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City of Delano Health and Sustainability Element

Public Draft November 22, 2013


CONTENT INTRODUCTION PURPOSE

1

1

Relationship between health and sustainability

Relationship with smart valley places livability principles

AUTHORIZATION

COMMUNITY INPUT

2

2

3

4

Community Conversation 1

Community Conversation 2

CLIMATE ACTION PLAN

4

EXISTING CONDITIONS

5 6

6

Social Wellbeing and Equity

8

Overall Health, Prevention, and Health Access

9

Land Use and Community Character

Transportation and Mobility

11

Housing

12

Economy and Employment

13

Healthy Food Access and Food Security

Parks and Recreation

16

Natural Resources and Environmental Quality

17

Climate Adaptation

19

Energy and Climate Change

20

Green Buildings

21

IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS

23

Matrix Organization

23

APPENDICES

A

10

14

Community Conversation Summary #1 and #2

A1

Existing Conditions Report

A2

Climate Action Plan

A3


PUBLIC DRAFT DELANO HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT INTRODUCTION The Health and Sustainability Element will provide the City of Delano, decision makers, and the community, with guidance to strategically form a community that provides a healthy and sustainable environment for its residents and supports the visions and goals of the General Plan.

PURPOSE As planning practices and research have progressed, more and more findings show the co-benefits that healthy planning strategies and sustainable planning strategies can have on one another. Through a focus on integrating planning, public health, and sustainability, this element will simultaneously combat both health and sustainability issues including short-term and long-term health problems like diabetes, asthma, and obesity, greenhouse gas emissions, deteriorating local food systems, car dependency, and segregation of those with limited means. The public health aspects of this element aim to create an environment in Delano that is supportive of and can facilitate healthy activities, habits, and lifestyles for all residents of the City. Health and sustainability are heavily intertwined, such that policies that improve the health of community members also often benefit environmental sustainability. Thus, the sustainability components of this element can be found in both stand-alone policies as well as within the health focused policies as the health policies provide a co-benefit for the natural environment and community health. Further, the City of Delano seeks to take the long-term “sustainable� view when planning for the community. Investing in environmental protections and community wellness now, is the smart economic choice for future generations. Through changes in the built environment, and community social environment, the City and its Sphere of Influence area will benefit from a cohesive collaboration of health and sustainability concerns incorporated into the planning process. A health and sustainability element formed around the goals of nurturing active lifestyles, providing local and healthy food options, increasing community strength, developing the local economy, and ensuring longevity in both the environment and residents, would greatly improve the quality of life for community members, and provide a holistic environment for people who live, work, and recreate in Delano.

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R E L AT I O N S HI P B E T W E E N HE A LT H A N D S U S TAI N A B I LI T Y What is a Healthy Delano?

A healthy Delano provides the tools, environment, and culture that support physical and mental health for all residents. The World Health Organization defines a healthy city as “…one that is continually creating and improving those physical and social environments and expanding those community resources which enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and developing to their maximum potential.” i A Healthy Delano would incorporate all amenities, design guidelines, social programs, and community’s social bond to ensure that City practices support physical, social, emotional, and spiritual health. What is a Sustainable Delano?

A sustainable Delano would focus around longevity and a built environment that has the ability to sustain activity and natural resource supply with minimal environmental impacts and environmental health problems including air quality, water quality, and any other hazardous pollutants. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a sustainable community “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Additionally, a sustainable community should link and balance “environmental, social, and economic well-being.” ii How can they work together?

The City can implement community health and sustainability as one integrated approach. What makes a community healthy, can also make it sustainable. From increasing walkability and designing an energy efficient urban form, to conscious waste handling and disposal practices, and promoting community bonds, all aspects of the Health and Sustainability Element aim to generate healthy and sustainable built and social environments.

R E L AT I O N S HI P W I T H S M AR T VA L L E Y P L AC E S LI VAB I LI T Y PRINCIPLES This planning effort was made possible by a grant from Smart Valley Places, which received funds from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Both HUD and the Smart Valley Places program seek to improve the quality of life through the implementation of six livability principles: 1.

Provide more transportation choices

2. Promote equitable, affordable housing 3. Enhance economic competiveness 4. Support existing communities

5. Coordinate policies and leverage investment

6. Value communities and neighborhoods

The proposed goals and policies of the Health and Sustainability Element address all of these livability principles. Each goal addresses some of the livability principles and two goals address all of the livability principles. Because this element presents an integrated approach to health and sustainability in which the goals and policies are connected and often mutually supportive, the connections between the goals of this element and the livability principles of Smart Valley Places are presented in the matrix below: HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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X

X

6. Value Communities and Neighborhoods

5. Coordinate Policies and Leverage Investment

4. Support Existing Communities

3. Enhance Economic Competitiveness

2. Promote Equitable, Affordable Housing

1. Provide More Transportation Choices

Health and Sustainability Element Goal Topics 1. Social Well-being and Equity 2. Overall Health, Prevention, and Health Access 3. Land Use and Community Character 4. Transportation and Mobility 5. Housing 6. Economy and Employment 7. Healthy Food Access and Food Security 8. Parks and Recreation 9. Natural Resources and Environmental Quality 10. Climate Adaptation 11. Energy and Climate Change 12. Green Buildings

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X

AUTHORIZATION California State Government Code Section 65303, allows a jurisdiction to include additional elements in the General Plan beyond those required in the statewide General Plan Guidelines and is as follows: “The general plan may include any other elements or address any other subjects, which in the judgment of the legislative body, relate to the physical development of the county or city.” This section of the Government Code gives jurisdictions the authority to create and adopt optional elements that may not fall within the traditional topics covered by the mandatory seven elements. Health and Sustainability are important community goals that must be addressed through the built environment if the City is to be successful. Additionally, there are many issues addressed within this element that would fall under the City’s authority to prepare a Land Use Element, a Safety Element, an Open Space Element, or a Conservation Element. Once adopted, the Health and Sustainability Element will have equal regulatory weight as any other required or optional elements of the General Plan.

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COMMUNITY INPUT This planning effort was heavily grounded by a two-tiered community involvement process. First, the City formed a Planning Task Force to provide strategic input on the element throughout the process. The Planning Task Force was comprised of community members from all facets of Delano, including government, non-profit, education, health, energy, and business sectors. The Planning Task Force met four times during this planning process and provided guidance on form and content of community meetings, as well as input on the goals, policies, and priorities of the element. Additionally, the City held two community meetings, called community conversations, to gather community input on the element. A full summary of the community input received can be found in Appendix A1 of this element.

CO M M U N I T Y CO N VE R S AT I O N # 1 The Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #1 took place on Tuesday, February 26, 2013 from 5:30pm-8:00pm at the Delano Civic Center. Eighty-two participants signed-in at the workshop, but there were likely more people in attendance since some families in attendance had only one person sign-in for the entire family. The objectives of the workshop were to: •

Educate residents about Delano’s Health and Sustainably Element and Climate Action Plan;

Learn about existing health and environmental conditions in Delano;

Get feedback from residents on their health and sustainability priorities for Delano; and

Socialize and have fun!

VISUAL PREFERENCE SURVEY A visual preference survey was conducted to fully understand community members' ideas regarding the look and feel of future development and the desired amenities. The full results of the survey are presented in the Appendix A1 of this element. In summary, the community preferred town-scale buildings and neighborhoods that supported walking, bicycling, and community interaction.

INTERACTIVE STATIONS After the visual preference survey, community members were to visit each of six stations. The stations included: 1.

Health & Sustainability Goals

2. Park Safety & Access 3. Economic Prosperity 4. Sustainable Environment 5. Healthy Food 6. Active & Safe Transportation

One or two project staffers provided guidance and answered questions at each station. Participants were encouraged to comment on each topic area with additional thoughts, either on large flipchart paper HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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on the wall or on the individual feedback forms provided at the meeting. While there were many topics that were covered, the top health and sustainability goals included: •

Streets that support walking, bicycling, and transit

Improve public safety

Access to healthy, affordable, and locally-produced food

Creating more park space

Workforce learning

Green Technology

Creating stricter anti-tobacco and anti-smoking laws

Supporting sorting garbage, compost, and recycling at home

Expanding the variety of restaurants in Delano and encourage new and existing restaurants to offer healthier menu options

Expanding community gardens to more users

Decreasing vehicle speeds in residential areas

CO M M U N I T Y CO N VE R S AT I O N # 2 The Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #2 took place on Wednesday, May 29, 2013 from 5:30pm-8:00pm. This community conversation was conducted in a different format, arranged around topical discussion groups. Two blocks of time were set so that community members could participate in two different discussion groups. A facilitator ran each group and reported the results at the end of the evening. The following are the top 7 items discussed. Among all the notes, walkability and infrastructure improvements were mentioned in many sections, and were the two most prominent topics mentioned from the workshop. 1.

Walkability – Community members focused on walkability in a number of topics and wanted improved walkability throughout the City.

2. Infrastructure improvements – Community members recommended infrastructure improvements throughout the City. 3. Healthy food options – Community members would like to have more fresh and healthy food options. 4. Community and recreation programs – Community members would like to see more community activities that will bring together all of its members. HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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5. Education and job training – Community members want more jobs and training for high skill level jobs within the City. 6. Climate change, energy, and green practice education – Community members support more education and awareness efforts to teach people about climate change issues and how to be energy efficient. 7. Physical and mental health – Community members would like to improve physical and mental health services. The results of both workshops were utilized as primary inputs for the creation of the goals, policies, and actions of this element and the Climate Action Plan.

CLIMATE ACTION PLAN In parallel with the conjunction of this Health and Sustainability Element, the City of Delano has also been preparing a Climate Action Plan, which will become one of the implementation mechanisms for this element. The City of Delano Climate Action Plan outlines strategies, goals, and actions for the City and its community to reduce municipal and community-wide GHG emissions. It is designed to ensure that Delano does its part to meet the mandates of California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), while taking into account the Delano General Plan vision for future growth. AB 32 directs the state to reduce state-wide GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. To achieve these reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the State Office of Planning and Research (OPR) recommend that local governments target their 2020 emissions to be 15 percent below 2005 levels, which are deemed to be equivalent to 1990 emissions levels. The City of Delano considered many potential GHG-reduction strategies and actions. Best-suited measures were chosen primarily based on their ability to reduce GHG emissions for their cost-benefit characteristics, with additional considerations for funding availability and feasibility of implementation. The selected measures in this Climate Action Plan cover transportation and land use, energy consumption and generation, water use and wastewater treatment, solid waste disposal, and municipal operations. For each emissions sector, the Climate Action Plan presents goals, strategies, and specific actions for reducing emissions, along with quantified cost-benefit impacts where possible. An implementation and monitoring plan is also provided. The initial implementation timeframe will span approximately seven years, from now (2013) through 2020. For more information, please refer to Appendix A3, City of Delano Climate Action Plan.

EXISTING CONDITIONS In order to transform the City into a Healthy and Sustainable environment, a firm knowledge of the current setting will provide an invaluable baseline to measure progress, and determine strengths and weaknesses of the existing environment. The following topics outline the existing conditions for Delano, and reflect the current health and sustainable environment. The data and detailed analysis supporting HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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this section of the Element can be found in Appendix A2, Background Report for the Health and

Sustainability General Plan Element.

Socio-Cultural Context: The socio-cultural context of Delano addresses age, ethnicity, housing tenure, educational attainment, and social services. Community culture and social dynamics can play a pivotal role in the health of a community, based on social bonds, cultural understanding, and community strength. The 2010 population of Delano was 53,041 residents, with 10,530 people (19.9 percent) housed within the City’s two state prisons. The largest racial/ethnic group is Hispanic Latino making up 78.5 percent of the civilian population in Delano. More than a quarter of Delano households are considered linguistically isolated, and 19,731 (37.2 percent) of Delano residents are foreign-born, with 5,722 (29 percent) being naturalized citizens. Almost half of Delano residents have completed high school, and 7.2 percent of residents have a college degree. Of the 10,260 housing units, 43.8 percent are renter occupied. Community Health Status: The community health status provides current information on obesity, insurance coverage, diseases, mortality rates, physical activity, and health habits. In Kern County, 62 percent of all adults are obese or overweight, with county residents aged 45-64 having the highest obesity rate (44.6 percent). Kern County also has a lower life expectancy than California, at 77 years in the County and 80.8 years statewide. Cancer was the cause of 5,255 deaths from 2008-2010 in Kern County. Coronary heart disease accounted for 1,072 deaths. Additionally, 40,841 persons (77 percent) are covered by public or private health insurance, with the 25-34 age group having the least coverage as only 49 percent of residents in this age range are covered. Built Environment: The existing built environment includes information on population density, land use, urban infill, park level of service, housing, homelessness, walkability, and circulation. The built environment of a City can determine accessibility to services, jobs, and commercial land uses, and can hinder or help residents live active lifestyles. Delano has an average population density of 5.8 people per acre, unevenly distributed throughout the City. The built environment also shows that Delano has a large portion of its land used for agriculture and 1,870 acres of vacant property. Additionally, residents and workers can use the City’s two Class II bike lanes, and four bus routes running through the City boundaries. The most used mode of transportation employed in the City is the personal motor vehicle utilized for commuting to work, with 67.0 percent of residents driving alone. It is also important to note that 58 percent of residents work outside of City boundaries, possibly contributing to the large proportion of people driving alone. Economic Prosperity and Access to Goods and Services: The economic, goods, and services status of Delano provides information on industry mix, unemployment, job density, fast food access, supermarket density, and local food production. Delano’s unemployment rate reached 30.8 percent in October 2012, far higher than California’s 9.8 percent, and 7.5 percent in the United States. Along with higher unemployment rates, 7,657 (18 percent) of Delano residents live near an unhealthy fast food establishment. Only 18,285 residents (43 percent) live near a Supermarket or Farmer’s Market. The City has challenges in economic prosperity with high unemployment rates, which can contribute to poor health, or inability to afford healthy food options. The low percentage of residents living within one-half mile of fresh food is also a challenge in ensuring all Delano residents are living healthy lifestyles, with diet being a major factor. Sustainable Natural Environment: The existing natural environment of Delano includes, air quality, energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water quality and use. 2005 GHG emissions reached 255,854 metric tons (MT), and had increased to 276,456 MT CO2e in 2010. Delano air quality has been improving slowly and bad air days fell to 108 in 2011. The City is also expected to experience HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY ELEMENT

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increased average temperatures, and is projected to experience a decrease in rainfall ranging from 1 to 4 inches over the next 50-70 years. Through this understanding of the existing conditions in Delano, the City has facilitated the planning process to identify needs and form policies and implementation strategies that can improve health and sustainability in Delano. The existing conditions will also serve as the baseline for any implementation monitoring, and can better serve future planning processes with effective strategies for maintaining and improving a healthy and sustainable community.

GOALS AND POLICIES SOCIAL WELL-BEING AND EQUIT Y Goal 1.

Equitable and supportive community. A safe, equitable, and close-knit community in which diverse cultures can thrive together. Policies 1.1

Equitable distribution of opportunity and risk. Equitable distribution of opportunity and risk. Consider the geographic distribution of positive amenities and services as well as limit potentially harmful land uses. Strive for balance in these distributions.

1.2

Health equity. Identify and address health inequities in Delano, within Delano’s sphere of influence and between Delano and the Kern County on a regular basis and strive to facilitate a high quality of life for all residents.

1.3

Community and civic engagement. Community and civic engagement. Create opportunities for civic contributions by building one or more affordable, accessible and flexible central gathering/meeting/event spaces that individuals, youth, and community groups can rent for a variety of social, cultural, and education uses, along with opportunities for civic input.

1.4

Institutional discrimination. Actively identify and modify the underlying institutional systems that may have unintentional discriminatory consequences in Delano. Consider how future City decisions and practices can actively and intentionally reverse institutional discrimination based on race, ethnicity, country of origin, sex, age, socio-economic status, physical ability, sexual orientation, and religion.

1.5

Vulnerable populations. Ensure that new policies, services, and programs support and are responsive to community members who are most in need. Vulnerability definitions may vary depending on the policy/program focus, but some vulnerable population groups could include persons in poverty, single-parent households, older adults, young children, linguistically isolated households, immigrants, unemployed residents, and those with lower levels of educational attainment.

1.6

Culturally responsive social services. Ensure social services and programs meet the diverse needs in the community for seniors, youth, non-English speakers, special

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needs residents, and any residents experiencing any cultural and social hardships including domestic violence. 1.7

Real and perceived neighborhood safety. Improve perceived and actual safety in Delano by addressing the root causes of crime and violence in tandem with traditional public safety measures. Root causes of crime include social and economic disadvantage (e.g., poverty and poor educational and employment opportunities), unsupportive social environment (e.g., inequality, lack of leaders and mentors, under-resourced neighborhoods, and overlooked mental health issues) and unstable family or support structures (e.g., high conflict, low communication, low trust, responsibility, and expectations).

1.8

Leadership programs, volunteer opportunities. Promote volunteer programs with local non-profit organizations, partnership collaborations, and public schools to foster a sense of ownership and pride among residents that supports interactions between youth and elders.

O VE R A L L H E A LT H , P R E V E N T I O N , A N D HE A LT H ACC E S S Goal 2.

Healthy Community. A community that supports residents’ health through a focus on wellness and preventative measures. Policies 2.1

Healthy long lives. Reduce disparities in life expectancy among different race/ethnicities and income levels by working closely with the Kern County and the Delano Regional Medical Center to track trends and support targeted wellness programs throughout the life course.

2.2

Prevent chronic diseases and cancers. Prevent chronic diseases and cancers by explicitly focusing on improving the primary modifiable risk factors of an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and alcohol abuse.

2.3

Unintentional injuries. Seek ways to prevent unintentional injuries (especially falls among older adults, motor vehicle collisions, fires and burns, drowning, and poisoning and drug overdoses) through proper maintenance of public property, code enforcement of private property, at workplaces and through community education programs.

2.4

Healthy body weight and positive body image. Encourage programs that educate residents on how to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight and prevent obesity through healthy eating and physical activity, while maintaining a positive and healthy body image.

2.5

Access to preventative physical and mental health care and education. Encourage the provision of a range of health and mental health services (including but not limited to primary, preventive, specialty, prenatal, dental care, mental health, and substance abuse treatment/counseling) in a manner accessible to residents through partnerships with community groups and the County of Kern Public Health Services Department.

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2.6

Increase the number of persons with health insurance coverage. Allow the creation of incentives to encourage the development of federally qualified health centers or private practices that are committed to serving Medi-Cal and Medicare enrollees that ensure providers serve all residents. Educate and support Delano residents and employers with respect to the Affordable Care Act and the California Healthcare Exchange.

2.7

Workplace wellness. Enhance the health and well-being of City employees through workplace wellness programs and policies to increase employee productivity, improve morale, decrease incidence of accidents and injuries and decrease medical costs. Aspire to become a model healthy organization for other cities in the region.

L A N D U S E A N D CO M M U N I T Y C H A R AC T E R Goal 3.

Healthy Community Design. Development patterns and urban design comprised of complete, walkable, attractive, and family-friendly neighborhoods and districts that support healthy and active lifestyles. Policies 3.1

Urban infill and development location. In existing developed areas of the City, encourage development that creates complete neighborhoods. Such activities include: •

Enhancing connectivity and reducing block sizes, including reasonable and related improvements in off-site locations.

Making pedestrian-oriented development a priority.

3.2

Transit-ready development. Promote compact, mixed-use, energy efficient and transit-ready development to reduce air pollutants associated with energy and vehicular use within existing undeveloped, underutilized areas.

3.3

Proximity to goods and services. Strive to create development patterns such that the majority of residents are within one-half mile walking distance to a variety of neighborhood goods and services, including supermarkets, restaurants, churches, cafes, dry cleaners, laundromats, farmers markets, banks, hair care, pharmacies and similar uses.

3.4

Walkable streets. Regulate new development to ensure new blocks encourage walkability by maximizing connectivity and route choice, create reasonable block lengths to encourage more walking and physical activity, and add shade structures or shade trees to improve the walkability of existing neighborhood streets.

3.5

Access, siting, design, operations, and maintenance of City facilities and schools. Work with the school districts to promote standards to protect students and staff from environmental hazards. Modify the Zoning Ordinance to prevent schools and other sensitive receptors from being located near known or expected new stationary sources of air pollution, and limit use or production of hazardous materials or pollutants. The specific “safe” distance from a pollution source is dependent on

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the source and amount of pollution releases; however, a good rule of thumb is at least 500 feet.

T R A N S P O R TAT I O N A N D M O B I LI T Y Goal 4.

Balanced Transportation. A balanced transportation system that accommodates all modes of travel safely and efficiently, without prioritizing automobile travel at the expense of other modes. Policies 4.1

Connected neighborhoods. Require the continuation of the street network between adjacent development projects to promote walkability and allow easier access for emergency vehicles.

4.2

Bicyclist and pedestrian education and encouragement. Support pedestrian and bicyclist education, encouragement, and enforcement activities. Encourage bicyclists to be aware of bicycling issues, and lawful/responsible riding. Support bike education events and classes that help new and experienced bike riders become more knowledgeable and effective at bike riding and bike maintenance. Educate drivers about the rights of pedestrians and bicyclists and respectful ways to share the road.

4.3

Safe Routes to School. Continue to evaluate and improve infrastructure around schools to ensure they are highly connected to neighborhoods with safe access for pedestrians and bicyclists.

4.4

Improve the pedestrian environment. Develop a comprehensive and visible wayfinding signage system in the City to direct pedestrians and cyclists to transit facilities, local and regional bike routes, civic and cultural amenities, and visitor and recreation destinations. The way-finding system should make an effort to connect with the region and surrounding cities.

4.5

Create a bicycle network. Require that the City provide additional bicycle facilities along all roadways identified in the Bicycle Facilities Master Plan in the City which are built or reconstructed in the City except in those instances in which there is insufficient right-of-way or other physical limitations.

4.6

Improve local transit service. Promote transit service in areas of the City with sufficient density and intensity of uses, mix of appropriate uses, and supportive bicycle/pedestrian networks and expand service to existing underserved areas.

4.7

Improve connections to regional transit. Collaborate with Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART) to identify improved regional connections for City residents and employees.

4.8

Improve access to transit. Collaborate with DART and Kern Regional Transit Division to identify potential ‘park and ride’ locations in Delano.

4.9

Improve connections to local and regional transit. Collaborate with Kern Regional Transit Division to provide connections between the City’s transit, bicycle, and pedestrian networks to regional facilities.

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4.10

Reduce collisions and decrease vehicle speeds in residential areas through traffic calming measures and improved roadway design. Develop traffic calming policies to include: clearly marked bike and pedestrian zones, bike boulevards, bulb outs, median islands, speed humps, traffic circles, speed tables, center island narrowings, raised crosswalks, blinking crosswalks, chicanes, chokers, raised intersections, realigned intersections, and textured pavements, among other effective enhancements. Apply these traffic calming techniques to both new and existing streets, as necessary, to maintain quality of life for residents.

4.11

Transportation demand management. Manage the City’s transportation system to maintain a balanced system for all users. Regularly: •

Evaluate traffic conditions throughout the City.

Evaluate impacts to all modes of travel, not just automobiles, when considering transportation system performance.

Require that the City first consider infrastructure improvements that will improve alternative modes of travel before considering roadway improvements that will increase automobile capacity.

4.12

Park once strategies. Design dense nodes of commercial and retail businesses with reduced off-street parking that is accessible to public parking locations so people can park once for many errands/trips while balancing the need for parking turnover through mechanisms such as parking time limits.

4.13

Unbundle parking. Allow and encourage developers of residential, mixed-use and multi-tenant commercial projects to unbundle parking costs from unit sale and rental costs in denser, mixed-use areas to give tenants and owners the opportunity to save money by using fewer parking spaces where there is less need.

HOUSING Goal 5.

Healthy Housing. Safe, affordable, and healthy housing for every stage of life. Policies 5.1

Increase availability of affordable housing. Implement Housing Element programs and actions that facilitate the development of affordable housing in close proximity to services, transit and employment opportunities to reduce unnecessary transportation costs associated with sprawl development and ensure affordable housing is not located near hazardous or undesirable land uses.

5.2

Mixed income neighborhoods. Strive to create mixed-income neighborhoods by integrating affordable housing with market rate housing, avoiding concentrations of below-market-rate or subsidized housing in any one area of the City or within the City’s Sphere of Influence area.

5.3

Range of housing types for all stages of life. Provide a greater diversity and range of housing by location, tenure, size, amenities, type of unit, and price throughout the City to help ensure residents of all stages of life have housing opportunities.

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5.4

Healthy housing. Encourage property owners pursuing new developments and home renovations to use low-or non-toxic materials such as low-VOC (volatile organic compound) paint and carpet and other strategies to improve indoor air quality and noise levels (e.g., kitchen range top exhaust fans, treated windows, etc.).

5.5

Prevent foreclosures and help people already experiencing foreclosures and evictions. Enlist non-profit and other community partners by providing information to residents so as to reduce the detrimental social and health effects of foreclosures for Delano residents.

5.6

Permanent affordable housing and a shelter for the homeless. Allow and encourage the development of transitional and permanent supportive housing for homeless and very low-income residents.

E CO N O M Y A N D E M P LOYM E N T Goal 6.

Economic Prosperity. An economically vibrant business community that is socially and environmentally conscious and provides quality employment opportunities and resources to meet community needs. Policies 6.1

Jobs-housing balance, match, and proximity. Ensure a jobs-housing balance by offering a variety of housing types and affordability that meet various job-income levels available in Delano. Closely monitor jobs, income, and housing, and ensure residents’ ability to both live and work within City boundaries.

6.2

Highly skilled workforce. Work with local schools, colleges, trade schools and nonprofit scholarship organizations to ensure that a trained and qualified workforce is available to meet the needs of projected growing industries that provide living wages.

6.3

Job access, workforce development, and lifelong learning. Work with the school districts, the Kern County Regional Occupational Center, and the Department of Human Services to support mentorship professional development and continuing education programs so working adults can expand their skills and embrace lifelong learning.

6.4

Access to capital. Encourage banks and lenders, or adopt an Affordable Loan Program, to grant access to capital through affordable strategies including microloans, and ensure residents have the opportunity to invest in themselves, the City, and maintain a thriving economy.

6.5

Healthy workplaces and occupational health and safety. Encourage local employers to adopt employee programs and practices such as health challenges (e.g., weight loss contests, stop smoking, lunchtime/worktime sponsored events, bike to work days), healthy food choices and healthy work environments. The City can provide incentives (such as priority permit processing) to “healthy employers� that provide employee health benefits such as paid sick days, health insurance, gym membership, among others.

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6.6

Promote locally owned businesses. Provide programs or incentives that support locally owned businesses to promote a diverse local economy that serves the needs of local consumers.

6.7

Private-public-church partnership for job creation. Encourage multi-organization partnerships including faith-based groups that form social networks and explore employment opportunities that lead to new jobs.

6.8

Support youth-employment and youth-serving businesses. Explore opportunities to collaborate with the school districts along with faith-based and non-profit organizations to better serve youth employment needs.

6.9

Attract and retain business that provide living wage jobs. Develop programs to attract and retain socially responsible employers that can pay a living wage, provide health insurance benefits and meet existing levels of workforce education.

6.10

Create jobs that require higher skill levels. Encourage employers in Delano to create jobs that do not retain workers in monotonous low skill level positions, but rather, provide jobs that require higher skill levels and help create a higher quality job market and encourage workers and residents to obtain new skills and learn new technologies.

6.11

Encourage green technology businesses to locate in Delano. Adopt a green technology incubator for the City and recruit green technology entrepreneurs to locate in Delano.

H E A LT HY F O O D ACC E S S A N D F O O D S E C U R I T Y Goal 7.

Healthy Food Access. Accessible and convenient opportunities to buy and grow healthy, affordable, and culturally diverse foods with low concentrations of unhealthy food providers. Policies 7.1

Community gardens. Partner with the Delano Regional Medical Center, schools, and other organizations to create “edible school yards� and sustainable gardening programs at public and private schools within Delano. When feasible, increase access to healthy foods and promote healthy eating by encouraging on-site food swaps, cooking classes and/or selling food at farmers’ markets to provide educational opportunities to learn about farming and selling.

7.2

Selling locally produced food. Work with local agricultural stakeholders to establish a strategy to encourage existing and new agricultural uses in and near Delano to grow healthy food for local consumption.

7.3

Local food production. Make land use and policy decisions that encourage increased local food production.

7.4

Connect to local food markets. To the extent feasible, assess and plan for local food processing and distribution needs to connect local agriculture to markets, such as retailers, restaurants, schools, hospitals and other institutions and encourage

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certified organic growing practices. Also encourage local growers to consider establishing a co-operative community supported agriculture program. 7.5

Cottage Food Operations. Support cottage food operations as accessory business uses in residential zoning districts in accordance with AB 1616.

7.6

Community Gardens. Seek out and encourage the use of public and underused land, such as unused parking lots, abandoned properties, and public parks, for community gardens.

7.7

Supplemental food assistance programs. Reduce hunger and food insecurity through government programs, community education and emergency food resources. Specifically, work with the County to increase enrollment in WIC and CalFresh by educating residents about eligibility requirements and keeping applications at City offices.

7.8

Improve access to healthy food retail. Encourage and provide incentives for healthy and culturally appropriate food retail establishments (including full-service grocery stores, farmers’ markets, fruit and vegetable markets and small markets where a majority of food is healthy) to locate in Delano. Recognize food retailers and outlets in setting goals for local procurement.

7.9

Encourage healthy food retail. When making decisions about new stores and restaurants, encourage affordability, nutrition, environmental sustainability and cultural responsiveness.

7.10

Nutrition consumer education. Support the creation of public education programs about healthy and unhealthy food options.

7.11

Nutrition consumer education among the City’s youth. Partner with schools and other organizations to create “edible school yards” and sustainable gardening programs at public and private schools within Delano. When feasible, increase access to healthy foods and promote healthy eating by encouraging on-site food swaps, cooking classes and/or selling food at farmers’ markets to provide educational opportunities to learn about farming and selling.

7.12

Healthier options at restaurants. Establish a Healthy Eating Menu Initiative that will set healthy menu criteria and standards and will encourage existing and new restaurants to add healthier menu options. Options that cater to dietary restrictions can market themselves as a participant in the ‘healthy menu initiative.’

7.13

Good neighbor liquor stores. Partner with community organizations and/or the County of Kern Public Health Services Department to work with local liquor stores to improve perceived and actual neighborhood safety. Encourage businesses to keep at least 75 percent of their window area uncovered to improve eyes on the street visibility. Encourage the installation of internal and exterior security cameras, and improved outdoor lighting. Encourage businesses to increase the amount and visibility of “positive, family-friendly products”such as healthy food, and to ban or more discreetly place less positive products, such as adult-oriented publications, knives, cigarettes and other tobacco products, and alcohol.

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7.14

Liquor and Tobacco marketing. Prohibit stores from placing alcohol and tobacco products near candy and from placing alcohol and tobacco advertisements on exterior signage and below four feet in height (child’s eye-level).

PAR K S A N D R E C R E AT I O N Goal 8.

Park Access. Increased, safe access to parks, recreation, and natural open spaces to inspire and support physical activity. Policies 8.1

Create more park facilities. Establish a range of parks and open spaces, including tot lots, neighborhood parks, community parks, plazas/greens and/or greenways/parkways within all new developments as funding becomes available.

8.2

Improve existing park facilities. Improve existing parks and open space facilities and expand recreational programs as a means of improving the health of Delano residents. Active play structures and/or amenities should be designed to accommodate a range of ages and abilities.

8.3

Build additional recreation facilities. Regularly assess how existing sports facilities (e.g. fields, courts, etc.) match up with community demand and incorporate findings into the planning of park improvements and developments.

8.4

Create more recreation facilities and programs. Locate more public and private health clubs and recreation centers in Delano in partnership with community based organizations and private businesses. Explore regulatory or financial incentives in the zoning code and development approval process to encourage the location of private/non-profit recreation facilities (e.g., gyms, yoga or dance studios, martial arts, etc.).

8.5

Affordable recreation facilities and programs. Ensure that recreation programs are affordable and meet the diverse needs in the community for users such as seniors, youth, non-English speaking groups and special needs groups.

8.6

Joint-use facilities. Promote joint use of public and private facilities for community use, tourism, conference, convention and cultural uses.

8.7

Joint-use agreements. Create joint-use agreements with Delano Joint Union High School District to maximize community use of school facilities and expand school use of City park facilities, where appropriate and community space exists to expand opportunities for physical activity.

8.8

Joint-use facilities near schools. Work to acquire park sites adjacent to existing and proposed schools, where possible, and develop these sites as joint use facilities, develop joint use agreements to ensure public accessibility while ensuring safety and security. Provide for sustainable resources to maintain parks.

8.9

Community participation in improving parks. Create methods and opportunities that encourage residents to monitor and report vandalism along with maintenance issues in parks.

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8.10

Support youth programs through a teen center. Encourage and support existing and new youth programs to create a one-stop teen center that contains social, academic, health and cultural programs as funding becomes available.

8.11

Access to youth programs. Ensure that youth activities and programs are provided in, or accessible from all neighborhoods, either in City facilities or through joint-use or cooperative agreements with other service providers.

8.12

Support youth programs and physical activity opportunities outside of team sports. Prioritize the continued provision of high quality recreational and community programs since these highly subscribed programs increase social connection, physical activity and quality of life.

8.13

Create community parks, plazas, and other adaptable spaces for gathering and socializing. Build one or more affordable, accessible and flexible central gathering/meeting/event spaces that individuals and community groups can rent for a variety of social, cultural, educational and civic purposes.

8.14

Improve park landscaping, design, and aesthetic appeal. Improve existing park design through landscaping and cosmetic improvements that will appeal to community members and increase shading and create design guidelines for any future parks in Delano to create quality park design throughout the City.

8.15

Improve park safety. Increase real and perceived park safety through safety design guidelines including increased lighting, visibility from streets, and access to emergency call towers, as well as education on park safety and promoting park usage. The City should encourage implementing best practices in park safety for Delano’s community parks.

N AT U R A L R E S O U R C E S A N D E N VI R O N M E N TA L Q UA L I T Y Goal 9.

Sustainable Natural Environment. Protected and well-managed natural resources for future residents and the health of current residents. Policies 9.1

Protect and preserve natural lands, waterways, and plant and animal species. When considering development applications, require consideration of onsite natural resources and require sensitive design that minimizes impacts.

9.2

Increase native, non-invasive plant species / street trees. Encourage new developments to incorporate native vegetation materials into landscape plans and prohibit the use of species known to be invasive according to the California Invasive Plant Inventory

9.3

Light pollution. Limit light pollution from outdoor sources, especially in rural areas, and open spaces, to maintain darkness for night sky viewing.

9.4

Noise pollution. Minimize stationary noise impacts on sensitive receptors and noise emanating from construction activities, private developments/residences, landscaping activities, night clubs and bars and special events.

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9.5

Landscaping water efficiency and conservation. Encourage the reduction of landscaping water consumption through plant selection, irrigation technology, and rain sensors.

9.6

Water conservation and reuse. Advocate for and promote indoor and outdoor water conservation and reuse practices including water recycling, grey water re-use and rainwater harvesting.

9.7

Outdoor air quality. Minimize the creation of new sources of air pollutants within the City.

9.8

Mobile air pollution sources. Promote compact, mixed-use, energy efficient and transit-oriented development to reduce air pollutants associated with building energy and vehicular use.

9.9

Protect sensitive land uses from new pollution sources. Prohibit the placement of new facilities that will be involved in the production, use, storage, transport or disposal of hazardous materials near existing land uses that may be adversely affected by such activities. Conversely, prohibit the development of new sensitive facilities (like schools, childcare centers, nursing homes, senior housing, etc.) near existing sites that use, store or generate hazardous materials.

9.10

Prevent conflicts between pollutions sources and sensitive uses. Avoid locating new sensitive uses such as schools, child-care centers, multifamily housing and senior housing in proximity to sources of pollution (e.g., SR-99, truck routes, busy roadways and agricultural land where pesticides and chemical fertilizers are used regularly) and vice versa. Where such uses are located in proximity to sources of air pollution, use building design, construction and technology techniques to mitigate the negative effects of air pollution on indoor air quality. For guidance consult with the Air Quality Management District, CARB’s Air Quality and Land Use Handbook, or other more recent scientific studies or tools.

9.11

Indoor air quality. Require new development to meet the state’s Green Building Code for indoor air quality performance. Promote green building practices that support “healthy homes,” such as low volatile organic compound materials, environmental tobacco smoke control, and indoor air quality construction pollution prevention techniques.

9.12

Use of hazardous materials on private property. Encourage pesticide notification and posting for pesticide applications performed on private property to reduce or prevent harm and potential risks to adjacent properties, people or pets. Adjacent landowners may be able to adjust their schedules to accommodate spraying or pesticide use.

9.13

Reduce exposure to toxic and hazardous materials. Promote proactive compliance with disclosure laws that require all users, generators and transporters of hazardous materials and wastes to identify the materials they store, use or transport.

9.14

Non-toxic herbicides and pesticides. Encourage residents and businesses to reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials, including pesticides and herbicides, by using non-toxic, safer products and methods that do not pose a threat to the

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environment or by buying and using only the smallest amount of a hazardous substance needed for the job. 9.15

Cumulative impacts. When considering the location of new non-desirable and/or polluting land uses in or near residential areas or schools, the City shall continue to follow the CEQA definition of cumulative impacts and also consider the California Environmental Protection Agency's definition iii in decision-making to ensure that no specific area of the City or group of residents are overly exposed to harmful pollutants. •

9.16

Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges, in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.

Air quality planning and advocacy. Coordinate air quality planning efforts with other local, regional and state agencies, and encourage the City to take an official stand for stricter regional and state air quality improvement measures and standards.

C LI M AT E A DA P TAT I O N Goal 10. Climate Change Preparedness. A resilient community that is prepared for and minimizes the risks of the health and safety impacts of climate change. Policies 10.1

Severe weather losses and climate change-related hazards. Monitor and regularly assess climate vulnerabilities. Create a database to track incidents of windstorms, dust storms and other severe weather events to develop a better understanding of the frequency, magnitude and costs associated with severe weather. Use this knowledge to determine the value of establishing a “bad weather” fund to pay for repairs, cleaning and other direct costs of severe weather. Periodically review the effectiveness of existing plans, programs, codes and ordinances in protecting health and safety. Participate in the Storm Ready Program with the National Weather Service, including providing storm watches and warnings in real-time and issuing evacuation notices for the potentially affected neighborhoods in a timely manner.

10.2

Cooling centers and air conditioning. Work with the City’s emergency response team to expand access to the drop-in cooling centers for people vulnerable to high heat days. This should also include organizing a transportation-assistance program for individuals without access to vehicles, develop a robust heat warning system and provide up-to-date information to residents about cooling center locations and the health risks of extreme heat.

10.3

Climate and health indicators. Coordinate with San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District to understand local changes in temperature, extreme heat days, heat waves, drought and precipitation patterns to inform policy and planning decisions.

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10.4

Hazard change and mitigation. Maintain and update on a regular basis, as mandated by FEMA, a Local Hazard Mitigation Plan. Incorporate an assessment of climate change-related hazards in all Local Hazard Mitigation Plan updates.

10.5

Vector control. Allow the use of pesticides or other strategies to encourage Disease Vector Control with regulated and monitored use to comply with any applicable hazardous material use regulations or guidelines.

10.6

Changing precipitation patterns. Closely monitor precipitation patterns and forecasts on a local, regional, and state scale and adopt design requirements, development regulations, or additional programs to adjust and adapt to changes in precipitation.

10.7

Changing heating and cooling design parameters. Establish new heating and cooling design parameters in development projects that can adapt to potential temperature increase, and reduce energy consumption through passive heating and cooling design, site design, and best practices.

10.8

Water availability. Prepare, implement and maintain long-term, comprehensive water supply plans, like the Urban Water Management Plan.

10.9

Water availability. Ensure water supply capacity and infrastructure capacity is in place before granting building permits for new development. If water supply is not adequate to supply new development require new water supplies be secured before granting building permits for new development

10.10 Emergency evacuation. Maintain and update the emergency response organization

consisting of representatives from all City departments, the Kern County Fire and Sheriff Departments, local quasi-governmental agencies, private businesses, citizens, and other community partners involved in emergency relief and/or community-wide emergency-response services.

E N E R G Y A N D C LI M AT E C H A N G E Goal 11. Energy. A highly energy efficient community that relies primarily on renewable and non-polluting energy sources. Policies 11.1

Climate Action Plan. Maintain, implement and periodically update a climate action plan and greenhouse gas inventory.

11.2

Reduce GHG emissions. Conduct city operations and institutionalize practices that reduce municipal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lead the community in reducing GHG emissions.

11.3

Renewable energy. Promote the incorporation of alternative energy generation (e.g., solar, wind, biomass) in public and private development.

11.4

Renewable energy–open space areas. Allow the installation of renewable energy systems in areas zoned for open space.

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11.5

Home and business energy efficiency and reduction programs. When existing buildings undergo major retrofits, encourage the buildings to exceed Title 24 energy efficiency standards by 15 percent and encourage solar photovoltaics.

11.6

Infrastructure energy efficiency. As funding becomes available, implement a program to install the latest energy-efficient technologies for street and parking lot lights to meet City and state standards.

11.7

Adaptation strategy. Proactively develop strategies to reduce the community’s vulnerability to climate change impacts.

11.8

Heat island reduction. Require heat island reduction strategies in new developments such as light-colored cool roofs, light-colored paving, permeable paving, right-sized parking requirements, vegetative cover and planting, substantial tree canopy coverage, and south and west side tree planting.

11.9

Public realm shading. Strive to improve shading in public spaces such as bus stops, sidewalks and public parks and plazas through the use of trees, shelters, awnings, gazebos, fabric shading and other creative cooling strategies.

11.10 Preferential parking and charging stations for electric vehicles. Encourage new

developments, and projects involving reconstruction or repaving of parking facilities, to provide designated and preferred parking spots with charging stations for electric cars.

11.11 Greywater. Support the use of greywater (also known as on-site water recycling)

and establish criteria and standards to permit the safe and effective use of greywater.

11.12 Infrastructure energy efficiency and quality. Consider and evaluate new construction

practices and standards that increase building energy efficiency.

11.13 Storm water runoff and quality. Limit the amount and concentration of pollutants

released into the City’s storm drains.

11.14 Recycling and composting programs. Support on-going green waste recycling

efforts and facilitate composting opportunities for Delano residents and businesses in order to reduced surface ozone pollution and offset greenhouse gas emissions.

G R E E N B U I L DI N G S Goal 12. Green Building. Community building stock that demonstrates high environmental performance through green design. Policies 12.1

Green building programs. Encourage new development to seek out green building certification through established programs such as LEED or Green Point Rated.

12.2

Green affordable housing. Encourage affordable housing developments to prioritize green building design features that reduce monthly utility costs, enhance occupant health and lower the overall cost of housing.

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12.3

Reducing GHG emissions. In consulting with applicants and designing new facilities, encourage the selection of green building design features that enhance the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

12.4

Building energy efficiency requirement. Encourage new construction to exceed Title 24 energy efficiency standards and incorporate solar photovoltaics.

12.5

Energy performance targets – existing buildings. When existing buildings undergo major retrofits, encourage the buildings to exceed Title 24 energy efficiency standards and encourage solar photovoltaics.

12.6

Community development–subdivisions. When reviewing applications for new subdivisions, encourage all residences be oriented along an east-west axis, minimizing western sun exposure, to maximize energy efficiency.

Figure 1: These diagrams demonstrate how the blocks and housing within can be designed to maximize building energy efficiency, maintaining the primary building axis along an east-west access to minimze western sun exposure. Each diagram shows how buildings should be oriented with their long axis oriented from east to west and minimize sun exposure of the western face of buildings.

12.7

Storm water management. Encourage the use of low-impact development strategies to minimize urban run-off, increase site infiltration, manage storm water and recharge groundwater supplies.

12.8

Building water efficiency. Encourage new construction to exceed the state’s Green Building Code for water conservation by an additional 10 percent.

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IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS For some topics in this General Plan Element, the new adopted policies are sufficient to realize certain goals. However, most goals will require additional implementation actions to help make those operational. This section ties together the goals and policies in the Health and Sustainability Element. These are generally one-time actions needed to mobilize and execute specific policies within the General Plan, such as creating an ordinance or updating a master plan. Funding for these programs is expected to come from a wide variety of sources that will be identified in an on-going basis and will likely include the General Fund, development impact fees, and a variety of grants.

M AT R I X O R G A N I Z AT I O N In the matrix that follows, each implementation action includes the following information: #

ACTION DESCRIPTION

PRIORITY

TIME FRAME

RESPONSIBILITY

Each

An actionable description of the implementation

Action items are marked as “High”, “Medium”, or “Low” depending on community and

A broad timeframe that refers to when the action should

Identification of the agency or

action is

action. Some actions include end-note

staff input throughout the process. Some of the criteria that helped determine priority

be implemented. The timeframes are as follows:

department responsible for

numbered

references to supportive background material

included:

as a

or example projects.

Cost.

Feasibility.

each

Whether the action would help engage and empower residents.

element

comprehen sive list for

#

Action

Goal 1

Equitable and supportive community. A safe, equitable, and close-knit community in which diverse cultures can thrive together.

1.1

implementing the action.

one year of Plan adoption. Short – Within 2 to 4 years of Plan adoption. Medium – Between approximately 5 and 7 years of Plan adoption.

Whether action could improve or enhance existing programs/infrastructure (instead of create something new).

Immediate – Current/ongoing projects or within

Long – 10+ years after Plan adoption.

Ongoing – Reoccurring or immediate action.

Priority

Time Frame

Responsibility

Community Center. Establish and begin planning process for community center. Use report and data to define areas in the City that will best benefit from a local community center that supports community congregation. Sites should be accessible by walking, cycling, and public transportation.

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

1.2

Gathering Spaces. In addition an additional community center, site and establish a database of venues, halls, community rooms, or event spaces that will provide gathering spaces for community or civic events. All sited gathering spaces should be affordable or free to community members.

Medium

Immediate

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

1.3

Community Communication. Work with local community leaders, non-profit organization representatives, and other stakeholders in the City to establish an effective form of communication. The communication forum will better connect City staff, community members, and community leaders to each other through multiple directions of communication and information sharing.

High

Immediate

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

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Goal 2

Healthy Community. A community that supports residents’ health through a focus on wellness and preventative measures.

2.1

Health Forum. Work with community leaders and health advocates advisory committee. The committee will advise City Council, City staff, and community members on health and wellness, support health and wellness implementation actions, in addition to supporting health events, promoting healthy programs, and connecting residents to healthy lifestyle learning opportunities including cooking classes, nutritional seminars, special events, and community boards that support active lifestyles.

High

Immediate

City Manager

2.2

Health Assessment Report. Work with Kern County and Delano Medical Clinic to establish health indicators. Within one year of element adoption, establish baseline health data of indicators for Delano, and establish database to track trends and changes in the City’s health status. Work with Kern County and Delano Medical Center to provide a Regular Health Assessment Report that discloses and tracks changes in the City’s health status, and provide or promote local and regional health programs.

High

Immediate

City Manager, Community Development

2.3

Health care facilities. Work with County of Kern Public Health Services Department and state agencies to site and establish necessary facilities and services that will serve Delano residents without having to leave the City. Additionally, create incentives, or prioritize development for business and organizations that offer health care benefits to employees.

High

Long

Community Development

2.4

Liquor and Tobacco marketing. Prohibit stores from placing alcohol and tobacco products near candy and from placing alcohol and tobacco advertisements on exterior signage and below four feet in height (child’s eye-level).

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

2.5

Identify a workplace wellness team and create a model workplace wellness program for City employees. The team should assess employee health needs and implement workplace wellness programs and events. Some possible actions include offering employee incentives for healthy eating and physical activity; smoking cessation programs; group fitness or diet programs; health screenings; physical activity breaks for meetings over one hour in length; accommodate breastfeeding employees upon their return to work; and encourage walking meetings and use of stairways.

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

2.6

Share the City’s model workplace wellness program information with local employers to encourage the adoption of similar practices.

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Local Businesses

Goal 3

Healthy Community Design. Development patterns and urban design comprised of complete, walkable, attractive, and family-friendly neighborhoods and districts that support healthy and active lifestyles.

3.1

Establish Zoning changes that will require schools, or other sensitive receptors, and stationary pollution sources to be located at least 500 feet from each other. Research and establish exact distance requirements based on pollution source, prior to siting and permitting process.

Medium

Short

Community Development

3.2

Healthy Development Streamlining. Develop guidelines for streamlining development projects that will place fresh food or recreational opportunities within one-half mile walking distances to schools and neighborhoods, and ensure equal distribution among all neighborhood types.

Medium

Short

Community Development

3.3

Healthy Design Guidelines. Establish Healthy Design Guidelines for future development and ensure that prior to the issue of permits, development proposals adhere to healthy guidelines for the City. Additionally, continue to assess City facilities and make improvements to adhere to the adopted Healthy Design Guidelines.

High

Short

Community Development

3.4

Transit Ready Development. Update General Plan and zoning to promote compact, mixed-use, energy efficient and transit- ready development to reduce air pollutants associated with energy and vehicular use within existing undeveloped, underutilized areas.

Medium

Medium

Community Development

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3.5

Walkable subdivisions. Update zoning code and subdivision ordinance to ensure that new subdivisions are walkable with large sidewalk widths, short blocks, and access to non-residential activities.

High

Short

Community Development

Goal 4

Balanced Transportation. A balanced transportation system that accommodates all modes of travel safely and efficiently without prioritizing automobile travel at the expense of other modes.

4.1

Transit supportive environments. Collaborate with DART to identify and enhance those existing areas of the City where the land uses, development intensity and the pedestrian environment are conducive to higher levels of transit service and usage. • Bus stop location review. Review existing bus stop locations to determine their accessibility to key destinations such as schools, residential areas, retail centers and civic facilities. Work with Sun Line to relocate existing bus stop locations as needed to provide greater access to key community destinations. • Bus stop prioritization. Prioritize those bus stop locations that are connected to bicycle and pedestrian facilities to help meet users’ last mile travel needs. • Transit service prioritization. Work with Sun Line to prioritize future transit service in those areas where the greatest level of transit ridership will occur based on the supportive land use and transportation patterns. • Development incentives. Explore and develop incentives to encourage higher-density, transit-friendly development along these transit routes.

High

Short

Community Development

4.2

Sustainable transportation funding. Investigate funding mechanisms to maintain existing transportation infrastructure based on existing development such as assessment districts. Citywide traffic fee programs should also be updated on a recurring interval of not less than every five years.

High

Medium

City Manager, Community Development

4.3

Complete streets manual. Develop a complete streets manual to ensure new roadway construction addresses all modes of travel to implement complete street principles. On an ongoing basis, pursue grants to implement the multi-modal streets in Delano, including but not limited to funding from federal and state agencies, philanthropic organizations and corporate giving programs.

High

Short

Community Development, Engineering, Fire Department

Goal 5

Healthy Housing. Safe, affordable, and healthy housing for every stage of life.

5.1

Infill housing. Create development incentives, or streamlined permitting process for housing development proposals that fill in housing needs gap and offer housing for all ages and income levels. Also prioritize housing developments that create mixed-income neighborhoods, and provide walkable and bikeable access to retail and recreational amenities.

Medium

Medium

Community Development

5.2

Healthy housing checklist. Research and establish a healthy housing checklist that informs developers and contractors of healthy home/commercial/industrial materials that are low- or non-toxic, along with a list of resources for additional information and retailers that provide safe and healthy building materials.

High

Short

Community Development

5.3

Foreclosure support. Provide a contact list and service to residents facing foreclosure, and connect residents to non-profits and other community partners that can help prevent foreclosure and keep residents in Delano.

Medium

Immediate

City Manager, Community Groups

Goal 6

Economic Prosperity. An economically vibrant business community that is socially and environmentally conscious and provides quality employment opportunities and resources to meet community needs.

6.1

Healthy business incentives. Establish potential development incentives, and healthy business guidelines, that will attract businesses to Delano that support and promote healthy lifestyles and business practices.

Medium

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Chamber of Commerce

6.2

Workplace wellness team. Identify a workplace wellness team and create a model workplace wellness program for City employees. The team should assess employee health needs and implement workplace wellness programs and events. Some possible actions include offering employee incentives for healthy eating and physical activity; smoking cessation programs; group fitness or diet programs; health screenings; physical activity breaks for meetings over one hour in length; accommodate breastfeeding employees upon their return to work; and encourage walking meetings and use of stairways. The City should share this model workplace wellness program information with local employers to encourage the adoption of similar practices. The City can provide incentives (such as

Medium

Immediate

City Manager, Recreation, Human Resources

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priority permit processing) to “healthy employers” who provide employee health benefits such as paid sick days, health insurance, and gym membership, among others. 6.3

Business sponsored healthy events. Streamline event permitting process for community members and businesses wanting to create or sponsor healthy events, or programs, which provide opportunities to be active, provide health education, and support active lifestyles. Events could include City/community/business lead walks, walking and biking business tours, block parties that promote healthy eating and activity, youth events that promote recreation, senior specific health events, and any other events that would promote healthy lifestyles.

Low

Short

City Manager, Community Development, Chamber of Commerce

Goal 7

Healthy Food Access. Accessible and convenient opportunities to buy and grow healthy, affordable, and culturally diverse foods with low concentrations of unhealthy food providers.

7.1

Food deserts. Map and site food deserts within the City, where fresh food is further than one mile from residential neighborhoods, and prioritize community gardens, edible landscaping, or farmers markets to fill in the gaps of fresh food supply. Community gardens should also be prioritized on undeveloped land, or in parks, within neighborhoods with multi-family housing.

Medium

Medium

Community Development

7.2

Healthy foods and beverages at public events. Research and adopt an ordinance to increase healthy food and beverage options at public facilities, meetings and events. The ordinance should consider banning sugar-sweetened beverages and increase the proportion of “healthy” items sold in vending machines and at concession stands. Adopt City nutrition guidelines based on work across the state and nation. Guidelines should include unhealthy food items that may not be served at public meetings/events, ideas of healthy food and beverage alternatives and criteria for “healthy” vs. “unhealthy” items.

Low

Medium

City Manager, Community Development

7.3

Food assistance programs. Establish a list of resources and contact information about food assistance programs, and also provides a map of fresh food retailers, Low community gardens, and farmers markets within the City. The list should be posted on the City website, at health facilities, grocery stores, produce markets, and social service facilities to increase awareness of fresh food access within the City.

Medium

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

7.4

Food buses. Work with local community groups to establish a city-community collaboration for and Food Bus Program that provide access to fresh food and meals through a mobile source that can reach neighborhoods with limited access to fresh and healthy food. Identify neighborhoods that would benefit from a Food Bus Program and produce supply chains, schedules, and locations for drop off sites. The Food Bus Program can also provide and ‘Lunch Bus Service’ during summer months (when school is not in session) that provide nutritional lunches to kids under the age of 18 that have little or no access to healthy food options.

Medium

Medium

City Manager, Community Development, Community Groups

Goal 8

Park Access. Increased, safe access to parks, recreation, and natural open spaces to inspire and support physical activity.

8.1

Parks Master Plan. Review and update the City's Parks Master Plan to create greenways and an interconnected trails and parks system that has the ability to move residents and patrons throughout Delano by a network of interconnected greenways, trails, pedestrian friendly streets, and parks.

Medium

Medium

Community Development, Engineering, Recreation

8.2

Recreation programs. Gather a list of existing recreation youth programs and facilities used, from schools, non-profits, private sports clubs, and community programs. If there is a gap, create or work with various recreational organizations to provide youth programs at City facilities, or joint use facilities, that meet needs of youth and promote an active youth population in the City.

Medium

Short

Recreation, Community Development

8.3

Joint use agreements. Work with Delano Union School and High School district to adopt a joint-use agreement for parks and recreation facilities, and include these parklands in the updated City's Parks Master Plan. Joint use agreements should be determined prior to adoption of Parks Master Plan update.

