Roma Numismatics Auction XXIII

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ROMA NUMISMATICS LIMITED

Auction XXIII 24 & 25 MARCH 2022

Roma Numismatics Limited 40 Villiers Street London WC2N 6NJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 7846 7115 www.romanumismatics.com email: info@romanumismatics.com

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Auction XXIII 24 MAR. 13:00 Celtic and greek coins 20:00 Roman COINS: Provincial, Republic 25 MAR. 13:00 The David Miller Collection Roman coins: Imperatorial, Imperial Mare Nostrum Hoard, Byzantine Coins

Auction XXIV 28 MAR. 13:00 Islamic, British and World Coins 15:00 The Mike Ballerini Collection 17:30 The R.T. Collection of Napoleonic Medals

Location Please note this is a purely internet and telephone based event and the auction will not be held at a public venue. To find out more about participating please see page v.

Viewing At the office of Roma Numismatics: 40 Villiers Street London, WC2N 6NJ United Kingdom From February 28th - March 23rd Monday - friday, 09.30 - 17.30 by appointment To assist you with making informed bidding decisions, high resolution images of our auction lots are available upon request. LOT PICKUP WILL BE AVAILABLE FROM 13.00 ON WEDNESDAY 30 MARCH

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The Team Richard E Beale Managing Director & Senior Numismatist

Simon Parkin Senior Manager & Numismatist

Sally Oliver Associate Manager & Numismatist

Clementine Bowring Associate Manager & Numismatist

Alice Prince Client Manager

Christine Scott Finance Manager

Guillem Southwood Auction Photographer

Joe Hazell Auction Cataloguer

Michael Tigchelaar Auction Cataloguer

Lara Drew Auction Cataloguer

Svetlana Egorova Senior Dispatch Administrator

Emma Hewson Dispatch Administrator

Italo Vecchi Consultant Specialist

Chris Rumney Deniz Grotjohann UK/EU Representative, World Coinage European Representative

ABSENTEE BIDDING You may submit an absentee bid that will be executed on your behalf by Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics will attempt to obtain the lot for you at the lowest possible price, and will not purchase the lot for you at a price higher than the maximum you specify. This service is free and confidential. Absentee bids must be sent and received in good time. To place absentee bids please submit your list of lots, together with your maximum bids, either by email or post using the form provided, or online at www.RomaNumismatics.com. You may also participate live online during the sale at www. RomaNumismatics.com/live-bidding

email or postal bids The customer is responsible for submitting these in good time and confirming that the bids have been received. Please note we no longer accept bids by fax.

Telephone bids Bids may be placed by telephone as the auction is in progress, but are accepted only at the discretion of Roma Numismatics and at the risk of the customer. Roma Numismatics will not be held responsible for any failure to execute bids by telephone during the auction resulting from technical issues, miscommunication or any other reason. Any client wishing to bid by telephone should inform Roma Numismatics no later than 72 hours before the auction, and should have a prepared list of all the lots they wish to bid on.

Commission Bidding BID ONLINE PRIOR TO THE AUCTION, SEE BIDS UPDATED IN REAL-TIME ON THE ROMA SITE. Commission bids may be submitted prior to the auction at www.RomaNumismatics.com - these bids will be automatically executed on the website, and will then be carried over into the live auction and executed by the auctioneer on the day.

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Live Internet Bidding

The Auc�on Pla�orm

www.biddr.com

BID ONLINE DURING THE AUCTION, HEAR THE AUCTION LIVE ON YOUR COMPUTER. Real-time bids may be placed on the Roma Numismatics’ website and at www.biddr.ch on the day of the sale. These bids will be executed live on the floor. A 2% surcharge will apply to lots won through either live internet bidding service. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. It is advisable to register as early as possible for these services.

Successful Bids Successful bidders will be notified and invoiced normally within 24 hours of the auction. Prices realised will be published around the same time.

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Conditions of Sale 1. The following Terms and Conditions apply to Bidders of all Auctions held by Roma Numismatics Ltd. By making a Bid, the Bidder agrees to these Terms and Conditions and accepts to be bound by them. ESTIMATES 2. All estimates for Lots are in pounds sterling (£). Any other currency displayed against a Lot is indicative only for the convenience of the Bidder and does not constitute an offer by Roma Numismatics Ltd to pay in any other currency. DESCRIPTIONS 3. The details of any Lot(s), including a description of each item is contained in the Catalogue and/or on Roma Numismatics Ltd’s website. 4. All grades, descriptions and rarity information are the opinion of the cataloguer. Conditions of all Lot(s) are as they appear in the photographs displayed in the Catalogue and/or on the Roma Numismatics Ltd website. Condition reports are available upon request. 5. Bidders are encouraged to carefully examine in person any Lot(s) for which they intend or do Bid for as it is not possible to note all marks or defects or colours. Roma Numismatics Ltd makes no guarantee as to the physical quality or condition of any Lot(s). 6. Any prospective Bidders who exercise the opportunity to physically inspect and examine any Lot(s) in hand shall assume all responsibility and liability for any damage they cause in the course of such examination. Roma Numismatics Ltd shall have sole discretion in determining the value of any damage caused, which shall be promptly paid to Roma Numismatics Ltd by the prospective Bidder. AUTHENTICITY 7. Roma Numismatics Ltd guarantees the absolute authenticity of all Lots Sold. There is no expiration to this guarantee. BIDDING 8. Unless otherwise determined at the discretion of the auctioneer, opening Bids will be 60% of the estimate unless there are existing higher Bids. 9. A Bid, once placed, is final. A Bid cannot be revoked. 10. A Bid is placed: 10.1. In the case of a Live (Printed) Auction when the auctioneer acknowledges a Bid and communicates to the other Bidders participating in the Auction that the Bid price has been altered accordingly; or 10.2. In the case of an Absentee (mail or other written) Bid, when a Bid is received by Roma Numismatics Ltd no later than one hour before the commencement of an Auction at which the Lot is due to be auctioned. It is the Bidder’s responsibility to ensure that Absentee Bid(s), whether submitted via the Roma Numismatics Ltd website or by other acceptable means, are accurate and placed in accordance with this sub-clause. Bids received after this point are not guaranteed to be accepted, but when accepted and executed the Bidder is subject to the same terms above. 11. If your Bid is successful You will become the Buyer of that particular Lot and be liable to pay the Hammer Price, plus those applicable charges and fees set out in the “Charges & Payment” section in these Terms and Conditions. 12. Roma Numismatics Ltd shall have absolute discretion to accept or decline any Bid, withdraw Lots from sale or re-open Bidding for any Lot at any time, whether before or after a Lot is Sold, until such time as the Buyer takes physical possession of the Lot, in circumstances which may include, but are not limited to (1) a bidding error has occurred (2) Roma Numismatics Ltd becomes aware of a dispute in relation to the Lot, Sale or Auction (3) Roma Numismatics Ltd has not received payment for the Lot. 13. For the protection of Absentee Bids, no ‘unlimited’ or ‘buy’ Bids will be accepted by Roma Numismatics Ltd. 14. When identical Bids are received for the same Lot, preference will be given to the Bid received first. Absentee Bids will take preference over a floor Bid. 15. Some Lots may carry a Reserve. Roma Numismatics Ltd reserves the right not to sell a Lot below the Reserve, or will repurchase the item on behalf of the consignor or for the account of Roma Numismatics Ltd. If a Reserve exists Roma Numismatics Ltd reserves the right to Bid on any Lot on behalf of the consignor up to the amount of the Reserve against any other Bidders. CHARGES & PAYMENT 16. A Buyer’s Fee equivalent to 20% of the Hammer Price will be added to the Hammer Price and payable by the Buyer to Roma Numismatics Ltd in accordance with these Terms and Conditions: 17. VAT at the applicable rate (applicable to customers within the UK) is due on the Buyer’s Fee only, not the Hammer Price. Roma Numismatics Ltd registered VAT number is 901478828. 18. A 2% surcharge of the Hammer Price will be applied to Bids submitted via post or email, rather than being placed on the Roma Numismatics Ltd website. 19. A 2% surcharge of the Hammer Price will be applied to Bids submitted via Roma Numismatics’ live internet bidding service or www.biddr.ch. 20. Invoices are due immediately upon receipt by the Buyer. Roma Numismatics Ltd reserves the right to charge interest on invoices that remain unpaid for 1 calendar month after the date they become due at the rate of 2% per calendar month, except where prior agreement has been made with regards to payment. 21. The Buyer is responsible for paying all bank charges and any shipping and insurance costs. 22. Invoices are sent to Buyers by email. They can also be found listed under ‘Pending Invoices’ in the ‘My Account’ section of the Roma Numismatics Ltd’ website, and can be paid via the website by selecting the preferred payment option of BACS, PayPal or Credit/Debit card. Cash payments are no longer accepted. PayPal and Credit/Debit card payments are accepted only for invoices of £2,500 total value or less. DELIVERY, COLLECTION & STORAGE 23. The Buyer will be required to satisfy the requirements of Roma Numismatics Ltd AML Policy before the Lot will be released. Buyers may, subject to payment of any fees or charges for delivery, either: 23.1. Collect Lots Sold to them from Roma Numismatics Ltd in person from the main office at 40 Villiers Street, London WC2N 6NJ by prior appointment, or 23.2. Arrange with Roma Numismatics Ltd to send or deliver the Lot to the Buyer’s nominated address by post, courier or such other method as agreed with Roma Numismatics Ltd. 24. Buyers shall at all times be liable for any costs or expenses incurred by Roma Numismatics Ltd associated with the Buyer’s nominated delivery method. Roma Numismatics Ltd standard delivery costs are set out in the Catalogue and on the Roma Numismatics Ltd website. Any additional costs will be as displayed in the Catalogue and /or the Roma Numismatics Ltd website. 25. Roma Numismatics Ltd shall store any Lot following Sale until shipment to the Buyer without charge. RISK & TITLE 26. Risk in the Lot passes to the Buyer when the Buyer takes physical possession of the Lot. 27. Title remains with the owner until such time as all sums owed to Roma Numismatics Ltd, by the Buyer, have been received by Roma Numismatics Ltd as cleared funds into Roma Numismatics Ltd’s bank account. MPORT/EXPORT RESTRICTIONS 28. Any Lot that is Sold that is subject to United States of America (US) or German import restrictions must be legally imported into the US or Germany (unless otherwise explicitly stated in the Lot description). Any such Lot will be accompanied by documentation proving that the Lot was outside of the source country prior to the Effective Date, or a valid export certificate issued by the country of origin. Any Lot subject to US or German import restrictions that may not lawfully

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Conditions of Sale (Continued) be imported into these countries will be clearly indicated as such in the Catalogue with a notice stating ‘not suitable for US/German market’. I29. Our commitment to ethical and responsible provenance ensures that the Seller affirms each Lot is Their lawful property to sell, and where cultural property restrictions may exist, that it meets the requirements to be legally imported into the US and/or Germany. 30. Roma Numismatics Ltd will endeavour to carry out importations on behalf of the Buyer to enable shipment of that Lot to the Buyer’s nominated location but the Buyer is ultimately responsible for ensuring compliance with import regulations and procedures. However, any Buyer, whether based in the US, Germany or elsewhere, who purchases a Lot that cannot be lawfully imported into either the US or Germany, with the intention that the Lot is sent to either of those jurisdictions, shall be deemed to purchase the Lot and will be liable to pay all fees, charges and cost that become due when Knocked Down. 31. Roma Numismatics Ltd will not, and will not be compelled to, under any circumstances accept instructions from any person, make arrangements or be required to forward or send any Lot that cannot be lawfully imported to any jurisdiction to that jurisdiction. 32. Roma Numismatics Ltd undertakes to obtain export licences for those Lots that require them. RETURNS 33. If a Buyer suspects a Lot is not authentic they must notify Roma Numismatics Ltd as soon as possible. Rejection by any third party grading service for any reason will not by itself constitute grounds for return of the Lot(s). The Buyer must support any claim of non-authenticity by valid technical evidence provided by at least 2 (two) separate qualified firms or individuals. A Lot may only be returned to Roma Numismatics Ltd if it is agreed to be not authentic by Roma Numismatics Ltd. 34. A Lot may be returned to Roma Numismatics Ltd within 21 (twenty one) days of the Sale Date if it is materially different from its description. 35. In circumstances where a Lot is returned by a Buyer pursuant to clause 32 or 33 and Roma Numismatics Ltd agrees to a refund, the amount to be refunded to the Buyer shall be (1) the Hammer Price (2) the Buyer’s Fee (3) the surcharge paid under clause 18 (if any). In all other cases, Roma Numismatics Ltd is not liable to refund or pay a Buyer for any fees or costs associated with returning a Lot to Roma Numismatics Ltd or the refund of any shipping charges or external or 3rd party costs. 36. All refunds will be made in Pounds Sterling unless otherwise agreed. Roma Numismatics Ltd is not liable for any exchange rate differences. FALIURE TO PAY 37. Roma Numismatics Ltd is under no obligation to release a Lot to a Buyer until such time as the Buyer has paid Roma Numismatics Ltd. All sums that are due or which may become due as set out in these Terms and Conditions. 38. Lots will be held by Roma Numismatics Ltd for a period of 3 calendar months from the date the Lot is Knocked Down unless otherwise agreed. After 3 (three) calendar months Roma Numismatics Ltd shall be entitled to cancel the Sale and re-auction the Lot in accordance with clause 12. LIMITATION ON LIABILITY 39. Roma Numismatics Ltd shall not be liable to You for any loss of profits, loss of sales or business, loss of agreement or contracts, loss of anticipated savings, loss of or damage to goodwill or indirect or consequential loss. 40. Our liability to You is capped at the amount You have paid to Us in respect of a Lot. 41. Roma Numismatics Ltd does not exclude or limit in any way its liability to You where it would be unlawful. GENERAL 42. Roma Numismatics Ltd shall not be in breach of these Terms and Conditions nor liable for delay in performing, or failure to perform, any of its obligations under these Terms and Conditions if such delay or failure result from events, circumstances or causes beyond its reasonable control. 43. Any notice or other communication given to a party under or in connection with these Terms and Conditions shall be in writing, addressed to that party at its registered office (if it is a company) or such other address as that party may have specified to the other party in writing, and shall be delivered personally, sent by pre-paid first class post or other next working day delivery service, commercial courier or email. 44. A notice or other communication shall be deemed to have been received if delivered personally, when left at the address referred to in clause 43: if sent by prepaid first class post or other next working day delivery service, at 9.00 am on the second business day after posting; if delivered by commercial courier, on the date and at the time that the courier’s delivery receipt is signed; or, if sent by email, one business day after transmission. 45. These Terms and Conditions and any document produced by Roma Numismatics Ltd or otherwise mentioned herein constitutes the entire agreement between the parties and supersedes and extinguishes all previous agreements, promises, assurances, warranties, representations and understandings between them, whether written or oral, relating to its subject matter. 46. Roma Numismatics Ltd will only use Your personal information as set out in Our privacy policy, a copy of which can be viewed at: https://www.romanumismatics.com/privacy-policy. We may amend this policy from time to time. 47. Roma Numismatics Ltd’s Anti-Money Laundering Policy (AML Policy) sets out Roma Numismatics Ltd’s policy for ensuring compliance with anti-money laundering legislation that applies to some of its activities. 48. We may amend these Terms and Conditions from time to time. 49. No failure or delay by Roma Numismatics Ltd to exercise any right or remedy provided under these Terms and Conditions or by law shall constitute a waiver of that or any other right or remedy, nor shall it prevent or restrict the further exercise of that or any other right or remedy. 50. Nobody else has any rights under these Terms and Conditions. 51. If any provision or part-provision of these Terms and Conditions is or becomes invalid, illegal or unenforceable, it shall be deemed modified to the minimum extent necessary to make it valid, legal and enforceable. If such modification is not possible, the relevant provision or part-provision shall be deemed deleted. Any modification to or deletion of a provision or part-provision under this clause shall not affect the validity and enforceability of the rest of these Terms and Conditions. 52. These Terms and Conditions and any dispute or claim (including non-contractual disputes or claims) arising out of or in connection with it or its subject matter or formation, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the law of England and Wales. 53. Each party irrevocably agrees that the courts of England and Wales shall have exclusive jurisdiction to settle any dispute or claim (including non-contractual disputes or claims) arising out of or in connection with these Terms and Conditions or its subject matter or formation. PAYMENT METHODS: Invoices can found listed under ‘Pending Invoices’ in the ‘My Account’ section of the Roma Numismatics’ website, and can be paid directly through the site by selecting the preferred payment option of BACS, PayPal or Credit/Debit card. Credit/Debit Card or PayPal: For invoices with a total value of £2,500 or less. Bank Transfer: Barclays Bank, 22 The Borough, Farnham, GU9 7NH, UK | Account Name: Roma Numismatics IBAN: GB90 BUKB 2031 0663 0101 39 | BIC: BUKB GB22 | SORT CODE: 20-31-06 | ACC #: 63010139

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ROMA NUMISMATICS AUCTION XXIII MAIL BID FORM First Name:

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COINS OF THE CELTS NORTHEAST GAUL Among the Finest Known

1. Northeast Gaul, the Veliocassi Æ 18mm. Circa 50-30 BC. Female head to right; SVTICCOS before / Horse prancing to right; horizontal S and VELIOCAΘI above, annulet and horizontal S below. D&T 651; Depeyrot, NC V, 255; de la Tour 7356. 2.28g, 18mm, 9h. Extremely Fine; minor edge chip, beautiful emerald green patina. Rare, and among the finest known.

1,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 114, 13 May 2020, lot 458 (hammer: USD 2,750).

EASTERN CELTS

2. Eastern Celts, ‘Kolchis’ AV Stater. Imitating types of Alexander and Lysimachos. Late 2nd - mid 1st century BC. Celticised head of Athena to right; large pellets around / Celticised figure of Nike standing facing; two pellets to left and to right. Cf. D.M. Lang, Studies in the Numismatic History of Georgia in Transcaucasia in NNM 130 (1955), pl. I, 5-6; cf. LT 9377; cf. Stack’s Jan 2017 NYINC, 5077; cf. CNG Triton XIX, 2051. 3.68g, 16mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 2/5, edge filing (#6158069-013).

2,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Nomos AG, Auction 15, 22 October 2017, lot 38; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1189.

CELTS IN EASTERN EUROPE Ex CNG 47, 1998

3. Celts in Eastern Europe AR Tetradrachm. Imitating the types of Thasos. Mint in the region of the lower Danube, Moesia, or Thrace, late 2nd-1st centuries BC. Stylised wreathed head of Dionysos to right / [HP]AKΛEOYE EΩTHIOE(sic), stylised Herakles standing facing, head to left, holding club and lion skin; ΘAEIΩN(sic - Ω inverted) below. Cf. Lanz 971-4; cf. Göbl, OTA pl. 46/47; cf. HGC 6, 359 (for prototype); Hirsch 281, lot 10. 16.83g, 34mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Privately purchased from Shanna Schmidt Inc. (USD 1,250); Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 47, 16 September 1998, lot 26.

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GAUL

COINS OF THE GREEKS Extremely Rare

4. Gaul, Massalia AR Drachm. Circa 150-125 BC. Draped bust of Artemis to right, wearing stephane; bow and quiver over shoulder / Lion standing to right; MAΣΣA -ΛIHTΩN around, Π between back legs, Δ under chest, Φ between front paws. Muarel 630; Depeyrot 41.39; BnF inv. 1282-4. 2.81g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State; previously NGC graded MS 5/5 - 3/5 (2080858-003). Extremely Rare variety with these three letters beneath lion.

2,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 8; Ex Editions V. Gadoury, Auction 2018, 16 November 2018, lot 17.

ETRURIA

Pedigreed to 1911

5. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd Century BC. Facing head of Metus, hair bound with diadem; X:X (mark of value) below / Uncertain round protuberance. EC I, 47.137 (this coin - O13/R17); HN Italy 146. NGC graded Ch VF 4/5 - 4/5 (#4681600-002).

1,000

This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage Part 1 (Milan, 2013); Ex Collection of Etruscan, Early Italian and Roman Coinage, Baldwin’s Auctions Ltd., Auction 99, 4 May 2016, lot 547; Ex Lord Renfrew Collection 38, with ticket noting its purchase from A. H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd. on 23 December 1955 and previous purchase in Paris; Ex Adolph E. Cahn, Auction 80, 27 February 1933, lot 18; Ex Nordheim & Anderson collections, Glendining’s, 3 December 1929, lot 676; Ex Barron Collection, J. Hirsch, Auction 30, 11 May 1911, lot 9.

An Exceptional Example of the Type

6. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Diademed gorgoneion facing; XX (mark of value) below / Blank. SNG Leake 62; EC I, 59.8 (this coin); SNG ANS 78; HN Italy 152. 9.00g, 20mm. Good Extremely Fine; superbly lustrous metal, lightly toned. An exceptionally beautiful example of the type.

10,000

This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage Part 1 (Milan, 2013); Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 11; Ex Stacks, Bowers & Ponterio, NYINC Auction, 9 January 2015, lot 5 (hammer price: USD 9000); Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton VI, 14 January 2003, lot 22 (cleaned and conserved since). The inhabitants of Populonia derived much of their wealth from mining the polymetallic ore deposits in their immediate vicinity around Campiglia Marittima, which contain copper, lead, zinc, iron, silver and tin, thus providing them at a stroke with all of the necessary raw materials to fabricate both bronze and steel, with the rare benefit of silver too. The character of the silver coinage of Populonia directly reflects this mineral melange - it is often quite impure and highly leaded, with the result being that many surviving specimens are somewhat dull in appearance. The present example is a remarkable exception, being of relatively high purity silver, and retains a beautiful lustre. The second silver Metus group is the most extensive of all Etruscan groups and consists of denominations similar to the first Metus group, but with value marks of exactly the double: 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1 and possibly a half unit (series 37-111). The average weight of the 20 unit pieces clusters around 8.4g, but enough examples weigh over 8.5g to indicate that their theoretical intended weight may have been a stater of 8.6 grams, close to that of the Corinthian type staters current in southern Italy and Sicily in the early 3rd century. This denomination is divided by 20 units, presumably Roman libral cast asses, dominant throughout central Italy from the 280s BC, rendering a silver unit of about 0.43g, close to the standard of Rome’s earliest 10-as denarii. Although similar in weight standard, they seem only to anticipate the Roman denarius of c. 211 BC, since the chronological evidence from both the Populonia (1939) and Ponte Gini (1986) finds point to a burial date of the first half of the 3rd century BC.

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7. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Facing head of Metus with curly hair and winged torque-like diadem over head; X X (mark of value) below / Blank. EC I, 62 (O49); HN Italy 152; HGC 1, 109. 7.73g, 23mm. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare; EC I records that only ten examples are known from this die.

2,500

From the Vitangelo Collection. While the winged head of Medusa is a common convention in later Greek art, it is quite unusual in this context. Stylistically and iconographically, this series stands well apart from the rest of the Second Metus Group. In terms of the artistry employed, the semicircular pellet-in-ringlets and curved, pelleted diadem above the head lend an almost Celtic quality to the style of the work; the addition of the small wings above the head represent an abrupt departure from the more archaizing heads that preceded this issue, which should certainly be considered to be in the first rank of surviving Etruscan coinage; it is a bold and fresh take on an extensive series, and of great aesthetic quality.

Published in Vecchi

8. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. Circa 300-250 BC. Laureate male head to left; X (mark of value) behind / Blank. EC I, 70.29 (this coin); SNG ANS 26 (same dies); HN Italy 168; HGC 1, 120. 4.13g, 19mm. Extremely Fine; beautiful deep old cabinet tone.

3,000

This coin published in I. Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage Part 1 (Milan, 2013); Ex Sheikh Saud bin Mohammed al-Thani Collection; Ex Rockerfeller University - Dr. Alfred E. Mirsky Collection, Gemini LLC, Auction VII, 9 January 2011, lot 14.

LATIUM

9. Latium, Alba Fucens AR Obol. Circa 280-275 BC. Helmeted head of Minerva to right / Eagle standing to right on thunderbolt, with wings spread. Stazio 3; Campana 4A; HN Italy 243; HGC 1, 216. 0.57g, 14mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; old cabinet tone, in outstanding condition for the issue. Rare. Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 13.

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1,000


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LUCANIA Published in Holloway, Art and Coinage in Magna Graecia (1978)

10. Lucania, Herakleia AR Stater. Circa 350 BC. Head of Athena facing three-quarters to right, wearing triple-crested Phrygian helmet and necklace / ՒHPAKΛH[IΩN], Herakles standing facing, head to right, wielding [club] in right hand and wrestling the Nemean lion with left. AMB 107 (this coin); Holloway, Art, p. 17, 2 and pl. 131 (this coin); SNG Lloyd 270 (same dies); BMC 27 (same dies); SNG ANS 56 (same dies); Van Keuren 22 (same dies); ACGC 738 (same dies); Work 23; HN Italy 1375. 7.58g, 22mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone. Extremely Rare; most likely the finest known example of this wonderfully artistic and highly desirable issue. 25,000 This coin published in H. A. Cahn et al., Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig: Griechische Münzen aus Grossgriechenland und Sizilien (Basel, 1988); This coin published in R. Ross Holloway, Art and Coinage in Magna Graecia (Bellinzona, 1978); Ex Athos D. Moretti Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 13, 8 October 1998, lot 107. This coin was part of the renowned Athos D. Moretti Collection, amassed over 50 years from 1940-1993 and exhibited at the Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig during which time it was published in the exhibition catalogue in 1998. The coin also features in an earlier publication by the acclaimed archaeologist R. Ross Holloway celebrating the coinage of Magna Graecia. Herakleia, named after the legendary Greek hero Herakles, was founded in 433/2 BC by Tarentum with colonists from the city and from Siris. (Diod. 12.36.4) It became an important centre in the fourth century as the seat of an alliance of local Greek cities against the native Lucanians and Bruttian, and issued extensive coinage with the characteristic combination of a profile portrait of Athena and its namesake, Herakles, wrestling the Nemean lion. On this extremely rare coin, however, Athena is portrayed three-quarters facing, following the model of Eukleidas’ beautiful portrait of Athena on exceedingly rare Syracusan tetradrachms. The die-engraver has rendered with great artistic flair her triple-crested Phrygian helmet and dynamic curls. This frontal portrait is dominated by the searching gaze for which Athena was famous, known throughout antiquity from as early as the time of Homer as ‘γλαυκῶπις’ or ‘bright-eyed’, an adjective derived from the word for ‘owl’, a bird with which she is closely linked. The sensational reverse depicts Herakles as a paragon of physical strength, the scene capturing a split second of dramatic motion which accentuates his muscular legs and torso, while the detail with which his focused, determined expression is accentuated communicates the grave danger of his deadly fight with the Nemean lion. Once it was slain in the first of Herakles’ famous twelve labours, the lion’s pelt, which myth held was impenetrable by any weapon, became an iconic attribute of the hero and features on coinage throughout the Greek world. Herakles’ dynamic contrapposto stance here bears a striking similarity to the splendid contemporary Hermes staters of Pheneos in north-east Arkadia (eg. BCD Peloponnesos 1615). While this archetypal scene with a long history in Greek art had generally by this period evolved into a show of muscular strength influenced by the lithe athleticism of the wrestling ground, our extremely rare coin shows Herakles swinging back from the lion to deliver a blow with his club (Ross Holloway, 1978, p.56). The same type was later adopted by Dionysius of Syracuse for his gold coinage, reinforcing the suggestion that this first and most famous of Herakles’ labours may have been chosen to symbolise the struggle of Hellenism against the barbarism of the native Italic tribes. (Kraay, 1976, p.193).

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Very Rare

11. Lucania, Herakleia AR Stater. Circa 276-250 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing Corinthian helmet adorned with griffin; ՒHPAKΛEIΩN above / Herakles standing facing, holding club and jug over lighted altar, lion skin draped over his left arm; thunderbolt to right. Van Keuren 136 (same obv. die); SNG ANS 94 var. (Athena to left); HN Italy 1433; HGC 1, 1007. 6.54g, 20mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; the finest (by a considerable margin) of only three examples auctioned in the past 20 years.

1,000

From the inventory of a European dealer.

12. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 540-510 BC. Ear of barley with eight grains on each side; MET downwards in left field; dotted border between double concentric circles / Incuse barley ear. Noe Class II, 46; HN Italy 1459. 8.05g, 29mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; some minor marks and scratches.

1,500

Ex Dr. Walter F. Stoecklin Collection (†1975), Nomos AG, Auction 14, 17 May 2017, lot 29 (since cleaned); Acquired from P. & P. Santamaria in Rome prior to 1975.

13. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 470-440 BC. Ear of barley with seven grains on each side; META upwards to left, grasshopper downwards to right; dotted border around / Incuse barley ear. Noe, Class XII, 258 (same dies); Luynes 453 (same dies); HN Italy 1486. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 3/5 (#5747210-054). Very Rare.

3,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, Dallas Signature Sale 3088, 5 November 2020, lot 34004. The most desirable of all the incuse types of Metapontion, this remarkable and brief series comprising only four known obverse dies for the staters and one for a third stater marks the first usage of adjunct symbols on the coinage of Metapontion. A series of great fascination, the meaning of the grasshopper and the dolphin (which is present on the staters) has been a subject of debate for many years. Noe advocated the symbols as representing the badges of the moneyers’ houses, an argument not dissimilar to that which led the early archaic Athenian coins to be called ‘wappenmünzen’. Lenormant’s view that the insect has a propitiatory significance is rejected with the derisory rhetorical question ‘there may have been a plague of locusts but could there have been a plague of dolphins?’, while avoiding trying to explain its significance. Babelon (Traité, 1395-1396) proposed a punning reference to the hero Alybas, father of Metabos, and legendary founder of the city, however the Greek word he proposes to mean locust is incorrect, and the argument founders, still failing to explain the dolphin. It is most logical to follow Lenormant and view the appearance of the grasshopper-locust on the coins as being a propitiatory emblem or commemorating the deliverance of the city from a plague of locusts through the intervention of Apollo. Indeed, the god is closely associated with afflictions (and the relief of), and had as one of his epithets ‘Parnopios’, from πάρνοψ, “locust” – the expeller of locusts. Given that the dolphin was both a form he had taken and one of his sacred animals, as well as being a punning allusion to him as Apollo Delphinios, it seems eminently reasonable to determine the link between the two symbols as being in reference to a plague of locusts whose abatement was attributed to the intervention of Apollo. That the grasshopper-locust symbol recurs several times more throughout the extensive coinage of Metapontion and at appreciable intervals is hardly suggestive of descendants of a particular family holding office, as Noe suggested, but rather more likely indicative of recurrent swarms threatening the principle source of the city’s wealth and food.

6


Published in Demeester

14. Lucania, Metapontion AR Half Shekel. Punic occupation, circa 215-207 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet / Ear of barley with leaf to right, owl in flight above leaf; META to left. Robinson, Second p. 50, 3; SNG ANS 549-50; Jameson 329; Weber 779; Demeester 10 (this coin); HN Italy 1634; HGC 1, 1092. NGC graded Ch AU ★ 5/5 - 5/5 (#6156404-002).

5,000

This coin published in A. Demeester, Les animaux et la monnaie grecque (2003); From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 445, 5 June 2019, lot 27; Ex Gasvoda Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXII, 8 January 2019, lot 56; Ex J. FALM Collection: Miniature Masterpieces of Greek Coinage depicting Animals, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 82, 20 May 2015, lot 74; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 8, 3 April 1995, lot 68. Sometime after the defeat of Pyrrhos of Epeiros by Rome, Metapontion came under Roman domination. We do not know precisely when this occurred or the circumstances of the event, but the city was amongst the first to defect to Hannibal after the battle of Cannae in 216 BC. However, it was still occupied by a Roman garrison sometime afterwards, and only in 212 when Hannibal captured nearby Taras did the Metapontines expel the Roman garrison and fully declare for the Carthaginian cause. Hannibal quickly utilised the city as a supply depot, garrisoning the town with his troops. It was during the Punic occupation of Metapontion that this coin was struck. Like other Punic issues minted at this time in southern Italy, the fabric and execution of strike are neat and precise, with thin flans and competent engraving. While the coin retains the grain ear on the reverse, the obverse employs a type rarely used before at the city, the head of Athena wearing a crested Corinthian helmet. It is not known the significance of this change, but is paralleled elsewhere at other Punic-aligned cities. After the Carthaginian defeat at the pivotal battle of the Metaurus in 207, Hannibal’s hopes for victory in Italy were dashed. Having first relocated the inhabitants of Metapontion to protect them from Roman vengeance, in 202 he withdrew all his forces to Africa to protect the motherland from Scipio. Afterwards the city of Metapontion never regained its former prominence, and by the mid second century AD was, according to Pausanias, totally deserted and in ruins (Paus. vi, 19. § 11).

CALABRIA

15. Calabria, Tarentum AR Diobol. Circa 380-325 BC. Head of Athena to left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla; Σ (retrograde) on neck guard, X behind, E (retrograde) below chin / Herakles strangling the Nemean lion; [TAPA]NTINΩN (retrograde) above, club to left, Σ between legs. SNG BnF 2086 corr. (obv. letters not noted); cf. SNG ANS 1359 (obv. letters not visible); HN Italy 914; CNG Triton XIX, 5 (same. rev. die, hammer: $475); CNG MB 67, 97 (hammer: $650). 1.15g, 13mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

300

From the inventory of a European dealer.

Ex Roma II, 2011

16. Calabria, Tarentum AR Didrachm. Contemporary imitation. Circa 302-280 BC. Dakimos, magistrate. Warrior on horseback to right, thrusting spear downward and holding two spears and shield; [Σ]I behind, ΔAKIMOΣ below / Taras riding dolphin to left, holding dolphin and cradling cornucopiae; ΔA below, TARAΣ behind. Fischer-Bossert N140; Vlasto 696 corr. (ΔA rather than ΩA); SNG ANS 1071 corr. (same); HN Italy 967; SNG BnF -; SNG Copenhagen -. 7.89g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State; attractive old cabinet tone.

2,000

Ex Sheikh Saud bin Mohammed al-Thani Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction II, 2 October 2011, lot 8. The ANS catalogue repeats the mistake made by Vlasto (whose coin was unique at the time); the correct letters were noted by G. Procopio who examined two or three examples of this type (nos. 497-499) in his article on the Bernalda hoard in 1957.

7


“One of the Finest Early 3rd Century Tarentine Staters in Existence”

17. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 290-281 BC. Warrior wearing crested helmet, holding two spears in right hand and shield adorned with dolphin on left arm, on horse rearing to left; A-Ξ-A in upper fields, AΠH below / Taras astride dolphin to left, right hand resting on dorsal fin, cradling distaff in left arm; COI to left, ornate trident head downward to right, TAPAΣ below. Fischer-Bossert Group 81, 1137 (V421/R879); Vlasto 648 (same dies); SNG ANS 1022 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 858 (same dies); SNG Fitzwilliam 286 (same dies); de Luynes 297 (same dies); HN Italy 940; HGC 1, 806. 7.82g, 22mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous metal under old collection tone. Very Rare; described in Nomos 1 as “one of the finest early 3rd century Tarentine staters in existence”. 7,500 Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 27; Ex Matthew Curtis Collection; Privately purchased from Classical Numismatic Group (inventory #792021, $12,500); Ex Nomos AG, Auction 1, 6 May 2009, lot 5 (hammer: CHF 10,500); Ex LHS Numismatik AG, Auction 100, 23 April 2007, lot 75 (hammer: CHF 7,000).

18. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 272-240 BC. Nikylos, magistrate. Reduced standard. The Dioskouroi riding to right; ΝΙΚΥΛΟΣ below / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding kantharos and cradling trident; AP monogram behind, ΤΑΡΑΣ below. Vlasto 936 (same dies); SNG ANS 1243; SNG BnF 2052; HN Italy 1046; HGC 1, 898. 6.42g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

From the inventory of a European dealer.

19. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC. Kallikrates, magistrate. Reduced standard. Strategos, holding Nike who crowns him, in extended right hand, on horse rearing to right; monogram behind, KAΛΛIKPATHΣ in two lines below / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding Nike, who crowns him, in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; ligate NE behind, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 968; SNG ANS 1262; SNG Lloyd 230; SNG BnF 2059-60; Dewing 316; HN Italy 1059; HGC 1, 905. 6.55g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State; some mineral adhesions.

1,750

From the inventory of a European dealer.

20. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC. Kallikrates, magistrate. Reduced standard. Strategos, [holding Nike who crowns him], in extended right hand, on horse rearing to right; crescent above monogram behind, KAΛΛIKPATHΣ in two lines below / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding Nike, who crowns him, in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; ligate NE behind, TAP[AΣ] below. Vlasto 965 (same dies); SNG ANS 1261 (same dies); SNG BnF 2061; HN Italy 1059. 6.52g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

Acquired from Nomos AG.

8


21. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC. Kallikrates, magistrate. Reduced standard. Strategos, holding Nike who crowns him, in extended right hand, on horse rearing to right; monogram behind, KAΛΛ[IKPATHΣ] in two lines below / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding Nike, who crowns him, in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; ligate NE behind, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 968; SNG ANS 1262; SNG Lloyd 230; SNG BnF 2059-60; Dewing 316; HN Italy 1059; HGC 1, 905. 6.58g, 20mm, 8h. Near Mint State.

1,250

From the inventory of a European dealer.

22. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC. Philokles, magistrate. Reduced standard. Nude youth on horseback to right, crowning horse with wreath; monograms to left and right; below, ΦΙΛΟΚΛΗΣ in two lines over dolphin to right / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding horse rhyton and trident; two amphoroi (or loutrophoroi?) to right, on elaborate stands and with lids, ΤΑΡΑΣ below. Vlasto 950-2; SNG ANS 1254; HN Italy 1057; HGC 1, 903. 6.58g, 20mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,250

From the inventory of a European dealer.

23. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC. Xenokrates, magistrate. Reduced standard. Bearded strategos on horse walking to left, wearing short tunic and chlamys, raising right hand in salutation, and with parazonium under left arm; monogram and pileus to upper right, ΞΕΝΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ in two lines below / Taras astride dolphin to left, with torso turned to right, naked but for chlamys raised in left hand, with trident over right shoulder; TAPAΣ to left, monogram to right, cuttlefish and waves below. Vlasto 955-958; SNG ANS 1259; HN Italy 1058; HGC 1, 904. 6.52g, 20mm, 3h. Near Mint State.

1,000

From the inventory of a European dealer.

24. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC. Aristippos, magistrate. Reduced standard. Nude rider on horseback to right, holding filleted palm; monogram to left, APICTIΠΠOC below / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding kantharos in extended right hand; monogram to right, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 947-948; SNG ANS 1253; SNG BnF 2056; HN Italy 1056; HGC 1, 902. 6.64g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the inventory of a European dealer.

9


BRUTTIUM Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection, Sotheby’s 1991

25. Bruttium, Kaulonia AR Stater. Circa 525-500 BC. Nude Apollo advancing to right, holding laurel branch in upright right hand, small daimon running to right on extended left arm, holding branches; to right, stag standing to right, head reverted; KAVΛ to left; all within dot and cable border / Incuse of obverse, but no ethnic and daimon in raised outline. Noe, Caulonia, Group A, 10; SNG ANS 146; Jameson 408; Boston MFA 172 = Warren 138; HN Italy 2035 (all from same dies); HGC 1, 1416. 7.72g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

10,000

Ex George & Julia Fekula Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 87, 18 May 2011, lot 189; Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection, Sotheby’s, 19 June 1991, lot 45. The design of the incuse staters of Kaulonia has elicited various interpretations over the years; those that were current at the time of writing Historia Numorum in 1911 were reviewed by Barclay Head. Head interpreted the figure as being a representation of the oikist Typhon, who holds in his hand a plant (καυλος) stalk, alike to that of the parsnip plant, which he takes to be a punning allusion to the city. Modern scholarship however tends to identify the figure as Apollo, as the symbolism is more easily associated with this deity – a laurel branch, for instance, being more easily recognisable and sacred to Apollo. The small running figure most likely represents a daimon, a divinity of a lower order, who serves as a messenger of the gods. It may be, given his occasionally winged feet, that this daimon should be seen to be a wind god such as Zephyros. The stag is the only element which has consistently defied explanation (even by Head); its meaning was clearly sufficiently explicit and important for it to have eventually served as a the principle reverse type of Kaulonia. It may be a reference to Artemis, who at Aegium was worshipped jointly with Apollo in a temple the two gods shared.

26. Bruttium, Kaulonia AR Stater. Circa 525-500 BC. Nude Apollo advancing to right, holding laurel branch in upright right hand, small daimon running to right on extended left arm, holding branches; to right, stag standing to right, head reverted; KAVΛ to left; all within dot and cable border / Incuse of obverse, but no ethnic. Noe, Caulonia, Group A, 5 (same dies); Morgan 91 (same dies); SNG ANS 142 (same dies); Gulbenkian 119 (same dies); McClean 1589-90 (same dies); HN Italy 2035; HGC 1, 1416. NGC graded Choice VF★ 5/5 - 4/5, Fine Style (#4883934-001).

7,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, NYINC Signature Sale 3081, 12 January 2020, lot 30005.

10


27. Bruttium, Kaulonia AR Stater. Circa 525-500 BC. Nude Apollo walking to right, holding laurel branch in upright right hand, small daimon running to right on extended left arm, holding branches; to right, stag standing to right with head reverted; KAVΛO (the O faint and with central dot) to left, small annulet in right field; all within dot and cable border / Incuse of obverse, but no ethnic or daimon. Noe, Caulonia, Group B, 27 (same dies); SNG ANS 154 var. (ethnic retrograde); SNG Copenhagen -; McClean -; HN Italy 2036; HGC 1, 1416. 7.48g, 29mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone with hints of rainbow iridescence. Scarce.

2,500

Ex Bertolami Fine Arts - ACR Auctions, Auction 12, 29 October 2014, lot 56.

28. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, two serpents at base; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws. Attianese 4; SNG ANS 239-241; HN Italy 2075; HGC 1, 1444. 8.17g, 29mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 31; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 57; Ex Louvière Collection (Belgium), privately purchased c.1970s.

3,000

Ex Numismatic Fine Arts XXII, 1989

29. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod-lebes, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, ornaments and serpents in relief. Attianese 5; SNG ANS 227-234; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075; HGC 1, 1444. 8.45g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone with subtle golden hues.

2,750

Ex B.G. Collection, Nomos AG, FPL Winter-Spring 2010, no. 5; Ex Numismatic Fine Arts, Auction XXII, 1 June 1989, lot 179. The Delphic oracle, alluded to here in the form of the Pythian tripod, and its importance to the founding of Kroton was celebrated on the city’s coinage from the earliest days. Despite later myths ascribing the founding of Kroton to Herakles, the city’s historical oikist is recorded as Myskellos of Rhypai who, on consulting the Delphic oracle about his lack of children was given the response that Apollo would grant children, but that first Myskellos should found the city of Kroton ‘among fair fields’. After being given directions on how to locate the site, Myskellos travelled to southern Italy to explore the land that he had been assigned, but seeing the territory of the Sybarites and thinking it superior, he returned once more to the oracle to ask whether he would be allowed to change. The answer came back that he should accept the gifts that the god gave him. A further element of the story is that Myskellos was accompanied on his expedition by Archias of Corinth; the Delphic oracle gave the pair the choice between health and wealth. Archias elected wealth, and was assigned the site of Syracuse, while Myskellos chose health: the favourable climate of Kroton, the eminent skill of its physicians and the prowess of its athletes later earned its citizens this reputation for good health.

11


30. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod-lebes, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, ornaments and serpents in relief. Attianese 5; SNG ANS 227-234; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075; HGC 1, 1444. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6156405-002).

2,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex VAuctions, Pegasi Auction 40, 28 May 2019, lot 44; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Live Auction 1, 25 July 2018, lot 36.

31. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 350-300 BC. Eagle standing to left on olive branch, with wings displayed and head raised / [KPOTΩ]NIATAN, tripod lebes with legs terminating in lion’s feet; B to right. SNG ANS 359 (same dies); HN Italy 2171; HGC 1, 1464. 7.82g, 22mm, 7h. Good Very Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Rare.

500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 35.

Ex NAC 23, 2002

32. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 280-277 BC. Reduced standard. Eagle standing to right on thunderbolt, head reverted; KP monogram to left, wreath to right / Tripod surmounted by wreaths; to right, Nike flying to left, placing wreath on tripod; KPO to left. Attianese 130 corr. (monogram not K; same obv. die as illustration); HN Italy 2184 corr. (same); SNG ANS 407 (same obv. die); SNG Gale 1100 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd 630 (same dies); McClean 1733 (same obv. die); HGC 1, 1499. 6.47g, 22mm, 2h. Near Mint State; beautiful old cabinet tone with golden iridescence around devices. Very Rare; no other examples on CoinArchives. Ex Gasvoda Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXII, 8 January 2019, lot 103 (hammer: $4,000); Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 329, 17 November 2015, lot 14 (hammer: CHF 4,000); Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 158, 28 September 2009, lot 74; Ex Paul H. Gerrie Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XII, 6 January 2009, lot 55; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 23, 19 March 2002, lot 1067.

12

2,500


13


14


A Masterpiece of Classical Die Engraving

33. Bruttium, Terina AR Stater. Circa 420-400 BC. Signed by unknown die engraver ‘Π’. Head of the nymph Terina to left, wearing sphendone decorated with meander pattern and necklace; TEPINAION around, Π behind / Nike seated to left on a cippus shown in perspective, holding wreath and resting hand on cippus; Π above cippus base. SNG ANS 836 (same dies); Regling, Terina 61 (CC/ωω); Holloway & Jenkins 60; cf. H. von Fritze & H. Gaebler, “Terina”, Nomisma 1, 1907, pl. II (this die combination unlisted); HN Italy 2615; HGC 1, 1747. 7.90g, 21mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; a masterpiece of classical die engraving. Very Rare; one of the finest known examples of the type struck from this die-pair, and in the first rank of all known staters of Terina. 17,500 Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 339, 22 October 2020, lot 10. Little is known of Terina; even its location is lost, though it is thought to have been in the vicinity of S. Eufemia Lamezia. The city was founded sometime before 460 BC by settlers from Kroton, probably after the Krotoniate defeat of Sybaris c.510. It was regarded as the burial place of the siren Ligeia, which suggests a more ancient settlement at this spot predating the Krotoniate colony. The city appears little in the histories of Magna Graecia, though we learn from an incidental note in Polyaenos’ Strategems (2.10.1) that the city was engaged in war with Thourioi under Kleandridas a few years after 444/3 - proof that Terina was significant in both size and power. That it was an important centre of trade, culture and wealth is further attested by the quality, diversity and number of its coins, as well as by evidence that a citizen of Terina was victorious at Olympia in 392 (Olympionikai 376). Diodoros (16.15.2) reports that Terina was conquered by the Bruttians in 356, noting that it was the first Greek city to fall to the rising power of that people. The history of the Bruttian people is almost as obscure as that of the city of Terina, the few sources that do refer to them all seem to suggest that they had a turbulent existence. Strabo describes them as being the ex-slaves of their neighbours to the north, the Lucanians, against whom they rose up and took their freedom (Geographica, vi.1.4) and that their name ‘Brettii’ derives from the Lucanian dialect for ‘rebels’. Diodorus Siculus seemingly corroborates this view of their origin, casting the Brettii as runaway slaves who happened to gather in that part of southern Italy in the middle of the 4th Century BC, perhaps attracted by the mountainous terrain which lent itself to spontaneous attacks, and who proceeded to antagonise and attack inhabitants of nearby Greek poleis and the settlements of the Lucanians. In a nuanced difference from Strabo, Diodorus states that the local Lucanian word from which he claims their name evolved meant ‘runaway slaves’ (Biblioteca Historica, xvi.15). The present coin hails from the age of prosperity and power of Terina, and is directly influenced by the works on the coinage of both Olympia and Syracuse. The nymph Terina’s form is evidently inspired by Euainetos’ Arethusa, particularly in the naturalistic curls of her hair and her soft jawline.

15


34. Bruttium, The Brettii AR Drachm. Second Punic War issue, circa 216-214 BC. Veiled head of Hera Lakinia to right, wearing polos; sceptre over shoulder, kantharos behind / Zeus standing to left, right foot on Ionic capital, holding sceptre; BPETTIΩN to right; before, eagle standing to left on thunderbolt; tiny Γ (engraver’s signature) between sceptre and left foot of Zeus. Scheu 78; HN Italy 1970; HGC 1, 1357. 4.48g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

500

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

NORTH AFRICA

35. North Africa, Carthage Æ Unit. Circa 400-350 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit to left / Horse standing to right before palm tree; three pellets before. MAA 18f; cf. SNG Copenhagen 117-9. 3.58g, 16mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; an attractive portrait of Tanit.

300

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

36. North Africa, Carthage Æ Unit. Circa 400-350 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit to left / Horse standing to right before palm tree. MAA 18; SNG Copenhagen 110. 3.69g, 16mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

An Attractive Carthaginian Stater

37. North Africa, Carthage AV Stater. Circa 350-320 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit to left, wearing triple-pendant earring and pendant necklace / Horse standing to right on ground line; three pellets before. Jenkins & Lewis Group IIIg, 71 (same dies, noted as having ‘uncertain details’). NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 3/5 (#6156362-001).

10,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 68, 27 February 2020, lot 237; Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group.

16


38. North Africa, Carthage AV Stater. Circa 350-320 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit to left, wearing triple-pendant earring and pendant necklace / Horse standing to right on ground line; three pellets before, single pellet beneath front flank. Jenkins & Lewis Group IIIf, 43 (same dies); MAA 4. 9.47g, 19mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine; well-centered and struck from dies of fine style.

7,500

From a private North American collection, acquired from Classical Numismatic Group.

39. North Africa, Carthage AV Stater. Circa 350-320 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit to left, wearing triple-pendant earring and pendant necklace / Horse standing to right on ground line; three pellets before. Jenkins & Lewis Group IIIf; MAA 4. 9.06g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

7,500

Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG.

Ex Stack’s 2004

40. North Africa, Carthage AV Stater. Circa 350-320 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit to left, wearing triple-pendant earring and pendant necklace / Horse standing to right on ground line, three pellets before. Jenkins & Lewis Group IIIg, cf. 67; MAA 4. 9.20g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; beautifully lustrous metal. Previously NGC graded AU 4/5 - 3/5, die shift (#4936363-005).

7,500

Ex Stack’s, The International Numismatic Sale, 13 January 2004, lot 5.

2x

2x

41. North Africa, Carthage AV 1/5 Stater. Circa 350-320 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit to left, wearing single-pendant earring and necklace / Horse standing to right on ground line, head reverted. Jenkins & Lewis Group III, 134 (same dies); MAA 7; SNG Copenhagen 135. 1.49g, 10mm, 12h. NGC graded MS 5/5 - 4/5, (#6158069-001). NGC notes the coin as ‘brushed’ but we believe they have mistaken relief lines from the die as brush marks. Extremely Rare. 1,500 From the GK Collection; Ex Harlan J. Berk, Ltd, Buy or Bid Sale 193, 30 April 2015, lot 20 (hammer: USD 5,000).

17


2x

2x

42. North Africa, Carthage AV 1/5 Stater. Circa 350-320 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit to left, wearing single-pendant earring and necklace / Horse standing to right on ground line, head reverted. Jenkins & Lewis Group III, 120-134; MAA 7; SNG Lloyd 1661; Weber 8493-4. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 3/5 (#6156598-004). Very Rare.

1,500

Ex Maison Palombo, Auction 5, 7 June 2008, lot 23.

43. North Africa, Carthage BI Tridrachm. Second Punic War, circa 203-201 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit to left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace / Horse standing to right, right foreleg raised, head reverted. MAA 81; CNP 103; SNG Copenhagen 390. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 4/5 (#6156405-004).

1,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 45; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 114, 13 May 2020, lot 86.

SICILY The Only Example in Private Hands

44. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Solus(?), circa 400-350 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping quadriga to right; above, Nike to left, crowning him with wreath; Punic letter K or W in exergue / Head of Tanit-Persephone to right, wearing wreath of grain leaves, triplependant earring, and pearl necklace; three dolphins around. Jenkins, Punic p. 78, pl. 22, X.1 = BMC (Siculo-Punic Uncertain) 1 (same dies); HGC 2, 1244. 17.00g, 25mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; seemingly the third known and the only example in private hands, the others held by the British Museum and the Museo Nazionale Palermo. 3,000 From a private UK collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex cgb.fr, e-Monnaies September 2018, 11 September 2018, lot 2. This issue was tentatively attributed to Solus by Jenkins on the basis that the Punic letter in the exergue might represent the first letter of the Semitic name of the city, Kefra. Jenkins admitted however that the reading of the Punic letter is not certain and even if it were it is difficult to explain why the ethnic should be abbreviated to a single letter (see p. 71).

18


Land of the Date Palm

45. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Entella, circa 350-315 BC. Head of Tanit-Persephone to left, wearing wreath of grain leaves, triple-pendant earring, and necklace; four dolphins around / Horse standing to right, date palm in background; crescent in upper left field, poppy head on exergual line to right of palm. Jenkins, Punic 119 (O39/R108); McClean 3039 (same dies); SNG Lloyd 1618 (same dies); de Luynes 1441 (this obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 81 (this obv. die); HGC 2, 277. 16.84g, 27mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine; wonderful old cabinet tone with beautiful golden iridescence around the devices.

12,500

Ex 51 Gallery, 9 December 2013, lot 118; Privately purchased from Tradart in the late 1980s and from the Blayaert Collection. The enormously wealthy Carthaginian Republic, first and foremost a commercial thalassocracy, made no use of coined money until the invasion of Sicily in 410 BC brought their armies into a direct confrontation, only for the second time after an earlier conflict in 480 BC, with the great city states of Greek Sicily. Not before then had Carthage experienced the necessity of striking coins, which we must assume arose from the requirement to pay the army which included many Italian and Greek mercenaries. That the techniques and inspiration for the earliest Siculo-Punic coins were Greek (and particularly Syracusan) in origin is obvious from the employment of a head of Tanit closely resembling Arethusa, and the style of the engraving that cannot but have been the work of Greek artists, at least initially. While the casual observer might be forgiven for mistaking the obverse of the present type for a Syracusan issue, the reverse is characteristically Carthaginian in iconography. The horse is commonly believed to allude to the foundation myth of Carthage mentioned by Virgil (Aeneid I, 442ff) and later Justin (Epitome of Pompeius Trogus, 18.5), wherein a horse’s head was discovered in the ground at the foundation of the city and was interpreted as an omen of the future city’s prosperity and military power. Alternative interpretations of this symbol have also been proposed, such as that the horse is a symbol of Baal Hammon, chief god of Carthage and probably associated with warfare and the sun (a theory supported by the depiction on later coins of the horse in conjunction with a solar disc), or that the horse is a more general reference to the military purpose of the coinage. Unambiguous however is the use of the date palm, called ‘phoinix’ by the Greeks. Because this economically important fruit-tree was abundant along the southern Levantine coast, the Greeks already in the time of Homer had come to know the region as Phoenicia (“Land of the Date Palm”). Thus the date palm came to be synonymous with Carthage itself, the greatest of all the Phoenician states. It is unclear what term the Carthaginians used to refer to themselves, however the appropriation of this exonym was evidently considered expedient to visually identify the issuing authority of this coinage to its intended recipients.

Ex Leu 61, 1995

46. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Entella, circa 345/38-320/15 BC. Head of Arethusa to right, wearing wreath of grain ears and leaves, triplependant earring, and ornate necklace with pendants; three dolphins around, symbol of Tanit behind / Horse standing to right, date palm in background; kerykeion before. Jenkins, Punic 89 (O31/R80); SNG Lloyd 1619-20 (same dies); SNG Lockett 1039 (same dies) = Pozzi 3299 (same dies); Gulbenkian 368 (same dies); de Luynes 1440 (same dies); HGC 2, 271. 17.39g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone.

7,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 50; Ex Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 82, 23 April 1997, lot 53; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 61, 17 May 1995, lot 92.

19


Cited in Jenkins, 1971

47. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Entella, circa 345/38-320/15 BC. Head of Tanit-Persephone to right, wearing wreath of grain ears, triple-pendant earring, and necklace / Horse prancing to right; date palm in background. Jenkins, Punic 81 (O25/R73 - this coin cited); HGC 2, 270. 16.58g, 24mm, 9h. Good Very Fine; obv. right field buffed. Very Rare; one of six examples cited by Jenkins.

5,000

This coin cited in G.K. Jenkins, Coins of Punic Sicily, SNR 50 (1971); From a private UK collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex cgb.fr, e-Monnaies March 2018, 6 March 2018, lot 11; Ex M.P. Collection, Jean Vinchon Numismatique, 3 March 1975, lot 18.

48. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Entella, circa 345/38-320/15 BC. Head of Tanit-Persephone to right, wearing wreath of grain ears, triple-pendant earring, and necklace; four dolphins around / Horse prancing to right; date palm in background. Jenkins, Punic 132 (O44/R119); SNG Copenhagen 965; HGC 2, 281. 17.13g, 26mm, 1h. About Extremely Fine.

2,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 52; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XI, 7 April 2016, lot 65; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd. inventory, privately purchased in London, November 2010.

49. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Entella, circa 345/38-320/15 BC. Head of Tanit-Persephone to left, wearing wreath of grain / Horse prancing to left before palm tree. Jenkins, Punic 68-76 (dies unlisted); HGC 2, 269. 16.12g, 25mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine; cleaning marks on obv., attractive old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare. From the inventory of a European dealer.

20

1,500


50. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Entella or Lilybaion(?), circa 300-289 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Head of horse to left; palm tree with two date clusters behind, club before, [‘MMHNT’ (= ‘People of the Camp’ in Punic) below]. Jenkins, Punic 286 (O91/R235); HGC 2, 293. 17.26g, 26mm, 11h. Near Mint State; usual die break on obverse, lustrous, struck from dies engraved in fine style.

3,000

Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 7, 24 October 2020, lot 1115.

51. Sicily, Akragas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-440 BC. Sea eagle standing to left, with wings closed; AKPACANTOΣ (partially retrograde) around / Crab within shallow incuse circle. Westermark, Coinage 371 (O12/R42); SNG ANS 976; Boston MFA 222 (same obv. die); HGC 2, 94. NGC graded XF 4/5 - 3/5 (#4379089-032); areas of roughness, deep old cabinet tone with subtle hints of blue and golden iridescence around rev. devices. 1,750 Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, NYINC Signature Sale 3061, 7 January 2018, lot 29024.

Agamemnon’s Omen

52. Sicily, Akragas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 410-406 BC. Reverse die signed by Silanos. Nike, holding kentron and reins, driving fast quadriga to left; tablet inscribed ΑΚΡΑΓИOИITИA (ON off tablet) above, club in exergue / Two eagles grasping hare turned to right, head reverted, the nearest with closed wings and head raised, the furthest with open wings and head lowered; ΣIΛANOΣ to left. Westermark, Coinage 595 (O7/R11); Seltman, Engravers 16 (same dies); SNG ANS 1000 (same dies); Gulbenkian 170 (same dies); HGC 2, 86. 17.00g, 26mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From the collection of C.S., Germany, purchased prior to 1991. The coinage of Akragas consistently depicted the crab and eagle since its earliest issue of the sixth century BC, and the best engravers were recruited to render these symbols of the city in the finest possible style. Late in the fifth century the coinage of the city underwent a remarkable transformation; like many of the cities of Sicily such as Messana and Syracuse, a renaissance began that saw numismatic art reach new heights of intricacy and magnificence. The traditional types were transformed, and the metamorphosis could not have been more pronounced - the previously static types are replaced by dynamic scenes full of activity and energy. This particular design of the two eagles may have been inspired by the omen received by Agamemnon and Menelaos in Aeschylos’ Agamemnon, where two eagles, representing the two kings, devoured a pregnant hare, an allusion to the forthcoming destruction of city of Troy. Such was the fate of Troy, and also of Akragas which was sacked and razed by the Carthaginians in 406 BC. Thus was this brief flourishing of vibrant art in Akragas brutally put to a premature end.

21


53. Sicily, Gela AR Didrachm. Circa 490/85-480/75 BC. Nude warrior, holding javelin, on horseback to right / Forepart of man-headed bull to right; CEΛAΣ below; all within shallow incuse circle. Jenkins, Gela 92 (O28/R49); BM 1920,0907.4 (same dies); HGC 2, 363. 8.62g, 20mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,750

From the inventory of a European dealer.

54. Sicily, Gela AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-470 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga to right; Nike flying to right above, crowning horses with wreath / Forepart of man-headed bull to right; CEΛA[Σ] above. Jenkins, Gela 179 (O48/R103); SNG Copenhagen 253 (same dies); SNG ANS 39; HGC 2, 338. 17.10g, 25mm, 9h. Good Very Fine; lustrous metal, attractive golden iridescence around devices.

4,000

Acquired from Moruzzi Numismatica, 1994; Reportedly ex ArsAntiqva London, 1990.

55. Sicily, Himera AR Tetradrachm. Circa 409-408 BC. Obverse die signed by Mai-. The nymph Himera driving galloping quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to left, holding wreath and tablet inscribed MAI; in exergue, hippocamp to left / The nymph Himera, wearing a long chiton and peplos, standing facing, head to left, holding phiale and raising hand; to left, horned altar; to right, satyr standing to right, showering in a fountain with a lion’s head spout; counter-clockwise from exergue, [HIMEPAION] (retrograde). Arnold-Biucchi, Monetazione, Group IV, 22 (Q8/H17); Gutmann & Schwabacher 20; SNG Lloyd 1022 (same dies); Basel 306 (same dies); Gillet 434 (same dies); Kraay & Hirmer 71 (same dies); Rizzo pl. XXI, 23 = de Luynes 977 (same dies); HGC 2, 436. 17.62g, 24mm, 9h. Near Mint State; areas of weak strike.

4,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group. The tablet on the obverse of this coin is the only known die signed by the artist ‘MAI-’; it is very possible that the career of this evidently talented artist was cut short by the complete destruction of Himera at the hands of the Carthaginian general Hannibal Mago. The reverse depicts the nymph Himera at the city’s principle altar, which was likely to have been that of Asklepios.

2x

2x

56. Sicily, Katane AR Tetras. Circa 415-412 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right; laurel leaf to right before / Kithara; K-[A] across fields, three pellets (mark of value) around. Boehringer, Kataneische, Ts 15-19; HGC 2, 595. 0.18g, 8mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

From a private German collection, formed c.1980-2020.

22


57. Sicily, Segesta AR Didrachm. Circa 412-400 BC. Hound scenting to right, three grain ears behind; ΣEΓEΣTAΞI[B] (retrograde) in relief within linear frame below, all within circular dotted border / Diademed head of Aigeste to right, wearing decorated sphendone, within shallow circular incuse. Hurter, Didrachmenprägung 195-6 (V61/R110); SNG ANS 644 (same dies); Boston MFA 314-5 (same dies); Jameson 710 (same dies); HGC 2, 1152. 8.59g, 24mm, 4h. Extremely Fine; deep cabinet tone with attractive golden hues. Rare, and remarkably well preserved for the type.

1,750

Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG; Ex private European collection, formed before 2005.

58. Sicily, Syracuse AR Didrachm. First Democracy, circa 510-490 BC. Nude rider on horseback walking to right, leading a second riderless horse by the reins on the far side of him / Quadripartite incuse square, head of Arethusa to left within small incuse circle. Boehringer 32 (dies unlisted); Jameson 1904; Rizzo pl. XXXIV, 6; Kraay-Hirmer pl. 23, 73. 7.70g, 20mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare and struck from unrecorded dies.

3,000

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

Ex Empire Coins 7, 1987

59. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Gelon I, circa 480-478 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa to right, wearing pearl diadem and necklace; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 62 (V32/R41); SNG ANS 15 (same dies); Boston MFA 337 = Warren 308 (same dies); Lampson 85 (same dies); HGC 2, 1306. 17.35g, 25mm, 5h. Good Very Fine; minor test or scrape to edge, attractive old cabinet tone.

2,750

Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection, Gemini V, 6 January 2009, lot 886 (part of); Ex Gordon Dickie Collection, Empire Coins 7, 2 May 1987, lot 15.

23


24


The Famous Demareteia

60. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 475-470 BC. Dies by the Demareteion Master. Charioteer wearing a long chiton and holding a goad in his right hand and the reins in his left, driving a walking quadriga to right; Nike above, flying right to crown the horses; below, lion springing to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right within linear circle, wearing olive wreath, pendant earring and necklace; her hair waved at the front and tied at the back with a ribbon; ΣVRAKOΣION and four dolphins swimming clockwise around. Boehringer 382 (V196/ R269); Rizzo pl. XXXV, 4 var.; SNG ANS -; HGC 2, 1308. 17.32g, 26mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone. Very Rare.

30,000

Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 70; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction VI, 29 September 2013, lot 442; Ex Comery Collection (Gibraltar), acquired prior to 1980. The series of coins known as the Demareteia are among the most famous and revered of all the ancient coins, being acclaimed as masterpieces of late archaic art. The engraver responsible for the series, the ‘Demareteion Master’ is rightly placed among the first rank of accomplished artists. The series takes its name from Queen Demarete, wife of the Syracusan tyrant Gelon, who Diodoros (XI. 26) reports as having intervened on behalf of the defeated Carthaginians at the peace negotiations following the Battle of Himera: “For when the ambassadors who had been dispatched from Carthage came to him and begged him with tears to treat them humanely, he granted them peace, exacting of them the expense he had incurred for the war, two thousand talents of silver, and requiring them further to build two temples in which they should place copies of the treaty. The Carthaginians, having unexpectedly gained their deliverance, not only agreed to all this but also promised to give in addition a gold crown to Damaretê, the wife of Gelon. For Damaretê at their request had contributed the greatest aid toward the conclusion of the peace, and when she had received the crown of one hundred gold talents from them, she struck a coin which was called from her a Damareteion. This was worth ten Attic drachmas and was called by the Sicilian Greeks, according to its weight, a pentekontalitron.” The identity of the coin Diodoros mentions has long presented a mystery, fiercely debated, since the crown was said to be of gold and there were no known gold coins of Syracuse until many years later. At various times it has been claimed that Diodoros must have been referring to a gold issue of which no specimens survive, or another silver coin with which we are not familiar. Yet he specifically mentions the denomination and standard of the coin, and the case for the companion dekadrachm of this type being the coin referred to by Diodoros can no longer be seriously disputed. Though we shall not present here arguments relating to the dating of the series, the consensus is that the coin was struck some time after the Battle of Himera, most likely under Hieron, with the date range proposed by Alföldi, E. Boehringer and Arnold-Biucchi of 475-470 seeming the most plausible. The superior style and workmanship of the coin certainly appears to commemorate a victory, noting in particular the extraordinary presence of a laurel wreath adorning Arethusa; yet a purely commemorative nature for this coin is probably a simplistic and naive interpretation. The dekadrachms struck by Dionysios I are now agreed to have been intended to pay for mercenaries; the theory that the Athenian dekadrachms were struck in commemoration of the victory over the Persians at Marathon or Salamis too has been discredited. We should see in the Demareteion series a product of expedience - a means of paying mercenary soldiers - which though presented in a remarkable form is nonetheless an economic solution rather than a commemorative frivolity.

25


Two Wonderful Syracusan Tetradrachms

61. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 460-450 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to left, crowning charioteer with wreath, ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa to right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣYRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 492 (V259/R348); SNG ANS 157 (same obv. die) and 154 (same rev. die); HGC 2, 1312. 17.14g, 27mm, 8h. 2,500 Extremely Fine; slightly worn obverse die, wonderful old cabinet tone. From the inventory of a European dealer.

62. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 460-450 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with wreath, [ketos swimming to right] in exergue / Head of Arethusa to right, wearing earring, necklace and pearl headband, her hair tied in a twisted queue; ΣVRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 517 (V271/R368); BMC 84 (same dies); SNG ANS 166; HGC 2, 1311. 17.07g, 25mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

5,500

Acquired from Nomos AG; Ex Arethusa Collection, acquired in the 1980s and 1990s.

26


Twice-Signed by Eumenes

63. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of the Second Democracy, circa 415-405 BC. Obverse and reverse dies signed by Eumenes. Charioteer driving fast quadriga to left, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; Nike flying to right above, crowning charioteer with wreath held outstretched in both hands; signature EVMHNOV in exergue / Head of Arethusa to left, hair tied with band and ribbons; four dolphins around, ΣYRAKOΣION above, signature EVMHNOV behind. Tudeer 23 (V9/R15); Fischer-Bossert 23 (V9/R15); SNG ANS 258 (same dies) = Bement 494 (same dies); SNG Lloyd 1367 (same dies); SNG Lockett 961 (same dies); BMC 144 (same dies); Boston MFA 400 (same dies) = Warren 370 (same dies); Dewing 841 (same dies); Gillet 611 (same dies); Jameson 792 (same dies); HGC 2, 1328. 17.25g, 25mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Very Rare; the finest to be offered at auction in the past 20 years. Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 76; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 207, 15 October 2012, 75B; Ex Matton Collection (Château d’Hauterive, France), acquired in the 1960s-1980s.

27

12,500


28


Signed by Euainetos

64. Sicily, Syracuse AR Dekadrachm. Time of Dionysios I, circa 405-370 BC. Reverse die signed by Euainetos. Charioteer driving galloping quadriga to left, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; above, Nike flies to right, wreath in outstretched arms to crown charioteer; in exergue, panoply of arms on two steps: cuirass, two greaves, Phrygian helmet; horizontal spear behind; [AΘΛA] in tiny letters below / Head of Arethusa to left, wearing wreath of reeds, triple-pendant earring, and pearl necklace; ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ behind, four dolphins around and below lowermost dolphin under neck, signature [EYAI]NE. Gallatin R.IV/C.VII (same dies); Gulbenkian 313 (same dies); Dewing 883 (same dies); SNG ANS 365 (same dies); HGC 2, 1299. 42.15g, 35mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

30,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 80; Acquired from Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel on 21 August 1981 (CHF 32,000), original invoice and ticket included. Described by Cicero as “the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all” (against Verres, 2.4.52), Syracuse became the major power in Sicily during the late fifth century BC. Its political and cultural power is borne out in its enormous issues of what are undoubtedly some of the finest coinage in all of antiquity, with its influence attracting eminent artists and famous die-engravers from all across the Mediterranean. These masters brought about a stylistic revolution, breathing life into the static rigid forms of Archaic art and developing new ways of depicting motion and life on a miniature scale. While these artists were responsible for an array of magnificent classical tetradrachms, it is the dekadrachms that are now endlessly sought after by collectors, due to the exquisite and boundary-breaking artistry which their large flan size enabled. Among the most famous of these master engravers were Kimon and Euainetos, who operated contemporaneously and who are the only two to have their signature on Syracusan dekadrachms. Euainetos’ signature can be glimpsed on this example, below the neck of the supremely graceful head of the sea-nymph Arethusa, her delicate features and serene expression beautifully complemented by the curls flowing wave-like away from her face. This sense of motion carries over to the obverse in a dramatic depiction of a chariot race. An iconic motif which had evolved from sober, canonical renderings inspired by an Attic vase painting, this highly-energized engraving emphasises the thundering motion of the team of horses, their legs poised in sensationally naturalistic style. We are afforded a wonderful view of the four horses and charioteer straining forwards by the realistic, non-frontal perspective which renders the scene dynamic and lifelike. While Euainetos’ authentic style powerfully engages the viewer in the race, the outcome is never in doubt: the presence of Nike, soaring in from above to crown the charioteer, shows victory is assured. This victorious element to the Syracusan dekadrachms of Euainetos has led some to associate their introduction with a military victory, a link reinforced by the presence of armour, weaponry and the short inscription ‘AΘΛA’, which indicates prizes, contests or combat. A century ago, Head agreed that they were likely exceptional issues, but argued that they were “chiefly issued on special occasions or for the personal gratification of tyrants or kings, and not for common currency.” However, we now know dekadrachms of both Athens and Syracuse had enduring roles in the monetary system, and those of Euainetos continued to be struck for decades, perhaps even into the 360s BC. This example is struck from one of several magnificent dekadrachm dies signed by the artist, the truncated signature EYAINE situating it after the first two dies which bear a longer mark. Their influence on Syracusan coinage was unparalleled, and the many dekadrachm types which do not bear his signature but meticulously repeat the details of Euainetos’ energetic artistry are testament to the fact. Indeed, Gallatin notes that the entire series “shows a most amazing repetition of the details of the arrangement of the hair, locks and curls being slavishly repeated.”

29


65. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Dionysios I, 405-400 BC. Unsigned dies in the style of Eukleidas. Charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in both, driving fast quadriga to left; above, Nike flying to right, crowning charioteer with wreath held in both hands; dolphin to left in exergue / Head of Arethusa to left, hair in bands, wearing double-loop earring; [ΣYPAKOΣIΩ]N and four dolphins around. Fischer-Bossert, Coins 92 (O33/R64); SNG ANS 297 (same dies); SNG Munich 1070 (same dies); SNG Lockett 979 = Dewing 858 = Pozzi 624 (same dies); HGC 2, 1345. 17.35g, 25mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

4,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Privately purchased from Shanna Schmidt Numismatics Inc., 11 August 2020.

66. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Dionysios I, 405-400 BC. Unsigned dies in the style of Kimon and Euainetos. Charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in both, driving fast quadriga to left; above, Nike flying to right, crowning charioteer with wreath held in both hands; dolphin to left in exergue / Head of Arethusa to left, hair bound by ampyx and net-like sphendone, wearing double-pendant earring; [ΣYPAKOΣIΩ] and four dolphins around. Fischer-Bossert, Coins 105 (V36/R72); Gulbenkian 299 (same dies); BMC 207 (same dies); SNG Lloyd 1408 (same dies); SNG ANS -; HGC 2, 1346. 17.69g, 25mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

2,000

From the inventory of a European dealer.

67. Sicily, Syracuse AR Drachm. Time of Dionysios I, circa 405-400 BC. Head of Athena facing three-quarters to left, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet; on either side, two dolphins snout to snout; [ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ around] / Naked Leukaspis advancing to right, wearing crested helmet and holding spear in right hand and oval shield in left; sword suspended by strap over right shoulder; square altar ornamented with garland in background left, and to right, forepart of slain ram on its back; ΣΥΡΑ[ΚΟΣΙΟΝ] around, [ΛΕΥΚΑΣΠΙΣ] in exergue. Jameson 810 (same dies); Boehringer, Essays Thompson pl. 38, 6 (same); SNG ANS 310 (same); Boston MFA 420; Kunstfreund 121; Rizzo pl. XLII, 1; HGC 2, 1364. 3.98g, 18mm, 3h. Good Very Fine; well-detailed and with an original ‘find’ patina. Very Rare. Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 81.

