Delano health and sustainability element public draft & appendices

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City of Delano Health and Sustainability Element

Public Draft November 22, 2013



CONTENT INTRODUCTION PURPOSE

1

1

Relationship between health and sustainability

Relationship with smart valley places livability principles

AUTHORIZATION

COMMUNITY INPUT

2

2

3

4

Community Conversation 1

Community Conversation 2

CLIMATE ACTION PLAN

4

EXISTING CONDITIONS

5 6

6

Social Wellbeing and Equity

8

Overall Health, Prevention, and Health Access

9

Land Use and Community Character

Transportation and Mobility

11

Housing

12

Economy and Employment

13

Healthy Food Access and Food Security

Parks and Recreation

16

Natural Resources and Environmental Quality

17

Climate Adaptation

19

Energy and Climate Change

20

Green Buildings

21

IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS

23

Matrix Organization

23

APPENDICES

A

10

14

Community Conversation Summary #1 and #2

A1

Existing Conditions Report

A2

Climate Action Plan

A3



PUBLIC DRAFT DELANO HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT INTRODUCTION The Health and Sustainability Element will provide the City of Delano, decision makers, and the community, with guidance to strategically form a community that provides a healthy and sustainable environment for its residents and supports the visions and goals of the General Plan.

PURPOSE As planning practices and research have progressed, more and more findings show the co-benefits that healthy planning strategies and sustainable planning strategies can have on one another. Through a focus on integrating planning, public health, and sustainability, this element will simultaneously combat both health and sustainability issues including short-term and long-term health problems like diabetes, asthma, and obesity, greenhouse gas emissions, deteriorating local food systems, car dependency, and segregation of those with limited means. The public health aspects of this element aim to create an environment in Delano that is supportive of and can facilitate healthy activities, habits, and lifestyles for all residents of the City. Health and sustainability are heavily intertwined, such that policies that improve the health of community members also often benefit environmental sustainability. Thus, the sustainability components of this element can be found in both stand-alone policies as well as within the health focused policies as the health policies provide a co-benefit for the natural environment and community health. Further, the City of Delano seeks to take the long-term “sustainable� view when planning for the community. Investing in environmental protections and community wellness now, is the smart economic choice for future generations. Through changes in the built environment, and community social environment, the City and its Sphere of Influence area will benefit from a cohesive collaboration of health and sustainability concerns incorporated into the planning process. A health and sustainability element formed around the goals of nurturing active lifestyles, providing local and healthy food options, increasing community strength, developing the local economy, and ensuring longevity in both the environment and residents, would greatly improve the quality of life for community members, and provide a holistic environment for people who live, work, and recreate in Delano.

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R E L AT I O N S HI P B E T W E E N HE A LT H A N D S U S TAI N A B I LI T Y What is a Healthy Delano?

A healthy Delano provides the tools, environment, and culture that support physical and mental health for all residents. The World Health Organization defines a healthy city as “…one that is continually creating and improving those physical and social environments and expanding those community resources which enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and developing to their maximum potential.” i A Healthy Delano would incorporate all amenities, design guidelines, social programs, and community’s social bond to ensure that City practices support physical, social, emotional, and spiritual health. What is a Sustainable Delano?

A sustainable Delano would focus around longevity and a built environment that has the ability to sustain activity and natural resource supply with minimal environmental impacts and environmental health problems including air quality, water quality, and any other hazardous pollutants. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a sustainable community “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Additionally, a sustainable community should link and balance “environmental, social, and economic well-being.” ii How can they work together?

The City can implement community health and sustainability as one integrated approach. What makes a community healthy, can also make it sustainable. From increasing walkability and designing an energy efficient urban form, to conscious waste handling and disposal practices, and promoting community bonds, all aspects of the Health and Sustainability Element aim to generate healthy and sustainable built and social environments.

R E L AT I O N S HI P W I T H S M AR T VA L L E Y P L AC E S LI VAB I LI T Y PRINCIPLES This planning effort was made possible by a grant from Smart Valley Places, which received funds from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Both HUD and the Smart Valley Places program seek to improve the quality of life through the implementation of six livability principles: 1.

Provide more transportation choices

2. Promote equitable, affordable housing 3. Enhance economic competiveness 4. Support existing communities

5. Coordinate policies and leverage investment

6. Value communities and neighborhoods

The proposed goals and policies of the Health and Sustainability Element address all of these livability principles. Each goal addresses some of the livability principles and two goals address all of the livability principles. Because this element presents an integrated approach to health and sustainability in which the goals and policies are connected and often mutually supportive, the connections between the goals of this element and the livability principles of Smart Valley Places are presented in the matrix below: HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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X

X

6. Value Communities and Neighborhoods

5. Coordinate Policies and Leverage Investment

4. Support Existing Communities

3. Enhance Economic Competitiveness

2. Promote Equitable, Affordable Housing

1. Provide More Transportation Choices

Health and Sustainability Element Goal Topics 1. Social Well-being and Equity 2. Overall Health, Prevention, and Health Access 3. Land Use and Community Character 4. Transportation and Mobility 5. Housing 6. Economy and Employment 7. Healthy Food Access and Food Security 8. Parks and Recreation 9. Natural Resources and Environmental Quality 10. Climate Adaptation 11. Energy and Climate Change 12. Green Buildings

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X

AUTHORIZATION California State Government Code Section 65303, allows a jurisdiction to include additional elements in the General Plan beyond those required in the statewide General Plan Guidelines and is as follows: “The general plan may include any other elements or address any other subjects, which in the judgment of the legislative body, relate to the physical development of the county or city.” This section of the Government Code gives jurisdictions the authority to create and adopt optional elements that may not fall within the traditional topics covered by the mandatory seven elements. Health and Sustainability are important community goals that must be addressed through the built environment if the City is to be successful. Additionally, there are many issues addressed within this element that would fall under the City’s authority to prepare a Land Use Element, a Safety Element, an Open Space Element, or a Conservation Element. Once adopted, the Health and Sustainability Element will have equal regulatory weight as any other required or optional elements of the General Plan.

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COMMUNITY INPUT This planning effort was heavily grounded by a two-tiered community involvement process. First, the City formed a Planning Task Force to provide strategic input on the element throughout the process. The Planning Task Force was comprised of community members from all facets of Delano, including government, non-profit, education, health, energy, and business sectors. The Planning Task Force met four times during this planning process and provided guidance on form and content of community meetings, as well as input on the goals, policies, and priorities of the element. Additionally, the City held two community meetings, called community conversations, to gather community input on the element. A full summary of the community input received can be found in Appendix A1 of this element.

CO M M U N I T Y CO N VE R S AT I O N # 1 The Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #1 took place on Tuesday, February 26, 2013 from 5:30pm-8:00pm at the Delano Civic Center. Eighty-two participants signed-in at the workshop, but there were likely more people in attendance since some families in attendance had only one person sign-in for the entire family. The objectives of the workshop were to: •

Educate residents about Delano’s Health and Sustainably Element and Climate Action Plan;

Learn about existing health and environmental conditions in Delano;

Get feedback from residents on their health and sustainability priorities for Delano; and

Socialize and have fun!

VISUAL PREFERENCE SURVEY A visual preference survey was conducted to fully understand community members' ideas regarding the look and feel of future development and the desired amenities. The full results of the survey are presented in the Appendix A1 of this element. In summary, the community preferred town-scale buildings and neighborhoods that supported walking, bicycling, and community interaction.

INTERACTIVE STATIONS After the visual preference survey, community members were to visit each of six stations. The stations included: 1.

Health & Sustainability Goals

2. Park Safety & Access 3. Economic Prosperity 4. Sustainable Environment 5. Healthy Food 6. Active & Safe Transportation

One or two project staffers provided guidance and answered questions at each station. Participants were encouraged to comment on each topic area with additional thoughts, either on large flipchart paper HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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on the wall or on the individual feedback forms provided at the meeting. While there were many topics that were covered, the top health and sustainability goals included: •

Streets that support walking, bicycling, and transit

Improve public safety

Access to healthy, affordable, and locally-produced food

Creating more park space

Workforce learning

Green Technology

Creating stricter anti-tobacco and anti-smoking laws

Supporting sorting garbage, compost, and recycling at home

Expanding the variety of restaurants in Delano and encourage new and existing restaurants to offer healthier menu options

Expanding community gardens to more users

Decreasing vehicle speeds in residential areas

CO M M U N I T Y CO N VE R S AT I O N # 2 The Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #2 took place on Wednesday, May 29, 2013 from 5:30pm-8:00pm. This community conversation was conducted in a different format, arranged around topical discussion groups. Two blocks of time were set so that community members could participate in two different discussion groups. A facilitator ran each group and reported the results at the end of the evening. The following are the top 7 items discussed. Among all the notes, walkability and infrastructure improvements were mentioned in many sections, and were the two most prominent topics mentioned from the workshop. 1.

Walkability – Community members focused on walkability in a number of topics and wanted improved walkability throughout the City.

2. Infrastructure improvements – Community members recommended infrastructure improvements throughout the City. 3. Healthy food options – Community members would like to have more fresh and healthy food options. 4. Community and recreation programs – Community members would like to see more community activities that will bring together all of its members. HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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5. Education and job training – Community members want more jobs and training for high skill level jobs within the City. 6. Climate change, energy, and green practice education – Community members support more education and awareness efforts to teach people about climate change issues and how to be energy efficient. 7. Physical and mental health – Community members would like to improve physical and mental health services. The results of both workshops were utilized as primary inputs for the creation of the goals, policies, and actions of this element and the Climate Action Plan.

CLIMATE ACTION PLAN In parallel with the conjunction of this Health and Sustainability Element, the City of Delano has also been preparing a Climate Action Plan, which will become one of the implementation mechanisms for this element. The City of Delano Climate Action Plan outlines strategies, goals, and actions for the City and its community to reduce municipal and community-wide GHG emissions. It is designed to ensure that Delano does its part to meet the mandates of California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), while taking into account the Delano General Plan vision for future growth. AB 32 directs the state to reduce state-wide GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. To achieve these reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the State Office of Planning and Research (OPR) recommend that local governments target their 2020 emissions to be 15 percent below 2005 levels, which are deemed to be equivalent to 1990 emissions levels. The City of Delano considered many potential GHG-reduction strategies and actions. Best-suited measures were chosen primarily based on their ability to reduce GHG emissions for their cost-benefit characteristics, with additional considerations for funding availability and feasibility of implementation. The selected measures in this Climate Action Plan cover transportation and land use, energy consumption and generation, water use and wastewater treatment, solid waste disposal, and municipal operations. For each emissions sector, the Climate Action Plan presents goals, strategies, and specific actions for reducing emissions, along with quantified cost-benefit impacts where possible. An implementation and monitoring plan is also provided. The initial implementation timeframe will span approximately seven years, from now (2013) through 2020. For more information, please refer to Appendix A3, City of Delano Climate Action Plan.

EXISTING CONDITIONS In order to transform the City into a Healthy and Sustainable environment, a firm knowledge of the current setting will provide an invaluable baseline to measure progress, and determine strengths and weaknesses of the existing environment. The following topics outline the existing conditions for Delano, and reflect the current health and sustainable environment. The data and detailed analysis supporting HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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this section of the Element can be found in Appendix A2, Background Report for the Health and

Sustainability General Plan Element.

Socio-Cultural Context: The socio-cultural context of Delano addresses age, ethnicity, housing tenure, educational attainment, and social services. Community culture and social dynamics can play a pivotal role in the health of a community, based on social bonds, cultural understanding, and community strength. The 2010 population of Delano was 53,041 residents, with 10,530 people (19.9 percent) housed within the City’s two state prisons. The largest racial/ethnic group is Hispanic Latino making up 78.5 percent of the civilian population in Delano. More than a quarter of Delano households are considered linguistically isolated, and 19,731 (37.2 percent) of Delano residents are foreign-born, with 5,722 (29 percent) being naturalized citizens. Almost half of Delano residents have completed high school, and 7.2 percent of residents have a college degree. Of the 10,260 housing units, 43.8 percent are renter occupied. Community Health Status: The community health status provides current information on obesity, insurance coverage, diseases, mortality rates, physical activity, and health habits. In Kern County, 62 percent of all adults are obese or overweight, with county residents aged 45-64 having the highest obesity rate (44.6 percent). Kern County also has a lower life expectancy than California, at 77 years in the County and 80.8 years statewide. Cancer was the cause of 5,255 deaths from 2008-2010 in Kern County. Coronary heart disease accounted for 1,072 deaths. Additionally, 40,841 persons (77 percent) are covered by public or private health insurance, with the 25-34 age group having the least coverage as only 49 percent of residents in this age range are covered. Built Environment: The existing built environment includes information on population density, land use, urban infill, park level of service, housing, homelessness, walkability, and circulation. The built environment of a City can determine accessibility to services, jobs, and commercial land uses, and can hinder or help residents live active lifestyles. Delano has an average population density of 5.8 people per acre, unevenly distributed throughout the City. The built environment also shows that Delano has a large portion of its land used for agriculture and 1,870 acres of vacant property. Additionally, residents and workers can use the City’s two Class II bike lanes, and four bus routes running through the City boundaries. The most used mode of transportation employed in the City is the personal motor vehicle utilized for commuting to work, with 67.0 percent of residents driving alone. It is also important to note that 58 percent of residents work outside of City boundaries, possibly contributing to the large proportion of people driving alone. Economic Prosperity and Access to Goods and Services: The economic, goods, and services status of Delano provides information on industry mix, unemployment, job density, fast food access, supermarket density, and local food production. Delano’s unemployment rate reached 30.8 percent in October 2012, far higher than California’s 9.8 percent, and 7.5 percent in the United States. Along with higher unemployment rates, 7,657 (18 percent) of Delano residents live near an unhealthy fast food establishment. Only 18,285 residents (43 percent) live near a Supermarket or Farmer’s Market. The City has challenges in economic prosperity with high unemployment rates, which can contribute to poor health, or inability to afford healthy food options. The low percentage of residents living within one-half mile of fresh food is also a challenge in ensuring all Delano residents are living healthy lifestyles, with diet being a major factor. Sustainable Natural Environment: The existing natural environment of Delano includes, air quality, energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water quality and use. 2005 GHG emissions reached 255,854 metric tons (MT), and had increased to 276,456 MT CO2e in 2010. Delano air quality has been improving slowly and bad air days fell to 108 in 2011. The City is also expected to experience HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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increased average temperatures, and is projected to experience a decrease in rainfall ranging from 1 to 4 inches over the next 50-70 years. Through this understanding of the existing conditions in Delano, the City has facilitated the planning process to identify needs and form policies and implementation strategies that can improve health and sustainability in Delano. The existing conditions will also serve as the baseline for any implementation monitoring, and can better serve future planning processes with effective strategies for maintaining and improving a healthy and sustainable community.

GOALS AND POLICIES SOCIAL WELL-BEING AND EQUIT Y Goal 1.

Equitable and supportive community. A safe, equitable, and close-knit community in which diverse cultures can thrive together. Policies 1.1

Equitable distribution of opportunity and risk. Equitable distribution of opportunity and risk. Consider the geographic distribution of positive amenities and services as well as limit potentially harmful land uses. Strive for balance in these distributions.

1.2

Health equity. Identify and address health inequities in Delano, within Delano’s sphere of influence and between Delano and the Kern County on a regular basis and strive to facilitate a high quality of life for all residents.

1.3

Community and civic engagement. Community and civic engagement. Create opportunities for civic contributions by building one or more affordable, accessible and flexible central gathering/meeting/event spaces that individuals, youth, and community groups can rent for a variety of social, cultural, and education uses, along with opportunities for civic input.

1.4

Institutional discrimination. Actively identify and modify the underlying institutional systems that may have unintentional discriminatory consequences in Delano. Consider how future City decisions and practices can actively and intentionally reverse institutional discrimination based on race, ethnicity, country of origin, sex, age, socio-economic status, physical ability, sexual orientation, and religion.

1.5

Vulnerable populations. Ensure that new policies, services, and programs support and are responsive to community members who are most in need. Vulnerability definitions may vary depending on the policy/program focus, but some vulnerable population groups could include persons in poverty, single-parent households, older adults, young children, linguistically isolated households, immigrants, unemployed residents, and those with lower levels of educational attainment.

1.6

Culturally responsive social services. Ensure social services and programs meet the diverse needs in the community for seniors, youth, non-English speakers, special

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needs residents, and any residents experiencing any cultural and social hardships including domestic violence. 1.7

Real and perceived neighborhood safety. Improve perceived and actual safety in Delano by addressing the root causes of crime and violence in tandem with traditional public safety measures. Root causes of crime include social and economic disadvantage (e.g., poverty and poor educational and employment opportunities), unsupportive social environment (e.g., inequality, lack of leaders and mentors, under-resourced neighborhoods, and overlooked mental health issues) and unstable family or support structures (e.g., high conflict, low communication, low trust, responsibility, and expectations).

1.8

Leadership programs, volunteer opportunities. Promote volunteer programs with local non-profit organizations, partnership collaborations, and public schools to foster a sense of ownership and pride among residents that supports interactions between youth and elders.

O VE R A L L H E A LT H , P R E V E N T I O N , A N D HE A LT H ACC E S S Goal 2.

Healthy Community. A community that supports residents’ health through a focus on wellness and preventative measures. Policies 2.1

Healthy long lives. Reduce disparities in life expectancy among different race/ethnicities and income levels by working closely with the Kern County and the Delano Regional Medical Center to track trends and support targeted wellness programs throughout the life course.

2.2

Prevent chronic diseases and cancers. Prevent chronic diseases and cancers by explicitly focusing on improving the primary modifiable risk factors of an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and alcohol abuse.

2.3

Unintentional injuries. Seek ways to prevent unintentional injuries (especially falls among older adults, motor vehicle collisions, fires and burns, drowning, and poisoning and drug overdoses) through proper maintenance of public property, code enforcement of private property, at workplaces and through community education programs.

2.4

Healthy body weight and positive body image. Encourage programs that educate residents on how to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight and prevent obesity through healthy eating and physical activity, while maintaining a positive and healthy body image.

2.5

Access to preventative physical and mental health care and education. Encourage the provision of a range of health and mental health services (including but not limited to primary, preventive, specialty, prenatal, dental care, mental health, and substance abuse treatment/counseling) in a manner accessible to residents through partnerships with community groups and the County of Kern Public Health Services Department.

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2.6

Increase the number of persons with health insurance coverage. Allow the creation of incentives to encourage the development of federally qualified health centers or private practices that are committed to serving Medi-Cal and Medicare enrollees that ensure providers serve all residents. Educate and support Delano residents and employers with respect to the Affordable Care Act and the California Healthcare Exchange.

2.7

Workplace wellness. Enhance the health and well-being of City employees through workplace wellness programs and policies to increase employee productivity, improve morale, decrease incidence of accidents and injuries and decrease medical costs. Aspire to become a model healthy organization for other cities in the region.

L A N D U S E A N D CO M M U N I T Y C H A R AC T E R Goal 3.

Healthy Community Design. Development patterns and urban design comprised of complete, walkable, attractive, and family-friendly neighborhoods and districts that support healthy and active lifestyles. Policies 3.1

Urban infill and development location. In existing developed areas of the City, encourage development that creates complete neighborhoods. Such activities include: •

Enhancing connectivity and reducing block sizes, including reasonable and related improvements in off-site locations.

Making pedestrian-oriented development a priority.

3.2

Transit-ready development. Promote compact, mixed-use, energy efficient and transit-ready development to reduce air pollutants associated with energy and vehicular use within existing undeveloped, underutilized areas.

3.3

Proximity to goods and services. Strive to create development patterns such that the majority of residents are within one-half mile walking distance to a variety of neighborhood goods and services, including supermarkets, restaurants, churches, cafes, dry cleaners, laundromats, farmers markets, banks, hair care, pharmacies and similar uses.

3.4

Walkable streets. Regulate new development to ensure new blocks encourage walkability by maximizing connectivity and route choice, create reasonable block lengths to encourage more walking and physical activity, and add shade structures or shade trees to improve the walkability of existing neighborhood streets.

3.5

Access, siting, design, operations, and maintenance of City facilities and schools. Work with the school districts to promote standards to protect students and staff from environmental hazards. Modify the Zoning Ordinance to prevent schools and other sensitive receptors from being located near known or expected new stationary sources of air pollution, and limit use or production of hazardous materials or pollutants. The specific “safe” distance from a pollution source is dependent on

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the source and amount of pollution releases; however, a good rule of thumb is at least 500 feet.

T R A N S P O R TAT I O N A N D M O B I LI T Y Goal 4.

Balanced Transportation. A balanced transportation system that accommodates all modes of travel safely and efficiently, without prioritizing automobile travel at the expense of other modes. Policies 4.1

Connected neighborhoods. Require the continuation of the street network between adjacent development projects to promote walkability and allow easier access for emergency vehicles.

4.2

Bicyclist and pedestrian education and encouragement. Support pedestrian and bicyclist education, encouragement, and enforcement activities. Encourage bicyclists to be aware of bicycling issues, and lawful/responsible riding. Support bike education events and classes that help new and experienced bike riders become more knowledgeable and effective at bike riding and bike maintenance. Educate drivers about the rights of pedestrians and bicyclists and respectful ways to share the road.

4.3

Safe Routes to School. Continue to evaluate and improve infrastructure around schools to ensure they are highly connected to neighborhoods with safe access for pedestrians and bicyclists.

4.4

Improve the pedestrian environment. Develop a comprehensive and visible wayfinding signage system in the City to direct pedestrians and cyclists to transit facilities, local and regional bike routes, civic and cultural amenities, and visitor and recreation destinations. The way-finding system should make an effort to connect with the region and surrounding cities.

4.5

Create a bicycle network. Require that the City provide additional bicycle facilities along all roadways identified in the Bicycle Facilities Master Plan in the City which are built or reconstructed in the City except in those instances in which there is insufficient right-of-way or other physical limitations.

4.6

Improve local transit service. Promote transit service in areas of the City with sufficient density and intensity of uses, mix of appropriate uses, and supportive bicycle/pedestrian networks and expand service to existing underserved areas.

4.7

Improve connections to regional transit. Collaborate with Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART) to identify improved regional connections for City residents and employees.

4.8

Improve access to transit. Collaborate with DART and Kern Regional Transit Division to identify potential ‘park and ride’ locations in Delano.

4.9

Improve connections to local and regional transit. Collaborate with Kern Regional Transit Division to provide connections between the City’s transit, bicycle, and pedestrian networks to regional facilities.

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4.10

Reduce collisions and decrease vehicle speeds in residential areas through traffic calming measures and improved roadway design. Develop traffic calming policies to include: clearly marked bike and pedestrian zones, bike boulevards, bulb outs, median islands, speed humps, traffic circles, speed tables, center island narrowings, raised crosswalks, blinking crosswalks, chicanes, chokers, raised intersections, realigned intersections, and textured pavements, among other effective enhancements. Apply these traffic calming techniques to both new and existing streets, as necessary, to maintain quality of life for residents.

4.11

Transportation demand management. Manage the City’s transportation system to maintain a balanced system for all users. Regularly: •

Evaluate traffic conditions throughout the City.

Evaluate impacts to all modes of travel, not just automobiles, when considering transportation system performance.

Require that the City first consider infrastructure improvements that will improve alternative modes of travel before considering roadway improvements that will increase automobile capacity.

4.12

Park once strategies. Design dense nodes of commercial and retail businesses with reduced off-street parking that is accessible to public parking locations so people can park once for many errands/trips while balancing the need for parking turnover through mechanisms such as parking time limits.

4.13

Unbundle parking. Allow and encourage developers of residential, mixed-use and multi-tenant commercial projects to unbundle parking costs from unit sale and rental costs in denser, mixed-use areas to give tenants and owners the opportunity to save money by using fewer parking spaces where there is less need.

HOUSING Goal 5.

Healthy Housing. Safe, affordable, and healthy housing for every stage of life. Policies 5.1

Increase availability of affordable housing. Implement Housing Element programs and actions that facilitate the development of affordable housing in close proximity to services, transit and employment opportunities to reduce unnecessary transportation costs associated with sprawl development and ensure affordable housing is not located near hazardous or undesirable land uses.

5.2

Mixed income neighborhoods. Strive to create mixed-income neighborhoods by integrating affordable housing with market rate housing, avoiding concentrations of below-market-rate or subsidized housing in any one area of the City or within the City’s Sphere of Influence area.

5.3

Range of housing types for all stages of life. Provide a greater diversity and range of housing by location, tenure, size, amenities, type of unit, and price throughout the City to help ensure residents of all stages of life have housing opportunities.

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5.4

Healthy housing. Encourage property owners pursuing new developments and home renovations to use low-or non-toxic materials such as low-VOC (volatile organic compound) paint and carpet and other strategies to improve indoor air quality and noise levels (e.g., kitchen range top exhaust fans, treated windows, etc.).

5.5

Prevent foreclosures and help people already experiencing foreclosures and evictions. Enlist non-profit and other community partners by providing information to residents so as to reduce the detrimental social and health effects of foreclosures for Delano residents.

5.6

Permanent affordable housing and a shelter for the homeless. Allow and encourage the development of transitional and permanent supportive housing for homeless and very low-income residents.

E CO N O M Y A N D E M P LOYM E N T Goal 6.

Economic Prosperity. An economically vibrant business community that is socially and environmentally conscious and provides quality employment opportunities and resources to meet community needs. Policies 6.1

Jobs-housing balance, match, and proximity. Ensure a jobs-housing balance by offering a variety of housing types and affordability that meet various job-income levels available in Delano. Closely monitor jobs, income, and housing, and ensure residents’ ability to both live and work within City boundaries.

6.2

Highly skilled workforce. Work with local schools, colleges, trade schools and nonprofit scholarship organizations to ensure that a trained and qualified workforce is available to meet the needs of projected growing industries that provide living wages.

6.3

Job access, workforce development, and lifelong learning. Work with the school districts, the Kern County Regional Occupational Center, and the Department of Human Services to support mentorship professional development and continuing education programs so working adults can expand their skills and embrace lifelong learning.

6.4

Access to capital. Encourage banks and lenders, or adopt an Affordable Loan Program, to grant access to capital through affordable strategies including microloans, and ensure residents have the opportunity to invest in themselves, the City, and maintain a thriving economy.

6.5

Healthy workplaces and occupational health and safety. Encourage local employers to adopt employee programs and practices such as health challenges (e.g., weight loss contests, stop smoking, lunchtime/worktime sponsored events, bike to work days), healthy food choices and healthy work environments. The City can provide incentives (such as priority permit processing) to “healthy employers� that provide employee health benefits such as paid sick days, health insurance, gym membership, among others.

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6.6

Promote locally owned businesses. Provide programs or incentives that support locally owned businesses to promote a diverse local economy that serves the needs of local consumers.

6.7

Private-public-church partnership for job creation. Encourage multi-organization partnerships including faith-based groups that form social networks and explore employment opportunities that lead to new jobs.

6.8

Support youth-employment and youth-serving businesses. Explore opportunities to collaborate with the school districts along with faith-based and non-profit organizations to better serve youth employment needs.

6.9

Attract and retain business that provide living wage jobs. Develop programs to attract and retain socially responsible employers that can pay a living wage, provide health insurance benefits and meet existing levels of workforce education.

6.10

Create jobs that require higher skill levels. Encourage employers in Delano to create jobs that do not retain workers in monotonous low skill level positions, but rather, provide jobs that require higher skill levels and help create a higher quality job market and encourage workers and residents to obtain new skills and learn new technologies.

6.11

Encourage green technology businesses to locate in Delano. Adopt a green technology incubator for the City and recruit green technology entrepreneurs to locate in Delano.

H E A LT HY F O O D ACC E S S A N D F O O D S E C U R I T Y Goal 7.

Healthy Food Access. Accessible and convenient opportunities to buy and grow healthy, affordable, and culturally diverse foods with low concentrations of unhealthy food providers. Policies 7.1

Community gardens. Partner with the Delano Regional Medical Center, schools, and other organizations to create “edible school yards� and sustainable gardening programs at public and private schools within Delano. When feasible, increase access to healthy foods and promote healthy eating by encouraging on-site food swaps, cooking classes and/or selling food at farmers’ markets to provide educational opportunities to learn about farming and selling.

7.2

Selling locally produced food. Work with local agricultural stakeholders to establish a strategy to encourage existing and new agricultural uses in and near Delano to grow healthy food for local consumption.

7.3

Local food production. Make land use and policy decisions that encourage increased local food production.

7.4

Connect to local food markets. To the extent feasible, assess and plan for local food processing and distribution needs to connect local agriculture to markets, such as retailers, restaurants, schools, hospitals and other institutions and encourage

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certified organic growing practices. Also encourage local growers to consider establishing a co-operative community supported agriculture program. 7.5

Cottage Food Operations. Support cottage food operations as accessory business uses in residential zoning districts in accordance with AB 1616.

7.6

Community Gardens. Seek out and encourage the use of public and underused land, such as unused parking lots, abandoned properties, and public parks, for community gardens.

7.7

Supplemental food assistance programs. Reduce hunger and food insecurity through government programs, community education and emergency food resources. Specifically, work with the County to increase enrollment in WIC and CalFresh by educating residents about eligibility requirements and keeping applications at City offices.

7.8

Improve access to healthy food retail. Encourage and provide incentives for healthy and culturally appropriate food retail establishments (including full-service grocery stores, farmers’ markets, fruit and vegetable markets and small markets where a majority of food is healthy) to locate in Delano. Recognize food retailers and outlets in setting goals for local procurement.

7.9

Encourage healthy food retail. When making decisions about new stores and restaurants, encourage affordability, nutrition, environmental sustainability and cultural responsiveness.

7.10

Nutrition consumer education. Support the creation of public education programs about healthy and unhealthy food options.

7.11

Nutrition consumer education among the City’s youth. Partner with schools and other organizations to create “edible school yards” and sustainable gardening programs at public and private schools within Delano. When feasible, increase access to healthy foods and promote healthy eating by encouraging on-site food swaps, cooking classes and/or selling food at farmers’ markets to provide educational opportunities to learn about farming and selling.

7.12

Healthier options at restaurants. Establish a Healthy Eating Menu Initiative that will set healthy menu criteria and standards and will encourage existing and new restaurants to add healthier menu options. Options that cater to dietary restrictions can market themselves as a participant in the ‘healthy menu initiative.’

7.13

Good neighbor liquor stores. Partner with community organizations and/or the County of Kern Public Health Services Department to work with local liquor stores to improve perceived and actual neighborhood safety. Encourage businesses to keep at least 75 percent of their window area uncovered to improve eyes on the street visibility. Encourage the installation of internal and exterior security cameras, and improved outdoor lighting. Encourage businesses to increase the amount and visibility of “positive, family-friendly products”such as healthy food, and to ban or more discreetly place less positive products, such as adult-oriented publications, knives, cigarettes and other tobacco products, and alcohol.

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7.14

Liquor and Tobacco marketing. Prohibit stores from placing alcohol and tobacco products near candy and from placing alcohol and tobacco advertisements on exterior signage and below four feet in height (child’s eye-level).

PAR K S A N D R E C R E AT I O N Goal 8.

Park Access. Increased, safe access to parks, recreation, and natural open spaces to inspire and support physical activity. Policies 8.1

Create more park facilities. Establish a range of parks and open spaces, including tot lots, neighborhood parks, community parks, plazas/greens and/or greenways/parkways within all new developments as funding becomes available.

8.2

Improve existing park facilities. Improve existing parks and open space facilities and expand recreational programs as a means of improving the health of Delano residents. Active play structures and/or amenities should be designed to accommodate a range of ages and abilities.

8.3

Build additional recreation facilities. Regularly assess how existing sports facilities (e.g. fields, courts, etc.) match up with community demand and incorporate findings into the planning of park improvements and developments.

8.4

Create more recreation facilities and programs. Locate more public and private health clubs and recreation centers in Delano in partnership with community based organizations and private businesses. Explore regulatory or financial incentives in the zoning code and development approval process to encourage the location of private/non-profit recreation facilities (e.g., gyms, yoga or dance studios, martial arts, etc.).

8.5

Affordable recreation facilities and programs. Ensure that recreation programs are affordable and meet the diverse needs in the community for users such as seniors, youth, non-English speaking groups and special needs groups.

8.6

Joint-use facilities. Promote joint use of public and private facilities for community use, tourism, conference, convention and cultural uses.

8.7

Joint-use agreements. Create joint-use agreements with Delano Joint Union High School District to maximize community use of school facilities and expand school use of City park facilities, where appropriate and community space exists to expand opportunities for physical activity.

8.8

Joint-use facilities near schools. Work to acquire park sites adjacent to existing and proposed schools, where possible, and develop these sites as joint use facilities, develop joint use agreements to ensure public accessibility while ensuring safety and security. Provide for sustainable resources to maintain parks.

8.9

Community participation in improving parks. Create methods and opportunities that encourage residents to monitor and report vandalism along with maintenance issues in parks.

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8.10

Support youth programs through a teen center. Encourage and support existing and new youth programs to create a one-stop teen center that contains social, academic, health and cultural programs as funding becomes available.

8.11

Access to youth programs. Ensure that youth activities and programs are provided in, or accessible from all neighborhoods, either in City facilities or through joint-use or cooperative agreements with other service providers.

8.12

Support youth programs and physical activity opportunities outside of team sports. Prioritize the continued provision of high quality recreational and community programs since these highly subscribed programs increase social connection, physical activity and quality of life.

8.13

Create community parks, plazas, and other adaptable spaces for gathering and socializing. Build one or more affordable, accessible and flexible central gathering/meeting/event spaces that individuals and community groups can rent for a variety of social, cultural, educational and civic purposes.

8.14

Improve park landscaping, design, and aesthetic appeal. Improve existing park design through landscaping and cosmetic improvements that will appeal to community members and increase shading and create design guidelines for any future parks in Delano to create quality park design throughout the City.

8.15

Improve park safety. Increase real and perceived park safety through safety design guidelines including increased lighting, visibility from streets, and access to emergency call towers, as well as education on park safety and promoting park usage. The City should encourage implementing best practices in park safety for Delano’s community parks.

N AT U R A L R E S O U R C E S A N D E N VI R O N M E N TA L Q UA L I T Y Goal 9.

Sustainable Natural Environment. Protected and well-managed natural resources for future residents and the health of current residents. Policies 9.1

Protect and preserve natural lands, waterways, and plant and animal species. When considering development applications, require consideration of onsite natural resources and require sensitive design that minimizes impacts.

9.2

Increase native, non-invasive plant species / street trees. Encourage new developments to incorporate native vegetation materials into landscape plans and prohibit the use of species known to be invasive according to the California Invasive Plant Inventory

9.3

Light pollution. Limit light pollution from outdoor sources, especially in rural areas, and open spaces, to maintain darkness for night sky viewing.

9.4

Noise pollution. Minimize stationary noise impacts on sensitive receptors and noise emanating from construction activities, private developments/residences, landscaping activities, night clubs and bars and special events.

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9.5

Landscaping water efficiency and conservation. Encourage the reduction of landscaping water consumption through plant selection, irrigation technology, and rain sensors.

9.6

Water conservation and reuse. Advocate for and promote indoor and outdoor water conservation and reuse practices including water recycling, grey water re-use and rainwater harvesting.

9.7

Outdoor air quality. Minimize the creation of new sources of air pollutants within the City.

9.8

Mobile air pollution sources. Promote compact, mixed-use, energy efficient and transit-oriented development to reduce air pollutants associated with building energy and vehicular use.

9.9

Protect sensitive land uses from new pollution sources. Prohibit the placement of new facilities that will be involved in the production, use, storage, transport or disposal of hazardous materials near existing land uses that may be adversely affected by such activities. Conversely, prohibit the development of new sensitive facilities (like schools, childcare centers, nursing homes, senior housing, etc.) near existing sites that use, store or generate hazardous materials.

9.10

Prevent conflicts between pollutions sources and sensitive uses. Avoid locating new sensitive uses such as schools, child-care centers, multifamily housing and senior housing in proximity to sources of pollution (e.g., SR-99, truck routes, busy roadways and agricultural land where pesticides and chemical fertilizers are used regularly) and vice versa. Where such uses are located in proximity to sources of air pollution, use building design, construction and technology techniques to mitigate the negative effects of air pollution on indoor air quality. For guidance consult with the Air Quality Management District, CARB’s Air Quality and Land Use Handbook, or other more recent scientific studies or tools.

9.11

Indoor air quality. Require new development to meet the state’s Green Building Code for indoor air quality performance. Promote green building practices that support “healthy homes,” such as low volatile organic compound materials, environmental tobacco smoke control, and indoor air quality construction pollution prevention techniques.

9.12

Use of hazardous materials on private property. Encourage pesticide notification and posting for pesticide applications performed on private property to reduce or prevent harm and potential risks to adjacent properties, people or pets. Adjacent landowners may be able to adjust their schedules to accommodate spraying or pesticide use.

9.13

Reduce exposure to toxic and hazardous materials. Promote proactive compliance with disclosure laws that require all users, generators and transporters of hazardous materials and wastes to identify the materials they store, use or transport.

9.14

Non-toxic herbicides and pesticides. Encourage residents and businesses to reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials, including pesticides and herbicides, by using non-toxic, safer products and methods that do not pose a threat to the

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environment or by buying and using only the smallest amount of a hazardous substance needed for the job. 9.15

Cumulative impacts. When considering the location of new non-desirable and/or polluting land uses in or near residential areas or schools, the City shall continue to follow the CEQA definition of cumulative impacts and also consider the California Environmental Protection Agency's definition iii in decision-making to ensure that no specific area of the City or group of residents are overly exposed to harmful pollutants. •

9.16

Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges, in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.

Air quality planning and advocacy. Coordinate air quality planning efforts with other local, regional and state agencies, and encourage the City to take an official stand for stricter regional and state air quality improvement measures and standards.

C LI M AT E A DA P TAT I O N Goal 10. Climate Change Preparedness. A resilient community that is prepared for and minimizes the risks of the health and safety impacts of climate change. Policies 10.1

Severe weather losses and climate change-related hazards. Monitor and regularly assess climate vulnerabilities. Create a database to track incidents of windstorms, dust storms and other severe weather events to develop a better understanding of the frequency, magnitude and costs associated with severe weather. Use this knowledge to determine the value of establishing a “bad weather” fund to pay for repairs, cleaning and other direct costs of severe weather. Periodically review the effectiveness of existing plans, programs, codes and ordinances in protecting health and safety. Participate in the Storm Ready Program with the National Weather Service, including providing storm watches and warnings in real-time and issuing evacuation notices for the potentially affected neighborhoods in a timely manner.

10.2

Cooling centers and air conditioning. Work with the City’s emergency response team to expand access to the drop-in cooling centers for people vulnerable to high heat days. This should also include organizing a transportation-assistance program for individuals without access to vehicles, develop a robust heat warning system and provide up-to-date information to residents about cooling center locations and the health risks of extreme heat.

10.3

Climate and health indicators. Coordinate with San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District to understand local changes in temperature, extreme heat days, heat waves, drought and precipitation patterns to inform policy and planning decisions.

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10.4

Hazard change and mitigation. Maintain and update on a regular basis, as mandated by FEMA, a Local Hazard Mitigation Plan. Incorporate an assessment of climate change-related hazards in all Local Hazard Mitigation Plan updates.

10.5

Vector control. Allow the use of pesticides or other strategies to encourage Disease Vector Control with regulated and monitored use to comply with any applicable hazardous material use regulations or guidelines.

10.6

Changing precipitation patterns. Closely monitor precipitation patterns and forecasts on a local, regional, and state scale and adopt design requirements, development regulations, or additional programs to adjust and adapt to changes in precipitation.

10.7

Changing heating and cooling design parameters. Establish new heating and cooling design parameters in development projects that can adapt to potential temperature increase, and reduce energy consumption through passive heating and cooling design, site design, and best practices.

10.8

Water availability. Prepare, implement and maintain long-term, comprehensive water supply plans, like the Urban Water Management Plan.

10.9

Water availability. Ensure water supply capacity and infrastructure capacity is in place before granting building permits for new development. If water supply is not adequate to supply new development require new water supplies be secured before granting building permits for new development

10.10 Emergency evacuation. Maintain and update the emergency response organization

consisting of representatives from all City departments, the Kern County Fire and Sheriff Departments, local quasi-governmental agencies, private businesses, citizens, and other community partners involved in emergency relief and/or community-wide emergency-response services.

E N E R G Y A N D C LI M AT E C H A N G E Goal 11. Energy. A highly energy efficient community that relies primarily on renewable and non-polluting energy sources. Policies 11.1

Climate Action Plan. Maintain, implement and periodically update a climate action plan and greenhouse gas inventory.

11.2

Reduce GHG emissions. Conduct city operations and institutionalize practices that reduce municipal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lead the community in reducing GHG emissions.

11.3

Renewable energy. Promote the incorporation of alternative energy generation (e.g., solar, wind, biomass) in public and private development.

11.4

Renewable energy–open space areas. Allow the installation of renewable energy systems in areas zoned for open space.

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11.5

Home and business energy efficiency and reduction programs. When existing buildings undergo major retrofits, encourage the buildings to exceed Title 24 energy efficiency standards by 15 percent and encourage solar photovoltaics.

11.6

Infrastructure energy efficiency. As funding becomes available, implement a program to install the latest energy-efficient technologies for street and parking lot lights to meet City and state standards.

11.7

Adaptation strategy. Proactively develop strategies to reduce the community’s vulnerability to climate change impacts.

11.8

Heat island reduction. Require heat island reduction strategies in new developments such as light-colored cool roofs, light-colored paving, permeable paving, right-sized parking requirements, vegetative cover and planting, substantial tree canopy coverage, and south and west side tree planting.

11.9

Public realm shading. Strive to improve shading in public spaces such as bus stops, sidewalks and public parks and plazas through the use of trees, shelters, awnings, gazebos, fabric shading and other creative cooling strategies.

11.10 Preferential parking and charging stations for electric vehicles. Encourage new

developments, and projects involving reconstruction or repaving of parking facilities, to provide designated and preferred parking spots with charging stations for electric cars.

11.11 Greywater. Support the use of greywater (also known as on-site water recycling)

and establish criteria and standards to permit the safe and effective use of greywater.

11.12 Infrastructure energy efficiency and quality. Consider and evaluate new construction

practices and standards that increase building energy efficiency.

11.13 Storm water runoff and quality. Limit the amount and concentration of pollutants

released into the City’s storm drains.

11.14 Recycling and composting programs. Support on-going green waste recycling

efforts and facilitate composting opportunities for Delano residents and businesses in order to reduced surface ozone pollution and offset greenhouse gas emissions.

G R E E N B U I L DI N G S Goal 12. Green Building. Community building stock that demonstrates high environmental performance through green design. Policies 12.1

Green building programs. Encourage new development to seek out green building certification through established programs such as LEED or Green Point Rated.

12.2

Green affordable housing. Encourage affordable housing developments to prioritize green building design features that reduce monthly utility costs, enhance occupant health and lower the overall cost of housing.

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12.3

Reducing GHG emissions. In consulting with applicants and designing new facilities, encourage the selection of green building design features that enhance the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

12.4

Building energy efficiency requirement. Encourage new construction to exceed Title 24 energy efficiency standards and incorporate solar photovoltaics.

12.5

Energy performance targets – existing buildings. When existing buildings undergo major retrofits, encourage the buildings to exceed Title 24 energy efficiency standards and encourage solar photovoltaics.

12.6

Community development–subdivisions. When reviewing applications for new subdivisions, encourage all residences be oriented along an east-west axis, minimizing western sun exposure, to maximize energy efficiency.

Figure 1: These diagrams demonstrate how the blocks and housing within can be designed to maximize building energy efficiency, maintaining the primary building axis along an east-west access to minimze western sun exposure. Each diagram shows how buildings should be oriented with their long axis oriented from east to west and minimize sun exposure of the western face of buildings.

12.7

Storm water management. Encourage the use of low-impact development strategies to minimize urban run-off, increase site infiltration, manage storm water and recharge groundwater supplies.

12.8

Building water efficiency. Encourage new construction to exceed the state’s Green Building Code for water conservation by an additional 10 percent.

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IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS For some topics in this General Plan Element, the new adopted policies are sufficient to realize certain goals. However, most goals will require additional implementation actions to help make those operational. This section ties together the goals and policies in the Health and Sustainability Element. These are generally one-time actions needed to mobilize and execute specific policies within the General Plan, such as creating an ordinance or updating a master plan. Funding for these programs is expected to come from a wide variety of sources that will be identified in an on-going basis and will likely include the General Fund, development impact fees, and a variety of grants.

M AT R I X O R G A N I Z AT I O N In the matrix that follows, each implementation action includes the following information: #

ACTION DESCRIPTION

PRIORITY

TIME FRAME

RESPONSIBILITY

Each

An actionable description of the implementation

Action items are marked as “High”, “Medium”, or “Low” depending on community and

A broad timeframe that refers to when the action should

Identification of the agency or

action is

action. Some actions include end-note

staff input throughout the process. Some of the criteria that helped determine priority

be implemented. The timeframes are as follows:

department responsible for

numbered

references to supportive background material

included:

as a

or example projects.

Cost.

Feasibility.

each

Whether the action would help engage and empower residents.

element

comprehen sive list for

#

Action

Goal 1

Equitable and supportive community. A safe, equitable, and close-knit community in which diverse cultures can thrive together.

1.1

implementing the action.

one year of Plan adoption. Short – Within 2 to 4 years of Plan adoption. Medium – Between approximately 5 and 7 years of Plan adoption.

Whether action could improve or enhance existing programs/infrastructure (instead of create something new).

Immediate – Current/ongoing projects or within

Long – 10+ years after Plan adoption.

Ongoing – Reoccurring or immediate action.

Priority

Time Frame

Responsibility

Community Center. Establish and begin planning process for community center. Use report and data to define areas in the City that will best benefit from a local community center that supports community congregation. Sites should be accessible by walking, cycling, and public transportation.

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

1.2

Gathering Spaces. In addition an additional community center, site and establish a database of venues, halls, community rooms, or event spaces that will provide gathering spaces for community or civic events. All sited gathering spaces should be affordable or free to community members.

Medium

Immediate

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

1.3

Community Communication. Work with local community leaders, non-profit organization representatives, and other stakeholders in the City to establish an effective form of communication. The communication forum will better connect City staff, community members, and community leaders to each other through multiple directions of communication and information sharing.

High

Immediate

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

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Goal 2

Healthy Community. A community that supports residents’ health through a focus on wellness and preventative measures.

2.1

Health Forum. Work with community leaders and health advocates advisory committee. The committee will advise City Council, City staff, and community members on health and wellness, support health and wellness implementation actions, in addition to supporting health events, promoting healthy programs, and connecting residents to healthy lifestyle learning opportunities including cooking classes, nutritional seminars, special events, and community boards that support active lifestyles.

High

Immediate

City Manager

2.2

Health Assessment Report. Work with Kern County and Delano Medical Clinic to establish health indicators. Within one year of element adoption, establish baseline health data of indicators for Delano, and establish database to track trends and changes in the City’s health status. Work with Kern County and Delano Medical Center to provide a Regular Health Assessment Report that discloses and tracks changes in the City’s health status, and provide or promote local and regional health programs.

High

Immediate

City Manager, Community Development

2.3

Health care facilities. Work with County of Kern Public Health Services Department and state agencies to site and establish necessary facilities and services that will serve Delano residents without having to leave the City. Additionally, create incentives, or prioritize development for business and organizations that offer health care benefits to employees.

High

Long

Community Development

2.4

Liquor and Tobacco marketing. Prohibit stores from placing alcohol and tobacco products near candy and from placing alcohol and tobacco advertisements on exterior signage and below four feet in height (child’s eye-level).

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

2.5

Identify a workplace wellness team and create a model workplace wellness program for City employees. The team should assess employee health needs and implement workplace wellness programs and events. Some possible actions include offering employee incentives for healthy eating and physical activity; smoking cessation programs; group fitness or diet programs; health screenings; physical activity breaks for meetings over one hour in length; accommodate breastfeeding employees upon their return to work; and encourage walking meetings and use of stairways.

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

2.6

Share the City’s model workplace wellness program information with local employers to encourage the adoption of similar practices.

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Local Businesses

Goal 3

Healthy Community Design. Development patterns and urban design comprised of complete, walkable, attractive, and family-friendly neighborhoods and districts that support healthy and active lifestyles.

3.1

Establish Zoning changes that will require schools, or other sensitive receptors, and stationary pollution sources to be located at least 500 feet from each other. Research and establish exact distance requirements based on pollution source, prior to siting and permitting process.

Medium

Short

Community Development

3.2

Healthy Development Streamlining. Develop guidelines for streamlining development projects that will place fresh food or recreational opportunities within one-half mile walking distances to schools and neighborhoods, and ensure equal distribution among all neighborhood types.

Medium

Short

Community Development

3.3

Healthy Design Guidelines. Establish Healthy Design Guidelines for future development and ensure that prior to the issue of permits, development proposals adhere to healthy guidelines for the City. Additionally, continue to assess City facilities and make improvements to adhere to the adopted Healthy Design Guidelines.

High

Short

Community Development

3.4

Transit Ready Development. Update General Plan and zoning to promote compact, mixed-use, energy efficient and transit- ready development to reduce air pollutants associated with energy and vehicular use within existing undeveloped, underutilized areas.

Medium

Medium

Community Development

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3.5

Walkable subdivisions. Update zoning code and subdivision ordinance to ensure that new subdivisions are walkable with large sidewalk widths, short blocks, and access to non-residential activities.

High

Short

Community Development

Goal 4

Balanced Transportation. A balanced transportation system that accommodates all modes of travel safely and efficiently without prioritizing automobile travel at the expense of other modes.

4.1

Transit supportive environments. Collaborate with DART to identify and enhance those existing areas of the City where the land uses, development intensity and the pedestrian environment are conducive to higher levels of transit service and usage. • Bus stop location review. Review existing bus stop locations to determine their accessibility to key destinations such as schools, residential areas, retail centers and civic facilities. Work with Sun Line to relocate existing bus stop locations as needed to provide greater access to key community destinations. • Bus stop prioritization. Prioritize those bus stop locations that are connected to bicycle and pedestrian facilities to help meet users’ last mile travel needs. • Transit service prioritization. Work with Sun Line to prioritize future transit service in those areas where the greatest level of transit ridership will occur based on the supportive land use and transportation patterns. • Development incentives. Explore and develop incentives to encourage higher-density, transit-friendly development along these transit routes.

High

Short

Community Development

4.2

Sustainable transportation funding. Investigate funding mechanisms to maintain existing transportation infrastructure based on existing development such as assessment districts. Citywide traffic fee programs should also be updated on a recurring interval of not less than every five years.

High

Medium

City Manager, Community Development

4.3

Complete streets manual. Develop a complete streets manual to ensure new roadway construction addresses all modes of travel to implement complete street principles. On an ongoing basis, pursue grants to implement the multi-modal streets in Delano, including but not limited to funding from federal and state agencies, philanthropic organizations and corporate giving programs.

High

Short

Community Development, Engineering, Fire Department

Goal 5

Healthy Housing. Safe, affordable, and healthy housing for every stage of life.

5.1

Infill housing. Create development incentives, or streamlined permitting process for housing development proposals that fill in housing needs gap and offer housing for all ages and income levels. Also prioritize housing developments that create mixed-income neighborhoods, and provide walkable and bikeable access to retail and recreational amenities.

Medium

Medium

Community Development

5.2

Healthy housing checklist. Research and establish a healthy housing checklist that informs developers and contractors of healthy home/commercial/industrial materials that are low- or non-toxic, along with a list of resources for additional information and retailers that provide safe and healthy building materials.

High

Short

Community Development

5.3

Foreclosure support. Provide a contact list and service to residents facing foreclosure, and connect residents to non-profits and other community partners that can help prevent foreclosure and keep residents in Delano.

Medium

Immediate

City Manager, Community Groups

Goal 6

Economic Prosperity. An economically vibrant business community that is socially and environmentally conscious and provides quality employment opportunities and resources to meet community needs.

6.1

Healthy business incentives. Establish potential development incentives, and healthy business guidelines, that will attract businesses to Delano that support and promote healthy lifestyles and business practices.