Medium

Medium

Recreation, Community Development, School Districts

Goal 9

Sustainable Natural Environment. Protected and well-managed natural resources for future residents and the health of current residents.

HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY

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9.1

Grey water ordinance. Write and adopt a grey water ordinance establishing criteria and standards to permit the safe and effective use of grey water (also known as on-site water recycling). Review and revise, without compromising health and safety, other building code requirements that might otherwise prohibit such systems.

Low

Long

Community Development

Goal 10

Climate Change Preparedness. A resilient community that is prepared for and minimizes the risks of the health and safety impacts of climate change.

10.1

Climate Action Plan. Adopt a Climate Action Plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to comply with AB 32 and SB 375 regulations, and promote energy efficiency practices for City facilities.

High

Immediate

Community Development

10.2

Climate change health impacts. Work with Kern Council of Governments to conduct a community-wide assessment of the potential health impact, cumulative impact, and risk resiliency factors of climate change on Delano residents. The assessment should identify the geographic areas, groups and individuals most vulnerable to climate change and specific opportunities for the City to improve its response. Vulnerable groups typically include infants and young children, the elderly, outdoor workers, people with preexisting health conditions such as asthma, and communities already affected by other social, economic, or other environmental injustices. With this information, develop a climate adaptation strategy to protect the public from heat waves and vector control, increased threats of wildfire, changing precipitation patterns, reduced water supply and increased peak energy demand.

Medium

Medium

Community Development, Kern COG, County of Kern Public Health Services Department

10.3

Hazard prevention. Develop and make available to all residents and businesses, literature on hazard prevention and disaster response. The literature should emphasize disasters brought on my Climate Change.

Medium

Long

Community Development, Fire Department, Police Department

Goal 11

Energy. A highly energy efficient community that relies primarily on renewable and non-polluting energy sources.

11.1

Energy efficiency checklist. Establish or adopt a checklist to encourage developers and contractors to plan and install energy-efficient infrastructure and technology, including design strategies, passive heating and cooling systems, installing energy efficient light, finding renewable resources to supply energy to building and other advances.

High

Short

Community Development

11.2

Energy efficiency workshops. Organize workshops on how to increase energy efficiency of homes and businesses through topics such as home weatherization, building envelope design, smart lighting systems and conducting a self-audit of energy usage.

High

High

Community Development, Kern Cog, Utilities

11.3

Home energy audits. Create, or establish, a City provided or sponsored program that provides residents with free home energy audits. The program should also offer informational sessions to inform home owners on energy efficient habits, tips, and appliances that can be used to decrease energy use.

High

Medium

Community Development

Goal 12

Green Building. Community building stock that demonstrates high environmental performance through green design.

12.1

Green design incentives. Prioritize, or provide density bonuses to buildings that adopt LEED Design Guidelines.

Low

Medium

Community Development

i

World Health Organization. (1998). Health Promotion Glossary. Geneva, Switzerland. WHO/HPR/HEP/98.1. Accessed from: http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/about/HPR%20Glossary%201998.pdf

ii

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). “Green Communities: Action Planning and the Sustainable Community�. http://www.epa.gov/greenkit/sustain.htm

iii

California Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. (August 19, 2010). Cumulative Impacts: Building a Scientific Foundation. Retrieved from: http://oehha.ca.gov/ej/pdf/081910cidraftreport.pdf

HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY

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A1. Community Conversation #1 and #2


Delano Community Conversation #1 Summary

Health and Sustainability General Plan Element Public Workshop Tuesday, February 26, 2013. 5:30–8:00p.m. Delano Civic Center 1010 11th Avenue

Project Overview Through generous grant funding from the Smart Valley Places Program, the City of Delano has initiated the creation of a new Element for the General Plan that addresses the City’s current and future health and sustainability goals. The City and other project stakeholders have defined health and sustainability broadly to include all aspects of the natural, built, economic, and social environment. California state law requires every city and county to have a general plan, which sets the policies on the use and management of physical, social, and economic resources. General plans document the community’s shared vision of tomorrow and identifies the policies and programs to achieve that vision. California requires that general plans address the following seven topics: • • •

Land Use Housing Conservation

• •

Circulation (transportation) Open Space

• •

Noise; and Safety

Cities and counties are encouraged to include additional “optional” elements for topics that are important to the success of the community. Since health and sustainability are two of the most critical concerns in Delano, the City has embarked on this process. The consulting firm Raimi + Associates (R+A) is supporting the City’s efforts on this project. Fehr & Peers (active transportation and transportation safety experts) and RBF (CEQA environmental review for the project) will also support the effort as subconsultants to Raimi + Associates.

Community Conversation Purpose and Overview The Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #1 took place on Tuesday, February 26, 2013 from 5:30pm-8:00pm at the Delano Civic Center. Eighty-two participants signed-in at the workshop, but there were likely more people in attendance since some families in attendance had only one person sign-in for the entire family. The objectives of the workshop were to: • • •

Educate residents about Delano’s Health and Sustainably Element and Climate Action Plan; Learn about existing health and environmental conditions in Delano; Get feedback from residents on their health and sustainability priorities for Delano; and

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• Socialize and have fun! Meeting materials were provided in both English and Spanish. During the presentation, Javier Arreola, an independent and professional Spanish-language interpreter, provided simultaneous Spanish translation using headsets rented from Fresno Metro Ministries. Approximately six attendees utilized these services.

Presentation The meeting began with opening remarks from Delano’s Community Development Director Richelle Cariño and Mayor Joe Aguirre. Subsequently, the consultant team (represented by Matthew Burris and Beth Altshuler from Raimi + Associates; and Chris Gray from Fehr & Peers) presented background information to ensure participants had the knowledge necessary to provide meaningful input on the project. Matt discussed the project itself and the connections between health, sustainability, and municipal policy decisions. Next, Beth and Chris shared data on Delano’s existing conditions related to health and sustainability. Finally, Jeff Caton from Environmental Science Associates presented information on climate change and California’s legal requirements concerning climate planning. Jeff obtained feedback on the Delano Climate Action Plan, a separate, but parallel effort.

Visual Preference Survey To fully understand community members' ideas regarding the look and feel of future development and the desired amenities, Raimi + Associates conducted a visual preference survey. The survey consisted of 34 photos that showed a diverse range of building and street types. Beth asked community members to rate each image on a scale of 0 to 4; where 0 indicated “strongly dislike - do not want to see in Delano in the future” and 4 is “strongly like - do want to see in Delano in the future.” Following the workshop, the project team recorded the responses and calculated the average score for each photo based on the 63 completed survey forms. Average scores for all 33 Images (listed in order of appearance in the presentation) Below are the average scores for each photo. The top line is the photo number (1 through 34). The bottom line shows the average score for each photo based on a simple scale from 0 to 4. Overall, photos coded as dark green were very well liked, lighter green pretty well liked, while photos marked in dark and light red were disliked.

Photo # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average  Score 2.75 3.31 3.27 2.34 3.19 3.27 3.13 3.11 2.94 3.43 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2.89 2.69 3.08 2.29 2.52 2.62 2.03 1.57 2.42 1.94 1.95 3.25 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 3.00 2.64 2.70 2.39 1.75 2.20 2.42 2.79 2.67 2.29 2.84 2.50 Page | 2


Top 5 – Most Popular Images (score on in left corner, photos number in right corner)

(These last two images were both #6 – public outdoor seating areas)

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Bottom 5 – Least popular images (score on in left corner, photos number in right corner)

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Interactive Stations to Provide Input After the visual preference survey, Beth Altshuler explained the interactive activity stations and invited community members to visit each of the six (6) stations. The stations included: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Health & Sustainability Goals Park Safety & Access Economic Prosperity Sustainable Environment Healthy Food Active & Safe Transportation

One or two project staffers provided guidance and answered questions at each station. Participants were encouraged to comment on each topic area with additional thoughts, either on large flipchart paper on the wall or on the individual feedback forms provided at the meeting. Below are images of the board(s) at each station and the sum of sticker-dots placed by residents on each item (when applicable). A summary of the comments from the flipchart paper and feedback forms are included after each station board in italics. Comments that were received in Spanish were translated and included in the summary. After participants finished the interactive voting exercise, they ate a healthy dinner (prepared by community volunteers), socialized, and enjoyed the music of the Delano High School Jazz Band.

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Station 1: Health and Sustainability Goals Results The top health and sustainability goals included: • Streets that support walking, bicycling, and transit (18) • Improve public safety (16) • Access to healthy, affordable, and locally-produced food (16) • Improved water quality (13) Additional comments from this station included the following: • Improve the safety of parks • Increase youth activities and safe places for them to hang out • Create a central plaza for events and hanging out • Organize more cultural and community events year-around • Expand healthcare coverage, reduce costs for low-income, and guide community on prevention rather than treatment • Provide more education about preventative health care • Provide more mental health treatment/facilities • Water rate increase assistance for low-income families • Increase the availability of low-income housing • Support a non-profit organization to create a homeless shelter • Help develop more activities for youth including movie theatres, community pools, roller skating rinks, etc.

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Station 2: Park Safety and Access Results Stakeholder on the projects Planning Task Force provided input about parks in a previous meeting where they explained that many of the existing parks are underutilized because of safety and access issues. To examine this more deeply, Station 2 asked participants to reference the park maps to comment on the quality, safety, and access of the Delano parks. General citywide park comments appear first and park-specific comments follow. General Citywide Park Comments • Create more parks, including dogs parks o But need to better enforce existing pet laws • Numerous comments about bring back the Ellington Pool • Increase safety in parks – because of homeless people, gangs members, and people drinking alcohol or using drugs in parks • Increase the amount of bike lanes, running trails, running tracks, and lighting in and around parks • Increase amount of recreation facilities, running tracks, and equipment options • Create more physical activities in schools outside of team sports. • Create an amusement park • Expand the options of play and exercise equipment in the parks • Create more recreation opportunities for youth • Need a park around 9th Avenue • Need more flexible spaces for both active physical activity and relaxation and socializing (seating, tables, etc.) • Residents at Almond Tree need a park they can walk too o In the future do not allow developers to build a so much housing without a walkable park. Albany Park • Poor route from North housing • Unsafe routes to schools and parks (immediate hazards) • Needs improved landscaping design and more trees for shade Cecil Park • It’s nice that the park has new equipment but please pay some attention to the other parks now. • Perception of youth “trouble makers” hanging out at park • Needs more shade trees Caesar Chavez Park • Feels unsafe and needs security (homeless, drunks, gangs, etc.) o Drug dealing occurs at this park o One person commented “I like this park – it’s safe” •

Didn’t like it when the pool was demolished – created an unsafe environment

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• •

o Bring back the pool Needs more lighting Needs a better toilet (plumbing, gross, smells, not maintained)

Jefferson Park • Needs more shade trees • Needs better lighting • The tennis court needs to be repaired • The landscaping needs improvement (it looks generic instead of fun and creative) • Crossing Lexington Street to get to park is unsafe Calibo Park • Not enough lights • Better Design • Better Lighting = Less Crime • More Trees Memorial Park (County-Owned Park) • Needs more adult activity • More trees Morningside Park • Needs more shade trees • All Delano’s parks should look like this one • If you don’t live in this areas, you don’t feel welcome at the park • Lacks play structure for preschool-kindergarten age kids (needs a tot lot) Valle Vista Park • Needs more shade trees • Needs improved landscape design • Could be a great place for a running track • Needs more lighting • The restroom is not well maintained • Needs benches and tables • Organize more youth activities here • Create walkways through, around, and to park

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Station 3: Economic Prosperity Results The top economic prosperity strategies included: • • •

Workforce learning (26) Green Technology (25) Healthy Workplace (23)

Other comments on Economic Prosperity included the following: • Focus on and invest in education, for adults and children, through literacy programs, ESL Classes, computer trade classes, libraries and library programs, and education through the arts. o Help coordinate the different education agencies and organizations o Provide ESL Classes for free/reduced then lead to other course such as computer/trade o Open another library on the west side of town o Create a city arts center with classes and a community gallery o Non-credit adult continuing education courses through local college o Coordinate and encourage local churches, local colleges, and institutions to improve literacy and professional development classes in the City • Attract more jobs that require higher skill levels. Focus on creating trade, education, and skills that can get people jobs. • More professional education training • Create jobs whose talents/skills already exist in Delano

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Station 4: Sustainable Environment Results While participants showed strong support for all of the six sustainability and environmental health strategies listed at the station, the one that received the most support was creating stricter anti-tobacco and anti-smoking laws (44 in favor). The next most popular strategy that people supported was sorting garbage, compost, and recycling at home (31). Other comments people made at this station included: • •

• • • •

Increase water conservation strategies Government fines are not the answer for a cleaner environment o Encourage recycling through positive reinforcement, not fines o Government fines/incentives only work for big businesses whose only goal is profit Incentivize recycling & composting with free services, higher garbage fees Add library services can benefit so many it can also address part of our workforce problems, unemployment, and education gaps Find ways to reduce the need to drive everywhere Continue to clean water wells

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Station 5: Healthy Food Station 5 asked residents to share their ideas to encourage healthier eating in Delano. The following is a summary of all of the comments: • •

• • • • • •

Expand the variety of restaurants in Delano and encourage new and existing restaurants to offer healthier menu options Expand community gardens to more users o Allow community gardeners to sell, produce to schools, and residents o Encourage local mom/pop corner stores buy their produce locally from Local Delano Farms or community gardens Improve healthy food access to all residents, especially youth o Sell fruits to kids at the park and at school (instead of ice cream/popsicles) o Work with the schools to create healthier school meals o Educate parents and children (at schools and recreation centers) about healthy foods, cooking demonstrations recipes, and culturally-oriented healthy recipes Stock vending machines with healthy foods Encourage stores to sell more fruits and vegetables – especially organic Bring in a Fresh and Easy, or farmers market, community gardens, and purchasing of local fresh food Limit amount of drive-throughs and fast food restaurants, especially near schools (to limit pollution and youth access to junk food) Make clean drinking water easier to buy Restrict off-site liquor licenses

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Station 6: Active and Safe Transportation Participants were asked to vote on their top strategies to improve transportation under the topics of vehicular travel, bicycle travel, pedestrian travel, and transit. The most popular transportation strategy was to decrease vehicle speeds in residential areas (25). Participants also favored: • • • • •

Repairing cracks and potholes (16) Electric vehicle charging stations 16) Creating off-street bike trails and paths (14) Bike lanes near parks and schools along major roadways (13); and Additional street lighting, signals, and signage to improve safety (13).

Participants had the following general comments about transportation in Delano. Vehicular Travel • Encourage electric taxis and cars • Re-route prison traffic off Ceil Avenue • Remove preferential parking spots • Decrease car speeds • Decrease speed limit on Cecil Avenue low than 30 MPH • The road transformation before 22nd street needs speed bumps • Encourage businesses to offer incentives and support for people to carpool or to offer employee shuttles Pedestrian Travel • Control crime • Install more street lights • Create safe walking routes that connect neighborhoods to schools o Improve school route on Hiett (Legacy Estates to Robert F. Kennedy High School) Bicycle Travel • Create bike baths that connect to schools and open spaces outside of the urbanized areas Transit • Connections to regional transportation such as Amtrak and MetroLink • More frequent bus services create stops that are closer together Other • Concern about increasing population density

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Delano Community Conversation #2 Summary

Health and Sustainability General Plan Element Public Workshop Wednesday, May 29th, 2013. 6:00–8:00p.m. Delano Civic Center 1010 11th Avenue

Project Overview Through generous grant funding from the Smart Valley Places Program, the City of Delano has initiated the creation of a new Element for the General Plan that addresses the City’s current and future health and sustainability goals. The City and other project stakeholders have defined health and sustainability broadly to include all aspects of the natural, built, economic, and social environment. California state law requires every city and county to have a general plan, which sets the policies on the use and management of physical, social, and economic resources. General plans document the community’s shared vision of tomorrow and identifies the policies and programs to achieve that vision. California requires that general plans address the following seven topics:   

Land Use Housing Conservation

 

Circulation (transportation) Open Space

 

Noise; and Safety

Cities and counties are encouraged to include additional “optional” elements for topics that are important to the success of the community. Since health and sustainability are two of the most critical concerns in Delano, the City has embarked on this process. The consulting firm Raimi + Associates (R+A) is supporting the City’s efforts on this project. Fehr & Peers (active transportation and transportation safety experts) and RBF (CEQA environmental review for the project) will also support the effort as subconsultants to Raimi + Associates.

Community Conversation Purpose and Overview The Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #2 took place on Wednesday, May 29, 2013 from 6:00pm-8:00pm at the Delano Civic Center. Sixty-four participants signed-in at the workshop. The objectives of the workshop were to:   

Provide an update on the GPU and Health Element process Present the existing health conditions Gain participant feedback on potential policy directions / solutions to health problems in Coachella

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Presentation The meeting began with opening remarks from Delano’s Community Development Director Richelle Cariño and Mayor Joe Aguirre. Subsequently, the consultant team (represented by Matthew Burris and Beth Altshuler from Raimi + Associates; and Chris Gray from Fehr & Peers) presented background information to ensure participants had the knowledge necessary to provide meaningful input on the project. Matt discussed the project itself and the connections between health, sustainability, and municipal policy decisions. Next, Beth and Chris shared data on Delano’s existing conditions related to health and sustainability. Matthew Burris then explained the results from the Visual Preference Survey taken in Community Workshop #1, and showed the least and most favorable visual preferences from the survey.

Interactive Stations to Provide Input After the initial background presentation, Beth Altshuler explained the interactive activity stations and invited community members to visit each of the seven (7) stations. The stations included: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Walkability Infrastructure Improvements Healthy food options Community and Recreation Programs Education and Job Training Climate change, energy, and green practice education Physical and mental health

One or two project staffers provided guidance and answered questions at each station. Participants were encouraged to comment on each topic area with additional thoughts, either on large flipchart paper on the wall or on the individual feedback forms provided at the meeting. Below is a summary of the comments from the feedback forms by topics followed by a copy of the feedback forms to show what questions were addressed in each focus group. Comments that were received in Spanish were translated and included in the summary.

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1. Walkability – Community members focused on walkability in a number of topics and wanted more walkability throughout the City. Community members would like…. a. Additional pedestrian and bike paths leading to services, amenities, and parks b. A walking travel time of 15 minutes to services c. Senior housing that is close to City services and entertainment d. Safe paths to schools and parks for youth 2. Infrastructure improvements – Community members recommended infrastructure improvements throughout the City that include… a. New sidewalks and improved conditions of existing sidewalks and paths b. Improved park facilities and additional recreation facilities at parks c. Better paths and roadways conditions on the west side of the City d. More lighting, especially along sidewalks and in parks e. More trees, benches, landscaping and shading throughout the City 3. Healthy food options – Community members would like to have more fresh and healthy food options through the City including…. a. Fresh food options for youth in schools b. A restriction on vending machines, fast food restaurants, and unhealthy food in schools c. More family style restaurants d. Education and awareness of healthy food options 4. Community and recreation programs – Community members would like to see more community activities that will bring together all of its members, this was proposed with…. a. More town hall meetings b. Walking clubs, and biking clubs c. More recreation programs, especially for youth d. Increased police and neighborhood activity to improve safety 5. Education and job training – Community members want more jobs and training for high skill level jobs within the City, including… a. Vocational training b. More community members with high education c. Variety of jobs to fill, to attract recent college graduates d. More businesses in residential areas

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6. Climate change, energy, and green practice education – Community members support more education and awareness efforts to teach people about climate change issues and how to be energy efficient. Sub topics also included…. a. Water resources and equity pricing with water meters b. A support for tiered pricing for energy and water users c. Cooling centers for seniors, or other sensitive populations d. Incentives for residents and business to implements green practices e. No or low cost for energy audits 7. Physical and mental health – community members would like to improve physical and mental health services including…. a. Expanding mental health services within the City b. Promote preventative health to residents (education) c. Partner with schools to promote health to City’s youth (education) d. Affordable health care

Among all the notes, walkability and infrastructure improvements were mentioned in many sections, and were the

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Delano Health and Sustainability Community Conversation #2 Wednesday, May 29, 2013. 5:30-8:00pm

Workshop Objectives • Educate residents about Delano’s Health and Sustainably General Plan Element and Climate Action Plan • Prioritize different policy approaches for key topics • Socialize and have fun! Agenda 1. Welcome (5:30-5:40pm) 2. Presentation (5:40-6:10pm) 3. Small Group Discussion – Round 1 (6:15-6:40pm) 4. Small Group Discussion – Round 2 (6:45-7:10pm) 5. Facilators Report Back Results (7:10-7:30pm) 6. Dinner / Socializing (7:30-8:30pm) SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION INSTRUCTIONS: We’ve prepared discussion questions related to specific health and sustainability topics. Each small group discussion table will focus on one topic and you will have the opportunity to visit two tables. The questions for each table are listed on the following pages. We invite you to skim the questions before choosing a table. Each small group will have a note taker, however, you are also welcome to write down your responses to questions and turn them in at the end of the event. The small group topics include: A. B. C. D. E. F.

Land Use & Housing Parks Health & Equity Economy, Employment, & Education Transportation & Mobility Healthy Food Access & Food Security

G. Public Safety & Community Engagement H. Pollution, Waste & Environmental Quality I. Climate Change Adaptation & Water Supply J. Green Buildings & Energy

1


A. Land Use and Housing 1. Is there a desire and demand for a greater variety of housing styles in Delano (e.g., apartments, townhomes, condos, etc.)? Where would you like to see these homes? Who would live there?

2. What neighborhood amenities, businesses, or public uses (e.g., supermarket, school, post office, cafe, child care, etc.) are the most important to be able to walk from home or work?

3. Do you want to be able to walk to the neighborhood uses you listed in question #2? Which ones? How far (distance or minutes) are you willing to walk to each neighborhood amenity?

4. Are there certain areas of the City where housing quality and/or affordability are major issues? Where? What are the issues?

5. What are the biggest housing needs among renter-occupied households?

6. Would you support higher density developments located near transit and commercial areas? Why or why not?

7. Regarding land use and housing, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

2


B. Parks 1. What facility/program enhancements would encourage you (or other Delano adults) to exercise at parks and/or recreation centers?

2. How can the City encourage residents to help improve park facilities and programs?

3. What is most important: building new parks, improving existing parks, or making it easier to get to parks? Why?

4. How can the City encourage parents and other adults to volunteer in youth sports programs?

5. Regarding parks and recreation, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

3


C. Health and Equity 1. Diabetes and obesity are two of the most pressing health issues in Delano among both adults and children. How can the City support people living with these conditions to heal? How can the City help prevent future cases of obesity and diabetes?

2. Child and adult asthma rates are also high in Delano and the surrounding region. In addition to improving outdoor air quality how else can the community reduce asthma?

3. Young adults (18-32) have the lowest rates of health insurance coverage in Delano. How can we improve their coverage?

4. Where would it be ok for the City to ban smoking to protect people from secondhand smoke? (e.g., parks, multi-family housing units, within 30 feet of doorways and windows, outdoor seating at restaurants, outdoor public events such as a the Christmas Parade, etc.). What are your other ideas?

5. Is there a stigma around people with mental health conditions? How can the City work with mental health care professionals and community groups to ensure people see and get treatment?

6. Regarding health and equity, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

4


D. Economy, Employment, and Education 1. What are the top strategies the City and local business community can pursue to draw more jobs to Delano?

2. Almost a third of Delano’s working-aged adults are unemployed. What types of programs (non-financial assistance) could help them continue to be productive members of the community until they find permanent employment?

3. What types of adult education / job training would you like to see in Delano?

4. How can Delano encourage youth to return after graduating from college?

5. How should Delano balance supporting locally owned small businesses and allowing new big box development? Are their certain areas where big box should be encouraged/discouraged? Are their certain types of businesses that are preferred over others?

6. Should the City promote “green� or environmentally-friendly businesses and technologies as a way to grow jobs and diversify the local economy?

7. Regarding the economy, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

5


E. Transportation and Mobility 1. What would encourage you to walk or bike more for transportation? (more destinations such as stores, schools, jobs or unsafe/ unpleasant environment)?

2. Would you prefer that the City spend funds to maintain the existing transportation system or build new facilities (e.g., repair an existing sidewalk or build a new sidewalk)?

3. Are you willing to let your children walk to school? Why? Would you be more likely to allow your children to bike to school if bike paths or bike lanes were provided? If not, why not?

4. Would you be willing to accept traffic calming treatments (speed humps, raised intersections, medians, etc.) that will slow down all vehicles on the street, in the interest of pedestrian and vehicle safety? Would these be ok on residential streets? On major road?

5. Are you able to take a bus to reach areas outside of the City? If not, then what limits your ability to take a bus? Do you feel safe and comfortable taking a bus? If not, then why?

6. Do you carpool to work? What would encourage you to carpool (i.e., employer incentives; park and ride lots)?

7. Would you like to see more local investment in alternative vehicle infrastructure (for example, electric vehicle charging stations)?

8. Regarding transportation, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

6


F. Healthy Food Access and Food Security 1. In your opinion, what are the biggest barriers to healthy eating and food security in Delano (e.g., geographic access to healthy food store, cost, lack of knowledge of healthy food/ cooking, taste preferences, etc.)?

2. What can the City and/or community groups do to address the barriers you identified in question #1?

3. Would you support the City restricting the sale of unhealthy items in public facilities (vending machines in public buildings, concession stands at parks, etc.) and offering more healthy items instead? Please provide details.

4. What types of restrictions on unhealthy fast food, if any,) should the City consider?

5. How and where should the City restrict new liquor stores? What are some of the real or perceived problems around / at current liquor store locations?

6. People have expressed an interest in community gardens, small scale community farms, and support growing food on personal property? What is your vision for how the City can increase locally grown, healthy food?

7. Regarding healthy food, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

7


G. Public Safety and Community Engagement 1. What is the biggest challenge to public safety in Delano?

2. What are some policies or programs to improve “real and perceived neighborhood safety”? (think about safety in your neighborhood, downtown, in other neighborhoods, in parks, etc.)

3. We’ve heard that people are scared to walk and bike because of stray dogs. What can the community and City do to reduce stray dogs in the neighborhoods?

4. How should the community participate in public decision making processes? Please provide your suggestions below for the following items as well as adding other ideas. a. Public forums:

b. City Council meetings:

c. Electronic outreach (e.g., website, social media, e-mail list/announcements, etc.):

5. Where does discrimination exist in Delano (e.g., racism, sexism, homophobia, classism, ageism, geographic, etc.)? How can the City support efforts to end discrimination?

6. Regarding public safety, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

8


H. Pollution, Waste, and Environmental Quality 1. What big and bold changes can Delano make to improve air quality?

2. What can the City do to increase recycling and divert more waste from disposal at the landfill?

3. What policies/programs should the City create to protect communities/ areas that experience cumulative impacts (multiple or unfair environmental impacts)? For example zoning to prevent a density of polluting sources, distance buffers, etc.

4. How can the City improve the quality of life / protect Delano residents who already live near multiple pollution sources?

5. How hard should Delano work to protect the natural environment from the effects of urban activities, such as light and glare, loss of agricultural lands, polluted storm water, smog, and loss of forage lands for raptors and migratory birds?

6. Regarding pollution and environmental quality, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

9


I. Climate Change Adaptation and Water Supply 1. Do you think the average Delano resident understands the climate change impacts he/she could experience during his/her lifetime? If not, what are good ways to communicate those impacts?

2. Climate scientists expect extreme temperatures (over100 degrees F) to double in Delano by the year 2050. How would that affect your satisfaction with living and/or working in the City? Should the City expand programs to assist vulnerable populations in the event of extreme heat events (e.g., cooling centers for seniors) or other climate-related disasters?

3. In Delano, the anticipated impacts of climate change over the coming decades includes increased periods of drought; more frequent heat waves, and extreme weather events, flooding, reduced agricultural productivity, more wildfires, worsening air quality, and other threats to public health and safety. What policies, programs, technology, and/or design interventions will help Delano residents and workers cope with climate change?

4. Over time the state’s water supply, including groundwater, will become an increasingly scarce and expensive resource (exacerbated by climate change and population growth), Should the City implement new programs to help residents and businesses conserve water? Should the City support major water reclamation and reuse projects, and increase capacity for community water storage?

5. Regarding climate change adaptation, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

10


J. Green Buildings and Energy

Discuss the following green building and energy conservation strategies with your group.

Strategy 1. Increase City outreach/education to building owners and homeowners to raise awareness of energy efficiency programs. 2. Require by law that new commercial and residential buildings achieve higher energy efficiency standards than the state building code. 3. Require by law that information about energy use and potential upgrades is provided when a building is sold. 4. Require by law that energy upgrades are performed when a building is sold. 5. Encourage and promote voluntary energy audits, or provide small business energy audits at no or low-cost. 6. Develop a voluntary, local "Green Business" program or outreach campaign to promote energy and water efficiency. 7. Promote small-scale solar systems for homes, businesses, and new neighborhoods.

Do not Support

Somewhat Support

Greatly Support

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

Reasons that you support or do not support

8. Regarding green buildings and energy efficiency, what are the top three things the City should do over the next five years? a. b. c.

11


Other Notes, Comments, and Questions:

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A2. Existing Conditions Report Under Separate Cover


Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano Background Report for the Health & Sustainability General Plan Element

August 2013


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS City of Delano Leadership

Other Contributors - Thank You

Mayor Joe Aguirre Mayor Pro Tem Ricardo Chavez Council Member Liz Morris Council Member Rueben Pascual Council Member Grace Vallejo City Manager Maribel Reyna

The considerable talents and efforts of many individuals helped to assure the success of this report. Special thanks to members of the Planning Task Force, stakeholder interviewees, and Community Conversation Workshop participants. Additional thanks to the Avtar Nijjer-Sidhu and Kirt W. Emery from the Kern County Public Health Department and Meredith Milet from the California Department of Public Health for providing health data.

Contact Information Community Development Department Richelle Cariño – Department Director Tendai Mtunga – Health and Sustainability Element Project Manager Mike McCabe – Senior Planner

Consultant Team Raimi + Associates Matthew Burris, AICP, LEED AP – Sustainability Specialist Beth Altshuler, MCP, MPH, CPH – Public Health Specialist Brynn McKiernan – Project Assistant Fehr & Peers Chris Grey – Senior Associate Jeff Siggers – Transportation Engineer

If you would like more information about this report of the Health and Sustainability General Plan Element Project, please contact the Project Manager, Tendai Mtunga, TMtunga@cityofdelano.org or 661-720-2220.

Recommended Citation City of Delano, California Community Development Department. (August 2013). Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano: Background Report for the Health & Sustainability General Plan Element. Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano: Background Report for the Health & Sustainability General Plan Element by City of Delano, California is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.


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Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................1 SOCIO-CULTURAL CONDITIONS ............................................................................3 POPULATION, AGE, AND GENDER ................................................................................ 5 RACE AND ETHNICITY................................................................................................. 7 INCOME AND POVERTY .............................................................................................. 9 HOUSING TENURE................................................................................................... 11 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ..................................................................................... 13 COMMUNITY SAFETY ............................................................................................... 15 FOOD ASSISTANCE .................................................................................................. 16 COMMUNITY HEALTH STATUS ........................................................................... 19 LIFE EXPECTANCY AND LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH ....................................................... 21 HEALTHY BODY WEIGHT (OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT) .................................................. 23 ASTHMA ............................................................................................................... 24 HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE ................................................................................. 26 BUILT ENVIRONMENT ........................................................................................ 29 RESIDENTIAL POPULATION DENSITY............................................................................ 31 LAND USE ............................................................................................................. 33 URBAN INFILL ........................................................................................................ 35 PARK LEVEL OF SERVICE ........................................................................................... 39 ACCESS TO PARKS ................................................................................................... 40 HOUSING DIVERSITY................................................................................................ 42 AFFORDABLE HOUSING ………………………………………………………………………………………. 44 OVERCROWDED HOUSING UNITS ............................................................................... 46 STREET PATTERN .................................................................................................... 47

WALKABILITY ......................................................................................................... 49 BLOCK SIZE & STREET PATTERNS ............................................................................... 51 BICYCLE FACILITIES .................................................................................................. 52 TRANSIT AVAILABILITY AND ACCESS ............................................................................ 53 COMMUTING ......................................................................................................... 55 TRAFFIC COLLISIONS................................................................................................ 56 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN COLLISIONS ........................................................................ 57 ECONOMIC PROSPERITY AND ACCESS TO GOODS AND SERVICES ..................... 60 UNEMPLOYMENT.................................................................................................... 62 FAST FOOD ACCESS................................................................................................. 63 HEALTHY FOOD RETAIL ACCESS ................................................................................. 65 SUSTAINABLE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT ........................................................... 68 NATURAL GAS USAGE ............................................................................................. 70 BAD AIR DAYS ....................................................................................................... 71 POLLUTING SOURCES/ TOXIC SITES (TRI) .................................................................... 72 PESTICIDE EXPOSURE............................................................................................... 73 GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS ........................................................................ 74 CLIMATE ADAPTATION............................................................................................. 76 SOLID WASTE ........................................................................................................ 77 WATER USE .......................................................................................................... 78 WATER QUALITY .................................................................................................... 79 PHOTOS SOURCES ............................................................................................. 81 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 83

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List of Tables TABLE 1: RACE / ETHNICITY IN CA, KERN CO, AND DELANO .................................................. 7 TABLE 2: HOUSEHOLDS WITH PUBLIC ASSISTANCE INCOME OR SNAP/CALFRESH BENEFITS ...... 16 TABLE 3: LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH .............................................................................. 21 TABLE 4: LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH AND DEATH RATES ................................................... 22 TABLE 5: BUILDABLE LAND IN DELANO ............................................................................ 36 TABLE 6: INFILL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES NEAR AMENITIES ........................................ 36 TABLE 7: PARK LEVEL OF SERVICE................................................................................... 39 TABLE 8: PARK ACCESS BY POPULATION SUB-GROUP......................................................... 40 TABLE 9: NUMBER OF UNITS PER HOUSING STRUCTURE ..................................................... 42 TABLE 10: AFFORDABLE HOUSING UNITS IN DELANO......................................................... 44 TABLE 11: OVERCROWDING HOUSING UNITS IN DELANO, KERN COUNTY, AND CA ................. 46 TABLE 12: LIST OF EXISTING BIKE LANES/PATHS/ROUTES IN DELANO ................................... 52 TABLE 13: POPULATION WITHIN A QUARTER MILE OF UNHEALTHY FAST FOOD ....................... 63 TABLE 14: POPULATION WITHIN A HALF MILE OF HEALTHY FOOD RETAIL STORES ................... 65 TABLE 15: AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS AND POLLUTANTS ............................................... 71

List of Figures

FIGURE 1: DELANO POPULATION (1890-2010) ................................................................. 5 FIGURE 2: MEDIAN AGE BY SEX ....................................................................................... 6 FIGURE 3: DELANO POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS AND SEX .................................................. 6 FIGURE 4: POPULATION RACE/ETHNICITY .......................................................................... 7 FIGURE 5: LINGUISTICALLY ISOLATED HOUSEHOLDS ............................................................. 8 FIGURE 6: POVERTY RATES FOR DIFFERENT HOUSEHOLD TYPES ............................................. 9 FIGURE 7: DELANO HOUSEHOLD INCOME LEVELS .............................................................. 10 FIGURE 8: HOUSING TENURE ........................................................................................ 11 FIGURE 9: HOUSING TENURE - HOMEOWNERS ................................................................. 12 FIGURE 10: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ......................................................................... 13 FIGURE 11: PERCENT IN POVERTY BY LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ........................... 14 FIGURE 12: HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT RATES .................................................................... 14 FIGURE 13: DELANO CRIME RATES (2004-2011) ............................................................ 15

FIGURE 14: PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS RECEIVING SNAP OR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BY CENSUS TRACT AND THE LOCATION OF SNAP RETAILERS....................................................... 17 FIGURE 15: KERN COUNTY ADULT OBESITY BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2009) ............................... 23 FIGURE 16: KERN COUNTY ADULT AND CHILD ASTHMA RATES ............................................ 24 FIGURE 17: ASTHMA HOSPITALIZATION AND EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISIT RATES .............. 25 FIGURE 18: KERN COUNTY ADULT HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE BY RACE/ETHNICITY ........... 26 FIGURE 19: PERCENT OF POPULATION WITH HEALTH INSURANCE BY AGE .............................. 27 FIGURE 20: RESIDENTIAL POPULATION DENSITY COMPARISONS........................................... 31 FIGURE 21: RESIDENTIAL POPULATION DENSITY MAP ........................................................ 32 FIGURE 22: DELANO WALK SCORE MAP ......................................................................... 33 FIGURE 23: GENERAL PLAN LAND USE MAP .................................................................... 34 FIGURE 24: VACANT AND UNDERUTILIZED PARCELS AND AGRICULTURAL LANDS MAP.............. 37 FIGURE 25: INFILL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY SITES MAP .............................................. 38 FIGURE 26: PARK ACCESS MAP ..................................................................................... 41 FIGURE 27: PERCENT OF TOTAL HOUSING UNITS BUILT PER TIME PERIOD ............................. 43 FIGURE 28: NUMBER OF BEDROOMS PER HOUSING UNIT BY TENURE IN DELANO.................... 43 FIGURE 29: SUBSIDIZED HOUSING UNITS AND SNAP VENDORS........................................... 45 FIGURE 30: MAJOR ROADWAYS IN DELANO ................................................................... 48 FIGURE 31: SIDEWALKS IN DELANO .............................................................................. 50 FIGURE 32: TWO TYPICAL STREET PATTERS IN DELANO ...................................................... 51 FIGURE 33: DART STOPS AND SERVICE ROUTES ............................................................... 54 FIGURE 34: COMMUTE MODES IN DELANO ..................................................................... 55 FIGURE 35: MOST COMMON CAUSES OF COLLISIONS ........................................................ 56 FIGURE 36: BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN COLLISION DENSITY MAP ........................................ 58 FIGURE 37: SEASONALLY ADJUSTED UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (2002-2012) ........................... 62 FIGURE 38: FAST FOOD NEAR SCHOOLS AND YOUTH DENSITY ............................................. 64 FIGURE 39: ACCESS TO HEALTHY FOOD MAP ................................................................... 66 FIGURE 40: CITY OF DELANO 2010 NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION ...................................... 70 FIGURE 41: TOP THREE CHEMICALS RELEASED IN KERN COUNTY (1987-2011) ..................... 72 FIGURE 42: 2005 BASELINE COMMUNITY GHG EMISSIONS BY SECTOR .............................. 75 FIGURE 43: PROJECT TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION CHANGES IN DELANO, CA .............. 76 FIGURE 44: WATER USE AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION PROJECTIONS, DELANO, CA ............. 78

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Introduction Overview Over the last few decades in the United States, health care costs have increased alongside with chronic disease rates. Childhood obesity rates have increased by roughly 5% since 1988, and poverty rates increased by 4.7% since 2000. In recent years, many studies have also examined the conditions in the environment that affect health outcomes and risks. Research has revealed the links between health and the physical environment, suggesting that variations in land use patterns, urban design, transportation systems, housing, parks, exposure to pollution, and access to healthy foods strongly affect a community’s health behaviors, health status, and overall environmental quality. Research has also shown that social and economic conditions have a significant impact on an individual’s health and wellbeing. These social determinants of health include education, employment, income and wealth, discrimination, race and ethnicity, immigration, and community safety. Not only are the physical and social determinants drivers of community health, but they also influence our health behaviors. For example, communities with less economic hardship tend to exhibit healthier behaviors, while unhealthy behaviors

are more common in communities with greater economic hardships As more information becomes available, the link between one’s existing environment and overall health are closely interwoven. It is also better common knowledge that what strategies to benefit one’s health can also have benefits for a community’s sustainability. Both sustainable and healthy practices provide co-benefits to one another and create a stronger foundation for a community to thrive in a healthy environment. Assessing a community’s health and sustainability conditions provides an overview of the opportunity resident have to carry out a healthy lifestyle and maintain a sustainable thriving community.

Purpose of Project Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano: Background Report for the Health and Sustainability General Plan Element documents the City of Delano’s existing health and sustainability status. The report covers a range of social and environmental factors that formed the current human and environmental health status of the City. The report is a part of the City Council’s 2010 initiative to include a Health and Wellness Element in the City’s General Plan. Gathering the current health and sustainability conditions of the City will better inform decision makers, practitioners, and community members about the City’s strengths and areas of concern to guide future program and policy development. The report has been organized into five categories of existing health conditions that include; SocioEconomic Status, Community Health Status, the Built Environment, Economic Prosperity and Access to Goods and Services, and the Sustainable Natural Environment. Each sub-topic section provides information about “What is it?”, “Why is it important?”, and the “Status in Delano.” The combination of topics help explain how an individual’s overall physical and mental health can be determined, improved, or degraded solely based on environmental conditions of which an individual lives and works. Extracting data from Delano based on key environmental elements will provide a base line to form initiatives for improvement and track progress. Policies and proposals on improving the Health and Sustainability of Delano will be included in the Health and Sustainability Element of the General Plan Update.

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SOCIO-CULTURAL CONDITIONS

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Population, Age, and Gender What is it? This section describes the basic demographics of Delano’s residents including population, age, and gender distributions.

Why is it important? Understanding a population's age and gender composition and changes helps policy makers and public health professionals plan for and target appropriate services and programs. A five-year old has different health needs than a sixty-five year old; just like a female has different health care needs than a male.

Status in Delano As of 2010, Delano, CA had a population of 53,041 residents, making it the second largest city in Kern County behind Bakersfield. Two State Prisons are located in Delano, which in total house 10,530 inmates (or 19.9% of the City’s population). Because these inmates do not utilize City services and amenities, this report’s analysis will use the City’s non-institutionalized population (42,144) when possible and appropriate. a Delano’s population has grown at a very fast rate the last 20 years (see Figure 1), partially because of the two state prisons that opened in 1993 and 2005 bringing thousands of inmates, prison staff, and their families to Delano. Excluding the prison population, Delano has an equal number of males and females, but with the prison population, the City is 60% male and 40% female. Figure 1: Delano Population (1890-2010)

Public health professionals consider younger residents (under 18 years of age) and older adults (65 years and older) to be more vulnerable to disease and poor health than adults (18 to 64 years old). Younger residents are considered vulnerable because their bodies are not yet fully developed and they thus, are more susceptible to disease. Older adults are considered more vulnerable because, on average, they have more existing chronic health problems than younger residents. 1

a

Delano has an additional 367 residents who live in institutional group quarters (such as nursing facilities, group homes, and treatment centers). Page 5 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


The median age in Delano is much younger than Kern County and California and men are younger, on average, than women because universally, men have shorter life spans (see Figure 2). Excluding the prison population, 9.9% of residents are under 5 years old and 7.5% are over 64 years old. Young children and older adults are more susceptible to disease and have unique health care needs, so they are considered vulnerable populations.

To understand these age dynamics in more depth, the population pyramid in Figure 3 shows the number of males and females in each age group. The adult age groups (20-59) have significantly more males than females because of the prison population; however, there are more females in the 65 and older age groups.

Figure 3: Delano Population by Age Groups and Sex

Figure 2: Median Age by Sex

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What is it?

Race and Ethnicity

“Race" refers to groups of people who have biological traits based on genetic ancestry that society has deemed socially significant. The U.S. Census Bureau uses "White", "Black/ African-American", "Asian", "American Indian/ Alaskan Native", "Hawaiian/Pacific Islander", and "other" to survey race. “Ethnicity” refers to shared cultural practices. Common characteristics distinguishing various ethnic groups are ancestry, history, language, and religion. The U.S. Census surveys ethnicity as "Hispanic/Latino" and "Not Hispanic/Latino.”

Status in Delano

Why is it important? Different racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. have persistent and often increasing health disparities. 2 Some researchers think of “race” as a proxy for income, perceived discrimination, and race-related stress, which all influence health outcomes. 3 White residents generally have better health outcomes than most other racial/ethnic groups. 4 Neighborhood conditions that contribute to health (such as parks, pollution, housing, and healthy food) are often highly correlated with race. 5 By identifying areas with high concentrations of different racial/ethnic groups, the City will be able to tailor policy and educational interventions based on cultural differences and contexts.

Delano has a rich Filipino and Latino culture that is actively celebrated. Table 1 compares the race/ ethnicity of California, Kern County, and Delano’s Civilian and prison population, while Figure 4 graphically depicts the race/ethnicity of Delano’s civilian population. A vast majority (78.5%) of Delano residents are Latino, while another 15.1% are Asian (mostly Filipino). 4.1% of residents are nonHispanic White, 1.2% Other or Multi-Racial, and 0.8% are Black or African American. Delano has more than twice the proportion of Latinos as California and almost four times the proportion of Asians compared to Kern County. Table 1: Race / Ethnicity in CA, Kern Co, and Delano

Delano Civilian Prison 78.5% 43.3%

Hispanic or Latino

Kern County 37.6% 49.2%

Asian

12.8%

3.9%

15.1%

0.1%

White

40.1%

38.6%

4.1%

21.3%

Other / Multi-Racial

3.6%

2.9%

1.2%

0.6%

Black or African American

5.8%

5.4%

0.8%

34.7%

Racial / Ethnic Group

California

Source: 2010 US Census.

Figure 4: Population Race/Ethnicity

While the 10,530 inmates at the two State Prisons are from all over California and do not participate in daily civic life, the disproportionate representation of African Americans, and to a lesser extent, Latinos, in the California prison system is striking. Notably, the proportion of African Americans in Delano’s prisons (34.7%) is almost six times the proportion of African Americans residents in all of California (5.8%).

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What is it?

Foreign-Born and Linguistically Isolation

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the term foreign born to refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. Linguistic isolation is a measure of English-speaking ability in a household. The Census defines linguistically isolated household as one in which no person age 14 or over speaks English "very well."

Status in Delano

Why is it important? Foreign-born persons, or immigrants, often face poverty, social exclusion, and difficulty accessing health and social services, which all can have negative health impacts. 6 However, researchers have also identified the “healthy migrant effect,” where first generation immigrants are often healthier than U.S.-born residents of the same ethnic background. As migrants become more assimilated into U.S. culture, the migrant health advantage diminishes. 7 While many Delano businesses and City staff are bilingual, English is still the dominant language in the City. Linguistic isolation may serve as a barrier to jobs, especially higher wage jobs and to obtaining quality medical and social services. In addition, identifying linguistically isolated households could help the County and community groups to ensure that certain areas receive emergency communications and support in the case of an emergency. 8

Numerous Delano residents are immigrants from outside the U.S. or “foreign-born” (37.2%) and 29% of all foreign-born residents are naturalized citizens of the U.S. b 9 The median age of naturalized citizens in Delano is 50.1 years old compared to the non-citizens who have a median age of 35 years old. This is likely due to changes in immigration and naturalization policy over time and the high demand for immigrant agricultural workers. Out of all foreign-born persons in Delano, 71.2% were born in Mexico and 21.5% were born in the Philippines. 10 Native-born persons in Delano are still exposed to the stressors and pressure of being an immigrant. Many households have at least one foreign-born person. For example, 41% of all children in Kern County have at least one foreign-born parent and more than 76% of non-citizens live in households that also have citizens. 11 Almost half of all foreign-born residents (16 years Figure 5: Linguistically Isolated Households and older) are employed in the civilian labor force, compared to 32.8% of native-born residents. This is partially due to the prison population skewing the data, but also because many people immigrate to the U.S. precisely to obtain better employment. More than a quarter of Delano households (27.5%) are considered linguistically isolated where no one over the age of 14 speaks English “very well”, compared to about 10% of households in both California and Kern County. 12

b

Data includes Delano’s State prison inmates, some of whom might be immigrants. Page 8 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it? Income is the amount of money, or its equivalent, that an individual or household receives within a period of time in exchange for labor, services, or the sale of goods. Poverty is defined as the deprivation of food, clothing, shelter, and money that occurs when an individual or family cannot satisfy their basic needs. The Federal Government's primary measure of poverty is the "poverty threshold" or "Federal Poverty Level" (FPL). In 2010, an annual income of $22,050 equated to approximately 100% of the FPL for a family of four, nationwide.

Why is it important?

Income and Poverty Figure 6 displays poverty rates by household type. For all household types, Kern’s average rate is higher than California’s, and Delano’s is higher than Kern’s. Approximately one in three people in Delano are living at or below the Federal Poverty Line. Delano’s poverty rate of 32.2% is more than double California’s poverty rate of 15.5% and almost 10% higher than Kern’s rate of 22.8%. Forty-four percent of Delano residents aged 17 years and younger are living in poverty. Married couples with children have a poverty rate of 27, which is still higher than the state’s overall rate of 10%. Finally, twothirds of female-headed households with no husband present and with children are living in poverty. These women face the double challenge of being a single-earner household and the gender gap in pay, where nationally, full time women workers earn approximately 23% less annually than men do. 17

Figure 6: Poverty Rates for Different Household Types

Income is one of the strongest predictors of health outcomes worldwide. 13 Health care access, outcomes, and life expectancy improve as income increases. 14 When households earn incomes much lower than the average cost of living, they tend to make sacrifices in other important areas. Those lifestyle compromises can include eating less food and/or more unhealthy food, living in substandard housing, and/or delaying medical care. Additionally, lacking resources to meet basic needs causes long-term stress, which makes the body less resistant to other health risks. 15 Like race, average-household income is strongly correlated with neighborhood condition. 16

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The Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Standard (FESSS) is another measure of income. It is considered a more accurate calculation of income adequacy than the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), because it is based on the amount of money a family needs to meet their basic needs in a specific region. 18 For purposes of this measurement, basic needs include housing, food, and health care, and work related expenses such as transportation, childcare, and taxes.

Figure 7: Delano Household Income Levels

The estimated FESSS for two adults, an infant, and a school-aged child in Kern County in 2011 was $48,246. About 65% of Delano residents are living below the Kern County SelfSufficiency Income Level. Additionally, Figure 7 shows that Delano has very few higher income residents; less than two percent of households earn $150,000 or more per year.

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What is it?

Housing Tenure

Housing tenure describes whether a home is renter- or owner-occupied.

Status in Delano

Why is it important? In national studies, homeowners tend to have better physical and mental health outcomes relative to renters. 19 20 Additionally, homeowners tend to have a stake in maintaining and improving their neighborhoods’ quality and stability. 21 22 While homeowners tend to be healthier, communities should have a diversity of housing types and options in multiple locations. Many people prefer to live in high quality rental housing when they cannot afford to purchase a home, do not want to commit to a location and home size for the long term, or do not want the responsibility of property maintenance.

Of the 10,260 occupied housing units in Delano, 43.8% are renter-occupied and 56.2% are owneroccupied. Delano’s owner-occupancy rate of 56.2% is similar to California’s 55.9%, but slightly lower than Kern County’s 60.0% owner-occupancy rate (see Figure 8). The map (Figure 9) shows the percentage of homes that are owner-occupied by Census block, where the darkest colored blocks have the highest concentration of owner-occupied units. The newer neighborhoods on the periphery of the City’s boundary area comprise of 75% or more owner occupied units. The central, older neighborhoods in Delano have a lower concentration of owner occupied housing and fewer housing units overall.

Figure 8: Housing Tenure

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Figure 9: Housing Tenure - Homeowners Page 12 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Educational Attainment Educational attainment refers to the highest level of education that a person has completed.

Why is it important? Completing major educational milestones, such as graduating from high school or college, has demonstrated economic and health benefits. First, educational attainment is associated with work opportunities offering higher incomes (that allows for greater housing and healthy food options) and better working conditions (with lower exposure to hazards). Second, it enhances an individual's knowledge and literacy and influences one's behavior, which can lead to better nutrition, increased exercise, reduced use of drugs and alcohol, and better health management. Finally, people with higher education levels tend to have a stronger sense of control, more social standing, and stronger social support networks, which when taken together reduces overall stress and provides more social and economic resources. 23

Status in Delano While Delano’s public schools are said to be some of the best in California, half (49.5%) of Delano civilian residents aged 25 years and older did graduate from high school compared to 19.1% of California adults. Over one-quarter of the City’s adult population has less than a ninth grade education. In Addition, only 7.2% of residents over 25 years old have graduated from college. Many people who grew up in Delano and attend college do not return. Figure 10: Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment in California & Delano 35.0% % of Population Over 25 years old

What is it?

30.0%

(civilian persons over 25 years old) 29.8% 27.8%

25.4%

25.0%

20.9% 19.2%

20.0% 15.0% 10.0%

10.4% 8.7%

21.7% 17.9%

10.9% 6.0%

5.0% 1.2%

0.0% California Less than 9th Grade Some High School High School Grad or GED

Delano

US Census. American Community Survey 2009-2011 3-year estimates.

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Figure 11 shows the percent of residents age 25 and older who are living at or below poverty by their level of educational attainment. c Almost one third of Delano residnets who have not finished high school live in poverty. Likelyhood of poverty decreases as education increases. However, about 20% of Delano residents with a college education are living in poverty compared to less than 5% of collegeeducated Californians. Some possible (but unexamined) reasons for this poverty could be related to the lack of professional-level jobs available in the city and/or private a public secotor layoffs during the great recession.

Figure 11: Percent in Poverty by Level of Educational Attainment

Figure 12: High School Dropout Rates

Annual Adjusted Grade 9-12 Dropout Rate (2011-12) Delano Joint Union High School District

1.5%

Kern County

5.1%

California

4.0%

Source: California Longitudinal Pupil Achievement Data System (CALPADS)

The good news is that Delano public schools have improved over the years. The Delano Joint Union High School District has an annual adjusted dropout rate of 1.5%, compared to 5.1% in Kern County and 4.0% statewide.

c

This data includes both civilian and institutionalized residents. Page 14 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it?

Community Safety

Violent crime includes murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Violent crime rates strongly influence people's perceptions of public safety. 24

Status in Delano

25

Why is it important? Homicides, physical assaults, rapes, and sexual assaults result in direct and adverse health, economic, and emotional impacts on victims and their families. However, violent crime can also have a broad impact on the community at large. Research has documented a spectrum of physical and psychological health impacts associated with neighborhood violence levels. Residents' worries about safety in their neighborhoods can be a cause of chronic stress. 26 Witnessing and experiencing community violence causes longerterm behavioral and emotional problems in youth. 27 When children or adolescents are victims of violence, the experience can affect their scholastic achievement, 28 and it can limit their overall success as an adult. 29 Additionally, fear of crime can modify people’s behavior. An individual’s perception of neighborhood safety can be a disincentive to engage in physical activity outdoors. Parents who are afraid of neighborhood crime may keep their children indoors, which limit opportunities to be physically active and to develop support networks. 30

Figure 13 shows Delano’s rates of property crime, violent crime, and domestic violence calls from 2004-2011. Burglaries are the most common type of property crime with about 808 per year since 2004 (min. 773, max. 950). Larceny-theft (taking personal property from an individual) and motor vehicle theft are the next most common types of property crime in Delano with annual averages of 663 and 541 crimes, respectively. Delano has seen decreases in both larceny and vehicle theft rates since 2006. Aggravated assault is the most common type of violent crime, followed by robbery. Since 2004, there have been an average of four murders or non-negligent manslaughters per year, with a total of only three between 2009 and 2011. Forcible rape has maintained an annual average of seven, with no clear trends. 31 Historically, forcible rapes grossly are underreported, so an increase in reported cases over time could be seen as a positive sign that victims are speaking up and getting support, and that perpetrators are punished. Similarly, domestic violence incidents are also underreported and show no temporal trend. While crime rates have generally decreased over time, residents report not walking at night due to the perceived safety threat. They shared that increased lighting would increase feelings of safety. Figure 13: Delano Crime Rates (2004-2011)

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What is it? “Food security” is defined as having access to enough food for an active, healthy life for all people at all times. 32 Households that lack “food security” are typically low-income households. These households can obtain assistance from the Women Infants and Children (WIC) Program and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formally known as the Food Stamp Program, which is called CalFresh in California). CalFresh/SNAP is a federally-mandated, Statesupervised, and county-operated government program designed to eliminate hunger in the United States. Eligibility is based on income and other financial resources, and enrollees receive funds each month to spend on food from USDA authorized SNAP/CalFresh vendors. Authorized vendors meet requirements for authorization by selling specified healthy food staples.

