK and Forrestal drove to Berchtesgaden, the town across the border in Germany and the site of Hitler’s retreat, ‘The Eagle’s Nest.’ This picturesque area, located in a valley surrounded on all sides by Austria and the Alps, was used by the Allied occupation after World War II as a recreation spot. The building where the Forrestal party dined had been the headquarters of Field Marshall Wilhelm Keitel, the chief of the German high command.
IN HIS DIARY JOHN F. KENNEDY WRITES ABOUT AN AREA OF GERMANY UNTOUCHED BY WAR
“From Frankfurt we flew to Salzburg...and drove to the town of Berchtesgaden. It is a beautiful town in the mountains... It is a town apart from the destruction of war. We stayed at a beautiful inn for the evening after dining with the local General at the lavishly furnished building that was formerly the headquarters of General Keitel.”
The Nazi mountain retreats at Berchtesgaden, including air raid shelters and barracks, were heavily bombed by the Allies in April 1945. The ruins were leveled in 1952 to make way for a park and it is now a tea house; Forrestal and Kennedy were among the few to inspect the ‘Eagle’s Nest’ in its bombed out and stripped down condition. When JFK said that Hitler “had in him the stuff of which legends are made,” he was speaking to the mystery surrounding him, not the evil he demonstrated to the world. Nowhere in this diary, or in any of his writings, is there any indication of sympathy for Nazi crimes or cause.
IN HIS DIARY JFK WRITES ABOUT HITLER’S HOME
“In the morning we went up to Hitler’s mountain home. It was completely gutted, the result of an air attack from 12,000 pound bombs by the R.A.F in an attempt on Hitler’s life...After visiting these two places, you can easily understand how that within a few years Hitler will emerge from the hatred that surrounds him now as one of the most significant figures who ever lived. He had boundless ambition or his country which rendered him a menace to the peace of the world, but he had a mystery about him in the way he lived and in the manner of his death that will live and grow after him. He had in him the stuff of which legends are made.”
JFK 1946 “official” Congressional campaign portrait “Looking the Part” taken at his Beacon Hill apartment. Courtesy Ronnie Paloger Collection.
Handwritten pages on JFK’s congressional
ollowing the 28-year-old’s brief, though eventful, reporting assignment for Hearst, “Jack Kennedy arrived home on August 7, the first day of a new age and a different, more dangerous world.”* In October 1945, five months prior to declaring his candidacy for congress, and a mere two months upon his return from Europe, Jack began familiarizing himself with voters of Boston’s eleventh district. JFK’s congressional campaign slogan was “The New Generation Offers a Leader.”
JFK JOTS DOWN NOTES ON A “SCHOOL OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR POLITICIANS”
“Impress…Appraisal of common picture-1-Full Employment, 2-Housing, 3-Wages…Labor relations, Social Security… Stress ethics + government…open to public, Regardless of race creed + color”
Within the 61-page diary, there are a total of twelve handwritten pages. Five of the pages precede the typed portion of the diary, and seven follow it. Only the first, which we have placed at the beginning of this catalog, concerns Europe. Much of the other eleven pages, of unidentified date but most certainly circa 1945-1946, consist of jotted notes with several nuggets of interest regarding JFK’s first official foray into public service.
* Kennedy biographer Geoffrey Perret, author of ‘Jack: A Life Like No Other.’
Three initial handwritten political diary pages, mentioning Roosevelt and Truman
KENNEDY’S MENTION OF FDR AND TRUMAN ARE PARTICULARLY NOTABLE
“Strikes are due to Truman’s failure, to get G.M. To come through...Remember Roosevelt’s principle that you have to keep politicians + policies apart.”
Revealing a wealth of information on Kennedy’s private thoughts regarding his initial congressional run, these pages exhibit thought-provoking political quotes and assessments of other iconic American Presidents, including, Wilson, FDR, and Truman. The young pragmatist is under no disillusionment that his task will be easy, as he keenly recognizes the low opinion several Boston pols have of his political aspirations.
1946 Congressional campaign—JFK addressing a group in Boston’s North End urging legislation for vets. Courtesy Ronnie Paloger Collection.
Jan 27 diary entry above mentions he’ll get “murdered” in the polls; below Kennedy discusses loyalty in politics and jots down books to read
Continuation of JFK’s personal 3-page reading assignment above; Kennedy pens his description of the “best politician” below
“ “The best politician is the man
who does not think too much of the political consequences of his every act”
Jack Kennedy, father Joe Sr. at right and mother Rose at left, are surrounded by campaign supporters celebrating his June 18, 1946 primary victory win. The incredible 1946 Congressional images featured here, and many other rare photographic selections from the Ronnie Paloger Collection, will be offered in RR Auction’s May 18, 2017 JFK 100th Birthday Celebration.