30

1,500


An Exquisite Example

68. Sicily, Syracuse AR Stater. Time of Timoleon and the Third Democracy, circa 344-338 BC. Pegasos flying to left / Head of Athena to right, wearing Corinthian helmet; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Pegasi 2; Dewing 930-1; SNG ANS 494-507; SNG Copenhagen 711; HGC 2, 1400. 8.67g, 22mm, 9h. Near Mint State; an exquisite example, wonderfully detailed and lustrous with hints of golden iridescence around the devices.

4,500

Ex E. Hrycyna Collection (Darmstadt); Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger, Auction 392, 4 May 2007, lot 4206.

69. Sicily, Syracuse AR Stater. Time of Timoleon and the Third Democracy, circa 344-338 BC. Pegasos flying to left / Head of Athena to right, wearing Corinthian helmet; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Pegasi 2; Dewing 930-1; SNG ANS 494-507; SNG Copenhagen 711; HGC 2, 1400. 8.58g, 21mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; beautiful light cabinet tone with golden iridescent highlights.

1,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex W.M. Collection (United States), Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Live Auction 2, 30 August 2018, lot 109; Privately purchased from Roma Numismatics Ltd., July 2013.

Ex CNG 40, 1996

70. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 317-311 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to left / Charioteer driving fast biga to right; triskeles running to right below, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Bérend, ‘De l’or d’Agothocle’ in Studies Price, pl. 9, 1 var. (triskeles running to left); SNG ANS 549 var. (same); HGC 2, 1276. 4.23g, 15mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

5,000

Ex Birger Bentsen Collection of Ancient Gold Coins, collector’s ticket included; Ex Schulman b.v., Jubilee Auction 350, 12 May 2016, lot 323; Ex De La Tour Collection, Hess-Divo AG, Auction 314, 4 May 2009, lot 1040; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 40, 4 December 1996, lot 893; Reportedly privately acquired from B. Vigne, Paris, April 1986.

Extremely Rare

71. Sicily, Syracuse AR Drachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 317-311 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to left; ΣϒΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ to left, small trophy to right / Winged triskeles with central gorgoneion. Jameson 864 = Kunstfreund 229 (same dies); BMC 353; Basel 503; Giesecke, Sicilia Numismatica pl. 19, 13 (same dies); HGC 2, 1365 var. (no Y below). 4.09g, 18mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of as few as six known examples, and of finer quality than the Evans-Jameson-Gillet example, sold in 2010 for CHF 17,000. 5,000 From the inventory of a European dealer.

31


72. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-305 BC. Wreathed head of Arethusa to left, wearing triple-pendent earring and necklace; three dolphins around, NI below neck / Charioteer driving quadriga to left; triskeles above, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN and monogram in exergue. SNG ANS 638-9; HGC 2, 1348. 16.75g, 24mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

5,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex C.S. Collection (Germany, purchased before 1991), Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XV, 5 April 2018, lot 70.

Ex Sternberg, 1982

73. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-305 BC. Head of Kore to right, wearing wreath of grain ears and single-pendant earring; KOPAΣ behind / Nike standing to right, erecting trophy to right; monogram to lower left, triskeles to right, [A]ΓAΘOKΛE[OΣ] in exergue. Ierardi 103e (O21/R64 - this coin [corr. prov.]); BAR Issue 23; Boston MFA 463 = Warren 406 (same dies); HGC 2, 1536. NGC graded Ch XF 4/5 - 3/5, scratches (#5769822-001); beautiful old cabinet tone. Rare.

3,000

This coin cited in M. Ierardi, ‘The Tetradrachms of Agathocles of Syracuse: A Preliminary Study’ in AJN 7/8 (1995-6), p. 53. Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 114, 13 May 2020, lot 73; Ex Weise Collection, Gemini LLC, Auction I, 11 January 2005, lot 48; Ex F. Sternberg AG, Auction XII, 18 November 1982, lot 78. With the usurpation of Agathokles in 317 BC, Syracuse once more monopolised the right of coinage for the whole of Sicily, even more distinctly than in the time of Dionysios. Yet the reign of Agathokles, as noted by Malcolm Bell (Morgantine Studies I, 1981) “was a watershed for the arts in Sicily, just as it was for politics. The change from a conservative late-classical style to the new modes of the early-Hellenistic period came very quickly, within the space of a decade, and it coincided with the replacement of democratic government by the new monarchy. It is clearly perceptible in the coins that... document the full acceptance of early-Hellenistic style.” Depicted often as a cruel and unscrupulous adventurer and tyrant, Agathokles achieved little of lasting historical importance; indeed after his death anarchy erupted both in Syracuse, where a damnatio memoriae was decreed, and in other places that had been under his rule (Diod. Sic. 21. 18). Nonetheless, his patronage of the arts left a legacy of beauty as embodied by a small number of surviving works of art from his reign, and smaller but no less wonderful objects such as this stunning coin.

74. Sicily, Syracuse EL 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-304 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to left, Corinthian helmet to left behind / Ornate tripodlebes; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Jenkins, Electrum, Group B, O14/R18; SNG ANS 629 (same dies); HGC 2, 1294. 3.59g, 15mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,750

Ex Birger Bentsen Collection of Ancient Gold Coins, collector’s ticked included; Ex Nomos AG, obolos 6, 20 November 2016, lot 224; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 327, 22 October 2014, lot 4; Ex Numismatik Lanz München, Auction 158, 5 June 2014, lot 65.

32


75. Sicily, Syracuse EL 25 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-304 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to left; amphora behind / Ornate tripod-lebes; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Jenkins, Electrum, Group B (O4/R2); BAR Issue 10; BMC 263 (same obv. die); SNG ANS 621 (same obv. die); HGC 2, 1294. 3.61g, 15mm, 4h. Good Very Fine; minor graffito to rev., well-centered and with a pleasant light reddish tone.

2,000

From the inventory of a US dealer.

KINGS OF PAEONIA

76. Kings of Paeonia, Patraos AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain Paeonian mint (Astibus or Damastion?), circa 335-315 BC. Bare head of Apollo or Patraos to right / Warrior on horse rearing to right, spearing enemy who defends himself with raised shield; ΠATPAOY around. Paeonian Hoard, Sotheby’s 16 April 1969, 400 (this obv. die) and 392 (this rev. die); Peykov E 2160 (similar style dies); SNG ANS 1040; HGC 3.1, 148. 12.64g, 25mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine; struck on a broad planchet and unusually complete for the type.

500

From a private European collection. The exact original boundaries of Paeonia, like the early history of its inhabitants, are obscure, but it is known that it was located immediately north of ancient Macedonia; in the Iliad, the Paeonians are reported as allies of the Trojans. During the Persian invasion of Greece the then-powerful Paeonians were conquered by the armies of Darios I and deported from their homelands to Asia. At some point after the Greco-Persian Wars, the Paeonian princedoms coalesced into a kingdom centred in the central and upper reaches of the Axios and Strymon rivers, corresponding with today’s northern part of North Macedonia and western Bulgaria, and joined with the Illyrians in attacking the northern areas of the kingdom of Macedon. Philip II reformed the Macedonian armies and put a stop to both the Illyrian and Paeonian raids, and campaigned deep into Paeonian territory, reducing their kingdom (then ruled by Agis) to a vassal state, which led to a process of gradual Hellenisation including the striking of coins with Greek legends. Later, a Paeonian cavalry contingent, led by Ariston (a member of the Paeonian royal house, possibly brother of Patraos and father of the later king Audoleon - see Heckel, W. Prosopography of Alexander’s Empire, 2006), was attached to Alexander the Great’s army. At the Battle of Gaugamela the Paeonian cavalry were placed with the sarissophoroi on the right flank, the position of honour, and in 331 BC they routed a large force of Persian cavalry near the Tigris; Ariston personally slew the Persian leader Satropates; he then presented Alexander with the Persian’s severed head. He asked Alexander for a gold cup as a reward for his feat, and the king publicly saluted him and drank to his health.

EPEIROS

77. Epeiros, Ambrakia AR Stater. Circa 360-338 BC. Pegasos flying to left; A below / Head of Athena to left, wearing crested helmet; spear to right. Pegasi 111; SNG Copenhagen 16. 8.53g, 21mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

1,500

From the inventory of a European dealer.

33


Pedigreed to 1935

78. Epeiros, Epirote Republic AR Stater. Circa 233-168 BC. Jugate heads of Zeus Dodonaeus, wearing a wreath of oak eaves, and Dione, diademed and draped, to right; ME monogram to left / Bull charging to right; ΑΠΕΙ-ΡΩΤΑΝ above and below; all within wreath of oak leaves and acorns. Franke 3-4; Franke-Hirmer pl. 151, 477; BMC 11; HGC 3.1, 170. 9.85g, 29mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; attractive deep old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare.

7,500

Acquired from Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.; Ex Münzhandlung Basel, Auction 4, 1 October 1935, lot 672, old collector’s ticket included, noting “Vente Bâle 15 Mars 1938”. While the coinage of the Epirote Republic is quite frequently encountered, the issues of didrachms are very rare. The obverse type of the jugate heads of Zeus and Dione is a civic emblem representative of the great shrine at Dodona in Epeiros, that was regarded as the oldest Hellenic oracle, and second only in prestige to the great oracle of Delphi. In 233 BC, the murder of Deidamia, last surviving member of the Aeacid royal house that claimed its descent from Achilles, brought the Epirote monarchy to an abrupt extinction, and a federal republic was set up, though with diminished territory. Western Akarnania had asserted its independence, and the Aitolians had seized Ambrakia, Amphilochia, and the remaining land north of the Ambrakian Gulf. The new Epirote capital was therefore established at Phoenike, the political centre of the Chaonians. Epeiros did however remain a powerful entity, unified under the auspices of the Epirote League as a federal state with its own synedrion, or parliament. In the following years, Epeiros faced the growing threat of the expansionist Roman Republic, which fought a series of wars with Macedonia. The League remained neutral in the first two Macedonian Wars but split in the Third Macedonian War (171-168 BC), with the Molossians siding with the Macedonians and the Chaonians and Thesprotians siding with Rome. The outcome was disastrous for Epeiros; Molossia fell to Rome in 167 BC and 150,000 of its inhabitants were enslaved.

AKARNANIA

79. Akarnania, Anaktorion AR Stater. Circa 350-300 BC. Lysi-, magistrate. Pegasos flying to left; AN monogram below / Helmeted head of Athena to left; ΛΥΣI above, AN monogram and thymiaterion behind. Pegasi 70; BCD Akarnania 106; SNG Copenhagen 295; HGC 4, 763. 8.57g, 22mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; beautiful, deep old cabinet tone.

1,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 95, 26 October 1995, lot 203.

80. Akarnania, Argos Amphilochikon AR Stater. Circa 340-300 BC. Pegasos flying to left; A below / Helmeted head of Athena to left; crested Corinthian helmet behind, ΑΡΓΕΙ above. Imhoof-Blumer, Akarnaniens 12; Pegasi 11; BCD Akarnania 132; SNG Copenhagen 309; HGC 4, 783. 8.42g, 22mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; minor surface marks and scratches, stunning hints of rainbow iridescence around devices. Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction II, 2 October 2011, lot 160 (hammer: £1,900).

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1,500


AITOLIA Ex H. de Nanteuil Collection; Merzbacher 1910

81. Aitolia, Aitolian League AR Tetradrachm. Circa 238-228 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Aitolos holding spear and sword, seated to right on Macedonian shield which rests on three Gallic shields and a carnyx; [Α]ΙΤΩΛΩΝ to left, monogram and ZΗ to right. Tsangari 464f (this coin) = de Nanteuil 879 (this coin); Boston supplement 90 (same dies); Prospero 348 (same dies); McClean 5401, pl. 197, 2 (same obv. die); Scheu, F., Coinage Systems of Aetolia, NC 1960, monogram 1; HGC 4, 954. 16.89g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; magnificent old cabinet tone. Rare, and very well preserved for the type.

10,000

This coin published in D.I. Tsangari. Corpus des monnaies d’or, d’argent et de bronze de la confédération étolienne (Athens, 2007); This coin published in H. de Nanteuil, Collection de monnaies grecques (Paris, 1925); Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 95; Ex The Bru Sale, Auction 3, 6 May 2011, lot 34 (hammer: EUR 20,000); Privately purchased from Tradart SA in 1990; Ex Münzen und Medaillen AG Basel, Auction 72, 6 October 1987, lot 590; Ex H. de Nanteuil de la Norville Collection; Ex Dr. Eugen Merzbacher Nachf., 5 April 1910, lot 446. The Aitolian League was conceived during the reign of Philip II by the cities of Aitolia for their mutual benefit and protection, and became a formidable rival to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achaean League. It occupied Delphi from 290 BC and gained territory steadily until, by the end of the 3rd century BC, it controlled the whole of central Greece outside Attica. One of the earliest issues of the Aitolian League, the symbolism in the reverse type of this tetradrachm is specific and boastful: the Gallic arms on which Aitolos is seated reference the League’s part in the defeat of the Celtic invasion of Greece in 279 BC, when the sanctuary at Delphi was threatened and after which sculptures were dedicated in the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, while the single Macedonian shield has been noted as an allusion to an Aitolian victory over the Macedonians in 314 BC and their continued general opposition to the expansionist tendencies of the kingdom. It is ironic therefore, that the type chosen for the obverse is the head of Herakles wearing the lion skin, so obviously taken from the coinage of Alexander III ‘the Great’. A parallel issue to the present type was seen by Percy Gardner as being even more direct in referencing the Celtic invasion, as it features the letters ΛY on the Macedonian shield, and A on one of the Gallic shields on which Aitolos is seated. These letters, he postulated, stand “for the names of the warriors to whom the shields captured by the Aetolians had actually belonged” (Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Thessaly to Aetolia, p. lvii). Cassandra left the Macedonian general Lyciscus in Aitolia while engaged in the Wars of the Diadochi, while the Gallic chief whom the Aitolians battled was one Acichorius, who succeeded Brennus in command of the Gallic forces. Only a few years after this type was struck and by the end of the 220s, Greece was effectively split between two great alliances - the Aitolian League on the one hand formed by the Aitolian states, Athens, Elis and Sparta, and the Hellenic Symmachy on the other, which was principally controlled by Philip V of Macedon, and Epeiros, though it also included the Achaian League and Boiotia. The Social War (or the War of the Allies, as it was also known, but not to be confused with the Romano-Italic war of the same name), was fought from 220 BC to 217 BC between these two opposing powers.

35


THESSALY

An Exceptional Example

82. Thessaly, Krannon Æ Dichalkon. Circa 350-300 BC. Laureate head of Poseidon (or Zeus) to right / KPANO[NIΩN], warrior on horse rearing to right. Rogers 185 var. (legend); BCD Thessaly II 117.9 (same dies); HGC 4, 384. 4.48g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; the finest example of the type to appear at auction in at least 20 years.

750

Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG; Ex BCD Collection.

Imitating a Very Rare Type

83. Thessaly, Larissa Fourrée Drachm. Circa 369-360 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly to right, with hair in ampyx / Horse standing to right, preparing to lie down; ΛAPIΣ-AIΩN above and below. For prototypes, cf. Lorber, Hoard, Middle Series 1, BCD Thessaly I 1149, BCD Thessaly II 283 and HGC 4, 441 (all with horse to left). 5.73g, 18mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Imitating a very rare type.

500

From a private European collection.

84. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 365-356 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly to left, with hair in ampyx / Horse standing to right, preparing to lie down; ΣAIΩN-ΛAPI above and below. Lorber, Beginning, Series 4 (O13/R2); Lorber, Hoard, Phase L-I, 24-5; BCD Thessaly II 312; ANS 1944.100.17073 (same dies); HGC 4, 454. 6.00g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From a private European collection.

85. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 365-356 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly to left, with hair in ampyx / Horse standing to right, preparing to lie down; ΛAPIΣ-AIΩN above and below. Lorber, Beginning, Series 5 (same rev. die as O17/R1 and O18/R3 - [unlisted obv. die]); Lorber, Hoard, Phase L-I; cf. BCD Thessaly II 288; HGC 4, 454. 6.03g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

500

From a private European collection.

36


86. Thessaly, Larissa AR Stater. Circa 356-342 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly to left, with hair in ampyx / ΛAPIΣ[AIΩN], bridled horse trotting to right, with tail upright and looped. Lorber, Hoard, Phase L-III, 64-5 (same dies); BCD Thessaly II 309 (same rev. die) & 310 (same obv. die); HGC 4, 409. 12.20g, 23mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

5,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Privately purchased from Shanna Schmidt Numismatics Inc., 6 December 2019; Privately purchased from Pegasi Numismatics.

87. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 356-342 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly to left, with hair in ampyx / Horse standing to right, preparing to lie down; ΛAPIΣ-AIΩN above and below. Lorber, Hoard, Phase L-II; BCD Thessaly II 316; HGC 4, 454. 6.06g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

750

From a private European collection.

88. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 356-342 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly to left, with hair in ampyx / Horse standing to right, preparing to lie down; ΛAPIΣ-AIΩN above and below. Lorber, Hoard, Phase L-II, 31 (same obv. die); BCD Thessaly II 316; HGC 4, 454. 6.05g, 19mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

From a private European collection.

89. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 356-342 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly to left, with hair in ampyx / Horse standing to right, preparing to lie down; ΛAPIΣ-AIΩN above and below. Lorber, Hoard, Phase L-III, 40-1 (same obv. die); BCD Thessaly II 316; HGC 4, 454. 6.10g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; scratches on rev., attractive light cabinet tone.

500

From a private European collection.

90. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 356-342 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly to left, with hair in ampyx / Horse standing to left, preparing to lie down, trailing rein; plant below, ΛAPIΣ above, AIΩN (retrograde) in exergue. Lorber, Hoard, Phase L-III, 61-3 var. (horse to right); BCD Thessaly II 321; CNG e388, 46 (same dies); HGC 4, 452. 6.11g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

500

From a private European collection.

37


91. Thessaly, Thessalian League AR Stater. Mid-late 1st century BC. Gorgias and Themistogenes, magistrates. Head of Zeus to right, wearing oak wreath / Athena Itonia advancing to right, holding shield and preparing to hurl spear; ΘΕΣΣΑ-ΛΩΝ around, ΓΟΡΓΙΑΣ above spear, ΝΙ below shield, ΘΕΜIΣTO in three lines across lower fields, ΓENHΣ in exergue. BCD Thessaly II 882.2 = Klose, p. 341, 14 var. (length and arrangement of Themistogenes); McClean 4932; HGC 4, 210. 6.08g, 24mm, 12h. Near Mint State; a finely detailed and marvellously expressive portrait of Zeus.

500

Acquired from Nomos AG.

LOKRIS

92. Lokris, Lokri Opuntii AR Stater. Circa 360-350 BC. Wreathed head of Demeter to left, wearing pearl necklace and triple-pendant earring / Ajax, nude but for crested Corinthian helmet, advancing to right on rocky ground, holding sword and shield decorated with griffin; wreath on ground between his legs, broken spear behind; ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ around. BCD Lokris-Phokis 62 (same dies); BMC -; Corpus Group 18, 135k; HGC 4, 990. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 3/5 (#4632828-002).

1,250

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, NYINC Signature Sale 3072, 15 January 2019, lot 35096.

ELIS

Ex BCD Collection

93. Elis, Olympia AR Stater. Hera mint, 111th Olympiad = 336 BC. Head of Hera to right, wearing pendant earring and stephane inscribed FAΛEIΩN; F-A across fields / Eagle standing to left on rock, head reverted, with open wings; all within wreath. Seltman, Temple 343 (dies FG/ιχ); BCD Olympia 159 (same obv. die); Boston MFA 1219 = Warren 932 (same obv. die); HGC 5, 394. 11.75g, 23mm, 7h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

Ex CNG inventory #830903 (August 2009); Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales, collector’s ticket included).

Exhibited at the Numismatic Museum of Athens

94. Elis, Olympia AR Stater. Hera mint, 111th Olympiad = 336 BC. Head of Hera to right, wearing pendant earring and stephane inscribed [FAΛEIΩN]; F behind neck / Eagle standing to left on base with open wings and head reverted to right; all in olive wreath within shallow circular incuse. BCD Olympia 160 (same obv. die); HGC 5, 396. 11.58g, 24mm, 4h. Near Very Fine; somewhat porous. Very Rare.

2,000

From the Vaskola Collection, exhibited at the Numismatic Museum of Athens in 2019; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 304, 19 March 2018, lot 392; Ex Sincona AG, Auction 6, 23 May 2012, lot 122.

38


ARKADIA One Of The Great Rarities of the Late Classical Coinage of Greece

95. Arkadia, Arkadian League AR Stater. Circa 363-362 BC. Bearded, laureate head of Zeus Lykaios to left / Youthful Pan reclining upon a rocky outcrop, his head three-quarters facing, mantle spread beneath him, holding in his right hand a lagobolon (throwing club for the hunting of hares), syrinx propped against the rocks below on which are written OΛVM in small letters; monogram of the Arkadian League in left field. Gerin 11, dies 1/c (this coin); BCD Peloponnesos I, 1511 (this coin); Traité III, 866 and pl. CCXXIV, 2 (same dies) = Mionnet II p. 244, 7 (same dies); Kraay-Hirmer pl. 159, 512 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 49; SNG Fitzwilliam 3851 (same obv. die); Gulbenkian 532 (same obv. die); Jameson 1276; Seltman, Masterpieces of Greek Coinage 48b = Weber 4259 (same obv. die); HGC 5, 928. 12.11g, 23mm, 1h. Good Very Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare.

15,000

This coin published in D. Gerin, Les statéres de la Ligue Arcadienne in SNR 65 (1986); Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 100; Ex Peter Guber Collection, Freeman & Sear, Manhattan Sale II, 4 January 2011, lot 49 (hammer: USD 26,000); Ex BCD Collection, LHS Numismatik AG, Auction 96, 8 May 2006, lot 1511 (hammer: CHF 30,000); Privately purchased from Edward J. Waddell Ltd, December 1983; Ex Tripolis hoard of the 1950s. One of the great rarities of the late Classical coinage of Greece, and a true masterpiece of Greek numismatic art. One of only twelve staters of the Arkadian League known to exist outside public collections. After the Boeotian victory over the Spartans at Leuktra in 371 BC, an anti-Spartan democratic movement arose in Arkadia in the central Peloponnesos. By 369 BC a confederacy of most of the Arkadian city-states was established, and, under the auspices of the Boeotian leader Epaminondas, a city was founded by combining five pre-existing neighbouring villages. This new urban centre, Megalopolis, became the capital of the short-lived Arkadian League and, like Messene, a fortified buffer against Spartan power in the Peloponnesos. Though it experienced difficulties with its constituent communities, Megalopolis developed into the largest city in Arkadia and exerted a strong influence in the Peloponnesos. This brief series, struck at Megalopolis from just 3 sets of dies, were produced by one of the great engravers of the mid 4th century; he almost certainly undertook work for the sacred mint of Zeus at Olympia, and surely also inspired the engravers of Philip II of Macedon. The head of Zeus has been thought to have been taken from Leochares’ statue of Zeus Brontaios (the Thunderer) in Olympia, a city the League had conquered in 365 BC. As they had no experience of organizing the games themselves, the Olympics of 364 BC were organised by the Arkadians’ allies the Pisatans. To pay their troops the Arkadians melted down gold dedications from the sanctuary in order to produce an emergency series of gold coins, of which only a few genuine examples survive (as BMC p. 76, 1 and pl. XVI, 8). During the Olympic festival of 364 the Eleans mounted an assault on the sanctuary of Olympia, as a result of which both the Arkadians and Eleans were forced to withdraw. A treaty was signed with the Eleans, under which the Arkadians would return Olympia, but retain the territories of Lepreo and Lasion. Zeus figures on this coin no doubt as a reminder of the Arkadian claim to the sanctuary, as well as representing the Arkadian Zeus Lykaios (wolf-Zeus) whose sanctuary was on Mount Lykaion and who had a major temple in Megalopolis as well. According to the accepted dating, these staters comprised a short series struck from Spring 363 until July 362.Thereafter the League dissolved into two factions, respectively centred on Megalopolis and Mantineia, who fought on opposing sides at the Battle of Mantineia for Thebes and Sparta. The result was a victory for Thebes, though their brilliant leader Epaminondas was mortally wounded while fighting in the front line of his army. With his loss and the utter defeat of Sparta, the stage was set for the Macedonian conquest of all Greece under Philip II.

39


CORINTHIA A Magnificent Archaic Corinthian Stater

96. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 480 BC. Pegasos flying to left; archaic Ϙ below / Head of Athena to right, wearing Corinthian helmet, pendant earring and pearl necklace, spray of ivy-leaves and berries behind; all within incuse square. Ravel 173 (P105/T135); Pegasi 64; ACGC 228 (same dies). 8.42g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; a portrait in exquisite late archaic style. Extremely Rare.

5,000

From the Italo Vecchi Collection. This exceptional issue shares the same reverse die as that of one of the earliest issues of the Corinthian colony of Leukas (ACGC 229; Calciati, Pegasi p. 393, 17 = BMC 7). The date of this parallel development is confirmed by the deposit of coins sealed in the destruction of the Isthmian temple of Poseidon in c. 475 BC, (IGCH 11, Broneer, Hesperia 1955, pp 135-6).

97. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 475 BC. Pegasos flying to right; Ϙ below / Head of Athena to right, wearing Corinthian helmet and pearl necklace; all within incuse square. Ravel 227 (P132/T175); Pegasi 27; HGC 4, 1823. 8.38g, 20mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine; superb late archaic style. Rare.

2,500

From the Italo Vecchi Collection.

98. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 435 BC. Pegasos flying to left; Ϙ below / Head of Athena to right, wearing Corinthian helmet and pearl necklace, inverted trident behind; all within shallow incuse square. Ravel 313 (P164/T246); Pegasi 96; HGC 4, 1827. 8.44g, 19mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine; superb early classical style.

2,500

From the Italo Vecchi Collection.

40


99. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 404-345 BC. Pegasos flying to right; Ϙ below / Helmeted head of Athena to right; chimera to right behind. Calciati 228; Ravel 532; BCD Corinth 64 (same dies). 8.56g, 22mm, 9h. Fleur De Coin; beautiful old cabinet tone. Rare.

3,500

Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 164, 17 March 2008, lot 151.

Extremely Rare

100. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 400-375 BC. Pegasos flying to left; E behind wing, Ϙ below / Helmeted head of Athena to left; tripod behind. BCD Corinth -; Ravel 691 var. (Pegasos to right); Pegasi 173 var. (same); HGC 4, 1848. 8.52g, 20mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine; wonderful old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare variant.

500

From a private UK collection.

ATTICA

101. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 510-500/490 BC. Archaic head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing three-quarters to right, head facing, olive sprig behind, AΘE before; all within incuse square. Seltman Group H, unlisted dies (but similar to pl. XIII, A186/P232); Svoronos, Monnaies, pl. 7, 1–2; HGC 4, 1588. 16.99g, 24mm, 3h. Very Fine; lightly toned. Unusual and highly distinctive style from the first issue of ‘owl’ tetradrachms. Very Rare.

5,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 105.

102. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-465 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Starr Group IV; HGC 4, 1595. 17.18g, 24mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

41


From the Dekadrachm Series

103. Attica, Athens AR Drachm. Circa 467-465 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right, head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before. SNG Munich 42-43; Starr Group II C, 89; Svoronos pls. 8, 38 and 9, 30; SNG Berry 677; Boston MFA 1064; McClean 5825; HGC 4, 1629. 4.27g, 15mm, 9h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

12,500

Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 109; Ex Z Collection (Switzerland), Nomos AG, Auction 3, 10 May 2011, lot 89 (hammer: CHF 22,000); Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 83, 17 June 2003, lot 267. The drachms struck by Athens during the second quarter of the 5th century, circa 467-465, are undoubtedly the finest and most attractive drachms ever produced by Athens. The heads of Athena are very close in style to the dekadrachms produced around the same time, and as with the present specimen, can be true miniature masterpieces. This was a particularly significant few years for Athens; the Persians had begun to assemble a large fleet and army in preparation for a major offensive against Athens and its Delian League. This force gathered near the Eurymedon, its intent apparently to move up the coast of Asia Minor, capturing each city in turn, securing naval bases from which to launch further expeditions into the Aegean. Learning of the Persian preparations, the Athenian general Kimon took 200 triremes and sailed to Phaselis in Pamphylia, which eventually agreed to join the Delian League. This effectively blocked the Persian strategy at its first objective. Kimon then moved to pre-emptively attack the Persian forces near the Eurymedon. Sailing into the mouth of the river, Kimon quickly routed the Persian fleet gathered there. Most of the Persian fleet made land-fall, and the sailors fled to the shelter of the Persian army. Kimon then landed the Greek marines and proceeded to attack the Persian army, which was also routed. The Greeks captured the Persian camp, taking many prisoners, and were able to destroy 200 beached Persian triremes. This stunning double victory seems to have greatly demoralised the Persians, and prevented any further Persian campaigning in the Aegean until at least 451 BC.

42


104. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-460 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Starr Group V.A; HGC 4, 1596. NGC graded AU ★ 5/5 - 5/5 (#4883344-001).

1,500

From the inventory of a German dealer.

Full Helmet Crest

105. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.19g, 26mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; full helmet crest visible.

1,000

MS 5/5 - 5/5

106. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. NGC graded MS 5/5 - 5/5 (#4883344-005). Near full helmet crest.

1,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

MS 5/5 - 5/5

107. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. NGC graded MS 5/5 - 5/5 (#4883344-010).

1,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

43


Full Helmet Crest

108. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.20g, 26mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; full helmet crest visible.

750

109. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.25g, 25mm, 6h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

110. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.22g, 25mm, 7h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

111. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.22g, 24mm, 1h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

44


112. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.24g, 25mm, 10h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

113. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.23g, 24mm, 3h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

114. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.22g, 25mm, 1h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

115. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.23g, 25mm, 4h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

45


116. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.23g, 25mm, 12h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

117. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.24g, 25mm, 1h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

118. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.24g, 25mm, 6h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

119. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.22g, 25mm, 7h. Mint State.

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

46


120. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 4/5 (#4883344-008).

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

121. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. NGC graded MS 5/5 - 4/5 (#4883344-032).

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

122. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. NGC graded MS 5/5 - 4/5 (#4883344-006).

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

123. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 4/5 (#4883344-031).

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

47


124. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 5/5 (#4883344-030).

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

125. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 5/5 (#4883344-003).

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

126. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 3/5, brushed (#4883344-004).

750

From the inventory of a German dealer.

127. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss, and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.23g, 24mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

500

From the Santana Collection; Ex inventory of a UK dealer, Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 73, 23 July 202, lot 235.

48


128. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31; HGC 4, 1597. 17.21g, 24mm, 1h. Near Mint State.

500

From the inventory of a German dealer.

129. Attica, Athens AR Drachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing to right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen 41-3; Kroll 10; HGC 4, 1631. 4.28g, 16mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 112.

130. Attica, Athens AR New Style Tetradrachm. Circa 166/5 BC. Timarchos, Nikag(oras), and Doroth- magistrates. Head of Athena Parthenos to right, wearing necklace, pendant earring, and triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with the protomes of four horses above the visor, a Pegasos in flight rightward above the raised earpiece, and a curvilinear ornament on the bowl / Owl standing to right, head facing, on amphora with A (month); A-ӨE above TIM-APXOY NIKAΓO ΔΩPOӨ (magistrates’ names) in four lines across field, anchor and star to left, ME below; all within wreath. Thompson 362a-b; HGC 4, 1602. 16.83g, 31mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone.

2,500

Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XIV, 4 January 2011, lot 197.

49


131. Attica, Athens AR New Style Tetradrachm. Circa 165/4 BC. Polycharm-, Nikog- and Philodr- magistrates. Head of Athena Parthenos to right, wearing necklace, pendant earring, and triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with the protomes of four horses above the visor, a Pegasos in flight rightward above the raised earpiece, and a curvilinear ornament on the bowl / Owl standing to right, head facing, on amphora with Γ (month); A-ӨE above ΠOΛY-XAPM NIKOΓ ΦΙΛΟΔP (magistrates’ names) in four lines across field, winged kerykeion to left, ME below; all within wreath. Thompson 376d corr. (magistrate name) var. (same obv. die, unlisted controls); HGC 4, 1602. 16.85g, 32mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XIV, 4 January 2011, lot 214.

132. Attica, Athens AR New Style Tetradrachm. Circa 129/8 BC. Dioge-, Posei- and Dorothe-, magistrates. Head of Athena Parthenos to right, wearing necklace, pendant earring, and triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with the protomes of four horses above the visor, a Pegasos in flight rightward above the raised earpiece, and a curvilinear ornament on the bowl / Owl standing to right, head facing, on amphora with I (month); A-ӨE above ΔΙΟΓΕ ΠΟΣΕ ΔΩΡΟΘΕ (magistrates’ names) in five lines across fields, Dionysos standing facing in left field, holding thyrsos, ME below amphora; all within wreath. Thompson 417e; HGC 4, 1602. 16.81g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; light marks to cheek, attractive light cabinet tone with golden iridescence.

750

Ex A. Tkalec AG, 22 April 2007, lot 51.

ISLANDS OFF ATTICA Unique and Unpublished Imitation of Aegina

133. Islands off Attica, Aegina AR Hemidrachm - Quarter Stater. Contemporary imitation, circa late 6th - early 5th century BC. Sea turtle with segmented shell / Octopartite stellate incuse with central pellet. Apparently unpublished: for staters of a similar style cf. Holloway Archaic, pl. 7, 10 = Milbank pl. 1, 6 and Triton II, lot 379; for obols of similar style cf. Robinson Pseudoaeginetica pl. 10, 39 and NAC 123, lot 50; for late 5th century hemidrachms imitating Aegina cf. Traeger 213-4 and Robinson Pseudoaeginetica (Kydonia); cf. Berk 193, lot 141 (Kydonia, Triobol). 3.77g, 15mm. Extremely Fine. A unique and unpublished specimen, likely an imitation of the Aegina type but cruder in style than the hemidrachms attributed to Kydonia.

500

From the inventory of a German dealer. For discussions of proto-Tortoise staters and their possible origins see Robinson Pseudoaeginetica, Holloway Archaic Appendix: The Attribution of the Proto-Tortoise Group, and Selinus Hoard, pp. 21-22.

50


134. Islands off Attica, Aegina AR Stater. Circa 470-440 BC. Sea turtle, head in profile, with ‘T’ design in pellets on shell / Large square incuse with skew pattern. Meadows, Aegina, Group IIIa; Milbank Period III, pl. I, 13 (same obv. die); Gulbenkian 523; Kraay-Hirmer 336; Jameson 1199; SNG Copenhagen 507; HGC 6, 435. 12.42g, 20mm. Near Extremely Fine; attractive example.

1,500

135. Islands off Attica, Aegina AR Drachm. Circa 350-338 BC. Ni-, magistrate. Sea turtle with segmented shell; A-I across fields / Incuse square of thin skew pattern; N-I across upper incuses, dolphin in lower left. Milbank pl. III, 6; BMC 197-198; Nomos 18, lot 122 (sold for 2,000 CHF); HGC 6, 445. 5.60g, 19mm, 7h. Very Fine; attractively toned. Rare.

1,000

Ex Pierre and Angelique Amandry Collection. Pierre Amandry was a French Hellenist, especially interested in ancient Greece and its relationships with south-west Asia. He was born at Troyes on December 31, 1912, and died in Paris on February 21, 2006. A large part of his work was on the site of Delphi, excavated by the French School at Athens, of which he was secretary general from 1941 to 1948 and director from 1969 to 1981.

BOIOTIA

136. Boiotia, Thebes AR Stater. Circa 363-338 BC. Eu(w)ara-, magistrate. Boiotian shield / Amphora; club and grape bunch on vine above; EY-FA P-A in two lines across fields; all within oval incuse. Hepworth 43; BCD Boeotia 567; HGC 4, 1334. 12.19g, 25mm. Near Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

750

Ex Pierre et Angélique Amandry Collection.

CRETE

Only Two Recorded by Le Rider

137. Crete, Gortyna AR Drachm. Circa 4th century BC. Head of Persephone to right, hair bound with barley wreath, wearing triple pendant earring and necklace / ΓΟΡΤΙΝΙΩΝ, Cretan bull standing to right, head reverted. Le Rider p. 83, 90. pl. 20, 16 (same dies); Svoronos 90, pl. 15, 10 (same dies); Traité pl. 254, 13 (same dies). 5.89g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only two examples recorded by Le Rider. Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 116; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction IX, 22 March 2015, lot 265; Ex Eckenheimer Collection, formed in Germany between c. 1940-1980.

51

3,000


The Labyrinth of King Minos

138. Crete, Knossos AR Stater. Circa 320-270 BC. Wreathed female (Demeter or Persephone) head to right / The Labyrinth of King Minos in maeander pattern; star within centre. Traité III 1537, pl. CCL, 4; SNG Copenhagen 369; BMC 5-6; Svoronos 27; Le Rider 22. 11.08g, 26mm. Extremely Fine; small test punch on rev., beautiful old cabinet tone. Previously NGC graded XF 5/5 - 2/5 (#4936363-013). Very Rare.

5,000

Ex Collection of a Gentleman; Acquired from Stack’s Bowers Galleries. Knossos, a city of unparalleled Bronze Age splendours, was reconstructed by the Greeks slightly to the north of the destroyed Minoan palace and the city recovered a considerable degree of importance in the 1st millennium BC, never forgetting its glorious pre-Hellenic past. The frequent military conflicts with its neighbours Tylisos, Lyttos and Gortyna notwithstanding, the city thrived as ‘the metropolis of Crete’ (Strabo X.47). By the 5th century BC it established a mint and began to issue coins on the Aiginetan standard commemorating its legendary past, at first depicting the Minotaur and the Labyrinth, then later Ariadne and King Minos, and from about 300-270 BC an elegant head of Hera. Knossos continued to issue coins into Roman times as capital of the Roman province of Cyrenaica and Crete under a Cretarch named Kydas. The fable of Theseus and the Minotaur needs little recounting; all are familiar with Theseus’ feat of slaying the monstrous progeny of Pasiphaë and the white bull sent from the sea by Poseidon; navigating the Labyrinth with the help of Minos’ daughter Ariadne who provided him with thread so he could find his way back out. The historical basis for the myth has long been sought by scholars and archaeologists: Sir Arthur Evans, the first to excavate the Minoan palace of Knossos is often credited for the idea that the Labyrinth of myth was in reality the palace of Minos, which had an enormous number of rooms, staircases and corridors, and heavily featured the double-axe (labrys) symbol within – thus being the “House of the Labrys”. Though the notion is generally discredited today, the historical basis and etymology for the Labyrinth is sought still, with little agreement. Perhaps the most intriguing perspective on the Thesean myth is that of the widely-acclaimed author Mary Renault, whose vivid work of historical fiction, the Bildungsroman entitled “The King Must Die” (1958) sought to rationalise the fanciful and furnish a plausible basis for the story. Thus in her work the appointed ‘sacrifice’ from Athens of boys and girls are intended for the acrobatic bull-dancing rituals of which magnificent Minoan frescoes still survive, rather than the knife; the Labyrinth is indeed the palace of Minos, though its maze-like qualities are portrayed as subterranean grotto-like passageways of forgotten storerooms and ancient armouries incorporated into the foundations of the palace; the Minotaur meanwhile is the cruel and despotic heir of Minos named Asterion (a synonymous term also used by ancient writers referring to the monster, and in its literal meaning of ‘starry’ also figured on the coinage of Knossos in place of the monster). Regardless of any historical basis for this myth, the fantastical story as it came to be told possessed layers of metaphor that were intended to be interpreted as didactic. The tale of Theseus is a coming of age story par excellence, that narrates the transition of a flawed boy from youth to adulthood and ascension to the throne of Athens; Theseus is at once the great hero who slays the Minotaur, thus rescuing his companions and delivering his city from the curse of their regularly-appointed sacrifice, but at the same time is the reprehensible cad who abandons Ariadne on Naxos and by celebrating his return to Athens too soon forgets to replace the black sail of his ship with a white one as he approaches, so causing the suicide of his father who believes him dead. Thus the Labyrinth of the story serves as a metaphor for potential transformation: despite Theseus accomplishing the seemingly impossible he retains his flaws and resists the chance to change and grow until he had that change (in the form of great responsibility and cares of state) forced upon him by his father the king’s death that he himself was the cause of. The Labyrinth can furthermore be interpreted as a metaphor for life, requiring that one find one’s thread and learn how to follow it, lest life’s perplexities be insurmountable.

The Bull Sacrifice

139. Crete, Polyrhenion AR Stater. 4th century BC. Charisthe, magistrate. Laureate head of Zeus to right / Head of sacrificial bull facing, with pendant fillets hanging from horns; ΧΑΡΙΣΘΕ above, ΠΟΛΥΡΗΝΙΟΝ around. Svoronos (1972) 6, pl. XXV, 29 (same dies); Le Rider (1966) pl. XXXIII, 19 (same dies). 11.43g, 25mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known examples.

4,000

Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 117; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction X, 27 September 2015, lot 383 (hammer: £8,000). Polyrhenion, whose etymology is ‘rich in lambs’, was one the oldest Dorian settlements of Crete. According to Strabo it was settled in archaic times by Achaian and Lakonian immigrants who gathered into one city the existing population, who had lived in villages, some 7 km inland from the Bay of Kissamos. Excavations from 1938 have exposed several building foundations which defy identification, but it may safely be presumed that one of these was a temple dedicated to Zeus. The bull sacrifice was a universal and key element of Greek religion, and it held particular significance in Crete which was rich in mythological traditions relating to the bull as a divine animal, being either divinely directed or itself a theriomorphic god in bull form. Indeed, the central importance of the bull in Cretan culture was an ancient one predating even the arrival of the Mycenaean Greeks in the fourteenth century BC; twentieth century archaeological excavations begun by Arthur Evans in 1900 dramatically ‘resurrected’ the lost Minoan civilisation and uncovered a wealth of artefacts which, among other things, portray the bull as a major religious symbol. The mythical origin of the idea of bull or ox sacrifice was believed to be from the story of Prometheos in Hesiod’s Theogamy (521-616). At Mekone, in a sacrificial meal marking the ‘settling of accounts’ between mortals and immortals, Prometheos purposely deceives Zeus by assigning to him a goodlooking portion ‘wrapped in glistening fat’ that consists of nothing but bones, thus ensuring humans would keep the meat for themselves and burn the bones wrapped in fat as an offering to the gods.

52


MACEDON Aggression and Valour

140. Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-430 BC. Lion to right, leaping upon and attacking bull to left; in exergue, tunny fish swimming to left / ΑΚΑΝΘΙΟΝ around raised quadripartite square; all within incuse square. Desneux -, but cf. 100 (O-/R90 - [unlisted obv. die]); Gulbenkian 393; Roma XXII, 225; Roma XX, lot 119; Roma E-58, lot 141; Roma XVII, lot 385; HGC 3.1, 385. 17.18g, 29mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

15,000

The ubiquitous and persistent theme of the lion-bull combat can be traced back to the figurate art of the third millennium, where the geometrical motifs are replaced by narrative symbolic representations, and the scene is characteristic of Near Eastern art in its infancy. The earliest known depiction occurs on a ewer found at Uruk dated to the latter part of the Protoliterate period, circa 3300 BC. That ewer has a relief depiction of a lion attacking a bull from behind (see Henri Frankfort, Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient, 1963). The scene became widely distributed by 500 BC, featuring prominently in the Achaemenid Empire, and in particular at the palace of Darios in Persepolis, where it occurs no fewer than twenty seven times, including on the main staircase leading to the imperial complex. Its frequent appearance in key locations strongly suggests an important symbolic significance, which unfortunately has not survived antiquity in any explicitly clear form. Explanations for the symbolism and its power over the ancient peoples who reproduced it with prodigious enthusiasm have ranged from it being an expression of royal power, to an astronomical allusion, as well as it being an embodiment of the constant struggle between civilisation (represented by the domesticated bull) and nature (represented by the untameable lion). This latter argument may well hold true for the Mesopotamians of Uruk, who it is known took a rather grim view of the world, seeing it as a battleground of opposing powers. One interpretation that has gained traction in recent years is that the motif is apotropaic in nature, serving to ward off evil in a similar function to the gorgoneion, which like the lion attack motif is very prevalent in ancient Greek coinage, though there is little evidence to support such a notion. G. E. Markoe (‘The Lion Attack in Archaic Greek Art’, Classical Antiquity Vol. 8, 1, 1989) convincingly suggests that a more likely explanation may be found in the examination of archaic Greek epic poetry, particularly in Homeric literature, wherein a lion attacking cattle or sheep is repeatedly employed as a simile for the aggression and valour of combatant heroes. In notable passages, Agamemnon’s victorious advance against the Trojans in the Iliad (11.113ff and 129) and Hektor’s successful pursuit of the Achaeans (15.630ff) are both likened to a lion triumphing over its hapless prey. In both of these cases the allusion is completed by the defeated being compared to fleeing prey animals. In all, there are twenty five examples present in the Iliad of heroic warriors being compared to leonine aggressors, with the victims variously compared to boars, sheep, goats, bulls or deer. The repetition of this literary device is clearly demonstrative of how deeply rooted the imagery was in the Greek (and perhaps more generally human) consciousness. Of further and great significance is the involvement of the gods as the primary instigators of heroic leonine aggression in almost every case, and as it is made clear that the lion itself is an animal that is divinely directed to its prey (11.480, by a daimon), so then is the lion attack a metaphor for divinely inspired heroic triumph. The lion and bull motif was apparently adopted early on by Akanthos (c. 530-500 BC), though the lion and the bull were in any case among the earliest figures to appear on coinage - the mid-6th century BC coinage of the Lydian kings Alyattes and Kroisos is the best example of this usage (see lots 502-506). Already by this time too, the lion attack motif was in popular usage in mainland Greece - see for example the near contemporary Attic blackfigure tripod in the manner of the KY Painter (Athens 12688). Persian influence on the design of tetradrachms of Akanthos can perhaps be inferred from an orientalising of style resulting in an appearance more similar to the reliefs at Persepolis (cf. Roma XVI, lot 201, dated circa 480-470 BC); Herodotos (7.116) records the Akanthians officially welcomed the Persians and willingly helped Xerxes: “Xerxes... declared the Akanthians his guests and friends, and gave them Median clothing, praising them for the zeal with which he saw them furthering his campaign.” Having thus taken part in the Persian campaign against Greece of its own accord, when Xerxes was defeated, Akanthos subsequently become a member of the Delian League. It is tempting to see in the re-westernisation of the style of their coinage a reflection of this political volte-face.

53


Unpublished and Unique

141. Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-430 BC. Lion to right with head three-quarters facing, leaping upon and attacking bull to left; kantharos between two ivy leaves in exergue / ΑΚΑΝΘΙΟΝ around raised quadripartite square; all within incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references; Roma E-Live 2, 169; Heritage 3066, 30013 (hammer: $44,000); for general type, cf. HGC 3.1, 385. 17.24g, 27mm, 10h. Extremely Fine; a triumph of die engraving, with a three-quarters facing lion head. Unpublished and unique; apparently the third known example with the kantharos and ivy leaf exergual design on the obverse and the first with this arrangement of the reverse ethnic. 12,500 From the inventory of a German dealer.

142. Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-430 BC. Bull collapsing to left, attacked and mauled by lion upon his back to right; tunny fish to left in exergue / ΑΚΑΝΘΙΟΝ around raised quadripartite square; all within incuse square. Cf. Desneux 95 (unlisted obv. die); SNG ANS -; HGC 3.1, 385. 17.21g, 29mm, 4h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal, attractive light cabinet tone.

10,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 122.

54


143. Macedon, Philippoi AR Drachm. Circa 360-356 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Tripod with fillets hanging to either side, laurel branch above, ΦIΛIΠΠΩN to left, bow to right. Bellinger, Philippi 8; SNG Copenhagen 293; BMC 4; HGC 3.2, 630 var. (control). 3.15g, 16mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; an attractive example. Very Rare; one of only 6 drachms of Philippoi to appear at auction since 1999.

3,000

Ex Nomos AG, Auction 20, 10 July 2020, lot 98; Ex German collection, acquired in Munich in the 1990s.

Very Rare

144. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander I AR Tetrobol. Aigai, circa 480-476 BC. Horse prancing to right on ground line / Male head, in Chalkidian helmet, to right; within incuse square. Raymond Group I, 43; SNG ANS 19 (same dies); HGC 3.1, 773. 2.02g, 15mm, 5h. Good Very Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Matthew Curtis Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 112, 11 September 2019, lot 130 (sold for 650 USD); Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Mail Bid Sale 82, 16 September 2009, lot 403.

145. Macedon, Chalkidian League AR Tetradrachm. Olynthos, circa 364-348 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / XAΛKIΔEΩN around kithara with six strings. Robinson & Clement 96 (A63/P83); SNG ANS 502 = SNG Berry 24 (same dies). 14.21g, 25mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. A portrait of fine style, centrally struck in high relief on a large sized flan.

7,500

From a private UK collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Angelo S. Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XI, 7 April 2016, lot 178; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction II, 2 October 2011, lot 218; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 155, 5 March 2007, lot 61; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton VIII, 11 January 2005, lot 117. The growing influence and expansionist aims of the Chalkidian League led by Olynthos had in 382 BC led to calls from Amyntas of Macedon, as well as Akanthos and Apollonia (who anticipated imminent conquest by the League), for Spartan intervention to check the League’s power. Sparta, keen to reassert its presence in northern Greece, consented and a force of 10,000 was mobilised and dispatched against the League. After several years of protracted but indecisive warfare, Olynthos agreed to dissolve the Chalkidian League, though this dissolution appears to have been little more than a token formality, since in the following year the League appears among the members of the Athenian naval confederacy, and twenty years later Demosthenes reported the power of the League as being much greater than before the Spartan expedition. Olynthos itself is at this time spoken of as a city of the first rank, and the Chalkidian League then comprised thirty-two cities. Olynthus was allied with Macedon when Philip II and Athens went to war in 356 after Philip’s capture of the Athenian colonies of Pydna and Potidea. Around this time Philip also allowed himself to be drawn into the Sacred War on behalf of the Thessalians; since Athens was also a combatant in the Sacred War, the war between Athens and Macedon became inextricably linked with the progress of the Sacred War. Alarmed by Philip’s aggressive policies and further invasions of neighbouring territories, Olynthos concluded an alliance with Athens in 352. The city made three embassies to Athens, the occasions of Demosthenes’s three Olynthiac Orations. On the third, the Athenians sent soldiers from among its citizens to garrison the city and reinforce its defences. In response Philip attacked the Chalkidian League in 349, and by 348, he had completely destroyed the League, razing Olynthos to the ground in the process.

55


A Stellar Example

146. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 355-348 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right / ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, Philip on horseback to left, raising hand; M below. Le Rider Group IB, 67 (D32/R58); SNG ANS 467; HGC 3.1, 861. 14.42g, 24mm, 1h. Fleur De Coin; highly lustrous metal, an excellent example of the early lifetime coinage of Philip. Very Rare in such exceptional condition, among the finest to come to auction in the past decade. 10,000 Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 129. Philip, despite Athenian opposition to his participation in the Olympics on the grounds that he was a non-Greek, went on to become an Olympic victor three times in 356, 352 and 348 BC. On the first occasion, Plutarch reports that upon having conquered Potidaia Philip was informed that his horse had won its race, and that this day he also learned of the victory of his general Parmenion against the Illyrians, and that his wife Myrtale had given birth to a son, Alexander. In commemoration of his Olympic victory, Philip decreed that his wife should henceforth be known as Olympias, and he caused coins such as this to be struck, proudly displaying both he and his horse in victorious stance upon the reverse. The presence of Zeus’s head on the obverse of Philip’s coinage was a novelty in Macedonian coinage, and its sudden appearance is closely connected with both types of Philip’s tetradrachms - both the more mature, cloaked rider (as depicted here), and the younger, nude rider holding a victor’s palm - as well as his other denominations. While in his extensive work Le Rider identifies the mature horseman seen on the reverse of this type as the king himself, he makes no attempt to explain the young rider holding the palm branch as seen on lot 150. Caltabiano (the identity of the two horsemen on Philip II’s coinage, Ancient Macedonia, Sixth International Symposium, vol. 1, p. 201) however proposes that the use of the heads of Zeus and Apollo on Philip’s coinage, as well as the older and younger horsemen, suggest an important father-son relationship: that of Philip and his heir Alexander. Isokrates proposed that Zeus here represents “the conceit of a royal power” whose right to rule, as theorised by Isokrates, comes directly from Zeus, and whose continuity is assured by the hereditary principle. This interpretation is reinforced by the heroon that Philip built in the Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia after his victory at Chaeroneia, in which were contained the statues of Philip and Olympias, his parents Amyntas and Eurydice, and his son Alexander. The latter, whose chryselephantine image stood in an eminent position, had played a glorious and distinguished role in the battle, breaking and routing the Greek right flank with his cavalry. Thus, if we are to see in the cloaked older rider the figure of Philip himself, we must see in the younger rider a representation of his son Alexander. If we may accept Caltabiano’s hypothesis as quite likely, then the present coin potentially affords us one of the best preserved depictions of Philip II of Macedon, who is undeniably one of the most influential figures in all of recorded history around whose life and death and legacy pivoted the fate of the known world.

2x

2x

147. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV 1/12 Stater. Pella, circa 345-336 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Thunderbolt; below, ΦIΛIΠΠOY above lion head facing. Le Rider pl. 83; SNG ANS 209; SNG Alpha Bank 252-4; HGC 3.1, 857. 0.70g, 8mm, 6h. Very Fine; struck from worn obverse die.

300

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 83, 3 November 2019, lot 97.

56


2x

2x

148. Kingdom of Macedon, temp. Philip II - Alexander III AV Quarter Stater. Pella, circa 342-328 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Kantharos above bow and club; [ΦΙ]ΛΙΠΠΟΥ below. Le Rider 64 (D44/R34); SNG ANS 221-223; HGC 3.1, 851 var. (placement of control). 2.15g, 10mm, 9h. Near Mint State.

1,000

From a private European collection.

2x

2x

149. Kingdom of Macedon, temp. Philip II - Alexander III AV Quarter Stater. Pella, circa 342-328 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, club and bow below, thunderbolt above. Le Rider 49 (D34/R28); SNG ANS 219; HGC 3.1, 852. 2.15g, 10mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

From a private European collection.

Published in Le Rider and de Nanteuil

150. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 342-336 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right / Nude youth on horseback to right, holding reins and long palm branch; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around, thunderbolt below horse, N in exergue. Le Rider 276a (D152/R219 - this coin) = de Nanteuil 796 (this coin); HGC 3.1, 864. 14.50g, 17mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; a truly spectacular example, featuring a magnificent portrait of Zeus struck in high relief and a stunning old cabinet tone.

7,500

This coin published in G. Le Rider, Le monnayage d’argent et d’or de Philippe II (Paris, 1977); This coin published in H. de Nanteuil, Collection de monnaies grecques (Paris, 1925); Ex Jean Vinchon Numismatique, April 1988, lot 345; Ex H. de Nanteuil de la Norville (1876-1941) Collection.

151. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR 1/5 Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 342-336 BC. Head of Apollo to right, wearing tainia / Youth on horseback to right; ΦΙΛΙΠΠ[ΟΥ] above, N above thunderbolt below. Le Rider 315 (D173/R252); SNG ANS 398; HGC 3.1, 876. 2.91g, 14mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; struck from dies of beautifully refined style.

1,000

From a private European collection.

57


152. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 342-328 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right / Youth on horseback to right, holding reins and long palm branch; ΦIΛIΠΠOY around, prow below horse. Le Rider 393 (D202/R347); SNG ANS 541; HGC 3.1, 865. 14.45g, 27mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

750

From a private European collection.

Very Rare

153. Kingdom of Macedon, temp. Philip II - Alexander III AV Stater. Pella, circa 340/336-328 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping biga to right; shield to right, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider 392 (D168/R287); SNG ANS 161-2; HGC 3.1, 846 var. (location of symbol). NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 4/5 (#6155596-004); a highly attractive example, struck from fresh dies. Very Rare; just the sixth example to come to auction in the past decade. 4,000 From the inventory of a US dealer.

154. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Pella, circa 340/36-328 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping biga to right; cornucopiae below horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider -, cf. pl. 65, 393-395; cf. HGC 3.1, 846. 8.54g, 18mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare symbol, possibly unique from these dies.

3,500

Ex A.F. Collection, Germany, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XVI, 26 September 2018, lot 211.

155. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Pella, circa 340/36-328 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping biga to right; trident head to right below horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider 310 (D143/R237); HGC 3.1, 846. 8.61g, 19mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Chrysos Collection (acquired in Geneva in 1980), Nomos AG, Auction 13, 7 October 2016, lot 160.

2x

2x

156. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV 1/8 Stater. Pella, circa 340-328 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Trident head, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to left. Le Rider 113 (D56/R48); SNG ANS 233 (same rev die); HGC 3.1, 856. 1.07g, 9mm. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158069-003).

1,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 1, 25 October 2017, lot 47.

58


157. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Hemistater. Amphipolis, circa 340-328 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Forepart of lion to right; trident below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above. Le Rider 43; SNG ANS 217 (same dies); HGC 3.1, 848. 4.29g, 13mm, 6h. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158067-002). Very Rare.

3,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 1, 25 October 2017, lot 45; Ex Viennese collection, formed in the 1990s.

The Fourth Known

158. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Drachm. Amphipolis, struck under Antipater or Polyperchon (for Philip III and Alexander IV), circa 320/19-317 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Youth on horseback to right, holding reins and long palm branch; grain ear below horse, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around, Π below foreleg. Troxell, Studies, Group 8, 388 = Le Rider, Monnayage pl. 7, 22 = SNG Lewis 500 (same dies); Le Rider -; SNG ANS -; SNG München -; SNG Alpha Bank -; HGC 3.1 -. 4.06g, 12mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; Troxell identified six Attic weight drachms in this series with three varieties of control markings. This is the fourth known with these control symbols. 1,500 This remarkable drachm might initially appear to be a mule of an obverse of Alexander the Great and a reverse of his father Philip II, but the proportions, style and execution of both obverse and reverse dies seem to mirror those employed for tetradrachm production, albeit on a smaller scale, rather than regular simplified drachm dies. The beautiful horseback reverse type in fact replicates a type from Philip II’s tetradrachms, a completely different denomination altogether that was otherwise never employed on drachms. These quirks point to this extremely coin perhaps representing a trial piece, possibly produced in the uncertain political period following the death of Alexander III ‘the Great’ when the diadochi fought over and carved up his empire into several kingdoms.

MS★ 5/5 - 5/5

159. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Babylon, circa 317-311 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, XA monogram to left. Price -, cf. 3724; Müller 825. 8.55g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded MS★ 5/5 - 5/5 (#4278262-005). Extremely Rare; not recorded by Price, and the only example offered at auction in the past 20 years. From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 64, 17 May 2012, lot 788.

4,000

Not Recorded by Price

160. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Teos, struck under Antigonos I Monophthalmos, circa 310-301 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; AΛEΞANΔP[OY] to right, griffin in outer left field, M below wing. Price -; Roma E-Sale 5, 257; Leu web auction 15, 157. 8.54g, 17mm, 12h. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 3/5 (#6158068-001). Very Rare; this type not recorded by Price. From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 53, 7 May 2017, lot 56.

59

2,500


A Unique and Unpublished Hemistater

161. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Hemistater. Salamis, circa 332-323 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, O below wing tip; at feet to left, dove standing to right. Price -, cf. 3129 (stater) and 3130 (without O). 4.33g, 15mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch AU★ 5/5 - 3/5, scratch (#6158066-001). Unique and unpublished.

10,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 1, 25 October 2017, lot 57 (hammer: CHF 15,000); Ex Viennese collection, formed in the 1990s.

162. Kingdom of Macedon, temp. Alexander III - Philip III AV Stater. ‘Amphipolis’, circa 330-320 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ to right, thunderbolt in left field. Price 164; Müller 2; HGC 3.1, 893a. 8.63g, 19mm, 8h. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 3/5, edge marks (#6158067-007).

2,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Prof. E. Langlotz Collection, Münzen & Medaillen Deutschland GmbH, Auction 44, 25 November 2016, lot 36.

60


163. Kingdom of Macedon, temp. Alexander III - Philip III AV Stater. ‘Amphipolis’, circa 330-320 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ to right, thunderbolt in left field. Price 164; Müller 2; Troxell, Studies p. 127, pl. 31; HGC 3.1, 893a. 8.23g, 18mm, 4h. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 2/5, brushed, ex-jewelry (#6158067-008).

2,500

From the GK Collection.

2x

2x

164. Kingdom of Macedon, temp. Alexander III - Philip III AV Quarter Stater. ‘Amphipolis’, circa 330-320 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triplecrested helmet decorated with a coiled serpent / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ divided in two lines by bow above club; thunderbolt above. Price 165; SNG Alpha Bank 464-6; SNG Saroglos 179; HGC 3.1, 897a. 2.16g, 11mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private European collection.

2x

2x

165. Kingdom of Macedon, temp. Alexander III - Philip III AV Quarter Stater. ‘Amphipolis’, circa 330-320 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triplecrested helmet decorated with a coiled serpent / Τhunderbolt, club and bow; AΛEΞANΔΡΟΥ across fields. Price 165 var. (rev. legend placement); SNG Alpha Bank 466; De Nederlandsche Bank, Amsterdam RE-04705 (same dies); HGC 3.1, 897a. 2.14g, 11mm, 6h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 3/5, edge marks (#6158069-006). A rare variant; only one example in the Pella archive with this rev. legend placement.

750

From the GK Collection; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 336, 27 May 2019, lot 15; Ex Prof. Dr. Hagen Tronnier Collection, Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 94, 27 September 2004, lot 666; Ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger, Auction 145, 27 February 1985, lot 60.w

2x

2x

166. Kingdom of Macedon, temp. Alexander III - Philip III AV Quarter Stater. ‘Amphipolis’, circa 330-320 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triplecrested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Bow and club; kantharos above, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ around. Price 169b (same dies); HGC 3.1, 897a. 2.15g, 11mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

From a private European collection.

61


167. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Distater. Amphipolis, circa 325-323 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand and stylis over left shoulder; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, thunderbolt to left, ΛO monogram below left wing. Price 191 (Aegeae(?)); Müller 5 (Pella); Troxell, Studies, Group B; Bement 705; Gillet 797; Gulbenkian 843; HGC 3.1, 892b. 17.06g, 21mm, 11h. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 1/5, brushed, edge smoothing, ex-jewelry (#6158066-002).

7,500

From the GK Collection.

168. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Lampsakos, circa 336-297 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath in extended right hand and stylis over left shoulder; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, buckle to left, monogram under left wing. Price 1374. 8.58g, 19mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine; edge repaired.

3,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Web Auction 9, 7 September 2019, lot 133.

169. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Struck under Asandros. Miletos, circa 323-319 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triplecrested helmet decorated with a coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; [AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ] to left, labrys (double-axe) below wing, grain ear to right. Price 2095; Müller 584; ADM I Series III. 8.53g, 17mm, 12h. NGC graded VF 4/5 - 2/5, brushed, edge marks (#6158069-007).

1,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 204, 5 March 2012, lot 1262.

Possibly the Second Known

170. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Struck under Menander. Sardes, circa 334-323 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triplecrested Corinthian helmet decorated with [coiled serpent] / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to left, rose in inner left field, monogram to right. Price 2548; ADM I, series IX, 52 = ANS 1944.100.31010 (same dies); GRPC Lydia G81; HGC 3.1, 893g. 8.52g, 18mm, 12h. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 2/5, scuffs (#6158069-004). Extremely Rare; possibly the second known example.

700

From the GK Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 220, 11 March 2014, lot 1187. Thompson notes the unusual style of this stater: “Its obverse die bears no resemblance to any other in either the Sardian sequence or elsewhere in the Alexander coinage. One is tempted to regard it with suspicion but it certainly seems to be genuine, and the deletion of the symbol from the original die is more likely to have happened at the mint than in a forger’s workshop. The position of the inscription, reading upward in circular fashion from lower left, is also unparalleled at Sardes although it does occur briefly at Miletus and a few other mints.”

62


171. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ Æ 19mm. Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, circa 323-310 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Club and bow in bowcase, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ between; race torch below. Price 2800; HGC 3.1, 951 (Alexander IV) corr. (no monogram, Price ref.). 5.94g, 19mm, 3h. Mint State; sharply struck. Rare in this high grade.

150

Acquired from Warden Numismatics LLC (USD 575).

172. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Salamis, circa 332-323 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, eagle to left. Price 3128; Müller 182; HGC 3.1, 893k. 8.61g, 18mm, 8h. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 2/5, Fine Style; edge marks, scuff and graffiti (#6158067-006). Extremely Rare; only one other example on CoinArchives. 3,500 From the GK Collection; Ex Sincona AG, Auction 41, 23 October 2017, lot 40; Ex Frederick S. Knobloch Collection, Stack’s, 10 June 1970, lot 675.

The Prototype Issue

173. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Sidon, circa 333-305 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with griffin / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; AΛEΞANΔPOY to left, kerykeion below right wing. Price 3458; Newell, Sidon 2; Müller 205; HGC 3.1, 893n. 8.55g, 18mm, 9h. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 3/5, scuffs (#6158067-005).

2,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 84, 1 December 2019, lot 70. This type is believed to be the prototype issue of Alexander’s Athena-Nike gold staters.

174. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Sidon, dated CY 11 = 323/2 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; K (date) to left, ΣI below left wing. Price 3494 (CY 10); Newell 33; DCA 874. 8.55g, 18mm, 1h. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158067-009). Rare.

2,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Sincona AG, Auction 41, 23 October 2017, lot 42.

In Dated Coins of Antiquity, Cohen reassigns the dating of this issue to 323/2 BC on the basis that the Sidonians, having switched to the Greek alphabetic numbering system, confused the eleventh Phoenician letter Kof for the tenth Greek letter K. The last Sidonian coin using the Phoenician alphabetic dating system bears a Yud for year 10 suggesting that the Greek alphabetic system was adopted thereafter in year 11. As there are no known examples bearing the eleventh Greek letter Λ and the sequence continues with the twelfth letter M, the numismatic evidence seems to support Cohen’s reattribution.

63


64


Among the Finest Known

175. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Dekadrachm. ‘Babylon’, circa 325-323 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, on throne with eagle-tipped finials, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, monogram and M below throne. Price 3600 = Mitchiner, The Early Indo-Greeks and their Antecedents p. 11, illustration 4 = NAC 72, 344 = Price, Mnemata, 6 = Coin Hoard 1975 fig. 6, 2 (same dies); ACR 8, 198 (same dies); HGC 3.1, 909. 41.51g, 35mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. One of very few surviving dekadrachms of Alexander, and among the very finest known, of superior metal quality and preservational state to all those of recent years including the Prospero collection specimen, with the potential exception only of that auctioned at BFAACR Auction 8 in 2014. 30,000 From the collection of S. Adam (UK), inherited from his father. Silver dekadrachms, be they of Athens, Syracuse, Akragas or Carthage, have ever been amongst the most desired and sought-after of ancient coins by virtue of their impressive size and weight, and the large canvas they presented for the showcasing of the engraver’s art. Though considered ‘rare’, the surviving dekadrachms of Syracuse number in the high hundreds or low thousands, and those of Athens in the dozens. Fewer than twenty dekadrachms of Alexander are known to exist today - figurative grains of sand on a beach amidst the hundreds of thousands of surviving tetradrachms, drachms, staters and other fractions. The extreme rarity of Alexander’s dekadrachms has therefore contributed an aura of unobtainability to the mystery of this most iconic coinage. Missing from most of the world’s major institutional collections, the majority of the examples known today originated from the 1973 ‘Babylon’ Hoard (sometimes also referred to as the Mesopotamia Hoard), and a smaller 1989 find that Martin Price believed to be a part of the original 1973 deposit. The eight coins that are known to have come from these two groups form the backbone of the Dekadrachm corpus. Struck in three emissions from a mint generally considered to be at Babylon, but possibly Susa or Ekbatana, the dekadrachms formed part of a massive conversion of bullion seized from the Persian Royal treasuries at Susa and Persepolis - some 180,000 Attic talents (4,680 metric tons) were liberated from those vaults, converted by decree of the King into ready coinage to meet the expenses of his vast empire and to pay his beloved soldiers. That so few examples of this large denomination survive today is potentially indicative of a special significance or purpose for these coins. It is certainly tempting to think - as many often have - that they represent presentation pieces intended for certain men of rank, and that Alexander, who was well known for his love of giving gifts, may have distributed them personally. In reality though, their low survival rate is probably due to the impracticality of the denomination, since the ubiquitous tetradrachm was the more common and more convenient medium of payment. Regardless of its intended purpose, and though it represents only a small splinter that survives of Alexander’s great vision, today his dekadrachms are one of the most tangible artefacts of his reign, and amongst the greatest prizes of ancient Greek numismatics.

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From the Dekadrachm Series

176. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Struck under Stamenes or Archon. ‘Babylon’, circa 323 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ below, M in left field, monogram below throne. Price 3673; Müller 672; Newell, Re-attribution 235. 17.00g, 25mm, 2h. Extremely Fine; minor corrosion to rev., beautiful old cabinet tone and hints of iridescence. Scarce; from the dekadrachm series.

500

From a private UK collection.

177. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AR Drachm. Struck under Leonnatos, Arrhidaios, or Antigonos I, in the name and types of Alexander III. Lampsakos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; [AΛ] EΞANΔPO[Y] to right, monogram in left field, coiled snake below throne. Price 1364; Müller 535. 4.23g, 18mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine; an attractive example of a scarce type.

250

178. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Lampsakos, 323-317 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, buckle in left field and crescent-over-A beneath wing-tip to left. Price P14; ADM II Series IX, 173 var. (same obv. die, different positions of controls); HGC 3.1, 968a. 8.59g, 17mm, 6h. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 3/5, edge scuff (#6158069-008).

2,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 45, 3 July 2016, lot 121.

179. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AR Drachm. Struck under Leonnatos, Arrhidaios, or Antigonos I, in the types of Alexander III. Lampsakos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; ΦIΛIΠΠOY to right, buckle in left field, monogram below throne. Price P15; Müller P79; HGC 3.1, 974b. 4.29g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State, a superb example.

300

180. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III. Uncertain mint in Cilicia, circa 320-318/7 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ above, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, ΦI in left field, Λ below throne. Price 2964 (Side[?]); HGC 3.1, 943b (Alexander IV). 17.17g, 27mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive iridescent tone. Very Rare; only six examples in Pella.

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500


181. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. ‘Babylon’, circa 323-318/7 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis, BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right; ΛY below left wing, [M] below right wing. Price P178; HGC 3.1, 970b. 8.59g, 18mm, 4h. NGC graded MS Ch AU 4/5 - 3/5, marks (#6158067-010).

3,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Maison Palombo, Auction 18, 17 November 2019, lot 28.

182. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AR Tetradrachm. Struck under Archon, Dokimos, or Seleukos I, in the types of Alexander III. ‘Babylon’, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, M in left field, ΛY below throne. Price P181; Müller P99; HGC 3.1, 973f. 17.20g, 28mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; well-centred on a broad planchet.

500

Ex Bourgey, 1909; Published in Le Rider

183. Kingdom of Macedon, temp. Philip III - Kassander AV Stater. In the name and types of Philip II. Pella, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping biga to right; Boiotian shield below, ΦIΛIΠΠOY in exergue. Le Rider 607e (D234/R442 - this coin); SNG ANS 198 (same dies); Gulbenkian 831 (same dies); Pozzi 843 (same dies); HGC 3.1, 986. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 3/5, marks, brushed, fine style (#6154656-003); a truly spectacular example, boldly struck from fresh dies. Extremely Rare. 9,000 This coin published in G. Le Rider, Le monnayage d’argent et d’or de Philippe II (Paris, 1977); Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXIV, 19 January 2021, lot 479 (hammer: USD 9,000); Ex Seaby Coin & Medal Bulletin, Number 737, January 1980, no. A1 (noting: “the finest specimen of this coin we have ever seen, splendid style, would grace any collection”); Ex H. M. Collection, Émile Bourgey, 15 December 1909, lot 116.

184. Kingdom of Macedon, Kassander, as regent, AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Philip II. Amphipolis, circa 316-311 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right / ΦΙΛΙΠΠOΥ, nude youth, holding palm frond, on horseback to right; aphlaston and pellet within Π below. Le Rider pl. 46, 18; Troxell, Studies, Group 9, 323-5; SNG ANS 740 (same dies). 14.40g, 25mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; boldly struck and highly lustrous, a splendid example. Previously slabbed by NGC #4936316-008 and graded AU, Strike 5/5, Surface 4/5. 1,500 Acquired from Stack’s Bowers Galleries (& Ponterio).

67


185. Kingdom of Macedon, Antigonos I Monophthalmos AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III. Babylon, circa 311-308 BC. Head of Athena to right wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right; MHP monogram in wreath in lower left field, XA monogram in lower right field. Price 3721. 8.57g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded AU 4/5 - 3/5. Fine Style (#6158067-014).

3,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Nomos AG, Auction 13, 7 October 2016, lot 170; Ex Schweizerische Kreditanstalt Monetarium, List 50, Autumn 1988, no. 38.

Ex Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 1914

186. Kingdom of Macedon, Demetrios I Poliorketes AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 289-288 BC. Diademed and horned head to right / Poseidon, nude, standing to left, right foot propped on rock, holding trident and resting on leg; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ to left, monograms to outer left and right. Newell 124, pl. XIII, 7 (this coin); SNG Alpha Bank 952 (this obv. die); HGC 3.1, 1014b. 16.48g, 29mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

7,500

This coin published in E.T. Newell, The Coinage of Demetrius Poliorcetes (London, 1927); Ex Sheikh Saud bin Mohammed al-Thani Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XIV, 4 January 2011, lot 95; Ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger, Auction 167, 26 September 1990, lot 308; Ex Naville Numismatics, Auction IV, 17 June 1922, lot 471; Ex Collection of L.G. Schlesinger Y. Guzman, Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 20 July 1914, lot 68.