Why is it important? Food insecurity can lead to undernourishment and malnutrition, which coincide with fatigue, stunting of child growth, and other health issues. Undernourished pregnant women are more likely to bear babies with low birth weight, and the babies are then more likely to experience developmental delays that can lead to learning problems. 33 Hunger and food insecurity can also accelerate the development of or worsen existing diseases. Paradoxically,

food insecurity and obesity co-exist in some households where people eat foods that are inexpensive, and high in fat and sugar, but low in nutritional quality. Finally, food insecurity causes anxiety and stress, which weakens immune systems and decreases overall quality of life. 34

Food Assistance Status in Delano Approximately 21.3% of households in Delano receive public assistance or SNAP/CalFresh benefits compared to 13.6% of households in Kern County. Table 2 and the map in Figure 14 show that Delano has a higher than average concentration of persons receiving public assistance, than Kern County. Over one-third of the households in Census tract 48 receive these benefits (Census tract 48 is west of HWY 99, east of Albany Street, and north of Airport Ave).

Table 2: Households with Public Assistance Income or SNAP/CalFresh Benefits

Households with Public Assistance Income or Received SNAP Benefits Percent Count

Area

Total Households

Kern County, CA

13.6%

34,214

250,999

City of Delano, CA

21.3%

1,783

8,352

Delano Census Tract

48

35.6%

806

2,263

Delano Census Tract

49.01

21.2%

285

1,342

Delano Census Tract

49.02

9.4%

184

1,954

Delano Census Tract

50.03

25.8%

234

908

Delano Census Tract

50.04

14.5%

274

1,885

Source: Community Commons.

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Figure 14: Percent of Households Receiving SNAP or Public Assistance by Census Tract and the Location of SNAP Retailers

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COMMUNITY HEALTH STATUS

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What is it? Life expectancy measures the length of time an average person is expected to live and it is a key indicator of the overall health of a population. 35 The leading causes of death refer to the most common causes of death, based on the frequency of their occurrence. Identifying which risk factors are associated with certain causes of death can help prevent disease and keep people healthier. 36

Why is it important? Life expectancy is a critical health indicator of a population. Public health researchers study life expectancy and other health and disease measures to identify health disparities across geographic and demographic subpopulations, and to devise appropriate policy and community health solutions. Knowing the leading causes of death can help local health departments identify pressing health issues, and prioritize the work of policy makers, public health departments, researchers, and others. Focusing resources on the leading causes of death is an efficient use of available health system resources and, most importantly, can save the greatest number of lives. Identifying and addressing which risk factors are associated with certain causes of death can help prevent disease and keep people healthier.

Life Expectancy and Leading Causes of Death Life expectancy for California residents slightly exceeds that of the United States. Statewide, California’s life expectancy was 80.8 years from 2010-2011, compared to 78.9 years for the U.S. While data on life expectancy is not available at the city level, the four sub areas of Kern County (Bakersfield, Greater Bakersfield, East County, and West County), all have a lower average life expectancy than both the nation, and state (see Table 3). 37 Table 3: Life Expectancy at Birth

Life Expectancy At Birth (years) United States California Kern: Bakersfield Kern: East Kern: West Kern: Greater Bakersfield

78.9 80.8 77.0 75.8 75.7 75.7

Source: Measure of America of the Social Science Research Council.

Table 4 shows the leading causes of death for Kern County, their corresponding average annual deaths, as well as age-adjusted death rates for the County, State and nation and well as the statewide county rank (out of California’s 58 counties). Kern County’s age-adjusted death rate of 831.3 annual deaths per 10,000 residents is 12% higher than the US rate of 741.1 and 31% higher than California’s rate of 632.7. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Kern County. Kern’s CHD rate is also the highest among all 58 counties in California. Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRD) are the second most common cause of death in the County (CLRD include asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lower respiratory illnesses). Smoking is considered the primary contributing cause to these diseases. Other common causes of death in the county include stroke, unintentional injuries, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and influenza/pneumonia. With the exception of unintentional injuries, suicides, and drug-induced deaths, Kern County’s rank for each cause of death is in the bottom 75% among all California counties. 38

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Table 4: Leading Causes of Death and Death Rates

Leading Causes of Death and Death Rates for Kern County (2008-2010) County Rank (out of 58)

Cause of Death

56

All Causes

46 58

All Cancers Coronary Heart Disease

57 45 40 51 56 55 40 45 40 45 24 56

Kern Co. Annual Average Deaths

Age-Adjusted Death Rate (Deaths per 10,000 residents) Kern County

California

National Objective

US

5,255.7

831.3

632.7

741.1

-

1,072.3 991.0

167.9 166.2

151.7 121.6

173.2 126.0

158.6 162.0

Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Cerebrovascular Disease (Stroke)

425.3 259.3

71.4 43.7

36.7 37.4

42.3 38.9

50.0

Accidents (Unintentional Injuries) Alzheimer's Disease Diabetes Influenza/ Pneumonia Drug Induced Deaths Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis Firearm-Related Deaths Suicide Homicide

326.7 189.0 194.7 133.7 138.3 120.3 99.7 93.7 82.3 76.3

41.9 34.5 31.2 22.3 17.4 14.8 13.8 11.4 10.7 8.6

27.1 28.2 19.5 17.2 10.5 7.9 10.8 7.8 9.7 5.3

37.3 23.5 20.9 16.2 12.6 11.7 9.2 10.1 11.8 5.5

17.1 1.2 8.0 3.2 3.6 4.8 2.8

Source: California State Department of Health. Kern County’s Health Status Profile for 2012.

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What is it? Obesity is the most prevalent, chronic, and relapsing disorder of the 21st century. The terms "overweight" and "obese" describe weight ranges that are above what is medically accepted as healthy. The most common measure of healthy and unhealthy weight is the “Body Mass Index” (BMI), which is a function that takes into account both height and weight. 39 For children, overweight is defined as a BMI at or above the 85th percentile and below the 95th percentile for children of the same sex and age. Obesity is defined as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same sex and age. 40

Why is it important?

Healthy Body Weight (Obesity and Overweight) California has experienced a dramatic increase in obesity during the last few decades. In 1985, less than 10% of California’s population was obese; by 2010, over 20% of Californians were considered obese. 42 In Kern County: ► 62% of all adults are obese or overweight ► 39% of Latinos in Kern are considered obese ► Very few obese Asians, but over one-third are overweight ► Women are more likely to be obese than men ► Kern County adults aged 45-64 have the highest obesity rates of any age group (44.6%) ► 48% of all Delano children are obese or overweight Figure 15: Kern County Adult Obesity by Race/Ethnicity (2009)

Obesity is a leading cause of the nation’s mortality, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization, and healthcare costs. Studies have found significant associations between obesity and type II diabetes, many types of cancer, heart disease and stroke, asthma, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, and chronic back pain. Compared to normal weight females, overweight females are four times more likely to develop type II diabetes, while obese females are over 12 times more likely to develop type II diabetes. In men, these corresponding risk levels are two times and seven times, respectively. 41

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What is it? Asthma is a chronic disease that affects the lungs by inflaming and narrowing the airways. Asthma can cause repeated episodes of wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. Asthma attacks are triggered by a number of factors, including smog, dust, pollen, and smoke. Although asthma cannot be cured, it can be controlled with appropriate treatment and medication. 43

Asthma Countywide approximately 17% of adults and 12% of children have been diagnosed with asthma. 46 While asthma diagnosis data is not available at the city level, we do know that Asian residents have much higher asthma rates (39% adults, 38% children) than all other racial/ethnic groups. African Americans are the only racial/ethnic group where the children have a much higher asthma rate (20%) than the adult rate (6%) (see Figure 16). 47 Figure 16: Kern County Adult and Child Asthma Rates

Why is it important? Although people of all ages can have asthma, it is one of the most common chronic diseases among children. As of 2010, approximately 9.4% of children in the U.S. have asthma, and one in 12 people of all ages (about 8.2%) have asthma. Nationwide, asthma is the most frequent cause of pediatric emergency room use and hospital admissions and the leading cause of school absences. 44 In the U.S., Females and African Americans are more likely to be diagnosed with asthma than males, Whites, or Hispanics. 45 Figure 17 compares child and adult asthma hospitalization and emergency department visit rates for California, Kern County, and Delano. Asthma hospitalization rates among children are slightly higher in Delano compared to the state and County, while adult emergency department visits are much lower than the state and county rates. Child asthma emergency department (ED) visits are extremely high for the state and county (72.6 child ED visits per 10,000 children in California and 78.4 per 10,000 in Kern County), but the rate is even higher in Delano (91.7 per 10,000 children). Page 24 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Figure 17: Asthma Hospitalization and Emergency Department Visit Rates

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What is it? Health insurance is the primary means of obtaining needed medical care and for reimbursing providers who deliver that care. Health insurance coverage reduces the financial risk for individuals when medical expenses are incurred. While health insurance encourages preventive care, insurance coverage does not guarantee health.

Health Insurance Coverage Countywide, approximately 77% of residents are covered by public or private health insurance. Residents who identify as Latino or American Indians have lower health insurance coverage rates than the county average. White, Asian, African American, and non-Latino multi-racial residents have higher than average rates of coverage. Coverage rates among Latinos and American Indians are below the average. More than a third of Latino adults are uninsured in the County compared 14% of White and Asians adults (see Figure 18). Figure 18: Kern County Adult Health Insurance Coverage by Race/Ethnicity

Why is it important? Access to physical and mental health care is an important determinant of health and disease prevention. Increasing the number of people with health insurance will likely improve public health. Preventive measures and screenings reduce the incidence and severity of illnesses and are less expensive than the costs of care once someone has become sick. 48 Insured persons are more likely to take steps to prevent an illness than those without health insurance. Access to quality health care includes more than just being able to visit a doctor. In addition, a patient needs knowledge about the health care system, skills to obtain an appointment with the right kind of provider, money to cover insurance and co-pays, transportation to the appointment, and time off from work or school to see the provider. Once at the appointment, proper diagnosis and treatment can only occur if the provider and patient understand one another. Page 26 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Figure 19 compares health insurance rates by age group in California, Kern County, and Delano. Among most age groups, coverage for Delano residents is slightly below the state and County rates. Overall, Delano residents over 64 years of age have by far the highest coverage rates (98%) due to the availability of government health insurance for seniors (Medicare).

improvement since approximately 16% of Delano children do not have insurance. These are often children from families’ with incomes that are too high for government programs, but too low to pay out of pocket for insurance. Working-aged adults (especially 18-54 year olds) have much lower rates of insurance coverage than their counterparts in the state and county do. Because of Delano’s high unemployment rate, numerous adults are not receiving employer-based healthcare. It is also possible that some employers in Delano do not offer health care benefits. Most striking is that only 34% of Delano’s young adults aged 18 to 24 are insured (compared to 55% statewide).

Children under 18 also have high rates of health insurance coverage, thanks to Medi-Cal and the Healthy Families Program. While child coverage rates are high, there is room for Figure 19: Percent of Population with Health Insurance by Age

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BUILT ENVIRONMENT

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Residential Population Density What is it? Residential population density is a measure of the number of people living in a certain geographic area. It is calculated by dividing the number of people living within a geographic area (e.g., county, city, Census block) by the land area of that specific geography (e.g., square miles or acres).

Why is it important? Areas with higher population densities tend to be more walkable and support better transit service, which can facilitate physical activity and result in positive health benefits. Studies have found that higher levels of population density are associated with increased walking. 49 Research has shown that as residential and non-residential density increase, transit ridership rises, rates of walking increase, and rates of obesity fall. Conversely, lower density areas tend to have slightly higher obesity rates. However, to be effective, a diverse mix of walkable uses, safe pedestrian facilities, and high quality transit must also accompany the higher density areas. 50 51

Delano’s overall residential population density equals 5.8 people per acre (or approximately 3,700 persons per square mile). This is similar to the densities of Riverside, Bakersfield, and Visalia. However, in the eastern “developed” part of the City, Delano’s residential density is 9 people per acre (or 5,760 people per square mile), which is denser than Sacramento (see Figure 20).

Figure 20: Residential Population Density Comparisons

This density pattern is not uniform across the City. The map in Figure 21, displays residential population density by Census block, where the darker blocks have higher densities. The blocks that are colored black have over 30 people per acre (or 19,200 people per square mile), which is higher than the average density of San Francisco. While denser residential areas do not provide any health benefits on their own, they create a critical mass of users for public facilities (e.g., schools, parks, bus stops, and libraries) and create a customer base for neighborhood businesses (e.g., restaurants, laundromats, childcare, and grocery stores).

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Figure 21: Residential Population Density Map Page 32 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it? Existing land use refers to what use is already taking place on a specific property, whereas proposed land use identify what uses a jurisdiction desires for the future. The most common land use classifications include residential, commercial, industrial, public facilities, agricultural, and parks and open space. Delano’s General Plan land use map specifies subcategories for each classification, and outlines what types of buildings and uses are permitted and restricted on each classification type.

Why is it important? Land use decisions can have direct and indirect impacts on both public health and sustainability. Proper land use can help cities manage and minimize exposure to air and water pollutants. In addition, when areas have a diverse mix of land uses, meaning that homes and jobs are closer together and within walking distance of goods and services, schools, parks and other destinations; people have the option to be able to walk, bike, drive, or take transit. This can improve air quality and increase physical activity, social cohesion, and public safety. 52

Land Use Currently, the land use plan for the City of Delano (shown in Figure 23) is comprised mostly of singleuse areas segregated from each other, which is very typical in the San Joaquin Valley region. This is especially apparent in the newer residential areas surrounding downtown. While it would not be healthy to put family-neighborhoods adjacent to heavy industrial areas, the City’s neighborhoods could be more walkable if they contained a more diverse mix of uses such as small shops, childcare, grocery stores, pharmacies, and cafes. The website www.WalkScore.com calculates a score for a city, neighborhood, or address based on how many goods, services, and amenities are within a 15-minute walk. Delano has an average Walk Score of 38 out of 100, which is “car-dependent” since few amenities are within walking distance, on average. Figure 22 shows the City’s Walk Score, where the red areas are car dependent and the green areas are “somewhat” to “very walkable”. Different intersections in Downtown Delano have a WalkScore of anywhere between the high 50s “somewhat walkable” (some errands can be accomplished on foot) and the low 70s “very walkable” (most errands can be accomplished on foot). The newer residential neighborhoods have scores mostly in the low 20s, which Walk Score considers “car dependent” (almost all errands require a car). 53

Figure 22: Delano Walk Score Map

Unlike most established cities in the U.S., Delano has an opportunity to increase the mix of neighborhoodserving land uses in residential neighborhoods. While much of the City’s land and surrounding areas are undeveloped, approximately one-third of the City’s 9,195 acres (14.37 square miles) has recently been or will be developed through a specific plan. These areas and other undeveloped parcels present opportunities to create more walkable complete neighborhoods.

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Figure 23: General Plan Land Use Map Page 34 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it? Urban infill is the development of vacant, underutilized, or abandoned land within urbanized areas. The term "urban infill" implies that existing land is mostly built-out, and what is being built is in effect "filling in" the gaps. Infill can be single-family homes in existing neighborhoods or new development in commercial, office, or mixed-use areas.

Why is it important? Research has shown that urban infill development can have health, sustainability, quality of life, and economic benefits for cities. First, blocks with more vacant properties have increased risk of crime. 54 Infill development can eliminate the eyesore and safety concerns associated with vacant properties. Infill can also allow communities to achieve population density thresholds needed to attract amenities such as parks, community services, grocery stores, and more frequent transit service. 55 In addition, unlike green field development, infill does not require cities to build and maintain new infrastructure, which saves them money over time. Finally, infill development can preserve productive agricultural lands and natural areas. 56

Urban Infill Some of the nation’s most fertile and productive agricultural lands surround the City of Delano. In addition, there are over 2,000 acres of agricultural lands within the city limits. To preserve the region’s heritage, economic base, and food system, it is important to plan for the preservation of agriculture lands. Due to economic conditions, Delano has approximately 1,870 acres of vacant property and additional 30 acres of underutilized land (see Table 6). 57 If the City encourages the use of these urbanized properties to accommodate future growth, then they can preserve important agricultural lands, which provide jobs, food, and wildlife habitat. Table 6 and the map in Figure 24 show amount and locations of vacant commercial and residential parcels, and underutilized parcels. While a number of the larger parcels on the edge of the City are part of a future specific plan development or are currently agricultural lands, many smaller parcels in the central area do not have future development plans. If development to occurs in areas already served by amenities, then the City’s resources are used most efficiently. Table 5 and Figure 25 identify vacant or underutilized parcels that are not currently agricultural land nor in a specific plan area, but that are located near three key amenities (within a quarter of a park, within a quarter mile of a school, and within a half mile of a supermarket). The map in Figure 25 shows the location of these 33 parcels in blue. Although they are only equal to 8.7 acres of land, they have the potential to be great locations for housing and office space since they are supported by existing infrastructure and key community amenities.

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Table 6: Infill Development Opportunities near Amenities

Vacant or Underutilized Within 1/2 Mile of Supermarket Land that is Not Agricultural Land and Not in a Specific Plan Area # of Total Parcels Acres TOTAL

Within 1/4 Mile of Park

Within 1/4 Mile of School

Within 1/2 mile of Supermarket and 1/4 mile of School and Park

# of Parcels

Total Acres

# of Parcels

Total Acres

# of Parcels

Total Acres

108

54.9

159

84.6

190

208.5

33

8.7

Vacant Commercial

30

15.3

29

49.8

35

81.6

11

2.5

Vacant Residential

43

17.8

103

26.0

127

107.9

10

1.7

Underutilized

35

21.8

27

8.8

28

18.9

12

4.5

Source: City of Delano GIS Database. Data compiled and analyzed by Raimi + Associates. Table 5: Buildable Land in Delano

Buildable Land

Total Acres 2,043.3

Avg. Parcel Size (Acres)

558

1,899.9

3.4

71

494.1

7.0

65

261.5

4.0

438

1,375.8

3.1

421

299.6

0.7

49

30.1

0.6

Parcels

Acres of Ag in City Limits Total Vacant or Underutilized Land Vacant Commercial Not in Specific Plan Area or Ag Vacant Residential Not in Specific Plan Area or Ag Underutilized Land

Source: City of Delano GIS Database. Data compiled and analyzed by Raimi + Associates. Page 36 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Figure 24: Vacant and Underutilized Parcels and Agricultural Lands Map Page 37 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Figure 25: Infill Development Opportunity Sites Map Page 38 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What it is?

Park Level of Service

Park level of service is defined as the acres of parkland per 1,000 residents. The level of service indicator includes County and municipal parks, but excluded restricted open spaces, such as golf courses. The Quimby Act, a State of California law, allows jurisdictions to charge a development impact fee equivalent to providing a minimum of 3 acres of parkland per 1,000 residents for new development. As a result, cities often use this to determine their park level of service standard.

The City of Delano contains approximately 97 acres of city-owned and operated active parkland. d Memorial Golf Course is excluded, With 42,511 civilian residents, this yields a park level of service of 2.29 acres per 1,000 civilian residents. The Delano General Plan Parks and Recreation Element sets a park level of service standard or goal of 5 acres of parkland per 1,000 residents. To meet this standard Delano needs a total of approximately 212 acres or an additional 115 acres of active parkland. This is more than double Delano’s existing active park resources.

Why is it important?

Total Park Acres in Delano (without golf course)

97.40

Park Users (Civilian Population )

42,511

Increasing the quantity and quality11 of parks can increase the amount of time children exercise, decrease their risk of chronic diseases, and even reduce juvenile delinquency. 58

Status in Delano

Table 7: Park Level of Service

Total Park Acres in Delano

146.40

Acres per 1,000 Users

2.29

General Plan LOS Standard (acres per 1,000)

5

Total Acres needed to meet Standard

212.55

Park Acreage Deficit

115.16

In addition to having an acreage deficit, at public workshops, residents reported that parks are underutilized due to poor walkability on the streets around parks (access issues) and the perception of parks not being safe. Perceived park safety concerns mentioned at workshops included lighting, park cleanliness, and older teens/adults drinking and smoking in parks. Further analysis should investigate the distribution of different types of park facilities across the city (e.g., does each neighborhood have decent access to a variety of sports fields and courts, picnic facilities, and playgrounds?).

d

Memorial Golf Course is a County-owned and operated 49 acre park in the City. Because it is not used as a neighborhood park, it is not included in this analysis.

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What is it? For purposes of this report, park access is defined as a quarter mile walk to the nearest park.

Why is it important? Proximity to and quantity of parks is associated with increased park usage, physical activity, and better overall health. Improving access to parks can increase the amount of time children exercise, decrease their risk of chronic diseases, and even reduce juvenile delinquency. 59 60 Adults who live closer to parks and green spaces report lower stress and fatigue, 61 improved mental health, and better self-rated health. 62

Access to Parks The map in Figure 26 shows each park with a quarter mile service area and the population density of each city block and approximately half (49.4%) of Delano residents live within a quarter mile of a park. When we examine park access by population subgroup (see Table 8), we learn that households with children under five years old are slightly more likely to live near a park than those without young children. Fifty-seven percent of people who rent their homes live near a park compared to 44% of those in an owner-occupied home. Renters are less likely to have a backyard so it is important that these residents have additional park access. Higher density areas of the City without a park should be priority locations for new park facilities. Additionally, the city should ensure that existing parks are enhanced and maintained to expand the usability and quality of the park. Finally, park access can be enhanced by increasing hours of parks and ensuring they are well lit at night and improving pedestrian and bicycling routes leading to and through the parks from neighborhoods and schools.

Table 8: Park Access by Population Sub-Group

Total Pop

Pop with Access

% with Access

Citywide

53,147

21,006

39.5%

Civilian Population

42,511

21,006

49.4%

0-4 year olds

4,239

2,195

51.8%

5 to 17 year olds

11,709

5,837

49.9%

Renters

17,889

10,224

57.2%

Homeowners

24,361

10,621

43.6%

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Figure 26: Park Access Map

Page 41 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it?

Housing Diversity

When a city or neighborhood has good housing diversity, there should be a mixture of units that people can rent or purchase at a variety of prices; a mixture of unit types (single family home, small multi-family, large multi-family), a mixture of unit sizes (the number of bedrooms per unit), and lastly the age and style of the unit.

Table 9 shows the number of units per housing structure in California, Kern County, and Delano. Seventy-four percent of Delano housing structures are detached single-family homes, compared to 58% and 71% in throughout the State and County respectively. While almost 17% of California’s housing structures contain 10 or more units, only 4.5% of Delano homes are in larger multi-family structures (10+ units).

Why is it important?

Table 9: Number of Units per Housing Structure

A diverse housing mix supports housing affordability and a diverse population. In addition, a mix of housing types supports those who choose to age in place in the same community throughout their different life stages. It also facilitates life transitions, such as renting an apartment as a young adult or purchasing a home as a new family. 63

Overall Delano’s housing stock is not very diverse. The most common characteristics of housing units are detached single-family homes, three-bedrooms, and were built after 1990.

Total Housing Units

California 13,688,351

Kern County 284,897

Delano 10,964

1-unit, detached

57.9%

71.1%

74.0%

1-unit, attached

7.1%

2.4%

4.3%

2 units

2.6%

3.1%

1.9%

3 or 4 units

5.5%

6.4%

7.0%

5 to 9 units

6.1%

4.0%

6.0%

10 to 19 units

5.3%

1.8%

1.2%

11.5%

3.0%

3.3%

Mobile home

3.8%

7.9%

2.4%

Boat, RV, van, etc.

0.1%

0.2%

0.0%

20 or more units

Source: American Community Survey. 2009-2011

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Figure 28 shows the number of bedrooms per housing unit by tenure in the City of Delano. e The majority of larger housing units (3+ bedrooms) are owner occupied, while the majority of smaller units (fewer than 3 bedrooms) are renter-occupied. This imbalance is common; however, there is a potential demand for more rental units with three or more bedrooms (for larger families who may not be in a financial position to purchase a home), and for owner-occupied smaller homes and condominiums (for young professionals, seniors, and couples without children). Delano’s housing stock is much newer than California and Kern County’s housing stock is. Approximately 40% of Delano’s housing stock was constructed between 1990 and 2004 (see Figure 27). While newer housing stock tends to provide higher quality housing (e.g., no risk of lead-based paint, better plumbing and insulation, etc.), the rush of developers building so many units so quickly may not have provided the City with ample opportunity to plan for this influx.

Figure 27: Percent of Total Housing Units Built per Time Period

Figure 28: Number of Bedrooms per Housing Unit by Tenure in Delano

e

The percentages shown in Figure 28 use the total number of housing units in Delano as the denominator. Therefore, they all add up to 100%. For example, 14.4% of ALL Delano housing units are renter-occupied and have two-bedrooms and 4.5% of units are owner-occupied and have twobedrooms. Page 43 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


What is it? Housing affordability is defined as the cost of housing (rent or mortgage) relative to household income. Housing is considered affordable if it costs less than 30% of a household budget, while households that pay more than 30% of their net income for housing are considered “cost-burdened.” 64 Affordable housing is provided through various types of government programs including Section 8, Low Income Housing Tax Credit, and Public Housing.

Why is it important? Housing affordability may lead to better health outcomes for residents. Higher rents or mortgage payments, especially for low- and moderate-income families, limit the amount available for other necessities, such as healthy food, heating fuels, and health care. 65 Families with access to affordable housing are also less likely to move frequently. Residential stability, in turn, can reduce emotional and behavioral problems among children, and lower the risk of pregnancy, drug use, and depression during adolescence. 66 Scarce affordable housing limits a household’s choice about where they live, often forcing a move into inadequate or substandard housing, in neighborhoods with higher crime and violence, 67 in regions that are long commutes to employment centers. 68

Affordable Housing Of the 10,964 total housing units in Delano, only 590 are affordable housing. Table 10 shows the breakdown of funding sources for affordable housing units, and includes Section 8, Low Income Housing Tax Credit, and Public Housing. Affordable housing units in Delano make up less than 1% of all housing, creating an imbalance in affordable housing supply. This imbalance can create residential instability for families with low income, and can add to emotional and behavioral issues associated with unstable homes and unaffordable housing payments. As the percentage of people living in poverty level is higher in Delano than Kern County, there is a greater need for affordable housing in the City. The abundance of non-affordable housing could also create long-term vacancy and contribute to high foreclosure rates that in-turn add to housing instability and negative health impacts. The map in Figure 29 shows the location of subsidized housing units (magenta dots), in relationship to the percent of low-income households by census tract (shades of blue), and the locations of retail food stores that accept SNAM/CalFresh (EBT Cards, formally known as the Federal Food Stamp Program). The majority of subsidized housing units are located in the southwest part of Delano. Table 10: Affordable Housing Units in Delano

Type of Subsidized Housing # by Type Subsidized Housing Name Total Units

Low Income Housing Tax Credit

249

Public Housing

132

Section 8 (New Construction/Rehabilitation)

209

Casa Hernandez Apartments Casas del Valle Maganda Park Quincy Street Apartments Villas Santa Fe Homer Harrison Homes Maganda Park I Valle Vista Cecli Avenue Apartments Delano Gardens Valley View Apartments

80 35 20 33 81 50 20 62 43 76 90

Source: HUD (2008). Vis Community Commons.

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Figure 29: Subsidized Housing Units and SNAP Vendors Page 45 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Overcrowded Housing Units What is it? The U.S. Census Bureau defines overcrowded housing as housing with more than one person per room, including the living room in the housing unit. Having more than 1.5 persons per room is considered severe overcrowding.

Why is it important? Overcrowding can directly influence one’s physical and mental health, childhood development, and education. Studies have found a relationship between overcrowding and respiratory health, meningitis, and tuberculosis in children. For adults, a relationship exists between overcrowding and some forms of cancer and respiratory disease. 69 Evidence also suggests that overcrowding is associated with mental health issues in women and racial and ethnic minorities. Overcrowding is also associated with child mistreatment and domestic violence. 70 In addition, overcrowding can increase noise, which increases overall chronic stress and decreases the amount and quality of sleep. 71 72

Overcrowding in Delano is higher than Kern County and California, as 8.9% of owner-occupied and 26.3% of renter-occupied units have more than one occupant per room. Table 11 shows overcrowding rates compared to Kern County and California. The high levels of overcrowding denote Delano’s above average overcrowding and lack of housing diversity in the City. Overcrowded housing units account for over a quarter of renter-occupied households in Delano, creating a severe lack of housing and ability to meet housing needs of Delano residents. 73 This percentage places a large population of Delano at risk of multiple health impacts from overcrowding including respiratory health, mental health, noise, and overall chronic stress. Almost 15% of households have three or more generations (compared to 7.7% Countywide) living under one roof. 74 The multi-generational housing can contribute to a family’s strong connection and attempt to stay in Delano, and lack of affordable housing or other housing conditions has resulted in overcrowding of families. Based on a number of financial or social conditions families have been compelled to combine resources and reduce quality of life in order to stay in the City. Table 11: Overcrowding Housing Units in Delano, Kern County, and CA

Overcrowded Housing Units Percent of Units California Kern County Delano Owner-Occupied Units 1.00 or less occupants per room 1.01 to 1.50 occupants per room 1.51 or more occupants per room Renter-Occupied Units 1.00 or less occupants per room 1.01 to 1.50 occupants per room 1.51 or more occupants per room

95.8 3.2 1.0

94.8 4.1 1.2

91.1 6.9 2.0

86.4 8.1 5.5

85.8 10.1 4.1

73.7 18.3 8.0

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2009-2011 American Community Survey

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What is it? Roadways serve as the connections between different neighborhoods, employment centers, and commercial areas within the city. These roadways are laid out in patterns to form a network that allows cars and trucks to access all parts of the city. In some cases, these streets will have sidewalks or bike lanes to allow other types of travel.

Why is it important? Different patterns can make certain types of travel easier or more difficult. Patterns can also promote different types of travel behavior. A standard grid pattern makes it easy to walk around a neighborhood or city because it typically offers a more direct route to possible destinations. However, the straightness of the roads and regular pattern promote higher vehicular speeds and does not push cars onto the major streets that are designed for heavier traffic. This decreases safety and increases costs to maintain smaller roadways. Irregular patterns may direct vehicles to major roadways, but sometimes create longer routes for vehicles and pedestrians.

Street Pattern Status in Delano Figure 30 shows a map of the street network in the City of Delano and surrounding areas. â–ş Major east-west arterials, such as Garces Highway, Cecil Avenue, and County Line Rd, are evenly spaced and provide access to California State Route-99. Collector streets are evenly spaced in the outer neighborhoods. â–ş Older central neighborhoods and downtown feature traditional grid pattern with evenly sized blocks. â–ş Newer neighborhoods feature more meandering streets and cul-de-sacs that direct vehicles to collector and arterial streets.


Figure 30: Major Roadways in Delano 75

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What is it? Walkability is a measure of how easy, convenient, enjoyable and safe it is to walk in a community. Walkability is impacted by everything from the layout of a city to the design of sidewalks. Well-maintained sidewalks, safe crosswalks, pedestrian amenities, and good public outdoor space all add to a city’s walkability. Distances between starting points and destinations are also a primary factor in walkability; typically locations are considered to be “walking distance” if they are within a quarter mile.

Why is it important? Walking is one of the healthiest and most sustainable forms of transportation available to people. It is a low-impact, environmentally friendly exercise that increases cardiovascular health and lowers the risk of numerous diseases. Replacing car trips with walking also reduces vehicular emissions, reduces consumption of resources, saves money, and increases a sense of community. Any steps taken to increase walkability would have a direct, positive impact on health and sustainability.

Walkability Status in Delano Figure 31 shows a map of all of the sidewalks in Delano. The streets highlighted in orange have sidewalks, while the remaining streets do not. Overall, the pedestrian network in Delano is very disconnected and lacks complete infrastructure. ► Majority of neighborhoods and business districts feature continuous sidewalks. Some neighborhoods feature intermittent sidewalks. Older neighborhoods feature small block sizes that allow for a more direct route for pedestrians. ► Schools and parks typically have high-visibility crosswalks near primary entrance points. ► Numerous crosswalks along Cecil Ave are uncontrolled and not highly visible. ► Most shopping and business is concentrated along arterial streets or the downtown core. This puts most of the destinations outside of walking distance for residents living in neighborhoods outside the city center.

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Figure 31: Sidewalks in Delano 76 Page 50 | Healthy People, Healthy Environment, Healthy Delano


Block Size & Street Patterns What is it? Block size is used as a method of analyzing walkability in a city. Most small and mediumsized cities are arranged around a grid pattern of blocks. There may be smaller blocks within those blocks, or a neighborhood with less defined blocks and streets that meander, turn, and dead-end. Intersection density is a way of measuring block size within a given area; small blocks results in a higher number of intersections in the same area, or higher intersection density.

Status in Delano Intersection Density varies by neighborhood, with older, central neighborhoods having a higher intersection density and smaller block size than newer neighborhoods. Newer neighborhoods closer to the edges of the city feature a lower density and fewer connections as shown in Figure 32. Figure 32: Two Typical Street Patters in Delano

Why is it important? Walkability is directly influenced by intersection density and the layout of the street network. Smaller blocks typically make it easier to reach a destination on foot, and will often reduce the walking distance.

Typical Suburban Layout North of Cecil Avenue. Blocks measure 1,100 by 250 feet.

Traditional Neighborhood near Cesar Chavez Park and Valle Vista Park. Blocks measure 490 by 350 feet.

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What is it?

Bicycle Facilities

Bicycle facilities are spaces and amenities specifically designated for cyclists. Bike lanes in streets or bike trails and paths separate from streets are examples of space designed to be used by cyclists and not motor vehicles. Bike racks, bike lockers, and repair stations are common amenities for use by cyclists. Some facilities can be shared with pedestrians as well, depending on how they are designed.

Many Delano families have only one or zero private automobiles. Since the City is flat, and dry most of the year, bicycling has the potential to be a viable form of transportation. Many residents already do bicycle. However, it is common to see cyclists using the sidewalks, because most arterials have many cars traveling at high speeds. As of 2012 there was only one Class 2 Bike facility (striped on street bike lane) along the northbound side of Randolph Street between 20th Avenue and County Line Road. The City’s Bicycle Master Plan lists planned bike paths, lanes, and routes throughout Delano as shown in the table below:

Why is it important?

Table 12: List of Existing Bike Lanes/Paths/Routes in Delano

Adequate bicycle facilities can increase safety and desirability of cycling. Designating space along roadways for bicycles through pavement striping and signage helps alert motorists to the presence to bike traffic. Completely separate facilities can eliminate most of the conflicts between drivers and riders. This increased safety can attract new riders and allow people to replace car trips with bike trips. Cycling is a good form of exercise, and every car trip replaced with a bike trip reduces vehicular emissions, reduces fuel consumption, and can save money.

Roadway Norwalk Street, Cecil Avenue to County Line Road Princeton Street, Cecil Avenue to County Line Road Randolph Street, Garces Highway to County Line Road Browning Road, Garces Highway to County Line Road County Line Road, West City Limits to Hiett Avenue County Line Road, Hiett Avenue to Browning Road County Line Road, Browning Road to East City Limits Stradley Road, Garces Highway to Schuster Road 1st Avenue, Ellington Street to Stradley Road Albany Street, Garces Highway to 11th Avenue Albany Street, 11th Avenue to Cecil Avenue Albany Street, Cecil Avenue to County Line Road Hiett Avenue, Garces Highway to Cecil Avenue Hiett Avenue, Cecil Avenue to County Line Road

Status in Delano

Type Bike Route Bike Route Bike Lane Bike Lane Bike Route Bike Lane / Bike Route Bike Lane / Bike Route Bike Route Bike Lane Bike Lane Bike Lane / Bike Route Bike Route Bike Route Bike Route

Roadway Lexington Street, Garces Highway to Cecil Avenue Lexington Street, Garces Highway to South City Limits Jefferson Street, Garces Highway to Cecil Avenue Girard Street, 21st Avenue to County Line Road Girard Street, 21st Avenue to 18th Avenue

Type Bike Lane Bike Route Bike Lane Bike Route Bike Route

20th Street, Girard Street to Browning Bike Route Road 11th Avenue, Hiett Avenue to High Street Bike Lane and Jefferson Street to Randolph Street 11th Avenue, High Street to Jefferson Bike Route Street Garces Highway, Timmons Avenue to Bike Lane / Browning Road Bike Route Cecil Avenue, Timmons Avenue to Bike Lane Browning Road High Street, Cecil Avenue to County Line Bike Path Road High Street, Cecil Avenue to Garces Bike Lane / Highway Bike Route High Street, Garces Highway to South of Bike Path Woollomes Avenue Extend 5th Avenue westerly from Bike Path Randolph Street to Quincy Street Page 52 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


What is it? Mass transit systems can include shuttles, buses, trains, and trolleys. Transit involves multiple riders on a vehicle moving between two known points. These vehicles may operate on the same roadway network as cars, or on separate facilities such as train tracks. They are further separated into the categories of fixed-route transit and ondemand transit. A bus system that has established routes and timetables would be considered fixed-route, and to use it, people would need to travel to the route to meet the bus. On-demand transit could be a shuttle or dial-a-ride system, where the rider makes an appointment to be picked up at home and dropped at a specific location. For fixed-route transit to be considered accessible, a home would need to be within a quarter mile of a stop.

Transit Availability and Access Status in Delano The map in Figure 33 shows the Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART) stops and service routes. ► The Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART) system operates four routes within the city. Figure 33 below shows the routes and bus stops, along with a quarter-mile range around each stop that indicates which neighborhoods would find that bus stop accessible. Based on the coverage of routes and stops, the majority of the city neighborhoods do have access to fixed route transit. DART does not operate on Sundays (per website) ► DART operates a dial-a-ride service by appointment to service areas not covered by fixed-route transit and provide ADA-compliant transportation for residents with disabilities ► Regional connectivity via Kern Regional Transit – North Kern Express Route, and Tulare County Area Transit – South County Route

Why is it important? Good access to transit reduces the need to use a personal vehicle to make trips. One busload can replace thirty car trips, reducing vehicle emissions and fuel consumption. Depending on the transit fare and condition of a personal vehicle, this can potentially save money as well. An accessible transit system also provides extended mobility to groups that may not be able to afford to purchase or maintain a personal vehicle. Page 53 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


Figure 33: DART Stops and Service Routes

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Commuting What is it? The majority of people make commuter trips to and from their place of work every weekday. These trips are typically considered to be mandatory and represent a large percentage of total vehicles on the road. Commuter trips usually occur in large groups at common times as many people start and end their workdays at similar times. This creates peak traffic periods, typically once in the morning and again in the evening. Commuting is typically broken up by personal vehicles, transit, bicycles and walking.

Why is it important? Commuting trips are typically considered mandatory during the day for most people. While it is difficult to reduce the number of people commuting, there may be opportunities to change how they commute. Carpooling, transit, and alternative modes of transportation for commuting would remove a daily vehicle round trip for each traveler involved. Removing these trips reduces vehicle emissions and fuel consumption. Depending on the mode chosen it can also save money and increase personal health through exercise.

Status in Delano ► According to most-recent census data: ●

Approximately 50% of workers leave between 5:00 and 7:00am. This may present a challenge for parents with children in school or daycare.

58% work outside of the City

While the average commute time is 24 minutes long, 20% of workers have a commute that is less than 10 minutes

1.3% of workers have no vehicles available

The breakdown of commuters by mode of travel is summarized below: Figure 34: Commute Modes in Delano

Other 1.7%

Work from Commute Modes in Delano Home

Bicycle Public Transportation 0.6% 0.6%

Carpooled 26.2%

Walked 2.2%

1.7%

Drive Alone 67.0%

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A traffic collision is considered to be any event where a vehicle strikes any object while moving. That object could be another car, a pedestrian, or something fixed in place like a fence or light post. When these collisions cause damage or injury, the details are recorded by the local law enforcement agency and loaded into a database so that the statistics can be evaluated later.

Why is it important? Studying the details of collisions is an invaluable tool in helping understand which factors influence, cause, or are correlated with traffic accidents. If the majority of collisions occur in one area, a city can focus efforts on improving safety in that area. If the primary cause of collisions is speeding, a city can take steps to reduce vehicle speeds in areas with high collision rates. Reducing traffic collisions directly benefits public health and safety.

Traffic Collisions Status in Delano ► The most recent full year of data was from June 2010 to May 2011 and was collected from the Statewide Integrated Traffic Records Systems (SWITRS). In this period, there were 515 vehicle collisions. ► The top 3 cited factors contributing to collisions were: Figure 35: Most Common Causes of Collisions

40%

Percent of Collisions with Cited Cause

What is it?

30%

35% 23%

23%

20%

19%

10% 0% Right-of-Way Violation Other Improper Turning Unsafe Speed

► The most common causes of collisions are often the result of a driver’s choice, and thus could have been prevented. ► Out of 515 collisions, 60 involved alcohol ●

Of the 60, driving under the influence was listed as the primary cause of the collision in 20 of the cases.

35% of the collisions were sideswipes

19 people were injured and 1 person was killed in alcohol-involved collisions

► Seatbelt usage is high throughout the city. Page 56 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


What it is? Collisions involving bicycles and pedestrians are often analyzed separately because the risk of injury is typically higher than in collisions only involving vehicles. These are only collisions where a cyclist or pedestrian was involved in a collision with a car or truck.

Why is it important? When pedestrians or cyclists are involved in collisions with motor vehicles, there is often a higher likelihood of injury. Reducing the number of these collisions increases public health. Additionally, pedestrians and motor vehicles do not typically occupy the same space on the street, so collisions should be rare and concentrated to certain types and locations. If the data reveals that this is not the case, steps can be taken to increase safety in locations with high rates of bicycle and pedestrian collisions.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Collisions Status in Delano The map in Figure 36 displaces the location and density of bicycle and pedestrian collisions as well as the location of vehicle-vehicle collisions (“other collisions”). lxxvii ► In the study period, there were 22 collisions involving pedestrians ● Primary Cause: Pedestrian Violation (36%) ● 13 at intersection, 8 midblock ● 18 persons injured, 2 fatalities ● 7 involved minors ► In the study period, there were 7 collisions involving bicycles ● No primary cause trends ● 5 sideswipe collisions ● 5 persons injured, no fatalities ● 4 involved minors

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Figure 36: Bicycle and Pedestrian Collision Density Map lxxviii

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ECONOMIC PROSPERITY AND ACCESS TO GOODS AND SERVICES

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What is it? The unemployment rate measures the percentage of residents who are actively looking for employment and are unable to find a job. The unemployment rate is calculated by dividing the number of unemployed by the total labor force and then multiplying by 100. It is a broad measure of the economic conditions of an area. It does not account for underemployment.

Why is it important?

Unemployment For the past decade, Delano has had a consistently higher unemployment rate than the US and California. In September 2006, the City experienced its lowest level of unemployment, which was still more than three times the corresponding rate in California and the U.S. As of October 2012, the City’s seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 30.8% compared to 9.8% in California and 7.5% in the U.S. (see Figure 37). It is important to note that this figure only includes those actively looking for work, so persons who have “given up� on their job search are not included in these statistics.

Figure 37: Seasonally Adjusted Unemployment Rate (2002-2012)

At its most fundamental level, employment is necessary to generate purchase power for the necessities of life, including a safe place to live, healthy foods, and health insurance. Being unemployed, underemployed, or concerned about job security are common contributors to adverse health effects. Unemployed people may have sleep disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance addictions, which in turn, cause increased demands on the health care system and higher societal costs. 79 In addition, unemployed men have been found to have increased mortality rates, particularly from suicide and lung cancer. 80

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What is it? This report measured the percent of residents who and schools who live within a quartermile of an unhealthy fast food establishment. The analysis also looked at which schools were near fast food restaurants.

Why is it important? It is well known that Delano is one of the most profitable cities for fast food establishments in the country. While fast food offers warm, quick, and easy meals for a few dollars, the food is often high in calories, fat, saturated fat, sodium, sugar, and cholesterol. It often provides low nutritional value per calorie. Areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than grocery stores experience higher rates of obesity and chronic disease across all income groups. 81 Additionally, fast food establishments often have drive-through facilities, which usually increase the number of cars that idle while they are waiting, creating noise, and air pollution. These cars also pose a potential threat to pedestrian safety since they must cross and obstruct a sidewalk to enter and exit.

Fast Food Access In Delano, approximately 18% of residents live within a quarter-mile an unhealthy fast food establishment. Renters (26%) are more than twice as likely as owners (12%) to live near unhealthy fast food. In addition, 18% of children under 18 live near a fast food establishment (see Table 13). The map in Figure 39 shows the location of fast food restaurants by type, a half-mile buffer around each establishment, the location of schools, and the youth population density. The majority of fast food establishments are clustered around Cecil Avenue and High Street. Five of Delano’s public schools are within a quarter-mile of a fast food restaurant, which makes it an easy, tempting choice for students on their way to and from school or during lunch. Those schools include Delano High School, Morningside Elementary School, Fremont Elementary School, Harvest Elementary School, and Cecil Avenue Elementary School. Table 13: Population within a Quarter Mile of Unhealthy Fast Food

Population within 1/4 Mile of Unhealthy Fast Food Total Pop

Citywide Non-Institutionalized Under 18 Renters Homeowners

53,147 42,511 15,948 17,889 24,361

Near Fast Food # Percent 7,657 14.4% 7,657 18.0% 2,863 18.0% 4,729 26.4% 2,928 12.0%

Source: Data from the City of Delano GIS and prepared by Raimi + Associates.

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Figure 38: Fast Food near Schools and Youth Density Page 64 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


Healthy Food Retail Access What is it? For this report, healthy food retail access is defined as living within a half mile of a full service supermarket or a farmers’ market. One half-mile is the standard measurement for neighborhood healthy food retail access used by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 82

Why is it important? Residents of communities with access to a full service grocery store or supermarket tend to eat more fruits and vegetables, have lower body weights, and lower rates of chronic diseases. 83 84 85 86 Conversely, those in communities without access to supermarkets generally have higher body weights (on average) and suffer from higher rates of premature death and chronic disease. 87 88

The map in Figure 40 shows the locations and half-mile service areas of full service supermarkets and farmers in addition to only the locations of other, non-full service grocery stores. Population density appears in grayscale behind the food store locations. Table 13 summarizes the Delano’s access to healthy food retail sources. Of all non-institutionalized residents, 35% live within a half mile of a supermarket, 17% live near a farmers’ market, and 43% live near either a supermarket or a farmers’ market. Delano residents age 65 years and older have slightly better than average access to healthy foods, possibly since they may live in the older parts of the City. Renters also have slightly better access since most of the multi-family housing units are near the City’s main corridors. Table 14: Population within a Half Mile of Healthy Food Retail Stores

Population within 1/2 Mile of Healthy Food Total Pop

People Living within 1/2 Mile of a Supermarket # Percent

People Living within 1/2 Mile of a Farmers' Market # Percent

People Living within 1/2 Mile of a Farmers Market or Supermarket # Percent

Citywide NonInstitutionalized

53,147

14,775

27.8%

7,343

13.8%

18,285

34.4%

42,511

14,775

34.8%

7,343

17.3%

18,285

43.0%

65 and older

3,249

1,308

40.3%

629

19.4%

1,660

51.1%

Renters

17,889

6,680

37.3%

4,678

26.2%

8,626

48.2%

Homeowners

24,361

8,095

33.2%

2,665

10.9%

9,659

39.6%

Source: Data from the City of Delano GIS and prepared by Raimi + Associates.

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Figure 39: Access to Healthy Food Map Page 66 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


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SUSTAINABLE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

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What is it? Natural gas is a colorless, odorless gas used for space heating, cooking, running engines, and generating electricity. Natural gas is a combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases comprised mostly of methane, but can also include ethane, propane, butane, and pentane. When burned, it gives off a relatively high amount of energy and produces relatively few emissions.

Natural Gas Usage Status in Delano ► Natural gas usage increased by 9 percent between 2005 and 2010, while the population increased by 16 percent, indicating a decrease in per capita natural gas usage. ► The single-family residential sector uses the most natural gas at 67.2% of the total usage. This is much higher than the state average of 22% usage for the residential sector, which is relatively lower because of the higher percentage of industrial making up the statewide economy than the percentage that makes up Delano’s economy.

Why is it important?

► Multi-family natural gas usage declined by 3.2 percent between 2005 and 2010

Natural gas is a very versatile energy source and is used in virtually every sector of the community for heating, cooking, power, or transportation. As a hydrocarbon fuel, the use of natural gas has air quality, climate change, and health implications. While natural gas is a relatively clean energy source, when natural gas is burned, a variety of air pollutants are generated including nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These pollutants can contribute to smog, asthma, and global climate change.

► Per capita natural gas usage in Delano is 103.67 therms per person, which is lower than the statewide per capita usage of 631 therms per person. Delano is likely more efficient on a per capita basis because its economy is comprised of less industrial uses than the statewide economy as a whole.

Figure 40: City of Delano 2010 Natural Gas Consumption

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What is it? “Bad Air Days” occur when daily air pollutant level exceeds health standard thresholds of air pollutants including; ozone, lead, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. On days when concentrations of these pollutants are high, air quality is considered bad or unhealthy.

Why is it important? Bad Air Days create unhealthy living conditions and can contribute to negative health effects and many respiratory issues, including asthma. More frequent Bad Air Days in an area increases the high pollutant concentration exposure rate, and over time, can have long-term health effects on community members. It is also advised to reduce outdoor activities like jogging, walking, and sports, because of increased exposure to air pollutants, because of the health risks associated with bad air days.

Bad Air Days Status in Delano ► The City of Delano experienced 195 days of moderate, poor, or unhealthy air quality in 2011 89. The worst months for air quality occurred in June and September. ► Delano’s air quality index is 108% greater than the national average, and 59.5% greater than California’s average 90. ► From 2008 to 2011, the City has experienced a 26-day increase in good air days, and 1-day decrease in bad air days. 91 ► San Joaquin Valley Air Quality District air pollutant levels, Ozone, PM 10 and PM 2.5, are considered Non-Attainment by State Standards. Table 15: Air Quality Measurements and Pollutants

Air Quality Measurement by Day

Total

Total days measured

305

Days with good air quality

110

Days with moderate air quality

87

Days w/ poor A.Q. for sensitive groups

84

Days with unhealthy air quality Air Pollutant Information Arsenic

24

Total 0.160%

Benzene

0.440%

Carbon Tetrachloride

0.000%

Lead

0.100%

Mercury

0.200%

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What is it? Toxic sites, or polluting sources, are areas that hazardous materials are used, created, or disposed, and have been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The TRI identifies types and quantities of chemicals that are being exposed in your community. These sites can include landfills, manufacturing facilities, gas stations, or power plants. Toxic sites can enter land, water, and air systems that can negatively affect the existing conditions linked to or surrounding the site.

Why is it important? The exposure and contamination by toxic materials can have short- or long-term effects on one’s health. Health impacts of toxic exposures depend on the type of chemical, the quantity and duration of the exposure, the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, touch, etc.), and the individual’s baseline health conditions, immune system, and sensitivities. The existence of toxic sites in a community can increase the risk of negative health effects on reproductive systems, cardiovascular systems, respiratory systems, neurological systems, and digestive systems, among others.

Polluting Sources/ Toxic Sites (TRI) Status in Delano ► Thirty-two Facilities are registered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) and considered hazardous waste handlers. ► There are currently 29 EPA-Regulated Facilities located in Delano, identified by the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). 92 ► One facility is considered by the Biennial Report to be treating, storing, and disposing of hazardous waste 93. ► The Permit Compliance System considers one Facility and Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) to have permits to discharge wastewater into rivers. ► Three facilities are considered by the Air Facilities System to be permitted for stationary air pollution, and include industrial uses in their criteria. ► One facility in Delano is considered to manufacture, process, or use chemicals that exceed standard levels regulated by the EPA. ► Two facilities have reported toxic releases. ► Between 1987 and 2011, the top three chemicals for pounds released are ammonia (2,924,071 lbs), ammonium sulfate (743,665 lbs), and sulfuric acid (552,115 lbs). 94

Figure 41: Top Three Chemicals Released in Kern County (1987-2011) Page 72 | Health and Sustainability in Delano, CA


What is it? Pesticide chemicals are used to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate any pest, including herbicides and fungicides. Pesticides can be in water, air, land, soil, and on food. Exposure to pesticides can occur through the skin or eyes (dermal) the mouth (oral) or the lungs (respiratory or inhalation). 95

Why is it important? Pesticide exposure can have a wide range of negative health affects including damage to the nerve, lung, reproductive, and blood systems. 96 Contact or exposure to non-natural chemicals have been known to cause muscle weakness, skin problems, and even cancer in people of all ages, especially children (Helen Murphy, Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, University of Washington). Farm workers are also highly susceptible of pesticide exposure, as they work closely with agriculture, and the chemicals applied to produce to mitigate pest control. 97 Prevalence of pesticide use in your community can increase exposure potential and affect a number of community members in various ways.

Pesticide Exposure Status in Delano ► The top five pesticides used in Kern County, in 2009, include: Sulfur, Petroleum oil, Metam-sodium, mineral oil, and 1,3-Dichloroprophene contributing 13,683,021 pounds to the total 21,550,900 pound use of pesticides in Kern County. ► The top five crops and sites for chemical use in Kern County include: almonds, carrots, table and raisin grapes, wine grapes, and oranges. This contributes 15,200,530 pounds of pesticide applied to the crops. 98 ► California produced 173 million pounds of pesticides in 2010, increasing 9.5% from 2009 inventory reports. Sulfur was the highest used pesticide statewide. 99 ► Common health effects from sulfur exposure include: disturbance of blood circulation, heart damage, eyesight effects, reproductive failure, damage to immune system, and hearing defects. 100

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What is it? Greenhouse Gas emissions are gases that can absorb and emit long wave radiation and retained by gasses include water vapor, methane, and carbon dioxide 101.The gases, emitted by various industrial facilities, vehicles, animals, and manufacturing, trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere preventing cooling of surfaces and average air temperatures 102.

Why is it important? Carbon Dioxide accounts for 84% of all U.S. Greenhouse Gas emissions 103. The health effects of GHG emissions, including Carbon Dioxide, are associated with direct exposure to the gas. Common health effects from high concentrations can restrict oxygen levels in the air, which may cause fatigue, nausea, rapid heart rate, and prevention of adequate amounts of oxygen reaching the brain and heart 104. Excess contact with GHG can also cause some skin and eye irritation.

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Status in Delano ► The 2005 baseline inventory for Delano is 256,894 metric tons (MT) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e2), and increased to 278,688 MT CO2e in 2010. ► The 2005 Delano GHG emission levels contributed to Kern County’s total 2005 emissions of 10,928,153 MT CO2e. 105 Kern County is planning to reduce GHG emissions by 2020 to comply with The California Global Warming Solutions Act (Assembly Bill 32) standards that aims to reduce California GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 106. ► The top three GHG emission sectors for the city of Delano in 2010 include: Water Supply Electricity (2,554 MT CO2e), Citywide Vehicle Fleet-Fuel (1,436 CO2e) and Buildings and Facilities – Natural Gas (1,252 MT CO2e). There was a dramatic increase in City Vehicle Fleet GHG emissions from 2005 to 2010 levels, and a projected increase in this sector for future years. ► The projected total emissions in Delano are 335,260 MT CO2e by 2020 and 400,260 by 2035 107. ► The largest emitters in the coming years will come from On-Road Transportation at 213,283 MT CO2e for 2020, and 258,888 MT CO2e for 2035 levels. ► Delano may consider emissions reduction target of 15% less than 2005 levels, by 2020. This action will comply with the statewide AB 32 policy to reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels 108.

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Figure 42: 2005 Baseline Community GHG Emissions by Sector 109

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Climate Adaptation What is it? Climate Adaptation is the local, regional, national, and global change that will be made to the existing environment and climate, based on a number of environmental factors. Greenhouse Gases are one of these change agents, and contribute to climate adaptation scale and speed.