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Chamber of Commerce

6.2

Workplace wellness team. Identify a workplace wellness team and create a model workplace wellness program for City employees. The team should assess employee health needs and implement workplace wellness programs and events. Some possible actions include offering employee incentives for healthy eating and physical activity; smoking cessation programs; group fitness or diet programs; health screenings; physical activity breaks for meetings over one hour in length; accommodate breastfeeding employees upon their return to work; and encourage walking meetings and use of stairways. The City should share this model workplace wellness program information with local employers to encourage the adoption of similar practices. The City can provide incentives (such as

Medium

Immediate

City Manager, Recreation, Human Resources

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priority permit processing) to “healthy employers” who provide employee health benefits such as paid sick days, health insurance, and gym membership, among others. 6.3

Business sponsored healthy events. Streamline event permitting process for community members and businesses wanting to create or sponsor healthy events, or programs, which provide opportunities to be active, provide health education, and support active lifestyles. Events could include City/community/business lead walks, walking and biking business tours, block parties that promote healthy eating and activity, youth events that promote recreation, senior specific health events, and any other events that would promote healthy lifestyles.

Low

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Chamber of Commerce

Goal 7

Healthy Food Access. Accessible and convenient opportunities to buy and grow healthy, affordable, and culturally diverse foods with low concentrations of unhealthy food providers.

7.1

Food deserts. Map and site food deserts within the City, where fresh food is further than one mile from residential neighborhoods, and prioritize community gardens, edible landscaping, or farmers markets to fill in the gaps of fresh food supply. Community gardens should also be prioritized on undeveloped land, or in parks, within neighborhoods with multi-family housing.

Medium

Medium

Community Development

7.2

Healthy foods and beverages at public events. Research and adopt an ordinance to increase healthy food and beverage options at public facilities, meetings and events. The ordinance should consider banning sugar-sweetened beverages and increase the proportion of “healthy” items sold in vending machines and at concession stands. Adopt City nutrition guidelines based on work across the state and nation. Guidelines should include unhealthy food items that may not be served at public meetings/events, ideas of healthy food and beverage alternatives and criteria for “healthy” vs. “unhealthy” items.

Low

Medium

City Manager, Community Development

7.3

Food assistance programs. Establish a list of resources and contact information about food assistance programs, and also provides a map of fresh food retailers, Low community gardens, and farmers markets within the City. The list should be posted on the City website, at health facilities, grocery stores, produce markets, and social service facilities to increase awareness of fresh food access within the City.

Medium

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

7.4

Food buses. Work with local community groups to establish a city-community collaboration for and Food Bus Program that provide access to fresh food and meals through a mobile source that can reach neighborhoods with limited access to fresh and healthy food. Identify neighborhoods that would benefit from a Food Bus Program and produce supply chains, schedules, and locations for drop off sites. The Food Bus Program can also provide and ‘Lunch Bus Service’ during summer months (when school is not in session) that provide nutritional lunches to kids under the age of 18 that have little or no access to healthy food options.

Medium

Medium

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

Goal 8

Park Access. Increased, safe access to parks, recreation, and natural open spaces to inspire and support physical activity.

8.1

Parks Master Plan. Review and update the City's Parks Master Plan to create greenways and an interconnected trails and parks system that has the ability to move residents and patrons throughout Delano by a network of interconnected greenways, trails, pedestrian friendly streets, and parks.

Medium

Medium

Community Development, Engineering, Recreation

8.2

Recreation programs. Gather a list of existing recreation youth programs and facilities used, from schools, non-profits, private sports clubs, and community programs. If there is a gap, create or work with various recreational organizations to provide youth programs at City facilities, or joint use facilities, that meet needs of youth and promote an active youth population in the City.

Medium

Short

Recreation, Community Development

8.3

Joint use agreements. Work with Delano Union School and High School district to adopt a joint-use agreement for parks and recreation facilities, and include these parklands in the updated City's Parks Master Plan. Joint use agreements should be determined prior to adoption of Parks Master Plan update.

Medium

Medium

Recreation, Community Development, School Districts

Goal 9

Sustainable Natural Environment. Protected and well-managed natural resources for future residents and the health of current residents.

HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY

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9.1

Grey water ordinance. Write and adopt a grey water ordinance establishing criteria and standards to permit the safe and effective use of grey water (also known as on-site water recycling). Review and revise, without compromising health and safety, other building code requirements that might otherwise prohibit such systems.

Low

Long

Community Development

Goal 10

Climate Change Preparedness. A resilient community that is prepared for and minimizes the risks of the health and safety impacts of climate change.

10.1

Climate Action Plan. Adopt a Climate Action Plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to comply with AB 32 and SB 375 regulations, and promote energy efficiency practices for City facilities.

High

Immediate

Community Development

10.2

Climate change health impacts. Work with Kern Council of Governments to conduct a community-wide assessment of the potential health impact, cumulative impact, and risk resiliency factors of climate change on Delano residents. The assessment should identify the geographic areas, groups and individuals most vulnerable to climate change and specific opportunities for the City to improve its response. Vulnerable groups typically include infants and young children, the elderly, outdoor workers, people with preexisting health conditions such as asthma, and communities already affected by other social, economic, or other environmental injustices. With this information, develop a climate adaptation strategy to protect the public from heat waves and vector control, increased threats of wildfire, changing precipitation patterns, reduced water supply and increased peak energy demand.

Medium

Medium

Community Development, Kern COG, County of Kern Public Health Services Department

10.3

Hazard prevention. Develop and make available to all residents and businesses, literature on hazard prevention and disaster response. The literature should emphasize disasters brought on my Climate Change.

Medium

Long

Community Development, Fire Department, Police Department

Goal 11

Energy. A highly energy efficient community that relies primarily on renewable and non-polluting energy sources.

11.1

Energy efficiency checklist. Establish or adopt a checklist to encourage developers and contractors to plan and install energy-efficient infrastructure and technology, including design strategies, passive heating and cooling systems, installing energy efficient light, finding renewable resources to supply energy to building and other advances.

High

Short

Community Development

11.2

Energy efficiency workshops. Organize workshops on how to increase energy efficiency of homes and businesses through topics such as home weatherization, building envelope design, smart lighting systems and conducting a self-audit of energy usage.

High

High

Community Development, Kern Cog, Utilities

11.3

Home energy audits. Create, or establish, a City provided or sponsored program that provides residents with free home energy audits. The program should also offer informational sessions to inform home owners on energy efficient habits, tips, and appliances that can be used to decrease energy use.

High

Medium

Community Development

Goal 12

Green Building. Community building stock that demonstrates high environmental performance through green design.

12.1

Green design incentives. Prioritize, or provide density bonuses to buildings that adopt LEED Design Guidelines.

Low

Medium

Community Development

i

World Health Organization. (1998). Health Promotion Glossary. Geneva, Switzerland. WHO/HPR/HEP/98.1. Accessed from: http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/about/HPR%20Glossary%201998.pdf

ii

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). “Green Communities: Action Planning and the Sustainable Community�. http://www.epa.gov/greenkit/sustain.htm

iii

California Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. (August 19, 2010). Cumulative Impacts: Building a Scientific Foundation. Retrieved from: http://oehha.ca.gov/ej/pdf/081910cidraftreport.pdf

HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY

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A1. Community Conversation #1 and #2


Delano Community Conversation #1 Summary

Health and Sustainability General Plan Element Public Workshop Tuesday, February 26, 2013. 5:30–8:00p.m. Delano Civic Center 1010 11th Avenue

Project Overview Through generous grant funding from the Smart Valley Places Program, the City of Delano has initiated the creation of a new Element for the General Plan that addresses the City’s current and future health and sustainability goals. The City and other project stakeholders have defined health and sustainability broadly to include all aspects of the natural, built, economic, and social environment. California state law requires every city and county to have a general plan, which sets the policies on the use and management of physical, social, and economic resources. General plans document the community’s shared vision of tomorrow and identifies the policies and programs to achieve that vision. California requires that general plans address the following seven topics: • • •

Land Use Housing Conservation

• •

Circulation (transportation) Open Space

• •

Noise; and Safety

Cities and counties are encouraged to include additional “optional” elements for topics that are important to the success of the community. Since health and sustainability are two of the most critical concerns in Delano, the City has embarked on this process. The consulting firm Raimi + Associates (R+A) is supporting the City’s efforts on this project. Fehr & Peers (active transportation and transportation safety experts) and RBF (CEQA environmental review for the project) will also support the effort as subconsultants to Raimi + Associates.

Community Conversation Purpose and Overview The Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #1 took place on Tuesday, February 26, 2013 from 5:30pm-8:00pm at the Delano Civic Center. Eighty-two participants signed-in at the workshop, but there were likely more people in attendance since some families in attendance had only one person sign-in for the entire family. The objectives of the workshop were to: • • •

Educate residents about Delano’s Health and Sustainably Element and Climate Action Plan; Learn about existing health and environmental conditions in Delano; Get feedback from residents on their health and sustainability priorities for Delano; and

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• Socialize and have fun! Meeting materials were provided in both English and Spanish. During the presentation, Javier Arreola, an independent and professional Spanish-language interpreter, provided simultaneous Spanish translation using headsets rented from Fresno Metro Ministries. Approximately six attendees utilized these services.

Presentation The meeting began with opening remarks from Delano’s Community Development Director Richelle Cariño and Mayor Joe Aguirre. Subsequently, the consultant team (represented by Matthew Burris and Beth Altshuler from Raimi + Associates; and Chris Gray from Fehr & Peers) presented background information to ensure participants had the knowledge necessary to provide meaningful input on the project. Matt discussed the project itself and the connections between health, sustainability, and municipal policy decisions. Next, Beth and Chris shared data on Delano’s existing conditions related to health and sustainability. Finally, Jeff Caton from Environmental Science Associates presented information on climate change and California’s legal requirements concerning climate planning. Jeff obtained feedback on the Delano Climate Action Plan, a separate, but parallel effort.

Visual Preference Survey To fully understand community members' ideas regarding the look and feel of future development and the desired amenities, Raimi + Associates conducted a visual preference survey. The survey consisted of 34 photos that showed a diverse range of building and street types. Beth asked community members to rate each image on a scale of 0 to 4; where 0 indicated “strongly dislike - do not want to see in Delano in the future” and 4 is “strongly like - do want to see in Delano in the future.” Following the workshop, the project team recorded the responses and calculated the average score for each photo based on the 63 completed survey forms. Average scores for all 33 Images (listed in order of appearance in the presentation) Below are the average scores for each photo. The top line is the photo number (1 through 34). The bottom line shows the average score for each photo based on a simple scale from 0 to 4. Overall, photos coded as dark green were very well liked, lighter green pretty well liked, while photos marked in dark and light red were disliked.

Photo # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average Score 2.75 3.31 3.27 2.34 3.19 3.27 3.13 3.11 2.94 3.43 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2.89 2.69 3.08 2.29 2.52 2.62 2.03 1.57 2.42 1.94 1.95 3.25 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 3.00 2.64 2.70 2.39 1.75 2.20 2.42 2.79 2.67 2.29 2.84 2.50 Page | 2


Top 5 – Most Popular Images (score on in left corner, photos number in right corner)

(These last two images were both #6 – public outdoor seating areas)

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Bottom 5 – Least popular images (score on in left corner, photos number in right corner)

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Interactive Stations to Provide Input After the visual preference survey, Beth Altshuler explained the interactive activity stations and invited community members to visit each of the six (6) stations. The stations included: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Health & Sustainability Goals Park Safety & Access Economic Prosperity Sustainable Environment Healthy Food Active & Safe Transportation

One or two project staffers provided guidance and answered questions at each station. Participants were encouraged to comment on each topic area with additional thoughts, either on large flipchart paper on the wall or on the individual feedback forms provided at the meeting. Below are images of the board(s) at each station and the sum of sticker-dots placed by residents on each item (when applicable). A summary of the comments from the flipchart paper and feedback forms are included after each station board in italics. Comments that were received in Spanish were translated and included in the summary. After participants finished the interactive voting exercise, they ate a healthy dinner (prepared by community volunteers), socialized, and enjoyed the music of the Delano High School Jazz Band.

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Station 1: Health and Sustainability Goals Results The top health and sustainability goals included: • Streets that support walking, bicycling, and transit (18) • Improve public safety (16) • Access to healthy, affordable, and locally-produced food (16) • Improved water quality (13) Additional comments from this station included the following: • Improve the safety of parks • Increase youth activities and safe places for them to hang out • Create a central plaza for events and hanging out • Organize more cultural and community events year-around • Expand healthcare coverage, reduce costs for low-income, and guide community on prevention rather than treatment • Provide more education about preventative health care • Provide more mental health treatment/facilities • Water rate increase assistance for low-income families • Increase the availability of low-income housing • Support a non-profit organization to create a homeless shelter • Help develop more activities for youth including movie theatres, community pools, roller skating rinks, etc.

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Station 2: Park Safety and Access Results Stakeholder on the projects Planning Task Force provided input about parks in a previous meeting where they explained that many of the existing parks are underutilized because of safety and access issues. To examine this more deeply, Station 2 asked participants to reference the park maps to comment on the quality, safety, and access of the Delano parks. General citywide park comments appear first and park-specific comments follow. General Citywide Park Comments • Create more parks, including dogs parks o But need to better enforce existing pet laws • Numerous comments about bring back the Ellington Pool • Increase safety in parks – because of homeless people, gangs members, and people drinking alcohol or using drugs in parks • Increase the amount of bike lanes, running trails, running tracks, and lighting in and around parks • Increase amount of recreation facilities, running tracks, and equipment options • Create more physical activities in schools outside of team sports. • Create an amusement park • Expand the options of play and exercise equipment in the parks • Create more recreation opportunities for youth • Need a park around 9th Avenue • Need more flexible spaces for both active physical activity and relaxation and socializing (seating, tables, etc.) • Residents at Almond Tree need a park they can walk too o In the future do not allow developers to build a so much housing without a walkable park. Albany Park • Poor route from North housing • Unsafe routes to schools and parks (immediate hazards) • Needs improved landscaping design and more trees for shade Cecil Park • It’s nice that the park has new equipment but please pay some attention to the other parks now. • Perception of youth “trouble makers” hanging out at park • Needs more shade trees Caesar Chavez Park • Feels unsafe and needs security (homeless, drunks, gangs, etc.) o Drug dealing occurs at this park o One person commented “I like this park – it’s safe” •

Didn’t like it when the pool was demolished – created an unsafe environment

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• •

o Bring back the pool Needs more lighting Needs a better toilet (plumbing, gross, smells, not maintained)

Jefferson Park • Needs more shade trees • Needs better lighting • The tennis court needs to be repaired • The landscaping needs improvement (it looks generic instead of fun and creative) • Crossing Lexington Street to get to park is unsafe Calibo Park • Not enough lights • Better Design • Better Lighting = Less Crime • More Trees Memorial Park (County-Owned Park) • Needs more adult activity • More trees Morningside Park • Needs more shade trees • All Delano’s parks should look like this one • If you don’t live in this areas, you don’t feel welcome at the park • Lacks play structure for preschool-kindergarten age kids (needs a tot lot) Valle Vista Park • Needs more shade trees • Needs improved landscape design • Could be a great place for a running track • Needs more lighting • The restroom is not well maintained • Needs benches and tables • Organize more youth activities here • Create walkways through, around, and to park

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Station 3: Economic Prosperity Results The top economic prosperity strategies included: • • •

Workforce learning (26) Green Technology (25) Healthy Workplace (23)

Other comments on Economic Prosperity included the following: • Focus on and invest in education, for adults and children, through literacy programs, ESL Classes, computer trade classes, libraries and library programs, and education through the arts. o Help coordinate the different education agencies and organizations o Provide ESL Classes for free/reduced then lead to other course such as computer/trade o Open another library on the west side of town o Create a city arts center with classes and a community gallery o Non-credit adult continuing education courses through local college o Coordinate and encourage local churches, local colleges, and institutions to improve literacy and professional development classes in the City • Attract more jobs that require higher skill levels. Focus on creating trade, education, and skills that can get people jobs. • More professional education training • Create jobs whose talents/skills already exist in Delano

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Station 4: Sustainable Environment Results While participants showed strong support for all of the six sustainability and environmental health strategies listed at the station, the one that received the most support was creating stricter anti-tobacco and anti-smoking laws (44 in favor). The next most popular strategy that people supported was sorting garbage, compost, and recycling at home (31). Other comments people made at this station included: • •

• • • •

Increase water conservation strategies Government fines are not the answer for a cleaner environment o Encourage recycling through positive reinforcement, not fines o Government fines/incentives only work for big businesses whose only goal is profit Incentivize recycling & composting with free services, higher garbage fees Add library services can benefit so many it can also address part of our workforce problems, unemployment, and education gaps Find ways to reduce the need to drive everywhere Continue to clean water wells

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Station 5: Healthy Food Station 5 asked residents to share their ideas to encourage healthier eating in Delano. The following is a summary of all of the comments: • •

• • • • • •

Expand the variety of restaurants in Delano and encourage new and existing restaurants to offer healthier menu options Expand community gardens to more users o Allow community gardeners to sell, produce to schools, and residents o Encourage local mom/pop corner stores buy their produce locally from Local Delano Farms or community gardens Improve healthy food access to all residents, especially youth o Sell fruits to kids at the park and at school (instead of ice cream/popsicles) o Work with the schools to create healthier school meals o Educate parents and children (at schools and recreation centers) about healthy foods, cooking demonstrations recipes, and culturally-oriented healthy recipes Stock vending machines with healthy foods Encourage stores to sell more fruits and vegetables – especially organic Bring in a Fresh and Easy, or farmers market, community gardens, and purchasing of local fresh food Limit amount of drive-throughs and fast food restaurants, especially near schools (to limit pollution and youth access to junk food) Make clean drinking water easier to buy Restrict off-site liquor licenses

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Station 6: Active and Safe Transportation Participants were asked to vote on their top strategies to improve transportation under the topics of vehicular travel, bicycle travel, pedestrian travel, and transit. The most popular transportation strategy was to decrease vehicle speeds in residential areas (25). Participants also favored: • • • • •

Repairing cracks and potholes (16) Electric vehicle charging stations 16) Creating off-street bike trails and paths (14) Bike lanes near parks and schools along major roadways (13); and Additional street lighting, signals, and signage to improve safety (13).

Participants had the following general comments about transportation in Delano. Vehicular Travel • Encourage electric taxis and cars • Re-route prison traffic off Ceil Avenue • Remove preferential parking spots • Decrease car speeds • Decrease speed limit on Cecil Avenue low than 30 MPH • The road transformation before 22nd street needs speed bumps • Encourage businesses to offer incentives and support for people to carpool or to offer employee shuttles Pedestrian Travel • Control crime • Install more street lights • Create safe walking routes that connect neighborhoods to schools o Improve school route on Hiett (Legacy Estates to Robert F. Kennedy High School) Bicycle Travel • Create bike baths that connect to schools and open spaces outside of the urbanized areas Transit • Connections to regional transportation such as Amtrak and MetroLink • More frequent bus services create stops that are closer together Other • Concern about increasing population density

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Delano Community Conversation #2 Summary

Health and Sustainability General Plan Element Public Workshop Wednesday, May 29th, 2013. 6:00–8:00p.m. Delano Civic Center 1010 11th Avenue

Project Overview Through generous grant funding from the Smart Valley Places Program, the City of Delano has initiated the creation of a new Element for the General Plan that addresses the City’s current and future health and sustainability goals. The City and other project stakeholders have defined health and sustainability broadly to include all aspects of the natural, built, economic, and social environment. California state law requires every city and county to have a general plan, which sets the policies on the use and management of physical, social, and economic resources. General plans document the community’s shared vision of tomorrow and identifies the policies and programs to achieve that vision. California requires that general plans address the following seven topics:   

Land Use Housing Conservation

 

Circulation (transportation) Open Space

 

Noise; and Safety

Cities and counties are encouraged to include additional “optional” elements for topics that are important to the success of the community. Since health and sustainability are two of the most critical concerns in Delano, the City has embarked on this process. The consulting firm Raimi + Associates (R+A) is supporting the City’s efforts on this project. Fehr & Peers (active transportation and transportation safety experts) and RBF (CEQA environmental review for the project) will also support the effort as subconsultants to Raimi + Associates.

Community Conversation Purpose and Overview The Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #2 took place on Wednesday, May 29, 2013 from 6:00pm-8:00pm at the Delano Civic Center. Sixty-four participants signed-in at the workshop. The objectives of the workshop were to:   

Provide an update on the GPU and Health Element process Present the existing health conditions Gain participant feedback on potential policy directions / solutions to health problems in Coachella

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Presentation The meeting began with opening remarks from Delano’s Community Development Director Richelle Cariño and Mayor Joe Aguirre. Subsequently, the consultant team (represented by Matthew Burris and Beth Altshuler from Raimi + Associates; and Chris Gray from Fehr & Peers) presented background information to ensure participants had the knowledge necessary to provide meaningful input on the project. Matt discussed the project itself and the connections between health, sustainability, and municipal policy decisions. Next, Beth and Chris shared data on Delano’s existing conditions related to health and sustainability. Matthew Burris then explained the results from the Visual Preference Survey taken in Community Workshop #1, and showed the least and most favorable visual preferences from the survey.

Interactive Stations to Provide Input After the initial background presentation, Beth Altshuler explained the interactive activity stations and invited community members to visit each of the seven (7) stations. The stations included: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Walkability Infrastructure Improvements Healthy food options Community and Recreation Programs Education and Job Training Climate change, energy, and green practice education Physical and mental health

One or two project staffers provided guidance and answered questions at each station. Participants were encouraged to comment on each topic area with additional thoughts, either on large flipchart paper on the wall or on the individual feedback forms provided at the meeting. Below is a summary of the comments from the feedback forms by topics followed by a copy of the feedback forms to show what questions were addressed in each focus group. Comments that were received in Spanish were translated and included in the summary.

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1. Walkability – Community members focused on walkability in a number of topics and wanted more walkability throughout the City. Community members would like…. a. Additional pedestrian and bike paths leading to services, amenities, and parks b. A walking travel time of 15 minutes to services c. Senior housing that is close to City services and entertainment d. Safe paths to schools and parks for youth 2. Infrastructure improvements – Community members recommended infrastructure improvements throughout the City that include… a. New sidewalks and improved conditions of existing sidewalks and paths b. Improved park facilities and additional recreation facilities at parks c. Better paths and roadways conditions on the west side of the City d. More lighting, especially along sidewalks and in parks e. More trees, benches, landscaping and shading throughout the City 3. Healthy food options – Community members would like to have more fresh and healthy food options through the City including…. a. Fresh food options for youth in schools b. A restriction on vending machines, fast food restaurants, and unhealthy food in schools c. More family style restaurants d. Education and awareness of healthy food options 4. Community and recreation programs – Community members would like to see more community activities that will bring together all of its members, this was proposed with…. a. More town hall meetings b. Walking clubs, and biking clubs c. More recreation programs, especially for youth d. Increased police and neighborhood activity to improve safety 5. Education and job training – Community members want more jobs and training for high skill level jobs within the City, including… a. Vocational training b. More community members with high education c. Variety of jobs to fill, to attract recent college graduates d. More businesses in residential areas

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6. Climate change, energy, and green practice education – Community members support more education and awareness efforts to teach people about climate change issues and how to be energy efficient. Sub topics also included…. a. Water resources and equity pricing with water meters b. A support for tiered pricing for energy and water users c. Cooling centers for seniors, or other sensitive populations d. Incentives for residents and business to implements green practices e. No or low cost for energy audits 7. Physical and mental health – community members would like to improve physical and mental health services including…. a. Expanding mental health services within the City b. Promote preventative health to residents (education) c. Partner with schools to promote health to City’s youth (education) d. Affordable health care

Among all the notes, walkability and infrastructure improvements were mentioned in many sections, and were the

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Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #2 Wednesday, May 29, 2013. 5:30-8:00pm

Workshop Objectives • Educate residents about Delano’s Health and Sustainably General Plan Element and Climate Action Plan • Prioritize different policy approaches for key topics • Socialize and have fun! Agenda 1. Welcome (5:30-5:40pm) 2. Presentation (5:40-6:10pm) 3. Small Group Discussion – Round 1 (6:15-6:40pm) 4. Small Group Discussion – Round 2 (6:45-7:10pm) 5. Facilators Report Back Results (7:10-7:30pm) 6. Dinner / Socializing (7:30-8:30pm) SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION INSTRUCTIONS: We’ve prepared discussion questions related to specific health and sustainability topics. Each small group discussion table will focus on one topic and you will have the opportunity to visit two tables. The questions for each table are listed on the following pages. We invite you to skim the questions before choosing a table. Each small group will have a note taker, however, you are also welcome to write down your responses to questions and turn them in at the end of the event. The small group topics include: A. B. C. D. E. F.

Land Use & Housing Parks Health & Equity Economy, Employment, & Education Transportation & Mobility Healthy Food Access & Food Security

G. Public Safety & Community Engagement H. Pollution, Waste & Environmental Quality I. Climate Change Adaptation & Water Supply J. Green Buildings & Energy

1


A. Land Use and Housing 1. Is there a desire and demand for a greater variety of housing styles in Delano (e.g., apartments, townhomes, condos, etc.)? Where would you like to see these homes? Who would live there?

2. What neighborhood amenities, businesses, or public uses (e.g., supermarket, school, post office, cafe, child care, etc.) are the most important to be able to walk from home or work?

3. Do you want to be able to walk to the neighborhood uses you listed in question #2? Which ones? How far (distance or minutes) are you willing to walk to each neighborhood amenity?

4. Are there certain areas of the City where housing quality and/or affordability are major issues? Where? What are the issues?

5. What are the biggest housing needs among renter-occupied households?

6. Would you support higher density developments located near transit and commercial areas? Why or why not?

7. Regarding land use and housing, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

2


B. Parks 1. What facility/program enhancements would encourage you (or other Delano adults) to exercise at parks and/or recreation centers?

2. How can the City encourage residents to help improve park facilities and programs?

3. What is most important: building new parks, improving existing parks, or making it easier to get to parks? Why?

4. How can the City encourage parents and other adults to volunteer in youth sports programs?

5. Regarding parks and recreation, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

3


C. Health and Equity 1. Diabetes and obesity are two of the most pressing health issues in Delano among both adults and children. How can the City support people living with these conditions to heal? How can the City help prevent future cases of obesity and diabetes?

2. Child and adult asthma rates are also high in Delano and the surrounding region. In addition to improving outdoor air quality how else can the community reduce asthma?

3. Young adults (18-32) have the lowest rates of health insurance coverage in Delano. How can we improve their coverage?

4. Where would it be ok for the City to ban smoking to protect people from secondhand smoke? (e.g., parks, multi-family housing units, within 30 feet of doorways and windows, outdoor seating at restaurants, outdoor public events such as a the Christmas Parade, etc.). What are your other ideas?

5. Is there a stigma around people with mental health conditions? How can the City work with mental health care professionals and community groups to ensure people see and get treatment?

6. Regarding health and equity, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

4


D. Economy, Employment, and Education 1. What are the top strategies the City and local business community can pursue to draw more jobs to Delano?

2. Almost a third of Delano’s working-aged adults are unemployed. What types of programs (non-financial assistance) could help them continue to be productive members of the community until they find permanent employment?

3. What types of adult education / job training would you like to see in Delano?

4. How can Delano encourage youth to return after graduating from college?

5. How should Delano balance supporting locally owned small businesses and allowing new big box development? Are their certain areas where big box should be encouraged/discouraged? Are their certain types of businesses that are preferred over others?

6. Should the City promote “green� or environmentally-friendly businesses and technologies as a way to grow jobs and diversify the local economy?

7. Regarding the economy, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

5


E. Transportation and Mobility 1. What would encourage you to walk or bike more for transportation? (more destinations such as stores, schools, jobs or unsafe/ unpleasant environment)?

2. Would you prefer that the City spend funds to maintain the existing transportation system or build new facilities (e.g., repair an existing sidewalk or build a new sidewalk)?

3. Are you willing to let your children walk to school? Why? Would you be more likely to allow your children to bike to school if bike paths or bike lanes were provided? If not, why not?

4. Would you be willing to accept traffic calming treatments (speed humps, raised intersections, medians, etc.) that will slow down all vehicles on the street, in the interest of pedestrian and vehicle safety? Would these be ok on residential streets? On major road?

5. Are you able to take a bus to reach areas outside of the City? If not, then what limits your ability to take a bus? Do you feel safe and comfortable taking a bus? If not, then why?

6. Do you carpool to work? What would encourage you to carpool (i.e., employer incentives; park and ride lots)?

7. Would you like to see more local investment in alternative vehicle infrastructure (for example, electric vehicle charging stations)?

8. Regarding transportation, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

6


F. Healthy Food Access and Food Security 1. In your opinion, what are the biggest barriers to healthy eating and food security in Delano (e.g., geographic access to healthy food store, cost, lack of knowledge of healthy food/ cooking, taste preferences, etc.)?

2. What can the City and/or community groups do to address the barriers you identified in question #1?

3. Would you support the City restricting the sale of unhealthy items in public facilities (vending machines in public buildings, concession stands at parks, etc.) and offering more healthy items instead? Please provide details.

4. What types of restrictions on unhealthy fast food, if any,) should the City consider?

5. How and where should the City restrict new liquor stores? What are some of the real or perceived problems around / at current liquor store locations?

6. People have expressed an interest in community gardens, small scale community farms, and support growing food on personal property? What is your vision for how the City can increase locally grown, healthy food?

7. Regarding healthy food, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

7


G. Public Safety and Community Engagement 1. What is the biggest challenge to public safety in Delano?

2. What are some policies or programs to improve “real and perceived neighborhood safety”? (think about safety in your neighborhood, downtown, in other neighborhoods, in parks, etc.)

3. We’ve heard that people are scared to walk and bike because of stray dogs. What can the community and City do to reduce stray dogs in the neighborhoods?

4. How should the community participate in public decision making processes? Please provide your suggestions below for the following items as well as adding other ideas. a. Public forums:

b. City Council meetings:

c. Electronic outreach (e.g., website, social media, e-mail list/announcements, etc.):

5. Where does discrimination exist in Delano (e.g., racism, sexism, homophobia, classism, ageism, geographic, etc.)? How can the City support efforts to end discrimination?

6. Regarding public safety, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

8


H. Pollution, Waste, and Environmental Quality 1. What big and bold changes can Delano make to improve air quality?

2. What can the City do to increase recycling and divert more waste from disposal at the landfill?

3. What policies/programs should the City create to protect communities/ areas that experience cumulative impacts (multiple or unfair environmental impacts)? For example zoning to prevent a density of polluting sources, distance buffers, etc.

4. How can the City improve the quality of life / protect Delano residents who already live near multiple pollution sources?

5. How hard should Delano work to protect the natural environment from the effects of urban activities, such as light and glare, loss of agricultural lands, polluted storm water, smog, and loss of forage lands for raptors and migratory birds?

6. Regarding pollution and environmental quality, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

9


I. Climate Change Adaptation and Water Supply 1. Do you think the average Delano resident understands the climate change impacts he/she could experience during his/her lifetime? If not, what are good ways to communicate those impacts?

2. Climate scientists expect extreme temperatures (over100 degrees F) to double in Delano by the year 2050. How would that affect your satisfaction with living and/or working in the City? Should the City expand programs to assist vulnerable populations in the event of extreme heat events (e.g., cooling centers for seniors) or other climate-related disasters?

3. In Delano, the anticipated impacts of climate change over the coming decades includes increased periods of drought; more frequent heat waves, and extreme weather events, flooding, reduced agricultural productivity, more wildfires, worsening air quality, and other threats to public health and safety. What policies, programs, technology, and/or design interventions will help Delano residents and workers cope with climate change?

4. Over time the state’s water supply, including groundwater, will become an increasingly scarce and expensive resource (exacerbated by climate change and population growth), Should the City implement new programs to help residents and businesses conserve water? Should the City support major water reclamation and reuse projects, and increase capacity for community water storage?

5. Regarding climate change adaptation, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

10


J. Green Buildings and Energy

Discuss the following green building and energy conservation strategies with your group.

Strategy 1. Increase City outreach/education to building owners and homeowners to raise awareness of energy efficiency programs. 2. Require by law that new commercial and residential buildings achieve higher energy efficiency standards than the state building code. 3. Require by law that information about energy use and potential upgrades is provided when a building is sold. 4. Require by law that energy upgrades are performed when a building is sold. 5. Encourage and promote voluntary energy audits, or provide small business energy audits at no or low-cost. 6. Develop a voluntary, local "Green Business" program or outreach campaign to promote energy and water efficiency. 7. Promote small-scale solar systems for homes, businesses, and new neighborhoods.

Do not Support

Somewhat Support

Greatly Support

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

Reasons that you support or do not support

8. Regarding green buildings and energy efficiency, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

11


Other Notes, Comments, and Questions:

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A2. Existing Conditions Report Under Separate Cover



Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano Background Report for the Health & Sustainability General Plan Element

August 2013


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS City of Delano Leadership

Other Contributors - Thank You

Mayor Joe Aguirre Mayor Pro Tem Ricardo Chavez Council Member Liz Morris Council Member Rueben Pascual Council Member Grace Vallejo City Manager Maribel Reyna

The considerable talents and efforts of many individuals helped to assure the success of this report. Special thanks to members of the Planning Task Force, stakeholder interviewees, and Community Conversation Workshop participants. Additional thanks to the Avtar Nijjer-Sidhu and Kirt W. Emery from the Kern County Public Health Department and Meredith Milet from the California Department of Public Health for providing health data.

Contact Information Community Development Department Richelle Cariño – Department Director Tendai Mtunga – Health and Sustainability Element Project Manager Mike McCabe – Senior Planner

Consultant Team Raimi + Associates Matthew Burris, AICP, LEED AP – Sustainability Specialist Beth Altshuler, MCP, MPH, CPH – Public Health Specialist Brynn McKiernan – Project Assistant Fehr & Peers Chris Grey – Senior Associate Jeff Siggers – Transportation Engineer

If you would like more information about this report of the Health and Sustainability General Plan Element Project, please contact the Project Manager, Tendai Mtunga, TMtunga@cityofdelano.org or 661-720-2220.

Recommended Citation City of Delano, California Community Development Department. (August 2013). Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano: Background Report for the Health & Sustainability General Plan Element. Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano: Background Report for the Health & Sustainability General Plan Element by City of Delano, California is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.


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Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................1 SOCIO-CULTURAL CONDITIONS ............................................................................3 POPULATION, AGE, AND GENDER ................................................................................ 5 RACE AND ETHNICITY................................................................................................. 7 INCOME AND POVERTY .............................................................................................. 9 HOUSING TENURE................................................................................................... 11 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ..................................................................................... 13 COMMUNITY SAFETY ............................................................................................... 15 FOOD ASSISTANCE .................................................................................................. 16 COMMUNITY HEALTH STATUS ........................................................................... 19 LIFE EXPECTANCY AND LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH ....................................................... 21 HEALTHY BODY WEIGHT (OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT) .................................................. 23 ASTHMA ............................................................................................................... 24 HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE ................................................................................. 26 BUILT ENVIRONMENT ........................................................................................ 29 RESIDENTIAL POPULATION DENSITY............................................................................ 31 LAND USE ............................................................................................................. 33 URBAN INFILL ........................................................................................................ 35 PARK LEVEL OF SERVICE ........................................................................................... 39 ACCESS TO PARKS ................................................................................................... 40 HOUSING DIVERSITY................................................................................................ 42 AFFORDABLE HOUSING ………………………………………………………………………………………. 44 OVERCROWDED HOUSING UNITS ............................................................................... 46 STREET PATTERN .................................................................................................... 47

WALKABILITY ......................................................................................................... 49 BLOCK SIZE & STREET PATTERNS ............................................................................... 51 BICYCLE FACILITIES .................................................................................................. 52 TRANSIT AVAILABILITY AND ACCESS ............................................................................ 53 COMMUTING ......................................................................................................... 55 TRAFFIC COLLISIONS................................................................................................ 56 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN COLLISIONS ........................................................................ 57 ECONOMIC PROSPERITY AND ACCESS TO GOODS AND SERVICES ..................... 60 UNEMPLOYMENT.................................................................................................... 62 FAST FOOD ACCESS................................................................................................. 63 HEALTHY FOOD RETAIL ACCESS ................................................................................. 65 SUSTAINABLE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT ........................................................... 68 NATURAL GAS USAGE ............................................................................................. 70 BAD AIR DAYS ....................................................................................................... 71 POLLUTING SOURCES/ TOXIC SITES (TRI) .................................................................... 72 PESTICIDE EXPOSURE............................................................................................... 73 GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS ........................................................................ 74 CLIMATE ADAPTATION............................................................................................. 76 SOLID WASTE ........................................................................................................ 77 WATER USE .......................................................................................................... 78 WATER QUALITY .................................................................................................... 79 PHOTOS SOURCES ............................................................................................. 81 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 83

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List of Tables TABLE 1: RACE / ETHNICITY IN CA, KERN CO, AND DELANO .................................................. 7 TABLE 2: HOUSEHOLDS WITH PUBLIC ASSISTANCE INCOME OR SNAP/CALFRESH BENEFITS ...... 16 TABLE 3: LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH .............................................................................. 21 TABLE 4: LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH AND DEATH RATES ................................................... 22 TABLE 5: BUILDABLE LAND IN DELANO ............................................................................ 36 TABLE 6: INFILL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES NEAR AMENITIES ........................................ 36 TABLE 7: PARK LEVEL OF SERVICE................................................................................... 39 TABLE 8: PARK ACCESS BY POPULATION SUB-GROUP......................................................... 40 TABLE 9: NUMBER OF UNITS PER HOUSING STRUCTURE ..................................................... 42 TABLE 10: AFFORDABLE HOUSING UNITS IN DELANO......................................................... 44 TABLE 11: OVERCROWDING HOUSING UNITS IN DELANO, KERN COUNTY, AND CA ................. 46 TABLE 12: LIST OF EXISTING BIKE LANES/PATHS/ROUTES IN DELANO ................................... 52 TABLE 13: POPULATION WITHIN A QUARTER MILE OF UNHEALTHY FAST FOOD ....................... 63 TABLE 14: POPULATION WITHIN A HALF MILE OF HEALTHY FOOD RETAIL STORES ................... 65 TABLE 15: AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS AND POLLUTANTS ............................................... 71

List of Figures

FIGURE 1: DELANO POPULATION (1890-2010) ................................................................. 5 FIGURE 2: MEDIAN AGE BY SEX ....................................................................................... 6 FIGURE 3: DELANO POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS AND SEX .................................................. 6 FIGURE 4: POPULATION RACE/ETHNICITY .......................................................................... 7 FIGURE 5: LINGUISTICALLY ISOLATED HOUSEHOLDS ............................................................. 8 FIGURE 6: POVERTY RATES FOR DIFFERENT HOUSEHOLD TYPES ............................................. 9 FIGURE 7: DELANO HOUSEHOLD INCOME LEVELS .............................................................. 10 FIGURE 8: HOUSING TENURE ........................................................................................ 11 FIGURE 9: HOUSING TENURE - HOMEOWNERS ................................................................. 12 FIGURE 10: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ......................................................................... 13 FIGURE 11: PERCENT IN POVERTY BY LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ........................... 14 FIGURE 12: HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT RATES .................................................................... 14 FIGURE 13: DELANO CRIME RATES (2004-2011) ............................................................ 15

FIGURE 14: PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS RECEIVING SNAP OR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BY CENSUS TRACT AND THE LOCATION OF SNAP RETAILERS....................................................... 17 FIGURE 15: KERN COUNTY ADULT OBESITY BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2009) ............................... 23 FIGURE 16: KERN COUNTY ADULT AND CHILD ASTHMA RATES ............................................ 24 FIGURE 17: ASTHMA HOSPITALIZATION AND EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISIT RATES .............. 25 FIGURE 18: KERN COUNTY ADULT HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE BY RACE/ETHNICITY ........... 26 FIGURE 19: PERCENT OF POPULATION WITH HEALTH INSURANCE BY AGE .............................. 27 FIGURE 20: RESIDENTIAL POPULATION DENSITY COMPARISONS........................................... 31 FIGURE 21: RESIDENTIAL POPULATION DENSITY MAP ........................................................ 32 FIGURE 22: DELANO WALK SCORE MAP ......................................................................... 33 FIGURE 23: GENERAL PLAN LAND USE MAP .................................................................... 34 FIGURE 24: VACANT AND UNDERUTILIZED PARCELS AND AGRICULTURAL LANDS MAP.............. 37 FIGURE 25: INFILL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY SITES MAP .............................................. 38 FIGURE 26: PARK ACCESS MAP ..................................................................................... 41 FIGURE 27: PERCENT OF TOTAL HOUSING UNITS BUILT PER TIME PERIOD ............................. 43 FIGURE 28: NUMBER OF BEDROOMS PER HOUSING UNIT BY TENURE IN DELANO.................... 43 FIGURE 29: SUBSIDIZED HOUSING UNITS AND SNAP VENDORS........................................... 45 FIGURE 30: MAJOR ROADWAYS IN DELANO ................................................................... 48 FIGURE 31: SIDEWALKS IN DELANO .............................................................................. 50 FIGURE 32: TWO TYPICAL STREET PATTERS IN DELANO ...................................................... 51 FIGURE 33: DART STOPS AND SERVICE ROUTES ............................................................... 54 FIGURE 34: COMMUTE MODES IN DELANO ..................................................................... 55 FIGURE 35: MOST COMMON CAUSES OF COLLISIONS ........................................................ 56 FIGURE 36: BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN COLLISION DENSITY MAP ........................................ 58 FIGURE 37: SEASONALLY ADJUSTED UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (2002-2012) ........................... 62 FIGURE 38: FAST FOOD NEAR SCHOOLS AND YOUTH DENSITY ............................................. 64 FIGURE 39: ACCESS TO HEALTHY FOOD MAP ................................................................... 66 FIGURE 40: CITY OF DELANO 2010 NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION ...................................... 70 FIGURE 41: TOP THREE CHEMICALS RELEASED IN KERN COUNTY (1987-2011) ..................... 72 FIGURE 42: 2005 BASELINE COMMUNITY GHG EMISSIONS BY SECTOR .............................. 75 FIGURE 43: PROJECT TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION CHANGES IN DELANO, CA .............. 76 FIGURE 44: WATER USE AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION PROJECTIONS, DELANO, CA ............. 78

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Introduction Overview Over the last few decades in the United States, health care costs have increased alongside with chronic disease rates. Childhood obesity rates have increased by roughly 5% since 1988, and poverty rates increased by 4.7% since 2000. In recent years, many studies have also examined the conditions in the environment that affect health outcomes and risks. Research has revealed the links between health and the physical environment, suggesting that variations in land use patterns, urban design, transportation systems, housing, parks, exposure to pollution, and access to healthy foods strongly affect a community’s health behaviors, health status, and overall environmental quality. Research has also shown that social and economic conditions have a significant impact on an individual’s health and wellbeing. These social determinants of health include education, employment, income and wealth, discrimination, race and ethnicity, immigration, and community safety. Not only are the physical and social determinants drivers of community health, but they also influence our health behaviors. For example, communities with less economic hardship tend to exhibit healthier behaviors, while unhealthy behaviors

are more common in communities with greater economic hardships As more information becomes available, the link between one’s existing environment and overall health are closely interwoven. It is also better common knowledge that what strategies to benefit one’s health can also have benefits for a community’s sustainability. Both sustainable and healthy practices provide co-benefits to one another and create a stronger foundation for a community to thrive in a healthy environment. Assessing a community’s health and sustainability conditions provides an overview of the opportunity resident have to carry out a healthy lifestyle and maintain a sustainable thriving community.

Purpose of Project Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano: Background Report for the Health and Sustainability General Plan Element documents the City of Delano’s existing health and sustainability status. The report covers a range of social and environmental factors that formed the current human and environmental health status of the City. The report is a part of the City Council’s 2010 initiative to include a Health and Wellness Element in the City’s General Plan. Gathering the current health and sustainability conditions of the City will better inform decision makers, practitioners, and community members about the City’s strengths and areas of concern to guide future program and policy development. The report has been organized into five categories of existing health conditions that include; SocioEconomic Status, Community Health Status, the Built Environment, Economic Prosperity and Access to Goods and Services, and the Sustainable Natural Environment. Each sub-topic section provides information about “What is it?”, “Why is it important?”, and the “Status in Delano.” The combination of topics help explain how an individual’s overall physical and mental health can be determined, improved, or degraded solely based on environmental conditions of which an individual lives and works. Extracting data from Delano based on key environmental elements will provide a base line to form initiatives for improvement and track progress. Policies and proposals on improving the Health and Sustainability of Delano will be included in the Health and Sustainability Element of the General Plan Update.

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SOCIO-CULTURAL CONDITIONS

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Population, Age, and Gender What is it? This section describes the basic demographics of Delano’s residents including population, age, and gender distributions.

Why is it important? Understanding a population's age and gender composition and changes helps policy makers and public health professionals plan for and target appropriate services and programs. A five-year old has different health needs than a sixty-five year old; just like a female has different health care needs than a male.

Status in Delano As of 2010, Delano, CA had a population of 53,041 residents, making it the second largest city in Kern County behind Bakersfield. Two State Prisons are located in Delano, which in total house 10,530 inmates (or 19.9% of the City’s population). Because these inmates do not utilize City services and amenities, this report’s analysis will use the City’s non-institutionalized population (42,144) when possible and appropriate. a Delano’s population has grown at a very fast rate the last 20 years (see Figure 1), partially because of the two state prisons that opened in 1993 and 2005 bringing thousands of inmates, prison staff, and their families to Delano. Excluding the prison population, Delano has an equal number of males and females, but with the prison population, the City is 60% male and 40% female. Figure 1: Delano Population (1890-2010)

Public health professionals consider younger residents (under 18 years of age) and older adults (65 years and older) to be more vulnerable to disease and poor health than adults (18 to 64 years old). Younger residents are considered vulnerable because their bodies are not yet fully developed and they thus, are more susceptible to disease. Older adults are considered more vulnerable because, on average, they have more existing chronic health problems than younger residents. 1

a

Delano has an additional 367 residents who live in institutional group quarters (such as nursing facilities, group homes, and treatment centers). Page 5 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


The median age in Delano is much younger than Kern County and California and men are younger, on average, than women because universally, men have shorter life spans (see Figure 2). Excluding the prison population, 9.9% of residents are under 5 years old and 7.5% are over 64 years old. Young children and older adults are more susceptible to disease and have unique health care needs, so they are considered vulnerable populations.

To understand these age dynamics in more depth, the population pyramid in Figure 3 shows the number of males and females in each age group. The adult age groups (20-59) have significantly more males than females because of the prison population; however, there are more females in the 65 and older age groups.

Figure 3: Delano Population by Age Groups and Sex

Figure 2: Median Age by Sex

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What is it?

Race and Ethnicity

“Race" refers to groups of people who have biological traits based on genetic ancestry that society has deemed socially significant. The U.S. Census Bureau uses "White", "Black/ African-American", "Asian", "American Indian/ Alaskan Native", "Hawaiian/Pacific Islander", and "other" to survey race. “Ethnicity” refers to shared cultural practices. Common characteristics distinguishing various ethnic groups are ancestry, history, language, and religion. The U.S. Census surveys ethnicity as "Hispanic/Latino" and "Not Hispanic/Latino.”

Status in Delano

Why is it important? Different racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. have persistent and often increasing health disparities. 2 Some researchers think of “race” as a proxy for income, perceived discrimination, and race-related stress, which all influence health outcomes. 3 White residents generally have better health outcomes than most other racial/ethnic groups. 4 Neighborhood conditions that contribute to health (such as parks, pollution, housing, and healthy food) are often highly correlated with race. 5 By identifying areas with high concentrations of different racial/ethnic groups, the City will be able to tailor policy and educational interventions based on cultural differences and contexts.

Delano has a rich Filipino and Latino culture that is actively celebrated. Table 1 compares the race/ ethnicity of California, Kern County, and Delano’s Civilian and prison population, while Figure 4 graphically depicts the race/ethnicity of Delano’s civilian population. A vast majority (78.5%) of Delano residents are Latino, while another 15.1% are Asian (mostly Filipino). 4.1% of residents are nonHispanic White, 1.2% Other or Multi-Racial, and 0.8% are Black or African American. Delano has more than twice the proportion of Latinos as California and almost four times the proportion of Asians compared to Kern County. Table 1: Race / Ethnicity in CA, Kern Co, and Delano

Delano Civilian Prison 78.5% 43.3%

Hispanic or Latino

Kern County 37.6% 49.2%

Asian

12.8%

3.9%

15.1%

0.1%

White

40.1%

38.6%

4.1%

21.3%

Other / Multi-Racial

3.6%

2.9%

1.2%

0.6%

Black or African American

5.8%

5.4%

0.8%

34.7%

Racial / Ethnic Group

California

Source: 2010 US Census.

Figure 4: Population Race/Ethnicity

While the 10,530 inmates at the two State Prisons are from all over California and do not participate in daily civic life, the disproportionate representation of African Americans, and to a lesser extent, Latinos, in the California prison system is striking. Notably, the proportion of African Americans in Delano’s prisons (34.7%) is almost six times the proportion of African Americans residents in all of California (5.8%).

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What is it?

Foreign-Born and Linguistically Isolation

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the term foreign born to refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. Linguistic isolation is a measure of English-speaking ability in a household. The Census defines linguistically isolated household as one in which no person age 14 or over speaks English "very well."

Status in Delano

Why is it important? Foreign-born persons, or immigrants, often face poverty, social exclusion, and difficulty accessing health and social services, which all can have negative health impacts. 6 However, researchers have also identified the “healthy migrant effect,” where first generation immigrants are often healthier than U.S.-born residents of the same ethnic background. As migrants become more assimilated into U.S. culture, the migrant health advantage diminishes. 7 While many Delano businesses and City staff are bilingual, English is still the dominant language in the City. Linguistic isolation may serve as a barrier to jobs, especially higher wage jobs and to obtaining quality medical and social services. In addition, identifying linguistically isolated households could help the County and community groups to ensure that certain areas receive emergency communications and support in the case of an emergency. 8

Numerous Delano residents are immigrants from outside the U.S. or “foreign-born” (37.2%) and 29% of all foreign-born residents are naturalized citizens of the U.S. b 9 The median age of naturalized citizens in Delano is 50.1 years old compared to the non-citizens who have a median age of 35 years old. This is likely due to changes in immigration and naturalization policy over time and the high demand for immigrant agricultural workers. Out of all foreign-born persons in Delano, 71.2% were born in Mexico and 21.5% were born in the Philippines. 10 Native-born persons in Delano are still exposed to the stressors and pressure of being an immigrant. Many households have at least one foreign-born person. For example, 41% of all children in Kern County have at least one foreign-born parent and more than 76% of non-citizens live in households that also have citizens. 11 Almost half of all foreign-born residents (16 years Figure 5: Linguistically Isolated Households and older) are employed in the civilian labor force, compared to 32.8% of native-born residents. This is partially due to the prison population skewing the data, but also because many people immigrate to the U.S. precisely to obtain better employment. More than a quarter of Delano households (27.5%) are considered linguistically isolated where no one over the age of 14 speaks English “very well”, compared to about 10% of households in both California and Kern County. 12

b

Data includes Delano’s State prison inmates, some of whom might be immigrants. Page 8 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it? Income is the amount of money, or its equivalent, that an individual or household receives within a period of time in exchange for labor, services, or the sale of goods. Poverty is defined as the deprivation of food, clothing, shelter, and money that occurs when an individual or family cannot satisfy their basic needs. The Federal Government's primary measure of poverty is the "poverty threshold" or "Federal Poverty Level" (FPL). In 2010, an annual income of $22,050 equated to approximately 100% of the FPL for a family of four, nationwide.

Why is it important?