On June 18, 1946, JFK votes in the Mass Democratic Primary with his maternal grandparents John F. “Honey Fitz” Fitzgerald and Mary Hannon Fitzgerald at his side; he beat 11 other contenders in this primary, going on to win his Congressional seat the following November. Courtesy Ronnie Paloger Collection.
JFK IS TOLD BY A FELLOW POLITICIAN HE’LL GET “MURDERED IN THE POLLS”:
“Says I’ll get murdered—No political experience— A personal district. Says I don’t know 300 people personally...attack on me will be: 1. Inexperience. 2. Injury to role on me in father’s reputation.”
JACK PENS SEVERAL INTERESTING POLITICALLY DRIVEN QUOTES, INCLUDING A REFERENCE TO LOYALTY
A testament to Jack’s unquenchable thirst for knowledge, three handwritten pages consist of a list of books, with catalog numbers that the studious congressional candidate was reading, or intended to read. The considerable list includes several books on his nation of heritage, Ireland, and ‘Why England Slept’ which, of course, was written by Kennedy himself.
“‘In politics you don’t have friends—you have confederates.’ One day they feed you honey—the next will find fish caught in your throat. You can buy brains but you can’t pay—loyalty.”
Imaged right: 1946 Congressional campaign vets working for JFK at a campaign booth. His slogan “The New Generation Offers a Leader” came from Joe Kane, a Kennedy cousin. Courtesy Ronnie Paloger Collection.
Within these incredible congressional candidacy-related eleven pages, Kennedy is clearly thinking through the beginning of his political career, which would begin with his election to congress in 1946, just a year after the eventful trip to Europe chronicled in the diary. The poignant political quotes and private insights provided throughout these invaluable handwritten pages are absolutely historic.
JFK PROVIDES INSIGHT INTO HIS SUBSTANTIVE POLITICAL IDEALS
“‘The best politician is the man who does not think too much of the political consequences of his every act.’ Democratic party has survived because—Wilson—’it had a heart in its jacket.’ ‘The one great failure in American govt is the govt of critics.’”
Kennedy’s 1946 Campaign Victory Dinner at Bellevue Hotel, Boston, Mass. From left to right are: Judge Morrisey, JFK’s grandmother, JFK’s best friend ‘Lem’ Billings, sister Eunice in middle, Jack himself beaming brilliantly, his future Presidential Appointment Secretary Ken O’Donnell behind, JFK’s grandfather “Honey Fitz,” and finally, famous Boston politician Joseph F Timilty. Courtesy Ronnie Paloger Collection.
“ The decision to compromise by trading the
Soviet missiles in Cuba for the U.S. missiles in Turkey, was President Kennedy’s alone.
EXCOMM meeting during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Courtesy John F. Kennedy Library
John F. Kennedy’s 1945 diary represents his insights and viewpoint on the political career he was about to embark upon. What he wrote will come as a revelation to historians and others who have been in search of how and why he was able to grapple with the serious crisis of the post-war era. Sheldon Stern in his 2003 book, ‘Averting the Final Failure,’ sees in the diary the seeds of what led him, as President, to make the disciplined and informed decisions which allowed the avoidance of a nuclear war with the Russians. “If any of the key members of the White House Executive Committee...had made the decisions on Black Friday, October 27, 1962, we would very likely have been in a thermonuclear war,” he writes. “The decision to compromise by trading the Soviet missiles in Cuba for the U.S. missiles in Turkey, was President Kennedy’s alone.”
SPECIFICATION OF THE DIARY •Sixty-one-page diary housed within a quality 8 x 10 black cowhide leather Trussell binder. • Diary contains 12 handwritten and 49 typed white loose leaf 6 x 9.5 pages. Of the handwritten pages, five are front and back, and two are single-sided; all typed pages are single-sided. Within the binder, there are also eleven blank pages not included in the overall accounting above, the last of which features a few words of Kennedy’s handwriting on the reverse. • Condition statement available upon request. •For an in-depth analysis of the diary’s contents, including full transcription and images of each page, we recommend you refer to Deirdre Henderson’s book, Prelude to Leadership. ESTIMATE $200,000+
A WORD FROM DEIRDRE HENDERSON
“It was a privilege to work as research assistant to Senator John F. Kennedy in his run for the Presidency. He gave me his 1945 diary so I could better understand his views.Through recent research, it has been concluded this is the only true diary JFK ever kept. It is now time to relinquish this iconic and valuable piece of history. I trust that, through this catalog, the diary will come to the attention of a wider audience and find a home worthy of its merit.”