Why is it important? Over time, different geographical regions will experience a shift in historic and average climate characteristics. The effects of these changes may cause people to adjust lifestyles, place of residence, or changing living conditions. Common adaptations include severe abnormal weather and extreme temperature changes. 110 In areas that experience increase in temperature, health effects include dehydration, heat stroke, cardiovascular problems, certain types of cancers, and air pollution issues. 111

Status in Delano ► The current historic average temperature for the City of Delano is 64.0°. ► At a low emissions rate the expected average temperature is expected to increase to 67.8° by 2070-2090. At a high emissions rate, the average temperature is expected to reach 70.6° by 20702090. ► In the past ten years (2002-2012), Delano averaged 11 extreme heat days per year with temperatures exceeding 100°. 112 ► In the years 2070-2090, the average number of future extreme heat days is expected to reach 46 days per year. Four times more hot days per year than recent averages. 113 ► Delano’s expected change in precipitation is expected to decrease by 1-4 inches over the next 5070 years. 114 ► Delano’s projected changed in temperature and water availability can increase health risks associated with extreme heat, and limited water supply. Agricultural production can also experience adverse effects from project average temperatures in the City.

Figure 43: Project Temperature and Precipitation Changes in Delano, CA 115

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What is it? Solid waste is any trash, garbage, or refuse comprised of everyday items that are being discarded by the residents and businesses of the community.

Why is it important? Reducing solid waste is an important strategy of any sustainability effort. Solid waste is typically disposed of in a landfill and, as such, represents a major stream of unused material that could otherwise be recycled and used for the production of new everyday items. If recycled, solid waste could also offset the demand for virgin materials that must be extracted from the Earth, often at a cost to the environment.

Solid Waste Status in Delano ► Solid waste generation decreased by 7% between 2005 and 2010, even while the population increased by 16 %. Between 2005 and 2010, residential solid waste generation declined by 3.28 percent and non-residential solid waste generation declined by 11.82 %. ► The residential sector generates more solid waste than the non-residential sector at 58.5 percent. This is much higher than the state average of 30 percent usage for the residential sector, which is relatively lower because of the high percentage of non-residential uses making up the statewide economy than the percentage that makes up Delano’s economy. 116

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Why is it important? Water is key a aspect in maintaining overall health, limitations to water availability can negatively affect one’s health. 117 Water systems can help prevent health and sanitation risks, and efficiency is critical in preventing unintended loss of water to other uses including agriculture, industry, recreation, and stream flow. 118 Limited supply of potable water can limit access to humans and negatively affect health caused by less than adequate daily water supply. Water supply infrastructure and levels are essential to maintaining health for all community residents.

Status in Delano The City’s water comes from pumped groundwater. The amount pumped per year is enough to meet demands, with little waste. In 2013, the City ground water will have capacity of 16,100 GPPM (23MGD) with 17 active wells 119. The City provides wastewater collection and treatment from residential, commercial, and industrial uses. The City of Delano’s Facilities management Plan of 2005 increased daily capacity to 8.8 million gallons per day (MGD) to meet water collections demands for 2005 to 2020 projected levels. The City also increased their 454-acre disposal site by 30 acres to account for the new flow projections. Water use in Delano is expected to increase from 3,840,000 gallons per year in 2010, to 5,181,000 gallons per year in 2035. This will come from existing and projected wells totaling 18 within the City and Sphere of Influence. In 2010, Delano produced 3 billion gallons (9,272 acre feet) of water, averaging 8.23 million gallons per day 120. City uses 900 acres of land to discharge treated water, and projected to be recycled for agricultural irrigation. In 2010, 1,571 Million Gallons per Day (MGD) of recycled water was used 121. Figure 44: Water use and Wastewater Collection Projections, Delano, CA

100,000

Population Served

80,000 60,000

1,571

1,736

40,000 20,000

Wastewater Collected 1,918

2,120

48,957

54,097

59,778

66,054

2010

2015

2020

2025

2,342

2,588

3,000 2,500 2,000

72,990

80,654

1,500 1,000 500

0

0 Year

2030

2035

Acre Feet of Wastewater Collected

The consumption, use, and disposal of potable water supply for personal, household, industrial, and other community activities. Water sources supply a number of city activities, and vital to a city’s sustainability and quality of life.

Water Use

Population Served

What is it?

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What is it? Water quality is based on suitable levels of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water supply 122. Water quality meeting suitable levels based on temperature, acidity (pH), dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductance 123, salinity, and turbidity 124, is considered safe potable water 125.

Why is it important?

Water Quality Status in Delano The region’s water quality is suitable for most urban and agriculture uses. Near the City of Delano, high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS_, nitrate, arsenic, and organic compounds occur, especially arsenic levels near Tulare Lake, Kern Lake, and Buena Vista Lake. The 2003 study, described in the 2010 Urban Water Management Plan, 2 of 11 wells did exceed arsenic Maximum Contaminate Levels of 0.010 mg/L. The City’s Arsenic Mitigation Study concluded to treat wellheads and drilling new wells to replace old wells, and maintain consistent water supply 127.

Access to safe drinking water is important to sustain quality of life, and health. Poor water quality, or contaminated water, can prevent the consumption of water or cause severe health impacts if ingested. Contact or ingestion of contaminated water could cause stomach cramps, nausea, jaundice, headaches, and fatigue 126.

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Photos Sources Cover http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/

Socio-Cultural http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/ Coastersbycicleclub.com2010

Community Health Status http://www.panoramio.com/photo/73775010 http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/

Built Environment http://www.panoramio.com/photo/2967908 http://www.panoramio.com/photo_explorer#view=photo&position=3&with_photo_id=8612774&order=date_desc&user=1508220 http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/

Economic Prosperity and Access to Goods and Services http://delanochamberofcommerce.org/photos/ http://www.panoramio.com/user/1328255?comment_page=2&photo_page=1 http://valleysocialstudies.com/reflections-on-ncss-2012-in-seattle-wa/?doing_wp_cron=1370636367.8155729770660400390625

Sustainability and Natural Environment http://www.susankirk.com.au/2011/insecticides-an-increasing-problem-in-future-for-streams-in-europe/ http://www.turnto23.com/news/40-acres-in-delano-become-historic-landmark http://www.panoramio.com/photo_explorer#view=photo&position=26&with_photo_id=7937122&order=date_desc&user=1328255 http://www.calbiomass.org/facilities/covanta-delano/

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"Common Menu Bar Links." Carbon Dioxide : OSH Answers. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/chem_profiles/carbon_dioxide.html>.

105

"Kern County Community Wide Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Baseline 2005 - 2010." San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, May 2012.

106

California Air Resources Board <http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/cc.htm>.

107

Fehr and Peers, comp. DRAFT City of Delano GHG Inventory. Tech. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 2012. Print.

108

Fehr and Peers, comp. DRAFT City of Delano GHG Inventory. Tech. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 2012. Print.

109

Fehr and Peers, comp. DRAFT City of Delano GHG Inventory. Tech. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 2012. Print.

110

"Environmental Indicators." Government of Canada, Environment Canada. N.p., 4 May 2012. Web. <http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=en>.

111

"Environmental Indicators." Government of Canada, Environment Canada. N.p., 4 May 2012. Web. <http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=en>.

112

"Temperature: Extreme Heat Tool." Cal-Adapt. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://cal-adapt.org/temperature/heat/>.

113

"Temperature: Extreme Heat Tool." Cal-Adapt. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://cal-adapt.org/temperature/heat/>.

114

"Temperature: Extreme Heat Tool." Cal-Adapt. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://cal-adapt.org/temperature/heat/>.

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California 2008 Statewide Waste Characterization Study retrieved 2/20/13 from http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/WasteChar/Tables/StateSummary.pdf "Water Use Efficiency (WUE)." :: Washington State Dept. of Health. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.doh.wa.gov/CommunityandEnvironment/DrinkingWater/WaterSystemDesignandPlanning/WaterUseEfficiency.aspx>. 117

"Water Use Efficiency (WUE)." :: Washington State Dept. of Health. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.doh.wa.gov/CommunityandEnvironment/DrinkingWater/WaterSystemDesignandPlanning/WaterUseEfficiency.aspx>. 118

119

U.S. City of Delano. Public Works. City of Delano 2010 UWMP. Delano: n.p., 2011. Print.

120

U.S. City of Delano. Public Works. City of Delano 2010 UWMP. Delano: n.p., 2011. Print.

121

U.S. City of Delano. Public Works. City of Delano 2010 UWMP. Delano: n.p., 2011. Print.

122

"A Primer on Water Quality." U.S. Geological Survey. US Department of Interior, 09 Jan. 2013. Web. <http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-027-01/>.

123

Electrical Conductance: Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material accommodates the movement of an electric charge. Electrical conductivity is a very useful property since values are affected by such things as a substances chemical composition and the stress state of crystalline structures. Therefore, electrical conductivity information can be used for measuring the purity of water, sorting materials, checking for proper heat treatment of metals, and inspecting for heat damage in some materials. <http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Physical_Chemical/Electrical.htm> 124

Turbidity: Turbidity is the measure of relative clarity of a liquid. It is an optical characteristic of water and is an expression of the amount of light that is scattered by material in the water when a light is shined through the water sample. <http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/turbidity.html>

"Water Quality." , from the U.S. Geological Survey Water Science School. U.S. Department of Interior, 10 Jan. 2013. Web. <http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterquality.html>. 125

126

National Resource Defense Council. What's on Tap? NRDC: What's on Tap? N.p., Oct. 2002. Web. Oct. 2002. <http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/uscities/contents.asp>.

127

U.S. City of Delano. Public Works. City of Delano 2010 UWMP. Delano: n.p., 2011. Print.

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A3. Climate Action Plan Under Separate Cover


CITY OF DELANO Public Review Draft Climate Action Plan

Prepared for City of Delano

November 2013


CITY OF DELANO Public Review Draft Climate Action Plan

Prepared for City of Delano

2600 Capitol Avenue Suite 200 Sacramento, CA 95816 916.564.4500 www.esassoc.com Los Angeles Oakland Orlando Palm Springs Petaluma Portland San Diego San Francisco Santa Cruz Seattle Tampa Woodland Hills

November 2013


OUR COMMITMENT TO SUSTAINABILITY | ESA helps a variety of public and private sector clients plan and prepare for climate change and emerging regulations that limit GHG emissions. ESA is a registered assessor with the California Climate Action Registry, a Climate Leader, and founding reporter for the Climate Registry. ESA is also a corporate member of the U.S. Green Building Council and the Business Council on Climate Change (BC3). Internally, ESA has adopted a Sustainability Vision and Policy Statement and a plan to reduce waste and energy within our operations. This document was produced using recycled paper.


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1. Introduction 1  Overview 1  Purpose and Scope 1  Relationship to Other City Plans 2  Document Contents 3 

2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting 5  What is Climate Change? 5  Impacts of Climate Change 9  Policy and Regulatory Setting 11  3. GHG Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets 17  Community Wide Emissions 17  Municipal Operations Emissions 20  Emissions Forecast 23  Emissions Reduction Target 26 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies 29  Overview 29  Energy Goals and Strategies 33  Transportation and Land Use Goals and Strategies 49  Solid Waste Goals and Strategies 62  Water Goals and Strategies 65 

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5. Monitoring and Implementation 69  Overview 69  Current Funding Needs 70  Monitoring 72  Schedule of Implementation 72  Funding Sources 74  6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change 79  Overview 79  Expected Local Impacts 79  Adaptation Planning Approach 81  Adaptation Planning Strategies 82 

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List of Appendices  A.   GHG Inventory Methodology  B.  Vehicle Miles of Travel Inventory  C.  Fehr & Peers Traffic and Land Use Reduction Strategies Memo  D.  Transportation and Land Use Strategies  E.  Solid Waste Strategies  F.  Energy and Water Strategies    List of Figures  2‐1. The Greenhouse Effect 6  2‐2. Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide 7  2‐3. 800,000 Year Record of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations 8  2‐4. Climate Model Indications and Observed Climate 9  3‐1. 2005 Community GHG Emissions by Sector 19  3‐2. 2010 Baseline Community GHG Emissions by Sector 20  3‐3. 2005 and 2010 Community GHG Emissions by Sector 20  3‐4. 2005 Baseline Municipal GHG Emissions by Sector 22  3‐5. 2010 Baseline Municipal GHG Emissions by Sector 22  3‐6. 2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Municipal Emissions by Sector 23  3‐7. Community Emissions by Sector (MT CO2e): 2005 Baseline, 2010 Update, and BAU     Forecasts for 2020 and 2035 25  3‐8. 2020 Target and the Anticipated Impact of State Measures on Community‐wide   GHG Emissions 27  4‐1. 2020 Target and the Anticipated Impact of State Measures and Climate Action Plan on    Community‐wide GHG Emissions 30  4‐2. Annual Electricity Usage (kWh) in the City of Delano, for 2005 and 2010 33  4‐3. Annual Natural Gas Usage (therms) in the City of Delano, for 2005 and 2010 34  4‐4. Electricity Usage for Municipal Operations in 2005 and 2010 35  4‐5. Natural Gas Usage for Municipal Operations in 2005 and 2010 36  4‐6. Distribution of Residential Building Construction Date, by Building Type in the City of    Delano 38  5‐1. Projected Temperature Increase 66  5‐2. Observed and Projected Temperatures 66  5‐3. Projected Precipitation Levels 66  6‐1. Projected Temperature Increase 80  6‐2. Observed and Projected Temperatures 80  6‐3. Projected Precipitation Levels 80 

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List of Tables  2‐1. Greenhouse Gases Covered by the Kyoto Protocol 7  3‐1. 2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Community GHG Emissions by Sector 18  3‐2. 2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Municipal Operations GHG Emissions by Sector 21  3‐3. Community  Emissions  by  Sector:  2005  Baseline,  2010  Update,  and  BAU  Forecasts     for 2020 and 2035 24  3‐4. Annual GHG Reductions from State‐wide Measures by 2020 26  3‐5. Predicted Effect of State‐Wide Measures on Community‐Wide GHG Emissions 25  4‐1. Prioritization of Community Strategies 31  4‐2. Summary Table of GHG Reduction Potential for Energy Strategies in 2020 37  4‐3. Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Transportation and Land Use Strategies in 2020 45  4‐4. Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Solid Waste Strategies in 2020 63  4‐5. Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Water Strategies in 2020 66  5‐1. Priority Funding Needs 71  5‐2. Schedule of Implementation 73     

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A work week comprising 40 hours spread over 4 working days. 

9/80

A work week comprising 80 hours spread over 9 working days. 

AAAS

American Association for the Advancement of Science—an  international non‐profit organization dedicated to advancing science  around the world. 

AB1493

Assembly Bill 1493: The Pavley Regulations, which reduce passenger  vehicle emissions. 

AB 32 

Assembly Bill 32 (2006): Requires that California cap GHG emissions  state‐wide at 1990 levels by 2020 

AB 341 

Assembly Bill 341 (2011): Requires California to divert 75 percent of its  solid waste from landfills by 2020. 

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Glossary 4/40 

Acre‐feet per year 

BAAQMD

Bay Area Air Quality Management District 

BAU

Business as Usual 

BTA

State Bicycle Transportation Account 

Cal/EPA

California Environmental Protection Agency 

CalGREEN

The 2010 California Green Building Code, codified in Title 24 of the  California Code of Regulations. 

CaliforniaFIRST

A statewide PACE Program available to nonresidential building  owners. 

CARB

The California Air Resources Board 

CAP

Climate Action Plan 

CAPCOA

California Air Pollution Control Officers Association 

CCAP

The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District Climate Change  Action Plan 

CEC

California Energy Commission 

CEQA

The California Environmental Quality Act 

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbon: A greenhouse gas mostly eliminated by  international treaty 

CH4

Methane: A greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times more global  warming potential per unit weight than carbon dioxide. 

CO2

Carbon dioxide: A greenhouse gas 

CO2e

Carbon dioxide equivalent, or the amount of CO2 that would have the  same global warming potential (GWP), when measured over a  specified timescale (generally, 100 years). 

CPUC

California Public Utilities Commision 

CSI

California Solar Initiative: A state program offering rebates for solar  installation 

CVOC

Central Valley Opportunity Center 

EMFAC

Emission Factors Model: A model used to calculate emission rates  from all motor vehicles in California, including passenger cars and  heavy‐duty truck. EMFAC2007 EMFAC2011 is the most recent version  of this model.  

DART

Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART): Delano’s bus service system. 

EAP

Energy Action Plan 

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Glossary (cont.)  EPA 

United States Environmental Protection Agency. The mission of EPA is  to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment— air, water and land—upon which life depends. 

ESCO

Energy Service Company: A business that develops, installs, and  arranges financing for projects designed to improve the energy  efficiency and maintenance costs for facilities 

eTrip

San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District rule requiring  employers with 100 or more eligible employees at worksites to  established employee trip reduction programs. 

FHA

Federal Housing Administration 

GHG

Greenhouse gas  

D

The waste collection provider for the City of Oakdale and surrounding  communities. 

S‐3‐05

California Governor’s Executive Order 

Greenhouse Gas 

A gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere, causing a  planet‐wide greenhouse effect. 

GWP

Global warming potential measures the atmospheric heat‐absorbing  ability of a gas relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO2) 

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Gallons per capita per day 

HVAC

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning 

ICF

ICF International, an energy, environmental, transportation, health,  education, social programs, and homeland security consultant 

ICLEI

International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives: A  membership association of local governments committed to advancing  climate protection and sustainable development.  

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: The leading body for the  assessment of climate change, established by the United Nations.  

Kern COG 

Kern Council of Governments 

kWh

Kilowatt hours 

LCFS

Low Carbon Fuel Standard: Executive Order S‐1‐07, which calls for a 10  percent reduction in the carbon intensity of California’s transportation  fuels by 2020.  

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design: An internationally  recognized green building certification system, which provides third‐ party verification that a building or community was designed and built  using sustainable approaches, with particular regard to energy savings,  water efficiency, CO2 emissions reductions, and improved indoor  environmental quality, among others. 

LIHEAP

Low‐Income Home Energy Assistance Program 

LOS

Level of service: A traffic engineering measurement of delay at  intersections due to vehicle queuing. 

MASH

Multifamily Affordable Solar Housing: a program that provide  incentives for Multifamily housing. 

MID

Modesto Irrigation District: One of two energy providers for the City of  Oakdale 

MPO

Metropolitan Planning Organization 

MT CO2e 

Metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent 

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Glossary (cont.)  NAS 

National Academy of Sciences  Nitrous oxide. A colorless, odorless greenhouse gas with  approximately 310 times more global warming potential than CO2. 

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

NREL

National Renewable Energy Laboratory 

NSHP

New Solar Homes Partnership: A program that provides financial  incentives and other support to home builders for energy efficient  solar homes. 

OPR

California State Office of Planning and Research 

PACE

Property Assessed Clean Energy Program 

Pavley

The Pavley Regulations, which reduce passenger vehicle emissions. 

PFC

Perfluorocarbon: A greenhouse gas with a global warming potential  between 7,300 and 22,800 times more than carbon dioxide 

PG&E

Pacific Gas and Electric Company: One of the City’s energy utilities. 

PPA

Power Purchase Agreement 

ppm

Parts per million 

PV

Photovoltaic

ROTA

Riverbank‐Oakdale Transit Authority 

RPS

Renewable Portfolio Standard 

RSWPA

Stanislaus County Regional Solid Waste Planning Agency 

SASH

Single Family Affordable Solar Housing: a program that provide  incentives for single family housing. 

SB1078 / SB 107 

Senate Bill 1078: The Renewable Portfolio Standard, required  California to generate 20% of its electricity from renewable resources  no later than 2017. 

SB 2 

Senate Bill 2 (2011): Expanded the Renewable Portfolio Standard,  requiring California investor‐owned utilities to have 33 percent  renewable procurement by 2020. 

SB 375 

Senate Bill 375: Enhances California's ability to reach its AB 32 goals by  promoting good planning with the goal of more sustainable  communities. 

SB 97 

Senate Bill 97: Requires the Governor’s Office of Planning and  Research (OPR) to develop and adopt CEQA guidelines for the  mitigation of emissions. 

SBX7‐7

The California Water Conservation Bill of 2009, which sets a target of a  20% reduction in Statewide water use by 2020.  

SCE

Southern California Edison: One of the City’s energy utilities 

SCS

Sustainable Communities Strategy 

SCG & SCGC 

Scoping Plan Southern California Gas Company: One of the City’s  energy utilities AB32‐required planning document developed by the  Air Resources Board that provides the outline for actions to reduce  California’s GHG emissions. 

SEEC

The California State‐wide Energy Efficiency Collaborative, which is a  program that provides free‐of‐charge energy and climate initiative  resources to local governments. 

SJV PEVCC 

San Joaquin Valley Plug‐in Electric Vehicle Coordinating Council 

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Glossary (cont.)  SF6 

Sulfur Hexafluoride: A greenhouse gas with 22,800 the global warming  potential of carbon dioxide.  San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District 

SJVRPA

San Joaquin Valley Regional Planning Agency 

SOV

Single‐occupancy vehicle 

SRTS

Safe Routes to School: a movement to create safe, convenient, and  fun opportunities for children to bike and walk to and from schools. 

StaRT

Stanislaus County Regional Transit 

TEA‐21

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century 

Title 24 

Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations—the California Building  Code 

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SJVAPCD

Tulare County Area Transit: Tulare County’s bus service system. 

TDM

Transportation Demand Management: The application of strategies  and policies to reduce travel demand through reduction in single‐ occupancy private vehicle use.  

TIP

Transportation Improvement Program 

UWMP

Urban Water Management Plan 

USDOT

The United States Department of Transportation 

VMT

Vehicle miles traveled 

WAP

Weatherization Assistance Program 

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant 

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Overview

Given the  scientific  consensus  that  anthropogenic  or  “man‐made”  greenhouse  gas  (GHG)  emissions  are  causing  global  climate  change,  the  City  of  Delano  is  joining  an  increasing  number  of  California  local  governments committed to addressing climate change at the local level. The City recognizes the risk that  climate  change  poses  to  its  residents,  business  owners,  and  visitors,  and  is  acting  now  to  reduce  the  GHG emissions from both its government operations and the community at‐large through the strategies  set  forth  in  this  Climate  Action  Plan.  Although  state  and  regional  policies  and  programs  are  being  implemented to reduce GHG emissions, ultimately local action is needed to ensure that Delano is doing its  part to mitigate climate change and adapt to its current and future effects. This Climate Action Plan takes a  common sense approach to reducing GHG emissions in the City of Delano, with policies and cost‐effective  programs that the City itself, as well as its residents and businesses, can implement to reduce the GHG  emissions  associated  with  energy  consumption,  transportation,  water  use,  and  waste  sent  to  local  landfills. 

Purpose and Scope

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This Climate  Action  Plan  outlines  strategies,  goals,  and  actions  for  the  City  and  its  community  to  reduce  municipal and community‐wide GHG emissions. It is designed to ensure that Delano does its part to meet  the mandates of California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), while taking into account the  Delano General Plan vision for future growth.   AB  32  directs  the  state  to  reduce  state‐wide  GHG  emissions  to  1990  levels  by  2020.  To  achieve  these  reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the State Office of Planning and Research (OPR)  recommend that local governments target their 2020 emissions to be 15 percent below 2005 levels, which are  deemed to be equivalent to 1990 emissions levels.  The  baseline  2005  and  2010  Community  GHG  Emissions  Inventories  for  Delano  include  255,854  and  276,456  metric tons of CO2 equivalents (MT CO2e), respectively. Emissions from municipal operations, included in 

1. Introduction

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

the community inventory, were 18,436 MT CO2e in 2005 and 20,817 MT CO2e in 2010. Under business‐ as‐usual (BAU) conditions, community GHG emissions are forecasted to be 333,111 MT CO2e.by the year  2020. To be consistent with the AB 32 goal, the City must reduce its annual community‐wide emissions to  approximately 217,477 MT CO2e by the year 2020. This is a reduction of 34.7% (115,634 MT CO2e) below  the 2020 BAU forecast. 

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Several initiatives  at  the  state  level  will  help  the  City  reduce  GHG  emissions,  but  they  alone  will  not  be  sufficient to meet the 2020 target. Due primarily to their control over land use and building practices, local  governments play a key role in reducing GHG emissions. This Climate Action Plan provides a roadmap  for the City to be proactive in reducing GHGs through a series of local actions, so that the City can help  mitigate  climate  change  while  doing  its  part  to  meet  the  requirements  of  state  law.  In  addition,  efforts  to  reduce  GHG  emissions  generally  provide  lower  energy  bills  and  co‐benefits  to  public  health,  economic  development (including providing local job opportunities), air quality, and quality of life. 

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The City  of  Delano  considered  many  potential  GHG‐reduction  strategies  and  actions.  Best‐suited  measures  were  chosen  primarily  based  on  their  ability  to  reduce  GHG  emissions  for  their  cost‐benefit  characteristics,  with  additional  considerations  for  funding  availability  and  feasibility  of  implementation.  The selected measures in this Climate Action Plan cover transportation and land use, energy consumption  and generation, water use and wastewater treatment, solid waste disposal, and municipal operations. For each  emissions  sector,  the  Climate  Action  Plan  presents  goals,  strategies,  and  specific  actions  for  reducing  emissions,  along  with  quantified  cost‐benefit  impacts  where  possible.  An  implementation  and  monitoring  plan  is  also  provided.  The  initial  implementation  timeframe  will  span  approximately  seven  years, from now (2013) through 2020. 

Relationship to Other City Plans This Climate  Action  Plan,  in  presenting  measures  for  reducing  community  GHG  emissions  and  increasing  resilience  to  climate  change,  is  closely  aligned  with  the  goals  and  policies  outlined  in  the  Delano  General  Plan (adopted in 2005), as well as other City policies related to sustainability, including those found in the  Delano  Health  and  Sustainability  Element  that  is  expected  to  be  adopted  into  the  General  Plan  in  late  2013.  The  Climate  Action  Plan  is  consistent  with  the  General  Plan,  but  is  intended  to  be  updated  and  revised on a more frequent basis.  

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The goals, strategies, and actions presented in Chapter 4 of this Climate Action Plan are consistent with  the goals and policies included in the Health and Sustainability Element of the Delano General Plan. The City  of  Delano  Health  and  Sustainability  Element  provides  support  for  the  Climate  Action  Plan  through  its  inclusion  of  goals  and  policies  on  Energy,  Green  Buildings,  Community  Design,  Land  Use  and  Transportation,  Resource  Efficiency,  and  Climate  Change  Resiliency.  Table  5.1  in  Chapter  5  provides  a  summary of how the two documents align. 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Document Content The Climate Action Plan is organized into the following chapters, as described below:    Executive Summary. This section provides a summary of the Delano Climate Action Plan.  Chapter 1: Introduction. This chapter provides an overview of the document, the purpose and scope  of the Climate Action Plan, and its relationship the Delano General Plan.  

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Chapter 2:  Climate  Change  Background  and  Regulatory  Setting.  This  chapter  presents  the  basic  science  behind  climate  change  and  the  ongoing  research  related  to  its  effects  on  the  natural  and  human world. In addition, Chapter 2 provides a brief explanation of federal regulations, state actions,  and local actions pursuant to state requirements to reduce GHG emissions. 

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Chapter 3: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets. This chapter presents the  community‐wide  inventory  of  GHG  emissions  for  the  2005  base  year.  A  subset  of  those  emissions— municipal emissions attributable to government operations—is also presented. Using projections of  population, employment, and new residential and commercial development, future emissions for the  year 2020 are estimated for BAU market‐based conditions. In addition, future year emissions for  the year 2035 are estimated for BAU General Plan build‐out conditions. This chapter also estimates  the  cumulative  effect  of  implementing  state‐wide  measures  in  reducing  GHG  emissions  over  time.  Finally,  this  chapter  establishes  the  2020  GHG  emissions  target  as  15  percent  below  base  year  2005  emissions, and describes the emissions “gap” that the City of Delano Climate Action Plan must close to  reach that target.  Chapter 4: Reduction Goals, Strategies, and Actions. Reducing emissions to at least 15 percent below  the  2005  base  year  inventory  will  require  the  City  of  Delano  and  its  residents  and  businesses  to  commit  to  strategies  that  impact  energy  use,  development  density  and  vehicular  use,  solid  waste  diversion,  and  water  consumption.  Chapter  4  addresses  each  of  these  major  categories,  summarizing  the  category’s  contribution  to  total  city‐wide  emissions  and  describing  the  strategies  and  measures that will be implemented to reduce emissions from each category over time. It also provides  estimates of the emissions reduction potential for individual strategies and actions in each category  in  2020,  as  well  as  a  summary  of  the  aggregate  impact  of  all  strategies  in  2035.  Chapter  4  also  incorporates  the  policies  and  programs  that  Delano  has  implemented  since  the  2005  base  year,  accounting for their emissions reduction impacts.  

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Chapter 5:  Monitoring  and  Implementation.  This  chapter  outlines  recommended  steps  for  implementing  the  Climate  Action  Plan  strategies  described  in  Chapter  4,  and  for  monitoring  the  progress of implementation.   Chapter 6: Preparing Delano for Climate Change. This chapter presents an overview of the impacts  Delano is expected to experience due to projected changes in the climate, and what the City can do  to begin preparing for them. 

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1. Introduction


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What is Climate Change?

Climate change  is  described  as  a  significant  and  lasting  change  in  the  planet’s  weather  patterns  over  a  long time period. The scientific community has reached consensus that climate change is occurring at a  global scale, and climate change is a widely discussed economic and political issue in California, the United  States, and internationally. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Warming  of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average  air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level.”1  Regional  changes  in  climate,  particularly  temperature  increases  and  changing  precipitation  patterns,  are  already affecting natural systems worldwide, and will have widespread impacts on water availability, food  production, ecosystem biodiversity, and human health. These changes can result in significant impacts to  the health, economy and environment of the Delano community and beyond. 

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Greenhouse gases  (GHGs)  are  gases  that  trap  heat  in  the  atmosphere  and  regulate  the  Earth’s  temperature.  This  effect,  known  as  the  Greenhouse  Effect,  is  responsible  for  maintaining  a  habitable  climate, as shown in Figure 2‐1. There are many natural cycles and processes that affect the level of GHGs in  the atmosphere, but climate change is accelerating in recent decades due to human activity, adding ever‐ increasing  levels  of  GHGs  into  the  atmosphere.  Since  the  dawn  of  the  Industrial  Revolution  around  1750, human activities have been adding to the concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere, and levels now  far exceed the average atmospheric concentrations of the past several hundred thousand years. Land use  changes, burning of fossil fuels, and agricultural practices have all contributed to this observed increase.  Global climate models clearly show that human activity is having an effect on global temperatures. This is  otherwise known as “anthropogenic warming.” 

                                                                                 1

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, 2007. Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml

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Figure 2‐1  The Greenhouse Effect 

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SOURCE: (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2009)2

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The most prevalent GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor. Other important GHGs are methane  (CH4), nitrous  oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydroflurocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs),  and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). These gases are emitted through a variety of natural processes and human  activities:  

Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are byproducts of fossil fuel combustion. 

Nitrous oxide is associated with agricultural operations, including the fertilization of crops.  

Methane results from many agricultural practices (e.g., keeping livestock), anaerobic composting,  and landfills. 

Until recently,  chlorofluorocarbons  were  widely  used  as  refrigerants,  propellants,  and  cleaning  solvents, but their production has been mostly eliminated by international treaty.  

Hydrofluorocarbons are  now  used  as  a  substitute  for  chlorofluorocarbons  in  refrigeration  and  cooling. 

Perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride emissions are common byproducts of industries such as  aluminum production and semi‐conductor manufacturing.  

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Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a quantitative measurement that expresses the relative warming potency  of these gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is assigned a GWP value of 1. Sulfur hexafluoride is several  orders of magnitude stronger with a GWP of 22,800. For GHG emission inventories, the weight of each gas is  multiplied  by  its  GWP  and  presented  in  units  of  carbon  dioxide  equivalents  (CO2e).  Table  2‐1  lists  the  six  primary GHGs (also known as the Kyoto GHGs), their chemical formula, the lifetime of the compound, and  their GWPs relative to CO2.  Though CO2 has a lower GWP than other GHGs in the atmosphere, it is the largest contributor to anthropogenic  warming over the last century because of the sheer volume of human‐induced CO2 emissions over that time.  Figure 2‐2 shows the strong correlation between atmospheric CO2 levels and observed global temperatures                                                                                    2

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US DOT, Highways & Climate Change, available online: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/climate/ccbrochure.htm, accessed April 18, 2012.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

over the past 130 years. Concentrations have risen most rapidly since 1980, closely tracking the steep rise  in temperature.  Table 2‐1  Greenhouse Gases Covered by the Kyoto Protocol  (Lifetime and Global Warming Potentials from IPCC1)  Chemical Formula 

Lifetime (years) 

Global Warming Potential  for 100‐year horizon 

Carbon Dioxide 

CO2

1

1

Methane

CH4

12

25

Nitrous Oxide 

N20

114

298

Sulfur Hexafluoride 

SF6

3,200

22,800

Hydrofluorocarbons

HFCs

1.4–270

77–14,400

Perfluorocarbons

PFCs

1,000–50,000

7,390–22,800

GHG

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1 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (AR4). Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/  publications_and_data_reports.shtml#1 

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Figure 2‐2  Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide

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SOURCE: NOAA, 20103 

As shown in Figure 2‐3, atmospheric CO2 levels have periodically risen and fallen over the past 800,000  years, within a relatively narrow range of approximately 180 to 300 parts per million (ppm), corresponding  to repeating cycles of carbon uptake and release as continental ice sheets advance and retreat. The current                                                                                    3

NOAA Satellite and Information Service, available online: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/, 2010.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

era, already near the peak of an historical warming cycle, is experiencing atmospheric CO2 levels far higher  than at any time over the past 800,000 years. Current atmospheric concentrations are hovering at about  400 ppm, compared with approximately 280 ppm just 250 years ago.  Figure 2‐3  800,000 Year Record of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentrations

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By the end of the 21st Century, even the lower threshold of expected levels shown in Figure 2‐3 will far  exceed  known  levels  going back  more  than  one  million  years.  Climate  models  cited by  the  IPCC  predict  that  by  2100,  average  atmospheric  CO2  concentrations  will  increase  to  a  range  of  540–970  ppm,  while  global  average  temperatures  are  expected  to  rise  between  1.1  and  6.4  °C  (2.0  and  11.5  °F),  with  the  greatest  increases  occurring  at  the  poles.  Already,  observed  average  temperatures  have  increased  by  about  3°C  at  the  poles  since  the  1980s,  compared  with  0.7  °C  in  the  Earth’s  more  temperate  zones.  Climate  dynamics  are  complex,  and  predictions  about  our  future  climate  include  a  level  of  uncertainty.  Even so, current observations are consistent with modeling predictions and in many cases prove that the  models are conservative.  

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An expanding body of scientific research supports the theory that human activity is a major contributor to  observed  increases  in  atmospheric  CO2  and  other  GHGs.  As  shown  in  Figure  2‐4,  climate  model  experiments that include only natural factors, such as cycles of solar radiation variability, show a relatively  stable  global  temperature  over  the  past  century,  while  models  that  include  human  influences  produce  results that track very closely to the observed temperature increases over that same time period.  

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NOAA Satellite and Information Service, 2010. Available at: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/indicators/

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 2‐4  Climate Model Indications and the Observed Climate

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Impacts of Climate Change

In 2013, a consortium of U.S.‐based science organizations led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric  Administration (NOAA) released a draft of its third comprehensive study of climate impacts in the United  States.5 Its key findings are summarized as follows:  1.

Global warming  is  unequivocal  and  primarily  human‐induced,  predominantly  through  the  burning of fossil fuels.  

Average global temperature has increased over the past 50 years. This observed increase is due  primarily to human‐induced emissions of heat‐trapping gases. 

2.

Widespread climate‐related  impacts  are  occurring  now  and  are  expected  to  continue  and  accelerate significantly if emissions of heat‐trapping gases continue to increase.  

3.

Climate change will stress water resources.  

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Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and  health. These impacts are different from region to region and will grow under projected climate  changes. Climate‐related changes have been widely observed in the United States and its coastal  waters. These changes include increases in heavy downpours, rising temperatures and sea level,  rapidly retreating glaciers, thawing permafrost, lengthened growing seasons, lengthened ice‐free  seasons in the ocean and on lakes and rivers, earlier snowmelt, and alterations in river flows.  

Access to clean water is an issue in every region, but the nature of the potential impacts varies.  Drought—related to reduced precipitation, increased evaporation, and increased water loss from  plants—is  an  important  issue  especially  in  the  western U.S.  Floods and  water  quality  problems  are likely to be amplified by climate change in most regions. Declines in mountain snowpack are  important  in  the  western  states  and  Alaska,  where  snowpack  provides  vital  natural  water  storage.                                                                                     5

U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2013. National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee: Draft Climate Assessment Report, page 8. Available at: http://ncadac.globalchange.gov/

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

4.

Crop and livestock production will be increasingly challenged.   Agriculture  is  considered  one  of  the  sectors  most  adaptable  to  changes  in  climate.  However,  increased  heat,  pests,  water  stress,  diseases,  and  weather  extremes  will  pose  adaptation  challenges for crop and livestock production. 

5.

Coastal areas are at increasing risk from sea‐level rise and storm surge.   Sea‐level  rise  and  storm  surges  place  many  U.S.  coastal  areas  at  increasing  risk  of  erosion  and  flooding, especially along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, Pacific Islands, and parts of Alaska. Energy  and  transportation  infrastructure  and  other  property  in  coastal  areas  are  very  likely  to  be  adversely affected. 

6.

Threats to human health will increase.  

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Health impacts  resulting  from  climate  change  are  related  to  heat  stress,  waterborne  diseases,  poor  air  quality,  extreme  weather  events,  and  diseases  transmitted  by  insects  and  rodents.  A  robust public health infrastructure can reduce the potential for negative impacts.  

7.

Climate change will interact with many social and environmental stresses.  

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Climate change  will  combine  with  pollution;  population  growth;  overuse  of  resources;  urbanization;  and  other  social,  economic,  and  environmental  stresses  to  create  larger  impacts  than from any of these factors alone.  

8.

Thresholds will be crossed, leading to large changes in climate and ecosystems.  

There are  a  variety  of  thresholds  in  the  climate  system  and  ecosystems.  These  thresholds  determine for example the presence of sea ice and permafrost and the survival of species, from  fish to insect pests, with implications for society. Warming ocean waters and ocean acidification  across the globe and within U.S. marine territories are broadly affecting marine life. 

9.

Future climate change and its impacts depend on choices made today.  

The amount and rate of future climate change depend primarily on current and future human‐ caused  emissions  of  heat‐trapping  gases  and  airborne  particles.  Responses  involve  reducing  emissions to limit future warming and adapting to the changes that are unavoidable.  

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According to  the  Intergovernmental  Panel  on  Climate  Change  (IPCC)  Fourth  Assessment  Report,  a  2°C  increase in average global temperature over the next century is a “safe” level of global warming. To keep  warming  at  this  level,  GHG  concentrations  must  be  stabilized  at  less  than  450  parts  per  million  (ppm).  Currently, the global atmospheric concentration of GHGs averages nearly 400 ppm. Avoiding dangerous  warming  requires  reducing  global  GHG  emissions  by  at  least  50  percent  below  1990  levels  by  the  year  2050. A target this aggressive is made especially challenging due to the current rapid rise of emissions in  the developing world.   Many of California’s important natural resources are threatened by the global warming trend. Increased  precipitation and sea level rise could increase coastal flooding, saltwater intrusion (a particular concern in  the low‐lying Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, where potable water supply pumps could be threatened),  and  degradation  of  wetlands.  Mass  migration  and/or  loss  of  plant  and  animal  species,  many  unique  to  California, could also occur.  

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

More information is available on the science of climate change from the following organizations:  

U.S. Global Change research Program, National Climate Assessment:  http://www.globalchange.gov/what‐we‐do/assessment 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report:  http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml 

National Ocean and Aeronautical Administration (NOAA):  http://www.climate.gov/#climateWatch 

Pew Center on Climate Change: http://www.pewclimate.org/ 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/indicators.html 

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U.S. National Academy of Sciences: http://americasclimatechoices.org/ 

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS): http://www.aaas.org/ 

Policy and Regulatory Setting

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Strategies for monitoring and addressing climate change have emerged at the international, national, and  state  levels,  but  California  has  been  a  leader  in  developing  mitigation  and  adaptation  strategies.  Since  2005, California has been making policy and passing legislation that seeks to control emissions of gases  that  contribute  to  global  warming.  These  have  included  regulatory  approaches,  such  as  mandatory  reporting for significant sources of GHG emissions and caps on emission levels, as well as market‐based  mechanisms, such as market‐based cap‐and‐trade. Some regulations apply at the state level, but others  are state‐imposed mandates that are applicable at the municipal level and required of local agencies and  jurisdictions. 

State of California Executive Order S-3-05

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In June  2005,  the  Governor  of  California  signed  Executive  Order  S‐3‐05,  which  identified  the  California  Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) as the lead coordinating state agency for establishing climate  change emission reduction targets in California. A “Climate Action Team,” a multi‐agency group of state  agencies,  was set  up to  implement  Executive  Order S‐3‐05.  The  Governor’s  Executive Order  established  aggressive emissions reductions goals: by 2010, GHG emissions must be reduced to 2000 levels; by 2020,  GHG  emissions  must  be  reduced  to  1990  levels;  and  by  2050,  GHG  emissions  must  be  reduced  to  80  percent  below  1990  levels.  GHG  emission  reduction  strategies  and  measures  to  reduce  global  warming  were identified by the California Climate Action Team in 2006. 

Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32)

In 2006, the California legislature adopted AB 32, requiring that California cap GHG emissions state‐wide  at  1990  levels  by  2020.  AB  32  requires  CARB  to  establish  a  program  for  statewide  GHG  emissions  reporting, and monitoring/enforcement of that program.  

The Climate Change Scoping Plan, adopted in 2008, outlines the State’s plan to achieve the GHG reductions  required in AB 32. The actions vary by type, which include direct regulations, alternative compliance  mechanisms,  incentives,  voluntary  actions,  and  other  mechanisms.  The  Scoping  Plan  identifies  local 

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governments as “essential partners” in achieving California’s goals to reduce GHG emissions, encouraging  the adoption of reduction targets for community and municipal operations emissions that are consistent  with the State’s commitment (identified as equivalent to 15% below “current” levels). The Scoping Plan  includes the following high‐impact State measures that target emissions from transportation and power  generation. Each is expected to provide significant emissions reduction benefits for the City of Delano.  

Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS)

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The Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) requires fuel providers in the State to decrease lifecycle fuel carbon  intensity by 2020. The LCFS applies, either on a compulsory or opt‐in basis, to all fuels used for transportation  in  California.  It  is  expected  that  the  LCFS will  reduce  tailpipe  carbon  emissions  from  passenger  vehicles  and heavy duty trucks by approximately 10 percent by 20206. CARB identified specific eligibility criteria in  April 2009, and the regulation became effect in January 2010. In December 2011, the U.S. District Court  for the Eastern District of California issued rulings that struck down the LCFS for violation of the Commerce  Clause of the U.S. Constitution and enjoined its further enforcement. CARB appealed the ruling the following  month. It is assumed for the time being that the LCFS will be ultimately implemented by 2020 as proposed.  If the LCFS were ultimately to be blocked from implementation, the emission reductions described in this  Climate Action Plan would be adjusted downward accordingly. 

Assembly Bill 1493 (Pavley)

Assembly Bill 1493, known as the Pavley Bill, directed CARB to adopt regulations to reduce emissions from  new passenger vehicles. AB 1493 requires GHG emission reductions from passenger trucks and light cars  beginning in 2011. CARB’s AB 32 Early Action Plan released in 2007 included a strengthening of the Pavley  regulation for 2017. The U.S. EPA granted California the authority to implement GHG emission reduction  standards  for  new  passenger  cars,  pickup  trucks  and  sport  utility  vehicles  in  June  2009.  In  September,  CARB adopted amendments to the regulations that reduce GHG emissions in new passenger vehicles from  2009 through 2016. It is expected that the Pavley regulations will reduce GHG emissions from California  passenger  vehicles  by  about 22 percent  in 2012  and  about  30  percent in  2016,  all  while  improving  fuel  efficiency and reducing motorists’ costs.  

Senate Bill 1078 (SB 1078)

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California’s Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) was established in 2002 under SB 1078 and accelerated  in  2006  under  SB  107.  The  program  was  further  expanded  in  2011  under  SB  2.  Under  AB  32,  the  RPS  requires  increased  production of  energy  from  renewable  sources,  like  solar, wind,  geothermal,  and  biomass  generation.  Investor‐owned  utilities,  electric  service  providers,  and  community  choice  aggregators  must  increase  their  renewable  portfolio  to  reach  33  percent  of  total  procurement  by  2020.  In  December 2012, Southern California Edison (SCE) reported to the CPUC it served 20.3% of their 2012  electricity sales with RPS‐eligible renewable energy.7 

Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards (CalGreen)

Title 24, of the California Code of Regulations, Part 6 sets forth California’s energy efficiency standards for  residential and nonresidential buildings and was established in 1978 in response to a legislative mandate                                                                                    6 7

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Equal to 7% when full lifecycle impacts are considered. Access CPUC quarterly reports on the RPS at: http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/Renewables/documents

2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

to reduce California’s energy consumption. The standards are updated periodically to allow consideration  and  possible  incorporation  of  new  energy  efficiency  technologies  and  methods.  The  most  recent  standards were adopted on April 23, 2008, and went into effect on January 1, 2010. The update to the Code  supports the goals as described in AB 32, by enhancing energy efficiency of all new residential and non‐ residential  development.  It  is  expected  that  the  2008  update  will  reduce  GHG  emissions  from  California  residential buildings for electricity by approximately 21% and natural gas by 9%, and non‐residential buildings  for electricity by approximately 5% and natural gas by 9%. A further update to Title 24 (the 2013 Standards)  is scheduled to come into effect on January 1, 2014. 

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The 2010  California  Green  Building  Standards  Code,  referred  to  as  CALGreen,  is  a  component  of  the  California  Building  Code.  CALGreen  went  into  effect  on  January  1,  2011,  requiring  that  new  buildings  reduce  water  consumption,  employ  building  commissioning8  to  increase  building  system  efficiencies,  divert construction waste from landfills, and install low pollutant emitting finish materials. CALGreen has  roughly 50 nonresidential mandatory measures and an additional 130 provisions that have been placed in  the  appendix  for  optional  use.  Some  key  mandatory  measures  for  commercial  occupancies  include  specified  parking  for  clean  air  vehicles,  a  20%  reduction  of  potable  water  use  within  buildings,  a  50%  construction waste diversion from landfills, use of building finish materials that emit low levels of volatile  organic  compounds,  and  commissioning  for  new,  nonresidential  buildings  over  10,000  square  feet.9  CALGreen Nonresidential updates became effective July 1, 2012, and additional updates are anticipated  to become effective January 1, 2014.10 

Senate Bill 97 (SB 97)

Recognizing that AB 32 did not discuss how GHGs should be addressed in documents prepared under the  California  Environmental  Quality  Act  (CEQA),  the  legislature  enacted  SB  97  to  require  the  Governor’s  Office  of  Planning  and  Research  (OPR)  to  develop  and  adopt  CEQA  guidelines  for  the  mitigation  of  emissions.  The  draft  guidelines  were  formalized  on  March  18,  2010,  and  all  CEQA  documents  prepared  after this date are required to comply with the OPR‐approved amendments to the CEQA Guidelines.  

Senate Bill 375 (SB 375)

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In 2008, SB 375 was enacted to address indirect GHG emissions caused by urban sprawl. SB 375 develops  emissions‐reduction goals that regions can apply to planning activities. SB 375 provides incentives for local  governments  and  developers  to  create  new  walkable  and  sustainable  communities,  revitalize  existing  communities, and implement conscientiously planned growth patterns that concentrate new development  around public transportation nodes. CARB has been working with the state’s metropolitan planning  organizations (MPOs) to align their regional transportation, housing, and land use plans to reduce vehicle  miles traveled and demonstrate the region’s ability to attain its GHG reduction targets. The legislation also  allows developers to bypass environmental review of the project’s GHG impact under CEQA if they build  projects consistent with the MPO’s Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS). SB 375 enhances CARB’s ability  to reach the goals of AB 32 by directing the agency to develop regional GHG emission reduction targets to  be achieved from the land use and transportation sector for 2020 and 2035.                                                                                     8

Commissioning is the process of verifying, and documenting that the performance of facilities, systems, and assemblies meets defined objectives and criteria. In this context it refers to the performance of a building’s energy-consuming systems, typically including mechanical (HVAC), electrical, plumbing, building envelope, controls, and lighting systems. 9 California Building Standards Commission. The CALGreen Story. Available at: http://www.documents.dgs.ca.gov/bsc/CALGreen/TheCALGreen-Story.pdf. 10 California Building Standards Commission. CALGreen. Available at: http://www.bsc.ca.gov/Home/CALGreen.aspx

2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

In September  2010,  CARB  adopted  per  capita  emissions  reduction  targets  for  the  San  Joaquin  Valley  (including  eight  planning  organizations)  for  years  2020  and  2035  of  5  percent  and  10  percent,  respectively,  to  be  revised  in  2012.  On  December  14,  2012,  the  San  Joaquin  Valley  Regional  Planning  Agencies’  (SJVRPA)  Policy  Council  adopted  a  Progress  Report  that  maintained  these  target  recommendations. 

Governor’s Office of Planning and Research (OPR)

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The California Governor’s Office of Planning and Research (OPR) provides guidance for agency compliance  with CEQA, which requires that lead agencies analyze and document the environmental impacts of proposed  projects. OPR has developed guidance on the analysis and mitigation of GHG emissions in CEQA documents.  This  guidance  states  that  lead  agencies  should  develop  their  own  approach  to  performing  climate  change  analysis  for  projects  that  generate  GHG  emissions,  and  that  compliance  with  CEQA  can  be  achieved by identification and quantification of GHG emissions, assessment of significance of the impact  on climate change, and identification of mitigation measures and/or alternatives if the impact is found to be  significant. 

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OPR developed, and the California Resources Agency has adopted, amendments to the CEQA Guidelines  to incorporating this guidance. CEQA Guidelines Section 15183.5(b) states that a lead agency may choose  to  analyze  and  mitigate  significant  greenhouse  gas  emissions  in  a  plan  for  the  reduction  of  greenhouse  gases or similar document, and that such a plan may be used in a cumulative impacts analysis of a project.  A lead agency may determine that an individual project’s incremental contribution to a cumulative effect  on  climate  change  is  not cumulatively  considerable  if  the  project complies  with  the requirement  of  the  previously adopted plan to reduce greenhouse gas. This plan should:  Quantify  greenhouse  gas  emissions,  both  existing  and  projected  over  a  specified  time  period,  resulting from activities within a defined geographic area; 

Establish a level, based on substantial evidence, below which the contribution to greenhouse gas  emissions from activities covered by the plan would not be cumulatively considerable; 

Identify and analyze the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from specific actions or categories of  actions anticipated within the geographic area; 

Specify measures  or  a  group  of  measures,  including  performance  standards,  that  substantial  evidence demonstrates, if implemented on a project‐by‐project basis, would collectively achieve  the specified emissions level; 

Establish a mechanism to monitor the plan’s progress toward achieving the level and to require  amendment if the plan is not achieving specified levels; and 

Be adopted in a public process following environmental review. 

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San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD)

The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) is a public health agency that regulates air  pollution within the San Joaquin Valley. Under SJVAPCD regulation and stewardship, air quality in the San  Joaquin Valley has steadily improved over the past 15 years.   In August 2008, the SJVAPCD ’s Governing Board adopted the Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP). The CCAP  directed  the  District  Air  Pollution  Control  Officer  to  develop  guidance  to  assist  Lead  Agencies,  project  proponents,  permit  applicants,  and  interested  parties  in  assessing  and  reducing  the  impacts  of  project  specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on global climate change. 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

SJVAPCD adopted guidance for addressing GHGs in CEQA documents in December 2009. The SJVAPCD  proposed  a  threshold  based  on  implementing  predetermined  Best  Performance  Standards  that  would  reduce emissions by an amount consistent with AB 32 targets. The guidance for land use projects is  intended to assist local agencies, but local agencies are not required to use the SJVAPCD thresholds. 

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Under the SJVAPCD guidance, projects requiring project specific environmental review would be evaluated  according to a Best Performance Standards approach. Projects complying with the GHG emission reduction  requirements established as Best Performance Standards would not require project specific quantification of  GHG emissions and would be determined to have a less than significant individual and cumulative impact  for GHG emissions. Projects not complying with the GHG emission reduction requirements established as  Best Performance Standards would require quantification of project specific GHG emissions. To be determined  to have a less than significant individual and cumulative impact on global climate change, project specific  GHG emissions must be reduced or mitigated by 29 percent from Business‐as‐Usual GHG emissions.  

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

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2. Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting


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Overview

The Delano  greenhouse  gas  (GHG)  inventory  serves  multiple  purposes.  It  quantifies  the  GHG  emissions  resulting from activities taking place throughout the City of Delano by the City’s residents, businesses, and  local government. The inventory provides an understanding of where GHG emissions are originating, and  creates  an  emissions  baseline  against  which  the  City  can  set  emissions  reduction  targets  and  measure  future  progress.  The  inventory  further  allows  the  City  to  develop  effective  policies,  strategies,  and  programs to reduce emissions.  The  2005  and  2010  inventories  presented  herein  provide  a  breakdown  of  GHG  emissions  by  sector  to  illustrate  the  contribution  of  various  sources  in  the  community  and  in  municipal  operations.  The  year  2005 represents the City’s GHG emissions baseline based on guidance from the California Air Resources  Board (CARB) and the California State‐wide Energy Efficiency Collaborative (SEEC), and is consistent with  most  local  government  climate  action  plans  in  California.  The  2010  updated  inventory  is  more  representative of current conditions and allows a general assessment of the trend for each sector since  2005. 

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This chapter also includes forecasts of future GHG emissions using current best estimates for population,  households,  and  job  growth  within  the  City  under  “business‐as‐usual”  (i.e.,  a  scenario  that  does  not  include regulatory actions or GHG reduction measures that were implemented after the 2005 base year)  conditions. In addition, the City’s GHG reduction target for 2020 is established based on guidance from  CARB.  The boundaries of analysis, along with the methodology and assumptions used to develop Delano’s GHG  inventories and future projections, are included as Appendix A. A supporting technical report on the City’s  transportation emissions, including the modeling of base year and future conditions in Delano, is included  as Appendix B. 

Community-Wide Emissions The emission sources and activities chosen for inclusion in the community‐wide GHG inventory are based  on  the  reporting  framework  for  local  governments  developed  by  International  Council  for  Local 

3. GHG Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Environmental Initiatives  (ICLEI)  in  their  U.S.  Community  Protocol  for  Accounting  and  Reporting  of  Greenhouse Gas Emissions. As such, emissions in the community‐wide inventory include those that derive  from  sources  located  within  the  jurisdiction  and  from  activities  by  community  members  for  which  the  local government has significant influence to mitigate. This generally includes activities taking place within  the  City’s  geopolitical  boundary  where  the  local  government  has  jurisdictional  authority,  as  well  as  community‐related  activities  taking  place  outside  of  City‐limits  that  are  attributable  to  community  activities  (e.g.,  disposal  of  the  City’s  solid  waste  at  a  location  outside  the  City’s  jurisdiction).  Emissions  from sources not subject to significant influence by the local government were not included within this  inventory,  such  as  the  upstream  manufacturing  impacts  of  materials  used  by  the  community,  since  the  local government has limited means to influence material consumption by its local residents. 

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The community‐wide  GHG  inventory  includes  emissions  from  residential,  commercial,  and  industrial  activities,  as  well  as  municipal  operations,  broken  into  11  sectors:  Residential  Electricity,  Residential  Natural  Gas,  Commercial/Industrial  Electricity,  Commercial/Industrial  Natural  Gas,  Stationary  Sources  Energy, Water Conveyance Electricity, On‐road Transportation, Off‐road Transportation (non‐Agriculture),  Off‐Road  Transportation  (Agriculture),  Wastewater  Treatment  (process  emissions1),  and  Solid  Waste  Generation.  