187. Kingdom of Macedon, Antigonos III Doson AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Antigonos II Gonatas. Amphipolis or Pella, circa 229-221/0 BC. Horned head of Pan to left, lagobolon over shoulder, on boss of Macedonian shield / Athena Alkidemos standing to left, wielding thunderbolt and shield; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ to left, crested Macedonian helmet to inner left, KT to inner right. Panagopoulou Period IV, Groups 4-5, 22-24 (O07/R23, unrecorded die combination); SNG Copenhagen 1201 var. (Macedonian helmet with transverse crest); HGC 3.1, 1042 (Antigonos II Gonatas). 17.12g, 32mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone with golden iridescent highlights. Ex Nomos AG, Obolos 19, 8 May 2021, lot 211.

68

1,250


188. Kingdom of Macedon, Antigonos III Doson AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 227-225 BC. Head of Poseidon to right, wearing wreath of marine plants / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIΓONOY, Apollo, testing bow in extended right hand, seated to left on prow; monogram below. EHC 436; Touratsoglou 523; SNG München 1121-3; SNG Alpha Bank 1046-7; SNG Saroglos 933; SNG Ashmolean 3266; SNG Berry 362; SNG Lockett 1527; Dewing 1206. 17.02g, 32mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine; minor die break on rev., lightly toned.

1,750

Ex collection of W. F. Stoecklin, Switzerland (acquired prior to 1975), Nomos AG, Obolos 8, 2 December 2017, lot 191 (old collector’s ticket included).

189. Kingdom of Macedon, Perseus AR Tetradrachm. Pella or Amphipolis, circa 171-168 BC. Reduced standard. Au-, mintmaster. Diademed head to right / Eagle, with wings spread, standing to right on thunderbolt; BAΣIΛEΩΣ across upper fields, ΠEP-ΣEΩΣ across lower fields, NK monogram above, AY (mintmaster’s) monogram in right field, ΛΩ monogram between legs; all within oak wreath, plow to left below. Mamroth, Perseus, 20b; SNG Alpha Bank 1133 var. (different monogram); HGC 3.1, 1094. 15.50g, 30mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; a highly attractive example.

3,500

Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group.

190. Macedon, Koinon of Macedon Æ 25mm. Pseudo-autonomous issue, reign of Gordian III, AD 238-244. AΛEANΔPOC, diademed head of Alexander III ‘the Great’ to right / ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚЄΔΟΝΩΝ Β ΝЄ, Alexander riding Bukephalos to right, holding couched spear. RPC VII.2 Online Unassigned ID 79835 (this coin, temporary); AMNG -, but for similar cf. 499a (Severus Alexander). 13.88g, 25mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine; perfectly centred, attractive brown patina. Extremely Rare; this specimen is the only example cited by RPC Online. This coin published at Roman Provincial Coinage Online (https://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/type/79835); Acquired from Nomos AG.

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1,000


THRACE

191. Thraco-Macedonian Region, Berge AR Stater. Previously identified as either Lete or Siris. Circa 525-480 BC. Ithyphallic satyr standing to right, grasping wrist of nymph fleeing to right, head reverted; pellet to left and above(?) / Quadripartite incuse square, diagonally divided. Smith Group 5 (Lete); Peykov A0020; cf. SNG ANS 952-63 (‘Lete’); HPM pl. VIII (Siris); HGC 3.1, 531 (‘Lete’). 8.97g, 23mm. Extremely Fine; struck on a broad planchet and remarkably complete for the issue. Previously ANACS graded EF 40 (#7205081).

7,500

Acquired from Pars Coins, San Jose CA. It has been persuasively argued by S. Psoma that the coinage previously attributed to ‘Lete’ and Siris is probably from Berge (See S. Psoma, ‘The “Lete” Coinage Reconsidered’ in Agoranomia. Studies in Money and Exchange Presented to John H. Kroll, (2006) pp. 61-85).

192. Thraco-Macedonian Region, Berge AR Stater. Previously identified as either Lete or Siris. Circa 525-480 BC. Ithyphallic satyr standing to right, grasping wrist of nymph fleeing to right, head reverted; pellets around / Quadripartite incuse square, diagonally divided. Smith Group 5 (Lete); Peykov A0020; cf. SNG ANS 954-63 (‘Lete’); HPM pl. VIII (Siris); HGC 3.1, 531 (‘Lete’). 9.86g, 20mm. Extremely Fine.

1,000

193. Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, Bisaltai. Mosses AR Drachm. Circa 475-465 BC. Horseman, standing to right, wearing petasos, holding two spears, besides horse standing to right; uncertain symbol in upper left field / MOΣΣEΩ in shallow incuse around quadripartite square. Peykov C0100; HPM pl. XI, 20 = Traité I 1484, pl. XLVI, 21; HGC 3.1, 276. 2.58g, 15mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

500

From a private European collection.

Unique and Unpublished

2x

2x

194. Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, Ichnai AR Obol. Circa 485-470 BC. Horse’s hoof in profile to right, pellet in right field / Four spoked wheel within shallow incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references, for the Ichnai series cf. Peykov A1700-1770; HGC 3.1, 298-308; Svoronos HPM pl. 4, 5-19. 0.42g, 8mm. Extremely Fine. Unpublished and apparently unique.

750

From a private European collection. This newly discovered obol denomination fits perfectly with the already known denominations of Ichnai from Oktadrachm to Hemiobol. The identity of this obol with one pellet is confirmed by the diobols with two pellets weighing just over double of the previous (HGC 3.1, 303-5). The hoof type seems to be inspired by the slightly earlier silver obol attributed to Kephallenis by Traité III, 1228 = Pozzi 1876, that maybe contributed to the mass colonisation of the Pangeion region in the early 5th century BC. The introduction of coinage in the Pangeion region of eastern Macedonia during the silver rush from the mid 6th century BC produced a bewildering array of denominations, from double oktadrachms of 68g to obols of about 0.5g. This silver rush attracted colonists from all over the Hellenic world, which may explain the diversity of types and complicated weight standards, exemplified by the polis of the Ichnai tribe. It was probably originally a Paionian settlement that received settlers from Southern Greece and participated in the colonization of Amphipolis by the Macedonians.

70


Unique and Unpublished

195. Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, uncertain AR Stater. Circa 500-480 BC. Warrior wearing kausia advancing to right, leading horse by bridle / Incuse square diagonally divided with granulated quarters. Unpublished in the standard references: for a similar issue in the name of the Orreskioi with a similar obverse type, diagonally divided incuse square and on the same Thasian weight standard cf. Peykov 15; Draganov 2000, 45; AMNG III pl. 18, 12; HPM pl. 5, 15. 9.33g, 20mm. Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished in the standard references.

1,000

The ancient Greek term Pangéo means ‘all earth’ and the peoples of the mineral rich Pangaion Hills region may broadly be classified into three groups: Greek colonists, mainly from Chalkidiki and all the Hellenic world, Macedonians, whose rulers claimed Greek decadence and local Thracian tribes who had been driven inland due to the movements of the Greeks into their territories. The last two controlled the considerable mining interests in the region until the 5th century BC and produced a bewildering array of denominations, often imitating each others coin types and weight standards to accommodate diverse international trade and the considerable confusion caused by the two Persian invasions of northern Greece in 492 and 480 BC.

Extremely Rare

196. Thrace, Byzantion AV Stater. In the name and types of Lysimachos, circa 190-175 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander to right, wearing horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros enthroned to left, resting elbow on grounded shield, transverse spear behind; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ crowned by Nike to left, MHN monogram to inner left, BY on throne, ornate trident to left in exergue. Marinescu Issue 99, 238 var. (O92/R- [unlisted rev. die]); Müller -; Seyrig Monnaies -; HGC 3.2, 1381. 8.53g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 1/5, brushed, scratches, edge filing (#6158069-012). Extremely Rare; only three examples known to Marinescu, the first to come to auction since 1990. 1,500 From the GK Collection.

197. Islands off Thrace, Thasos Æ 24mm. Circa 280-250 BC. Veiled head of Demeter to right, wearing grain wreath / Jugate busts of the Dioskouroi wearing pilei to right; ΘAΣION below, ivy tendrils to either side. Le Rider, Thasiennes 40; BMC 102; HGC 6, 363. 8.89g, 24mm, 1h. Good Very Fine; glossy patina. Very Rare, and in exceptional condition for the issue.

200

From a private European collection.

Exceedingly Rare

198. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Sestos, circa 299-296 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander to right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated to left, left arm resting on shield, spear behind; BΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙΜΑXΟΥ to left, axe(?) to inner left field. Cf. Thompson 28 (axe, not plated); Müller -; HGC 3.2 1750 corr. (unlisted mint); Roma E-Sale 29, 120 (same dies). 17.21g, 30mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine; minor die breaks on rev., struck from dies of wonderful style. Exceedingly Rare; only one other example on CoinArchives, none in the ANS photofile. 5,500 Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group.

71


199. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Drachm. In the types of Alexander III of Macedon. Lampsakos, 299-296 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ in exergue, monogram above lion forepart in left field, torch below throne. Price L14. 4.31g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

200

From a private UK collection.

200. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lampsakos, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander to right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated to left, left arm resting on shield, transverse spear in background; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ΛYΣIMAXOY crowned by Nike to left, K monogram above crescent in inner left field. Thompson 60; Müller 396 (Sigeion); HGC 3.2, 1750b. 16.96g, 32mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone, struck on a broad planchet from dies of wonderful style.

5,000

Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG.

201. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lampsakos, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander to right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated to left, left arm resting on shield, spear behind; BΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙΜΑXΟΥ crowned by Nike to left, monogram in inner left field, crescent to left in exergue. Thompson 56; Müller 400; HGC 3.2, 1750b. 17.13g, 30mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

4,000

Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group.

202. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lampsakos, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander to right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated to left, left arm resting on shield, transverse spear behind; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ΛYΣIMAXOY crowned by Nike to left, HP monogram to inner left, crescent on throne. Thompson 45; Müller 402; HGC 3.2, 1750b. 17.07g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; a bold portrait, highly lustrous, with engraver’s guide circle still visible on the reverse field - a charming detail. Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG.

72

4,000


203. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lampsakos, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander to right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated to left, resting arm on shield, transverse spear behind; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ΛYΣIMAXOY crowned by Nike to left, aphlaston to outer left, HP monogram to inner left. Thompson 48; Müller 356; SNG BnF 2537; HGC 3.2, 1750b. 17.12g, 30mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex VAuctions, Auction 333, 13 November 2018, lot 72.

MOESIA

204. Moesia, Kallatis AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Circa 250-225 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, K monogram in left field, NK monogram below left wing. Price 914; Müller 817. 8.42g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; ex-mount.

2,000

From a private European collection.

SKYTHIA

Apparently Unpublished

205. Skythia, Olbia Æ 30mm. Pseudo-autonomous issue, temp. Marcus Aurelius(?), circa AD 161-180. Anaximenes Eurisibiou, magistrate. ΟΛΒΙΟΠΟΛЄΙΤЄѠΝ, laureate head of Apollo to right, bow and arrow before, dolphin below, monogram and Θ behind / ΑΝΑZΙΜЄΝΟΥ ЄΥΡHϹΙΒΙΟΥ, eagle standing to left, wreath in beak. Cf. RPC IV.1 3684 for magistrate and variant of type; SNG Moskau -; AMNG -; SNG Stancomb -. 23.59g, 30mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished.

250

From a private North European collection.

TAURIC CHERSONESOS

206. Tauric Chersonesos, Chersonesos AR Drachm. Circa 110-108 BC. Moirios, magistrate. Head of Artemis Parthenos to right, wearing turreted stephane, bow and quiver at shoulder / Stag standing to right; XEP before, ΜΟΙΡΙΟΣ in exergue. SNG SHM Moskau 3549-59; SNG Stancomb 495; SNG BM Black Sea 819-22; HGC 3.2, 2066. 3.83g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 7, 24-25 October 2020, lot 1148 (since cleaned and conserved).

73


74


KIMMERIAN BOSPOROS Published in SNG Stancomb, ex Sotheby’s 1989

207. Kimmerian Bosporos, Pantikapaion AV Stater. Circa 325-310 BC. Bearded head of satyr to left, wearing ivy wreath / Π-Α-Ν around griffin standing to left, head facing, holding spear in its mouth, forepaw raised, on grain ear. SNG Stancomb 547 (this coin); MacDonald 63; SNG BM Black Sea 878 (same dies); Gulbenkian 590 (same obv. die); Hunt I, 95 (same obv. die); Kraay-Hirmer 440 (same obverse die); HGC 7, 24 (same dies). 8.58g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; ex mount, lustrous metal.

35,000

This coin published in Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume XI, The William Stancomb Collection of Coins of the Black Sea Region (Oxford, 2000); Ex William Stancomb Collection; Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XVIII, 29 September 2019, lot 378; Ex Sotheby’s (London), 5-6 October 1989, lot 11. Pantikapaion, founded by Milesians in circa 575 BC, was a small hub of trade and crafts until it became the capital of the Kingdom of Bosporos in around 480 BC. The Bosporan Kingdom appears to have coalesced from a defensive league established to counter the threat of Skythian tribes to Greek cities in the area. Pantikapaion seems to have been the obvious choice for a capital due to its favourable geographical features: strategically located on a hill, it also commanded a harbour east of the city which could hold up to 30 ships, thus allowing the city to maintain a naval force. Pantikapaion became both powerful and wealthy under its first dynastic rulers the Archaianaktidai. Dubbed tyrants by Diodorus (Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History, 12.31.1) probably because of their aggressive policy of expansion, the Greek Geographer Strabo disputed this view and described them instead as ‘equitable’ (Strabo, Geographica , 7.4.4). The Archaianaktid dynasty was in 438 BC usurped by a Hellenised family of Thracians, the Spartokids, and by the time this issue was struck in c. 325-310 King Pairisades I (344-310) ruled over a Bosporan Kingdom that had grown from a local hegemony to a large Hellenistic kingdom, extending from the Tauroi to the Caucasus. Pairisades continued to expand Bosporan influence, eventually expanding the kingdom more than even his father had in the Bosporan Expansion Wars; he became king of the Sindoi through strategic marriage to his cousin Komosarye, annexed the city Tanais, and subdued many tribes around the Maeotic Swamp. Pantikapaion was the only city in the Bosporan Kingdom to strike its own coinage until c. 450-425 BC, after which time mints can be found in other cities including Gorgippa and Phanagoria. Pantikapaion’s coinage was initially primarily silver in the fifth century, but as the city’s wealth and power grew, so did its coinage and golden staters such as the present example became a widely recognised product of the mint. The obverse figure, here described as a satyr, is identified by Sear (Greek Coins and their values,1978) as the god Pan, the connection being drawn no doubt from the city’s name, although it should be noted that the etymology of Pantikapaion is from a proto-Skythian language meaning ‘fish-path’ and makes no reference to the god. The griffin on the reverse of this coin is notable as it bears the head of a horned lion rather than the typical eagle head. The reason for this seems little discussed in literature and rarely is the distinction even noted. The prevalence of lions on the Pantikapaian coinage is presumably the reason; the facing head of a lion can be seen on much of the silver coinage of this mint and is assumed to be a symbol of Apollo, specifically the Milesian cult of Apollo at the Delphinion and at Didyma (Zograf, Antichnye Monety, Materialy i Issledovania po Arkheologii SSSR 16, 1951). The Milesian connection to the almost mask-like facing lion makes it likely that the die engravers for these distinctive staters syncretised the lion and griffin for their own purpose of developing a unique type that celebrated the city of Pantikapaion and the primary source of its wealth – the grain upon which the griffin stands.

75


An Excessively Rare 1/6 Stater

2x

2x

208. Kimmerian Bosporos, Pantikapaion AV 1/6 Stater. Circa 325-310 BC. Head of youthful satyr to left / Forepart of griffin to left; grain ear below, Π-Α-Ν around. SNG Stancomb -; Anokhin 92; SNG BM Black Sea 856. 1.51g, 12mm, 1h. NGC graded Ch VF★ 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158069-005). Excessively Rare.

250

From the GK Collection.

KINGS OF THE BOSPOROS Extremely Rare and Published in MacDonald

209. Kings of the Bosporos, Asander (as Archon) AV Stater. Dated RY 3 = 45/4 BC. Bare head to right / Nike standing to left on prow, holding wreath in extended right hand, cradling palm frond in left arm; ΑΡΧΟΝΤΟΣ to right, ΑΣΑΝΔΡΟΥ [B]OΣΠOPOY to left, TЭ [Γ] (sic - date) across upper fields, A to inner left. Anokhin 1315 (same dies); MacDonald 191 corr. (this coin, [photograph above 192]); RPC I 1844; DCA 447; HGC 7, 199. NGC graded Ch XF 3/5 - 3/5 (#2090350-002). Extremely Rare with this date. This coin published in D. MacDonald, An Introduction to the History and Coinage of the Kingdom of the Bosporus (Lancaster PA, 2005); Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXII, 8 January 2019, lot 231; Ex Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Auction 91, 7 June 2016, lot 1835; Ex Antiqua Ltd., [undated] 2005, no. 39; Ex Harlan J. Berk, Ltd., Sale 114, 23 May 2000, lot 23; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 97, 11 October 1999, lot 325.

76

6,000


Extremely Rare

210. Kings of the Bosporos, Asander (as king) AV Stater. Dated RY 17 = 31/0 BC. Diademed head to right / Nike standing to left on prow, holding wreath and palm; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, AΣANΔPOY to left, ZI (date) in inner left field. MacDonald 206; RPC I 1854; HGC 7, 201. 8.00g, 20mm, 12h. NGC graded AU 4/5 - 2/5, brushed, bent (#6158066-006). Extremely Rare; only one other example with this date offered at auction in over 20 years. 15,000 From the GK Collection. Asander rose to prominence in the Kimmerian Bosporos after defeating Pharnakes II in battle. However, Julius Caesar instead appointed Mithridates of Pergamum, his personal friend, as ruler of the Bosporos, angering Asander, who also defeated and killed the new Mithridates II in 47 or 46 BC. He was left in sole control and quickly strengthened his claim to the throne by marrying Pharnakes’ daughter Dynamis, but only assumed the title of archon, likely a concession to Rome, which had and would in the future confirm all Bosporan kings. Circa 43 or 42 BC, Octavian recognised Asander as king, most probably to shore up a potential ally in the chaotic aftermath of his adopted father Caesar’s assassination. Asander was designated ‘Philocaesar Philoromaios’, a title recognising the support of the Romans and personal connection with Octavian himself. Little else is known about his reign, but in later life it appears that his wife acted as regent, with coins minted under her authority, until Asander committed suicide by starvation in about 16 BC in the face of an army desertion. In his earlier gold staters, struck while he was still archon, Asander is portrayed with short hair and an idealised face, leading to various identification of the portrait as that of Marc Antony, Octavian, or Asander himself. While the facial features remain consistent on this later portrait, the longer hairstyle, reminiscent of Mithridates VI Eupator and standard among Bosporan monarchs, marks his transition from archon to king. The reverse type of Nike on prow is common to all his staters, and implies a naval victory, possibly over Mithridates II, the Tauri or other pirates, an interpretation supported by a fragmentary stone inscription, which does not record the date or identity of the defeated enemy. The staters of Asander bear Greek letter-numeral dates counting the years of his rule: this type, from the seventeenth year, is extremely rare and unlisted in the Handbook of Greek Coinage, with only one other example offered at auction in over two decades.

211. Kings of the Bosporos, Aspurgus, with Augustus, AV Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 319 = AD 22/3. Bare head of Augustus(?) to right / Bare male head (of Agrippa(?)) to right; monogram behind, ΘIT (date) below. RPC I, 1887A.1 (additional coin-type added post publication, this coin); MacDonald 284; Anokhin (2011) 1400; Coins of the Bosporos Online 000-4769-4 (this coin). 8.01g, 21mm, 11h. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 2/5, scratches, ex-jewelry (#6158066-007). Extremely Rare with this date; the only example known to RPC online. This coin published at Roman Provincial Coinage Online (rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk); This coin published at Coins of the Bosporos Online (https://bosporan-kingdom.com); From the GK Collection; Ex Sincona AG, Auction 41, 23 October 2017, lot 63.

77

7,500


212. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates I, with Hadrian, AV Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 416 = AD 119/20. BACIΛЄѠC CAVPOMATOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate head of Hadrian to right; ςIY (date) below. RPC III 814; Frolova p. 109; MacDonald 390/2. 7.77g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158071-003). Rare.

1,000

From the GK Collection.

Likely the Finest Known

213. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates I, with Hadrian, AV Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 417 = AD 120/1. BACIΛЄѠC CAVPOMATOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate head of Hadrian to right; ZIY (date) below. RPC III 815; Frolova p. 109; MacDonald 391/2. 7.85g, 20mm, 1h. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 3/5, brushed (#6158071-004). Likely the finest known. Rare.

2,000

From the GK Collection.

214. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates I, with Hadrian, AV Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 418 = AD 121/2. BACIΛЄѠC CAVPOMATOY, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate head of Hadrian to right; HIY (date) below. RPC III 816; Frolova p. 110; MacDonald 392/1; Anokhin 411. 7.71g, 19mm, 1h. NGC graded VF 4/5 - 4/5 (#6158071-005).

1,000

From the GK Collection.

215. Kings of the Bosporos, Kotys II, with Hadrian, AV Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 428 = AD 131/2. BACIΛЄѠC KOTVOC, diademed and draped bust of Kotys to right; club before / Laureate head of Hadrian to right; HKY (date) below. RPC III 888; Frolova p. 135-136; MacDonald 429/1; Anokhin 478a; Coins of the Bosporos Online 478-4349-17 (this coin). 7.76g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 2/5, lacquered, edge filing (#6158071-008). Flan crack at 10h. Very Rare. This coin published at Coins of the Bosporos Online (https://bosporan-kingdom.com); From the GK Collection; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 336, 27 May 2019, lot 49.

78

1,000


Extremely Rare

216. Kings of the Bosporos, Kotys II, with Hadrian, AV Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 428 = AD 131/2. BACIΛЄѠC KOTYOC, diademed and draped bust of Kotys to right / Laureate head of Hadrian to right; spearhead pointing upward before, HKY (date) below. RPC III 890; Frolova p. 136, B-e, pl. XV, 33 & 34 (same dies); MacDonald 429/4 var. (control symbol); Anokhin 478B. 7.70g, 18mm, 12h. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 2/5, brushed (#6158071-007). Extremely Rare, only six examples listed on RPC online.

800

From the GK Collection.

217. Kings of the Bosporos, Rhoimetalkes, with Hadrian, AV Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 430 = AD 133/4. ΒΑϹΙΛЄѠC ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΟΥ, diademed and draped bust of Rhoimetalkes to right / Laureate head of Hadrian to right; ΛY (date) below. RPC III 913; Frolova p. 144; MacDonald 439/1; Anokhin 504b. 7.74g, 20mm, 1h. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 3/5, light scratches (#6158071-009).

700

From the GK Collection.

218. Kings of the Bosporos, Rhoimetalkes, with Hadrian, AV Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 431 = AD 134/5. ΒΑϹΙΛЄѠC ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΟΥ, diademed and draped bust of Rhoimetalkes to right / Laureate head of Hadrian to right; AΛY (date) below. RPC III 916; MacDonald 440/2; Anokhin 505a. 7.87g, 20mm, 1h. 2,000 NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 2/5, brushed (#6158071-010). Rare. From the GK Collection.

Unpublished Variant

219. Kings of the Bosporos, Eupator, with Antoninus Pius, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 456 = AD 159/60. ΒΑϹΙΛЄѠϹ ЄVΠΑΤΟΡΟϹ, diademed and draped bust of Eupator to right / Laureate head of Antoninus Pius to right; spear before, ϚNY (date) below. RPC IV.1 3737 (temporary) var. (control symbol); Frolova p. 158, D-h var. (same); MacDonald 466/4 var. (same). 7.85g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158071-011). An apparently unpublished variant with spear rather than club.

500

From the GK Collection.

220. Kings of the Bosporos, Eupator, with Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 459 = AD 162/3. BACIΛЄѠC ЄVΠATOPOC, diademed and draped bust of Eupator to right; club before / Head of Marcus Aurelius to left, facing draped bust of Lucius Verus to right, pellet between; ΘNV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3742 (temporary); Frolova p. 160-161; MacDonald 469/1. 7.78g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch XF 4/5 - 3/5, brushed (#6158071-013).

1,000

From the GK Collection.

79


221. Kings of the Bosporos, Eupator, with Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 459 = AD 162/3. ΒΑϹΙΛЄѠϹ ЄVΠΑΤΟΡΟϹ, diademed and draped bust of Eupator to right; club before / Head of Marcus Aurelius to left, facing draped bust of Lucius Verus to right, pellet between; ΘNV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3742 (temporary); Frolova p. 160-161; MacDonald 469/1. 7.67g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; repaired. Very Rare.

500

From the GK Collection.

Extremely Rare

222. Kings of the Bosporos, Eupator, with Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 462 = AD 166/7. BACIΛЄѠC EVΠATOPOC, diademed and draped bust of Eupator to right / Draped bust of Marcus Aurelius to right facing bust of Lucius Verus to left, spear between; ΓΞY (date) below. RPC IV.1 3748 (temporary) var. (no pellet between busts); Frolova p. 164 var. (same); MacDonald 473/2. 7.70g, 20mm, 1h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 3/5, marks (#6158071-014). Flan crack at 10h/2h. Extremely Rare.

500

From the GK Collection.

223. Kings of the Bosporos, Eupator, with Marcus Aurelius, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 465 = AD 168/9. BACIΛЄѠC ЄVΠATOPOC, diademed and draped bust of Eupator to right / Laureate and draped bust of Marcus Aurelius to right; spear before, ЄΞV (date) below. Cf. RPC IV.4 8412 (temporary) (control symbol and bust type); Frolova -; MacDonald 475 var. (control symbol) corr. (draped). 7.75g, 18mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158071-015). Extremely Rare; no other examples in CoinArchives and apparently unpublished in the usual references with this date and control symbol combination. 1,000 From the GK Collection.

224. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Commodus, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 480 = AD 183/4. ΒΑϹΙΛЄѠϹ ϹΑVΡΟΜΑΤOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate bust of Commodus to right; spear before, ΠV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3781 (temporary); Frolova p. 169-170; MacDonald 492/1; Anokhin 562. 7.71g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 4/5 - 4/5 (#6158072-001).

500

From the GK Collection.

225. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Commodus EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 486 = AD 189/90. BACIΛЄѠC CAYPOMATOY, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate and draped bust of Commodus to right; rosette before, ςΠY (date) below. RPC IV.1 3807 (temporary); Frolova p. 171-172; MacDonald 497/2. 7.66g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158072-002).

500

From the GK Collection.

80


226. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Commodus EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 487 = AD 190/1. ΒΑϹΙΛЄѠϹ ϹΑΥΡΟΜΑΤOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate and draped bust of Commodus to right; globe before, ZΠV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3809.5 (temporary) = Frolova p. 172, pl. XXX.32 (same dies); MacDonald 498/3. 7.58g, 18mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch F (#6158076-002); reverse die probably recut from previous year. Very Rare.

200

From the GK Collection.

227. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 489 = AD 192/3. BACIΛЄѠC CAVPOMATOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate and draped bust of ‘generic’ Roman emperor to right; globe before, ΘΠV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3812 (temporary); Frolova p. 173, A-a, pl. XXX 36-37 (same dies); MacDonald 500/4; Coins of the Bosporos Online 570-4002-11 (this coin). 7.76g, 19mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; tooled, area of flatness to rev.

750

This coin published at Coins of the Bosporos Online (https://bosporan-kingdom.com); From the GK Collection; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 336, 27 May 2019, lot 53. MacDonald suggests that the generic nature of the reverse bust on this coin is due to Sauromates II’s reluctance to affiliate himself with a particular ruler in the civil war after the death of Commodus.

228. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Septimius Severus, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 493 = AD 196/7. BACIΛЄѠC CAVPOMATOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right; club before / Laureate head of Severus to right; ΓꟼV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3823 (temporary); Frolova p. 175; MacDonald 504/1. 7.75g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 3/5, brushed (#6158072-005).

500

From the GK Collection.

229. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Septimius Severus and Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 495 = AD 198/9. ΒΑϹΙΛЄѠϹ ϹΑΥΡΟΜΑΤOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate bust of Severus to right, facing laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to left; crescent between, ЄꟼV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3831 (temporary); Frolova p. 176; MacDonald 506/11; Anokhin 576b var. (without crescent). 7.91g, 20mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine; tooled.

1,000

From the GK Collection.

230. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Septimius Severus and Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 495 = AD 198/9. ΒΑϹΙΛЄѠϹ ϹΑΥΡΟΜΑΤOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate bust of Severus to right, facing laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to left; crescent between, ЄꟼV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3827 (temporary); Frolova p. 176; MacDonald 506/11; Anokhin 576b var. (without crescent). 7.90g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 3/5, brushed (#6158072-007). Lustrous.

1,000

From the GK Collection.

81


231. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Septimius Severus, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 495 = AD 198/9. BACIΛЄѠC CAVPOMATOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate head of Severus to right; globe before, ЄꟼV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3833 (temporary); Frolova p. 176-177; MacDonald 506/2. 7.61g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158072-006). Rare.

500

From the GK Collection.

232. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Septimius Severus and Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 496 = AD 199/200. BACIΛЄѠC CAVPOMATOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate head of Severus to right, facing laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to left; trident between, ϚꟼV (date) below. RPC IV.1 3835 (temporary); Frolova p. 178; MacDonald 507/1. 7.62g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 2/5, edge filing, scratches (#6158072-009). Very Rare.

400

From the GK Collection.

233. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Septimius Severus and Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 501 = AD 204/5. BACIΛЄѠC CAVPOMATOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate bust of Severus to right, facing laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to left; spear between, AΦ (date) below. RPC IV.1 3842 (temporary); Frolova p. 179-180; MacDonald 511. 7.60g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 2/5 (#6158072-010). Rare.

500

From the GK Collection.

234. Kings of the Bosporos, Sauromates II, with Septimius Severus and Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 502 = AD 205/6. BACIΛЄѠC CAVPOMATOV, diademed and draped bust of Sauromates to right / Laureate and draped bust of Severus to right, facing laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to left; spear between, BΦ (date) below. RPC IV.1 3843 (temporary); Frolova p. 180; MacDonald 512 var. (bust types). 7.40g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 2/5 (#6158072-011). Very Rare.

500

From the GK Collection.

No Other Examples on CoinArchives

235. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 511 = AD 214/5. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟΥΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right; sword before / Laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to right; AIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 200; MacDonald 554/1. 7.60g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 3/5, brushed (#6158072-012). Extremely Rare - no other examples on CoinArchives. From the GK Collection.

82

400


236. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 511 = AD 214/5. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟΥΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right / Laureate head of Caracalla to right; star before, AIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 200; MacDonald 554/2. 7.66g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine, repaired. Very Rare.

300

From the GK Collection.

237. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 512 = AD 215/6. BACIΛЄѠC ΡHCKOΥΠOΡIΔOC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right / Laureate head of Caracalla to right; trident before, BIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 200-201; MacDonald 555/6; Anokhin 632; Coins of the Bosporos Online 632-4417-14 (this coin). 7.78g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158074-002).

500

This coin published at Coins of the Bosporos Online (https://bosporan-kingdom.com); From the GK Collection; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 4, 25 May 2019, lot 419.

238. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 512 = AD 215/6. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟVΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right; sword before / Laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to right; BIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 200-201; MacDonald 555/1. 7.58g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 2/5, brushed, scuff (#6158072-014).

500

From the GK Collection.

239. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 512 = AD 215/6. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟVΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right; club before / Laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to right; BIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 200-201; MacDonald 555/2. 7.77g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded XF 4/5 - 4/5 (#6158074-001).

500

From the GK Collection.

240. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 512 = AD 215/6. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟVΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right / Laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to right; star before, BIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 200-201; MacDonald 555/4; SNG Pushkin 1649. 7.60g, 21mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 3/5 (#6158072-015). Rare.

400

From the GK Collection.

83


241. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 513 = AD 216/7. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟVΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right; trident before / Laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to right; ΓIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 202-3; MacDonald 556/3; Anokhin 1926; Coins of the Bosporos Online 633-4316-53 (this coin). 7.71g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; tooled.

500

This coin published at Coins of the Bosporos Online (https://bosporan-kingdom.com); From the GK Collection; Acquired from Numismatik Naumann.

242. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Caracalla, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 513 = AD 216/7. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟVΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right; trident before / Laureate and draped bust of Caracalla to right; ΓIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 202-3; MacDonald 556/3. 7.63g, 20mm, 12h. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 3/5, brushed, minor flan flaw at 7h (#6158074-003).

400

From the GK Collection.

243. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 514 = AD 217/8. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟVΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right; sword before / Laureate and draped bust of ‘generic’ Roman emperor to right; ΔIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 203-204 corr. (no star), pl. XLVI, 20 (same dies); MacDonald 557/1. 7.48g, 20mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 2/5, scuffs (#6158074-005).

300

From the GK Collection.

244. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Elagabalus, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 515 = AD 218/9. BACIΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟΥΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right; sword before / Laureate and draped bust of Elagabalus to right; ЄΙΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 204-205; MacDonald 558/1. 7.63g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 3/5 (#6158074-007).

300

From the GK Collection.

245. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Elagabalus, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 515 = AD 218/9. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟYΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right; sword before / Laureate and draped bust of Elagabalus to right; ЄIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 204205; MacDonald 558/1. 7.35g, 20mm, 11h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 3/5, brushed (#6158074-006).

300

From the GK Collection.

84


246. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Elagabalus, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 516 = AD 219/20. ΒΑCΙΛЄѠC ΡΗCΚΟVΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right; sword before / Laureate and draped bust of Elagabalus to right; ϚIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 206207; MacDonald 559/1. 7.50g, 21mm, 1h. NGC graded Ch VF 4/5 - 3/5, brushed (#6158074-008).

300

From the GK Collection.

247. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskuporis II, with Severus Alexander, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 519 = AD 222/3. ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC ΡΗCΚΟVΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right / Laureate and draped bust of Alexander to right; star before, ΘIΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 210-211; MacDonald 562/4. 7.53g, 19mm, 11h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 3/5, scuff (#6158074-009).

300

From the GK Collection.

248. Kings of the Bosporos, Rheskouporis II, with Severus Alexander, EL Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 520 = AD 223/4. ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC ΡHCΚΟVΠΟΡΙΔΟC, diademed and draped bust of Rheskuporis to right / Diademed and draped bust of Alexander to right; star before, KΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 211, pl. XLIX, 12; MacDonald 563/5. 7.69g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 3/5 (#6158074-010). Rare.

400

From the GK Collection.

249. Kings of the Bosporos, Kotys III, with Severus Alexander, BI Stater. Dated Bosporan Era 525 = AD 228/9. BACIΛЄѠC KOTYOC, diademed and draped bust of Kotys to right / Laureate head of Alexander to right; globe before, ЄKΦ (date) below. Frolova p. 222-223; MacDonald 574/2; Anokhin 655a. 7.64g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 3/5 (#6158074-011). Attractive old cabinet tone with hints of iridescence.

300

From the GK Collection.

ARMENIA

250. Kings of Armenia, Tigranes II ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Tigranokerta, circa 80-68 BC. Draped bust to right, wearing Armenian tiara with five peaks and emblazoned with star between two eagles; bead and reel border / BAΣIΛEΩΣ TIΓPANOY, Tyche of Antioch seated to right on rock pile, holding palm, river god Orontes swimming below to right; monograms to inner right and lower left, all within wreath. Kovacs 71.2; SCADA Group 3; CAA 20; ACV 34. 15.76g, 26mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

85


251. Kings of Armenia, Tigranes II ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Tigranokerta, circa 80-68 BC. Draped bust to right, wearing Armenian tiara with five peaks and emblazoned with star between two eagles and jewelled diadem; bead and reel border / BAΣIΛEΩΣ TIΓPANOY, Tyche of Antioch seated to right on rock pile, holding palm, river god Orontes swimming to right below; monogram on rock, all within wreath. Kovacs 75.3; SCADA Group 7; CAA 21; ACV 33. 15.22g, 28mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

Aristoboulos with Salome

252. Kings of Armenia Minor, Aristoboulos, with Salome, Æ 4 Chalkoi. Nicopolis-ad-Lycum, or Chalkis, dated RY 13 = AD 66/7. BACIΛEΩC APICTOBOVΛ[OV ET IΓ], diademed and draped bust of Aristoboulos to left / BACIΛICCHC CAΛOMHC, diademed and draped bust of Salome to left. Kovacs 300; RPC I 3840; TJC 365 corr. (date). 8.28g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; date obscured on obverse. Extremely Rare.

7,500

From a private German collection.

253. Kings of Armenia Minor, Aristoboulos Æ 25mm. Nicopolis-ad-Lycum, or Chalkis, dated RY 17 = AD 70/1. BACIΛEΩC APICTOBOYΛOY ET [IZ] (date), diademed and draped head to left / TITΩ OΥECΠACIANΩ AYTOKPATΩP CEBACTΩ in six lines within wreath. Kovacs 301; cf. Meshorer 367a; cf. Hendin 1258; cf. Sofaer 172; cf. RG 3; cf. RPC II 1692. 14.17g, 27mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 158.

PONTOS

254. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Dated Bithyno Pontic Era 206, month 3 = December 92/1 BC. Diademed head to right / Pegasos on ground line to left, preparing to lie down, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; star within crescent to left, CΣ (year) and monogram to right, Γ (month) below; all within ivy wreath. De Callataÿ pl. IV (D33/R-); Waddington p. 15, 15; DCA 688; HGC 7, 338. 16.68g, 33mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; no other examples of this date on CoinArchives. From the inventory of a German dealer.

86

3,000


Extremely Rare

255. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AV Stater. Dated Bithyno Pontic Era 209 = 89/8 BC. Diademed head to right / Stag grazing to left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ in two lines below; star-in-crescent to left, ΘΣ (date) above AX monogram to right; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. Callataÿ 1997, pl. 1, D5/R8; SNG BM Black Sea 1028; HGC 7, 333. NGC graded MS 4/5 - 4/5, die shift (#4254697-001). Extremely Rare.

10,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, NYINC Signature Sale 3051, 8 January 2017, lot 34022. Mithradates VI ‘the Great’ ranks among the most formidable enemies faced by the Roman Republic. In his almost sixty-year reign he challenged some of the most famous generals of the time, including Sulla, Lucullus and Pompey, attaining a ‘bogeyman’ status for the children of Rome due to his savage treatment of Roman citizens. These intricate gold staters are highly sought after, in part because they represent the last great series of Hellenistic portraiture in gold. The first Mithridatic War began around the time this stater was minted in 89 BC, and the following year Mithradates’ general Archelaos faced Sulla’s legions in a long siege of Athens and the Piraeus. De Callataÿ notes that the timing of this siege matches the cessation of tetradrachm production at the main Pontic mint from August 87 to April 86 and the appearance of a new series which does not follow the usual dating system but instead runs for seven months in year 1 of a new era (see L’histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, 1997, p. 41). Further, he highlights that all the examples of that unusual series were struck from the same obverse die which closely resembles the last issues from the main Pontic mint and that these tetradrachms are only found in two published hoards from the Piraeus and the Dipylon. He therefore concludes that the main mint was relocated to Athens until March 86 BC to assist Archelaos and, when Archelaos left the Piraeus, apparently with the mint workers, the main mint resumed its output using the usual Bithyno-Pontic dating.

256. Kings of Pontos. Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Dated Bithyno Pontic Era 209 = August 89/8 BC. Diademed head to right / Pegasos on ground line to left, preparing to lie down, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; star within crescent to left, ΘΣ (date) and monogram to right. Callataÿ D53; Dewing 2121; SNG von Aulock 7. 16.71g, 30mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

4,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 196, 7 March 2011, lot 1575.

257. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AV Stater. First Mithradatic War issue, in the name and types of Lysimachos. Kallatis, circa 88-86 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander to right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated to left, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛYΣΙΜΑΧΟY to left; HP monogram to inner left, KAΛ on throne, ornate trident in exergue. Callataÿ p. 140 (D4/R2); AMNG I 266; HGC 3.2, 1824. 8.33g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 5/5, flan flaw (#6158069-014).

1,000

From the GK Collection.

87


Magnificent Metal Quality

258. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Dated Bithyno Pontic Era 212, month 12 = September 86/5 BC. Diademed head to right / Stag grazing on ground line to left, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; to left, star within crescent above monogram; BIΣ (year) and monogram to right, IB (month) below; all within ivy wreath. De Callataÿ pl. VII, D4/R2; BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; DCA 692; HGC 7, 340. 16.89g, 32mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin; magnificent metal quality, a fine late Hellenistic portrait. Extremely Rare; the fifth known example.

10,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

259. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Dated Pergamon Era 4 = 86/5 BC. Diademed head to right / Stag grazing on ground line to left, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; star within crescent to left, Δ (year) and monogram to right; all within ivy wreath. De Callataÿ p. 23, pl. XIII (D6/R7a); DCA 690; HGC 7, 341. 16.96g, 33mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

88


A Magnificent Portrait

260. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Dated Bithyno Pontic Era 223, month 9 = 75/4 BC. Diademed head to right / Stag grazing on ground line to left, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; star within crescent over monogram to left, ΓΚΣ (year) and monogram to right, Θ (month) below; all within ivy wreath. De Callataÿ pl. IV, D48/R- (this rev. die unlisted); DCA 692; HGC 7, 340. 16.76g, 34mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; a magnificent portrait. Very Rare.

10,000

From the inventory of a German dealer. This coin was struck during the prelude to the Third Mithradatic War, shortly before Mithradates’ invasion of Bithynia following King Nicomedes IV’s bequest of the kingdom to Rome upon his death in 74 BC. The last known issue of tetradrachms in Mithradates’ name were struck at the height of the Third Mithradatic War, when he had succeeded in regaining control of his kingdom of Pontos after a resounding victory at the Battle of Zela where the Romans suffered near catastrophic casualties and were routed, leaving 7000 dead on the field including 24 tribunes and 150 centurions. Despite this victory, Mithradates had only bought himself brief respite, as Pompey’s campaign against the Mediterranean pirates was brought to a close and he proceeded to take command of the war against Mithradates, reorganising the Roman forces and drawing on reinforcements from Cilicia, such that a force of some six legions was brought under his command. Pompey opened peace negotiations with Mithradates, naming his terms as a formal submission to Pompey’s authority and the surrender of a large number of Roman deserters who were now fighting on the Pontic side. Mithradates refused his terms and, forced onto the defensive, he made preparations to receive Pompey’s assault. This coin portrays Mithradates in youthful style and idealised fashion after the manner of Alexander, from whose generals (Seleukos, Antipater and Antigonos Monophthalmos, among others including Cyrus the Great and the family of Darios the Great), Mithradates claimed to be descended. It is thus in itself a poignant irony, an object of great beauty produced in the twilight years of Hellenism for the vanity of the last of the powerful Greek kings, the final obstacle to complete Roman domination of the Mediterranean. With Mithradates’ defeat and passing in 63 BC, his last tetradrachm issue was struck, all that remained of the once great Hellenistic kingdoms that spanned from Sicily to Baktria were a rapidly disintegrating Seleukid rump state and a decadent Ptolemaic kingdom already firmly albeit indirectly under Roman control.

89


PAPHLAGONIA

261. Paphlagonia, Sinope AR Drachm. Circa 425-410 BC. Head of sea eagle to left; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square with two opposing quarters filled, • in one unfilled quarter, Γ• in the other. SNG Black Sea 1367-9; SNG von Aulock 6835; HGC 7, 388. 5.90g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

262. Paphlagonia, Sinope AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Circa 230-200 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, kantharos over monogram to left. Price 1218; HGC 7, 383. 8.49g, 19mm, 12h. NGC graded AU★ 5/5 - 4/5, flan flaw (#6158068-002). Struck from dies of beautiful style. Extremely Rare.

5,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Nomos AG, Auction 13, 7 October 2016, lot 174 (hammer: CHF 8,000); Ex European collection formed in the earlier 1980s.

BITHYNIA

263. Bithynia, Kalchedon AR Siglos. Circa 340-320 BC. Bull standing to left on grain ear; KAΛX above / Quadripartite incuse square in mill-sail pattern. SNG BM Black Sea 112-7; SNG Copenhagen 348; HGC 7, 517. 5.36g, 17mm. Near Extremely Fine.

250

From a private European collection; Acquired from Savoca Numismatik GmbH & Co. KG.

Apparently Unique and Unpublished

264. Bithynia, Kalchedon AV Stater. In the name and types of Lysimachos of Thrace. Circa mid 220s BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander to right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated to left, left arm resting on shield, transverse spear in background; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙMΑXOY to left, monogram below right arm, K on throne, bull butting to left and AP monogram to right in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references: Marinescu, Issue 48 var. (no monogram below arm); for general type, cf. Seyrig, ‘Monnaies Hellénistiques de Byzance et de Calcédoine,’ in Essays to Robinson, pl. 25, 24-28. (different monogram) and Müller 358. 8.48g, 23mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

2,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 54, 4 June 2017, lot 69.

90


ASIA MINOR

3x

3x

265. Western Asia Minor, uncertain mint EL 1/48 Stater. Circa 5th century BC. Head of unbridled horse to left / Rough incuse square. Fischer-Bossert, Horses F4 (H17/H27); Rauch 94, 361 (same dies, plated); Gärtner 32, 34102 (same dies). 0.30g, 5mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

250

Fischer-Bossert considered the two examples which had appeared in trade (see references) belonging to these dies to be of doubtful authenticity. The Rauch example is reportedly plated and weighs 0.19g, whilst the Gartner specimen is reportedly not and weighs 0.29g - both curiously exhibit two separate identical indentations on the horse’s mane and have almost identical flan shapes. This specimen however lacks the identical striking features of the aforementioned specimens and the full head of the horse has been registered on the flan. The specimen presented here is obviously authentic and validates the existence of these dies. It is possible that the examples which have previously appeared in trade are both forgeries produced with dies derived from an original specimen.

Unpublished and Possibly Unique

266. Asia Minor, uncertain mint (Rhodes?) AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Circa 240-180 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, monogram to left. Price -; Müller -. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 4/5 (#4629462-002); minor die break on obv., attractively toned and struck on a large flan. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,750

Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, Long Beach Signature Sale 3067, 6 September 2018, lot 30201; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XIII, 5 January 2010, lot 107.

IONIA Apparently Unpublished

267. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hemistater. Circa 650-600 BC. Lydo-Milesian standard. Floral design resembling palmette / Narrow vertical rectangular punch between two smaller square punches. Boston MFA -; Pozzi -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Kayhan -; Traité -; BMC -; cf. Nomos Obolos 12, 342 and M&M 72, 24 for similar types. 6.55g, 14mm. Very Fine. Apparently unpublished in the standard references.

7,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 162 (hammer: £5,500).

2x

2x

268. Ionia, uncertain mint EL 1/24 Stater. Circa 625-600 BC. Phokaic standard, geometric type. Raised clockwise swastika pattern / Quadripartite incuse square punch. Boston MFA 1782; Weidauer -; Traité I 237 var. (counter-clockwise); SNG Kayhan 702 var. (same); SNG von Aulock 1778. 0.70g, 8mm. NGC graded Ch VF (#6158076-001).

200

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 44, 7 June 2016, lot 316.

91


Unique and Unpublished

2x

2x

269. Ionia, uncertain mint EL 1/24 Stater. Circa 6th century BC. Lydo-Milesian standard. Striated surface, possibly in the form of an insect(?) / Tripartite incuse. Unpublished in the standard references. 0.58g, 5mm. Extremely Fine. Unpublished and possibly unique.

500

Extremely Rare

2x

2x

270. Ionia, uncertain mint EL 1/24 Stater. Circa 600-550 BC. Phokaic standard. Archaic male head to left with flowing hair / Quadripartite incuse punch. Weidauer 191 (same dies); von Aulock - cf. 1808 (smaller denomination and differing style); SNG Kayhan - cf. 342-354 (same). 0.66g, 7mm. Good Extremely Fine; in an excellent state of preservation. Extremely Rare.

1,500

From the inventory of a German dealer.

Ex Prospero Collection

271. Islands off Ionia, Chios AR Tetradrachm. Circa 375-350 BC. Sokrates, magistrate. Sphinx seated to left, standing amphora surmounted by grape-bunch before; all on raised circular disc / Quadripartite incuse square with vertical striations within each quarter; ΣΩKPATHΣ across central horizontal band. Pixodarus Hoard 28-31; Mavrogordato -, cf. Class β, 49 (unlisted magistrate); Baldwin, Chios -, cf. 62-78 (same); BMC -; Spink 4018, 124 = Pixodarus 29; HGC 6, 1116. 15.27g, 23mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Very Rare; seemingly only the fifth known example bearing this magistrate’s name.

7,500

Ex Prospero Collection, The New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 528; Acquired from Spink & Son Ltd., London, 10 March 1987. Chios was one of the original twelve member states of the Ionian League and was, at the end of the 7th century BC, one of the first cities to strike coinage, quickly establishing the Sphinx as its civic emblem. Chios’ ability to play a pivotal role in the League was made possible by the fact that it was one of the wealthiest cities in the world during the Archaic and Classical periods, prospering through maritime trade and the production and export of local wine. The Chians were very active in the establishing of overseas trading posts, most famous of which was Naukratis in Egypt, which has been shown by archaeological evidence to have had a prominent Chian presence. It appears that in the early Archaic period Chian traders were invested in the transit of goods between Asia Minor and mainland Greece, a trade that was centred on luxury items manufactured in the Near East which became popular in mainland Greece around this time, this being facilitated both by Chios’ favourable geographical position, and by possession of one of the largest merchant fleets in the region. Large-scale export of wine appears to have begun in the early 6th century, and the quality of this wine was particularly excellent, such that it quickly became renowned throughout the Greek world. By virtue of their existing trade connections, the Chians were able to easily promote this wine abroad and trade it on a comparatively large scale. Both of these pillars of the Chian economy are represented on the present coin type along with the principal device of the city. As the civic badge of the city, the sphinx is known to have been used on pottery stamps, coin weights, headings of official decrees and gravestones of Chians abroad, and as the principal device of their coinage it was employed for a period of approximately eight hundred years - a great span of devotion to their emblem that no other Greek city can match. Constantinos Lagos (A Study of the Coinage of Chios in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, Durham PhD Thesis 1998) suggests that what may have begun as mere custom, might eventually have been enshrined in local law, such is the adherence to the design. Its significance is more difficult to discern. J. Mavrogordato (A Chronological Arrangement of the Coins of Chios, 1918) reasserted an old association of the Sphinx with the rites of Dionysos, which “with its hieratic attitude... as an attribute of Dionysus enjoining silence in respect of his mysteries, or as a guardian of the temple’s treasures, there is nothing of the commercial element about it.” Yet he acknowledges that with the addition of the amphora and the grapes, the “business interests of an essentially mercantile community were clearly brought into notice”, which suggests that if indeed the Sphinx ever held any religious significance, this was soon replaced with a notion of the sphinx acting as a guardian of Chian commercial interests, an association that later becomes clearer still with the permanent depiction of the sphinx with one paw raised protectively over a bunch of grapes, or an amphora, or the prow of a ship. This protective aspect of the sphinx is not well attested in mainland Greek mythology, but owing to the Chians close links with Egypt, it is likely that the Egyptian aspects of the sphinx as a protector were more recognised on Chios; the appearance of what has been called the ‘lock of immortality’ with Egyptian roots, rendered as a tendril or plume on very early Chian sphinxes lends weight to this theory.

2x

2x

272. Ionia, Erythrai EL Hekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of Herakles to left, wearing lion skin headdress / Rough quadripartite incuse square. SNG Kayhan 737-38; SNG Von Aulock 1942; Boston MFA 1806-7. 2.59g, 11mm. Extremely Fine.

750

From a private North European collection.

92


Unique

273. Ionia, Klazomenai AR Tetradrachm. Circa 160 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right / Amazon standing slightly to left, holding long sceptre and bipennis, short sword at side; palm branch lying at feet, ΔIOΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ to right, EΠIΦANOYΣ to left, KΛAZO in exergue. Seyrig, Revue Numismatique, 1971, p. 24-25, fig. 1 (same obv. die); Price p. 246; Meadows Clazomenae - (A1/R- [unlisted reverse die]); Coin Hoards VIII, 471 (Tartous, Syria, 1987), pl. LXIV, 1 (same obv. die). 16.79g, 32mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; a highly attractive portrait of Zeus. A unique variant of an exceedingly rare series; Meadows knew of only four civic tetradrachms from Klazomenai, a fifth example was sold in Roma Auction XIII, lot 232 and this example is the sixth but is unique with the horizontal palm branch. 15,000 Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 7, 24 October 2020, lot 1259. Until 1987 the coinage of Klazomenai was believed to have come to an end at the close of the 3rd century BC with a fairly unremarkable issue of Alexander-type tetradrachms. Although the present type featuring Zeus and an Amazon was known since at least the 1970s with the publication of a specimen by H. Seyrig, the ethnic was missing and it was not until the discovery and publication of another specimen by Kinns and Price that the type was attributable to Klazomenai. Since then a further two specimens were identified by Meadows, all of which (and also the present piece) are struck from the same obverse die. Meadows further noted that the reverse portrayal of what is clearly an Amazon, heavily armed and with one breast exposed, despite initially appearing inexplicable, may be rationally explained by the fact that the city was located in the centre of an area that was widely believed to have once been the realm of the Amazons. Indeed, a great many of the neighbouring cities such as Kyme, Ephesos, Smyrna and Myrina among others, claimed to have been founded by eponymous Amazons. He proceeds to hypothesise that the type was the product of a territorial war between Klazomenai and neighbouring Temnos in circa 175-150 BC. He concludes: “in such circumstances, the choice of Zeus Soter Epiphanes as a coin type may well have had a polemical function within the land-claim being made by Clazomenae. So too, perhaps, did the reference to an Amazonian past”. However, Meadows does not account for the extreme rarity of the coinage. Indeed, he notes that if the Alexander-type coins of Temnos from this period and the Zeus-Amazon coinage of Klazomenai are connected, that this would explain why Temnos had issued such a seemingly large coinage at so late a date. Yet the question of why a Klazomenian war-coinage, which would have necessarily equalled that of their adversary, is so poorly represented today goes unanswered. An alternative explanation for this issue may lie in the legend of the coin, which names Zeus as ‘Manifest Saviour’. Evidently the issue is connected with an epiphane of the god to the Klazomenians which led to a military victory (the war with Temnos can hardly have warranted ascribing the epithet of Soteros to the god, since the war ended in an apparent stalemate that was resolved through mediation by the city of Knidos). This coin may possibly represent a celebratory issue struck in honour of a festival of which all record has now vanished. Certainly, Zeus does not appear before on the coinage of Klazomenai, and the issue bears many similarities to other festival coinages such as the Hyakinthotrophia coinage of Knidos c. 200 BC, the Athena Nikephoros issue of Pergamon c. 165 BC, and the festival of Apollo at Daphne issues under Antiochos IV at approximately the same time (166/165 BC). The victory which was ascribed to Zeus and which occasioned this coinage cannot be identified from the surviving information. It may have been connected to the victory achieved by Eumenes II over the Galatians in 166 who had been lately conducting damaging raids throughout the region.

93


274. Ionia, Miletos AR Didrachm. Circa 294-281 BC. Zeuxileos, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo to left / Lion standing to left, head reverted; star with eight rays above, monogram before, ZEYΞIΛEOΣ in exergue. Deppert-Lippitz 437 (V1/R2). 4.37g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare; only one example cited by Deppert-Lippitz and no others on CoinArchives.

1,500

Ex Pierre et Angelique Amandry Collection. Pierre Amandry was a French Hellenist, especially interested in ancient Greece and its relationships with south-west Asia. He was born at Troyes on December 31, 1912, and died in Paris on February 21, 2006. A large part of his work was on the site of Delphi, excavated by the French School at Athens, of which he was secretary general from 1941 to 1948 and director from 1969 to 1981.

275. Ionia, Teos AR Stater. Circa 478-470 BC. Griffin seated to right, left forepaw raised; THION around, before, female head to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Matzke Series Cb1; Balcer -; Coin Hoards VIII, Hoard 47, pl. V, 1 (same dies). 12.00g, 23mm. Extremely Fine.

2,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex VAuctions, Triskeles Sale 27, 15 March 2019, lot 48; Ex Pegasi, Auction 34, 24 May 2016, 178; Ex iNumis, Mail Bid Sale 25, 3 June 2014, lot 38.

TROAS

276. Troas, Assos AR Drachm. Circa 500-450 BC. Griffin seated to left, raising forepaw / Head of roaring lion to right within incuse square. Boston MFA 1626; BMC 1; Traité II 2298, pl. CLXIII, 25; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; Weber -; Gitbud & Naumann 32, lot 132. 3.63g, 15mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; arguably the finest known example.

300

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

277. Troas, Assos AR Drachm. Circa 500-450 BC. Griffin seated to left, raising forepaw / Head of roaring lion to right within incuse square. Boston MFA 1626; BMC 1; Traité II 2298, pl. CLXIII, 25; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; Weber -; Gitbud & Naumann 32, lot 132. 4.00g, 14mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

250

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

278. Troas, Assos AR Drachm. Circa 500-480 BC. Satyr running to right / Head of roaring lion to right within incuse square. BMC 1 (Termera, Karia) = Traité I 692, pl. XVIII (Termera, Karia) corr. (not Herakles); Traité I 1582, pl. L, 22 (Lete, Macedon); HPM pl. XVII, 21 (Thraco-Macedonian in alliance with Siris) = De Luynes 1529 (Lete, Macedon). 3.35g, 14mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare. From the inventory of a UK dealer. The present issue must be attributed to the same mint as the preceding griffin type given the near-identical nature of the reverse dies employed.

94

250


95


96


Cover Coin for Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection Part II

279. Islands off Troas, Tenedos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 100-80 BC. Janiform head of a laureate bearded male to left and female to right, wearing stephanos / Labrys; TENEΔIΩN above, handle flanked by grape bunches; all within laurel wreath. Callataÿ, Tenedos 1 (D1/R1, this coin); HGC 6, 390. 16.83g, 37mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone with golden highlights. Extremely Rare as a type, and unique in the series with two grape bunches on reverse. 45,000 This coin published in F. de Callataÿ, “Les monnaies hellénistiques en argent de Tenedos” in Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price, p. 100, pl. 24 (London, 1998); Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection Part II, Sotheby’s New York, 21-22 June, 1990, lot 475 (obv. illustrated as cover coin); Ex Bank Leu AG, Auction 30, 28 April 1982, lot 171; Ex Gitta Kastner, Auction 10, 18 May 1976, lot 51 (obv. illustrated as cover coin). This particular coin has been rightfully celebrated during the last half century, having graced the covers of two auction catalogues of the highest calibre. Tenedos was an island of strategic importance throughout antiquity due to its location at the entrance to the Hellespont, which ensured every ship sailing to or from the Propontis and the Black Sea would pass by. It is referenced in both Homer’s Iliad and Virgil’s Aeneid, in the latter as the place where the Greek fleet was concealed towards the end of their siege of Troy in order to trick the Trojans into taking the fateful Trojan horse within the walls of the city. During the fifth century, Athens used the island as a stronghold to protect their vital shipping routes, but it came under the influence of successive Hellenistic dynasties from the third century onwards: controlled first by the Seleukids, then the Attalids and eventually by Mithridates VI Eupator, who used the island as a naval base in the Third Mithridatic War against the Roman general Lucullus in 73-63 BC. It was during the latter’s long reign that this type and other stephanophoric (wreath-bearing) Tenedian tetradrachms were first minted. On this extremely fine example, the form of the exquisitely detailed janiform head, the proportions and intricate hairstyles of which are finely balanced, is satisfyingly echoed by the symmetrical reverse displaying the labrys, a double-headed axe, and (uniquely for the series) two grape bunches. This labrys is a reference to the Tenedian foundational myth, in which the hero Tenes used an axe to sever the mooring lines of his father’s ship when he attempted to land on the island to reconcile with his son. In Pausanias’ version of the myth, he concludes “for this reason a by-word has arisen, which is used of those who make a stern refusal: so and so has cut whatever it may be with an axe of Tenedos” (Paus. 10.14.4). Indeed, Cicero, writing less than half a century from the time of this coin’s issue jokes to his brother Quintus about Tenedos’ unsuccessful request to the Roman senate to be made a free city: “well then, the liberty of the Tenedians has been chopped by the Tenedian axe” (Letters to his brother Quintus, 2.9).

97


AIOLIS

280. Aiolis, Temnos AR Tetradrachm. Civic issue, in the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Circa 188-170 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, vine-tendril with grapes around an oinochoe to left, monogram above. Price 1678; Müller -. 16.46g, 34mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; struck on a broad planchet, pleasant old cabinet tone with hint of blue iridescence around portrait.

300

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

MYSIA Very Rare

281. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Double-bodied winged sphinx standing with head facing atop tunny fish to left, wearing ouraios, hair falling in plaited locks behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze I -, cf. 128 (hekte); Greenwell -, cf. 101 (hekte); SNG BnF -, cf. 280 (hekte); Roma VIII, 631; Roma X, 493; Roma XII, 299; Roma XIV, 221; Roma XVII, 485. 16.12g, 19mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Siren Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 114, 13 May 2020, lot 206. The sphinx as a type recurs frequently on the coinage of Kyzikos and new types are still being discovered today, yet the double-bodied sphinx is certainly the most curious depiction of this mythological monster, and the reason for it being so is not easy to divine. Greenwell (p. 102), who was citing Cousinéry, proposed that it was simply an artistic device for showing the sphinx as seated facing, ‘arising from the difficulty of depicting a figure in that position’. This proposition appears plausible, until one considers that double-bodied owls are also engraved on coins at various cities including Athens, where they certainly had no problem with engraving a front-facing owl. More damning still for this simplistic view, the double-bodied sphinx appears also in statuary where again there is no logical reason to sculpt it so unless it possesses some significance - see in particular the limestone Tarentine column capital of the Corinthian order at the Metropolitan Museum, New York, and also the marble gravestone decorated with a loutrophoros supported by a double-bodied sphinx at the British Museum (both 4th century). The concept of double-bodied monsters was an ancient one, and probably originated in ancient Sumeria, as they are seen on cylinder seals from this culture, and are repeated later on ancient Iranian goldwork. Here, the double-bodied monsters probably signified a dualistic nature that is easily adaptable and can be one thing or another, or a span between two distinct yet connected elements such as sunrise and sunset. Tom Rasmussen (Corinth and the Orientalising Phenomenon) proposes that the artistic portrayal of the sphinx as a double-bodied monster was first devised at Corinth, where it can be found on a Protocorinthian olpe vase, circa 640 BC, known as the Chigi olpe which is now in the Villa Giulia in Rome. This was likely the product of a blending of Greek and Eastern imagery, yet the result is wholly original; indeed Rasmussen points out that ‘Greek Orientalising is rarely straight copying of Oriental’. It has often been suggested that the electrum staters of Kyzikos take their types from a wide range of artistic sources across a broad geographical range, as might be expected for a city-state that relied almost entirely for its prosperity on being a commerce hub where east and west would meet and exchange wares and ideas. Whether or not Corinth was the origin of the double-bodied Sphinx, it is not surprising that such an intriguing motif should be adopted at Kyzikos.

98


Very Rare

282. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Forepart of lioness to left, devouring prey; tunny fish upwards behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 41, pl. I, 42; Greenwell 109; Boston MFA 1416 = Warren 1534; cf. SNG BnF 181 (hekte); BMC 46; Gillet -; Gulbenkian -; Jameson 2163; cf. Rosen 436 (hekte); Myrmekion -; Weber -. 16.00g, 20mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 200.

2x

2x

283. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 550-450 BC. Archaic bearded head to left, tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse. Von Fritze 66; SNG BnF 194 var. (denomination); Jameson 2170 var. ( denomination); Rosen 447 var. (denomination); Hurter & Liewald I-III -. 1.34g, 8mm. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare in this denomination - no other examples on CoinArchives.

1,500

From the inventory of a German dealer.

284. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Half-length bust of Kore-Persephone to left, wearing kekryphalos headdress, round earring and longsleeved chiton, in her right hand holding a tunny fish by the tail, and raising a flower to her chin; bust truncation indicated by dotted line between parallel lines / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 75, pl. II, 30; SNG BnF 205; Boston MFA 1448 = Warren 1519. 16.08g, 19mm. Very Fine. Scarce.

3,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 445, 5 June 2019, lot 131. The winged figure on this coin of Kyzikos is most frequently simply described as a ‘winged female’, though on occasion numismatists have ventured to suggest that the depiction is that of a harpy, one of the mythical ‘snatchers’ who were sent by the gods to torment Phineos, the blind seer-king of Thrace, for his transgressions. Though in the Homeric poems the harpies are nothing more than the personifications of storm winds, Hesiod (c. 750-650 BC) described them as the daughters of Thaumas by the Oceanid Electra; fair-haired and winged maidens, who surpassed the winds and birds in the rapidity of their flight. Archaic pottery depicts them thus, in a manner that closely resembles the winged figures on the coins of Kaunos in Karia - see in particular Wagner Museum L164 - black figure clay vase. It was only later tradition that portrayed the harpies as hideous half-woman, half-bird creatures, a development resulting from a confusion of harpies with sirens. By the time of Aeschylus (c. 525-455 BC), this transformation was largely complete, though the harpy’s ‘beautiful’ image is still occasionally seen as late as 480 BC - see the J. Paul Getty Museum hydria/kalpis by Kleophrades, on which the harpies are rendered as young winged girls. The identification of the winged figure on this stater as a harpy is therefore possible, though other identifications are equally plausible. Iris, goddess of the rainbow, was depicted as a winged woman with a herald’s staff, as likewise was Nike, though the latter usually carried a wreath or palm. However, none of these beings was associated with flowers, which above all were an attribute of Aphrodite and Kore-Persephone. Only one parallel for the present type exists in surviving Greek art: the 5th century BC funerary stele now known as ‘The Exaltation of the Flower’, held in the Louvre. Carved in a similarly severe archaic style, the stele depicts two female figures holding up flowers; the left figure in a pose very similar to that shown on this coin. Those figures have been identified either as unknown mortals, or as Demeter and her daughter Persephone - the view favoured by its discoverer Léon Heuzey. The wings on our figure clearly identify her as a goddess though, and the flower is most likely the key to understanding her identity. Kore-Persephone, daughter of Demeter, therefore seems to be a logical choice: she was gathering flowers when Hades came to abduct her, and her return to earth each year was heralded by the blossoming of the meadows. Her overwhelming prominence on the later coinage of Kyzikos further strengthens the case for her depiction here. Regardless of her identity, the winged deity on this coin is rendered in exquisite detail, from her ornamented cap to her expressive face and crinkly chiton. The same treatment of the chiton can be observed in major art of the archaic period, for example in the east frieze of the Siphnian treasury at Delphi.

99


Very Rare

285. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Bull walking to left on tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 88; cf. Boston MFA 1466; cf. SNG von Aulock 7286 (hekte); SNG BnF 222-3; Jameson 1415. 15.94g, 19mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 211; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, NYINC Signature Sale 3081, 12 January 2020, lot 30073.

286. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Dog standing to left, fore-paw raised; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 93, pl. III, 12; Boston MFA 1469; SNG von Aulock 1192; SNG BnF 230. 16.08g, 20mm. Near Extremely Fine.

2,500

Ex Birger Bentsen Collection of Ancient Gold Coins, collector’s ticket included; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 56, 9 May 2019, lot 382.

287. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged lioness to left; tunny fish behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 96; SNG BnF 237; Boston MFA -. 16.09g, 19mm. Near Mint State. Very Rare; one of the finest and most complete specimens offered to the market in the past 20 years.

8,500

Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 213; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction IX, 22 March 2015, lot 322. Kyzikos, purportedly the first Milesian colony, was located on the southwest shore of the Propontis in ancient Mysia next to the river Aisepos. Its prosperity was due principally to its two fine harbours, which made the city a convenient stopping point for merchant ships trading between the Aegean and Black Seas. Its principal export was the tunny, of which its waters had abundant stock. The prevalence of winged beings in Kyzikene coinage is a reflection of archaic mythological convention that assigned wings to most divine or sacred entities as an immediately visible and understandable symbol of their nature, and in the case of gods, of their power to move at will across great distances. In the case of the winged animals, we should probably understand these to be attributes of or animals sacred to a particular Olympian god.

100


Extremely Rare

288. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-450 BC. Youthful male figure kneeling to left, holding Corinthian helmet and sword, tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse. Von Fritze 114; SNG BnF 260; Hurter & Liewald I-III -; Boston MFA 1483. 16.08g, 20mm. Near Extremely Fine; a shadow of die shift on obv., small scrapes and scratches to obv., struck on a large planchet. Extremely Rare.

5,000

From the GK Collection.

Ch AU★ 5/5 - 5/5

2x

2x

289. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Head of Zeus-Ammon to right atop tunny fish / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. Von Fritze 130 (unlisted denomination); cf. Greenwell 3 (same); cf. SNG BnF 281 (stater); cf. Boston MFA 1520 (stater); cf. Gulbenkian 640 (stater); cf. Jameson 1419 (stater); cf. Weber 4987 (stater); Giessener Münzhandlung 89, lot 169; Numismatica Ars Classica 59, lot 605. 2.68g, 10mm. NGC graded Ch AU★ 5/5 - 5/5, Fine Style (#3928166-005). Extremely Rare.

7,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Maison Palombo, Auction 15, 22 October 2016, lot 12 (hammer: CHF 14,500); Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XIX, 5 January 2016, lot 164.

290. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 450-330 BC. Bridled horse standing to right, being restrained by male standing to right in background, who holds bridle with his right hand; below, tunny to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 213; Greenwell, Some 2; Boston MFA 1556-7; SNG BnF -; BMC -; FSD SHM 1229 = Hermitage (Exhibition) 118; Gulbenkian 666 (same dies); Jameson 2211. 15.97g, 20mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only the second example auctioned in the past 20 years. From the GK Collection.

101

5,000


Product of the Ionian Revolt, or Themistokles’ Control?

291. Mysia, Lampsakos EL Stater. Circa 480-450 BC. Forepart of Pegasos with curved wings to left; vine with bunches of grapes around / Quadripartite incuse square. Baldwin, Period I, Group II, 12; SNG BnF 1111; BMC 9; SNG von Aulock 1292 var. (monogram below Pegasos); Traité pl. 8, 2; Boston MFA 1582. 15.15g, 19mm. Near Extremely Fine, struck on a broad flan. Rare.

10,000

Ex A. Tkalec AG, 9 May 2011, lot 56. Lampsakos was founded in around 654/3 BC by Phokaian colonists, and in the sixth century became a dependency of Lydia; when the Lampsakenes had captured Miltiades, the Athenian tyrant of the Chersonesos, they were forced by Kroisos to set him free. After the fall of the Lydian kingdom in 547, the city then fell under the dominion of Persia. Lampsakos joined the Ionian cities in revolt in 499, but was conquered by Daurises in 498 or 497, and thereafter remained under Persian control until it was given by Artaxerxes to the exiled Athenian general Themistokles as part of the governorship of the Magnesian district. Themistokles’ district also included the cities of Myos, and Magnesia itself, who along with Lampsakos paid him revenue of 50 talents per year, for ‘meat’, ‘bread’ and ‘wine’ respectively. At an uncertain date after the death of Themistokles in 459, Lampsakos joined the Delian League, and is recorded in the tribute lists from 453/2, paying a phoros of fifteen talents. The dating of this issue has long proven to be difficult, with earlier scholars having attributed it to as far back as 525-500, though this has been shown to be unlikely, not least on account of the style being of a more dynamic and baroque nature than the rather static designs of the Archaic period. At the time Baldwin published her study of the electrum coinage of Lampsakos in 1914, she knew of just fourteen varieties encompassing approximately forty specimens of all of Lampsakene electrum. As for coins from the first period under which this coin falls, she knew of just thirteen specimens. Of course while additional specimens have appeared over the past century, this coin is still a rarity. The style is much more refined than the earliest issues of the period, and while it is tempting to perceive the Pegasos motif as one symbolising freedom, and thus try to place this as a product of the Ionian revolt, the general modern consensus is that the issue should belong to the period of 480-450. This being the case, it should reasonably be viewed within the context of Themistokles’ control of the city - under his control, Lampsakos was required to pay tribute, for which purpose a substantial issue of coinage was necessary. The subsequent issue has the same types and is also of a highly refined engraving style, but shows the letter Ξ below the winged horse of the obverse, thus tying it to the Athenian Coinage Decree and the banning of the use of non-Athenian silver soon after 450 BC.

292. Mysia, Lampsakos EL Stater. Circa 480-450 BC. Forepart of Pegasos with curved wings to left; vine with bunches of grapes around / Quadripartite incuse square. Baldwin, Period I, Group II, 12; SNG BnF 1111; BMC 9; SNG von Aulock 1292 var. (monogram below Pegasos); Traité pl. 8, 2; Boston MFA 1582. 15.26g, 20mm. About Good Very Fine.

3,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 7, 24 October 2020, lot 1235.

102


103


104


Unique

293. Mysia, Lampsakos AV Stater. Circa 370-360 BC. Head of Demeter to left, wearing wreath of grain ears in caught up and back swept hair, crescentshaped earring with quadruple pendant and pearl necklace / Forepart of Pegasos to right with curved wing. Unpublished in the standard references; the closest parallels for this obverse type are the Demeter to right and veiled Demeter types, cf. A. Baldwin, Lampsakos: The Gold Staters, AJN 1924, 9, pl. 1, 15, and 16, pl. I, 30-1. 8.49g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; slight double strike on obv., lustrous and superb surfaces. Unique and unpublished, save for its previous auction appearances.

