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Transformative Leadership Key Skills for Dealing with Conflicts, Challenge and Crisis in the 21st Century

Kai Brand-Jacobsen Director, Department of Peace Operations (DPO) – PATRIR Baia Mare, Romania August 22nd, 2013


Introduction: Kai F. Brand-Jacobsen Kai F. Brand-Jacobsen Director - Department of Peace Operations (DPO) Advisor to       

UN Country Missions & Agencies Commonwealth Secretariat All-Party Parliamentary Working Group on Conflict Issues Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) National Governments & Conflict Party Leadership Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC) Universities, Training Academies & Staff Colleges (Globally)


Introduction: Kai F. Brand-Jacobsen Kai F. Brand-Jacobsen Director - Department of Peace Operations (DPO) Specialization / Areas of Expertise           

Facilitation and Mediation of Peace Processes Early Warning & Armed Violence Prevention Peacebuilding During Wars / Armed Violence War to Peace Transitions Post-War Recovery & Peace Consolidation Reconciliation, Healing and Dealing with the Past Scenario Development & Futures Planning Strategic Planning & Intervention Design Multi-Stakeholder Strategic Planning Processes Policy Development and Design Design & Implementation of Monitoring & Evaluation for Peacebuilding and Peace Support Operations


Introduction: Kai F. Brand-Jacobsen Kai F. Brand-Jacobsen Director - Department of Peace Operations (DPO) Country / Regional Expertise & Areas of Operation  Afghanistan

 Somalia

 Iraq

 India

 Sudan

 Lebanon

 Pakistan

 Liberia

 Jordan

 Nepal

 Northern Ireland

 Egypt

 Sri Lanka

 MoldovaTransdniestria

 Israel-Palestine

 southern Thailand  Former Yugoslavia  Colombia  Burma

 Aceh-Indonesia

 Cambodia

 Cyprus

 Mexico


PATRIR: PILLARS

The Institute has three main ‘pillars’ Research: Directed to key areas affecting improving peacebuilding policy & practice. Operations: Upon request: 1. Support for Mediation & Peace Processes 2. Strengthening Capability of Governments, International Organisations, and Local & National Capabilities Training & Professional Development: 3. Senior Staff 4. Government Officials 5. UN Agencies & Country Missions 6. Conflict Party Leadership

O TpR ree ars iae nta iir


What I hope we will achieve… To gain together … a clear and actual understanding of “what is peacebuilding” … a deeper / shared understanding of the challenges and crisis facing us … an understanding together of the nature of complex crisis and systemic challenges … and the cost of failing to address them effectively … what we can do about them And an appreciation for the difficulty but also practical and responsible necessity of evolving better, more effective ways of dealing with conflicts, challenges and crisis


What is Peacebuilding? Peacebuilding is about‌ o finding practical solutions to sometimes complex and extremely difficult / long-standing problems or challenges o transforming conflicts through proven and effective means and developing new, innovative and effective approaches to conflict management, transformation and resolution o addressing the actual contradictions and underlying root causes, structures & drivers of conflicts and violence o building the capacity of societies / states and all sectors to handle conflicts constructively and prevent violence It includes: o Preventing, mitigating and reducing crisis and violence o Healing from the visible and invisible impacts and effects of violence, war and conflict on individuals and society


systemic challenges


GLOBAL STATISTICS


GLOBAL STATISTICS

Combined wealth 225 richest people = approx 1 trillion USD


GLOBAL STATISTICS

Combined wealth 225 richest people = approx 1 trillion USD Greater than the wealth of poorest 2.5 billion people put together


GLOBAL STATISTICS

Combined wealth 225 richest people = approx 1 trillion USD Greater than the wealth of poorest 2.5 billion people put together Three wealthiest men in the world have more money than the world’s poorest 48 countries put together


GLOBAL STATISTICS

Combined wealth 225 richest people = approx 1 trillion USD Greater than the wealth of poorest 2.5 billion people put together Three wealthiest men in the world have more money than the world’s poorest 48 countries put together 24.000 children die each day as a direct result of poverty


GLOBAL STATISTICS

Combined wealth 225 richest people = approx 1 trillion USD Greater than the wealth of poorest 2.5 billion people put together Three wealthiest men in the world have more money than the world’s poorest 48 countries put together 24.000 children die each day as a direct result of poverty Nearly 1 billion people entered this century unable to read or sign their name


GLOBAL STATISTICS

Combined wealth 225 richest people = approx 1 trillion USD Greater than the wealth of poorest 2.5 billion people put together Three wealthiest men in the world have more money than the world’s poorest 48 countries put together 24.000 children die each day as a direct result of poverty Nearly 1 billion people entered this century unable to read or sign their name Less than 1% of what the world is spending on weapons would suffice to put every child in school. It’s not being done