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The baseline  2005  GHG  inventory  for  the  community  of  Delano  totals  255,854  metric  tons  of  carbon  dioxide  equivalents2  (MT CO2e).  Table 3‐1 and Figure 3‐1 show  total  GHG  emissions  by  sector.  In 2005,  On‐road  Transportation  accounted  for  the  largest  portion  of  overall  community‐wide  emissions,  constituting  64 percent  of  total  emissions.  Emissions  from  other  sectors,  in  decreasing  percentage  of  contribution, include: Commercial/Industrial Electricity (8.4 percent), Residential Electricity (7.5 percent),  Residential  Natural  Gas  (7.4  percent),  Wastewater  Treatment  (4.9  percent),  Commercial/Industrial  Natural  Gas  (3.1  percent),  Off‐road  Transportation  (1.8  percent),  Solid  Waste  Generation  (1.7  percent),  Water Conveyance (0.9 percent), and Stationary Sources (<0.1 percent).  Table 3‐1  2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Community GHG Emissions by Sector  2005  Baseline  (MT CO2e) 

Emission Sector 

2005 (% Total) 

2010 (MT CO2e) 

2010 (% Total) 

2005‐2010 (% Change) 

Comm./Ind. ‐ Electricity 

21,541

8.4%

29,923

11%

39%

Residential ‐ Electricity 

19,075

7.5%

20,089

7.3%

5.3%

7,992

3.1%

7,966

2.9%

‐0.3%

Residential – Natural Gas 

18,808

7.4%

20,773

7.5%

10%

On‐Road Transportation 

164,442

64%

172,262

62%

4.8%

4,685

1.8%

4,858

18

<0.1%

Comm./Ind. – Natural Gas 

Off‐road Transportation  Agriculture) 

(excluding

Stationary Sources 

4

<0.1%

Solid Waste Generation 

4,447

1.7%

Water Conveyance 

2,283

0.9%

Wastewater Treatment  Total 

12,558 255,854

1

4.9% 100%

3.7%

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Off‐road Transportation (Agriculture) 

1.8%

18

<0.1%

0.0%

22

<0.1%

406%

4,135

1.5%

‐7.0%

2,554

0.9%

12%

13,856

276,456

5.0%

100%

10%

8%

Process emissions consist of methane (CH4) generated by combustion of digester gas. Natural gas and electricity consumed by the Wastewater  Treatment plant are captured in the natural gas and electricity sectors.  2   Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) include emissions carbon dioxide, methane (CH4) and/or nitrous oxide (N2O), normalized to the global warming  potential of CO2.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐1  2005 Baseline Community GHG Emissions by Sector  Solid Waste Generation 2% Off‐road  Transportation  (Agriculture) 0% Off‐road  Transportation (excl.  Agriculture) 2%

Water Conveyance ‐ Wastewater Treatment Electricity 5% 1%

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Residential ‐ Electricity 8% Comm./Ind. ‐ Natural  Gas 3%

Residential ‐ Natural  Gas 7% Stationary Sources 0%

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On‐road Transportation 64%

Comm./Ind. ‐ Electricity 8%

Between 2005  and  2010,  total  community‐wide  emissions  increased  by  approximately  8  percent,  to  276,456  MT  CO2e,  with  9  of  the  11  sectors  experiencing  an  increase.  Figure  3‐2  show  total  2010  GHG  emissions by sector. Generally, the percent that each sector contributed to total emissions did not change  substantially in 2010, with On‐road Transportation continuing to comprise the largest sector (62 percent),  followed by the Commercial/Industrial Electricity (11 percent), and Residential Natural Gas (8 percent). On  a proportional basis, Commercial/Industrial Electricity emissions increased the most from 2005 to 2010,  rising from 8 percent to 11 percent of overall annual emissions.  

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐2  2010 Baseline Community GHG Emissions by Sector  Solid Waste Generation 1% Off‐road  Transportation  (Agriculture) 0% Off‐road  Transportation (excl.  Agriculture) 2%

Water Conveyance ‐ Electricity 1%

Wastewater Treatment 5%

Comm./Ind. ‐ Electricity 11%

Residential ‐ Electricity 7%

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Comm./Ind. ‐ Natural  Gas 3%

Residential ‐ Natural  Gas 8%

On‐road Transportation 62%

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Stationary Sources 0%

Figure 3‐3 shows the change in GHG emissions by sector between 2005 and 2010.  Figure 3‐3  2005 and 2010 Community GHG Emissions by Sector (MT CO2e) 300,000

250,000

Wastewater Treatment

Water Conveyance ‐ Electricity

200,000

Solid Waste Generation

Off‐road Transportation (Agriculture) Off‐road Transportation (excl. Agriculture)

150,000

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On‐road Transportation Stationary Sources

Residential ‐ Natural Gas

100,000

Comm./Ind. ‐ Natural Gas Residential ‐ Electricity

50,000

Comm./Ind. ‐ Electricity

0 2005

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2010


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Municipal Operations Emissions This section provides added detail on the GHG emissions from City of Delano municipal operations, which  are  included  in  the  community‐wide  inventory.  The  municipal  inventory  includes  all  direct  and  indirect  GHG emissions that result from City operations, distributed across eleven categories.  Table  3‐2 provides  a  summary  of  the  2005 and 2010  municipal  inventories,  by  category.  Between  2005  and 2010, total emissions from municipal operations increased by approximately 13 percent to 20,817 MT  CO2e. 

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Table 3‐2  2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Municipal Operations GHG Emissions by Sector  Emission Sector 

Buildings & Facilities Electricity 

642

2005 (% Total)* 

2010 Update  (MT CO2e) 

3.5%

645

2010 (% Total)* 

2005‐2010 (% Change) 

3.1%

0.5%

12

0.1%

37

0.2%

196%

2,283

12.4%

2,554

12.3%

12%

31

0.2%

23

0.1%

‐25%

524

2.8%

607

2.9%

16%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

0%

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Streetlights/Traffic Signals Electricity 

2005 Baseline  (MT CO2e) 

Water Supply Electricity  Airports Electricity 

Buildings & Facilities ‐ Natural Gas  Stationary Sources/Generators  City Vehicle Fleet ‐ Fuel 

729

4.0%

1,436

6.9%

97%

City Transit Fleet ‐ Fuel 

44

0.2%

83

0.4%

86%

13,777

74.7%

15,012

72.1%

9%

Solid Waste Generation 

154

0.8%

112

0.5%

‐27%

Employee Commute 

264

1.3%

463

1.5%

28%

18,436

100%

20,817

100%

13%

WWTP

Total

Figure 3‐4  provides  a  pie  chart  of  2005  baseline  municipal  GHG  emissions  by  category.  The  largest  contributors  to  the  2005  inventory  were  WWTP  (74.7%),  Water  Supply  Electricity  (12  percent),  City  Vehicle Fleet Fuel (4 percent), Buildings and Facilities Electricity (3 percent), and Buildings and Facilities  Natural Gas (3 percent). Figure 3‐5 provides a pie chart of 2010 municipal GHG emissions by category. 

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3. GHG Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐4  2005 Baseline Municipal GHG Emissions by Sector (%)  Solid Waste Generation 1% Employee Commute 1%

Buildings & Facilities ‐ Electricity 4%

Streetlights/Traffic Signals ‐ Electricity 0%

Water Supply ‐ Electricity Airports ‐ Electricity  12% 0% Buildings & Facilities ‐ Natural Gas 3%

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Stationary Sources/Generators 0% City Vehicle Fleet ‐ Fuel 4% City Transit Fleet ‐ Fuel 0%

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WWTP 75%

Figure 3‐5  2010 Baseline Municipal GHG Emissions by Sector (%)

Solid Waste Generation Buildings & Facilities ‐ Streetlights/Traffic  Electricity 1% Signals ‐ Electricity Employee Commute 3% 0% 2%

Water Supply ‐ Electricity 12% Airports ‐ Electricity  0% Buildings & Facilities ‐ Natural Gas 3%

Stationary Sources/Generators 0%

T City Vehicle Fleet ‐ Fuel 7%

City Transit Fleet ‐ Fuel 0%

WWTP 72%

6

3. GHG Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐6 shows how municipal GHG emissions changed from 2005 to 2010. The Vehicle Fleet Fuel sector  increased sharply (97 percent increase), as did the City Transit Fleet Sector (86 percent), and Streetlights and  Traffic Signals (196 percent).   Figure 3‐6  2005 Baseline and 2010 Updated Municipal Emissions by Sector (MT CO2e) 

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D Emissions Forecasts

GHG emissions  forecasts  for  2020  and  2035  were  developed  using  a  business‐as‐usual  (BAU)  scenario,  (i.e.,  a  scenario  that  does  not  include  regulatory  actions  or  GHG  reduction  measures  that  were  implemented after the 2005 base year). A 2020 “adjusted” BAU forecast is also provided that includes the  effects  of  state‐wide  actions  that  reduce  GHG  emissions,  such  as  updates  to  building  energy  standards  and programs that decrease emissions from on‐road vehicles. 

Business-as-Usual Forecast

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GHG emissions  forecasts  for  the  community  were  based  primarily  on  anticipated  growth  in  total  population, employment and/or housing in the City of Delano for the periods 2010 to 2020 and 2010 to  2035.  Historical  and  future  City  population,  employment,  and  housing  data  were  obtained  from  the  transportation study developed by Fehr & Peers (see Appendix B). Emissions forecasts for the Wastewater  Treatment  Plant  sector  were  calculated  using  service  population  figures  from  the  City  of  Delano  Urban  Water  Management  Plan  (UWMP,  2011)3.  Emissions  forecasts  for  the  On‐road  Transportation  Sector  were  calculated  using  VMT  projections  provided  by  Fehr  &  Peers  and  EMission  FACtors  (EMFAC)  2011  software model runs for Kern County to generate local emission factors. 

3

City of Delano 2010 Urban Water Management Plan (Table 2-2), June 2011

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Community-wide Forecasts Table 3‐3 shows forecasted GHG emissions for the eleven sectors included in the City’s community‐wide  2005  and  2010  GHG  inventories.  The  table  includes  a  description  of  the  growth  factor  used  to  forecast  future emissions for each sector.   Table 3‐3  Community Emissions by Sector: 2005 Baseline, 2010 Update, and BAU Forecasts for 2020 and 2035  Emission Sector  Commercial/Industrial ‐  Electricity 

2005 Emissions 2010 Emissions (MT CO2e)  (MT CO2e) 

2020 Forecast (MT CO2e) 

2035 Forecast (MT CO2e) 

Growth Proxy 

21,541

29,923

33,800

38,933

Employment growth 

D

19,075

20,089

22,911

25,366

Average of population and household  growth 

Commercial/Industrial –  Natural Gas 

7,992

7,966

8,998

10,364

Employment growth 

Residential – Natural Gas 

18,808

20,773

23,690

26,229

Average of population and household  growth 

Transportation – On‐road 

164,442

172,262

213,283

258,888

Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT)4, with  EMFAC2011 software future year models 

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Residential ‐ Electricity 

Transportation – Off‐road  (non‐Agriculture) 

4,685

4,858

5,513

6,227

Average of employment and household  growth 

Transportation – Off‐road  (Agriculture) 

18

18

192

184

Agricultural Land Area growth 

Stationary Sources 

4

22

25

29

Employment Growth 

Solid Waste Generation 

4,447

4,135

4,701

5,274

Average of pop., household, and  employment growth 

Water Conveyance ‐  Electricity 

2,283

2,554

2,912

3,258

Average of pop., household, and  employment growth 

Wastewater Treatment 

12,558

13,856

17,085

23,052

Water District Service Population growth 

Total

255,854

276,456

333,111

397,804

Figure 3‐7 shows how community GHG emissions are expected to change from 2005 to 2035.  

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Fehr & Peers, VMT Inventory Memo for the Delano CAP (September 25, 2012)

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐7    Community Emissions by Sector (MT CO2e): 2005 Baseline, 2010 Update, and BAU Forecasts for 2020 and 2035  

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D ‘Adjusted’ Business-as-Usual Forecast

Several high‐impact  state‐wide  measures  included  in  the  AB  32  Scoping  Plan  are  expected  to  reduce  emissions  from  transportation  and  power  generation.  These  state‐wide  measures  will  contribute  to  Delano’s overall GHG reductions by 2020.   The Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels and the Pavley  Bill for reducing passenger vehicle emissions (Assembly Bill 1493) are each expected to provide significant  emissions reduction benefits for the City of Delano, particularly since on‐road emissions constitute such a  large  proportion  of  total  forecasted  community‐wide  emissions  (64.0  percent  in  2020).  By  2020,  the  Pavley  Bill  and  the  LCFS  in  Kern  County  are  projected  to  reduce  the  state’s  on‐road  transportation  emissions by approximately 18.7 percent.5 

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In addition,  updates  to  California’s  Title  24  (Building  Energy  Efficiency  Standards  for  Residential  and  Non‐residential  Buildings)  will  result  in  improvements  to  the  energy  efficiency  of  new  residential  and  commercial  structures  constructed  between  2005  and  2020.  By  2020,  the  2008  residential  standards  are  expected to increase electricity and natural gas efficiency by approximately 10 percent and 23 percent above  pre‐2005  Title  standards,  respectively.    The  commercial  standards  are  expected  to  increase  electricity  and  natural gas efficiency by 9.4 percent and 4.9 percent,6  respectively. Moreover, the 2013 residential standards  are expected to increase both electricity and natural gas efficiency in new structures by approximately 19.5  percent  above  the  2008  Title  24  standards.    The  commercial  standards  are  expected  to  increase  both  electricity and natural gas efficiency by an additional 30 percent.7 Based on projected new development in 

5 6

7

EMFAC 2011 Model runs for Kern County, accessed March, 2013. Impact Analysis: 2008 Update to the California Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings. Available at: http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2008standards/rulemaking/documents/2007-11-07_IMPACT_ANALYSIS.PDF 2013 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. Available at: http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2013standards/rulemaking/documents/2012-0531_2013_standards_adoption_hearing_presentation.pdf

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

the City of Delano by the year 2020, these energy savings should reduce electricity‐related emissions by 1,774  MT CO2e per year, and natural gas‐related emissions by 842 MT CO2e per year.  The  state’s  Renewable  Portfolio  Standard  (RPS)  requires  the  renewable  energy  portion  of  a  utility’s  portfolio to be 33 percent by 2020, which applies to the electricity provided by SCE. The RPS is expected  to reduce Delano’s electricity‐related emissions by approximately 30 percent from 2005 levels by 2020,  accounting for an annual reduction of approximately 17,806 MT CO2e per year by 2020.  The collective impact of these state‐wide measures on Delano’s community‐wide emissions is presented  in  Table  3‐4.  By  2020,  these  measures  are  expected  to  reduce  annual  city‐wide  GHG  emissions  by  approximately 60,260 MT CO2e (an 18.1 percent reduction). The ‘adjusted’ BAU projection for Delano is  272,850 MT CO2e. 

D

Table 3‐4  Annual GHG Reductions from State‐wide Measures by 2020 

State Measure 

Title 24 –Electricity 

1,774

3%

842

1%

17,806

30%

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Title 24 –Natural Gas 

% Contribution to  State‐wide  Measures 

GHG Emissions  (MT CO2e/year) 

Renewable Portfolio Standard 

Pavley Bill and Low Carbon Fuel Standard 

39,838

66%

Total Reductions 

60,260

100%

Emissions Reduction Target

The City  of  Delano  is  striving  for  a  community‐wide  emissions  reduction  target  of  15  percent  below  its  2005  baseline  by  the  year  2020,  for  both  community‐wide  and  municipal  emissions.  A  15  percent  reduction  target  for  local  governments  is  deemed  by  CARB  and  the  California  Attorney  General  to  be  8 consistent with the state‐wide AB 32 goal of reducing emissions to 1990 levels,  and is in line with current  best practice for climate action plans developed for numerous California cities, many of which use a 2005  baseline.  

Community Emissions Target

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Fifteen percent below the City’s 2005 community emissions baseline equates to 217,477 MT CO2e per year,  which is 38,377 MT CO2e below the 2005 baseline (2005), 115,634 MT CO2e below the 2020 BAU forecast,  and  55,374  MT  CO2e  below  the  ‘adjusted’  2020  BAU  forecast.  This  community‐wide  emissions  reduction  target is depicted graphically in Figure 3‐8, which shows the business‐as‐usual emissions projection out to  the years 2020 and 2030, along with the anticipated impact of statewide measures and CAP measures on  BAU emissions through the year 2020. Taking the impact of statewide measures into account, it becomes  evident that the additional reductions from local and regional actions (approximately 55,374 MT CO2e) are  needed to reach the 2020 target.  

8

10

In its Climate Change Scoping Plan of September 2008, CARB recommends that local governments adopt a GHG reduction target consistent with the State’s commitment to reach 1990 levels by 2020. This is identified as equivalent to 15% below “current” levels at the time of writing (2008).

3. GHG Emissions Inventory, Forecasts, and Targets


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 3‐8  2020 Target and the Anticipated Impact of State Measures on Community‐wide GHG Emissions 

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T

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Overview

This chapter describes the Climate Action Plan’s goals and strategies for reducing GHG emissions in the City  of Delano. To be consistent with AB 32 and CARB guidelines, Delano will strive to reduce its community‐ wide  GHG  emissions  to  15  percent  below  2005  levels,  or  to  217,477  MT  CO2e;  this  is  equivalent  to  115,634 MT CO2e below the 2020 forecast under business‐as‐usual (BAU) conditions. The impacts of the  statewide  GHG  reduction  measures  (included  in  the  AB 32  Scoping  Plan)  account  for  annual  emissions  reductions of 60,260 MT CO2e, leaving a remainder of 55,374 MT CO2e to be reduced by local strategies  and programs.   GHG reduction goals and strategies are presented for four different sectors: Energy, Transportation and  Land Use, Solid Waste, and Water. Each section begins with a summary of the GHG reductions anticipated  from  the  sector,  followed  by  a  discussion  of  individual  strategies  and  implementing  actions.  Detailed  calculations used to quantify the costs and emissions reductions associated with individual strategies and  actions  are  included  in  Appendices  C,  D,  E,  and  F.  City  municipal  strategies  are  included  within  each  relevant sector, where appropriate.  

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In total, locally implemented strategies and programs described in the Climate Action Plan are expected  to reduce GHG emissions by 11,662 MT CO2e by the year 2020. This is well short of the 55,374 MT CO2e in  reductions needed for the City to meet its 2020 target, as shown in Figure 4‐1. The additional reductions  needed  to  reach  the  target amount  to 43,712  MY  CO2e. The  primary  barriers  to  achieving  greater GHG  reductions in the Delano community are the lack of funding and staff resources that are needed to fully  implement the programs in this Climate Action Plan. The GHG reduction estimates presented with each  strategy are based on realistic assumptions about funding and resources, not wishful thinking or best‐case  scenarios. However, if additional funding and staff resources become available for implementation, then  relevant  actions  can  proceed  sooner,  and  existing  programs  can  be  executed  with  more  focus  and  intensity  than  is  presently  assumed.  Chapter  5,  Implementation  and  Monitoring,  further  discusses  the  implications  of  not  meeting  the  Climate  Action  Plan’s  2020  target,  and  the  City’s  strategy  for  securing  funding to expand implementation and bolster progress toward meeting that target. 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 4‐1  2020 Target and the Anticipated Impact of State Measures and Climate Action Plan on Community‐wide  GHG Emissions  

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D Strategy Classification and Coding

The City  of  Delano  has  significant  policy  influence  over  four  main  sectors  of  the  City’s  GHG  emissions  profile: Energy, Transportation and Land Use, Solid Waste, and Water.   For each of the four sectors, one or more goals, strategies, and actions are provided:  

Goals are general statements of aspiration or intent to achieve a desired condition. There are one or more  goals for each of the four sectors, and each goal is labeled according to the sector it is associated with, as  follows:  Energy  Section  (E),  Transportation  and  Land  Use  (TLU),  Solid  Waste  (SW),  and  Water  (W).  For  example, Goal E‐1 is the first goal of the Energy sector.  Strategies are courses of action to be undertaken by the City to meet the goals related to climate change.  Each strategy is designated a code that corresponds to its sector and goal. As an example, Strategy SW‐2.1  is the first strategy of the second goal for the Solid Waste Sector.  

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Actions are  detailed  steps  the  City  will  take  to  implement  the  strategies.  Each  action  was  carefully  considered  by  the  City  to  ensure  that  appropriate  staff  and  resources  would  be  available  for  implementation.  Each  action  is  also  designated  a  code  that  corresponds  to  the  goal  and  strategy  it  will  implement. For example, Action TLU‐2.1a is associated with Strategy 2.1, which in turn is associated with  Goal TLU‐2.  The  goals,  strategies,  and  actions  are  organized  using  the  following  numeric  order:  Sector (E, TLU, SW, W)  

30

Goal 1  Strategy 1.1  Action 1.1a 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

Goal 2 Strategy 2.1  Action 2.1a 


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Each strategy was evaluated to identify the greatest opportunities for GHG reduction that can be achieved  with minimum cost. The City estimated the upfront costs and ongoing staff resources needed for strategy  implementation  (e.g.,  low,  medium,  high),  as  well  as  the  anticipated  energy,  GHG,  and  cost  reduction  benefits (e.g., minimal or indirect, moderate, high). Strategies in this chapter are broadly prioritized as 1  (high priority), 2 (medium priority), and 3 (low priority), based on the following matrix:  Table 4‐1  Prioritization of Community Strategies  Costs  Low 

Medium

High

1

1

2

Medium

1

2

3

Low

2

3

3

High

D

Benefits

 

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Strategies were  evaluated  for  estimates  of  GHG  reductions  to  be  achieved  by  2020  resulting  from  implementation,  along  with  estimated  annual  cost  savings  by  2020  based  on  expected  energy  savings.  Priority  1  strategies  are  assumed  to  have  a  high  or  medium  GHG  reduction  benefit,  along  with  low  or  medium cost. Priority 3 strategies are strategies that have low or medium GHG reduction benefit, along with  medium  or  high  cost,  and  priority  2  strategies  are  in  between.  Some  strategies  are  categorized  as  ‘supporting  strategies,’  meaning  they  do  not  result  in  direct  reductions  in  energy  use  but  provide  beneficial support to other Climate Action Plan strategies. This plan does not include calculations of GHG  savings for supporting strategies.  The  GHG  reduction  benefit  is  estimated  for  each  strategy.  For  the  purposes  of  prioritization,  those  strategies  that  demonstrate  a  quantifiable  GHG  reduction  benefit  greater  than  1000  MT  CO2e  are  considered to have a high benefit. Medium benefit strategies are those with estimated GHG reductions  between 500 and 1000  MT CO2e, while those strategies with less than 500 MT CO2e are considered low  benefit strategies.  Anticipated upfront costs of implementation are provided for all strategies, including the dollar equivalent  of  City  staff‐time  and/or  actual  capital  investment  needed  to  implement  the  strategy.  Upfront  costs  are  broadly categorized as falling within one of two ranges: less than $5,000, $5,000 to $25,000, and greater  than $25,000. For example, Strategy E1.2:  Nonresidential Energy Use Education is categorized as low cost,  as it would require minor staff time to implement the strategy and minimal upfront capital.  

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Energy (E)

Energy is an essential part of our daily lives, used for a variety of everyday needs including the lighting of  buildings  and  outdoor  spaces,  heating  homes,  and  powering  equipment  at  homes  and  businesses.  The  energy  sector,  which  comprises  all  electricity  and  natural  gas  usage  in  the  City  of  Delano,  was  the  second‐largest contributor to community‐wide emissions in 2010, representing approximately 31 percent of  the  total.    Energy‐related  reduction  strategies  in  this  chapter  target  efficiency  improvements  and  the  expansion of onsite renewable energy generation. Expanded public outreach to support energy efficiency  and renewable energy projects is important to the success of these strategies. Energy strategies account  for a reduction of 5,087 MT CO2e, or approximately 9 percent of the reductions needed by local strategies  and programs to meet the City’s 2020 target.  

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Transportation and Land Use (TLU) The transportation and land use sector accounts for emissions associated with the development patterns  of  the  City  and  the  mobility  behavior  of  its  residents.  Transportation  is  the  largest  contributor  to  forecasted  community‐wide  emissions,  representing  about  two‐thirds  of  the  2020  BAU  emissions.  For  Delano,  effective  strategies  for  emissions  reduction  include  reducing  transportation  demand  through  increased  residential  densities  in  the  downtown  area,  improved  citywide  jobs‐housing  balance,  and  implementation of employer commute programs, as well as addition of transit services.  Transportation and  land  use  strategies  account  for  a  reduction  of  3,967  MT  CO2e,  or  approximately  7  percent  of  the  reductions needed by local strategies and programs to meet the City’s 2020 target.  

Solid Waste (SW)

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The transport  and  disposal  of  solid  waste  accounted  for  approximately  9  percent  of  community‐wide  missions  in  2010.  Disposing  of  used  product  packaging  and  other  municipal  solid  waste  creates  GHG  emissions when the waste is buried in landfills and emits methane when the organic fraction of the waste  decomposes  in  absence  of  oxygen.  Landfill  disposal  also  represents  the  loss  of  valuable  materials  and  embodied  energy  that  could  otherwise  be  captured  or  conserved  if  those  materials  were  reused  or  recycled.   Effective  strategies  for  emissions  reduction  include diverting  recyclables  and  organic  material  from  landfill  disposal.  Strategies  for  this  sector  account  for  an  annual  reduction  of  1,207  MT  CO2e  by  2020, or approximately 2 percent of the reductions needed by local strategies and programs to meet the  City’s 2020 target.  

Water (W)

GHG emissions associated with the transport of water made up only 1 percent of the total community‐ wide  emissions  in  2010,  but  represented  nearly  38  percent  of  emissions  associated  with  municipal  operations.    Delano’s  water  supply  is  pumped  from  local  groundwater  sources,  so  relatively  small  amounts of electricity are required compared to many other regions of the state. Strategies for this sector  account for an annual reduction of 1,401 MT CO2e, or approximately 2.5 percent of the   reductions  needed  by  local  strategies  and  programs  to  meet  the  City’s  2020  target,  but  they  have  important  co‐ benefits to local water supply and facilitate water conservation goals established by the State and by the  City of Delano Urban Water Management Plan (UWMP).  

Municipal Commitment

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As explained in Chapter 3, GHG emissions associated with municipal operations are included within the  scope  of  the  community‐wide  inventory.  For  example,  vehicular  use  for  government  operations  is  a  subset of the community‐wide vehicle miles traveled (VMT), municipal building energy use is included in  figures for community‐wide non‐residential energy gas usage, and solid waste disposal at the municipal  level is included in Delano’s overall waste disposal numbers.  

With respect  to  reduction  strategies,  municipal  operations  are  generally  considered  in  the  context  of  community‐wide strategies. However, the City adopted a Municipal Energy Action Plan (EAP) on February  19, 2013 that outlines specific measures for improving the energy efficiency of municipal operations. The  EAP is integrated into this chapter under the Energy section, primarily as Energy Strategy E1.6. Other GHG  reduction  strategies  applicable  to  municipal  operations  and  activities  are  included  in  each  set  of  community  strategies  for  Transportation  and  Land  Use,  Solid  Waste,  and  Water.  In  many  cases,  GHG  reductions  achieved  through  a  community‐oriented  strategy  will  also  reduce  emissions  from  municipal  operations.  

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4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Energy Goals and Strategies 

2020 Business‐as‐Usual GHG Emissions: 89,424 MT CO2e 

Annual GHG emissions reductions by 2020:  5,087 MT CO2e 

Energy Use by the Community

D

Emissions associated with consumption of electricity and natural gas account for approximately 27 percent  of  the  City’s  2020  BAU  GHG  emissions  projection.    13  percent  of  the  City’s  total  2020  BAU  emissions  is  associated  with  commercial  buildings  and  industrial  energy  use,  while  14  percent  is  associated  with  residential buildings. Thus, in Delano, the commercial and industrial sector consumes about the same  amount of energy as the residential sector.  Figure  4‐2  and  Figure  4‐3,  shown  below,  summarize  the  electricity  and  natural  gas  usage  in  the  community of Delano, for the years 2005 and 2010.   Figure 4‐2  Annual Electricity Usage (kWh) in the City of Delano, for 2005 and 2010 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 4‐3  Annual Natural Gas Usage (therms) in the City of Delano, for 2005 and 2010 

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D For buildings, the amount of energy consumed and the resultant GHG emissions are generally related to  building size and type, age of building, building materials, and construction, with considerable efficiencies  associated with denser and more compact development and with newer buildings. Nationwide, single‐ family detached homes consume twice the energy of households in multi‐unit dwellings, and individuals  living  in  single  family  homes  consume  about  one  and  a  half  times  as  much  as  those  living  in  multi‐unit  dwellings,  on  average.  Typically,  the  best  strategies  for  reducing  energy‐related  emissions  start  with  conservation  and  energy  efficiency,  followed  by  assessing  the  opportunities  to  add  renewable  energy  generation capacity.   In  Delano,  the  average  per  capita  electricity  usage  in  residential  buildings  was  approximately  1,320  kilowatt‐hours  (kWh)/person  in  2010,  while  the  California  average  is  2,340  kWh/person.1  Therefore,  Delano residents are already consuming less electricity, on average, than other Californians. This relatively  low  electricity  consumption  rate  is  likely  due  to  the  fact  that  most  homes  in  Delano  are  smaller  than  average. In Delano, the average home size is about 1,330 square feet,2 while the average size of a new  home  in  the  western  region  of  the  U.S.  is  2,390  square  feet.3  Also,  most  household  sizes  in  Delano  are  larger than the California average. In addition, a large percentage of residences in Delano are in denser  multifamily buildings, which are more efficient than single family homes as noted above. 

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In the commercial and industrial sector, community energy use is more difficult to benchmark due to the  various space types and energy uses in this sector. For example, an office building typically uses much less  energy than a building used to manufacture or assemble products, but offices and manufacturing both fall  into the commercial and industrial sector. In Delano, electricity usage was approximately 6,745 kWh per  job  in  2010.  Twenty‐seven  cities  in  the  San  Gabriel  Valley  region  of  Los  Angeles  County  recently  benchmarked  their  nonresidential  electricity  usage;  the  median  was  7,850  kWh  per  job  in  the  region.4  1   2   3   4  

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Per capita electricity consumption data for the California residential sector found at the following Department of Energy  website, accessed on June 23, 2013. Available at: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/residential.cfm/state=CA#elec  Data on square footage of homes in Delano is from www.zillow.com  Data on the square footage of homes in the western U.S. is from the U.S. Census, accessed on June 23, 2013. Available at:  http://www.census.gov/const/C25Ann/sftotalmedavgsqft.pdf  See http://sgvenergy.pmcworld.com/#non‐res‐elec‐norm for data on nonresidential electricity use in the San Gabriel Valley. 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Thus, data  indicate  that  the  commercial  and  industrial  sector  in  Delano  is  currently  relatively  efficient,  although this benchmarking only provides a rough estimate of relative usage.  In  spite  of  being  relatively  efficient  compared  to  other  cities  in  California,  deep  cuts  in  energy  use  are  needed  in  order  for  the  City  of  Delano  to  reach  its  emission  reduction  goals,  in  part  due  to  the  large  amount of growth that is projected in Delano between now and 2020.  

Energy Use by Municipal Operations

D

Electricity and  natural  gas  is  used  in  City  operations  in  the  following  three  sectors:  buildings  and  facilities; outdoor lighting (including streetlights and outdoor lighting); and water and sewerage, which  includes  public  infrastructure  for  water  pumping  and  wastewater  treatment.  For  the  City  of  Delano  Municipal Energy Action Plan, adopted in February 2013, municipal electricity and natural gas data was  gathered  for  the  2005  baseline  year,  and  for  2010.  This  data  is  summarized  in  Figures  4‐4  and  4‐5  below.   Figure 4‐4  Electricity Usage for Municipal Operations in 2005 and 2010 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Figure 4‐5  Natural Gas Usage for Municipal Operations in 2005 and 2010   400

200 149 

D

Therms x 1,000

236

2005 (baseline) 2010

Buildings and Facilities

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As evident  from  the  two  figures  above,  energy  usage  increased  in  all  three  municipal  sectors  between  2005 and 2010. These increases are due to general increases in City operations and services in that time  period.  Also  evident  is  the  large  percentage  of  total  electricity  used  by  water  and  sewerage  sector.  In  2010, approximately 78% of municipal electricity was used in the Water and Sewerage sector, followed by  the  Buildings  and  Facilities  sector  (21%  of  electricity  usage)  and  the  Lighting  sector  (1%  of  electricity  usage). 

Energy Providers

Southern California Edison (SCE), an investor‐owned utility, serves as the City’s electricity utility. The fuel  mix SCE uses to generate electricity has a significant impact on the City’s GHG emissions. In 2010, SCE’s  overall  electric  power  mix  was  comprised  of  37  percent  natural  gas,  19  percent  nuclear,  18  percent  eligible  renewable  sources  under  the  California  Renewables  Portfolio  Standard  (RPS),5  6  percent  large  hydroelectric, and 7 percent coal.  With 18 percent of electricity coming from RPS‐compliant renewable  sources, SCE is on track to meet the 33.3% RPS requirement for 2020.   Southern  California  Gas  (SCG),  also  an  investor‐owned  utility,  serves  as  the  City’s  primary  natural  gas  utility, providing natural gas for residential, commercial, industrial, and government customers.  

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Energy Reduction Strategies

Examples of  energy  efficiency  and  conservation  programs  include  incentives  and  additional  education  around  “green  building”  and  energy  efficient  development.  State  building  standards  require  highly  efficient  new  construction,  and  are  currently  being  updated;  a  new  state  code  requiring  even  higher  energy efficiency will go into effect on January 1, 2014. Renewable sources of energy are becoming more  available and affordable through rebates, tax incentives and technological advances. The City’s approach  to  reducing  energy  usage  and  associated  GHG  reduction  is  to  provide  residents  and  businesses  with  5  

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The State  of  California  has  enacted  one  of  the  most  ambitious  renewable  energy  standards  in  the  country.  The  California  Renewables  Portfolio  Standard  (RPS)  program  requires  investor‐owned  utilities  to  increase  their  use  of  renewable  energy  resources by up to 33 percent of procurement by 2020. Eligible renewable sources include most renewables except for large  hydropower. 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

information and  tools  to  encourage  voluntary  cost‐beneficial  energy  efficiency  retrofits  and  voluntary  renewable energy installations, and to enforce all state building code mandates.   Water  use  and  energy  use  are  related.  Municipal  operations  for  pumping,  treating  and  conveying  potable  water  throughout  the  city  consume  electricity  and  are  responsible  for  1%  of  the  city’s  2020  BAU GHG emissions projected in 2020, while wastewater treatment emissions comprise 5% of the city’s  2020 BAU GHG emissions projection. Reducing or conserving water throughout the city will help Delano  meet energy and GHG reduction goals while providing the added benefit of safeguarding limited water  supplies. 

D

The vast majority of electricity and natural gas‐related GHG emissions in the City are related to residential  and commercial buildings. Following California's clean energy policy, which prioritizes energy efficiency in  the state's quest to meet growing energy demand,6 this Climate Action Plan seeks first to reduce energy  demand  and  maximize  energy  efficiency,  and  then  to  expand  new  sources  of  renewable  electricity  to  meet a portion of the remaining demand.  

Table 4‐2  summarizes  the  Climate  Action  Plan’s  energy  strategies  and  their  estimated  GHG  reduction  impact. More detail on each goal and strategy is provided in the following pages. 

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Table 4‐2  Summary Table of GHG Reduction Potential for Energy Strategies in 2020 

Goal/Supporting Strategy 

Annual GHG  Reduction  Potential   (MT CO2e) 

Priority

First Year of  Implementation 

Percent of  Reduction  Category 

E1 Increase Energy Efficiency Community‐Wide  E1.1 

Reduction of heat island effect 

299

2

In progress 

6%

E1.2

Nonresidential energy use education 

482

1

In progress 

9%

E1.3

Residential energy use education 

810

1

In progress 

16%

E1.4

Nonresidential and Residential PACE EE  program 

1,570

1

2017

31%

E1.5

Implement the Municipal Energy  Action Plan 

396

1

In progress 

8%

E1.6

Promote Commercial and Residential  Green Building 

NA

2

2017

0%

1

2017

18%

E2 Increase Renewable Energy Generation and Use Community‐Wide  Encourage nonresidential renewable  energy 

909

E2.2

Encourage residential renewable  energy 

568

E3 Increase use of electric vehicles  E3.1 

Community electric vehicle (EV)  program 

53 TOTAL 

5,087

T

E2.1

1

2017

11%

3

In progress 

1%

100%

6     Energy resource loading order adopted in the state’s 2003 Energy Action Plan, and established by California’s principal energy  agencies: the California Energy Commission, the California Public Utilities Commission, and the California Consumer Power and  Conservation Financing Authority.  

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

D

Buildings comprise the largest source of demand for community electricity and natural gas usage. Prior to  1978, there were no energy codes for buildings. Starting in 1978, the State of California adopted Title 24,  Part  6  of  the  California  Code  of  Regulations  for  Energy  Efficiency  Standards  for  Residential  and  Nonresidential Buildings. Therefore, the greatest opportunities for improving energy efficiency are typically  found in the oldest buildings that were constructed prior to the adoption of the state energy codes. More  recently,  the  state  of  California  also  adopted  CALGreen,  which  contains  additional  green  building  requirements, such as the inclusion of water efficient fixtures in buildings. 

The energy reductions and associated GHG emission reductions expected to result from the state building  codes are included in the “Adjusted BAU Forecast” found in Chapter 3 of this Climate Action Plan. The City  of Delano will enforce the state code to ensure that all new buildings are in compliance with the energy  and environmental requirements of CALGreen and Title 24. 

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About half  of  the  residential  buildings  in the City of Delano were built before Title 24 was enacted, or  during  the  early  years  of  the  building  energy  codes;  Figure  4‐6  shows  how  many  housing  units  were  constructed in each decade since 1940. Because all new construction must meet strict energy efficiency  standards, and because new construction is a very small portion of the entire building stock in Delano, this  Climate Action Plan focuses on increasing the energy efficiency of existing buildings in Delano.  Figure 4‐6  Distribution of Residential Building Construction Date, by Building Type in the City of Delano    Built 1939 or earlier

Built before California energy codes enacted or during the first 2 years

 Built 1940 to 1949   Built 1950 to 1959   Built 1960 to 1969

Built after California energy codes enacted

 Built 1970 to 1979   Built 1980 to 1989   Built 1990 to 1999   Built 2000 to 2004

0

500

1,000

1,500

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 Built 2005 or later

2,000

2,500

3,000

Number of Housing Units

Data Source: American Factfinder of the US Census:  http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_3YR_DP04&prodType=table   

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy E1.1: Reduction of the Heat Island Effect Encourage voluntary strategies to reduce the urban heat island effect. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

D Action E1.1a:   

2 In progress 299 Low (some City staff time) Community Development Department 

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher home  values, increased shade, and increased aesthetics in the  City due to trees.

Provide information and instructions to residents and businesses regarding the benefits  and installation of “cool” roofs and shade trees. 

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Action E1.1b:  

Increase the number  of  shade  trees  whenever  possible  on  City‐owned  land,  especially  near the south side of buildings. 

An urban  heat  island  is  a  developed  urban  area  that  experiences  higher  temperatures  than  the  surrounding  rural  areas.  The  heat  island effect  is caused  by  the  presence  of  roads, buildings,  and other  infrastructure  that  replace  vegetation  or  agricultural  fields.  These  urban  surfaces  are  impermeable  and  dry and tend to be made from materials that retain heat. According to the US EPA, on hot days the sun  can heat urban surfaces to temperatures 50–90°F hotter than the air, while shaded or moist surfaces— often  in  more  rural  surroundings—remain  close  to  air  temperatures.  The  urban  heat  island  effect  can  increase  energy  demand  for  air  conditioning  in  the  summer,  and  can  also  exacerbate  heat‐related  illnesses. 

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Strategy E1.1  includes  encouraging  residents  and  businesses  to  voluntarily  enact  projects  designed  to  reduce the heat island effect, such as using light‐colored paving materials, cool roofs, and planting shade  trees to reduce the energy demand of buildings. The City currently has an ordinance requiring shade trees  to be planted in and around new parking lots, and for installation of parkways for new development. This  strategy  includes  this  existing  shade  tree  ordinance  and  the  City  may  consider  initiating  a  voluntary  program  to  encourage  planting  shade  trees  near  buildings.  The  City  currently  provides  information  to  commercial  and  residential  developers  what  types  of  trees  are  recommended  for  the  local  climate  and  where  they  can  be  most  effective  (e.g.,  on  the  south  side  of  buildings).  The  City  could  provide  that  information to residents as well. The City will continue to plant shade trees for energy efficiency purposes  near City‐owned buildings.  The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection offers an Urban & Community Forestry Program  that provides numerous resources to local governments that are interested in improving their urban and  community  forests  through  expanding  and maintaining  local  trees  and  related  vegetation.  The  program 

provides numerous resources, including information toolkits, grants, and technical assistance.7  Grants are  7  

Urban and Community Forestry Webpage, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at:  http://www.fire.ca.gov/resource_mgt/resource_mgt_urbanforestry.php 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

available for activities such as developing a tree inventory, creating an urban tree management plan, and  for planting more trees in urban areas.  

Strategy E1.2: Nonresidential Energy Use Education Promote various federal, state, local, and utility programs and other opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of nonresidential buildings. Priority:

D

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1 In progress 482 Low (some City staff time) Community Development Department 

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher building  values

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Action E1.2a:   

Action E1.2b:   

Continue to  promote  existing  nonresidential  energy  efficiency  programs,  including  rebates  and  incentives  for  fixtures  and  appliances  that  improve  energy  efficiency  in  nonresidential  buildings.  Provide  information  and  a  link  to  the  SCE  and  SCG  rebate  programs on the City website. 

Develop a  low‐cost  local  education  campaign  to  promote  nonresidential  energy  efficiency  improvements,  and  conduct  at  least  2  events  per  year  to  educate  business  owners and managers about energy efficiency options. 

This Strategy  includes  a  voluntary,  education‐based  approach  in  which  the  City  would  increase  outreach/education  to  commercial  and  industrial  building  owners  to  raise  awareness  of  federal,  state,  local,  and  utility  energy  efficiency  programs,  especially  SCE  and  SCG's  wide‐ranging  programs  and  incentives for existing buildings. The City will promote and market selected programs to specific sectors of  the  nonresidential  business  community,  utilizing  existing  channels  of  communication.  For  example,  the  City could provide information in existing newsletters, or at regular Chamber of Commerce meetings, and  could  also  work  with  the  local  school  district.  Another  group  that  could  be  a  useful  partner  is  the  Community Alliance.   

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Specific steps needed to implement this program include the facilitation of at least two (2) workshops or  informational  sessions  to  the  nonresidential  sector  each  year,  as  well  as  posting  information  and  appropriate  weblinks  on  the  City  website.  The  City  will  partner  with  the  SCE  Energy  Education  Center  located  in  Tulare,  CA  to  implement  this  program,  and  may  find  other  partners,  such  as  local  environmental  or  civic  organizations.  The  City  could  also  encourage  (and  educate  on  the  value  of)  commercial  and  industrial  energy  audits,  or  provide  small  business  energy  audits  at  no  or  low‐cost  if  funding  were  available.  In  addition,  the  City  could  provide  information  to  businesses  regarding  the  workshops  and  classes  offered  at  the  SCE  Energy  Education  Center  to  increase  energy  efficiency.  To  further  encourage  energy  efficiency  improvements,  the  City  could  promote  the  SCE  directory  of  contractors who can complete energy efficiency audits and upgrades. Finally, if funding were to become  available, the City could add to existing rebates for energy efficiency. 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy E1.3: Residential Energy Use Education Promote various federal, state, local, and utility programs and other opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

D Action E1.3a:   

Responsibility:

1 In progress 810 Low (some City staff time) Community Development Department 

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher home  values

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Continue to promote existing residential energy efficiency programs, including rebates  for  residential  fixtures  and  appliances  and  other  utility  programs  to  improve  energy  efficiency in residential buildings. 

Action E1.3b:   

Develop a  low‐cost  local  education  campaign  to  promote  residential  energy  efficiency  improvements, and conduct at least 2 events per year to educate business owners and  managers about energy efficiency options. 

Similar to Strategy E1.2, the City of Delano will employ a voluntary, education‐based approach to increase  outreach/education  to  residential  homeowners  and  multifamily  building  owners  to  raise  awareness  of  federal,  state,  local  and  utility  energy  efficiency  programs.  For  example,  the  City  will  strive  to  increase  participation  in  Energy  Upgrade  California,  the  statewide  “whole  house”  retrofit  program  provided  by  investor‐owned utilities under the auspices of the CPUC. Specifically, the City could target the number of  existing and new homes to participate in Energy Upgrade California and check progress with the Program  Implementer.  A variety of programs exist to encourage homeowners and renters to upgrade their homes with energy‐ efficient  technology.  For  example,  residents  can  apply  for  SCE  rebates  on  heating,  ventilation,  and  air  conditioning  (HVAC)  equipment,  lighting,  insulation,  cool  roofs,  energy‐efficient  appliances,  low‐income  weatherization, and other energy efficiency upgrades.  

T

In addition  to  rebates,  residents  can  take  advantage  of  tax  credits,  such  as  the  federal  tax  credit  on  efficiency improvements (up to $500). Rebates and credits make energy efficiency attractive because they  reduce the payback period, after which the renter/owner starts saving money they would have otherwise  spent  on  energy.  The  current  federal  tax  credit  covers  numerous  types  of  retrofits,  such  as  increased  insulation, upgrading furnaces and hot water heaters, upgrading central air conditioner units, and more.  Also, the current federal tax credit is set to expire at the end of 2013 but may be extended in future years.  Similar  to  Strategy  E1.2,  specific  steps  needed  to  implement  this  program  include  the  facilitation  of  at  least two (2) workshops or informational sessions for the residential sector each year, as well as posting  information and appropriate weblinks on the City website. The City will work with local community groups  to  expand  knowledge  and  awareness  of  energy  efficiency  programs,  and  may  publish  or  promote  case  studies  of  successful  energy  retrofits  in  the  area.  In  addition,  the  City  would  provide  information  to 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

residents regarding  the  workshops  and  classes  offered  at  the  SCE  Energy  Education  Center  to  increase  energy efficiency.  This Climate Action Plan assumes there is more opportunity in the residential sector for energy efficiency  than in the nonresidential sector. In general, businesses tend to have more awareness of energy efficiency  opportunities than local homeowners and renters.  

Strategy E1.4: Nonresidential and Residential PACE Energy Efficiency Program

D

Join the regional PACE Program and promote opportunities to local businesses and residents. Priority:

1

Timeframe to start implementation:

2017

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

1,570 None (no City staff time)

AF R

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

Community Development Department 

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher home  values

Action E1.4a:   

Action E1.4b:   

Implement a PACE program by linking with an existing regional or statewide program.  Provide  outreach  to  local  business  owners  and  managers  and  residents  regarding  the  PACE program, including posting information and weblinks on the City website. 

T

A Property  Assessed  Clean  Energy  (PACE)  program  is  a  financing  tool  used  by  local  governments  to  provide property owners with funds for energy efficiency improvements and retrofits, or for renewable  energy systems (e.g., solar panels, solar hot water heaters, and small wind turbines). PACE funds may also  be used for water‐savings measures. Property owners receive 100% financing, and then repay the cost of  the  improvements  as  a  property  tax  assessment  over  the  course  of  20  years.  PACE  programs  provide  significant advantages by eliminating upfront costs, providing low‐cost long‐term financing and making it  easy for building owners to transfer repayment obligations to a new owner upon the building’s sale. In the  Sonoma  County  PACE  program,  671  projects  have  been  completed;  approximately  half  were  energy  efficiency upgrades with the balance being primarily on‐site electricity generation. The average loan was  $30,000 per project.   Kern  County  is  participating  in  CaliforniaFIRST,  a  statewide  PACE  Program  available  to  nonresidential  building owners. Currently, only six cities in Kern County are participating: Arvin, Bakersfield, Ridgecrest,  Shafter,  Taft,  and  Wasco.  This  strategy  assumes  that  Delano  will  join  the  CaliforniaFIRST  program,  or  a  similar regional or statewide program if one becomes available. To join CaliforniaFIRST, the City Council  would need to pass a resolution to officially opt in to the program. No other commitment is needed for  the City in terms of direct costs or staff time. In the PACE model, the cost of upgrades are repaid through  the  annual  property  tax  assessment;  thus,  the  County  will  administer  the  program,  since  the  County  currently collects property taxes. Therefore, very little effort or administrative time is needed on the part  of the City to participate in a PACE program. 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

By participating in the Kern County PACE program, the City will enable additional financing opportunities  for energy efficiency improvements for commercial and residential structures, and will promote the use of  PACE funding for energy efficiency improvements. Often, PACE funding is useful for larger projects that  may not be eligible for a rebate or incentive, or require long‐term financing for other reasons. The PACE  program will also encourage the use of renewable energy, which is discussed in more detail later in this  chapter.   A PACE program for single‐family homes is currently unavailable; the existing CaliforniaFIRST program is  only available to some types of multifamily residential building owners. However, this strategy assumes  that a residential PACE program will become available in Kern County by 2020, and that the City of Delano  will opt in to the residential PACE offering. 

D

Strategy E1.5: Implement the Municipal Energy Action Plan Implement the adopted Municipal Energy Action Plan as Funding and Staff Resources become available. Priority:

1

AF R Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

In progress

396

Medium (some capital investment and City staff time)

Community Development Department 

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher building  values

Action E1.5a:   

Action E1.5b:   

Focus implementation on the most cost‐beneficial measures identified in the plan: Plug  Load Management, Reduction of Heat Islands, Upgrading Municipal Building Water  Fixtures, Street Light Upgrades, and Wastewater Treatment Plant Energy Efficiency  Upgrades.  Identify  funding  requirements  and  seek  funding  through  grants  and  low‐interest  loans  available through energy utilities, state agencies, and regional planning agencies.  

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The City  of  Delano  Municipal  Energy  Action  Plan  (EAP),  adopted  by  the  City  in  February  2013,  demonstrates the commitment the City has established for creating and implementing energy efficiency  goals and policies affecting local government operations. The EAP builds upon previous and ongoing work  by  the  City.  The  City  of  Delano  is  a  member  of  the  Kern  Energy  Watch  program,  a  joint  partnership  of  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  Company  (PG&E),  Southern  California  Edison  (SCE),  Southern  California  Gas  Company (SCGC) and several Kern County municipalities.   The City of Delano has undertaken numerous energy efficiency projects, from integrating cool roofs and  upgrading  HVAC  and  lighting  systems  in  municipal  buildings,  to  updating  the  City’s  water  system  and  expanding  the  Waste  Water  Treatment  Plant  with  efficient  systems  and  design.  In  addition,  the  City  of  Delano  has  also  invested  in  an  audit  and  upgrade  of  their  well  and  water  pumping  stations  and  Fire  Department  facilities,  designed  a  new  high  performance  Police  Department  Headquarters  and  has  recently  completed  construction  of  a  new  Technology  Center  to  provide  citizens  access  to  educational  tools and resources.   

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

43


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

The top five projects identified in the EAP, in terms of investment payback, are Plug Load Management,  Reduction  of  Heat  Islands,  Upgrading  Municipal  Building  Water  Fixtures,  Street  Light  Upgrades,  and  Wastewater  Treatment  Plant  Energy  Efficiency  Upgrades.  The  implementation  of  the  EAP  will  be  accomplished by City staff in an ongoing process that includes additional research, initiation of projects  selected for immediate implementation, and monitoring of results. 

Strategy E.1.6: Promote Commercial and Residential Green Building

D

Increased outreach to expand green building and energy efficient design for new commercial and residential development. Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

2 2017 NA (negligible) Low to Medium (City staff time)

AF R Responsibility:

Community Development Department

Local Economic Benefits:  Lower energy and water demand, lower energy and water  bills, reduced maintenance costs, higher building values,  increased community energy knowledge and training Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy demand, lower energy bills, higher real  estate values, better indoor air quality, increased indoor  comfort in buildings

Action E‐1.6a:   Provide information on the benefits of green building to local developers and the public.  Action E‐1.6b:   Consider  providing  incentives,  such  as  permit  streamlining  or  reduced  permit  fees,  for  builders that go beyond Title 24 minimum requirements for energy efficient design for  new commercial and residential development. 

T

The State of California regulates energy consumption under Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations.  The current Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards (CalGREEN), developed by the California Energy  Commission  (CEC),  promote  efficiency  in  new  construction  by  reducing  energy  consumed  for  heating,  cooling, ventilation, water heating, and lighting in new residential and non‐residential buildings. The CEC  updates  Title 24 periodically;  Assembly  Bill  970 (Ducheny),  signed  September  2000,  requires  the  CEC  to  update  and  implement  its  appliance  and building  efficiency  standards  to  make  the  “maximum  feasible”  reduction  in  unnecessary  energy  consumption.  The  2010  Standards  became  effective  statewide  on  January  1,  2011.  The  2013  edition  of  the  code,  with  an  increased  emphasis  on  energy  efficiency,  will  become effective Jan 1, 2014.  The  community  GHG  projections  in  Chapter  3  assume  that,  pursuant  to  state  and  Delano  local  building  codes, all residential, commercial and industrial development through 2020 will adhere to minimum Title  24 standards for energy and water efficiency. In addition to meeting minimum CalGREEN standards, some  developers  may  opt  to  implement  additional  energy  efficiency  measures  to  achieve  voluntary  “Tier  1”  CalGREEN  standards,  which  exceed  minimum  energy  efficiency  requirements  by  15  percent.  Under  strategy  E.1.6,  the  Delano  Community  Development  Department  will  promote  green  building  practices 

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4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

and provide green building information to local developers and to the public. The City will also review and  consider the feasibility of priority building permit processing, or reduced fees or fee waivers, for projects  that can achieve Title 24 Tier 1 energy performance.   Information on the energy savings benefit of exceeding CalGREEN standards may be provided at the City’s  Building Permit desk, on the City’s web site, and through the permit application process itself.   Municipal Commitment

D

Although there  are  no  current  plans  for  new  construction  of  municipal  facilities,  the  City  of  Delano  understands  that  it  should  lead  by  example  by  promoting  energy‐efficient  design  and  construction.  Therefore, the City may consider going beyond CalGREEN standards for any new construction (or major  remodeling) of municipal buildings through the year 2030. Options include designing and building to LEED  standards, and meeting Tier 1 of the enhanced CalGREEN standard.    

AF R

Renewable energy is energy from sources such as sunlight, wind, geothermal heat, and biomass. The use  of  renewable  energy  sources  instead  of  fossil  fuels  substantially  reduces  GHG  emissions.  The  City  of  Delano has opportunities to supplement or offset grid‐supplied electricity with renewable energy that is  generated  in  close  proximity  to  the  load  being  served.  Renewable  electricity  generation  can  be  implemented at the building scale (i.e., rooftop solar) or at the municipal and/or regional scale, through  cooperation among businesses, jurisdictions, and other organizations.  

Solar Energy

Solar energy  is  a  cost‐effective  source  of  renewable  energy  for  the  residents  and  businesses  of  Delano.  According to the SolarRoadMap.com website, Delano is very well situated for solar and yields 10% more  electricity than the national average for each kilowatt (kW) of PV generation capacity installed.8 The most  commonly used solar technologies for homes and businesses, other than solar photovoltaic (PV), include  solar  water  heating  and  passive  solar  design  for  space  heating  and  cooling.  Solar  PV  and  concentrating  solar  power  technologies  are  also  being  used  by  developers  and  utilities  to  produce  electricity  on  a  massive scale to power cities and small towns.9  

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One key benefit of solar energy is that its peak resource availability corresponds to peak system loads for  conventional  electricity.  Therefore,  solar  energy  systems  have  the  potential  to  offset  electricity  usage  when it is the most expensive – during peak demand periods when older, less efficient power plants are  brought online to meet peak loads. Because they are less efficient, the older power plants also tend to  emit more GHGs per unit power produced.  