Deirdre Henderson with Senator John F. Kennedy
Deirdre Henderson first met with Senator John F. Kennedy on June 15, 1954 when she was in college. Later, while working at the Harvard Defense Studies Program, she began sending the Senator memorandums on National Security issues and particularly on the need to build up conventional forces. In 1958, Deirdre asked her brotherin-law, Paul Pennoyer, who was a good friend of Senator Kennedy, to request an interview with him for a job in his upcoming presidential run. After passing a tough interview, the Senator hired her as his research assistant to work in his Boston Senate office and spend time on position papers by gathering ideas from his Academic Advisory Committee—mainly MIT and Harvard professors. Deirdre is most proud of the fact that
the Senator told her to expand the list as needed. At the President-Elect’s request, she remained as his research assistant during the transition period. Deirdre worked at the White House before President Kennedy asked her to go to the State Department. Following extensive research of the pre-World War II period, Deirdre decided it was time to share the diary Senator Kennedy had given to her in 1959. She was introduced to Hugh Sidey, well known ‘Time’ magazine columnist, by Ambassador James Lilly. Mr. Sidey wrote back after reading the diary: “This is vintage JFK.” Sidey, who knew the Senator well, agreed to write the introduction and named the book ‘Prelude to Leadership.’
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combine purchases from other auctions or affiliates into one package for shipping purposes. Lots won will be shipped in a commercially reasonable time after payment in good funds for the merchandise and the shipping fees is received or credit extended, except when third-party shipment occurs. Bidder agrees that service and handling charges related to shipping items which are not pre-paid may be charged to a credit card on file with RR Auction. Successful international Bidders shall provide written shipping instructions, including specified Customs declarations, to RR Auction for any lots to be delivered outside of the United States. NOTE: Declaration value shall be the item’(s) hammer price and RR Auction shall use the correct harmonized code for the lot. Domestic Bidders on lots designated for third-party shipment must designate the common carrier, accept risk of loss, and prepay shipping costs. Title: Title shall not pass to the successful Bidder until all invoices are paid in full. It is the responsibility of the Bidder to provide adequate insurance coverage for the items once they have been delivered to a common carrier or third-party shipper. Rights Reserved: RR Auction reserves the right to withdraw any lot before or at the time of the Auction, and/or to postpone the Auction of all or any lots or parts thereof, for any reason. RR Auction shall not be liable to any Bidder in the event of such withdrawal or postponement under any circumstances. RR Auction reserves the right to refuse to accept bids from anyone. Conducting the Auction: RR Auction reserves the right to postpone the Auction or any session thereof for a reasonable period of time for any reason whatsoever, and no Bidder or prospective Bidder shall have any claim as a result thereof, including consequential damages. RR Auction’s Discretion: RR Auction shall determine opening bids and bidding increments. RR Auction has the right in its absolute discretion to reject any bid in the event of dispute between Bidders or if RR Auction has doubt as to the validity of any bid, to advance the bidding at its absolute discretion and to determine the successful Bidder in the event of a dispute between Bidders, to continue the bidding or to reoffer and resell the lot in question. In the event of a dispute after the sale, RR Auction’s record of final sale shall be conclusive. RR Auction also may reject any bid if RR Auction decides either that any bid is below the reserve of the lot or article or that an advance is insufficient. Unless otherwise announced by RR Auction at the time of sale, no lots may be divided for the purpose of sale. Reserves: Lots may be subject to a reserve which is the confidential minimum price below which the lot will not be sold. Consignors may not bid on their own lots or property. RR Auction may, from time to time, bid on items that it does not own. Off-Site Bidding: Bidding by telephone, facsimile, online, or absentee bidding (advance written bids submitted by mail) are offered solely as a convenience and permitted subject to advance arrangements, availability, and RR Auction’s approval which shall be exercised at RR Auction’s sole discretion. Neither RR Auction nor its agents or employees shall be held liable for the failure to execute bids or for errors relating to any transmission or execution thereof. In order to be considered for off-site bidding in any manner, Bidders must comply with all of these Conditions of Sale and the terms contained on the Registration Form. RR Auction’s Remedies: Failure of the Bidder to comply with any of these Conditions of Sale or the terms of the Registration Form is an event of default. In such
event, RR Auction may, in addition to any other available remedies specifically including the right to hold the defaulting Bidder liable for the Purchase Price or to charge and collect from the defaulting Bidder’s credit or debit accounts as provided for elsewhere herein: (a) cancel the sale, retaining any payment made by the Bidder as damages (the Bidder understands and acknowledges that RR Auction will be substantially damaged should such default occur, and that damages under sub-part (a) are necessary to compensate RR Auction for such damages); (b) resell the property without reserve at public auction or privately; (c) charge the Bidder interest on the Purchase Price at the rate of one and one-half percent (1.5%) per month or the highest allowable interest rate; (d) take any other action that RR Auction, in its sole discretion, deems necessary or appropriate to preserve and protect RR Auction’s rights and remedies. Should RR Auction resell the property, the original defaulting Bidder shall be liable for the payment of any deficiency in the purchase price and all costs and expenses associated there with, including