GLOBAL STATISTICS

Combined wealth 225 richest people = approx 1 trillion USD Greater than the wealth of poorest 2.5 billion people put together Three wealthiest men in the world have more money than the world’s poorest 48 countries put together 24.000 children die each day as a direct result of poverty Nearly 1 billion people entered this century unable to read or sign their name Less than 1% of what the world is spending on weapons would suffice to put every child in school. It’s not being done 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water


GLOBAL STATISTICS

Combined wealth 225 richest people = approx 1 trillion USD Greater than the wealth of poorest 2.5 billion people put together Three wealthiest men in the world have more money than the world’s poorest 48 countries put together 24.000 children die each day as a direct result of poverty Nearly 1 billion people entered this century unable to read or sign their name Less than 1% of what the world is spending on weapons would suffice to put every child in school. It’s not being done. 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation


GLOBAL STATISTICS

Combined wealth 225 richest people = approx 1 trillion USD Greater than the wealth of poorest 2.5 billion people put together Three wealthiest men in the world have more money than the world’s poorest 48 countries put together 24.000 children die each day as a direct result of poverty Nearly 1 billion people entered this century unable to read or sign their name Less than 1% of what the world is spending on weapons would suffice to put every child in school. It’s not being done. 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation For every $1 dollar received in aid a developing country spends $25 on debt repayment


Understanding crisis … many of today’s crisis are complex – they don’t have just one single cause or one easy answer … many of them are systemic – they’re built into the way we’re dealing with economics, politics, social, environmental issues in our countries and globally … they require multi-faceted, multi-dimensional solutions which are often ●

beyond the capacity of single individual actors / stakeholders

And, most importantly:

 The way we are dealing with them is often making the crisis / problems worse


vuca volatility uncertainty complexity ambiguity


In the face of these crisis and challenges people often feel powerless, overwhelmed and don’t know what we can do to address them


cognitive failure siloed thinking blame / scape goats faulty premises / ‘memes’ failure to constructively engage with diversity reinforcing myths lack of systems of accountability


What’s the ‘good’ news … as a species we have an extraordinary capacity to deal with challenges … today we have a greater productive, scientific and innovative capacity than at perhaps any other time in the history of our existence as a species … the knowledge, skills and tools required to deal with many of the challenges we face … or to find solutions for how to deal with them … exist But:

 We are often not applying them or not drawing upon the full potential / capacity we have to address these challenges


finding solutions to complexity


conflict


conflict conflict is normal conflicts can be handled constructively or destructively All of us have / experience conflicts •

Individual

inter-personal • • •

business community

• •

family

societal inter-state / international / global


2 different ways of dealing with conflicts Constructive / Innovative

Destructive / Negative

 enabling / empowering

 Limiting / disempowering

 addresses actual issue

 wasteful use of energy / resources (diverts from focus & potential)

 brings innovation / new solutions  optimizes capacities  creates new horizons

 blocks solutions & innovation  misuses resources & capacities  constrains horizons and opportunities


5 widely held incorrect assumptions / myths about war & conflict 1. conflict = war 2. war / violence are part of human nature / are inevitable: nothing can be done about them 3. “it’s their fault”: war / violence happen because of what the other side did / does 4. it will take decades / centuries to solve 5. peace is naive


Why Peacebuilding Matters: Mapping the Costs of the Failure to Prevent


HUMAN

OPPORTUNITY

IMPACT

SOCIOECONOMIC

POLITICAL


CONTEXT

SOURCE: DFID Preventing Violent Conflict (2006)

Costs of Armed Violence & War

 1.5 billion people live in countries affected by political violence, organised crime, exceptionally high murder rates or low intensity conflicts  Of the 34 countries furthest from reaching the MDGs 22 are in the midst or emerging from violent conflict  1990 – 2005: Armed Conflicts in Africa cost USD 284 billion This exceeds international aid flows by principal donors during same period (Africa’s Missing Billions)  The average cost of one armed conflict – 65 billion dollars – exceeds the value of annual development aid world-wide


SOME OF THE FIGURES

Costs of Armed Violence & War

 740 000 people die as a result of armed violence each year (OECD-DAC)

 Armed Violence is among the top five leading causes of deaths for adults (WHO, 2006, 2008)

 Global cost of homicidal violence to societies around the world: USD 95-160 billion a year (Geneva Declaration Secretariat, 2008)

 As much as USD 400 billion is lost when considering lost productivity from lives prematurely cut short by violence (WORLD BANK)


DAILY TOLL

SOURCE: WHO Preventing Violence and Reducing Its Impact

Every day, more than 4000 people die because of violence, over 90% of them in low- and middle-income countries