8   9  

Solar Roadmap website, accessed June 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.solarroadmap.com/national/california/delano‐ca/  National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Solar Energy Basics, available online:  http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_solar.html, accessed April 9, 2013. 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Wind Energy The National Renewable  Energy  Laboratory  (NREL)  indicates  that  the average  wind energy  potential  for  the  City  of  Delano  is  not  considered  suitable  for  cost‐effective  wind  energy  development.  Areas  with  annual average wind speeds of 6.5 meters/second and greater at a height of 80 meters above ground are  generally considered to have a resource suitable for wind development. NREL’s wind resource map shows  that  the  City  of  Delano  is  located  in  an  area  with  wind  speeds  between  4.0  and  5.5  meters/second.10   Therefore, wind energy is not considered further as a viable source of renewable energy in Delano.  

D

Strategy E2.1: Encourage Nonresidential Renewable Energy Increase on-site renewable energy generation and use in local businesses. Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

1 2017

AF R

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

909

Medium (some City staff and City Council time) 

Community Development Department 

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial  and industrial users, increased energy independence,  additional jobs

Action E2.1a: 

Review local  ordinances  and  permit  fees,  and  consider  reducing  the  permit  fees  to  support renewable energy at nonresidential sites. 

Action E2.1b: 

Strive to promote existing financial incentives for renewable energy system installations.  Continue  to  work  with  Southwest  Solar  Transformation  Institute  (SSTI)  and  other  organizations to promote renewable energy. 

T

Encourage nonresidential  building  owners  to  install  appropriate  renewable  energy  technologies.  This  strategy  is  closely  aligned  with  Strategy  E.1.4  (PACE  program),  since  PACE  can  be  used  to  purchase  renewable  energy.  On‐site  renewable  energy  systems  represent  an  effective  strategy  for  reducing  emissions.  Generally,  renewable  energy  systems  should be  considered  only after  implementing  all  cost‐ effective efficiency measures. The best options for Delano businesses and residents are solar hot water  heating and roof‐top photovoltaic (PV) systems.  

The largest  barriers  to  expanding  on‐site  renewable  energy  are  access  to  information,  high  up‐front  financing costs and long payback periods. Therefore, under this strategy, the City of Delano Community  Development Department, in partnership with other organizations, will strive to disseminate renewable  energy  information  and  promote  existing  financial  incentives  for  solar  PV  and  hot  water  system  installation,  some  of  which  are  described  below.  Beyond  promotion  of  existing  financial  incentives  for  renewable energy system installations, the City of Delano will review local ordinances and permit fees and  10   National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), California – Annual Wind Speed at 80 Meters, available online,  http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/wind_resource_maps.asp?stateab=ca, accessed April 6, 2013. 

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4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

consider reducing  the  permit  fees  for  renewable  energy  installation.  Under  this  strategy,  other  permit  fees might be increased, so there is not any increase or decrease in revenue to the City, but rather the  revenue from permit fees would be shifted.   The City is currently partnering with the SSTI, a group providing technical assistance to local governments  with a goal of increasing local markets for renewable energy. According to SSTI, the potential for solar in  the nonresidential sector of Delano is over 100,000 kW of capacity. SSTI is providing assistance to Delano  regarding  issues  such  as  streamlining  permitting  processes,  as  well  as  planning  and  zoning  for  solar,  disseminating information about financing options, and solar market development.11 

Rebates and Tax Credits for Existing Owners:

D

The State of California currently offers a rebate on solar hot water heating systems through the Go Solar  California  program.12  Rebates  are  also  available  through  SCE  for  the  purchase  and  installation  of  grid‐ connected PV panels through the California Solar Initiative Program funded by the CPUC. Incentives vary  based on when the application is processed and the size of the PV system.13  

AF R

Other technologies, such as ground source heat pumps or fuel cells, may be viable options in the City of  Delano. The State of California also offers the Self Generation Incentive Program, which offers rebates for  non‐solar forms of electricity generation. Rebates vary by the type of technology used.14  

Strategy E2.2: Encourage Residential Renewable Energy Increase on-site renewable energy generation and use in local homes and multifamily apartment buildings. Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1

2017

568

Medium (some City staff and City Council time) 

Community Development Department 

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial  and industrial users, increased energy independence,  additional jobs

Review local ordinances and consider reducing permit fees to support renewable energy  at residential sites. 

Action E2.2b: 

Strive to promote existing financial incentives for renewable energy system installations.  Continue to work with SSTI and other organizations to promote renewable energy. 

T

Action E2.2a: 

11   City of Delano Solar Roadmap website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at:  https://www.solarroadmap.com/srmdata/jurisdictions/viewroadmap?auth=juYtsb726!&id=4  12   Go Solar California Program website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.gosolarcalifornia.org/solarwater/  13   SCE California Solar Initiative website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at:  https://www.sce.com/wps/portal/home/residential/rebates‐savings/solar  14   SCE Self‐Generation Incentive Program website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: www.sce.com/sgip. 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Similar to Strategy E2.1, this strategy focuses on increasing the use of renewable energy in the residential  sector. The actions for implementing this strategy are the same as for E2.1.   The  SSTI  estimates  that  the  potential  for  solar  in  the  residential  sector  in  Delano  is  almost  22,000  kW,  much smaller than the nonresidential sector, but still quite substantial.   Virtual net metering, available in the state of California, is a tariff arrangement that enables a multi‐meter  property  owner  to  allocate  a  solar  system's  energy  credits  to  other  tenants.  This  policy  is  designed  to  increase solar PV installations. The policy allows residents in multifamily buildings to virtually “share” the  benefits of PV panels on their building based on a pre‐determined formula, such as by square footage of  their unit.  

D

Rebates and Tax Credits for Existing Owners:

AF R

In addition  to  the  rebates  and  tax  credits  discussed  in  Strategy  E2.1,  California  offers  the  Multifamily  Affordable  Solar  Housing  (MASH)  program  and  the  Single  Family  Affordable  Solar  Housing  (SASH)  programs, both of which may be appropriate programs for the City of Delano. Both programs only apply  to  eligible  affording  housing  residents  or  homeowners.  In  the  MASH  program,  incentives  are  slightly  higher for PV systems that offset the load of tenants in the building, as opposed to PV systems that only  offset  the  load  of  common  areas  in  the  building.  MASH  is  currently  implemented  by  SCE  for  qualifying  properties in the City of Delano.15 The SASH Program is administered by a nonprofit organization called  Grid Alternatives.16 

Incentives for Developers:

The California  Energy  Commission's  New  Solar  Homes  Partnership  (NSHP)  is  part  of  the  comprehensive  statewide solar program, known as the California Solar Initiative. The NSHP provides financial incentives  and other support to home builders, encouraging the construction of new, energy efficient solar homes.  Under  this  strategy,  Delano  would  promote  this  program  to  developers  seeking  permits  or  other  approvals from the City. 

T

Plug‐in hybrid  and  electric  vehicles  (EVs)  help  reduce  GHG  emissions  and  other  air  pollutants,  may  improve  electric  grid  operations,  and  increase  energy  security  by  displacing  conventional  gasoline  and  diesel fuels. Furthermore, electric vehicles have the potential to take advantage of distributed sources of  renewable energy, such as solar panels. A recent report by the Union of Concerned Scientists illustrates  that EVs in California would produce lower GHG emissions than even the most fuel‐efficient hybrids.17  

15   SCE MASH website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: www.sce.com/mash.   16   Grid Alternatives SASH website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at: http://www.gridalternatives.org/sash/  17   See report at: http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_vehicles/electric‐car‐global‐warming‐emissions‐report.pdf 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy E3.1: Increase Use of Electric Vehicles Support the installation of electric vehicle infrastructure. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

3 In progress 53 Low (some City staff time) Community Development Department 

D

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial  and industrial users, increased energy independence,  additional jobs

Support regional efforts to expand the availability of public charging stations.  

Action E3.1b: 

Ensure that the municipal code supports infrastructure for EV charging. 

Action E3.1c: 

Advocate for local funding from state cap‐and‐trade proceeds, among other sources, to  be used for additional charging stations or outreach. 

AF R

Action E3.1a: 

The state of California is actively promoting plug‐in hybrid and EVs to reduce dependence on foreign oil  and meet the AB 32 GHG emissions reduction targets. In addition, due to low rates for the electricity used  to charge EVs, the energy costs are lower when compared to conventional gasoline or diesel fuel.   One of the barriers to adopting a new technology such as EVs is the lack of public infrastructure available  to  support the  technology.  In  the  case  of EVs,  there  is  a  need  for charging  stations  that  are  distributed  throughout the region, the state, and beyond. In the southern San Joaquin Valley region, charging stations  are currently available in Merced, Fresno, Visalia, and Bakersfield. Charging stations are also available in  the southeastern portion of Kern County in Tehachapi and also in the northern Los Angeles County area of  Palmdale/Lancaster. Thus, a regional network of charging stations is already underway and will continue  to improve. 

T

In a recent survey conducted by the California Center for Sustainable Energy, one of the top three barriers  to the adoption of EVs was “zoning and parking rules.” Numerous toolkits are available for creating local  ordinances or rules that encourage the use of EVs. In the region, the San Joaquin Valley Plug‐in Electric  Vehicle  Coordinating  Council  (SJV  PEVCC)  is  working  on  an  EV  readiness  plan  that  will  provide  best  practice  materials  that  address  issues  such  as  updating  zoning  and  parking  policies,  streamlining  the  permitting and inspection processes, and updating the building codes for EV charging equipment and EV  parking.  The  City  of  Delano  could  become  involved  in  the  SJV  PEVCC  or  may  consider  adopting  best  practices for zoning, parking, etc. once they become available.18 

Transportation and Land Use Goals and Strategies 

2020 Business‐as‐Usual GHG Emissions: 213,283 MT CO2e 

Annual GHG emissions reductions by 2020:  5,904 MT CO2e 

18   San Joaquin Valley Plug‐in Electric Vehicle Coordinating Council website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at:  http://energycenter.org/index.php/outreach‐a‐education/plug‐in‐a‐get‐ready/sjv‐pevcc 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Emissions associated  with  transportation  and  land  use  patterns  (213,283  MT  CO2e)  represent  approximately 66 percent of the City’s 2020 GHG BAU emissions projection. The bulk of these emissions  are expected to be generated by vehicles travelling on state highways and City streets. The remainder will  be  generated  by  vehicles  engaged  in  off‐road  activities,  like  construction,  agricultural  production,  and  recreation. 

Reducing Emissions with Transportation and Land Use

D

In Delano, the job‐housing ratio was approximately 0.65 in 2010, and the population is expected to grow  faster  than  new  jobs  over  the  next  20  years.  As  such,  the  vehicle  miles  travelled  (VMT)  per  capita  will  increase,  as  workers  travel  outside  the  City  boundaries  for  employment  opportunities.19  The  average  work‐commute  for  a  resident  of  Delano  is  approximately  24  minutes,  nearly  half  that  of  the  average  California resident.20 Driving alone to work represents 65 percent of the transportation mode split.21 As  residents are forced to live further from jobs, commute times and VMT will increase if the primary mode  of travel continues to be the single‐occupancy vehicle. In the absence of GHG reduction strategies, daily  citywide  VMT  in  2020  is  expected  to  increase  by  nearly  14  percent  over  2010  levels,  from  816,294  to  947,901.  

AF R

Existing development patterns and the supporting transportation infrastructure are major factors in the  transportation  habits  of  residents  because  they  limit  mobility  choices,  fostering  an  auto‐dependent  culture  that  relies  less  on  walking,  biking,  and  public  transit  and  more  on  personal  daily  motor  vehicle  trips. Further, public transit service is somewhat limited in the City, reducing its efficiency and appeal as a  viable option to driving. In addition, the lack of an extensive and well‐connected pedestrian and bicycle  system and associated amenities can be a disincentive to choosing non‐motorized mobility alternatives. 

State regulations  will  require  higher  fuel  efficiency  and  lower  carbon  fuels  over  the  next  few  years.  However,  state  regulations  alone  will  not  achieve  the  transportation  emissions  reductions  needed  to  reach  the  2020  and  2050  targets  set  by  AB  32  and  the  Governor’s  Executive  Order  S‐3‐05  (80%  below  1990 levels by 2050). Effective local strategies for reducing emissions associated with transportation and  land  use  focus  on  reducing  the  total  VMT  and  number  of  vehicle  trips  required  for  City  residents  and  businesses, and on proliferation of more zero‐ and low‐emission vehicles. VMT can be reduced and traffic  congestion relieved by gradually changing land use patterns to be more sustainable, improving pedestrian  and bicycle infrastructure, and improving public transit options. Alternative vehicle infrastructure can be  improved by partnering with regional agencies.  

T

Existing City Policies and Codes

The City’s  General  Plan  Land  Use  and  Circulation  Elements  describe  several  recommended  options  for  reducing  trips  that  could  be  considered  in  Delano.  Reducing  vehicle  trips  have  a  direct  effect  on  GHG  reduction.  The  actions  presented  in  the  General  Plan  are  reflected  in  reduction  strategies  presented  in  relation  to  land  use  and  transportation.  Specifically,  the  Medium  Density  Residential  land  use  category  notes  that  this  type  of  housing  should  “be  integrated  throughout  the  community  adjacent  to  transportation, community services and commercial developments.”  By locating higher density land use  19   Fehr and Peers, Memorandum. City of Delano CAP – Reduction Strategy Quantification. June 28, 2013.  20   American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics.  http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013  21   ibid. 

50

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

next to  complementary  land  uses,  the  City  encourages  alternative  modes  of  transportation  such  as  walking and bicycling. Additionally, the General Plan acknowledges the benefits of the grid street pattern  and the connectivity it provides to all transportation modes. It also tries to balance land uses, and jobs‐ housing  balance  within  the  City  by  encouraging  housing  development  throughout  the  community.  This  type  of  land  use  pattern  addresses  the  physical  layout;  proximity  and  accessibility  to  goods,  services,  workplaces, and schools—directly affecting vehicle use, and thus GHG emissions. 

Transportation and Land Use Goals and Strategies Specific approaches considered for the City of Delano include:  

D

Create a  built  environment  that  allows  people  more  transportation  choices,  including  walking,  bicycling, or taking public transit, rather than relying solely on single occupancy vehicles (SOVs);   Encourage higher density, mixed‐use development near local‐serving commercial areas including  the downtown area;  

Encourage the  use  of  lower‐emission  vehicles,  and  expand  the  infrastructure  and  safety  for  people to walk or bike; and 

Expand alternatives for commuting and local travel, and provide secure bike parking and related  amenities for all new development.  

AF R

Table 4‐3 summarizes the Climate Action Plan’s transportation and land use strategies and their estimated  GHG reduction impact.  Table 4-3 Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Transportation and Land Use Strategies in 2020

TL1 

Goal/Supporting Strategy 

Priority

First Year of  Implementation 

Percent of  Category 

Promote Local Commute Trip Reduction through  TDM programs  

1,239

1

In progress 

31%

TL1.2

Require Parking Spaces for Carpool and Vanpool  Vehicles 

371

2

2015

9%

TL1.3

Improve Access to Public Transit 

554

2

In progress 

14%

TL2

Sustainable Growth Patterns 

TL1.1

Reduce Single Occupancy Vehicle Travel 

Annual GHG  Reduction  Potential   (MT CO2e) 

1

2016

22%

1

2015

0%

2

In progress  

NA

618

3

In progress 

16%

321

3

Increase Household Density in Downtown Area 

TL2.2

Improve Jobs‐housing Balance City‐wide by favoring  more commercial and industrial development 

TL2.3

Support Local Farmer’s Markets 

NA

TL3

Increase Non‐Motorized Travel  

TL3.1

Improve Bicycle and Pedestrian Infrastructure 

TL3.2

Enhance Safe Routes to Schools program  TOTAL 

865 0 

3,967

T

TL2.1

In progress   

8% 100% 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

D

Nationwide, 27.7 percent of all VMT is attributable to vehicle trips to and from work.22  Trip generation  can be reduced by implementing transportation demand management (TDM) strategies for employees in  the City that include telecommuting options, alternative work and school schedules, on‐site amenities, car  and vanpooling programs, and improved access to bike facilities. Commute trip reduction programs can  encourage use of alternative modes, particularly for commuting to work by employees to local employers.  With implementation of these measures, it is estimated that the City will experience a VMT reduction of  approximately 7,800 per day by 2020, and 12,960 VMT per day by 2035. 

Strategy TL1.1: Local Commute Trip Reduction Promote TDM programs for new large non-residential developments that reduce weekday peak period vehicle trips.

AF R Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1

In progress

1,239

Low (some City staff time)

Community Development Department 

Local Economic Benefits:  Reduced roadway maintenance, lower fuel demand and  costs, better local air quality, less road congestion 

Action TL1.1a: 

Promote TDM  programs  for  new  large  non‐residential  developments  that  reduce  weekday peak period vehicle trips. 

Action TL1.1b: 

Consider providing incentives (e.g., travel vouchers) to City employees to carpool or take  public transit to work. 

The City  of  Delano  will  encourage  local  employers  to  implement  transportation  demand  management  measures  to  reduce  single‐occupancy  vehicle  trips.  This  encouragement  could  take  the  form  of  public  information  inserts  in  the  local  utility  bill,  e‐mail  distribution,  and  /or  through  Chamber  of  Commerce  presentations and coordination. 

T

TDM strategies  for  employers  could  include  transportation  coordinators;  on‐site  transit  information  and/or pass sales; rideshare matching services; preferential parking for carpools or vanpools; provision of  bike lockers, showers, and/or changing facilities; and guaranteed ride home.23  Employers would also be  encouraged to implement a compressed work week, involving one or more of the following:  

Forty hours spread among four workdays days in one week (4/40) 

Eighty hours spread among nine workdays in two weeks (9/80) 

Telecommuting 1.5 days per week 

22   United States Department of Transportation, Summary of Travel Trends 2009, Table 24, p. 44.  23

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TRP Report 95 Chapter 19: Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies -- Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Transportation Research Board, 2010.

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

The City will consider promoting commute trip reduction for its own employees by providing incentives to  carpool or take public transit to work. 

Strategy TL1.2: Carpool and Vanpool Vehicle Parking Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicle parking by placing designated spaces in the most desired locations to promote ridesharing. Priority:

D

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

2 2015 371 Low (City staff time) Community Development Department  Better local air quality

AF R

Action TL1.2a: 

Modify Delano  Zoning  Ordinance  to  require  new  major  employment  developments  to  provide preferred parking spots for carpool and vanpool vehicles. 

According to  the  2009  National  Household  Travel  Survey,  vehicle  occupancy  has  hovered  around  1.13  persons per vehicle since 1990. The same survey reported that 93.5 percent of commuters usually drive  alone to work.24 In Delano, 65 percent of commuters drive alone to work.25 Many transportation demand  programs,  that  strive  to  achieve  single  occupancy  vehicle  reductions  have  conditions  for  carpool  and  vanpool  requirements  such  as,  location  parking  spaces  for  rideshare  vehicles  conveniently  adjacent  to  building  entrances,  garage  entrances  and  exits,  and  elevators  serving  the  building.  This  means  that  for  carpools  (two  (2)  or  more  people)  and  vanpools  (seven  (7)  or  more  people),  are  entitled  to  park  in  a  marked  space.  Parking  spaces  for  rideshare  vehicles  should  be  attractive  relative  to  parking  spaces  for  single‐occupancy vehicles (SOVs), and must be marked and reserved for the purpose. 

T

The City  encourages  carpooling  through  its  Transportation  Systems  Management  as  presented  in  the  General Plan, which encourages the “development of carpools and ridesharing programs to increase the  number of people per vehicle”. The City should require new major employment development projects to  include designated carpool spaces in site plans and ensure they are implemented during the construction  phase.  A  development  resulting  in  100  employees  or  more  is  considered  a  major  employment  development. 

24   US Department of Transportation. FHWA. National Household Travel Survey. Summary of Travel Trends. 2009  25   American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics.  http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy TL1.3: Improve Access to Public Transit Increase public transit ridership in the community through additional transit facilities and improvement of existing services. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

D

Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

2 In progress 554 Medium (City staff time) Community Development Department  Better local air quality

With Delano  Area  Rapid  Transit  and  Kern  Regional  Transit,  explore  opportunities  to  provide bus shelters at major transit hubs.  

Action TL1.3b: 

With Delano  Area  Rapid  Transit  and  Kern  Regional  Transit,  explore  opportunities  to  provide transit services within ½ mile of all residents in the city. 

AF R

Action TL1.3a: 

Action TL1.3c: 

With Delano  Area  Rapid  Transit  and  Kern  Regional  Transit,  explore  opportunities  to  provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs. 

Action TL1.3d: 

Continue to require new development to include bus and bicycle facilities. 

Improving public transit can significantly reduce emissions by moving a large number of people efficiently  and providing more opportunities for community members to choose low‐carbon transportation modes,  in  place  of  single‐occupancy  vehicle  use.  Improving  public  transit  also  has  potential  Local  Co‐benefits,  including  better  access  to  transit  (especially  for  the  young,  elderly,  and  disabled),  as  well  as  health  benefits associated with walking to and from public transit stops.  According to the 2000 United States Census, only 0.8 percent of all residents over the age of 16 reported  that  they  ride  public  transit  to  get  to  work.  In  Delano,  the  percentage  is  only  0.4  percent.26  The  City’s  public transit  ridership  is  limited  by  the  City’s  small  size, rural  surroundings,  distance from  major  cities,  and relatively low population and development density. Further, commutes are often outside of the City,  averaging nearly 24 minutes, which often means in a rural community, that transit is a viable option.27  

T

Delano Area Rapid Transit (DART) provides bus service in the City and in the County to residents who live  within the service Area. DART operates four fixed bus routes, six days a week, with approximately 155,000  annual  boardings.  A  total  of  75  bus  stops  are  served  in  the  10  square  mile  system.28   DART  receives  funding  from  the  Federal  Transit  Administration,  Transportation  Development  Act,  and  Farebox revenues.29  Regional  service  is  provided  by  Kern  Regional  Transit  which  provides  bus  service  between  Delano,  McFarland,  Wasco,  Shafter  and  Bakersfield  and  Tulare  County  Area  Transit  (TCaT)  which  provides  bus  26  27

28 29

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American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics.  http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013 

American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013 City of Delano. Transportation Services. http://cityofdelano.org/index.aspx?NID=66. Accessed August 7, 2013. Dowling, R., Memorandum. Comments on Fehr and Peers CAP Potential Reduction Strategies. May 13, 2013

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

service between Delano, Richgrove, Earlimart and Tulare. The City of Delano received a grant from U.S.  Department of Transportation for a demonstration bus route from Delano to Bakersfield College.30  Under this strategy, the City will coordinate closely with the local and regional transit agencies to explore  the feasibility of implementing the following actions:  

Explore opportunities to provide bus shelters at major transit hubs; 

Explore opportunities to provide transit service within ½ mile of all residents in the City; 

Explore opportunities to provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs; and 

Continue to require new development to include facilities or contribute fees to pay for facilities,  where appropriate, including shelters, benches, and secure bicycle parking. 

D

AF R

Delano currently has a shortage of employment opportunities for its residents, resulting in an outflow of  residents during the day as they travel to jobs in neighboring communities. Retail services are also limited  in the City requiring residents to shop in other towns. In order to promote sustainable growth patterns in  the future, the Health and Sustainability Element of the Delano General Plan encourages the development  of a diversity of housing types and retail services, promotion of locally‐owned businesses, and growth of  high‐quality jobs that provide living wages. A community with housing and transportation choices located  near  jobs  and  services  is  more  sustainable  and  requires  less  driving.  Mixed  use,  higher‐density,  or  infill  development  facilitates  fewer  and  shorter  car  trips  by  providing  more  diverse  land  uses  within  close  proximity of a larger population. These fewer and shorter car trips will reduce total VMT, and associated  GHG emissions. According to a study from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), a private nonprofit  chartered by Congress,31 more compact mixed‐use development of residential and employment centers  can result in overall GHG reductions of up to 25 percent. The report suggests that such reductions can be  accomplished with:  Smaller  lots  for  detached  houses  could  shorten  vehicle  trip  distances  in  low‐density  urban  fringes; 

Smaller lots  and  multiple‐unit  housing  could  support  public  transportation  and  encourage  walking and bicycling in moderate density suburbs; and 

Redevelopment of  strategically  located  underused  parcels  within  proximity  of  existing  services  and amenities. 

T

Improving the jobs‐housing balance by drawing more employers to the City or by locating residential uses  in close proximity to commercial areas would allow for residents to walk to services, which would in turn  help in reducing VMT and associated GHG emissions.  

30

31

City of Delano. Transportation Services. http://cityofdelano.org/index.aspx?NID=66. Accessed August 7, 2013.

Transportation Research Board, 2009, Special Report 298, “Driving and the Built Environment: The Effects of Compact  Development on Motorized Travel, Energy Use and CO2 Emissions,” examines trends in national and metropolitan‐area  development patterns, effects of land‐use patterns on VMT, and the potential effects of more compact development on VMT,  energy use, and CO2 emissions. 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

In Delano, 65 percent of commuters drive alone to work and have an average commute of approximately  24 minutes. Further, approximately 43 percent of employed residents work within the City and almost 16  percent work outside Kern County.32   This results in a number of long distance commutes to employment  centers  in  neighboring  cities  such  as  Bakersfield  (approximately  30  miles  each  way)  and  Visalia  (approximately  45  miles  each  way).  The  City’s  General  Plan  encourages  both  the  “promotion  and  facilitation of economic diversification to encourage the creation of employment opportunities, increase  revenue  through  the  local  economy  and  decrease  dependency  upon  any  one  sector  of  the  economy”  (Objective  10.4.A).  By  investing  in  infrastructure  and  amenities  to  draw  new  employers  into  the  City,  residents  could  live  closer  to  jobs,  thus  reducing  commute  times  and  the  need  to  rely  solely  on  the  automobile to get to work. 

D

The increase  in  residential  uses  would  be  accomplished  through  introduction  of  residential  uses  in  currently exclusively commercial areas such as in the downtown area, or through increasing commercial  services  in  existing  residential  neighborhoods  or  increasing  densities  in  other  commercial  areas,  as  presented  in  the  Neighborhood  Revitalization  Plan  for  Southwest  Delano.  Other  amenities  such  as  complete sidewalks and the presence of street trees for shade also provide for safety to encourage and  allow for transportation modes options beyond the single occupancy vehicle.  

AF R

Strategy TL2.1: Increase Household Density in Downtown Area Encourage the construction of multifamily homes close to walkable amenities and services in the Downtown. Priority:

1

Timeframe to start implementation:  2016 

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

865

Low (City staff time)

Community Development Department 

Local Economic Benefits:  Lower fuel bills, better local air quality, a more connected  community

Rezone non‐residential  lands  in  the  Downtown  Core  and  surrounding  areas  to  higher  density residential zones, and mixed use. 

Action TL2.1b: 

Encourage smart  growth  development  by  considering  elimination  or  reduction  of  minimum  parking  requirements,  creation  of  maximum  parking  requirements  for  residential developments, and provision of shared parking. 

Action TL2.1c: 

Implement traffic calming measures within the downtown core. 

Action TL2.1d: 

Adopt the Delano Block H Master Plan 

Action TL2.1e: 

Improve the consistency of the City’s General Plan and Zoning Map 

T

Action TL2.1a: 

32   American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics.  http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1, 2013 

56

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Growing evidence indicated that increasing the density of development around the downtown and along  transit routes is an effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gases by reducing the need for vehicular  travel.  Creating  opportunities  for  higher  density  housing  in  the  downtown  increases  access  to  services,  increases  bikeability,  and  walkability,  reduces  single  occupancy  vehicle  trips,  and  makes  transit  more  effective.33, 34   The  General  Plan  currently  allows  limited  residential  in  the  downtown  commercial  area,  but  the  commercial  land  use  does  accommodate  a  mix  of  commercial,  financial,  office,  government  uses  and  residential  uses.  Specifically,  the  General  Plan  encourages  the  rehabilitation  of  existing  structures  to  accommodate residential and office facilities in the upper floors in the downtown Commercial district.35 

AF R

D

The City  will  rezone  non‐residential  lands  and  low‐density  residential  to  R‐2  and  R‐3  zones  within  the  downtown core and surrounding area. The Light Multiple‐Family Residential (R‐2) zone district provides  for  a  range  of  housing  choices  for  residents  in  a  more  urban  setting.  The  R‐2  zone  district  provides  for  residential development including small lot single and multiple‐family detached and attached residential  uses  at  a  maximum  allowable  density  of  fourteen  dwelling  units  per  net  acre.  The  Multiple‐Family  Residential (R‐3) zone district provides for the development of multifamily attached residential dwelling  units  with  enhanced  amenities  (common  open  space  and  recreation  areas)  and  contains  a  maximum  allowable  density  of  twenty‐four  dwelling  units  per  net  acre.  The  City  will  continue  to  encourage  and  support  mixed‐use  development  through  implementation  of  the  City’s  Zoning  Ordinance,  which  allows  residential  uses  in  commercial  zones.  Additionally,  per  the  City’s  Zoning  Ordinance,  up  to  a  35  percent  density bonus can be granted in planned development districts. The City will also consider eliminating or  reducing the minimum parking requirements which will result in fewer parking spaces in the downtown  area.  With fewer parking spaces, there will be more opportunities for shared parking to encourage higher  density,  mixed  use,  infill  and  other  smart  growth  developments.  Lastly,  the  City  will  implement  traffic  calming measures, such as roundabouts, within the downtown area to create a more pedestrian‐friendly  environment to encourage walking.  

The Delano  Block  H  Master  Plan  was  prepared  in  December  2006  but  was  not  adopted.  Adoption  and  implementation of this Master Plan would help to increase the residential density in the Downtown area.  The  Block H Master  Plan  site  consists  of 20 blocks  and represents  the  only  existing major  development  opportunity  within  Delano’s  Central  Business  District.  The  site  is  designed  to  be  a  walkable  district  connected to the City’s Downtown that would include a network of pedestrian‐oriented streets, a mix of  uses  within  easy  walking distance  of one  another,  public spaces  and  civic  facilities,  and  transit‐oriented  design. An Overlay Zone with new land use zones would be included that allow for a range of uses and  varying intensities.  

T 33

Center for Clean Air Policy. Cost Effect GHG Reductions through Smart Growth and Improved Transportation Choices: An  Economic Case for Investment of Cap and Trade Revenues. July 2009. 

34 Urban Land Institute, Moving Cooler: An Analysis of Transportation Strategies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. 2009.  35   City of Delano. General Plan. December 2005. 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy TL2.2: Improve Local Jobs-Housing Balance Improve jobs-housing balance city-wide through provision of commercial or industrial job opportunities instead of residential land uses. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

D

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

Action TL2.2a: 

Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

1 2015 0 ‐ 1,58136 Medium (City staff time) Community Development Department  Better local air quality and a more connected community.

Consider modifying the City’s Zoning Ordinance and rezoning outlying residential lands  for commercial and/or industrial uses.  

AF R

The City has a shortage of local jobs. Improving the jobs‐housing balance by drawing more employers to  the  City  would  in  turn  help  in  reducing  VMT  and  associated  GHG  emissions.  As  discussed  above,  65  percent of commuters in Delano drive alone to work and have a commute of approximately 24 minutes.  Further,  approximately  43  percent  of  employed  residents  work  within  the  City  and  almost  16  percent  work outside Kern County.37    The City’s General Plan encourages both the “promotion and facilitation of  economic  diversification  to  encourage  the  creation  of  employment  opportunities,  increase  revenue  through  the  local  economy  and decrease dependency upon  any  one  sector  of the  economy”  (Objective  10.4.A). By investing in infrastructure and amenities to draw new employers into the City, residents could  live closer to jobs, thus reducing commute times and the need to rely solely on the automobile to get to  work. Approximately 63% of the City’s land is designated for residential use while only 37% is designated  for  non‐residential  uses  under  the  General  Plan.  The  City  will  modify  its  General  Plan  and  Zoning  Ordinance to rezone outlying properties to designate more land for commercial and industrial uses, and  less residential uses. This will improve the jobs‐housing balance citywide.   

T

For the  remaining  land  zoned  for  residential,  the  City  will  continue  to  encourage  and  support  higher  density,  infill,  and  mixed‐use  development  through  implementation  of  the  City’s  Zoning  Ordinance.  Current residential densities in the City meet and exceed the San Joaquin Valley Blueprint recommended  densities.  The  San  Joaquin  Valley  Blueprint  is  a  long‐range,  multi‐jurisdictional  vision  for  smart  growth  development in the valley. The 2050 growth scenario identified areas of existing development and future  transportation improvements to result in a target density of 6.8 units per acre of new residential growth.  The  City’s  Zoning  Ordinance  includes  a  Multiple  Family  Residential  (R‐3)  zone  district  that  allows  up  to  24.0  dwelling  units  per  acre,  and  the  City  Zoning  Ordinance    contains  a  density  bonus  ordinance  that  allows for up to a 35 per cent density bonus in accordance with the provisions of State Law.   

58

36

If the Zoning Ordinance as described is implemented, the GHG reduction potential is 1,581 MT CO2e per year.

37

American Fact Finder. Selected Economic Characteristics.  http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_11_5YR_DP03. Accessed August 1,  2013 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy TL2.3: Support Local Farmer’s Markets Support local Farmer’s Markets and other venues to sell locallygrown and produced foods in the City to reduce GHG emissions. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

D Action TL2.3a: 

2 In progress N/A Low (City staff time) Community Development Department 

Local Co‐benefits:  A more connected community, contributes to local  economy, supports local agricultural industry 

Continue to  allow  Farmer’s  Markets  and  other  venues  to  sell  locally‐grown  and  produced foods in commercial zone districts, and consider modifying the City’s Zoning  Ordinance to allow this use in other appropriate zone districts. 

AF R

Foods that are packaged and shipped to other locations outside of the City require more energy than food  that is grown and consumed locally. Delano residents, businesses and visitors can purchase locally‐grown  and  produced  foods  that  are  transported  a  short  distance  from  its  source.  Delano  currently  has  one  Certified Farmers Market held on Tuesdays from late spring to early fall, which is located at 1508 Garces  Highway.  The  City’s  Zoning  Ordinance  allows  temporary  fruit  stands  within  the  Agricultural  zones  and  districts. Sales of agricultural, horticulture, or farming products are allowed to be sold and are regulated  under Zoning Ordinance Section 20.7.50.  The City will continue to allow Farmer’s Markets and other venues to sell locally‐grown and produced foods  in commercial zone districts, and consider modifying the City’s Zoning Ordinance to allow this use in other  appropriate zones.  

T

A City  with  enhanced  and  integrated  pedestrian  and  bicycle  facilities  encourages  residents  to  drive  less  often,  which  results  in  reduction  of  VMT.  Bicycling  can  replace  a  significant  share  of  motorized  travel,  typically 5‐15 percent with good facilities. In addition, increasing the use of non‐motorized travel such as  walking and biking helps reduce traffic congestion, improves air quality, and promotes a healthy lifestyle. 

Conventional transportation  impact  analysis  tends  to  overlook  and  undervalue  non‐motorized  transportation  modes  such  as  multiple  short  and  non‐motorized  trips.  Non‐motorized  trips  are undercounted  because  they  include  off‐peak  trips,  non‐work  trips,  travel  by  children,  recreational  travel, and non‐motorized links of automobile and public transit trips.38  

38

Evaluating Non‐Motorized Transportation ‐ Benefits and Costs, June 2011, Todd Litman, Victoria Transport Policy Institute,  Peter R. Stopher and Stephen P. Greaves (2007), “Household Travel Surveys: Where Are We Going?” Transportation Research  A, Vol. 41/5 (www.elsevier.com/locate/tra), June, pp. 367‐381. 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Strategy TL3.1: Improve Bicycle and Pedestrian Infrastructure Improve community bicycle and pedestrian pathway infrastructure by providing bicycle support facilities at public locations, updating transportation systems to become more bicycle-friendly, and evaluating other opportunities to encourage walkable/bikeable corridors

D

Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

3 In progress 618 High (up‐front capital costs and City staff time) 

Responsibility: Community Development Department; Engineering  Department

AF R Local Co‐benefits:

Better local air quality and community health. 

Action TL3.1a: 

Continue to implement and update the Delano Bicycle Master Plan.  

Action TL3.1b: 

Require new residential developments to connect to pedestrian and bicycle networks.  

Action TL3.1c:   Continue to require new non‐residential developments and encourage new multifamily  developments to provide bike amenities.  Action TL3.1d: 

Install support facilities at City facilities to encourage bicycle use.  

Bicycle improvements  provide  synergistic  effects,  where  the  total  impacts  are  greater  than  the  sum  of  their individual impacts. A single bicycle lane generally provides little benefit because it will connect few  destinations,  but  a  network  of  integrated  bicycle  lanes  and  shared  travel  lanes  can  be  more  beneficial  because  it  provides  multiple  connections  between  trip  origin  and  trip destinations,  thereby  attracting  a  larger  population  of  potential  users  with  more  diverse  travel  patterns.  Therefore,  it’s  generally  best  to  implement and evaluate integrated programs.   Improved pedestrian facilities generally consist of improvements to sidewalks and pedestrian crossings at  intersections  to  create  a  continuous  network.  A  safe  and  convenient  system  of  pedestrian  facilities  can  encourage walking.  

T

The City has installed bicycle support facilities at City Hall and at Delano Community Center. As funding  becomes available, the City will take the following additional steps to improve City bicycle and pedestrian  infrastructure: 

60

Update the Delano Bicycle Master Plan every five years to remain eligible for Caltrans funding for  implementation of the Master Plan, and continue to implement the Plan to improve the facilities; 

Require new  residential  developments  to  connect  to  pedestrian  and  bicycle  networks  through  connections  in  cul‐de‐sacs  in  newly‐approved  subdivisions,  closure  of  gaps  in  the  sidewalk  system, and provision of additional non‐motorized connections;  

Continue to require bike parking for new non‐residential developments;  

Encourage bike parking for new multifamily developments; and 

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Install bicycle parking facilities at City‐owned buildings. 

Strategy TL3.2: Enhance Safe Routes to Schools Program Increase opportunities for school children to walk and bike to and from school by continuing to implement a Safe Routes to Schools Program. Priority: Timeframe to start implementation:

D

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

Action TL3.2a: 

Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

3 In progress 321 High (up‐front capital costs and City staff time)  Engineering Department Better local air quality and community health 

AF R

Continue to  enhance  pedestrian  and  bicycle  infrastructure  along  school  routes  that  include striping crosswalks around schools to ensure safe conditions. 

Action TL3.2b: 

Continue to implement traffic speed reductions along identified school routes. 

Action TL3.2c: 

Work with the Delano Union School District and Delano Joint Union High School District  to encourage and educate parents/students about the benefits of walking and cycling to  school.  

39

40

T

Safe Routes to School (SRTS) is a national and international movement to create safe, convenient, and fun  opportunities for children to bike and walk to and from schools. Concerns about traffic safety are often  cited as one of the main reasons children do not walk or bike to school.39 On multiple occasions the City of  Delano has been awarded a federal SRTS Non‐Infrastructure funding to increase safe walking and biking to  school in Delano Union School District. Between 2010 and 2012, the increase in the number of students  walking and biking to school was 18 percent, specifically due to the SRTS Program which raised awareness  through  education,  encouragement  programs,  enhanced  enforcement,  engineering  improvements,  and  strong program evaluation.40 The City will continue to increase opportunities for school children to walk  and bike to and from school by continuing to seek funding to implement education programs and safety  improvements to City pedestrian and bicycle facilities.  The City will also support the Delano Union School  District  and  the  Delano  Joint  Union  High  School  District  efforts  to  encourage  and  educate  parents/students about the benefits of walking and biking to school. One strategy to enhance SRTS is to  include bulb outs at intersections to physically mark where pedestrian crossings are.  However, bulb outs  do  narrow  the  streets,  which  makes  it  difficult  to  install  bike  lanes  on  those  streets,  and  results  in  less  room for trucks to make right turns. 

Chaufan, C, Yeh J, Fox, P. The Safe Routes to School Program in California: An Update. Presented to UCSF School of Nursing. May 2012. Safe Routes to School California. Safe Routes to School Success Story, Delano, California. Caltrans District 6, Kern County. August 2102.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Solid Waste Goals and Strategies 

2020 Business‐as‐Usual GHG Emissions: 4,701 MT CO2e 

Annual GHG emissions reductions by 2020:  1,207 MT CO2e 

D

Emissions associated  with  the  landfill  decomposition  of  solid  waste  (4,701  MT  CO2e)  constitute  approximately 1.4 percent of the City’s 2020 BAU GHG emissions projection. Diverting solid waste from  landfills effectively reduces GHG emissions by avoiding the anaerobic decomposition of organic material  (which  releases  methane)  and  recovering  the  embodied  energy  in  recycled  materials.  Strategies  for  reducing  the  amount  of  solid  waste  sent  to  landfill  include  source  reduction  (minimizing  waste  generation) and strengthening existing diversion programs.  Sunset  Waste  Systems  provides  curbside  solid  waste  collection  and  disposal  and  curbside  recycling  for  City  of  Delano  residents.  Curbside  collection  bins  are  currently  provided  separately  for  trash,  mixed  recycling, and green waste. The City diverted 54 percent of its solid waste from landfills in 2005, and 59  percent in 2006.41  

AF R

Waste Diversion

Energy is expended in the extraction, processing, and transporting of raw materials, and in manufacturing  and  delivering  goods  to  market.  Reuse  and  recycling  helps  conserve  much  of  the  energy  embodied  in  these  goods  and  materials,  which  in  turn  reduces  GHG  emissions.  Sending  glass,  plastic,  and  metal  to  landfill  represents  a  loss  of  resources  as  many  of  these  materials  can  be  recycled  into  other  products,  thereby reducing the demand for virgin materials in manufacturing and production. In addition to being  energy  intensive,  upstream  extraction  and  processing  of  raw  materials  (mining,  construction,  fuel  production, metals processing, etc.) generates enormous volumes of waste material. In general, forty to  seventy times more waste (and associated emissions) is generated from the upstream industrial processes  associated with product manufacturing than with their disposal to landfill.42   Composting  organic  waste  material,  including  food  scraps,  non‐recyclable  paper  products,  and  plant  material, keeps these materials out of landfills, where anaerobic decomposition releases methane (CH4) –  a powerful GHG. An added benefit of composting is that land application of the end product increases soil  carbon uptake and lowers the demand for water, fertilizer, and other soil inputs. 

T

The City  is  well  positioned  to  make  substantial  progress  in  waste  diversion.  The  City  will  increase  per  capita  solid  waste  disposal  by  improving  recycling  and  composting  programs  and  increasing  public  education and program participation. Pursuant to AB 341 (2011), the State of California now has a policy  goal  to  divert  75  percent  of  its  solid  waste  from  landfills  by  2020.  The  City’s  existing  contractual  relationship with Sunset Waste Systems may allow the City to meet this goal, since Sunset Waste Systems  now provides comprehensive commingled recycling services.   Table 4‐4 summarizes the Climate Action Plan’s solid waste diversion strategies and their estimated GHG  reduction impact.  41   CalRecycle Jurisdiction Diversion / Disposal Rate Summary, accessed on July 22, 2013. Available Online:  http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/LGCentral/reports/diversionprogram/JurisdictionDiversion.aspx  42  Makower, Joel, Strategies for the Green Economy: Opportunities and Challenges in the New World of Business, McGraw‐Hill. 2009. 

62

4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Table 4-4. Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Solid Waste Strategies in 2020

SW1 

SW1.1 SW2 

Goal/Supporting Strategy  Reduce Community Solid Waste Sent to  Landfill 

Reduce Per Capita Community Solid  Waste Sent to Landfill 

1,175

Reduce Municipal Operations Solid  Waste Sent to Landfill 

D SW2.1

Annual GHG  Reduction  Potential   (MT CO2e) 

Reduce Per Capita Municipal  Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill  TOTAL 

Priority

First Year of  Implementation 

1

In progress 

97.3%

Percent of  Category   

32

2

2016

2.7%

1,207

100%

AF R

The City will prioritize the diversion of waste from landfill as its primary solid waste goal. Increasing waste  diversion  will  entail  writing  and  implementing  new  policy,  expanding  and  improving  recycling  and  composting  programs,  maximizing  the  use  of  technical  assistance,  and  increasing  public  awareness  and  education.  

Strategy SW1.1: Reduce Per Capita Community Waste Tonnage Sent to Landfill

Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO22e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1 In progress 1,175

T

Reduce per capita community solid waste sent to landfill by 20% by 2020 and by 35% by 2035, compared with the baseline year 2005, through additional recycling, green waste diversion, and waste minimization.

Medium (City staff time)

Public Works Department

Local Co‐benefits:  Reduce waste, lower energy demand, improve traffic and  air quality

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Action SW1.1a:   Coordinate with Sunset Waste Systems to prepare and distribute educational materials  to the public on recycling programs, and to promote solid waste source reduction and  benefits of composting.  Action SW1.1b:   Work with the Sunset Waste Systems to expand the recycling program to include non‐ residential uses and multi‐family residential uses.  Action SW1.1c:    Work  with  the  Sunset  Waste  Systems  to  explore  expanding  the  recycling  program  to  include food waste and green waste for all users.  The City aims to reduce per capita community solid waste sent to the landfill by 25% by 2020 and by 35%  by 2035, compared with the baseline year 2005, through additional recycling, green waste diversion and  composting, and waste minimization in the community. The City will take the following steps to achieve  these targets: 

D

Coordinate with  Sunset  Waste  Systems  and  Kern  County  to  prepare  and  distribute  educational  materials to the public on recycling programs, and to promote solid waste source reduction and  benefits  of  composting.  These  educational  materials  might  consist  of  brochures  and  flyers  targeted to residents and businesses, and information about recycling programs posted on the  City’s website. 

Under California  law  (AB  341),  any  commercial  business  or  public  entity  that  generates  more  than four cubic yards of commercial solid waste per week, or is a multifamily residential dwelling  of five units or more, has been required to recycle since July 1, 2012. The City will continue to  work  with  Sunset  Waste  Systems  to  ensure  the  existing  recycling  program  addresses  this  requirement. The City will work with Sunset Waste Systems to expand the recycling program to  include non‐residential uses and multi‐family residential uses that are not covered under AB 341. 

AF R

Work with Sunset Waste Systems to assess the feasibility of expanding local recycling programs  to divert food waste and green waste. Landfills are a large source of methane, which is produced  when  organic  waste  decomposes  in  an  environment  without  oxygen.  Composting  is  a  natural  way of recycling organic material and nutrients back into the earth, where organic materials are  allowed  to  decompose  in  a  manner  that  does  not  produce  methane.  Anaerobic  digestion  is  another alternative that produces energy from diverted organic materials. 

T

Strategy SW2.1: Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill

Reduce per capita municipal operations solid waste sent to landfill by 20% by 2020 and by 35% by 2030, compared with the baseline year 2005, through additional recycling, green waste diversion, and waste minimization.

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Priority: Timeframe to start implementation: Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility: Local Co‐benefits:

2 In progress 32 Low (City staff time) Public Works Department Reduce waste, lower cost to the City 

Action SW2.1a:   Develop  and  implement  A  City  Environmentally  Preferable  Purchases  and  Practices  Policy to increase use and purchase of recycled products. 

D

Action SW2.1b:   Work  with  Sunset  Waste  Systems  to  expand  the  recycling  program  to  include  City  facilities. 

AF R

Consistent with the targets for community‐wide waste diversion, the City will reduce municipal solid  waste sent to landfills. Similar to the community‐wide approach, the City will achieve its target through  additional recycling, green waste diversion, and minimizing waste associated with government  operations. However, the City is committed to achieving its diversion targets five years before the general  community does. The City will:  

Develop and  implement  A  City  Environmentally  Preferable  Purchases  and  Practices  Policy  to  increase use and purchase of recycled products. The City may choose to require, when practical  and  financially  viable,  to  use  and  purchase  recycled  products  and  recycled  materials,  and  encourage its contractors and consultants to do so as well. This policy would also require the City  to make resource conservation an integral part of its waste reduction and recycling programs. 

Work with  Sunset  Waste  Systems  to  expand  the  recycling  program  to  include  City  facilities.  Expand the recycling program to include pick up at City facilities. This could be included in the  franchise agreement between the City and Sunset Waste Systems. 

Water Goals and Strategies 

2020 Business‐as‐Usual GHG Emissions: 2,912 MT CO2e 

Annual GHG emissions reductions by 2020:  760 MT CO2e 

Water Conservation

T

Emissions associated  with  water  conveyance  in  Delano  (2,912  MT  CO2e)  constitute  approximately  0.9  percent  of  the  City’s  2020  BAU  GHG  emissions  projection.  Delano  relies  on  groundwater  for  its  water  supply,  which  is  pumped  from  local  aquifers.    Conserving  water  is  an  effective  way  to  reduce  GHG  emissions by reducing the electricity needed to pump water and deliver it to the community. 

Water is  a  precious  and  limited  resource  that  must  be  conserved  to  meet  future  demands.  Water  conservation  indirectly  reduces  the  energy  required  for  upstream  water  collection,  conveyance,  and  treatment, and reduces the energy requirements and the process emissions associated with wastewater  collection  and  treatment.  The  energy  intensity  of  water  conveyance  is  dependent  on  distance  and  elevation changes.   Effective  ways  of  conserving  water  include  incentivizing  reductions  in  commercial/industrial  outdoor  irrigation,  providing  rebates  for  residential  water  conservation  devices,  and  utilizing  recycled  water. 

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Water conservation  actions  have  many  benefits  beyond  reducing  GHG  emissions.  In  addition  to  maintaining  water  as  a  sustainable  resource  for  future  generations,  conservation  buffers  communities  from the effects of droughts, saves money, and helps sustain wildlife habitats.  The City takes its responsibility to conserve water seriously and actively supports State policies aimed at  reducing  water  use.  The  California  Urban  Water  Management  Planning  Act  (UWMP  Act)  requires  every  California  urban  water  supplier  of  more  than  3,000  customers  to  adopt  an  Urban  Water  Management  Plan (UWMP). In 2009, the State passed the Water Conservation Bill of 2009 (SBX7‐7), which requires an  updated UWMP every 5 years. It also sets a target of a 20 percent reduction in State‐wide water use by  2020, requiring local jurisdictions to implement measures to meet the Statewide goal.  

AF R

D

The City of Delano adopted its updated UWMP in 2010. The Delano UWMP describes 2010 water use and  projected water demand through 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030. Within the City limits, the highest water  use per acre of land is for residential uses, followed by right of way uses, closely followed by agricultural  uses.  According  to  the  UWMP,  Delano’s  typical  average  daily  water  use  was  196  gallons  per  capita‐day  (gpcd) in 2005, and 222 in 2010. In 2005, the City’s average daily demand was 8.7 million gallons per day  (MGD),  with  a  total  capacity  to  convey  21.0  MGD.  According  to  the  UWMP,  in  2010  the  City’s  average  daily demand was 8.3 MGD, with a total capacity to convey expected to be 23 MGD in 2013. The UWMP  outlines  strategies  to  meet  the  20  percent  reduction  goal  of  SBX7‐7  through  demand  management  measures, which are incorporated into the strategies below.   Table  4‐5  summarizes  the  Climate  Action  Plan’s  water  conservation  strategies  and  their  estimated  GHG  reduction impact.  Table 4-5 Summary of GHG Reduction Impacts for Water Strategies in 2020

W1  W1.1  W1.2 

Annual GHG  Reduction  Potential   (MT CO2e) 

Goal/Supporting Strategy 

Increase Water Conservation Efforts 

Indoor Water Conservation Incentives 

Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives and  Ordinance 

TOTAL

Priority

First Year of  Implementat ion 

Percent of  Category 

1,331

1

2016

95%

70

2

2018

5%

1,401

100%

T

In California  and  in  many  parts  of  the  western  U.S.,  energy  and  water are  closely  linked.  Water‐related  electricity  use  accounts  for  20%  of  California’s  total  electricity  consumption.43  In  Delano,  water  is  projected  to  account  for  less  than  1%  of  the  city’s  total  GHG  emissions  in  2020  under  the  business‐as‐ usual scenario. Energy is used to pump water and in the treatment and distribution of potable water, as  43   Data from the California Energy Commission Website, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at:  http://www.energy.ca.gov/research/iaw/water.html 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

well as for the treatment of wastewater. Also, water is used in cooling towers and other applications at  some  of  the  power  plants  where  electricity  is  generated.  Reducing  water  consumption  thus  indirectly  reduces energy use and GHG emissions, while also contributing to community water conservation goals.  

Strategy W1.1: Indoor Water Conservation Incentives Promote existing and offer new rebates for water efficient appliances and fixtures. Priority:

D

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e): Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020: Responsibility:

1 In progress 1,331 Low (Some City staff time) Public Works Department; Engineering Department

AF R

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial  and industrial users, increased energy independence,  additional jobs.

Action W1.1a: 

Continue to promote existing rebates for water efficient appliances.  

Action W1.1b: 

Track the number of rebates provided and continue to offer the most popular programs  with the highest water reductions. 

Action W1.1c: 

Continue to educate residents and businesses regarding water conservation strategies. 

Much of  the  water  used  in  most  indoor  sinks  and  showers  is  heated,  so  indoor  water  conservation  or  efficiency includes the added benefit of reduced energy usage. For example, low‐flow faucets and water  efficient showerheads lead to use of less heated water, which reduces energy usage at the site where the  water is being consumed.   The City of Delano provides water to residents and businesses within the City boundary. Also, according to  the City’s Urban Water Management Plan, the average account in Delano consumed over 200,000 gallons  in 2005 and 2010. Assuming each account is equal to one household, the average household water usage  is  thus  581  gallons/household/day.  This  is  relatively  high;  in  the  state  of  California,  the  average  water  usage for a new three bedroom single family home is 174,000 gallons/year, which is 476 gallons per day.44  The UWMP includes a goal to reduce water usage 20% by 2020, in compliance with state‐level mandates.  

T

The City currently offers a low‐flow toilet replacement rebate. The City also operates a water conservation  hotline (661‐720‐5499) to assist residents in conserving water. Members of the public are encouraged to  report  water  usage  contrary  to  the  adopted  water  ordinance.  Additionally,  the  City  has  an  adopted  Emergency Water Conservation Policy (Resolution No. 2006‐92) that requires water users to reduce the  quantity  of  water  used  for  the  purpose  of  conserving  water  in  an  emergency.  Specific  mandated  restrictions in water use for residential and non‐residential landscapes, as well as construction use, could  occur. In addition, Ordinance No. 2008‐1185 prohibits and defines water waste, and establishes a fine for 

44   ConSol. Water Use in the California Residential Home, accessed on June 24, 2013. Available at:  http://www.cbia.org/go/cbia/?LinkServID=E242764F‐88F9‐4438‐9992948EF86E49EA 

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

those in  violation  of  the  ordinance.  The  City  of  Delano  also  adopted  Ordinance  No.  2008‐1189,  which  orders water conservation by establishing a schedule for when watering landscaping is allowed.    The City will also conduct outreach to educate residents regarding indoor water conservation strategies.  Simple measures, such as using flow restrictors or a timer for encouraging slightly shorter showers, can  make a large difference and lead to energy, water, and cost savings.   

Strategy W1.2: Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives and Ordinance

D

Provide incentives for water-saving devices, such as low-flow sprinklers. Continue to enforce the Outdoor Landscaping Ordinance. Priority:

Timeframe to start implementation:

Annual GHG Reduction Potential in 2020 (MT CO2e):

In progress 70 Low (Some City staff time)

AF R

Estimated Annual Cost to the City in 2020:

2

Responsibility:

Public Works Department; Engineering Department

Local Co‐benefits:  Lower energy bills, lower operating costs for commercial  and industrial users, increased energy independence,  additional jobs

Action W1.2a: 

Continue to  promote  existing  rebates  for  outdoor  water  efficient  equipment,  such  as  low‐flow sprinklers.  