but not limited to warehousing, sales-related expenses, reasonable attorney fees and court costs, commissions, incidental damages and any other charges due hereunder which were not collected or collectable. In the event that such Bidder is the successful Bidder on more than one lot and pays less than the purchase price for the total lots purchased, RR Auction shall apply the payment received to such lot or lots that RR Auction, in its sole discretion, deems appropriate. If RR Auction does not exercise such discretion, the lots to which the payment shall be applied will be in descending order from the highest purchase price to the lowest. Any Bidder failing to comply with these Conditions of Sale shall be deemed to have granted RR Auction a security interest in, and RR Auction may retain as collateral such security for such Bidder’s obligations to RR Auction, any property in RR Auction’s possession owned by such Bidder. RR Auction shall have the benefit of all rights of a secured party under the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.) as adopted by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Warranties: RR Auction does not provide any warranties to Bidders, whether expressed or implied, beyond those expressly provided in these Conditions of Sale. All property and lots are sold “as is” and “where is”. By way of illustration rather than limitation, neither RR Auction nor the Consignor makes any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to merchantability or fitness for intended use, condition of the property (including any condition report), correctness of description, origin, measurement, quality, rarity, importance, exhibition, relevance, attribution, source, provenance, date, authorship, condition, culture, genuineness, value, or period of the property. Additionally, neither RR Auction nor the Consignor makes any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to whether the Bidder acquires rights in copyright or other intellectual property (including exhibition or reproduction rights) or whether the property is subject to any limitations or other rights. RR Auction does not make any representation or warranty as to title. All descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and terminology including but not limited to words describing condition (including any condition reports requested by Bidder, see also Terminology), authorship, period, culture, source, origin, measurement, quality, rarity, provenance, importance, exhibition, and relevance, used in the Catalog, bill of sale, invoice, or anywhere else, represent a good faith effort made by RR Auction to fairly represent the lots and property offered for sale as to origin, date, condition, and other information contained therein; they are statements of opinion only. They are not representations or warranties and Bidder agrees and acknowledges that he or she shall not rely on them in determining whether or not to bid or for what price. Price estimates (which are determined well in advance of the Auction and are therefore subject to revision) and condition reports are provided solely as a convenience to Bidders and are not intended nor shall they be relied on by Bidders as statements, representations or warranties of actual value or predictions of final bid prices. Bidders are accorded the opportunity to inspect the lots and to otherwise satisfy themselves as to the nature and sufficiency of each lot
prior to bidding, and RR Auction urges Bidders to avail themselves accordingly. All lots sold by RR Auction are accompanied by an Auction Certificate (“AC”). On any lot presented with an AC issued by RR Auction, the certification is only as to its attribution to the person or entity described or to the lot’s usage and only as explicitly stated therein (the “Certification of Authenticity”), to the exclusion of any other warranties, express or implied, including but not limited to those pursuant to the Uniform Commercial Code. The Certification of Authenticity inures only to the original Bidder (as shown in RR Auction’s records). Bidder may not transfer, assign, or otherwise convey the Certification of Authenticity, and such purported transfer, assignment, or conveyance shall be null and void. The Certification of Authenticity is valid from date of the Auction in which Bidder was awarded the lot (the “Auction Date”) until five (5) years after the Auction Date, without exception. FIREARMS. RR Auction complies with all Federal and State rules and regulations relating to the purchasing, registration and shipping of firearms. A Bidder is required to provide appropriate documents and the payment of associated fees, if any. Bidder is responsible for providing a shipping address that is suitable for the receipt of a firearm. Limitation of Damages: In the event that RR Auction is prevented for any reason from delivering any property to Bidder, or Bidder is otherwise dissatisfied with the performance of RR Auction, the liability, if any, of RR Auction, shall be limited to, and shall not exceed, the amount actually paid for the property by Bidder. In no event shall RR Auction be liable for incidental, special, indirect, exemplary or consequential damages of any kind, including but not limited to loss of profits, value of investment or opportunity cost. Unauthorized Statements: Under no circumstances is any employee, agent or representative of RR Auction authorized by RR Auction to modify, amend, waive or contradict any of these Conditions of Sale, any term or condition set forth on a registration form, any warranty or limitation or exclusion of warranty, any term or condition in either the Registration Form or these Terms and Conditions regarding payment requirements, including but not limited to due date, manner of payment, and what constitutes payment in full, or any other term or condition contained in any documents issued by RR Auction unless such modification, amendment, waiver or contradiction is contained in a writing signed by all parties. Any statements, oral or written, made by employees, agents or representatives of RR Auction to Bidder, including statements regarding specific lots, even if such employee, agent or representative represents that such statement is authorized, unless reduced to a writing signed by all parties, are statements