25,000

Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 228; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction IX, 22 March 2015, lot 348 (hammer: £32,000). The present coin represents a remarkable and important addition to the corpus of Lampsakene gold staters. Baldwin identified three types struck at Lampsakos which bore the image of Demeter: one displays a grain-wreathed head to right (Baldwin 9), another a veiled head with a wreath of lotus (Baldwin 16), and the other a half-length cthonic figure rising from the earth holding grain (Baldwin 25); of the first two types, Baldwin was able to find only two known examples each. The present specimen should therefore be viewed as most closely related to Baldwin 9 and 16, though inferring a direct relationship between the types or viewing them as necessarily contemporaneous is to be avoided given the paucity of information we possess concerning the dating of the issues, which are thought to have been struck over a period of some fifty to sixty years. Baldwin does however comment that the frequency of Demeter’s depiction on the Lampsakene coinage (now four times) ‘seems to warrant the conclusion that her cult was prominent at Lampsakos’. Unfortunately little information survives or can be gleaned from the site today concerning the religious practices of the Lampsakenes or of the sanctuaries present in their city. Yet history does furnish us with with the knowledge that the wine produced at Lampsakos was both excellent and famous (indeed the city was granted to the exiled Athenian general Themistokles by Artaxerxes specifically for this reason). That being the case, it is not surprising that we should also find Dionysos featured on the staters of the city, being celebrated as the patron god of winemaking. It is plausible therefore to see the repeated use of Demeter types as either an invocation or honouring of the goddess responsible for the fertility of the earth and growth of the vines that so contributed to the wealth and fame of the city.

294. Mysia, Pergamon AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. 150-140 BC. Serpent emerging from cista mystica; all within ivy wreath / Two serpents entwined around bow and bowcase; in right field, dolphin swimming to left; monogram in left field. Kleiner & Noe Series 23a; SNG von Aulock 7460; SNG Copenhagen 414. 12.60g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

500

Acquired from Nomos AG.

105


LYDIA

Extremely Rare

2x

2x

295. Kingdom of Lydia, temp. Alyattes - Kroisos EL Hemihekte - 1/12 Stater. Ephesos(?), circa 620-539 BC. Head of boar to right / Incuse square punch. GRPC Lydia G11; Spier 5; Linzalone 1084; SNG Kayhan 1011; CNG Triton XXV, lot 263 (hammer: 4,250 USD). NGC graded XF 5/5 - 3/5 (#5872643-024). Extremely Rare; only the sixth specimen to come to auction in the past two decades.

2,500

From the inventory of a US dealer.

296. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 600-561 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with five(?) rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. GRPC Lydia G25; Weidauer 88-89; ATEC Group D, 14-19. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 3/5, countermark on obverse (#6156405-003).

1,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 462, 26 February 2020, lot 124.

297. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 600-561 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with five rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. GRPC Lydia G25; Weidauer 88-89; ATEC Group D, 14-19. 4.74g, 12mm. Extremely Fine.

1,500

298. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 600-561 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with five rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. GRPC Lydia G25; Weidauer 88-89; ATEC Group D, 14-19. 4.72g, 12mm. Near Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the inventory of a German dealer.

299. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 600-561 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with five rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. GRPC Lydia G25; Weidauer 88-89; ATEC Group D, 14-19. 4.76g, 12mm. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

300. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 600-561 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with five rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. GRPC Lydia G25; Weidauer 88-89; ATEC Group D, 14-19. 4.70g, 12mm. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

106


Ex NAC 2002

2x

2x

301. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Stater. Light series. Sardes, circa 564-39 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two incuse squares punches. GRPC Lydia G51; Berk 3; Traité I 401-3; SNG von Aulock 2875; SNG Lockett 2983 = Pozzi 2726; Athena Fund I 60; BMC 31-4; Boston MFA 2073; Gulbenkian 757; Zhuyuetang 11. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 4/5, light scuff (#6155582-001); a tremendously bright and lustrous example.

27,500

Ex Paramount Collection, Heritage World Coin Auctions, March Signature Sale 3096, 25 March 2021, lot 30031 (hammer: USD 36,000); Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 23, 19 March 2002, lot 1274. Kroisos is credited with issuing the first true gold coins with a standardised purity for general circulation. The series began on a ‘heavy’ standard, with gold and silver staters of equal weight, around 10.6-10.7 grams, which was later reduced to about 8.17 grams for the gold. Studies have shown that coins of both standards circulated together, but that the heavy standard was only used for a relatively short time compared to the light standard, which continued to be used into the Persian period. All of the coins of Kroisos feature without variation his heraldic badge, the confronted heads of a lion and a bull, both ancient symbols of power. The badge itself doubtless stems from the ubiquitous and persistent theme of the lion-bull combat scene, which may be interpreted as a metaphor for divinely inspired heroic triumph. Indeed, divinely inspired heroic triumph was exactly what Kroisos expected when, encouraged by a prediction by the Delphic Oracle that if he attacked Persia he would destroy a great empire, Kroisos made his preparations for war with Cyrus the Great. The war resulted in defeat for Kroisos; his numerically superior army was smashed, and the capital Sardes was captured along with Kroisos and his family, who were immolated on the orders of Cyrus. Lydia became a satrapy of the Persian Empire, though it continued to mint coins in the traditional types, and indeed the legendary wealth of Kroisos was used by Cyrus to form the basis of a new Persian gold standard currency.

107


302. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Stater - Double Siglos. Sardes, circa 561-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion to right and bull to left / Two incuse squares of unequal size. GRPC Lydia S1; Berk 20; Traité I 407; SNG Kayhan 1018; SNG von Aulock 2874; SNG Copenhagen 455; SNG Ashmolean 760. 10.49g, 19mm. Good Very Fine.

2,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

303. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Siglos. Sardes, circa 561-564 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion to right and bull to left / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. GRPC Lydia S3; Rosen 663-5; SNG Kayhan 1024-26. 5.22g, 15mm. Near Extremely Fine.

400

From the inventory of a German dealer.

304. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 561-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion to right and bull to left / Two irregular incuse squares. GRPC Lydia S5; SNG Keckman 359; Boston MFA 2071; Warren 1291. 3.50g, 13mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

300

From the inventory of a German dealer.

305. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR 1/6 Stater. Sardes, circa 561-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion to right and bull to left / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. GRPC Lydia S6; Rosen 667; SNG Kayhan 1019. 1.74g, 11mm. Very Fine.

150

From the inventory of a German dealer.

306. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR 1/12 Stater. Sardes, circa 561-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion to right and bull to left / Incuse square. GRPC Lydia S8; SNG Kayhan 1020-21; SNG von Aulock 2880. 0.88g, 8mm. Good Very Fine.

150

From the inventory of a German dealer.

2x

2x

307. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR 1/24 Stater. Sardes, circa 561-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion to right and bull to left / Incuse punch. GRPC Lydia S9; Berk -; Traité -; SNG Kayhan 1022; Klein 562. 0.42g, 7mm. Near Extremely Fine.

200

From the inventory of a German dealer.

2x

2x

308. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV 1/12 Stater. Light standard. Sardes, 550-520 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right, with extended foreleg, and bull to left / Incuse square. GRPC Lydia G56; Berk 10-13; Gulbenkian 759. 0.68g, 6mm. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

108


KARIA

309. Karia, Kaunos AR Stater. Circa 470-450 BC. Iris running to left, head reverted, holding [kerykeion in right hand and wreath in left] / Triangular baetyl; granulated patterns in the form of stylised birds to left and right; all within incuse square. HNO 219 (temporary); Konuk, Period II, type 1 (71-76, unlisted dies); SNG von Aulock 2346; SNG Keckman 822. 11.93g, 22mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; a highly attractive example of the type.

1,500

RHODES

310. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Drachm. Circa 88/42 BC-AD 14. Kritokles, magistrate. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly to right / Rose seen from above; KPITOKΛHΣ above, P-O across fields, grain ear to left below. HNO 913 (temporary); Ashton & Weiss 146 (A36/P144); HGC 6, 1456. 3.80g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 256.

311. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Drachm. Circa 88/42 BC-AD 14. Unsigned. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly to left / Rose seen from above; P-O across fields, corn ear to right below. HNO 912 (temporary); Ashton & Weiss -, but cf. 31-3 (A8/P-); HGC 6, 1456. 4.06g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State.

500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 250.

312. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Drachm. Circa 88/42 BC-AD 14. Unsigned. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly to left / Rose seen from above; P-O across fields, corn ear to right below. HNO 912 (temporary); Ashton & Weiss -, but cf. 57 (A16/P-); HGC 6, 1456. 4.04g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 251.

109


313. Rhodos, Rhodes Æ 36mm. Circa 40-25 BC. Sphairos, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly to right / Rose; PO above, ΣΦΑΙΡΟΣ divided by star below; all within oak wreath. HNO 423 (temporary); SNG von Aulock 2843; SNG Copenhagen 870 var. (not star). 17.19g, 36mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; only five examples cited by HNO and only one of those with star on reverse.

150

From the inventory of a German dealer.

LYKIA

314. Dynasts of Lykia, uncertain AR Third Stater. Zagaba, temp. Wekhssere II, circa 400-390 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / Helmeted head of Athena facing slightly to left, ⌶P↓PBP+P before. Müseler VII -, cf. 3 & 4 with controls in right field and no P at end of legend; SNG von Aulock - cf. 4210 (same); Nomos 10, 55 (same dies); Roma E-17, 336 (same dies). 2.89g, 16mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. A possibly unpublished type with no control in right field.

750

315. Dynasts of Lykia, Vekhssere II AR Third Stater. Zagaba or Tymnessos mint, circa 410-380 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / Triskeles, with monogram in central circle; FP𐊜𐊖𐊖𐊁 around; all within pelleted border in shallow incuse circle. Müseler VIII -; Falghera -; SNG Copenhagen Supp. 468 = SNG von Aulock 4201 = Podalia 9. 2.94g, 16mm. Extremely Fine. Scarce.

200

316. Dynasts of Lykia, Trbbenimi AR Third Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 390-370 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / Triskeles, TPBB𐊚NEME around; all within shallow incuse circle. Müseler VIII 25-27 var. (legend arrangement); SNG von Aulock 4215 var. (same); Naumann 107, 206 for same legend arrangement. 2.89g, 16mm. Near Extremely Fine.

100

317. Dynasts of Lykia, Trbbenimi AR Third Stater. Wedrei, circa 390-375 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / Triskeles; TPBB𐊚NEME around; all within shallow incuse circle. Müseler VIII, 25-27; Falghera 197-202; SNG von Aulock 4215; Podalia 158-70. 2.90g, 18mm. Extremely Fine.

200

110


Ex Peus 399, 2009

318. Dynasts of Lykia, Perikles AR Stater. Circa 380-375 BC. Head of Perikles three-quarters facing, turned slightly to left, wearing laurel wreath and drapery around neck / Warrior, nude but for crested Corinthian helmet, in fighting attitude to right, holding sword aloft in right hand, shield on left arm; Π↑PEKΛ↑ (‘Perikle in Lykian) around, triskeles to lower right; all within shallow incuse square. Müseler VIII, 39 (same obv. die); N. Olçay & O. Mørkholm: The Coin Hoard from Podalia, in: NC 1971, 429 (A3/P8); SNG von Aulock 4252. 9.85g, 24mm, 9h. Extremely Fine; attractive light tone with golden iridescent highlights.

2,000

Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger, Auction 403, 27 April 2011, lot 119; Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger, Auction 399, 4 November 2009, lot 178.

Extremely Rare

319. Dynasts of Lykia, Perikles AR Third Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 380-360 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / Triskeles, Π𐊁PEKΛ𐊁 around; head of Hermes facing slightly to right, wearing winged petasos, in field; all within shallow incuse circle. Müseler VIII 42 var. (location of Hermes head and no wings); Traité II 495, pl. CIV, 16 = BMC 155, pl. IX, 3 var. (head of Hermes to right); SNG von Aulock 4256; Naumann 54, 217. 3.05g, 18mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

200

Extremely Rare with Hermes to Right

320. Dynasts of Lykia, Perikles AR Third Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 380-360 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / Triskeles, 𐊓𐊁𐊕𐊆𐊋𐊍𐊁 around; head of Hermes to right in field, wearing winged petasos; all within shallow incuse circle. Müseler VIII -; Falghera -; SNG von Aulock -; BMC 155; Roma XIII, 349 (sold for £800). 3.04g, 16mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare variant with Hermes head to right.

500

PAMPHYLIA

321. Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Stater. Circa 465-430 BC. Helmeted, nude hoplite advancing to right, holding shield and spear / Triskeles within incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references; Roma 81, 558 (same dies); Roma E-72, 542 (same). NGC graded AU 4/5 - 5/5 (#6156405-001).

1,250

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XVII, 28 March 2019, lot 523.

111


322. Pamphylia, Side AR Stater. Circa 430-400 BC. Athena standing to left, holding owl upon her outstretched right hand and left resting on shield; pomegranate before / Apollo standing to left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, holding laurel branch over altar in right hand and bow in left; raven behind, ethnic in Sidetic around; all within incuse square. Atlan, Group IV, 55 = SNG von Aulock 4767 (same dies); SNG BnF -. 10.73g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

CILICIA

323. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 430-420 BC. Nude youth, holding whip, dismounting from horse rearing to left; Π below horse’s belly / Goat kneeling to left, head to right; KEΛE above; all within shallow incuse circle. Casabonne Type 2; Celenderis Series II, 9 var. (O-/R5 [unlisted obv. die]); SNG BnF 52; SNG Levante -. 10.64g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; well-centred and lustrous.

1,500

Ex JTB Collection, Triton XXIV, 19 January 2021, lot 735 (hammer: $3,250).

324. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 410-375 BC. Nude youth, holding whip, dismounting from horse rearing to right; T below / Goat kneeling to right, head reverted; KEΛEN and monogram above. Casabonne type 4; SNG BnF -; SNG Levante -; BMC 22 = Traité II, 1475. 10.75g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; test cut to obv. Very Rare.

750

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

Unique and Unpublished

325. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 410-375 BC. Nude youth, holding whip, dismounting from horse rearing to right / Goat kneeling to right, head reverted; KEΛEN and monogram above. Cf. Casabonne type 4; SNG BnF -; SNG Levante -; BMC 22 = Traité II, 1475 var. (T on obv.). 10.66g, 20mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; small edge split, struck from dies engraved in beautiful style. An apparently unique and unpublished variant. From the inventory of a UK dealer.

112

750


326. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 410-375 BC. Nude youth, holding whip, dismounting from horse rearing to right / Goat kneeling to left, head reverted; KEΛEN above. Casabonne type 4; SNG BnF 75 = Traité II 1477; SNG Levante -. 10.72g, 23mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

327. Cilicia, Nagidos AR Stater. Circa 400-385/4 BC. Aphrodite seated to left, holding patera in extended right hand; behind, Eros, nude, standing to left, holding wreath; ΣI to outer right / Dionysos, nude but for chlamys hanging from arms, standing to left, holding [kantharos] and thyrsos; [grape bunch] hanging from vine to upper left, monogram in lower left field, NAΓIΔEΩN to right. Casabonne Type 1; Lederer 1; SNG BnF 1 = SNG Levante 1 (same dies); BMC 1 = Traité II 1495, pl. CXL, 21 (same dies). 10.57g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

328. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. Circa 440-410 BC. Amazon kneeling to left, nude to the waist, wearing bonnet and with bowcase at hip, stringing bow / Grape bunch on vine with tendrils; [Σ]OΛΕ[ΩN] to left, A-K above, fly to right. Casabonne type 2; SNG Levante 37-40 var. (without A-K above grape); SNG BnF 130; Traité II 542, pl. CVI, 19 = Waddington 4488. 10.47g, 22mm, 2h. Extremely Fine; test cut to reverse. Very Rare.

500

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

329. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. Circa 440-410 BC. Amazon kneeling to left, nude to the waist, wearing bonnet and with bowcase at hip, stringing bow / Grape bunch on vine with tendrils; ΣΟΛΕΩΝ to left, Δ-A across upper fields, Ankh to lower right. Casabonne type 2; SNG Levante -; SNG BnF 136; Traité II 546; Weber 7598. 10.69g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine; struck from a worn obverse die. Extremely Rare; only one other example (the Weber coin) in CoinArchives. From the inventory of a UK dealer.

113

500


330. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. Circa 440-410 BC. Amazon kneeling to left, nude to the waist, wearing bonnet and with bowcase at hip, stringing bow / Grape bunch on vine with tendrils; ΣΟΛΕΩΝ to left, Θ to upper right, Ankh to lower right. Casabonne type 2; SNG Levante -; SNG BnF 135 var. (A-Θ across upper fields on rev.); Jameson 1608 (same dies). 10.70g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; light die rust to obverse, attractive light cabinet tone.

500

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

331. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. Circa 410-375 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin / Grape bunch on vine tendril; HP monogram to upper left, Σ[OΛEΩN] to right. Casabonne type 5; Athena Fund II 791 (same dies); SNG BnF -; SNG Levante -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; Traité -; CNG e480, 264 (same dies). 10.72g, 24mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine; areas of weak strike. Very Rare.

1,000

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

Unique and Unpublished

332. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. Circa 410-375 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin / Grape bunch on vine with tendrils; ΣOΛEΩN to left, uncertain letters(?) below to right. Casabonne type 5; Callataÿ -; SNG BnF -; SNG Levante -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; Traité -. 10.58g, 24mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

750

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

333. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 410-385 BC. Persian satrap on horseback to right, wearing kyrbasia / Hoplite kneeling to left, wearing Corinthian helmet, holding spear in right hand and round shield adorned with aegis on left arm; Aramaic script ‘TRW’ (= Tarsos) behind. SNG BnF 226; SNG Levante 61. 10.70g, 23mm, 5h. Good Very Fine; areas of flat strike. Rare.

750

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

114


334. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 410-385 BC. Persian satrap on horseback to right, wearing kyrbasia; ‘key’ symbol before / Hoplite kneeling to right, holding shield and spear; [grain ear to right?], Aramaic script ‘TRW’ (= Tarsos) above, all within dotted border within incuse square. Casabonne type F6; SNG BnF 220 var. (‘key’ symbol on rev., no grain ear); cf. SNG Levante 60 (same obv. die). 10.77g, 21mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

335. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 410-385 BC. Persian satrap on horseback to right, wearing kyrbasia; fly behind / Hoplite kneeling to right, holding shield and spear; grain ear to right, Aramaic script ‘TRW’ (= Tarsos) above, all within dotted border within incuse square. Casabonne type F6; SNG BnF 221 var. (location of ethnic); Traité II 510, pl. CV, 7 var. (same); SNG Levante 60 var. (symbol on obv.). 10.64g, 23mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

336. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 410-385 BC. Persian satrap on horseback to right, wearing kyrbasia / Hoplite kneeling to left, wearing Corinthian helmet, holding spear in right hand and round shield adorned with aegis on left arm; Aramaic script ‘TRW’ (= Tarsos) behind. SNG BnF 226; SNG Levante 61. 10.55g, 21mm, 2h. Good Very Fine; areas of flat strike. Rare.

750

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

A Stunning Example

337. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Pharnabazos, Persian military commander, circa 380-373 BC. Diademed female head (Arethusa?) facing slightly to left, wearing pendant earrings and elaborate necklace / Bearded male head (Ares?) to right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with a volute on the bowl and three olive leaves above the visor; FRNBZWHLK in Aramaic to left, monogram to right. Casabonne Series 3; SNG BnF 248; SNG Levante -; Traité II 596; SNG von Aulock 5925. 10.73g, 23mm, 7h. Mint State; exquisitely detailed and lustrous, a stunning example.

2,750

Acquired from Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH.

115


338. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Pharnabazos, Persian military commander, circa 380-373 BC. Diademed female head (Arethusa?) facing slightly to left, wearing pendant earrings and elaborate necklace / Bearded male head (Ares?) to left, wearing crested Attic helmet; FRNBZW in Aramaic to left. Casabonne Series 1; Moysey Issue 4; SNG BnF -; SNG Levante -; SNG von Aulock 5920-1. 10.63g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; light horn silver deposits. Scarce.

2,500

Acquired from Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH.

339. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Pharnabazos, Persian military commander, circa 380-373 BC. Baaltars seated to left, holding lotus tipped sceptre; B’LTRZ in Aramaic to right / Bearded male head (Ares?) to left, wearing crested Attic helmet; FRNBZW in Aramaic to left, HLK in Aramaic to right. Casabonne Series 4; Moysey Issue 2; SNG BnF 251-5; SNG Levante 72; Traité II 584; SNG von Aulock 5927-9. 10.63g, 24mm, 6h. Near Mint State; light horn silver deposits at edge, a highly attractive and wonderfully detailed specimen.

2,000

Acquired from Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH.

340. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Pharnabazos, Persian military commander, circa 380-374/3 BC. Head of Arethusa facing slightly to left; fish (tunny?) to left / Helmeted, bearded and draped male bust (of Ares?) to left; KIΛIKION and HLK in Aramaic before. SNG BnF 242 corr. (fish on obv.) = Traité II 589 corr. (same) = Waddington 4564 corr. (same); Moysey Group 3, 1a-b; SNG Levante -. 10.74g, 21mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

116


341. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Pharnabazos, Persian military commander, circa 380-374/3 BC. Head of Arethusa facing slightly to left; fish (tunny?) to left / Helmeted, bearded and draped male bust (of Ares?) to left; KIΛIKION and HLK in Aramaic before. SNG BnF 242 corr. (fish on obv.) = Traité II 589 corr. (same) = Waddington 4564 corr. (same); Moysey Group 3, 1a-b; SNG Levante -. 10.57g, 21mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine; struck on a broad planchet. Very Rare.

750

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

342. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Datames, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, circa 378-372 BC. Baaltars seated to right on throne, holding bunch of grapes and grain ear in left hand, with eagle-tipped sceptre cradled in right arm; B’LTRZ in Aramaic to left, thymiaterion to right, bucranium beneath throne, all within crenellated wall / Tarkumuwa seated to right, in full Persian garb, inspecting arrow held in his left hand; TRDMW in Aramaic to left, bow to right, winged solar disk in upper right field. Casabonne type 2; SNG BnF 286-8; SNG Levante 88; Traité II 610; SNG Copenhagen 295-6; SNG von Aulock 5952. 10.54g, 24mm, 11h. Near Mint State; struck off-centre, otherwise a stellar example.

1,750

Acquired from Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH.

Apparently Unique And Unpublished

343. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Mazaios. Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, 361-334 BC. Baaltars seated to left, holding lotus-headed sceptre; thymiaterion surmounted by an eagle to left, BLTRZ in Aramaic to right, uncertain Aramaic inscription to left, astragalos(?) below throne / Lion advancing to left; Phoenician Z above. Casabonne Series 5, Group E var. (no additional inscription on obv.); SNG BnF -; SNG Levante -; SNG Levante Supp -; SNG von Aulock -; cf. Leu Numismatik 10, 2187 (similar, unrecorded Aramaic inscription on obv.); cf. Numismatik Naumann 103, 296 (same). 10.57g, 23mm, 2h. Near Mint State; minor die shift to rev., wonderfully detailed. An apparently unique and unpublished variant. Acquired from Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH.

117

2,500


CAPPADOCIA

344. Kings of Cappadocia, Ariarathes VI Epiphanes Philopator AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). Mint A, circa 114/3-109/8 BC. Diademed head of Antiochos VII to right / Athena Nikephoros standing to left, resting hand on shield and spear under arm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟY to right, EYEPΓETOY to left, monogram above A in outer left field; all within wreath. Krengel Series 2; Krengel & Lorber 418-69 (A47/P-); for prototype, cf. SC 2144.1 and HGC 9, 1068 (Antiochos VII). 16.36g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

From the Santana Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, E-Auction 472, 15 July 2020, lot 119.

CYPRUS

345. Cyprus, Kition AR Stater. Baalmelek II, circa 425-400 BC. Herakles in fighting stance to right, wearing lion skin upon his back and tied around neck, holding club overhead in right hand and bow extended before him in left hand; [monogram or ankh to right] / Lion attacking stag crouching to right; L B’LMLK (in Aramaic) above; all inside dotted border within incuse square. Tziambazis 19; Babelon, Perses 678; BMC 35; Sunrise 110. 10.95g, 20mm, 9h. Good Very Fine; die break on obverse.

500

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

346. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Onasioikos, circa 450-440 BC. Bull standing to left on beaded double line; winged solar disk above, ankh to left; all within dotted circular border / Eagle standing to left; ankh to left, ‘pa-si o-na’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square border in incuse square. Tziambazis -; BMC -; Destrooper-Georgiades, p. 196, 13 = Gulbenkian 809 = Jameson 2604 = NFA II, 1976, 275; Roma XVII, 545; Roma XIII, 405. NGC graded AU 4/5 - 5/5 (#6156404-001). Extremely Rare.

6,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 437, 6 February 2019, lot 161.

118


The Finest Offered In The Past Twenty Years

347. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 425 BC or later. Bull standing to left; winged solar disk above, ankh to left, palmette ornament in exergue / Eagle standing to left; one-handled vase to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square in incuse square. DestrooperGeorgiades 15; Tziambazis 7; Traité II 1291 = BMC 17; SNG Copenhagen 26; ACGC 1089. 11.09g, 24mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Very Rare; the finest and most complete example offered at auction in the past two decades.

10,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 270; Ex collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s, outside of Cyprus prior to December 1992. Paphos was a city of great antiquity, occupied since the Neolithic period and venerated as the place where Aphrodite came to shore after rising from the sea; the grove and altar at Paphos are mentioned in the Odyssey (viii.362). As with all of the early Cypriot coinage, the chronology of the kings (whose names are frequently not given in full, and even then only in Cypriot syllabic) of Paphos is far from certain. However, in a thorough analysis of this mint and inscriptions, A. Destrooper-Georgiades (Le monnaies frappées à Paphos (Chypre) durant la deuxième moitié du Ve siècle et leur apport à l’histoire de l’île” in Proceedings of the 12th International Numismatic Congress, Berlin 2000, pp. 194-8), proposes a sequence of kings based on the available numismatic evidence which securely places Onasioikos prior to the reign of Stasandros, who is in turn succeeded by at least two other kings, Mineos and Zoalios, who are known to history only from their inscriptions on re-engraved coins of Stasandros. The evidence presented by Destrooper-Georgiades demonstrates with a high degree of probability that the issues attributed to Onasioikos bearing the flying eagle reverse (generally dated to 400 BC without supporting evidence) are in fact an earlier issue of the same king named on the present type, and that his flying-eagle coinage should clearly be redated to before the reign of Stasandros. The archaistic appearance of Onasioikos’ flying-eagle type weighs heavily in favour of this, since a backwards step from classical style to archaic is counter-intuitive. Furthermore, the style of the standing-eagle reverse type of Onasioikos is so similar to archaic style issues of Stasandros, that it appears to conclusively demonstrate that this king Onasioikos was the immediate predecessor of Stasandros, since the latter retained the same types for his first coinage; this theory is supported by the difference in style between the issues of Stasandros: the ‘earlier’ issue being distinctly archaic in appearance, while the ‘later’ issue is more classical in style. DestrooperGeorgiades proposes a revised dating of circa 450 BC for the flying-eagle type of Onasioikos, and a period from the mid-fifth century to the first decades of the fourth century for the standing-eagle coinage of Onasioikos, Stasandros, Mineos and Zoalios.

119


348. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 425 BC or later. Bull standing to left; winged solar disk above, ankh to left, palmette ornament in exergue / Eagle standing to left; one-handled vase to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square in incuse square. DestrooperGeorgiades 15; Tziambazis 71; Traité II 1291 = BMC 17; SNG Copenhagen 26; ACGC 1089. 11.09g, 23mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

A New Cypriot King?

349. Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Uncertain king, circa 480-460 BC. Recumbent ram to right; Cypriot syllabic ‘na’ before, Cypriot syllabic ‘a-pu-ke(?)’ above, Cypriot syllabic ‘?-mo-?’ in exergue / Large ornate ankh enclosing Cypriot syllabic ‘ba’, Cypriot syllabic ‘si-le-wo-se’ around; all within incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references. 11.40g, 22mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Unpublished and apparently unique, and potentially of great historical significance.

2,500

From the inventory of a UK dealer. Though Cyprus in general (and Salamis in particular) formed part of the Persian Empire, it enjoyed a special independence, autonomous coinage and royal status under the Great King of Kings at Persepolis to whom it paid an annual tribute. Based the evidence deduced from properly studied hoards such as Lanarca (IGCH 1272), Zagazig (IGCH 1645) and Asyut (IGCH 1644), the earliest double sigloi with blank reversed are to be dated to the time of Dareios I ‘the Great’ in about 515-500 BC on the Persian weight standard (cf. ACGC 1078). It has long been recognized that all the issues in the name of city-king dynastic founder Euelthon (c. 560-525 BC), were in fact issued by his successors. From about 480 BC the coinage is characterised by the ankh reverse type, originally an Egyptian symbol which by this time is associate with the ruling dynasty, surrounded by Cypriote syllables approximating to the Greek royal title Basileose. The obverse recumbent ram types are surrounded by Cypriote king names of which Euelthon (posthumous), Gorgos (BMC 23-7), Phausis (Kagan & McGregor op. cit.), Nikodamos (BMC 31-2) and Euanthos (BMC 38-9) have hitherto been recorded. History is silent on the confused period that followed the failed Athenian led encroachments of 450/49 BC, but it can be assumed that Salamis was left to its own devices as long as its kings paid tribute to the Great King. The proposed approximate date of the above enigmatic issue, which hopefully will one day be deciphered, is based on it probably representing one of the last ram/ankh issues before the reverse ram’s head type change by the otherwise unknown King Euanthes, in circa 430 BC (BMC 38-9).

Unpublished

350. Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Nikodamos, circa 460-450 BC. Recumbent ram to right; Cypriot script ‘ba-si-le-wo-ni-ko-ta-mo’ around / Large ornate ankh enclosing Cypriot ‘ni’, Cypriot ‘mi-la/ni-se’ around; all within incuse circle. K. McGregor, The Coinage of Salamis, Cyprus, from the Sixth to the Fourth Centuries, University College London (unpublished PhD Thesis 1998, J.I) 291-9 var. (1/3 stater) and cf. 327 (florals of three sprays in rev. corners); NAC 106, 310 var. (rev. legend); Traité I 944, pl. XXVI, 21 var. (1/3 stater); NAC 59, 639 var. (1/3 stater); BMC 32 var. (diobol); Tziambazis -. 11.31g, 23mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; unpublished in the standard references.

2,500

Ex Paulo Leitão Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 80, 4 February 2021, lot 570 (hammer: £2,400); Ex inventory of a German dealer, Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 65, 19 December 2019, lot 479.

120


351. Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Nikodamos, circa 460-450 BC. Recumbent ram to left; Cypriot script ‘e-u-we-le-to-to-se’ (of Evelthon [father of Nicodamus]) above and below / Large ornate ankh enclosing Cypriot ‘pa’, Cypriot script ‘ni-ko-da-mo’ around; all within incuse square. Masson & Amandry p. 33, A and pl. II, 3 = H. A. Troxell and W. F. Spengler, ‘A Hoard of Early Greek Coins from Afghanistan’, ANSMN 15, 1969, 17 = K. McGregor, The Coinage of Salamis, Cyprus, from the Sixth to the Fourth Centuries, University College London (unpublished PhD Thesis, 1998) 326. 11.19g, 22mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

352. Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Evagoras I, circa 411-374 BC. Youthful Herakles seated to right on rock draped with lion skin, leaning on club held in right hand and holding rhyton in left; ‘e-u-wa-ko-ro’, in Cypriot script around / Male goat recumbent to right; ‘pa-si-le-wo-se’ in Cypriot script around. Masson & Amandry 1a-c; BMC -; SNG Copenhagen -; Tziambazis -; Roma E-Sale 4, 330 = G&M 207, 398. 11.17g, 23mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and in exemplary condition for the issue.

5,000

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

PHOENICIA

353. Phoenicia, Byblos AR Shekel. Ozbaal (Uzzibaal). Circa 400-376 BC. Galley, with prow terminating in lion’s head, on waves to left, carrying three hoplites, each holding shield; below, `Z (in Phoenician script) and hippocamp to left, above murex shell / Lion attacking bull to left; ‘ZB’L MLK GBL (in Phoenician script) above. E&E-B Group IV.2.1.c, 403-471 (O12/R?); SNG Copenhagen 132; HGC 10, 133. 13.32g, 26mm, 2h. Near Mint State.

1,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 114, 6 May 2019, lot 1216.

Extremely Rare

354. Phoenicia, Sidon AR Dishekel. `Abd`aštart (Straton) II(?), dated RY 7 = 336/5 BC. Phoenician galley to left; I III III (regnal year) above, triple line of waves below / Persian king and driver in chariot to left; to right, king of Sidon, in Egyptian style garments, holding cultic sceptre and votive vase, walking to left; ‘B (in Phoenician) above. E&E-S 1300 (D18/R21); Cf. Betlyon 35; cf. Traité II 921; cf. HGC 10, 242 and 260. 25.46g, 29mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; minor marks to both sides, otherwise an attractive and unusually detailed example. Extremely Rare with this date. From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Trausnitz Collection, Nomos AG, Auction 19, 17 November 2019, lot 217; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 72, 12 May 1998, lot 315.

121

2,000


355. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Dated CY 24 = 103/2 BC. Laureate bust of Melkart to right / ΤΥPΟΥ ΙΕΡ[ΑΣ] ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, eagle standing to left on prow, palm behind; ΔK(date) above club to left; monogram to right, ‘bet’ (Phoenician B) between legs. DCA Tyre (release 2) 76 (same obv. die); DCA 919; BMC 108; HGC 10, 357. 14.33g, 28mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; boldly struck, minor die wear on obv., stunning old cabinet tone.

1,500

Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group.

Extremely Rare

356. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Dated CY 45 = 82/1 BC. Laureate bust of Melkart to right / ΤΥPΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, eagle standing to left on prow, palm behind; EM(date) above club to left; monogram to right, ‘bet’ (Phoenician B) between legs. DCA Tyre (release 2) 163; DCA 919; BMC 136; HGC 10, 357. 14.25g, 32mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; minor scratches to obv., wonderful old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare with this date; only four other examples on CoinArchives. 1,500 From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex El Medina Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 479, 21 October 2020, lot 67; Privately purchased from John Cummings.

357. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Dated CY 65 = 62/1 BC. Laureate bust of Melkart to right / ΤΥPΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, eagle standing to left on prow, palm behind; EΞ(date) above club to left; monogram to right, ‘bet’ (Phoenician B) between legs. DCA Tyre (release 2) 222; DCA 919; HGC 10, 357. 13.29g, 27mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

122


KYRENAIKA

2x

2x

358. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AV 1/10 Stater. Second Revolt of the Kyrenaikans, circa 305-300 BC. Head of Zeus-Ammon to right / Upright thunderbolt; stars flanking. Naville 183-217; SNG Copenhagen 1233; BMC 216-220; Boston MFA 1342 = Warren 1366; Jameson 2535; Pozzi 3281; Weber 8444; Traité III 1879, pl. CCLXVI, 12. 0.71g, 9mm, 10h. NGC graded AU 4/5 - 3/5 (#6158069-009). Previously graded by NGC Choice AU★ 5/5 - 4/5.

1,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 97, 12 December 2016, lot 317; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, NYINC Signature Sale 3037, 4 January 2015, lot 30099.

EGYPT Ex CNG, 1992

359. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter, as satrap, AR Tetradrachm. In the name of Alexander III of Macedon. Uncertain mint in Egypt (Memphis?), circa 306-303 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander to right, wearing elephant skin headdress / Athena Alkidemos advancing to right, brandishing spear and holding shield; monogram above bee in left field, eagle on thunderbolt to right, AΛEΞANΔPOY to outer left. CPE 83; Svoronos 153; BMC 45. 15.71g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; a bold portrait displaying golden iridescence. Very Rare.

2,500

Ex Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Auction 62, 1 February 2011, lot 3162; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton X, 9 January 2007, lot 413; Ex Gemini LLC, Auction II, 11 January 2006, lot 170; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction XXI, 26 June 1992, lot 194.

360. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Alexandria, circa 306-300 BC. Head of deified Alexander to right with horn of Ammon, wearing mitra of Dionysus and elephant headdress, aegis around neck / Athena Alkidemos advancing to right, brandishing spear in right hand and holding shield on left arm; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOY to outer left, ΘE monogram to left, ΔI and Corinthian helmet above eagle standing to right on thunderbolt in right field. CPE 73; Svoronos 177; Zervos Issue 33, dies 534/ - (unlisted rev. die); Boston MFA 2258 (same obv. die); SNG Lockett 3394 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 30 var. (monogram to left). 15.67g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; minor die shift to obv. attractive toning.

3,500

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex PRB Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 111, 29 May 2019, lot 413.

123


A High Grade Trichryson - Pentadrachm of Ptolemy I

361. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter AV Trichryson - Pentadrachm. Alexandria, from 294 BC. Obverse die signed by the artist D. Diademed head to right, wearing aegis around neck; small Δ behind ear / Eagle standing to left on thunderbolt; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY around, monogram in left field. CPE 166; Svoronos 210; Boston MFA 2263. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 4/5 (#6030743-004).

15,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 114, 6 May 2019, lot 360; Ex Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Auction 62, 1 February 2011, lot 3161. First of the Diadochi to put his own portrait on his coinage, Ptolemy I introduced many numismatic innovations to his kingdom: he was the only successor of the Macedonian Empire to stop using the Attic weight standard and to invent new coin denominations like this large gold coin, the trichryson-pentadrachm (C. Lorber, CPE, 2018, p.24). J. N. Svrononos refers to this denomination as a pentadrachm but the letter to Apollonios from Demetrios, probably the master of the Alexandrian mint, mentions τὰ τρίχρυσα (triple staters), indicating that coins of this domination were equivalent to three old gold staters (letter dated to 258 BC, Austin 299; Svoronos, Ta nomismata tou kratous ton Ptolemaion, 1904-1908; Lorber, 2018, p.32). The diadem on the head of the successor-king depicted here resembles the mitra which adorned Alexander the Great on issues of the same period; he also sports a protective aegis with the same scaly texture as that of Alexander on contemporary tetradrachms (C. Lorber, 2018, p.56; Herklotz, 2000, p.44). By aligning the king of Egypt with this Macedonian conqueror, this imagery confirms the legitimacy of Ptolemy’s succession and finds expression in the myth preserved in the Suda, which identifies Ptolemy as half-brother to Alexander, being the son of Philip of Macedon by his mistress Arsinoe (Suda, s.v.; L. Koenen, “The Ptolemaic King as a Religious Figure”, 1993 in Images and Ideologies, A. Bulloch et al., pp.44-45). Furthermore, Svenson notes the Dionysiac appearance of the diademed king, particularly identifying the similarity of his ornamental headpiece to the mitra of the saviour god (D. Svenson, Darstellungen hellenistischer Könige mit Götterattributen, 1995, p. 30). Ptolemy was assimilated to Dionysus in artwork and ceremony of the time: in the account of Ptolemy II’s great procession at Alexandria by Callixinus of Rhodes (279/278 BC), the late king and Alexander were associated with Dionysus, each sporting a golden ivy wreath around their heads and following in the procession behind a statue of Dionysus at the altar of Rhea (preserved in Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae V.201b-f 202f.203e). The divine associations of the obverse portrait iconography are elaborated on with the reverse imagery: the bird depicted on top of the thunderbolt illustrates the favour of Zeus enjoyed by Ptolemy. Indeed, the same tradition found in the Suda has the baby Ptolemy protected by the spread wings of Zeus’ eagle and sustained on the bird’s blood, after being exposed on a shield by his mother’s husband, Lagos (Suda, s.v.). This specimen, then, records the association with and ultimate descent from Zeus which the Ptolemaic dynasty claimed for itself. The reverse inscription BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY proclaims the royal title which Ptolemy adopted in summer/autumn 306 BC according to Greek literary tradition: Plutarch records how, after Antigonus and Demetrius were heralded as kings following victory in 306 BC, “the followers of Ptolemy in Egypt on their part also, when these things were reported to them, gave him the title of King” (Demetrius, 18.2). In this way, this coin minted under the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty made manifest his royal divinity.

124


2x

2x

362. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter AV 1/3 Chryson - ‘Triobol or Hemidrachm’. Alexandria, circa 294-285 BC. Diademed head to right, wearing aegis around neck / Eagle standing to left on thunderbolt; XA monogram to left. CPE 139b; Svoronos 232β; SNG Copenhagen 46 var. (control mark); Boston MFA 2261. 1.76g, 11mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the GK Collection; Ex MDC Monnaies de Collection sarl, Auction 1, 2 December 2016, lot 52.

363. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter, as satrap, AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Byblos, circa 320/19315 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, OI under throne, B in left field. Price 3420 (Berytos); HGC 10, 103 (Berytos). 17.21g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine, wonderfully detailed and in an excellent state of preservation. Rare.

500

364. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter, as satrap, AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Arados, circa 320/19315 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, AP (civic) monogram(?) in left field. Price 3426 (Byblos); Müller 1375 (Byblos). 17.24g, 28mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

400

125


A Very Rare Ptolemaic Tetradrachm

365. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter, as satrap, AR Tetradrachm. In the name of Philip III of Macedon, types of Alexander III. Sidon, dated RY 16 of Abdalonymos = 318/7 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right, Π (date) in left field, ΣI below throne. Price P177; Newell, Dated 47; DCA 878; HGC 10, 270. 17.05g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; beautiful tone which accentuates design, hints of iridescence around devices. Very Rare.

1,000

Ex Belgica Collection, Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A., Auction 119, 7 December 2013, lot 114.

366. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos AV Trichryson - Pentadrachm. Alexandria, circa 275-272 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I to right, wearing aegis around neck / ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, eagle standing to left on thunderbolt; monogram above Galatian shield to left, P between eagle’s legs. CPE 298; Svoronos 590. 17.84g, 23mm, 12h. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 3/5, countermark (#6158066-003). Very Rare.

8,000

From the GK Collection; Ex MDC Monnaies de Collection sarl, Auction 1, 2 December 2016, lot 53.

367. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos Æ Obol. Uncertain Syro-Phoenician mint, circa 285-246 BC. Head of the deified Alexander to right, wearing elephant skin headdress / ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, eagle, with wings open, standing to left on thunderbolt; double cornucopiae to left. CPE B341; Svoronos 763; SNG Copenhagen -; Weiser -. 11.91g, 27mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; an attractive specimen featuring a handsome portrait. Scarce. From a private UK collection; Acquired from Heritage Auctions Europe / MPO Auctions, old collector’s/dealer’s ticket included.

126

200


Ex Ars Classica 1934

368. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Arsinoe II (wife of Ptolemy II) AV Mnaieon (Oktadrachm). Alexandria, circa 254-252 BC. Head to right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped sceptre in background; Θ to left / Double cornucopiae, grape bunches hanging at sides, bound with fillet; APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY around. CPE 388; Svoronos 460, pl. 15, 12; Troxell p. 44, pl. 6, 2 (this coin); Olivier & Lorber dies 1/30, 127-130; SNG Copenhagen 134. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 3/5, light marks (#6055572-002).

12,500

This coin published in H. A. Troxell, ‘Arsinoe’s Non-Era’ in American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 28 (1983); Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction II, 2 October 2011, lot 341; Ex Ars Classica S.A., Auction 17, 3 October 1934, lot 626. The daughter of Ptolemy I and his wife Berenike, Arsinoe II was born in 316 BC in the nascent Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt. After a swift political marriage to Lysimachos of Thrace at the age of fifteen, she was married again to Ptolemy Keraunos, her half-brother, but fled Macedon immediately after the wedding to the protection of Egypt, which had passed to her younger brother Ptolemy II. The two gained the epithet ‘Philadelphoi’ or ‘siblinglover’ after they married in 273-272 BC: the practice of sibling marriage was traditional for Egyptian pharaohs, but was known only to the Greeks in deities such as Zeus and Hera. However, their marriage provided a model which was followed by most subsequent Ptolemaic monarchs, and its divine connotations only advanced their power. The image of Arsinoe here portrays a beautiful and serene queen, with considerable attention devoted to her curled hairstyle and the drape of her veil, while her usual attributes of cornucopiae associate her with peace and prosperity. She was considered a capable co-ruler who directed Egypt’s foreign affairs, and her death in 270-268 BC prompted a great outpouring of gold coinage to mark her full deification, emphasised in this portrait by a glimpse of a ram’s horn emerging from her veil, reminiscent of the horn of Ammon on images of the deified Alexander the Great.

127


369. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Arsinoe II (wife of Ptolemy II) AV Mnaieon (Oktadrachm). Alexandria, circa 252-249 BC. Head to right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped sceptre in background; K to left / Double cornucopiae, grape bunches hanging at sides, bound with fillet; APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY around. CPE 390; Svoronos 475, pl. 15, 14; Troxell p. 44, pl. 7, 3; Olivier & Lorber dies 1/7, 191-195. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 2/5, edge marks, scratches (#6157409-001).

10,000

Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG.

370. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy III Euergetes Æ Drachm. Alexandria, circa 246-222 BC. Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon to right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ, eagle with closed wings standing to left on thunderbolt; filleted cornucopiae to left, XP monogram between legs. CPE B395; Svoronos 964; SNG Copenhagen 171-2. 63.92g, 42mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

500

Acquired from Heritage Auctions Europe.

128


371. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy III Euergetes AV Mnaieion (Oktadrachm). Commemorative issue struck under Ptolemy IV. Alexandria, circa 219-217 BC. Radiate and diademed bust of deified Ptolemy III to right, wearing aegis; trident over shoulder, middle prong ending in lotus finial / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY, radiate and filleted cornucopiae, grape bunch hanging to left; ΔI below. CPE 888; Svoronos 1117; SNG Copenhagen 196; Olivier & Lorber dies 3/10; BMC 103 (same dies). NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 3/5, brushed (#4885147-015).

9,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, NYINC Signature Sale 3081, 12 January 2020, lot 32038; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, Long Beach Signature Sale 3026, 25 September 2013, lot 23221.

372. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy V or VI AR Tetradrachm. Alexandria, circa 204-180 BC or 180-145 BC BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I to right, wearing aegis / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY, eagle standing to left on thunderbolt. Svoronos 1231 and 1489; SNG Copenhagen 244-5 and 262-8; Noeske 176-7 and 192-3. 14.14g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; traces of horn silver, sharply struck.

1,000

Acquired from Nomos AG.

PERSIA

A Superb Persian Daric

373. Persia, Achaemenid Empire AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II. Sardes, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero, wearing kidaris and kandys, in kneeling-running stance to right on exergual line, holding apple-tipped spear and strung bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb, Group A/B (pl. XIII, 27); Meadows, Administration 321; BMC Arabia pl. XXIV, 26; Sunrise 24; GRPC Lydia G66. 8.39g, 15mm. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal with light red toning, well centred and struck for the type - a wonderful example.

3,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 287; Ex Jonathan P. Rosen Collection. The ancient Greeks themselves believed that the term ‘dareikos’ was derived from the name of Darius the Great, an assessment that many modern scholars agree with. Others however have generally supposed that the Greek term can be traced back to old Persian ‘dari’ (golden) and that it was first associated with the name of Darius only in later folk etymology. Both suppositions may be equally valid. While the Persians had not traditionally used coinage, Cyrus the Great had introduced it to the Persian empire with the conquest of the Lydian Kingdom in 546 BC. The Lydian coinage series featuring a confronted lion and bull type was continued at first, but under the reign of the third Great King, Darios I, the Lydian gold stater was converted into a type bearing the stylised image of the Persian ruler or a hero, a type which would last with little modification until the conquest of Persia by Alexander in the 330s BC. One of the principal motivating factors behind this institution of an official Persian currency was the requirement to pay Greek mercenaries, who were accustomed to receiving payment in coinage, or for official use as bribes and subsidies. Indeed, nothing demonstrates the power of the gold daric more succinctly than when Sparta was waging an increasingly successful war led by Agesilaos II against Persia in Asia Minor (398-395 BC). Unable to defeat the Spartan army, the satrap Pharnabazos sent an Asiatic Greek by the name of Timocrates of Rhodes to distribute ten thousand gold darics in the major cities of mainland Greece and thus incite them to war against Sparta. Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Argos quickly entered into conflict with Sparta, precipitating a messenger to be sent to Agesilaos ordering him to return to Greece. The recall was a bitter disappointment to Agesilaos, who wryly observed that “but for ten thousand ‘archers’, he would have vanquished all Asia.”

129


Ex Gemini - Heritage VIII, 2011

374. Persia, Achaemenid Empire AV Daric. Time of Xerxes II to Artaxerxes II. Sardes, circa 420-375 BC. Persian Great King or hero, wearing kidaris and kandys, in kneeling-running stance to right on exergual line, holding apple-tipped spear and strung bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb, Group C (pl. XIV, 42); Meadows, Administration 323; BMC Arabia 58-60, pl. XXV, 12-13; Sunrise 28; GRPC Lydia G67. 8.38g, 17mm. Extremely Fine.

2,000

Ex Gemini LLC - Heritage World Coin Auctions, Auction VIII, 14 April 2011, lot 111 (hammer: $7,500).

An Extremely Rare Type

375. Persia, Achaemenid Empire AV Daric. Time of Artaxerxes II to Artaxerxes III. Sardes, circa 375-340 BC. Persian king or hero, in kneeling-running stance to right, holding dagger behind waist and strung bow / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IV (late), Group C; Meadows, Administration 325; BMC Arabia 170-171; Sunrise 32; GPRC Lydia G70. 8.34g, 15mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare - only one other example on CoinArchives.

5,000

From the inventory of a US dealer.

2x

2x

376. Persia, Alexandrine Empire AV Half Daric. Babylon, time of Stamenes to Seleukos, circa 328/3-311 BC. Head of satrap to right, wearing bashlyk / Patterned incuse punch. Nicolet-Pierre pl. 30, G = G. Le Rider, “Monnaies grecques récemment acquises par le Cabinet de Paris” in RN 1969, 14 = Hess-Leu 36, 367; Triton XXIII, 514 = CNG 90, 756. 4.14g, 12mm. About Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of three known, with one in the BN and one other (in inferior condition) in private hands.

5,000

The identity of the satrap portrayed on the obverse of this coin is currently unknown. Following the death of Mazaios in 328 BC his coinage of ‘local’ gold and silver issues was continued. There are five satraps ruling between 328 and 311 BC who could have issued this coin: Stamenes (328-c. 324), Archon (c. 328-321), Dokimos (321-320), Seleukos I (320-315), and Peithon (315-311).

130


SELEUKID EMPIRE

377. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Babylon, circa 311-308 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY, to right, MHP monogram in wreath at feet to left. SC 81.3; Price 3749. 8.61g, 19mm, 8h. NGC graded MS 3/5 - 4/5, die shift (#6158067-015).

5,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Maison Palombo, Auction 18, 17 November 2019, lot 46 (hammer: CHF 8,000).

An Extremely Rare Variety

378. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with sphinx / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, monogram in wreath below left wing, HP monogram below right wing. SC 81.9 corr.; Price 3716 corr.; HGC 9, 3a; SNG Saroglos 161 corr. (monogram in wreath). 8.52g, 19mm, 1h. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 3/5. Fine Style; edge marks (#6158067-012). Extremely Rare variety with sphinx on helmet.

5,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Maison Palombo, Auction 18, 17 November 2019, lot 45 (hammer: CHF 8,500); Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 175, 9 March 2009, lot 88.

379. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, MI at feet to left, [monogram in wreath] to right. SC 81.2; Price 3748; Müller 731. 8.51g, 18mm, 4h. NGC graded AU 4/5 - 3/5. Fine style; ex-jewelry (#6158067-011).

2,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 71, 4 November 2018, lot 269.

380. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, MI at feet to left, monogram in wreath to right. SC 81.2; Price 3748; Müller 731. 8.55g, 18mm, 8h. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158067-013).

2,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Nomos AG, Auction 15, 22 October 2017, lot 76.

131


Ex Jonathan P. Rosen Collection

381. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 305/4-295 BC. Head to right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing to right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around; AP below left wing, facing bust of Helios in lower middle field, monogram to lower right. SC 173.16; ESM 301; Marest-Caffey Group 1.12, 181-9 (A25/P- [unlisted rev. die]); SNG Spaer -; Houghton -; HGC 9, 20; Triton XXIII, 461 (same dies). NGC graded MS 5/5 - 2/5, Fine Style (#6156000-001).

10,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Jonathan P. Rosen Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 114, 13 May 2020, lot 378. The trophy series of Seleukos was issued over an extended period, and used 67 obverse dies and at least 93 reverses that we are aware of. The type is generally assumed to commemorate the victories of Seleukos as he pushed eastwards into India, occupying territory as far as the Indus, and eventually waging war against the Mauryan Empire. This campaign against Chandragupta Maurya was however a failure. While there is no record of what transpired to prevent Seleukos achieving his aims, the two leaders eventually reached an accord whereby Seleukos ceded some of his easternmost territory in exchange for a gift of 500 war elephants. The massive beasts were to play a significant role in the coming wars of the Diadochi, in particular at the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC. The assertion that the trophy reverse commemorates a victory by Seleukos in the east or in the Upper Satrapies, and his subsequent assumption of a the royal title in 305/4 BC is problematic. The dating of the issue was proposed by Kritt (The Early Seleukid Mint of Susa, 1997) and subsequently accepted by the numismatic community seemingly without question. Moreover, the important detail of the trophy’s composition is ignored. The trophy is unquestionably built from Macedonian arms, as evidenced by the Vergina Sun (or Argead Star) clearly emblazoned on the shield. That this should therefore represent an eastern victory is impossible, particularly given the inconclusive nature of Seleukos’ campaign against Chandragupta, and its stale conclusion. The issue bears far more significance when viewed in the context of a victory over other Macedonians - for which we should look to the battle of Ipsos, in which Seleukos’ elephants played a decisive role in the victory over Antigonos.

382. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Drachm. Susa, circa 305/4-295 BC. Head to right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing to right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around; E to lower left, ΔI in lower middle field. SC 174.4; HGC 9, 34. 4.21g, 16mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

132


A Masterly Early Seleukid Portrait

383. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Smyrna, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head to right / Apollo Delphios seated to left on omphalos, testing arrows and resting left hand on grounded bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, NK and ΩΣ monograms in exergue. SC 311.4; WSM 1496; HGC 9, 128a. 17.08g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; a stunning coin both stylistically and in terms of preservation. Extremely Rare.

10,000

Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 299; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XIV, 21 September 2017, lot 304. Antiochos I was the son of Seleukos I and Apama, Seleukos’ Persian wife. His date of birth is unknown, but was probably circa 320 BC as he was old enough to lead the Seleukid cavalry at the battle of Ipsos in 301. When Seleukos was assassinated in 281, Antiochos was probably in Ekbatana or Aï Khanoum, where he had maintained court ruling the eastern satrapies on behalf of his father since 294. With his accession, Antiochos faced immediate attacks by Ptolemy II in Asia Minor and revolts of the cities of Syria. He left his eldest son, Seleukos, as governor of the eastern satrapies and marched west to meet the threats, which he soon overcame. However, it was not long before his attention was once again drawn to disturbances, this time from a menacing force of warlike Celtic tribes that had crossed over the Hellespont in the winter of 278/7 and invaded Asia Minor, and also shortly thereafter renewed hostilities with Ptolemy II (First Syrian War, 274-271 BC). After defeating the Celts and receiving the title of Saviour (Soter) by the Greek cities of Asia Minor, Antiochos concluded an uneasy truce with Ptolemy which allowed him to focus on public relations and administrative work in Asia Minor. His subsequent reign was relatively peaceful, with the exceptions of sedition by his son and co-regent, Seleukos, whom he was forced to execute and replace with his younger son, the future Antiochos II, and the loss of northwest Asia Minor to Eumenes I of Pergamon. The tetradrachms of Antiochos from Smyrna are of two iconographic types, one with an elderly but god-like portrait, and the other with rejuvenated, powerful and idealized features, as on this coin. Likewise there are differences in the details of the reverse: on the former, Apollo holds but a single arrow, on the latter either two or three arrows. The figure of Apollo seated on the omphalos gained prominence under Antiochos, publicising his supposed descent from the god, and became the characteristic reverse type for most Seleukid precious metal coinage down through the reign of Antiochos IV.

133


Ex Frank Sternberg, 1992

384. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Tigris, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head to right / Apollo Delphios seated to left on omphalos, testing arrow and resting left hand on grounded bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, AP monogram to outer left, HP monogram to outer right. SC 379.3a; ESM 149; HGC 9, 128g. 17.20g, 29mm, 9h. Good Very Fine; struck in high relief, attractive light cabinet tone with golden iridescent highlights.

3,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 301; Ex Dr. G.W. Collection, Schweizerische Kreditanstalt (Crédit Suisse), List 59, Spring 1993, no. 90; Ex Frank Sternberg AG, Auction 26, 16 November 1992, lot 114.

385. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AV Stater. Aï Khanoum, circa 266-261 BC. Diademed head to right, with elderly features / Apollo Delphios, nude, seated to left on omphalos, testing arrow in his right hand, left hand holding tip of bow set on ground to right; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ANTIOXOY to left, ∆ to inner left. SC 435.3; ESM 703; HGC 9, 122. 8.51g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 306.

134


Extremely Rare

386. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AV Stater. Aï Khanoum, circa 266-261 BC. Diademed head to right, with rejuvenated and idealised features / Apollo Delphios, nude, seated to left on omphalos, testing arrow in his right hand, left hand holding tip of bow set on ground to right; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ANTIOXOY to left, ∆ to inner left. SC 436.6; ESM 704; HGC 9, 122. 8.39g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State. Extremely Rare.

15,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 304. Excavations at Aï Khanoum revealed many coins there of the type previously assigned by Newell (The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III) to Baktra, the capital of Baktria. The excavations further confirmed the likelihood of Aï Khanoum as a location of an active mint due to the discovery of a large palace complex including a treasury, gymnasium, administrative offices and un-struck bronze flans. This led to a reassignment of the entire series to the mint at Aï Khanoum (see Kritt, Seleucid Coins of Bactria, pp. 27-30). The importance of the mint is emphasised by Houghton and Lorber (Seleucid Coins, p. 151) who note that this city’s monetary output grew in importance during Antiochos’ sole reign, producing distinctive new types during the early reign and then adopting the Apollo on omphalos type most likely at a later date than other major mints. It is also likely that Antiochos I himself was in residence at Aï Khanoum during the last years of the co-regency. The Apollo on omphalos type added to the Apolline imagery already introduced on the coinage of Seleukos I, tapping into the myth that Apollo was the ancestor of the Seleukid line (see The Cult of Helios in the Seleucid East by Catharine Lorber and Panagiotis Iossif (2009), p. 31). This claim was possibly established at this early point of the Seleukids, perhaps with Seleukos I (cf. OGIS 212) or possibly with Antiochos I (cf. OGIS 219), unfortunately the identity of the rulers in these inscriptions are not definite. Antiochos I’s most significant innovation was the introduction of his own portrait to his precious metal coinage, establishing a tradition followed by all his successors. Coins from Baktria which are suggested to be his earliest portraits depict an elderly man, perhaps attempting to reflect the king’s actual appearance, although since he was forty-four at his father’s death, they perhaps exaggerate his features. The portrait of Antiochos was taken up at other major mints across the empire, however there does not appear to be a consensus in how they chose to represent him. For example, Antioch and Tarsos display Antiochos as a man of middle-age with a full head of hair, very different to both the elderly man at Baktria and to the portrait used at the mint of Aï Khanoum. At this mint Antiochos is rejuvenated and idealised, as demonstrated on this excellent example, perhaps attempting to present him in the style of the divine. It has been argued that the numismatic history of the region ruled by the Seleukids was part of the inspiration for the choice of Apollo with a bow and arrow as the characteristic iconography of their precious metal coinage. Panagiotis Iossif in his article “Apollo Toxotes And the Seleukids: Comme Un Air De Famille” (More than Men, Less than Gods, 2007) examines the Mesopotamian-Iranian origin of the archer type in art and concludes that “in a Near Eastern context the figure of the archer is closely related to the figure of the king (Arkadian, Assyrian and Achaemenid) or, more precisely, to a form of divine kingship.” With this tradition in mind, it is not unrealistic to consider that Antiochos, would be aware of this type’s powerful connotations.

135


387. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain eastern mint, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head to right / Apollo Delphios seated to left on omphalos, testing arrow and resting on grounded bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, [control mark in outer right field?]. Unpublished in the standard references. 16.51g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone with golden iridescent highlights.

1,500

Ex Lampasas Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 462, 26 February 2020, lot 150.

388. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos II Kallinikos AR Drachm. Antioch on the Orontes, circa 244-226 BC. Helmeted head of Athena to right / Apollo standing to left, testing arrow and holding grounded bow; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ΣEΛEYKOY to left, monograms in outer fields. SC 691.2; WSM 1014; HGC 9, 310a. 4.28g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State; minor marks, slight die shift. Very Rare; among the finest known examples.

2,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

Among the Finest Known

389. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos (son of Seleukos IV) AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, circa 175 BC. Diademed head to right / Apollo Delphios seated to left on omphalos, testing arrow and resting hand on bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ANTIOXOY and tripod to left, ΠA monogram in exergue. SC 1369f; Le Rider, Antioche, 36; HGC 9, 611. 16.85g, 29mm,m 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare; among the finest known examples, and considerably superior to the specimen sold at Leu 8, Oct. 2021, for CHF 15,000. 7,500 From the inventory of a German dealer. An episode seemingly unknown to or forgotten by the ancient writers, the very brief reign of Antiochos, the younger son of Seleukos IV, is attested to by a surprisingly sizeable output of coinage in the material record, consisting of oktadrachms that feature the conjoined busts of Antiochos and his mother, Queen Laodike IV, and drachms and tetradrachms such as the present piece bearing the portrait and name of the young boy king. Heliodoros, the minister responsible for the murder of Seleukos IV, is supposed to have elevated the young Antiochos in the belief that the power of the throne would reside in his hands, installing the regency of Laodike as a necessity. However, Seleukos IV’s younger brother Antiochos, who had been held hostage in Rome under the Treaty of Apameia until his replacement with Demetrios, elder son of Seleukos IV, swiftly moved to march on Syria with an army and claim his rightful place on the throne as Antiochos IV, abruptly changing the arrangements Heliodoros had instigated. He adopted his nephew, associated him with his rule, and married the boy’s mother, his brother’s widow. Thus, Antiochos the younger son of Seleukos IV survived a few years more until 170 when a son was born to his uncle, and he had the young Antiochos killed.

136


Extremely Rare

390. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos IV Epiphanes AR Drachm. Uncertain eastern mint, 175-164 BC. Diademed head to right / Apollo Delphios seated to left on omphalos, testing arrow and resting hand on bow; [Β]ΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, [A]NTIOXOY to left; uncertain monogram in left field, ΔK in exergue. Cf. SC 1565; HGC 9, 623g. 4.24g, 14mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; superb quality, beautiful tone with hints of blue iridescence. Extremely Rare; no examples in CoinArchives.

200

From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

391. Seleukid Empire, Demetrios II Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Second reign. Tyre, dated SE 185 = 128/7 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY, eagle standing to left on prow with palm frond over shoulder; to left, monogram above club surmounted by Tyre monogram; to right, monogram above EΠP (date); monogram between legs. SC 2195.3b; DCA 230; HGC 9, 1122. 14.05g, 29mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; lustrous and lightly toned.

1,250

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 311; Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG.

392. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Hemidrachm. Apameia on the Axios, 144-143 BC. Diademed and radiate head to right / Panther standing to left with raised foreleg; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY in two lines to right, EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY in two lines to left, monogram in exergue. SC 2012c; Houghton, Revolt 78; HGC 9, 1040. 2.08g, 14mm, 1h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

350

From the inventory of a German dealer.

393. Seleukid Empire, Kleopatra Thea and Antiochos VIII AR Tetradrachm. Ake-Ptolemais, 125-120 BC. Jugate busts of Kleopatra, wearing diadem, veil, and stephane, and Antiochos VIII, wearing diadem, to right / ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ ΘΕΑΣ KAI ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ [ΑΝ]ΤΙΟXΟ[Y], Zeus Nikephoros seated to left, holding sceptre; [monogram in outer left field]. SC 2271.1; Boston MFA 2182; HGC 9, 1182g. 16.56g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

137


ELYMAIS Evidence of a New Hellenistic Ruler

394. Kings of Elymais, Kamnaskires III, with Anzaze AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Hedyphon, dated 231 AS = 82/1 BC(?). Conjoined busts left of Kamnaskires and Queen Anzaze; Seleukid anchor terminating in monogram behind / Zeus seated to left, holding sceptre and Nike, who crowns him; IΛCIΛE[ΩC] [KΛMN]ΛCKIPOY KΛI IΛIIΛIICHC ANZAZH (BAΣIΛEΩΣ KAMNAΣKIPOY KAI BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ ANZAZHΣ) around, [ΛΛ] Σ(?) (date) in exergue. Alram 454; BMC Arabia 1; G. R.F. Assar, A New Hellenistic Ruler from Early 1st century BC: King Hippokrates Autokrator Nikephoros (2020), p. 339, fig. 2 (this coin); Sunrise - cf. 470 (different monogram above anchor). 13.93g, 33mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; overstruck on a tetradrachm of King Hippokrates whose epithet, NIKHΦOPOY, is clearly visible in the exergue.

2,500

This coin published in G.R.F. Assar, A New Hellenistic Ruler from Early 1st century BC: King Hippokrates Autokrator Nikephoros in Andreas Pangerl (ed.), 400 years of Hellenistic Portraits (Munich, 2020); From the inventory of a US dealer. King Hippokrates Autokrator Nikephoros is a newly discovered Hellenistic ruler of this region and as such this coin is very significant contribution to numismatic history and forms a key piece of evidence in Assar’s 2020 article on the subject.

PERSIS

395. Kings of Persis, Ardaxšir (Artaxerxes) I AR Tetradrachm. Istakhr (Persepolis), 3rd century BC. Diademed head to right, wearing kyrbasia and earring / Fire temple of Ahura-Mazda; to left, king standing to right, hands raised in adoration; standard to right, Aramaic legend around. Alram 520; cf. Sunrise 562. 17.03g, 26mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; a bold portrait, lustrous surfaces.

5,000

138


An Unpublished Variant with Dolphin

396. Kings of Persis, Vādfradād (Autophradates) II AR Tetradrachm. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint, circa early-mid 2nd century BC. Diademed and bearded head to right, wearing kyrbasia adorned with eagle / Fire temple of Ahura-Mazda; above, half-length figure of Ahura-Mazda; to left, Vādfradād standing to right, to right, eagle standing to left on standard, dolphin in inner right field. Alram 546 var. (no dolphin); BMC Arabia 1 var. (same) Klose & Müseler 3/1, p. 41, 28 var. (same); Sunrise 574 var. (same). 16.91g, 26mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished variant with dolphin in inner right field.

1,500

397. Kings of Persis, Vādfradād (Autophradates) II AR Tetradrachm. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint, circa early-mid 2nd century BC. Diademed and bearded head to right, wearing kyrbasia adorned with eagle / Fire temple of Ahura-Mazda; above, half-length figure of Ahura-Mazda; to left, Vādfradād standing right, bow before; to right, eagle standing to left on standard. Alram 546; Klose & Müseler 3/1, p.41, 28; Sunrise 574. 16.48g, 25mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

Ex VAuctions, Pars Coins Sale 18, 30 August 2021, lot 104.

139


140


PARTHIA One of Six in Private Hands

398. Parthia, Andragoras AV Stater. Circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Zeus to right; monogram of Andragoras behind / Fast quadriga driven by Nike to right, holding kentron and reins, accompanied by a warrior, holding uncertain object in raised right hand; three pellets below, [Α] ΝΔΡΑΓΟΡΟΥ in exergue. BMC Arabia, North East Persia p. 193, 2 (same dies) = Mitchiner 19 (illustrated on the left); CNG Triton XX, lot 341 (same dies). NGC graded Ch AU★ 5/5 - 4/5, die shift (#6156784-001). Extremely Rare; one of nine known examples, of which only six are in private hands. 35,000 From a private European collection. It has been suggested that the Andragoras of Parthia whom Alexander the Great supposedly conferred local authority upon (Justin, xii. 4), never existed at all and is only mentioned by Justin by mistake. Andragoras was in fact not included in the partition of power at the Treaty of Triparadisus in 321 BC, when instead Philip was named as the ruler of Parthia, and in other classical sources Phrataphernes is usually mentioned as the satrap of Parthia until Philip replaced him. Philip in turn was satrap until 318 BC, when Peithon, who was then seeking to establish his power over all the Eastern provinces, made himself master of Parthia, and put Philip to death. Andragoras therefore has no secure place in the immediate chronology of postAlexandrine Parthia. It is of course possible that Justin was mistaken about his satrapy (numerous other small satrapies existed in the area), or had his dating confused - the existence of an Andragoras who was Satrap of Parthia under Seleukos I, is uncontested. This Andragoras appears to have taken advantage of what appeared to be the imminent collapse of the Seleukid Empire in the Third Syrian War, when - following the death of Antiochus II Ptolemy III seized control of the Seleucid capital at Antioch, to secede from the empire and make his satrapy into an independent kingdom. Following the secession of Parthia from the Empire and the resultant loss of military support, Andragoras had difficulty in maintaining his borders, and in about 238 BC the Parni invaded under the command of Arsaces and his brother Tiridates and seized control of the northern region of the Parthian territory. Andragoras appears to have been killed either attempting to retake this territory, or while resisting the Parni conquest of the remainder of Parthia. Given the numismatic evidence presented by the important Andragoras-Sophytes Group, the silver coinage of Andragoras and Sophytes should be considered roughly contemporary, but it seems apparent that Andragoras’ Tyche-Athena tetradrachms slightly pre-dated the helmeted head series of Sophytes. Earlier scholarship has often tended to date the coinage of both Andragoras and Sophytes much too early, occasionally to the period immediately following the death of Alexander. Further considerations on the identical monograms found on the gold and silver coinage of Andragoras (see lot 399), and a thorough review of the political history of the eastern satrapies of the Seleukid empire from 321-250 BC have led us to conclude that there can have been only one Andragoras, and that both the silver and gold coinage must date to the time of his rebellion and secession from the Empire. The types employed on this ruler’s coinage therefore make perfect sense given their context. Andragoras faced a belligerent tribe - the Parni - on his border, and with Seleukos II preoccupied with fighting an increasingly desperate war against Ptolemy III, no assistance would be forthcoming. Thus we find the types of Tyche, wearing her mural crown, who on the obverse is invoked as the goddess governing the fortune and prosperity of the city, and Athena as military protectress on the reverse. The gold staters depicting Zeus, the supreme Greek deity, and a war-chariot guided by Nike the goddess of Victory, likewise hint at production in a war-time setting.

141


399. Parthia, Andragoras AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Turreted head of Tyche to right, wearing pendant earring and necklace; monogram of Andragoras behind / Athena standing to left, wearing helmet, long chiton and himation, holding owl on extended right hand and resting left hand on grounded shield, transverse spear in background; ANΔPAΓOPOY to right. Roma XIV, 326; Mitchiner 20; BMC 3-4, pl. xxviii, 2-3. 16.52g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

400. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing to right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45; HGC 12, 3. 8.06g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

401. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing to right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45; HGC 12, 3. 8.11g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

402. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246-238 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing to right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45; HGC 12, 3. 8.11g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

750

From a private European collection; Ex 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

403. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing to right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45; HGC 12, 3. 8.06g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State. Very Rare.

500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

142


404. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle Series’ AR Drachm. Ekbatana(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing to left, head to right; behind, grape cluster on vine with leaf, kerykeion above. Roma XIV, 335; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner 26d; N&A 63-64; HGC 12, 8. 3.52g, 16mm, 6h. Mint State; beautiful light cabinet tone. Very Rare.

400

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

405. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle Series’ AR Drachm. Ekbatana(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing to left, head to right; behind, grape cluster on vine with leaf, [kerykeion above]. Roma XIV, 335; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner 26d; N&A 63-64; HGC 12, 8. 3.45g, 14mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

300

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

406. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle Series’ AR Drachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing to left, head to right; grape cluster on vine with leaf above. Roma XIV, 334; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS 14-16; Mitchiner 26c; N&A 52-57; HGC 12, 8. 3.53g, 14mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

400

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

BAKTRIA

407. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram behind / Owl standing to right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, grape bunch over tail, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 354; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner 13e; N&A 13-15; SNG ANS -; Svoronos pl. 109, 8; Leu 83, 263. 16.63g, 23mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

408. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena to right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram behind / Owl standing to right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, grape bunch over tail, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 354; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner 13e; N&A 13-15; SNG ANS -; Svoronos pl. 109, 8; Leu 83, 263. 16.88g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone. Very Rare.

500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

143


144


The Finest of all Sophytes Tetradrachms

409. Baktria, Sophytes AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) to right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard, tied under chin; M on bust truncation / Cockerel standing to right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 1; for type cf. SNG ANS 21-23 (drachm); Mitchiner 29 (drachm); Whitehead NC 1943, pp. 64, 1 and pl. III, 7-8 (drachm); Roma XIV, 365 var. (no M under truncation, sold for £44,000). 17.04g, 28mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; a bold and expressive portrait, perfectly struck and centred on a full-sized planchet, with a beautiful old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare; an issue of considerable numismatic interest and arguably the finest and most complete of all such tetradrachms of Sophytes to have ever come to the market. 25,000 From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. This portrait, which has all too often been simply assumed to be that of Sophytes himself, is eminently worthy of further scrutiny. It is the work of a highly talented individual, and depicts what should by any account be a great general, helmeted in Attic style and wearing the laurel wreath of a conqueror. Unfortunately the actions of Sophytes, whatever they might have been, were either not recorded or have long since been lost. We cannot therefore determine whether this individual may indeed have performed such deeds as to be worthy of commemoration in such a fashion. In examining the features of the individual depicted on this coin however, it becomes immediately apparent that there are distinct similarities with certain idealised portraits of Seleukos I. It is conceivable that we should see in this portrait not an image of the unknown ruler Sophytes, but an idealised image of the deified Seleukos, as can be found on the somewhat earlier coinage of Philetairos. Those images (cf. in particular Gulbenkian 966) have nearly identical features - in particular the heavy brow, aquiline nose, down-turned mouth and prominent chin. The historical sources offer us few clues as to the dating of Sophytes’ rule. They tell us that Stasanor was satrap of Baktria until at least 316 BC, and that Seleukos reintegrated Baktria into his empire on his eastern anabasis in c. 305. An early date therefore seems highly unlikely. Turning to the evidence of the coin itself, numismatists have correctly observed that the obverse portrait is derived from the similar type of Seleukos on his trophy tetradrachms (SC 174), which should be dated to after c. 301 BC; the presence of the somewhat worn elephant-quadriga tetradrachm in the present group pushes the date even further to the right, and into the third century. Now, the presence of this type in this group along with coins of Andragoras indicates a considerably later date than previously supposed. We have already proposed with good reason that the coinage of Andragoras should be dated to c.246/5-239/8 BC and that given the patterns of wear that may be observed upon them, there is sufficient justification to argue for the dating of Sophytes’ named coinage to c. 246/5-235, after Andragoras had begun coining but before Diodotos II would have been free to dispose of any lesser regional powers. This turbulent time period has already afforded us a plausible reason for the striking of Andragoras’ coinage. It is possible that Sophytes too was prompted to look to the security of his own territory following the effective withdrawal of the central government’s influence in that area. Diodotos I too struck his own coinage in Baktria, which while bearing his own portrait on the obverse nevertheless maintained the name ‘Antiochos’ on the reverse as a token symbol of loyalty. Does Sophytes coinage, with a distinctly ‘local’ reverse type, seek to achieve the same veneer of loyalty as that of Philetairos and Diodotos by placing the image of Seleukos I, the founder of the Seleukid empire, on his obverse?