Action W1.2b: 

Continue to  track  the  number  of  rebates  provided  and  continue  to  offer  the  most  popular programs with the highest water reductions. 

Action W1.2c: 

Continue to educate residents regarding outdoor water conservation strategies, such as  the use of drought‐tolerant plants for outdoor landscaping. 

Action W1.2d: 

Encourage the  use  of  greywater  and  captured  rainwater  for  outdoor  landscaping  irrigation. 

T

In California, all municipalities have been required to adopt a local ordinance regulating water use in large  landscaped areas. The City of Delano has an adopted water conservation ordinance and will continue to  enforce it.  

The City  will  also  conduct  outreach  to  educate  residents  and  businesses  regarding  outdoor  water  conservation  strategies.  There  are  many  options  available  to  reduce  the  water  used  for  landscaping,  including the use of drought‐tolerant plants, limiting water hours to early morning or late evening in the  hot summer months, and the use of timers and other sensors so water is only provided when it is needed.   The  use  of  greywater  systems  that  recycle  water  from  sinks  and  showers  for  use  in  landscaping  is  now  allowed throughout California. The City could provide information about such systems to local residents  and businesses, as well as information about capturing rainwater for outdoor irrigation needs during the  winter months.    

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4. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals and Strategies


D AF R

Overview

This chapter outlines how the City will monitor the progress of the strategies and actions set forth in Chapter  4  to  reduce  community‐wide  GHG  emissions.  Translating  strategies  and  actions  into  actual  emission  reductions  will  require  some  municipal  code  changes,  development  of  programs,  City  staff  time  (or  interagency  regional  work‐sharing)  for  promotion  activities,  and  effective  management  systems  for  tracking  and  monitoring  program  implementation.  Coordination  between  City  departments  and  collaboration  with  residents,  businesses,  regional  organizations,  and  other  government  agencies  will  be  needed to ensure that programs are well‐managed and cost‐effective.  The  Climate  Action  Plan  relies  on  behavioral  changes  to  achieve  a  significant  portion  of  the  GHG  reductions accounted for in this plan.. Community involvement is an essential component of the Climate  Action  Plan  implementation  process,  as  many  strategies  depend  on  active  participation  by  residents  and  businesses. The City will be making a concerted effort to develop and strengthen community education and  awareness  through  various  promotional  programs.  These  efforts  will  be  monitored  for  their  cost‐ effectiveness in influencing residents, businesses, and visitors to reduce their personal carbon footprints. 

T

As explained  in  Chapter  4,  the  strategies  and  actions  in  this  Climate  Action  Plan  account  for  an  annual  reduction of 11,662 MT CO2e by the year 2020, which is well short of the 55,374 MT CO2e target that is  based  on  the  goal  of  AB  32.  The  primary  barriers  to  achieving  greater  GHG  reductions  in  the  Delano  community are the lack of funding and staff resources that are needed to fully implement the programs  outlined  in  Chapter  4.  Even  the  actions  and  commitments  currently  outlined  for  each  strategy  will  be  difficult  to  meet  without  additional  funding,  according  to  some  City  departments.  There  is  also  limited  local support for specific measures that are known to be very effective in reducing GHG emissions at the  community  level.  This  was  evidenced  earlier  this  year  when  the  City’s  Community  Development  Department,  with  funding  assistance  from  Southern  California  Edison  (SCE),  drafted  a  Green  Building  Ordinance and a Point of Sale Retrofit Ordinance for consideration by the City Council. Both ordinances  would  have  significantly  reduced  community  GHG  emissions  by  the  year  2020  through  decreases  in  energy and resource consumption by residential and commercial buildings. Ultimately, neither ordinance 

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was supported  by  Council,  which  cited  implementation  costs  and  community  concerns  about  increased  government regulation.   

D

Rejection of  such  mandatory  measures  for  improving  energy  efficiency  and  reducing  GHG  emissions  makes it significantly more difficult for the City to reach a target in line with the goals of AB 32. Instead,  the City must rely more on voluntary actions by local residents, businesses, and visitors to reduce their  carbon footprints, which in general requires incentives or motivating factors to be in place. Community  outreach and education can be effective in changing attitudes and breaking down barriers to change. A  recent study by the National Academy of Sciences demonstrates how well‐designed outreach and public  information campaigns can  achieve  significant  reductions  in  household GHG  emissions.1  The City will be  making  a  concerted  effort  to  develop  and  strengthen  community  education  and  awareness  through  various promotional programs. These efforts will be monitored for their cost‐effectiveness in influencing  residents, businesses, and visitors to reduce their personal carbon footprints.  

AF R

This chapter  outlines  the  approach  the  City  will  take  to  seek  funding  for  Climate  Action  Plan  implementation,  and  it  presents  an  implementation  schedule  organized  into  In  Progress  (current),  Near‐ term (2014‐2016) and Long–term (beyond 2017) actions. Actual implementation will depend on a variety  of  factors,  including  availability  of  funding  and  City  staff  time,  community  priorities,  regulatory  developments, and changing environmental demands.  

Current Funding Needs

Robust promotional campaigns like those described above require adequate funding and resources, both  of  which  are  currently  limited  in  the  City  of  Delano.  With  more  resources,  the  City  could  make  greater  progress  with  community  education  and  outreach.  Additional  funding  is  also  needed  to  improve  public  transportation,  incentivize  and  promote  renewable  energy  installations  and  energy  efficiency  retrofits,  and pay for a variety of planning studies, municipal code changes, and infrastructure improvements that  would lead to a reduction in community GHG emissions. For the next seven years, the City will strive to  improve  progress  toward  its  2020  target  by  seeking  funding  for  the  following  planning  studies,  infrastructure improvements, municipal code changes, and programs identified in Table 5‐1. The table is  organized  by  program  objective,  identifying  the  relevance  to  the  Climate  Action  Plan  and  the  Delano  Health and Sustainability Element.  Funding  is  also  needed  to  monitor  program  implementation  and  track  progress  in  reducing  GHG  reductions, including regular updates to the municipal and community‐wide GHG inventories. 

T 1

70

Thomas Dietza, Gerald T. Gardnerb, Jonathan Gilliganc, Paul C. Sternd,1, and Michael P. Vandenberghe, Household Actions Can Provide a Behavioral Wedge to Rapidly Reduce US Carbon Emission, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Nov 3, 2009. This study demonstrates that well designed outreach programs could reasonably achieve annual reduction in U.S. household GHG emissions of approximately 20%.

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Table 5-1 Priority Funding Needs Relevance to Climate Action Plan 

Relevance to Health and  Sustainability Element 

Studies, plans and code changes to  reduce local vehicle trips and  promote infill, mixed use, and  transit‐oriented development. 

Strategy TL1.2: Carpool and Vanpool Vehicle Parking Strategy TL2.1: Increase Household Density in Downtown  Area  Strategy TL2.2: Improve Local Jobs‐Housing Balance

Goal 3: Healthy Community  Design  Goal 4: Balanced  Transportation 

Infrastructure improvements and  street upgrades to improve  pedestrian and bike networks and  safety 

Strategy TL3.1: Improve Bicycle and Pedestrian  Infrastructure  Strategy TL3.2: Enhance Safe Routes to Schools Program 

Goal 3: Healthy Community  Design  Goal 4: Balanced  Transportation 

Improve local transit service and  connections to regional transit 

Strategy TL1.3 Improve Public Transit Access  

Goal 4: Balanced  Transportation 

Promote economic revitalization;  support local businesses 

TL2.2: Improve Local Jobs‐Housing Balance TL2.3: Support Local Farmer’s Markets

Goal 6: Economic Prosperity

Promote community gardens,  farmer’s markets, and local food  production 

TL2.3: Support Local Farmer’s Markets

Goal 7: Healthy Food Access

Promote and incentivize greening of  low‐income housing 

Goal 5: Healthy Housing Goal 12: Green Building

Promote and incentivize green  building city‐wide 

Strategy E.1.6: Promote Commercial and Residential  Green Building

Goal 12: Green Building

Promote and incentivize energy  efficiency  

Strategy E1.2:  Nonresidential Energy Use Education Strategy E1.3:  Residential Energy Use Education  Strategy E1.4:  Nonresidential and Residential PACE  Energy Efficiency Program 

Goal 11: Energy 

Promote and incentivize renewable  energy  

Strategy E2.1:  Encourage Nonresidential Renewable  Energy  Strategy E2.2:  Encourage Residential Renewable Energy

Goal 11: Energy 

Support the installation of electric  vehicle infrastructure 

Strategy E3.1:  Increase Use of Electric Vehicles

Goal 11: Energy 

Promote “cool roofs” and tree  planting to minimize urban heat  islands 

Strategy E1.1:  Reduction of the Heat Island Effect

Goal 11: Energy 

Expand and improve recycling and  organic waste diversion 

Strategy SW1.1: Reduce Per Capita Community Waste  Tonnage Sent to Landfill

Goal 11: Energy 

Promote and incentivize water  conservation and greywater systems 

Strategy W1.1:  Indoor Water Conservation Incentives Strategy W1.2:  Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives  and Ordinance 

Goal 9: Sustainable Natural  Environment  Goal 11: Energy  Goal 12: Green Building

Vulnerability analysis and planning  for climate change impacts 

Objective Community Needs 

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Goal 10: Climate Change  Preparedness 

Maximizing energy efficiency of  existing municipal buildings, street  lighting and outdoor lighting 

Strategy E1.5: Implement the Municipal Energy Action  Plan 

Goal 11: Energy 

Expand and improve recycling and  organic waste diversion 

Strategy SW2.1: Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations  Solid Waste Sent to Landfill

Goal 11: Energy 

LEED design and certification for  municipal facilities 

Strategy E1.5: Implement the Municipal Energy Action  Plan 

Goal 11: Energy  Goal 12: Green Building

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Monitoring

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The City  will  monitor  progress  implementation  and  track  GHG  reductions  in  several  ways.  The  Community  Development  Department  will  present  an  annual  progress  report  to  the  City  Manager  summarizing  the  implementation  status  of  Climate  Action  Plan.  The report will evaluate the successes  and challenges in meeting the City’s GHG reduction goals, provide the implementation of each reduction  strategy (e.g., initiated, ongoing, completed), assess the effectiveness of various strategies and programs  included in the Plan, and recommend adjustments to programs or tactics as needed. The annual report  will also assess whether the City’s actual growth and development is consistent with the forecasts made  in this Climate Action Plan.   The  City  will  also  update  the  Climate  Action  Plan,  including  revisions  to  the  Community  and  Local  Government GHG Inventories, at least every five years. If necessary (e.g., the City annexes new land), the  City shall modify the geographic scope of the inventory and emissions targets accordingly.    

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Schedule of Implementation

For the most part, the City will be responsible for initiating the actions to reduce emissions, but  success for many measures will ultimately depend on public participation.  Actions that require  active  City  promotion  may  require  updates  to  the  City  website,  distribution  of  physical  promotional  materials,  and  other  active  City  outreach  activities.  The  City  will  develop  programs  to  reach  the  public,  including  public  forums,  workshops, and meetings; these programs will be administered with  the  intent  to  foster  an  open  public  input  and  commenting  process.  Collaboration  and  coordination  with  transit  agencies  [e.g.,  Delano  Area  Rapid  Transit  (DART)]  will  be  essential  to  improving  and  increasing  transit  ridership,  and  enhancing  mobility  and  transportation efficiency through better planning. 

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Further, coordination  with  outside  agencies  and  private  entities  is  critical  for  the  success  of  many  strategies,  including  SCE  and  SCG  for  energy  conservation  and  renewable  energy  programs,  the  local  refuse recycling service (Sunset Waste Systems) for waste reduction actions, the local water purveyors for  water  saving  actions,  and  other  local  jurisdictions  for  work‐sharing  partnerships  designed  to  take  advantage  of  the  common  goals  across  Kern  County  and  the  San  Joaquin  Valley  Air  Pollution  Control  District. Dependence on outside agency participation is mentioned explicitly in the strategy descriptions  included in Chapter 4. The City will explore strategies for collaboration.  In  Table  5‐2  below,  the  strategies  described  in  Chapter  4  are  categorized  by  implementation  schedule  based on current funding and staff resource assumptions:  In Progress (current), Near–term (2014‐2016),  and Long–term (2017 and beyond).    

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Table 5-2 Schedule of Implementation

In Progress  

Near‐Term (2014‐2016) 

Long‐Term   (2017 and  beyond) 

E.1.1: Reduction of heat island effect 

E.1.2: Nonresidential energy use education 

E.1.3: Residential energy use education 

E.1.4: Nonresidential and Residential PACE EE program

E1.5:  Implement the Municipal Energy Action Plan

Energy

E.2.1: Encourage nonresidential renewable installation

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E.1.6: Promote Commercial and Residential Green Building

E.2.2: Encourage residential renewable installation

T.1.1: Encourage Local Commute Trip Reduction through TDM programs 

T.1.2: Require Parking Spaces for Carpool and Vanpool  Vehicles 

E.3.1 : Community electric vehicle (EV) program  Transportation and Land Use

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Transportation and Land Use (continued)  T.1.3: Improve Access to Public Transit 

T.2.1: Increase Household Density in Downtown Area

T.2.2: Improve Jobs‐housing Balance City‐wide by favoring  more commercial and industrial development 

T.2.3: Support Local Farmer’s Markets 

T.3.1: Improve Bicycle and Pedestrian Infrastructure

T.3.2: Enhance Safe Routes to Schools program 

SW.1.1: Reduce Per Capita Community Solid Waste Sent to  Landfill 

SW.2.1: Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Solid  Waste Sent to Landfill 

Solid Waste 

Water

W.1.2: Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives and  Ordinance 

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W.1.1: Indoor Water Conservation Incentives 

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Funding Sources The capacity of the City of Delano to implement the Climate Action Plan  is limited by the small number of staff at the City and available funding.   In addition to the program implementation costs to the City, there will  be  costs  borne  by  residents  and  businesses  to  comply  with  its  requirements.  

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The GHG  reduction  strategies  in  this  document  were  formulated  with  an  understanding  that  the  City  has  limited  staff  time  and  financial  resources to implement them. Cost estimates are provided for strategies that  have  quantified  GHG  reductions.  The  City’s  costs  for  implementation  include  the creation or promotion of voluntary programs, continuing administration of those programs, coordination  and outreach with other government agencies and businesses, and—in some cases—exploration or study  of potential legislative  or  regulatory  mechanisms  not  yet  codified.  Only  a  few  strategies  require  up‐ front capital expenditures by the City. 

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The City will use a combination of City staff time, grant funding, direct spending, and collaboration with  other agencies and organizations to achieve Climate Action Plan goals. The following funding sources are  available or potentially available to assist with achieving these goals 

Staff Resources

City staff time will be required to successfully implement Climate Action Plan measures. Community  Development  Department  staff  will  implement  the  majority  of  the  actions  outlined  in  Chapter  4.  The  Public Works and Engineering Departments will also assist with the implementation of some strategies.   Promotional activities are likely to require some City staff time, and will require updating the City website,  public  outreach  campaigns  (e.g.  workshops),  dissemination  of  promotional  materials  (e.g.  flyers),  and  other  forms  of  public  awareness  outreach  and  education.  City  staff  will  also  need  to  lead  the  effort  in  revisions to the City’s Zoning Ordinance.  

Potential Funding and Partnerships

Federal Safe Routes to Schools

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Federal, state, and regional agencies provide grants and loans, as well as planning assistance, for investments  in a  variety  of  climate‐related projects.  Grants and  loans can  provide  short‐term  funding for program  development and program testing, and could help pay for the staff time required to develop programs,  and  then  establish  an  alternative  financial  framework  for  the  program’s  continued  operation  after  the  grant expires.Some of the specific, available funding programs are listed below. 

Safe Routes to Schools is an international movement focused on increasing the number of children who  walk or bicycle to school by funding projects that remove barriers to doing so. These barriers include a  lack of infrastructure, safety, and limited programs that promote walking and bicycling. In California, two  separate  Safe  Routes  to  School  programs  are  available  at  both  the  state  and  federal  level,  and  both  programs fund qualifying infrastructure projects. 

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TEA-21

Federal funding through the TEA‐21 (Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) program is administered  through the state and regional governments. The City of Delano is located in the jurisdiction of the regional  Kern Council of Governments (Kern COG) agency. TEA‐21 funding would be administered through Kern  COG. Most of the funding programs are transportation versus recreation oriented, with an emphasis on  reducing  auto  trips  and  providing  an  intermodal  connection.  In  most  cases,  TEA‐21  provides  matching  grants of 80 to 90 percent.   American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Community Partnerships

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Federal funding for local energy efficiency programs is available. Funding for energy efficiency has been  provided to the California Department of Community Services and Development, which has dispersed  funds locally to the Central Valley Opportunity Center. The Center provides free home weatherization and  other energy assistance resources to low‐income and elderly citizens of Kern County. Programs include the  Low‐Income  Home  Energy  Assistance  Program  (LIHEAP)  and  the  Weatherization  Assistance  Program  (WAP)2.  Energy Efficiency Mortgages

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The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) offers an Energy Efficient Mortgage Loan program that assists  current  or  future  homeowners  with  lowering  their  utility  bills.  This  would  be  accomplished  by  enabling  homeowners to incorporate the cost of adding energy‐efficient improvements into their home mortgage.  Energy efficient upgrades could be chosen that would allow owners to realize net monthly savings. The  goal is to provide owners additional financing for energy efficiency upgrades at a discounted interest rate. 

State

California Energy Efficiency Financing

For years,  the    California  Energy  Commission  (CEC)  has  provided  a  loan  program  that  supports  local  government energy retrofits and some new construction projects. Since 1979, more than $272 million has  been allocated to more than 773 recipients, as of March 2012. The program provides low interest loans  for feasibility studies and the installation of cost‐effective energy projects in schools, hospitals, and local  government facilities.  The  loans  are  repaid  out  of the  energy cost  savings  and  the  program  will  finance  lighting, motors, drives and pumps, building insulation, heating and air conditioning modifications, street  lights  and  traffic  signal  efficiency  projects,  and  certain  energy  generation  projects,  including  renewable  energy projects and cogeneration. Loans can cover up to 100% of project costs and there is a maximum  loan amount of $3 million. 

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Strategic Growth Council

In September  2008,  California  Senate  Bill  732  created  the  Strategic  Growth  Council,  which  is  a  cabinet  level committee whose tasks include coordinating the activities of member state agencies to assist state and  local entities in the planning of sustainable communities and meeting AB 32 goals, including coordination  of  Planning  Grants  and  Urban  Greening  Grants.  The  Strategic  Growth  Council  recognizes  that  local  governments  are  perpetually  in  need  of  funding  to  develop  and  implement  plans  that  mitigate  GHG  emissions and prepare communities for the impacts of climate change.  The principal goal of the Planning  Grants  program  is  to  fund  the  development  and  implementation  of  plans  that  lead  to  significant 

2

CVOC, http://www.cvoc.org/programs.html, web site accessed on May 6. 2013. 

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reductions in GHG emissions in a manner consistent with the State Planning Priorities, AB 32, and SB 375.  Specifically,  the  following  program  objectives  of  the  Planning  Grants  are  synergistic  with  the  City  of  Delano Climate Action Plan and the Delano Health and Sustainability Element:  Promote infill development and invest in existing communities  Encourage location‐ and resource‐efficient new development  Protect natural resources and agricultural lands   Reduce automobile usage and fuel consumption  Promote energy efficiency and conservation  Promote water conservation  Revitalize urban and community centers  Improve air and water quality  Promote public health  Promote equity  Increase housing affordability  Improve infrastructure systems  Strengthen the economy 

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            

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Infrastructure State Revolving Fund

The Infrastructure State Revolving Fund Program provides direct low‐cost loans for local governmental public  infrastructure  projects,  such  as  environmental  mitigation  measures,  parks,  transit,  and  solid  waste  collection and disposal.  Bicycle Transportation Account

The State  Bicycle  Transportation  Account  (BTA)  is  an  annual  program  providing  state  funds  for  city  and  county projects that improve safety and convenience for bicycle commuters. The emphasis is on projects  which benefit bicycling for commuting purposes. Funds are allocated to cities and counties on a matching  basis that requires the applicant to furnish a minimum of 10 percent of the total project cost, and no applicant  shall receive more than 25 percent of the total amount transferred to the BTA in a single fiscal year. 

Regional

Continuing existing  partnerships  with  the  neighboring  jurisdictions  within  Kern  County,  as  well  as  other  regional agencies, will help the City in implementing the Climate Action Plan strategies.  SJVACPD Incentive Programs

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The City can take advantage of county and region‐wide funding opportunities. The San Joaquin Valley Air  Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) provides grant and incentive programs for the replacement of polluting  machinery and vehicles within their jurisdiction. Additionally, SJVAPCD offers grant programs for off‐road  vehicles (e.g. forklifts, lawn mowers), agricultural pumps, heavy‐duty engines, new alternative vehicles for  public institutions, and school buses3.  The wider region is also involved in a variety of sustainable economic development strategies. For example,  the  Federal  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture  (USDA)  is  coordinating  with  Kern  and  17  other  California 

3

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SJVAPCD, Grant and Incentive Programs. http://www.valleyair.org/grant_programs/grantprograms.htm#On‐ Road Voucher Incentive Program).

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counties to grow biofuels for jet fuel, with funding and financial incentives of $45 million dollars. Programs  like  these  can  help  the  community  of  Delano  achieve  more  sustainable  development  and  can  help  the  State as a whole reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  KernCOG

Kern Council  of  Governments  (KernCOG)  is  the  Congestion  Management  Agency  for  Kern  County.  Federal  funding  for  transportation  projects  and  programs  is  channeled  through  Kern  COG  as  the  Metropolitan  Planning Organization (MPO). An essential function of the MPO is to develop a Transportation Improvement  Program (TIP) which is a short‐range (four‐year) program of transportation improvements based on the  long‐range transportation plan designed to achieve the area's goals, using spending, regulating, operating,  management, and financial tools. 

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Private and Non-Governmental Support

Community‐based non‐profits, local businesses, and utility companies should be considered as resources  for direct and indirect support, including funding, for project and program activation and operations.  

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Private investors  may  provide  funding  to  local  governments.  For  example,  energy  service  companies  (ESCOs)  can  finance  the  up‐front  investments  in  energy  efficiency,  reimbursed  by  the  local  government  over  a  contract  period.  Private  companies  may  finance  solar  power  installations,  and  then  recoup  their  investment by selling the resulting power to the building owner. 

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Overview

This chapter  presents  an  overview  of  the  impacts  Delano  is  expected  to  experience  due  to  projected  changes in the climate, and what the City can do to begin preparing for them. Despite serious efforts by  Delano  and  the  State  of  California  to  reduce  GHG  emissions,  changes  in  our  climate cannot  be  avoided  entirely over the long term. Even if GHG emissions were reduced to pre‐industrial levels today, the GHG  emissions  that  have  already  been  added  to  the  atmosphere  will  continue  to  warm  the  planet  for  centuries. While mitigation is still the most cost‐effective approach to preventing long‐term catastrophic  impacts of climate change, adaptation efforts are needed to increase the resilience of communities and  natural resources to changes expected over the next few decades.  

Expected Local Impacts

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In California, anticipated climate change impacts include sea level rise, increased periods of drought, and  more  frequent  extreme  weather  events,  including  heat  waves  and  severe  storms.  Secondary  effects  include  projected  inundation  of  the  shoreline,  more  frequent  and  severe  flooding,  more  frequent  and  severe  wildfires  on  the  urban  fringe,  a  less  reliable  water  supply,  altered  agricultural  productivity,  increased incidence of disease and mortality (both from effects of heat waves and from changing patterns  of disease distribution), and disruption of local ecosystems.   The recently published California Adaptation Planning Guide: Understanding Regional Characteristics (July  2012)1  designates  climate  impact  regions  based  on  county  boundaries  in  combination  with  projected  climate  impacts,  existing  environmental  setting,  socioeconomic  factors,  and  regional  designations.  The  City of Delano and Kern County are located within the Southern Central Valley climate impact region. As  discussed in detail in Chapter 3, Climate Change Background and Regulatory Setting of this Climate Action  Plan, the California Adaptation Planning Guide identifies the following climate change impacts.  

1

California Emergency Management Agency and California Natural Resources Agency. California Adaptation Planning  Guide, Understanding Regional Characteristics, July 2012.

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Temperature increases.  January  temperatures  are  predicted  to  increase  by  about  3  to  4  degrees  Fahrenheit  by  the  year  2050  and  between  7  to  10  degrees  Fahrenheit  by  2100  within  the  Southern  Central Valley climate impact region. July increases  in average temperatures are anticipated to be 5 to  6 degrees Fahrenheit by 2050 and 9 to 11 degrees  Fahrenheit by the year 2100. These increases would  intensify  already  high  temperatures,  especially  in  the  summer  months.  In  addition,  areas  of  urban  development  contain  asphalt  roads  and  concrete  roofs that create and retain heat causing an urban  heat island effect.  

Figure 6‐1 Projected Temperature Increase 

SOURCE: California Emergency Management Agency and California Natural  Resources Agency. California Adaptation Planning Guide, Understanding Regional  Characteristics, July 2012. 

Figure 6‐2 Observed and Projected Temperatures 

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Reduced precipitation. Annual precipitation in Kern  County  is  predicted  to  decline  by  approximately  one to two inches by the year 2050 and 3.5 inches  by  2100.  Reduced  precipitation  will  adversely  impact  the  water  supply  of  the  City,  region,  and  State. 

Flooding. The eastern part of the Southern Central  Valley  contains  the  foothills  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  mountain range, which are projected to experience  SOURCE: California Emergency Management Agency and California Natural Resources  more  precipitation  as  rain  and  be  subject  to  rapid  Agency. California Adaptation Planning Guide, Understanding Regional Characteristics,  snow melt events. Thus, extreme, high flow events  July 2012.  and flooding could occur in the City of Delano and  surrounding  communities.  The  City  of  Delano  Figure 6‐3 should  evaluate  local  floodplains  and  determine  Projected Precipitation Levels  areas  of  the  City  where  a  small  increase  in  flood  height would inundate a large area. 

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Reduced agricultural productivity. The agricultural  industry  is  an  important  component  of  the  local  economy,  and  the  Southern  Central  Valley  region  is one of the largest agricultural producing areas of  the  United  States.  Climate  change  impacts  on  water  availability  and  temperature  changes  will  likely  affect  the  health  of  livestock  and  productivity  of  trees  and  crops.  These  impacts  on  agricultural productivity have the potential to alter  a community’s economy, including its employment  base. The primary agricultural crops in the City of  Delano are grapes, almonds, and citrus. Each crop  represents  different  vulnerabilities  to  climate  change  impacts.  Specifically,  nut  trees  would  be  affected by a reduction in nighttime cooling, while  

SOURCE: California Emergency Management Agency and California Natural Resources  Agency. California Adaptation Planning Guide, Understanding Regional Characteristics, July  2012.


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

increased temperatures could alter the timing of grape ripening.   Reduced water supply. Snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada flows west into the Kern River, which runs  through the region. Snowpack in the eastern elevated regions is projected to decrease by  approximately 9 inches, resulting in pack that is less than 4 inches by March 2090. The water supply  for the region consists of a combination of groundwater and surface water. Relevant climate change  impacts include reduced precipitation and increased temperatures, which affect water supply.

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Wildfires. The north and eastern portions of the Southern Central Valley climate impact region are  expected to experience an increase in wildfire risk. A big increase in large fire occurrence is projected  for the eastern portion of the region. Once burned, these areas may be prone to landslide or debris  flow. However, climate change is not expected to increase wildfire risk in Delano. 

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Public health  and  heat.  Extreme  heat  events  can  pose  a  public  health  risk  to  Delano  residents  by  increasing  the  prevalence  of  mosquito‐borne  diseases,  worsened  air  quality,  and  heat‐related  illnesses. The Southern Central Valley climate impact region, which includes the City, will experience  three to five additional heat waves per year by 2050 with seven to ten more by the year 2100. A heat  wave is defined as five days over 102 to 105 degrees Fahrenheit. Frequent heat waves can have the  greatest impact on the elderly and children less than five years of age.  Decrease in tourism. Recreation and tourism in the region are also likely to suffer due to lower water  levels  in  waterways  and  reservoirs  and  declining  snowpack.  Employees  of  these  industries  may  become more economically vulnerable because of unstable working conditions. 

Adaptation Planning Approach Effective adaptation planning and management entails dealing with uncertainty. Adaptation is likely to be  a  long‐term  process,  including  immediate  action  when  necessary  and  allowing  adjustments  to  changing  conditions  and  new  knowledge.  Effective  public  engagement  and  education  is  critical,  along  with  an  inclusive planning process that ensures the resulting actions are feasible and widely accepted. Adaptation  will  likely  be  an  ongoing  process  of  planning,  prioritization  and  specific  project  implementation.  It  is  generally accepted that the next few decades provide a period of opportunity to develop adaptation plans  and actions.  Five important steps to effective adaptation planning are summarized below:  

Increase Public Awareness; Engage and Educate the Community 

T

Local outreach campaigns to build awareness of the dangers of heat exposure and to promote  low‐cost  and  low‐GHG  adaptation  strategies.  It  is  critical  that  the  public  understand  the  magnitude of the challenge and why action is needed. The planning process should be inclusive  of  all  stakeholders.  These  efforts  should  leverage  similar  efforts  undertaken  at  the  regional,  state, and federal levels.  

Assess Vulnerability  Perform  a  detailed  vulnerability  analysis  to  assess  potential  climate  change  impacts  to  infrastructure and natural systems. Both short‐term and long‐term adaptation strategies should  be  identified.  Level  of  risk  can  be  categorized  in  terms  of  likelihood  of  damage  within  the  forecasting  period  and  the  severity  of  the  damages.  Understanding  vulnerability  to  climate 

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change impacts  is  critical  to  developing  effective  adaptation  strategies.  The  vulnerability  assessment  can  also  provide  a  framework  for  agency  and  community  education  and  participation, feed into other planning documents, and identify funding needs.    

Establish Goals, Criteria and Planning Principles  Engage with stakeholders to establish planning priorities, decision criteria, and build community  support  for  taking  action.  Rank  physical  and  natural  assets  for  preservation  efforts.  Where  possible, look for situations where a mitigation action has adaptation co‐benefits (e.g., planting  trees to reduce urban heat islands while sequestering carbon and providing habitat).   Develop Adaptation Plan 

D

Identify specific  strategies,  develop  cost  estimates,  and  prioritize  actions  to  increase  local  resilience  of  City  infrastructure  and  critical  assets,  including  natural  systems  like  wetlands  and  urban  forests.  Look  for  synergies  between  natural  processes  and  engineering  solutions.  An  adaptation plan should include a prioritized list of actions (e.g. projects), with a timeline, capital  expenditure plan, and a framework for monitoring and adaptive management.   Ongoing Monitoring and Adaptive Management 

AF R

Reassess climate  change  vulnerabilities  on  a  regular  basis  and  modify  actions  accordingly.  This  includes monitoring the effectiveness of current policies, strategies and actions, and keeping up  with changing science, funding opportunities, and regulatory actions. 

Adaptation Planning Strategies In lieu of a detailed vulnerability assessment, the City has identified the following strategies and actions to  consider implementing as it begins planning for climate change adaptation. These strategies and actions  are  consistent  with  those  identified  in  the  California  Adaptation  Planning  Guide:  Identifying  Adaptation  Strategies.  While  many  of  the  strategies  and  actions  identified  in  Chapter  4  Reduction  Goals  and  Strategies  of  this  Climate  Action  Plan  help  to  prevent  further  climate  change,  the  adaptation  strategies  below help prepare Delano residents and businesses to deal with future climate change impacts. It should  be  noted  that  many  GHG  reduction  measures  identified  in  this  document  also  provides  adaptation  benefits.  For  example,  water  conservation,  energy  efficiency,  and  improving  the  urban  forest  are  all  strategies with co‐benefits that will help Delano prepare for climate change impacts. 

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Temperature Increases Strategy 1: 

Prepare for increases in average temperatures. 

Co‐benefits:  

Lower energy demand and bills, lower operating costs of businesses, improved air  quality, a safe and healthy community 

Action 1.1: 

Continue to plant shade trees in new parking lots and other large, paved areas of the  City to reduce heat island effects. 

Action 1.2: 

Educate the public on the location of the designated “cooling centers.” 

Action 1.3: 

Educate developers and the public on the use of cool roofs and reflective surfaces to  reduce heat island effects.  

6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change


City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Reduced Precipitation and Water Supply Strategy 2: 

Preserve water sources and prepare for variable water supplies. 

Co‐benefits:  

Conserve water, protect water quality 

Action 2.1: 

Increase capacity for community water storage. 

Action 2.2: 

Pursue funding to implement water reclamation and reuse projects. 

Action 2.3: 

Protect open space areas that are being used for recharging groundwater or have the  potential to be used for recharge. 

Increased Flooding

D Strategy 3: 

Prepare for flooding and severe weather events. 

Co‐benefits:  

Improve safety of community 

Action 3.1: 

Integrate local flood management plans with adaptation planning. 

Action 3.2: 

Regularly review and update the City’s General Plan to include the latest flood  information as required by Government Code Section 65302(a).  

AF R

Action 3.3: 

Develop storage areas for peak flows.  

Action 3.4: 

Maximize use of bioswales and permeable surfaces in both  greenscape and hardscape areas to improve aquifer recharge  and mitigate flooding from stormwater. 

Reduced Agricultural Productivity and Food Supply Strategy 4: 

Continue to promote conservation of local agricultural land. 

Co‐benefits:  

Support local economy, preservation of natural resources 

Action 4.1: 

Continue support of farmers markets.  

Public Health

Strategy 5:  Ensure public health hazards are minimized for all segments  of the population.   Improve public health, improve quality of life 

Action 5.1: 

Work with Kern County and other jurisdictions in the county to establish a climate  change adaptation and public outreach and education program.  

Action 5.2: 

Incorporate climate change adaptation into emergency preparedness and response  plans such as the update to the City of Delano’s Safety Element of the General Plan and  the Kern County Multi‐Hazard Mitigation Plan to address public health impacts.  

Action 5.3: 

Identify vulnerable communities to various public health concerns associated with  climate changes impacts, and ensure that any emergency response or disaster  preparedness plans prepared for the City addresses these communities. 

Action 5.4: 

Continue to work with the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District to improve  air quality and minimize negative health effects. 

T

Co‐benefits:  

6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change

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City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Action 5.5: 

Continue to educate the public of mosquito control to protect the health of Delano  residents.  

Biodiversity and Habitat Preserve biodiversity and habitats.  

Co‐benefits:  

Conserve natural resources 

Action 6.1: 

Identify and protect locations where native species may shift or lose habitat due to  climate change impacts.  

Action 6.2: 

Collaborate with agencies managing public lands such as the Department of Fish and  Wildlife to identify, develop, and maintain corridors and linkages between undeveloped  lands.  

D

Strategy 6: 

Infrastructure

Respond to potential impacts on public infrastructure. 

Co‐benefits:  

Lower energy demand and bill, conserve water, a safe community 

Action 7.1: 

Consider potential for climate change impacts as part of infrastructure planning  and  operations. 

Action 7.2: 

Assess climate change impacts on community infrastructure to determine any threats to  public health and safety. 

T

AF R

Strategy 7: 

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6. Preparing Delano for Climate Change


Appendix A GHG Inventory Methodology


Appendix A GHG Inventory Metholodology

This appendix describes the methodology used to develop the City of Delano Climate Action Plan (CAP) 2005 baseline and 2010 updated inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the greater community and for municipal (i.e., city government) operations. The purpose of the GHG inventories is to identify sources, distribution, and overall magnitude of GHG emissions that occur within the City and/or are caused by the community member activities. The inventories will enable policy makers to implement cost-effective GHG reduction programs pertaining to residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal sectors within the community. These inventories use standards established by the ICLEI U.S. Community Protocol (v1.0)1 and the Local Government Operations Protocol (LGOP) v.1.1.2 ICLEI has worked with the California Air Resource Board (CARB), BAAQMD, and other state and regional agencies to develop standardized methods for inventorying community emissions. ICLEI, along with CARB and the Climate Registry (TCR), has also codeveloped methods for quantifying and reporting GHG emissions from local government sources, which have been incorporated into the LGOP. In keeping with these protocols, ESAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s process for developing a GHG inventory is:

1 2

1.

Set organizational boundaries

2.

Set operational boundaries

3.

Identify sources of emissions

4.

Collect data on emissions for a representative period of time

5.

Calculate GHG emissions from data using robust emissions factors

6.

Create an inventory of CO2e emissions that is complete, transparent, and accurate.

U.S. Community Protocol for Accounting and Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, version 1.0, ICLEI, published October 2012. Available at: http://www.icleiusa.org/tools/ghg-protocol/community-protocol LGOP version 1.1, published May 2010, available at: http://www.theclimateregistry.org/resources/protocols/local-governmentoperations-protocol/

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

A-1


Inventory Boundaries Establishing the boundaries of an emissions analysis is an important first step in the GHG inventory process. A city exerts varying levels of control or influence over the activities occurring within its borders. At the minimum, a community-wide GHG inventory should be defined broadly enough to include those emissions sources and activities that are subject to significant influence by local government actions. These sources and activities also tend to be those most affected by land use decisions, municipal code changes, General Plan policies, and other local government polices and programs, and correspondingly are affected heavily by the CAP’s list of local GHG reduction measures to be implemented. In general, the inventory should encompass sources that are within the purview of the city’s discretionary actions and regulatory authority, including sources of indirect emissions that can be influenced by the city policies or programs, such as water conservation or waste reduction.

Delano’s Organizational Boundary Setting an organizational boundary for a GHG inventory involves identifying the facilities and operations that are to be included. The ICLEI U.S. Community Protocol (2012) defines the organizational boundary as the boundary that determines the operations owned or controlled by the reporting entity, which depends on the consolidation approach taken. The City of Delano’s 2005 and 2010 community-wide inventories encompass the GHG emissions resulting from activities taking place within the City’s geopolitical boundary, where the local Delano government has significant direct or indirect influence. The municipal operations inventories encompass the GHG emissions resulting from actions governed directly by the local government, such as municipal buildings, vehicle fleets, and streetlights.

Delano’s Operational Boundary The operational boundary is the sum of all sources of direct and indirect emissions and associated activities that are included in the organizational boundary. The 2005 and 2010 Delano community-wide inventories include GHG emissions (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the following sectors. Other GHGs (e.g. hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) were not found to be significant contributors of emissions within the City of Delano, and were therefore not included in this inventory.

Community-wide Inventory For community-wide emissions, the ICLEI U.S. Community Protocol breaks down emissions into two categories.

A-2

Sources: Any physical process inside the jurisdictional boundary that releases GHG emissions into the atmosphere (e.g., combustion of gasoline in transportation; combustion of natural gas in electricity generation; methane emissions from a landfill).

Activities: The use of energy, materials, and/or services by members of the community that result in the creation of GHG emissions either directly (e.g., use of household furnaces and vehicles with internal combustion engines) or indirectly (e.g., use of electricity created through combustion of fossil fuels at a power plant, consumption of goods and services whose production, transport and/or disposal resulted in GHG emissions).

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology


The community-wide inventory includes emissions from the following sectors. As shown below, emissions from most sectors derive from multiple sources and activities: •

Building Energy: Direct stationary emissions from combustion of natural gas (source and activity), and indirect emissions from the use of electricity by the community (activity) by residential and commercial/industrial buildings;

Stationary Sources: Emissions generated by the combustion of fossil fuels other than utilityprovided natural gas within the community (source).

On-Road Transportation: Emissions from on-road gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles (source and activity);

Off-Road Transportation: Emissions from off-road lawn and garden equipment, construction equipment, industrial equipment, light commercial equipment, and agricultural equipment (activity);

Solid Waste Generation: Indirect methane (CH4) emissions from the anaerobic decomposition of organic material sent to landfill by the community (source);

Water Conveyance: Emissions generated by electricity used in the transport of water (activity);

Wastewater Treatment: Total Indirect process emissions and fugitive emissions from wastewater treatment processes at the City-operated Wastewater Treatment Plant (activity);

Municipal Operations Inventory For municipal emissions, the LGOP divides the operational boundary into three different scopes, defined as follows: •

Scope 1 emissions are those that come from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting entity. Such sources include stationary emitters like furnaces and boilers, and mobile emitters like vehicles and construction equipment.

Scope 2 emissions are indirect GHG emissions related to the consumption of purchased energy (i.e., electricity) that is produced by third-party entities, such as power utilities.

Scope 3 emissions are other indirect GHG emissions not covered by Scope 2 that are associated with community activities. For a community inventory this generally includes emissions occurring upstream or downstream of a community activity, such as the methane emissions resulting from degradation of the community’s solid waste deposited at a landfill outside of city limits; or the electricity used to pump water to the City from upstream reservoirs. Quantification and reporting of Scope 3 emissions is generally considered optional, but including them in a community-wide inventory is appropriate where there is local control over an activity that has an indirect emissions reduction impact, such as diverting waste from landfills.

The 2005 and 2010 municipal operations inventories include emissions from the following sectors: •

Natural Gas: Direct stationary emissions from natural gas combustion (Scope 1) from building and facilities;

Electricity: Indirect emissions from purchased electricity for buildings, facilities, streetlights, traffic lights, water pumps, and airports operated by the City (Scope 2);

Vehicle Fleet: Direct emissions from fuel combustion in municipal fleet vehicles (Scope 1);

Transit Fleet: Direct emissions from fuel combustion in municipal transit vehicles (Scope 1);

Solid Waste Generation: This sector comprises solid waste sent to landfill from governmentowned and/or operated facilities (Scope 3);

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

A-3


â&#x20AC;˘

Wastewater Treatment: Indirect process emissions and fugitive emissions from wastewater treatment processes (Scope 3) at the City-operated Wastewater Treatment Plant; and

â&#x20AC;˘

Employee Commute: Emissions from the fuel combustion in employee-owned vehicles used by municipal staff travelling to and from work (Scope 3);

Emissions Quantification Methodology 2005 Baseline and 2010 Update ICLEI and the LGOP identify calculation-based methodologies as the most appropriate technique for quantifying GHG emissions, following the basic formula: GHG Emissions = Activity Data x Emissions Factor Activity data are the relevant measurements of energy use or other processes that are associated with the emission of GHGs, such as metered annual energy consumption (kWh of electricity and therms of natural gas). Emission factors are calculated ratios relating GHG emissions to a proxy measure of activity by emissions source. The inventories focus on the three GHGs most relevant and significant to City Government policymaking: CO2, CH4, and N2O. These gases comprise the majority of GHG emissions from the community and city government operations. Most GHG reporting protocols also include methods for estimating three additional GHGs: HFCs, PFCs, and SF6. However, these GHGs, largely represent fugitive emissions that leak from equipment, are generally not included in a community or municipal operations inventories because the data needed to quantify them is typically incomplete or difficult to obtain.

Community-wide Inventory Building Energy Commercial/industrial and Residential energy activity data for 2005 and 2010 consisted of electricity consumption and metered natural gas use. SCE provided community-wide natural gas data, in therms, for both years. Direct emissions from natural gas combustion were calculated using standard emission factors for natural gas published by the LGOP. SCE also provided community-wide electricity consumption in megawatt hours (MWh) for both 2005 and 2010. Indirect emissions from electricity generation were calculated using CO2 emission factors from the Climate Registry. Emission factors for CH4 and N2O were provided by the LGOP3. Stationary Source U.S. ICLEI Community Protocol (2012) methodology was followed for estimating emissions for stationary sources. Residential stationary source (i.e. propane/LPG) fuel consumption was calculated using data from the Federal Energy Information Administration and the U.S. Census Bureau. Commercial and industrial stationary sources were not calculated due to limited data availability.

3

A-4

Year 2007 emission factors were the latest available from both the Climate Registry and the LGOP, and so were used to calculate year 2010 emission.

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology


On-road Transportation As with many cities, vehicle travel in Delano is the City’s largest single source of GHG emissions. Most methods for estimating transportation emissions are based on vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Communitywide VMT estimates are highly dependent on the accounting rules and analytical tools used. For Delano, Fehr & Peers’ provided estimates of VMT for on-road vehicular transportation based on the Kern Council of Governments (KCOG) travel demand model and origin-destination calculation methods4. This model was recently updated as part of the San Joaquin Valley Model Improvement Project (SJV MIP). VMT were provided for 2005 and 2010, and future projections were provided for the years 2020 and 2035. CARB’s On-Road Mobile-Source Emission Factor Model (EMFAC2011) was used to calculate 2005 base year and 2010 CO2 emissions factors. CH4 and N2O emissions were calculated with default vehicle mix values and emission factors from ICLEI’s U.S. Community Protocol. Off-road Transportation To estimate mobile off-road emissions, non-point source off-road emissions were obtained from CARB’s OFFROAD2007 Vehicle Model for all of Kern County. Off-road emissions sources include lawn and garden equipment, construction equipment, industrial equipment, and light commercial equipment. Emissions for construction, industrial, and light commercial equipment were apportioned to Delano based on the City’s population as a percentage of overall County population. Lawn and garden equipment was apportioned based on number of households. Off-road agricultural equipment were apportioned to Delano based on the City’s proportion of agricultural land area5 as a proportion of overall County agricultural land area6. Solid Waste Generation Calrecycle (CRiS) provided community-wide solid waste in annual tons for 2005 and 20107. CH4 emissions from solid waste were calculated using EPA’s LandGEM software8 using the following assumptions: •

100-year timeframe for waste decomposition;

Landfill gas capture rate = 75%;

Oxidation Rate = 10%

LandGEM parameters:  Methane generation rate (k) = 0.02 (CAA Arid Area);  Potential methane generation capacity (Lo) = 100;  NMOC concentration = 4000;  Methane content = 50%

Water Conveyance Emissions from water conveyance were calculated using activity data provided by PG&E. City-operated water accounts (for water pumping and other water-related activities) were separated from other City

4

5 6

7 8

Quantifying emissions associated with the use of travel by the community involves estimating emissions associated with the entire length of in boundary and trans boundary trips, and allocating a portion of those emissions to the community for which emissions are being reported. See Appendix B for more information about VMT calculations for Delano. City baseline year agricultural land area data was provided by the City of Delano (via correspondence with Mike McCabe). County baseline year agricultural land area data was provided from the California Farmland Mapping and Monitoring (FMMP) Program, available at: http://www.conservation.ca.gov/dlrp/fmmp/Pages/Index.aspx CRiS: CalRecycle Countywide, Regionwide, and Statewise Jurisdiction Diversion Progress Report EPA’s Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM version 3.02, released May 12, 2005) is available at http://www.epa.gov/lmop/publications-tools/

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

A-5


electricity consumption accounts. The emission factors that were used for the commercial/industrial and residential electricity emissions sectors were also used for this sectorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s electricity emissions calculations. Wastewater Treatment Delano owns and operates a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). The City of Delano provided process data9. The California Department of Finance provided the year 2005 population served as a proxy for population served by the WWTP, and the Delano 2010 Urban Water Management Plan provided the 2010 population served by the WWTP. Wastewater emissions were calculated following LGOP methodology, and were based on process data and WWTP service population within Delano City boundaries. GHG emissions from wastewater include stationary CH4 emissions from the incomplete combustion of digester gas and process CH4 emissions from the wastewater treatment lagoons.

Municipal Operations Inventory Electricity SCE provided activity data for electricity that includes electricity used in all buildings and facilities, streetlights, water supply, and airports operated by the City of Delano, for both 2005 and 2010. Indirect emissions from electricity generation were calculated using a LGOP emission factors. Natural Gas Southern California Gas (SCG) provided activity data for natural gas for all buildings and facilities operated by the City of Delano, for both 2005 and 2010. Direct emissions from natural gas combustion were calculated using a LGOP emission factors. City Vehicle Fleet This sector includes emissions from on-road and off-road fuel consumption from fleet vehicles operated by the City of Delano, excluding the City transit fleet. The City provided fuel consumption data for gasoline, diesel, CNG, propane, and mixed (2t oil & unleaded gasoline) for the calendar years 2005 and 2010. Miles per gallon (MPG) factors for gasoline and diesel vehicles were derived from EMFAC 2011 software model runs for Kern County (years 2005 and 2010). Emissions were calculated using CO2, CH4, and N2O emission factors from the LGOP. City Transit Fleet This sector includes emissions from on-road and off-road fuel consumption from mass transit vehicles operated by the City of Delano. The City provided data for this sector, and emissions calculations follow the same process as described above, for the City vehicle fleet sector. Solid Waste Generation The City provided refuse collection data for all municipal buildings, including trash container sizes, volumes, and collection frequencies. Standard solid waste factors were used to convert total trash volumes per building into units of weight.

9

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Correspondance with Juan Cerda, City of Delano Wastewater Division Superintendent, on 2/12/2012.

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology


CH4 emissions from solid waste were calculated using EPA’s LandGEM software using the same software parameters as used for the community solid waste sector inventory. Wastewater Treatment Emissions were quantified as described in the Community Wastewater Treatment sector. However, since the municipal government maintains operational control of the WWTP, total Plant service population figures were used for calculation purposes. Total Plant service population includes persons beyond the City of Delano boundary, who are served by the WWTP. Employee Commute This sector comprises emissions from fuel consumption from City government employee vehicle travel. The City anonymously provided year 2005 and 2010 employee home addresses, commute mode types, and carpool information for a large sample of employees. Google Maps was used to determine average distances travelled per home city starting point, which were then applied to each employee to determine total annual distances travelled per year. An assumption was made that average fuel efficiency of personal vehicles was 22.5 mpg in 2005 and 2010, based on national data.10 Emissions associated with employee commuting were quantified using emission factors contained in EMFAC2011, and tables G.11 and G.12 of the LGOP. Results were prorated based on City full-time employee count for the years 2005 and 2010.

2020 and 2030 Business-as-Usual Projections Table 3 in Chapter 3 shows the growth proxies used project future community-wide emissions (for years 2020 and 2035), under business-as-usual conditions. Table A-1 shows the specific projections data11 used for City-wide population, housing, and employment.

Table A-1: City of Delano Population, Housing, and Employment Projections Data Scenario Year 2005 Year 2010 Year 2020 Year 2035

Households 10,179 10,948 12,486 13,829

Population 35,616 38,306 43,685 48,381

Employment 15,642 16,762 18,893 21,762

Two sectors did not use growth proxies represented in Table A-1: Agricultural Equipment, and On-road Transportation. Emissions from Agricultural Equipment were based on agricultural land area growth as provided by the City12. Future emissions for On-road Transportation were estimated using 2020 and 2030 VMT projections provided by Fehr and Peers, and emission factors from the EMFAC 2011 Model that do not include effects of the state-wide Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) and the Pavley Bill, AB 1493 (which will reduce GHG emissions in automobiles).

10

See Transportation and Energy Data Book, “Quick Facts” page 2: http://cta.ornl.gov/data/download31.shtml Provided by Fehr & Peers in their City of Delano CAP - VMT Inventory Memo (Table 3). Baseline and projected figures are based on the SJV MIP KernCOG Model. 12 Based on correspondance with City of Delano’s Mike McCabe, on 04/10/2013. 11

Appendix A. GHG Inventory Methodology

City of Delano Climate Action Plan

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Appendix B Vehicle Miles of Travel Inventory


MEMORANDUM

Date:

September 25, 2012

To:

Poonam Boparai

From:

Kathrin Tellez and Mackenzie Watten, Fehr & Peers

Subject:

City of Delano CAP â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) Inventory WC12-2906

Fehr & Peers has prepared this memorandum describing the technical approach and results of a city-wide inventory of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) for the City of Delano Climate Action Plan (CAP) using the Kern Council of Governments (KernCOG) travel demand model. Estimates of VMT were prepared for the 2005 baseline year, the 2010 inventory update year, and the two forecast years of 2020 and 2035.

KERNCOG TRAVEL DEMAND MODEL The Kern Council of Governments (KernCOG) travel demand model was used to develop VMT estimates. The model was recently updated as part of the San Joaquin Valley Model Improvement Project (SJV MIP). The model was validated to 2008 conditions and forecasts 2020 and 2035 conditions. VMT was interpolated between the model scenario years to prepare VMT estimates for 2005 and 2010 conditions. The following presents a summary of the land use information and roadway network assumptions. LAND USE Land use information within the KernCOG model area is provided at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. The TAZs that correspond to existing or planned future City of Delano boundaries were identified through coordination with City of Delano staff. Figure 1 shows the TAZs selected for calculation of VMT. Land use information is provided for a variety of land use types, including single and multi-family homes, and employment uses. Data for the TAZs located in the Delano 100 Pringle Avenue | Suite 600 | Walnut Creek, CA 94596 | (925) 930-7100 | Fax (925) 933-7090 www.fehrandpeers.com


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 2 of 8

TAZs are summarized in Table 1 for 2008, 2020 and 2035 for the various land use categories. For ease of review, the employment categories have been collapsed to industrial, retail, and office categories. In addition, estimates of total population and employment have been provided. For 2008, the data presented represents the land use total, while the 2020 and 2035 data is the increment of growth from 2008.

TABLE 1 CITY OF DELANO SPHERE OF INFLUENCE LAND USE DATA FROM KERNCOG MODEL

Land Use Type

2008

Growth Increment

Single Family Units

8,233

2020 1,376

2035 2,375

Multi-Family Units

2,407

470

814

Industrial Jobs

8,967

1,024

2,395

Retail Jobs

1,675

950

1,346

Office Jobs

5,650

627

1,729

Population

37,230

6,455

11,151

Employment

16,292

2,601

5,470

Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.

Housing land uses are represented by the number of dwelling units and employment uses are represented by the number of jobs. Roadway Network The roadway network improvements that are expected to be in place by 2020 and 2035 were identified through coordination through City of Delano staff and are summarized in Table 2.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 3 of 8

TABLE 2 FUTURE ROADWAY IMPROVEMENTS

Roadway th

City

20 Avenue

Delano

Woollomes Avenue

Delano

Casey Avenue

Delano

County Line Road

Delano

Melcher Road

Delano

Stradley Avenue

Delano

th

11 Avenue

Delano

High Street

Delano

Randolph Street

Delano

Proposed Improvement Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Stradley Avenue and Browning Road Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Stradley Avenue and Lexington Street Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Casey Avenue and Stradley Avenue Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between county line and south of SR-155 Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between County Line Road and Pond Road Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Stradley Avenue and Lexington Street Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between SR 155 and Woollomes Avenue

Year Built

1

2020 2020 2030 2030 2030 2030 2030 2030

Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between County Line Road and SR 155; Extend 4 lanes between SR

2030

155 and Woollomes Avenue Browning Road

Delano

Pond Road

Delano

Cecil Avenue

Delano

Bowman Road

Delano

Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between County Line Road and Pond Road Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Stradley Avenue and Browning Road Widen from 2 lanes to 4 lanes between Melcher Avenue and Stradley Avenue Create new 4 lane roadway between County Line Road and Pond Road

2030 2030 2035 2035

1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Improvements with construction year before and including 2020 will be included in 2020 and 2035 scenarios; improvements with construction year before and including 2035 will be included in 2035 scenario Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.

ANALYSIS PARAMETERS The following presents the analysis parameters, including methods to calculate the VMT generated by land uses in Delano for the base and forecast years.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 4 of 8

VEHICLE MILES OF TRAVEL CALCULATIONS The VMT inventory for Delano captures vehicle trips generated by land uses within City; however, some trips may have an origin or destination outside of the City limits. Per the recommended calculation methods, VMT for Delano was calculated from the combination of the following trips: 1.

All City-City (City-City) trips: All trips starting and ending in Delano.

2.

One-half of County-City (CC-City) trips: One-half of trips with an origin in unincorporated Kern County, or other incorporated jurisdiction within the county, and a destination in Delano.

3.

One-half of City-County (City-CC) trips: One-half of trips with an origin in Delano and a destination in unincorporated Kern County or other incorporated jurisdiction.

4.

One-half of City-External (City-EC) trips: One-half of the trips with an origin in Delano and a destination outside the County.

5.