of personal opinion only and are not binding on RR Auction, and under no circumstances shall be relied upon by Bidder as a statement, representation or warranty of RR Auction. Bidder’s Remedies: Under no circumstance will RR Auction incur liability to a Bidder in excess of the purchase price actually paid. This section sets forth the sole and exclusive remedies of Bidder in conformity with the Warranties and Limitation of Damages provisions of these Conditions of Sale, and is expressly in lieu of any other rights or remedies which might be available to Bidder by law. The Bidder hereby accepts the benefit of the Consignor’s warranty of title and any other representations and warranties made by the Consignor for the Bidder’s benefit. In the event that Bidder demonstrates in writing, in the sole discretion of RR Auction, that there was a breach of the Consignor’s warranty of title concerning a lot purchased by Bidder, RR Auction shall make demand upon the Consignor to pay to Bidder the Purchase Price (including any premiums, taxes, or other
amounts paid or due to RR Auction). Should the Consignor not pay the Purchase Price to Bidder within thirty days after such demand, RR Auction shall disclose the identity of the Consignor to Bidder and assign to Bidder all of RR Auction’s rights against the Consignor with respect to such lot or property. Upon such disclosure and assignment, all responsibility and liability, if any, of RR Auction with respect to said lot or property shall automatically terminate. RR Auction shall be entitled to retain the premiums and other amounts paid to RR Auction - this remedy is as to the Consignor only. The rights and remedies provided herein are for the original Bidder only and they may not be assigned or relied upon by any transferee or assignee under any circumstances. If Bidder wishes to challenge the AC within the period of the Certification of Authenticity, Bidder must present written evidence that the lot is not authentic as determined by a known expert in the field. If RR Auction agrees that the lot is not as represented, Bidder’s sole and exclusive remedy shall be a refund of their purchase price, with no other costs, liabilities or amounts recoverable. If RR Auction does not agree with the claim by Bidder, then the Parties shall follow the dispute resolution procedures of these Conditions of Sale. Any such challenge concerning an AC or Certification of Authenticity must, without any exception, be brought within one (1) year of Bidder’s notice to RR Auction of Bidder’s contention that the lot was not authentic, or six (6) years from the Auction Date, whichever is sooner. If the description of any lot in the Catalog is materially incorrect (e.g., gross cataloging error), the lot is returnable if returned within five (5) calendar days of receipt, and received by RR Auction no later than twenty-one (21) calendar days after the Auction Date. If there is any discrepancy between the description in the Catalog and the AC, then the description in the AC shall control. This paragraph shall constitute Bidder’s sole right with respect to the return of items, and no refunds shall be given for any items not returned to and received by RR Auction. NO RETURN OR REFUND OF ANY AUCTION LOT WILL BE CONSIDERED EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN THESE CONDITIONS OF SALE. RR Auction’s Additional Services: For Bidders who do not remove purchased property from RR Auction’s premises, RR Auction, in its sole discretion and solely as a service and accommodation to Bidders, may arrange to have purchased lots packed, insured and forwarded at the sole request, expense, and risk of Bidder. RR Auction assumes no and disclaims all responsibility and liability for acts or omissions in such packing or shipping by RR Auction or other packers and carriers, whether or not recommended by RR Auction. RR Auction assumes no and disclaims all responsibility and liability for damage to frames, glass or other breakable items. Where RR Auction arranges and bills for such services via invoice, RR Auction will include an administration charge. Headings: Headings are for convenience only and shall not be used to interpret the substantive sections to which they refer. Entire Agreement: These Conditions of Sale constitute the entire agreement between the parties together with the terms and conditions contained in the Registration Form. They may not be amended, modified or superseded except in a signed writing executed by all parties. No oral or written statement by anyone employed by RR Auction or acting as agent or representative of RR Auction may amend, modify, waive or supersede the terms herein unless such amendment, waiver or modification is contained in a writing signed by all parties. If any section of these Conditions of Sale or any term or provision of any section is held to be invalid, void, or unenforceable by any court
of competent jurisdiction, the remaining sections or terms and provisions of a section shall continue in full force and effect without being impaired or invalidated in any way. Governing Law and Enforcement The Parties agree that any agreements between the Parties including but not limited to these Conditions of Sale are entered into in Boston, Massachusetts, no matter where Bidder is situated and no matter by what means or where Bidder was informed of the Auction and regardless of whether catalogs, materials, or other communications were received by Bidder in another location. The Parties agree that these Conditions of Sale, and any other related agreement(s) are governed by the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, without regard for its conflict of laws principles. The Parties agree that any dispute related to or arising out of these Conditions of Sale, or related to or arising out of any other related agreement(s) shall be submitted to confidential binding arbitration (the “Arbitration”) before a single Arbitrator of the American Arbitration Association (the “AAA”). The Parties agree that the Arbitration shall be conducted pursuant to the commercial rules of the AAA. In the event that the Parties cannot agree on the selection of the Arbitrator, then the Arbitrator shall be selected by the AAA. The prevailing Party in the Arbitration shall be entitled to recover all of its