Income and Poverty Figure 6 displays poverty rates by household type. For all household types, Kern’s average rate is higher than California’s, and Delano’s is higher than Kern’s. Approximately one in three people in Delano are living at or below the Federal Poverty Line. Delano’s poverty rate of 32.2% is more than double California’s poverty rate of 15.5% and almost 10% higher than Kern’s rate of 22.8%. Forty-four percent of Delano residents aged 17 years and younger are living in poverty. Married couples with children have a poverty rate of 27, which is still higher than the state’s overall rate of 10%. Finally, twothirds of female-headed households with no husband present and with children are living in poverty. These women face the double challenge of being a single-earner household and the gender gap in pay, where nationally, full time women workers earn approximately 23% less annually than men do. 17

Figure 6: Poverty Rates for Different Household Types

Income is one of the strongest predictors of health outcomes worldwide. 13 Health care access, outcomes, and life expectancy improve as income increases. 14 When households earn incomes much lower than the average cost of living, they tend to make sacrifices in other important areas. Those lifestyle compromises can include eating less food and/or more unhealthy food, living in substandard housing, and/or delaying medical care. Additionally, lacking resources to meet basic needs causes long-term stress, which makes the body less resistant to other health risks. 15 Like race, average-household income is strongly correlated with neighborhood condition. 16

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The Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Standard (FESSS) is another measure of income. It is considered a more accurate calculation of income adequacy than the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), because it is based on the amount of money a family needs to meet their basic needs in a specific region. 18 For purposes of this measurement, basic needs include housing, food, and health care, and work related expenses such as transportation, childcare, and taxes.

Figure 7: Delano Household Income Levels

The estimated FESSS for two adults, an infant, and a school-aged child in Kern County in 2011 was $48,246. About 65% of Delano residents are living below the Kern County SelfSufficiency Income Level. Additionally, Figure 7 shows that Delano has very few higher income residents; less than two percent of households earn $150,000 or more per year.

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What is it?

Housing Tenure

Housing tenure describes whether a home is renter- or owner-occupied.

Status in Delano

Why is it important? In national studies, homeowners tend to have better physical and mental health outcomes relative to renters. 19 20 Additionally, homeowners tend to have a stake in maintaining and improving their neighborhoods’ quality and stability. 21 22 While homeowners tend to be healthier, communities should have a diversity of housing types and options in multiple locations. Many people prefer to live in high quality rental housing when they cannot afford to purchase a home, do not want to commit to a location and home size for the long term, or do not want the responsibility of property maintenance.

Of the 10,260 occupied housing units in Delano, 43.8% are renter-occupied and 56.2% are owneroccupied. Delano’s owner-occupancy rate of 56.2% is similar to California’s 55.9%, but slightly lower than Kern County’s 60.0% owner-occupancy rate (see Figure 8). The map (Figure 9) shows the percentage of homes that are owner-occupied by Census block, where the darkest colored blocks have the highest concentration of owner-occupied units. The newer neighborhoods on the periphery of the City’s boundary area comprise of 75% or more owner occupied units. The central, older neighborhoods in Delano have a lower concentration of owner occupied housing and fewer housing units overall.

Figure 8: Housing Tenure

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Figure 9: Housing Tenure - Homeowners Page 12 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Educational Attainment Educational attainment refers to the highest level of education that a person has completed.

Why is it important? Completing major educational milestones, such as graduating from high school or college, has demonstrated economic and health benefits. First, educational attainment is associated with work opportunities offering higher incomes (that allows for greater housing and healthy food options) and better working conditions (with lower exposure to hazards). Second, it enhances an individual's knowledge and literacy and influences one's behavior, which can lead to better nutrition, increased exercise, reduced use of drugs and alcohol, and better health management. Finally, people with higher education levels tend to have a stronger sense of control, more social standing, and stronger social support networks, which when taken together reduces overall stress and provides more social and economic resources. 23

Status in Delano While Delano’s public schools are said to be some of the best in California, half (49.5%) of Delano civilian residents aged 25 years and older did graduate from high school compared to 19.1% of California adults. Over one-quarter of the City’s adult population has less than a ninth grade education. In Addition, only 7.2% of residents over 25 years old have graduated from college. Many people who grew up in Delano and attend college do not return. Figure 10: Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment in California & Delano 35.0% % of Population Over 25 years old

What is it?

30.0%

(civilian persons over 25 years old) 29.8% 27.8%

25.4%

25.0%

20.9% 19.2%

20.0% 15.0% 10.0%

10.4% 8.7%

21.7% 17.9%

10.9% 6.0%

5.0% 1.2%

0.0% California Less than 9th Grade Some High School High School Grad or GED

Delano

US Census. American Community Survey 2009-2011 3-year estimates.

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Figure 11 shows the percent of residents age 25 and older who are living at or below poverty by their level of educational attainment. c Almost one third of Delano residnets who have not finished high school live in poverty. Likelyhood of poverty decreases as education increases. However, about 20% of Delano residents with a college education are living in poverty compared to less than 5% of collegeeducated Californians. Some possible (but unexamined) reasons for this poverty could be related to the lack of professional-level jobs available in the city and/or private a public secotor layoffs during the great recession.

Figure 11: Percent in Poverty by Level of Educational Attainment

Figure 12: High School Dropout Rates

Annual Adjusted Grade 9-12 Dropout Rate (2011-12) Delano Joint Union High School District

1.5%

Kern County

5.1%

California

4.0%

Source: California Longitudinal Pupil Achievement Data System (CALPADS)

The good news is that Delano public schools have improved over the years. The Delano Joint Union High School District has an annual adjusted dropout rate of 1.5%, compared to 5.1% in Kern County and 4.0% statewide.

c

This data includes both civilian and institutionalized residents. Page 14 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it?

Community Safety

Violent crime includes murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Violent crime rates strongly influence people's perceptions of public safety. 24

Status in Delano

25

Why is it important? Homicides, physical assaults, rapes, and sexual assaults result in direct and adverse health, economic, and emotional impacts on victims and their families. However, violent crime can also have a broad impact on the community at large. Research has documented a spectrum of physical and psychological health impacts associated with neighborhood violence levels. Residents' worries about safety in their neighborhoods can be a cause of chronic stress. 26 Witnessing and experiencing community violence causes longerterm behavioral and emotional problems in youth. 27 When children or adolescents are victims of violence, the experience can affect their scholastic achievement, 28 and it can limit their overall success as an adult. 29 Additionally, fear of crime can modify people’s behavior. An individual’s perception of neighborhood safety can be a disincentive to engage in physical activity outdoors. Parents who are afraid of neighborhood crime may keep their children indoors, which limit opportunities to be physically active and to develop support networks. 30

Figure 13 shows Delano’s rates of property crime, violent crime, and domestic violence calls from 2004-2011. Burglaries are the most common type of property crime with about 808 per year since 2004 (min. 773, max. 950). Larceny-theft (taking personal property from an individual) and motor vehicle theft are the next most common types of property crime in Delano with annual averages of 663 and 541 crimes, respectively. Delano has seen decreases in both larceny and vehicle theft rates since 2006. Aggravated assault is the most common type of violent crime, followed by robbery. Since 2004, there have been an average of four murders or non-negligent manslaughters per year, with a total of only three between 2009 and 2011. Forcible rape has maintained an annual average of seven, with no clear trends. 31 Historically, forcible rapes grossly are underreported, so an increase in reported cases over time could be seen as a positive sign that victims are speaking up and getting support, and that perpetrators are punished. Similarly, domestic violence incidents are also underreported and show no temporal trend. While crime rates have generally decreased over time, residents report not walking at night due to the perceived safety threat. They shared that increased lighting would increase feelings of safety. Figure 13: Delano Crime Rates (2004-2011)

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What is it? “Food security” is defined as having access to enough food for an active, healthy life for all people at all times. 32 Households that lack “food security” are typically low-income households. These households can obtain assistance from the Women Infants and Children (WIC) Program and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formally known as the Food Stamp Program, which is called CalFresh in California). CalFresh/SNAP is a federally-mandated, Statesupervised, and county-operated government program designed to eliminate hunger in the United States. Eligibility is based on income and other financial resources, and enrollees receive funds each month to spend on food from USDA authorized SNAP/CalFresh vendors. Authorized vendors meet requirements for authorization by selling specified healthy food staples.

Why is it important? Food insecurity can lead to undernourishment and malnutrition, which coincide with fatigue, stunting of child growth, and other health issues. Undernourished pregnant women are more likely to bear babies with low birth weight, and the babies are then more likely to experience developmental delays that can lead to learning problems. 33 Hunger and food insecurity can also accelerate the development of or worsen existing diseases. Paradoxically,

food insecurity and obesity co-exist in some households where people eat foods that are inexpensive, and high in fat and sugar, but low in nutritional quality. Finally, food insecurity causes anxiety and stress, which weakens immune systems and decreases overall quality of life. 34

Food Assistance Status in Delano Approximately 21.3% of households in Delano receive public assistance or SNAP/CalFresh benefits compared to 13.6% of households in Kern County. Table 2 and the map in Figure 14 show that Delano has a higher than average concentration of persons receiving public assistance, than Kern County. Over one-third of the households in Census tract 48 receive these benefits (Census tract 48 is west of HWY 99, east of Albany Street, and north of Airport Ave).

Table 2: Households with Public Assistance Income or SNAP/CalFresh Benefits

Households with Public Assistance Income or Received SNAP Benefits Percent Count

Area

Total Households

Kern County, CA

13.6%

34,214

250,999

City of Delano, CA

21.3%

1,783

8,352

Delano Census Tract

48

35.6%

806

2,263

Delano Census Tract

49.01

21.2%

285

1,342

Delano Census Tract

49.02

9.4%

184

1,954

Delano Census Tract

50.03

25.8%

234

908

Delano Census Tract

50.04

14.5%

274

1,885

Source: Community Commons.

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Figure 14: Percent of Households Receiving SNAP or Public Assistance by Census Tract and the Location of SNAP Retailers

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COMMUNITY HEALTH STATUS

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What is it? Life expectancy measures the length of time an average person is expected to live and it is a key indicator of the overall health of a population. 35 The leading causes of death refer to the most common causes of death, based on the frequency of their occurrence. Identifying which risk factors are associated with certain causes of death can help prevent disease and keep people healthier. 36

Why is it important? Life expectancy is a critical health indicator of a population. Public health researchers study life expectancy and other health and disease measures to identify health disparities across geographic and demographic subpopulations, and to devise appropriate policy and community health solutions. Knowing the leading causes of death can help local health departments identify pressing health issues, and prioritize the work of policy makers, public health departments, researchers, and others. Focusing resources on the leading causes of death is an efficient use of available health system resources and, most importantly, can save the greatest number of lives. Identifying and addressing which risk factors are associated with certain causes of death can help prevent disease and keep people healthier.

Life Expectancy and Leading Causes of Death Life expectancy for California residents slightly exceeds that of the United States. Statewide, California’s life expectancy was 80.8 years from 2010-2011, compared to 78.9 years for the U.S. While data on life expectancy is not available at the city level, the four sub areas of Kern County (Bakersfield, Greater Bakersfield, East County, and West County), all have a lower average life expectancy than both the nation, and state (see Table 3). 37 Table 3: Life Expectancy at Birth

Life Expectancy At Birth (years) United States California Kern: Bakersfield Kern: East Kern: West Kern: Greater Bakersfield

78.9 80.8 77.0 75.8 75.7 75.7

Source: Measure of America of the Social Science Research Council.

Table 4 shows the leading causes of death for Kern County, their corresponding average annual deaths, as well as age-adjusted death rates for the County, State and nation and well as the statewide county rank (out of California’s 58 counties). Kern County’s age-adjusted death rate of 831.3 annual deaths per 10,000 residents is 12% higher than the US rate of 741.1 and 31% higher than California’s rate of 632.7. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Kern County. Kern’s CHD rate is also the highest among all 58 counties in California. Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRD) are the second most common cause of death in the County (CLRD include asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lower respiratory illnesses). Smoking is considered the primary contributing cause to these diseases. Other common causes of death in the county include stroke, unintentional injuries, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and influenza/pneumonia. With the exception of unintentional injuries, suicides, and drug-induced deaths, Kern County’s rank for each cause of death is in the bottom 75% among all California counties. 38

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Table 4: Leading Causes of Death and Death Rates

Leading Causes of Death and Death Rates for Kern County (2008-2010) County Rank (out of 58)

Cause of Death

56

All Causes

46 58

All Cancers Coronary Heart Disease

57 45 40 51 56 55 40 45 40 45 24 56

Kern Co. Annual Average Deaths

Age-Adjusted Death Rate (Deaths per 10,000 residents) Kern County

California

National Objective

US

5,255.7

831.3

632.7

741.1

-

1,072.3 991.0

167.9 166.2

151.7 121.6

173.2 126.0

158.6 162.0

Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Cerebrovascular Disease (Stroke)

425.3 259.3

71.4 43.7

36.7 37.4

42.3 38.9

50.0

Accidents (Unintentional Injuries) Alzheimer's Disease Diabetes Influenza/ Pneumonia Drug Induced Deaths Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis Firearm-Related Deaths Suicide Homicide

326.7 189.0 194.7 133.7 138.3 120.3 99.7 93.7 82.3 76.3

41.9 34.5 31.2 22.3 17.4 14.8 13.8 11.4 10.7 8.6

27.1 28.2 19.5 17.2 10.5 7.9 10.8 7.8 9.7 5.3

37.3 23.5 20.9 16.2 12.6 11.7 9.2 10.1 11.8 5.5

17.1 1.2 8.0 3.2 3.6 4.8 2.8

Source: California State Department of Health. Kern County’s Health Status Profile for 2012.

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What is it? Obesity is the most prevalent, chronic, and relapsing disorder of the 21st century. The terms "overweight" and "obese" describe weight ranges that are above what is medically accepted as healthy. The most common measure of healthy and unhealthy weight is the “Body Mass Index” (BMI), which is a function that takes into account both height and weight. 39 For children, overweight is defined as a BMI at or above the 85th percentile and below the 95th percentile for children of the same sex and age. Obesity is defined as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same sex and age. 40

Why is it important?

Healthy Body Weight (Obesity and Overweight) California has experienced a dramatic increase in obesity during the last few decades. In 1985, less than 10% of California’s population was obese; by 2010, over 20% of Californians were considered obese. 42 In Kern County: ► 62% of all adults are obese or overweight ► 39% of Latinos in Kern are considered obese ► Very few obese Asians, but over one-third are overweight ► Women are more likely to be obese than men ► Kern County adults aged 45-64 have the highest obesity rates of any age group (44.6%) ► 48% of all Delano children are obese or overweight Figure 15: Kern County Adult Obesity by Race/Ethnicity (2009)

Obesity is a leading cause of the nation’s mortality, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization, and healthcare costs. Studies have found significant associations between obesity and type II diabetes, many types of cancer, heart disease and stroke, asthma, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, and chronic back pain. Compared to normal weight females, overweight females are four times more likely to develop type II diabetes, while obese females are over 12 times more likely to develop type II diabetes. In men, these corresponding risk levels are two times and seven times, respectively. 41

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What is it? Asthma is a chronic disease that affects the lungs by inflaming and narrowing the airways. Asthma can cause repeated episodes of wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. Asthma attacks are triggered by a number of factors, including smog, dust, pollen, and smoke. Although asthma cannot be cured, it can be controlled with appropriate treatment and medication. 43

Asthma Countywide approximately 17% of adults and 12% of children have been diagnosed with asthma. 46 While asthma diagnosis data is not available at the city level, we do know that Asian residents have much higher asthma rates (39% adults, 38% children) than all other racial/ethnic groups. African Americans are the only racial/ethnic group where the children have a much higher asthma rate (20%) than the adult rate (6%) (see Figure 16). 47 Figure 16: Kern County Adult and Child Asthma Rates

Why is it important? Although people of all ages can have asthma, it is one of the most common chronic diseases among children. As of 2010, approximately 9.4% of children in the U.S. have asthma, and one in 12 people of all ages (about 8.2%) have asthma. Nationwide, asthma is the most frequent cause of pediatric emergency room use and hospital admissions and the leading cause of school absences. 44 In the U.S., Females and African Americans are more likely to be diagnosed with asthma than males, Whites, or Hispanics. 45 Figure 17 compares child and adult asthma hospitalization and emergency department visit rates for California, Kern County, and Delano. Asthma hospitalization rates among children are slightly higher in Delano compared to the state and County, while adult emergency department visits are much lower than the state and county rates. Child asthma emergency department (ED) visits are extremely high for the state and county (72.6 child ED visits per 10,000 children in California and 78.4 per 10,000 in Kern County), but the rate is even higher in Delano (91.7 per 10,000 children). Page 24 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Figure 17: Asthma Hospitalization and Emergency Department Visit Rates

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What is it? Health insurance is the primary means of obtaining needed medical care and for reimbursing providers who deliver that care. Health insurance coverage reduces the financial risk for individuals when medical expenses are incurred. While health insurance encourages preventive care, insurance coverage does not guarantee health.

Health Insurance Coverage Countywide, approximately 77% of residents are covered by public or private health insurance. Residents who identify as Latino or American Indians have lower health insurance coverage rates than the county average. White, Asian, African American, and non-Latino multi-racial residents have higher than average rates of coverage. Coverage rates among Latinos and American Indians are below the average. More than a third of Latino adults are uninsured in the County compared 14% of White and Asians adults (see Figure 18). Figure 18: Kern County Adult Health Insurance Coverage by Race/Ethnicity

Why is it important? Access to physical and mental health care is an important determinant of health and disease prevention. Increasing the number of people with health insurance will likely improve public health. Preventive measures and screenings reduce the incidence and severity of illnesses and are less expensive than the costs of care once someone has become sick. 48 Insured persons are more likely to take steps to prevent an illness than those without health insurance. Access to quality health care includes more than just being able to visit a doctor. In addition, a patient needs knowledge about the health care system, skills to obtain an appointment with the right kind of provider, money to cover insurance and co-pays, transportation to the appointment, and time off from work or school to see the provider. Once at the appointment, proper diagnosis and treatment can only occur if the provider and patient understand one another. Page 26 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Figure 19 compares health insurance rates by age group in California, Kern County, and Delano. Among most age groups, coverage for Delano residents is slightly below the state and County rates. Overall, Delano residents over 64 years of age have by far the highest coverage rates (98%) due to the availability of government health insurance for seniors (Medicare).

improvement since approximately 16% of Delano children do not have insurance. These are often children from families’ with incomes that are too high for government programs, but too low to pay out of pocket for insurance. Working-aged adults (especially 18-54 year olds) have much lower rates of insurance coverage than their counterparts in the state and county do. Because of Delano’s high unemployment rate, numerous adults are not receiving employer-based healthcare. It is also possible that some employers in Delano do not offer health care benefits. Most striking is that only 34% of Delano’s young adults aged 18 to 24 are insured (compared to 55% statewide).

Children under 18 also have high rates of health insurance coverage, thanks to Medi-Cal and the Healthy Families Program. While child coverage rates are high, there is room for Figure 19: Percent of Population with Health Insurance by Age

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BUILT ENVIRONMENT

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Residential Population Density What is it? Residential population density is a measure of the number of people living in a certain geographic area. It is calculated by dividing the number of people living within a geographic area (e.g., county, city, Census block) by the land area of that specific geography (e.g., square miles or acres).

Why is it important? Areas with higher population densities tend to be more walkable and support better transit service, which can facilitate physical activity and result in positive health benefits. Studies have found that higher levels of population density are associated with increased walking. 49 Research has shown that as residential and non-residential density increase, transit ridership rises, rates of walking increase, and rates of obesity fall. Conversely, lower density areas tend to have slightly higher obesity rates. However, to be effective, a diverse mix of walkable uses, safe pedestrian facilities, and high quality transit must also accompany the higher density areas. 50 51

Delano’s overall residential population density equals 5.8 people per acre (or approximately 3,700 persons per square mile). This is similar to the densities of Riverside, Bakersfield, and Visalia. However, in the eastern “developed” part of the City, Delano’s residential density is 9 people per acre (or 5,760 people per square mile), which is denser than Sacramento (see Figure 20).

Figure 20: Residential Population Density Comparisons

This density pattern is not uniform across the City. The map in Figure 21, displays residential population density by Census block, where the darker blocks have higher densities. The blocks that are colored black have over 30 people per acre (or 19,200 people per square mile), which is higher than the average density of San Francisco. While denser residential areas do not provide any health benefits on their own, they create a critical mass of users for public facilities (e.g., schools, parks, bus stops, and libraries) and create a customer base for neighborhood businesses (e.g., restaurants, laundromats, childcare, and grocery stores).

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Figure 21: Residential Population Density Map Page 32 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it? Existing land use refers to what use is already taking place on a specific property, whereas proposed land use identify what uses a jurisdiction desires for the future. The most common land use classifications include residential, commercial, industrial, public facilities, agricultural, and parks and open space. Delano’s General Plan land use map specifies subcategories for each classification, and outlines what types of buildings and uses are permitted and restricted on each classification type.

Why is it important? Land use decisions can have direct and indirect impacts on both public health and sustainability. Proper land use can help cities manage and minimize exposure to air and water pollutants. In addition, when areas have a diverse mix of land uses, meaning that homes and jobs are closer together and within walking distance of goods and services, schools, parks and other destinations; people have the option to be able to walk, bike, drive, or take transit. This can improve air quality and increase physical activity, social cohesion, and public safety. 52

Land Use Currently, the land use plan for the City of Delano (shown in Figure 23) is comprised mostly of singleuse areas segregated from each other, which is very typical in the San Joaquin Valley region. This is especially apparent in the newer residential areas surrounding downtown. While it would not be healthy to put family-neighborhoods adjacent to heavy industrial areas, the City’s neighborhoods could be more walkable if they contained a more diverse mix of uses such as small shops, childcare, grocery stores, pharmacies, and cafes. The website www.WalkScore.com calculates a score for a city, neighborhood, or address based on how many goods, services, and amenities are within a 15-minute walk. Delano has an average Walk Score of 38 out of 100, which is “car-dependent” since few amenities are within walking distance, on average. Figure 22 shows the City’s Walk Score, where the red areas are car dependent and the green areas are “somewhat” to “very walkable”. Different intersections in Downtown Delano have a WalkScore of anywhere between the high 50s “somewhat walkable” (some errands can be accomplished on foot) and the low 70s “very walkable” (most errands can be accomplished on foot). The newer residential neighborhoods have scores mostly in the low 20s, which Walk Score considers “car dependent” (almost all errands require a car). 53

Figure 22: Delano Walk Score Map

Unlike most established cities in the U.S., Delano has an opportunity to increase the mix of neighborhoodserving land uses in residential neighborhoods. While much of the City’s land and surrounding areas are undeveloped, approximately one-third of the City’s 9,195 acres (14.37 square miles) has recently been or will be developed through a specific plan. These areas and other undeveloped parcels present opportunities to create more walkable complete neighborhoods.

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Figure 23: General Plan Land Use Map Page 34 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it? Urban infill is the development of vacant, underutilized, or abandoned land within urbanized areas. The term "urban infill" implies that existing land is mostly built-out, and what is being built is in effect "filling in" the gaps. Infill can be single-family homes in existing neighborhoods or new development in commercial, office, or mixed-use areas.

Why is it important? Research has shown that urban infill development can have health, sustainability, quality of life, and economic benefits for cities. First, blocks with more vacant properties have increased risk of crime. 54 Infill development can eliminate the eyesore and safety concerns associated with vacant properties. Infill can also allow communities to achieve population density thresholds needed to attract amenities such as parks, community services, grocery stores, and more frequent transit service. 55 In addition, unlike green field development, infill does not require cities to build and maintain new infrastructure, which saves them money over time. Finally, infill development can preserve productive agricultural lands and natural areas. 56

Urban Infill Some of the nation’s most fertile and productive agricultural lands surround the City of Delano. In addition, there are over 2,000 acres of agricultural lands within the city limits. To preserve the region’s heritage, economic base, and food system, it is important to plan for the preservation of agriculture lands. Due to economic conditions, Delano has approximately 1,870 acres of vacant property and additional 30 acres of underutilized land (see Table 6). 57 If the City encourages the use of these urbanized properties to accommodate future growth, then they can preserve important agricultural lands, which provide jobs, food, and wildlife habitat. Table 6 and the map in Figure 24 show amount and locations of vacant commercial and residential parcels, and underutilized parcels. While a number of the larger parcels on the edge of the City are part of a future specific plan development or are currently agricultural lands, many smaller parcels in the central area do not have future development plans. If development to occurs in areas already served by amenities, then the City’s resources are used most efficiently. Table 5 and Figure 25 identify vacant or underutilized parcels that are not currently agricultural land nor in a specific plan area, but that are located near three key amenities (within a quarter of a park, within a quarter mile of a school, and within a half mile of a supermarket). The map in Figure 25 shows the location of these 33 parcels in blue. Although they are only equal to 8.7 acres of land, they have the potential to be great locations for housing and office space since they are supported by existing infrastructure and key community amenities.

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Table 6: Infill Development Opportunities near Amenities

Vacant or Underutilized Within 1/2 Mile of Supermarket Land that is Not Agricultural Land and Not in a Specific Plan Area # of Total Parcels Acres TOTAL

Within 1/4 Mile of Park

Within 1/4 Mile of School

Within 1/2 mile of Supermarket and 1/4 mile of School and Park

# of Parcels

Total Acres

# of Parcels

Total Acres

# of Parcels

Total Acres

108

54.9

159

84.6

190

208.5

33

8.7

Vacant Commercial

30

15.3

29

49.8

35

81.6

11

2.5

Vacant Residential

43

17.8

103

26.0

127

107.9

10

1.7

Underutilized

35

21.8

27

8.8

28

18.9

12

4.5

Source: City of Delano GIS Database. Data compiled and analyzed by Raimi + Associates. Table 5: Buildable Land in Delano

Buildable Land

Total Acres 2,043.3

Avg. Parcel Size (Acres)

558

1,899.9

3.4

71

494.1

7.0

65

261.5

4.0

438

1,375.8

3.1

421

299.6

0.7

49

30.1

0.6

Parcels

Acres of Ag in City Limits Total Vacant or Underutilized Land Vacant Commercial Not in Specific Plan Area or Ag Vacant Residential Not in Specific Plan Area or Ag Underutilized Land

Source: City of Delano GIS Database. Data compiled and analyzed by Raimi + Associates. Page 36 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Figure 24: Vacant and Underutilized Parcels and Agricultural Lands Map Page 37 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Figure 25: Infill Development Opportunity Sites Map Page 38 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What it is?

Park Level of Service

Park level of service is defined as the acres of parkland per 1,000 residents. The level of service indicator includes County and municipal parks, but excluded restricted open spaces, such as golf courses. The Quimby Act, a State of California law, allows jurisdictions to charge a development impact fee equivalent to providing a minimum of 3 acres of parkland per 1,000 residents for new development. As a result, cities often use this to determine their park level of service standard.

The City of Delano contains approximately 97 acres of city-owned and operated active parkland. d Memorial Golf Course is excluded, With 42,511 civilian residents, this yields a park level of service of 2.29 acres per 1,000 civilian residents. The Delano General Plan Parks and Recreation Element sets a park level of service standard or goal of 5 acres of parkland per 1,000 residents. To meet this standard Delano needs a total of approximately 212 acres or an additional 115 acres of active parkland. This is more than double Delano’s existing active park resources.

Why is it important?

Total Park Acres in Delano (without golf course)

97.40

Park Users (Civilian Population )

42,511

Increasing the quantity and quality11 of parks can increase the amount of time children exercise, decrease their risk of chronic diseases, and even reduce juvenile delinquency. 58

Status in Delano

Table 7: Park Level of Service

Total Park Acres in Delano

146.40

Acres per 1,000 Users

2.29

General Plan LOS Standard (acres per 1,000)

5

Total Acres needed to meet Standard

212.55

Park Acreage Deficit

115.16

In addition to having an acreage deficit, at public workshops, residents reported that parks are underutilized due to poor walkability on the streets around parks (access issues) and the perception of parks not being safe. Perceived park safety concerns mentioned at workshops included lighting, park cleanliness, and older teens/adults drinking and smoking in parks. Further analysis should investigate the distribution of different types of park facilities across the city (e.g., does each neighborhood have decent access to a variety of sports fields and courts, picnic facilities, and playgrounds?).

d

Memorial Golf Course is a County-owned and operated 49 acre park in the City. Because it is not used as a neighborhood park, it is not included in this analysis.

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What is it? For purposes of this report, park access is defined as a quarter mile walk to the nearest park.

Why is it important? Proximity to and quantity of parks is associated with increased park usage, physical activity, and better overall health. Improving access to parks can increase the amount of time children exercise, decrease their risk of chronic diseases, and even reduce juvenile delinquency. 59 60 Adults who live closer to parks and green spaces report lower stress and fatigue, 61 improved mental health, and better self-rated health. 62

Access to Parks The map in Figure 26 shows each park with a quarter mile service area and the population density of each city block and approximately half (49.4%) of Delano residents live within a quarter mile of a park. When we examine park access by population subgroup (see Table 8), we learn that households with children under five years old are slightly more likely to live near a park than those without young children. Fifty-seven percent of people who rent their homes live near a park compared to 44% of those in an owner-occupied home. Renters are less likely to have a backyard so it is important that these residents have additional park access. Higher density areas of the City without a park should be priority locations for new park facilities. Additionally, the city should ensure that existing parks are enhanced and maintained to expand the usability and quality of the park. Finally, park access can be enhanced by increasing hours of parks and ensuring they are well lit at night and improving pedestrian and bicycling routes leading to and through the parks from neighborhoods and schools.

Table 8: Park Access by Population Sub-Group

Total Pop

Pop with Access

% with Access

Citywide

53,147

21,006

39.5%

Civilian Population

42,511

21,006

49.4%

0-4 year olds

4,239

2,195

51.8%

5 to 17 year olds

11,709

5,837

49.9%

Renters

17,889

10,224

57.2%

Homeowners

24,361

10,621

43.6%

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Figure 26: Park Access Map

Page 41 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it?

Housing Diversity

When a city or neighborhood has good housing diversity, there should be a mixture of units that people can rent or purchase at a variety of prices; a mixture of unit types (single family home, small multi-family, large multi-family), a mixture of unit sizes (the number of bedrooms per unit), and lastly the age and style of the unit.

Table 9 shows the number of units per housing structure in California, Kern County, and Delano. Seventy-four percent of Delano housing structures are detached single-family homes, compared to 58% and 71% in throughout the State and County respectively. While almost 17% of California’s housing structures contain 10 or more units, only 4.5% of Delano homes are in larger multi-family structures (10+ units).

Why is it important?

Table 9: Number of Units per Housing Structure

A diverse housing mix supports housing affordability and a diverse population. In addition, a mix of housing types supports those who choose to age in place in the same community throughout their different life stages. It also facilitates life transitions, such as renting an apartment as a young adult or purchasing a home as a new family. 63

Overall Delano’s housing stock is not very diverse. The most common characteristics of housing units are detached single-family homes, three-bedrooms, and were built after 1990.

Total Housing Units

California 13,688,351

Kern County 284,897

Delano 10,964

1-unit, detached

57.9%

71.1%

74.0%

1-unit, attached

7.1%

2.4%

4.3%

2 units

2.6%

3.1%

1.9%

3 or 4 units

5.5%

6.4%

7.0%

5 to 9 units

6.1%

4.0%

6.0%

10 to 19 units

5.3%

1.8%

1.2%

11.5%

3.0%

3.3%

Mobile home

3.8%

7.9%

2.4%

Boat, RV, van, etc.

0.1%

0.2%

0.0%

20 or more units

Source: American Community Survey. 2009-2011

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Figure 28 shows the number of bedrooms per housing unit by tenure in the City of Delano. e The majority of larger housing units (3+ bedrooms) are owner occupied, while the majority of smaller units (fewer than 3 bedrooms) are renter-occupied. This imbalance is common; however, there is a potential demand for more rental units with three or more bedrooms (for larger families who may not be in a financial position to purchase a home), and for owner-occupied smaller homes and condominiums (for young professionals, seniors, and couples without children). Delano’s housing stock is much newer than California and Kern County’s housing stock is. Approximately 40% of Delano’s housing stock was constructed between 1990 and 2004 (see Figure 27). While newer housing stock tends to provide higher quality housing (e.g., no risk of lead-based paint, better plumbing and insulation, etc.), the rush of developers building so many units so quickly may not have provided the City with ample opportunity to plan for this influx.

Figure 27: Percent of Total Housing Units Built per Time Period

Figure 28: Number of Bedrooms per Housing Unit by Tenure in Delano

e

The percentages shown in Figure 28 use the total number of housing units in Delano as the denominator. Therefore, they all add up to 100%. For example, 14.4% of ALL Delano housing units are renter-occupied and have two-bedrooms and 4.5% of units are owner-occupied and have twobedrooms. Page 43 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it? Housing affordability is defined as the cost of housing (rent or mortgage) relative to household income. Housing is considered affordable if it costs less than 30% of a household budget, while households that pay more than 30% of their net income for housing are considered “cost-burdened.” 64 Affordable housing is provided through various types of government programs including Section 8, Low Income Housing Tax Credit, and Public Housing.

Why is it important? Housing affordability may lead to better health outcomes for residents. Higher rents or mortgage payments, especially for low- and moderate-income families, limit the amount available for other necessities, such as healthy food, heating fuels, and health care. 65 Families with access to affordable housing are also less likely to move frequently. Residential stability, in turn, can reduce emotional and behavioral problems among children, and lower the risk of pregnancy, drug use, and depression during adolescence. 66 Scarce affordable housing limits a household’s choice about where they live, often forcing a move into inadequate or substandard housing, in neighborhoods with higher crime and violence, 67 in regions that are long commutes to employment centers. 68

Affordable Housing Of the 10,964 total housing units in Delano, only 590 are affordable housing. Table 10 shows the breakdown of funding sources for affordable housing units, and includes Section 8, Low Income Housing Tax Credit, and Public Housing. Affordable housing units in Delano make up less than 1% of all housing, creating an imbalance in affordable housing supply. This imbalance can create residential instability for families with low income, and can add to emotional and behavioral issues associated with unstable homes and unaffordable housing payments. As the percentage of people living in poverty level is higher in Delano than Kern County, there is a greater need for affordable housing in the City. The abundance of non-affordable housing could also create long-term vacancy and contribute to high foreclosure rates that in-turn add to housing instability and negative health impacts. The map in Figure 29 shows the location of subsidized housing units (magenta dots), in relationship to the percent of low-income households by census tract (shades of blue), and the locations of retail food stores that accept SNAM/CalFresh (EBT Cards, formally known as the Federal Food Stamp Program). The majority of subsidized housing units are located in the southwest part of Delano. Table 10: Affordable Housing Units in Delano

Type of Subsidized Housing # by Type Subsidized Housing Name Total Units

Low Income Housing Tax Credit

249

Public Housing

132

Section 8 (New Construction/Rehabilitation)

209

Casa Hernandez Apartments Casas del Valle Maganda Park Quincy Street Apartments Villas Santa Fe Homer Harrison Homes Maganda Park I Valle Vista Cecli Avenue Apartments Delano Gardens Valley View Apartments

80 35 20 33 81 50 20 62 43 76 90

Source: HUD (2008). Vis Community Commons.

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Figure 29: Subsidized Housing Units and SNAP Vendors Page 45 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Overcrowded Housing Units What is it? The U.S. Census Bureau defines overcrowded housing as housing with more than one person per room, including the living room in the housing unit. Having more than 1.5 persons per room is considered severe overcrowding.

Why is it important? Overcrowding can directly influence one’s physical and mental health, childhood development, and education. Studies have found a relationship between overcrowding and respiratory health, meningitis, and tuberculosis in children. For adults, a relationship exists between overcrowding and some forms of cancer and respiratory disease. 69 Evidence also suggests that overcrowding is associated with mental health issues in women and racial and ethnic minorities. Overcrowding is also associated with child mistreatment and domestic violence. 70 In addition, overcrowding can increase noise, which increases overall chronic stress and decreases the amount and quality of sleep. 71 72

Overcrowding in Delano is higher than Kern County and California, as 8.9% of owner-occupied and 26.3% of renter-occupied units have more than one occupant per room. Table 11 shows overcrowding rates compared to Kern County and California. The high levels of overcrowding denote Delano’s above average overcrowding and lack of housing diversity in the City. Overcrowded housing units account for over a quarter of renter-occupied households in Delano, creating a severe lack of housing and ability to meet housing needs of Delano residents. 73 This percentage places a large population of Delano at risk of multiple health impacts from overcrowding including respiratory health, mental health, noise, and overall chronic stress. Almost 15% of households have three or more generations (compared to 7.7% Countywide) living under one roof. 74 The multi-generational housing can contribute to a family’s strong connection and attempt to stay in Delano, and lack of affordable housing or other housing conditions has resulted in overcrowding of families. Based on a number of financial or social conditions families have been compelled to combine resources and reduce quality of life in order to stay in the City. Table 11: Overcrowding Housing Units in Delano, Kern County, and CA

Overcrowded Housing Units Percent of Units California Kern County Delano Owner-Occupied Units 1.00 or less occupants per room 1.01 to 1.50 occupants per room 1.51 or more occupants per room Renter-Occupied Units 1.00 or less occupants per room 1.01 to 1.50 occupants per room 1.51 or more occupants per room

95.8 3.2 1.0

94.8 4.1 1.2

91.1 6.9 2.0

86.4 8.1 5.5

85.8 10.1 4.1

73.7 18.3 8.0

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2009-2011 American Community Survey

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What is it? Roadways serve as the connections between different neighborhoods, employment centers, and commercial areas within the city. These roadways are laid out in patterns to form a network that allows cars and trucks to access all parts of the city. In some cases, these streets will have sidewalks or bike lanes to allow other types of travel.

Why is it important? Different patterns can make certain types of travel easier or more difficult. Patterns can also promote different types of travel behavior. A standard grid pattern makes it easy to walk around a neighborhood or city because it typically offers a more direct route to possible destinations. However, the straightness of the roads and regular pattern promote higher vehicular speeds and does not push cars onto the major streets that are designed for heavier traffic. This decreases safety and increases costs to maintain smaller roadways. Irregular patterns may direct vehicles to major roadways, but sometimes create longer routes for vehicles and pedestrians.

Street Pattern Status in Delano Figure 30 shows a map of the street network in the City of Delano and surrounding areas. â–ş Major east-west arterials, such as Garces Highway, Cecil Avenue, and County Line Rd, are evenly spaced and provide access to California State Route-99. Collector streets are evenly spaced in the outer neighborhoods. â–ş Older central neighborhoods and downtown feature traditional grid pattern with evenly sized blocks. â–ş Newer neighborhoods feature more meandering streets and cul-de-sacs that direct vehicles to collector and arterial streets.


Figure 30: Major Roadways in Delano 75

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What is it? Walkability is a measure of how easy, convenient, enjoyable and safe it is to walk in a community. Walkability is impacted by everything from the layout of a city to the design of sidewalks. Well-maintained sidewalks, safe crosswalks, pedestrian amenities, and good public outdoor space all add to a city’s walkability. Distances between starting points and destinations are also a primary factor in walkability; typically locations are considered to be “walking distance” if they are within a quarter mile.

Why is it important? Walking is one of the healthiest and most sustainable forms of transportation available to people. It is a low-impact, environmentally friendly exercise that increases cardiovascular health and lowers the risk of numerous diseases. Replacing car trips with walking also reduces vehicular emissions, reduces consumption of resources, saves money, and increases a sense of community. Any steps taken to increase walkability would have a direct, positive impact on health and sustainability.

Walkability Status in Delano Figure 31 shows a map of all of the sidewalks in Delano. The streets highlighted in orange have sidewalks, while the remaining streets do not. Overall, the pedestrian network in Delano is very disconnected and lacks complete infrastructure. ► Majority of neighborhoods and business districts feature continuous sidewalks. Some neighborhoods feature intermittent sidewalks. Older neighborhoods feature small block sizes that allow for a more direct route for pedestrians. ► Schools and parks typically have high-visibility crosswalks near primary entrance points. ► Numerous crosswalks along Cecil Ave are uncontrolled and not highly visible. ► Most shopping and business is concentrated along arterial streets or the downtown core. This puts most of the destinations outside of walking distance for residents living in neighborhoods outside the city center.

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Figure 31: Sidewalks in Delano 76 Page 50 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Block Size & Street Patterns What is it? Block size is used as a method of analyzing walkability in a city. Most small and mediumsized cities are arranged around a grid pattern of blocks. There may be smaller blocks within those blocks, or a neighborhood with less defined blocks and streets that meander, turn, and dead-end. Intersection density is a way of measuring block size within a given area; small blocks results in a higher number of intersections in the same area, or higher intersection density.

Status in Delano Intersection Density varies by neighborhood, with older, central neighborhoods having a higher intersection density and smaller block size than newer neighborhoods. Newer neighborhoods closer to the edges of the city feature a lower density and fewer connections as shown in Figure 32. Figure 32: Two Typical Street Patters in Delano

Why is it important? Walkability is directly influenced by intersection density and the layout of the street network. Smaller blocks typically make it easier to reach a destination on foot, and will often reduce the walking distance.

Typical Suburban Layout North of Cecil Avenue. Blocks measure 1,100 by 250 feet.

Traditional Neighborhood near Cesar Chavez Park and Valle Vista Park. Blocks measure 490 by 350 feet.

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What is it?

Bicycle Facilities

Bicycle facilities are spaces and amenities specifically designated for cyclists. Bike lanes in streets or bike trails and paths separate from streets are examples of space designed to be used by cyclists and not motor vehicles. Bike racks, bike lockers, and repair stations are common amenities for use by cyclists. Some facilities can be shared with pedestrians as well, depending on how they are designed.

Many Delano families have only one or zero private automobiles. Since the City is flat, and dry most of the year, bicycling has the potential to be a viable form of transportation. Many residents already do bicycle. However, it is common to see cyclists using the sidewalks, because most arterials have many cars traveling at high speeds. As of 2012 there was only one Class 2 Bike facility (striped on street bike lane) along the northbound side of Randolph Street between 20th Avenue and County Line Road. The City’s Bicycle Master Plan lists planned bike paths, lanes, and routes throughout Delano as shown in the table below:

Why is it important?

Table 12: List of Existing Bike Lanes/Paths/Routes in Delano

Adequate bicycle facilities can increase safety and desirability of cycling. Designating space along roadways for bicycles through pavement striping and signage helps alert motorists to the presence to bike traffic. Completely separate facilities can eliminate most of the conflicts between drivers and riders. This increased safety can attract new riders and allow people to replace car trips with bike trips. Cycling is a good form of exercise, and every car trip replaced with a bike trip reduces vehicular emissions, reduces fuel consumption, and can save money.

Roadway Norwalk Street, Cecil Avenue to County Line Road Princeton Street, Cecil Avenue to County Line Road Randolph Street, Garces Highway to County Line Road Browning Road, Garces Highway to County Line Road County Line Road, West City Limits to Hiett Avenue County Line Road, Hiett Avenue to Browning Road County Line Road, Browning Road to East City Limits Stradley Road, Garces Highway to Schuster Road 1st Avenue, Ellington Street to Stradley Road Albany Street, Garces Highway to 11th Avenue Albany Street, 11th Avenue to Cecil Avenue Albany Street, Cecil Avenue to County Line Road Hiett Avenue, Garces Highway to Cecil Avenue Hiett Avenue, Cecil Avenue to County Line Road

Status in Delano

Type Bike Route Bike Route Bike Lane Bike Lane Bike Route Bike Lane / Bike Route Bike Lane / Bike Route Bike Route Bike Lane Bike Lane Bike Lane / Bike Route Bike Route Bike Route Bike Route

Roadway Lexington Street, Garces Highway to Cecil Avenue Lexington Street, Garces Highway to South City Limits Jefferson Street, Garces Highway to Cecil Avenue Girard Street, 21st Avenue to County Line Road Girard Street, 21st Avenue to 18th Avenue

Type Bike Lane Bike Route Bike Lane Bike Route Bike Route

20th Street, Girard Street to Browning Bike Route Road 11th Avenue, Hiett Avenue to High Street Bike Lane and Jefferson Street to Randolph Street 11th Avenue, High Street to Jefferson Bike Route Street Garces Highway, Timmons Avenue to Bike Lane / Browning Road Bike Route Cecil Avenue, Timmons Avenue to Bike Lane Browning Road High Street, Cecil Avenue to County Line Bike Path Road High Street, Cecil Avenue to Garces Bike Lane / Highway Bike Route High Street, Garces Highway to South of Bike Path Woollomes Avenue Extend 5th Avenue westerly from Bike Path Randolph Street to Quincy Street Page 52 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


What is it? Mass transit systems can include shuttles, buses, trains, and trolleys. Transit involves multiple riders on a vehicle moving between two known points. These vehicles may operate on the same roadway network as cars, or on separate facilities such as train tracks. They are further separated into the categories of fixed-route transit and ondemand transit. A bus system that has established routes and timetables would be considered fixed-route, and to use it, people would need to travel to the route to meet the bus. On-demand transit could be a shuttle or dial-a-ride system, where the rider makes an appointment to be picked up at home and dropped at a specific location. For fixed-route transit to be considered accessible, a home would need to be within a quarter mile of a stop.

Transit Availability and Access Status in Delano The map in Figure 33 shows the Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART) stops and service routes. ► The Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART) system operates four routes within the city. Figure 33 below shows the routes and bus stops, along with a quarter-mile range around each stop that indicates which neighborhoods would find that bus stop accessible. Based on the coverage of routes and stops, the majority of the city neighborhoods do have access to fixed route transit. DART does not operate on Sundays (per website) ► DART operates a dial-a-ride service by appointment to service areas not covered by fixed-route transit and provide ADA-compliant transportation for residents with disabilities ► Regional connectivity via Kern Regional Transit – North Kern Express Route, and Tulare County Area Transit – South County Route

Why is it important? Good access to transit reduces the need to use a personal vehicle to make trips. One busload can replace thirty car trips, reducing vehicle emissions and fuel consumption. Depending on the transit fare and condition of a personal vehicle, this can potentially save money as well. An accessible transit system also provides extended mobility to groups that may not be able to afford to purchase or maintain a personal vehicle. Page 53 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


Figure 33: DART Stops and Service Routes

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Commuting What is it? The majority of people make commuter trips to and from their place of work every weekday. These trips are typically considered to be mandatory and represent a large percentage of total vehicles on the road. Commuter trips usually occur in large groups at common times as many people start and end their workdays at similar times. This creates peak traffic periods, typically once in the morning and again in the evening. Commuting is typically broken up by personal vehicles, transit, bicycles and walking.

Why is it important? Commuting trips are typically considered mandatory during the day for most people. While it is difficult to reduce the number of people commuting, there may be opportunities to change how they commute. Carpooling, transit, and alternative modes of transportation for commuting would remove a daily vehicle round trip for each traveler involved. Removing these trips reduces vehicle emissions and fuel consumption. Depending on the mode chosen it can also save money and increase personal health through exercise.

Status in Delano ► According to most-recent census data: ●

Approximately 50% of workers leave between 5:00 and 7:00am. This may present a challenge for parents with children in school or daycare.

58% work outside of the City

While the average commute time is 24 minutes long, 20% of workers have a commute that is less than 10 minutes

1.3% of workers have no vehicles available

The breakdown of commuters by mode of travel is summarized below: Figure 34: Commute Modes in Delano

Other 1.7%

Work from Commute Modes in Delano Home

Bicycle Public Transportation 0.6% 0.6%

Carpooled 26.2%

Walked 2.2%

1.7%

Drive Alone 67.0%

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A traffic collision is considered to be any event where a vehicle strikes any object while moving. That object could be another car, a pedestrian, or something fixed in place like a fence or light post. When these collisions cause damage or injury, the details are recorded by the local law enforcement agency and loaded into a database so that the statistics can be evaluated later.

Why is it important? Studying the details of collisions is an invaluable tool in helping understand which factors influence, cause, or are correlated with traffic accidents. If the majority of collisions occur in one area, a city can focus efforts on improving safety in that area. If the primary cause of collisions is speeding, a city can take steps to reduce vehicle speeds in areas with high collision rates. Reducing traffic collisions directly benefits public health and safety.

Traffic Collisions Status in Delano ► The most recent full year of data was from June 2010 to May 2011 and was collected from the Statewide Integrated Traffic Records Systems (SWITRS). In this period, there were 515 vehicle collisions. ► The top 3 cited factors contributing to collisions were: Figure 35: Most Common Causes of Collisions

40%

Percent of Collisions with Cited Cause

What is it?

30%

35% 23%

23%

20%

19%

10% 0% Right-of-Way Violation Other Improper Turning Unsafe Speed

► The most common causes of collisions are often the result of a driver’s choice, and thus could have been prevented. ► Out of 515 collisions, 60 involved alcohol ●

Of the 60, driving under the influence was listed as the primary cause of the collision in 20 of the cases.

35% of the collisions were sideswipes

19 people were injured and 1 person was killed in alcohol-involved collisions

► Seatbelt usage is high throughout the city. Page 56 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


What it is? Collisions involving bicycles and pedestrians are often analyzed separately because the risk of injury is typically higher than in collisions only involving vehicles. These are only collisions where a cyclist or pedestrian was involved in a collision with a car or truck.

Why is it important? When pedestrians or cyclists are involved in collisions with motor vehicles, there is often a higher likelihood of injury. Reducing the number of these collisions increases public health. Additionally, pedestrians and motor vehicles do not typically occupy the same space on the street, so collisions should be rare and concentrated to certain types and locations. If the data reveals that this is not the case, steps can be taken to increase safety in locations with high rates of bicycle and pedestrian collisions.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Collisions Status in Delano The map in Figure 36 displaces the location and density of bicycle and pedestrian collisions as well as the location of vehicle-vehicle collisions (“other collisions”). lxxvii ► In the study period, there were 22 collisions involving pedestrians ● Primary Cause: Pedestrian Violation (36%) ● 13 at intersection, 8 midblock ● 18 persons injured, 2 fatalities ● 7 involved minors ► In the study period, there were 7 collisions involving bicycles ● No primary cause trends ● 5 sideswipe collisions ● 5 persons injured, no fatalities ● 4 involved minors

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Figure 36: Bicycle and Pedestrian Collision Density Map lxxviii

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ECONOMIC PROSPERITY AND ACCESS TO GOODS AND SERVICES

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What is it? The unemployment rate measures the percentage of residents who are actively looking for employment and are unable to find a job. The unemployment rate is calculated by dividing the number of unemployed by the total labor force and then multiplying by 100. It is a broad measure of the economic conditions of an area. It does not account for underemployment.

Why is it important?

Unemployment For the past decade, Delano has had a consistently higher unemployment rate than the US and California. In September 2006, the City experienced its lowest level of unemployment, which was still more than three times the corresponding rate in California and the U.S. As of October 2012, the City’s seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 30.8% compared to 9.8% in California and 7.5% in the U.S. (see Figure 37). It is important to note that this figure only includes those actively looking for work, so persons who have “given up� on their job search are not included in these statistics.

Figure 37: Seasonally Adjusted Unemployment Rate (2002-2012)

At its most fundamental level, employment is necessary to generate purchase power for the necessities of life, including a safe place to live, healthy foods, and health insurance. Being unemployed, underemployed, or concerned about job security are common contributors to adverse health effects. Unemployed people may have sleep disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance addictions, which in turn, cause increased demands on the health care system and higher societal costs. 79 In addition, unemployed men have been found to have increased mortality rates, particularly from suicide and lung cancer. 80

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What is it? This report measured the percent of residents who and schools who live within a quartermile of an unhealthy fast food establishment. The analysis also looked at which schools were near fast food restaurants.

Why is it important? It is well known that Delano is one of the most profitable cities for fast food establishments in the country. While fast food offers warm, quick, and easy meals for a few dollars, the food is often high in calories, fat, saturated fat, sodium, sugar, and cholesterol. It often provides low nutritional value per calorie. Areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than grocery stores experience higher rates of obesity and chronic disease across all income groups. 81 Additionally, fast food establishments often have drive-through facilities, which usually increase the number of cars that idle while they are waiting, creating noise, and air pollution. These cars also pose a potential threat to pedestrian safety since they must cross and obstruct a sidewalk to enter and exit.