World Health Organisation

This is roughly the same as the daily toll of deaths due to tuberculosis and more than the daily toll of some 3500 deaths due to malaria. Of those killed by violence, approximately:  2300 die by their own hand  over 1500 because of injuries inflicted by another person  and over 400 as a direct result of war or some other form of collective violence. Therefore, if this presentation takes 40 minutes, in that time...  Suicide: 47.9  Homicide: 31.2  War: 8.3


3 Key Terms: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, Peacebuilding • Peacemaking political and diplomatic interventions and measures directed at bringing warring parties to agreement. Though customarily seen as ‘high politics’, peacemaking increasingly covers a broad range of measures and efforts aimed at bringing about negotiations, talks, dialogue, and mediation processes aimed at arriving at agreements and addressing the core issues in conflict – and can be carried out by a wide-range of actors.

• Peacekeeping military or civilian/non-armed deployment and presence of forces to contribute to stabilization and prevent/mitigate acts of violence and critical incidents. Through presence, inter-positioning, and accompaniment, peacekeeping forces can provide stability and reduce risk of violence and tension, improving an enabling environment for peacebuilding and peace processes to take place.

• Peacebuilding promotion of institutional and socioeconomic measures at the local, national, or international levels to address underlying causes of conflict and transform conflict dynamics. Peacebuilding is the actual process and measures of building peace and can include efforts before, during and after war. The measure of peace building is addressing the driving, causal factors of the conflict (sources and contradictions), conflict pillars, and the capacities of the state, society, and parties in conflict to deal with conflicts constructively and by peaceful means (infrastructure for peace – I4P).


– Understanding War, Conflict & Peace –


CONFLICT


CONFLICT TRIANGLE


CONFLICT TRIANGLE

ATTITUDE(S)


CONFLICT TRIANGLE

ATTITUDE(S)

BEHAVIOUR(S)


CONFLICT TRIANGLE

ATTITUDE(S)

BEHAVIOUR(S)

CONTRADICTION(S)


CONFLICT TRIANGLE

ATTITUDE(S)

BEHAVIOUR(S)

CONTRADICTION(S)


CONFLICT TRIANGLE: THERAPY

ATTITUDE(S)

BEHAVIOUR(S)

CONTRADICTION(S)


CONFLICT TRIANGLE: THERAPY

empathy ATTITUDE(S)

BEHAVIOUR(S)

CONTRADICTION(S)


CONFLICT TRIANGLE: THERAPY

empathy ATTITUDE(S)

BEHAVIOUR(S) nonviolence

CONTRADICTION(S)


CONFLICT TRIANGLE: THERAPY

empathy ATTITUDE(S)

BEHAVIOUR(S) nonviolence

CONTRADICTION(S) creativity


VIOLENCE TRIANGLE


VIOLENCE TRIANGLE

DIRECT


VIOLENCE TRIANGLE

DIRECT

STRUCTURAL


VIOLENCE TRIANGLE

DIRECT

STRUCTURAL

CULTURAL


VIOLENCE TRIANGLE

DIRECT

STRUCTURAL

CULTURAL


VIOLENCE TRIANGLE

DIRECT

rape STRUCTURAL

CULTURAL


War Culture – Peace Culture


WAR CULTURE

Between 2 Parties Good vs Evil Right – Wrong Us vs. Them With Us or Against Us Win – Lose Zero Sum Either – Or Black - White Demonisation Dehumanisation Enemy Images Stereotypes Personificiation Victor y for Us, Defeat for Them Right to Use Violence


PEACE CULTURE Involves Multiple parties & Stake-holders Conflict (issue-problem) to be solved Mutually beneficial outcome Both some ‘right’, some ‘wrong’ – identify legitimate needs, common ground and creative solutions Shared relationship Explore the range of opinions, needs, perspectives and visions for solutions and what we want beyond the conflict Get to know each other (respect, shared humanity and human dignity) Humanize the ‘other’ Promote understanding – overcome stereotypes & enemy images Recognize responsibility of all parties and positive role each can play in transforming the conflict Find appropriate solutions that meet the needs of all parties for sustainable outcomes


“Peacebuilding requires peace architecture: a clear and compelling vision of the peace one wants to create, a comprehensive assessment of what is needed to realize this peace, a coherent plan, and an effective implementation of that plan.� Luc Reychler


Systemic Peacebuilding, Conflict Transformation & Post-War Recovery

From What To What


Strategic Conflict Analysis – From What – Attitudes Behaviours Contradictions Relationships Structures Cultures Elite Engagement Societal Engagement Sectoral Engagement Skills & Capabilities Institutions & Systems


Strategic Conflict Analysis – From What –

Vision: Desired Future – To What –

Attitudes Behaviours Contradictions Relationships Structures Cultures Elite Engagement Societal Engagement Sectoral Engagement Skills & Capabilities Institutions & Systems