145


410. Baktria, Sophytes AR Didrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) to right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard; MNA on bust truncation / Cockerel standing to right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 2 = Alpha Bank 7461; for type cf. SNG ANS 21-23 (drachm); Mitchiner 29 (drachm); Whitehead NC 1943, pp. 64, 1 and pl. III, 7-8 (drachm); Roma XIV, 366. 8.06g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State; attractive light cabinet tone. Extremely Rare.

3,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

A Gem of a Coin

411. Baktria, Sophytes AR Drachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) to right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard; M on bust truncation / Cockerel standing to right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Jansari 47 (O26/R33, this coin); Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 3; SNG ANS 21-23; Mitchiner 29b; HGC 12, 14. 3.86g, 16mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

4,000

This coin published in S. Jansari, ‘The Sophytes Coins: from the Punjab to Bactria and back again’, in NC 2018; Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 339; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XV, 5 April 2018, lot 350; Ex 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

412. Baktria, Sophytes AR Drachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) to right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard; M on bust truncation / Cockerel standing to right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Jansari 13-52; Roma XIV, 367 var. (MNA on bust truncation); Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 3; SNG ANS 21-24; Mitchiner 29a; cf. Whitehead NC 1943, pp. 64, 1 and pl. III, 7-8; HGC 12, 14. 3.61g, 16mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; iridescent cabinet tone. Very Rare.

2,000

Among the Finest Known

413. Baktria, Sophytes AR Hemidrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) to right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard / Cockerel standing to right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3a; SNG ANS 25; Mitchiner 30; Roma 69, lot 626 (sold for £1,200). 1.75g, 12h, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; a charming specimen, attractive cabinet tone. Very Rare; among the finest known examples. From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

146

750


414. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Diodotos I Soter AV Stater. In the name of Antiochos II of Syria. Mint A (near Aï Khanoum), circa 255-235 BC. Diademed head to right / Zeus Bremetes advancing to left, extended left arm draped with aegis, preparing to hurl thunderbolt in right hand; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ANTIOXOY to left; wreath above eagle standing to left in left field. Bopearachchi 1A; SC 629.2 (Antiochos II); HGC 9, 234. 8.38g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; usual test cut to obv.

2,500

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 262, 13 March 2015, lot 7294.

415. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I Theos Megas AR Tetradrachm. Mint A (near Aï Khanoum), circa 215-210 BC. Diademed head to right, with elderly features / Herakles seated to left on lion skin draped over rocks, holding club set on right leg; BAΣIΛEΩΣ and monogram to right, EYΘYΔHMOY to left. Bopearachchi 5B; SNG ANS 131; Mitchiner 85c; Kritt A12; HGC 12, 40. 16.33g, 30mm, 12h. Very Fine.

500

From the Neil Collection.

416. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I Theos Megas Æ 24mm. Aï Khanoum, 225-208/6 BC. Head of Herakles to right / Horse galloping to right, BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ above, EYΘYΔHMOY below. Bopearachchi 17 var. (weight); Kritt AK-1 var. (same); SNG ANS 147 var. (same); HGC 12, 53 var. (same). 13.64g, 24mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. An unusually heavy weight bronze for this type.

100

From the Rubellite Collection.

417. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Demetrios I Aniketos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 200-185 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing elephant skin headdress, all within bead-and-reel border / Herakles standing facing, crowning himself with right hand, holding club and lion’s skin in left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ΔHMHTPIOY and monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1C; Mitchiner 103d; SNG ANS 188-9; HGC 14, 63. 16.93g, 33mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

From a private UK collection.

147


418. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos II CU-NI Double Unit. Circa 185-180 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Tripod; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ to left, monogram to inner left. Bopearachchi 6B; Mitchiner 118a; SNG ANS 224; HGC 12, 77. 8.42g, 24mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

250

For the lower denominations of his base metal coinage, Euthydemos II used an unusual copper-nickel alloy, the first monetary application of this durable and corrosion-resistant alloy and an innovation that would not be replicated until 1860 in Belgium.

419. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Agathokles Dikaios AR Tetradrachm. Commemorative issue struck for Diodotos I in the name of Antiochos II. Circa 185170 BC. Diademed head of Diodotos to right; ANTIOXOY to right, NIKATOPOΣ to left / Zeus Bremetes advancing to left, extended left arm draped with aegis, preparing to hurl thunderbolt in right hand; BAΣIΛEYONTOΣ to right, ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ to left, ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ in exergue; in left field, wreath above eagle standing to left, wings outstretched; monogram in right field. Glenn 121-8 (O21/R? - [some rev. dies missing from plates]); Bopearachchi 13A; Mitchiner 143 var. (this monogram unlisted); SNG ANS 258 var. (monogram); HGC 12, 84. 16.60g, 31mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

From a private UK collection.

420. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Antimachos I Theos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 180-170 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing kausia / Poseidon, laureate, standing facing, holding trident and filleted palm; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΘEOY and monogram to inner right, ANTIMAXOY to left. Glenn 267-92 (O33/R- [this rev. die unlisted]); Bopearachchi 1D; Mitchiner 124b; SNG ANS 276-7; HGC 12, 345. 16.70g, 30mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine.

1,500

From a private UK collection.

Extremely Rare

421. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Antimachos I Theos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 180-170 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing kausia / Poseidon, laureate, standing facing, holding trident and filleted palm; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΘE[OY] to right, ANTIMAXO[Y] to left, monogram in inner right field. Glenn 4 (O2/R4) = Bopearachchi 3B = Mitchiner 126a; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 110 corr. (weight). 2.06g, 15mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare - this and the following lot are the first hemidrachms of Antimachos to be offered at auction since 2003. 3,000 From the Rubellite Collection; Ex M.H. Mirza Collection (active c. 1960s).

148


No Other Examples on CoinArchives

422. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Antimachos I Theos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 180-170 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing kausia / Poseidon, laureate, standing facing, holding trident and filleted palm; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΘEOY and monogram to right, ANTIMAXOY to left. Glenn 4 (O2/R4) = Bopearachchi 3B = Mitchiner 126a; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 110 corr. (weight). 1.90g, 16mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely rare denomination for this ruler, no other examples on CoinArchives.

500

From a private European collection.

423. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Demetrios II AR Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, all within bead-and-reel border / Athena standing facing, holding spear and shield set on ground; BAΣIEΛΩΣ to right, ΔHMHTPIOY and monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1E; Mitchiner 101f; SNG ANS 393-4; HGC 12, 126. 16.78g, 32mm, 11h. Mint State; slight die shift to rev; attractive golden iridescence around devices.

5,000

From a private European collection.

424. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Demetrios II AR Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Athena standing facing, holding spear and shield set on ground; BAΣIEΛΩΣ to right, ΔHMHTPIOY and monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1D; Mitchiner 101i; SNG ANS 392; HGC 12, 126. 16.81g, 31mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

149


Eukratides, with Heliokles and Laodike

425. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Dynastic pedigree issue. Draped and cuirassed bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; BAΣIΛEYΣ MEΓAΣ above, EYKPATIΔHΣ below, all within bead-and-reel border / Jugate, draped busts of Heliokles and Laodike, wearing tainia, to right; HΛIOKΛEOYΣ above, KAI ΛAOΔIKHΣ in exergue, monogram to left, all within bead-and-reel border. Bopearachchi 15A; Bopearachchi & Rahman 263; SNG ANS 526-527; MIG Type 182a; HGC 12, 133. 16.95g, 31mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Rare, and in outstanding condition for the type.

15,000

Ex Oxus Collection (Denmark), Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 352. Eukratides ‘the Great’ was one of the last but most important Greco-Baktrian kings, responsible for the overthrow of the Euthydemid dynasty. While the position held by Eukratides prior to his revolt is unclear, it has been suggested he held the position of satrap in Baktria during the campaigning of Demetrios, successor of Euthydemos II, in India around 192 BC (Cunningham, A. “Coins of Alexander’s Successors in the East (Continued).” in The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Numismatic Society 9 (1869): pp. 121-53). There is limited record of the revolt, although Justin (XLI, 6) describes an event when the usurper survived a siege lasting five months by a force of sixty thousand loyal to Demetrios, successor of Euthydemos II, with only three hundred men. Whilst Justin reports that the conflict originated between Eukratides and Demetrios, numismatic evidence suggests Demetrios ceased to rule and succession passed down the legitimate line to Antimachos, Agathokles and Pantaleon before the revolt was over. This is supported by Mitchiner, who argues the coinage of Demetrios ceased and was replaced by that of his heirs, who controlled the main mints in Baktria and from which they issued ‘pedigree coins’ affirming their legitimacy (The early Indo-Greeks and their antecedants, vol. 1, (1975), p. 66). Eukratides gained control over all of Baktria around 168 BC, reducing Antimachos, Agathokles and Pantaleon to Indo-Greek territories south of the Hindu Kush, and struck ‘pedigree coins’ of his own bearing the adopted and immodest title MEΓAΣ (‘the Great) - the tetradrachm presented here is an outstanding example of such an issue. The obverse depicts two busts, named by the legend as Heliokles and Laodike, whose identities are uncertain. It has been suggested that the coin cites Eukratides’ parents, and Laodike, who wears a diadem, may have been a member of the Seleukid imperial house (see Astin, A.E. The Cambridge Ancient History (1990), p. 401, see also Mitchiner). If the identification is correct, we might see this issue within the context of and in direct response to the Euthydemid commemoration issues struck during the period of Eukratides’ revolt.

150


426. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed heroic bust to left, seen from behind, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear, brandishing spear in right hand; all within bead-and-reel border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY above, EYKPATIΔOY below, monogram in lower right field. Bopearachchi 8B; Bopearachchi & Rahman 255; SNG ANS 485; Mitchiner 179a; HGC 12, 132. 16.90g, 32mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

3,000

427. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within bead-and-reel border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram in right field. Bopearachchi 6Q; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner 177d; HGC 12, 131. 16.80g, 34mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare with this monogram.

2,000

From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

428. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within bead-and-reel border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram in right field. Bopearachchi 6E; SNG ANS 465; Mitchiner 177ee; HGC 12, 131. 16.97g, 33mm, 12h. Near Mint State; attractive light cabinet tone over underlying lustre, with golden iridescent highlights. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 120, 6 October 2020, lot 453.

151

1,500


429. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within bead-and-reel border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram in right field. Bopearachchi 6W; SNG ANS 469-71; Mitchiner 177f; HGC 12, 131. 16.95g, 32mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

430. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within bead-and-reel border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ MEΓAΛOY above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram in right field. Bopearachchi 6W; SNG ANS 469-71; Mitchiner 177f; HGC 12, 131. 16.85g, 36mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

431. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within bead-and-reel border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram in right field. Bopearachchi 6W; SNG ANS 469-71; Mitchiner 177f; HGC 12, 131. 17.00g, 34mm, 12h. Near Mint State. 1,000 From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

432. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Drachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within dotted border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram to right. Bopearachchi 7I; SNG ANS 480; Mitchiner 178c; HGC 12, 136. 4.25g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 1,000 From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.

152


433. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Drachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within dotted border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram to left. Bopearachchi 7I; Mitchiner 178c; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 136. 4.24g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare with this monogram position.

1,000

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.

434. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Drachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within dotted border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram to right. Bopearachchi 2B; Mitchiner 169b; SNG ANS 437-8; HGC 12, 135. 4.23g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

750

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.

435. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Drachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; within dotted border / The Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ above, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ below, monogram to right, A behind. Bopearachchi 2C; Mitchiner 169a; SNG ANS 439-41; HGC 12, 135. 4.22g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare with these monograms.

750

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.

436. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas AR Obol. Circa 170-145 BC. Draped and cuirassed bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear / The two caps of the Dioskouroi, each with a palm branch beside it; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ to left, monogram below. Bopearachchi 9C; SNG ANS 496; HGC 12, 139. 0.68g, 11mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

300

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 348.

437. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I Megas Æ 21mm. Circa 170-145 BC. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ, diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear / ‘Maharajasa Evukratidasa’ in Kharosthi, the Dioskouroi on horses prancing to right, each holding spear and palm; monogram above. Bopearachchi 19D; Mitchiner 190l; SNG ANS 546-9; HGC 12, 146. 8.00g, 21mm x 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare; only 3 other examples on CoinArchives.

250

From a private European collection.

153


154


Plato of Baktria

438. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Plato AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-140 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within bead-and-reel border / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ ΠΛATΩNOΣ, Helios, radiate, standing facing in quadriga galloping to right; monogram in upper right field, MZ in exergue. Bopearachchi 3A; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; SNG ANS 631; Mitchiner 197a; Qunduz 381; HGC 12, 167. 17.07g, 32mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful light cabinet tone with golden iridescence. Extremely Rare; along with the following lot, these coins comprise 2 of only 5 examples auctioned in the past 20 years. 25,000 From a private UK collection. Nearly all that is known about the history of the Greco-Baktrian kingdom is derived from numismatic sources, and this coin makes its own worthy contribution to the historical record. Coins featuring Plato of Baktria are extremely rare owing to the brevity of his reign, estimated to be around five years or less. While all of Plato’s coins are considered extremely rare, the helmeted tetradrachms stand apart as being rarer by another order of magnitude. Almost nothing is known about the circumstances of life or his rise to power, except that it coincided with the death of the previous king, Eukratides I ‘the Great’, who had successfully supplanted the earlier Euthydemid dynasty and expanded the borders of the Greco-Baktrian territories through conquest as far as the modern-day eastern Punjab. As Plato appears to be middle-aged in all of his coinage, it is considered likely that he was Eukratides’ brother (Woodthorpe Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India, 2010, p. 210). Around 140 BC, Eukratides I was publicly murdered in brutal fashion by his son (Justin XLI, 6, though he fails to mention the name of the perpetrator, presumed to be either Eukratides II or Heliokles I), his body dragged behind a chariot like that of an enemy. In the chaotic period which immediately followed the death of the king, much of the capital city was destroyed and then abandoned. This was the beginning of a calamitous dynastic civil war which would ultimately lead to the fall of the kingdom itself; weakened by internal strife the Indian territories were lost to the Indo-Greek king Menander, and an invasion of the Yuezhi could not be resisted, resulting in the wealthy and important city of Aï-Khanoum (Alexandria on the Oxus) being sacked and burnt to the ground. It was likely as a contender in this war that Plato came to power. For a time he held territory surrounding the centrally located city of Balkh, where all of his coins appear to have been issued (Mitchiner, p.67); his fate, like his origins, is also unknown, but it was his probable nephew Heliokles I who is now considered to be the last Greco-Baktrian king. Heliokles retreated in the face of the Yuezhi invasion and moved his capital to the Kabul Valley, abandoning forever the Baktrian territories to the invading nomads.

155


Extremely Rare

439. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Plato AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-140 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within bead-and-reel border / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ ΠΛATΩNOΣ, Helios, radiate, standing facing in quadriga galloping to right; monogram in upper right field, MZ in exergue. Bopearachchi 3A; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; SNG ANS 631; Mitchiner 197a; Qunduz 381; HGC 12, 167. 17.05g, 33mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

20,000

From a private European collection.

440. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides II Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-140 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Apollo standing facing, head to left, holding arrow in right hand and grounded bow with left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, EYKPATIΔOY and monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1H; Mitchiner 164m; SNG ANS 619-22; HGC 12, 161. 16.71g, 30mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

156


441. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides II Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-140 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Apollo standing facing, head to left, holding arrow in right hand and grounded bow with left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, EYKPATIΔOY and monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1Q; Mitchiner 164q; SNG ANS 624; HGC 12, 161. 17.05g, 31mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

442. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides II Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-140 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Apollo standing facing, head to left, holding arrow in right hand and grounded bow with left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, EYKPATIΔOY and monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1Q; Mitchiner 164q; SNG ANS 624; HGC 12, 161. 16.92g, 30mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

443. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides II Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-140 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Apollo standing facing, head to left, holding arrow in right hand and grounded bow with left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, EYKPATIΔOY and monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1H; Mitchiner 164m; SNG ANS 619-22; HGC 12, 161. 16.87g, 31mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

157


444. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides II Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-140 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Apollo standing facing, head to left, holding arrow in right hand and grounded bow with left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, EYKPATIΔOY and monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1H; Mitchiner 164m; SNG ANS 619-22; HGC 12, 161. 16.88g, 32mm, 11h. Near Mint State; of medallic appearance struck on a broad planchet.

1,000

From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

445. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides II Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-140 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Apollo standing facing, head to left, holding arrow in right hand and grounded bow with left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, EYKPATIΔOY and monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1 var. (this monogram unlisted); Mitchiner 164g; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 161. 16.93g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare monogram not published in Bopearachchi.

1,000

From the Professor Shir Mohammad Collection.

446. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Heliokles Dikaios AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-130 BC. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right, wearing helmet adorned with overlapping scales; all within bead-and-reel border / Radiate Zeus Nikephoros seated to left on throne, holding long sceptre; M in left field, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΗΛΙΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ to left, ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ in exergue. Bopearachchi 3A; cf. SNG ANS 658-9 (drachm); HGC 12, 170. 14.85g, 29mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

2,000

Ex Oxus Collection (Denmark), Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 366.

158


447. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Heliokles Dikaios AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-130 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Zeus standing facing half-left, wearing himation, holding winged thunderbolt in right hand, lotus-tipped sceptre in left, monogram in left field; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΗΛΙΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ to left, ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ in exergue. Bopearachchi 1U; Mitchiner 284o; SNG ANS 642-48; HGC 12, 169. 16.94g, 32mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

From a private European collection.

448. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Heliokles Dikaios AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-130 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Zeus standing facing half-left, wearing himation, holding winged thunderbolt in right hand, lotus-tipped sceptre in left, monogram in left field; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΗΛΙΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ to left, ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ in exergue. Bopearachchi 1U; Mitchiner 284o; SNG ANS 642-48; HGC 12, 169. 16.96g, 32mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

449. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Heliokles Dikaios AR Tetradrachm. Circa 145-130 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right; all within bead-and-reel border / Zeus standing facing half-left, wearing himation, holding winged thunderbolt in right hand, lotus-tipped sceptre in left, monogram in left field; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΗΛΙΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ to left, ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ in exergue. Bopearachchi 1U; Mitchiner 284o; SNG ANS 642-48; HGC 12, 169. 16.81g, 32mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

159


The Finest of Five Known

450. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 165/55-130 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENANΔPOY, diademed heroic bust to left, seen from behind, wearing aegis over shoulder, brandishing spear / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa Menamdrasa’ in Kharosthi, Athena Alkidemos standing to left, wielding thunderbolt and shield; monogram to right. Bopearachchi 8C = Mitchiner 219a; Bopearachchi & Rahman 322; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 180; Roma e18, 562 = Roma e23, 257 = Roma e30, 202; CNG e399, 321; CNG e443, 206; CNG e461, 248. 9.88g, 26mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; a bold portrait, beautiful old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare; only one example known to both Bopearachchi and Mitchiner, four on CoinArchives, and undoubtedly the finest known. 10,000 From the Rubellite Collection. The origins of the Indo-Greek Kingdom can be traced all the way back to the time of Alexander the Great, who famously led his armies as far as North West India and conquered large parts of the region in 326 BC. After Alexander’s death, his empire fragmented and the Indian territories fell under the rule of the emperor Chandragupta, founder of the Mauryan empire, until 185 BC when it was toppled by Pushyamitra Shunga, founder of the Shunga Empire. There followed several incursions by Greco-Baktrian kings into India, the most significant of which was by Menander I Soter, who Strabo highlights as having advanced further than his predecessors and subdued more peoples (Geographica, 11.11.1) and is therefore widely considered to be the most important of the Indo-Greek kings. Save for a very limited account by Strabo, the literary record of Menander’s military endeavours is scant, with epigraphic and numismatic evidence forming much of the basis of modern understanding of this part of his life. It seems that he launched several campaigns in the Indian subcontinent, with some sources, notably the Hathigumpha inscription, stating that his troops reached as far East as the city of Mathura in modern-day Uttar Pradesh. The precise geographical extent of his empire remains unclear and it is certainly possible that the borders fluctuated throughout his rule, but the few sources all corroborate the view that he ruled a large area of North West India for between 35 and 25 years. The prosperity of his dominions is attested by the preponderance of coinage, the find-locations of which have also helped to somewhat illuminate the boundaries of his empire. The numismatic record could also be seen to hint at his style of leadership, with the large majority of issues exemplifying bilingual legends, in both Greek and Kharosthi, as is the case here. This is perhaps an indication that he placed emphasis on integration and unity with the peoples over whom he ruled. This view is further supported by accounts of his religious life, which by contrast with the lack of detail of his military achievements, is expounded upon in great depth in the Buddhist text the Milinda Panha, which relates a dialogue (real or imagined) between the Buddhist sage Nagasena and Menander himself – ‘Milinda’ being the translation of Menander into the Buddhist liturgical script of the time, Pali. Buddhist tradition has it that Menander converted to Buddhism and the Milinda Panha, which likely dates to after his death, is a retelling of the conversation he had with the sage when the ruler asked many questions about the faith, at the end of which he made the decision to convert. A decision which undoubtedly ingratiated him with the many Buddhist populations who lived in his empire.

160


Apparently Unpublished and Likely Unique

451. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter AR Drachm. Circa 155-130 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ [MENANΔPOY], helmeted bust to left / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa Menamdrasa’ in Kharosthi, Athena Promachos standing to left, holding thunderbolt and shield, monogram to lower right. Bopearachchi 16B var. (head to right); cf. SNG ANS 855; HGC 12, 193 var. (same). 2.42g, 16mm, 1h. Near Very Fine; planchet flaw to rev. Apparently unpublished with head to left, and very possibly unique.

250

From the Rubellite Collection.

452. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter Æ 22mm. Circa 155-130 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENANΔPOY, diademed heroic bust to left, seen from behind, wearing aegis and brandishing spear / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa Menamdrasa’ in Kharosthi, Athena Alkidemos advancing to right, shield decorated with aegis over arm, hurling thunderbolt; monogram to right. Bopearachchi 21D; Mitchiner 237a; SNG ANS 909-10; HGC 12, 206. 9.76g, 22mm x 20mm, 12h. 250 Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only the second example to come to auction in the past 20 years. From a private European collection.

453. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter Æ 22mm. Circa 155-130 BC. [B]AΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENANΔPOY, diademed bust to left, wearing aegis and hurling javelin / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa Menamdrasa’ in Kharosthi, Athena Promachos standing to right, shield decorated with aegis over arm, hurling thunderbolt; monogram to right. Bopearachchi Series 21a, 153; Mitchiner 237b; HGC 12, 206. 9.07g, 22mm x 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

100

From the Rubellite Collection.

454. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter Æ 21mm. Circa 155-130 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENANΔPOY, helmeted head of Athena to right / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa Menamdrasa’ in Kharosthi, Nike standing to right, holding palm and wreath; monogram to right. Bopearachchi Series 31b var. (monogram); Mitchiner 242 var.(monogram); HGC 12, 200. 5.81g, 21mm x 21mm, 12h. Mint State; in an exceptional state of preservation.

250

From the Rubellite Collection.

161


162


Unique, Unpublished and of Considerable Importance

455. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Lysias Aniketos AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint, circa 130-125 BC. Diademed and draped bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within bead-and-reel border / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΙΚΗΤΟΥ ΛΥΣΙΟΥ, Herakles standing facing, crowning himself and holding club, palm, and lion’s skin; monogram to left. Unpublished in the standard references. 14.79g, 35mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Unique, unpublished and of considerable numismatic and historical importance.

60,000

From a private UK collection. The only surviving evidence for the reign of Lysias, indeed for his very existence, are the extraordinarily rare coins that have been discovered bearing his name. Bopearachchi places Lysias as a close successor to Menander and Zoilos I, a dating which is supported by R. C. Senior. On the numismatic evidence we may suppose that Lysias was of a competing dynasty to Menander, as their coinage shares little similarity, but on the other hand there are distinct similarities between that of Lysias and Zoilos I. Lysias may potentially have claimed Demetrios I as an ancestor, as inferred from the reuse of the Herakles reverse type and whose epithet ‘Aniketos’, meaning ‘Invincible’, he took. The reverse type of the athletic Herakles crowning himself in a striking facing contrapposto pose closely resembles that used by the earlier king, who ruled in the first half of the second century BC. Lysias is believed to have held territory covering the areas of the Paropamisade and Arachosia, but his coins have been found in the Punjab and it is possible that his rule extended over most of the Indo-Greek territory at some point, possibly in cooperation with Antialkidas, whose issues bear the same monograms. The numismatic evidence now strongly supports this: apart from the concurrent use of the same monograms, rare bronze coins have been found which bear an obverse of Lysias and a reverse of Antialkidas, and vice versa. Although W. W. Tarn (The Greeks in Bactria and India, 2010) considered this to be evidence of an alliance, other numismatist have dismissed them as mules made in error; Senior however supports the view that the two ruled in tandem, and the present coin confirms this. Although the helmeted obverse type is generally characteristic of Indo-Greek and Greco-Baktrian kings, this issue, hitherto unknown, is unmistakeably of the same hand as the obverse die of a corresponding tetradrachm in the name of Antialkidas: when considering the composition of the facial features and treatment of the crest and drapery, the two portraits are similar to such an extent that on first inspection one could be forgiven for thinking them the very same die (cf. Bopearachchi série 3, 2, pl. 39). What becomes clear now is that the ‘mules’, along with the sharing of monograms and die engravers, are evidence for the two rulers sharing the same mint facility. While it remains unclear whether they were joint colleagues or independent contemporary rulers who reached a modus vivendi with regard to their respective territories, we may tentatively rule out one being a close successor thanks to the existence of the ‘mules’.

163


The Third Known

456. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Nikias AR Drachm. Circa 129-125 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ NIKIOY, diademed and draped bust to right / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa Nikiasa’ in Kharosthi, king on horseback charging to right; monogram below. Bopearachchi -; Mitchiner -; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 233; CNG 93, 687; CNG Triton IX, 1133. 1.88g, 16mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; the third known example.

2,000

From the Rubellite Collection.

Apparently Unpublished and Possibly Unique

457. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Philoxenos Æ 20mm. Circa 125-110 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANIKHTOY ΦIΛOXENOY, lion standing to left, paw raised / ‘Maharajasa apadihatasa Philasinasa’ in Kharosthi, humped bull to right; monogram below. Bopearachichi -, cf. 10 for reverse type; Mitchiner -, cf. 344-345 for reverse type; HGC 12 -, cf. 274-275. 7.49g, 20mm x 20mm, 12h. Very Fine. Apparently unpublished and possibly unique.

500

From the Rubellite Collection.

458. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Hermaios Soter AR Drachm. Circa 105-90 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ EPMAIOY, Skythian warrior charging to right on horseback / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa Heramayasa’ in Kharosthi, Zeus enthroned slightly to left, raising hand and holding sceptre; monogram to right. Senior, Hermaios H2cD; Bopearachchi 8A; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; Mitchiner 411b; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 296. 1.31g, 15mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; minor cleaning marks visible underneath old cabinet tone. Very Rare. From the Rubellite Collection.

164

150


The Third Known

459. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Artemidoros AR Drachm. Circa 100-80 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANIKHTOY APTEMIΔΩPOY, diademed heroic bust to left, seen from behind, wearing aegis over shoulder, brandishing spear / ‘Maharajasa apadihatasa Artemitorasa’ in Kharosthi, king on horseback charging to right; monogram below. Bopearachchi -; Bopearachchi, Yavanika, Journal of the Indian Society for Greek and Roman Studies Vol. 4, 1994, pp. 3-30, 13; Mitchiner -; Bopearachchi & Rahman 510; Senior H6-12D; HGC 12, 362. 2.28g, 18mm, 9h. Very Fine; highly lustrous. Extremely Rare; the third known example.

3,000

From the Rubellite Collection.

Pedigree Issue

460. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Artemidoros Aniketos Æ 22mm. Pedigree Issue. Circa 100-80 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANIKHTOY APTEMIΔOPOY, Artemis standing facing, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver / ‘Rajadirajasa Maasaputasa cha Artemidorasa’ in Kharosthi script, humped bull to right; monogram and Σ below. Senior H13 corr. (rev. legend); HGC 12, 367 corr. (same); cf. Bopearachchi 7; cf. SNG ANS 1283; cf. Mitchiner 404 for type with different reverse legend. 8.64g, 22mm x 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely rare with this reverse legend.

1,000

From the Rubellite Collection.

The Second Known

461. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander II Dikaios AR Drachm. Circa 90-80 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔIKAIOY MENANΔPOY, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear / ‘Maharajasa dhramikasa Menamdrasa’ in Kharosthi, king on horseback to right; monogram below. Bopearachchi -, but for type cf. 3B; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; Mitchiner -, cf. 230; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 372; CNG Triton XIV, 438 (hammer: $5,500). 2.22g, 17mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; areas of corrosion. Extremely Rare; the second known example and seemingly the first to appear at auction since 2011. From the Rubellite Collection.

165

1,500


The Sixth Known

462. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Polyxenos Epiphanes Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 85/0 BC. BAΣIΛΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ ΠOΛYΞENOY, diademed and draped bust to right / ‘Maharajasa prakachasa tratarasa Palasinasa’ in Kharosthi, Athena Alkidemos standing to left, wielding thunderbolt and shield; monogram to left. Bopearachchi 1A = Mitchiner 298a; Bopearachchi & Rahman 471 and supp. II, 6; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 386; CNG MB 70, 474. 9.64g, 25mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; the sixth recorded example after those attested to in the Bopearachchi & Rahman catalogue and the example auctioned by CNG in 2005. 10,000 From the Rubellite Collection. The reverse of this coin immediately identifies its obverse subject, Polyxenos Epipahnes Soter, as part of the dynasty of Indo-Greek kings established by Menander I Soter, who was the first ruler of this region to represent Athena Alkidemos on his coinage, a practice that was adopted by several of his successors. It is highly likely that Menander himself had borrowed the iconography from earlier Macedonian kings such as Antigonus II Gonatas and Philip V, who had featured Athena Alkidemos wielding a thunderbolt on the reverse of their tetradrachms back in the late 4th – early 3rd centuries BC. The divine epithet ‘Alkidemos’, literally meaning ‘Defender or Protector of the People’, is only mentioned once in the surviving literary record in relation to Athena by the Roman writer Livy in book XLII of his History of Rome. In this particular episode he recounts the discussions of King Perseus of Macedon with his advisors as to whether or not to make war with Rome, discussions which take place at Pella, the ancient city of Macedonia and birthplace of Alexander the Great. Livy tells us that, having determined that war was the only noble course of action, Perseus “himself offered a sacrifice of one hundred victims in regal style to Minerva whom they call ‘Defender of the Folk’” (XLII.51.2) before setting out on campaign. This brief reference, coupled with the extensive numismatic evidence from Macedonian rulers, has led scholars to conclude that Athena Alkidemos was the tutelary goddess of the city of Pella and was, therefore, implicitly linked with Alexander himself in antiquity. In that context it could be argued that, in appropriating the image of Athena Alkidemos, Menander and subsequent Indo-Greek kings were drawing parallels between themselves and the Macedonian dynasty. The Greco-Baktrian king Agathokles had a century before been more explicit in shoehorning himself into a line of succession that could be traced back to Alexander himself, by issuing ‘pedigree’ coins that employed the name and types of Alexander (Bopearachchi 12B). While the goddess also appears in a similar form on coins of Ptolemy (a ruler who notably struck coins in the name of Alexander), Agnes Baldwin Brett notes that there is a distinct difference between the Athena that appears on Ptolemaic coinage, often confused with the Athena Alkidemos on Macedonian and Indo-Greek issues, in that on the former she is invariably holding a spear, whereas on both the latter she “always hurls a thunderbolt” (Brett, A.B., 1950. ATHENA ΑΛΚΙ∆ΗΜΟΣ OF PELLA. Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), 4, p.57). This assessment further underpins the argument that the depiction of Athena in this guise on the coins of Menander I and his successors like Strato and Polyxenos was a deliberate attempt to cast themselves as the successors to Alexander the Great in his conquering of North West India.

166


Telephos Euergetes

463. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Telephos Euergetes AR Drachm. Circa 80-70 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ EYEPΓETOΥ THΛEΦOY, male anguipede (creature with human body and serpent limbs) standing facing, holding in each raised hand a flower with trailing root, two dolphins below / ‘Maharajasa kalanakramasa Teliphasa’ in Kharosthi, Helios standing slightly to left, holding sceptre, Selene standing to right, wearing crescent headress; monogram to right. Bopearachchi 1A; Mitchiner 451; HGC 12, 409. 2.02g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; beautifully toned. Extremely Rare; one of only three examples auctioned in the past 20 years.

3,000

From the Rubellite Collection.

464. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Epander Nikephoros AR Drachm. Circa 80/75 BC. BAΣIΛΩΣ NIKHΦOPOY EΠANΔPOY, diademed and draped bust to right / ‘Maharajasa jayadharasa Epadrasa’ in Kharosthi, Athena Alkidemos standing to left, wielding thunderbolt and shield; monogram to right. Bopearachchi 1A; Bopearachchi & Rahman 494; Mitchiner 301a; SNG ANS 1254-6; HGC 12, 412. 2.32g, 17mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the Rubellite Collection.

465. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Amyntas Nikator AR Drachm. Circa 80-65 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ NIKATOPOΣ AMYNTOY, diademed heroic bust to left, seen from behind, wearing aegis over shoulder, brandishing spear / ‘Maharajasa jayadharasa Amitasa’ in Kharosthi, Zeus Nikephoros enthroned slightly to left, holding statue of Athena, sceptre and palm; monogram to left. Bopearachchi 12A; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; Mitchiner 392a; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 425. 2.53g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

From the Rubellite Collection.

Among the Finest Known

466. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Amyntas Nikator AR Drachm. Circa 80-65 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ NIKATOPOΣ AMYNTOY, diademed heroic bust to left, seen from behind, wearing aegis over shoulder, brandishing spear / ‘Maharajasa jayadharasa Amitasa’ in Kharosthi, Zeus Nikephoros enthroned slightly to left, holding statue of Athena, sceptre and palm; monogram to left. Bopearachchi 12A; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; Mitchiner 392a; SNG ANS -; HGC 12, 425. 2.54g, 17mm, 12h. Mint State; highly lustrous. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known. From the Rubellite Collection.

167

3,000


467. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Hippostratos Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 65-55 BC. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΙΠΠΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΥ, diademed and draped bust to right / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa mahatasa jayamtasa Hipusratasa’ in Kharosthi, King, in military attire, on horse rearing to right; monogram below. Bopearachchi 5K; SNG ANS -, but cf. 1624-7; Mitchiner 443a; HGC 12, 450. 9.81g, 30mm, 1h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

1,000

PARTHIAN KINGDOM

468. Kings of Parthia, Mithradates I AR Tetradrachm. Seleukia on the Tigris, dated SE 173 = 140/39 BC. Diademed head to right / Herakles standing to left, holding cup, club and lion skin; [B]AΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY in two lines to right, APΣAKOY ΦIΛEΛΛHNO[Σ] in two lines to left, monogram to left; Γ[OP] (date) in exergue. Sunrise 261; Sellwood 13.3; Shore 35; DCA 601. 15.82g, 26mm, 1h. Good Very Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

1,500

From the inventory of a US dealer.

469. Kings of Parthia, Mithradates II AR Drachm. Rhagai, circa 96/5-93/2 BC. Diademed and draped bust to left, wearing tiara with ear flap, long beard, and torque ending in seahorse; eight-rayed star on tiara, swastika behind / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ [Β]ΑΣΙΛΕΩ[Ν Μ]ΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ, archer (Arsakes I) seated to right on throne, holding bow. Sellwood 28.1 var. (no swastika); Shore 95 var. (same); Sunrise 296 var. (no swastika). 3.88g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished with swastika symbol behind portrait.

250

Ex VAuctions, Pars Coins Sale 19, 4 October 2021, lot 115.

INDO-SKYTHIANS

470. Indo-Skythians, Maues Æ 26mm. Circa 85-80 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓΛΛOY MAYOY, lunar goddess (Selene?) standing facing, holding long sceptre; stars flanking / ‘Rajadirajasa mahatasa Moasa’ in Kharosthi, Nike advancing to left, holding wreath and palm; monogram to left. Senior 17.1; Mitchiner 728a; Bopearachchi & Rahman -; HGC 12, 538; Solidus 85, 633 = Herbert Grün 64, 1677. 11.59g, 26mm x 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; seemingly only the second example to appear at auction in the past two decades. From a private European collection.

168

250


Extremely Rare

471. Indo-Skythians, Azilises Æ 26mm. Circa 85-45/35 BC. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑCΙΛΕΩN ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ AZIΛIΣOY, Lakshmi seated facing on elephant, flanked by two elephants to either side / ‘Maharajasa Rajadirajasa Mahatasa Ayilishasa’ in Kharosthi, goddess standing to left, holding lamp and palm, monogram in upper left field. Senior 40.1 = HGC 12, 583. 13.13g, 26mm x 26mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; reportedly only one other known example (in the British Museum), thus the only specimen in private hands. A coin of considerable iconographic interest.

750

From the Rubellite Collection.

472. Indo-Skythians, Azilises Æ 27mm. Circa 85-45/35 BC. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑCΙΛΕΩN ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ AZIΛIΣOY, king on horseback to right, holding spear / ‘Maharajasa Rajadirajasa Mahatasa Ayilishasa’ in Kharosthi, bull to right, monogram and Kharosthi letter Mi above. Senior 58.2; HGC 12, 587. 14.00g, 27mm x 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; overstruck on uncertain type (or flip over double strike?). Very Rare.

100

From the Rubellite Collection.

KUSHAN EMPIRE

473. Kushan Empire, Vima Takto Æ Didrachm. Circa AD 80-113. “Soter Megas” issue. Uncertain (possibly Begram) mint, AD 80-113. Radiate, diademed and draped bust of Miiro to right, holding filleted arrow; tamgha to left / BACIΛЄVC BACIΛЄѠN CѠTHP MЄΓAΣ (or similar), king on horseback to right, holding pickaxe; tamgha to lower right. ANS Kushan 147-156; Senior B17.1vT (listed as tetradrachm); Donum Burns 58-66. 8.57g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; double-struck.

250

From a private UK collection.

474. Kushan Empire, Kanishka I AV Dinar. Subsidiary mint in Gandhara (Peshawar?), circa AD 127-151. Late Phase. Emperor standing facing, diademed, wearing round cap, head to left, flames at shoulder, sacrificing over altar, holding goad and sceptre / Nimbate Ardoxsho standing to right, holding cornucopiae with both hands; tamgha to right. MK 77.1 (O40/R2); ANS Kushan -; Donum Burns -. 7.94g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only five examples cited by Göbl.

1,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Nomos AG, Auction 12, 22 May 2016, lot 132; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XIII, 5 January 2010, lot 272.

169


475. Kushan Empire, Huvishka AV Dinar. Main mint in Baktria (Balkh?), circa AD 151-190. Nimbate, crowned and diademed half-length bust on clouds to left, holding mace-sceptre and filleted spear over shoulder / Ardoxsho standing to right, extending cornucopia with both hands; tamgha to right. MK 286 (O1/R26); ANS Kushan 751; Donum Burns 263. 7.97g, 20mm, 11h. Near Mint State; some cleaning marks, otherwise exceedingly well-preserved and highly lustrous.

1,500

476. Kushan Empire, Huvishka AV Dinar. Main mint in Baktria (Balkh?), circa AD 151-190. Nimbate, crowned and diademed half-length bust on clouds to left, holding mace-sceptre and filleted spear over shoulder / Ardoxsho standing to right, extending cornucopia with both hands; tamgha to right. MK 286 (O7/R- [unlisted rev. die]); ANS Kushan 751; Donum Burns 263. 7.14g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

Only One Other on CoinArchives

477. Kushan Empire, Huvishka AV Dinar. Subsidiary mint in Gandhara (Peshawar?), circa AD 151-190. Crowned and diademed bust to left, flames emanating at shoulders / Miiro standing facing, head to left, surrounded by radiate halo and diademed, raising right arm, cradling filleted sceptre and holding hilt of sword with left; tamgha to left. MK 290 (O1a/R5); ANS Kushan 767; Donum Burns 265; CNG 117, 380 (hammer: USD 13,000). 7.63g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only one other on CoinArchives.

5,000

Extremely Rare

478. Kushan Empire, Huvishka AV Dinar. Subsidiary mint in Gandhara (Peshawar?), circa AD 151-190. Crowned and diademed half-length bust on clouds to left, holding mace-sceptre and hilt of sword / Nana standing facing, head to left and surrounded by halo, holding three-pronged wand with lion protome in right hand and bowl in left, robe billowing; tamgha to left. MK 302 (O44β/R- [unlisted rev. die]); ANS Kushan 766 (same dies); Donum Burns 274 (same obv. die). 8.03g, 22mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of as few as perhaps ten known examples.

170

2,500


Only One Recorded by Göbl

479. Kushan Empire, Huvishka AV Dinar. Subsidiary mint in Gandhara (Peshawar?), circa AD 151-190. Crowned and diademed half-length bust to left on clouds, holding mace-sceptre and goad / Ardoxsho standing facing, head to left, holding diadem and cornucopiae; tamgha to left. MK 330 (O1/R1); ANS Kushan -; Donum Burns -; CNG MB 61, 992 (same dies); CNG 117, 384 (same dies). 7.95g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only one example recorded by Göbl and two others on CoinArchives.

5,000

From a private UK collection.

480. Kushan Empire, Vasudeva I AV Dinar. Main mint in Baktria (Balkh?), circa AD 190-230. Vasudeva standing facing, diademed and crowned, head to left, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; flames at right shoulder, filleted trident to left, tamgha to right / Ithyphallic Siva standing facing, holding diadem and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left; pellet and tamgha to upper left, three pellets to lower left. MK 642 (O22/R- [unlisted rev. die], Vasudeva II); ANS Kushan -; Donum Burns 459-60. 8.07g, 22mm, 12h. Mint State.

2,000

From a private UK collection.

481. Kushan Empire, Vasudeva I AV Dinar. Subsidiary mint in Gandhara (Peshawar?), circa AD 190-230. Vasudeva, nimbate, standing facing, head to left, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; flames at right shoulder; filleted trident to left; A to left on Vasudeva’s trident, ‘ha’ in Brahmi to right / Ithyphallic Siva standing facing, holding diadem and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left; tamgha to upper left; ‘ha’ in Brahmi on trident shaft. MK 535 (Vasudeva II) var. (symbols on reverse); ANS Kushan -; Donum Burns 448 (same obv. die). 8.06g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the GK Collection; Ex Nomos AG, Auction 15, 22 October 2017, lot 195 (hammer: 1,400 CHF); Ex Nomos AG, Auction 12, 22 May 2016, lot 144; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton VIII, 11 January 2005, lot 689.

482. Kushan Empire, Shaka AV Dinar. Uncertain mint, circa AD 305-335. Shaka, standing to left, sacrificing over altar and holding filleted staff; filleted trident to left, ‘bhri’ in Brahmi below arm; ‘shaka’ in Brahmi and ‘o-o’ in Kushano-Baktrian to outer right / Ardoxsho enthroned facing, holding diadem in right hand and cradling cornucopiae in left arm; tamgha to upper left, [pseudo-legend to right]. MK 589 (Vasudeva II); ANS Kushan -; Donum Burns 769. 7.78g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

400

From the GK Collection; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 336, 27 May 2019, lot 35.

171


KUSHANO-SASANIANS

483. Kushano-Sasanians, Pērōz (Fīrūz) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 245-270. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, Brahmi ‘pe’ to right of leg, three pellets below left arm, tamgha and N to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 706 (unlisted dies); ANS Kushan -; Donum Burns -; CNG Triton XVIII, 866 (same obv. die). 7.86g, 29mm, 12h. Mint State. Very Rare; only two recorded by Göbl, seemingly only one other on CoinArchives. 1,000 From a private European collection.

484. Kushano-Sasanians, Pērōz (Fīrūz) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 245-270. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, Brahmi ‘pe’ to right of leg, three pellets below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 705 (unlisted dies); ANS Kushan 2157-9; Cribb 2; Donum Burns 814. 7.71g, 28mm, 12h. Near Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

485. Kushano-Sasanians, Pērōz (Fīrūz) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 245-270. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, Brahmi ‘pe’ to right of leg, three pellets below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 705 (unlisted dies); ANS Kushan 2157-9; Cribb 2; Donum Burns 814. 7.87g, 29mm, 11h. Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

486. Kushano-Sasanians, Pērōz (Fīrūz) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 245-270. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, Brahmi ‘pe’ to right of leg, three pellets below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; symbol below left arm; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 703 (O1/R- [unlisted rev. die); cf. ANS Kushan 2157-9; cf. Cribb 2; cf. Donum Burns 814. 8.00g, 28mm, 12h. Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

172


487. Kushano-Sasanians, Ohrmazd (Hormizd) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 270-300. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown with lotus blossom, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, three pellets below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 707 (O3/R3); ANS Kushan 2206; Donum Burns 815. 7.84g, 29mm, 11h. Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

488. Kushano-Sasanians, Ohrmazd (Hormizd) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 270-300. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown with lotus blossom, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, three pellets and below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK -, cf. 707; ANS Kushan -, cf. 2206; Donum Burns -; Roma e93, 656-7. 7.78g, 30mm, 12h. 1,000 Near Mint State. Extremely Rare; apparently unpublished with this obverse symbol. From a private European collection.

489. Kushano-Sasanians, Ohrmazd (Hormizd) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 270-300. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown with lotus blossom, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, three pellets below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 707 (unlisted dies); ANS Kushan 2206; Donum Burns 815. 7.74g, 29mm, 11h. Near Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

490. Kushano-Sasanians, Ohrmazd (Hormizd) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 270-300. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown with lotus blossom, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, three pellets below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 707 (unlisted dies); ANS Kushan 2206; Donum Burns 815. 7.88g, 29mm, 11h. Near Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

173


491. Kushano-Sasanians, Ohrmazd (Hormizd) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 270-300. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown with lotus blossom, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, three pellets below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 707 (O7/R- [unlisted rev. die]); ANS Kushan 2206; Donum Burns 815. 7.90g, 29mm, 12h. Near Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

492. Kushano-Sasanians, Ohrmazd (Hormizd) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 270-300. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown with lotus blossom, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, three pellets below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 707 (O1/R1); ANS Kushan 2206; Donum Burns 815. 7.71g, 31mm, 11h. Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

493. Kushano-Sasanians, Ohrmazd (Hormizd) I AV Dinar. Baktrian mint (Balkh?), AD 270-300. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown with lotus blossom, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, three pellets below left arm, tamgha to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 707 (unlisted dies); ANS Kushan 2206; Donum Burns 815. 6.96g, 28mm, 11h. Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

494. Kushano-Sasanians, Ohrmazd (Hormizd) I AV Dinar. Boxlo (Balkh) mint, AD 270-300. King standing facing, head to left, wearing lion-head crown with lotus blossom, flames at shoulders, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; trident to left, pellet to right of altar, pellet over swastika between legs, three pellets below left arm, tamgha and mint signature to right / Exalted god standing facing, holding diadem with ribbons and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing to left. MK 743-4 var. (symbol above obv. tamgha, king nimbate); ANS Kushan 2207-11 var. (same); Donum Burns 827-30 var. (same). 7.64g, 28mm, 11h. Mint State. 1,000 From a private European collection.

174


SASANIAN KINGDOM

495. Sasanian Kingdom, Shapur I AV Dinar. Mint I (“Ctesiphon”), Phase 2, circa AD 260-272. Draped bust to right, wearing diadem and mural crown surmounted by a korymbos / Fire-altar flanked by two regal attendants each wearing mural crown with ribbons and korymbos and holding staff surmounted by pellet-in-crescent. SNS type IIc/1b, style P, group b, pl. 30, 126 (same obv.); Göbl type I/1; Saeedi AV4 (same obv. die); Sunrise 739. 7.37g, 22mm, 3h. Mint State; area of weak strike to rev.; well centered.

3,000

From the inventory of a US dealer. Shapur was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian empire, apparently joining his father Ardashir I as king in joint rule in AD 240, and then succeeding in around 242 as sole ruler. Shapur had accompanied his father on campaign against the Parthians who then still controlled much of the Iranian plateau, and already before his accession was praised for his intelligence and learning, as well as for boldness and kind-heartedness. Continuing his father’s war with the Roman empire, Shapur conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses of Nisibis and Carrhae, advancing into Syria, which required the young emperor Gordian III to set out with a vast army to counter the Sasanian threat. Gordian’s army won battle after battle, at last routing the Sasanian army at Rhesaena, forcing Shapur to hand back all of his gains. Gordian’s death and the succession of Philip ‘the Arab’ ended the Roman campaign against Shapur, who was able to extract considerable advantages from Philip including an enormous indemnity in gold. Shapur soon resumed his attacks on Rome, and in 253 met and annihilated a Roman army of 60,000 at the Battle of Barbalissos, and proceeded then to burn and ravage the Roman province of Syria. Armenia was conquered, and Georgia submitted to Sasanian control. With his northern borders secure, Shapur then led an army which penetrated deep into Syria, plundering all the way to Antioch which quickly fell to his forces. The Roman counteroffensive under emperor Valerian was slow, but by 257 Antioch had been recovered and the province of Syria returned to Roman control. Shapur’s speedy retreat caused the Romans to launch a hasty pursuit of the Sasanians all the way to Edessa, where they were severely defeated by the Persians, and Valerian along with the survivors of his army were led away into captivity. The defeat and capture of Valerian surely marks the greatest achievement in the reign of Shapur, who is also called ‘the Great’, and the submission of Valerian is commemorated in a mural at Naqsh-e Rustam, which shows the emperor bending the knee before Shapur on horseback. Valerian’s army was sent to Bishapur, and the soldiers were used in engineering and development works, such as the Band-e Kaisar (Caesar’s dam) near the ancient city of Susa.

496. Sasanian Kings, Vahrām (Bahram) II, with Queen and Prince 4, AV Dinar. AD 276-293. Jugate busts of Vahrām (Bahram), wearing winged crown with korymbos, and his queen, wearing kolah with boar’s head, to right, vis-a-vis bust of Prince 4 wearing kolah with eagle’s head, to left; Pahlavi legend around / Fire altar flanked by attendants; fravahr symbol to left of flames; Pahlavi legend to left and right. SNS Style A, type VIa(1)/2(1a); Göbl type VII/2; Saeedi AV26; Sunrise -. 7.53g, 20mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From a private European collection.

497. Sasanian Kingdom, Vahrām (Bahram) II, with Prince 3, AR Drachm. AD 276-293. Confronted busts of Vahrām, wearing winged crown with korymbos, and Prince 3, wearing Kolah with boar’s head, legend around / Fire altar, flanked by two attendants, the right wearing winged crown with korymbos, the other wearing mural crown, legend to right and left, three pellets in triangle in upper right field. SNS type III/I; Göbl type IV/I; Sunrise 774; Paruck 127; Saeedi 152. 4.21g, 26mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

Ex VAuctions, Pars Coins Sale 18, 30 August 2021, lot 122.

175


498. Sasanian Kingdom, Vālaxs (Balash) AR Drachm. BN (Veh-Ardashir) mint, AD 484-488. Bust to right, wearing mural crown with korymbos set on crescent, ribbon on left shoulder, flames on right, legend to right / Fire altar with ribbons and head of Balash on shaft, flanked by two attendants, star and crescent flanking flames, mint to right. SNS Type Ia/1a, A8; Göbl I/1; Saeedi -; Sunrise -. 3.72g, 28mm, 3h. Good Very Fine; attractive light cabinet tone. Extremely Rare.

150

From the inventory of a US dealer.

Extremely Rare

499. Sasanian Kingdom, Vistahm (Bistām) AR Drachm. LD (Ray) mint, dated RY 2 = AD 592/3. Draped bust to right, wearing mural crown with frontal crescent, stars flanking crown, legend to either side, pellets within crescents in outer margin / Fire altar with ribbons flanked by two attendants, star and crescent flanking flames above, date to left, mint to right. SNS Schaaf 619; Sunrise 976 var. (date); Saeedi 273 var. (date); Göbl type I/1. 4.08g, 34mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare - a very rare date on a coin of a scarcely seen king.

500

From the inventory of a US dealer.

500. Sasanian Kings, Husrav (Khosrau) II AV Dinar. Dated RY 36 = AD 625. Facing bust, wearing mural crown with frontal crescent and surmounted by pellet-in-crescent; crescents and fillets over shoulders; crown flanked by stars / King standing facing, holding sword; crown and symbols as on obverse. Sunrise 989; Göbl type VI/7; Paruck 460. 4.17g, 27mm, 3h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

4,000

From a private European collection.

176


177


178


An Unpublished Dinar of Ardashir III

501. Sasanian Kingdom, Ardashir III AV Dinar. Uncertain mint, RY 1 = AD 628/9. Facing bust of young king, wearing cap surmounted by crenelated mural crown with globe and crescent above pair of wings; hair parted in two korymboi over crescents above shoulders; wearing oval pendant earrings, elaborate decorated garment and double beaded pendant necklace with central circular jewel from which hang three matching oval drops; Pahlavi legend in upper field from right to left: ‘artashtr’ (Ardashir) apzwn (‘ever increasing glory’ or ‘he has increased’) / King standing facing wearing cap surmounted by crenelated mural crown with globe and crescent above pair of wings; to left and right stars of crescents and hair is parted in two korymboi above shoulders; ribbons fly upwards from shoulders and holding inverted sword with both hands to the ground line; Pahlavi legends around from right to left: gyhan ap[e] bym kartar (‘rid the world of fear’), artastr (Ardashir) ay[a]ky (year one). Unpublished in the standard references, for similar issue cf. Khusro II Dinar cf. Göbl SN VI/7, pl. 14, 221; cf. Sunrise Collection 989. 4.19g, 24mm, 9h. Fleur De Coin. Unique, unpublished, and of the greatest interest to Sasanian numismatics.

50,000

From a private UAE collection. The dinar of Ardashir III is among the rarest if not the rarest of all Sasanian gold dinars. Likely struck for the king’s coronation, it follows the standard special issues of Sasanian kings displaying the child king in a facing portrait on the obverse, and his standing figure holding his sword on the reverse. The obverse portrait shows Ardashir with the traditional crescent moon and star ornaments on either shoulder, and flowing ribbons behind. The reverse treatment is similar, with star and crescent over each shoulder, and ribbons to either side. This standing posture was first seen in a relief depicting Shapur I, but was immortalized by Shapur II in Taq-e Bostan showing the king and his successor Shapur III standing next to each other both adopting this royal pose. It is struck in the same fabric, die engraving style and employing the same dotted border as the dinar issue of Khusro II year 36 (AD 625/6). Interestingly, the coinage of Kavad II and Ardashir III both avoid using the traditional Sasanid title shahanshah (‘king of kings’) preferring apzwn (‘he has increased or augmented / ever increasing glory’), seemingly in order differentiate themselves from the reign Khusro II. Facing portraiture had commenced on the Sasanian coinage with Ardashir I, and was employed on the gold coinage of Bahram IV, Valkash, Kavad I, Khosrau I, Khosrau II and Queen Buran, and all clearly represent extraordinary issues. This seems to be borne out by the circumstances of the known issues, with for example (per R. Gobl) the Khosrau II facing issue being minted at the height of the conflict with the Byzantine Empire. Kavad II usurped the throne from his father Khosrau II on 25 February AD 628 during the final phase of the Byzantine-Sasanian War of 602-628. Sasanian forces were in total disarray, the king’s favorite residence of Dastgerd had been thoroughly sacked, and the Byzantine emperor Heraclius was advancing on the capital Ctesiphon. Kavad II had been held prisoner in favour of his brothers, but was freed in early 628 by the noble family guarding him and he proceeded to take revenge by having all his brothers, half-brothers and father executed, incurring the displeasure of his sisters Buran and Azarmidokht, and furthermore robbing the kingdom of several potentially able heirs and commanders. Kavad’s actions are seen as playing a key role in the downfall of the Sasanians, as there then followed a chaotic civil war. Although Ardashir III signed a peace treaty with Heraclius, this was highly favourable to the Byzantine empire and not only restored lost territories, prisoners of war and the True Cross and other relics that had been lost in Jerusalem in 614, it also granted them a war indemnity. Kavad II died of plague after only a few months of rule, with the throne passing to his seven or eight year old son Ardashir III on 6 September 628. The boy-king ruled little longer than his father, being captured and executed by the general Shahrbaraz on 27 April 630, who was himself assassinated a mere forty days later, leading to Queen Buran ascending the throne only recently vacated by her brother and nephew. Thus far the only other known gold in the name of Ardashir III is a uniface bracteate found in China in the tomb of Shi Tiebang, a Tang official of southern Sogdian origin who died in 666. It is an “exceptionally heavy coin” of 25mm diameter (James C. Y. Watt, China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200750 AD, p.325; see also M. Alram 2001; 281, no. 96) possibly struck from an official Sasanian die, and holed for use as a pendant. We are grateful to Bahram Badiyi for his assistance with this note, and to Bahram Badiyi and Susan Tyler-Smith for the translation of the legends.

179


KIDARITE HUNS

502. Kidarite Huns, Kidara AV Dinar. Gandhara mint, circa AD 365-390. Kidara standing to left, sacrificing over altar and holding filleted staff; filleted trident in upper left field; Brahmi script: “kapana” and rosette symbol to right of altar, “Kirada” below arm, [“Kushana” in outer right field] / Ardoxsho enthroned facing, holding filleted diadem and cornucopiae; tamgha in upper left field; Brahmi script: “ala” in right field. MK 615; ANS Kushan 2434-5; Cribb, Kidarites A8; Donum Burns 1582-5. 7.73g, 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

300

From the GK Collection; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 336, 27 May 2019, lot 39.

503. Kidarite Huns, Pērōz AR Drachm. Mint C, circa AD 395-425. Diademed bust facing slightly to right, wearing crown with ram’s horns and central floral element, surmounted by korymbos and ribbons; śri sa in Brahmi to upper left, piro in Brahmi to upper right, ribbons rising from behind shoulders / Fire altar on three-tiered base, ribbons attached to altar shaft, surmounted by bust to right on flames, flanked by two crowned attendants; pi-laca in Brahmi to left, [nam] in Brahmi below. Pfisterer Type 4; Cribb, Kidarites C1; Göbl, Dokumente 4; Triton XII, 456. 3.61g, 29mm, 3h. Good Very Fine; excellent for the type.

2,000

From a private UK collection.

PHILISTIA

Unpublished

504. Philistia (Palestine), uncertain mint AR Drachm. Gaza(?), circa 450-333 BC. Laureate head to left / Cow standing to left, suckling calf standing to right below; crescent and solar disk above; all within pelleted square border within incuse square. Unpublished; for similar obv. type, cf. Gitler & Tal XX.135 (head to right); for rev. type, cf. Gitler & Tal XX.6Da = Mildenberg, NTOA 36 (1998), pl. XXVII, 14 (Gaza for external mint authorities) = Heritage 3003, 2004 (same reverse die). 2.62g, 14mm, 9h. Very Fine; test cut. Extremely Rare; apparently unpublished and possibly unique.

1,000

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

505. Philistia (Palestine), uncertain mint AR Drachm. Circa 450-333 BC. Head to right / Paradise flower/Phoenician palmette; all in dotted square within incuse square. Gitler & Tal XVII.5D; Heritage 3003, 20012 = Heritage 3018, 20026; CNG MB 76, 821 (same dies). 2.85g, 14mm, 11h. Very Fine; test cut. Extremely Rare; only one cited by Gitler & Tal and two on CoinArchives. From the inventory of a UK dealer.

180

500


2x

2x

506. Philistia (Palestine), uncertain mint AR Obol. Circa 450-333 BC. Bearded male head to right, lion atop head to right (as headdress), head reverted with open jaws, raising forepaw / Hybrid janiform head: bearded archaic male head to right and head facing; all within dotted square border within incuse square. Gitler & Tal XVI.24O; HGC 10, -. 0.61g, 10mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one example cited by Gitler & Tal, no others on CoinArchives and thus seemingly the second known example.

500

From the inventory of a UK dealer. While the obverse of this coin is extremely rare, the reverse iconography appears to be part of a tradition in Philistian coins of including janiform heads of varying styles that were often not in the form that would be familiar to those accustomed to Classical janiform heads, where the two heads are mirrored in size and style with only subtle differences. The composition portrayed here, with one head in profile to right and the other, much smaller head facing is by no means the most unusual example cited by Gitler & Tal. A Philistian drachm, dating from the same period, shows the bearded archaic male head to the right as would be expected, but the second head is that of a highly stylised gorgoneion that is perpendicularly orientated (Gitler & Tal XIII.5D). Perhaps more unusual still, is a drachm where the right head of Athena in profile is in relief and the left head of a crowned, bearded man is incuse (Gitler & Tal XIV.36D).

2x

2x

507. Philistia (Palestine), uncertain mint AR Obol. Gaza(?), circa 450-333 BC. Laureate and bearded male head (Ba’al Arwad) to right / Owl standing facing, wings spread; olive spring and crescent to upper right, AΘE around, all within incuse square. Gitler & Tal XIV.29O = Sofaer 10 (Gaza, same dies); Roma E-44, 333; Roma E-79, 473; HGC 10, -. 1.00g, 10mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

Featuring a reverse type echoing the famous dekadrachms of Athens, this extremely rare obol of Philistia is a hybrid imitation. The helmeted head of Athena that is displayed on the obverse of coins of Athens has been replaced with a likeness of Ba’al Arwad, who is more usually found on the coins of Arados in Phoenicia.

2x

2x

508. Philistia (Palestine), uncertain mint AR Obol. Gaza(?), circa 450-333 BC. Laureate and bearded male head (Ba’al Arwad) to right / Owl standing facing, wings spread; olive spring and crescent to upper left, AΘE around, all within incuse square. Gitler & Tal pg. 204, XIV, 290 var. (arrangement of legend) = Sofaer 10 var. (same - Gaza); HGC 10, -; Roma e44, 333; Roma e79, 473. 0.57g, 10mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

From the inventory of a German dealer.

Apparently Unique and Unpublished

509. Philistia (Palestine), Gaza AR Drachm. Circa 450-333 BC. Bearded male head to left, wearing headdress / Owl standing to right, head facing; olive sprig, crescent and BD (sic) in Phoenician behind, grain ear and Phoenician ‘ (’ayin) before. Gitler & Tal XIV.16 var. (rev. legend); NAC 124, 241 var. (same); CNG 112, 346 var. (same); Heritage 3024, 24744 var. (same); for a similar rev., cf. HGC 10, 541. 3.00g, 13mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; seemingly a unique and unpublished variety. From the inventory of a UK dealer.

181

5,000


Unpublished, Possibly Unique and of Great Numismatic Importance

510. Philistia (Palestine), Gaza AR Drachm. Circa 450-400 BC. Imitating Athens. Helmeted head of Athena to right, with archaic eye to front; Phoenician letters ‘mem’(?) and ‘beth’ on cheek / Forepart of horse to right, Phoenician letters ‘ ‘ayin’ and ‘zayin’ to upper left; all in dotted square within incuse square. Apparently unpublished: for similar example cf. Gitler-Tal Group XIII.23Da = CNG 118, 588 (ram’s head instead of letters on rev., hammer 3,750 USD), cf. Group V for Athena head obv. type and Group VI for horse forepart rev. type. 2.95g, 16mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine; test cuts. An unpublished and possibly unique variant, of great numismatic significance.

1,500

From the inventory of a UK dealer. The prominent position of the Philistine city-state of Gaza (Phoenician ‘aza’) as an entrepreneurial centre is well attested in numismatic data of the mid 5th century BC. The city seems to have acted as the principal trade outlet of the autonomous Arabian-Kedarite kings of the interior who, in turn, recognized the sovereignty of the king of Persia. According to the atthidographos Philochorus of the 3rd century BC, the Athenian tetradrachm was known colloquially and throughout the ancient world as glaux (γλαύξ = little owl) and as ‘owl’ to modern numismatics. They circulated in prodigious numbers throughout Asia Minor and Near East, where non-Athenian imitative tetradrachms, drachms and obols provide evidence for the wide popularity of ‘owls’ as a mode of payment. They can be divided into two classes: imitative copies, however competent, which were intended to circulate alongside originals, and those which make no pretence to pass as Athenian coins, but nevertheless reflect familiarity with Athenian types, as is the case with this newly discovered variant which combines elements of G-T Groups V, VI and XIII with an enigmatic legend on the cheek of Athena.

511. Philistia (Palestine), Gaza AR Drachm. Circa 450-333 BC. Janiform male and female heads / Forepart of horse to right, Phoenician AZ to upper left; all within dotted linear square border within incuse square. Gitler & Tal VI.1D. 2.95g, 14mm, 1h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

2x

2x

512. Philistia, Gaza AR Obol. Circa 450-333 BC. Janiform male and female heads / Forepart of horse to right, Phoenician AZ to upper left; all within dotted linear square border within incuse square. Gitler & Tal VI.7O. 0.52g, 9mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

300

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

182


ROMAN PROVINCIAL COINS - 8.00 PM

513. Marc Antony and Cleopatra VII Æ 21mm of Chalcis, Seleucis and Pieria. Dated RY 21 (Egyptian) and 6 (Phoenician) of Cleopatra = 32/1 BC. BACIΛICCHC KΛ[ЄOΠA]TPAC, diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra to right / ЄTOYC KA TOY KAI [Ϛ ΘЄAC NЄѠTE]PAC, bare head of Marc Antony to right. RPC I 4771; DCA 476; SNG Copenhagen 383 (Phoenicia); HGC 9, 1451. 6.18g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; one of the best examples on CoinArchives.

1,000

514. Augustus AR Cistophorus of Ephesus, Ionia. Circa 25 BC. IMP•CAESAR, bare head to right / Capricorn to right, head reverted, bearing cornucopiae on back, AVGVSTVS below; all within laurel wreath. RPC I 2213; RIC I 477; BN 916. 11.92g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; stunning old cabinet tone. Scarce in this condition.

3,000

Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 100, 7 October 2015, lot 1831 (hammer: USD 3,750). The significance of the constellation Capricorn to Augustus is subject to debate, with some ancient sources reporting that it was his birth sign and others relating that he was conceived under the sign - the latter tying in with his official birthday on 23-24 September. Although we now view conception and birth as two separate events, the Romans viewed conception through to birth as a continuous process. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits Capricorn from late December to late January, marking midwinter and the shortest day of the year. For this reason, often it was considered a hostile sign but Augustus chose to interpret it positively since it had governed two major events in his life - the granting of imperium to him by the Senate in January 43 BC, and the acceptance of the title Augustus on 16 January 27 BC. The capricorn is represented as a goat with a fish tail, and is often thought to be a representation of Pan escaping an attack by the monster Typhon. Having jumped into the Nile, the half of Pan’s body which was submerged was transformed into a fish. An alternative interpretation is that the goat is Amalthea, who suckled the infant Zeus after Rhea rescued him from being devoured by his father Cronus. The broken horn of Amalthea transformed into the cornucopiae, which on the present example is carried on the back of the capricorn. It is a symbol of fertility and abundance, and here accompanies the corona civica, awarded to Romans who saved the lives of fellow citizens by slaying an enemy, but in the case of Augustus for having saved the entire Roman citizenry from the horrors of further civil war. In 27 BC, Augustus had declared Ephesus the capital of Asia Minor, promoting the city above the former capital Pergamum. The decision to use such striking imagery alongside his birth sign for issues minted in the new capital reinforced Augustus as the head of the new imperial regime.

515. Augustus AR Cistophorus of Ephesus, Ionia. Circa 25-20 BC. IMP•CAESAR, bare head to right / Garlanded and filleted altar decorated with stags standing vis-à-vis; AVGVSTVS above. RPC I 2215; RIC I 482; BMCRE 694-5 = BMCRR East 262-3; Sutherland Group VI; RSC 33. 11.79g, 25mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

1,750

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica.

183


516. Augustus AR Cistophorus of Ephesus, Ionia. Circa 25-20 BC. IMP • CAESAR, bare head to right / Six stalks of grain tied in a bundle, AVGV-STVS across fields. RPC I 2214; RIC I 478; BMCRE 697; RSC 32b. 11.84g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

Acquired from Naville Numismatics Ltd.

517. Augustus AR Cistophorus of Pergamum, Mysia. 27-26 BC. IMP•CAESAR, bare head to right / Capricorn to right, head reverted, bearing cornucopiae on back, AVGVSTVS below; all within laurel wreath. RPC I 2211; RIC I 493; Sutherland Group IV; RSC 16; BMCRE 696. 11.96g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

3,500

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica.

518. Augustus AR Cistophorus of Pergamum, Mysia. 27-26 BC. IMP•CAESAR, bare head to right / Capricorn to right, head reverted, bearing cornucopiae on back, AVGVSTVS below; all within laurel wreath. RPC I 2211; RIC I 493; Sutherland Group VI; RSC 16; BMCRE 696. 11.48g, 27mm; 1h. Near Extremely Fine; lustrous.

1,000

Acquired from Naville Numismatics Ltd.

519. Augustus AR Cistophorus of Pergamum, Mysia. 19-18 BC. IMP•IX TR PO V, bare head to right / Triumphal arch with IMP IX TR POT V inscribed on entablature, surmounted by charioteer in quadriga; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within. RPC I 2218; RIC I 510; BMCRE 703 (Ephesus); Sutherland group VII; RSC 293. 11.97g, 27mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone.

2,000

Acquired from Naville Numismatics Ltd.

184


520. Augustus AR Cistophorus of Pergamum, Mysia. 19-18 BC. IMP•IX TR PO V, bare head to right / Hexastyle temple with ROM ET AVGVST inscribed on entablature; COM ASIAE across fields. RPC I 2219; RIC I 506; BMCRE 705 (Ephesus); Sutherland group VII; RSC 86. 11.83g, 26mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; beautiful cabinet tone.

1,250

Acquired from Naville Numismatics Ltd.

521. Augustus AR Drachm of Masicytus, Lycian League. Circa 27-20 BC. Bare head of Augustus to right; Λ-Y flanking / Two citharas; MA below. RPC I 3309c.4; Troxell Period IV, 121.3. 3.50g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

522. Augustus AR Drachm of Masicytus, Lycian League. Circa 27-20 BC. Bare head of Augustus to right; Λ-Y flanking / Two citharas; MA below. RPC I 3309c.4; Troxell Period IV, 121.2. 3.57g, 19mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

523. Augustus AR Drachm of Masicytus, Lycian League. Circa 27-20 BC. Bare head of Augustus to right; Λ-Y flanking / Two citharas, grain ear between; MA below. RPC I 3309c.1; Troxell Period IV, 122.11. 3.50g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State. Very Rare.

1,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

524. Augustus AR Drachm of Masicytus, Lycian League. Circa 27-20 BC. Bare head of Augustus to right; Λ-Y flanking / Two citharas, grain ear between; MA above. RPC I 3309; Troxell Period IV, 122.2. 3.22g, 20mm, 12h. Mint State. Very Rare.

500

From the inventory of a German dealer.

185


525. Augustus AR Drachm of Tlos and Kragos, Lycian League. Circa 27-20 BC. Bare head of Augustus to right; Λ-Y flanking / Two citharas, caduceus between; ΤΛΩ above, KP below. RPC I 3309b; Troxell Period IV, 114.2 (same obv. die). 3.22g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

1,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

A Superb Cistophorus of Hadrian

526. Hadrian AR Cistophorus of Nicomedia, Bithynia. After AD 128. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P, laureate head to right / Octastyle temple set on three-tiered podium, ROM S P AVG across frieze; COM-BIT across fields. RPC III 968; RIC II 461b; RIC II.3 -; Metcalf, Cistophori, type B1; RSC 240b. 10.87g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone, a bold portrait engraved in handsome style.

3,000

This coin published at Roman Provincial Coinage Online (rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk); Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XVII, 28 March 2019, lot 644; Ex collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

527. Antoninus Pius Æ Obol of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 4 = AD 140/1. ΑVΤ Κ Τ ΑΙΛ ΑΔΡ ΑΝΤѠΝΙΝΟϹ, laureate head to right / Dolphin coiled about trident; L-Δ (date) across fields. RPC IV.4 Online 14794 (temporary); Dattari (Savio) 3116; Emmett 1767. 6.05g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; attractive brown patina, one of the finest known examples.

400

Acquired from Naville Numismatics Ltd.

An Extremely Rare Zodiac Drachm of Antoninus Pius

528. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 8 = AD 144/5. AYT K T AIΛ A∆P ANTѠNЄINOC CЄB ЄYC, laureate head to right / Jugate busts of Sarapis and Isis to left within two Zodiac wheels, reading anticlockwise with Aries at the top, each sign coinciding. RPC IV.4 Online 15279 (temporary); BMC 1078; Dattari (Savio) 2984 (same obv. die); Staffieri, Alexandria In Nummis 145; Emmett 1708.8. 23.50g, 33mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; lightly smoothed and tooled. Extremely Rare; five examples known to RPC, only two of which have been offered at auction in the last 20 years and both were not as attractive as this current example. 5,000 From the inventory of a UK dealer. This attractive drachm was minted in Alexandria some years after the advent of the new Great Sothic Cycle, a cosmological event of heavenly realignment celebrated by Egyptians in a five-day festival, highlighting the importance of astrology to Egyptian society and culture. The bronze zodiac series issued by Antoninus Pius in AD 144/5 includes a sequence of types combining astrological signs with Roman deities as well as the extremely rare types featuring the zodiac wheel, including this particular issue with a double wheel of the twelve zodiac signs encircling jugate busts of the Egyptian gods Sarapis and Isis. Geissen’s connection of Antoninus’ Alexandrian nome coins to the marriage of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the Younger in AD 145 suggests this series too may celebrate this union, which provided the empire with a secure succession, and thus promised the dawn of a new golden age, blessed by the heavens (2005, pp.167-70).