Fast Food Access In Delano, approximately 18% of residents live within a quarter-mile an unhealthy fast food establishment. Renters (26%) are more than twice as likely as owners (12%) to live near unhealthy fast food. In addition, 18% of children under 18 live near a fast food establishment (see Table 13). The map in Figure 39 shows the location of fast food restaurants by type, a half-mile buffer around each establishment, the location of schools, and the youth population density. The majority of fast food establishments are clustered around Cecil Avenue and High Street. Five of Delano’s public schools are within a quarter-mile of a fast food restaurant, which makes it an easy, tempting choice for students on their way to and from school or during lunch. Those schools include Delano High School, Morningside Elementary School, Fremont Elementary School, Harvest Elementary School, and Cecil Avenue Elementary School. Table 13: Population within a Quarter Mile of Unhealthy Fast Food

Population within 1/4 Mile of Unhealthy Fast Food Total Pop

Citywide Non-Institutionalized Under 18 Renters Homeowners

53,147 42,511 15,948 17,889 24,361

Near Fast Food # Percent 7,657 14.4% 7,657 18.0% 2,863 18.0% 4,729 26.4% 2,928 12.0%

Source: Data from the City of Delano GIS and prepared by Raimi + Associates.

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Figure 38: Fast Food near Schools and Youth Density Page 64 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


Healthy Food Retail Access What is it? For this report, healthy food retail access is defined as living within a half mile of a full service supermarket or a farmers’ market. One half-mile is the standard measurement for neighborhood healthy food retail access used by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 82

Why is it important? Residents of communities with access to a full service grocery store or supermarket tend to eat more fruits and vegetables, have lower body weights, and lower rates of chronic diseases. 83 84 85 86 Conversely, those in communities without access to supermarkets generally have higher body weights (on average) and suffer from higher rates of premature death and chronic disease. 87 88

The map in Figure 40 shows the locations and half-mile service areas of full service supermarkets and farmers in addition to only the locations of other, non-full service grocery stores. Population density appears in grayscale behind the food store locations. Table 13 summarizes the Delano’s access to healthy food retail sources. Of all non-institutionalized residents, 35% live within a half mile of a supermarket, 17% live near a farmers’ market, and 43% live near either a supermarket or a farmers’ market. Delano residents age 65 years and older have slightly better than average access to healthy foods, possibly since they may live in the older parts of the City. Renters also have slightly better access since most of the multi-family housing units are near the City’s main corridors. Table 14: Population within a Half Mile of Healthy Food Retail Stores

Population within 1/2 Mile of Healthy Food Total Pop

People Living within 1/2 Mile of a Supermarket # Percent

People Living within 1/2 Mile of a Farmers' Market # Percent

People Living within 1/2 Mile of a Farmers Market or Supermarket # Percent

Citywide NonInstitutionalized

53,147

14,775

27.8%

7,343

13.8%

18,285

34.4%

42,511

14,775

34.8%

7,343

17.3%

18,285

43.0%

65 and older

3,249

1,308

40.3%

629

19.4%

1,660

51.1%

Renters

17,889

6,680

37.3%

4,678

26.2%

8,626

48.2%

Homeowners

24,361

8,095

33.2%

2,665

10.9%

9,659

39.6%

Source: Data from the City of Delano GIS and prepared by Raimi + Associates.

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Figure 39: Access to Healthy Food Map Page 66 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


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SUSTAINABLE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

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What is it? Natural gas is a colorless, odorless gas used for space heating, cooking, running engines, and generating electricity. Natural gas is a combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases comprised mostly of methane, but can also include ethane, propane, butane, and pentane. When burned, it gives off a relatively high amount of energy and produces relatively few emissions.

Natural Gas Usage Status in Delano ► Natural gas usage increased by 9 percent between 2005 and 2010, while the population increased by 16 percent, indicating a decrease in per capita natural gas usage. ► The single-family residential sector uses the most natural gas at 67.2% of the total usage. This is much higher than the state average of 22% usage for the residential sector, which is relatively lower because of the higher percentage of industrial making up the statewide economy than the percentage that makes up Delano’s economy.

Why is it important?

► Multi-family natural gas usage declined by 3.2 percent between 2005 and 2010

Natural gas is a very versatile energy source and is used in virtually every sector of the community for heating, cooking, power, or transportation. As a hydrocarbon fuel, the use of natural gas has air quality, climate change, and health implications. While natural gas is a relatively clean energy source, when natural gas is burned, a variety of air pollutants are generated including nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These pollutants can contribute to smog, asthma, and global climate change.

► Per capita natural gas usage in Delano is 103.67 therms per person, which is lower than the statewide per capita usage of 631 therms per person. Delano is likely more efficient on a per capita basis because its economy is comprised of less industrial uses than the statewide economy as a whole.

Figure 40: City of Delano 2010 Natural Gas Consumption

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What is it? “Bad Air Days” occur when daily air pollutant level exceeds health standard thresholds of air pollutants including; ozone, lead, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. On days when concentrations of these pollutants are high, air quality is considered bad or unhealthy.

Why is it important? Bad Air Days create unhealthy living conditions and can contribute to negative health effects and many respiratory issues, including asthma. More frequent Bad Air Days in an area increases the high pollutant concentration exposure rate, and over time, can have long-term health effects on community members. It is also advised to reduce outdoor activities like jogging, walking, and sports, because of increased exposure to air pollutants, because of the health risks associated with bad air days.

Bad Air Days Status in Delano ► The City of Delano experienced 195 days of moderate, poor, or unhealthy air quality in 2011 89. The worst months for air quality occurred in June and September. ► Delano’s air quality index is 108% greater than the national average, and 59.5% greater than California’s average 90. ► From 2008 to 2011, the City has experienced a 26-day increase in good air days, and 1-day decrease in bad air days. 91 ► San Joaquin Valley Air Quality District air pollutant levels, Ozone, PM 10 and PM 2.5, are considered Non-Attainment by State Standards. Table 15: Air Quality Measurements and Pollutants

Air Quality Measurement by Day

Total

Total days measured

305

Days with good air quality

110

Days with moderate air quality

87

Days w/ poor A.Q. for sensitive groups

84

Days with unhealthy air quality Air Pollutant Information Arsenic

24

Total 0.160%

Benzene

0.440%

Carbon Tetrachloride

0.000%

Lead

0.100%

Mercury

0.200%

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What is it? Toxic sites, or polluting sources, are areas that hazardous materials are used, created, or disposed, and have been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The TRI identifies types and quantities of chemicals that are being exposed in your community. These sites can include landfills, manufacturing facilities, gas stations, or power plants. Toxic sites can enter land, water, and air systems that can negatively affect the existing conditions linked to or surrounding the site.

Why is it important? The exposure and contamination by toxic materials can have short- or long-term effects on one’s health. Health impacts of toxic exposures depend on the type of chemical, the quantity and duration of the exposure, the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, touch, etc.), and the individual’s baseline health conditions, immune system, and sensitivities. The existence of toxic sites in a community can increase the risk of negative health effects on reproductive systems, cardiovascular systems, respiratory systems, neurological systems, and digestive systems, among others.

Polluting Sources/ Toxic Sites (TRI) Status in Delano ► Thirty-two Facilities are registered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) and considered hazardous waste handlers. ► There are currently 29 EPA-Regulated Facilities located in Delano, identified by the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). 92 ► One facility is considered by the Biennial Report to be treating, storing, and disposing of hazardous waste 93. ► The Permit Compliance System considers one Facility and Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) to have permits to discharge wastewater into rivers. ► Three facilities are considered by the Air Facilities System to be permitted for stationary air pollution, and include industrial uses in their criteria. ► One facility in Delano is considered to manufacture, process, or use chemicals that exceed standard levels regulated by the EPA. ► Two facilities have reported toxic releases. ► Between 1987 and 2011, the top three chemicals for pounds released are ammonia (2,924,071 lbs), ammonium sulfate (743,665 lbs), and sulfuric acid (552,115 lbs). 94

Figure 41: Top Three Chemicals Released in Kern County (1987-2011) Page 72 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


What is it? Pesticide chemicals are used to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate any pest, including herbicides and fungicides. Pesticides can be in water, air, land, soil, and on food. Exposure to pesticides can occur through the skin or eyes (dermal) the mouth (oral) or the lungs (respiratory or inhalation). 95

Why is it important? Pesticide exposure can have a wide range of negative health affects including damage to the nerve, lung, reproductive, and blood systems. 96 Contact or exposure to non-natural chemicals have been known to cause muscle weakness, skin problems, and even cancer in people of all ages, especially children (Helen Murphy, Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, University of Washington). Farm workers are also highly susceptible of pesticide exposure, as they work closely with agriculture, and the chemicals applied to produce to mitigate pest control. 97 Prevalence of pesticide use in your community can increase exposure potential and affect a number of community members in various ways.

Pesticide Exposure Status in Delano ► The top five pesticides used in Kern County, in 2009, include: Sulfur, Petroleum oil, Metam-sodium, mineral oil, and 1,3-Dichloroprophene contributing 13,683,021 pounds to the total 21,550,900 pound use of pesticides in Kern County. ► The top five crops and sites for chemical use in Kern County include: almonds, carrots, table and raisin grapes, wine grapes, and oranges. This contributes 15,200,530 pounds of pesticide applied to the crops. 98 ► California produced 173 million pounds of pesticides in 2010, increasing 9.5% from 2009 inventory reports. Sulfur was the highest used pesticide statewide. 99 ► Common health effects from sulfur exposure include: disturbance of blood circulation, heart damage, eyesight effects, reproductive failure, damage to immune system, and hearing defects. 100

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What is it? Greenhouse Gas emissions are gases that can absorb and emit long wave radiation and retained by gasses include water vapor, methane, and carbon dioxide 101.The gases, emitted by various industrial facilities, vehicles, animals, and manufacturing, trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere preventing cooling of surfaces and average air temperatures 102.

Why is it important? Carbon Dioxide accounts for 84% of all U.S. Greenhouse Gas emissions 103. The health effects of GHG emissions, including Carbon Dioxide, are associated with direct exposure to the gas. Common health effects from high concentrations can restrict oxygen levels in the air, which may cause fatigue, nausea, rapid heart rate, and prevention of adequate amounts of oxygen reaching the brain and heart 104. Excess contact with GHG can also cause some skin and eye irritation.

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Status in Delano ► The 2005 baseline inventory for Delano is 256,894 metric tons (MT) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e2), and increased to 278,688 MT CO2e in 2010. ► The 2005 Delano GHG emission levels contributed to Kern County’s total 2005 emissions of 10,928,153 MT CO2e. 105 Kern County is planning to reduce GHG emissions by 2020 to comply with The California Global Warming Solutions Act (Assembly Bill 32) standards that aims to reduce California GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 106. ► The top three GHG emission sectors for the city of Delano in 2010 include: Water Supply Electricity (2,554 MT CO2e), Citywide Vehicle Fleet-Fuel (1,436 CO2e) and Buildings and Facilities – Natural Gas (1,252 MT CO2e). There was a dramatic increase in City Vehicle Fleet GHG emissions from 2005 to 2010 levels, and a projected increase in this sector for future years. ► The projected total emissions in Delano are 335,260 MT CO2e by 2020 and 400,260 by 2035 107. ► The largest emitters in the coming years will come from On-Road Transportation at 213,283 MT CO2e for 2020, and 258,888 MT CO2e for 2035 levels. ► Delano may consider emissions reduction target of 15% less than 2005 levels, by 2020. This action will comply with the statewide AB 32 policy to reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels 108.

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Figure 42: 2005 Baseline Community GHG Emissions by Sector 109

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Climate Adaptation What is it? Climate Adaptation is the local, regional, national, and global change that will be made to the existing environment and climate, based on a number of environmental factors. Greenhouse Gases are one of these change agents, and contribute to climate adaptation scale and speed.

Why is it important? Over time, different geographical regions will experience a shift in historic and average climate characteristics. The effects of these changes may cause people to adjust lifestyles, place of residence, or changing living conditions. Common adaptations include severe abnormal weather and extreme temperature changes. 110 In areas that experience increase in temperature, health effects include dehydration, heat stroke, cardiovascular problems, certain types of cancers, and air pollution issues. 111

Status in Delano ► The current historic average temperature for the City of Delano is 64.0°. ► At a low emissions rate the expected average temperature is expected to increase to 67.8° by 2070-2090. At a high emissions rate, the average temperature is expected to reach 70.6° by 20702090. ► In the past ten years (2002-2012), Delano averaged 11 extreme heat days per year with temperatures exceeding 100°. 112 ► In the years 2070-2090, the average number of future extreme heat days is expected to reach 46 days per year. Four times more hot days per year than recent averages. 113 ► Delano’s expected change in precipitation is expected to decrease by 1-4 inches over the next 5070 years. 114 ► Delano’s projected changed in temperature and water availability can increase health risks associated with extreme heat, and limited water supply. Agricultural production can also experience adverse effects from project average temperatures in the City.

Figure 43: Project Temperature and Precipitation Changes in Delano, CA 115

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What is it? Solid waste is any trash, garbage, or refuse comprised of everyday items that are being discarded by the residents and businesses of the community.

Why is it important? Reducing solid waste is an important strategy of any sustainability effort. Solid waste is typically disposed of in a landfill and, as such, represents a major stream of unused material that could otherwise be recycled and used for the production of new everyday items. If recycled, solid waste could also offset the demand for virgin materials that must be extracted from the Earth, often at a cost to the environment.

Solid Waste Status in Delano ► Solid waste generation decreased by 7% between 2005 and 2010, even while the population increased by 16 %. Between 2005 and 2010, residential solid waste generation declined by 3.28 percent and non-residential solid waste generation declined by 11.82 %. ► The residential sector generates more solid waste than the non-residential sector at 58.5 percent. This is much higher than the state average of 30 percent usage for the residential sector, which is relatively lower because of the high percentage of non-residential uses making up the statewide economy than the percentage that makes up Delano’s economy. 116

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Why is it important? Water is key a aspect in maintaining overall health, limitations to water availability can negatively affect one’s health. 117 Water systems can help prevent health and sanitation risks, and efficiency is critical in preventing unintended loss of water to other uses including agriculture, industry, recreation, and stream flow. 118 Limited supply of potable water can limit access to humans and negatively affect health caused by less than adequate daily water supply. Water supply infrastructure and levels are essential to maintaining health for all community residents.

Status in Delano The City’s water comes from pumped groundwater. The amount pumped per year is enough to meet demands, with little waste. In 2013, the City ground water will have capacity of 16,100 GPPM (23MGD) with 17 active wells 119. The City provides wastewater collection and treatment from residential, commercial, and industrial uses. The City of Delano’s Facilities management Plan of 2005 increased daily capacity to 8.8 million gallons per day (MGD) to meet water collections demands for 2005 to 2020 projected levels. The City also increased their 454-acre disposal site by 30 acres to account for the new flow projections. Water use in Delano is expected to increase from 3,840,000 gallons per year in 2010, to 5,181,000 gallons per year in 2035. This will come from existing and projected wells totaling 18 within the City and Sphere of Influence. In 2010, Delano produced 3 billion gallons (9,272 acre feet) of water, averaging 8.23 million gallons per day 120. City uses 900 acres of land to discharge treated water, and projected to be recycled for agricultural irrigation. In 2010, 1,571 Million Gallons per Day (MGD) of recycled water was used 121. Figure 44: Water use and Wastewater Collection Projections, Delano, CA

100,000

Population Served

80,000 60,000

1,571

1,736

40,000 20,000

Wastewater Collected 1,918

2,120

48,957

54,097

59,778

66,054

2010

2015

2020

2025

2,342

2,588

3,000 2,500 2,000

72,990

80,654

1,500 1,000 500

0

0 Year

2030

2035

Acre Feet of Wastewater Collected

The consumption, use, and disposal of potable water supply for personal, household, industrial, and other community activities. Water sources supply a number of city activities, and vital to a city’s sustainability and quality of life.

Water Use

Population Served

What is it?

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What is it? Water quality is based on suitable levels of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water supply 122. Water quality meeting suitable levels based on temperature, acidity (pH), dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductance 123, salinity, and turbidity 124, is considered safe potable water 125.

Why is it important?

Water Quality Status in Delano The region’s water quality is suitable for most urban and agriculture uses. Near the City of Delano, high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS_, nitrate, arsenic, and organic compounds occur, especially arsenic levels near Tulare Lake, Kern Lake, and Buena Vista Lake. The 2003 study, described in the 2010 Urban Water Management Plan, 2 of 11 wells did exceed arsenic Maximum Contaminate Levels of 0.010 mg/L. The City’s Arsenic Mitigation Study concluded to treat wellheads and drilling new wells to replace old wells, and maintain consistent water supply 127.

Access to safe drinking water is important to sustain quality of life, and health. Poor water quality, or contaminated water, can prevent the consumption of water or cause severe health impacts if ingested. Contact or ingestion of contaminated water could cause stomach cramps, nausea, jaundice, headaches, and fatigue 126.

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Photos Sources Cover http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/

Socio-Cultural http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/ Coastersbycicleclub.com2010

Community Health Status http://www.panoramio.com/photo/73775010 http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/

Built Environment http://www.panoramio.com/photo/2967908 http://www.panoramio.com/photo_explorer#view=photo&position=3&with_photo_id=8612774&order=date_desc&user=1508220 http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/

Economic Prosperity and Access to Goods and Services http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/ http://www.panoramio.com/user/1328255?comment_page=2&photo_page=1 http://valleysocialstudies.com/reflections-on-ncss-2012-in-seattle-wa/?doing_wp_cron=1370636367.8155729770660400390625

Sustainability and Natural Environment http://www.susankirk.com.au/2011/insecticides-an-increasing-problem-in-future-for-streams-in-europe/ http://www.turnto23.com/news/40-acres-in-delano-become-historic-landmark http://www.panoramio.com/photo_explorer#view=photo&position=26&with_photo_id=7937122&order=date_desc&user=1328255 http://www.calbiomass.org/facilities/covanta-delano/

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"Common Menu Bar Links." Carbon Dioxide : OSH Answers. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/chem_profiles/carbon_dioxide.html>.

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"Kern County Community Wide Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Baseline 2005 - 2010." San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, May 2012.

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California Air Resources Board <http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/cc.htm>.

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Fehr and Peers, comp. DRAFT City of Delano GHG Inventory. Tech. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 2012. Print.

108

Fehr and Peers, comp. DRAFT City of Delano GHG Inventory. Tech. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 2012. Print.

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Fehr and Peers, comp. DRAFT City of Delano GHG Inventory. Tech. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 2012. Print.

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"Environmental Indicators." Government of Canada, Environment Canada. N.p., 4 May 2012. Web. <http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=en>.

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"Environmental Indicators." Government of Canada, Environment Canada. N.p., 4 May 2012. Web. <http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=en>.

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"Temperature: Extreme Heat Tool." Cal-Adapt. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://cal-adapt.org/temperature/heat/>.

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"Temperature: Extreme Heat Tool." Cal-Adapt. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://cal-adapt.org/temperature/heat/>.

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"Temperature: Extreme Heat Tool." Cal-Adapt. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://cal-adapt.org/temperature/heat/>.

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California 2008 Statewide Waste Characterization Study retrieved 2/20/13 from http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/WasteChar/Tables/StateSummary.pdf "Water Use Efficiency (WUE)." :: Washington State Dept. of Health. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.doh.wa.gov/CommunityandEnvironment/DrinkingWater/WaterSystemDesignandPlanning/WaterUseEfficiency.aspx>. 117

"Water Use Efficiency (WUE)." :: Washington State Dept. of Health. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.doh.wa.gov/CommunityandEnvironment/DrinkingWater/WaterSystemDesignandPlanning/WaterUseEfficiency.aspx>. 118

119

U.S. City of Delano. Public Works. City of Delano 2010 UWMP. Delano: n.p., 2011. Print.

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U.S. City of Delano. Public Works. City of Delano 2010 UWMP. Delano: n.p., 2011. Print.

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U.S. City of Delano. Public Works. City of Delano 2010 UWMP. Delano: n.p., 2011. Print.

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"A Primer on Water Quality." U.S. Geological Survey. US Department of Interior, 09 Jan. 2013. Web. <http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-027-01/>.

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Electrical Conductance: Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material accommodates the movement of an electric charge. Electrical conductivity is a very useful property since values are affected by such things as a substances chemical composition and the stress state of crystalline structures. Therefore, electrical conductivity information can be used for measuring the purity of water, sorting materials, checking for proper heat treatment of metals, and inspecting for heat damage in some materials. <http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Physical_Chemical/Electrical.htm> 124

Turbidity: Turbidity is the measure of relative clarity of a liquid. It is an optical characteristic of water and is an expression of the amount of light that is scattered by material in the water when a light is shined through the water sample. <http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/turbidity.html>

"Water Quality." , from the U.S. Geological Survey Water Science School. U.S. Department of Interior, 10 Jan. 2013. Web. <http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterquality.html>. 125

126

National Resource Defense Council. What's on Tap? NRDC: What's on Tap? N.p., Oct. 2002. Web. Oct. 2002. <http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/uscities/contents.asp>.

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U.S. City of Delano. Public Works. City of Delano 2010 UWMP. Delano: n.p., 2011. Print.

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A3. Climate Action Plan Under Separate Cover



CITY OF DELANO Public Review Draft Climate Action Plan

Prepared for City of Delano

November 2013



CITY OF DELANO Public Review Draft Climate Action Plan

Prepared for City of Delano

2600 Capitol Avenue Suite 200 Sacramento, CA 95816 916.564.4500 www.esassoc.com Los Angeles Oakland Orlando Palm Springs Petaluma Portland San Diego San Francisco Santa Cruz Seattle Tampa Woodland Hills

November 2013


OUR COMMITMENT TO SUSTAINABILITY | ESA helps a variety of public and private sector clients plan and prepare for climate change and emerging regulations that limit GHG emissions. ESA is a registered assessor with the California Climate Action Registry, a Climate Leader, and founding reporter for the Climate Registry. ESA is also a corporate member of the U.S. Green Building Council and the Business Council on Climate Change (BC3). Internally, ESA has adopted a Sustainability Vision and Policy Statement and a plan to reduce waste and energy within our operations. This document was produced using recycled paper.


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1. Introduction 1 Overview 1 Purpose and Scope 1 Relationship to Other City Plans 2 Document Contents 3

2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting 5 What is Climate Change? 5 Impacts of Climate Change 9 Policy and Regulatory Setting 11 3. GHG Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets 17 Community Wide Emissions 17 Municipal Operations Emissions 20 Emissions Forecast 23 Emissions Reduction Target 26

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies 29 Overview 29 Energy Goals and Strategies 33 Transportation and Land Use Goals and Strategies 49 Solid Waste Goals and Strategies 62 Water Goals and Strategies 65

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5. Monitoring and Implementation 69 Overview 69 Current Funding Needs 70 Monitoring 72 Schedule of Implementation 72 Funding Sources 74 6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change 79 Overview 79 Expected Local Impacts 79 Adaptation Planning Approach 81 Adaptation Planning Strategies 82

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List of Appendices A. GHG Inventory Methodology B. Vehicle Miles of Travel Inventory C. Fehr & Peers Traffic and Land Use Reduction Strategies Memo D. Transportation and Land Use Strategies E. Solid Waste Strategies F. Energy and Water Strategies List of Figures 2‐1. The Greenhouse Effect 6 2‐2. Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide 7 2‐3. 800,000 Year Record of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations 8 2‐4. Climate Model Indications and Observed Climate 9 3‐1. 2005 Community GHG Emissions by Sector 19 3‐2. 2010 Baseline Community GHG Emissions by Sector 20 3‐3. 2005 and 2010 Community GHG Emissions by Sector 20 3‐4. 2005 Baseline Municipal GHG Emissions by Sector 22 3‐5. 2010 Baseline Municipal GHG Emissions by Sector 22 3‐6. 2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Municipal Emissions by Sector 23 3‐7. Community Emissions by Sector (MT CO2e): 2005 Baseline, 2010 Update, and BAU Forecasts for 2020 and 2035 25 3‐8. 2020 Target and the Anticipated Impact of State Measures on Community‐wide GHG Emissions 27 4‐1. 2020 Target and the Anticipated Impact of State Measures and Climate Action Plan on Community‐wide GHG Emissions 30 4‐2. Annual Electricity Usage (kWh) in the City of Delano, for 2005 and 2010 33 4‐3. Annual Natural Gas Usage (therms) in the City of Delano, for 2005 and 2010 34 4‐4. Electricity Usage for Municipal Operations in 2005 and 2010 35 4‐5. Natural Gas Usage for Municipal Operations in 2005 and 2010 36 4‐6. Distribution of Residential Building Construction Date, by Building Type in the City of Delano 38 5‐1. Projected Temperature Increase 66 5‐2. Observed and Projected Temperatures 66 5‐3. Projected Precipitation Levels 66 6‐1. Projected Temperature Increase 80 6‐2. Observed and Projected Temperatures 80 6‐3. Projected Precipitation Levels 80

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List of Tables 2‐1. Greenhouse Gases Covered by the Kyoto Protocol 7 3‐1. 2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Community GHG Emissions by Sector 18 3‐2. 2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Municipal Operations GHG Emissions by Sector 21 3‐3. Community Emissions by Sector: 2005 Baseline, 2010 Update, and BAU Forecasts for 2020 and 2035 24 3‐4. Annual GHG Reductions from State‐wide Measures by 2020 26 3‐5. Predicted Effect of State‐Wide Measures on Community‐Wide GHG Emissions 25 4‐1. Prioritization of Community Strategies 31 4‐2. Summary Table of GHG Reduction Potential for Energy Strategies in 2020 37 4‐3. Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Transportation and Land Use Strategies in 2020 45 4‐4. Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Solid Waste Strategies in 2020 63 4‐5. Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Water Strategies in 2020 66 5‐1. Priority Funding Needs 71 5‐2. Schedule of Implementation 73

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A work week comprising 40 hours spread over 4 working days.

9/80

A work week comprising 80 hours spread over 9 working days.

AAAS

American Association for the Advancement of Science—an international non‐profit organization dedicated to advancing science around the world.

AB1493

Assembly Bill 1493: The Pavley Regulations, which reduce passenger vehicle emissions.

AB 32

Assembly Bill 32 (2006): Requires that California cap GHG emissions state‐wide at 1990 levels by 2020

AB 341

Assembly Bill 341 (2011): Requires California to divert 75 percent of its solid waste from landfills by 2020.

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Glossary 4/40

Acre‐feet per year

BAAQMD

Bay Area Air Quality Management District

BAU

Business as Usual

BTA

State Bicycle Transportation Account

Cal/EPA

California Environmental Protection Agency

CalGREEN

The 2010 California Green Building Code, codified in Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations.

CaliforniaFIRST

A statewide PACE Program available to nonresidential building owners.

CARB

The California Air Resources Board

CAP

Climate Action Plan

CAPCOA

California Air Pollution Control Officers Association

CCAP

The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District Climate Change Action Plan

CEC

California Energy Commission

CEQA

The California Environmental Quality Act

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbon: A greenhouse gas mostly eliminated by international treaty

CH4

Methane: A greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times more global warming potential per unit weight than carbon dioxide.

CO2

Carbon dioxide: A greenhouse gas

CO2e

Carbon dioxide equivalent, or the amount of CO2 that would have the same global warming potential (GWP), when measured over a specified timescale (generally, 100 years).

CPUC

California Public Utilities Commision

CSI

California Solar Initiative: A state program offering rebates for solar installation

CVOC

Central Valley Opportunity Center

EMFAC

Emission Factors Model: A model used to calculate emission rates from all motor vehicles in California, including passenger cars and heavy‐duty truck. EMFAC2007 EMFAC2011 is the most recent version of this model.

DART

Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART): Delano’s bus service system.

EAP

Energy Action Plan

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Glossary (cont.) EPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency. The mission of EPA is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment— air, water and land—upon which life depends.

ESCO

Energy Service Company: A business that develops, installs, and arranges financing for projects designed to improve the energy efficiency and maintenance costs for facilities

eTrip

San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District rule requiring employers with 100 or more eligible employees at worksites to established employee trip reduction programs.

FHA

Federal Housing Administration

GHG

Greenhouse gas

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The waste collection provider for the City of Oakdale and surrounding communities.

S‐3‐05

California Governor’s Executive Order

Greenhouse Gas

A gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere, causing a planet‐wide greenhouse effect.

GWP

Global warming potential measures the atmospheric heat‐absorbing ability of a gas relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO2)

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Gilton

Contents

Gallons per capita per day

HVAC

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

ICF

ICF International, an energy, environmental, transportation, health, education, social programs, and homeland security consultant

ICLEI

International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives: A membership association of local governments committed to advancing climate protection and sustainable development.

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: The leading body for the assessment of climate change, established by the United Nations.

Kern COG

Kern Council of Governments

kWh

Kilowatt hours

LCFS

Low Carbon Fuel Standard: Executive Order S‐1‐07, which calls for a 10 percent reduction in the carbon intensity of California’s transportation fuels by 2020.

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design: An internationally recognized green building certification system, which provides third‐ party verification that a building or community was designed and built using sustainable approaches, with particular regard to energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reductions, and improved indoor environmental quality, among others.

LIHEAP

Low‐Income Home Energy Assistance Program

LOS

Level of service: A traffic engineering measurement of delay at intersections due to vehicle queuing.

MASH

Multifamily Affordable Solar Housing: a program that provide incentives for Multifamily housing.

MID

Modesto Irrigation District: One of two energy providers for the City of Oakdale

MPO

Metropolitan Planning Organization

MT CO2e

Metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent

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Glossary (cont.) NAS

National Academy of Sciences Nitrous oxide. A colorless, odorless greenhouse gas with approximately 310 times more global warming potential than CO2.

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NREL

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

NSHP

New Solar Homes Partnership: A program that provides financial incentives and other support to home builders for energy efficient solar homes.

OPR

California State Office of Planning and Research

PACE

Property Assessed Clean Energy Program

Pavley

The Pavley Regulations, which reduce passenger vehicle emissions.

PFC

Perfluorocarbon: A greenhouse gas with a global warming potential between 7,300 and 22,800 times more than carbon dioxide

PG&E

Pacific Gas and Electric Company: One of the City’s energy utilities.

PPA

Power Purchase Agreement

ppm

Parts per million

PV

Photovoltaic

ROTA

Riverbank‐Oakdale Transit Authority

RPS

Renewable Portfolio Standard

RSWPA

Stanislaus County Regional Solid Waste Planning Agency

SASH

Single Family Affordable Solar Housing: a program that provide incentives for single family housing.

SB1078 / SB 107

Senate Bill 1078: The Renewable Portfolio Standard, required California to generate 20% of its electricity from renewable resources no later than 2017.

SB 2

Senate Bill 2 (2011): Expanded the Renewable Portfolio Standard, requiring California investor‐owned utilities to have 33 percent renewable procurement by 2020.

SB 375

Senate Bill 375: Enhances California's ability to reach its AB 32 goals by promoting good planning with the goal of more sustainable communities.

SB 97

Senate Bill 97: Requires the Governor’s Office of Planning and Research (OPR) to develop and adopt CEQA guidelines for the mitigation of emissions.

SBX7‐7

The California Water Conservation Bill of 2009, which sets a target of a 20% reduction in Statewide water use by 2020.

SCE

Southern California Edison: One of the City’s energy utilities

SCS

Sustainable Communities Strategy

SCG & SCGC

Scoping Plan Southern California Gas Company: One of the City’s energy utilities AB32‐required planning document developed by the Air Resources Board that provides the outline for actions to reduce California’s GHG emissions.

SEEC

The California State‐wide Energy Efficiency Collaborative, which is a program that provides free‐of‐charge energy and climate initiative resources to local governments.

SJV PEVCC

San Joaquin Valley Plug‐in Electric Vehicle Coordinating Council

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Glossary (cont.) SF6

Sulfur Hexafluoride: A greenhouse gas with 22,800 the global warming potential of carbon dioxide. San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District

SJVRPA

San Joaquin Valley Regional Planning Agency

SOV

Single‐occupancy vehicle

SRTS

Safe Routes to School: a movement to create safe, convenient, and fun opportunities for children to bike and walk to and from schools.

StaRT

Stanislaus County Regional Transit

TEA‐21

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century

Title 24

Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations—the California Building Code

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SJVAPCD

Tulare County Area Transit: Tulare County’s bus service system.

TDM

Transportation Demand Management: The application of strategies and policies to reduce travel demand through reduction in single‐ occupancy private vehicle use.

TIP

Transportation Improvement Program

UWMP

Urban Water Management Plan

USDOT

The United States Department of Transportation

VMT

Vehicle miles traveled

WAP

Weatherization Assistance Program

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

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Overview

Given the scientific consensus that anthropogenic or “man‐made” greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are causing global climate change, the City of Delano is joining an increasing number of California local governments committed to addressing climate change at the local level. The City recognizes the risk that climate change poses to its residents, business owners, and visitors, and is acting now to reduce the GHG emissions from both its government operations and the community at‐large through the strategies set forth in this Climate Action Plan. Although state and regional policies and programs are being implemented to reduce GHG emissions, ultimately local action is needed to ensure that Delano is doing its part to mitigate climate change and adapt to its current and future effects. This Climate Action Plan takes a common sense approach to reducing GHG emissions in the City of Delano, with policies and cost‐effective programs that the City itself, as well as its residents and businesses, can implement to reduce the GHG emissions associated with energy consumption, transportation, water use, and waste sent to local landfills.

Purpose and Scope

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This Climate Action Plan outlines strategies, goals, and actions for the City and its community to reduce municipal and community‐wide GHG emissions. It is designed to ensure that Delano does its part to meet the mandates of California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), while taking into account the Delano General Plan vision for future growth. AB 32 directs the state to reduce state‐wide GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. To achieve these reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the State Office of Planning and Research (OPR) recommend that local governments target their 2020 emissions to be 15 percent below 2005 levels, which are deemed to be equivalent to 1990 emissions levels. The baseline 2005 and 2010 Community GHG Emissions Inventories for Delano include 255,854 and 276,456 metric tons of CO2 equivalents (MT CO2e), respectively. Emissions from municipal operations, included in

1. Introduction

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

the community inventory, were 18,436 MT CO2e in 2005 and 20,817 MT CO2e in 2010. Under business‐ as‐usual (BAU) conditions, community GHG emissions are forecasted to be 333,111 MT CO2e.by the year 2020. To be consistent with the AB 32 goal, the City must reduce its annual community‐wide emissions to approximately 217,477 MT CO2e by the year 2020. This is a reduction of 34.7% (115,634 MT CO2e) below the 2020 BAU forecast.

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Several initiatives at the state level will help the City reduce GHG emissions, but they alone will not be sufficient to meet the 2020 target. Due primarily to their control over land use and building practices, local governments play a key role in reducing GHG emissions. This Climate Action Plan provides a roadmap for the City to be proactive in reducing GHGs through a series of local actions, so that the City can help mitigate climate change while doing its part to meet the requirements of state law. In addition, efforts to reduce GHG emissions generally provide lower energy bills and co‐benefits to public health, economic development (including providing local job opportunities), air quality, and quality of life.

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The City of Delano considered many potential GHG‐reduction strategies and actions. Best‐suited measures were chosen primarily based on their ability to reduce GHG emissions for their cost‐benefit characteristics, with additional considerations for funding availability and feasibility of implementation. The selected measures in this Climate Action Plan cover transportation and land use, energy consumption and generation, water use and wastewater treatment, solid waste disposal, and municipal operations. For each emissions sector, the Climate Action Plan presents goals, strategies, and specific actions for reducing emissions, along with quantified cost‐benefit impacts where possible. An implementation and monitoring plan is also provided. The initial implementation timeframe will span approximately seven years, from now (2013) through 2020.

Relationship to Other City Plans This Climate Action Plan, in presenting measures for reducing community GHG emissions and increasing resilience to climate change, is closely aligned with the goals and policies outlined in the Delano General Plan (adopted in 2005), as well as other City policies related to sustainability, including those found in the Delano Health and Sustainability Element that is expected to be adopted into the General Plan in late 2013. The Climate Action Plan is consistent with the General Plan, but is intended to be updated and revised on a more frequent basis.

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The goals, strategies, and actions presented in Chapter 4 of this Climate Action Plan are consistent with the goals and policies included in the Health and Sustainability Element of the Delano General Plan. The City of Delano Health and Sustainability Element provides support for the Climate Action Plan through its inclusion of goals and policies on Energy, Green Buildings, Community Design, Land Use and Transportation, Resource Efficiency, and Climate Change Resiliency. Table 5.1 in Chapter 5 provides a summary of how the two documents align.

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Document Content The Climate Action Plan is organized into the following chapters, as described below: Executive Summary. This section provides a summary of the Delano Climate Action Plan. Chapter 1: Introduction. This chapter provides an overview of the document, the purpose and scope of the Climate Action Plan, and its relationship the Delano General Plan.

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Chapter 2: Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting. This chapter presents the basic science behind climate change and the ongoing research related to its effects on the natural and human world. In addition, Chapter 2 provides a brief explanation of federal regulations, state actions, and local actions pursuant to state requirements to reduce GHG emissions.

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Chapter 3: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets. This chapter presents the community‐wide inventory of GHG emissions for the 2005 base year. A subset of those emissions— municipal emissions attributable to government operations—is also presented. Using projections of population, employment, and new residential and commercial development, future emissions for the year 2020 are estimated for BAU market‐based conditions. In addition, future year emissions for the year 2035 are estimated for BAU General Plan build‐out conditions. This chapter also estimates the cumulative effect of implementing state‐wide measures in reducing GHG emissions over time. Finally, this chapter establishes the 2020 GHG emissions target as 15 percent below base year 2005 emissions, and describes the emissions “gap” that the City of Delano Climate Action Plan must close to reach that target. Chapter 4: Reduction Goals, Strategies, and Actions. Reducing emissions to at least 15 percent below the 2005 base year inventory will require the City of Delano and its residents and businesses to commit to strategies that impact energy use, development density and vehicular use, solid waste diversion, and water consumption. Chapter 4 addresses each of these major categories, summarizing the category’s contribution to total city‐wide emissions and describing the strategies and measures that will be implemented to reduce emissions from each category over time. It also provides estimates of the emissions reduction potential for individual strategies and actions in each category in 2020, as well as a summary of the aggregate impact of all strategies in 2035. Chapter 4 also incorporates the policies and programs that Delano has implemented since the 2005 base year, accounting for their emissions reduction impacts.

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Chapter 5: Monitoring and Implementation. This chapter outlines recommended steps for implementing the Climate Action Plan strategies described in Chapter 4, and for monitoring the progress of implementation. Chapter 6: Preparing Delano for Climate Change. This chapter presents an overview of the impacts Delano is expected to experience due to projected changes in the climate, and what the City can do to begin preparing for them.

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What is Climate Change?

Climate change is described as a significant and lasting change in the planet’s weather patterns over a long time period. The scientific community has reached consensus that climate change is occurring at a global scale, and climate change is a widely discussed economic and political issue in California, the United States, and internationally. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level.”1 Regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases and changing precipitation patterns, are already affecting natural systems worldwide, and will have widespread impacts on water availability, food production, ecosystem biodiversity, and human health. These changes can result in significant impacts to the health, economy and environment of the Delano community and beyond.

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Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are gases that trap heat in the atmosphere and regulate the Earth’s temperature. This effect, known as the Greenhouse Effect, is responsible for maintaining a habitable climate, as shown in Figure 2‐1. There are many natural cycles and processes that affect the level of GHGs in the atmosphere, but climate change is accelerating in recent decades due to human activity, adding ever‐ increasing levels of GHGs into the atmosphere. Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution around 1750, human activities have been adding to the concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere, and levels now far exceed the average atmospheric concentrations of the past several hundred thousand years. Land use changes, burning of fossil fuels, and agricultural practices have all contributed to this observed increase. Global climate models clearly show that human activity is having an effect on global temperatures. This is otherwise known as “anthropogenic warming.”

1

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, 2007. Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml

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Figure 2‐1 The Greenhouse Effect

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SOURCE: (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2009)2

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The most prevalent GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor. Other important GHGs are methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydroflurocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). These gases are emitted through a variety of natural processes and human activities: 

Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are byproducts of fossil fuel combustion.

Nitrous oxide is associated with agricultural operations, including the fertilization of crops.

Methane results from many agricultural practices (e.g., keeping livestock), anaerobic composting, and landfills.

Until recently, chlorofluorocarbons were widely used as refrigerants, propellants, and cleaning solvents, but their production has been mostly eliminated by international treaty.

Hydrofluorocarbons are now used as a substitute for chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration and cooling.

Perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride emissions are common byproducts of industries such as aluminum production and semi‐conductor manufacturing.

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Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a quantitative measurement that expresses the relative warming potency of these gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is assigned a GWP value of 1. Sulfur hexafluoride is several orders of magnitude stronger with a GWP of 22,800. For GHG emission inventories, the weight of each gas is multiplied by its GWP and presented in units of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e). Table 2‐1 lists the six primary GHGs (also known as the Kyoto GHGs), their chemical formula, the lifetime of the compound, and their GWPs relative to CO2. Though CO2 has a lower GWP than other GHGs in the atmosphere, it is the largest contributor to anthropogenic warming over the last century because of the sheer volume of human‐induced CO2 emissions over that time. Figure 2‐2 shows the strong correlation between atmospheric CO2 levels and observed global temperatures 2

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US DOT, Highways & Climate Change, available online: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/climate/ccbrochure.htm, accessed April 18, 2012.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

over the past 130 years. Concentrations have risen most rapidly since 1980, closely tracking the steep rise in temperature. Table 2‐1 Greenhouse Gases Covered by the Kyoto Protocol (Lifetime and Global Warming Potentials from IPCC1) Chemical Formula

Lifetime (years)

Global Warming Potential for 100‐year horizon

Carbon Dioxide

CO2

1

1

Methane

CH4

12

25

Nitrous Oxide

N20

114

298

Sulfur Hexafluoride

SF6

3,200

22,800

Hydrofluorocarbons

HFCs

1.4–270

77–14,400

Perfluorocarbons

PFCs

1,000–50,000

7,390–22,800

GHG

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1 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (AR4). Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ publications_and_data_reports.shtml#1

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Figure 2‐2 Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide

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SOURCE: NOAA, 20103

As shown in Figure 2‐3, atmospheric CO2 levels have periodically risen and fallen over the past 800,000 years, within a relatively narrow range of approximately 180 to 300 parts per million (ppm), corresponding to repeating cycles of carbon uptake and release as continental ice sheets advance and retreat. The current 3

NOAA Satellite and Information Service, available online: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/, 2010.

2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting

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era, already near the peak of an historical warming cycle, is experiencing atmospheric CO2 levels far higher than at any time over the past 800,000 years. Current atmospheric concentrations are hovering at about 400 ppm, compared with approximately 280 ppm just 250 years ago. Figure 2‐3 800,000 Year Record of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentrations

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By the end of the 21st Century, even the lower threshold of expected levels shown in Figure 2‐3 will far exceed known levels going back more than one million years. Climate models cited by the IPCC predict that by 2100, average atmospheric CO2 concentrations will increase to a range of 540–970 ppm, while global average temperatures are expected to rise between 1.1 and 6.4 °C (2.0 and 11.5 °F), with the greatest increases occurring at the poles. Already, observed average temperatures have increased by about 3°C at the poles since the 1980s, compared with 0.7 °C in the Earth’s more temperate zones. Climate dynamics are complex, and predictions about our future climate include a level of uncertainty. Even so, current observations are consistent with modeling predictions and in many cases prove that the models are conservative.

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An expanding body of scientific research supports the theory that human activity is a major contributor to observed increases in atmospheric CO2 and other GHGs. As shown in Figure 2‐4, climate model experiments that include only natural factors, such as cycles of solar radiation variability, show a relatively stable global temperature over the past century, while models that include human influences produce results that track very closely to the observed temperature increases over that same time period.

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NOAA Satellite and Information Service, 2010. Available at: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/

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Figure 2‐4 Climate Model Indications and the Observed Climate

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Impacts of Climate Change

In 2013, a consortium of U.S.‐based science organizations led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a draft of its third comprehensive study of climate impacts in the United States.5 Its key findings are summarized as follows: 1.

Global warming is unequivocal and primarily human‐induced, predominantly through the burning of fossil fuels.

Average global temperature has increased over the past 50 years. This observed increase is due primarily to human‐induced emissions of heat‐trapping gases.

2.

Widespread climate‐related impacts are occurring now and are expected to continue and accelerate significantly if emissions of heat‐trapping gases continue to increase.

3.

Climate change will stress water resources.

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Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and health. These impacts are different from region to region and will grow under projected climate changes. Climate‐related changes have been widely observed in the United States and its coastal waters. These changes include increases in heavy downpours, rising temperatures and sea level, rapidly retreating glaciers, thawing permafrost, lengthened growing seasons, lengthened ice‐free seasons in the ocean and on lakes and rivers, earlier snowmelt, and alterations in river flows.

Access to clean water is an issue in every region, but the nature of the potential impacts varies. Drought—related to reduced precipitation, increased evaporation, and increased water loss from plants—is an important issue especially in the western U.S. Floods and water quality problems are likely to be amplified by climate change in most regions. Declines in mountain snowpack are important in the western states and Alaska, where snowpack provides vital natural water storage. 5

U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2013. National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee: Draft Climate Assessment Report, page 8. Available at: http://ncadac.globalchange.gov/

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

4.

Crop and livestock production will be increasingly challenged. Agriculture is considered one of the sectors most adaptable to changes in climate. However, increased heat, pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges for crop and livestock production.

5.

Coastal areas are at increasing risk from sea‐level rise and storm surge. Sea‐level rise and storm surges place many U.S. coastal areas at increasing risk of erosion and flooding, especially along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, Pacific Islands, and parts of Alaska. Energy and transportation infrastructure and other property in coastal areas are very likely to be adversely affected.

6.

Threats to human health will increase.

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Health impacts resulting from climate change are related to heat stress, waterborne diseases, poor air quality, extreme weather events, and diseases transmitted by insects and rodents. A robust public health infrastructure can reduce the potential for negative impacts.

7.

Climate change will interact with many social and environmental stresses.

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Climate change will combine with pollution; population growth; overuse of resources; urbanization; and other social, economic, and environmental stresses to create larger impacts than from any of these factors alone.

8.

Thresholds will be crossed, leading to large changes in climate and ecosystems.

There are a variety of thresholds in the climate system and ecosystems. These thresholds determine for example the presence of sea ice and permafrost and the survival of species, from fish to insect pests, with implications for society. Warming ocean waters and ocean acidification across the globe and within U.S. marine territories are broadly affecting marine life.

9.

Future climate change and its impacts depend on choices made today.

The amount and rate of future climate change depend primarily on current and future human‐ caused emissions of heat‐trapping gases and airborne particles. Responses involve reducing emissions to limit future warming and adapting to the changes that are unavoidable.

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According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report, a 2°C increase in average global temperature over the next century is a “safe” level of global warming. To keep warming at this level, GHG concentrations must be stabilized at less than 450 parts per million (ppm). Currently, the global atmospheric concentration of GHGs averages nearly 400 ppm. Avoiding dangerous warming requires reducing global GHG emissions by at least 50 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2050. A target this aggressive is made especially challenging due to the current rapid rise of emissions in the developing world. Many of California’s important natural resources are threatened by the global warming trend. Increased precipitation and sea level rise could increase coastal flooding, saltwater intrusion (a particular concern in the low‐lying Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, where potable water supply pumps could be threatened), and degradation of wetlands. Mass migration and/or loss of plant and animal species, many unique to California, could also occur.

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2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

More information is available on the science of climate change from the following organizations: 

U.S. Global Change research Program, National Climate Assessment: http://www.globalchange.gov/what‐we‐do/assessment

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml

National Ocean and Aeronautical Administration (NOAA): http://www.climate.gov/#climateWatch

Pew Center on Climate Change: http://www.pewclimate.org/

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/indicators.html

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U.S. National Academy of Sciences: http://americasclimatechoices.org/

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS): http://www.aaas.org/

Policy and Regulatory Setting

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Strategies for monitoring and addressing climate change have emerged at the international, national, and state levels, but California has been a leader in developing mitigation and adaptation strategies. Since 2005, California has been making policy and passing legislation that seeks to control emissions of gases that contribute to global warming. These have included regulatory approaches, such as mandatory reporting for significant sources of GHG emissions and caps on emission levels, as well as market‐based mechanisms, such as market‐based cap‐and‐trade. Some regulations apply at the state level, but others are state‐imposed mandates that are applicable at the municipal level and required of local agencies and jurisdictions.

State of California Executive Order S-3-05

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In June 2005, the Governor of California signed Executive Order S‐3‐05, which identified the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) as the lead coordinating state agency for establishing climate change emission reduction targets in California. A “Climate Action Team,” a multi‐agency group of state agencies, was set up to implement Executive Order S‐3‐05. The Governor’s Executive Order established aggressive emissions reductions goals: by 2010, GHG emissions must be reduced to 2000 levels; by 2020, GHG emissions must be reduced to 1990 levels; and by 2050, GHG emissions must be reduced to 80 percent below 1990 levels. GHG emission reduction strategies and measures to reduce global warming were identified by the California Climate Action Team in 2006.

Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32)

In 2006, the California legislature adopted AB 32, requiring that California cap GHG emissions state‐wide at 1990 levels by 2020. AB 32 requires CARB to establish a program for statewide GHG emissions reporting, and monitoring/enforcement of that program.

The Climate Change Scoping Plan, adopted in 2008, outlines the State’s plan to achieve the GHG reductions required in AB 32. The actions vary by type, which include direct regulations, alternative compliance mechanisms, incentives, voluntary actions, and other mechanisms. The Scoping Plan identifies local

2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

governments as “essential partners” in achieving California’s goals to reduce GHG emissions, encouraging the adoption of reduction targets for community and municipal operations emissions that are consistent with the State’s commitment (identified as equivalent to 15% below “current” levels). The Scoping Plan includes the following high‐impact State measures that target emissions from transportation and power generation. Each is expected to provide significant emissions reduction benefits for the City of Delano.

Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS)

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The Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) requires fuel providers in the State to decrease lifecycle fuel carbon intensity by 2020. The LCFS applies, either on a compulsory or opt‐in basis, to all fuels used for transportation in California. It is expected that the LCFS will reduce tailpipe carbon emissions from passenger vehicles and heavy duty trucks by approximately 10 percent by 20206. CARB identified specific eligibility criteria in April 2009, and the regulation became effect in January 2010. In December 2011, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California issued rulings that struck down the LCFS for violation of the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution and enjoined its further enforcement. CARB appealed the ruling the following month. It is assumed for the time being that the LCFS will be ultimately implemented by 2020 as proposed. If the LCFS were ultimately to be blocked from implementation, the emission reductions described in this Climate Action Plan would be adjusted downward accordingly.

Assembly Bill 1493 (Pavley)

Assembly Bill 1493, known as the Pavley Bill, directed CARB to adopt regulations to reduce emissions from new passenger vehicles. AB 1493 requires GHG emission reductions from passenger trucks and light cars beginning in 2011. CARB’s AB 32 Early Action Plan released in 2007 included a strengthening of the Pavley regulation for 2017. The U.S. EPA granted California the authority to implement GHG emission reduction standards for new passenger cars, pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles in June 2009. In September, CARB adopted amendments to the regulations that reduce GHG emissions in new passenger vehicles from 2009 through 2016. It is expected that the Pavley regulations will reduce GHG emissions from California passenger vehicles by about 22 percent in 2012 and about 30 percent in 2016, all while improving fuel efficiency and reducing motorists’ costs.