WHAT NEEDS TO CHANGE


Strategic Conflict Analysis – From What – Attitudes Behaviours Contradictions Relationships Structures Cultures Elite Engagement Societal Engagement Sectoral Engagement Skills & Capabilities Institutions & Systems

STRATEGY – HOW –

Vision: Desired Future – To What –


Can it be done? Inspiration 4 Practical Examples


plague : small pox


SMALL POX

Worst killer in history Killed more people than all the wars in the world put together 500 million Believed by many to have been the biblical ‘plague’


SMALL POX

• 1967: 34 countries • 1970: 18 countries • 1974: 5 countries • 1980: eradicated


SMALL POX

150.000 people from all over the world Largest campaign in UN history “Doctors from every race, religion, culture and nation who fought side by side – with each other, not against each other – in a common cause to make the world better” Larry Brilliant www.ted.com


medicine


fire


P


slavery


innovation


paradigm shift


PARADIGM SHIFT

Paradigm Shift: a change from one way of thinking to another. It doesn’t just happen  It is driven by agents of change.


PARADIGM SHIFT

1. Divine Right of Kings  Democracy 2. Slavery  Equality 3. Ownership of Women  Women’s Rights & Equality 4. Colonialism  Self-Determination 5. Newtonian Physics  Relativity & Quantum Physics 6. World = Resources & Sink  Respect for Nature & Diversity 7. War = Inevitable or Necessary Defence  Illegitimate aberration / Failure to address conflicts effectively


Glimpses of Peacebuilding


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

ORGANISATION Experience: Rosa Parks – USA, Mass Democratic Movement – South Africa, WANEP – Liberia + Lesson: Effective peacebuilding and social change requires organisations ready and able to mobilize people’s engagement and to sustain actions, strategies and campaigns. Individual actions can be important and powerful and can catalyze movement, but organization is necessary to support it and bring about meaningful change.


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

PEOPLE’S NEEDS Experience: Salt March - India Lesson: To engage people a movement / peacebuilding needs to address their real issues and needs. Peacebuilding organizations and leadership need to show an understanding of what people actually care and are concerned about, and develop actions which empower and enable people and citizens to take change into their own hands.


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

PEOPLE’S OWN INITIATIVE Experience: Berlin Wall – Germany Landless Movement – Brazil, February 15 2003 (Global) Lesson: Effective movements have to create ways for people to develop their own initiatives (both organized and spontaneous), building to a critical mass of engagement which wins over more and more of the population and public opinion.


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

BROADLY INCLUSIVE Experience: Concerned Citizens - Kenya Lesson: Create platforms and spaces which enable people to act, and reach out to people across all sectors. Promote inclusion and motivate people along lines that have value and meaning to them.


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

SOCIAL MEDIA & COMMUNICATION Experience: Egypt, Rwanda, Kenya, Global Lesson: Communicating to people, raising awareness, using traditional and modern tools to bring forward messages which support peacebuilding, active engagement, and mobilization for change can play a powerful role in strengthening a populations engagement for peace, healing, and preventing acts of violence.


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

HOPE & MOMENTUM Experience: Tahrir Square - Egypt Lesson: Hope is a powerful force. Even in contexts where people may feel change isn’t possible and people appear to be apathetic or disengaged, if they can be inspired with hope and believe that change is possible, people may become involved. This can create a momentum of increasing engagement for change.


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

INSPIRE Experience: Tiananmen Square, China, Martin Luther King, Millions and Millions More Lesson: Promote, nurture and encourage people’s belief that change is possible, and that they can do it. Create a positive message and motivation. Share examples of successes that show it can be done – that can connect with their realities and aspirations.


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

LEADERSHIP Experience: Northern Ireland, South Africa Lesson: Leadership can play a positive and powerful role in enabling people to take steps for change, building a future beyond division and war, and helping overcome enemy images and stereotypes. Concrete acts by leaders in how they respond to conflict situations can provide inspirational roles and models for society to move beyond war.


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

PERSERVERANCE Experience: Mothers of the Plaza del Mayo - Argentina Lesson: Movements for change may not succeed at first and may often face difficult challenges and obstacles. Perserverance over time can gradually shift people’s attitudes, show dedication, and convince people of the authenticity of a movement. Perserverance, even under duress, challenges and moments where people may feel hopeless, is essential.


MSSP: Global Briefing – Experiences in Achieving Change

CREATIVITY Experience: Global Lesson: Creativity lies at the heart of effective peacebuilding. Finding creative, constructive ways to address challenges and transform conflicts, opening new opportunities and possibilities to meet the legitimate needs and interests of all parties and stakeholders involved and transcending either/or approaches.


“I am not an optimist nor a pessimist but I have hope born of the choices I make and the actions I take�


transformative leadership @ Rotaract MUN 2013