186


The Finest of Four Known

529. Septimius Severus Medallic Æ 45mm of Saitta, Lydia. AD 193-211. Andronicus, son of Iollas Kratistos Stephanephoros, first Archon. AVT•KAl•Λ•CЄΠ• CЄOVHPOC•ΠЄPTI, laureate and cuirassed bust to right, breastplate decorated with gorgoneion / ЄΠΙ AΝΔΡΟΝЄΙΚΟΥ•Δ•ΙΟΛΛΑ•Κ•CTЄΦΑ, Mên standing to right, wearing Phrygian cap with crescent on shoulders, holding long sceptre and pine-cone, and facing Cybele enthroned to left, holding patera and resting elbow upon tympanum, lion walking to left at her feet; CΑΙΤΤΗΝΩΝ ΑΡΧ•Α• in two lines in exergue. Imhoof-Blumer, ‘Antike griechische Münzen’ in RSN, vol. 19 (1913), p. 56, no. 161 corr. (rev. legend); M. Amandry, ‘Le monnayage émis à Saittai de Lydie sous Septime Sévère’ in SAGVNTVM, Papeles del Laboratorio de Arqueología, vol. 49 (2017), p. 174, III.1; E. Lane, Corpus Monumentorum Religionis Dei Menis II, The Coins and Gems (Leiden, 1975) p. 38, Saitta 10, pl. xv corr. (rev. legend) = Winterthur 3889 = GPRC Lydia 84 (same dies); ANS 1973.191.14 (same dies). 52.84g, 45mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; the finest of just four known examples.

10,000

There was a long tradition of syncretism in the Roman Empire, with many instances of the assimilation of local deities into Roman cult religion, from the Egyptian goddess Isis to the Celtic goddess Sulis in Britain. These deities were often amalgamated with Roman divinities, as was the case with Sulis who became for the Romano-British Sulis-Minerva. It has been argued that the Romans’ acceptance of the existing cultures of the people they conquered enabled them to effectively establish and maintain control, particularly in regions that were otherwise vastly different from the centre of the empire, creating a sense of integration and unity across their territories. Indeed, some foreign cults spread under the Roman aegis and became popular in their own right even at Rome. The cult of the god Mithras, the origins of which can be traced from a Persian deity, being an obvious example; archaeological remains of temples to Mithras have been found as far apart as Britain and Judaea. The god Mên and the goddess Cybele, like Mithras, were adopted from eastern cult religions and appear to have become particularly popular in 2nd Century AD. There is often notable crossover in the depictions of these eastern deities, especially the male gods. As is the case on this medallion, representations of Mên from the Roman world most often show him wearing a Phrygian cap and a belted tunic, attributes that are also associated with Mithras and another Phrygian deity, Attis. In ‘The Metamorphoses’ Ovid notes that Attis was transformed into a pine tree (10.86), which may explain why Mên is holding a pine-cone here. Furthermore, the similarities between Mên and Attis appear to be reinforced by the representation of the goddess Cybele alongside Mên on the reverse of the medallion, since she played a prominent role in the origin myth of Attis, which involves his eventually becoming her consort. While Mên, Attis and Mithras remained distinct deities within Greco-Roman cult practices with separate rites associated with them, it seems that there are many parallels in their iconographies in both monumental and numismatic forms, which is perhaps a reflection of the Roman view of these gods as part of a homogenous eastern cult tradition that was subsumed into their own.

187


Hektor, Prince of Troy

530. Caracalla Æ 32mm of Ilium, Troas. AD 198-217. AV KAI M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / ЄKTΩP IΛIEΩN, Hektor in full military dress striding to right, holding shield on arm and lit torch, about to fire on two Greek ships to right. Bellinger T257; BMC 92. 13.68g, 32mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare. From a private North European collection.

500

Extremely Rare

531. Macrinus AR Tetradrachm of Carrhae, Mesopotamia. AD 217-218. AYT K M OΠ CЄ MAKPINOC CЄ B, laureate head to right / ΔHMAPX ЄΞ YΠATO A, eagle standing facing, head to right, wreath in beak; bull’s head between legs, pellet to either side. Prieur 823; Bellinger -. 14.29g, 26mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; a highly attractive example. Extremely Rare; among the finest of the eleven recorded examples.

400

From the Santana Collection; Ex Nomos AG, Auction 20, 10 July 2020, lot 345 (hammer: CHF 700).

532. Elagabalus Æ 30mm of Sidon, Phoenicia. AD 218-222. [AV IM]P CAESAR M A ANTONINV, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / [COL AVR PIA] METR S[IDON], cart of Astarte containing baetyl within centre of zodiacal wheel. RPC VI Online 8385 (temporary); Rouvier 1527 & 1561; BMC 260. 19.58g, 30mm, 5h. 1,000 Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the inventory of a German dealer.

533. Philip I BI Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. AD 244. AYTOK K M IOYΛ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC CЄB, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to left, seen from behind / ΔΗΜΑΡX ЄΞOYCIAC, eagle standing to left on palm, with wings spread, holding wreath in beak; SC in exergue. RPC VIII Online Unassigned ID 29001; McAlee 889; Prieur 321. 11.21g, 25mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare; RPC Online cites only 3 other specimens. From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

188

300


Extremely Rare

534. Valerian I Æ 31mm of Aegeae, Cilicia. AD 253-254. AV KAI ΠOV ΛIK [OVAΛЄPIANOC C]ЄB, laureate, draped and cuirassed(?) bust to right, holding serpent-entwined sceptre / Winged Gorgoneion facing slightly to right within Zodiac wheel, the innermost circle containing AIΓEѠN NE NA, the outermost containing the signs of the Zodiac. SNG BnF -, cf. 1803 for obverse; Anson 128, pl. XXI, 128 corr. (rev. legend); Künker 115, lot 733 (same rev. die); Haymann 239.2 = Berlin Münzkabinett no. 18234460 (same rev. die). 19.73g, 31mm, 6h. Near Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only one other example on CoinArchives.

1,000

From the inventory of a German dealer.

The First Since 2006

535. Domitius Domitianus BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 2 = AD 297/8. ΔOMITIANOC CЄB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust to right / Draped bust of Sarapis to left, wearing ornate kalathos; L-B (date) across fields. BMC Alexandria 2625 = Emmett 4243.2; Dattari (Savio) 10820; K&G 126.8. 7.66g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only one other example in CoinArchives, sold in 2006.

2,000

From the inventory of a German dealer. Whilst the dating of the revolt of Domitius Domitianus has been the subject of much debate, the coins issued in his name suggest that he did not control the Alexandrian mint until shortly before his second regnal year (starting 29 August 296). Upon gaining control of the mint, Domitianus revived the local billon which Diocletian had ceased to issue around March 296, while continuing to issue bronze on the imperial standard. Whilst the reasons for this are unknown, it has been suggested by A. Johnson (‘Lucius Domitius Domitianus Augustus’ in Classical Philology, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1950) that there was an influential section of Egyptian society who preferred the old familiar billon, while others realised the commercial advantage of the uniform currency introduced by Diocletian. Despite this, Diocletian’s swift and brutal invasion of Egypt put an end to the revolt of Domitianus, marking the end of the Alexandrian system of coinage and that of Roman provincial coinage as a whole. The mint at Alexandria was to be closed shortly after Diocletian regained control of Egypt and imperial currency was made uniform throughout the empire.

536. Domitius Domitianus BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 2 = AD 297/8. ΔOMITIANOC CЄB, laureate head to right / Nike standing facing, head to left, holding wreath and palm; L-B (date) across fields. Emmett 4245 (Didrachm?); Dattari (Savio) 6184-5, 10811-8. 8.09g, 19mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; exceptional for the type and one of the finest known. Rare. Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 386.

189

1,000


COINS OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

537. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt, in fast quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA incuse within linear frame below. Crawford 28/3; RBW 63-7; RSC 24. 6.72g, 26mm, 6h. Near Mint State; struck on a broad flan.

1,000

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG.

538. Anonymous AR Drachm (Half-Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-212 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt, in fast quadriga driven to left by Victory; ROMA in exergue. Crawford 28/4; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 110; RSC 25. 3.35g, 18mm, 7h. Very Fine.

500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 391.

539. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt, in fast quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA in relief within raised tablet below. Crawford 29/3; Sydenham 64d; RBW 76; RSC 24. 6.74g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; a splendid example with hints of golden iridescence around devices, struck from dies of magnificent style.

2,000

Acquired from Tauler & Fau.

540. Staff Series AR Denarius. Rome, 209-208 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; X (mark of value) behind / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback to right; staff below, ROMA in relief in linear frame in exergue. Crawford 78/1; RBW 326; RSC 20bb. 4.36g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; beautiful iridescent tone.

750

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG.

541. VB series AR Victoriatus. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter to right / Victory standing to right, crowning trophy with wreath; VB monogram between, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 95/1a; BMCRR Italy 233; Sydenham 113; RSC 36m. NGC graded Ch MS 5/5 - 4/5 (#4374477-082).

1,000

Acquired from Pars Coins, San Jose CA; Privately purchased from Classical Numismatic Group, 2017.

190


542. VB series AR Victoriatus. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter to right / Victory standing to right, crowning trophy with wreath; VB monogram between, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 95/1b; RBW 390; RSC 36m. 3.46g, 17mm, 9h. Fleur De Coin. Previously NGC graded MS (#4374448-125).

1,000

Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group, 2017.

543. VB series AR Victoriatus. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter to right / Victory standing to right, crowning trophy with wreath; VB monogram between, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 95/1a; BMCRR Italy 233; Sydenham 113; RSC 36m. 3.18g, 19mm, 1h. About Extremely Fine.

350

From a private European collection; Acquired from Moruzzi Numismatica.

544. L series AR Victoriatus. Luceria, 211-208 BC. Laureate bust of Jupiter to right, within bead and reel border / Victory standing to right, crowning trophy; L between, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 97/1a; BMCRR Italy 159; RSC 36e*. 3.35g, 16mm, 11h. Mint State. Previously NGC graded MS, Fine Style (#4374443-149).

1,000

Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group, 2017.

545. L series AR Victoriatus. Luceria, 211-208 BC. Laureate bust of Jupiter to right, within bead and reel border / Victory standing to right, crowning trophy; L between, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 97/1a; BMCRR Italy 159; RSC 36e*. 3.31g, 17mm, 4h. Mint State. Previously NGC graded MS (#4374450-018).

1,000

Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group, 2017.

546. Q series AR Victoriatus. Apulian mint, circa 211-210 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter to right / Victory standing to right, crowning trophy; Q between, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 102/1; BMCRR Italy 219; RSC 36k. NGC graded Ch MS 4/5 - 5/5 (#4374477-173).

1,000

Acquired from VAuctions; Privately purchased from Classical Numismatic Group, 2017.

191


547. Atilius Saranus AR Denarius. Rome, 155 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; X (mark of value) behind / Victory in biga to right, holding whip and reins; SAR below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 199/1a; BMCRR Rome 741; Sydenham 377; RBW 851 ; RSC Atilia 1. 3.80g, 19mm, 5h. Mint State; highly lustrous and with attractive hints of golden iridescence around devices.

500

Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 84, 13 October 1997, lot 5615.

548. L. Saufeius AR Denarius. Rome, 152 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; X (mark of value) behind / Victory driving biga to right, holding reins and whip; L•SAVF(ligate) below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 204/1; BMCRR Rome 834; Sydenham 384; RBW 874; RSC Saufeia 1. 3.69g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone with hints of iridescence around devices. From a private European collection; Acquired from Joël Creusy (Lyon).

300

Ex CNG, 1995

549. L. Antestius Gragulus AR Denarius. Rome, 136 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; mark of value before, GRAG downwards behind / Jupiter driving quadriga to right, holding reins, thunderbolt and sceptre; L•ANTES (partially ligate) below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 238/1; BMCRR Rome 976; RSC Antestia 9. 3.85g, 19mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous.

300

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 11, p. 10, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b11#schaefer.rrdp.b11_0009; Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group - Numismatica Ars Classica - Freeman & Sear, Triton 1, 2 December 1997, lot 1088; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 36, 6 December 1995, lot 2290.

550. C. Servilius M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 136 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; wreath above mark of value behind, ROMA below / The Dioscuri riding in opposite directions, heads reverted, each holding spear downwards; C SERVEILI•M•F in exergue. Crawford 239/1; BMCRR Italy 540-7; RSC Servilia 1. 4.04g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; a superbly well-detailed reverse.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 406; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Spring Sale 2020, 25 May 2020, lot 464.

551. M. Marcius Mn. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 134 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; modius behind, mark of value below chin / Victory driving biga to right, holding whip and reins; M MARC ROMA (partially ligate) in two lines divided by two stalks of grain below. Crawford 245/1; BMCRR Rome 1008; Sydenham 500; RSC Marcia 8. 3.88g, 20mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive deep old cabinet tone with vivid iridescent highlights. Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 409; Ex Spink & Son Ltd, Auction 19004, 27 March 2019, lot 166.

192

500


552. M. Marcius Mn. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 134 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; modius behind, mark of value below chin / Victory driving biga to right, holding whip and reins; M MARC ROMA (partially ligate) in two lines divided by two stalks of grain below. Crawford 245/1; BMCRR Rome 1008; Sydenham 500; RSC Marcia 8. 3.75g, 18mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

350

Acquired from Warden Numismatics LLC (USD 475).

553. P. Maenius Antiaticus M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 132 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; mark of value behind / Victory driving quadriga to right, holding reins, palm branch and wreath; P•MAE ANT (ligate) below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 249/1; BMCRR Rome 988; RSC Maenia 7. 3.96g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State.

400

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 410.

554. P. Maenius Antiaticus M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 132 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; mark of value behind / Victory driving quadriga to right, holding reins, palm branch and wreath; P•MAE ANT (ligate) below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 249/1; BMCRR Rome 988; RSC Maenia 7. 3.99g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State; lustrous metal.

350

Ex Scipio Collection.

555. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus AR Denarius. Rome, 128 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; mark of value below chin, corn-ear behind / Victory in biga to right; ROMA above, man spearing lion below, CN•DOM in exergue. Crawford 261/1; BMCRR Rome 1025; Sydenham 514; RBW 1056; RSC Domitia 14. 3.94g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; old cabinet tone with highly attractive sapphire blue and Tyrian purple iridescence around devices, especially prominent on rev. 600 Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG.

556. P. Licinius Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma to left, holding shield and spear over shoulder; crescent above, ROMA upwards behind, mark of value before / Three citizens voting on comitium: one voter receives ballot from attendant below, another voter places ballot in cista; P•NERVA above, tabella inscribed P in upper right field. Crawford 292/1; BMCRR Italy 526-8; RSC Licinia 7. 3.15g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; deep old cabinet tone.

750

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG.

193


557. P. Licinius Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma to left, holding shield and spear over shoulder; crescent above, [RO]MA upwards behind, mark of value before / Three citizens voting on comitium: one voter receives ballot from attendant below, another voter places ballot in cista; [P•]NERVA above, tabella inscribed P in upper right field. Crawford 292/1; BMCRR Italy 526; RSC Licinia 7. 3.96g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 300 From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

558. P. Licinius Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma to left, holding shield and spear over shoulder; crescent above, ROMA upwards behind, mark of value before / Three citizens voting on comitium: one voter receives ballot from attendant below, another voter places ballot in cista; [P]•NERVA above, tabella inscribed P in upper right field. Crawford 292/1; BMCRR Italy 526; RSC Licinia 7. 3.95g, 18mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. 300 From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

559. T. Didius AR Denarius. Rome, 113-112 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; monogram of ROMA behind, [mark of value below] / Two gladiators fighting, each holding shield, one attacking to right with flail, the other defending to left with sword; T•DEIDI in exergue. Crawford 294/1; BMCRR Italy 530; RSC Didia 2. 3.87g, 19mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. 500 From the collection of Z.P., Austria; Ex Numismatica Varesi, Auction 65, 30 October 2014, lot 67; Ex Astarte S.A., Auction XVI, 26 November 2004, lot 1260. Babelon suggests that the reverse type refers to the moneyer’s ancestor T. Didius, who was sent to Sicily in 138 BC to quash a slave revolt that was ultimately the precursor to the first of the three Servile Wars. Crawford disagrees, suggesting that the reverse depicts a scene one would expect to witness at the games T. Didius promised to put on during his time as aedile, making this issue an example of electoral propaganda.

Ex NAC 7, 1994

560. L. Manlius Torquatus AR Denarius. Rome, 113-112 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; ROMA (partially ligate) behind, X (mark of value) below chin; all within torque border / Warrior on horseback charging to left, holding spear and shield; Q to right, [L•]TORQVA below, EX•S•C in exergue. Crawford 295/1; BMCRR Italy 518; RSC Manlia 2. 3.89g, 18mm, 8h. Near Mint State. 500 This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 1, p. 66, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b01#schaefer.rrdp.b01_0083; Ex Scipio Collection; Purchased from J. Fernandez in 1998; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 7, 2 March 1994, lot 560.

Ex CNG 50, 1999

561. M. Herennius AR Denarius. Rome, 108-107 BC. Head of Pietas to right, wearing stephane; PIETAS (partially ligate) downwards behind, X (control letter) before / Amphinomus, running to right, carrying his father Nisos; M•HERENNI downwards behind. Crawford 308/1a; BMCRR Rome 1257; RSC Herennia 1. 3.91g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State. 500 This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), processed clippings, 308-1_obv_10_od, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.processed_300-399#schaefer_clippings_output_308-1_obv_10_od; Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 50, 23 June 1999, lot 1272.

194


Ex Leo Benz Collection

562. L. Julius L. f. Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 103 BC. Helmeted head of Mars to right; CAESAR upwards behind, R•• above / Venus Genetrix driving biga of Cupids to left, holding sceptre and reins; lyre in lower left field, R•• above, L•IVLI•L•[F] in exergue. Crawford 320/1; BMCRR Rome 1429 var. (control letter); RSC Julia 4. 4.05g, 17mm, 9h. Extremely Fine; lustrous. This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), processed clippings, 320_04_od, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.processed_300-399#schaefer_clippings_output_320_04_od; Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Leo Benz Collection, Numismatik Lanz München, Auction 88, 23 November 1998, lot 406.

400

563. C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus AR Denarius. Rome, 102 BC. Veiled and turreted bust of Cybele to right; EX•A•PV upwards behind / Victory driving biga to right, holding goad; stork to right before, •L (control mark) below, C•FABI•C•F in exergue. Crawford 322/1b; BMCRR Rome 1591; RSC Fabia 14. 4.00g, 20mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin; attractive old cabinet tone.

750

Ex Nomisma Spa, Auction 36, 26 March 2008, lot 90; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG / Spink Taisei, Auction 51, 1 June 1994, lot 112; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 5, 25 February 1992, lot 287.

564. C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus AR Denarius. Rome, 102 BC. Turreted and veiled head of Cybele to right; EX•A•PV upwards to left / Victory driving biga to right, holding goad; stork to right before, G above • (control mark) below, C•FABI•C•F in exergue. Crawford 322/1b; BMCRR Rome 1595 var. (control letter); RSC Fabia 14. 4.08g, 20mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous.

400

Ex Scipio Collection; Purchased from Carlos Fuster, June 1996.

565. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 90 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right; K behind, K before / Horseman galloping to right, holding palm branch and reins; L•PISO•FRVGI XXXXVIII in two lines below. Crawford 340/1; BMCRR Rome 1987; RSC Calpurnia 11. 3.95g, 19mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine; small edge scrape; well-detailed dies of attractive style.

350

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from José A. Herrero, 1998.

566. Q. Titius AR Denarius. Rome, 90 BC. Bearded head of Mutinus Titinus to right, wearing winged diadem, lock of hair falling down neck / Pegasus springing to right from tablet inscribed Q•TITI. Crawford 341/1; BMCRR Rome 2220; RBW 1274; RSC Titia 1. 3.95g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone with subtle blue and gold iridescence. Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG.

195

300


567. Q. Titius AR Denarius. Rome, 90 BC. Head of young Bacchus to right, wearing ivy wreath / Pegasus springing to right from tablet inscribed Q•TITI. Crawford 341/2; BMCRR Rome 2225; RSC Titia 2. 3.87g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous metal.

500

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Sotheby’s, June 1993, lot 1149.

568. L. Titurius L. f. Sabinus AR Denarius. Rome, 89 BC. Bearded head of the Sabine king Tatius to right; SABIN downwards behind, palm branch below chin / Tarpeia buried to waist in shields, thrusting off two soldiers about to cast their shields at her; star in crescent above, L•TITVRI in exergue. Crawford 344/2b; BMCRR Rome 2328; Sydenham 699; RSC Tituria 4. 3.99g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State; beautiful old cabinet tone with hints of golden iridescence, a truly exceptional example of this desirable type.

2,500

From the Santana Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XIX, 26 March 2020, lot 699 (sold for £3,400); Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XII, 6 January 2009, lot 477; Ex Harlan J. Berk Ltd, Sale 112, 13 January 2000, lot 332.

569. Cn. Lentulus Clodianus AR Quinarius. Rome, 88 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter to right / Victory standing to right, crowning trophy; CN•LENT (ligate) in exergue. Crawford 345/2; King 47; BMCRR Rome 2444; Sydenham 703; RBW 1313; RSC Cornelia 51. 1.92g, 14mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; deep old cabinet tone with beautiful rainbow iridescence on rev.

200

From a private European collection; Acquired from Montpellier Numismatique (Julien Cougnard).

570. L. Julius Bursio AR Denarius. Rome, 85 BC. Male head to right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury and Neptune; round shield behind / Victory driving quadriga to right, holding reins and wreath; L•IVLI•BVRSIO in exergue. Crawford 352/1a; BMCRR Rome 2485 var. (control symbol); RSC Julia 5. 4.02g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; lustrous metal with iridescent highlights.

350

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 15, 18 May 1999, lot 96.

571. P. Furius Crassipes AR Denarius. Rome, 84 BC. Turreted head of Cybele to right; AED•[CVR] and foot downwards behind / Curule chair inscribed P•FOVRIVS; CRASSIPES in exergue. Crawford 356/1a; BMCRR Rome 2604; RSC Furia 20. 3.93g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful golden iridescence around devices.

300

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from J. Fernandez, November 1993.

196


572. C. Norbanus AR Denarius. Rome, 83 BC. Diademed bust of Venus to right; CXXXXIIII (control number) behind, C•NORBANVS below / Fasces between corn ear and caduceus. Crawford 357/1b; BMCRR Rome 2770; RSC Norbana 2. 4.00g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

500

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex L. Schulman (Bussum, Netherlands), Auction 24, 17-18 April 2000, lot 1391.

573. L. Censorinus, P. Crepusius, and C. Limetanus AR Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Veiled, diademed and draped bust of Venus to right; L•CENSORIN behind / Venus driving biga to right, holding goad and reins; XXVIIII (control number) above, C•LIMETA (partially ligate) below, P•CREPVSI in exergue. Crawford 360/1b; BMCRR Rome 2642 var. (control number); RSC Marcia 27. 3.73g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous metal.

750

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 11, 29 April 1998, lot 226.

574. P. Crepusius AR Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right; sceptre and M (control letter) behind, grape bunch below chin / Horseman to right, brandishing spear; CVII (control number) behind, P•CREPVSI in exergue. Crawford 361/1c; BMCRR Rome 2683; RSC Crepusia 1. 4.24g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; light cabinet tone with iridescent highlights.

350

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from José A. Herrero, May 1995.

575. C. Mamilius Limetanus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Draped bust of Mercury to right, wearing winged petasos; caduceus and M (control letter) behind / Ulysses standing to right, holding staff in left hand and extending right hand to Argus; C•MAMIL downwards to left, LIMETAN (partially ligate) upwards to right. Crawford 362/1; BMCRR Rome 2725; RSC Mamilia 6. 3.99g, 18mm, 7h. Mint State; attractive golden highlights around devices.

750

From the collection of Z.P., Austria. The reverse shows Ulysses, after an absence of many years, returning in humble dress to the island of Ithaca, where he was at once recognised by his old dog Argus, who died of joy at seeing his former master.

576. L. Censorinus AR Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Marsyas walking to left, raising hand and holding wineskin over shoulder, column to right, surmounted by statue of Minerva(?); L•CENSOR to left. Crawford 363/1d; BMCRR Rome 2657; Sydenham 737; RSC Marcia 24. 4.01g, 17mm, 9h. Extremely Fine; highly attractive old cabinet tone.

300

From a private European collection; Acquired from Münzenversand Udo Helmig.

197


577. Q. Antonius Balbus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 83-82 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter to right; R• before, S•C behind / Victory driving quadriga to right, holding reins, wreath, and palm frond; Q•ANTO•BALB PR (partially ligate) in two lines in exergue. Crawford 364/1c; BMCRR Rome 2745; RSC Antonia 1b. 3.95g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; lustrous.

400

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 77, 11 May 2000, lot 417.

578. Q. Antonius Balbus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 83-82 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter to right; S•C behind / Victory driving quadriga to right, holding reins, wreath, and palm frond; C below, Q•ANTO•BALB PR (partially ligate) in two lines in exergue. Crawford 364/1d; BMCRR Rome 2753; RSC Antonia 1. 3.93g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; highly-detailed and attractive style on lustrous metal.

350

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 11, 29 April 1998, lot 227.

579. Q. Antonius Balbus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 83-82 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter to right; S•C behind / Victory driving quadriga to right, holding reins, wreath, and palm-frond; H below, Q•ANTO•BALB PR (partially ligate) in two lines in exergue. Crawford 364/1d; BMCRR Rome 2753; RSC Antonia 1. 3.89g, 20mm, 9h. Near Mint State; attractive old cabinet tone.

300

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 418; Ex Spink & Son Ltd, Auction 19004, 27 March 2019, lot 194.

580. C. Valerius Flaccus AR Denarius. Massalia, 82 BC. Draped and winged bust of Victory to right; winged caduceus behind / Legionary eagle between two standards inscribed H (Hastati) and P (Principes); C•VAL•FL[A] (ligate) upwards to left, IMPERAT upwards to right, EX• S•C below. Crawford 365/1a; BMCRR Gaul 7 var. (control symbol), cf. 1 for caduceus in different location; RSC Valeria 12. 3.87g, 19mm, 6h. Mint state; intricate style, among the finest specimens known. Rare.

2,000

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from José A. Herrero, October 2002.

581. C. Annius T. f. T. n. and L. Fabius L. f. Hispaniensis AR Denarius. Mint in north Italy or Spain, 82-81 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Anna Perenna to right; C•ANNI•T•F•T•N•PRO•COS•EX•S•C• around, scales before, winged caduceus behind / Victory driving quadriga to right, holding reins and palm-branch; Q above, B• below, L•FABI•L•F•HIS[P] in exergue. Crawford 366/1c; BMCRR Spain 29 var. (control letter); RSC Annia 2. 3.91g, 20mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine; highly lustrous. Rare with this control letter.

300

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from José A. Herrero, October 2002.

198


582. L. Manlius and L. Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Sulla, 82 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; L•MAN[LI] upwards before, PRO•Q downwards behind / Sulla driving slow quadriga to right, holding reins and caduceus, Victory flying to left with wreath above; [L•SVL] LA•IMP in exergue. Crawford 367/5; BMCRR East 11; RSC Manlia 5. 4.16g, 20mm, 5h. Mint State.

300

From the collection of Z.P., Austria; Ex Raffaele Negrini Milano, Asta 42, 17 March 2017, lot 288.

583. Q. Fabius Maximus AR Denarius. Restoration issue under Sulla. Rome, 82-80 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right; Q•MAX (partially ligate) below, ROMA behind, lyre and mark of value before / Cornucopiae over thunderbolt, all within wreath of barley, wheat and fruit. Crawford 371/1; BMCRR Rome 1159; RSC Fabia 6. 3.22g, 17mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; dark old cabinet tone.

250

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

584. A. Postumius A. f. Sp. n. Albinus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 81 BC. Head of Hispania to right, wearing veil; HISPAN behind / Togate figure standing to left, raising hand; legionary eagle to left, fasces with axe to right; A ALBIN N•S across fields, POST•A•F in exergue. Crawford 372/2; BMCRR Rome 2839-42; RSC Postumia 8. 4.00g, 20mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone with iridescent highlights.

500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 419; Ex Spink & Sons Ltd., Auction 19004, 27 March 2019, lot 204.

585. L. Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 81 BC. Diademed head of Venus to right; D(?) behind / EX SC, cornucopiae; all within wreath. Crawford 376/1; Sydenham 763; RSC Cornelia 44; FFC 663 (this coin). 3.65g, 19mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. Rare, and in excellent condition for the type, struck on an uncommonly broad planchet.

4,000

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 5, p. 224, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b05#schaefer.rrdp.b05_0308; This coin published in Fernández, Fernández & Calicó, Catálogo Monográfico de los Denarios de la República Romana (2002); Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 421; Ex Alba Longa Collection; Ex Leo Benz Collection, Numismatik Lanz München, Auction 94, 23 November 1998, lot 310; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 50, 23 June 1999, lot 1311; Ex Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel, Auction 52, 19 June 1975, lot 343.

586. P. Satrienus AR Denarius. Rome, 77 BC. Helmeted head of Roma to right; ⊥III (control mark) behind / She-wolf standing to left; ROMA above, P•SATRIENVS in two lines in exergue. Crawford 388/1b; BMCRR Rome 3209; RSC Satriena 1. 4.00g, 18mm, 7h. 500

Good Extremely Fine. Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from J. Herrero, September 2002.

199


587. L. Lucretius Trio AR Denarius. Rome, 74 BC. Laureate head of Neptune to right, with trident at shoulder; XXXII (control number) behind / Infant Genius riding dolphin to right; [L•]LVCRETI TRIO in two lines below. Crawford 390/2; BMCRR Rome 3247-70 var. (unlisted control number); Sydenham 784; RBW 1425 var. (control number); RSC Lucretia 3. 4.00g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; striking blue iridescence around portrait. Rare with this control number.

500

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), processed clippings, 390-2_04_od, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.processed_300-399#schaefer_clippings_output_390-2_04_od; From a private European collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 84, 20 May 2015, lot 1661; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 63, 17 May 2012, lot 201; Privately purchased from Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel, November 1994.

Ex NAC 12, 1998

588. Cn. Egnatius Cn. f. Cn. n. Maxsumus AR Denarius. Rome, 75 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Libertas to right; pileus and MAXSVMVS downwards behind / Roma and Venus standing facing, each holding staff, Roma on left, holding sword and placing foot on wolf’s head, Cupid alighting on Venus’ shoulder on right, together flanked by rudders standing on prow; [C•]EGNATIVS•CN•F below, CN•N upwards to right, [control mark in left field]. Crawford 391/3; BMCRR Rome 3285ff.; RSC Egnatia 2. 3.82g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone.

750

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 6, p. 84, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b06#schaefer.rrdp.b06_0110; Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 12, 29 April 1998, lot 1666. The gens Egnatia was a plebeian family of equestrian rank in the tribe of Stellatina. Originally of Samnite origin, the Egnatii appear to have been established at Teanum. Following the conclusion of the Social War, a branch of the family moved to Rome, where two of them were admitted into the Senate. The moneyer responsible for this coin, one Gnaeus Engatius, is virtually unknown but believed to be the same as that mentioned in Quintillian (Institutio Oratoria, 5.13.33) who was expelled from the Senate by the censors, and who at the same time disinherited his son, the son being retained in the Senate. No satisfactory explanation of the types of Egnatius’ coinage has been proposed, but Venus and Libertas are the common theme.

Ex NAC 2, 1990

589. Cn. Lentulus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint, 76-75 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Genius Populi Romani to right, holding sceptre over shoulder; G•P•R above / Sceptre with wreath, globe and rudder; EX• - S•C across fields, CN•LEN•Q in exergue. Crawford 393/1a; BMCRR Spain 52; RSC Cornelia 54. 3.88g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; high relief with golden highlights.

300

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 6, p. 108, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b06#schaefer.rrdp.b06_0142; Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from José A. Herrero, December 2002; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 2, 21 February 1990, lot 356.

590. Q. Fufius Kalenus and Mucius Cordus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 70 BC. Jugate heads of Honos, laureate, and Virtus, wearing crested helmet, to right; KALE[NI] below, HO behind, V[IRT] (ligate) before / Italia standing to right, holding cornucopiae, and Roma standing to left, foot on globe and holding sceptre, clasping hands; winged caduceus and ITAL monogram behind Italia, RO behind Roma, CORDI in exergue. Crawford 403/1; BMCRR Rome 3358-63; Sydenham 797; RBW 1445 (same rev. die); RSC Fufia 1. 4.06g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; highly attractive blue iridescence amidst portraits.

1,000

Ex Numismatik Lanz München, Auction 74, 20 November 1995, lot 338.

200


Ex CNA V, 1998

591. Q. Fufius Kalenus and Mucius Cordus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 70 BC. Jugate heads of Honos, laureate, and Virtus, wearing crested helmet, to right; [KAL]ENI below, [H]O behind, VIRT (ligate) before / Italia standing to right, holding cornucopiae, and Roma standing to left, foot on globe and holding sceptre, clasping hands; winged caduceus and ITAL monogram behind Italia, RO behind Roma, CORDI in exergue. Crawford 403/1; BMCRR Rome 3358-63; RSC Fufia 1. 3.89g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

500

Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, Long Beach Signature Sale 3026, 25 September 2013, lot 23329; Ex Stack’s Bowers Galleries (& Ponterio), Sale 172, 16 November 2012, lot 11721; Ex Mayflower Collection, Heritage World Coin Auctions, CICF Signature Sale 3019, 26 April 2012, lot 23284; Ex Classical Numismatic Auctions, Auction V, 9 December 1998, lot 282.

592. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. Rome, 66 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right; sceptre behind / Melpomene standing facing, head to right, wearing sword and holding club and tragic mask; Q•POMPONI downwards on right, MVSA downwards on left. Crawford 410/4; Sydenham 817; BMCRR Rome 3615; RSC Pomponia 14. 3.86g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive toning.

750

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.

A Superb Example

593. L. Roscius Fabatus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 64 BC. Head of Juno Sospita to right, wearing goat skin headdress; pileus of the Dioscuri surmounted by star behind, L•ROSCI below / Female standing to right, feeding serpent out of dress; pileus of the Dioscuri surmounted by cross to left, FABATI in exergue. Crawford 412/1; BMCRR Rome 3413; Sydenham 915; RSC Roscia 3. 3.96g, 19mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin; a superb example, beautiful cabinet tone with blue, red and gold iridescence around devices. Very rare with these control symbols. From the Santana Collection; Ex Áureo & Calicó, Auction 341, 11 December 2019, lot 1011.

750

Ex NAC 7, 1994

594. L. Roscius Fabatus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 64 BC. Head of Juno Sospita to right, wearing goat-skin headdress; elephant head behind, [L•]ROSCI below / Female standing to right, feeding serpent out of dress; uncertain control mark in left field, FABATI in exergue. Crawford 412/1; BMCRR Rome 3394ff; Sydenham 915; RSC Roscia 3. 3.99g, 18mm, 7h. Mint State; highly lustrous.

500

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), processed clippings, 412_09_od, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.processed_400-499#schaefer_clippings_output_412_09_od; Ex Scipio Collection; Purchased from J. Fernandez in 1998; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 7, 2 March 1994, lot 612.

201


595. L. Furius Brocchus AR Denarius. Rome, 63 BC. Wreathed and draped bust of Ceres to right; wheat-ear behind, barley grain before, III - VIR across upper fields, BROCCHI below / Curule chair between fasces; L • FVRI CN • F in two lines above. Crawford 414/1; BMCRR Rome 3896; RSC Furia 23. 3.82g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State; hints of golden iridescence around devices.

500

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Sotheby’s, June 1993, lot 1277.

Ex NAC 7, 1994

596. L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus AR Denarius. Rome, 62 BC. PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, veiled and diademed head of Concordia to right / Trophy, togate figure on right, three captives on left; TER above, PAVLLVS in exergue. Crawford 415/1; BMCRR 3373; RSC Aemilia 10; FFC 126 (this coin). 3.97g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State; mirror-like surfaces with iridescent highlights.

750

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 7, p. 52, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b07#schaefer.rrdp.b07_0069; This coin published in Fernández, Fernández & Calicó, Catálogo Monográfico de los Denarios de la República Romana (Madrid, 2002); Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 434; Ex Alba Longa Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 319, 7 November 2018, lot 99; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 7, 2 March 1994, lot 613.

597. L. Scribonius Libo AR Denarius. Rome, 62 BC. Head of Bonus Eventus to right; BON•EVENT downwards to right, LIB[O] downwards to left / Puteal Scribonianum, decorated with garland and two lyres, hammer at base; PVTEAL above, [S]CRIBON below. Crawford 416/1a; BMCRR Rome 3377-80; Sydenham 928; RBW 1500; RSC Scribonia 8a. 3.91g, 18mm, 7h. 300 Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. From a private European collection; Ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger, Auction 289, 2 May 2013, lot 601.

598. M. Nonius Sufenas AR Denarius. Rome, 59 BC. Head of Saturn to right; harpa, baetyl and S•C upwards behind, SVFENAS downwards before / Roma seated to left on cuirass and shields, holding sceptre and sword, being crowned by Victory standing to left behind, holding palm frond; •P[R•L•]V•P•F around, SEX•NONI in exergue. Crawford 421/1; BMCRR Rome 3820-4; RSC Nonia 1. 3.74g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone on highly lustrous metal.

500

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from José A. Herrero, 1994. Sextus Nonius, possibly the moneyer’s father, in 81 BC inaugurated the Ludi Victoriae Sullanae in honour of Sulla’s victory at the Battle of The Colline Gate, fought in November of 82 BC, which was the final battle by which Sulla secured control of Rome following the civil war against his rivals. The Samnites led by Pontius Telesinus attacked Sulla’s army at the Colline Gate (Porta Collina) on the northeastern wall, and fought all night before being routed. As well as closing out the civil war the battle signalled the end of the ambitions of the socii, thus ending the Social War. In this battle, Marcus Licinius Crassus won considerable note by defeating the enemy on his wing, something which contributed greatly to the ultimate Roman victory. The battle was swiftly followed by the execution of the Samnite prisoners within earshot of the senate house, before Sulla addressed the assembled senate.

202


599. L. Marcius Philippus AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Head of Ancus Marcius to right, wearing diadem; lituus behind, ANCVS below / Aqueduct on which stands equestrian statue, flower at horse’s feet; PHILIPPVS to left, AQVA MAR (partially ligate) within arches of aqueduct. Crawford 425/1; BMCRR Rome 3890; RSC Marcia 28. 4.12g, 18mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine; well centred and struck on a broad planchet.

400

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 7, p. 188, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b07#schaefer.rrdp.b07_0232; Ex Alan J. Harlan Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXII, 8 January 2019, lot 877. The Marcia gens claimed decent from Ancus Marcius, the fourth king of Rome, who is said to have been the first to bring water to Rome by means of an aqueduct. The equestrian statue is that of Q. Marcius Rex, who, when praetor in 144 BC, was commissioned by the Senate to repair the old aqueducts and to build one which would give a supply of water to the Capitol. This aqueduct, known as the Aqua Marcia, still stands in parts today and together with the Aqua Anio Vetus, Aqua Anio Novus and Aqua Claudia, is regarded as one of the four great aqueducts of ancient Rome. It was largely paid for by spoils from the recent Roman conquests of Corinth in 146 BC and the destruction of Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War, in the same year. The Aqua Marcia supplied water to the Viminal Hill in the north of Rome, and from there to the Caelian, Aventine, Palatine, and Capitoline regions of the city. Its extension to the Capitoline Hill caused a controversy at the time, because traditionalists were concerned about a passage in the Sibylline Books warning against bringing water there.

600. L. Marcius Philippus AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Head of Ancus Marcius to right, wearing diadem; lituus behind, ANCVS below / Aqueduct on which stands equestrian statue, flower at horse’s feet; PHILIPPVS to left, AQVA MAR (partially ligate) within arches of aqueduct. Crawford 425/1; BMCRR Rome 3890; RSC Marcia 28. 3.93g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; golden iridescence.

200

Acquired from Feydeau Bourse Numismatique.

601. Faustus Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Draped bust of Diana to right, wearing diadem with crescent; lituus behind, FAVSTVS downwards before / Sulla seated to left on platform above kneeling figures of Bocchus, king of Mauretania, on left, who offers olive branch, and Jugurtha, king of Numidia, on right, his hands tied behind his back; FELIX downwards to right. Crawford 426/1; BMCRR Rome 3824-3825; Sydenham 879; RBW 1525; RSC Cornelia 59. 4.07g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; lightly toned.

1,000

From the Santana Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXIII, 14 January 2020, lot 598; Ex Jack A. Frazer Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 21, 17 May 2001, lot 258.

602. Q. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Veiled head of Vesta to right; Q•CASSIVS downwards behind, VEST upwards before / Curule chair within circular temple of Vesta; urn to left, vota tablet inscribed AC to right. Crawford 428/1; BMCRR Rome 3871; RSC Cassia 9. 3.68g, 21mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

250

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

203


603. P. Fonteius P. f. Capito AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Mars to right; trophy behind, P•FONTEIVS•P•F•CAPITO•III•VIR around / Warrior on horseback galloping to right, thrusting spear downwards at kneeling enemy in Gallic helmet, who holds sword and shield; to lower left, another enemy warrior, kneeling to right; Gallic helmet and shield to lower right, MN•FONT•TR•MIL above. Crawford 429/1; BMCRR Rome 3851-5; Sydenham 900; RSC Fonteia 17. 3.73g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

350

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 54, 24 March 2010, lot 940.

604. P. Fonteius P. f. Capito AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. P•FONTEIVS•CAPITO•III•VIR•CONCORDIA, diademed and veiled bust of Concordia to right / Villa Publica on the Campus Martius; T•DIDI• downwards on left, VIL•PVB on right, IMP• below. Crawford 429/2a; BMCRR Rome 3856; RSC Fonteia 18 and Didia 1. 3.90g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

1,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 63, 17 May 2012, lot 314 (hammer: CHF 1,400). The Villa Publica was a most ancient building, first constructed on the Field of Mars in 435 BC, and according to Livy it was there that the first census of the Roman people was held in the year of its completion. The Villa Publica served as the censors’ office, and held their records, as well as serving as the place where foreign ambassadors were greeted, where victorious Roman generals waited to hear if they would be granted a triumph, and as a base for the levying of legions. At least two renovations of the structure were undertaken, in 194 and 34 BC.

605. P. Fonteius P. f. Capito AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. P•FONTEIVS•CAPITO•III•VIR•CONCORDIA, diademed and veiled bust of Concordia to right / Villa Publica on the Campus Martius; T•DIDI• downwards on left, VIL•PVB on right, IMP• below. Crawford 429/2a; BMCRR Rome 3856; RSC Fonteia 18 and Didia 1. 3.84g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Astarte S.A, Auction XVI, 26 November 2004, lot 1500.

606. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Rome, 54 BC. Bust of Libertas to right; LIBERTAS downwards behind / Consul L. Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceded by accensus, all walking to left; BRVTVS in exergue. Crawford 433/1; BMCRR Rome 3862; RSC Junia 31. 4.03g, 20mm, 6h. NGC graded AU★ 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158069-015). Attractive old cabinet tone.

1,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 92, 23 May 2016, lot 367; Ex Elvira Eliza Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001) Collection. Struck a decade before the assassination of Julius Caesar and recalling the legendary expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome in 509 BC by L. Junius Brutus, his ancestor and the consul of that year, Brutus here uses the reverse type to illustrate his strong republican views, while the presence of the goddess Libertas on the obverse was particularly prescient of his participation in the events of 44 BC, the word ‘libertas’ reportedly being the watchword with which Brutus signalled the all-clear to his fellow conspirators. When he became consul in 54, Brutus’ full name was Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, on account of his having been adopted by his uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio. Having reverted to his birth name for a time, following Caesar’s assassination Brutus revived his adoptive name in order to illustrate his links to another famous tyrannicide, Gaius Servilius Ahala, from whom he was also descended.

204


607. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Rome, 54 BC. Bust of Libertas to right; LIBERTAS downwards behind / Consul L. Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceded by accensus, all walking to left; BRVTVS in exergue. Crawford 433/1; BMCRR Rome 3862; RSC Junia 31. 4.15g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from J. Fernández, June 2000.

608. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Rome, 54 BC. Bust of Libertas to right; LIBERTAS downwards behind / Consul L. Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceded by accensus, all walking to left; BRVTVS in exergue. Crawford 433/1; BMCRR Rome 3862; RSC Junia 31. 4.07g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

750

Acquired from J. A. Herrero in 1997.

609. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Rome, 54 BC. Bust of Libertas to right; LIBERTAS downwards behind / Consul L. Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceded by accensus, all walking to left; [BRVTVS] in exergue. Crawford 433/1; BMCRR Rome 3862; RSC Junia 31. 3.60g, 20mm, 6h. 500

Good Extremely Fine; charming iridescent cabinet tone. From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

610. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Rome, 54 BC. Bust of Libertas to right; LIBERTAS downwards behind / Consul L. Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceded by accensus, all walking to left; BRVTVS in exergue. Crawford 433/1; BMCRR Rome 3862; RSC Junia 31. 3.78g, 19mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine; some areas of flat striking.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria, collector’s ticket included.

205


Ex Triton II, 1998

611. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Rome, 54 BC. Bare head of L. Junius Brutus to right; BRVTVS downwards to left / Bare head of C. Servilius Ahala to right; AHALA downwards to left. Crawford 433/2; BMCRR Rome 3864; RSC Junia 30. 4.12g, 20mm, 2h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

2,500

From the Santana Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group - Numismatica Ars Classica - Freeman & Sear, Triton II, 1 December 1998, lot 710. Gaius Servilius Ahala served as magister equitum in 439 BC, when Cincinnatus was appointed dictator on the supposition that Spurius Maelius was styling himself a king and plotting against the state. During the night on which the dictator was appointed, the capitol and all the strong posts were garrisoned by the partisans of the patricians. In the morning, when the people assembled in the forum, with Spurius Maelius among them, Ahala summoned the latter to appear before the dictator, and upon Maelius disobeying and taking refuge in the crowd, Ahala rushed into the throng and killed him. Though considered an act of murder at the time, Ahala was regarded by later writers as a hero.

612. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Rome, 54 BC. Bare head of L. Junius Brutus to right; BRVTVS downwards behind / Bare head of C. Servilius Ahala to right; AHALA downwards behind. Crawford 433/2; BMCRR Rome 3864; RSC Junia 30. 3.45g, 19mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine; scrape to rev., beautiful old cabinet tone.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

206


207


DAY TWO - 25 MARCH, 1:00 PM THE DAVID MILLER COLLECTION David Miller, the well known London numismatist noted for his cheerful disposition and contagious chuckle died on August 2021 five days short of his 79th birthday. As a specialist in ancient coins he came to be regarded in the first rank of contemporary British coin dealers for more than half a century. He started his career as a professional numismatist in 1968 when he left the British Museum, where his father had been a senior member of staff as keeper of state papers, David joined Spinks’ ancient coin department. Later he became the London manager for Newcastle’s Corbitt & Hunter’s, then a partner in the family firm of Italo Vecchi. From 1973, he headed the coin department at Stanley Gibbons Currency Ltd eventually rising to joint managing director, and in 1980 joined California’s Superior Stamp and Coin Co. as their European representative. Two years later, he started his own business as a numismatic and fine art consultant, in which capacity he was in later years also an adviser to Timeline Auctions in Harwich. David, a founder member of the BNTA at its inception in 1975, served on its council and various specialist committees. Until 2021 he was valuer for the Treasure Valuation Committee under finds act, specialising in coins and antiquities from 2000 BC to AD 1600. He remained active, with tables at Coinex, the London and Bloomsbury Coin Fairs, and also travelling widely in Europe and the USA. In addition he found time to publish articles on a variety of historical subjects both in the UK and USA and has appeared on television identifying and valuing ancient and medieval artefacts and coins. His personal collection offered here by Roma Numismatics is a carefully assembled selection of gold, silver and bronze coins representing most of the rulers of the Later Roman Empire, which reflects David’s life long interest and expertise in the history of Late Antiquity and its influence on early British and Welsh history at the time of the barbaric invasions. David died peacefully in Hertfordshire on Monday 2nd August after a long illness and is survived by wife Monica, who like the amicable wife of any collector or dealer in coins and antiquities, long supported her husband’s passion; it is our hope that she will gain some recompense for her bright attentiveness through this catalogue’s commemoration of the Miller name. The theme of the Miller collection offered in this sale is that of emperors of the Late Roman Empire and includes a splendid and extremely rare solidus from the mint of London in the name of Magnus Maximus, whom the earliest Welsh genealogies referred to as Macsen/Maxen Wledig, (Emperor Maximus), the founding father of the dynasties of several medieval Welsh kingdoms. Gildas in De Excidio et Conquestu says that Maximus “deprived” Britain not only of its Roman troops, but also of its “armed bands...governors and of the flower of her youth”, never to return. Other noteworthy rarities include aurei of Diocletian and Galerius; rare solidi of Constantine I, Crispus, Julian II, Constantine III, Libius Severus and Honoria. Notable silver coins include a splendid Carausius ‘denarius’ with clasped hands, a miliarense of Constantine I, and siliquae of Vetranio and the Usurper Maximus from the mint of Barcelona. We will all miss David, but his legacy and his service to numismatics will live on.

613. Carausius BI Radiate. ‘C’ mint, AD 286-293. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust to right / PAX AVGGG, Pax standing to left, holding olive branch and sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC V.2 334; Webb 392. 4.05g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; excellent condition for the type.

250

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

Possibly Unique

614. Carausius AR ‘Denarius’. Uncertain British mint, AD 286-293. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / CONCORDIA MILETV, clasped hands. RIC V.2 -; Webb -; RSC -; cf. CNG 102, 1090; seemingly unpublished in the standard references. 3.38g, 19mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine; previously NGC graded AU, Strike: 3/5 Surface: 3/5 (#5880396-019). Possibly Unique; seemingly unpublished in the standard references and no other examples on Coin Archives. 4,000 From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Peter Stagnetto Collection of Ancient Coins, Spink & Son Ltd, Auction 20154, 7 October 2020, lot 1993; Ex Spink & Son Ltd, Auction 145, 12-14 July 2000, lot 1523.

208


An Extremely Rare Radiate of Allectus

615. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS AVG, Mars standing to right, holding inverted spear and resting on shield set on ground; S-A across fields, ML in exergue. RIC V.2 49; Burnett 86. 4.63g, 22mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; no other examples auctioned in the preceding two decades.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

616. Allectus Æ Quinarius. London, AD 293-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS AVG, galley sailing to left; QL in exergue. RIC V.2 55; Burnett 112. 2.51g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

250

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

617. Allectus Æ Radiate. ‘C’ mint, AD 293-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PAX AVG, Pax standing to left, holding olive branch and sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC V.2 87; Burnett 154. 4.00g, 22mm, 7h. Good Very Fine; struck on a broad planchet. Extremely Rare; no other examples auctioned in the preceding two decades.

300

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 25, 27 February 2016, lot 519 (professionally cleaned and conserved since).

618. Allectus Æ Quinarius. ‘C’ mint, AD 293-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS AVG, galley sailing to left; QC in exergue. RIC V.2 128; Burnett 215. 2.50g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; a highly attractive example.

400

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

209


619. Diocletian BI Antoninianus. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 286-293. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust to right / PAX AVGGG, Pax standing to left, holding olive branch and sceptre; S-P across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC V.2 9; Webb 1238. 4.54g, 23mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

200

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

620. Diocletian AV Aureus. Antioch, AD 293. DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head to left / CONCORDIAE AVGG NN, Diocletian and Maximian seated to left on curule chairs, both holding globe and parazonium, crowned by Victory flying above them. RIC V.2 313; C. 38; Depeyrot 13/2 (Cyzicus); Calicó 4429. 5.13g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

2,500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Collection of GK, Ukrainian Emigrant, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XXI, 24 March 2021, lot 720 (hammer: £2,800).

621. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Siscia, AD 294. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head to right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with eight turrets. RIC VI 32a & 43a; RSC 516m. 3.24g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

622. Maximian BI Antoninianus. Struck under Carausius. ‘C’ mint, AD 286-293. IMP C MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust to right / PAX AVGGG, Pax standing to left, holding olive branch and sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC V.2 44; Webb -, cf. 1257. 5.14g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

250

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

210


Rare First Issue After London Retaken

623. Maximian BI Nummus. London, AD 297-305. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head to right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius, wearing modius on head, standing to left, holding patera and cornucopiae; LON in exergue. RIC VI 1b; C&T 1.01.002. 8.80g, 27mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare; finer than the three other examples present on CoinArchives of this important issue, the first struck after re-taking London from the usurpers Carausius and Allectus. 300 From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

624. Maximian AR Argenteus. Carthage, AD 300. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate bust to right / XC VI in two lines surrounded by laurel wreath, pellet in centre. RIC VI 15b; RSC 698+a (Rome). 3.45g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included. Assigned to Carthage in RIC, though having no mint mark to prove this, it has since been postulated that this type might better be attributed to the mint at Rome due to stylistic parallels and the chance find in an English hoard of a piece with PR in the reverse exergue.

625. Maximian AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 303-304. MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / XX MAXIMIANI AVG SMN in five lines within laurel wreath. RIC VI 14; C. 704; Depeyrot 7/3; Calicó 4768. 5.24g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Collection of GK, Ukrainian Emigrant, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XXI, 24 March 2021, lot 728.

626. Constantius I, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Rome, AD 295-297. CONSTANTIVS CAES, laureate head to right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets; A in exergue. RIC VI 42a; RSC 314b. 3.12g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

500

From the David Miller Collection; Acquired from Sovereign Rarities Ltd.

211


627. Constantius I, as Caesar, BI Nummus. Treveri, AD 302-303. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust to right / MONETA S AVGG ET CAESS NN, Moneta standing to left, holding scales and cornucopiae; S-F across fields, II TR in exergue. RIC VI 552a. 9.52g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

75

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

628. Constantius I BI Nummus. Aquileia, AD 305-306. IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust to left, holding sceptre and ornately decorated shield / VIRTVS AVGG ET CAESS NN, Emperor galloping on horseback to right, holding shield and spearing down at kneeling barbarian, second barbarian prostrate beneath; AQS in exergue. RIC VI 66a. 9.93g, 27mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

629. Galerius, as Caesar, BI Nummus. Lugdunum, AD 301-303. MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust to right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius, wearing modius on head, standing to left, holding cornucopiae and patera over altar to left; B in right field, PLC in exergue. RIC VI 164b. 10.03g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

50

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

630. Galerius AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 295. MAXIMIANVS CAESAR, laureate head to right / VICTORIA SARMAT, four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets. RIC VI 17b; RSC 208c. 3.00g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State; beautiful multi-hued iridescence and old cabinet tone. Rare. From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

212

600


631. Galerius BI Nummus. Ticinum, AD 305. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head to right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides seated to left, holding two standards; • in right field, TT in exergue. RIC VI 55b. 12.38g, 27mm, 12h. 100

Near Mint State. From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

632. Galerius BI Nummus. Aquileia, AD 306-307. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust to left, holding spear and shield / FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS N N, Fides standing facing, head to left, holding two standards; AQP in exergue. RIC VI 77a. 9.45g, 28mm, 6h. 300

Near Mint State. Very Rare. From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

633. Galerius AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 307-308. MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI NKYLXC (partially ligate), Jupiter standing to left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; SMN in exergue. RIC VI 44; Biaggi -; Depeyrot 11/1; Calicó 4927. 5.20g, 19mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine; cleaned and with traces of mounting. Rare.

3,000

From the David Miller Collection; Ex Morton & Eden, Auction 84, 2 December 2016, lot 625.

634. Maximinus II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. Aquileia, AD 305-306. MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head to right / VIRTVS AVGG ET CAESS NN, Prince standing to left, holding Victory and resting on spear and shield, seated captive at feet to left; AQΓ in exergue. RIC VI 72b. 9.76g, 27mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only two other examples present on CoinArchives. From the David Miller Collection.

213

200


635. Anonymous Æ Quarter Nummus. Time of Maximinus II. Antioch, AD 312. ‘Persecution Issue’. IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter seated to left on throne, holding globe and sceptre / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory advancing to left, holding wreath and palm branch; Z in right field, ANT in exergue. Van Heesch, Last 2; McAlee 171. 1.21g, 13mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

50

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

636. Maxentius BI Nummus. Aquileia, AD 307-310. IMP MAXENTIVS P F AVG CONS II, laureate bust to right, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped sceptre / CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head to left, holding globe and sceptre, with shield by left side, in hexastyle temple with knobs as acroteria, crescent in pediment; AQS in exergue. RIC VI 125. 7.88g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

75

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

637. Maxentius BI Nummus. Rome, AD 310-311. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head to right / CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head to left, holding globe and sceptre, with shield by left side, in hexastyle temple with knobs as acroteria, wreath in pediment; H in left field, REP in exergue. RIC VI 258. 6.44g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

50

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

638. Divus Romulus (son of Maxentius) BI Nummus. Ostia, AD 309-312. DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS, bare head to right / AETERNAE MEMORIAE, eagle perched to right with wings spread atop domed shrine with right door ajar; MOSTS in exergue. RIC VI 34. 6.17g, 25mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

250

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

214


639. Licinius I, with Licinius II as Caesar, BI Nummus. Nicomedia, AD 320. DD NN IOVII LICINII INVICT AVG ET CAES, confronted laureate and draped busts of Licinius I and II, together holding Fortuna / I O M ET FORT CONSER DD NN AVG ET CAES, Jupiter standing to left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and leaning on sceptre; Fortuna standing to right crowned with modius, holding cornucopiae and rudder set on globe; SMNA in exergue. RIC VII 38. 3.95g, 22mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

200

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

640. Licinius II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. Cyzicus, AD 321-324. D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, helmeted and cuirassed bust to left, holding spear and shield / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing to left, chlamys across shoulder, holding eagle-tipped sceptre and Victory on globe, eagle holding wreath to left at feet, captive seated to right on ground; X over IIΓ in right field, SMKΔ in exergue. RIC VII 18. 3.42g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

50

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

641. Constantine I ‘the Great’, as Caesar, BI Nummus. Treveri, AD 307. FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing to left, head towered, holding cornucopiae and patera; S-C across fields, PTR in exergue. RIC VI 703b. 7.25g, 26mm, 12h. Mint State. Rare.

150

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

642. Constantine I ‘the Great’ BI Nummus. Lugdunum, AD 307-308. IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and draped bust to right / PRINCIPI IVVENT B R P NAT, Emperor standing to right, holding transverse spear and globe; PLG in exergue. RIC VI 270. 7.33g, 28mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine; some areas of flatness, well-centered on a large flan. Very Rare. From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

215

150


643. Constantine I ‘the Great’ BI Nummus. London, AD 310-312. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust to left, holding shield and spear over shoulder / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing to left, chlamys falling from shoulder, holding globe and whip; star in right field, PLN in exergue. RIC VI 165; C&T 7.03.016; RML (forthcoming) 317. 4.47g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

100

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

644. Constantine I ‘the Great’ BI Pseudo-Argenteus. Treveri, AD 318-319. IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, cuirassed bust to left, wearing high-crested helmet and holding spear across shoulder / VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories facing one another, holding between them shield inscribed VOT PR in two lines, on altar; PTR in exergue. RIC VII 208A; RSC 643. 2.64g, 18mm, 5h. 250

Near Extremely Fine. From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

645. Constantine I ‘the Great’ BI Nummus. Treveri, AD 320-321. CONSTANTINVS AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS EXERCIT, trophy with captives seated to left and right; T-F across fields, STR in exergue. RIC VII 279 var. (obv. legend arrangement). 3.82g, 20mm, 5h. Mint State. Very Rare; rated R4 in RIC.

100

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

646. Constantine I ‘the Great’ AR Miliarense. Thessalonica, AD 325. CONSTANTINVS MAX P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust to right / FELICITAS ROMANORVM, Emperor standing to left under arch, between two sons, each holding sceptre and globe; THES in exergue. RIC VII 140a; RSC 149c. 3.91g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only two other examples auctioned in the past two decades. From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

216

1,000


Possibly Unique

647. Constantine I ‘the Great’ AR Miliarense. Constantinople, AD 335-336. Rosette-diademed head to right, looking upwards / CONSTANTINVS AVG, four standards; CONSBM(?) in exergue. RIC VII -, cf. 99 & 122; RSC -, cf. 106f; unpublished in the standard references. 4.52g, 25mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; somewhat rough surfaces. Unique; unpublished in the standard references and no other examples on CoinArchives.

3,000

From the David Miller Collection; Acquired from A. H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd, dealer’s ticket included (£3,800); Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 84, 20 May 2015, lot 2110.

648. Divus Constantine I ‘the Great’ Æ 16mm. Antioch, AD 347-348. D V CONSTANTINVS P T AVGG, veiled head to right / Deified emperor standing to right; VN-MR across fields, SMANH in exergue. RIC VIII 112 corr. (bust type). 1.30g, 16mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

50

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

649. City Commemorative AR Third Siliqua. Struck under Constantine I. Constantinople, AD 330. Pearl-diademed and draped bust to right, wearing pearl necklace / Large K. RIC -; Bendall, Anonymous Type 4; RSC -; Mazzini 287; Göbl, Antike Numismatik (1978), pl. 10, 144. 1.14g, 12mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

650. Fausta (wife of Constantine I) BI Nummus. Ticinum, AD 326. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, draped bust to right / SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing facing, head to left, cradling two children in arms; T(crescent)T in exergue. RIC VII 203; LRBC 488. 2.64g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; flan crack at 3h.

100

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

651. Helena (mother of Constantine I) BI Nummus. Thessalonica, AD 318-319. HELENA N F, draped bust to right / Laurel wreath enclosing star. RIC VII 50. 3.11g, 19mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine.

200

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

217


A Very Rare London Mint Issue

652. Helena (mother of Constantine I) BI Nummus. London, AD 324-325. FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust to right / SECVRITAS REI PVBLICE, Securitas standing to left, lowering branch and raising pallium; PLON in exergue. RIC VII 299; C&T 10.02.009; RML (forthcoming) 1127. 3.02g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare; exceptional quality for the issue - the finest of only 10 examples auctioned since 1997.

350

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

653. Theodora (deceased wife of Constantius I) Æ 15mm. Treveri, AD 340. FL MAX THE[ODORAE] AVG, draped bust to right / PIETAS ROMANA, Pietas standing facing, head to right, cradling child in arms; •TRS[•] in exergue. RIC VIII 65. 1.76g, 15mm, 6h. Mint State.

75

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

654. Crispus, as Caesar, BI Nummus. Treveri, AD 322-323. IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust to left, holding spear and shield / BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, globe set on altar inscribed VOTIS XX in three lines; three stars above, •PTR• in exergue. RIC VII 372. 2.97g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

50

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

655. Crispus, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 325-326. Diademed head to right / CRISPVS CAESAR, Victory advancing to left, holding wreath and palm branch; SIRM in exergue. RIC VII 63; Depeyrot 10/2. 4.33g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Classical Numismatic Group - Numismatica Ars Classica - Freeman & Sear, Triton I, 2 December 1997, lot 1702.

656. Delmatius (nephew of Constantine I), as Caesar, BI 17mm. Thessalonica, AD 335-336. FL DELMATIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / GLORIA EXER[CITVS], two soldiers holding spears and shields standing facing each other, standard in centre; SMTSB in exergue. RIC VII 202 var. (obv. legend). 1.30g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; much original silvering remaining.

50

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

218


657. Hanniballianus (nephew of Constantine I) Æ 16mm. Constantinople, AD 336-337. FL HANNIBALIANO REGI, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SECVRITAS PVBLICA, Euphrates seated to right on ground and leaning on sceptre, urn beside and reed behind; CONSS in exergue. RIC VII 147. 1.32g, 16mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Rare.

200

From the David Miller Collection.

658. Constans AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 345. CONSTANS AVGVSTVS, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG, two Victories facing one another, holding between them wreath inscribed VOT X MVLT XX in four lines; TR in exergue. RIC VIII 135; Depeyrot 6/3. 4.56g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State, collector’s ticket included.

3,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included noting “ex ‘Portuguese’ hoard”.

659. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 337-347. CONSTANTIVS AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / FELICITAS ROMANORVM, wreath encircling VOTIS X•V MVLTIS XX in four lines; SMANS in exergue. RIC VIII 30 var. (obv. legend); Depeyrot 5/9 var. (same); NAC 100, 662 (same obv. legend, different dies; noted as possibly a barbaric imitation). 4.28g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare variant, apparently unpublished.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 78, 17 December 2020, lot 1845.

660. Constantius II AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 337-340. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS EXERCITVM, Emperor standing to left, holding trophy on spear and resting hand on shield; seated captive at feet on either side. RIC VIII 32 var. (diadem); Depeyrot 4/6. 4.39g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; planchet flaw. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection; Ex Morton & Eden, Auction 100, 2 May 2019, lot 352. This typical reverse type served to promote the military success of Constantius and the army at a time when he was campaigning relentlessly against incursions to the eastern borders from the Sassanid Empire of Shapur II. Several cities of Roman Mesopotamia were besieged by Shapur’s army, though with little gain, and Constantius drove back the invasion after the successful Battle of Narasara.

219


661. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 347-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear and Constantinopolis enthroned to left, holding sceptre, foot on prow, holding between them shield inscribed VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines; SMANH in exergue. RIC VIII 81; Depeyrot 6/3. 4.53g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Privately purchased from Spink & Son Ltd.

662. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 347-348. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PAX AVGVSTORVM, Emperor standing to left, holding standard with Chi-Rho symbol on banner; TR in exergue. RIC VIII 161; RSC 149c. 3.09g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; flan crack at 7h/1h; beautiful old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives.

250

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included noting ‘Spink 16/7/15’.

663. Constantius II BI Centenionalis. Struck under Vetranio. Siscia, AD 350. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust to right; A behind / [HO]C SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Emperor standing to left, holding labarum and spear, being crowned by Victory; A in left field, [...] BSIS(star) in exergue. RIC VIII 278 or 282. 4.85g, 23mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

100

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

664. Constantius II AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 351-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman motif / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear and Constantinopolis enthroned to left, holding sceptre, foot on prow, holding between them shield inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; SMNC in exergue. RIC VIII 74; Depeyrot 5/2. 4.35g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

665. Constantius II BI Centenionalis. Heraclea, AD 351-355. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing to left, holding shield and spearing falling horseman to right on ground, head reversed, shield to right on ground; Γ in left field, [SM]HΓ in exergue. RIC VIII 82. 4.72g, 24mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

75

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

220


666. Constantius II AR Light Miliarense. Constantinople, AD 351-355. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, soldier standing facing, head to right, holding inverted spear and resting hand on shield; C•H in exergue. RIC VIII 100; RSC 326a. 3.99g, 22mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; smoothed, die-break at 12h. Very Rare.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Bertolami Fine Arts - ACR Auctions, E-Auction 92, 2 October 2020, lot 1555.

667. Constantius II AR Reduced Siliqua. Sirmium, AD 355-361. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / Laurel wreath encircling VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in four lines; SIRM in exergue. RIC VIII 68; RSC 342-3u. 3.05g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; flan cracks at 2h and 11h, attractive old cabinet tone with golden iridescence around devices.

250

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

668. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 355-361. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed head to right / GLORIA REI PVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear and Constantinopolis enthroned to left, holding sceptre, foot on prow, holding between them shield inscribed VOT XXXX; ANTH in exergue. RIC VIII 172; Depeyrot 12/1. 4.15g, 21mm, 6h. Near Very Fine.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

669. Constantius II AV Solidus. Rome, AD 355-357. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear and shield with star pattern / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear and Constantinopolis enthroned to left, holding sceptre, foot on prow, holding between them shield inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; (branch)RSMЄ(branch) in exergue. RIC VIII 291; Depeyrot 13/1. 4.44g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 19, 1 August 2015, lot 923. This is one of the first frontal portraits that portray the emperor with a helmet, holding a spear and a shield. This iconographical format would later come to dominate the solidus issues of the later Roman and ‘Byzantine’ coinage.

221


670. Magnentius AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 350. IM CAE MAGNENTIVS AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVG LIB ROMANOR, Victory standing to right, holding palm branch and Libertas standing to left, holding transverse sceptre, both holding trophy on sceptre; TR in exergue. RIC VIII 248; Depeyrot 8/1. 4.39g, 23mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine; reddish highlights.

3,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

671. Magnentius BI Double Centenionalis. Treveri, AD 352. D N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SALVS DD NN AVG ET CAES, large Chi-Rho; A in left field, ω in right field, TRS in exergue. RIC VIII 320. 8.00g, 24mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

100

From the David Miller Collection, old collector’s ticket included noting “Ex Pearson Torquay 28/12/34”.

672. Decentius, as Caesar, BI Centenionalis. Ambianum, AD 351-353. D N DECENTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAE, two Victories holding between them shield, supported on short column, inscribed VOT V MVLT X in four lines; AMB in exergue. RIC VIII 6. 5.53g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

250

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Acquired from Silbury Coins.

A Very Rare Siliqua of Vetranio

673. Vetranio AR Siliqua. Siscia, AD 350. D N VETRANIO P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory advancing to left, holding wreath and trophy; SIS in exergue. RIC VIII 267; RSC 9b. 3.15g, 20mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 92, 24 May 2016, lot 2479; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 311, 22 October 2008, lot 609 (hammer: CHF 5,500); Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 23, 19 March 2002, lot 1696. After the murder of Constans by the usurper Magnentius, Constans’ sister Constantina asked the aged Vetrianio to become emperor. Vetranio soon allied himself to the cause of Magnentius, but by the end of the year AD 350 he begged the clemency of Constantius II and was pardoned and dismissed by the emperor to live out the remainder of his years as a private citizen.

222


674. Vetranio BI Centenionalis. Siscia, AD 350. D N VETRANIO P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right; A behind / CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor standing facing, head to left, holding two labarums; star above, A in left field, ΓSIS in exergue. RIC VIII 271. 5.15g, 23mm, 7h. Mint State. Rare.

250

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Privately purchased from Mike Vosper, June 2014 (£500).

675. Vetranio BI Centenionalis. Siscia, AD 350. D N VETRANIO P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right; A behind / HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Emperor standing to left, holding labarum and spear, being crowned by Victory; A in left field, •ЄSIS(star) in exergue. RIC VIII 283. 5.84g, 24mm, 12h. Mint State; a highly attractive example.

250

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

676. Constantius Gallus, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 350-355. D N CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma, holding spear, and Constantinopolis, holding sceptre and resting foot on prow, both enthroned and supporting between them wreath inscribed VOT V MVLT X in four lines; •TES• in exergue. RIC VIII 151; C. -; Biaggi 2209; Depeyrot 9/2. 4.30g, 21mm, 11h. Near Very Fine; graffito on obverse. Very Rare.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

677. Constantius Gallus, as Caesar, BI Centenionalis. Heraclea, AD 351-354. D N CONSTANTIVS NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, helmeted soldier to left, holding shield, spearing fallen horseman to left, wearing pointed gap, head reversed, shield on ground on right; Γ in left field, SMHB in exergue. RIC VIII 84. 5.53g, 25mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; minor die shift to rev.

100

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

223


Very Rare

678. Julian II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 355-361. D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear and holding with Constantinopolis enthroned to left, foot on prow, holding sceptre, a shield with star pattern; • under prow, •SMANA• in exergue. RIC VIII 171; Depeyrot 11/2. 4.45g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Acquired from London Ancient Coins Ltd.

679. Julian II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 361-363. FL CL IVLIANVS P P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS ROMANORVM, soldier standing to right, head to left, holding trophy and dragging captive; ANTS in exergue. RIC VIII 195; Morton & Eden, 108, 228 (same obv. die); Depeyrot 15/1. 4.42g, 21mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine; minor marks. Rare.

2,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

680. Julian II BI 28mm. Antioch, AD 361-363. D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull to right, two stars above; [(palm)]ANTA(palm) in exergue. RIC VIII 216. 9.01g, 28mm, 10h. Extremely Fine; attractive black patina.

300

From the David Miller Collection; Acquired from Sovereign Rarities, October 2016.

681. Jovian AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 363-364. D N IOVIANVS PEP AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear and holding with Constantinopolis enthroned to left, foot on prow, holding sceptre, shield inscribed VOT V MVLT X in four lines; SMNЄ in exergue. RIC VIII 126 corr. (rosette-diademed); Depeyrot 9/1. 4.49g, 22mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

From the David Miller Collection.

224


682. Jovian BI 29mm. Thessalonica, AD 363-364. D N IOVIANVS P F P P AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing facing, head to right, holding standard with christogram and Victory on globe; TESB in exergue. RIC VIII 234 (unlisted officina). 9.28g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; lightly smoothed.

100

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

683. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head to right, holding standard with cross and Victory on globe; cross in left field, *ANTΓ* in exergue. RIC IX 2bxxxviii3; Depeyrot 20/1. 4.06g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

684. Valentinian I BI 30mm. Nicomedia, AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head to right, holding standard with christogram and Victory on globe; SMNΓ in exergue. RIC IX 7a. 7.74g, 30mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

50

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Naville Numismatics, Auction 45, 9 December 2018, lot 636.

Extremely Rare

685. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 368. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed and mantled bust to left, holding mappa and sceptre / VOTA PVBLICA, two emperors, nimbate, enthroned facing, each holding mappa and sceptre, captives kneeling at feet on right and left; ANTΓ+ in exergue. RIC IX 23a; Depeyrot 31/1. 4.38g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

225


Only One Cited in Depeyrot

686. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 371-372. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, together holding globe, Victory above, palm branch between; TR•OB• in exergue. RIC IX 17a var. (obv. legend arrangement); Depeyrot 40/2. 4.41g, 22mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only one example with this obverse legend arrangement cited in Depeyrot.

1,500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

687. Valens AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 366-367. D N VALENS PER F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head to right, holding standard with christogram and Victory on globe; ANTB• in exergue. RIC IX 2dxiii2 var. (christogram reverted); Depeyrot 27/3. 4.40g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; slight edge knock at 12h and minor wave to flan.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Live Auction 3, 25 October 2018, lot 926.