One-half of External-City (EC-City) trips: One-half of the trips with an origin outside the County and a destination in Delano.

Trips without an origin or destination in Delano are not be accounted for as the City has no control over the amount of through traffic on regional roadways such as SR 99. Forecast Years The KernCOG travel demand model was validated to 2008 conditions and is able to forecast 2020 and 2035 conditions. While the SJV MIP KernCOG model originally included a 2005 scenario, KernCOG staff have yet to thoroughly check the 2005 assumptions. Backcasts of 2005 conditions were calculated based on negative extrapolation of growth between 2008 and 2020. Results for the 2010 scenario was interpolated from the difference between the 2008 and 2020 scenarios.

ANALYSIS RESULTS The results of the VMT estimates using the KernCOG travel demand model for the City of Delano are presented below.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 5 of 8

Vehicle Miles of Travel The 2005, 2010, 2020, and 2035 daily VMT for the City of Delano are presented in Table 3. This table includes normalization of VMT by households and by capita. Table 4 shows the VMT 1

estimates by 5-mph speed bin for each scenario year.

TABLE 3 CITY OF DELANO DAILY VMT CALCULATIONS

Scenario

3

Households

Population

Employment

Daily VMT

1

10,179

35,616

15,642

753,506

74.03

14.70

1

10,948

38,306

16,726

816,294

74.56

14.83

2

12,486

43,685

18,893

947,901

75.92

15.15

2

13,829

48,381

21,762

1,050,711

75.98

14.98

Year 2005 Year 2010 Year 2020 Year 2035

VMT / HH

VMT per Capita (Pop + Emp)

Note:

1.

Household, population, employment, and VMT based on growth rates based on 2008 and 2020 scenario years applied to 2008 data.

2.

Household, population, employment and VMT based on model land uses; VMT based on model.

3.

Annualized VMT is typically 354 times the daily VMT to account for less vehicle miles of travel on weekends, holidays and summer periods.

Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.

The results show that VMT is expected to increase between scenario years but that VMT per capita decrease between 2020 and 2035 due to the projection of employment opportunities increasing in Delano at a higher rate than residential uses, providing more opportunities for residents of Delano to work in Delano.

1

Regional travel demand models are validated for a large number of transportation metrics (including

average travel time and total regional VMT) but may not represent all localized peak hour congestion or slower traffic on local roadways due to limitations in local land use and roadway network detail.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 6 of 8

TABLE 4 CITY OF DELANO DAILY VEHICLE MILES OF TRAVEL (VMT) DISTRIBUTION BY SPEED BIN Vehicle Miles of Travel Estimates (Daily) 2005

2010

2020

2035

Speed Bin (miles per hour)

VMT

Distribution (%)

VMT

Distribution (%)

VMT

Distribution (%)

VMT

Distribution (%)

0.0 - 7.50

40

0.0%

62

0.0%

197

0.0%

11,896

1.1%

7.51 - 12.50

201

0.0%

176

0.0%

185

0.0%

2,054

0.2%

12.51 - 17.50

420

0.1%

480

0.1%

991

0.1%

3,168

0.3%

17.51 - 22.50

433

0.1%

483

0.1%

892

0.1%

1,350

0.1%

22.51 - 27.50

1,461

0.2%

1,694

0.2%

2,251

0.2%

4,554

0.4%

27.51 - 32.50

69,035

9.2%

73,787

9.0%

83,292

8.8%

97,526

9.3%

32.51 - 37.50

45,282

6.0%

49,910

6.1%

59,258

6.3%

70,343

6.7%

37.51 - 42.50

32,623

4.3%

36,406

4.5%

44,115

4.7%

49,918

4.8%

42.51 - 47.50

27,821

3.7%

32,721

4.0%

42,926

4.5%

45,424

4.3%

47.51 - 52.50

178,534

23.7%

200,689

24.6%

245,973

25.9%

311,280

29.6%

52.51 - 57.50

4,873

0.6%

6,698

0.8%

10,827

1.1%

13,955

1.3%

57.51 - 62.50

4,991

0.7%

10,925

1.3%

24,895

2.6%

114,818

10.9%

62.51 - 67.50

383,310

50.9%

397,530

48.7%

426,862

45.0%

321,705

30.6%

67.51 - 72.50

4,482

0.6%

4,734

0.6%

5,238

0.6%

2,722

0.3%

Total

753,506

100%

816,294

100%

947,901

100%

1,050,711

100%

Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 7 of 8

Vehicle Trips and Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose In addition to the total VMT generated, Table 5 presents the number of vehicle trips with at least one trip end in Delano and miles of travel by trip purpose for the CAP scenario years. The following trip purposes were quantified by the KernCOG model: •

Home-based work trips

Home-based non-work trips

Non-home based trips

CAP strategies would apply differently to each trip type and could affect the ability of CAP strategies to be effective in reducing VMT. These values are provided to assist the Project team in developing CAP strategies that would be the most effective in reducing VMT.

TABLE 5 CITY OF DELANO TRIP PURPOSE CALCULATIONS Home-Based Work

Home-Based Non-Work

Non-Home Based

Total

1

19,883

35,544

17,904

73,331

1

23,751

38,974

19,895

82,620

2

31,487

45,833

23,878

101,198

2

42,407

50,959

28,338

121,704

1

309,856

354,565

89,085

753,506

1

365,387

351,692

99,215

816,294

2

471,990

356,354

119,557

947,901

2

675,807

294,276

80,628

1,050,711

Scenario Trips Year 2005 Year 2010 Year 2020 Year 2035

Contribution to VMT Year 2005 Year 2010 Year 2020 Year 2035

3

Note:

1.

Trips and VMT based on growth rates based on 2008 and 2020 scenario years applied to 2008 data.

2.

Trips and VMT based on model land uses; VMT based on model.

3.

Note that this number is calculated using the VMT calculation rules listed above

Source: SJV MIP KernCOG Model, as summarized by Fehr & Peers, September 2012.


Poonam Boparai September 25, 2012 Page 8 of 8

Review of the VMT by trip purpose by year shows that home-based non-work and non-home based VMT decreases between years 2020 and 2035. This is due to the increase in employment in Delano that decreases the need for residents to travel further to meet their non-work and nonhome based needs. This completes our VMT inventory for the City of Delano CAP. If you have any questions, please call Kathrin or Mackenzie. Attachments: Figure 1A, 1B, 1C â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Map of City of Delano TAZs used in VMT Calculations


1507

1509

FREMO

1552 1504

1515

1534

1524

1517

1535

1523

1518

1537

1543

1525

2439

1544

SCHUSTER

1546

GARZOLI

1547

2165

1549

1529

POND

1564

BOWMAN

1550

LE

BOWMAN

1542

RT ER VIL

SR43

1551

1541

FA MO

MAST AVE

1505 1539

1536

CECIL AV

SR155

BOWMAN

MELCHER

NT

SR 155

1533

-PO

1553

1508

1563

NT

1555

1510

FREMO

1554

1522 BASSETT

1556

1558

CECIL AV

1532

COUNTY LINE

SO

1557

FAM /PO RTE R

COUNTY LINE RD

SR99

CASEY

1559

DRIVER

1560

SR 99

MELCHER

COUNTY LINE

POND

SR99

1548 1562 1561 2247

1624

LEGEND

1622

Delano City Boundary County Line

2248

Delano SOI TAZs Traffic Analysis Zone

1625

SHERWOOD

1627 Not to Scale

1621

1626

2091

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ZONES DELANO Delano Climate Action Plan

FIGURE 1A


DRIVER

COUNTY LINE

COUNTY LINE RD

SR99

COUNTY LINE RD

1531

1557

1506

1527

1507

1532

1522

BASSETT

BASSETT

BROWNING

1556

1502

CECIL AV

1510

1508

CECIL AV

CECI:L AV

CECIL AV

1521

CECIL AV

CECIL AV

CECIL AV

HIG H

NT FREMO

1511 1512

1503 1514

1515

1534

1524

1535

1523

RANDOLPH

1513 VE 11TH_A

1553

1552

ELLIN

11TH

AVE

SR99

GTON

LEGEND

1516 1520

Delano SOI TAZs

1517

NT

TON ELLING

County Line

FREMO

1504

Delano City Boundary

Traffic Analysis Zone

1533

RANDOLPH

SR 99

STRADLEY

1509

Not to Scale

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ZONES DELANO - NORTH DETAIL Delano Climate Action Plan

FIGURE 1B


1518

1537

1538

1505

1520

1539

1541

1542

1540

BOWMAN

MAST AVE

1501

WOOLLOMES

1543

1525

1551

1564

1550 SR99

TON ING LEX

1526 1544

SCHUSTER

1547

SR99

Delano City Boundary

SCHUSTER

GARZOLI

LEGEND

BOWMAN

1519

1545

1546

1549

County Line Delano SOI TAZs Traffic Analysis Zone

Not to Scale

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ZONES DELANO - SOUTH DETAIL Delano Climate Action Plan

FIGURE 1C


Appendix C Fehr & Peers Traffic and Land Use Reduction Strategies Memo


MEMORANDUM

Date:

October 28, 2013

To:

Harriet Ross

From:

Kathrin Tellez and Mackenzie Watten, Fehr & Peers

Subject:

City of Delano CAP â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Reduction Strategy Quantification WC12-2906

This memorandum documents the potential reduction in VMT that are expected to occur with implementation of the City of Delano Climate Action Plan (CAP) by 2020 and 2035. Existing and projected future conditions under the future Business as Usual (BAU) scenarios were documented in a memorandum dated September 25, 2012. Fehr & Peers prepared a technical memorandum, dated January 18, 2013, describing potential strategies to reduce vehicle miles of travel (VMT) (and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions) by 2020 and 2035.

City of Delano staff prepared a

memorandum, dated May 14, 2013, that reviewed the potential strategies and identified those which would be feasible to implement and thus should be evaluated in the CAP analysis. The CAP team also coordinated with the Delano Health and Sustainability Elements project to ensure that the proposed CAP measures were consistent with the goals of that effort. CONCLUSIONS The CAP transportation measures would reduce overall daily VMT in 2020 by 15,740 VMT per day (a 1.7% reduction), and in 2035 by 24,960 VMT per day (a 2.4% reduction) as compared to the BAU scenarios. VMT per capita, considering both residential and employment population, would be reduced from 15.15 to 14.90 in 2020 and from 14.98 to 14.62 in 2035. REDUCTION CALCULATION METHODOLOGY Some of the measures identified for evaluation were quantified using the KernCOG model, while others were quantified using off-model tools and factors. For many of the strategies that are not quantifiable in the regional model, we used the Quantifying Greenhouse Mitigation Measures report authored by the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA), ENVIRON,

100 Pringle Avenue | Suite 600 | Walnut Creek, CA 94596 | (925) 930-7100 | Fax (925) 933-7090 www.fehrandpeers.com


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 2 of 8 and Fehr & Peers.

This report serves as a statewide benchmark on the quantification of

reductions to VMT and GHG from mitigation measures such as the ones evaluated for this CAP. Certain measures were grouped into more general categories that are both quantifiable and mutually dependent.

This grouping was also done since several of the measures would be

implemented through policies or other city actions in concert with one another, and can be mutually dependent. For example, bicycle parking enhancements would be most effective when coupled with other transportation demand management (TDM) strategies, such as showers at work locations. Many of the measures required additional assumptions to allow for meaningful quantification. Discussions with City staff and the project team led to the assumptions used in the following analysis. All of the assumptions used are presented below. CLIMATE ACTION PLAN VMT CALCULATIONS Table 1 presents the daily VMT and normalized of VMT by households and per capita for the City of Delano for the analysis scenarios. The results shows that VMT is expected to increase between scenario years but that VMT per capita is expected to decrease between 2020 and 2035. The CAP measures reduce VMT by 1.7 percent and 2.4 percent in 2020 and 2035 respectively. REDUCTIONS SUMMARY The final strategies and their expected VMT reductions are summarized in Table 2. Separate calculations are provided for the 2020 and 2035 conditions. Attachment 1 contains a matrix of grouped measures in each category, the portion of the city affected by the measure, assumptions and data sources for the reductions, and their associated VMT reductions. Where appropriate the responsible implementing party and performance indicators were identified. This completes our assessment of the VMT reductions that are likely to occur with implementation of the City of Delano CAP.


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 3 of 8

TABLE 1 CITY OF DELANO DAILY VMT CALCULATIONS

Scenario

3

Households

Population

Employment

Daily VMT

1

10,179

35,616

15,642

753,506

74.03

14.70

1

10,948

38,306

16,726

816,294

74.56

14.83

12,486

43,685

18,893

947,901

75.92

15.15

12,486

43,685

18,893

932,161

74.66

14.90

13,829

48,381

21,762

1,050,711

75.98

14.98

13,829

48,381

21,762

1,025,751

74.17

14.62

Year 2005 Year 2010

Year 2020 BAU

2

Year 2020 CAP Year 2035 BAU Year 2035 CAP

2

VMT / HH

VMT per Capita (Pop + Emp)

Note: 1.

Household, population, employment, and VMT based on growth rates based on 2008 and 2020 scenario years applied to 2008 data.

2.

Household, population, employment and VMT based on model land uses; VMT based on model.

3.

Annualized VMT is typically 354 times the daily VMT to account for less vehicle miles of travel on weekends, holidays and summer periods.

Source: Fehr & Peers, 2013.

TABLE 2 TRANSPORTATION RELATED POTENTIAL GHG REDUCTION STRATEGIES

Strategy

VMT reduction per day 2020

2035

3,500

4,200

--

--

500

1,200

Density Increase household density in downtown area Diversity Consider modifying the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Zoning Ordinance and rezone outlying residential lands for commercial and/or industrial uses. Design Require new residential developments to enhance pedestrian connections including ped / bike through connection in any cul-


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 4 of 8

TABLE 2 TRANSPORTATION RELATED POTENTIAL GHG REDUCTION STRATEGIES VMT reduction per day

Strategy

2020

2035

1,600

1,600

Recommend new large non-residential developments to implement a TDM program that reduces weekday peak period vehicle trips

3,500

9,700

Consider providing incentives for non-single-auto commute modes (e.g. carpool programs, transit vouchers) through City employee programs, public outreach

1,200

1,300

Require bike parking for new large non-residential and multifamily uses, showers for new large non-residential developments

400

1,400

Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicles

1,500

1,600

Safe Routes to Schools program including enhanced pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, reduction of speeds in school zones, and education of pedestrian and bicycle safety for all schools city-wide

1,300

1,400

2,240

2,560

15,740

24,960

de-sacs, closure of gaps in the sidewalk system, and provision of additional non-motorized connections Continue to implement and update the Delano Bicycle Master Plan Demand Management

Distance to Transit Explore opportunities to provide bus shelters with a bench at major transit hubs Explore opportunities to provide transit service within ½ mile of all residents in the city Explore opportunities to provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs Continue to require new development to include bus and bicycle facilities. Total Source: Fehr & Peers, 2013.


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 5 of 8

ATTACHMENT 1 ASSUMPTIONS BY MEASURE

Description

Areas Affected

Responsible Performance Implementing Indicators Party

Trip Reduction Method/ Assumptions/Source

2020 VMT Reduction

2035 VMT Reduction

3,500

4,200

--

--

Density Increase household density in downtown area by rezoning non-residential lands in the Downtown Core and surrounding areas to permit higher density residential and mixed use; encourage smart growth development by considering elimination or reduction of minimum parking requirements; create maximum parking requirements for residential developments, and allow for shared parking; adopt the Delano Block H Master Plan; and improve the consistency of the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s General Plan and Zoning Map.

Downtown

City (to adjust zoning code)/ Developers

-

Assumes 20% increase in density in downtown area. Source: KernCOG Model/Post 1 Processing with CAPCOA

Diversity

Improve jobs-housing balance city-wide through provision of office or industrial job opportunities instead of residential land uses

City-wide

City (to adjust zoning code)/ Developers

Assumes City-wide diversity shift from 63% residential/37% nonresidential to 55% residential/45% non-residential. -

Source: KernCOG Model/Post 1 Processing with CAPCOA Implementation of the measure would potentially reduce VMT by 6,400 by 2020 and 7,100 by 2035;


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 6 of 8

ATTACHMENT 1 ASSUMPTIONS BY MEASURE

Description

Areas Affected

Responsible Performance Implementing Indicators Party

Trip Reduction Method/ Assumptions/Source

2020 VMT Reduction

2035 VMT Reduction

500

1,200

however, it is uncertain if the City could rezone residentially zoned parcels and attract employment uses to locate in Delano. Therefore, the reduction was reduced to zero. Design Require new developments to enhance pedestrian connections including ped / bike through connection in any cul-de-sacs, closure of gaps in the sidewalk system, and provision of additional non-motorized connections

Update and implement the Delano Bicycle Master Plan

New residential developments

City-wide

Developers

-

Assumes pedestrian network enhancements within projects with more than 50 new units or 100 employees. 1 Source: CAPCOA

City

Number of new miles of bike lanes installed (out of 10 identified in plan)

VMT reductions based on estimated increases in bicycle trips and average Delano trip length. Source: Delano Bicycle 2 Master Plan

1,600

1,600

Developers

Monitor TDM program effectiveness

Initial measure did not identify reduction and effectiveness is unknown. Assumes 5% reduction

3,500

9,700

Demand Management Recommend new large non-residential developments implement a TDM program that reduces weekday peak period vehicle

New large nonresidential developments


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 7 of 8

ATTACHMENT 1 ASSUMPTIONS BY MEASURE

Description

Areas Affected

Responsible Performance Implementing Indicators Party

Trip Reduction Method/ Assumptions/Source

trips

is achieved for new workplaces with over 100 employees.

Provide incentives for non-single-auto commute modes (e.g. carpool programs, transit vouchers) through City employee programs, public outreach

Applied to work VMT only. Assumes 5-10% of City participate.

Require bike parking for new large nonresidential and multi-family uses, showers for new large non-residential developments

City-wide

City, Employers

-

Continue to support Safe Routes to Schools program including enhanced pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, reduction of speeds in school zones, and education of pedestrian and bicycle safety for all schools city-wide

2035 VMT Reduction

1,200

1,300

400

1,400

1,500

1,600

1,300

1,400

1

Source: CAPCOA

New large developments

Developers

-

New developments defined as 50 or more dwelling units or 100 employees. Assumes 0.5% reduction in VMT due to mode shift. Source: TDM Encylopedia

Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicles

2020 VMT Reduction

3

City-wide

Developers

Parking occupancy of Applies to work VMT only. Assumes 50% of city participates. carpool and 1 vanpool Source: CAPCOA parking spaces

City-wide schools

City, School District

Survey school mode share before/after

Assumes 2.5% reduction in school related VMT due to mode shift. Source: WSDOT


Harriet Ross October 28, 2013 Page 8 of 8

ATTACHMENT 1 ASSUMPTIONS BY MEASURE

Description

Areas Affected

Responsible Performance Implementing Indicators Party

Trip Reduction Method/ Assumptions/Source

2020 VMT Reduction

2035 VMT Reduction

2,240

2,560

Distance to Transit With Delano Area Rapid Transit and Kern Regional Transit, explore opportunities to provide bus shelters at major transit hubs With Delano Area Rapid Transit and Kern Regional Transit, explore opportunities to provide transit services within ½ mile of all residents in the city With Delano Area Rapid Transit and Kern Regional Transit, explore opportunities to provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs

City-wide

City (to adjust Transit zoning code) ridership and Delano Area before/after Rapid Transit

Assumes 40% increase in Citywide network coverage with 1% existing mode share. 1

Source: CAPCOA

Continue to require new development to include bus and bicycle facilities Sources: 1.

California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA), Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measures: A Resource for Local Government to Assess Emission Reductions from Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measures, August 2010.

2.

City of Delano Bicycle Master Plan, 2008.

3.

Victoria Transport Policy Institute, TDM Encyclopedia; http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm34.htm

Fehr & Peers, 2013.


Appendix D Transportation and Land Use Strategies


Transportation and Land Use Summary Table ID

Strategy Name

GHG Reduction in 2020

GHG Reduction in 2035

Estimated Cost to the City

Implementation Priority

Goal TL1: Reduce Single Occupancy Vehicle Travel

TL1.1a

Local Commute Trip Reduction: Promote TDM programs for new large nonresidential developmentsthat reduce weekday peak period vehicle trips

735

2,009

Low

1

TL1.1b

Provide incentives for non-single-auto commute modes (e.g. carpool programs, transit vouchers, alternative work week plans, telecommuting) through City employee programs, public outreach

504

539

Low

1

TL1.2

Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicles

371

390

Low

2

TL1.3

Improve Access to Public Transit: Require bus shelters with a bench at major transit hubs; Provide transit service within ½ mile of all residents in the city; Provide secure, covered bicycle parking at major transit hubs

554

624

Medium

2

1,024

Low

1

Medium

1

Goal TL2: Sustainable Growth Patterns

TL2.1

Increase Household Density in Downtown Area

865

TL2.2

Improve Jobs-housing Balance City-wide Through Provision of Commercial or Industrial Job Opportunities Instead of Residential Land Uses

-

-

Goal TL3: Increase Non-Motorized Travel

TL3.1a

Update and implement the Delano Bicycle Master Plan

395

390

High

3

TL3.1b

Require New Residential developments to enhance pedestrian connections including ped / bike through connection in any culdesacs, closure of gaps in the sidewalk system, and provision of additional non-motorized connections

124

292

High

3

TL3.1c

Require bike parking for new large non-residential and multifamily uses, showers for new large non-residential developments

99

341

High

3

TL3.2

Safe Routes to Schools program including enhanced pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, reduction of speeds in school zones, and education of pedestrian and bicycle safety for all schools city-wide

321

341

High

3

3,967

5,950

Total:


Common Factors Note: Pale Yellow fields denote common factors that are not subject to being tweaked by the City. Green fields denote factors that can be modified based on the City's commitment to an action or set of actions.

Basic Unit Factors Hours in a year Kern County Annual Tons CO2/day (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Kern County Annual VMT/day (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Kern County Annual Tons CO2/day (EMFAC 2011) for 2035 Kern County Annual VMT/day (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2035 Metric Tons per Short Ton

#

Unit

8,760 23,251 29,628,908 31,391 40,547,891 0.0007119 0.0007023 0.91

hrs/yr Tons CO2/day VMT/day Tons CO2/day VMT/day MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT MT/Ton

Direct Data Source

EMFAC 2011 EMFAC 2011 EMFAC 2011 EMFAC 2011 Derived from Annual VMT/day and Annual Tons/day (from EMFAC); multipled by MT/short ton.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.1.1 - Part a Strategy Name

Local Commute Trip Reduction: Promote TDM programs for new large non-residential developmentsthat reduce weekday peak period vehicle trips

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

2,975 8,245 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

1,032,325

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

2,861,015

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

735

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

2009

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.1.1 Part b Strategy Name Emissions Category

Provide incentives for alternative commute modes (e.g. carpool programs, transit vouchers, alternative work week plans, telecommuting) through City employee programs, public outreach Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

2,040 2,210 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

707,880

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

766,870

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

504

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

539

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.1.2 Strategy Name

Require parking spaces for carpool and vanpool vehicles

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

1,500 1,600 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

520,500

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

555,200

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

371

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

390

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.1.3 Strategy Name

Improve Access to Public Transit

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

2,240 2,560 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

777,280

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

888,320

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

553

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

624

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.2.1 Strategy Name Emissions Category

Increase Household Density in Downtown Area Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

3,500 4,200 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

1,214,500

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

1,457,400

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

865

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

1024

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.2.2 Improve Jobs-housing Balance City-wide Through Provision of Commercial or Industrial Job Opportunities Instead of Residential Land Uses Transportation and Land Use

Strategy Name Emissions Category

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

#

Unit

Equation Variable

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day

0

Y

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification

Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day

0

Y

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification

347

D

Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.

152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

0

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

0

VMT

Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

0

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

0

metric tons CO2


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.3.1a Strategy Name

Update and implement the Delano Bicycle Master Plan.

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

1,600 1,600 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

555,200

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

555,200

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

395

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

390

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.3.1b Strategy Name Emissions Category

Require New Residential developments to enhance pedestrian connections including ped / bike through connection in any culde-sacs, closure of gaps in the sidewalk system, and provision of additional non-motorized connections. Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

500 1,200 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

173,500

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

416,400

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

124

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

292

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.3.1c Strategy Name

Require bike parking for new large non-residential and multifamily uses, showers for new large non-residential developments

Emissions Category

Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

400 1,400 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

138,800

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

485,800

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

99

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

341

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: TL.3.2 Strategy Name Emissions Category

Safe Routes to Schools program including enhanced pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, reduction of speeds in school zones, and education of pedestrian and bicycle safety for all schools city-wide Transportation and Land Use

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description

Unit

Equation Variable

1,300 1,400 347 152,560,979 169,514,358 0.000712 0.000702

#

MT CO2/VMT MT CO2/VMT

Y Y D T T Cef Cef

VMT Reduction by 2020=

451,100

VMT

VMT Reduction by 2035=

485,800

VMT

Year 2020 VMT Reduction Per Day Year 2035 VMT Reduction Per Day Days per Year (for calculation purposes) Total Annual VMT in 2020 Total Annual VMT in 2030 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2020 Emission Factor; Annual MT CO2 per VMT (EMFAC 2011) for 2030 Assuming an average of Fehr & Peers 'Low' and 'High' scenarios for VMT reduction

1. Resource Savings:

2. GHG Calculations:

VMT Reduction = Y x D

Total Emissions Savings (MT)= VMT Reduction x Cef GHG Savings by 2020=

321

metric tons CO2

GHG Savings by 2035=

341

metric tons CO2

Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Source: Fehr & Peers Delano CAP Measure Quantification Note: CARB advises that 347 days per year should be used to account for reduced activity on weekends.


Appendix E Solid Waste Strategies


Solid Waste Summary Table CO2 (MT) Code

Strategy Name

GHG Reduction by 2020

Relative Cost

GHG Reduction by 2030

Implementation Priority

Goal SW.1: Reduce Community Solid Waste Sent to Landfill Strategy SW.1.1

Reduce Per Capita Community Waste Tonnage Sent to Landfill

1,175

1,779

1

Medium

32

51

2

Low

1,207

1,830

Goal SW.2: Reduce Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill Strategy SW.2.1

Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Waste Tonnage Sent to Landfill

Totals:


Strategy GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: SW.1.1 Strategy Name Emissions Category

Reduce Per Capita Community Waste Tonnage Sent to Landfill Solid Waste

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description Total GHG Emissions (MT CO2e) of Community Waste Generation in 2020 Delano Population in 2020 MT CO2e Generated per Citizen (from Community Waste) in 2020 Total GHG Emissions (MT CO2e) of Community Waste Generation in 2035 City Population in 2030 City Population in 2035 MT CO2e Generated per Person (from Community Waste) in 2035 Percent Reduction in Per Capita Community Waste Sent to Landfill in 2020

# 4,701.0 43,685 0.108 4,447.4 46,796 48,351 0.092 25%

Unit MT CO2e Population MT CO2e MT CO2e Population Population MT CO2e %

Equation Variable T2020 P2020 M2020 T2030 P2030 P2030 M2030

Percent Reduction in Per Capita Community Waste Sent to Landfill in 2035

40%

%

Z2030

Reduce Per Capita Community Waste Sent to Landfill: Total Solid Waste Savings (tons) = M x P x Z 2. GHG Savings: Total Solid Waste Savings by 2020 =

1,175

metric tons CO2e

Total Solid Waste Savings by 2035 =

1,779

metric tons CO2e

Z2020

Source: Delano Community GHG Inventory Source: Fehr & Peers GHG Inventory Memo Source: Delano Community GHG Inventory Linear interpolation between of 2020 and 2035 population figures. Source: Fehr & Peers GHG Inventory Memo (note: year 2035 figure)


Strategy GHG and Cost Analysis Worksheet: SW.1.2 Strategy Name Emissions Category

Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Solid Waste Sent to Landfill Solid Waste

Key Assumptions for Resource Savings and GHG Calculations Description Total GHG Emissions (MT CO2e) of Municipal Operations Waste Generation in 2020 Delano Population in 2020 MT CO2e Generated per Citizen (from Municipal Operations Waste) in 2020 Total GHG Emissions (MT CO2e) of Municipal Operations Waste Generation in 2035 City Population in 2030 City Population in 2035 MT CO2e Generated per Person (from Municipal Operations Waste) in 2035 Percent Reduction in Per Capita Municipal Operations Waste Sent to Landfill in 2020

# 128.4 43,685 0.003 128.4 46,796 48,351 0.003 25%

Unit MT CO2e Population MT CO2e MT CO2e Population Population MT CO2e %

Equation Variable T2020 P2020 M2020 T2030 P2030 P2030 M2030

Percent Reduction in Per Capita Municipal Operations Waste Sent to Landfill in 2035

40%

%

Z2030

Reduce Per Capita Municipal Operations Waste Sent to Landfill: Total Solid Waste Savings (tons) = M x P x Z 2. GHG Savings: Total Solid Waste Savings by 2020 = Total Solid Waste Savings by 2035 =

32 51

metric tons CO2e metric tons CO2e

Z2020

Source: Delano Community GHG Inventory Source: Fehr & Peers GHG Inventory Memo Assume same as 2020 (no 2035 estimation was made otherwise) Linear interpolation between of 2020 and 2035 population figures. Source: Fehr & Peers GHG Inventory Memo (note: year 2035 figure)


Appendix F Energy and Water Strategies


Energy Strategies Summary Table ID

Strategy Name

GHG Reduction in 2020

Implementation Priority

Goal E1 Increase Energy Efficiency Community-Wide E1.1

Reduction of heat island effect

299

2

E1.2

Nonresidential energy use education

482

1

E1.3

Residential energy use education

810

1

E1.4

Nonresidential and Residential PACE EE program

1570

1

E1.5

Implement the Municipal Energy Action Plan

396

1

E1.6

Promote Commercial and Residential Green Building

NA

2

Goal E2 Increase Renewable Energy Generation and Use Community-Wide E2.1

Encourage nonresidential renewable energy

909

1

E2.2

Encourage residential renewable energy

568

1

53

3

Goal E3 Increase use of electric vehicles E3.1

Community electric vehicle (EV) program

Total:

5,087


E.1.1: Reduction of Heat Island Effect. Implement strategies to reduce the heat island effect, such as using light-colored paving materials, cool roofs, and planting shade trees to reduce the energy demand of buildings.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis

$

355,642 102 1,045,383 299 196,143

3 NA NA 3 NA NA NA

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Category Scores 3 3 2 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Annual 2010 residential electricity consumption

Source 69,789,885 kWh/year. Based on data provided by SCE

Criteria

Annual 2010 nonresidential electricity consumption Annual residential load

Residential load factor Annual nonresidential load Nonresidential load factor

Rank 3 1 2 4

Low No 3 High No Many Many Yes

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 7 3 28

112,828,336 kWh/year. Based on data provided by SCE kW. Calculated (total residential energy use) / (8760 hours per 7,966.88 year) Ratio of average annual load to peak load: 50% http://enduse.lbl.gov/info/LBNL-47992.pdf Calculated (total nonresidential energy use) / (8760 hours per 12,879.95 year) Ratio of average annual load to peak load: 55% http://enduse.lbl.gov/info/LBNL-47992.pdf

Residential peak load

15,934 kW. Calculated (Annual residential load) / (load factor)

Nonresidential peak load

23,418 kW. Calculated (Annual nonresidential load) / (load factor)

Hours of peak demand June - Sept Residential electricity consumed during the summer peak period Nonresidential electricity consumed during the summer peak period Residential peak demand saved by 2020 Nonresidential peak demand saved by 2020 Residential electricity savings Nonresidential electricity savings Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3

Hours. Assume 4 months of hot summer demand and 6 hours of 744 peak demand per day. 11,854,720 kWh. Calculated (Residential peak load) x (hours of peak demand) kWh. Calculated (Nonresidential peak load) x (hours of peak 17,423,056 demand) 3% Assumption 6% Assumption Calculated (total residential energy use during peak period) x 355,641.61 (residential peak demand saved) Calculated (total nonresidential energy use during peak period) x 1,045,383.34 (nonresidential peak demand saved) $ 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 196,143 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ - Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) $ $ 0% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost $ Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$

355,642

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

102 1,045,383

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

Total annual savings:

-

299

$

196,143


E.1.2: Nonresidential Energy Use Education Increase City outreach/education to commercial and industrial building owners to raise awareness of utility, state, and federal programs, especially SCE and SCG's wide-ranging energy efficiency programs for existing buildings and incentives for retrofits, including direct installation programs. City promotes/markets for programs; leverages and/or adds to existing rebates for energy efficiency. Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Annual 2010 nonresidential electricity consumption Annual 2010 nonresidential natural gas consumption Targeted percent of nonresidential sector upgraded annually

Qualitative Analysis

$

1,334,789 18,822 482 200,234

Category Scores 3 3 3 2

NA NA NA 3 3 NA NA

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Rank 3 1 2 4

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

1,590,964 therms/year. Based on data provided by SoCal Gas 1% Assumption

15% Target percentage of electricity energy savings

Target percentage of natural gas energy savings

15% Target percentage of natural gas energy savings

Estimated average annual kWh use per facility

Estimated average annual therm use per facility

Estimated number of facilities in 2020

Total nonresidential kWh saved

Total nonresidential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

7 To begin in 2014.

Calculated: (annual electricity use) / (number of non-domestic 80,476.70 accounts). Assumes each account represents one facility. Calculated: (annual natural gas use) / (number of non-domestic 1,134.78 accounts). Assumes each account represents one facility.

Calculated: Took nonresidential projected kWh in 2020 and 1,580 divided by the average annual kWh use per facility.

Calculated: (number of facilities in 2020) x (estimated average annual kWh use per facility) x (percent targeted per year ) x 1,334,789 (target electricity reduction) x (number of years in effect)

18,822 $ 0.14 $ 0.71 $ 186,870.45 $ 13,363.28 $ $ 5%

3 3 3 2 3 1 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 2 29

Source 112,828,336 kWh/year. Based on data provided by SCE

Target percentage of electricity energy savings

Number of years in effect

Low Yes 1 Med No Few Many Yes

Calculated: (number of facilities in 2020) x (estimated average annual therm use per facility) x (percent targeted per year ) x (target natural gas reduction) x (number of years in effect) Based on Key Assumptions tab Based on Key Assumptions tab Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. No operational costs identified. Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost $ Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$

3,750 -

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

1,334,789

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

18,822

-

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

Total annual savings:

482

$

200,234


E.1.3: Residential Energy Use Education Increase City outreach/education to homeowners to raise awareness of utility, state and federal programs. Develop strategies to increase participation in Energy Upgrade California. Target number of existing and new homes to participate in Energy Upgrade California and check progress with the Program Implementer.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis

$

1,389,713 77,816 810 249,809

Category Scores 3 3 3 2

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

3 3 NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions:

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Low Yes 1 Med No Few Many Yes

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 2 29

Source

Annual 2010 residential electricity consumption Annual 2010 residential natural gas consumption Targeted percent of residential sector upgraded annually

69,789,885 kWh/year. Based on data provided by SCE 3,907,854 therms/year. Based no data provided by SoCal Gas 1% Assumption

Target percentage of electricity energy savings

25% Target percentage of electricity energy savings

Target percentage of natural gas energy savings

25% Target percentage of natural gas energy savings

Number of years in effect

7 To begin in 2014 Calculated: (annual electricity use) / (number of households in 6,802.13 2010) Calculated: (annual natural gas use) / (number of households in 380.88 2010) Calculated: Took residential projected kWh in 2020 and divided by 11,675 the average annual kWh use per household.

Estimated average annual kWh use per household Estimated average annual therm use per household Estimated number of households in 2020

Calculated: (number of households in 2020) x (estimated average annual kWh use per household) x (percent targeted per year ) x 1,389,713 (target electricity reduction) x (number of years)

Total Residential kWh saved

3 3 3 2 3 1 3 3

Calculated: (number of households in 2020) x (estimated average annual therm use per household) x (percent targeted per year ) x 77,816 (target natural gas reduction) x (number of years) 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab

Total Residential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh)

$

current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 194,559.76 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ 55,249.61 Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) $ - Based on case studies or energy audit results. $ - No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$ $

1,389,713

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

3,750

77,816 810 0 $

249,809


E.1.4a: Nonresidential PACE Energy Efficiency Program Engage proactively in developing and supporting Residential & Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program in Kern County (California PACE Program). PACE provides a mechanism for property owners to finance energy efficiency, distributed energy and water conservation improvements to be paid back over time on the annual City property tax bill as an assessment line item.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of nonresidential facilities in 2020 Target percent of nonresidential sector participating in energy efficiency PACE by 2020 Target percentage of electricity energy savings

Qualitative Analysis 1,271,228 17,925 459 $ 190,698.80

Category Scores 3 3 3 3

NA NA NA 3 3 NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Low Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 3 29

Source Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the nonresidential sector 1,580 and divided by the average kWh used per facility. 5% Assumption 20% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$ $

3,750 -

Target percentage of natural gas energy savings 20% Assumption Estimated average annual kWh use per nonresidential facility Estimated average annual therm use per nonresidential facility

Total nonresidential kWh saved

Total nonresidential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

80,477 kWh/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis 1,135 therms/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis Calculated (number of nonresidential facilities) x (Participation rate) x 1,271,227.58 (annual electricity usage per facility) x (Potential electricity savings) Calculated (number of nonresidential facilities) x (Participation rate) x 17,925.26 (annual therms usage) x (Potential natural gas savings) $ 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 177,971.86 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ 12,727 Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) $ - Based on case studies or energy audit results. $ - No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

1,271,228

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

17,925

-

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

459 $

190,699


E.1.4b: Residential PACE Energy Efficiency Program Engage proactively in developing and supporting Residential & Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program in Kern County (California PACE Program). PACE provides a mechanism for property owners to finance energy efficiency, distributed energy and water conservation improvements to be paid back over time on the annual City property tax bill as an assessment line item.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis 1,905,891.52 106,720 1,111

$

0.07

Category Scores 3 3 3 3

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

3 3 NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Low Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 3 29

Source

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of residential households in 2020

Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the residential sector 11,675 and divided by the average kWh used per household.

Target percent of residential sector participating in energy efficiency PACE by 2020 Target percentage of electricity energy savings

8% Assumption 30% Assumption

Target percentage of natural gas energy savings 30% Assumption Estimated average annual kWh use per household 6,802 kWh/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis Estimated average annual therm use per household 381 therms/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis Calculated: (number of households) x (participation rate by 2020) x (annual electricity usage per household) x (potential energy 1,905,892 savings)

Total residential kWh saved

Total residential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ $ $ $ $ $

3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Calculated: (number of households) x (participation rate by 2020) x 106,720 (annual therm usage per household) x (potential energy savings) 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab 266,824.81 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) 75,771 Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) 5 Based on case studies or energy audit results. 0 No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost

$

5

Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year)

$

3,750 1,905,892 106,720 1,111 -

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

-

$

0 0


E1.6a Promote Green Buildings (Residential) Provide incentives, such as permit streamlining and increased outreach, to expand green building and energy efficient design for new commercial and residential development. Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

$

-

NA NA

Qualitative Analysis Cost to City Funding Available

Low Yes

3 3

10,721 720

NA 1 1

Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support

2 Med Yes

3 2 1

7 2,012

NA NA

Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Many Many

3 3

Yes

3

Category Scores 1 3 2 3

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Total kwh in 2010 in the nonresidential sector Electricity Use Intensity

Natural Gas Use Intensity

Estimated square footage of nonresidential building space in 2010 Projected kwh in 2020 in the nonresidential sector Amount of space in new nonresidential construction added between 2010 and 2020 (SF) Number of years that the City has to promote Tier 1 energy efficiency for CalGreen: Square footage to be subject to the state code: Percent of new non-residential construction achieving Title 24 Tier 1 Square footage achieving Title 24 Tier 1 by 2020: Potential Energy Savings of New Construction achieving Tier 1 Tittle 24 Electricity Reduction Factor Natural Gas Reduction Factor Total Electricity Savings (kWh) Total Natural Gas Savings (therms) Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

Rank 3 1 2 4

Total Criteria Score: 2 2 4 12 3 7 1 3 24 Total Measure Score: Weighting

Source

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations:

112,828,336 kwh/year 13.63 Average electric use intensity for nonresidential buildings in

Total upfront implementation cost $ Ongoing Operational Costs $

Average natural gas usage intensity for nonresidential 0.26 buildings in therms/sq ft (2005 California End Use Survey) Square feet. Calculated: Total electricity use in kwh/year divided by the average electricity use intensity in kwh/square 8,277,941 foot. kwh/year. Projection is consistent with the GHG inventory 127,122,758 forecast. square feet. Calculated: (Total 2020 projected electricity use in kwh/year divided by the average electricity use intensity in 1,048,747 kwh/square foot) - (the estimated square footage in 2010.) Years. CALGreen goes into effect in 2014; The City does not have the capacity to promote Tier 1 until later - assume 2017 4 program implementation date.new square feet between 2010 square feet. Calculated: Total and 2020 divided by 10 to determine the new square 419,499 footage/year. This number is multiplied by the number of

Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

5% Conservative assumption, with some outreach and education 20,975

$ $ $ $ $ $

15 0.25% 0.88% 10,721 720 0.14 0.71 1,501 511 0%

Standard assumption: 15 percent savings over title 24 percent. Electricity Reduction for each 1% achieved over Title percent. Natural Gas Reduction for each 1% achieved over Calculated (nonresidential SF subject to the state code) x Calculated (nonresidential SF subject to the state code) x Based on Key Assumptions tab Based on Key Assumptions tab Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. No operational costs identified. Assumption

-

-

Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

-

10,721

720 6.9 $

2,012


E1.6b: Promote Green Buildings (Commercial) Provide incentives, such as permit streamlining and increased outreach, to expand green building and energy efficient design for new commercial and residential development. Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

$

5,677 2,216 13 2,368

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Category 1 3 2 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Total kwh in 2010 in the residential sector Electricity Use Intensity Natural Gas Use Intensity Estimated square footage of residential building space in 2010 Projected kwh in 2020 in the residential sector

69,789,885 3.50 0.31 19,939,967 79,412,147

Amount of space in new residential construction by 2020: Number of years that the City has to promote Tier 1 energy Square footage to be subject to the state code: Percent of new non-residential construction achieving Title 24 Tier 1 Square footage achieving Title 24 Tier 1: Potential Energy Savings of New Construction achieving Tier 1 Tittle Electricity Reduction Factor Natural Gas Reduction Factor Total Electricity Savings (kWh) Total Natural Gas Savings (therms) Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

2,749,218 4 1,099,687.05

$ $ $ $ $ $

5% 54,984 15 0.20% 0.87% 5,677 2,216 0.14 0.71 794.80 1,573.27 0%

1 1 NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Qualitative Analysis Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing

Low Yes 2 Med Yes Many Many Yes

3 3 3 2 1 3 3 3

Weighting Total Criteria 2 2 4 12 3 7 1 3 24 Total Measure Score:

Source kwh/year Average electric use intensity for residential buildings in Average natural gas usage intensity for residential buildings in Calculated: Total electricity use in kwh/year divided by the kwh/year. Projection is consistent with the GHG inventory square feet. Calculated: (Total projected electricity use in Years. CALGreen goes into effect in 2014; The City does not square feet. Calculated: Total new square feet between 2010 Conservative assumption, with some outreach and education Standard assumption: 15 percent savings over title 24 Percent. Electricity Reduction for each 1% achieved over Title Percent. Natural Gas Reduction for each 1% achieved over Title Calculated (Residential SF subject to the state code) x Calculated (Residential SF subject to the state code) x (natural Based on Key Assumptions tab Based on Key Assumptions tab Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. No operational costs identified. Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost $ Ongoing Operational Costs $ Residential: Residential: Residential GHG reduction Non-Residential: Non-Residential: Non-Residential GHG reduction Total annual savings:

5,677 2,216 13 0

$

2,368


E.2.1: Encourage Nonresidential Renewable Installation SCORE: Encourage nonresidential building owners to install appropriate renewable energy technologies. Engage proactively in developing and supporting Residential & Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program in Kern County (California PACE Program). PACE provides a mechanism for property owners to finance energy efficiency, distributed energy and water conservation improvements to be paid back over time on the annual City property tax bill as an assessment line item. Potentially reduce the permit fees for renewables.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis 3,178,069 909 $ 444,929.65

Category Scores 3 3 3 3

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

NA NA NA 3 NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of nonresidential facilities in 2020

Low Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 3 29

Source Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the nonresidential 1,580 sector and divided by the average kWh used per facility.

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations:

Total upfront implementation cost

$

-

Target percent of nonresidential sector participating in renewable PACE by 2020 5% Assumption 80,477 kWh/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis

Average annual nonresidential facility energy use

Assumed percentage of renewable system generation capacity to offset annual nonresidential facility energy load from grid

50% Assumption

kWh/year. Calculated: (number of nonresidential facilities) x (participation rate by 2020) x (annual electricity usage per facility) x 3,178,068.96 (percentage of facility energy generated by renewable system) Calculated (number of nonresidential facilities) x (participation rate by 2020) x (annual therm usage per facility) x (potential energy - savings)

Total amount of nonresidential renewable electricity generated

Total nonresidential therms saved

0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab

Current cost of electricity ($/kWh)

$

current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for grid electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 444,929.65 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ - Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. $ - No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year)

$

3,750 -

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

-

Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

-

Non-Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

3,178,069

0

$

909 444,930


E.2.2: Encourage Residential Renewable Installation. Encourage nonresidential building owners to install appropriate renewable energy technologies. Engage proactively in developing and supporting Residential & Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program in Kern County (California PACE Program). PACE provides a mechanism for property owners to finance energy efficiency, distributed energy and water conservation improvements to be paid back over time on the annual City property tax bill as an assessment line item. Potentially reduce the permit fees for renewables.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Qualitative Analysis 1,985,303.67 568 $ 277,942.51

Category Scores 3 3 3 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of residential households in 2020

3 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Low Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 12 8 3 29

Source Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the residential sector 11,675 and divided by the average kWh used per household.

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost

$

-

Target percent of residential sector participating in renewable PACE by 2020 5% Assumption Estimated average annual kWh use per household 6,802 kWh/year. Derived from the SCE data analysis Assumed percentage of renewable system generation capacity to offset annual household energy load from grid 50% Assumption Calculated: (number of households) x (participation rate by 2020) x (annual electricity usage per household) x (percentage of household 1,985,304 energy generated by renewable system)

Total amount of residential renewable electricity generated Total Residential therms saved Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for grid electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ 0.14 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 0.71 Based on Key Assumptions tab $ 277,942.51 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) $ - Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) $

- No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Ongoing Operational Costs Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year)

$

1,985,304

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

-

Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Non-Residential GHG reduction Total annual savings:

3,750

568

$

0 0 0 277,943


E.3.1: Community Electric Vehicle Program. Replace conventionally-fueled vehicles with plug-in electric vehicles or electric vehicles.

Quantitative Analysis Residential: Annual kWh INCREASE Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Nonresidential: Annual kWh INCREASE Nonresidential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

Qualitative Analysis

$

Category Scores 2 2 3 3

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of charging stations by 2020 Number of EVs per station by 2020

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Med Yes 2 Med No Many Many Yes

$

Total Criteria Score: 2 4 4 8 3 8 1 3 23 Total Measure Score:

15,000 miles/year. Assumption Used the average U.S. light duty vehicle fuel efficiency (mpg) for calendar 2010 (the most recent year available). Data provided by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics from the following website: http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics/html/t 24 able_04_23.html See data below. The cost of fuel is based on an average of weekly prices for regular grade gasoline for the past 12 months. Prices are compiled by the 3.98 U.S. Energy Information Administration and reported on the State of Source: CPS Energy Website: http://www.cpsenergy.com/About_CPS_Energy/Who_We_Are/Research_a 5,400 nd_Technology/Plug_In_Vehicles/PlugIn_recharging_cost.asp

Total kwh needed per electric vehicle (kWh/year): Total electricity INCREASE Cost of electricity for electric vehicles ($/kWh):

$

Total cost of conventional fuel for the vehicles: Total cost of electricity for the vehicles:

$ $

Total Cost Savings

$

Average MTCO2 for each car Total GHG of conventional gasoline for the vehicles:

$ $ $

2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Weighting

Source

Average fuel efficiency (miles/gallon)

Total GHG of electric vehicles Total GHG Reduction Cost per EV charging station Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

NA NA NA NA NA 2 NA

5 Assumption 3 Assumption

Average miles driven per year

Cost of conventional fuel ($/gallon):

(81,000) 53 30,038

81,000 Calculated (total number of Evs) x (total kWh needed per vehicle) charging will occur during off-peak times from 9pm - noon. Website: 0.10 http://www.sce.com/info/electric-car/business/rate-plans.htm 38,138 Calculated: (number of vehicles) x (average annual miles traveled per 8,100 Calculated: (number of vehicles) x (total kWh needed per electric vehicle) x 30,038 Calculated: (total cost of conventional fuel) - (total cost of electricity for Evs) The assumption that each vehicle emits 5.1 metric tons CO2/year is from the EPA document "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle." Source: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/documents/420f11041.pdf. This 5.1 provides a conservative estimate, as it does not include CH4 and N2O 77 Calculated (average MTCO2e per car) x (number of vehicles replaced) Calculated. (total electricity increase in kWh) x (SCE emission factor for 23.18 electricity in GHG/kWh). 53 Calculated (Total GHG emissions) x (GHG reduction of Evs) 3,000.00 15,000 Cost will be borne by the community or possibly by the City. - No operational costs identified. 0% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost $ 15,000 Ongoing Operational Costs $ Residential: Electricity INCREASE (kWh/year) -

Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

-

Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

-

Non-Residential: Electricity reduction (kWh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

(81,000) 53 $

30,038


W.1.1: Indoor Water Conservation Incentives. SCORE: Promote existing and new rebates for water efficient appliances and fixtures.

Quantitative Analysis

Qualitative Analysis 307,582 119,632 722 128,000

Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

$

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Category Scores 3 2 3 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of residential households in 2020

Gallons per household per day

3 3 NA NA NA NA NA

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Rank 3 1 2 4

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Percentage of water used indoors Indoor water use saving target per household

20% Based on goal of 20% reduction by 2020 in the UWMP. 10,115,584 Delano Municipal EAP 2010 UWMP target of 156.8 gallons per capita per day multiplied by 365 3,421,214,496 days/year multiplied by projected population in 2020 of 59778

Total gallons of water used in 2020 Total kwh consumed per gallon of water delivered in Delano

Calculated. (total kwh used in 2020 for water and sewerage) / (gallons of 0.0030 water used in 2020) AWWA Study (http://www.drinktap.org/consumerdnn/Home/WaterInformation/Conserv 0.00115 ation/WaterUseStatistics/tabid/85/Default.aspx)

therms saved per gallon of water reduced Percentage of households to participate by 2020

30% Assumption Calculated. (Number of households) x (Percentage of households to 3,502 participate by 2020)

Number of households to participate by 2020

Calculated. (total gallons per household per day) * (365 days/year) * (70% 29,702 assumed water used indoors) * (20% assumed reduction per household) Calculated. (total gallons reduced per household per year) x (number of 104,028,064 households to participate by 2020)

Gallons of water reduced per household per year Total water reduction

Total Electricity Savings (kWh) Total Natural Gas Savings (therms) Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs: Ongoing FTE needed:

$ $ $ $ $ $

2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 6 8 8 3 25

Source Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the residential sector and 11,675 divided by the average kWh used per household. 2010 UWMP data show that 4,968 accounts consumed 1,054,000,000 gallons in 2010, which is 212,158 gallons per account. Assume each account is one household. Thus: (212,158 gallons/household/year) / (365 days/year) 581 = 581 gallons/household/day. Assumption based on the following EPA publication: 70% http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/pubs/outdoor.html

kWh used in 2020 for water and sewerage

Med Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

Calculated. (total water reduction) x (kwh saved per gallon of water 307,582 reduced) Calculated. (total water reduction) x (therms saved per gallon of water 119,632 reduced) 0.14 0.71 43,062 Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) 84,938.91 Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) 50,000.00 Based on case studies or energy audit results. - No operational costs identified. 5% Assumption

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost

$

50,000

Ongoing Operational Costs

$

3,750

Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

307,582 119,632

Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

722

Non-Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year)

0

Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

0

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year)

0

Total annual savings:

$

128,000


W.1.2: Outdoor Water Conservation Incentives and Ordinance. Increase use of recycled greywater and rainwater for landscaping irrigation. Provide incentives for water-saving devices, such as low-flow sprinklers. Continue to enforce the Outdoor Landscaping Ordinance.

Quantitative Analysis

Qualitative Analysis 131,821 38 18,455

Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual kWh Savings by 2020 Non-Residential: Annual Therm Savings by 2020 Annual GHG reduced (MTCO2e) by 2020 Total Annual Savings by 2020

$

Criteria Energy Reduction Cost to City Ease of Implementation Co-Benefits

Category Scores 2 2 3 3

Cost/Savings and Energy Assumptions: Number of residential households in 2020

2 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Rank 3 1 2 4

Cost to City Funding Available Implementation Time (Years) Community Support Requires Political Support Environmental Co-Benefits Community Co-Benefits Synergies with Existing Initiatives

Weighting 2 4 3 1 Total Measure Score:

Source

Percentage of water used outdoors

Assumption based on the following EPA publication: 30% http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/pubs/outdoor.html

Outdoor water use saving target per household

20% Based on goal of 20% reduction by 2020 in the UWMP.

kWh used in 2020 for water and sewerage

10,115,584 Delano Municipal EAP 2010 UWMP target of 156.8 gallons per capita per day multiplied by 365 days/year 3,421,214,496 multiplied by projected population in 2020 of 59778 Calculated. (total kwh used in 2020 for water and sewerage) / (gallons of water 0.0030 used in 2020) AWWA Study (http://www.drinktap.org/consumerdnn/Home/WaterInformation/Conservation/ 0.00115 WaterUseStatistics/tabid/85/Default.aspx)

Total gallons of water used in 2020 Total kwh consumed per gallon of water delivered in Delano

therms saved per gallon of water reduced Percentage of households to participate by 2020

30% Assumption Calculated. (Number of households) x (Percentage of households to participate by 3,502.38 2020) Calculated. (total gallons per household per day) * (365 days/year) * (30% 12,729 assumed water used outdoors) * (20% assumed reduction per household) Calculated. (total gallons reduced per household per year) x (number of 44,583,456 households to participate by 2020) 131,821 Calculated. (total water reduction) x (kwh saved per gallon of water reduced)

Number of households to participate by 2020 Gallons of water reduced per household per year Total water reduction Total Electricity Savings (kWh)

Ongoing FTE needed:

$ $ $ $ $ $

0.14 0.71 18,455 50,000 -

None. Heated water is not typically used outdoors.

Calculated (total electricity savings) x (cost of electricity) Calculated (total therms savings) x (cost of natural gas) Based on case studies or energy audit results. No operational costs identified.

5% Assumption

2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3

Total Criteria Score: 4 8 8 3 23

Calculated. Took the 2020 projected kWh in the residential sector and divided by 11,675 the average kWh used per household. 2010 UWMP data show that 4,968 accounts consumed 1,054,000,000 gallons in 2010, which is 212,158 gallons per account. Assume each account is one household. Thus: (212,158 gallons/household/year) / (365 days/year) = 581 581 gallons/household/day.

Gallons per household per day

Total Natural Gas Savings (therms) Current cost of electricity ($/kWh) current cost of natural gas ($/therms) Annual cost savings for electricity Annual cost savings for therms Cost to Implement Ongoing operational costs:

Med Yes 1 Med No Many Many Yes

Cost/Savings and Energy Calculations: Total upfront implementation cost

$

50,000

Ongoing Operational Costs

$

3,750

Residential: Electricity reduction (kwh/year) Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year) Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Non-Residential: Electricity Generated (kwh/year) Non-Residential: Natural Gas reduction (therms/year)

131,821 38 0 0

Non-Residential GHG reduction (MTCO2e/year) Total annual savings:

0 $

18,455


2000 Hearst Avenue. Berkeley, CA. 94709

Delano health and sustainability element public draft & appendices  

Delano Health and Sustainability element Public Draft & Appendices

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