Senate Bill 1078 (SB 1078)

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California’s Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) was established in 2002 under SB 1078 and accelerated in 2006 under SB 107. The program was further expanded in 2011 under SB 2. Under AB 32, the RPS requires increased production of energy from renewable sources, like solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass generation. Investor‐owned utilities, electric service providers, and community choice aggregators must increase their renewable portfolio to reach 33 percent of total procurement by 2020. In December 2012, Southern California Edison (SCE) reported to the CPUC it served 20.3% of their 2012 electricity sales with RPS‐eligible renewable energy.7

Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards (CalGreen)

Title 24, of the California Code of Regulations, Part 6 sets forth California’s energy efficiency standards for residential and nonresidential buildings and was established in 1978 in response to a legislative mandate 6 7

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Equal to 7% when full lifecycle impacts are considered. Access CPUC quarterly reports on the RPS at: http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/Renewables/documents

2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

to reduce California’s energy consumption. The standards are updated periodically to allow consideration and possible incorporation of new energy efficiency technologies and methods. The most recent standards were adopted on April 23, 2008, and went into effect on January 1, 2010. The update to the Code supports the goals as described in AB 32, by enhancing energy efficiency of all new residential and non‐ residential development. It is expected that the 2008 update will reduce GHG emissions from California residential buildings for electricity by approximately 21% and natural gas by 9%, and non‐residential buildings for electricity by approximately 5% and natural gas by 9%. A further update to Title 24 (the 2013 Standards) is scheduled to come into effect on January 1, 2014.

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The 2010 California Green Building Standards Code, referred to as CALGreen, is a component of the California Building Code. CALGreen went into effect on January 1, 2011, requiring that new buildings reduce water consumption, employ building commissioning8 to increase building system efficiencies, divert construction waste from landfills, and install low pollutant emitting finish materials. CALGreen has roughly 50 nonresidential mandatory measures and an additional 130 provisions that have been placed in the appendix for optional use. Some key mandatory measures for commercial occupancies include specified parking for clean air vehicles, a 20% reduction of potable water use within buildings, a 50% construction waste diversion from landfills, use of building finish materials that emit low levels of volatile organic compounds, and commissioning for new, nonresidential buildings over 10,000 square feet.9 CALGreen Nonresidential updates became effective July 1, 2012, and additional updates are anticipated to become effective January 1, 2014.10

Senate Bill 97 (SB 97)

Recognizing that AB 32 did not discuss how GHGs should be addressed in documents prepared under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the legislature enacted SB 97 to require the Governor’s Office of Planning and Research (OPR) to develop and adopt CEQA guidelines for the mitigation of emissions. The draft guidelines were formalized on March 18, 2010, and all CEQA documents prepared after this date are required to comply with the OPR‐approved amendments to the CEQA Guidelines.

Senate Bill 375 (SB 375)

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In 2008, SB 375 was enacted to address indirect GHG emissions caused by urban sprawl. SB 375 develops emissions‐reduction goals that regions can apply to planning activities. SB 375 provides incentives for local governments and developers to create new walkable and sustainable communities, revitalize existing communities, and implement conscientiously planned growth patterns that concentrate new development around public transportation nodes. CARB has been working with the state’s metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) to align their regional transportation, housing, and land use plans to reduce vehicle miles traveled and demonstrate the region’s ability to attain its GHG reduction targets. The legislation also allows developers to bypass environmental review of the project’s GHG impact under CEQA if they build projects consistent with the MPO’s Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS). SB 375 enhances CARB’s ability to reach the goals of AB 32 by directing the agency to develop regional GHG emission reduction targets to be achieved from the land use and transportation sector for 2020 and 2035. 8

Commissioning is the process of verifying, and documenting that the performance of facilities, systems, and assemblies meets defined objectives and criteria. In this context it refers to the performance of a building’s energy-consuming systems, typically including mechanical (HVAC), electrical, plumbing, building envelope, controls, and lighting systems. 9 California Building Standards Commission. The CALGreen Story. Available at: http://www.documents.dgs.ca.gov/bsc/CALGreen/TheCALGreen-Story.pdf. 10 California Building Standards Commission. CALGreen. Available at: http://www.bsc.ca.gov/Home/CALGreen.aspx

2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

In September 2010, CARB adopted per capita emissions reduction targets for the San Joaquin Valley (including eight planning organizations) for years 2020 and 2035 of 5 percent and 10 percent, respectively, to be revised in 2012. On December 14, 2012, the San Joaquin Valley Regional Planning Agencies’ (SJVRPA) Policy Council adopted a Progress Report that maintained these target recommendations.

Governor’s Office of Planning and Research (OPR)

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The California Governor’s Office of Planning and Research (OPR) provides guidance for agency compliance with CEQA, which requires that lead agencies analyze and document the environmental impacts of proposed projects. OPR has developed guidance on the analysis and mitigation of GHG emissions in CEQA documents. This guidance states that lead agencies should develop their own approach to performing climate change analysis for projects that generate GHG emissions, and that compliance with CEQA can be achieved by identification and quantification of GHG emissions, assessment of significance of the impact on climate change, and identification of mitigation measures and/or alternatives if the impact is found to be significant.

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OPR developed, and the California Resources Agency has adopted, amendments to the CEQA Guidelines to incorporating this guidance. CEQA Guidelines Section 15183.5(b) states that a lead agency may choose to analyze and mitigate significant greenhouse gas emissions in a plan for the reduction of greenhouse gases or similar document, and that such a plan may be used in a cumulative impacts analysis of a project. A lead agency may determine that an individual project’s incremental contribution to a cumulative effect on climate change is not cumulatively considerable if the project complies with the requirement of the previously adopted plan to reduce greenhouse gas. This plan should: Quantify greenhouse gas emissions, both existing and projected over a specified time period, resulting from activities within a defined geographic area;

Establish a level, based on substantial evidence, below which the contribution to greenhouse gas emissions from activities covered by the plan would not be cumulatively considerable;

Identify and analyze the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from specific actions or categories of actions anticipated within the geographic area;

Specify measures or a group of measures, including performance standards, that substantial evidence demonstrates, if implemented on a project‐by‐project basis, would collectively achieve the specified emissions level;

Establish a mechanism to monitor the plan’s progress toward achieving the level and to require amendment if the plan is not achieving specified levels; and

Be adopted in a public process following environmental review.

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San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD)

The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) is a public health agency that regulates air pollution within the San Joaquin Valley. Under SJVAPCD regulation and stewardship, air quality in the San Joaquin Valley has steadily improved over the past 15 years. In August 2008, the SJVAPCD ’s Governing Board adopted the Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP). The CCAP directed the District Air Pollution Control Officer to develop guidance to assist Lead Agencies, project proponents, permit applicants, and interested parties in assessing and reducing the impacts of project specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on global climate change.

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SJVAPCD adopted guidance for addressing GHGs in CEQA documents in December 2009. The SJVAPCD proposed a threshold based on implementing predetermined Best Performance Standards that would reduce emissions by an amount consistent with AB 32 targets. The guidance for land use projects is intended to assist local agencies, but local agencies are not required to use the SJVAPCD thresholds.

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Under the SJVAPCD guidance, projects requiring project specific environmental review would be evaluated according to a Best Performance Standards approach. Projects complying with the GHG emission reduction requirements established as Best Performance Standards would not require project specific quantification of GHG emissions and would be determined to have a less than significant individual and cumulative impact for GHG emissions. Projects not complying with the GHG emission reduction requirements established as Best Performance Standards would require quantification of project specific GHG emissions. To be determined to have a less than significant individual and cumulative impact on global climate change, project specific GHG emissions must be reduced or mitigated by 29 percent from Business‐as‐Usual GHG emissions.

2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

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2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting


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Overview

The Delano greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory serves multiple purposes. It quantifies the GHG emissions resulting from activities taking place throughout the City of Delano by the City’s residents, businesses, and local government. The inventory provides an understanding of where GHG emissions are originating, and creates an emissions baseline against which the City can set emissions reduction targets and measure future progress. The inventory further allows the City to develop effective policies, strategies, and programs to reduce emissions. The 2005 and 2010 inventories presented herein provide a breakdown of GHG emissions by sector to illustrate the contribution of various sources in the community and in municipal operations. The year 2005 represents the City’s GHG emissions baseline based on guidance from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the California State‐wide Energy Efficiency Collaborative (SEEC), and is consistent with most local government climate action plans in California. The 2010 updated inventory is more representative of current conditions and allows a general assessment of the trend for each sector since 2005.

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This chapter also includes forecasts of future GHG emissions using current best estimates for population, households, and job growth within the City under “business‐as‐usual” (i.e., a scenario that does not include regulatory actions or GHG reduction measures that were implemented after the 2005 base year) conditions. In addition, the City’s GHG reduction target for 2020 is established based on guidance from CARB. The boundaries of analysis, along with the methodology and assumptions used to develop Delano’s GHG inventories and future projections, are included as Appendix A. A supporting technical report on the City’s transportation emissions, including the modeling of base year and future conditions in Delano, is included as Appendix B.

Community-Wide Emissions The emission sources and activities chosen for inclusion in the community‐wide GHG inventory are based on the reporting framework for local governments developed by International Council for Local

3. GHG Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) in their U.S. Community Protocol for Accounting and Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. As such, emissions in the community‐wide inventory include those that derive from sources located within the jurisdiction and from activities by community members for which the local government has significant influence to mitigate. This generally includes activities taking place within the City’s geopolitical boundary where the local government has jurisdictional authority, as well as community‐related activities taking place outside of City‐limits that are attributable to community activities (e.g., disposal of the City’s solid waste at a location outside the City’s jurisdiction). Emissions from sources not subject to significant influence by the local government were not included within this inventory, such as the upstream manufacturing impacts of materials used by the community, since the local government has limited means to influence material consumption by its local residents.

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The community‐wide GHG inventory includes emissions from residential, commercial, and industrial activities, as well as municipal operations, broken into 11 sectors: Residential Electricity, Residential Natural Gas, Commercial/Industrial Electricity, Commercial/Industrial Natural Gas, Stationary Sources Energy, Water Conveyance Electricity, On‐road Transportation, Off‐road Transportation (non‐Agriculture), Off‐Road Transportation (Agriculture), Wastewater Treatment (process emissions1), and Solid Waste Generation.

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The baseline 2005 GHG inventory for the community of Delano totals 255,854 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents2 (MT CO2e). Table 3‐1 and Figure 3‐1 show total GHG emissions by sector. In 2005, On‐road Transportation accounted for the largest portion of overall community‐wide emissions, constituting 64 percent of total emissions. Emissions from other sectors, in decreasing percentage of contribution, include: Commercial/Industrial Electricity (8.4 percent), Residential Electricity (7.5 percent), Residential Natural Gas (7.4 percent), Wastewater Treatment (4.9 percent), Commercial/Industrial Natural Gas (3.1 percent), Off‐road Transportation (1.8 percent), Solid Waste Generation (1.7 percent), Water Conveyance (0.9 percent), and Stationary Sources (<0.1 percent). Table 3‐1 2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Community GHG Emissions by Sector 2005 Baseline (MT CO2e)

Emission Sector

2005 (% Total)

2010 (MT CO2e)

2010 (% Total)

2005‐2010 (% Change)

Comm./Ind. ‐ Electricity

21,541

8.4%

29,923

11%

39%

Residential ‐ Electricity

19,075

7.5%

20,089

7.3%

5.3%

7,992

3.1%

7,966

2.9%

‐0.3%

Residential – Natural Gas

18,808

7.4%

20,773

7.5%

10%

On‐Road Transportation

164,442

64%

172,262

62%

4.8%

4,685

1.8%

4,858

18

<0.1%

Comm./Ind. – Natural Gas

Off‐road Transportation Agriculture)

(excluding

Stationary Sources

4

<0.1%

Solid Waste Generation

4,447

1.7%

Water Conveyance

2,283

0.9%

Wastewater Treatment Total

12,558 255,854

1

4.9% 100%

3.7%

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Off‐road Transportation (Agriculture)

1.8%

18

<0.1%

0.0%

22

<0.1%

406%

4,135

1.5%

‐7.0%

2,554

0.9%

12%

13,856

276,456

5.0%

100%

10%

8%

Process emissions consist of methane (CH4) generated by combustion of digester gas. Natural gas and electricity consumed by the Wastewater Treatment plant are captured in the natural gas and electricity sectors. 2 Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) include emissions carbon dioxide, methane (CH4) and/or nitrous oxide (N2O), normalized to the global warming potential of CO2.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐1 2005 Baseline Community GHG Emissions by Sector Solid Waste Generation 2% Off‐road Transportation (Agriculture) 0% Off‐road Transportation (excl. Agriculture) 2%

Water Conveyance ‐ Wastewater Treatment Electricity 5% 1%

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Residential ‐ Electricity 8% Comm./Ind. ‐ Natural Gas 3%

Residential ‐ Natural Gas 7% Stationary Sources 0%

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On‐road Transportation 64%

Comm./Ind. ‐ Electricity 8%

Between 2005 and 2010, total community‐wide emissions increased by approximately 8 percent, to 276,456 MT CO2e, with 9 of the 11 sectors experiencing an increase. Figure 3‐2 show total 2010 GHG emissions by sector. Generally, the percent that each sector contributed to total emissions did not change substantially in 2010, with On‐road Transportation continuing to comprise the largest sector (62 percent), followed by the Commercial/Industrial Electricity (11 percent), and Residential Natural Gas (8 percent). On a proportional basis, Commercial/Industrial Electricity emissions increased the most from 2005 to 2010, rising from 8 percent to 11 percent of overall annual emissions.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐2 2010 Baseline Community GHG Emissions by Sector Solid Waste Generation 1% Off‐road Transportation (Agriculture) 0% Off‐road Transportation (excl. Agriculture) 2%

Water Conveyance ‐ Electricity 1%

Wastewater Treatment 5%

Comm./Ind. ‐ Electricity 11%

Residential ‐ Electricity 7%

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Comm./Ind. ‐ Natural Gas 3%

Residential ‐ Natural Gas 8%

On‐road Transportation 62%

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Stationary Sources 0%

Figure 3‐3 shows the change in GHG emissions by sector between 2005 and 2010. Figure 3‐3 2005 and 2010 Community GHG Emissions by Sector (MT CO2e) 300,000

250,000

Wastewater Treatment

Water Conveyance ‐ Electricity

200,000

Solid Waste Generation

Off‐road Transportation (Agriculture) Off‐road Transportation (excl. Agriculture)

150,000

T

On‐road Transportation Stationary Sources

Residential ‐ Natural Gas

100,000

Comm./Ind. ‐ Natural Gas Residential ‐ Electricity

50,000

Comm./Ind. ‐ Electricity

0 2005

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3. GHG Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets

2010


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Municipal Operations Emissions This section provides added detail on the GHG emissions from City of Delano municipal operations, which are included in the community‐wide inventory. The municipal inventory includes all direct and indirect GHG emissions that result from City operations, distributed across eleven categories. Table 3‐2 provides a summary of the 2005 and 2010 municipal inventories, by category. Between 2005 and 2010, total emissions from municipal operations increased by approximately 13 percent to 20,817 MT CO2e.

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Table 3‐2 2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Municipal Operations GHG Emissions by Sector Emission Sector

Buildings & Facilities Electricity

642

2005 (% Total)*

2010 Update (MT CO2e)

3.5%

645

2010 (% Total)*

2005‐2010 (% Change)

3.1%

0.5%

12

0.1%

37

0.2%

196%

2,283

12.4%

2,554

12.3%

12%

31

0.2%

23

0.1%

‐25%

524

2.8%

607

2.9%

16%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0%

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Streetlights/Traffic Signals Electricity

2005 Baseline (MT CO2e)

Water Supply Electricity Airports Electricity

Buildings & Facilities ‐ Natural Gas Stationary Sources/Generators City Vehicle Fleet ‐ Fuel

729

4.0%

1,436

6.9%

97%

City Transit Fleet ‐ Fuel

44

0.2%

83

0.4%

86%

13,777

74.7%

15,012

72.1%

9%

Solid Waste Generation

154

0.8%

112

0.5%

‐27%

Employee Commute

264

1.3%

463

1.5%

28%

18,436

100%

20,817

100%

13%

WWTP

Total

Figure 3‐4 provides a pie chart of 2005 baseline municipal GHG emissions by category. The largest contributors to the 2005 inventory were WWTP (74.7%), Water Supply Electricity (12 percent), City Vehicle Fleet Fuel (4 percent), Buildings and Facilities Electricity (3 percent), and Buildings and Facilities Natural Gas (3 percent). Figure 3‐5 provides a pie chart of 2010 municipal GHG emissions by category.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐4 2005 Baseline Municipal GHG Emissions by Sector (%) Solid Waste Generation 1% Employee Commute 1%

Buildings & Facilities ‐ Electricity 4%

Streetlights/Traffic Signals ‐ Electricity 0%

Water Supply ‐ Electricity Airports ‐ Electricity 12% 0% Buildings & Facilities ‐ Natural Gas 3%

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Stationary Sources/Generators 0% City Vehicle Fleet ‐ Fuel 4% City Transit Fleet ‐ Fuel 0%

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WWTP 75%

Figure 3‐5 2010 Baseline Municipal GHG Emissions by Sector (%)

Solid Waste Generation Buildings & Facilities ‐ Streetlights/Traffic Electricity 1% Signals ‐ Electricity Employee Commute 3% 0% 2%

Water Supply ‐ Electricity 12% Airports ‐ Electricity 0% Buildings & Facilities ‐ Natural Gas 3%

Stationary Sources/Generators 0%

T City Vehicle Fleet ‐ Fuel 7%

City Transit Fleet ‐ Fuel 0%

WWTP 72%

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Figure 3‐6 shows how municipal GHG emissions changed from 2005 to 2010. The Vehicle Fleet Fuel sector increased sharply (97 percent increase), as did the City Transit Fleet Sector (86 percent), and Streetlights and Traffic Signals (196 percent). Figure 3‐6 2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Municipal Emissions by Sector (MT CO2e)

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D Emissions Forecasts

GHG emissions forecasts for 2020 and 2035 were developed using a business‐as‐usual (BAU) scenario, (i.e., a scenario that does not include regulatory actions or GHG reduction measures that were implemented after the 2005 base year). A 2020 “adjusted” BAU forecast is also provided that includes the effects of state‐wide actions that reduce GHG emissions, such as updates to building energy standards and programs that decrease emissions from on‐road vehicles.

Business-as-Usual Forecast

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GHG emissions forecasts for the community were based primarily on anticipated growth in total population, employment and/or housing in the City of Delano for the periods 2010 to 2020 and 2010 to 2035. Historical and future City population, employment, and housing data were obtained from the transportation study developed by Fehr & Peers (see Appendix B). Emissions forecasts for the Wastewater Treatment Plant sector were calculated using service population figures from the City of Delano Urban Water Management Plan (UWMP, 2011)3. Emissions forecasts for the On‐road Transportation Sector were calculated using VMT projections provided by Fehr & Peers and EMission FACtors (EMFAC) 2011 software model runs for Kern County to generate local emission factors.

3

City of Delano 2010 Urban Water Management Plan (Table 2-2), June 2011

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Community-wide Forecasts Table 3‐3 shows forecasted GHG emissions for the eleven sectors included in the City’s community‐wide 2005 and 2010 GHG inventories. The table includes a description of the growth factor used to forecast future emissions for each sector. Table 3‐3 Community Emissions by Sector: 2005 Baseline, 2010 Update, and BAU Forecasts for 2020 and 2035 Emission Sector Commercial/Industrial ‐ Electricity

2005 Emissions 2010 Emissions (MT CO2e) (MT CO2e)

2020 Forecast (MT CO2e)

2035 Forecast (MT CO2e)

Growth Proxy

21,541

29,923

33,800

38,933

Employment growth

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19,075

20,089

22,911

25,366

Average of population and household growth

Commercial/Industrial – Natural Gas

7,992

7,966

8,998

10,364

Employment growth

Residential – Natural Gas

18,808

20,773

23,690

26,229

Average of population and household growth

Transportation – On‐road

164,442

172,262

213,283

258,888

Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT)4, with EMFAC2011 software future year models

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Residential ‐ Electricity

Transportation – Off‐road (non‐Agriculture)

4,685

4,858

5,513

6,227

Average of employment and household growth

Transportation – Off‐road (Agriculture)

18

18

192

184

Agricultural Land Area growth

Stationary Sources

4

22

25

29

Employment Growth

Solid Waste Generation

4,447

4,135

4,701

5,274

Average of pop., household, and employment growth

Water Conveyance ‐ Electricity

2,283

2,554

2,912

3,258

Average of pop., household, and employment growth

Wastewater Treatment

12,558

13,856

17,085

23,052

Water District Service Population growth

Total

255,854

276,456

333,111

397,804

Figure 3‐7 shows how community GHG emissions are expected to change from 2005 to 2035.

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8

Fehr & Peers, VMT Inventory Memo for the Delano CAP (September 25, 2012)

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐7 Community Emissions by Sector (MT CO2e): 2005 Baseline, 2010 Update, and BAU Forecasts for 2020 and 2035

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D ‘Adjusted’ Business-as-Usual Forecast

Several high‐impact state‐wide measures included in the AB 32 Scoping Plan are expected to reduce emissions from transportation and power generation. These state‐wide measures will contribute to Delano’s overall GHG reductions by 2020. The Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels and the Pavley Bill for reducing passenger vehicle emissions (Assembly Bill 1493) are each expected to provide significant emissions reduction benefits for the City of Delano, particularly since on‐road emissions constitute such a large proportion of total forecasted community‐wide emissions (64.0 percent in 2020). By 2020, the Pavley Bill and the LCFS in Kern County are projected to reduce the state’s on‐road transportation emissions by approximately 18.7 percent.5

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In addition, updates to California’s Title 24 (Building Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Non‐residential Buildings) will result in improvements to the energy efficiency of new residential and commercial structures constructed between 2005 and 2020. By 2020, the 2008 residential standards are expected to increase electricity and natural gas efficiency by approximately 10 percent and 23 percent above pre‐2005 Title standards, respectively. The commercial standards are expected to increase electricity and natural gas efficiency by 9.4 percent and 4.9 percent,6 respectively. Moreover, the 2013 residential standards are expected to increase both electricity and natural gas efficiency in new structures by approximately 19.5 percent above the 2008 Title 24 standards. The commercial standards are expected to increase both electricity and natural gas efficiency by an additional 30 percent.7 Based on projected new development in

5 6

7

EMFAC 2011 Model runs for Kern County, accessed March, 2013. Impact Analysis: 2008 Update to the California Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings. Available at: http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2008standards/rulemaking/documents/2007-11-07_IMPACT_ANALYSIS.PDF 2013 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. Available at: http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2013standards/rulemaking/documents/2012-0531_2013_standards_adoption_hearing_presentation.pdf

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

the City of Delano by the year 2020, these energy savings should reduce electricity‐related emissions by 1,774 MT CO2e per year, and natural gas‐related emissions by 842 MT CO2e per year. The state’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the renewable energy portion of a utility’s portfolio to be 33 percent by 2020, which applies to the electricity provided by SCE. The RPS is expected to reduce Delano’s electricity‐related emissions by approximately 30 percent from 2005 levels by 2020, accounting for an annual reduction of approximately 17,806 MT CO2e per year by 2020. The collective impact of these state‐wide measures on Delano’s community‐wide emissions is presented in Table 3‐4. By 2020, these measures are expected to reduce annual city‐wide GHG emissions by approximately 60,260 MT CO2e (an 18.1 percent reduction). The ‘adjusted’ BAU projection for Delano is 272,850 MT CO2e.

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Table 3‐4 Annual GHG Reductions from State‐wide Measures by 2020

State Measure

Title 24 –Electricity

1,774

3%

842

1%

17,806

30%

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Title 24 –Natural Gas

% Contribution to State‐wide Measures

GHG Emissions (MT CO2e/year)

Renewable Portfolio Standard

Pavley Bill and Low Carbon Fuel Standard

39,838

66%

Total Reductions

60,260

100%

Emissions Reduction Target

The City of Delano is striving for a community‐wide emissions reduction target of 15 percent below its 2005 baseline by the year 2020, for both community‐wide and municipal emissions. A 15 percent reduction target for local governments is deemed by CARB and the California Attorney General to be 8 consistent with the state‐wide AB 32 goal of reducing emissions to 1990 levels, and is in line with current best practice for climate action plans developed for numerous California cities, many of which use a 2005 baseline.

Community Emissions Target

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Fifteen percent below the City’s 2005 community emissions baseline equates to 217,477 MT CO2e per year, which is 38,377 MT CO2e below the 2005 baseline (2005), 115,634 MT CO2e below the 2020 BAU forecast, and 55,374 MT CO2e below the ‘adjusted’ 2020 BAU forecast. This community‐wide emissions reduction target is depicted graphically in Figure 3‐8, which shows the business‐as‐usual emissions projection out to the years 2020 and 2030, along with the anticipated impact of statewide measures and CAP measures on BAU emissions through the year 2020. Taking the impact of statewide measures into account, it becomes evident that the additional reductions from local and regional actions (approximately 55,374 MT CO2e) are needed to reach the 2020 target.

8

10

In its Climate Change Scoping Plan of September 2008, CARB recommends that local governments adopt a GHG reduction target consistent with the State’s commitment to reach 1990 levels by 2020. This is identified as equivalent to 15% below “current” levels at the time of writing (2008).

3. GHG Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐8 2020 Target and the Anticipated Impact of State Measures on Community‐wide GHG Emissions

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

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Overview

This chapter describes the Climate Action Plan’s goals and strategies for reducing GHG emissions in the City of Delano. To be consistent with AB 32 and CARB guidelines, Delano will strive to reduce its community‐ wide GHG emissions to 15 percent below 2005 levels, or to 217,477 MT CO2e; this is equivalent to 115,634 MT CO2e below the 2020 forecast under business‐as‐usual (BAU) conditions. The impacts of the statewide GHG reduction measures (included in the AB 32 Scoping Plan) account for annual emissions reductions of 60,260 MT CO2e, leaving a remainder of 55,374 MT CO2e to be reduced by local strategies and programs. GHG reduction goals and strategies are presented for four different sectors: Energy, Transportation and Land Use, Solid Waste, and Water. Each section begins with a summary of the GHG reductions anticipated from the sector, followed by a discussion of individual strategies and implementing actions. Detailed calculations used to quantify the costs and emissions reductions associated with individual strategies and actions are included in Appendices C, D, E, and F. City municipal strategies are included within each relevant sector, where appropriate.

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In total, locally implemented strategies and programs described in the Climate Action Plan are expected to reduce GHG emissions by 11,662 MT CO2e by the year 2020. This is well short of the 55,374 MT CO2e in reductions needed for the City to meet its 2020 target, as shown in Figure 4‐1. The additional reductions needed to reach the target amount to 43,712 MY CO2e. The primary barriers to achieving greater GHG reductions in the Delano community are the lack of funding and staff resources that are needed to fully implement the programs in this Climate Action Plan. The GHG reduction estimates presented with each strategy are based on realistic assumptions about funding and resources, not wishful thinking or best‐case scenarios. However, if additional funding and staff resources become available for implementation, then relevant actions can proceed sooner, and existing programs can be executed with more focus and intensity than is presently assumed. Chapter 5, Implementation and Monitoring, further discusses the implications of not meeting the Climate Action Plan’s 2020 target, and the City’s strategy for securing funding to expand implementation and bolster progress toward meeting that target.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 4‐1 2020 Target and the Anticipated Impact of State Measures and Climate Action Plan on Community‐wide GHG Emissions

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D Strategy Classification and Coding

The City of Delano has significant policy influence over four main sectors of the City’s GHG emissions profile: Energy, Transportation and Land Use, Solid Waste, and Water. For each of the four sectors, one or more goals, strategies, and actions are provided:

Goals are general statements of aspiration or intent to achieve a desired condition. There are one or more goals for each of the four sectors, and each goal is labeled according to the sector it is associated with, as follows: Energy Section (E), Transportation and Land Use (TLU), Solid Waste (SW), and Water (W). For example, Goal E‐1 is the first goal of the Energy sector. Strategies are courses of action to be undertaken by the City to meet the goals related to climate change. Each strategy is designated a code that corresponds to its sector and goal. As an example, Strategy SW‐2.1 is the first strategy of the second goal for the Solid Waste Sector.

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Actions are detailed steps the City will take to implement the strategies. Each action was carefully considered by the City to ensure that appropriate staff and resources would be available for implementation. Each action is also designated a code that corresponds to the goal and strategy it will implement. For example, Action TLU‐2.1a is associated with Strategy 2.1, which in turn is associated with Goal TLU‐2. The goals, strategies, and actions are organized using the following numeric order: Sector (E, TLU, SW, W) 

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Goal 1 Strategy 1.1 Action 1.1a

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

Goal 2 Strategy 2.1 Action 2.1a


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Each strategy was evaluated to identify the greatest opportunities for GHG reduction that can be achieved with minimum cost. The City estimated the upfront costs and ongoing staff resources needed for strategy implementation (e.g., low, medium, high), as well as the anticipated energy, GHG, and cost reduction benefits (e.g., minimal or indirect, moderate, high). Strategies in this chapter are broadly prioritized as 1 (high priority), 2 (medium priority), and 3 (low priority), based on the following matrix: Table 4‐1 Prioritization of Community Strategies Costs Low

Medium

High

1

1

2

Medium

1

2

3

Low

2

3

3

High

D

Benefits

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Strategies were evaluated for estimates of GHG reductions to be achieved by 2020 resulting from implementation, along with estimated annual cost savings by 2020 based on expected energy savings. Priority 1 strategies are assumed to have a high or medium GHG reduction benefit, along with low or medium cost. Priority 3 strategies are strategies that have low or medium GHG reduction benefit, along with medium or high cost, and priority 2 strategies are in between. Some strategies are categorized as ‘supporting strategies,’ meaning they do not result in direct reductions in energy use but provide beneficial support to other Climate Action Plan strategies. This plan does not include calculations of GHG savings for supporting strategies. The GHG reduction benefit is estimated for each strategy. For the purposes of prioritization, those strategies that demonstrate a quantifiable GHG reduction benefit greater than 1000 MT CO2e are considered to have a high benefit. Medium benefit strategies are those with estimated GHG reductions between 500 and 1000 MT CO2e, while those strategies with less than 500 MT CO2e are considered low benefit strategies. Anticipated upfront costs of implementation are provided for all strategies, including the dollar equivalent of City staff‐time and/or actual capital investment needed to implement the strategy. Upfront costs are broadly categorized as falling within one of two ranges: less than $5,000, $5,000 to $25,000, and greater than $25,000. For example, Strategy E1.2: Nonresidential Energy Use Education is categorized as low cost, as it would require minor staff time to implement the strategy and minimal upfront capital.

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Energy (E)

Energy is an essential part of our daily lives, used for a variety of everyday needs including the lighting of buildings and outdoor spaces, heating homes, and powering equipment at homes and businesses. The energy sector, which comprises all electricity and natural gas usage in the City of Delano, was the second‐largest contributor to community‐wide emissions in 2010, representing approximately 31 percent of the total. Energy‐related reduction strategies in this chapter target efficiency improvements and the expansion of onsite renewable energy generation. Expanded public outreach to support energy efficiency and renewable energy projects is important to the success of these strategies. Energy strategies account for a reduction of 5,087 MT CO2e, or approximately 9 percent of the reductions needed by local strategies and programs to meet the City’s 2020 target.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Transportation and Land Use (TLU) The transportation and land use sector accounts for emissions associated with the development patterns of the City and the mobility behavior of its residents. Transportation is the largest contributor to forecasted community‐wide emissions, representing about two‐thirds of the 2020 BAU emissions. For Delano, effective strategies for emissions reduction include reducing transportation demand through increased residential densities in the downtown area, improved citywide jobs‐housing balance, and implementation of employer commute programs, as well as addition of transit services. Transportation and land use strategies account for a reduction of 3,967 MT CO2e, or approximately 7 percent of the reductions needed by local strategies and programs to meet the City’s 2020 target.

Solid Waste (SW)

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The transport and disposal of solid waste accounted for approximately 9 percent of community‐wide missions in 2010. Disposing of used product packaging and other municipal solid waste creates GHG emissions when the waste is buried in landfills and emits methane when the organic fraction of the waste decomposes in absence of oxygen. Landfill disposal also represents the loss of valuable materials and embodied energy that could otherwise be captured or conserved if those materials were reused or recycled. Effective strategies for emissions reduction include diverting recyclables and organic material from landfill disposal. Strategies for this sector account for an annual reduction of 1,207 MT CO2e by 2020, or approximately 2 percent of the reductions needed by local strategies and programs to meet the City’s 2020 target.

Water (W)

GHG emissions associated with the transport of water made up only 1 percent of the total community‐ wide emissions in 2010, but represented nearly 38 percent of emissions associated with municipal operations. Delano’s water supply is pumped from local groundwater sources, so relatively small amounts of electricity are required compared to many other regions of the state. Strategies for this sector account for an annual reduction of 1,401 MT CO2e, or approximately 2.5 percent of the reductions needed by local strategies and programs to meet the City’s 2020 target, but they have important co‐ benefits to local water supply and facilitate water conservation goals established by the State and by the City of Delano Urban Water Management Plan (UWMP).

Municipal Commitment

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As explained in Chapter 3, GHG emissions associated with municipal operations are included within the scope of the community‐wide inventory. For example, vehicular use for government operations is a subset of the community‐wide vehicle miles traveled (VMT), municipal building energy use is included in figures for community‐wide non‐residential energy gas usage, and solid waste disposal at the municipal level is included in Delano’s overall waste disposal numbers.

With respect to reduction strategies, municipal operations are generally considered in the context of community‐wide strategies. However, the City adopted a Municipal Energy Action Plan (EAP) on February 19, 2013 that outlines specific measures for improving the energy efficiency of municipal operations. The EAP is integrated into this chapter under the Energy section, primarily as Energy Strategy E1.6. Other GHG reduction strategies applicable to municipal operations and activities are included in each set of community strategies for Transportation and Land Use, Solid Waste, and Water. In many cases, GHG reductions achieved through a community‐oriented strategy will also reduce emissions from municipal operations.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Energy Goals and Strategies 

2020 Business‐as‐Usual GHG Emissions: 89,424 MT CO2e

Annual GHG emissions reductions by 2020: 5,087 MT CO2e

Energy Use by the Community

D

Emissions associated with consumption of electricity and natural gas account for approximately 27 percent of the City’s 2020 BAU GHG emissions projection. 13 percent of the City’s total 2020 BAU emissions is associated with commercial buildings and industrial energy use, while 14 percent is associated with residential buildings. Thus, in Delano, the commercial and industrial sector consumes about the same amount of energy as the residential sector. Figure 4‐2 and Figure 4‐3, shown below, summarize the electricity and natural gas usage in the community of Delano, for the years 2005 and 2010. Figure 4‐2 Annual Electricity Usage (kWh) in the City of Delano, for 2005 and 2010

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 4‐3 Annual Natural Gas Usage (therms) in the City of Delano, for 2005 and 2010

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D For buildings, the amount of energy consumed and the resultant GHG emissions are generally related to building size and type, age of building, building materials, and construction, with considerable efficiencies associated with denser and more compact development and with newer buildings. Nationwide, single‐ family detached homes consume twice the energy of households in multi‐unit dwellings, and individuals living in single family homes consume about one and a half times as much as those living in multi‐unit dwellings, on average. Typically, the best strategies for reducing energy‐related emissions start with conservation and energy efficiency, followed by assessing the opportunities to add renewable energy generation capacity. In Delano, the average per capita electricity usage in residential buildings was approximately 1,320 kilowatt‐hours (kWh)/person in 2010, while the California average is 2,340 kWh/person.1 Therefore, Delano residents are already consuming less electricity, on average, than other Californians. This relatively low electricity consumption rate is likely due to the fact that most homes in Delano are smaller than average. In Delano, the average home size is about 1,330 square feet,2 while the average size of a new home in the western region of the U.S. is 2,390 square feet.3 Also, most household sizes in Delano are larger than the California average. In addition, a large percentage of residences in Delano are in denser multifamily buildings, which are more efficient than single family homes as noted above.

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In the commercial and industrial sector, community energy use is more difficult to benchmark due to the various space types and energy uses in this sector. For example, an office building typically uses much less energy than a building used to manufacture or assemble products, but offices and manufacturing both fall into the commercial and industrial sector. In Delano, electricity usage was approximately 6,745 kWh per job in 2010. Twenty‐seven cities in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County recently benchmarked their nonresidential electricity usage; the median was 7,850 kWh per job in the region.4 1 2 3 4

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Per capita electricity consumption data for the California residential sector found at the following Department of Energy website, accessed on June 23, 2013. Available at: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/residential.cfm/state=CA#elec Data on square footage of homes in Delano is from www.zillow.com Data on the square footage of homes in the western U.S. is from the U.S. Census, accessed on June 23, 2013. Available at: http://www.census.gov/const/C25Ann/sftotalmedavgsqft.pdf See http://sgvenergy.pmcworld.com/#non‐res‐elec‐norm for data on nonresidential electricity use in the San Gabriel Valley.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Thus, data indicate that the commercial and industrial sector in Delano is currently relatively efficient, although this benchmarking only provides a rough estimate of relative usage. In spite of being relatively efficient compared to other cities in California, deep cuts in energy use are needed in order for the City of Delano to reach its emission reduction goals, in part due to the large amount of growth that is projected in Delano between now and 2020.

Energy Use by Municipal Operations

D

Electricity and natural gas is used in City operations in the following three sectors: buildings and facilities; outdoor lighting (including streetlights and outdoor lighting); and water and sewerage, which includes public infrastructure for water pumping and wastewater treatment. For the City of Delano Municipal Energy Action Plan, adopted in February 2013, municipal electricity and natural gas data was gathered for the 2005 baseline year, and for 2010. This data is summarized in Figures 4‐4 and 4‐5 below. Figure 4‐4 Electricity Usage for Municipal Operations in 2005 and 2010

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 4‐5 Natural Gas Usage for Municipal Operations in 2005 and 2010 400

200 149

D

Therms x 1,000

236

2005 (baseline) 2010

Buildings and Facilities

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As evident from the two figures above, energy usage increased in all three municipal sectors between 2005 and 2010. These increases are due to general increases in City operations and services in that time period. Also evident is the large percentage of total electricity used by water and sewerage sector. In 2010, approximately 78% of municipal electricity was used in the Water and Sewerage sector, followed by the Buildings and Facilities sector (21% of electricity usage) and the Lighting sector (1% of electricity usage).

Energy Providers

Southern California Edison (SCE), an investor‐owned utility, serves as the City’s electricity utility. The fuel mix SCE uses to generate electricity has a significant impact on the City’s GHG emissions. In 2010, SCE’s overall electric power mix was comprised of 37 percent natural gas, 19 percent nuclear, 18 percent eligible renewable sources under the California Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS),5 6 percent large hydroelectric, and 7 percent coal. With 18 percent of electricity coming from RPS‐compliant renewable sources, SCE is on track to meet the 33.3% RPS requirement for 2020. Southern California Gas (SCG), also an investor‐owned utility, serves as the City’s primary natural gas utility, providing natural gas for residential, commercial, industrial, and government customers.

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Energy Reduction Strategies

Examples of energy efficiency and conservation programs include incentives and additional education around “green building” and energy efficient development. State building standards require highly efficient new construction, and are currently being updated; a new state code requiring even higher energy efficiency will go into effect on January 1, 2014. Renewable sources of energy are becoming more available and affordable through rebates, tax incentives and technological advances. The City’s approach to reducing energy usage and associated GHG reduction is to provide residents and businesses with 5

36

The State of California has enacted one of the most ambitious renewable energy standards in the country. The California Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) program requires investor‐owned utilities to increase their use of renewable energy resources by up to 33 percent of procurement by 2020. Eligible renewable sources include most renewables except for large hydropower.

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

information and tools to encourage voluntary cost‐beneficial energy efficiency retrofits and voluntary renewable energy installations, and to enforce all state building code mandates. Water use and energy use are related. Municipal operations for pumping, treating and conveying potable water throughout the city consume electricity and are responsible for 1% of the city’s 2020 BAU GHG emissions projected in 2020, while wastewater treatment emissions comprise 5% of the city’s 2020 BAU GHG emissions projection. Reducing or conserving water throughout the city will help Delano meet energy and GHG reduction goals while providing the added benefit of safeguarding limited water supplies.

D

The vast majority of electricity and natural gas‐related GHG emissions in the City are related to residential and commercial buildings. Following California's clean energy policy, which prioritizes energy efficiency in the state's quest to meet growing energy demand,6 this Climate Action Plan seeks first to reduce energy demand and maximize energy efficiency, and then to expand new sources of renewable electricity to meet a portion of the remaining demand.

Table 4‐2 summarizes the Climate Action Plan’s energy strategies and their estimated GHG reduction impact. More detail on each goal and strategy is provided in the following pages.

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Table 4‐2 Summary Table of GHG Reduction Potential for Energy Strategies in 2020

Goal/Supporting Strategy

Annual GHG Reduction Potential (MT CO2e)

Priority

First Year of Implementation

Percent of Reduction Category

E1 Increase Energy Efficiency Community‐Wide E1.1

Reduction of heat island effect

299

2

In progress

6%

E1.2

Nonresidential energy use education

482

1

In progress

9%

E1.3

Residential energy use education

810

1

In progress

16%

E1.4

Nonresidential and Residential PACE EE program

1,570

1

2017

31%

E1.5

Implement the Municipal Energy Action Plan

396

1

In progress

8%

E1.6

Promote Commercial and Residential Green Building

NA

2

2017

0%

1

2017

18%

E2 Increase Renewable Energy Generation and Use Community‐Wide Encourage nonresidential renewable energy

909

E2.2

Encourage residential renewable energy

568

E3 Increase use of electric vehicles E3.1

Community electric vehicle (EV) program

53 TOTAL

5,087

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E2.1

1

2017

11%

3

In progress

1%

100%

6 Energy resource loading order adopted in the state’s 2003 Energy Action Plan, and established by California’s principal energy agencies: the California Energy Commission, the California Public Utilities Commission, and the California Consumer Power and Conservation Financing Authority.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

D

Buildings comprise the largest source of demand for community electricity and natural gas usage. Prior to 1978, there were no energy codes for buildings. Starting in 1978, the State of California adopted Title 24, Part 6 of the California Code of Regulations for Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings. Therefore, the greatest opportunities for improving energy efficiency are typically found in the oldest buildings that were constructed prior to the adoption of the state energy codes. More recently, the state of California also adopted CALGreen, which contains additional green building requirements, such as the inclusion of water efficient fixtures in buildings.

The energy reductions and associated GHG emission reductions expected to result from the state building codes are included in the “Adjusted BAU Forecast” found in Chapter 3 of this Climate Action Plan. The City of Delano will enforce the state code to ensure that all new buildings are in compliance with the energy and environmental requirements of CALGreen and Title 24.

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About half of the residential buildings in the City of Delano were built before Title 24 was enacted, or during the early years of the building energy codes; Figure 4‐6 shows how many housing units were constructed in each decade since 1940. Because all new construction must meet strict energy efficiency standards, and because new construction is a very small portion of the entire building stock in Delano, this Climate Action Plan focuses on increasing the energy efficiency of existing buildings in Delano. Figure 4‐6 Distribution of Residential Building Construction Date, by Building Type in the City of Delano Built 1939 or earlier

Built before California energy codes enacted or during the first 2 years

Built 1940 to 1949 Built 1950 to 1959 Built 1960 to 1969

Built after California energy codes enacted

Built 1970 to 1979 Built 1980 to 1989 Built 1990 to 1999 Built 2000 to 2004

0

500

1,000

1,500

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Built 2005 or later

2,000

2,500

3,000

Number of Housing Units

Data Source: American Factfinder of the US Census: http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_3YR_DP04&prodType=table

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Strategy E1.1: Reduction of the Heat Island Effect Encourage voluntary strategies to reduce the urban heat island effect. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

D Action E1.1a:

2 In progress 299 Low (some City staff time) Community Development Department

Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher home values, increased shade, and increased aesthetics in the City due to trees.

Provide information and instructions to residents and businesses regarding the benefits and installation of “cool” roofs and shade trees.

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Action E1.1b:

Increase the number of shade trees whenever possible on City‐owned land, especially near the south side of buildings.

An urban heat island is a developed urban area that experiences higher temperatures than the surrounding rural areas. The heat island effect is caused by the presence of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure that replace vegetation or agricultural fields. These urban surfaces are impermeable and dry and tend to be made from materials that retain heat. According to the US EPA, on hot days the sun can heat urban surfaces to temperatures 50–90°F hotter than the air, while shaded or moist surfaces— often in more rural surroundings—remain close to air temperatures. The urban heat island effect can increase energy demand for air conditioning in the summer, and can also exacerbate heat‐related illnesses.

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Strategy E1.1 includes encouraging residents and businesses to voluntarily enact projects designed to reduce the heat island effect, such as using light‐colored paving materials, cool roofs, and planting shade trees to reduce the energy demand of buildings. The City currently has an ordinance requiring shade trees to be planted in and around new parking lots, and for installation of parkways for new development. This strategy includes this existing shade tree ordinance and the City may consider initiating a voluntary program to encourage planting shade trees near buildings. The City currently provides information to commercial and residential developers what types of trees are recommended for the local climate and where they can be most effective (e.g., on the south side of buildings). The City could provide that information to residents as well. The City will continue to plant shade trees for energy efficiency purposes near City‐owned buildings. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection offers an Urban & Community Forestry Program that provides numerous resources to local governments that are interested in improving their urban and community forests through expanding and maintaining local trees and related vegetation. The program

provides numerous resources, including information toolkits, grants, and technical assistance.7 Grants are 7

Urban and Community Forestry Webpage, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.fire.ca.gov/resource_mgt/resource_mgt_urbanforestry.php

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available for activities such as developing a tree inventory, creating an urban tree management plan, and for planting more trees in urban areas.

Strategy E1.2: Nonresidential Energy Use Education Promote various federal, state, local, and utility programs and other opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of nonresidential buildings. Priority:

D

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1 In progress 482 Low (some City staff time) Community Development Department

Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher building values

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Action E1.2a:

Action E1.2b:

Continue to promote existing nonresidential energy efficiency programs, including rebates and incentives for fixtures and appliances that improve energy efficiency in nonresidential buildings. Provide information and a link to the SCE and SCG rebate programs on the City website.

Develop a low‐cost local education campaign to promote nonresidential energy efficiency improvements, and conduct at least 2 events per year to educate business owners and managers about energy efficiency options.

This Strategy includes a voluntary, education‐based approach in which the City would increase outreach/education to commercial and industrial building owners to raise awareness of federal, state, local, and utility energy efficiency programs, especially SCE and SCG's wide‐ranging programs and incentives for existing buildings. The City will promote and market selected programs to specific sectors of the nonresidential business community, utilizing existing channels of communication. For example, the City could provide information in existing newsletters, or at regular Chamber of Commerce meetings, and could also work with the local school district. Another group that could be a useful partner is the Community Alliance.

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Specific steps needed to implement this program include the facilitation of at least two (2) workshops or informational sessions to the nonresidential sector each year, as well as posting information and appropriate weblinks on the City website. The City will partner with the SCE Energy Education Center located in Tulare, CA to implement this program, and may find other partners, such as local environmental or civic organizations. The City could also encourage (and educate on the value of) commercial and industrial energy audits, or provide small business energy audits at no or low‐cost if funding were available. In addition, the City could provide information to businesses regarding the workshops and classes offered at the SCE Energy Education Center to increase energy efficiency. To further encourage energy efficiency improvements, the City could promote the SCE directory of contractors who can complete energy efficiency audits and upgrades. Finally, if funding were to become available, the City could add to existing rebates for energy efficiency.

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Strategy E1.3: Residential Energy Use Education Promote various federal, state, local, and utility programs and other opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

D Action E1.3a:

Responsibility:

1 In progress 810 Low (some City staff time) Community Development Department

Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher home values

AF R

Continue to promote existing residential energy efficiency programs, including rebates for residential fixtures and appliances and other utility programs to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings.

Action E1.3b:

Develop a low‐cost local education campaign to promote residential energy efficiency improvements, and conduct at least 2 events per year to educate business owners and managers about energy efficiency options.

Similar to Strategy E1.2, the City of Delano will employ a voluntary, education‐based approach to increase outreach/education to residential homeowners and multifamily building owners to raise awareness of federal, state, local and utility energy efficiency programs. For example, the City will strive to increase participation in Energy Upgrade California, the statewide “whole house” retrofit program provided by investor‐owned utilities under the auspices of the CPUC. Specifically, the City could target the number of existing and new homes to participate in Energy Upgrade California and check progress with the Program Implementer. A variety of programs exist to encourage homeowners and renters to upgrade their homes with energy‐ efficient technology. For example, residents can apply for SCE rebates on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, lighting, insulation, cool roofs, energy‐efficient appliances, low‐income weatherization, and other energy efficiency upgrades.

T

In addition to rebates, residents can take advantage of tax credits, such as the federal tax credit on efficiency improvements (up to $500). Rebates and credits make energy efficiency attractive because they reduce the payback period, after which the renter/owner starts saving money they would have otherwise spent on energy. The current federal tax credit covers numerous types of retrofits, such as increased insulation, upgrading furnaces and hot water heaters, upgrading central air conditioner units, and more. Also, the current federal tax credit is set to expire at the end of 2013 but may be extended in future years. Similar to Strategy E1.2, specific steps needed to implement this program include the facilitation of at least two (2) workshops or informational sessions for the residential sector each year, as well as posting information and appropriate weblinks on the City website. The City will work with local community groups to expand knowledge and awareness of energy efficiency programs, and may publish or promote case studies of successful energy retrofits in the area. In addition, the City would provide information to

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

41


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

residents regarding the workshops and classes offered at the SCE Energy Education Center to increase energy efficiency. This Climate Action Plan assumes there is more opportunity in the residential sector for energy efficiency than in the nonresidential sector. In general, businesses tend to have more awareness of energy efficiency opportunities than local homeowners and renters.

Strategy E1.4: Nonresidential and Residential PACE Energy Efficiency Program

D

Join the regional PACE Program and promote opportunities to local businesses and residents. Priority:

1

Timeframe to start implementation:

2017

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

1,570 None (no City staff time)

AF R

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

Community Development Department

Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher home values

Action E1.4a:

Action E1.4b:

Implement a PACE program by linking with an existing regional or statewide program. Provide outreach to local business owners and managers and residents regarding the PACE program, including posting information and weblinks on the City website.

T

A Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program is a financing tool used by local governments to provide property owners with funds for energy efficiency improvements and retrofits, or for renewable energy systems (e.g., solar panels, solar hot water heaters, and small wind turbines). PACE funds may also be used for water‐savings measures. Property owners receive 100% financing, and then repay the cost of the improvements as a property tax assessment over the course of 20 years. PACE programs provide significant advantages by eliminating upfront costs, providing low‐cost long‐term financing and making it easy for building owners to transfer repayment obligations to a new owner upon the building’s sale. In the Sonoma County PACE program, 671 projects have been completed; approximately half were energy efficiency upgrades with the balance being primarily on‐site electricity generation. The average loan was $30,000 per project. Kern County is participating in CaliforniaFIRST, a statewide PACE Program available to nonresidential building owners. Currently, only six cities in Kern County are participating: Arvin, Bakersfield, Ridgecrest, Shafter, Taft, and Wasco. This strategy assumes that Delano will join the CaliforniaFIRST program, or a similar regional or statewide program if one becomes available. To join CaliforniaFIRST, the City Council would need to pass a resolution to officially opt in to the program. No other commitment is needed for the City in terms of direct costs or staff time. In the PACE model, the cost of upgrades are repaid through the annual property tax assessment; thus, the County will administer the program, since the County currently collects property taxes. Therefore, very little effort or administrative time is needed on the part of the City to participate in a PACE program.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

By participating in the Kern County PACE program, the City will enable additional financing opportunities for energy efficiency improvements for commercial and residential structures, and will promote the use of PACE funding for energy efficiency improvements. Often, PACE funding is useful for larger projects that may not be eligible for a rebate or incentive, or require long‐term financing for other reasons. The PACE program will also encourage the use of renewable energy, which is discussed in more detail later in this chapter. A PACE program for single‐family homes is currently unavailable; the existing CaliforniaFIRST program is only available to some types of multifamily residential building owners. However, this strategy assumes that a residential PACE program will become available in Kern County by 2020, and that the City of Delano will opt in to the residential PACE offering.