related costs, whether before or after the formal institution of the Arbitration, including but not limited to its reasonable attorneys’ fees and, if RR Auction prevails, the Buyer’s Premium as defined in these Conditions of Sale. The Parties agree that Bidder shall have no right to recover consequential or indirect damages, or lost profits damages. The Parties consent to the enforcement of the decision in the Arbitration pursuant to the Federal Arbitration Act in either the courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Except as provided in Bidder’s Remedies with regard to the Certification of Authenticity, any dispute, claim, cause of action related to or arising out of these Conditions of Sale or any other agreement(s) between the Parties must be brought within one (1) year of the acts, omissions or circumstances giving rise to the alleged claim, without exceptions. This provision is intended as a full, complete and absolute release of any claims after one (1) year of such acts, omissions or circumstances. The Parties agree further that these waiver provisions are intended to be binding on all parties in the event of any dispute, specifically including but not limited to third party claims and cross-actions brought by either RR Auction or Bidder. These provisions are consideration for the execution of these Conditions of Sale. The Bidder hereby agrees that RR Auction shall be entitled to present these Conditions of Sale to a court in any jurisdiction other than set forth in this paragraph as conclusive evidence of the Parties’ agreement, and the Parties further agree that the court shall immediately dismiss any action filed in such jurisdiction. Notwithstanding the foregoing, RR Auction may, in its sole discretion, enforce its rights pursuant to these Conditions of Sale in the courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts rather than in an Arbitration related to or arising out of any Auction of an item sold for less than $10,000. This right shall relate to the individual item price, such that RR Auction may, in its sole discretion, enforce its rights pursuant to these Conditions of Sale in the courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts rather than in an Arbitration for items that in the aggregate exceed $10,000. The prevailing Party in such a proceeding shall be entitled to recover all of its related costs, whether before or after the formal institution of the proceeding, including but not limited to its reasonable attorneys’ fees and, if RR Auction prevails, the Buyer’s Premium as defined in these Conditions of Sale. This right of enforcement is unique to RR Auction, and these Conditions of Sale are a waiver by the Bidder of any right to enforcement or adjudication outside of an Arbitration.
CONDUCT OF AUCTION Estimate Prices: In addition to descriptive information, each item in the Catalog sometimes includes a price range which reflects opinion as to the price expected at auction (the “Estimate Prices”). In other instances, Estimate Prices can be obtained by calling RR Auction at (603) 7324280. The Estimate Prices are based upon various factors including prices recently paid at auction for comparable property, condition, rarity, quality, history and provenance. Estimate Prices are prepared well in advance of the sale and subject to revision. Estimates do not include the Buyer’s Premium or sales tax (see under separate heading). Owned or Guaranteed Property: RR Auction generally offers property consigned by others for sale at public auction; in very limited occasion, lots are offered that are the property of RR Auction. Before the Auction: Bidder may attend pre-sale viewing for all of RR Auction’s auctions at no charge. All property to be auctioned is usually on view for several days prior to the sale. Bidder is encouraged to examine lots thoroughly. Bidder may also request condition reports (see below). RR Auction’s staff are available at viewings and by appointment. Maximum Bids – All Auctions: To maximize Bidder’s chance of winning, RR Auction strongly encourages the use of maximum bids. RR Auction will then bid for Bidder until the lot reaches Bidder’s specified maximum. Maximum bids are strictly confidential. Placing arbitrary, non-incremental bids on lots with prior maximum bids may result in these lots being sold for less than 10% above the under Bidder’s bid. Successful Bids: The fall of RR Auction’s hammer indicates the final bid. RR Auction will record the paddle number of the Bidder. If Bidder’s salesroom or absentee bid is successful, Bidder will be notified after the sale by mailed or emailed invoice. Unsold Lots: If a lot does not reach the reserve, it is bought-in. In other words, it remains unsold and is returned to the Consignor. RR Auction has the right to sell certain unsold items after the close of the Auction. Such lots shall be considered sold during the Auction and all these Terms and Conditions shall apply to such sales including but not limited to the Buyer’s Premium, return rights, and disclaimers. Bidding—Timed Auction: Bidder may open, monitor, and/or raise bids at any time before the close of a lot through www.rrauction.com. RR Auction offers a callback service the day of the Auction, but Bidder is responsible for supplying a correct telephone number(s) where Bidder can be reached until the Auction closes. Bidder must request this service in writing. RR Auction will make reasonable efforts to ensure that Bidders who request a callback are contacted if outbid; however, RR Auction does not guarantee this service and it is merely a courtesy and not an enforceable right. The auctioneer may also execute a bid on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve, either by entering a bid in response to salesroom, telephone or absentee bids. Under no circumstances will the auctioneer place any bid on behalf of the consignor above the reserve. The auctioneer will not specifically identify bids placed on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve. To ensure proper registration, those Bidders intending to bid via the Internet must visit www.RRauction.com and register accordingly at least one full day prior to the actual auction. Winning bidders will be notified by RR Auction. RR Auction is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids.