688. Valens AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 372. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, together holding globe, Victory above, palm branch between; TR•OB• in exergue. RIC IX 17c; Depeyrot 42/2 var. (diadem). 4.54g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

689. Procopius AR Siliqua. Nicomedia, AD 365-366. D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VOT V in two lines within laurel wreath; SMN in exergue. RIC IX 6; RSC 14†h. 2.19g, 18mm, 2h. Mint State; flan crack at 9h; attractive iridescence. Rare.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Naville Numismatics, Auction 40, 27 May 2018, lot 806; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 29, 11 May 2005, lot 645.

690. Gratian AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 367-378. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VRBS ROMA, Roma enthroned to left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; TRPS• in exergue. RIC IX 27f and 45c; RSC 86†a. 2.00g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; flan crack at 12h, beautiful old cabinet tone, attractive blue iridescence on obv. From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

226

200


691. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 374. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, each with one leg draped, together holding globe, Victory above, palm branch between; TROBT in exergue. RIC IX 17g; Depeyrot 43/3. 4.43g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection; Ex Morton & Eden Ltd, Auction 100, 2 May 2019, lot 355.

692. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 374-375. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, each with one leg draped, together holding globe, Victory above, palm branch between; TROBC in exergue. RIC IX 39c; Depeyrot 43/4. 4.47g, 21mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the David Miller Collection.

693. Gratian AR Light Miliarense. Aquileia, AD 378-383. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Emperor standing facing, head to left, holding standard and shield; AQPS in exergue. RIC IX 23a; RSC 52†d. 4.54g, 24mm, 1h. About Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

694. Gratian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 383-385. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / CONCORDIA AVGGGG Є, Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing on throne decorated with lions’ heads, head to right, holding sceptre and globe, foot on prow; CONOB in exergue. RIC IX 46b; Depeyrot 38/3. 4.46g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 78, 26 May 2014, lot 2433.

227


695. Valentinian II AR Light Miliarense. Lugdunum, AD 388-392. D N VALENTINI[ANV]S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head to left, holding standard and shield; LVGPS in exergue. RIC IX 40; RSC 18†. 3.43g, 25mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; small dent to reverse. Very Rare.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Acquired from Timeline Auctions, 31 May 2014.

696. Valentinian II AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 389-391. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, together holding globe, Victory above, palm branch between; T-R across fields, COM in exergue. RIC IX 90a; Depeyrot 53/1. 4.46g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

697. Theodosius I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 380. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / CONCORDIA AVGGG•, Constantinopolis, turreted, seated facing, head to right, holding sceptre and globe, foot on prow; CONOB in exergue. RIC IX 43b; Depeyrot 30/2. 4.19g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; some scratches and scrapes.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

A Rare Variant

698. Theodosius I AV Solidus. North Italian mint, AD 383. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, the right smaller, each with one leg draped, together holding globe, Victory above, palm branch between; COM in exergue. RIC IX 5f and 8b (Mediolanum) var. (one leg draped); Depeyrot 2/6. 4.50g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare with the legs of the emperor undraped, a variant often overlooked. From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

228

1,000


699. Theodosius I AV Tremissis. Mediolanum, AD 394-395. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory advancing to right, holding wreath and globe with cross; M in left field, D in right field, COM in exergue. RIC IX 23b (AD 388-394) and 37b; Depeyrot 18/3 (Theodosius II) corr. (cross on globe). 1.36g, 12mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

250

From the David Miller Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 92, 24 May 2016, lot 2511.

700. Magnus Maximus AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 383-384. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head to right, holding standard with christogram and Victory on globe; star in left field, SMTR in exergue. RIC IX 76; Depeyrot 50/1. 4.45g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

5,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

701. Magnus Maximus AR Light Miliarense. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Emperor standing facing, head to left, holding standard and shield; TRPS in exergue. RIC IX 82; RSC 19a. 4.42g, 25mm, 6h. Near Mint State; some flatness to rev., light old cabinet tone with golden iridescence around devices.

1,750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 262, 13 March 2015, lot 8386; Ex Numismatik Lanz München, Auction 100, 20 November 2000, lot 640.

702. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated to left on throne, holding globe and reversed spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC IX 84b; RSC 20a. 2.05g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

100

From the David Miller Collection.

229


An Issue of Great Historical Importance

703. Magnus Maximus AV Solidus. London (as Augusta), AD 384. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, together holding globe, Victory above, palm branch between; AVGOB in exergue. RIC IX 2b; Depeyrot 2/1. 4.42g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; scattered marks. Extremely Rare; an issue of great historical importance.

10,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Baldwin’s of St. James’s, Auction 27, 13 January 2019, lot 11; Ex Baldwin’s of St. James’s, Auction 22, 27 September 2018, lot 1008. The Spanish general Flavius Magnus Clemens Maximus was appointed commander of Britain in AD 380 under the rule of Gratian and Valentinian II. In AD 383, he led a rebellion against Gratian, who was quickly defeated, deposed and murdered at Lugdunum. Maximus proposed a three-way division of the empire with Valentinian II and Theodosius I which would leave him in control of Britain, Gaul, Germany and Spain. This uneasy equilibrium was short-lived; after Maximus began encroaching upon Valentinian II’s territory, and once Maximus had raised his son Flavius Victor to the rank of Augustus in AD 387 and invaded Italy, Theodosius, in a lightning-fast manoeuvre, defeated Maximus before he could fully martial his forces. He summarily executed both Maximus and his son Flavius Victor, restoring the rule of the Western Roman Empire to Valentinian II. Minted a year into this unstable power-sharing agreement proposed by Magnus Maximus, this coin’s reverse type and legend VICTORIA AVGG already reflects tension by only explicitly acknowledging one other emperor, likely Theodosius I, seated beside Maximus in a type designed to emphasise unity and cooperation in the administration of the empire, symbolised by the globe they both hold. The mintmark AVG (supplemented by the abbreviation OB for obryzum to indicate the purity of the gold) which adorns this issue has over the centuries divided scholarly opinion, in that its attribution to London was not always accepted. Sir Arthur Evans, Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, first posited this attribution in the Numismatic Chronicle 1915, but was countered by George Elmer (Numismatische Zeitschrift 1934) and Freidrich Mayreder (Numismatic Chronicle 1947), who both attributed the issue to Augustodunum in Gaul. However the Roman city of London was known as Augusta well before the date of this issue: historian Ammianus Marcellinus refers to a visit of Theodosius in AD 367 to “the old town of London which posterity has called Augusta” (Res Gestae XXVII.8.7). Opinions differ on the reason for this new name: Rivet and Smith (A. L. F. Rivet and C. Smith, The PlaceNames of Roman Britain, p.260) deem it an honorific title, perhaps given during the reorganisation of Britain following its recovery under Diocletian in AD 296, while Frere associates it with the elevation to Augustus of Constantius II, who saved the city, in AD 305 (S. Frere, Britannia - A History of Roman Britain (3rd edn), p.199). It was a common epithet of provincial capitals during the later fourth century (such as Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in Germany, where Magnus Maximus resided after deposing Gratian), and it is reasonable to expect Magnus Maximus’ earliest coinage as Augustus to come from a British mint.

230


704. Magnus Maximus Æ 21mm. Arelate, AD 386. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, Emperor standing to left, holding vexillum and Victory on globe; PCON in exergue. RIC IX 27a. 5.87g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; areas of flat strike.

100

From the David Miller Collection.

705. Flavius Victor AR Siliqua. Mediolanum, AD 387-388. D N FL VICTOR P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head to left, holding globe and spear; MDPS in exergue. RIC IX 19b; RSC 6Ac. 1.67g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; flan crack. Rare.

500

From the David Miller Collection.

706. Eugenius AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 392-395. D N EVGENIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated to left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and reversed spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC IX 106d; RSC 14a. 1.66g, 16mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; pleasant old cabinet tone. Rare.

500

From the David Miller Collection; Privately purchased from A. H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd (£850).

Rated R5 in RIC

707. Arcadius AR Light Miliarense. Constantinople, AD 395-403. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to left / GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing facing, head to left, raising hand and holding globe; CON in exergue. RIC IX 85b = RIC X 47; RSC 3†c. 4.35g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Exceedingly Rare; rated R5 in RIC X.

2,500

From the David Miller Collection; Previously purchased from A.H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd (£2,800); Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 84, 20 May 2015, lot 2157.

231


708. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 397-402. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly to right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman motif / CONCORDIA AVGG Δ, Constantinopolis seated facing, head to right and with right foot on prow, holding sceptre and Victory on globe; CONOB in exergue. RIC X 7; Depeyrot 55/1. 4.48g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

From the David Miller Collection.

709. Arcadius AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 402-408. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing to right, holding standard and victory on globe, treading on captive seated to left; R-V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 1286; Depeyrot 7/2. 4.33g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine, a well-centered example.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included noting “6/14 Hertford”.

710. Honorius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 394-395. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing to right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, treading on captive to right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC IX 35c = RIC X 1206a; Depeyrot 16/2. 4.24g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; scattered marks.

750

From the David Miller Collection.

711. Honorius AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 421. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, draped, and cuirassed bust facing slightly to right, holding spear and round shield decorated with Chi-Rho symbol / Roma and Constantinopolis, each seated facing one another on cuirass, holding wreath between inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; below, palm branch set on ground, R - V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 1332; Ranieri 19; Depeyrot 4/2. 4.44g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the David Miller Collection; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 328, 22 May 2015, lot 304 (hammer: CHF 3,000); Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 23, 19 March 2002, lot 1710.

712. Constantine III AR Siliqua. Arelate, AD 408-411. D N CONS[TANT]INVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AAVGG[G], Roma seated to left, holding Victory on globe and inverted spear; [KON]T in exergue. RIC X 1539; RSC 4e corr. (rev. legend). 1.32g, 16mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine; flan crack at 12h, attractive deep cabinet tone with underlying lustre. Very Rare. From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included. Constantine III is remembered chiefly as the general and usurper who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in 407 while based in Britannia, stripping all troops from the province and thus leaving it open to Saxon invasion and conquest. Thus was Britannia forever lost to Rome.

232

750


713. Constantine III AV Solidus. Lugdunum, AD 409-411. D N CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIAA AVGGG, Emperor standing to right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, treading on captive to right; L-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 1512; Depeyrot 22/2. 4.47g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

3,000

From the David Miller Collection; Ex Beaussant-Lefèvre - Thierry Parsy, 2 July 2015, lot 20; Ex Guy Vermot Collection, acquired c.1976-1982.

Maximus of Spain

714. Maximus AR Siliqua. Barcino (Barcelona), AD 410-411. D N MAXIM[VS P F AVG], pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed to right / [VICTOR]A AAVGGG (sic), Roma seated to left, holding Victory on globe and inverted spear; [S]MBA in exergue. RIC X 1601; ACIP 4437; RSC 1b corr. (rev. legend). 1.36g, 14mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

715. Jovinus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 411-413. D N IOVINVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, Roma seated to left on stylised cuirass, holding Victory on globe and inverted spear; TRMS in exergue. RIC X 1710; RSC 4†a. 1.24g, 15mm, 12h. Very Fine; flan crack at 2h. Extremely Rare.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Acquired from C. J. Martin (Coins) & Ancient Art Ltd, December 2015. Very little is known about the origins of Jovinus. During the anarchic period of AD 406-411, when the western Roman Empire essentially disintegrated under repeated barbarian invasions and local insurrections, Jovinus gained the support of several Germanic tribes near the city of Mogontiacum (Mainz) as an alternative to the distant and feeble regime of Honorius. In 411, he was proclaimed emperor at Mainz by the Alan king Goar and the Burgundian king Gundahar. Soon afterwards he won the support of Athaulf, king of the Visigoths, and for a time it seemed Jovinus had secured control of all Gaul and Roman Germany. The Gallic nobility supported him and coins were struck in his name at Treveri, Lugdunum and Arelate. However, Jovinus made a serious mistake in obtaining the backing of another powerful Visigoth, Sarus, who was a blood-enemy of Athaulf. In 412, Jovinus appointed his brother Sebastianus as co-emperor, which further alienated Athaulf and caused him to open secret negotiations with Honorius. In 413 Athaulf openly switched sides and allied himself with the Ravenna regime. Sebastianus was swiftly captured and executed. Jovinus took refuge in the city of Valentia but surrendered after a brief siege. Although he had apparently been promised a fair hearing, Jovinus was summarily executed en route to Ravenna and his head sent on to Honorius.

716. Jovinus AR Siliqua. Arelate, AD 411-413. D N IOVINVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REI P, Roma seated to left on curule chair, holding Victory on globe and inverted spear; KONT in exergue. RIC X 1721; RSC 2†b. 1.25g, 16mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; almost invisible flan crack at 12h. Very Rare.

1,500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

233


717. Theodosius II AR Light Miliarense. Constantinople, AD 408-420. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to left / GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor, nimbate, standing facing, head to left, raising hand and holding globe; star in left field, CON in exergue. RIC X 370; RSC 20A. 4.25g, 23mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone over lustrous metal.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Bertolami Fine Arts - ACR Auctions, E-Auction 92, 2 October 2020, lot 1596.

718. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 415. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust to right, holding spear and shield with horseman motif / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis enthroned facing, heads turned towards one another, holding sceptres and supporting between them shield inscribed VOT XV MVL XX in four lines, prow beneath foot of Constantinopolis; star in left field, CONOB in exergue. RIC X 207; Depeyrot 61/1. 4.49g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

719. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 425-430. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear and shield with horseman motif / GLOR ORVIS TERRAR, Emperor standing facing, holding standard and cross on globe; star in left field, TESOB in exergue. RIC X 362; Depeyrot 51/1. 4.42g, 22mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine; struck on a broad flan.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

720. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 430-440. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear and shield with horseman motif / VOT XXX MVLT XXXXI, Constantinopolis enthroned to left, holding cross on globe and sceptre, shield leaning on throne; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC X 257; Depeyrot 81/1. 4.47g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

721. Theodosius II AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 438-450. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VOT MVLT XXXX in three lines within wreath; CONS* in exergue. RIC X 389; RSC 21. 0.86g, 16mm, 7h. Good Very Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

234


722. Aelia Pulcheria (sister of Theodosius II) AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 420-429. AEL PVLCHERIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust to right / Cross within wreath, jewel at apex; CONS* in exergue. RIC X 383; RSC 10a. 2.04g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; flan crack at 5h, attractive portrait and old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

723. Aelia Pulcheria (sister of Theodosius II) AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 439. AEL PVLCHERIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust to right / Cross within wreath, jewel at apex; CONOB* in exergue. RIC X 214; Depeyrot 72/4. 1.45g, 14mm, 7h. Very Fine. Rare with wreath tie style 5 (RIC).

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

724. Galla Placidia (mother of Valentinian III) AV Tremissis. Rome, AD 422. D N GALLA P[LACI]DIA P F AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust to right, cross on shoulder / Chi-Rho within wreath; COMOB in exergue. RIC X 1343 (Ravenna); Depeyrot 47/12. 1.45g, 13mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Artemide Aste s.r.l., Auction LV, 24-25 April 2021, lot 550 (hammer: EUR 2,400).

725. Valentinian III AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 426-430. D N PLA VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing facing, holding long cross and victory on globe, foot on head of human-headed coiled serpent; R-V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 2010; Depeyrot 17/1. 4.48g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; well-detailed.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

Very Rare

726. Justa Gratia Honoria (sister of Valentinian III) AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 439. D N IVST GRAT HONORIA P F AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust to right, cross on shoulder; manus Dei holding nimbus above / BONO REIPVBLICAE, Victory standing to left, supporting long jewelled cross; star in upper left field, R-V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 2022; Depeyrot 15/1. 4.38g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; well-centered on a large flan. Very Rare.

5,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Alfred Franklin Collection, Baldwin’s Auctions Ltd, Auction 99, 4 May 2016, lot 57; Privately purchased from Spink & Son Ltd (£7,500).

235


727. Marcian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 450. D N MARCIANVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear and shield with horseman motif / VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory standing to left, supported long jewelled cross; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC X 509 corr. (obv. legend); Depeyrot 87/1. 4.06g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; lustrous.

750

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

728. Leo I AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 457-474. D N LEO PERPET AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SAL REI PЧ(retrograde) I in three lines within wreath, jewel at apex; CONS* in exergue. RIC X 646; RSC 12†a var. (siliqua). 1.20g, 16mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; pleasant old cabinet tone with hints of iridescence and underlying lustre.

400

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 1010; Ex Marc Poncin Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 1134; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 64, 17 May 2012, lot 2771; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 156, 5 March 2007, lot 2379.

729. Leo I, with Verina, Æ 9mm. Uncertain Eastern mint, AD 457-474. […], pearl-diademed, [draped and cuirassed] bust to right / Empress Verina standing facing, holding globus cruciger and transverse sceptre; b-E across fields. RIC X 713-718. 0.78g, 9mm, 9h. Good Very Fine.

50

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

730. Leo I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 462 or 466. D N LEO PERPET AVG, helmeted, diademed and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear and shield with horseman motif / VICTORIA AVGGG B, Victory standing to left, holding long jewelled cross; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC X 605; Depeyrot 93/1. 4.50g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; highly lustrous.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

A Very Rare Consular Issue

731. Leo I AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 462. D N LEO PERPET AVG, pearl-diademed and mantled bust to left, holding mappa and cruciform sceptre / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor, nimbate, enthroned facing, holding mappa and cruciform sceptre; star in left field, THSOB in exergue. RIC X 620; Depeyrot 58/1. 4.34g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; minor marks, struck on a large planchet. Very Rare.

2,000

From the David Miller Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 92, 24 May 2016, lot 2542.

236


Extremely Rare

732. Leo I AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 462-465. D N LEO PERPETV AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing facing, holding cross and Victory on globe, foot on head of coiled human-headed serpent; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 2510; Toffalin 529/1; Depeyrot 27/5. 4.22g, 21mm, 6h. Near Very Fine; ex-mount. Extremely Rare; no other examples offered at auction in the past 20 years.

200

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Baldwin’s Auctions Ltd., Auction 100, 27 September 2016, lot 1074.

Rated R4 in RIC

733. Leo I BI 20mm. Constantinople, AD 474. [D N LE]O PERPET AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SAL[VS R] PVRLICA, Emperor standing to right, holding standard and globe, treading down a captive; CON in exergue. RIC X 658. 3.90g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; excellent quality for the type. Rated R4 in RIC.

200

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s tickets included, one seemingly indicating it was acquired from C. J. Martin, an older one noting what may be an acquisition date of March 1975 and price of 40,00 Deutschmarks.

734. Julius Nepos AV Tremissis. Mediolanum, AD 474-475. D N IVL NEPOS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / Cross within wreath; COMOB in exergue. RIC X 3220; Depeyrot 43/1; Toffalin 537. 1.45g, 14mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

3,500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Artemide Aste s.r.l. (San Marino), Auction XLIII, 6-7 June 2015, lot 431.

735. Zeno AV Solidus. Second reign. Constantinople, AD 476-491. D N ZENO PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly to right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman motif / VICTORIA AVCCC A, Victory standing facing, head to left, holding long jewelled cross; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC X 910 & 929; Depeyrot 108/1. 4.42g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine; graffito on obverse.

400

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included (noting: “retail value 1975 £100”).

237


736. Basiliscus AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 475-476. D N ЬASILISCЧS P P AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly to right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman motif / VICTORIA AVCCC A, Victory standing to left and supporting long jewelled cross; star in right field, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 1003; Depeyrot 101/1; Biaggi -. 4.49g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

737. Basiliscus and Marcus AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 475-476. D N ЬASILISCI ET MARC P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory advancing to front, head to left, holding wreath and cross on globe; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC X 1031; Depeyrot 105/5; Biaggi -. 1.49g, 14mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; cut, die break and die shift. Very Rare.

500

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Timeline Auctions, Auction 60, 27 February 2016, lot 2000.

An English-Found Visigothic Solidus

738. Visigoths, Alaric II(?) AV Solidus. In the name of Libius Severus. Uncertain mint, circa AD 461-470. D N IIBIVS SEVRVS P F AVG, rosettediademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVCCC, Emperor standing facing, holding long cross and Victory on globe, and placing foot on human-headed serpent; R-A across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 3754; MEC 1 174-176; cf. Lacam pl. 18, 53 (A-R, Arles); cf. DOC text to pl. 35 which refers to a ‘Gaulish derivative’ with this mint mark. 4.23g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; flan-crack at 10h/7h. Rare.

3,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included; Ex Hansons, August 2019 Historica & Metal Detecting Auction, 27 August 2019, lot 40; Found by metal detector at Rettendon, Essex, prior to 1996, and recorded by the Portable Antiquities Scheme circa 2019. PAS ID: OXON-5E3E68. It has been suggested that R-A across the reverse field of this solidus gallicus may refer to the Visigothic king Alaric II (Rex Alericus), who succeeded his father Euric as king of Toulouse from AD 485. For commentary see MEC p. 46.

739. Visigoths, uncertain ruler AV Tremissis. In the name of Libius Severus. Uncertain mint, circa AD 461-470. D N SEVERVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTRIA AVCCC, Victory standing to left, holding long cross; COMOB in exergue. RIC X 3759; MEC -; Lacam -; DOC -. 1.44g, 15mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the David Miller Collection, collector’s ticket included.

238


COINS OF THE IMPERATORS

740. Q. Sicinius AR Denarius. Rome, 49 BC. Diademed head of Fortuna to right; P•R upwards behind, FORT downwards before / Palm-branch and caduceus in saltire, laurel wreath above; III-•VIR across fields, Q•SICINIVS below. Crawford 440/1; CRI 1; BMCRR Rome 3947; RSC Sicinia 5. 3.92g, 19mm, 8h. Near Mint State. 250 From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

741. L. Cornelius Lentulus and C. Claudius Marcellus AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Pompey, 49 BC. Facing head of Medusa in centre of triskeles with grain ear between each leg / Jupiter standing facing, head to right, holding thunderbolt and eagle; LENT MAR (partially ligate) upwards to left, COS upwards to right. Crawford 445/1b; CRI 4; BMCRR Sicily 1; Sydenham 1029; RSC Cornelia 64a. 3.74g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State; lustrous metal. 1,500 Acquired from London Ancient Coins Ltd.

742. Cnaeus Pompey Magnus AR Denarius. Corcyra, 48 BC. Cn. Calpurnius Piso, proquaestor. Head of Numa Pompilius to right, wearing diadem inscribed NVMA; CN•PISO PRO•Q• around / Prow of galley to right; MAGN above, PRO•COS below. Crawford 446/1 (mint in Greece); CRI 7 (mint in Greece); RSC 4 (Pompey the Great); for attribution to Corcyra, cf. Woytek, B., Arma et Nummi, Vienna 2003, pp. 115 ff. 3.75g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; minor metal flaw in obv. field. 750 From the Santana Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 54, 24 March 2010, lot 951 (hammer: CHF 1,300).

Fleur De Coin

743. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing to right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; BMCRR Gaul 27-30; RSC 49; FFC 50 (this coin). 4.04g, 20mm, 4h. Fleur De Coin; a perfect strike, lustrous metal. 5,000 This coin published in Fernández, Fernández & Calicó, Catálogo Monográfico de los Denarios de la República Romana (2002); From the Santana Collection; Ex Alba Longa Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 339, 14 November 2019, lot 1047 (hammer: EUR 6,500).

744. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing to right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; BMCRR Gaul 27-30; RSC 49; FFC 50. 3.92g, 20mm, 9h. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158071-001). Beautiful old cabinet tone. 2,000 From the GK Collection; Ex Elvira Eliza Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001) Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 92, 23 May 2016, lot 376.

239


745. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing to right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head) and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; BMCRR Gaul 27-30; RSC 49; FFC 50. 4.34g, 18mm, 5h. Mint State.

750

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 445.

746. Man. Acilius Glabrio AR Denarius. Rome, 49 BC. Laureate head of Salus to right; SALVTIS behind / Valetudo standing to left, resting arm on column and holding snake; III•VIR•VALE[TV] (partially ligate) before, MN•ACILIVS (partially ligate) behind. Crawford 442/1a; CRI 16; BMCRR Rome 3944; Sydenham 922; RSC Acilia 8. 3.84g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; lustrous.

300

Acquired from Warden Numismatics LLC (USD 550).

747. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Female head to right, wearing oak wreath / Victory walking to right, holding caduceus and trophy over shoulder; L•HOSTILIVS downwards before, SASERN[A] upwards behind. Crawford 448/1a; CRI 17; BMCRR Rome 3989; RSC Hostilia 5. 3.74g, 17mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

750

Ex Lampasas Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 449, 31 July 2019, lot 497.

748. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Female head to right, wearing oak wreath / Victory walking to right, holding caduceus and trophy over shoulder; L•HOSTILIVS downwards before, SASERNA upwards behind. Crawford 448/1a; CRI 17; BMCRR Rome 3989; RSC Hostilia 5. 4.20g, 18mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful golden iridescence around devices.

500

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Sotheby’s, June 1993, lot 1326.

749. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Head of Gallic captive to right; Gallic shield behind / Two warriors in biga to right: one driving, holding whip and reins, and the other, facing backward, holding shield and brandishing spear; L•HOSTILIVS above, SASERN below. Crawford 448/2a; CRI 18; BMCRR Rome 3994-5; RSC Hostilia 2. 4.11g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; minor marks, beautiful iridescent tone around the devices. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 120, 6 October 2020, lot 609. The portrait of the Gallic warrior (in captivity) is believed to be Vercingetorix, leader of the great Gallic rebellion against Caesar in 55-54 BC.

240

6,000


Ex Crippa 1971

750. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Head of Gallic captive to right; Gallic shield behind / Two warriors in biga to right: one driving, holding whip and reins, and the other, facing backward, holding shield and brandishing spear; L•HOSTILIVS above, SASERN below. Crawford 448/2a; CRI 18; BMCRR Rome 3994-5; RSC Hostilia 2. 4.00g, 18mm, 2h. Good Very Fine; banker’s mark on obverse, attractive iridescent tone. Ex Crippa Numismatica s.r.l., List 1, 1971, no. 375.

750

Ex NAC 8, 1995

751. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Female head to right; carnyx behind / Artemis standing facing, holding spear and placing hand on head of stag; SASERNA upwards on left; L•HOSTILIVS downwards to right. Crawford 448/3; CRI 19; BMCRR Rome 3996; RSC Hostilia 4. 4.00g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; highly lustrous.

1,250

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), Binder 9, p. 106, available online at: http://numismatics.org/ archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b09#schaefer.rrdp.b09_0142; Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 8, 3 March 1995, lot 584.

752. C. Vibius C. f. C. n. Pansa Caetronianus AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Mask of bearded Pan to right; [PANSA] below / Jupiter Axurus (or Anxurus) seated to left, holding patera and sceptre; C•VIBIVS•C•F•[C•N] downwards to right, IOVIS•AXVR upwards to left. Crawford 449/1a; CRI 20; BMCRR Rome 3978; RSC Vibia 18. 4.14g, 18mm, 9h. Near Mint State; attractive old cabinet tone.

300

From the Santana Collection; Ex V.L. Nummus OG, Floor Auction 12, 15 September 2019, lot 44.

753. L. Plautius Plancus AR Denarius. Rome, 47 BC. Head of Medusa facing; L•PLAVTIV below / Aurora flying to right, conducting the four horses of the sun and holding palm; [PLAN]CVS below. Crawford 453/1e; CRI 29a; BMCRR 4009 var. (PLAVTIVS); Sydenham 959b var. (same); RSC Plautia 15c. 3.85g, 19mm, 8h. Mint State; a stunningly artistic type, well-preserved and with lustrous metal.

1,250

Ex Bertolami Fine Arts - ACR Auctions, Auction 87, 14 December 2020, lot 435.

754. Cnaeus Pompey Junior AR Denarius. Corduba (Cordoba) mint, summer 46 - spring 45 BC. M. Poblicius, legate pro praetore. Helmeted head of Roma to right; M•POBLICI•LEG PRO•PR around / Female figure standing to right, with shield slung on back, holding two spears and giving palm-branch to soldier standing to left on prow of ship; CN•MAGNVS•IMP upwards to right. Crawford 469/1a; CRI 48; BMCRR Spain 72; RSC 1 (Pompey the Great). 3.95g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

400

From the Santana Collection; Ex Jack A. Frazer Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 474, 12 August 2020, lot 382; Ex Harlan J Berk Ltd, BBS 28, 25 October 1983, lot 181.

241


755. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. African mint, 47-46 BC. Diademed head of Venus to right / Aeneas advancing to left, carrying palladium and Anchises on shoulder; CAESAR downwards to right. Crawford 458/1; CRI 55; BMCRR East 31; RSC 12. 3.96g, 19mm, 6h. NGC graded AU★ 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158071-002). Wonderful old cabinet tone, well centred on a broad planchet.

1,250

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 92, 23 May 2016, lot 385. The reverse of this coin features a scene from Virgil’s Aeneid. Aeneas is depicted carrying his lame father, Anchises, from the destroyed city of Troy to find new dwellings to the west. According to Virgil, Aeneas and his entourage eventually settled in Italy and their descendants, Romulus and Remus, went on to play a key role in founding the city of Rome. As a member of the Julian clan, which claimed to trace its ancestry back to Romulus, Remus and Aeneas, Caesar is here emphasising his connection to the mythical founders of Rome and demonstrating his divine right to rule.

756. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. African mint, 47-46 BC. Diademed head of Venus to right / Aeneas advancing to left, carrying palladium and Anchises on shoulder; CAESAR downwards to right. Crawford 458/1; CRI 55; BMCRR East 31; RSC 12. 3.79g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

750

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

757. Julius Caesar AV Aureus. Rome, 46 BC. A. Hirtius, praetor. Veiled head of Vesta to right, C•CAESAR COS TER around / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: lituus, capis, and securis; A•HIRTIVS • PR around. Crawford 466/1; BMCRR 4050; CRI 56; Calicó 36a. 7.88g, 20mm, 5h. Very Fine.

2,000

From the collection of Z.P., Austria. Authorised by Caesar himself, the present aureus was part of the first ever large-scale issue of aurei in the history of the Roman coinage. Under extreme pressure to strike the vast quantities of coinage that Caesar required in time for his ‘Quadruple Triumph’ and the return of his veteran soldiers to Rome, the exacting standards of the Capitoline mint seemingly slipped. We have in the present coin an extremely fine example from dies of good style, which is in marked contrast to the variable quality of the dies used and the technical skill with which the coins were struck. The ‘Quadruple Triumph’ that Caesar celebrated on his return to Rome in 46 BC was spread over four days, with each day to feature a themed procession commemorating his four greatest achievements on campaign: the victories in Gaul while he was proconsul between 58 and 51 BC, his defeat of Ptolemy XIII of Egypt in 47, of Pharnaces of Pontus later the same year and finally over king Juba of Numidia. Juba was cast as the main enemy of the recently successful African campaign, for a Triumph could not be celebrated for the defeat of fellow Romans, a fact that left many uneasy due to the common knowledge of the deaths of Scipio and Cato, Caesar’s real opponents. It is also interesting to note that the types chosen by Caesar to mark his attainment of military supremacy could not have been more opposite to the character of the occasion they were intended for. Referencing Caesar’s occupation of various religious positions with the emblems of the augurate and pontificate on the reverse, it is believed Caesar sought to highlight his care for Rome, the family and home by honouring Vesta, goddess of the hearth, with the veiled female head on the obverse. Although never positively identified as Vesta, that her rites were under the care of the pontifices, and most especially Caesar himself as Pontifex Maximus, makes this likely a correct assumption.

758. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 46 BC. Head of Ceres to right, wearing grain-ear wreath; COS•TERT downwards behind, DICT•ITER upwards before / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, capis, and lituus; M to right, AVGVR above, PONT•MAX below. Crawford 467/1b; CRI 57a; RSC 4. 3.86g, 18mm, 11h. Mint State.

1,000

From the Santana Collection; Ex Bertolami Fine Arts - ACR Auctions, Auction 52, 8 November 2018, lot 217; Ex private British collection.

242


759. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Head of Venus to right, wearing stephane; Cupid behind shoulder / Trophy of Gallic arms between two seated captives; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/1; CRI 58; BMCRR Spain 86; RSC 13. 3.86g, 18mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

750

Ex Naville Numismatics Ltd., Auction 63, 7 February 2021, lot 437.

760. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Draped bust of Venus to left, wearing stephane; small Cupid at point of bust; [lituus] to left, sceptre to right / Trophy of Gallic arms, holding shield and carnyx in each hand; on left, bearded male captive kneeling to left, looking to right; on right, female captive seated to right, resting head in hand; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/2; CRI 59; BMCRR Spain 86; Sydenham 1015; RSC 14; RBW 1640. 3.87g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; light porosity, subtle cabinet tone.

2,250

Acquired from Naville Numismatics Ltd. Caesar’s conquest of Gaul, to which the reverse of this coin alludes, with its captured Gallic spoils (the typical shield, the Gallic ‘carnyx’ or war horn, and axe) and obviously Gallic captives, was the springboard from which he was to take control of the Republic and become its Dictator. It allowed him to grow his power base through both fame as the conqueror of so vast a region and of so many peoples, and through strength as the commander of an army that grew ever more experienced and fiercely loyal. His allocation of the provinces of Gaul also granted him a magistrate’s immunity from the prosecution his enemies intended to conduct upon his return to Rome, which would undoubtedly have stunted his career. It was from his province of Cisalpine Gaul that he invaded Italy across the Rubicon, and he did so with the Legio XIII Gemina, who had fought for him in the major battles of his conquest of Gaul. The importance of this conquest of Gaul to Caesar’s career, and his awareness of this importance, is demonstrated by this coin. It was minted some time after he had left Gaul behind, by the mint which moved with his army as it fought the Optimates around the Mediterranean and beyond – this coin in particular being minted for the Spanish campaign against Pompey’s sons in late 46-early 45 BC - yet it harks back to these Gallic victories, reminding those he paid with these coins of his past as a Roman hero - a conqueror not of his own people, but of his people’s enemies. Furthermore, as Sear points out, the theme of Caesar’s victories in Gaul was undoubtedly “intended to revive memories of ‘the good old days’ in the hearts of his seasoned veterans who were now being called upon to face the Pompeian threat for the third time in only two and a half years” and whose morale may thus have been dangerously flagging.

761. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Draped bust of Venus to left, wearing stephane; small Cupid at point of bust; lituus to left, sceptre to right / Trophy of Gallic arms, holding shield and carnyx in each hand; on left, bearded male captive kneeling to left, looking to right; on right, female captive seated to right, resting head in hand; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/2; CRI 59; BMCRR Spain 86; Sydenham 1015; RSC 14; RBW 1640. 3.85g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine; a sharply struck specimen.

1,750

Acquired from Tauler & Fau.

762. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Draped bust of Venus to left, wearing stephane; small Cupid at point of bust; lituus to left, sceptre to right / Trophy of Gallic arms, holding shield and carnyx in each hand; on left, bearded male captive kneeling to left, looking to right; on right, female captive seated to right, resting head in hand; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/2; CRI 59; BMCRR Spain 86; Sydenham 1015; RSC 14; RBW 1640. 4.00g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; a superb example of the type.

1,500

Ex Scipio Collection.

243


Among the Finest Known

763. Julius Caesar AV Aureus. Rome, 45 BC. L. Munatius Plancus, urban prefect. C•CAES DIC•TER, draped bust of Victory to right / L•PLANC PR•VRB, ewer with handle. Crawford 475/1b; Bahrfeldt 20; CRI 60a; Calicó 44. 7.98g, 21mm, 6h. NGC graded AU★ 5/5 - 5/5 (#6158054-001). Struck on a very broad planchet and among the finest known examples.

20,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 97, 12 December 2016, lot 33. Crawford allocates this issue to early 45 BC, on the basis of the legend DIC TER, referring to his appointment as dictator for the third time, but Sear follows Grueber’s view that this particular series was produced for Caesar’s Spanish triumph in October of that year. (CRI, p.42) The third dictatorship was awarded in April 46 BC, but its extraordinary powers were immediately extended for an unprecedented term of ten years instead of the customary one year. It therefore presents no problems for situating this issue towards the end of 45 BC, and regardless there was already numismatic precedent for Caesar retaining a dictatorial title beyond the period to which it strictly applied, reflecting, as Sear argues “Caesar’s cavalier attitude towards the niceties of constitutional convention.” (CRI, p.42) Indeed, that the obverse type of the winged goddess Victory must refer to Caesar’s victory at Munda against Roman adversaries highlights Caesar’s increasing disdain for the factions of the aristocracy who continued to oppose him. The dictator even celebrated a triumph in the capital, an unprecedented (and taboo) commemoration of victory over other Romans, with no attempt to disguise or spin it as a defeat of a foreign power. The presence within the issue of a gold half-aureus, or quinarius, makes it almost certain that this type was minted specially for the Spanish triumph, since the denomination was typically associated with the distribution of largess at public celebrations. Lucius Munatius Plancus, whose name appears on the reverse of this coin, was one of the Urban Prefects appointed by the dictator in 46 BC to administer the capital while he was on campaign. After this prominent issue of aurei was minted under his name, he rose to the position of governor of Transalpine Gaul in 44 BC where he founded the colony of Lugdunum, and later was appointed consul in 42 BC. Although he supported Marc Antony in the tumult which followed Caesar’s assassination, he eventually became an adviser to Octavian and according to Suetonius he dissuaded the princeps from assuming the name of Romulus as a ‘second founder of Rome’ (Suet. Aug. 7) and instead on 16 January 27 BC he formally proposed that the title ‘Augustus’, meaning ‘revered one’ be granted to the young princeps.

244


245


One of the Finest Known

764. Julius Caesar Æ Dupondius. Rome(?), late 46-45 BC. C. Clovius, prefect. CAESAR•DIC•TER, winged and draped bust of Victory to right / Minerva advancing to left, holding trophy over shoulder and spears and shield; at feet to left, snake gliding to left with head erect, C•CLOVI downwards in left field, PRAEF upwards in right field. Crawford 476/1a (uncertain mint); C. 7; BMCRR 4125; CRI 62 (Rome); RPC I 601/1 (uncertain mint in Northern Italy). 15.69g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; well-centred, highly detailed, and among the finest known specimens - superior even to Roma XX lot 455 (sold for £6,500). 5,000 Ex Brett Telford Collection, USA; Privately purchased from Tom Cederlind, dealer’s ticket included ($3,750); Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 165, 17 March 2008, lot 1715 (professionally cleaned and conserved since).

765. C. Considius Paetus AR Denarius. Rome, 46 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right; A behind / Curule chair on which lies wreath; C•CONSIDI above, [PAETI] in exergue. Crawford 465/2a; CRI 77b; BMCRR Rome 4084; RSC 2. 3.89g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone.

250

From the Santana Collection; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 333, 16 March 2020, lot 885; Ex private northern Rhine area collection, acquired in Rome, July 1988.

766. Lollius Palikanus AR Denarius. Rome, 45 BC. Pearl-diademed head of Libertas to right; LIBERTATIS downwards behind / Rostra, on which stands subsellium (tribune’s bench); PALIKANVS above. Crawford 473/1; Sydenham 960; CRI 86; BMCRR Rome 4011; RSC Lollia 2. 3.63g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone.

1,250

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd. This type, like the others issued by Lollius, may relate to the vigorous and successful exertions of the tribune M. Lollius Palikanus (possibly the moneyer’s father), to obtain for the tribunes the restoration of those powers and privileges of which they had been deprived by Sulla.

767. L. Valerius Acisculus AR Denarius. Rome, 45 BC. Diademed head of Apollo to right; star above, acisculus and ACISCVLVS behind, all within wreath / Europa seated on bull to right; [L•]VALERIVS in exergue. Crawford 474/1b; CRI 90a; BMCRR Rome 4102-4; RSC Valeria 16. 3.58g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; some flat strike, attractive rainbow iridescence.

450

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from J. Fernández, November 1993.

246


One of the Rarest of All Republican Denarii

768. L. Valerius Acisculus AR Denarius. Rome, 45 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter to right; acisculus and ACISCVLVS behind, all within laurel wreath / Anguipedic giant facing, holding thunderbolt that has pierced his side, and raising other hand overhead; [L] • VALERIVS in exergue. Crawford 474/4; CRI 93; BMCRR Rome 4114; RBW -. 3.27g, 18mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; a superior example of one of the rarest of all Republican denarii.

10,000

From a private North European collection. This extremely rare denarius highlights a climactic moment in the myth of the Gigantomachy, the cataclysmic battle between the Olympian gods and the earth-born Giants that took place when the former established themselves as the new rulers of the cosmos. The giants, who were depicted in iconographic tradition inherited from the Ancient Greeks as anguipedic - with serpents for legs as a sign of their origin as sons of Gaia - were led by their king Porphyrion, who is likely depicted on the reverse. According to the Roman version of the myth, Porphyrion attacked Hercules and Juno and was on the point of destroying them when Jupiter inspired a desire for Juno in the giant, and struck him down with a thunderbolt while Hercules shot him with an arrow. This dynamic reverse image shows the blazing thunderbolt striking the giant’s side as he weakly raises a hand to his face to protect himself from Hercules’ arrow, his serpent legs flailing in pain. The obverse identifies his slayer as Jupiter, the king of the Olympian gods, with a stern and commanding portrait with a full curled beard and long hair crowned with a laurel wreath. Both the obverse legend and the accompanying pick-axe (acisculus) symbol identify the moneyer L. Valerius Acisculus, in a punning reference to his cognomen. That this type is so extremely rare may not be surprising: Sear suggests that it may have been interpreted (perhaps rightly) as an allegory for Julius Caesar’s intention to overthrow the old order in which the Senate was supreme and establish himself as a Jupiter on earth to rule the Roman empire as king (Sear, The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators, p.56). Caesar had already cemented his position as dictator, having decisively defeated Pompey and his other opponents in a series of bloody battles a few years earlier; it is well known that Caesar’s apparent inclinations towards kingship and divinity pushed the senatorial liberatores to assassinate him on the Ides of March of 44 BC, and Sear hints that these coin types, which seem to have been abruptly terminated, may have been a contributing factor. Desnier, on the other hand, gives a more backward-looking interpretation, seeing the type as simply the expression of the defeat of dark forces after several years of brutal civic strife. He notes that coins of Acisculus feature the figure of Victory with double cornucopiae, suggesting that this moneyer’s issues simply celebrate peace after cataclysmic warfare, without any pretension on Caesar’s part to future kingship or deification (Desnier, “L. Valerius Acisculus et le corbeau combattant Chouette ou corbeau?” in Latomus, p.814). Whichever interpretation seems more likely, this coin remains a superior example of one of the rarest of all Republican denarii, minted during (and perhaps contributing towards) a turbulent and pivotal moment for the Roman Republic.

247


Ex Aretusa 2, 1994

769. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 43 BC. L. Flaminius Chilo, moneyer. Wreathed head of Caesar to right / Goddess (Pax or Venus?) standing to left, holding caduceus and sceptre; L • FLAMINIVS downward to right, IIII • VIR upward to left. Crawford 485/1; CRI 113; BMCRR Rome 4201-2; RSC 26. 3.78g, 19mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone, a wonderful portrait of Caesar.

12,500

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 12, p. 14, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b12#schaefer.rrdp.b12_0024; Ex Viggo Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXII, 8 January 2019, lot 946; Ex JD collection of Roman Republican Coins, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 72, 16 May 2013, lot 494; Ex Numismatica Aretusa, Auction 2, 13 May 1994, lot 294. In the years of his supremacy, Caesar had amassed unprecedented power by corrupting the institutions of the old Republic to his own requirements. First appointed Dictator in 49 BC by the Praetor (and future Triumvir) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, possibly in order to preside over elections, Caesar resigned his Dictatorship within eleven days but in 48 BC he was appointed Dictator again, only this time for an indefinite period, and was also given permanent tribunician powers making his person sacrosanct and allowing him to veto the Senate. In 46 BC he was appointed Dictator for ten years, and he gave himself quasi-censorial powers under the mantle of ‘Prefect of the Morals’, enabling him to fill the Senate with his partisans who duly voted him the titles of Pater Patriae and Imperator. He increased the number of magistrates who were elected each year, thus allowing him to reward his supporters, and in October 45 BC, having served in the unconstitutional role of Sole Consul for that year, Caesar resigned his consulship and facilitated the election of two successors for the remainder of the year - theoretically restoring the ordinary consulship, but in practice submitting the Consuls to the Dictatorial executive - a practice that later become common under the Empire. In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, Caesar was appointed Dictator for life. More followed; he was given the unprecedented honour of having his own likeness placed upon the Roman coinage, his statue was placed next to those of the kings, he was granted a golden chair in the Senate, and was permitted to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose. Then, at the festival of the Lupercal, Marc Antony presented Caesar with a royal diadem, and attempted to place it on his head. Yet for all these hideous affronts to the ancient institutions of the Republic and the sensibilities of the Roman people, perhaps his most egregious reform was the law he passed in preparation for his planned campaign against the Parthian Empire. Realising that his absence from Rome would impede his ability to install his own men in positions of power and that therefore his back would be exposed while away from the city, Caesar decreed that he would have the right to appoint all magistrates in 43 BC, and all consuls and tribunes in 42 BC, thus at a stroke transforming the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator. Struck after Caesar’s assassination, this coin marks a departure from the portraiture on the coinage minted during his lifetime. Rather than the veiled head of Caesar the dictator, depicted instead is the wreathed head of the soon-to-be deified adoptive father of Octavian. This depiction of Caesar by Flaminius Chilo appears to be heavily influenced by Octavian’s concerted attempts in the aftermath of Caesar’s death to rehabilitate his image in the eyes of many of those at Rome who had developed concerns surrounding his increasing power and also, perhaps more cynically, to reinforce Octavian’s own legitimacy as his heir.

248


770. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. L. Mussidius Longus, moneyer. Laureate head to right / L•MVSSIDI[VS• LONGVS], cornucopiae on globe, between rudder on left and caduceus and apex on right. Crawford 494/39a; CRI 116; BMCRR Rome 4240; RSC 29. 3.95g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; some areas of flatness; beautiful old cabinet tone with hints of golden iridescence.

1,000

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

Very Rare

771. Marc Antony and M. Lepidus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Antony and Lepidus in Transalpine Gaul, June 43 BC. Lituus, jug and raven; M•ANTON•IMP above / Simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex; [M]•LEPID•IMP around. Crawford 489/2; BMCRR Gaul 31; CRI 119a; RSC 2. 3.74g, 18mm, 9h. Very Fine; unusually complete and well centred for the issue. Very Rare; this denarius type is much rarer than the quinarius of the same design and is missing from most collections. 500 From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

Ex Aureo 43, 1993

772. M. Aemilius Lepidus and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Lepidus in Italy, spring - summer 42 BC. Bare head of Lepidus to right; [LE]PIDVS•PONT•MAX•III•V•R•[P•C•] (partially ligate) around / Bare head of Octavian to right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IM•III•VIR•R•P•C• (sic) around. Crawford 495/2a; CRI 140; BMCRR Africa 30; RSC 2a. 3.62g, 21mm, 5h. Good Very Fine; die engraver’s error on rev. legend. Rare.

1,000

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Aureo, Auction 43, 16 December 1993, lot 277.

249


Ex M&M 52, 1975

773. C. Vibius Varus AV Aureus. Rome, 42 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Venus standing to left before column, looking at herself in mirror held in hand; C•VIBIVS upwards to left, VARVS upwards to right. Crawford 494/34; CRI 190; Calicó 33a (same dies); Sydenham 1137; BMCRR Rome 4300; RBW 1738; Biaggi 23. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 3/5, edge bend (#4883332-001); remarkably high relief and well preserved for the issue.

10,000

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 12, p. 148, available online at: http://numismatics.org/ archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b12#schaefer.rrdp.b12_0246 (incorrectly identified as Ex Enrico Caruso Collection, Canessa III, 28 June 1923, lot 130 = CNG Triton III, 835); Ex Jonathan P. Rosen Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 108, 16 May 2018, lot 523; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction XXVI, 6 November 1993, lot 420; Ex Münzen und Medaillen AG, Auction 52, 19 June 1975, lot 447. The striking laureate portrait of Apollo on this aureus of C. Vibius Varus is remarkably similar to that on the contemporary coinage of P. Clodius (Crawford 494/22-3), pointing towards particular unity among the college of moneyers for 42 BC. The beautiful sculptural reverse type of Venus, the mythical mother of Aeneas and divine progenitor of the gens Julia, can be read as honouring the recently assassinated dictator Julius Caesar and a proclamation of support for his heir, the youthful Octavian. The young triumvir would later on famously adopt Apollo as his patron god: having vowed to dedicate a temple to him in return for his victories against Sextus Pompeius at Naulochus and Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Actium, he consecrated the large Temple of Apollo Palatinus in 28 BC, which he had built within his own property.

774. C. Vibius Varus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Ivy-wreathed head of Liber to right / Panther springing to left, toward garlanded altar upon which sit thyrsus and mask; VARVS upwards to right, C•VIBIVS in exergue. Crawford 494/36; Sydenham 1138; CRI 192; BMCRR Rome 4295; RSC Vibia 24. 3.81g, 38mm, 6h. Mint State; attractive cabinet tone.

750

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd. Liber, the Italian god of fertility and wine, equated to Bacchus or Dionysus, seems to be related to the family traditions of the Vibii, having appeared six years earlier on denarii of the Caesarian moneyer C. Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (CRI 21-22a). The reverse type is complementary to the obverse, the panther being the animal especially associated with Bacchus and the thyrsus being the god’s distinctive staff.

A Very Rare Variety

775. L. Cestius and C. Norbanus AV Aureus. Rome, January-April 43 BC. Draped bust of Africa to right, wearing elephant skin headdress / Corinthian helmet set atop curule chair, legs decorated with eagles; L • CESTIVS above, C • NORBA below, EX • S • C - PR across fields. Crawford 491/1b; CRI 195a; Bahrfeldt 25, pl. IV, 19 (same dies); Calico 4. 7.97g, 20mm, 1h. NGC graded Ch AU 3/5 - 4/5 (#6158066-005). A very rare variety.

10,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Baldwin’s Auctions Ltd - Dmitry Markov Coins & Medals - M&M Numismatics Ltd - Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, The New York Sale XL, 11 January 2017, lot 1167; Ex Aurora Collection, Baldwin’s Auctions Ltd - Dmitry Markov Coins & Medals - M&M Numismatics Ltd, The New York Sale XXXII, 8 January 2014, lot 2; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 63, 17 May 2012, lot 486; Ex Classical Numismatic Group - Numismatica Ars Classica - Freeman & Sear, Triton III, 30 November 1999, lot 828.

250


251


Exceptional Condition for the Issue

776. L. Cestius and C. Norbanus AV Aureus. Rome, January-April 43 BC. Draped bust of Sibyl to right; C•NORBANVS above, L•CESTIVS below, PR before / Cybele enthroned in biga of lions to left, holding patera and resting on tympanum; S•C in upper left field. Crawford 491/2; CRI 196; Calicó 5; Bahrfeldt 26. 8.12g, 20mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 3/5 (#6158066-004). Rare; struck on a very broad planchet and in exceptional condition for the issue.

12,500

From the GK Collection; Ex George W. La Borde Collection of Roman Aurei, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 91, 23 May 2016, lot 1; Ex Calgary Coin Gallery inventory, privately purchased on January 2003. Like most gold issues of the Roman Republic, this aureus was an exceptional emergency issue authorised by the Senate in order to provide funds to counter Marc Antony’s siege of Mutina in Northern Italy in 43 BC. (CRI, p.118). In the immediate chaotic aftermath of the assassination of Julius Caesar, an inevitable power struggle emerged between the various prominent parties, including the Bruti and Cassius - the so-called liberators - the consuls Hirtius and Pansa, Caesar’s trusted lieutenant Marc Antony, and Caesar’s young heir Octavian. Alliances were formed and broken swiftly, and this aureus was likely minted to pay the troops of Octavian who marched to support Decimus Brutus, one of the assassins of Caesar, on campaign against Marc Antony, who had been declared a public enemy by the senate. This shortlived and unlikely partnership between Octavian, who claimed Caesar’s legacy, and a man who had a hand in his adopted father’s downfall highlights the cynical and turbulent nature of the balance of power in the twilight years of the Republic. Little is known of Lucius Cestius and Gaius Norbanus, the moneyers, beyond their election to the praetorship in 32 BC. The obverse bust on this type is occasionally described as Venus, the divine ancestress of the gens Julia, which would perhaps demonstrate support for Octavian, but is generally identified as Sibyl, the legendary priestess whose prophecies, fiercely guarded in the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter were consulted in times of crisis. This latter identification elucidates the presence of Cybele enthroned in a biga of lions on the reverse: during the Second Punic War, consultation of the Sybilline books found a recommendation that a cult be established at Rome for the Phrygian goddess, who would come to be known in Roman religion as ‘Magna Mater’. Perhaps during a time of great chaos and uncertainty, it was reassuring to hark back to another pivotal moment in Roman history from which the Republic ultimately emerged victorious.

252


777. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Smyrna, 43-42 BC. Sacrificial axe, simpulum and sacrificial dagger; BRVTVS below / Jug and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/7; CRI 198; RSC 6. 3.76g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State; perfectly centred on a broad planchet.

4,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 460; Export licence granted by the Italian Republic.

778. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in Western Asia Minor or Northern Greece, 43-42 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right; COSTA LEG around / Trophy of arms; IMP BRVTVS around. Crawford 506/2; CRI 209; BMCRR East 59; Sydenham 1296; RBW 1778; RSC 4. 3.84g, 21mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; highly attractive old cabinet tone with hint of blue iridescence around rev. devices.

1,500

From the Santana Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 68, 27 February 2020, lot 921; Ex Phoibos Collection, Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 326, 7 October 2019, lot 1194, old collector’s ticket included.

One of the Finest Known

779. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus with P. Servilius Casca Longus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in western Asia Minor or northern Greece, summer - autumn 42 BC. CASCA LONGVS, laureate bust of Neptune to right, trident below / BRVTVS IMP, Victory in long tunic walking to right, palm branch over shoulder and breaking diadem with both hands, broken sceptre on ground. Crawford 507/2; CRI 212; BMCRR East 63-65; RSC 3; FFC 2 (this coin). 3.95g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State; lustrous metal, beautiful old cabinet tone. Rare, and among the finest known of the type. This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 13, p. 107, available online at: http://numismatics.org/ archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b13#schaefer.rrdp.b13_0154; This coin published in Fernández, Fernández & Calicó, Catálogo Monográfico de los Denarios de la República Romana (2002); From the Santana Collection; Ex Alba Longa Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 339, 14 November 2019, lot 1064 (hammer: EUR 9,000); Ex Münzen und Medaillen AG Basel, Auction 53, 29 November 1977, lot 226.

253

7,500


Ex Glendining 1952 and Naville 1922

780. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in western Asia Minor or northern Greece, late summer-autumn 42 BC. L. Plaetorius Cestianus, moneyer. Laureate, veiled and draped female bust to right, wearing polos on top of head; L•PLAET•CEST behind / Sacrificial axe and simpulum; BRVT•IMP below. Crawford 508/2; CRI 214; BMCRR East 66-67; RSC 2. 3.77g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Rare and among the finest specimens known in private hands.

30,000

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 13, p. 110, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b13#schaefer.rrdp.b13_0163; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 72, 12 May 1998, lot 399; Ex V. J. E. Ryan Collection Part V, Glendining & Co. Ltd, 2 April 1952, lot 1887; Ex M. P. Vautier & Prof. M. Collignon Collection, Naville & Cie., Auction II, 12-14 June 1922, lot 32. This type, no less rare in fact than the famed EID MAR denarius bearing the portrait of Brutus, was also struck in the last days or weeks before the fateful and titanic clash of armies and ideologies at the Battle of Philippi on 3 and 23 October 42 BC. Despite being outshone in demand by the aforementioned most iconic of Roman coins, this beautiful and simple type is an excellent example of what may be accurately described as the final issue of Republican coins in the truest sense, before the Roman world passed forever from the hands of the Senate and People and into those of autocrats. The brutal and bloody assassination had been prompted by the well-founded belief among the Senate that Caesar intended to make himself king, which in truth he was already in all but name. By special decree of the Senate Caesar had been made dictator perpetuo - dictator in perpetuity - and granted the extraordinary and unprecedented honour of striking coins bearing his own likeness, thus breaking the ancient taboo of placing the image of a living Roman upon a coin. By these and other affronts to the traditional values and institutions of the Republic did Caesar seal his fate. On 15 March, 44 BC, in a room adjoining the east portico of the Theatre of Pompey, Caesar was stabbed twenty three times by the gang of Senators numbering over thirty and perhaps as many as sixty, men that Caesar called his friends, and of whom many had been pardoned by him on the battlefield and now owed their ranks and offices to him, chief amongst them Brutus and Cassius.

254


255


781. C. Cassius Longinus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius, probably at Smyrna, 43-42 BC. Tripod with cauldron, decorated with two laurel-branches; C•CASSI upwards to left, IMP upwards to right / Capis and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/1; CRI 219; RSC 7. 3.85g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

2,000

From the Santana Collection; Ex collection of Professor David R. Beatty, C.M., O.B.E, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXIII, 14 January 2020, lot 616; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XIII, 5 January 2010, lot 294.

782. C. Cassius Longinus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius, probably at Smyrna, early 42 BC. Diademed head of Libertas to right; LEIBERTAS upwards before, C•CASSI•IMP upwards behind / Capis and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/3; CRI 221; BMCRR East 77; RSC 4. 3.92g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

1,000

Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 7, 24-25 October 2020, lot 1530.

Q. Cornuficius

783. Q. Cornuficius Fourée Denarius. Uncertain North African mint (possibly Utica?), spring - early summer 42 BC. Head of Ceres to left, wearing wreath of grain / Q. Cornuficius standing to left, wearing veil and holding lituus, crowned by Juno Sospita standing to left, holding spear and shield, with crow perching on shoulder; Q•CORN downwards to left, VFICI in exergue, AVGVR•IMP upwards to right. Crawford 509/5; Sydenham 1354; CRI 231; BMCRR Africa 27; RSC Cornuficia 3; cf. RRDP Processed Clippings 509. 2.87g, 19mm, 4h. Very Fine; patches of core visible, edge chipped. Extremely Rare - one of the most sought after Republican pieces.

500

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from Soler & Llach; Sold with export license from Spain. By the time he was appointed governor of Africa Vetus (the ‘old’ province) in 44 BC, Quintus Cornuficius already had enjoyed a distinguished career in government and as a poet and orator. He counted among his friends Catullus and Cicero, and had been a loyal ally of Julius Caesar in his struggle against the Pompeians. After the murder of Caesar, Cornuficius voiced his opposition to the Triumvirs: he sided with the senate in the War of Mutina (43 BC), refused to allow Antony’s nominee to replace him as governor, and thus was named in the Triumviral proscriptions. From his base in Africa, he aided Sextus Pompey and allowed many of those who also had been proscribed to take refuge in his territory. Cornuficius’ vocal opposition to the Triumvirs, however, proved to be his undoing, for in 42 BC he was attacked by Titus Sextius, governor of neighbouring Africa Nova (the ‘new’ province). The fact that Cornuficius was hailed Imperator and was able to produce an intriguing coinage with his title suggests his defence was initially successful before, late in the year, he was defeated and killed near Utica. His coin designs are highly personal, and the few dies used to produce them were engraved in unusually fine style. He chose for the obverse of his coins the portraits of Ceres-Tanit, Africa and Jupiter Ammon, all of which celebrated his province. These were paired with a single reverse type that showed Cornuficius being crowned by Juno Sospita. The fact that he is veiled, holds a lituus and includes AVGVR in the inscription underscores the pride he held in the augurate to which he had been appointed by Julius Caesar in 47 BC Since he is crowned by Juno Sospita, we should assume that is a reference to his Lanuvine origin.

256


784. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Q. Nasidius, commander of the fleet. Massilia, 44-43 BC. Bare head of Pompey Magnus to right; NEPTVNI behind, trident before, dolphin swimming to right below / Galley under oar and sail to right; star in upper left field, Q•NASIDIVS below. Crawford 483/2; CRI 235; Sydenham 1350; BMCRR Sicily 21; RSC 20 (Pompey the Great). 3.59g, 18mm, 7h. Good Very Fine; attractive iridescence around devices.

2,000

From a private European collection; Ex Bertolami Fine Arts - ACR Auctions, Auction 15, 27 April 2015, lot 488. According to Dio Cassius, following success in naval battles against Octavian, Sextus Pompey came to be known as ‘Son of Neptune’ as reflected in the obverse legend NEPTVNI and trident symbol. The reverse legend names Quintus Nasidius, an admiral under Pompey Magnus and then Sextus. Realising the futility of the Pompeian cause, Nasidius eventually defected to the camp of Marc Antony, and fought under him at the Battle of Actium, after which point he disappears from the historical record.

785. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, Ephesus, spring-early summer 41 BC. M. Barbatius Pollio, Quaestor Pro Praetore. M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M BARBAT•Q•P (MP and AV ligate), bare head of Antony to right / CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Octavian to right. Crawford 517/2; Sydenham 1181; CRI 243; BMCRR East 100; RSC 8a. 3.78g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; well centered.

1,000

Following the murder of Julius Caesar, power fell into the hands of Marc Antony, Caesar’s loyal lieutenant and commander of cavalry. Antony’s position was soon challenged from an unexpected direction when Caesar’s 18-year-old grand-nephew, Gaius Octavius, arrived in Rome to claim his legacy as Caesar’s heir. The youth proved unnaturally canny at securing the loyalty of Caesar’s followers and undermining Antony’s authority. By 43 BC, Octavian had actually induced the Senate to declare Antony a public enemy, but quickly reversed himself and struck a deal with Antony by which they would share supreme power with a third broker, Lepidus, with the ultimate aim of hunting down Caesar’s assassins. This task accomplished, Lepidus soon faded into the background, leaving Octavian and Antony to rule the Roman world jointly for the better part of a decade until their inevitable falling out. This issue, struck in early 41 BC in the eastern half of the Empire ruled by Antony, puts the political situation in stark terms, with Antony and Octavian, still sporting youthful long sideburns, on opposite sides. While Antony occupies the dominant obverse, Octavian calls himself by the magical name Caesar, which would soon become a title for all Roman emperors.

786. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, Ephesus, spring-early summer 41 BC. M. Barbatius Pollio, Quaestor Pro Praetore. M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M BARBAT•Q•P (MP and AV ligate), bare head of Antony to right / CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Octavian to right. Crawford 517/2; Sydenham 1181; CRI 243; BMCRR East 100; RSC 8a. 3.68g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

1,000

From the Santana Collection; Ex Alba Longa Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 339, 14 November 2019, lot 1144.

787. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, Ephesus, spring-early summer 41 BC. M. Barbatius Pollio, Quaestor Pro Praetore. M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M BARBAT•Q•P (MP and AV ligate), bare head of Antony to right / CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Octavian to right. Crawford 517/2; Sydenham 1181; CRI 243; BMCRR East 100; RSC 8a. 4.09g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; beautiful cabinet tone with golden iridescence.

1,000

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.

257


788. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony in Asia Minor, autumn 41 BC. L. Gellius Poplicola, moneyer. M•ANT•IM P•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•L•GELL•Q•P• (MP and AV ligate), bare head of Antony to right; jug behind / CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Octavian to right; lituus behind. Crawford 517/8; Sydenham 1188; CRI 250; BMCRR East 109; RSC 10. 3.78g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; flan crack at 5h/7h, beautiful cabinet tone with hints of iridescence.

1,000

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.

789. Octavian and Agrippa AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Agrippa in Gaul or with Octavian in Italy, 38 BC. [IMP•C]AESAR DIVI•IVL[I•F], bare head of Octavian to right, with slight beard / [M•]AGRIPPA•COS DESIG in two lines. Crawford 534/3; CRI 307; BMCRR Gaul 103; RSC 545. 4.08g, 20mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; some areas of flatness, beautiful old cabinet tone.

750

This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 13, p. 196, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b13#schaefer.rrdp.b13_0328; Ex Scipio Collection; Ex José A. Herrero S.A., 11 January 1996, lot 381.

790. C. Numonius Vaala AR Denarius. Rome, 41 BC. Bare head of Numonius Vaala to right; C•NVMONIVS downwards before, VAALA upwards behind / Soldier advancing to left, holding sword and shield, attacking vallum defended by [two soldiers]; VAALA in exergue. Crawford 514/2; CRI 322; BMCRR Rome 4216; Sydenham 1087; RSC Numonia 2. 2.90g, 18mm, 10h. Extremely Fine; a striking portrait accentuated by hints of golden iridescence.

3,500

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 280, 26 September 2016, lot 392. The reverse type no doubt depicts the deeds of an ancestor which resulted in the cognomen Vaala. The first soldier to breach the enemy rampart (vallum) was awarded the corona vallaris. The details of this particular instance are not known to history.

791. C. Numonius Vaala AR Denarius. Rome, 41 BC. Bare head of Numonius Vaala to right; C•NVMONIVS downwards before, VAALA upwards behind / Soldier advancing to left, holding sword and shield, attacking vallum defended by two soldiers; VAALA in exergue. Crawford 514/2; CRI 322; BMCRR Rome 4216; Sydenham 1087; RSC Numonia 2. 3.53g, 19mm, 3h. Good Very Fine.

2,500

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Áureo & Calicó, Auction 94, 2 July 1998, lot 64.

258


259


A Superb Portrait of Caesar

792. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Posthumous Issue. Rome, 40 BC. Q. Voconius Vitulus, moneyer. Laureate head to right / Bull-calf walking to left; Q•VOCONIVS above, VITVLVS•Q• DESIGN in two lines below, S-C across fields. Crawford 526/4; CRI 331; Sydenham 1133; BMCRR Rome 43112; RSC 45. 3.76g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone, a superb portrait of Caesar. Rare.

22,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 471; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 5, 27 October 2019, lot 315. In 40 BC, when this coin was struck, upon learning of the defeat of his brother Lucius and wife Fulvia in the Perusine War, Marc Antony set sail for Italy with a small army and two hundred ships which he had built in Asia. Arriving at Athens, Antony was met by his wife Fulvia and his mother Julia, who had taken refuge with Sextus and been sent by him with warships from Sicily. She was accompanied by some leading Pompeians whose aim was to bring Antony and Sextus into alliance against Octavian. Antony’s response to the embassy was to offer alliance in case of war and reconciliation in case of peace, suggesting that Antony believed that a lasting partnership with Octavian was still possible. These new lines of communication with Sextus provided an avenue by which former supporters of the liberators could find their way back from exile; the most prominent of these was Ahenobarbus, who met Antony at sea with his whole army and fleet; this combined force moved together to Brundisium, which was refused entry to the harbour by Octavian’s commander. Despite initially laying siege to Brundisium, the triumvirs were able to negotiate a settlement that provided for a continued peace between them. The Treaty of Brundisium confirmed the de facto state of affairs, while further binding Octavian and Antony through the ill-fated marriage of Octavian’s sister Octavia to Antony. Antony furthermore received legions for his planned invasion of Parthia and Octavian received warships to counter the ongoing threat posed by Sextus Pompey. This issue depicts the now deified Caesar on the obverse, sometimes with a lituus – the augur’s staff representing his membership to the priestly college of augurs. Octavian’s possession of the augurship was also made clear on an issue with his portrait struck by the same moneyer (CRI 330) emphasising his relationship to Caesar, a propaganda tool also employed by Marc Antony (see CRI 253-5, 2578). It is well attested how Octavian capitalised tremendously on his posthumous adoption by Caesar; in truth he owed everything he eventually achieved to this twist of fate. Octavian used Caesar’s reflected but undimmed prestige to legitimise himself and his ascent to power in the eyes of the Roman people and more importantly the legions, and thus the continuation of (often idealised) Caesar portrait issues at the Roman mint under Octavian’s control is hardly surprising. Though struck during a period of high tension as opposing factions pulled the Republic apart, the reverse type seen here remains unsullied by the events of the day, the moneyer choosing a strictly personal, though perhaps unflattering, composition instead: his cognomen Vitulus translates as cow or calf. Unusually for silver issues however, this particular type declares that it was struck under the express mandate of the Senate, displaying the formula S C flanking the main design.

260


261


793. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily (Catania?), 42-40 BC. Bare head of Pompey Magnus to right; capis behind, lituus before; [MAG•]PIVS•IMP•ITER around / Neptune standing to left, holding aplustre and with foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, each carrying a parent on their shoulders; PRÆ[F] above, CLAS•ET•ORÆ•[MA]RIT•EX•S[•C] in two lines in exergue. Crawford 511/3a; BMCRR Sicily 7; CRI 334; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). 3.74g, 19mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet and featuring a handsome portrait of Pompey. 2,000 Ex Collection of a Hanseatic Romanophile, Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 341, 1 October 2020, lot 5682; Ex Nicholas v. Jamgochian Collection, Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger, Auction 340, 2 November 1994, lot 740. Several Sicilian denarii were struck for Sextus Pompey to commemorate his naval command of the coasts of Sicily in 42-39 BC. The reverse alludes to the well-known legend of Amphinomus and Anapias, two brothers who risked their own lives to save their elderly parents when Mount Etna erupted and engulfed the Sicilian city of Catania in flames.

794. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily (Catania?), 42-40 BC. Bare head of Pompey Magnus to right; capis behind, lituus before; MAG•PIVS•IMP•ITER around / Neptune standing to left, holding aplustre and with foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, each carrying a parent on their shoulders; [PRÆF] above, [CL]AS•ET•ORÆ•[MAR]IT•EX•S•C in two lines in exergue. Crawford 511/3a; BMCRR Sicily 7; CRI 334; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). 3.74g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone. 1,000 From the Santana Collection; Ex Jesus Vico S.A., Auction 156, 5 March 2020, lot 439.

795. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily (Catania?), 42-40 BC. Bare head of Pompey Magnus to right; [capis behind], lituus before; [MAG•PIVS•IMP•]ITER around / Neptune standing to left, holding aplustre and with foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, each carrying a parent on their shoulders; [PRÆF] above, CLAS•ET•[ORÆ]•MARIT•EX•[S•C] in two lines in exergue. Crawford 511/3a; BMCRR Sicily 7; CRI 334; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). 3.91g, 18mm, 10h. Extremely Fine; an expressive portrait, attractive old cabinet tone with hints of golden iridescence. 1,000 From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

New York Sale II, 1999

796. Cn. Domitius Calvinus AR Denarius. Osca, 39 BC. Head of Hercules to right; OSCA downwards behind / Simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex; DOM•COS•ITER•IMP around. Crawford 532/1; CRI 342; BMCRR Spain 109; Sydenham 1358; RSC -. 4.03g, 20mm, 1h. Mint State; areas of flat strike, lustrous surfaces with light cabinet tone. Rare. 2,500 This coin published in Richard Schaefer’s Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 13, p. 184, available online at: http://numismatics.org/archives/ark:/53695/schaefer.rrdp.b13#schaefer.rrdp.b13_0303; From the Santana Collection; Ex Benito Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 114, 13 May 2020, lot 636; Ex Auctiones AG, Auction 29, 12 June 2003, lot 866; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 21, 17 May 2001, lot 321; Ex The New York Sale, Auction II, 2 December 1999, lot 212; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 15, 18 May 1999, lot 229.

797. Cn. Domitius Calvinus AR Denarius. Osca, 39 BC. Head of Hercules to right; OSCA downwards behind / Simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex; DOM•COS•ITER•IMP around. Crawford 532/1; CRI 342; BMCRR Spain 109; Sydenham 1358; RSC -. 3.74g, 19mm, 2h. Near Mint State; rainbow iridescence around edge on obverse. Rare. 1,000 Ex Scipio Collection; Privately purchased from J. Vico, April 1994.

262


798. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, 32-31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG IV across fields. Crawford 544/17; CRI 352; BMCRR East 195; Sydenham 1219; RSC 30. 3.46g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; light cabinet tone, an attractive example. From a private European collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 237, 7 March 2016, lot 1788.

750

799. Octavian AV Aureus. Uncertain Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Draped bust of Diana Siciliensis to right, her shoulders bare, the hair drawn back and coiled into two rolls on top and back of head; bow and quiver over shoulder / Tetrastyle temple containing a naval and military trophy set on prow; triskeles in pediment, aplustre at roof corners, [IMP•CAESAR] on frieze. RIC I 273; CRI 418; Calicó 206; BMCRE 643 = BMCRR Rome 4355; BN 91; Biaggi 105. NGC graded VF 5/5 - 3/5, banker’s mark (#6156281-004). Very Rare.

7,500

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 257, 10 October 2014, lot 8854; Ex Gemini, LLC, Auction X, 13 January 2013, lot 520; Ex Randy Haviland Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 52, 7 October 2009, lot 910. The reverse type of this rare aureus celebrates the great naval victory of 36 BC over Sextus Pompey at the Battle of Naulochus off Sicily. Following the battle, which eliminated the threat posed by Sextus Pompey who was occupying the province of Sicily, a shrine to Diana Siciliensis was erected at Naulochus, which is here referenced by the Sicilian triskeles shown in the pediment of the temple, and by the presence of Diana as the obverse type.

800. Octavian AR Denarius. Uncertain Italian mint (Brundisium or Rome?), 30-29 BC. Bare head to right / Military trophy facing, composed of helmet, cuirass, shield and crossed spears, set on prow of galley to right; crossed rudder and anchor at base; IMP-CAESAR across fields. RIC I 265a; CRI 419; BMCRE 625 = BMCRR Rome 4352; RSC 119. 4.09g, 20mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

1,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 488; Ex Spink & Son Ltd, Auction 19004, 27 March 2019, lot 266.

801. Octavian AR Denarius. Uncertain Italian mint (Rome?), 28 BC. CAESAR COS•VI, bare head to right; lituus behind / Crocodile standing to right; AEGYPTO above, CAPTA below. RIC I 275a; BMCRE 650 = BMCRR East 243; CRI 430; RSC 2. 3.32g, 20mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone, a highly attractive example of a sought-after type. Rare.

3,500

Bearing the Nile crocodile as the sole element of the reverse design, and with the simple legend conveying a succinct message, this coin proudly announces Octavian’s annexation of Egypt to the Empire. After the Battle of Actium, Octavian invaded Egypt in August 30 BC and with the conquest that followed both assured his supremacy by the death of Marc Antony and Cleopatra, and guaranteed his power through the great wealth of Egypt and the grain supply that could be harnessed for Rome. The Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, the last of the great Hellenistic kingdoms, had been reduced to the status of a Roman province.