D

Strategy E1.5: Implement the Municipal Energy Action Plan Implement the adopted Municipal Energy Action Plan as Funding and Staff Resources become available. Priority:

1

AF R Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

In progress

396

Medium (some capital investment and City staff time)

Community Development Department

Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher building values

Action E1.5a:

Action E1.5b:

Focus implementation on the most cost‐beneficial measures identified in the plan: Plug Load Management, Reduction of Heat Islands, Upgrading Municipal Building Water Fixtures, Street Light Upgrades, and Wastewater Treatment Plant Energy Efficiency Upgrades. Identify funding requirements and seek funding through grants and low‐interest loans available through energy utilities, state agencies, and regional planning agencies.

T

The City of Delano Municipal Energy Action Plan (EAP), adopted by the City in February 2013, demonstrates the commitment the City has established for creating and implementing energy efficiency goals and policies affecting local government operations. The EAP builds upon previous and ongoing work by the City. The City of Delano is a member of the Kern Energy Watch program, a joint partnership of Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), Southern California Gas Company (SCGC) and several Kern County municipalities. The City of Delano has undertaken numerous energy efficiency projects, from integrating cool roofs and upgrading HVAC and lighting systems in municipal buildings, to updating the City’s water system and expanding the Waste Water Treatment Plant with efficient systems and design. In addition, the City of Delano has also invested in an audit and upgrade of their well and water pumping stations and Fire Department facilities, designed a new high performance Police Department Headquarters and has recently completed construction of a new Technology Center to provide citizens access to educational tools and resources.

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

The top five projects identified in the EAP, in terms of investment payback, are Plug Load Management, Reduction of Heat Islands, Upgrading Municipal Building Water Fixtures, Street Light Upgrades, and Wastewater Treatment Plant Energy Efficiency Upgrades. The implementation of the EAP will be accomplished by City staff in an ongoing process that includes additional research, initiation of projects selected for immediate implementation, and monitoring of results.

Strategy E.1.6: Promote Commercial and Residential Green Building

D

Increased outreach to expand green building and energy efficient design for new commercial and residential development. Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

2 2017 NA (negligible) Low to Medium (City staff time)

AF R Responsibility:

Community Development Department

Local Economic Benefits: Lower energy and water demand, lower energy and water bills, reduced maintenance costs, higher building values, increased community energy knowledge and training Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher real estate values, better indoor air quality, increased indoor comfort in buildings

Action E‐1.6a: Provide information on the benefits of green building to local developers and the public. Action E‐1.6b: Consider providing incentives, such as permit streamlining or reduced permit fees, for builders that go beyond Title 24 minimum requirements for energy efficient design for new commercial and residential development.

T

The State of California regulates energy consumption under Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations. The current Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards (CalGREEN), developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC), promote efficiency in new construction by reducing energy consumed for heating, cooling, ventilation, water heating, and lighting in new residential and non‐residential buildings. The CEC updates Title 24 periodically; Assembly Bill 970 (Ducheny), signed September 2000, requires the CEC to update and implement its appliance and building efficiency standards to make the “maximum feasible” reduction in unnecessary energy consumption. The 2010 Standards became effective statewide on January 1, 2011. The 2013 edition of the code, with an increased emphasis on energy efficiency, will become effective Jan 1, 2014. The community GHG projections in Chapter 3 assume that, pursuant to state and Delano local building codes, all residential, commercial and industrial development through 2020 will adhere to minimum Title 24 standards for energy and water efficiency. In addition to meeting minimum CalGREEN standards, some developers may opt to implement additional energy efficiency measures to achieve voluntary “Tier 1” CalGREEN standards, which exceed minimum energy efficiency requirements by 15 percent. Under strategy E.1.6, the Delano Community Development Department will promote green building practices

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

and provide green building information to local developers and to the public. The City will also review and consider the feasibility of priority building permit processing, or reduced fees or fee waivers, for projects that can achieve Title 24 Tier 1 energy performance. Information on the energy savings benefit of exceeding CalGREEN standards may be provided at the City’s Building Permit desk, on the City’s web site, and through the permit application process itself. Municipal Commitment

D

Although there are no current plans for new construction of municipal facilities, the City of Delano understands that it should lead by example by promoting energy‐efficient design and construction. Therefore, the City may consider going beyond CalGREEN standards for any new construction (or major remodeling) of municipal buildings through the year 2030. Options include designing and building to LEED standards, and meeting Tier 1 of the enhanced CalGREEN standard.

AF R

Renewable energy is energy from sources such as sunlight, wind, geothermal heat, and biomass. The use of renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels substantially reduces GHG emissions. The City of Delano has opportunities to supplement or offset grid‐supplied electricity with renewable energy that is generated in close proximity to the load being served. Renewable electricity generation can be implemented at the building scale (i.e., rooftop solar) or at the municipal and/or regional scale, through cooperation among businesses, jurisdictions, and other organizations.

Solar Energy

Solar energy is a cost‐effective source of renewable energy for the residents and businesses of Delano. According to the SolarRoadMap.com website, Delano is very well situated for solar and yields 10% more electricity than the national average for each kilowatt (kW) of PV generation capacity installed.8 The most commonly used solar technologies for homes and businesses, other than solar photovoltaic (PV), include solar water heating and passive solar design for space heating and cooling. Solar PV and concentrating solar power technologies are also being used by developers and utilities to produce electricity on a massive scale to power cities and small towns.9

T

One key benefit of solar energy is that its peak resource availability corresponds to peak system loads for conventional electricity. Therefore, solar energy systems have the potential to offset electricity usage when it is the most expensive – during peak demand periods when older, less efficient power plants are brought online to meet peak loads. Because they are less efficient, the older power plants also tend to emit more GHGs per unit power produced.

8 9

Solar Roadmap website, accessed June 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.solarroadmap.com/national/california/delano‐ca/ National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Solar Energy Basics, available online: http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_solar.html, accessed April 9, 2013.

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Wind Energy The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicates that the average wind energy potential for the City of Delano is not considered suitable for cost‐effective wind energy development. Areas with annual average wind speeds of 6.5 meters/second and greater at a height of 80 meters above ground are generally considered to have a resource suitable for wind development. NREL’s wind resource map shows that the City of Delano is located in an area with wind speeds between 4.0 and 5.5 meters/second.10 Therefore, wind energy is not considered further as a viable source of renewable energy in Delano.

D

Strategy E2.1: Encourage Nonresidential Renewable Energy Increase on-site renewable energy generation and use in local businesses. Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

1 2017

AF R

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

909

Medium (some City staff and City Council time)

Community Development Department

Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial and industrial users, increased energy independence, additional jobs

Action E2.1a:

Review local ordinances and permit fees, and consider reducing the permit fees to support renewable energy at nonresidential sites.

Action E2.1b:

Strive to promote existing financial incentives for renewable energy system installations. Continue to work with Southwest Solar Transformation Institute (SSTI) and other organizations to promote renewable energy.

T

Encourage nonresidential building owners to install appropriate renewable energy technologies. This strategy is closely aligned with Strategy E.1.4 (PACE program), since PACE can be used to purchase renewable energy. On‐site renewable energy systems represent an effective strategy for reducing emissions. Generally, renewable energy systems should be considered only after implementing all cost‐ effective efficiency measures. The best options for Delano businesses and residents are solar hot water heating and roof‐top photovoltaic (PV) systems.

The largest barriers to expanding on‐site renewable energy are access to information, high up‐front financing costs and long payback periods. Therefore, under this strategy, the City of Delano Community Development Department, in partnership with other organizations, will strive to disseminate renewable energy information and promote existing financial incentives for solar PV and hot water system installation, some of which are described below. Beyond promotion of existing financial incentives for renewable energy system installations, the City of Delano will review local ordinances and permit fees and 10 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), California – Annual Wind Speed at 80 Meters, available online, http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/wind_resource_maps.asp?stateab=ca, accessed April 6, 2013.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

consider reducing the permit fees for renewable energy installation. Under this strategy, other permit fees might be increased, so there is not any increase or decrease in revenue to the City, but rather the revenue from permit fees would be shifted. The City is currently partnering with the SSTI, a group providing technical assistance to local governments with a goal of increasing local markets for renewable energy. According to SSTI, the potential for solar in the nonresidential sector of Delano is over 100,000 kW of capacity. SSTI is providing assistance to Delano regarding issues such as streamlining permitting processes, as well as planning and zoning for solar, disseminating information about financing options, and solar market development.11

Rebates and Tax Credits for Existing Owners:

D

The State of California currently offers a rebate on solar hot water heating systems through the Go Solar California program.12 Rebates are also available through SCE for the purchase and installation of grid‐ connected PV panels through the California Solar Initiative Program funded by the CPUC. Incentives vary based on when the application is processed and the size of the PV system.13

AF R

Other technologies, such as ground source heat pumps or fuel cells, may be viable options in the City of Delano. The State of California also offers the Self Generation Incentive Program, which offers rebates for non‐solar forms of electricity generation. Rebates vary by the type of technology used.14

Strategy E2.2: Encourage Residential Renewable Energy Increase on-site renewable energy generation and use in local homes and multifamily apartment buildings. Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1

2017

568

Medium (some City staff and City Council time)

Community Development Department

Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial and industrial users, increased energy independence, additional jobs

Review local ordinances and consider reducing permit fees to support renewable energy at residential sites.

Action E2.2b:

Strive to promote existing financial incentives for renewable energy system installations. Continue to work with SSTI and other organizations to promote renewable energy.

T

Action E2.2a:

11 City of Delano Solar Roadmap website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: https://www.solarroadmap.com/srmdata/jurisdictions/viewroadmap?auth=juYtsb726!&id=4 12 Go Solar California Program website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.gosolarcalifornia.org/solarwater/ 13 SCE California Solar Initiative website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: https://www.sce.com/wps/portal/home/residential/rebates‐savings/solar 14 SCE Self‐Generation Incentive Program website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: www.sce.com/sgip.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Similar to Strategy E2.1, this strategy focuses on increasing the use of renewable energy in the residential sector. The actions for implementing this strategy are the same as for E2.1. The SSTI estimates that the potential for solar in the residential sector in Delano is almost 22,000 kW, much smaller than the nonresidential sector, but still quite substantial. Virtual net metering, available in the state of California, is a tariff arrangement that enables a multi‐meter property owner to allocate a solar system's energy credits to other tenants. This policy is designed to increase solar PV installations. The policy allows residents in multifamily buildings to virtually “share” the benefits of PV panels on their building based on a pre‐determined formula, such as by square footage of their unit.

D

Rebates and Tax Credits for Existing Owners:

AF R

In addition to the rebates and tax credits discussed in Strategy E2.1, California offers the Multifamily Affordable Solar Housing (MASH) program and the Single Family Affordable Solar Housing (SASH) programs, both of which may be appropriate programs for the City of Delano. Both programs only apply to eligible affording housing residents or homeowners. In the MASH program, incentives are slightly higher for PV systems that offset the load of tenants in the building, as opposed to PV systems that only offset the load of common areas in the building. MASH is currently implemented by SCE for qualifying properties in the City of Delano.15 The SASH Program is administered by a nonprofit organization called Grid Alternatives.16

Incentives for Developers:

The California Energy Commission's New Solar Homes Partnership (NSHP) is part of the comprehensive statewide solar program, known as the California Solar Initiative. The NSHP provides financial incentives and other support to home builders, encouraging the construction of new, energy efficient solar homes. Under this strategy, Delano would promote this program to developers seeking permits or other approvals from the City.

T

Plug‐in hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) help reduce GHG emissions and other air pollutants, may improve electric grid operations, and increase energy security by displacing conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. Furthermore, electric vehicles have the potential to take advantage of distributed sources of renewable energy, such as solar panels. A recent report by the Union of Concerned Scientists illustrates that EVs in California would produce lower GHG emissions than even the most fuel‐efficient hybrids.17

15 SCE MASH website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: www.sce.com/mash. 16 Grid Alternatives SASH website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.gridalternatives.org/sash/ 17 See report at: http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_vehicles/electric‐car‐global‐warming‐emissions‐report.pdf

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Strategy E3.1: Increase Use of Electric Vehicles Support the installation of electric vehicle infrastructure. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

3 In progress 53 Low (some City staff time) Community Development Department

D

Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial and industrial users, increased energy independence, additional jobs

Support regional efforts to expand the availability of public charging stations.

Action E3.1b:

Ensure that the municipal code supports infrastructure for EV charging.

Action E3.1c:

Advocate for local funding from state cap‐and‐trade proceeds, among other sources, to be used for additional charging stations or outreach.

AF R

Action E3.1a:

The state of California is actively promoting plug‐in hybrid and EVs to reduce dependence on foreign oil and meet the AB 32 GHG emissions reduction targets. In addition, due to low rates for the electricity used to charge EVs, the energy costs are lower when compared to conventional gasoline or diesel fuel. One of the barriers to adopting a new technology such as EVs is the lack of public infrastructure available to support the technology. In the case of EVs, there is a need for charging stations that are distributed throughout the region, the state, and beyond. In the southern San Joaquin Valley region, charging stations are currently available in Merced, Fresno, Visalia, and Bakersfield. Charging stations are also available in the southeastern portion of Kern County in Tehachapi and also in the northern Los Angeles County area of Palmdale/Lancaster. Thus, a regional network of charging stations is already underway and will continue to improve.

T

In a recent survey conducted by the California Center for Sustainable Energy, one of the top three barriers to the adoption of EVs was “zoning and parking rules.” Numerous toolkits are available for creating local ordinances or rules that encourage the use of EVs. In the region, the San Joaquin Valley Plug‐in Electric Vehicle Coordinating Council (SJV PEVCC) is working on an EV readiness plan that will provide best practice materials that address issues such as updating zoning and parking policies, streamlining the permitting and inspection processes, and updating the building codes for EV charging equipment and EV parking. The City of Delano could become involved in the SJV PEVCC or may consider adopting best practices for zoning, parking, etc. once they become available.18

Transportation and Land Use Goals and Strategies 

2020 Business‐as‐Usual GHG Emissions: 213,283 MT CO2e

Annual GHG emissions reductions by 2020: 5,904 MT CO2e

18 San Joaquin Valley Plug‐in Electric Vehicle Coordinating Council website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: http://energycenter.org/index.php/outreach‐a‐education/plug‐in‐a‐get‐ready/sjv‐pevcc

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Emissions associated with transportation and land use patterns (213,283 MT CO2e) represent approximately 66 percent of the City’s 2020 GHG BAU emissions projection. The bulk of these emissions are expected to be generated by vehicles travelling on state highways and City streets. The remainder will be generated by vehicles engaged in off‐road activities, like construction, agricultural production, and recreation.

Reducing Emissions with Transportation and Land Use

D

In Delano, the job‐housing ratio was approximately 0.65 in 2010, and the population is expected to grow faster than new jobs over the next 20 years. As such, the vehicle miles travelled (VMT) per capita will increase, as workers travel outside the City boundaries for employment opportunities.19 The average work‐commute for a resident of Delano is approximately 24 minutes, nearly half that of the average California resident.20 Driving alone to work represents 65 percent of the transportation mode split.21 As residents are forced to live further from jobs, commute times and VMT will increase if the primary mode of travel continues to be the single‐occupancy vehicle. In the absence of GHG reduction strategies, daily citywide VMT in 2020 is expected to increase by nearly 14 percent over 2010 levels, from 816,294 to 947,901.

AF R

Existing development patterns and the supporting transportation infrastructure are major factors in the transportation habits of residents because they limit mobility choices, fostering an auto‐dependent culture that relies less on walking, biking, and public transit and more on personal daily motor vehicle trips. Further, public transit service is somewhat limited in the City, reducing its efficiency and appeal as a viable option to driving. In addition, the lack of an extensive and well‐connected pedestrian and bicycle system and associated amenities can be a disincentive to choosing non‐motorized mobility alternatives.

State regulations will require higher fuel efficiency and lower carbon fuels over the next few years. However, state regulations alone will not achieve the transportation emissions reductions needed to reach the 2020 and 2050 targets set by AB 32 and the Governor’s Executive Order S‐3‐05 (80% below 1990 levels by 2050). Effective local strategies for reducing emissions associated with transportation and land use focus on reducing the total VMT and number of vehicle trips required for City residents and businesses, and on proliferation of more zero‐ and low‐emission vehicles. VMT can be reduced and traffic congestion relieved by gradually changing land use patterns to be more sustainable, improving pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, and improving public transit options. Alternative vehicle infrastructure can be improved by partnering with regional agencies.

T

Existing City Policies and Codes

The City’s General Plan Land Use and Circulation Elements describe several recommended options for reducing trips that could be considered in Delano. Reducing vehicle trips have a direct effect on GHG reduction. The actions presented in the General Plan are reflected in reduction strategies presented in relation to land use and transportation. Specifically, the Medium Density Residential land use category notes that this type of housing should “be integrated throughout the community adjacent to transportation, community services and commercial developments.” By locating higher density land use 19 Fehr and Peers, Memorandum. City of Delano CAP – Reduction Strategy Quantification. June 28, 2013. 20 American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013 21 ibid.

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next to complementary land uses, the City encourages alternative modes of transportation such as walking and bicycling. Additionally, the General Plan acknowledges the benefits of the grid street pattern and the connectivity it provides to all transportation modes. It also tries to balance land uses, and jobs‐ housing balance within the City by encouraging housing development throughout the community. This type of land use pattern addresses the physical layout; proximity and accessibility to goods, services, workplaces, and schools—directly affecting vehicle use, and thus GHG emissions.

Transportation and Land Use Goals and Strategies Specific approaches considered for the City of Delano include: 

D

Create a built environment that allows people more transportation choices, including walking, bicycling, or taking public transit, rather than relying solely on single occupancy vehicles (SOVs); Encourage higher density, mixed‐use development near local‐serving commercial areas including the downtown area;

Encourage the use of lower‐emission vehicles, and expand the infrastructure and safety for people to walk or bike; and

Expand alternatives for commuting and local travel, and provide secure bike parking and related amenities for all new development.

AF R

Table 4‐3 summarizes the Climate Action Plan’s transportation and land use strategies and their estimated GHG reduction impact. Table 4-3 Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Transportation and Land Use Strategies in 2020

TL1

Goal/Supporting Strategy

Priority

First Year of Implementation

Percent of Category

Promote Local Commute Trip Reduction through TDM programs

1,239

1

In progress

31%

TL1.2

Require Parking Spaces for Carpool and Vanpool Vehicles

371

2

2015

9%

TL1.3

Improve Access to Public Transit

554

2

In progress

14%

TL2

Sustainable Growth Patterns

TL1.1

Reduce Single Occupancy Vehicle Travel

Annual GHG Reduction Potential (MT CO2e)

1

2016

22%

1

2015

0%

2

In progress

NA

618

3

In progress

16%

321

3

Increase Household Density in Downtown Area

TL2.2

Improve Jobs‐housing Balance City‐wide by favoring more commercial and industrial development

TL2.3

Support Local Farmer’s Markets

NA

TL3

Increase Non‐Motorized Travel

TL3.1

Improve Bicycle and Pedestrian Infrastructure

TL3.2

Enhance Safe Routes to Schools program TOTAL

865 0

3,967

T

TL2.1

In progress

8% 100%

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

D

Nationwide, 27.7 percent of all VMT is attributable to vehicle trips to and from work.22 Trip generation can be reduced by implementing transportation demand management (TDM) strategies for employees in the City that include telecommuting options, alternative work and school schedules, on‐site amenities, car and vanpooling programs, and improved access to bike facilities. Commute trip reduction programs can encourage use of alternative modes, particularly for commuting to work by employees to local employers. With implementation of these measures, it is estimated that the City will experience a VMT reduction of approximately 7,800 per day by 2020, and 12,960 VMT per day by 2035.

Strategy TL1.1: Local Commute Trip Reduction Promote TDM programs for new large non-residential developments that reduce weekday peak period vehicle trips.

AF R Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1

In progress

1,239

Low (some City staff time)

Community Development Department

Local Economic Benefits: Reduced roadway maintenance, lower fuel demand and costs, better local air quality, less road congestion

Action TL1.1a:

Promote TDM programs for new large non‐residential developments that reduce weekday peak period vehicle trips.

Action TL1.1b:

Consider providing incentives (e.g., travel vouchers) to City employees to carpool or take public transit to work.

The City of Delano will encourage local employers to implement transportation demand management measures to reduce single‐occupancy vehicle trips. This encouragement could take the form of public information inserts in the local utility bill, e‐mail distribution, and /or through Chamber of Commerce presentations and coordination.

T

TDM strategies for employers could include transportation coordinators; on‐site transit information and/or pass sales; rideshare matching services; preferential parking for carpools or vanpools; provision of bike lockers, showers, and/or changing facilities; and guaranteed ride home.23 Employers would also be encouraged to implement a compressed work week, involving one or more of the following: 

Forty hours spread among four workdays days in one week (4/40)

Eighty hours spread among nine workdays in two weeks (9/80)

Telecommuting 1.5 days per week

22 United States Department of Transportation, Summary of Travel Trends 2009, Table 24, p. 44. 23

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TRP Report 95 Chapter 19: Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies -- Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Transportation Research Board, 2010.

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The City will consider promoting commute trip reduction for its own employees by providing incentives to carpool or take public transit to work.

Strategy TL1.2: Carpool and Vanpool Vehicle Parking Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicle parking by placing designated spaces in the most desired locations to promote ridesharing. Priority:

D

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

2 2015 371 Low (City staff time) Community Development Department Better local air quality

AF R

Action TL1.2a:

Modify Delano Zoning Ordinance to require new major employment developments to provide preferred parking spots for carpool and vanpool vehicles.

According to the 2009 National Household Travel Survey, vehicle occupancy has hovered around 1.13 persons per vehicle since 1990. The same survey reported that 93.5 percent of commuters usually drive alone to work.24 In Delano, 65 percent of commuters drive alone to work.25 Many transportation demand programs, that strive to achieve single occupancy vehicle reductions have conditions for carpool and vanpool requirements such as, location parking spaces for rideshare vehicles conveniently adjacent to building entrances, garage entrances and exits, and elevators serving the building. This means that for carpools (two (2) or more people) and vanpools (seven (7) or more people), are entitled to park in a marked space. Parking spaces for rideshare vehicles should be attractive relative to parking spaces for single‐occupancy vehicles (SOVs), and must be marked and reserved for the purpose.

T

The City encourages carpooling through its Transportation Systems Management as presented in the General Plan, which encourages the “development of carpools and ridesharing programs to increase the number of people per vehicle”. The City should require new major employment development projects to include designated carpool spaces in site plans and ensure they are implemented during the construction phase. A development resulting in 100 employees or more is considered a major employment development.

24 US Department of Transportation. FHWA. National Household Travel Survey. Summary of Travel Trends. 2009 25 American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013

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Strategy TL1.3: Improve Access to Public Transit Increase public transit ridership in the community through additional transit facilities and improvement of existing services. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

D

Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

2 In progress 554 Medium (City staff time) Community Development Department Better local air quality

With Delano Area Rapid Transit and Kern Regional Transit, explore opportunities to provide bus shelters at major transit hubs.

Action TL1.3b:

With Delano Area Rapid Transit and Kern Regional Transit, explore opportunities to provide transit services within ½ mile of all residents in the city.

AF R

Action TL1.3a:

Action TL1.3c:

With Delano Area Rapid Transit and Kern Regional Transit, explore opportunities to provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs.

Action TL1.3d:

Continue to require new development to include bus and bicycle facilities.

Improving public transit can significantly reduce emissions by moving a large number of people efficiently and providing more opportunities for community members to choose low‐carbon transportation modes, in place of single‐occupancy vehicle use. Improving public transit also has potential Local Co‐benefits, including better access to transit (especially for the young, elderly, and disabled), as well as health benefits associated with walking to and from public transit stops. According to the 2000 United States Census, only 0.8 percent of all residents over the age of 16 reported that they ride public transit to get to work. In Delano, the percentage is only 0.4 percent.26 The City’s public transit ridership is limited by the City’s small size, rural surroundings, distance from major cities, and relatively low population and development density. Further, commutes are often outside of the City, averaging nearly 24 minutes, which often means in a rural community, that transit is a viable option.27

T

Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART) provides bus service in the City and in the County to residents who live within the service Area. DART operates four fixed bus routes, six days a week, with approximately 155,000 annual boardings. A total of 75 bus stops are served in the 10 square mile system.28 DART receives funding from the Federal Transit Administration, Transportation Development Act, and Farebox revenues.29 Regional service is provided by Kern Regional Transit which provides bus service between Delano, McFarland, Wasco, Shafter and Bakersfield and Tulare County Area Transit (TCaT) which provides bus 26 27

28 29

54

American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013

American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013 City of Delano. Transportation Services. http://cityofdelano.org/index.aspx?NID=66. Accessed August 7, 2013. Dowling, R., Memorandum. Comments on Fehr and Peers CAP Potential Reduction Strategies. May 13, 2013

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

service between Delano, Richgrove, Earlimart and Tulare. The City of Delano received a grant from U.S. Department of Transportation for a demonstration bus route from Delano to Bakersfield College.30 Under this strategy, the City will coordinate closely with the local and regional transit agencies to explore the feasibility of implementing the following actions: 

Explore opportunities to provide bus shelters at major transit hubs;

Explore opportunities to provide transit service within ½ mile of all residents in the City;

Explore opportunities to provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs; and

Continue to require new development to include facilities or contribute fees to pay for facilities, where appropriate, including shelters, benches, and secure bicycle parking.

D

AF R

Delano currently has a shortage of employment opportunities for its residents, resulting in an outflow of residents during the day as they travel to jobs in neighboring communities. Retail services are also limited in the City requiring residents to shop in other towns. In order to promote sustainable growth patterns in the future, the Health and Sustainability Element of the Delano General Plan encourages the development of a diversity of housing types and retail services, promotion of locally‐owned businesses, and growth of high‐quality jobs that provide living wages. A community with housing and transportation choices located near jobs and services is more sustainable and requires less driving. Mixed use, higher‐density, or infill development facilitates fewer and shorter car trips by providing more diverse land uses within close proximity of a larger population. These fewer and shorter car trips will reduce total VMT, and associated GHG emissions. According to a study from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), a private nonprofit chartered by Congress,31 more compact mixed‐use development of residential and employment centers can result in overall GHG reductions of up to 25 percent. The report suggests that such reductions can be accomplished with: Smaller lots for detached houses could shorten vehicle trip distances in low‐density urban fringes;

Smaller lots and multiple‐unit housing could support public transportation and encourage walking and bicycling in moderate density suburbs; and

Redevelopment of strategically located underused parcels within proximity of existing services and amenities.

T

Improving the jobs‐housing balance by drawing more employers to the City or by locating residential uses in close proximity to commercial areas would allow for residents to walk to services, which would in turn help in reducing VMT and associated GHG emissions.

30

31

City of Delano. Transportation Services. http://cityofdelano.org/index.aspx?NID=66. Accessed August 7, 2013.

Transportation Research Board, 2009, Special Report 298, “Driving and the Built Environment: The Effects of Compact Development on Motorized Travel, Energy Use and CO2 Emissions,” examines trends in national and metropolitan‐area development patterns, effects of land‐use patterns on VMT, and the potential effects of more compact development on VMT, energy use, and CO2 emissions.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

In Delano, 65 percent of commuters drive alone to work and have an average commute of approximately 24 minutes. Further, approximately 43 percent of employed residents work within the City and almost 16 percent work outside Kern County.32 This results in a number of long distance commutes to employment centers in neighboring cities such as Bakersfield (approximately 30 miles each way) and Visalia (approximately 45 miles each way). The City’s General Plan encourages both the “promotion and facilitation of economic diversification to encourage the creation of employment opportunities, increase revenue through the local economy and decrease dependency upon any one sector of the economy” (Objective 10.4.A). By investing in infrastructure and amenities to draw new employers into the City, residents could live closer to jobs, thus reducing commute times and the need to rely solely on the automobile to get to work.

D

The increase in residential uses would be accomplished through introduction of residential uses in currently exclusively commercial areas such as in the downtown area, or through increasing commercial services in existing residential neighborhoods or increasing densities in other commercial areas, as presented in the Neighborhood Revitalization Plan for Southwest Delano. Other amenities such as complete sidewalks and the presence of street trees for shade also provide for safety to encourage and allow for transportation modes options beyond the single occupancy vehicle.

AF R

Strategy TL2.1: Increase Household Density in Downtown Area Encourage the construction of multifamily homes close to walkable amenities and services in the Downtown. Priority:

1

Timeframe to start implementation: 2016

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

865

Low (City staff time)

Community Development Department

Local Economic Benefits: Lower fuel bills, better local air quality, a more connected community

Rezone non‐residential lands in the Downtown Core and surrounding areas to higher density residential zones, and mixed use.

Action TL2.1b:

Encourage smart growth development by considering elimination or reduction of minimum parking requirements, creation of maximum parking requirements for residential developments, and provision of shared parking.

Action TL2.1c:

Implement traffic calming measures within the downtown core.

Action TL2.1d:

Adopt the Delano Block H Master Plan

Action TL2.1e:

Improve the consistency of the City’s General Plan and Zoning Map

T

Action TL2.1a:

32 American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013

56

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Growing evidence indicated that increasing the density of development around the downtown and along transit routes is an effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gases by reducing the need for vehicular travel. Creating opportunities for higher density housing in the downtown increases access to services, increases bikeability, and walkability, reduces single occupancy vehicle trips, and makes transit more effective.33, 34 The General Plan currently allows limited residential in the downtown commercial area, but the commercial land use does accommodate a mix of commercial, financial, office, government uses and residential uses. Specifically, the General Plan encourages the rehabilitation of existing structures to accommodate residential and office facilities in the upper floors in the downtown Commercial district.35

AF R

D

The City will rezone non‐residential lands and low‐density residential to R‐2 and R‐3 zones within the downtown core and surrounding area. The Light Multiple‐Family Residential (R‐2) zone district provides for a range of housing choices for residents in a more urban setting. The R‐2 zone district provides for residential development including small lot single and multiple‐family detached and attached residential uses at a maximum allowable density of fourteen dwelling units per net acre. The Multiple‐Family Residential (R‐3) zone district provides for the development of multifamily attached residential dwelling units with enhanced amenities (common open space and recreation areas) and contains a maximum allowable density of twenty‐four dwelling units per net acre. The City will continue to encourage and support mixed‐use development through implementation of the City’s Zoning Ordinance, which allows residential uses in commercial zones. Additionally, per the City’s Zoning Ordinance, up to a 35 percent density bonus can be granted in planned development districts. The City will also consider eliminating or reducing the minimum parking requirements which will result in fewer parking spaces in the downtown area. With fewer parking spaces, there will be more opportunities for shared parking to encourage higher density, mixed use, infill and other smart growth developments. Lastly, the City will implement traffic calming measures, such as roundabouts, within the downtown area to create a more pedestrian‐friendly environment to encourage walking.

The Delano Block H Master Plan was prepared in December 2006 but was not adopted. Adoption and implementation of this Master Plan would help to increase the residential density in the Downtown area. The Block H Master Plan site consists of 20 blocks and represents the only existing major development opportunity within Delano’s Central Business District. The site is designed to be a walkable district connected to the City’s Downtown that would include a network of pedestrian‐oriented streets, a mix of uses within easy walking distance of one another, public spaces and civic facilities, and transit‐oriented design. An Overlay Zone with new land use zones would be included that allow for a range of uses and varying intensities.

T 33

Center for Clean Air Policy. Cost Effect GHG Reductions through Smart Growth and Improved Transportation Choices: An Economic Case for Investment of Cap and Trade Revenues. July 2009.

34 Urban Land Institute, Moving Cooler: An Analysis of Transportation Strategies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. 2009. 35 City of Delano. General Plan. December 2005.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy TL2.2: Improve Local Jobs-Housing Balance Improve jobs-housing balance city-wide through provision of commercial or industrial job opportunities instead of residential land uses. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

D

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

Action TL2.2a:

Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

1 2015 0 ‐ 1,58136 Medium (City staff time) Community Development Department Better local air quality and a more connected community.

Consider modifying the City’s Zoning Ordinance and rezoning outlying residential lands for commercial and/or industrial uses.

AF R

The City has a shortage of local jobs. Improving the jobs‐housing balance by drawing more employers to the City would in turn help in reducing VMT and associated GHG emissions. As discussed above, 65 percent of commuters in Delano drive alone to work and have a commute of approximately 24 minutes. Further, approximately 43 percent of employed residents work within the City and almost 16 percent work outside Kern County.37 The City’s General Plan encourages both the “promotion and facilitation of economic diversification to encourage the creation of employment opportunities, increase revenue through the local economy and decrease dependency upon any one sector of the economy” (Objective 10.4.A). By investing in infrastructure and amenities to draw new employers into the City, residents could live closer to jobs, thus reducing commute times and the need to rely solely on the automobile to get to work. Approximately 63% of the City’s land is designated for residential use while only 37% is designated for non‐residential uses under the General Plan. The City will modify its General Plan and Zoning Ordinance to rezone outlying properties to designate more land for commercial and industrial uses, and less residential uses. This will improve the jobs‐housing balance citywide.

T

For the remaining land zoned for residential, the City will continue to encourage and support higher density, infill, and mixed‐use development through implementation of the City’s Zoning Ordinance. Current residential densities in the City meet and exceed the San Joaquin Valley Blueprint recommended densities. The San Joaquin Valley Blueprint is a long‐range, multi‐jurisdictional vision for smart growth development in the valley. The 2050 growth scenario identified areas of existing development and future transportation improvements to result in a target density of 6.8 units per acre of new residential growth. The City’s Zoning Ordinance includes a Multiple Family Residential (R‐3) zone district that allows up to 24.0 dwelling units per acre, and the City Zoning Ordinance contains a density bonus ordinance that allows for up to a 35 per cent density bonus in accordance with the provisions of State Law.

58

36

If the Zoning Ordinance as described is implemented, the GHG reduction potential is 1,581 MT CO2e per year.

37

American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy TL2.3: Support Local Farmer’s Markets Support local Farmer’s Markets and other venues to sell locallygrown and produced foods in the City to reduce GHG emissions. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

D Action TL2.3a:

2 In progress N/A Low (City staff time) Community Development Department

Local Co‐benefits: A more connected community, contributes to local economy, supports local agricultural industry

Continue to allow Farmer’s Markets and other venues to sell locally‐grown and produced foods in commercial zone districts, and consider modifying the City’s Zoning Ordinance to allow this use in other appropriate zone districts.

AF R

Foods that are packaged and shipped to other locations outside of the City require more energy than food that is grown and consumed locally. Delano residents, businesses and visitors can purchase locally‐grown and produced foods that are transported a short distance from its source. Delano currently has one Certified Farmers Market held on Tuesdays from late spring to early fall, which is located at 1508 Garces Highway. The City’s Zoning Ordinance allows temporary fruit stands within the Agricultural zones and districts. Sales of agricultural, horticulture, or farming products are allowed to be sold and are regulated under Zoning Ordinance Section 20.7.50. The City will continue to allow Farmer’s Markets and other venues to sell locally‐grown and produced foods in commercial zone districts, and consider modifying the City’s Zoning Ordinance to allow this use in other appropriate zones.

T

A City with enhanced and integrated pedestrian and bicycle facilities encourages residents to drive less often, which results in reduction of VMT. Bicycling can replace a significant share of motorized travel, typically 5‐15 percent with good facilities. In addition, increasing the use of non‐motorized travel such as walking and biking helps reduce traffic congestion, improves air quality, and promotes a healthy lifestyle.

Conventional transportation impact analysis tends to overlook and undervalue non‐motorized transportation modes such as multiple short and non‐motorized trips. Non‐motorized trips are undercounted because they include off‐peak trips, non‐work trips, travel by children, recreational travel, and non‐motorized links of automobile and public transit trips.38

38

Evaluating Non‐Motorized Transportation ‐ Benefits and Costs, June 2011, Todd Litman, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Peter R. Stopher and Stephen P. Greaves (2007), “Household Travel Surveys: Where Are We Going?” Transportation Research A, Vol. 41/5 (www.elsevier.com/locate/tra), June, pp. 367‐381.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy TL3.1: Improve Bicycle and Pedestrian Infrastructure Improve community bicycle and pedestrian pathway infrastructure by providing bicycle support facilities at public locations, updating transportation systems to become more bicycle-friendly, and evaluating other opportunities to encourage walkable/bikeable corridors

D

Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

3 In progress 618 High (up‐front capital costs and City staff time)

Responsibility: Community Development Department; Engineering Department

AF R Local Co‐benefits:

Better local air quality and community health.

Action TL3.1a:

Continue to implement and update the Delano Bicycle Master Plan.

Action TL3.1b:

Require new residential developments to connect to pedestrian and bicycle networks.

Action TL3.1c: Continue to require new non‐residential developments and encourage new multifamily developments to provide bike amenities. Action TL3.1d:

Install support facilities at City facilities to encourage bicycle use.

Bicycle improvements provide synergistic effects, where the total impacts are greater than the sum of their individual impacts. A single bicycle lane generally provides little benefit because it will connect few destinations, but a network of integrated bicycle lanes and shared travel lanes can be more beneficial because it provides multiple connections between trip origin and trip destinations, thereby attracting a larger population of potential users with more diverse travel patterns. Therefore, it’s generally best to implement and evaluate integrated programs. Improved pedestrian facilities generally consist of improvements to sidewalks and pedestrian crossings at intersections to create a continuous network. A safe and convenient system of pedestrian facilities can encourage walking.

T

The City has installed bicycle support facilities at City Hall and at Delano Community Center. As funding becomes available, the City will take the following additional steps to improve City bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure:

60

Update the Delano Bicycle Master Plan every five years to remain eligible for Caltrans funding for implementation of the Master Plan, and continue to implement the Plan to improve the facilities;

Require new residential developments to connect to pedestrian and bicycle networks through connections in cul‐de‐sacs in newly‐approved subdivisions, closure of gaps in the sidewalk system, and provision of additional non‐motorized connections;

Continue to require bike parking for new non‐residential developments;

Encourage bike parking for new multifamily developments; and

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Install bicycle parking facilities at City‐owned buildings.

Strategy TL3.2: Enhance Safe Routes to Schools Program Increase opportunities for school children to walk and bike to and from school by continuing to implement a Safe Routes to Schools Program. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation:

D

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

Action TL3.2a:

Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

3 In progress 321 High (up‐front capital costs and City staff time) Engineering Department Better local air quality and community health

AF R

Continue to enhance pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure along school routes that include striping crosswalks around schools to ensure safe conditions.

Action TL3.2b:

Continue to implement traffic speed reductions along identified school routes.

Action TL3.2c:

Work with the Delano Union School District and Delano Joint Union High School District to encourage and educate parents/students about the benefits of walking and cycling to school.

39

40

T

Safe Routes to School (SRTS) is a national and international movement to create safe, convenient, and fun opportunities for children to bike and walk to and from schools. Concerns about traffic safety are often cited as one of the main reasons children do not walk or bike to school.39 On multiple occasions the City of Delano has been awarded a federal SRTS Non‐Infrastructure funding to increase safe walking and biking to school in Delano Union School District. Between 2010 and 2012, the increase in the number of students walking and biking to school was 18 percent, specifically due to the SRTS Program which raised awareness through education, encouragement programs, enhanced enforcement, engineering improvements, and strong program evaluation.40 The City will continue to increase opportunities for school children to walk and bike to and from school by continuing to seek funding to implement education programs and safety improvements to City pedestrian and bicycle facilities. The City will also support the Delano Union School District and the Delano Joint Union High School District efforts to encourage and educate parents/students about the benefits of walking and biking to school. One strategy to enhance SRTS is to include bulb outs at intersections to physically mark where pedestrian crossings are. However, bulb outs do narrow the streets, which makes it difficult to install bike lanes on those streets, and results in less room for trucks to make right turns.

Chaufan, C, Yeh J, Fox, P. The Safe Routes to School Program in California: An Update. Presented to UCSF School of Nursing. May 2012. Safe Routes to School California. Safe Routes to School Success Story, Delano, California. Caltrans District 6, Kern County. August 2102.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Solid Waste Goals and Strategies 

2020 Business‐as‐Usual GHG Emissions: 4,701 MT CO2e

Annual GHG emissions reductions by 2020: 1,207 MT CO2e

D

Emissions associated with the landfill decomposition of solid waste (4,701 MT CO2e) constitute approximately 1.4 percent of the City’s 2020 BAU GHG emissions projection. Diverting solid waste from landfills effectively reduces GHG emissions by avoiding the anaerobic decomposition of organic material (which releases methane) and recovering the embodied energy in recycled materials. Strategies for reducing the amount of solid waste sent to landfill include source reduction (minimizing waste generation) and strengthening existing diversion programs. Sunset Waste Systems provides curbside solid waste collection and disposal and curbside recycling for City of Delano residents. Curbside collection bins are currently provided separately for trash, mixed recycling, and green waste. The City diverted 54 percent of its solid waste from landfills in 2005, and 59 percent in 2006.41

AF R

Waste Diversion

Energy is expended in the extraction, processing, and transporting of raw materials, and in manufacturing and delivering goods to market. Reuse and recycling helps conserve much of the energy embodied in these goods and materials, which in turn reduces GHG emissions. Sending glass, plastic, and metal to landfill represents a loss of resources as many of these materials can be recycled into other products, thereby reducing the demand for virgin materials in manufacturing and production. In addition to being energy intensive, upstream extraction and processing of raw materials (mining, construction, fuel production, metals processing, etc.) generates enormous volumes of waste material. In general, forty to seventy times more waste (and associated emissions) is generated from the upstream industrial processes associated with product manufacturing than with their disposal to landfill.42 Composting organic waste material, including food scraps, non‐recyclable paper products, and plant material, keeps these materials out of landfills, where anaerobic decomposition releases methane (CH4) – a powerful GHG. An added benefit of composting is that land application of the end product increases soil carbon uptake and lowers the demand for water, fertilizer, and other soil inputs.

T

The City is well positioned to make substantial progress in waste diversion. The City will increase per capita solid waste disposal by improving recycling and composting programs and increasing public education and program participation. Pursuant to AB 341 (2011), the State of California now has a policy goal to divert 75 percent of its solid waste from landfills by 2020. The City’s existing contractual relationship with Sunset Waste Systems may allow the City to meet this goal, since Sunset Waste Systems now provides comprehensive commingled recycling services. Table 4‐4 summarizes the Climate Action Plan’s solid waste diversion strategies and their estimated GHG reduction impact. 41 CalRecycle Jurisdiction Diversion / Disposal Rate Summary, accessed on July 22, 2013. Available Online: http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/LGCentral/reports/diversionprogram/JurisdictionDiversion.aspx 42 Makower, Joel, Strategies for the Green Economy: Opportunities and Challenges in the New World of Business, McGraw‐Hill. 2009.

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Table 4-4. Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Solid Waste Strategies in 2020

SW1

SW1.1 SW2

Goal/Supporting Strategy Reduce Community Solid Waste Sent to Landfill

Reduce Per Capita Community Solid Waste Sent to Landfill

1,175

Reduce Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill

D SW2.1

Annual GHG Reduction Potential (MT CO2e)

Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill TOTAL

Priority

First Year of Implementation

1

In progress

97.3%

Percent of Category

32

2

2016

2.7%

1,207

100%

AF R

The City will prioritize the diversion of waste from landfill as its primary solid waste goal. Increasing waste diversion will entail writing and implementing new policy, expanding and improving recycling and composting programs, maximizing the use of technical assistance, and increasing public awareness and education.

Strategy SW1.1: Reduce Per Capita Community Waste Tonnage Sent to Landfill

Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO22e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1 In progress 1,175

T

Reduce per capita community solid waste sent to landfill by 20% by 2020 and by 35% by 2035, compared with the baseline year 2005, through additional recycling, green waste diversion, and waste minimization.

Medium (City staff time)

Public Works Department

Local Co‐benefits: Reduce waste, lower energy demand, improve traffic and air quality

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Action SW1.1a: Coordinate with Sunset Waste Systems to prepare and distribute educational materials to the public on recycling programs, and to promote solid waste source reduction and benefits of composting. Action SW1.1b: Work with the Sunset Waste Systems to expand the recycling program to include non‐ residential uses and multi‐family residential uses. Action SW1.1c: Work with the Sunset Waste Systems to explore expanding the recycling program to include food waste and green waste for all users. The City aims to reduce per capita community solid waste sent to the landfill by 25% by 2020 and by 35% by 2035, compared with the baseline year 2005, through additional recycling, green waste diversion and composting, and waste minimization in the community. The City will take the following steps to achieve these targets:

D

Coordinate with Sunset Waste Systems and Kern County to prepare and distribute educational materials to the public on recycling programs, and to promote solid waste source reduction and benefits of composting. These educational materials might consist of brochures and flyers targeted to residents and businesses, and information about recycling programs posted on the City’s website.

Under California law (AB 341), any commercial business or public entity that generates more than four cubic yards of commercial solid waste per week, or is a multifamily residential dwelling of five units or more, has been required to recycle since July 1, 2012. The City will continue to work with Sunset Waste Systems to ensure the existing recycling program addresses this requirement. The City will work with Sunset Waste Systems to expand the recycling program to include non‐residential uses and multi‐family residential uses that are not covered under AB 341.

AF R

Work with Sunset Waste Systems to assess the feasibility of expanding local recycling programs to divert food waste and green waste. Landfills are a large source of methane, which is produced when organic waste decomposes in an environment without oxygen. Composting is a natural way of recycling organic material and nutrients back into the earth, where organic materials are allowed to decompose in a manner that does not produce methane. Anaerobic digestion is another alternative that produces energy from diverted organic materials.

T

Strategy SW2.1: Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill

Reduce per capita municipal operations solid waste sent to landfill by 20% by 2020 and by 35% by 2030, compared with the baseline year 2005, through additional recycling, green waste diversion, and waste minimization.

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Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

2 In progress 32 Low (City staff time) Public Works Department Reduce waste, lower cost to the City

Action SW2.1a: Develop and implement A City Environmentally Preferable Purchases and Practices Policy to increase use and purchase of recycled products.

D

Action SW2.1b: Work with Sunset Waste Systems to expand the recycling program to include City facilities.

AF R

Consistent with the targets for community‐wide waste diversion, the City will reduce municipal solid waste sent to landfills. Similar to the community‐wide approach, the City will achieve its target through additional recycling, green waste diversion, and minimizing waste associated with government operations. However, the City is committed to achieving its diversion targets five years before the general community does. The City will: 

Develop and implement A City Environmentally Preferable Purchases and Practices Policy to increase use and purchase of recycled products. The City may choose to require, when practical and financially viable, to use and purchase recycled products and recycled materials, and encourage its contractors and consultants to do so as well. This policy would also require the City to make resource conservation an integral part of its waste reduction and recycling programs.

Work with Sunset Waste Systems to expand the recycling program to include City facilities. Expand the recycling program to include pick up at City facilities. This could be included in the franchise agreement between the City and Sunset Waste Systems.

Water Goals and Strategies 

2020 Business‐as‐Usual GHG Emissions: 2,912 MT CO2e

Annual GHG emissions reductions by 2020: 760 MT CO2e

Water Conservation

T

Emissions associated with water conveyance in Delano (2,912 MT CO2e) constitute approximately 0.9 percent of the City’s 2020 BAU GHG emissions projection. Delano relies on groundwater for its water supply, which is pumped from local aquifers. Conserving water is an effective way to reduce GHG emissions by reducing the electricity needed to pump water and deliver it to the community.

Water is a precious and limited resource that must be conserved to meet future demands. Water conservation indirectly reduces the energy required for upstream water collection, conveyance, and treatment, and reduces the energy requirements and the process emissions associated with wastewater collection and treatment. The energy intensity of water conveyance is dependent on distance and elevation changes. Effective ways of conserving water include incentivizing reductions in commercial/industrial outdoor irrigation, providing rebates for residential water conservation devices, and utilizing recycled water.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Water conservation actions have many benefits beyond reducing GHG emissions. In addition to maintaining water as a sustainable resource for future generations, conservation buffers communities from the effects of droughts, saves money, and helps sustain wildlife habitats. The City takes its responsibility to conserve water seriously and actively supports State policies aimed at reducing water use. The California Urban Water Management Planning Act (UWMP Act) requires every California urban water supplier of more than 3,000 customers to adopt an Urban Water Management Plan (UWMP). In 2009, the State passed the Water Conservation Bill of 2009 (SBX7‐7), which requires an updated UWMP every 5 years. It also sets a target of a 20 percent reduction in State‐wide water use by 2020, requiring local jurisdictions to implement measures to meet the Statewide goal.

AF R

D

The City of Delano adopted its updated UWMP in 2010. The Delano UWMP describes 2010 water use and projected water demand through 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030. Within the City limits, the highest water use per acre of land is for residential uses, followed by right of way uses, closely followed by agricultural uses. According to the UWMP, Delano’s typical average daily water use was 196 gallons per capita‐day (gpcd) in 2005, and 222 in 2010. In 2005, the City’s average daily demand was 8.7 million gallons per day (MGD), with a total capacity to convey 21.0 MGD. According to the UWMP, in 2010 the City’s average daily demand was 8.3 MGD, with a total capacity to convey expected to be 23 MGD in 2013. The UWMP outlines strategies to meet the 20 percent reduction goal of SBX7‐7 through demand management measures, which are incorporated into the strategies below. Table 4‐5 summarizes the Climate Action Plan’s water conservation strategies and their estimated GHG reduction impact. Table 4-5 Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Water Strategies in 2020

W1 W1.1 W1.2

Annual GHG Reduction Potential (MT CO2e)

Goal/Supporting Strategy

Increase Water Conservation Efforts

Indoor Water Conservation Incentives

Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives and Ordinance

TOTAL

Priority

First Year of Implementat ion

Percent of Category

1,331

1

2016

95%

70

2

2018

5%

1,401

100%

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In California and in many parts of the western U.S., energy and water are closely linked. Water‐related electricity use accounts for 20% of California’s total electricity consumption.43 In Delano, water is projected to account for less than 1% of the city’s total GHG emissions in 2020 under the business‐as‐ usual scenario. Energy is used to pump water and in the treatment and distribution of potable water, as 43 Data from the California Energy Commission Website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.energy.ca.gov/research/iaw/water.html

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well as for the treatment of wastewater. Also, water is used in cooling towers and other applications at some of the power plants where electricity is generated. Reducing water consumption thus indirectly reduces energy use and GHG emissions, while also contributing to community water conservation goals.

Strategy W1.1: Indoor Water Conservation Incentives Promote existing and offer new rebates for water efficient appliances and fixtures. Priority:

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Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1 In progress 1,331 Low (Some City staff time) Public Works Department; Engineering Department

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Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial and industrial users, increased energy independence, additional jobs.

Action W1.1a:

Continue to promote existing rebates for water efficient appliances.

Action W1.1b:

Track the number of rebates provided and continue to offer the most popular programs with the highest water reductions.

Action W1.1c:

Continue to educate residents and businesses regarding water conservation strategies.

Much of the water used in most indoor sinks and showers is heated, so indoor water conservation or efficiency includes the added benefit of reduced energy usage. For example, low‐flow faucets and water efficient showerheads lead to use of less heated water, which reduces energy usage at the site where the water is being consumed. The City of Delano provides water to residents and businesses within the City boundary. Also, according to the City’s Urban Water Management Plan, the average account in Delano consumed over 200,000 gallons in 2005 and 2010. Assuming each account is equal to one household, the average household water usage is thus 581 gallons/household/day. This is relatively high; in the state of California, the average water usage for a new three bedroom single family home is 174,000 gallons/year, which is 476 gallons per day.44 The UWMP includes a goal to reduce water usage 20% by 2020, in compliance with state‐level mandates.

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The City currently offers a low‐flow toilet replacement rebate. The City also operates a water conservation hotline (661‐720‐5499) to assist residents in conserving water. Members of the public are encouraged to report water usage contrary to the adopted water ordinance. Additionally, the City has an adopted Emergency Water Conservation Policy (Resolution No. 2006‐92) that requires water users to reduce the quantity of water used for the purpose of conserving water in an emergency. Specific mandated restrictions in water use for residential and non‐residential landscapes, as well as construction use, could occur. In addition, Ordinance No. 2008‐1185 prohibits and defines water waste, and establishes a fine for

44 ConSol. Water Use in the California Residential Home, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.cbia.org/go/cbia/?LinkServID=E242764F‐88F9‐4438‐9992948EF86E49EA

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those in violation of the ordinance. The City of Delano also adopted Ordinance No. 2008‐1189, which orders water conservation by establishing a schedule for when watering landscaping is allowed. The City will also conduct outreach to educate residents regarding indoor water conservation strategies. Simple measures, such as using flow restrictors or a timer for encouraging slightly shorter showers, can make a large difference and lead to energy, water, and cost savings.