Any Bidder may bid on any lot prior to 6 pm EST/EDT. At that time, an extended bidding period goes into effect. If Bidder has not bid on a lot before 6 pm EST/EDT, Bidder may not bid on that lot after 6 pm EST/EDT. Only those Bidders who have placed bids on a lot before 6 pm EST/EDT will be allowed to bid on that lot after 6 pm EST/EDT. If Bidder is the only Bidder on a lot at 6 pm EST/EDT, that lot is awarded to Bidder. During the extended bidding period, a lot will remain open only to those who bid on that lot prior to 6 pm EST/ EDT. All lots WITHOUT an opening bid at 6 pm EST/EDT will remain OPEN to ALL Bidders until 7 pm EST/EDT or until they receive their first bid. These lots will close immediately upon receipt of a bid or at 7 pm EST/EDT, whichever comes first. For all lots that are active after 7 pm EST/EDT, bidding will remain open until 30 minutes pass without a bid being placed on THAT lot (the “30 Minute Rule”). The 30 Minute Rule is applied on a PER LOT BASIS; each lot in the Auction closes individually based on bidding activity after 7 pm EST/ EDT. On a PER LOT BASIS, the 30 minute timer will reset each time a bid is placed after 7 pm EST/EDT. If Bidder is the high Bidder, raising Bidder’s maximum bid will NOT reset the timer. RR Auction reserves the right to close the Auction at any time at its sole discretion. Bidding - Internet – Live Auction: Bidder may open, monitor, and/or raise bids at any time before the close of a lot through www.rrauction.com. RR Auction offers a callback service the day of the Auction, but Bidder is responsible for supplying a correct telephone number(s) where Bidder can be reached until the Auction closes. Bidder must request this service in writing. RR Auction will make reasonable efforts to ensure that Bidders who request a callback are contacted if outbid; however, RR Auction does not guarantee this service and it is merely a courtesy and not an enforceable right. To ensure proper registration, those Bidders intending to bid via the Internet must visit www.RRauction.com and register accordingly at least one full day prior to the actual auction. Winning bidders will be notified by RR Auction. RR Auction is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids. Property is auctioned in consecutive numerical order, as it appears in the catalog. The auctioneer will accept bids from those present in the salesroom or absentee bidders participating by telephone, internet or by written bid left with RR Auction in advance of the auction. The auctioneer may also execute a bid on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve, either by entering a bid in response to salesroom, telephone or absentee bids. Under no circumstances will the auctioneer place any bid on behalf of the consignor above the reserve. The auctioneer will not specifically identify bids placed on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve. During live Auctions, internet bids can be placed in real time through one or more of the following Third Party services: www.liveauctioneers.com, www.invaluable.com and www.icollector.com. RR Auction is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids. RR Auction treats any third-party site bids as floor or telephone bids. Floor bids and telephone bids are always considered first over third party sites bids, and floor bids are considered earlier than telephone bids. All RR Auction lots purchased through the third party sites carry an additional Buyer’s Premium. Miscellaneous: Agreements between Bidders and Consignors to effectuate a nonsale of an item at Auction, inhibit bidding on a consigned item to enter into a private sale agreement for said item, or to utilize RR Auction’s Auction to obtain sales for non-selling consigned items subsequent to the Auction, are strictly prohibited. If a subsequent sale of a previously consigned item occurs in violation of this provision, RR Auction reserves the right to charge Bidder the applicable Buyer’s
Premium and Consignor a Seller’s Commission as determined for each auction venue and by the terms of the seller’s agreement. Acceptance of these Terms and Conditions qualifies Bidder as a client who has consented to be contacted by RR Auction in the future. In conformity with “do-not-call” regulations promulgated by the Federal or State regulatory agencies, participation by the Bidder is affirmative consent to being contacted at the phone number shown in his application and this consent shall remain in effect until it is revoked in writing. RR Auction may from time to time contact Bidder concerning sale, purchase, and auction opportunities available. Rules of Construction: RR Auction presents properties in a number of collectible fields, and as such, specific venues have promulgated supplemental Terms and Conditions. Nothing herein shall be construed to waive the general Conditions of Sale by these additional rules and shall be construed to give force and effect to the rules in their entirety.