Strategy W1.2: Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives and Ordinance

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Provide incentives for water-saving devices, such as low-flow sprinklers. Continue to enforce the Outdoor Landscaping Ordinance. Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

In progress 70 Low (Some City staff time)

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Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

2

Responsibility:

Public Works Department; Engineering Department

Local Co‐benefits: Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial and industrial users, increased energy independence, additional jobs

Action W1.2a:

Continue to promote existing rebates for outdoor water efficient equipment, such as low‐flow sprinklers.

Action W1.2b:

Continue to track the number of rebates provided and continue to offer the most popular programs with the highest water reductions.

Action W1.2c:

Continue to educate residents regarding outdoor water conservation strategies, such as the use of drought‐tolerant plants for outdoor landscaping.

Action W1.2d:

Encourage the use of greywater and captured rainwater for outdoor landscaping irrigation.

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In California, all municipalities have been required to adopt a local ordinance regulating water use in large landscaped areas. The City of Delano has an adopted water conservation ordinance and will continue to enforce it.

The City will also conduct outreach to educate residents and businesses regarding outdoor water conservation strategies. There are many options available to reduce the water used for landscaping, including the use of drought‐tolerant plants, limiting water hours to early morning or late evening in the hot summer months, and the use of timers and other sensors so water is only provided when it is needed. The use of greywater systems that recycle water from sinks and showers for use in landscaping is now allowed throughout California. The City could provide information about such systems to local residents and businesses, as well as information about capturing rainwater for outdoor irrigation needs during the winter months.

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Overview

This chapter outlines how the City will monitor the progress of the strategies and actions set forth in Chapter 4 to reduce community‐wide GHG emissions. Translating strategies and actions into actual emission reductions will require some municipal code changes, development of programs, City staff time (or interagency regional work‐sharing) for promotion activities, and effective management systems for tracking and monitoring program implementation. Coordination between City departments and collaboration with residents, businesses, regional organizations, and other government agencies will be needed to ensure that programs are well‐managed and cost‐effective. The Climate Action Plan relies on behavioral changes to achieve a significant portion of the GHG reductions accounted for in this plan.. Community involvement is an essential component of the Climate Action Plan implementation process, as many strategies depend on active participation by residents and businesses. The City will be making a concerted effort to develop and strengthen community education and awareness through various promotional programs. These efforts will be monitored for their cost‐ effectiveness in influencing residents, businesses, and visitors to reduce their personal carbon footprints.

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As explained in Chapter 4, the strategies and actions in this Climate Action Plan account for an annual reduction of 11,662 MT CO2e by the year 2020, which is well short of the 55,374 MT CO2e target that is based on the goal of AB 32. The primary barriers to achieving greater GHG reductions in the Delano community are the lack of funding and staff resources that are needed to fully implement the programs outlined in Chapter 4. Even the actions and commitments currently outlined for each strategy will be difficult to meet without additional funding, according to some City departments. There is also limited local support for specific measures that are known to be very effective in reducing GHG emissions at the community level. This was evidenced earlier this year when the City’s Community Development Department, with funding assistance from Southern California Edison (SCE), drafted a Green Building Ordinance and a Point of Sale Retrofit Ordinance for consideration by the City Council. Both ordinances would have significantly reduced community GHG emissions by the year 2020 through decreases in energy and resource consumption by residential and commercial buildings. Ultimately, neither ordinance

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was supported by Council, which cited implementation costs and community concerns about increased government regulation.

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Rejection of such mandatory measures for improving energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions makes it significantly more difficult for the City to reach a target in line with the goals of AB 32. Instead, the City must rely more on voluntary actions by local residents, businesses, and visitors to reduce their carbon footprints, which in general requires incentives or motivating factors to be in place. Community outreach and education can be effective in changing attitudes and breaking down barriers to change. A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences demonstrates how well‐designed outreach and public information campaigns can achieve significant reductions in household GHG emissions.1 The City will be making a concerted effort to develop and strengthen community education and awareness through various promotional programs. These efforts will be monitored for their cost‐effectiveness in influencing residents, businesses, and visitors to reduce their personal carbon footprints.

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This chapter outlines the approach the City will take to seek funding for Climate Action Plan implementation, and it presents an implementation schedule organized into In Progress (current), Near‐ term (2014‐2016) and Long–term (beyond 2017) actions. Actual implementation will depend on a variety of factors, including availability of funding and City staff time, community priorities, regulatory developments, and changing environmental demands.

Current Funding Needs

Robust promotional campaigns like those described above require adequate funding and resources, both of which are currently limited in the City of Delano. With more resources, the City could make greater progress with community education and outreach. Additional funding is also needed to improve public transportation, incentivize and promote renewable energy installations and energy efficiency retrofits, and pay for a variety of planning studies, municipal code changes, and infrastructure improvements that would lead to a reduction in community GHG emissions. For the next seven years, the City will strive to improve progress toward its 2020 target by seeking funding for the following planning studies, infrastructure improvements, municipal code changes, and programs identified in Table 5‐1. The table is organized by program objective, identifying the relevance to the Climate Action Plan and the Delano Health and Sustainability Element. Funding is also needed to monitor program implementation and track progress in reducing GHG reductions, including regular updates to the municipal and community‐wide GHG inventories.

T 1

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Thomas Dietza, Gerald T. Gardnerb, Jonathan Gilliganc, Paul C. Sternd,1, and Michael P. Vandenberghe, Household Actions Can Provide a Behavioral Wedge to Rapidly Reduce US Carbon Emission, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Nov 3, 2009. This study demonstrates that well designed outreach programs could reasonably achieve annual reduction in U.S. household GHG emissions of approximately 20%.

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Table 5-1 Priority Funding Needs Relevance to Climate Action Plan

Relevance to Health and Sustainability Element

Studies, plans and code changes to reduce local vehicle trips and promote infill, mixed use, and transit‐oriented development.

Strategy TL1.2: Carpool and Vanpool Vehicle Parking Strategy TL2.1: Increase Household Density in Downtown Area Strategy TL2.2: Improve Local Jobs‐Housing Balance

Goal 3: Healthy Community Design Goal 4: Balanced Transportation

Infrastructure improvements and street upgrades to improve pedestrian and bike networks and safety

Strategy TL3.1: Improve Bicycle and Pedestrian Infrastructure Strategy TL3.2: Enhance Safe Routes to Schools Program

Goal 3: Healthy Community Design Goal 4: Balanced Transportation

Improve local transit service and connections to regional transit

Strategy TL1.3 Improve Public Transit Access

Goal 4: Balanced Transportation

Promote economic revitalization; support local businesses

TL2.2: Improve Local Jobs‐Housing Balance TL2.3: Support Local Farmer’s Markets

Goal 6: Economic Prosperity

Promote community gardens, farmer’s markets, and local food production

TL2.3: Support Local Farmer’s Markets

Goal 7: Healthy Food Access

Promote and incentivize greening of low‐income housing

Goal 5: Healthy Housing Goal 12: Green Building

Promote and incentivize green building city‐wide

Strategy E.1.6: Promote Commercial and Residential Green Building

Goal 12: Green Building

Promote and incentivize energy efficiency

Strategy E1.2: Nonresidential Energy Use Education Strategy E1.3: Residential Energy Use Education Strategy E1.4: Nonresidential and Residential PACE Energy Efficiency Program

Goal 11: Energy

Promote and incentivize renewable energy

Strategy E2.1: Encourage Nonresidential Renewable Energy Strategy E2.2: Encourage Residential Renewable Energy

Goal 11: Energy

Support the installation of electric vehicle infrastructure

Strategy E3.1: Increase Use of Electric Vehicles

Goal 11: Energy

Promote “cool roofs” and tree planting to minimize urban heat islands

Strategy E1.1: Reduction of the Heat Island Effect

Goal 11: Energy

Expand and improve recycling and organic waste diversion

Strategy SW1.1: Reduce Per Capita Community Waste Tonnage Sent to Landfill

Goal 11: Energy

Promote and incentivize water conservation and greywater systems

Strategy W1.1: Indoor Water Conservation Incentives Strategy W1.2: Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives and Ordinance

Goal 9: Sustainable Natural Environment Goal 11: Energy Goal 12: Green Building

Vulnerability analysis and planning for climate change impacts

Objective Community Needs

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Goal 10: Climate Change Preparedness

Maximizing energy efficiency of existing municipal buildings, street lighting and outdoor lighting

Strategy E1.5: Implement the Municipal Energy Action Plan

Goal 11: Energy

Expand and improve recycling and organic waste diversion

Strategy SW2.1: Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill

Goal 11: Energy

LEED design and certification for municipal facilities

Strategy E1.5: Implement the Municipal Energy Action Plan

Goal 11: Energy Goal 12: Green Building

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Monitoring

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The City will monitor progress implementation and track GHG reductions in several ways. The Community Development Department will present an annual progress report to the City Manager summarizing the implementation status of Climate Action Plan. The report will evaluate the successes and challenges in meeting the City’s GHG reduction goals, provide the implementation of each reduction strategy (e.g., initiated, ongoing, completed), assess the effectiveness of various strategies and programs included in the Plan, and recommend adjustments to programs or tactics as needed. The annual report will also assess whether the City’s actual growth and development is consistent with the forecasts made in this Climate Action Plan. The City will also update the Climate Action Plan, including revisions to the Community and Local Government GHG Inventories, at least every five years. If necessary (e.g., the City annexes new land), the City shall modify the geographic scope of the inventory and emissions targets accordingly.

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Schedule of Implementation

For the most part, the City will be responsible for initiating the actions to reduce emissions, but success for many measures will ultimately depend on public participation. Actions that require active City promotion may require updates to the City website, distribution of physical promotional materials, and other active City outreach activities. The City will develop programs to reach the public, including public forums, workshops, and meetings; these programs will be administered with the intent to foster an open public input and commenting process. Collaboration and coordination with transit agencies [e.g., Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART)] will be essential to improving and increasing transit ridership, and enhancing mobility and transportation efficiency through better planning.

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Further, coordination with outside agencies and private entities is critical for the success of many strategies, including SCE and SCG for energy conservation and renewable energy programs, the local refuse recycling service (Sunset Waste Systems) for waste reduction actions, the local water purveyors for water saving actions, and other local jurisdictions for work‐sharing partnerships designed to take advantage of the common goals across Kern County and the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District. Dependence on outside agency participation is mentioned explicitly in the strategy descriptions included in Chapter 4. The City will explore strategies for collaboration. In Table 5‐2 below, the strategies described in Chapter 4 are categorized by implementation schedule based on current funding and staff resource assumptions: In Progress (current), Near–term (2014‐2016), and Long–term (2017 and beyond).

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Table 5-2 Schedule of Implementation

In Progress

Near‐Term (2014‐2016)

Long‐Term (2017 and beyond)

E.1.1: Reduction of heat island effect

E.1.2: Nonresidential energy use education

E.1.3: Residential energy use education

E.1.4: Nonresidential and Residential PACE EE program

E1.5: Implement the Municipal Energy Action Plan

Energy

E.2.1: Encourage nonresidential renewable installation

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E.1.6: Promote Commercial and Residential Green Building

E.2.2: Encourage residential renewable installation

T.1.1: Encourage Local Commute Trip Reduction through TDM programs

T.1.2: Require Parking Spaces for Carpool and Vanpool Vehicles

E.3.1 : Community electric vehicle (EV) program Transportation and Land Use

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Transportation and Land Use (continued) T.1.3: Improve Access to Public Transit

T.2.1: Increase Household Density in Downtown Area

T.2.2: Improve Jobs‐housing Balance City‐wide by favoring more commercial and industrial development

T.2.3: Support Local Farmer’s Markets

T.3.1: Improve Bicycle and Pedestrian Infrastructure

T.3.2: Enhance Safe Routes to Schools program

SW.1.1: Reduce Per Capita Community Solid Waste Sent to Landfill

SW.2.1: Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill

Solid Waste

Water

W.1.2: Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives and Ordinance

T

W.1.1: Indoor Water Conservation Incentives

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Funding Sources The capacity of the City of Delano to implement the Climate Action Plan is limited by the small number of staff at the City and available funding. In addition to the program implementation costs to the City, there will be costs borne by residents and businesses to comply with its requirements.

D

The GHG reduction strategies in this document were formulated with an understanding that the City has limited staff time and financial resources to implement them. Cost estimates are provided for strategies that have quantified GHG reductions. The City’s costs for implementation include the creation or promotion of voluntary programs, continuing administration of those programs, coordination and outreach with other government agencies and businesses, and—in some cases—exploration or study of potential legislative or regulatory mechanisms not yet codified. Only a few strategies require up‐ front capital expenditures by the City.

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The City will use a combination of City staff time, grant funding, direct spending, and collaboration with other agencies and organizations to achieve Climate Action Plan goals. The following funding sources are available or potentially available to assist with achieving these goals

Staff Resources

City staff time will be required to successfully implement Climate Action Plan measures. Community Development Department staff will implement the majority of the actions outlined in Chapter 4. The Public Works and Engineering Departments will also assist with the implementation of some strategies. Promotional activities are likely to require some City staff time, and will require updating the City website, public outreach campaigns (e.g. workshops), dissemination of promotional materials (e.g. flyers), and other forms of public awareness outreach and education. City staff will also need to lead the effort in revisions to the City’s Zoning Ordinance.

Potential Funding and Partnerships

Federal Safe Routes to Schools

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Federal, state, and regional agencies provide grants and loans, as well as planning assistance, for investments in a variety of climate‐related projects. Grants and loans can provide short‐term funding for program development and program testing, and could help pay for the staff time required to develop programs, and then establish an alternative financial framework for the program’s continued operation after the grant expires.Some of the specific, available funding programs are listed below.

Safe Routes to Schools is an international movement focused on increasing the number of children who walk or bicycle to school by funding projects that remove barriers to doing so. These barriers include a lack of infrastructure, safety, and limited programs that promote walking and bicycling. In California, two separate Safe Routes to School programs are available at both the state and federal level, and both programs fund qualifying infrastructure projects.

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TEA-21

Federal funding through the TEA‐21 (Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) program is administered through the state and regional governments. The City of Delano is located in the jurisdiction of the regional Kern Council of Governments (Kern COG) agency. TEA‐21 funding would be administered through Kern COG. Most of the funding programs are transportation versus recreation oriented, with an emphasis on reducing auto trips and providing an intermodal connection. In most cases, TEA‐21 provides matching grants of 80 to 90 percent. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Community Partnerships

D

Federal funding for local energy efficiency programs is available. Funding for energy efficiency has been provided to the California Department of Community Services and Development, which has dispersed funds locally to the Central Valley Opportunity Center. The Center provides free home weatherization and other energy assistance resources to low‐income and elderly citizens of Kern County. Programs include the Low‐Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) and the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP)2. Energy Efficiency Mortgages

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The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) offers an Energy Efficient Mortgage Loan program that assists current or future homeowners with lowering their utility bills. This would be accomplished by enabling homeowners to incorporate the cost of adding energy‐efficient improvements into their home mortgage. Energy efficient upgrades could be chosen that would allow owners to realize net monthly savings. The goal is to provide owners additional financing for energy efficiency upgrades at a discounted interest rate.

State

California Energy Efficiency Financing

For years, the California Energy Commission (CEC) has provided a loan program that supports local government energy retrofits and some new construction projects. Since 1979, more than $272 million has been allocated to more than 773 recipients, as of March 2012. The program provides low interest loans for feasibility studies and the installation of cost‐effective energy projects in schools, hospitals, and local government facilities. The loans are repaid out of the energy cost savings and the program will finance lighting, motors, drives and pumps, building insulation, heating and air conditioning modifications, street lights and traffic signal efficiency projects, and certain energy generation projects, including renewable energy projects and cogeneration. Loans can cover up to 100% of project costs and there is a maximum loan amount of $3 million.

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Strategic Growth Council

In September 2008, California Senate Bill 732 created the Strategic Growth Council, which is a cabinet level committee whose tasks include coordinating the activities of member state agencies to assist state and local entities in the planning of sustainable communities and meeting AB 32 goals, including coordination of Planning Grants and Urban Greening Grants. The Strategic Growth Council recognizes that local governments are perpetually in need of funding to develop and implement plans that mitigate GHG emissions and prepare communities for the impacts of climate change. The principal goal of the Planning Grants program is to fund the development and implementation of plans that lead to significant

2

CVOC, http://www.cvoc.org/programs.html, web site accessed on May 6. 2013.

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reductions in GHG emissions in a manner consistent with the State Planning Priorities, AB 32, and SB 375. Specifically, the following program objectives of the Planning Grants are synergistic with the City of Delano Climate Action Plan and the Delano Health and Sustainability Element: Promote infill development and invest in existing communities Encourage location‐ and resource‐efficient new development Protect natural resources and agricultural lands Reduce automobile usage and fuel consumption Promote energy efficiency and conservation Promote water conservation Revitalize urban and community centers Improve air and water quality Promote public health Promote equity Increase housing affordability Improve infrastructure systems Strengthen the economy

D

            

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Infrastructure State Revolving Fund

The Infrastructure State Revolving Fund Program provides direct low‐cost loans for local governmental public infrastructure projects, such as environmental mitigation measures, parks, transit, and solid waste collection and disposal. Bicycle Transportation Account

The State Bicycle Transportation Account (BTA) is an annual program providing state funds for city and county projects that improve safety and convenience for bicycle commuters. The emphasis is on projects which benefit bicycling for commuting purposes. Funds are allocated to cities and counties on a matching basis that requires the applicant to furnish a minimum of 10 percent of the total project cost, and no applicant shall receive more than 25 percent of the total amount transferred to the BTA in a single fiscal year.

Regional

Continuing existing partnerships with the neighboring jurisdictions within Kern County, as well as other regional agencies, will help the City in implementing the Climate Action Plan strategies. SJVACPD Incentive Programs

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The City can take advantage of county and region‐wide funding opportunities. The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) provides grant and incentive programs for the replacement of polluting machinery and vehicles within their jurisdiction. Additionally, SJVAPCD offers grant programs for off‐road vehicles (e.g. forklifts, lawn mowers), agricultural pumps, heavy‐duty engines, new alternative vehicles for public institutions, and school buses3. The wider region is also involved in a variety of sustainable economic development strategies. For example, the Federal U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is coordinating with Kern and 17 other California

3

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SJVAPCD, Grant and Incentive Programs. http://www.valleyair.org/grant_programs/grantprograms.htm#On‐ Road Voucher Incentive Program).

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counties to grow biofuels for jet fuel, with funding and financial incentives of $45 million dollars. Programs like these can help the community of Delano achieve more sustainable development and can help the State as a whole reduce greenhouse gas emissions. KernCOG

Kern Council of Governments (KernCOG) is the Congestion Management Agency for Kern County. Federal funding for transportation projects and programs is channeled through Kern COG as the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). An essential function of the MPO is to develop a Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) which is a short‐range (four‐year) program of transportation improvements based on the long‐range transportation plan designed to achieve the area's goals, using spending, regulating, operating, management, and financial tools.

D

Private and Non-Governmental Support

Community‐based non‐profits, local businesses, and utility companies should be considered as resources for direct and indirect support, including funding, for project and program activation and operations.

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Private investors may provide funding to local governments. For example, energy service companies (ESCOs) can finance the up‐front investments in energy efficiency, reimbursed by the local government over a contract period. Private companies may finance solar power installations, and then recoup their investment by selling the resulting power to the building owner.

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Overview

This chapter presents an overview of the impacts Delano is expected to experience due to projected changes in the climate, and what the City can do to begin preparing for them. Despite serious efforts by Delano and the State of California to reduce GHG emissions, changes in our climate cannot be avoided entirely over the long term. Even if GHG emissions were reduced to pre‐industrial levels today, the GHG emissions that have already been added to the atmosphere will continue to warm the planet for centuries. While mitigation is still the most cost‐effective approach to preventing long‐term catastrophic impacts of climate change, adaptation efforts are needed to increase the resilience of communities and natural resources to changes expected over the next few decades.

Expected Local Impacts

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In California, anticipated climate change impacts include sea level rise, increased periods of drought, and more frequent extreme weather events, including heat waves and severe storms. Secondary effects include projected inundation of the shoreline, more frequent and severe flooding, more frequent and severe wildfires on the urban fringe, a less reliable water supply, altered agricultural productivity, increased incidence of disease and mortality (both from effects of heat waves and from changing patterns of disease distribution), and disruption of local ecosystems. The recently published California Adaptation Planning Guide: Understanding Regional Characteristics (July 2012)1 designates climate impact regions based on county boundaries in combination with projected climate impacts, existing environmental setting, socioeconomic factors, and regional designations. The City of Delano and Kern County are located within the Southern Central Valley climate impact region. As discussed in detail in Chapter 3, Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting of this Climate Action Plan, the California Adaptation Planning Guide identifies the following climate change impacts.

1

California Emergency Management Agency and California Natural Resources Agency. California Adaptation Planning Guide, Understanding Regional Characteristics, July 2012.

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Temperature increases. January temperatures are predicted to increase by about 3 to 4 degrees Fahrenheit by the year 2050 and between 7 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit by 2100 within the Southern Central Valley climate impact region. July increases in average temperatures are anticipated to be 5 to 6 degrees Fahrenheit by 2050 and 9 to 11 degrees Fahrenheit by the year 2100. These increases would intensify already high temperatures, especially in the summer months. In addition, areas of urban development contain asphalt roads and concrete roofs that create and retain heat causing an urban heat island effect.

Figure 6‐1 Projected Temperature Increase

SOURCE: California Emergency Management Agency and California Natural Resources Agency. California Adaptation Planning Guide, Understanding Regional Characteristics, July 2012.

Figure 6‐2 Observed and Projected Temperatures

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Reduced precipitation. Annual precipitation in Kern County is predicted to decline by approximately one to two inches by the year 2050 and 3.5 inches by 2100. Reduced precipitation will adversely impact the water supply of the City, region, and State.

Flooding. The eastern part of the Southern Central Valley contains the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, which are projected to experience SOURCE: California Emergency Management Agency and California Natural Resources more precipitation as rain and be subject to rapid Agency. California Adaptation Planning Guide, Understanding Regional Characteristics, snow melt events. Thus, extreme, high flow events July 2012. and flooding could occur in the City of Delano and surrounding communities. The City of Delano Figure 6‐3 should evaluate local floodplains and determine Projected Precipitation Levels areas of the City where a small increase in flood height would inundate a large area.

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6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change

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Reduced agricultural productivity. The agricultural industry is an important component of the local economy, and the Southern Central Valley region is one of the largest agricultural producing areas of the United States. Climate change impacts on water availability and temperature changes will likely affect the health of livestock and productivity of trees and crops. These impacts on agricultural productivity have the potential to alter a community’s economy, including its employment base. The primary agricultural crops in the City of Delano are grapes, almonds, and citrus. Each crop represents different vulnerabilities to climate change impacts. Specifically, nut trees would be affected by a reduction in nighttime cooling, while

SOURCE: California Emergency Management Agency and California Natural Resources Agency. California Adaptation Planning Guide, Understanding Regional Characteristics, July 2012.


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

increased temperatures could alter the timing of grape ripening. Reduced water supply. Snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada flows west into the Kern River, which runs through the region. Snowpack in the eastern elevated regions is projected to decrease by approximately 9 inches, resulting in pack that is less than 4 inches by March 2090. The water supply for the region consists of a combination of groundwater and surface water. Relevant climate change impacts include reduced precipitation and increased temperatures, which affect water supply.

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Wildfires. The north and eastern portions of the Southern Central Valley climate impact region are expected to experience an increase in wildfire risk. A big increase in large fire occurrence is projected for the eastern portion of the region. Once burned, these areas may be prone to landslide or debris flow. However, climate change is not expected to increase wildfire risk in Delano.

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Public health and heat. Extreme heat events can pose a public health risk to Delano residents by increasing the prevalence of mosquito‐borne diseases, worsened air quality, and heat‐related illnesses. The Southern Central Valley climate impact region, which includes the City, will experience three to five additional heat waves per year by 2050 with seven to ten more by the year 2100. A heat wave is defined as five days over 102 to 105 degrees Fahrenheit. Frequent heat waves can have the greatest impact on the elderly and children less than five years of age. Decrease in tourism. Recreation and tourism in the region are also likely to suffer due to lower water levels in waterways and reservoirs and declining snowpack. Employees of these industries may become more economically vulnerable because of unstable working conditions.

Adaptation Planning Approach Effective adaptation planning and management entails dealing with uncertainty. Adaptation is likely to be a long‐term process, including immediate action when necessary and allowing adjustments to changing conditions and new knowledge. Effective public engagement and education is critical, along with an inclusive planning process that ensures the resulting actions are feasible and widely accepted. Adaptation will likely be an ongoing process of planning, prioritization and specific project implementation. It is generally accepted that the next few decades provide a period of opportunity to develop adaptation plans and actions. Five important steps to effective adaptation planning are summarized below: 

Increase Public Awareness; Engage and Educate the Community

T

Local outreach campaigns to build awareness of the dangers of heat exposure and to promote low‐cost and low‐GHG adaptation strategies. It is critical that the public understand the magnitude of the challenge and why action is needed. The planning process should be inclusive of all stakeholders. These efforts should leverage similar efforts undertaken at the regional, state, and federal levels. 

Assess Vulnerability Perform a detailed vulnerability analysis to assess potential climate change impacts to infrastructure and natural systems. Both short‐term and long‐term adaptation strategies should be identified. Level of risk can be categorized in terms of likelihood of damage within the forecasting period and the severity of the damages. Understanding vulnerability to climate

6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

change impacts is critical to developing effective adaptation strategies. The vulnerability assessment can also provide a framework for agency and community education and participation, feed into other planning documents, and identify funding needs. 

Establish Goals, Criteria and Planning Principles Engage with stakeholders to establish planning priorities, decision criteria, and build community support for taking action. Rank physical and natural assets for preservation efforts. Where possible, look for situations where a mitigation action has adaptation co‐benefits (e.g., planting trees to reduce urban heat islands while sequestering carbon and providing habitat). Develop Adaptation Plan

D

Identify specific strategies, develop cost estimates, and prioritize actions to increase local resilience of City infrastructure and critical assets, including natural systems like wetlands and urban forests. Look for synergies between natural processes and engineering solutions. An adaptation plan should include a prioritized list of actions (e.g. projects), with a timeline, capital expenditure plan, and a framework for monitoring and adaptive management. Ongoing Monitoring and Adaptive Management

AF R

Reassess climate change vulnerabilities on a regular basis and modify actions accordingly. This includes monitoring the effectiveness of current policies, strategies and actions, and keeping up with changing science, funding opportunities, and regulatory actions.

Adaptation Planning Strategies In lieu of a detailed vulnerability assessment, the City has identified the following strategies and actions to consider implementing as it begins planning for climate change adaptation. These strategies and actions are consistent with those identified in the California Adaptation Planning Guide: Identifying Adaptation Strategies. While many of the strategies and actions identified in Chapter 4 Reduction Goals and Strategies of this Climate Action Plan help to prevent further climate change, the adaptation strategies below help prepare Delano residents and businesses to deal with future climate change impacts. It should be noted that many GHG reduction measures identified in this document also provides adaptation benefits. For example, water conservation, energy efficiency, and improving the urban forest are all strategies with co‐benefits that will help Delano prepare for climate change impacts.

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T

Temperature Increases Strategy 1:

Prepare for increases in average temperatures.

Co‐benefits:

Lower energy demand and bills, lower operating costs of businesses, improved air quality, a safe and healthy community

Action 1.1:

Continue to plant shade trees in new parking lots and other large, paved areas of the City to reduce heat island effects.

Action 1.2:

Educate the public on the location of the designated “cooling centers.”

Action 1.3:

Educate developers and the public on the use of cool roofs and reflective surfaces to reduce heat island effects.

6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Reduced Precipitation and Water Supply Strategy 2:

Preserve water sources and prepare for variable water supplies.

Co‐benefits:

Conserve water, protect water quality

Action 2.1:

Increase capacity for community water storage.

Action 2.2:

Pursue funding to implement water reclamation and reuse projects.

Action 2.3:

Protect open space areas that are being used for recharging groundwater or have the potential to be used for recharge.

Increased Flooding

D Strategy 3:

Prepare for flooding and severe weather events.

Co‐benefits:

Improve safety of community

Action 3.1:

Integrate local flood management plans with adaptation planning.

Action 3.2:

Regularly review and update the City’s General Plan to include the latest flood information as required by Government Code Section 65302(a).

AF R

Action 3.3:

Develop storage areas for peak flows.

Action 3.4:

Maximize use of bioswales and permeable surfaces in both greenscape and hardscape areas to improve aquifer recharge and mitigate flooding from stormwater.

Reduced Agricultural Productivity and Food Supply Strategy 4:

Continue to promote conservation of local agricultural land.

Co‐benefits:

Support local economy, preservation of natural resources

Action 4.1:

Continue support of farmers markets.

Public Health

Strategy 5: Ensure public health hazards are minimized for all segments of the population. Improve public health, improve quality of life

Action 5.1:

Work with Kern County and other jurisdictions in the county to establish a climate change adaptation and public outreach and education program.

Action 5.2:

Incorporate climate change adaptation into emergency preparedness and response plans such as the update to the City of Delano’s Safety Element of the General Plan and the Kern County Multi‐Hazard Mitigation Plan to address public health impacts.

Action 5.3:

Identify vulnerable communities to various public health concerns associated with climate changes impacts, and ensure that any emergency response or disaster preparedness plans prepared for the City addresses these communities.

Action 5.4:

Continue to work with the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District to improve air quality and minimize negative health effects.

T

Co‐benefits:

6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Action 5.5:

Continue to educate the public of mosquito control to protect the health of Delano residents.

Biodiversity and Habitat Preserve biodiversity and habitats.

Co‐benefits:

Conserve natural resources

Action 6.1:

Identify and protect locations where native species may shift or lose habitat due to climate change impacts.

Action 6.2:

Collaborate with agencies managing public lands such as the Department of Fish and Wildlife to identify, develop, and maintain corridors and linkages between undeveloped lands.

D

Strategy 6:

Infrastructure

Respond to potential impacts on public infrastructure.

Co‐benefits:

Lower energy demand and bill, conserve water, a safe community

Action 7.1:

Consider potential for climate change impacts as part of infrastructure planning and operations.

Action 7.2:

Assess climate change impacts on community infrastructure to determine any threats to public health and safety.

T

AF R

Strategy 7:

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6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change


Appendix A GHG Inventory Methodology



Appendix A GHG Inventory Metholodology

This appendix describes the methodology used to develop the City of Delano Climate Action Plan (CAP) 2005 baseline and 2010 updated inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the greater community and for municipal (i.e., city government) operations. The purpose of the GHG inventories is to identify sources, distribution, and overall magnitude of GHG emissions that occur within the City and/or are caused by the community member activities. The inventories will enable policy makers to implement cost-effective GHG reduction programs pertaining to residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal sectors within the community. These inventories use standards established by the ICLEI U.S. Community Protocol (v1.0)1 and the Local Government Operations Protocol (LGOP) v.1.1.2 ICLEI has worked with the California Air Resource Board (CARB), BAAQMD, and other state and regional agencies to develop standardized methods for inventorying community emissions. ICLEI, along with CARB and the Climate Registry (TCR), has also codeveloped methods for quantifying and reporting GHG emissions from local government sources, which have been incorporated into the LGOP. In keeping with these protocols, ESA’s process for developing a GHG inventory is:

1 2

1.

Set organizational boundaries

2.

Set operational boundaries

3.

Identify sources of emissions

4.

Collect data on emissions for a representative period of time

5.

Calculate GHG emissions from data using robust emissions factors

6.

Create an inventory of CO2e emissions that is complete, transparent, and accurate.

U.S. Community Protocol for Accounting and Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, version 1.0, ICLEI, published October 2012. Available at: http://www.icleiusa.org/tools/ghg-protocol/community-protocol LGOP version 1.1, published May 2010, available at: http://www.theclimateregistry.org/resources/protocols/local-governmentoperations-protocol/

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

A-1


Inventory Boundaries Establishing the boundaries of an emissions analysis is an important first step in the GHG inventory process. A city exerts varying levels of control or influence over the activities occurring within its borders. At the minimum, a community-wide GHG inventory should be defined broadly enough to include those emissions sources and activities that are subject to significant influence by local government actions. These sources and activities also tend to be those most affected by land use decisions, municipal code changes, General Plan policies, and other local government polices and programs, and correspondingly are affected heavily by the CAP’s list of local GHG reduction measures to be implemented. In general, the inventory should encompass sources that are within the purview of the city’s discretionary actions and regulatory authority, including sources of indirect emissions that can be influenced by the city policies or programs, such as water conservation or waste reduction.

Delano’s Organizational Boundary Setting an organizational boundary for a GHG inventory involves identifying the facilities and operations that are to be included. The ICLEI U.S. Community Protocol (2012) defines the organizational boundary as the boundary that determines the operations owned or controlled by the reporting entity, which depends on the consolidation approach taken. The City of Delano’s 2005 and 2010 community-wide inventories encompass the GHG emissions resulting from activities taking place within the City’s geopolitical boundary, where the local Delano government has significant direct or indirect influence. The municipal operations inventories encompass the GHG emissions resulting from actions governed directly by the local government, such as municipal buildings, vehicle fleets, and streetlights.

Delano’s Operational Boundary The operational boundary is the sum of all sources of direct and indirect emissions and associated activities that are included in the organizational boundary. The 2005 and 2010 Delano community-wide inventories include GHG emissions (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the following sectors. Other GHGs (e.g. hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) were not found to be significant contributors of emissions within the City of Delano, and were therefore not included in this inventory.

Community-wide Inventory For community-wide emissions, the ICLEI U.S. Community Protocol breaks down emissions into two categories.

A-2

Sources: Any physical process inside the jurisdictional boundary that releases GHG emissions into the atmosphere (e.g., combustion of gasoline in transportation; combustion of natural gas in electricity generation; methane emissions from a landfill).

Activities: The use of energy, materials, and/or services by members of the community that result in the creation of GHG emissions either directly (e.g., use of household furnaces and vehicles with internal combustion engines) or indirectly (e.g., use of electricity created through combustion of fossil fuels at a power plant, consumption of goods and services whose production, transport and/or disposal resulted in GHG emissions).

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology


The community-wide inventory includes emissions from the following sectors. As shown below, emissions from most sectors derive from multiple sources and activities: •

Building Energy: Direct stationary emissions from combustion of natural gas (source and activity), and indirect emissions from the use of electricity by the community (activity) by residential and commercial/industrial buildings;

Stationary Sources: Emissions generated by the combustion of fossil fuels other than utilityprovided natural gas within the community (source).

On-Road Transportation: Emissions from on-road gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles (source and activity);

Off-Road Transportation: Emissions from off-road lawn and garden equipment, construction equipment, industrial equipment, light commercial equipment, and agricultural equipment (activity);

Solid Waste Generation: Indirect methane (CH4) emissions from the anaerobic decomposition of organic material sent to landfill by the community (source);

Water Conveyance: Emissions generated by electricity used in the transport of water (activity);

Wastewater Treatment: Total Indirect process emissions and fugitive emissions from wastewater treatment processes at the City-operated Wastewater Treatment Plant (activity);

Municipal Operations Inventory For municipal emissions, the LGOP divides the operational boundary into three different scopes, defined as follows: •

Scope 1 emissions are those that come from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting entity. Such sources include stationary emitters like furnaces and boilers, and mobile emitters like vehicles and construction equipment.

Scope 2 emissions are indirect GHG emissions related to the consumption of purchased energy (i.e., electricity) that is produced by third-party entities, such as power utilities.

Scope 3 emissions are other indirect GHG emissions not covered by Scope 2 that are associated with community activities. For a community inventory this generally includes emissions occurring upstream or downstream of a community activity, such as the methane emissions resulting from degradation of the community’s solid waste deposited at a landfill outside of city limits; or the electricity used to pump water to the City from upstream reservoirs. Quantification and reporting of Scope 3 emissions is generally considered optional, but including them in a community-wide inventory is appropriate where there is local control over an activity that has an indirect emissions reduction impact, such as diverting waste from landfills.

The 2005 and 2010 municipal operations inventories include emissions from the following sectors: •

Natural Gas: Direct stationary emissions from natural gas combustion (Scope 1) from building and facilities;

Electricity: Indirect emissions from purchased electricity for buildings, facilities, streetlights, traffic lights, water pumps, and airports operated by the City (Scope 2);

Vehicle Fleet: Direct emissions from fuel combustion in municipal fleet vehicles (Scope 1);

Transit Fleet: Direct emissions from fuel combustion in municipal transit vehicles (Scope 1);

Solid Waste Generation: This sector comprises solid waste sent to landfill from governmentowned and/or operated facilities (Scope 3);

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

A-3


•

Wastewater Treatment: Indirect process emissions and fugitive emissions from wastewater treatment processes (Scope 3) at the City-operated Wastewater Treatment Plant; and

•

Employee Commute: Emissions from the fuel combustion in employee-owned vehicles used by municipal staff travelling to and from work (Scope 3);

Emissions Quantification Methodology 2005 Baseline and 2010 Update ICLEI and the LGOP identify calculation-based methodologies as the most appropriate technique for quantifying GHG emissions, following the basic formula: GHG Emissions = Activity Data x Emissions Factor Activity data are the relevant measurements of energy use or other processes that are associated with the emission of GHGs, such as metered annual energy consumption (kWh of electricity and therms of natural gas). Emission factors are calculated ratios relating GHG emissions to a proxy measure of activity by emissions source. The inventories focus on the three GHGs most relevant and significant to City Government policymaking: CO2, CH4, and N2O. These gases comprise the majority of GHG emissions from the community and city government operations. Most GHG reporting protocols also include methods for estimating three additional GHGs: HFCs, PFCs, and SF6. However, these GHGs, largely represent fugitive emissions that leak from equipment, are generally not included in a community or municipal operations inventories because the data needed to quantify them is typically incomplete or difficult to obtain.

Community-wide Inventory Building Energy Commercial/industrial and Residential energy activity data for 2005 and 2010 consisted of electricity consumption and metered natural gas use. SCE provided community-wide natural gas data, in therms, for both years. Direct emissions from natural gas combustion were calculated using standard emission factors for natural gas published by the LGOP. SCE also provided community-wide electricity consumption in megawatt hours (MWh) for both 2005 and 2010. Indirect emissions from electricity generation were calculated using CO2 emission factors from the Climate Registry. Emission factors for CH4 and N2O were provided by the LGOP3. Stationary Source U.S. ICLEI Community Protocol (2012) methodology was followed for estimating emissions for stationary sources. Residential stationary source (i.e. propane/LPG) fuel consumption was calculated using data from the Federal Energy Information Administration and the U.S. Census Bureau. Commercial and industrial stationary sources were not calculated due to limited data availability.

3

A-4

Year 2007 emission factors were the latest available from both the Climate Registry and the LGOP, and so were used to calculate year 2010 emission.

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology


On-road Transportation As with many cities, vehicle travel in Delano is the City’s largest single source of GHG emissions. Most methods for estimating transportation emissions are based on vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Communitywide VMT estimates are highly dependent on the accounting rules and analytical tools used. For Delano, Fehr & Peers’ provided estimates of VMT for on-road vehicular transportation based on the Kern Council of Governments (KCOG) travel demand model and origin-destination calculation methods4. This model was recently updated as part of the San Joaquin Valley Model Improvement Project (SJV MIP). VMT were provided for 2005 and 2010, and future projections were provided for the years 2020 and 2035. CARB’s On-Road Mobile-Source Emission Factor Model (EMFAC2011) was used to calculate 2005 base year and 2010 CO2 emissions factors. CH4 and N2O emissions were calculated with default vehicle mix values and emission factors from ICLEI’s U.S. Community Protocol. Off-road Transportation To estimate mobile off-road emissions, non-point source off-road emissions were obtained from CARB’s OFFROAD2007 Vehicle Model for all of Kern County. Off-road emissions sources include lawn and garden equipment, construction equipment, industrial equipment, and light commercial equipment. Emissions for construction, industrial, and light commercial equipment were apportioned to Delano based on the City’s population as a percentage of overall County population. Lawn and garden equipment was apportioned based on number of households. Off-road agricultural equipment were apportioned to Delano based on the City’s proportion of agricultural land area5 as a proportion of overall County agricultural land area6. Solid Waste Generation Calrecycle (CRiS) provided community-wide solid waste in annual tons for 2005 and 20107. CH4 emissions from solid waste were calculated using EPA’s LandGEM software8 using the following assumptions: •

100-year timeframe for waste decomposition;

Landfill gas capture rate = 75%;

Oxidation Rate = 10%

LandGEM parameters: Methane generation rate (k) = 0.02 (CAA Arid Area); Potential methane generation capacity (Lo) = 100; NMOC concentration = 4000; Methane content = 50%

Water Conveyance Emissions from water conveyance were calculated using activity data provided by PG&E. City-operated water accounts (for water pumping and other water-related activities) were separated from other City

4

5 6

7 8

Quantifying emissions associated with the use of travel by the community involves estimating emissions associated with the entire length of in boundary and trans boundary trips, and allocating a portion of those emissions to the community for which emissions are being reported. See Appendix B for more information about VMT calculations for Delano. City baseline year agricultural land area data was provided by the City of Delano (via correspondence with Mike McCabe). County baseline year agricultural land area data was provided from the California Farmland Mapping and Monitoring (FMMP) Program, available at: http://www.conservation.ca.gov/dlrp/fmmp/Pages/Index.aspx CRiS: CalRecycle Countywide, Regionwide, and Statewise Jurisdiction Diversion Progress Report EPA’s Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM version 3.02, released May 12, 2005) is available at http://www.epa.gov/lmop/publications-tools/

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

A-5


electricity consumption accounts. The emission factors that were used for the commercial/industrial and residential electricity emissions sectors were also used for this sector’s electricity emissions calculations. Wastewater Treatment Delano owns and operates a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). The City of Delano provided process data9. The California Department of Finance provided the year 2005 population served as a proxy for population served by the WWTP, and the Delano 2010 Urban Water Management Plan provided the 2010 population served by the WWTP. Wastewater emissions were calculated following LGOP methodology, and were based on process data and WWTP service population within Delano City boundaries. GHG emissions from wastewater include stationary CH4 emissions from the incomplete combustion of digester gas and process CH4 emissions from the wastewater treatment lagoons.

Municipal Operations Inventory Electricity SCE provided activity data for electricity that includes electricity used in all buildings and facilities, streetlights, water supply, and airports operated by the City of Delano, for both 2005 and 2010. Indirect emissions from electricity generation were calculated using a LGOP emission factors. Natural Gas Southern California Gas (SCG) provided activity data for natural gas for all buildings and facilities operated by the City of Delano, for both 2005 and 2010. Direct emissions from natural gas combustion were calculated using a LGOP emission factors. City Vehicle Fleet This sector includes emissions from on-road and off-road fuel consumption from fleet vehicles operated by the City of Delano, excluding the City transit fleet. The City provided fuel consumption data for gasoline, diesel, CNG, propane, and mixed (2t oil & unleaded gasoline) for the calendar years 2005 and 2010. Miles per gallon (MPG) factors for gasoline and diesel vehicles were derived from EMFAC 2011 software model runs for Kern County (years 2005 and 2010). Emissions were calculated using CO2, CH4, and N2O emission factors from the LGOP. City Transit Fleet This sector includes emissions from on-road and off-road fuel consumption from mass transit vehicles operated by the City of Delano. The City provided data for this sector, and emissions calculations follow the same process as described above, for the City vehicle fleet sector. Solid Waste Generation The City provided refuse collection data for all municipal buildings, including trash container sizes, volumes, and collection frequencies. Standard solid waste factors were used to convert total trash volumes per building into units of weight.

9

A-6

Correspondance with Juan Cerda, City of Delano Wastewater Division Superintendent, on 2/12/2012.

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology


CH4 emissions from solid waste were calculated using EPA’s LandGEM software using the same software parameters as used for the community solid waste sector inventory. Wastewater Treatment Emissions were quantified as described in the Community Wastewater Treatment sector. However, since the municipal government maintains operational control of the WWTP, total Plant service population figures were used for calculation purposes. Total Plant service population includes persons beyond the City of Delano boundary, who are served by the WWTP. Employee Commute This sector comprises emissions from fuel consumption from City government employee vehicle travel. The City anonymously provided year 2005 and 2010 employee home addresses, commute mode types, and carpool information for a large sample of employees. Google Maps was used to determine average distances travelled per home city starting point, which were then applied to each employee to determine total annual distances travelled per year. An assumption was made that average fuel efficiency of personal vehicles was 22.5 mpg in 2005 and 2010, based on national data.10 Emissions associated with employee commuting were quantified using emission factors contained in EMFAC2011, and tables G.11 and G.12 of the LGOP. Results were prorated based on City full-time employee count for the years 2005 and 2010.

2020 and 2030 Business-as-Usual Projections Table 3 in Chapter 3 shows the growth proxies used project future community-wide emissions (for years 2020 and 2035), under business-as-usual conditions. Table A-1 shows the specific projections data11 used for City-wide population, housing, and employment.

Table A-1: City of Delano Population, Housing, and Employment Projections Data Scenario Year 2005 Year 2010 Year 2020 Year 2035

Households 10,179 10,948 12,486 13,829

Population 35,616 38,306 43,685 48,381

Employment 15,642 16,762 18,893 21,762

Two sectors did not use growth proxies represented in Table A-1: Agricultural Equipment, and On-road Transportation. Emissions from Agricultural Equipment were based on agricultural land area growth as provided by the City12. Future emissions for On-road Transportation were estimated using 2020 and 2030 VMT projections provided by Fehr and Peers, and emission factors from the EMFAC 2011 Model that do not include effects of the state-wide Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) and the Pavley Bill, AB 1493 (which will reduce GHG emissions in automobiles).

10

See Transportation and Energy Data Book, “Quick Facts” page 2: http://cta.ornl.gov/data/download31.shtml Provided by Fehr & Peers in their City of Delano CAP - VMT Inventory Memo (Table 3). Baseline and projected figures are based on the SJV MIP KernCOG Model. 12 Based on correspondance with City of Delano’s Mike McCabe, on 04/10/2013. 11

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

A-7



Appendix B Vehicle Miles of Travel Inventory



MEMORANDUM

Date:

September 25, 2012

To:

Poonam Boparai

From:

Kathrin Tellez and Mackenzie Watten, Fehr & Peers

Subject:

City of Delano CAP – Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) Inventory WC12-2906

Fehr & Peers has prepared this memorandum describing the technical approach and results of a city-wide inventory of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) for the City of Delano Climate Action Plan (CAP) using the Kern Council of Governments (KernCOG) travel demand model. Estimates of VMT were prepared for the 2005 baseline year, the 2010 inventory update year, and the two forecast years of 2020 and 2035.

KERNCOG TRAVEL DEMAND MODEL The Kern Council of Governments (KernCOG) travel demand model was used to develop VMT estimates. The model was recently updated as part of the San Joaquin Valley Model Improvement Project (SJV MIP). The model was validated to 2008 conditions and forecasts 2020 and 2035 conditions. VMT was interpolated between the model scenario years to prepare VMT estimates for 2005 and 2010 conditions. The following presents a summary of the land use information and roadway network assumptions. LAND USE Land use information within the KernCOG model area is provided at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. The TAZs that correspond to existing or planned future City of Delano boundaries were identified through coordination with City of Delano staff. Figure 1 shows the TAZs selected for calculation of VMT. Land use information is provided for a variety of land use types, including single and multi-family homes, and employment uses. Data for the TAZs located in the Delano 100 Pringle Avenue | Suite 600 | Walnut Creek, CA 94596 | (925) 930-7100 | Fax (925) 933-7090 www.fehrandpeers.com


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 2 of 8

TAZs are summarized in Table 1 for 2008, 2020 and 2035 for the various land use categories. For ease of review, the employment categories have been collapsed to industrial, retail, and office categories. In addition, estimates of total population and employment have been provided. For 2008, the data presented represents the land use total, while the 2020 and 2035 data is the increment of growth from 2008.

TABLE 1 CITY OF DELANO SPHERE OF INFLUENCE LAND USE DATA FROM KERNCOG MODEL

Land Use Type

2008

Growth Increment

Single Family Units

8,233

2020 1,376

2035 2,375

Multi-Family Units

2,407

470

814

Industrial Jobs

8,967

1,024

2,395

Retail Jobs

1,675

950

1,346

Office Jobs

5,650

627

1,729

Population

37,230

6,455

11,151

Employment

16,292

2,601

5,470

Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.

Housing land uses are represented by the number of dwelling units and employment uses are represented by the number of jobs. Roadway Network The roadway network improvements that are expected to be in place by 2020 and 2035 were identified through coordination through City of Delano staff and are summarized in Table 2.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 3 of 8

TABLE 2 FUTURE ROADWAY IMPROVEMENTS

Roadway th

City

20 Avenue

Delano

Woollomes Avenue

Delano

Casey Avenue

Delano

County Line Road

Delano

Melcher Road

Delano

Stradley Avenue

Delano

th

11 Avenue

Delano

High Street

Delano

Randolph Street

Delano

Proposed Improvement Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Stradley Avenue and Browning Road Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Stradley Avenue and Lexington Street Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Casey Avenue and Stradley Avenue Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between county line and south of SR-155 Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between County Line Road and Pond Road Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Stradley Avenue and Lexington Street Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between SR 155 and Woollomes Avenue

Year Built

1

2020 2020 2030 2030 2030 2030 2030 2030

Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between County Line Road and SR 155; Extend 4 lanes between SR

2030

155 and Woollomes Avenue Browning Road

Delano

Pond Road

Delano

Cecil Avenue

Delano

Bowman Road

Delano

Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between County Line Road and Pond Road Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Stradley Avenue and Browning Road Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Melcher Avenue and Stradley Avenue Create new 4 lane roadway between County Line Road and Pond Road

2030 2030 2035 2035

1 – Improvements with construction year before and including 2020 will be included in 2020 and 2035 scenarios; improvements with construction year before and including 2035 will be included in 2035 scenario Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.

ANALYSIS PARAMETERS The following presents the analysis parameters, including methods to calculate the VMT generated by land uses in Delano for the base and forecast years.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 4 of 8

VEHICLE MILES OF TRAVEL CALCULATIONS The VMT inventory for Delano captures vehicle trips generated by land uses within City; however, some trips may have an origin or destination outside of the City limits. Per the recommended calculation methods, VMT for Delano was calculated from the combination of the following trips: 1.

All City-City (City-City) trips: All trips starting and ending in Delano.

2.

One-half of County-City (CC-City) trips: One-half of trips with an origin in unincorporated Kern County, or other incorporated jurisdiction within the county, and a destination in Delano.

3.

One-half of City-County (City-CC) trips: One-half of trips with an origin in Delano and a destination in unincorporated Kern County or other incorporated jurisdiction.

4.

One-half of City-External (City-EC) trips: One-half of the trips with an origin in Delano and a destination outside the County.

5.

One-half of External-City (EC-City) trips: One-half of the trips with an origin outside the County and a destination in Delano.

Trips without an origin or destination in Delano are not be accounted for as the City has no control over the amount of through traffic on regional roadways such as SR 99. Forecast Years The KernCOG travel demand model was validated to 2008 conditions and is able to forecast 2020 and 2035 conditions. While the SJV MIP KernCOG model originally included a 2005 scenario, KernCOG staff have yet to thoroughly check the 2005 assumptions. Backcasts of 2005 conditions were calculated based on negative extrapolation of growth between 2008 and 2020. Results for the 2010 scenario was interpolated from the difference between the 2008 and 2020 scenarios.

ANALYSIS RESULTS The results of the VMT estimates using the KernCOG travel demand model for the City of Delano are presented below.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 5 of 8

Vehicle Miles of Travel The 2005, 2010, 2020, and 2035 daily VMT for the City of Delano are presented in Table 3. This table includes normalization of VMT by households and by capita. Table 4 shows the VMT 1

estimates by 5-mph speed bin for each scenario year.

TABLE 3 CITY OF DELANO DAILY VMT CALCULATIONS

Scenario

3

Households

Population

Employment

Daily VMT

1

10,179

35,616

15,642

753,506

74.03

14.70

1

10,948

38,306

16,726

816,294

74.56

14.83

2

12,486

43,685

18,893

947,901

75.92

15.15

2

13,829

48,381

21,762

1,050,711

75.98

14.98

Year 2005 Year 2010 Year 2020 Year 2035

VMT / HH

VMT per Capita (Pop + Emp)

Note:

1.

Household, population, employment, and VMT based on growth rates based on 2008 and 2020 scenario years applied to 2008 data.

2.

Household, population, employment and VMT based on model land uses; VMT based on model.

3.

Annualized VMT is typically 354 times the daily VMT to account for less vehicle miles of travel on weekends, holidays and summer periods.

Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.

The results show that VMT is expected to increase between scenario years but that VMT per capita decrease between 2020 and 2035 due to the projection of employment opportunities increasing in Delano at a higher rate than residential uses, providing more opportunities for residents of Delano to work in Delano.

1

Regional travel demand models are validated for a large number of transportation metrics (including

average travel time and total regional VMT) but may not represent all localized peak hour congestion or slower traffic on local roadways due to limitations in local land use and roadway network detail.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 6 of 8

TABLE 4 CITY OF DELANO DAILY VEHICLE MILES OF TRAVEL (VMT) DISTRIBUTION BY SPEED BIN Vehicle Miles of Travel Estimates (Daily) 2005

2010

2020

2035

Speed Bin (miles per hour)

VMT

Distribution (%)

VMT

Distribution (%)

VMT

Distribution (%)

VMT

Distribution (%)

0.0 - 7.50

40

0.0%

62

0.0%

197

0.0%

11,896

1.1%

7.51 - 12.50

201

0.0%

176

0.0%

185

0.0%

2,054

0.2%

12.51 - 17.50

420

0.1%

480

0.1%

991

0.1%

3,168

0.3%

17.51 - 22.50

433

0.1%

483

0.1%

892

0.1%

1,350

0.1%

22.51 - 27.50

1,461

0.2%

1,694

0.2%

2,251

0.2%

4,554

0.4%

27.51 - 32.50

69,035

9.2%

73,787

9.0%

83,292

8.8%

97,526

9.3%

32.51 - 37.50

45,282

6.0%

49,910

6.1%

59,258

6.3%

70,343

6.7%

37.51 - 42.50

32,623

4.3%

36,406

4.5%

44,115

4.7%

49,918

4.8%

42.51 - 47.50

27,821

3.7%

32,721

4.0%

42,926

4.5%

45,424

4.3%

47.51 - 52.50

178,534

23.7%

200,689

24.6%

245,973

25.9%

311,280

29.6%

52.51 - 57.50

4,873

0.6%

6,698

0.8%

10,827

1.1%

13,955

1.3%

57.51 - 62.50

4,991

0.7%

10,925

1.3%

24,895

2.6%

114,818

10.9%

62.51 - 67.50

383,310

50.9%

397,530

48.7%

426,862

45.0%

321,705

30.6%

67.51 - 72.50

4,482

0.6%

4,734

0.6%

5,238

0.6%

2,722

0.3%

Total

753,506

100%

816,294

100%

947,901

100%

1,050,711

100%

Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 7 of 8

Vehicle Trips and Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose In addition to the total VMT generated, Table 5 presents the number of vehicle trips with at least one trip end in Delano and miles of travel by trip purpose for the CAP scenario years. The following trip purposes were quantified by the KernCOG model: •

Home-based work trips

Home-based non-work trips

Non-home based trips

CAP strategies would apply differently to each trip type and could affect the ability of CAP strategies to be effective in reducing VMT. These values are provided to assist the Project team in developing CAP strategies that would be the most effective in reducing VMT.

TABLE 5 CITY OF DELANO TRIP PURPOSE CALCULATIONS Home-Based Work

Home-Based Non-Work

Non-Home Based

Total

1

19,883

35,544

17,904

73,331

1

23,751

38,974

19,895

82,620

2

31,487

45,833

23,878

101,198

2

42,407

50,959

28,338

121,704

1

309,856

354,565

89,085

753,506

1

365,387

351,692

99,215

816,294

2

471,990

356,354

119,557

947,901

2

675,807

294,276

80,628

1,050,711

Scenario Trips Year 2005 Year 2010 Year 2020 Year 2035

Contribution to VMT Year 2005 Year 2010 Year 2020 Year 2035

3

Note:

1.

Trips and VMT based on growth rates based on 2008 and 2020 scenario years applied to 2008 data.

2.

Trips and VMT based on model land uses; VMT based on model.

3.

Note that this number is calculated using the VMT calculation rules listed above

Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 8 of 8

Review of the VMT by trip purpose by year shows that home-based non-work and non-home based VMT decreases between years 2020 and 2035. This is due to the increase in employment in Delano that decreases the need for residents to travel further to meet their non-work and nonhome based needs. This completes our VMT inventory for the City of Delano CAP. If you have any questions, please call Kathrin or Mackenzie. Attachments: Figure 1A, 1B, 1C – Map of City of Delano TAZs used in VMT Calculations


1507

1509

FREMO

1552 1504

1515

1534

1524

1517

1535

1523

1518

1537

1543

1525

2439

1544

SCHUSTER

1546

GARZOLI

1547

2165

1549

1529

POND

1564

BOWMAN

1550

LE

BOWMAN

1542

RT ER VIL

SR43

1551

1541

FA MO

MAST AVE

1505 1539

1536

CECIL AV

SR155

BOWMAN

MELCHER

NT

SR 155

1533

-PO

1553

1508

1563

NT

1555

1510

FREMO

1554

1522 BASSETT

1556

1558

CECIL AV

1532

COUNTY LINE

SO

1557

FAM /PO RTE R

COUNTY LINE RD

SR99

CASEY

1559

DRIVER

1560

SR 99

MELCHER

COUNTY LINE

POND

SR99

1548 1562 1561 2247

1624

LEGEND

1622

Delano City Boundary County Line

2248

Delano SOI TAZs Traffic Analysis Zone

1625

SHERWOOD

1627 Not to Scale

1621

1626

2091

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ZONES DELANO Delano Climate Action Plan

FIGURE 1A


DRIVER

COUNTY LINE

COUNTY LINE RD

SR99

COUNTY LINE RD

1531

1557

1506

1527

1507

1532

1522

BASSETT

BASSETT

BROWNING

1556

1502

CECIL AV

1510

1508

CECIL AV

CECI:L AV

CECIL AV

1521

CECIL AV

CECIL AV

CECIL AV

HIG H

NT FREMO

1511 1512

1503 1514

1515

1534

1524

1535

1523

RANDOLPH

1513 VE 11TH_A

1553

1552

ELLIN

11TH

AVE

SR99

GTON

LEGEND

1516 1520

Delano SOI TAZs

1517

NT

TON ELLING

County Line

FREMO

1504

Delano City Boundary

Traffic Analysis Zone

1533

RANDOLPH

SR 99

STRADLEY

1509

Not to Scale

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ZONES DELANO - NORTH DETAIL Delano Climate Action Plan

FIGURE 1B


1518

1537

1538

1505

1520

1539

1541

1542

1540

BOWMAN

MAST AVE

1501

WOOLLOMES

1543

1525

1551

1564

1550 SR99

TON ING LEX

1526 1544

SCHUSTER

1547

SR99

Delano City Boundary

SCHUSTER

GARZOLI

LEGEND

BOWMAN

1519

1545

1546

1549

County Line Delano SOI TAZs Traffic Analysis Zone

Not to Scale

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ZONES DELANO - SOUTH DETAIL Delano Climate Action Plan

FIGURE 1C



Appendix C Fehr & Peers Traffic and Land Use Reduction Strategies Memo



MEMORANDUM

Date:

October 28, 2013

To:

Harriet Ross

From:

Kathrin Tellez and Mackenzie Watten, Fehr & Peers

Subject:

City of Delano CAP – Reduction Strategy Quantification WC12-2906

This memorandum documents the potential reduction in VMT that are expected to occur with implementation of the City of Delano Climate Action Plan (CAP) by 2020 and 2035. Existing and projected future conditions under the future Business as Usual (BAU) scenarios were documented in a memorandum dated September 25, 2012. Fehr & Peers prepared a technical memorandum, dated January 18, 2013, describing potential strategies to reduce vehicle miles of travel (VMT) (and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions) by 2020 and 2035.

City of Delano staff prepared a

memorandum, dated May 14, 2013, that reviewed the potential strategies and identified those which would be feasible to implement and thus should be evaluated in the CAP analysis. The CAP team also coordinated with the Delano Health and Sustainability Elements project to ensure that the proposed CAP measures were consistent with the goals of that effort. CONCLUSIONS The CAP transportation measures would reduce overall daily VMT in 2020 by 15,740 VMT per day (a 1.7% reduction), and in 2035 by 24,960 VMT per day (a 2.4% reduction) as compared to the BAU scenarios. VMT per capita, considering both residential and employment population, would be reduced from 15.15 to 14.90 in 2020 and from 14.98 to 14.62 in 2035. REDUCTION CALCULATION METHODOLOGY Some of the measures identified for evaluation were quantified using the KernCOG model, while others were quantified using off-model tools and factors. For many of the strategies that are not quantifiable in the regional model, we used the Quantifying Greenhouse Mitigation Measures report authored by the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA), ENVIRON,

100 Pringle Avenue | Suite 600 | Walnut Creek, CA 94596 | (925) 930-7100 | Fax (925) 933-7090 www.fehrandpeers.com


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 2 of 8 and Fehr & Peers.

This report serves as a statewide benchmark on the quantification of

reductions to VMT and GHG from mitigation measures such as the ones evaluated for this CAP. Certain measures were grouped into more general categories that are both quantifiable and mutually dependent.

This grouping was also done since several of the measures would be

implemented through policies or other city actions in concert with one another, and can be mutually dependent. For example, bicycle parking enhancements would be most effective when coupled with other transportation demand management (TDM) strategies, such as showers at work locations. Many of the measures required additional assumptions to allow for meaningful quantification. Discussions with City staff and the project team led to the assumptions used in the following analysis. All of the assumptions used are presented below. CLIMATE ACTION PLAN VMT CALCULATIONS Table 1 presents the daily VMT and normalized of VMT by households and per capita for the City of Delano for the analysis scenarios. The results shows that VMT is expected to increase between scenario years but that VMT per capita is expected to decrease between 2020 and 2035. The CAP measures reduce VMT by 1.7 percent and 2.4 percent in 2020 and 2035 respectively. REDUCTIONS SUMMARY The final strategies and their expected VMT reductions are summarized in Table 2. Separate calculations are provided for the 2020 and 2035 conditions. Attachment 1 contains a matrix of grouped measures in each category, the portion of the city affected by the measure, assumptions and data sources for the reductions, and their associated VMT reductions. Where appropriate the responsible implementing party and performance indicators were identified. This completes our assessment of the VMT reductions that are likely to occur with implementation of the City of Delano CAP.


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 3 of 8

TABLE 1 CITY OF DELANO DAILY VMT CALCULATIONS

Scenario

3

Households

Population

Employment

Daily VMT

1

10,179

35,616

15,642

753,506

74.03

14.70

1

10,948

38,306

16,726

816,294

74.56

14.83

12,486

43,685

18,893

947,901

75.92

15.15

12,486

43,685

18,893

932,161

74.66

14.90

13,829

48,381

21,762

1,050,711

75.98

14.98

13,829

48,381

21,762

1,025,751

74.17

14.62

Year 2005 Year 2010

Year 2020 BAU

2

Year 2020 CAP Year 2035 BAU Year 2035 CAP

2

VMT / HH

VMT per Capita (Pop + Emp)

Note: 1.

Household, population, employment, and VMT based on growth rates based on 2008 and 2020 scenario years applied to 2008 data.

2.

Household, population, employment and VMT based on model land uses; VMT based on model.

3.

Annualized VMT is typically 354 times the daily VMT to account for less vehicle miles of travel on weekends, holidays and summer periods.

Source: Fehr & Peers, 2013.

TABLE 2 TRANSPORTATION RELATED POTENTIAL GHG REDUCTION STRATEGIES

Strategy

VMT reduction per day 2020

2035

3,500

4,200

--

--

500

1,200

Density Increase household density in downtown area Diversity Consider modifying the City’s Zoning Ordinance and rezone outlying residential lands for commercial and/or industrial uses. Design Require new residential developments to enhance pedestrian connections including ped / bike through connection in any cul-


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 4 of 8

TABLE 2 TRANSPORTATION RELATED POTENTIAL GHG REDUCTION STRATEGIES VMT reduction per day

Strategy

2020

2035

1,600

1,600

Recommend new large non-residential developments to implement a TDM program that reduces weekday peak period vehicle trips

3,500

9,700

Consider providing incentives for non-single-auto commute modes (e.g. carpool programs, transit vouchers) through City employee programs, public outreach

1,200

1,300

Require bike parking for new large non-residential and multifamily uses, showers for new large non-residential developments

400

1,400

Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicles

1,500

1,600

Safe Routes to Schools program including enhanced pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, reduction of speeds in school zones, and education of pedestrian and bicycle safety for all schools city-wide

1,300

1,400

2,240

2,560

15,740

24,960

de-sacs, closure of gaps in the sidewalk system, and provision of additional non-motorized connections Continue to implement and update the Delano Bicycle Master Plan Demand Management

Distance to Transit Explore opportunities to provide bus shelters with a bench at major transit hubs Explore opportunities to provide transit service within ½ mile of all residents in the city Explore opportunities to provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs Continue to require new development to include bus and bicycle facilities. Total Source: Fehr & Peers, 2013.


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 5 of 8

ATTACHMENT 1 ASSUMPTIONS BY MEASURE

Description

Areas Affected

Responsible Performance Implementing Indicators Party

Trip Reduction Method/ Assumptions/Source

2020 VMT Reduction

2035 VMT Reduction

3,500

4,200

--

--

Density Increase household density in downtown area by rezoning non-residential lands in the Downtown Core and surrounding areas to permit higher density residential and mixed use; encourage smart growth development by considering elimination or reduction of minimum parking requirements; create maximum parking requirements for residential developments, and allow for shared parking; adopt the Delano Block H Master Plan; and improve the consistency of the City’s General Plan and Zoning Map.

Downtown

City (to adjust zoning code)/ Developers

-

Assumes 20% increase in density in downtown area. Source: KernCOG Model/Post 1 Processing with CAPCOA

Diversity

Improve jobs-housing balance city-wide through provision of office or industrial job opportunities instead of residential land uses

City-wide

City (to adjust zoning code)/ Developers

Assumes City-wide diversity shift from 63% residential/37% nonresidential to 55% residential/45% non-residential. -

Source: KernCOG Model/Post 1 Processing with CAPCOA Implementation of the measure would potentially reduce VMT by 6,400 by 2020 and 7,100 by 2035;


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 6 of 8

ATTACHMENT 1 ASSUMPTIONS BY MEASURE

Description

Areas Affected

Responsible Performance Implementing Indicators Party

Trip Reduction Method/ Assumptions/Source

2020 VMT Reduction

2035 VMT Reduction

500

1,200

however, it is uncertain if the City could rezone residentially zoned parcels and attract employment uses to locate in Delano. Therefore, the reduction was reduced to zero. Design Require new developments to enhance pedestrian connections including ped / bike through connection in any cul-de-sacs, closure of gaps in the sidewalk system, and provision of additional non-motorized connections

Update and implement the Delano Bicycle Master Plan

New residential developments

City-wide

Developers

-

Assumes pedestrian network enhancements within projects with more than 50 new units or 100 employees. 1 Source: CAPCOA

City

Number of new miles of bike lanes installed (out of 10 identified in plan)

VMT reductions based on estimated increases in bicycle trips and average Delano trip length. Source: Delano Bicycle 2 Master Plan

1,600

1,600

Developers

Monitor TDM program effectiveness

Initial measure did not identify reduction and effectiveness is unknown. Assumes 5% reduction

3,500

9,700

Demand Management Recommend new large non-residential developments implement a TDM program that reduces weekday peak period vehicle

New large nonresidential developments


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 7 of 8

ATTACHMENT 1 ASSUMPTIONS BY MEASURE

Description

Areas Affected

Responsible Performance Implementing Indicators Party

Trip Reduction Method/ Assumptions/Source

trips

is achieved for new workplaces with over 100 employees.

Provide incentives for non-single-auto commute modes (e.g. carpool programs, transit vouchers) through City employee programs, public outreach

Applied to work VMT only. Assumes 5-10% of City participate.

Require bike parking for new large nonresidential and multi-family uses, showers for new large non-residential developments

City-wide

City, Employers

-

Continue to support Safe Routes to Schools program including enhanced pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, reduction of speeds in school zones, and education of pedestrian and bicycle safety for all schools city-wide

2035 VMT Reduction

1,200

1,300

400

1,400

1,500

1,600

1,300

1,400

1

Source: CAPCOA

New large developments

Developers

-

New developments defined as 50 or more dwelling units or 100 employees. Assumes 0.5% reduction in VMT due to mode shift. Source: TDM Encylopedia

Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicles

2020 VMT Reduction

3

City-wide

Developers

Parking occupancy of Applies to work VMT only. Assumes 50% of city participates. carpool and 1 vanpool Source: CAPCOA parking spaces

City-wide schools

City, School District

Survey school mode share before/after

Assumes 2.5% reduction in school related VMT due to mode shift. Source: WSDOT


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 8 of 8

ATTACHMENT 1 ASSUMPTIONS BY MEASURE

Description

Areas Affected

Responsible Performance Implementing Indicators Party

Trip Reduction Method/ Assumptions/Source

2020 VMT Reduction

2035 VMT Reduction

2,240

2,560

Distance to Transit With Delano Area Rapid Transit and Kern Regional Transit, explore opportunities to provide bus shelters at major transit hubs With Delano Area Rapid Transit and Kern Regional Transit, explore opportunities to provide transit services within ½ mile of all residents in the city With Delano Area Rapid Transit and Kern Regional Transit, explore opportunities to provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs

City-wide

City (to adjust Transit zoning code) ridership and Delano Area before/after Rapid Transit

Assumes 40% increase in Citywide network coverage with 1% existing mode share. 1

Source: CAPCOA

Continue to require new development to include bus and bicycle facilities Sources: 1.

California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA), Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measures: A Resource for Local Government to Assess Emission Reductions from Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measures, August 2010.

2.

City of Delano Bicycle Master Plan, 2008.

3.

Victoria Transport Policy Institute, TDM Encyclopedia; http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm34.htm

Fehr & Peers, 2013.


Appendix D Transportation and Land Use Strategies



Transportation and Land Use Summary Table ID

Strategy Name

GHG Reduction in 2020

GHG Reduction in 2035

Estimated Cost to the City

Implementation Priority

Goal TL1: Reduce Single Occupancy Vehicle Travel

TL1.1a

Local Commute Trip Reduction: Promote TDM programs for new large nonresidential developmentsthat reduce weekday peak period vehicle trips

735

2,009

Low

1

TL1.1b

Provide incentives for non-single-auto commute modes (e.g. carpool programs, transit vouchers, alternative work week plans, telecommuting) through City employee programs, public outreach

504

539

Low

1

TL1.2

Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicles

371

390

Low

2

TL1.3

Improve Access to Public Transit: Require bus shelters with a bench at major transit hubs; Provide transit service within ½ mile of all residents in the city; Provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs

554

624

Medium

2

1,024

Low

1

Medium

1

Goal TL2: Sustainable Growth Patterns

TL2.1

Increase Household Density in Downtown Area

865

TL2.2

Improve Jobs-housing Balance City-wide Through Provision of Commercial or Industrial Job Opportunities Instead of Residential Land Uses

-

-

Goal TL3: Increase Non-Motorized Travel

TL3.1a

Update and implement the Delano Bicycle Master Plan

395

390

High

3

TL3.1b

Require New Residential developments to enhance pedestrian connections including ped / bike through connection in any culdesacs, closure of gaps in the sidewalk system, and provision of additional non-motorized connections

124

292

High

3

TL3.1c

Require bike parking for new large non-residential and multifamily uses, showers for new large non-residential developments

99

341

High

3

TL3.2

Safe Routes to Schools program including enhanced pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, reduction of speeds in school zones, and education of pedestrian and bicycle safety for all schools city-wide

321

341

High

3

3,967

5,950

Total:


Common Factors Note: Pale Yellow fields denote common factors that are not subject to being tweaked by the City. Green fields denote factors that can be modified based on the City's commitment to an action or set of actions.

Basic Unit Factors Hours in a year Kern County Annual Tons CO2/day (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Kern County Annual VMT/day (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Kern County Annual Tons CO2/day (EMFAC 2011) for 2035 Kern County Annual VMT/day (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2035 Metric Tons per Short Ton

#

Unit

8,760 23,251 29,628,908 31,391 40,547,891 0.0007119 0.0007023 0.91

hrs/yr Tons CO2/day VMT/day Tons CO2/day VMT/day MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT MT/Ton

Direct Data Source

EMFAC 2011 EMFAC 2011 EMFAC 2011 EMFAC 2011 Derived from Annual VMT/day and Annual Tons/day (from EMFAC); multipled by MT/short ton.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.1.1 - Part a Strategy Name

Local Commute Trip Reduction: Promote TDM programs for new large non-residential developmentsthat reduce weekday peak period vehicle trips

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

2,975 8,245 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

1,032,325

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

2,861,015

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

735

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

2009

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.1.1 Part b Strategy Name Emissions Category

Provide incentives for alternative commute modes (e.g. carpool programs, transit vouchers, alternative work week plans, telecommuting) through City employee programs, public outreach Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

2,040 2,210 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

707,880

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

766,870

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

504

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

539

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.1.2 Strategy Name

Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicles

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

1,500 1,600 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

520,500

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

555,200

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

371

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

390

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.1.3 Strategy Name

Improve Access to Public Transit

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

2,240 2,560 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

777,280

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

888,320

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

553

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

624

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.2.1 Strategy Name Emissions Category

Increase Household Density in Downtown Area Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

3,500 4,200 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

1,214,500

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

1,457,400

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

865

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

1024

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.2.2 Improve Jobs-housing Balance City-wide Through Provision of Commercial or Industrial Job Opportunities Instead of Residential Land Uses Transportation and Land Use

Strategy Name Emissions Category

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

#

Unit

Equation Variable

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day

0

Y

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification

Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day

0

Y

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification

347

D

Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.

152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

0

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

0

VMT

Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

0

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

0

metric tons CO2


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.3.1a Strategy Name

Update and implement the Delano Bicycle Master Plan.

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

1,600 1,600 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

555,200

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

555,200

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

395

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

390

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.3.1b Strategy Name Emissions Category

Require New Residential developments to enhance pedestrian connections including ped / bike through connection in any culde-sacs, closure of gaps in the sidewalk system, and provision of additional non-motorized connections. Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

500 1,200 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

173,500

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

416,400

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

124

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

292

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.3.1c Strategy Name

Require bike parking for new large non-residential and multifamily uses, showers for new large non-residential developments

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

400 1,400 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

138,800

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

485,800

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

99

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

341

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.3.2 Strategy Name Emissions Category

Safe Routes to Schools program including enhanced pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, reduction of speeds in school zones, and education of pedestrian and bicycle safety for all schools city-wide Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

1,300 1,400 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

451,100

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

485,800

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

321

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

341

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


Appendix E Solid Waste Strategies



Solid Waste Summary Table CO2 (MT) Code

Strategy Name

GHG Reduction by 2020

Relative Cost

GHG Reduction by 2030

Implementation Priority

Goal SW.1: Reduce Community Solid Waste Sent to Landfill Strategy SW.1.1

Reduce Per Capita Community Waste Tonnage Sent to Landfill

1,175

1,779

1

Medium

32

51

2

Low

1,207

1,830

Goal SW.2: Reduce Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill Strategy SW.2.1

Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Waste Tonnage Sent to Landfill

Totals:


Strategy GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: SW.1.1 Strategy Name Emissions Category

Reduce Per Capita Community Waste Tonnage Sent to Landfill Solid Waste

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description Total GHG Emissions (MT CO2e) of Community Waste Generation in 2020 Delano Population in 2020 MT CO2e Generated per Citizen (from Community Waste) in 2020 Total GHG Emissions (MT CO2e) of Community Waste Generation in 2035 City Population in 2030 City Population in 2035 MT CO2e Generated per Person (from Community Waste) in 2035 Percent Reduction in Per Capita Community Waste Sent to Landfill in 2020

# 4,701.0 43,685 0.108 4,447.4 46,796 48,351 0.092 25%

Unit MT CO2e Population MT CO2e MT CO2e Population Population MT CO2e %

Equation Variable T2020 P2020 M2020 T2030 P2030 P2030 M2030

Percent Reduction in Per Capita Community Waste Sent to Landfill in 2035

40%

%

Z2030

Reduce Per Capita Community Waste Sent to Landfill: Total Solid Waste Savings (tons) = M x P x Z 2. GHG Savings: Total Solid Waste Savings by 2020 =

1,175

metric tons CO2e

Total Solid Waste Savings by 2035 =

1,779

metric tons CO2e

Z2020

Source: Delano Community GHG Inventory Source: Fehr & Peers GHG Inventory Memo Source: Delano Community GHG Inventory Linear interpolation between of 2020 and 2035 population figures. Source: Fehr & Peers GHG Inventory Memo (note: year 2035 figure)


Strategy GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: SW.1.2 Strategy Name Emissions Category

Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill Solid Waste

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description Total GHG Emissions (MT CO2e) of Municipal Operations Waste Generation in 2020 Delano Population in 2020 MT CO2e Generated per Citizen (from Municipal Operations Waste) in 2020 Total GHG Emissions (MT CO2e) of Municipal Operations Waste Generation in 2035 City Population in 2030 City Population in 2035 MT CO2e Generated per Person (from Municipal Operations Waste) in 2035 Percent Reduction in Per Capita Municipal Operations Waste Sent to Landfill in 2020

# 128.4 43,685 0.003 128.4 46,796 48,351 0.003 25%

Unit MT CO2e Population MT CO2e MT CO2e Population Population MT CO2e %

Equation Variable T2020 P2020 M2020 T2030 P2030 P2030 M2030

Percent Reduction in Per Capita Municipal Operations Waste Sent to Landfill in 2035

40%

%

Z2030

Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Waste Sent to Landfill: Total Solid Waste Savings (tons) = M x P x Z 2. GHG Savings: Total Solid Waste Savings by 2020 = Total Solid Waste Savings by 2035 =

32 51

metric tons CO2e metric tons CO2e

Z2020

Source: Delano Community GHG Inventory Source: Fehr & Peers GHG Inventory Memo Assume same as 2020 (no 2035 estimation was made otherwise) Linear interpolation between of 2020 and 2035 population figures. Source: Fehr & Peers GHG Inventory Memo (note: year 2035 figure)



Appendix F Energy and Water Strategies



Energy Strategies Summary Table ID

Strategy Name

GHG Reduction in 2020

Implementation Priority

Goal E1 Increase Energy Efficiency Community-Wide E1.1

Reduction of heat island effect

299

2

E1.2

Nonresidential energy use education

482

1

E1.3

Residential energy use education

810

1

E1.4

Nonresidential and Residential PACE EE program

1570

1

E1.5

Implement the Municipal Energy Action Plan

396

1

E1.6

Promote Commercial and Residential Green Building

NA

2

Goal E2 Increase Renewable Energy Generation and Use Community-Wide E2.1

Encourage nonresidential renewable energy

909

1

E2.2

Encourage residential renewable energy

568

1

53

3

Goal E3 Increase use of electric vehicles E3.1

Community electric vehicle (EV) program

Total:

5,087


E.1.1: Reduction of Heat Island Effect. Implement strategies to reduce the heat island effect, such as using light-colored paving materials, cool roofs, and planting shade trees to reduce the energy demand of buildings.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis

$

355,642 102 1,045,383 299 196,143

3 NA NA 3 NA NA NA

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Category Scores 3 3 2 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Annual 2010 residential electricity consumption

Source 69,789,885 kWh/year. Based on data provided by SCE

Criteria

Annual 2010 nonresidential electricity consumption Annual residential load

Residential load factor Annual nonresidential load Nonresidential load factor

Rank 3 1 2 4

Low No 3 High No Many Many Yes

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 7 3 28

112,828,336 kWh/year. Based on data provided by SCE kW. Calculated (total residential energy use) / (8760 hours per 7,966.88 year) Ratio of average annual load to peak load: 50% http://enduse.lbl.gov/info/LBNL-47992.pdf Calculated (total nonresidential energy use) / (8760 hours per 12,879.95 year) Ratio of average annual load to peak load: 55% http://enduse.lbl.gov/info/LBNL-47992.pdf

Residential peak load

15,934 kW. Calculated (Annual residential load) / (load factor)

Nonresidential peak load

23,418 kW. Calculated (Annual nonresidential load) / (load factor)

Hours of peak demand June - Sept Residential electricity consumed during the summer peak period Nonresidential electricity consumed during the summer peak period Residential peak demand saved by 2020 Nonresidential peak demand saved by 2020 Residential electricity savings Nonresidential electricity savings Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3

Hours. Assume 4 months of hot summer demand and 6 hours of 744 peak demand per day. 11,854,720 kWh. Calculated (Residential peak load) x (hours of peak demand) kWh. Calculated (Nonresidential peak load) x (hours of peak 17,423,056 demand) 3% Assumption 6% Assumption Calculated (total residential energy use during peak period) x 355,641.61 (residential peak demand saved) Calculated (total nonresidential energy use during peak period) x 1,045,383.34 (nonresidential peak demand saved) $ 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 196,143 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ - Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) $ $ 0% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost $ Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$

355,642

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

102 1,045,383

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

Total annual savings:

-

299

$

196,143


E.1.2: Nonresidential Energy Use Education Increase City outreach/education to commercial and industrial building owners to raise awareness of utility, state, and federal programs, especially SCE and SCG's wide-ranging energy efficiency programs for existing buildings and incentives for retrofits, including direct installation programs. City promotes/markets for programs; leverages and/or adds to existing rebates for energy efficiency. Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Annual 2010 nonresidential electricity consumption Annual 2010 nonresidential natural gas consumption Targeted percent of nonresidential sector upgraded annually

Qualitative Analysis

$

1,334,789 18,822 482 200,234

Category Scores 3 3 3 2

NA NA NA 3 3 NA NA

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Rank 3 1 2 4

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

1,590,964 therms/year. Based on data provided by SoCal Gas 1% Assumption

15% Target percentage of electricity energy savings

Target percentage of natural gas energy savings

15% Target percentage of natural gas energy savings

Estimated average annual kWh use per facility

Estimated average annual therm use per facility

Estimated number of facilities in 2020

Total nonresidential kWh saved

Total nonresidential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

7 To begin in 2014.

Calculated: (annual electricity use) / (number of non-domestic 80,476.70 accounts). Assumes each account represents one facility. Calculated: (annual natural gas use) / (number of non-domestic 1,134.78 accounts). Assumes each account represents one facility.

Calculated: Took nonresidential projected kWh in 2020 and 1,580 divided by the average annual kWh use per facility.

Calculated: (number of facilities in 2020) x (estimated average annual kWh use per facility) x (percent targeted per year ) x 1,334,789 (target electricity reduction) x (number of years in effect)

18,822 $ 0.14 $ 0.71 $ 186,870.45 $ 13,363.28 $ $ 5%

3 3 3 2 3 1 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 2 29

Source 112,828,336 kWh/year. Based on data provided by SCE

Target percentage of electricity energy savings

Number of years in effect

Low Yes 1 Med No Few Many Yes

Calculated: (number of facilities in 2020) x (estimated average annual therm use per facility) x (percent targeted per year ) x (target natural gas reduction) x (number of years in effect) Based on Key Assumptions tab Based on Key Assumptions tab Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. No operational costs identified. Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost $ Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$

3,750 -

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

1,334,789

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

18,822

-

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

Total annual savings:

482

$

200,234


E.1.3: Residential Energy Use Education Increase City outreach/education to homeowners to raise awareness of utility, state and federal programs. Develop strategies to increase participation in Energy Upgrade California. Target number of existing and new homes to participate in Energy Upgrade California and check progress with the Program Implementer.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis

$

1,389,713 77,816 810 249,809

Category Scores 3 3 3 2

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

3 3 NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions:

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Low Yes 1 Med No Few Many Yes

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 2 29

Source

Annual 2010 residential electricity consumption Annual 2010 residential natural gas consumption Targeted percent of residential sector upgraded annually

69,789,885 kWh/year. Based on data provided by SCE 3,907,854 therms/year. Based no data provided by SoCal Gas 1% Assumption

Target percentage of electricity energy savings

25% Target percentage of electricity energy savings

Target percentage of natural gas energy savings

25% Target percentage of natural gas energy savings

Number of years in effect

7 To begin in 2014 Calculated: (annual electricity use) / (number of households in 6,802.13 2010) Calculated: (annual natural gas use) / (number of households in 380.88 2010) Calculated: Took residential projected kWh in 2020 and divided by 11,675 the average annual kWh use per household.

Estimated average annual kWh use per household Estimated average annual therm use per household Estimated number of households in 2020

Calculated: (number of households in 2020) x (estimated average annual kWh use per household) x (percent targeted per year ) x 1,389,713 (target electricity reduction) x (number of years)

Total Residential kWh saved

3 3 3 2 3 1 3 3

Calculated: (number of households in 2020) x (estimated average annual therm use per household) x (percent targeted per year ) x 77,816 (target natural gas reduction) x (number of years) 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab

Total Residential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh)

$

current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 194,559.76 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ 55,249.61 Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) $ - Based on case studies or energy audit results. $ - No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$ $

1,389,713

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

3,750

77,816 810 0 $

249,809


E.1.4a: Nonresidential PACE Energy Efficiency Program Engage proactively in developing and supporting Residential & Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program in Kern County (California PACE Program). PACE provides a mechanism for property owners to finance energy efficiency, distributed energy and water conservation improvements to be paid back over time on the annual City property tax bill as an assessment line item.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of nonresidential facilities in 2020 Target percent of nonresidential sector participating in energy efficiency PACE by 2020 Target percentage of electricity energy savings

Qualitative Analysis 1,271,228 17,925 459 $ 190,698.80

Category Scores 3 3 3 3

NA NA NA 3 3 NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Low Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 3 29

Source Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the nonresidential sector 1,580 and divided by the average kWh used per facility. 5% Assumption 20% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$ $

3,750 -

Target percentage of natural gas energy savings 20% Assumption Estimated average annual kWh use per nonresidential facility Estimated average annual therm use per nonresidential facility

Total nonresidential kWh saved

Total nonresidential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

80,477 kWh/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis 1,135 therms/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis Calculated (number of nonresidential facilities) x (Participation rate) x 1,271,227.58 (annual electricity usage per facility) x (Potential electricity savings) Calculated (number of nonresidential facilities) x (Participation rate) x 17,925.26 (annual therms usage) x (Potential natural gas savings) $ 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 177,971.86 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ 12,727 Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) $ - Based on case studies or energy audit results. $ - No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

1,271,228

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

17,925

-

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

459 $

190,699


E.1.4b: Residential PACE Energy Efficiency Program Engage proactively in developing and supporting Residential & Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program in Kern County (California PACE Program). PACE provides a mechanism for property owners to finance energy efficiency, distributed energy and water conservation improvements to be paid back over time on the annual City property tax bill as an assessment line item.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis 1,905,891.52 106,720 1,111

$

0.07

Category Scores 3 3 3 3

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

3 3 NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Low Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 3 29

Source

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of residential households in 2020

Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the residential sector 11,675 and divided by the average kWh used per household.

Target percent of residential sector participating in energy efficiency PACE by 2020 Target percentage of electricity energy savings

8% Assumption 30% Assumption

Target percentage of natural gas energy savings 30% Assumption Estimated average annual kWh use per household 6,802 kWh/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis Estimated average annual therm use per household 381 therms/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis Calculated: (number of households) x (participation rate by 2020) x (annual electricity usage per household) x (potential energy 1,905,892 savings)

Total residential kWh saved

Total residential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ $ $ $ $ $

3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Calculated: (number of households) x (participation rate by 2020) x 106,720 (annual therm usage per household) x (potential energy savings) 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab 266,824.81 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) 75,771 Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) 5 Based on case studies or energy audit results. 0 No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost

$

5

Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$

3,750 1,905,892 106,720 1,111 -

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

-

$

0 0


E1.6a Promote Green Buildings (Residential) Provide incentives, such as permit streamlining and increased outreach, to expand green building and energy efficient design for new commercial and residential development. Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

$

-

NA NA

Qualitative Analysis Cost to City Funding Available

Low Yes

3 3

10,721 720

NA 1 1

Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support

2 Med Yes

3 2 1

7 2,012

NA NA

Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Many Many

3 3

Yes

3

Category Scores 1 3 2 3

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Total kwh in 2010 in the nonresidential sector Electricity Use Intensity

Natural Gas Use Intensity

Estimated square footage of nonresidential building space in 2010 Projected kwh in 2020 in the nonresidential sector Amount of space in new nonresidential construction added between 2010 and 2020 (SF) Number of years that the City has to promote Tier 1 energy efficiency for CalGreen: Square footage to be subject to the state code: Percent of new non-residential construction achieving Title 24 Tier 1 Square footage achieving Title 24 Tier 1 by 2020: Potential Energy Savings of New Construction achieving Tier 1 Tittle 24 Electricity Reduction Factor Natural Gas Reduction Factor Total Electricity Savings (kWh) Total Natural Gas Savings (therms) Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

Rank 3 1 2 4

Total Criteria Score: 2 2 4 12 3 7 1 3 24 Total Measure Score: Weighting

Source

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations:

112,828,336 kwh/year 13.63 Average electric use intensity for nonresidential buildings in

Total upfront implementation cost $ Ongoing Operational Costs $

Average natural gas usage intensity for nonresidential 0.26 buildings in therms/sq ft (2005 California End Use Survey) Square feet. Calculated: Total electricity use in kwh/year divided by the average electricity use intensity in kwh/square 8,277,941 foot. kwh/year. Projection is consistent with the GHG inventory 127,122,758 forecast. square feet. Calculated: (Total 2020 projected electricity use in kwh/year divided by the average electricity use intensity in 1,048,747 kwh/square foot) - (the estimated square footage in 2010.) Years. CALGreen goes into effect in 2014; The City does not have the capacity to promote Tier 1 until later - assume 2017 4 program implementation date.new square feet between 2010 square feet. Calculated: Total and 2020 divided by 10 to determine the new square 419,499 footage/year. This number is multiplied by the number of

Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

5% Conservative assumption, with some outreach and education 20,975

$ $ $ $ $ $

15 0.25% 0.88% 10,721 720 0.14 0.71 1,501 511 0%

Standard assumption: 15 percent savings over title 24 percent. Electricity Reduction for each 1% achieved over Title percent. Natural Gas Reduction for each 1% achieved over Calculated (nonresidential SF subject to the state code) x Calculated (nonresidential SF subject to the state code) x Based on Key Assumptions tab Based on Key Assumptions tab Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. No operational costs identified. Assumption

-

-

Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

-

10,721

720 6.9 $

2,012


E1.6b: Promote Green Buildings (Commercial) Provide incentives, such as permit streamlining and increased outreach, to expand green building and energy efficient design for new commercial and residential development. Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

$

5,677 2,216 13 2,368

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Category 1 3 2 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Total kwh in 2010 in the residential sector Electricity Use Intensity Natural Gas Use Intensity Estimated square footage of residential building space in 2010 Projected kwh in 2020 in the residential sector

69,789,885 3.50 0.31 19,939,967 79,412,147

Amount of space in new residential construction by 2020: Number of years that the City has to promote Tier 1 energy Square footage to be subject to the state code: Percent of new non-residential construction achieving Title 24 Tier 1 Square footage achieving Title 24 Tier 1: Potential Energy Savings of New Construction achieving Tier 1 Tittle Electricity Reduction Factor Natural Gas Reduction Factor Total Electricity Savings (kWh) Total Natural Gas Savings (therms) Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

2,749,218 4 1,099,687.05

$ $ $ $ $ $

5% 54,984 15 0.20% 0.87% 5,677 2,216 0.14 0.71 794.80 1,573.27 0%

1 1 NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Qualitative Analysis Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing

Low Yes 2 Med Yes Many Many Yes

3 3 3 2 1 3 3 3

Weighting Total Criteria 2 2 4 12 3 7 1 3 24 Total Measure Score:

Source kwh/year Average electric use intensity for residential buildings in Average natural gas usage intensity for residential buildings in Calculated: Total electricity use in kwh/year divided by the kwh/year. Projection is consistent with the GHG inventory square feet. Calculated: (Total projected electricity use in Years. CALGreen goes into effect in 2014; The City does not square feet. Calculated: Total new square feet between 2010 Conservative assumption, with some outreach and education Standard assumption: 15 percent savings over title 24 Percent. Electricity Reduction for each 1% achieved over Title Percent. Natural Gas Reduction for each 1% achieved over Title Calculated (Residential SF subject to the state code) x Calculated (Residential SF subject to the state code) x (natural Based on Key Assumptions tab Based on Key Assumptions tab Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. No operational costs identified. Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost $ Ongoing Operational Costs $ Residential: Residential: Residential GHG reduction Non-Residential: Non-Residential: Non-Residential GHG reduction Total annual savings:

5,677 2,216 13 0

$

2,368


E.2.1: Encourage Nonresidential Renewable Installation SCORE: Encourage nonresidential building owners to install appropriate renewable energy technologies. Engage proactively in developing and supporting Residential & Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program in Kern County (California PACE Program). PACE provides a mechanism for property owners to finance energy efficiency, distributed energy and water conservation improvements to be paid back over time on the annual City property tax bill as an assessment line item. Potentially reduce the permit fees for renewables.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis 3,178,069 909 $ 444,929.65

Category Scores 3 3 3 3

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

NA NA NA 3 NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of nonresidential facilities in 2020

Low Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 3 29

Source Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the nonresidential 1,580 sector and divided by the average kWh used per facility.

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations:

Total upfront implementation cost

$

-

Target percent of nonresidential sector participating in renewable PACE by 2020 5% Assumption 80,477 kWh/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis

Average annual nonresidential facility energy use

Assumed percentage of renewable system generation capacity to offset annual nonresidential facility energy load from grid

50% Assumption

kWh/year. Calculated: (number of nonresidential facilities) x (participation rate by 2020) x (annual electricity usage per facility) x 3,178,068.96 (percentage of facility energy generated by renewable system) Calculated (number of nonresidential facilities) x (participation rate by 2020) x (annual therm usage per facility) x (potential energy - savings)

Total amount of nonresidential renewable electricity generated

Total nonresidential therms saved

0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab

Current cost of electricity ($/kWh)

$

current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for grid electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 444,929.65 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ - Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. $ - No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year)

$

3,750 -

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

-

Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

-

Non-Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

3,178,069

0

$

909 444,930


E.2.2: Encourage Residential Renewable Installation. Encourage nonresidential building owners to install appropriate renewable energy technologies. Engage proactively in developing and supporting Residential & Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program in Kern County (California PACE Program). PACE provides a mechanism for property owners to finance energy efficiency, distributed energy and water conservation improvements to be paid back over time on the annual City property tax bill as an assessment line item. Potentially reduce the permit fees for renewables.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Qualitative Analysis 1,985,303.67 568 $ 277,942.51

Category Scores 3 3 3 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of residential households in 2020

3 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Low Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 3 29

Source Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the residential sector 11,675 and divided by the average kWh used per household.

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost

$

-

Target percent of residential sector participating in renewable PACE by 2020 5% Assumption Estimated average annual kWh use per household 6,802 kWh/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis Assumed percentage of renewable system generation capacity to offset annual household energy load from grid 50% Assumption Calculated: (number of households) x (participation rate by 2020) x (annual electricity usage per household) x (percentage of household 1,985,304 energy generated by renewable system)

Total amount of residential renewable electricity generated Total Residential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for grid electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 277,942.51 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ - Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) $

- No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year)

$

1,985,304

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

-

Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Non-Residential GHG reduction Total annual savings:

3,750

568

$

0 0 0 277,943


E.3.1: Community Electric Vehicle Program. Replace conventionally-fueled vehicles with plug-in electric vehicles or electric vehicles.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh INCREASE Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh INCREASE Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis

$

Category Scores 2 2 3 3

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of charging stations by 2020 Number of EVs per station by 2020

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Med Yes 2 Med No Many Many Yes

$

Total Criteria Score: 2 4 4 8 3 8 1 3 23 Total Measure Score:

15,000 miles/year. Assumption Used the average U.S. light duty vehicle fuel efficiency (mpg) for calendar 2010 (the most recent year available). Data provided by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics from the following website: http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics/html/t 24 able_04_23.html See data below. The cost of fuel is based on an average of weekly prices for regular grade gasoline for the past 12 months. Prices are compiled by the 3.98 U.S. Energy Information Administration and reported on the State of Source: CPS Energy Website: http://www.cpsenergy.com/About_CPS_Energy/Who_We_Are/Research_a 5,400 nd_Technology/Plug_In_Vehicles/PlugIn_recharging_cost.asp

Total kwh needed per electric vehicle (kWh/year): Total electricity INCREASE Cost of electricity for electric vehicles ($/kWh):

$

Total cost of conventional fuel for the vehicles: Total cost of electricity for the vehicles:

$ $

Total Cost Savings

$

Average MTCO2 for each car Total GHG of conventional gasoline for the vehicles:

$ $ $

2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Weighting

Source

Average fuel efficiency (miles/gallon)

Total GHG of electric vehicles Total GHG Reduction Cost per EV charging station Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

NA NA NA NA NA 2 NA

5 Assumption 3 Assumption

Average miles driven per year

Cost of conventional fuel ($/gallon):

(81,000) 53 30,038

81,000 Calculated (total number of Evs) x (total kWh needed per vehicle) charging will occur during off-peak times from 9pm - noon. Website: 0.10 http://www.sce.com/info/electric-car/business/rate-plans.htm 38,138 Calculated: (number of vehicles) x (average annual miles traveled per 8,100 Calculated: (number of vehicles) x (total kWh needed per electric vehicle) x 30,038 Calculated: (total cost of conventional fuel) - (total cost of electricity for Evs) The assumption that each vehicle emits 5.1 metric tons CO2/year is from the EPA document "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle." Source: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/documents/420f11041.pdf. This 5.1 provides a conservative estimate, as it does not include CH4 and N2O 77 Calculated (average MTCO2e per car) x (number of vehicles replaced) Calculated. (total electricity increase in kWh) x (SCE emission factor for 23.18 electricity in GHG/kWh). 53 Calculated (Total GHG emissions) x (GHG reduction of Evs) 3,000.00 15,000 Cost will be borne by the community or possibly by the City. - No operational costs identified. 0% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost $ 15,000 Ongoing Operational Costs $ Residential: Electricity INCREASE (kWh/year) -

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

-

Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

-

Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kWh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

(81,000) 53 $

30,038


W.1.1: Indoor Water Conservation Incentives. SCORE: Promote existing and new rebates for water efficient appliances and fixtures.

Quantitative Analysis

Qualitative Analysis 307,582 119,632 722 128,000

Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

$

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Category Scores 3 2 3 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of residential households in 2020

Gallons per household per day

3 3 NA NA NA NA NA

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Rank 3 1 2 4

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Percentage of water used indoors Indoor water use saving target per household

20% Based on goal of 20% reduction by 2020 in the UWMP. 10,115,584 Delano Municipal EAP 2010 UWMP target of 156.8 gallons per capita per day multiplied by 365 3,421,214,496 days/year multiplied by projected population in 2020 of 59778

Total gallons of water used in 2020 Total kwh consumed per gallon of water delivered in Delano

Calculated. (total kwh used in 2020 for water and sewerage) / (gallons of 0.0030 water used in 2020) AWWA Study (http://www.drinktap.org/consumerdnn/Home/WaterInformation/Conserv 0.00115 ation/WaterUseStatistics/tabid/85/Default.aspx)

therms saved per gallon of water reduced Percentage of households to participate by 2020

30% Assumption Calculated. (Number of households) x (Percentage of households to 3,502 participate by 2020)

Number of households to participate by 2020

Calculated. (total gallons per household per day) * (365 days/year) * (70% 29,702 assumed water used indoors) * (20% assumed reduction per household) Calculated. (total gallons reduced per household per year) x (number of 104,028,064 households to participate by 2020)

Gallons of water reduced per household per year Total water reduction

Total Electricity Savings (kWh) Total Natural Gas Savings (therms) Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ $ $ $ $ $

2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 8 8 3 25

Source Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the residential sector and 11,675 divided by the average kWh used per household. 2010 UWMP data show that 4,968 accounts consumed 1,054,000,000 gallons in 2010, which is 212,158 gallons per account. Assume each account is one household. Thus: (212,158 gallons/household/year) / (365 days/year) 581 = 581 gallons/household/day. Assumption based on the following EPA publication: 70% http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/pubs/outdoor.html

kWh used in 2020 for water and sewerage

Med Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

Calculated. (total water reduction) x (kwh saved per gallon of water 307,582 reduced) Calculated. (total water reduction) x (therms saved per gallon of water 119,632 reduced) 0.14 0.71 43,062 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) 84,938.91 Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) 50,000.00 Based on case studies or energy audit results. - No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost

$

50,000

Ongoing Operational Costs

$

3,750

Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

307,582 119,632

Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

722

Non-Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year)

0

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

0

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

0

Total annual savings:

$

128,000


W.1.2: Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives and Ordinance. Increase use of recycled greywater and rainwater for landscaping irrigation. Provide incentives for water-saving devices, such as low-flow sprinklers. Continue to enforce the Outdoor Landscaping Ordinance.

Quantitative Analysis

Qualitative Analysis 131,821 38 18,455

Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

$

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Category Scores 2 2 3 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of residential households in 2020

2 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Source

Percentage of water used outdoors

Assumption based on the following EPA publication: 30% http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/pubs/outdoor.html

Outdoor water use saving target per household

20% Based on goal of 20% reduction by 2020 in the UWMP.

kWh used in 2020 for water and sewerage

10,115,584 Delano Municipal EAP 2010 UWMP target of 156.8 gallons per capita per day multiplied by 365 days/year 3,421,214,496 multiplied by projected population in 2020 of 59778 Calculated. (total kwh used in 2020 for water and sewerage) / (gallons of water 0.0030 used in 2020) AWWA Study (http://www.drinktap.org/consumerdnn/Home/WaterInformation/Conservation/ 0.00115 WaterUseStatistics/tabid/85/Default.aspx)

Total gallons of water used in 2020 Total kwh consumed per gallon of water delivered in Delano

therms saved per gallon of water reduced Percentage of households to participate by 2020

30% Assumption Calculated. (Number of households) x (Percentage of households to participate by 3,502.38 2020) Calculated. (total gallons per household per day) * (365 days/year) * (30% 12,729 assumed water used outdoors) * (20% assumed reduction per household) Calculated. (total gallons reduced per household per year) x (number of 44,583,456 households to participate by 2020) 131,821 Calculated. (total water reduction) x (kwh saved per gallon of water reduced)

Number of households to participate by 2020 Gallons of water reduced per household per year Total water reduction Total Electricity Savings (kWh)

Ongoing FTE needed:

$ $ $ $ $ $

0.14 0.71 18,455 50,000 -

None. Heated water is not typically used outdoors.

Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. No operational costs identified.

5% Assumption

2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 4 8 8 3 23

Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the residential sector and divided by 11,675 the average kWh used per household. 2010 UWMP data show that 4,968 accounts consumed 1,054,000,000 gallons in 2010, which is 212,158 gallons per account. Assume each account is one household. Thus: (212,158 gallons/household/year) / (365 days/year) = 581 581 gallons/household/day.

Gallons per household per day

Total Natural Gas Savings (therms) Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs:

Med Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost

$

50,000

Ongoing Operational Costs

$

3,750

Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

131,821 38 0 0

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

0 $

18,455



2000 Hearst Avenue. Berkeley, CA. 94709