GLOSSARY OF CONDITION TERMS FOR DECADES, RR AUCTION HAS LED THE INDUSTRY IN PROVIDING AN ACCURATE AND DETAILED CONDITION STATEMENT FOR EACH ITEM THAT WE SELL. STARTING IN 2016 WE’VE DECIDED TO TAKE A FRESH APPROACH TO DESCRIBING EACH ITEM’S CONDITION. As our website and catalog images continually improve, and bidders can see obvious details from those excellent images, we’ve decided to simplify things, using the same terminology to describe an item’s overall condition (on an ascending scale of 1 to 4: good, very good, fine, very fine), but only adding specific details, if any, that would not be obvious from the illustration. VERY FINE describes an item in virtually flawless condition, and is used sparingly for items of exceptionally attractive appearance. FINE is the most common statement of condition, and applies to most items that we offer. It describes items that show expected handling wear, generally acceptable random flaws (such as light creases, small bends, etc.), and an overall appearance that is pleasing to the majority of collectors. VERY GOOD describes an item that exhibits more moderate flaws (such as toning, light staining, professional reinforcements or repairs, etc.). Most collectors would be comfortable with items in very good condition, and this would be the expected condition for many formats (early presidential documents, for example). GOOD describes an item with obvious visible flaws, including heavy wear, missing portions, or repairs that affect appearance; generally items in this condition are offered only if an item is otherwise exceedingly rare or important. Of course we’re more than happy to provide more in-depth information about any item via phone or email. We hope this new system will make for easier reading and a more pleasant bidding experience.
How to bid during the live auction on April 26, 2017 at 1 p.m. EST Schedule a phone call: we’ll have a representative call you when bidding is about to begin. He or she will bid on your behalf at the live auction. Please contact us via email Sue.Recks@RRAuction.com or by phone (603-732-4280).
Leave a max bid before the auction begins: any time before online bidding closes at 12 p.m. EST, on April 25, 2017 you can enter your maximum bid online. A representative will bid on your behalf during the live auction, up to the amount specified by you.
Join us at our Boston Gallery to take part in the auction and place your own bids! RR Auction Gallery 236 Commercial St., Suite 100 Boston, Massachusetts 02109 In-person preview of the diary available by appointment in our Boston gallery
If you have any questions please call us at (603) 732-4280 Bob Eaton CEO, Acquisitions bob.eaton@RRAuction.com Carla Eaton Owner, Auctioneer carla.eaton@RRAuction.com Bobby Livingston Executive Vice President, Public Relations bobby.livingston@RRAuction.com Bobby Eaton Vice President of Operations Auctioneer, MA/Lic. #3214 bobby.eaton@RRAuction.com Mandy Eaton-Casey Finance Manager amanda.casey@RRAuction.com Elizebeth Otto Consignment Director elizebeth.otto@RRAuction.com Jon Siefken Consignment Director jon.siefken@RRAuction.com
Linda Hernandez Quality Control, Consignor Services Manager linda.hernandez@RRAuction.com Joe Doucette Lead Inventory Executive joe.doucette@RRAuction.com Tricia Eaton Specialty Editor, Handwriting Expert tricia.eaton@RRAuction.com Samantha Belmonte Administrative Assistant samantha.belmonte@RRAuction.com Bill White Handwriting Expert bill.white@RRAuction.com Dan McCarthy Writer, Researcher dan.mccarthy@RRAuction.com Evan Mugford Writer evan.mugford@RRAuction.com
Sue Recks Customer Service Executive sue.recks@RRAuction.com Sarina Carlo Creative Director sarina.carlo@RRAuction.com Cameron Johnson Photographer, Media Specialist cameron.johnson@RRAuction.com Robert S. Eaton Sr. 1940–2001
CONTACT INFO (603) 732-4280 www.RRAuction.com AUCTION GALLERY 236 Commercial Street, Boston, MA 02109 MA/Lic #3214
Live Auction 1 p.m. EST, April 26, 2017 www.RRAuction.com
From the earliest "official" 1946 Congressional campaign JFK portraits taken at his Beacon Hill apartment. Courtesy Ronnie Paloger Collection.