263


264


COINS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Published in D. Leoni, Le Monete De Roma

802. Augustus AR Denarius. Emerita, 25-23 BC. P. Carisius, legatus pro praetore. IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head to right / P CARISIVS LEG PRO PR, circular city wall with EMERITA inscribed above gate. RIC I 9a; BMCRE 124-5; RSC 397. 3.53g, 19mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; scattered marks, light porosity, with attractive lustre and iridescent highlights.

3,000

This coin published in Daniele Leoni, Le Monete De Roma: Augusto, Il Principato (Villafranca di Verona, 2009); From a private German collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 68, 27 February 2020, lot 940.

803. Augustus AR Denarius. Samos or Pergamum(?), 21-20 BC. CAESAR, bare head to right / AVGVSTVS, bull standing to right. RIC I 475 (Samos?); BMCRE 663 (uncertain mint in the East); RSC 28; Sutherland, “L’attribution des deniers augustéens aux types du temple, de la couronne et du jeune taureau” in RN 1974, 61f; BN 943 (Pergamum). 3.42g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

Ex Bertolami Fine Arts - ACR Auctions, Auction 87, 14 December 2020, lot 477.

804. Augustus AR Denarius. Samos or Pergamum(?), 21-20 BC. CAESAR, bare head to right / AVGVSTVS, bull standing to right. RIC I 475 (Samos?); BMCRE 663 (uncertain mint in the East); RSC 28; Sutherland, “L’attribution des deniers augustéens aux types du temple, de la couronne et du jeune taureau” in RN 1974, 61f; BN 943 (Pergamum). 3.93g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

From the Santana Collection; Ex Naville Numismatics Ltd, Auction 53, 3 November 2019, lot 477.

Very Rare

805. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19-18 BC. AVGVSTVS CAESAR, bare head to right / Domed tetrastyle temple housing helmeted figure of Mars standing to left, holding aquila and standard; MARTIS downwards on left, VLTORIS upwards on right. RIC I 39a; ACIP 4043; BMCRE 329; RSC 205. 3.72g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; lustrous. Very Rare.

1,000

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

265


Ex Alba Longa and Leo Benz Collections

806. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head to right / S P Q R around clipeus virtutis inscribed CL•V. RIC I 43a; BMCRE 336; RSC 292a; FFC 213 (this coin). 3.78g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

1,750

This coin published in Fernández, Fernández & Calicó, Catálogo Monográfico de los Denarios de la República Romana (2002); From the Santana Collection; Ex Alba Longa Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 339, 14 November 2019, lot 1301; Ex Leo Benz Collection, Numismatik Lanz München, Auction 94, 22 November 1999, lot 70.

The Finest Example in Over 20 Years

807. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head to right / Oak wreath; OB CIVIS above, SERVATOS below. RIC I 75a; BMCRE 376; RSC 210. 4.15g, 20mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin; the finest example to come to auction in the past two decades.

5,000

From the Santana Collection; Ex Alba Longa Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 339, 14 November 2019, lot 1266; Ex Baldwin’s Auctions Ltd - Dmitry Markov Coins & Medals - M&M Numismatics Ltd, The New York Sale IV, 17 January 2002, lot 342.

808. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head to right / OB CIVIS SERVATOS in three lines within oak wreath. RIC I 77a; BMCRE 378; RSC 208. 3.93g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State; attractive old cabinet tone.

2,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 273, 19 November 2020, lot 450.

266


809. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head to right / Round shield inscribed CL•V, aquila and signum flanking; SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS below, S P Q R around. RIC I 86a; BMCRE 417; RSC 265. 3.86g, 20mm, 5h. Good Very Fine; attractive golden iridescence around devices.

2,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 106, 9 May 2018, lot 851 (hammer: CHF 2,250).

810. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19-18 BC. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. TVRPILIANVS III VIR FERON, draped bust of Feronia to right, wearing stephane and pearl necklace / CAESAR AVGVSTVS•SIGN•RECE•, bare-headed Parthian kneeling to right, extending in right hand a standard, to which is attached a vexillum marked X, and holding out left hand. RIC I 288; BMCRE 14; BN 127; RSC 484. 3.82g, 18mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; some earthen adhesions, light brush marks on obv.

750

From the Santana Collection; Ex Jesus Vico S.A., Auction 156, 5 March 2020, lot 452.

811. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19-18 BC. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. TVRPILIANVS [III VIR] FERO[N], draped bust of Feronia to right, wearing stephane and pearl necklace / CAESAR [AVG]VSTVS•SIGN•RECE•, bare-headed Parthian kneeling to right, extending in right hand a standard, to which is attached a vexillum marked X, and holding out left hand. RIC I 288; BMCRE 14; BN 127; RSC 484. 3.05g, 18mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine; minor marks, old cabinet tone with attractive rainbow iridescence around devices.

600

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG.

Ex M&M List 280, 1967

812. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19-18 BC. M. Durmius, moneyer. M DVRMIVS III VIR HONORI, head of Honos to right / CAESAR AVGVSTVS, quadriga to right pulling modius shaped car, on top of which three corn ears; SC in exergue. RIC I 313; BMCRE 55; RSC 429. 3.97g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; areas of flat strike. Very Rare.

400

From the Santana Collection; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 124, 16 March 2007, lot 8666; Ex Münzen und Medaillen AG Basel, List 280, September 1967, no. 38.

267


Extremely Rare and Among the Finest Known

813. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19 BC. M. Durmius, triumvir monetalis. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head to right / M DVRMIVS III VIR, man-faced bull walking to right, crowned by victory flying above. RIC I 319; CBN 219 (same reverse die); BMCRE 66-7; RSC 432; Simonetti, CNR II 201. 3.79g, 20mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; among the finest known examples of the type.

2,500

From a private European collection. The remarkable tauriform reverse type of this extremely rare issue is obviously inspired by the Neapolis didrachms of the 3rd century BC (cf. HN Italy 603-4), which celebrated either the local river god Sebethos or Achelous, the great river god of the Greek world and father of the Sirens, whose sanctuary was on the northern side of the Sorrentine peninsular. Another parallel issue also by M. Durmius, depicts another well known Greek reverse type, this time the lion attacking a stag type (RIC 318) imitating the Velian stater reverse type (HN Italy 1316-9). The often repeated theory that the reverse celebrates the Campanian origins of the gens Durmia is without foundation. Triumvir monetalis Durmius may be also the namesake, along with C. Caelius, recorded in an inscription from Tusculum as Consul suffectus in 4 BC (Archeologia Classica 1951, p. 71), but is otherwise unknown to history. What is certain is that M. Durmius was member of the collegium of the tresviri monetalis in 19 BC, at a time of intense mint activity. This was the year of the return of Augustus to Rome with the lost standards and prisoners from the Parthian war, the instigation of a program of cultural renewal and the harbinger of a new Golden Age of the nascent Roman Empire. A more plausible explanation for this Neapolitan revival is that the Greek reverse types reflect Augustus’ interest in old coins; according to Seutonius he gave “coins of every device, including old pieces of the kings and foreign money” as Saturnalia gifts (Lives of the Twelve Caesars, 75). Another interesting and possibly allied theory, reputably proposed by Andrew Burnett in RIC (p. 64 n. 318-9), is that these types may reflect the discovery of an earlier large hoard of staters from Neapolis and Velia, which would certainly have attracted the antiquarian interest of contemporary intellectuals. Many such hoards have been well documented from Campania, Lucania and Calabria in IGCH pp. 285- 306.

814

815

814. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 18 BC. Aquila, toga picta over tunica palmata, and wreath; S•P•Q•R• PARE[NT] above, CONS•SVO below / Slow quadriga to right, car ornamented with Victories and surmounted by four miniature horses galloping to right; CAESAR[I] above, [AVGVSTO] below. RIC I 99; BMCRE 397; RSC 78 corr. (obv. legend). 3.82g, 19mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. 750 Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Aureo, Auction 92, 21 May 1998, lot 243. 815. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 18 BC. CAESARI AVGVSTO, laureate head to left / Round domed hexastyle temple of Mars Ultor with acroteria, set on podium of three steps, an aquila between two signa within; MAR-VLT across fields. RIC I 105b; BMCRE 375; RSC 192. 3.81g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; banker’s mark on obverse, beautiful old cabinet tone. 1,000 Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Numismatik Lanz München, Auction 94, 22 November 1999, lot 81.

Fleur De Coin

816. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-16 BC. Bare head to right / Capricorn to right, holding globe attached to rudder, cornucopiae over its shoulder; AVGVSTVS below. RIC I 126; BMCRE 346; RSC 21. 3.83g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin; magnificently lustrous metal.

5,000

From the Santana Collection; Ex Alba Longa Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 339, 14 November 2019, lot 1164 (hammer: EUR 6,500); Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 21, 17 May 2001, lot 356.

268


Of the Greatest Rarity

817. Augustus AV Aureus. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 18-16 BC. S•P•Q•R•IMP•CAESARI•AVG•COS•XI•TRI•POT•VI, bare head to right / CIVIB•ET•SIGN•MILIT•A•[PART• …], triple triumphal arch, central arch surmounted by statue of Augustus driving a facing quadriga; figure on left arch holding a standard, figure on right arch holding an aquila and bow. Cf. RIC I 135; C. -; BMCRE -; BN -; Calicó 192, 194-5; Banti & Simonetti IV, 55, 58-9. NGC graded Ch XF 4/5 - 2/5, scuffs, banker’s mark (#6156281-003). Of the greatest rarity - a very rare variety of an extremely rare type.

15,000

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica. This coin depicts the now ruined arch of Augustus which originally stood in the Forum Romanum, spanning the road between the Temple of Castor and Pollux and the Temple of Caesar. According to the literary evidence, two arches were erected in honour of Augustus in the Forum: one in 29 BC to commemorate his victory at Actium (see Cassius Dio 49.15), the other in 19 BC to celebrate the return of the legionary standards lost by Crassus to the Parthians in 53 BC (see Cassius Dio 51.19). This latter coup was of great importance to Augustus and was also commemorated on the famed Prima Porta statue found at the villa of Livia. It seems that Augustus belatedly understood that commemoration of his victory over fellow Romans at the battle at Actium was not well received by the people, but a victory over a foreign enemy which restored soldiers and standards lost in a disastrous stain upon the Roman military record would be a perfect opportunity for cementing his position as saviour of the nation. Indeed, in 1546/7 an inscription dated to 29 BC and dedicated to Augustus was found at the site of the ruins and has been linked to this triumphal arch; inscribed upon it is a clear message that Augustus through this victory was able to save the Republic - perhaps a highly exaggerated statement since the sources seem to suggest that the Parthians reacted meekly to Augustus’ show of force and chose to return the standards and captives rather than risk open war. The appearance of this arch is preserved solely through the numismatic record, as seen on this coin, without which the identification of the archaeological ruins found in the Forum would be uncertain. The remains indicate the presence of a triple arch at the spot where the ancient sources say there was an arch to Augustus, therefore this could not be the Actian Arch which was similarly preserved through numismatic representations (see RIC 267, CRI 422) as a single span arch. Since no remains of a second arch of Augustus have been found in the Forum, this has led many to conclude that this ‘Parthian Arch’ was an expansion or replacement of the old Actian Arch. This theory is problematic to some scholars since Augustus does not mention either arch in his Res Gestae, a list of his achievements which certainly did not withhold from self-aggrandizement, however the archaeological evidence seems clear. The present type is thus an important archaeological document, allowing for the reconstruction of an early Imperial monument which is otherwise survived only by partial travertine foundations and some marble fragments which have been set atop them in modern brick beds. The choice of imagery on the coin itself highlights the political position of Augustus at this time. He does not appear as a ruler, but bare-headed and without drapery or military attire, whereas the reverse depicts the monument dedicated to his glory with the statues atop the arch of equal height to the structure itself, allowing the recovered standards to be seen clearly and in detail as the pretext for this laudatory monument. The standards were later placed in the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus which was inaugurated in 2 BC.

269


818. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-16 BC. S P Q R CAE[SARI] AVGVSTO, bare head to right / [V]OT•P•SV SC•PRO•SAL•ET•RED•I•O•M•SAC[R], Mars standing facing, head to right, helmeted and cloaked, holding vexillum and parazonium. RIC I 148 corr. (obv. legend); BMCRE 441; BN 1236; RSC 321. 3.78g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone. Very Rare; rated R3 by RIC.

1,000

Ex Lifchuz Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 353, 21 October 2020, lot 213.

819. Augustus, with Divus Julius Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, 17 BC. M. Sanquinius, moneyer. AVGVSTVS DIVI • F, bare head of Augustus to right / M • SANQVI NIVS • III • VIR, youthful, laureate head of deified Julius Caesar to right; comet with four rays and a tail in upper central field. RIC I 338; BMCRE 71-3 = BMCRR Rome 4585-7; BN 279; RSC 1 (Julius Caesar and Augustus); FFC 1 (this coin). 3.66g, 19mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

This coin published in Fernández, Fernández & Calicó, Catálogo Monográfico de los Denarios de la República Romana (2002); From the Santana Collection; Ex Alba Longa Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 339, 14 November 2019, lot 1060.

820. Augustus Æ Sestertius. Rome, 16 BC. C. Gallius Lupercus, triumvir monetalis. CIVIS within oak wreath flanked by laurel branches; OB above, SERVATOS below / C•GALLIVS•C•F•LVPERCVS•III•VIR•A•A•A•F•F• around large S•C. RIC I 377; C. 434; BMCRE 171; BN 491. 22.42g, 33mm, 9h. 750 Near Extremely Fine; attractive Tiber patina. Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 521; Ex Collection of Z.P., Austria, collector’s ticket included.

270


271


Ex Sotheby’s, 1996

821. Augustus AV Aureus. Lugdunum, 15-12 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head to right / Bull butting to right, pawing ground and flicking tail; IMP•X in exergue. RIC I 166a; C. 136; BMCRE 450; BN 1372; Giard, Lyon, 18, pl. IX; Calicó 212. 7.88g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

22,500

Ex G.T. Collection of the Twelve Caesars, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 491; Ex Gemini LLC, Auction XIII, 6 April 2017, lot 139; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 24, 5 December 2002, lot 14; Ex Sotheby’s, 7 December 1996, lot 85. Minted as part of a series to celebrate victory in the wars of expansion led by Drusus and Tiberius against the Alpine tribes, this coin is part of the rich tapestry of new imperial iconography designed to present the impression of a divinely sanctioned Augustan rule (Zanker, 1990, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus). On the obverse, an unmistakable portrait of the youthful Augustus displays his iconic locks arranged carefully across his forehead, but it is the reverse of this coin that alludes to ancestral tales of the Julio-Claudians and offers an insight into the mechanisms of Augustan image making. The charging bull or heifer is multi-facetted in its symbolism, on the one hand it can be likened to a similar motif carried by Caesar’s legions on their standards representing the unstoppable power of Rome –it is first and foremost used as a sacrificial animal for Mars Ultor. On the other hand, it can be seen to resemble a famous type from Thurium, a city to which the family of Augustus had a connection: Suetonius relates that Gaius Octavius, Augustus’ natural father, defeated a Spartacist army near the town. Due to the high regard in which the family was held in the town, Augustus had been given the surname Thurinus at birth, and thus the type primarily represents a deeply personal allusion to the emperor and his father Gaius Octavius. While these interpretations might appear divergent, what links them together is that they all proclaim the strength of the Augustan dynasty. This fact is further embellished by the very site where this coin was minted, which itself prospered greatly under Augustan rule, as later described by Strabo: Lugdunum itself, situated on a hill, at the confluence of the Saone and the Rhone, belongs to the Romans. It is the most populous city after Narbonne. It carries on a great commerce, and the Roman prefects here coin both gold and silver money (Strab. 4.3.2).

272


273


822. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head to right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC I 167a; BMCRE 451; Lyon 19; RSC 137. 3.93g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

1,750

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from J. Herrero, July 1993.

823. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head to right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC I 167a; BMCRE 451; Lyon 19; RSC 137. 3.77g, 20mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous.

1,250

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 523; Ex Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH, Auction 110, 2 July 2020, lot 221.

824. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 13 BC. C. Antistius Reginus, moneyer. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head to right / C • ANTIS[TIVS] • REGINVS, simpulum and lituus above tripod and patera; III•VIR below. RIC I 410; BMCRE 119-120 = BMCRR Rome 4661-4662; BN 547; RSC 347. 3.94g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

Acquired from Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH.

Among the Very Finest

825. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 13 BC. C. Marius C.f. Tro(mentina tribu), moneyer. AVGVSTVS, bare head to right; lituus behind / C•MARIVS•C•F TRO•III•VIR, galloping quadriga to right, bearing an upright palm branch. RIC I 399; BMCRE 101; BN 517; RSC 456. 3.78g, 24mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Scarce; rated R2 by RIC, and one of the very finest examples of the type offered at auction in the past 20 years, surpassed only by the Alba Longa specimen. 2,500 Acquired from Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH.

274


826. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 12 BC. L. Caninius Gallus, moneyer. AVGVSTVS, bare head to right / L•CANINIVS GALLVS•III•VIR, German kneeling to right, offering up vexillum and extending hand below left knee. RIC I 416; BMCRE 127; RSC 383. 3.88g, 20mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the Santana Collection; Ex Áureo & Calicó, Auction 357, 16 December 2020, lot 1007 (hammer: EUR 1,300).

827. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 8 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, laureate head to right / Caius Caesar on horseback, galloping to right, holding sword in left hand and reins in right; behind him, an aquila between two signa; C•CAES• above, AVGVS•F in exergue. RIC I 199; Lyon 69; RSC 40; BMCRE 500 = BMCRR Gaul 223; BN 1461; FFC 21 (this coin). 3.78g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

1,000

This coin published in Fernández, Fernández & Calicó, Catálogo Monográfico de los Denarios de la República Romana (2002); From the Santana Collection; Ex Alba Longa Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 339, 14 November 2019, lot 1169.

828. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 8 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, laureate head to right / Caius Caesar on horseback, galloping to right, holding sword in left hand and reins in right; behind him, an aquila between two signa; C•CAES• above, AVGVS•F in exergue. RIC I 199; Lyon 69; RSC 40; BMCRE 500 = BMCRR Gaul 223; BN 1461. 3.73g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

750

Ex Scipio Collection.

829. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 2 BC - AD 4. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head to right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Gaius and Lucius Caesar standing facing, each togate and resting hand on shield; spear behind each shield, lituus and simpulum above; C L CAESARES in exergue. RIC I 210; BMCRE 540; RSC 43c; Lyon 85. 3.90g, 19mm, 7h. Mint State; highly lustrous surfaces, in exceptional condition for the issue. Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 531; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XV, 5 April 2018, lot 480.

275

1,250


830. Augustus Æ Dupondius. Lugdunum, AD 9-14. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head to right / Front elevation of the Altar of Lugdunum, decorated with the corona civica between laurels, flanked by stylised male figures; to left and right, Victories on columns, facing one another; ROM ET AVG in exergue. RIC I 232; C. 237; BMCRE 566. 12.85g, 31mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

1,500

Ex Sternberg AG, Auction XIII, 17-18 November 1983, lot 558.

831. Augustus Æ Tessera. Rome, AD 15-37. Radiate head to left within plain border and wreath / VIIII within wreath and dotted border. A. Mlasowsky, Die antiken Tesseren im Kestner-Museum Hannover -; Buttrey, NC 1973, B9/VIIII; C. VIII, 53. 3.59g, 22mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only one other example on CoinArchives.

300

From a private European collection.

Ex Ars Classica XVI, 1933 and Naville II, 1922

832. Divus Augustus Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 37-41. DIVVS•AVGVSTVS, radiate head to left; large S-C across fields / CONSENSV • SENAT • ET • EQ • ORDIN • P • Q • R •, Augustus(?) or Caligula, laureate and togate, seated to left on curule chair, holding olive branch and globe. RIC I 56 (Gaius); C. 87; BMCRE 88 (Gaius); BN 137 (Gaius). 15.54g, 29mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; a superb example of the type, and one of the very best to have been auctioned in recent years. Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 534; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 5, 27 October 2019, lot 321; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XX, 10 January 2017, lot 644; Ex Ars Classica S.A., Auction XVI, 3 July 1933, lot 1588 (expertly conserved since); Ex M.P. Vautier & Prof. M. Collignon Collection, Naville & Cie., Auction II, 12-14 June 1922, lot 96.

276

3,000


833. Agrippa (grandfather of Caligula) Æ As. Rome, AD 37-41. M•AGRIPPA•L•F•COS•III, head to left, wearing rostral crown / Neptune standing to left, holding small dolphin and trident; S-C across fields. RIC I 58 (Gaius); C. 3; BMCRE 161 (Tiberius). 12.50g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive brown patina, a wonderfully detailed example featuring a handsome portrait of Agrippa.

600

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica; Ex Ernst Ploil Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 106, 9 May 2018, lot 1344.

834. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated to right on throne with plain legs, holding branch and sceptre; double exergual line below. RIC I 25; BMCRE 30; BN 14-5; Biaggi 169; Jameson 31; Mazzini 15; Calicó 305d. 7.79g, 20mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine; struck on a broad flan from dies of fine style.

7,500

Acquired from Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH.

835. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated to right on throne with plain legs, holding branch and sceptre; double exergual line below. RIC I 25; BMCRE 30; BN 14-5; Biaggi 169; Jameson 31; Mazzini 15; Calicó 305d. 7.75g, 21mm, 9h. Extremely Fine; well-centred on a broad planchet and struck from dies of fine style.

4,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 439, 6 March 2019, lot 471; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 34, 24 November 2006, lot 8 (hammer: CHF 8,500).

836. Tiberius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 36-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated to right on throne with ornamented legs, holding sceptre and branch; single exergual line below. RIC I 30 corr. (ornamented legs); BMCRE 48; RSC 16a. 3.68g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

1,000

From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 439, 6 March 2019, lot 477 (hammer: USD 1,100).

277


837. Caligula Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 37-38. C•CAESAR•AVG•GERMANICVS•P•M TR•POT, Pietas seated to left, holding patera and resting arm on small draped standing figure; PIETAS in exergue / Caligula standing to left, holding patera over garlanded altar, flanked by victimarius holding bull for sacrifice and attendant holding a patera; garlanded hexastyle temple of Divus Augustus in background, pediment decorated with sacrificial scene, and with quadriga and Victories as acroteria, and statues of Romulus and Aeneas along roof line; DIVO-AVG S-C across fields. RIC I 36; C. 11; BN 51; BMCRE 41. 28.28g, 36mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; well-centered, lightly smoothed, attractive brown and green patina.

1,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 46, 2 April 2008, lot 972. The reverse of this magnificent type commemorates the completion of the temple of Divus Augustus, built on the Palatine Hill on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life. Vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after the death of the emperor in AD 14, it was not finished until AD 37, around the time the present coin was struck, whereupon it was dedicated over the last two days of August that year - the month renamed in honour of Augustus. Caligula, as Pontifex Maximus, led the sacrificial ceremonies. According to Cassius Dio (59.7.4), the commemorative events ordered by Caligula were exceptionally extravagant: a two-day horse race took place along with the slaughter of 400 bears and “an equal number of wild beasts from Libya”, and Caligula postponed all lawsuits and suspended all mourning “in order that no one should have an excuse for failing to attend”. The last known reference to the temple was on 27 May AD 218; at some point thereafter it was completely destroyed and its stones were presumably quarried for later buildings. The site has never been excavated and its original appearance must be reconstructed only from its depictions on the Roman coinage of which the present type is the most significant.

838. Caligula, with Agrippina I (mother of Caligula), AR Denarius. Rome, AD 40. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III, laureate head of Caligula to right / AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, draped bust of Agrippina to right. RIC I 22; BMCRE 23; RSC 6. 3.66g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; pleasant old cabinet tone.

3,750

From the Santana Collection; Ex collection of Professor David R. Beatty, C.M., O.B.E., Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 114, 13 May 2020, lot 743; Privately purchased from Classical Numismatic Group, March 2000, inventory no. 718975.

839. Caligula Æ As. Rome, AD 40-41. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, bare head to left / Vesta, veiled and draped, seated to left on ornamental throne, holding patera and sceptre; VESTA above, S-C across fields. RIC I 54; C. 29; BMCRE 72. 10.76g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the Santana Collection; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Web Auction 12, 30 May 2020, lot 1063.

278


Ex Bourgey 1908; Published in von Kaenel

840. Nero Claudius Drusus (father of Claudius) AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 41-42. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, head to left, wearing oak wreath / DE above and GERM on architrave of triumphal arch surmounted by equestrian statue to right, holding spear, between two trophies, each with seated and bound captive at foot. RIC I 69 (Claudius; Rome); von Kaenel Type 12, 184.230 (V143/R147 - this coin); Lyon 22/2a; Calicó 315; BMCRE 95 (Claudius; Rome); Biaggi 180. NGC graded Ch VF 5/5 - 2/5, edge marks (#6154656-004). Rare.

10,000

This coin published in H.-M. von Kaenel, ‘Münzprägung und Münzbildnis des Claudius’ in AMUGS XI (Berlin, 1986); Ex Peter J. Merani Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXIV, 19 January 2021, lot 107; Ex Freeman & Sear, Fixed Price List 10, 1 July 2005, R4515; Ex Clément Platt, ‘Collection A’ Fixed Price List, [1930], lot 1098 (priced at 1950 fr.); Ex Émile Bourgey, 7 December 1908, lot 362.

Ex Münzen & Medaillen, 1978

841. Nero Claudius Drusus (father of Claudius) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 41-45. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GE[RMANICVS IMP], laureate head to left / DE GERMANIS, two oblong shields crossed, over vexillum, four spears and two trumpets. RIC I 74 (Claudius); BMCRE 107 (Claudius); BN 109-10 (Claudius); RSC 6. 3.91g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; a bold and attractive portrait of Drusus.

3,750

Ex The New York Sale XX, 7 January 2009, lot 397; Ex Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel, List 398, March 1978, no. 29. This remarkable denarius is part of a series of bronze coins issued by Claudius to celebrate his father’s military triumphs. The younger brother of the future emperor Tiberius, Drusus was born in 38 BC to Livia Drusilla and Tiberius Claudius Nero. Livia divorced Drusus’ father only three months after the birth for the emperor Augustus, who treated his stepson most favourably. Augustus allowed Drusus to progress quickly in his career in 19 BC by granting him the ability to hold all public offices five years before the minimum age and arranged for his advantageous marriage to Antonia Minor, the daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. In his lifetime Nero Claudius Drusus was one of the most celebrated military commanders of the age, leading the first Roman legions across the Rhine and rapidly accruing a string of victories and conquests in Germania; in the course of his Germanic campaigns Drusus sought out multiple Germanic (at least three) chieftains, challenging and beating them in single combat. The sources are ambiguous, but imply that at some point he claimed the spolia opima (the arms and armour taken by a Roman general from the body of an opposing commander slain in single combat) from a Germanic king, thus becoming the fourth and final Roman to gain this honour, the most prestigious any Roman general could aspire to.

279


842. Antonia Minor (mother of Claudius) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 41-45. ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust to right, wearing crown of corn-ears, hair in long plait behind / SACERDOS DIVI AVGVSTI, two vertical long torches, lighted and linked by ribbon. RIC I 68 (Claudius); BMCRE 114; RSC 5; Von Kaenel 63, type 15. 3.71g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; pleasant light cabinet tone.

3,500

From the Santana Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 120, 6 October 2020, lot 704. This coin bears the posthumous representation of Antonia Minor, and was struck in her memory by her son Claudius upon his ascension to the throne. This well liked and respected Roman woman who was celebrated for her virtue and beauty was the younger of the two daughters of Marc Antony and Octavia, who after Antony’s death was allowed by Augustus to benefit from her father’s estate. She thus became wealthy and influential, and married Nero Claudius Drusus, general and consul, bearing him several children. Three survived into adulthood: the popular Germanicus, the future emperor Claudius, and a daughter Livilla. Following the death of her husband in AD 9 whilst on campaign in Germania, the rest of Antonia’s life was plagued by ill fortune as she outlived her eldest son, her daughter and several of her grandchildren. After first the death of her husband, her eldest son Germanicus died in AD 19 in mysterious circumstances in Asia, where he incorporated the kingdoms of Commagene and Cappadocia into Roman provinces. While feuding with the governor of Syria Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, Germanicus was thought to have been poisoned, either by Piso or by Tiberius’ scheming advisor Sejanus. Her younger son Claudius, who was born with severe disabilities, was ostracised by his family and excluded from public office until his consulship in AD 37 which he shared with his nephew Caligula. Ironically, this action by his family may have actually saved his life as he was not perceived as a threat to power and therefore survived the purges of Tiberius’ and Caligula’s reigns, going on to prove himself a worthy emperor. Antonia’s woes did not stop with her sons, as her daughter Livilla is supposed to have poisoned her husband Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. According to Cassius Dio, Tiberius handed Livilla over to her mother, who locked her up in a room and starved her to death. After the death of Tiberius, her grandson Caligula became emperor, and though Antonia would often offer him advice, he once told her, ‘I can treat anyone exactly as I please!’ Caligula was rumoured to have had his young cousin Gemellus beheaded, to remove him as a rival to the throne. This act was said to have outraged Antonia, who was grandmother to Gemellus as well as to Caligula. Able to stand no more of Caligula’s tyranny, Antonia committed suicide, though Suetonius (Lives of the Caesars IV.23), suggests she might also have been poisoned by her grandson. Despite what must have been a painful childhood, rejected by his own mother, Claudius clearly idolised her and after his accession gave her the posthumous title of Augusta, and her birthday became a public holiday which was marked with yearly games and public sacrifices, and her image was paraded in a carriage.

843. Claudius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 41-50. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head to right / EX S C P P OB CIVES SERVATOS in four lines within oak-wreath. RIC I 112; C. 38; BN 207; BMCRE 185. 29.33g, 37mm, 7h. About Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private European collection.

280


844. Claudius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 46-47. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P VI IMP XI, laureate head to right / CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, Antonia seated to left on curule chair, feet on footstool, raising right hand. RIC I 32; BMCRE 3; RSC 8. 3.73g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

1,000

From the Santana Collection; Ex Áureo & Calicó, Auction 361, 18 February 2021, lot 86. The reverse of this coin bears the posthumous representation of Antonia Minor, and was struck in memory of her by Claudius her son upon his ascension to the throne. The legend of this pleasing reverse type refers to perseverance in the face of adversity, which indeed Antonia displayed continually throughout her life, not to a goddess ‘Constantia’ to whom no other references may be found besides three coin types issued under Claudius.

Ex A. Delmonte, 1933

845. Claudius Fourrée Denarius. A contemporary imitation of the Rome mint, after AD 50-51. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P X P P IMP XVIII, laureate head to right / S P Q R P•P OB CS in three lines within oak-wreath. Cf. RIC I 60, C. 94, BMCRE 60 note and RSC 94. 2.62g, 19mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the Santana Collection; Ex UBS Gold & Numismatics, Auction 78, 9 September 2008, lot 1452; Ex A. Delmonte, 18 November 1933, lot 316.

846. Claudius Æ As. Rome, AD 50-54. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head to left / Minerva, helmeted and draped, hurling javelin to right, with round shield on arm. RIC I 116; C. 84; BMCRE 206. 10.44g, 29mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; lightly smoothed and tooled, a bold portrait.

500

From the Santana Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 473, 29 July 2020, lot 305; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 216, 12 August 2009, lot 443.

281


847. Nero AR Denarius. Rome, AD 64-65. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / AVGVSTVS AVGVSTA, radiate Emperor standing to left, holding patera and long sceptre; Empress beside him on right, standing to left, holding patera and cornucopiae. RIC I 45; BMCRE 54; RSC 43. 3.24g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous.

1,500

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from José A. Herrero, October 2003, lot 247.

848. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 64-66. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / IANVM CLVSIT [PAC]E P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA, closed doors of the temple of Janus. RIC I 50 & 58; C. 114; BMCRE 64; Biaggi 224; Calicó 409. 7.22g, 18mm, 7h. Good Very Fine; shallow test cuts on edge, possibly ex-jewellery, lustrous metal.

4,000

Ex Peter J. Merani Collection; Ex H. J. Berk, Auction 127, 25 June 2002, lot 21; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction M, 20 March 2002, lot 2613.

849. Nero AR Denarius. Rome, AD 64-65. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / IVPPITER CVSTOS, Jupiter enthroned to left, holding thunderbolt and long sceptre. RIC I 53; BMCRE 74; RSC 119. 3.52g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; lustrous.

1,500

Acquired from Soler & Llach; Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Numismatic Fine Arts, Sale 25, 29 November 1990, lot 352.

282


283


Ex MoneyMuseum Zurich Collection

850. Nero Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 65. NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / Roma, helmeted and draped, seated to left on cuirass, right foot on helmet, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and resting left hand on parazonium; to right, shields set on ground; S-C across fields, ROMA in exergue. RIC I 275 var. (wearing aegis); WCN 137 var. (same); BMCRE 180 var. (same); BN 364 var. (same). 27.90g, 35mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; engraved in fine style, with a superbly detailed reverse.

10,000

This coin published at www.moneymuseum.com; Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 550; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XVIII, 6 January 2015, lot 1033; Ex MoneyMuseum Zürich Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XVIII, 6 January 2015, lot 1033 (hammer: USD 15,000); Ex Kurt P. Wyprächtiger Collection, Bank Leu AG, Auction 7, 9 May 1973, lot 346. The reverse of this magnificent sestertius displays a finely detailed depiction of Roma. Conceived of by Romans as ‘Amazonian’, militaristic by nature, holding Victory in her palm and gripping the parazonium (a leaf-shaped blade that was a ceremonial mark of rank and used to rally troops), she is the embodiment of the city of Rome, and more broadly the Roman state. Unexpectedly, the cult of dea Roma had emerged not at Rome, but in the Greek East. The earliest appearances of Roma are most likely found in the helmeted figure appearing on Roman cast bronze coins dating from 280-276 BC, however the identification is contestable. Other early Roman coinage displays a similarly warlike ‘Amazon’ type, who is also possibly Roma, but more likely a genius (defined as the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place, or thing) of Rome than a distinct goddess. Certainly, Roma was in the time of the Republic not the subject of cult worship at Rome itself. The earliest attested temple dedicated specifically to Roma appears in Smyrna around 195 BC, and around the same time the cult of Roma appeared at Rhodes and other cities nearby. Such democratic city-states accepted Roma as analogous to their traditional cult personifications of the demos (the people). The cult of Roma spread relatively quickly within the provinces, and is accepted as having been the precursor for the later principate era state-sanctioned worship of living emperors as gods. When in 30/29 BC the koina of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honour Augustus as a living god, a cautious solution was devised; republican values held monarchy and Hellenic honours in contempt (the courting of both had proved fatal for Caesar), but refusal might offend loyal allies. Thus it was determined that non-Romans could only offer worship to Augustus as divus jointly with dea Roma. This dual worship of the State together with the head of state was a political and religious expedient, but while Augustus, Tiberius and Claudius were careful to refuse divine honours within Rome itself, subsequent rulers of arguably less stern moral fibre allowed or actively promoted worship of their own person. Indeed, Nero had in AD 64, the year before this coin was struck, instituted his depiction on the Roman coinage with the radiate crown previously reserved for deified (and deceased) emperors.

An Extremely Rare and Unrecorded Variant

851. Nero Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 65. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P, laureate head to right, globe at point of bust / PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and garlanded double doors to right; S-C across fields. RIC I 438 var. (obv. legend); C. 146 var. (same); BMCRE 319 var. (same); Roma XXI, lot 539. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 2/5, smoothing (#5872637-001); attractive red and green patina. Extremely Rare with this unusual obv. legend; unrecorded in the standard reference works. 3,000 Ex UBS Gold & Numismatics, Auction 57, 15 September 2003, lot 364.

284


285


A Marvellous Sestertius Depicting the Temple of Janus

852. Nero Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 67. IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P XIII P P, laureate head to right, aegis on far shoulder / PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, view of the Temple of Janus, decorated with garlands and with door closed; S-C across fields. RIC I 354; C. 145; WCN 171. 25.24g, 37mm, 5h. Virtually as struck, some visually insignificant flan flaws; beautiful, untouched Tiber tone. A wonderful portrait sestertius of Nero with a highly 10,000 attractive architectural reverse. Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 560; Privately purchased from Arsantiqva by Moruzzi Numismatica; Ex Artemide Aste s.r.l. (San Marino), Auction III, 11 September 2004, lot 156. Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus. The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC. The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that “When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth” (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome’s borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.

286


287


Cover Coin of Sternberg XXVI, 1992

853. Clodius Macer AR Denarius. Carthage(?), April - October(?) AD 68. Helmeted head of Roma to right; ROMA before, S-C across fields / L CLODI MACRI, trophy. RIC I 31 var. (SC below); BMCRE p. 287 note var. (same); C. 9 var. (same); Hewitt, NC 1983, pl. XII, 47 var. (same); BN -. 3.47g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; minor nick on cheek, well-struck on good metal with an attractive iridescent tone. An apparently unrecorded variety of an extremely rare type. 50,000 Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 563; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 101, 24 October 2017, lot 161; Ex Barry Feirstein Collection IV, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 45, 2 April 2008, lot 95; Ex Pegasi Numismatics, Auction II, 8 June 1996, lot 298; Ex Frank Sternberg, Auction XXVI, 16 November 1992, lot 290 (illustrated on the cover). Clodius Macer led a revolt in North Africa against Nero in the spring of AD 68. Described by RIC as “short and ineffectual” (see RIC 1, p. 230), the revolt spanned several months which included the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty with the suicide of Nero and the beginning of the ‘Year of Four Emperors’, a period described by Tacitus as “rich in disasters, terrible with battles, torn by civil struggles, horrible even in peace.” (Histories I.2). His coinage is extremely rare and several of his types are only known to us through a single example. Though barely mentioned in the ancient literature (there are only two short references to him in Tacitus’ Histories), Clodius Macer was officially legatus Augusti propraetore Africae and was able to establish himself in North Africa with the support of Legio III Augusta and Legio I Macriana. It is very likely that he controlled Carthage and the mint there since a group of his denarii depict the obverse bust of CARTHAGO. If so, he had control over an important naval base and posed a threat to the corn supply from North Africa to Rome. The purpose of the revolt cannot be said to establish Clodius Macer as emperor, rather the numismatic evidence generally points to a desire to return to the ideals of the Republic and the end of imperial rule. Many of the types used by Clodius Macer can be traced to Republican coins, as exemplified by the current coin with the trophy reverse type which is very similar to a coin issued by Brutus (cf. CRI 209). In addition, many of Clodius Macer’s coins use the formulaic SC (senatus consulto), not used on Roman silver coins since around 40 BC (See NAC Auction 101, lot 161). This was a tactic also possibly employed by Galba on his ‘African’ issues, if indeed they were struck by Galba and not merely issued in his name. Further similarities have been pointed out between the coinage of Clodius Macer and Galba such as the use of the genitive case for their names and the decision (not sustained for long by Galba) to not appear laureate (see The Coinage of L. Clodius Macer (AD 68) by K. V. Hewitt (1983), pp. 64-80). These similarities perhaps point to a unity in purpose while Nero was still alive, a wish to overthrow the emperor. However, Clodius Macer’s continual rebellion against imperial rule once Galba had ascended to power led to his execution in October 68 (see Tacitus Histories I.7).

288


289


An Unrecorded Variant

854. Clodius Macer AR Denarius. Carthage(?), April - October(?) AD 68. L CLODIVS • MACER , bare head to right; S-C across fields / PROPRAE AFRICAE, galley sailing to right with nine pairs of oars and five oarsmen. RIC I -, but cf. 42 (S C below bust); Hewitt -, but cf. 57 (same); NAC 97, 92 (C-S across fields, PROPRAE in two lines); NAC 86, 141 (C-S across fields). 3.39g, 17mm, 12h. Very Fine; surface scratches. An apparently unrecorded variety of an extremely rare type.

3,000

From a private UK collection.

855. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Spanish mint in support of Vindex/Galba, AD 68-69. LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, draped bust of Libertas to right / S P Q R on round shield encircled by oak wreath. RIC I 27; NC p.8; ACIP 4086; BMCRE 12; RSC 431. 2.82g, 17mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from Jesus Vico S.A., December 1994. In early 68 AD, as a reaction to Nero’s tax policy, the governor Vindex attempted a revolt in Gaul, calling on Galba to join the rebellion against Nero. Although Vindex was defeated, popularity was growing for Galba, and, sensing this, Nero fled Rome. Shortly after, the Senate decided to oust Nero by declaring him a public enemy, thus spurring on Nero’s suicide. His death saw the arrival of the first civil war since the defeat of Marc Antony in 30 BC. Consequently, between June 68 AD and December 69 AD, Rome witnessed a period of anarchy and a series of quick successions. Four Emperors ruled in this period: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian, with the latter securing the imperial throne and founding the Flavian dynasty.

Of the Highest Rarity

856. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. AVG DIVI•F, laureate head of the deified Augustus to right / S•P•Q•R within oak wreath, circular jewel in bezel at apex. Martin -; Nicolas -; BMCRE -; C. -; RIC -, cf. 104; Roma XXI, 547 (sold for £2,400). 3.50g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; old cabinet tone and attractive golden hues. Unpublished in the standard references and of the highest rarity.

500

From the Santana Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XVI, 26 September 2018, lot 684; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1010 (hammer: £6,000). Kraay noted the unusual presence of SPQR within a wreath on these coins of Vindex. He states: “it will have been noticed that the earlier formula of SPQR has replaced the Neronian EX SC. In strict Augustan usage SPQR never accompanied the corona, but always the clipeus virtutis of the inscription on which it formed the opening words. However, the choice of SPQR was probably deliberate and represented something more than the mere blurring of Augustan distinction. That broad basis of public and Senatorial support which the principate had had in the days of Augustus was to be restored to it.”

290


The Revolt of Vindex

857. Civil War, Galba(?) AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Spain, AD 68. GENIO P. R., bare head of Augustus as the genius of the Roman people to right, cornucopiae over shoulder / PAX, clasped hands holding winged caduceus flanked by two cornucopiae. AM 44 (same dies); C. 391; BMCRE -, p. 290 note; RIC I 22; Nicolas 44M (same dies). 3.62g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only three or four known examples.

10,000

Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 561; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1009 (hammer: £16,000). The anonymous coins of the Civil War of AD 68-69 produced at mints in Spain, Gaul, Northern Italy and possibly North Africa and Germany are notoriously rare and difficult to obtain. They do not name their issuing authorities, but we may safely infer that they were struck in support of Vindex, Galba or Vitellius, depending on the location of their production. Until relatively recently they had largely been ignored by scholars, though in the 1970s Peter-Hugo Martin, Colin Kraay and Etienne-Paul Nicolas all published studies on this obscure series. Many of the coin types are known from only very few examples, or unique specimens, and despite the revolt being brief, a matter of just a few months, the coinage is exceptionally diverse. In common with many of the anonymous issues, this denarius employs Augustan motifs, whose self-styled persona as the protector of the liberty of the Roman people made him an obvious choice to champion on the anti-Neronian coinage, at once recalling the great Pax inaugurated by Augustus and at the same time clamouring for a return to just and noble governance. Many of the restored types copying earlier originals are quite faithful to their original prototypes, but they are distinguishable on account of their somewhat provincial quality both in stylistic and epigraphic terms, as well as the lower weight standard employed. The Roman equivalent of the Greek daimon, genius has been defined as ‘the entirety of the traits united in a begotten being’. Utilised by Augustus, the cult of the genius of the paterfamilias, a pillar of client-patron relationships, was invoked at private banquets and alongside the genius Augusti, which linked the Roman people closely to the emperor’s person. Generally represented as a togate male carrying a cornucopiae and sometimes a patera, genius became an important part of feature of Roman ruler-cult. Here however, Augustus is presented as Genius Populi Romani, an important religious figure during the time of the Republic, perhaps in contrast to the Genius Augusti issues of Nero, the tyrant against whom Galba, Vitellius and Vindex now took up arms.

291


858. Galba AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Tarraco?), AD 68. GALBA IMP, Emperor, bare-headed, riding to left, hand raised / HISPANIA, laureate and draped bust of Hispania to right; two javelins behind, round shield below, two corn-ears in front. RIC I 2; ACIP 4173a; BMCRE 162; RSC 77. 3.33g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; reverse in high relief. Rare.

1,500

Ex Scipio Collection.

859. Galba AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Spain or southern Gaul, AD 68. SER•GALBA IMPERATOR, laureate head to right / CONCORDIA PROVINCIARVM, Concordia standing to left, holding branch and cornucopiae. RIC I 49 (Spain, Tarraco?); BMCRE 217 (Gaul, Narbo?); RSC 34. 3.56g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; lustrous. Rare.

1,000

Ex Scipio Collection; Purchased from J. Fernandez in 1997.

860. Galba AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Tarraco?), AD 68. SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P, laureate head to right / CONCORDIA PROVINCIARVM, Concordia standing to left, holding branch and cornucopiae. RIC I 54; BMCRE 223 (Gaul); RSC 38. 3.39g, 17mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare; in exceedingly good condition for the type.

1,000

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from J. Fernández, September 1997.

292


Extremely Rare

861. Galba AV Aureus. Rome, AD 68-69. SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, bare-headed, cuirassed bust to left, aegis on chest / SALVS GEN HVMANI, Salus standing to left, wearing long dress and setting right foot on globe, sacrificing from patera in right hand over garlanded and lighted altar, holding rudder cradled in left arm. RIC I 147; C. 232; BMCRE p. 314 note †, pl. 52, 19; Calicó 506. 7.23g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only the second example to come to auction in the past two decades.

10,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

862. Galba AV Aureus. Rome, July AD 68 - January AD 69. IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head to right / S P Q R OB C S in two lines, all within oak wreath. RIC I 164; C. 286; BMCRE 29 corr. (bust type); Calicó 509a. 7.38g, 20mm, 9h. Good Very Fine.

15,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XXI, 24 March 2021, lot 549; Ex Collection of GK, Ukranian Emigrant.

293


863. Galba AV Aureus. Tarraco, April - December AD 68. GALBA IMP, laureate head to right, globe at point of bust / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing to left, holding pileus and leaning on sceptre. RIC I -, cf. 23 (denarius); C. 117; BMCRE 176 note; Calicó 485 (same dies). 7.64g, 18mm, 7h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; not in RIC, not represented in the BM collection, and no other examples sold at auction in the preceding 20 years.

7,500

From the Isar Collection.

864. Galba AV Aureus. Rome, July AD 68 - January AD 69. IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, laureate and draped bust to right / SALVS GEN HVMANI, female figure standing to left, foot on globe, sacrificing from patera over lighted altar and holding upright rudder. RIC I 208; C. 235; BMCRE 38 var. (bust type); Calicó 503. 7.18g, 19mm, 5h. Very Fine. Very Rare; only 3 other examples on CoinArchives.

5,000

From the Isar Collection.

865. Galba AV Aureus. Rome, July AD 68 - January AD 69. IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG P M, laureate head to right / VICTORIA P R, Victory standing to left on globe, holding wreath and palm. RIC I 233; C. 329; BMCRE 47; BN 105; Calicó 516. 7.15g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only four other examples offered at auction since 1999.

5,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

866. Galba AR Denarius. Rome, July AD 68 - January AD 69. IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, laureate and draped bust to right / DIVA AVGVSTA, Diva Julia Augusta (Livia) standing facing, head to left, holding patera in right hand and sceptre with left. RIC I 189; BMCRE 8; RSC 55a. 3.28g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; a bold portrait. Previously NGC graded AU 5/5 - 3/5 (#4680481-001). Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 120, 6 October 2020, lot 717; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXIII, 14 January 2020, lot 680; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Live Auction 2, 30 August 2018, lot 584; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 100, 29 May 2017, lot 449.

294

2,500


An Exceedingly Rare Variety

867. Otho AV Aureus. Rome, AD 69. IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare-headed and draped bust to right / PAX ORBIS TERRARVM, Pax, draped, standing to left, holding olive branch in right hand and winged caduceus in left. RIC I 3 note = Hunter I (Coats Collection) 3804; C. 2 var. (bust type and conventional caduceus); BMCRE 1 var. (same); Biaggi 270 var. (same); Calico 524 var. (same); Tkalec Auction, Bolla Collection, lot 20 (same dies - incorrectly catalogued). 7.20g, 20mm, 5h. Near Very Fine. Exceedingly Rare with this bust type; unpublished in all the standard reference works, with seemingly just two other examples in online archives. 15,000 From the Pinewood Collection. According to the accounts of Plutarch and Suetonius, Otho was sent to Lusitania in AD 68 because Nero had become enamoured of his wife Poppaea Sabina. The two were divorced, and Otho’s bitterness at his estrangement from his wife, paired with his relocation to Hispania, made him a natural ally for Galba, the governor of neighbouring Tarraconensis, in his revolt against Nero. Support for Nero waned, and he fled to the villa of his freedman Phaon where he took his own life, while Galba, accompanied by Otho, marched on Rome and was declared emperor. Otho expected to be named Galba’s heir as a result of his loyalty, but when Galba nominated L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, Otho’s disappointment manifested itself as anger and he fomented a revolt amongst the Praetorians, who murdered Galba. Otho was hailed emperor on 15 January 69, however, his reign was not destined to be lengthy. Whilst he had the support of Egypt, Africa and the legions of the Danube, support for Vitellius was strong among the powerful legions stationed on the Rhine and conflict became inevitable. Otho committed to a battle before his reinforcements from Dalmatia were able to reach him, and he suffered a defeat at the Battle of Bedriacum. Ignoring the entreaties of his generals to await his reinforcements and offer battle once again, Otho took his own life, after just three months as emperor, giving his reason as to avoid further bloodshed. His suicide was widely recognised by his contemporaries as an honourable act. The poet Martial later wrote in his Epigrams VI. XXXII “Sit Cato, dum vivit, sane vel Caesare maior, dum moritur, numquid maior Othone fuit?” (“Cato while he lived, he was greater than Caesar himself, when he died, was he at all greater than Otho?”). Given the nature of the circumstances of his death, it seems fitting that the legend on the reverse of this rare type should be PAX ORBIS TERRARVM, since despite the violence of his short reign, through his suicide Otho had steered Rome away from further conflict.

295


PAX ORBIS TERRARVM

868. Otho AV Aureus. Rome, AD 69. IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head to right / PAX ORBIS TERRARVM, Pax, draped, standing to left, holding olive branch in right hand and caduceus in left. RIC I 3; C. 2; BMCRE 1 (same rev. die); BN 2; Biaggi 270; Calico 524. 7.20g, 20mm, 5h. Near Very Fine. Rare.

15,000

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

869. Vitellius AV Aureus. Tarraco, January - June AD 69. A VITELLIVS IMP GERMANICVS, laureate head to left, globe at point of bust / CLEMENTIA IMP GERMAN, Clementia, draped, seated to left, holding branch and long sceptre. RIC I 1 var. (obv. legend arrangement); C. 9 var. (same); BMCRE 79 var. (same); Calicó 539 var. (same). 7.30g, 29mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

296


Two Extremely Rare Aurei of Vitellius

870. Vitellius AV Aureus. Tarraco, January - June AD 69. A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate head to left, small globe at point of bust, palm branch at point of neck / VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing to left, holding shield inscribed S P Q R. RIC I 35; BMCRE 91 var. (no palm frond); Biaggi 284; Calicó 576a. 7.46g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; rated R3 by RIC and R2 by Calicó, only 6 examples offered at auction since 1999.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection. Emperor for only eight months, Vitellius was the third to take the purple during the Year of the Four Emperors in AD 69. Consul in 48 and Proconsul of Africa in 60/61, Vitellius commanded the army of Germania Inferior in 68, where he made himself extremely popular with the officers and soldiery through lavish extravagance and lax discipline. It was because of two of his legion commanders on the Rhine that he was acclaimed emperor by the legions in Germania, and they were soon joined by the armies of Britannia, Gaul and Raetia. With Otho’s suicide, Vitellius gained the throne without the need for excessive bloodshed. His short lived reign was characterised by excessive feasting, gambling and indolence. Suetonius records some of the greater outrages which led to his being deserted in favour of Vespasian: ‘Acting more and more in open violation of all laws, both divine and human, he assumed the office of Pontifex Maximus, upon the day of the defeat at the Allia; ordered the magistrates to be elected for ten years of office; and made himself consul for life.’ Fortunately a direct military confrontation between Vespasian and Vitellius proved unnecessary - supporters of Vespasian assassinated Vitellius after a reign of just eight months, and according to Suetonius he was dragged through the streets and tortured, before his body was unceremoniously dumped into the Tiber.

871. Vitellius AV Aureus. Rome, late April - 20 December AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head to right / IVPPITER VICTOR, Jupiter seated to left, holding Victory and sceptre. RIC I 74; C. 43; BMCRE 9; BN 39-40; Calicó 553. 7.23g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; seemingly no other examples offered at auction in the past 20 years.

5,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

872. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. [A VIT]ELLIUS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head to right / LIBERI IMP GERMAN, confronted busts of Vitellius Germanicus and Vitellia. RIC I 79; BMCRE 12 note; RSC 5. 3.06g, 17mm, 6h. About Good Very Fine; minor scratches to rev., attractively toned. Scarce; neither the British Museum nor the Bibliothèque Nationale possesses an example of this issue. 3,000 Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXIV, 19 January 2021, lot 143 (hammer: 4,250 USD); Ex Harlan J. Berk Ltd., Buy or Bid Sale 121, 10 July 2001, lot 320.

297


873. Vitellius AV Aureus. Rome, late April - 20 December AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head to right / LIBERI•IMP•GERM•AVG, confronted busts of Vitellius Germanicus and Vitellia. RIC I 100; C. 3; BMCRE 27; Calicó 557 (same dies). 7.23g, 20mm, 5h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From the Isar Collection.

874. Vitellius AV Aureus. Rome, late April - 20 December AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head to right / XV VIR SACR FAC, tripod-lebes, dolphin lying to right above and raven standing to right below. RIC I 108; C. 110; BMCRE 38; Biaggi 288 = Calicó 584. 7.18g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

Judaea Capta

875. Vespasian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 69-70. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head to right / Judaea seated to right, head resting on hand, to right of trophy; IVDAEA in exergue. RIC II.1 1; BMCRE 31-4; Hendin GBC 6, 6492 (forthcoming); Hendin GBC 5, 1464; Calicó 643. 7.18g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

Ex Prince Waldeck Collection, 1936

876. Vespasian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 70. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head to right / COS ITER TR POT, Pax seated to left, holding olive branch and winged caduceus. RIC II.1 28; C. -; BMCRE 23; Biaggi 307; Calicó 607a (this coin). NGC graded XF 4/5 - 3/5, edge marks (#6154662-021).

3,000

This coin published in X. Calicó. Los Aureos Romanos (Barcelona, 2002); Ex Wayne G. Damron Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXIV, 19 January 2021, lot 1065; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 101, 22 June 2005, lot 1072; Ex Prince Christian August of Waldeck and Pyrmont Collection (1744-1798), Münzhandlung Basel, Auction 6, 18 March 1936, lot 1611.

298


877. Vespasian AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 70. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG TR P, laureate head to right / COS ITER FORT RED, Fortuna standing to left, touching prow set on ground to left and holding cornucopiae. RIC II.1 1104; C. 81; BMCRE 373; Calicó 602. 7.24g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

7,500

Ex Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH, Auction 111, 3 December 2020, lot 111.

Judaea Capta

878. Vespasian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head to right / IVDAEA CAPTA, palm tree; to left, Vespasian, holding spear and parazonium, standing to right, with foot on helmet; to right, Jewish woman seated to right on cuirass, in attitude of mourning. RIC II.1 167; C. 239; Hendin GBC 6, 6534 (forthcoming); Hendin GBC 5, 1504; BMCRE 546. 25.33g, 34mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; with (remarkably, for a Judaea Capta type) untouched surfaces.

3,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 569; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, NYINC Signature Sale 3081, 12 January 2020, lot 30181. Struck for 25 years by Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, the Judaea Capta coins were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in Rome, throughout the Roman Empire, and in Judaea itself. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known. The present piece proudly displays imagery of this significant Roman victory, after which Vespasian boldly closed the gates of the Temple of Janus to signify that all of Rome’s wars were ended, and that the Pax Romana again prevailed. The obverse portrait of Vespasian shows him as strong, robust and in the prime of life; the reverse celebrates Rome and Vespasian’s triumph over the Jewish revolt in Judaea, which Titus had brought to a close the previous year with the capture of Jerusalem after a seven month siege and the destruction of the Second Temple. It had been a costly and devastating war which had cost the lives of twenty five thousand Roman soldiers and somewhere between two hundred and fifty thousand and one million Jewish civilians. The reverse design is simple, but contains powerful imagery: a Jewish woman is seated in an attitude of mourning beside a date palm; behind her looms large the figure of the victorious emperor. It has been occasionally suggested that the female figure represents Jerusalem, and it is sometimes noted that the reverse of this coin can be interpreted to reflect the prophecy of Isaiah 3:8, 25-26: ‘For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen... Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground’. It is also possible that the reverse is symbolic of the general enslavement of the Jewish population; Josephus reports that one of Titus’ freedmen “selected the tallest and most handsome of the youth and reserved each of them for the triumph; of the rest, those over seventeen years of age he sent in chains to the mines in Egypt, while multitudes were presented by Titus to the various provinces, to be destroyed in the theatres by the sword or by wild beasts; those under seventeen were sold”. The Arch of Titus in Rome, completed by his brother Domitian shortly after his death and in commemoration of this victory, depicts the Roman army carrying off the treasures from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah, after the siege of the city had ended. The spoils were used to fund the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum, the great lasting monument of the Flavian dynasty.

Extremely Rare

879. Vespasian AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG TR P, laureate head to right / Judaea, veiled, with hands tied behind back, seated to right on ground beside palm tree; IVDAEA in exergue. RIC II.1 1118; BM 1980,0918.7 (same rev. die); BMCRE p. 79, ‡; BN 298; Hendin GBC 6, 6517 (forthcoming); Hendin GBC 5, 1487; RSC 231. NGC graded Ch VF 4/5 - 3/5, marks (#6156598-001). Extremely Rare; only two other examples in CoinArchives. Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG; Reportedly privately purchased from H. Sneh on the 5th September 2011.

299

1,500


The Second Known IVDAEA DEVICTA

880. Vespasian AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG TR P, laureate head to right / IVDAEA DEVICTA, Judaea, with hands tied together, standing to left against palm-tree. RIC II.1 1119 = Biaggi 326 = Calicó 647 = V.J.E. Ryan Collection (Glendining, 1952), lot 1684 = Künker 280, lot 541; Hendin GBC 6, 6502 (forthcoming); Hendin GBC 5, 1474. 7.22g, 18mm, 7h. Near Very Fine. Of the greatest rarity, only the second known example of this immensely desirable IVDAEA type, with the single other known specimen having sold at auction in 2016 for 300,000 EUR.

20,000

From the Pinewood Collection. For 25 years coins celebrating the capture of Judaea - the defining achievement of the Flavian dynasty - were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in the capital and throughout the empire under Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known. After the violent civil wars following the death of Nero in AD 68, from which the experienced general Vespasian emerged victorious, the hard-fought pacification of Judaea marked an end to internal conflict and broadcast a clear message that the supreme power of the Roman state, under the capable rule of Vespasian, was secure. Vespasian and Titus celebrated a joint triumph in AD 71, after which the emperor boldly closed the gates of the Temple of Janus to signify that, after some turbulent years, Pax Romana again prevailed throughout the Roman world. The portrait of Vespasian here shows an experienced general with a robust build, stern gaze and determined expression, his close-cropped simple military haircut the perfect antidote to the voluminous decadent curled hairstyle favoured by Nero. We can read into this battle-hardened portrait the hugely devastating nature of the campaign against the Jewish revolt, which cost the lives of twenty five thousand Roman soldiers and somewhere between two hundred and fifty thousand and one million Jewish civilians. This particular and more unusual reverse legend IVDAEA DEVICTA reinforces the devastating nature of the conflict, the prefix ‘de’ intensifying the common word ‘victa’ to mean ‘conquered completely’. The reverse type features a female personification of Judaea, her hands tied as if to be led into slavery, in a defeated pose with her head bowed, against the backdrop of a palm tree indicative of the natural riches of the province. Both of these sights would have been familiar to citizens of Rome, who were spectators to the magnificent joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus in AD 71 which saw a large number of captives paraded through the streets of the capital, and indeed modern scholarship assumes that captives were staged as personifications of Judaea like that on this coin (Ida Ostenberg, Staging the World: Spoils, Captives and Representations in the Roman Triumphal Procession, p. 225). They were exhibited alongside with the treasures and spolia taken during the sack of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Second Temple, and commodities taken from the province. The historian Flavius Josephus, who observed the triumph, recorded with great awe “now it is impossible to describe the multitude of the shows as they deserve; and the magnificence of them all: such indeed as a man could not easily think of, as performed either by the labour of workmen, or the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature”. (Jewish Wars VII, 5, 132 ff.)

300


301


Unpublished and Seemingly Unique

881. Vespasian AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head to right / TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAES PRIN IVVEN, Titus and Domitian seated to left on curule chairs, each holding a branch. RIC II.1 -, cf. 1318 (denarius); C. 543 var. (obv. legend); BMCRE -; Biaggi -; Calicó -. 7.27g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; struck from dies of fine style and preserved with beautifully lustrous metal. Unpublished and seemingly unique - a remarkable addition to the corpus of Flavian coinage. 12,500 From the Pinewood Collection. This unpublished aureus provides an illuminating insight into the relationship between the emperor Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian and his desire to establish the legitimacy of his new Flavian dynasty. The implied emphasis on a linear succession, highlighted by the depiction of his two sons on the reverse of this coin is particularly pertinent from a historical perspective, given that Titus’ succession of Vespasian in AD 79 represented the first occasion since the inception of the principate by Augustus that a biological child had been the successor to an emperor. Vespasian, having been sent to Judaea by Nero in AD 66 to put down the Jewish rebellion, was joined by Titus, by now a tried, tested and capable commander who brought his own legion to support the existing troops. Josephus describes in vivid detail the taking of the city of Taricheae by Titus, who he says was the first to enter the city ahead of his men, his boldness taking those guarding the walls by surprise and allowing his forces to overwhelm them, to the delight of his father (The Wars of the Jews, III.10.5-6). During the chaos that ensued at Rome after the death of Nero in AD 69, Titus was sent to pay Vespasian’s respects to the new emperor Galba, although he never reached Rome as he learned en route that Galba was already dead at the hands of Otho, with Vitellius preparing to march on Rome. Titus therefore abandoned the journey and rejoined his father in Judaea; he was then the crucial interlocutor (Tacitus, Histories, II.5) between Vespasian and the Syrian governor in negotiations that gained the military support of the governor of Syria, Gaius Licinius Mucianus. This provided Vespasian with the necessary forces to emphatically defeat the third new emperor of the same year, Vitellius, and ascend to the purple in December of AD 69. Titus was left in Judaea in AD 69, entrusted with bringing an end to the Jewish rebellion, thus freeing Vespasian to march on Rome. After his success at the siege of Jerusalem he returned to Rome, arriving in AD 71, which coincides with the date for the striking of this coin. He was received with much acclaim and fanfare, and his father immediately appointed him to several positions within the state, including those of consul and Praetorian Prefect, the latter giving him authority over the Praetorian guard. Both he and his brother Domitian were furthermore confirmed in the rank of Caesar, to which they had already been appointed, and received the honorific of Princeps Iuventutis. While Domitian was 12 years Titus’ junior and therefore had been less able to demonstrate the same military and diplomatic abilities as his brother by the time Vespasian came to power, he was nevertheless promoted simultaneously with Titus. This decision to show no outward favouritism appears to be reflected by the iconography of this coin, which depicts them as equals: they are both seated on curule chairs, which had been long-associated with offices of power, despite the fact that in reality Domitian’s official roles as Caesar and Praetor were only nominal and did not represent the wielding of any significant control. It is clear, however, that Vespasian was eager to represent both his sons as worthy successors.

302


The Finest in Over Two Decades

882. Vespasian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 72-73. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head to right / Judaea seated to right, leaning against palm tree; emperor standing to right behind, holding spear in right hand and parazonium in left, left foot on helmet. RIC II.1 363; C. 644; BMCRE 78; Hendin GBC 6, 6494 (forthcoming); Hendin GBC 5, 1466; Calicó 587. 7.31g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; a type always seen in heavily worn condition, with this example being by far the finest example offered at auction in over two decades. 15,000 From the Pinewood Collection. The tale of dynastic change that emerged after months of civil war following the death of Nero in AD 68 began when Vespasian and Titus returned to Rome mid AD 71 to celebrate, in a joint triumph, the pacification of Judea. The consequent triumphal procession marked not only their victory but also an end to internal fighting, the prospect of peace to come and above all the supreme power of the Roman state. It was in this jubilant context that a new series of coins were minted with a personification of the captured province. The two sides of this coin explicitly illustrate this twofold symbolism of the triumph. Issued in all denominations, in gold, silver and bronze, the series continued to be struck for twenty-five years under both Titus and Domitian: a new dynasty had begun. With great awe, Josephus marvels at the treasures and spolia that were paraded in the triumphal procession, ‘now it is impossible to describe the multitude of the shews as they deserve; and the magnificence of them all: such indeed as a man could not easily think of, as performed either by the labour of workmen, or the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature’ (Jewish Wars VII, 5, 132 ff.). Modern scholarship assumes that together with these riches Vespasian and Titus staged captives as personifications of Judaea styled as Judaea Capta (Ida Ostenberg, 2009, Staging the World: Spoils, Captives and Representations in the Roman Triumphal Procession, p. 225). Such personifications would have brought visuals of the far-off captured lands to the Roman public as they were paraded through the city. The image of Judaea here nods to this possibility: draped and veiled, Judaea is seated, propped up by a palm tree she is incorporated into the visual representation of Roman possessions. Grief stricken with her head in her hands Judaea is a vivid impersonation of the inhabitants of her land, embodying their sentiments and now subjugated to the Romans. While the reverse of this coin tells of past victory the imperial effigy on its obverse announces a new beginning, a departure from Julio-Claudian rule. There is a marked difference in the portrait of Vespasian compared with those of the first dynasty: he is bald, wrinkled and displays strong physiognomy. Although to a large extent this might well have simply been a reflection of his appearance in real life, in this, there is an emphatic siding with the more Republican image of men in power as opposed to that of Nero (Jane Fejfer, 2008, Roman Portraits in Context, p.407). Vespasian is both easily recognisable and distinctly different from the likes of Nero and the Julio Claudian dynasty.

303


883. Vespasian AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 72-73. IMP CAES VESP A[VG P M] COS IIII, laureate head to right / Emperor driving slow quadriga to right, holding branch and sceptre. RIC II.1 1559; RPC II 1931; BMCRE 512; RSC 643. NGC graded Ch VF 4/5 - 2/5 (#3819341-011).

750

Ex Gitbud & Naumann, Auction 2, 7 April 2013, lot 211.

884. Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 73. IMP CAES [VESP] AVG CENS, laureate head to right / PONTIF MAXIM, Emperor seated to right on curule chair, holding sceptre and branch. RIC II.1 546; BMCRE 98; RSC 387. 3.45g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; stunning old cabinet tone with blue iridescence around devices.

300

Acquired from Warden Numismatics LLC (USD 575).

Very Rare

885. Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 74. IMP CAESAR VESP AVG, laureate head to right / PONTIF MAXIM, Emperor seated to right on curule chair, holding branch and sceptre. RIC II.1 685; BMCRE 146*; BN 86; RSC 386. 3.51g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone with hints of golden iridescence.

500

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG.

886. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 74. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P, laureate head to right / PACI AVG[VSTAE], Victory standing to right, holding wreath in right hand and palm frond in left; star to lower right. RIC II 1457; RPC II 853; BMCRE 475; RSC 277. 3.35g, 17mm, 6h. Mint State; attractive old cabinet tone. Rare.

750

Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Web Auction 15, 27 February 2021, lot 1709.

887. Divus Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80-81. DIVVS AVG[VSTV]S VESPASIANVS•, laureate head to right / Victory standing to left, placing shield on trophy with mourning Judaea seated at base; EX-S C across fields. RIC II.2 364 (Titus); BMCRE 112 (Titus); BN 90 (Titus); RSC 144. 3.50g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; flaws to obv., pleasant light cabinet tone.

350

Acquired from Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH.

304


888. Titus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 71. IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI•F, laureate head to right / CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres enthroned to left, holding two corn-ears and poppy and cornucopiae; EPHE (ligate) in exergue. RIC II.1 1440 (Vespasian); BMCRE 467 (Vespasian); RPC II 843; RSC 39. 3.40g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; a highly detailed reverse. Rare.

500

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Numismatik Lanz München, Auction 123, 30 May 2005, lot 502.

889. Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 75. T CAESAR IMP VESPASIAN, laureate head to right / Bull butting to right; COS IIII in exergue. RIC II.1 780 (Vespasian); C. 48; BMCRE 171 (Vespasian); Biaggi 361 (same rev. die); Calicó 731 (same obv. die). 7.26g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

3,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

890. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head to right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, pulvinar (throne) of Mars and Venus: curule chair surmounted by wreath. RIC II.1 108; BMCRE 66-9; BN 53; RSC 318. 3.32g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; wonderfully centered and with a highly attractive light cabinet tone.

500

891. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M•, laureate head to right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, pulvinar (throne) of Mars and Venus: curule chair surmounted by wreath. RIC II.1 108; BMCRE 66-9; BN 53; RSC 318. 3.51g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

200

From the Santana Collection; Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 92, 2 August 2020, lot 739.

305


892. Titus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 80. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head to right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, draped seat, winged thunderbolt above. RIC II.1 117; C. 315; BMCRE 49; Calicó 782. 7.20g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

3,000

From the Isar Collection.

893. Titus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 80. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head to left / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, wreath on curule chair. RIC II.1 -; C. -; BMCRE -; Calicó 786. 7.11g, 20mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine; scuff on reverse. Very Rare.

2,500

From the Collection of GK; Ex Sincona AG, Auction 41, 23 October 2017, lot 120.

894. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head to right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, dolphin coiled around anchor. RIC II.1 112; BMCRE 72; RSC 309. 3.52g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; minor hairline on rev., attractive light cabinet tone with an underlying lustre.

500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 579.

895. Domitian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 73. CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II, laureate head to right / Prince riding to left, holding sceptre in left hand and raising right hand. RIC II.1 540 (Vespasian); C. 663; BMCRE 125 (Vespasian); Calicó 812a. 7.30g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine.

3,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

306


896. Domitian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 76-77. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head to right / Cornucopiae with ribbons hanging down each side; COS-IIII across fields. RIC II.1 918 (Vespasian); C. 46; BMCRE 196 (Vespasian); Calicó 817. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 2/5, scratches (#6156281-007).

7,500

Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 215, 13 October 2013, lot 1027; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction V, 23 March 2013, lot 722; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 207, 15 October 2012, lot 619; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 204, 12 March 2012, lot 591

Exceptionally Rare

897. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Ephesus(?), AD 76. CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III, laureate head to right; o below bust / PON MAX TR P COS VII, winged caduceus. RIC II.1 1491 (Vespasian); BMCRE 494 (Vespasian); RPC II 1463.3 (this coin); RSC -. 3.50g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; a quite superb portrait of Domitian. Exceptionally Rare; seemingly the finest of just three known specimens.

1,000

This coin published at Roman Provincial Coinage Online (rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk); Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 113, 18 October 2001, lot 5748.

Ex Archer M. Huntington Collection

898. Domitian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 77-78. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head to right / Parthian captive kneeling to right, offering up standard with vexillum; COS V in exergue. RIC II.1 959 (Vespasian); C. 48; BMCRE 231 (Vespasian); Calicó 819. 7.25g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; a striking portrait of Domitian.

6,000

Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 7, 24 October 2020, lot 1571; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 71, 16 May 2013, lot 224 (hammer: 16,000 CHF); Ex Archer M. Huntington (1870-1955) Collection. As part of a policy to promote the new Flavian dynasty, Vespasian gave a greater share of coin obverses to his sons than any of his predecessors had given to their family members before him. In this way he could promote notions of dynastic longevity and seamless succession after his passing. As seen here on this coin minted under Vespasian, his son Domitian represents the imperial family. This was during a time when Domitian’s role in the Flavian dynasty was to a large extent ceremonial; he held only honorary titles including Caesar and Princeps Iuventutis as well as several priesthoods: augur, pontifex, frater arvalis, magister frater arvalium, and sacerdos collegiorum omnium, but not yet any office with imperium. Not only did Vespasian look to the future to strengthen his dynasty, but he also turned to the past in the hope of aligning his rule with other highly regarded emperors. This is evidenced by the reverse of this coin, part of a new series that used antiquarian designs. In this case a kneeling Parthian man offering up a standard is depicted, recalling a famous type minted by the moneyers Turpilianus, Florus, and Durmius c. 19/18 BC under Augustus, to commemorate the return of the Parthian standards. Furthermore, Mattingly suggests that there is a definite topical reference in the choice to re-use this particular type: the Parthians had again been pressuring Rome for help against the Alani (Harold Mattingly, 1966, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum Volume II).

307


899. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80-81. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head to right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, garlanded and lit altar. RIC II.1 266 (Titus); BMCRE 92 (Titus); RSC 397a. 3.52g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State; attractive light cabinet tone with an underlying mint lustre.

1,250

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 584; Ex San Vicente Collection; Privately purchased from Freeman & Sear, 2003-2004.

900. Domitian Æ Quadrans. Rome, AD 84-85. IMP DOMIT AVG GERM, helmeted and draped bust of Minerva to right / Olive branch; S-C across fields. RIC II.1 241; C. 544; BMCRE 488. 3.00g, 17mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine; exceptionally well preserved for the type and arguably the best example on CoinArchives.

750

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XVIII, 29 September 2019, lot 1133; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 174, 27 September 2010, lot 756.

901. Domitian Æ As. Rome, AD 86. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P, laureate head to right, aegis on far shoulder / FIDEI PVBLICAE, Fides standing to right, holding corn-ears and plate of fruit; S-C across fields. RIC II.1 486; BMCRE 385. 9.57g, 26mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; attractive mottled green patina. Rare.

150

Ex Münzzentrum Rheinland, Auction 192, 16 September 2020, lot 400.

308


309


An Aureus of Sculptural Quality

902. Domitian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 87. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VI, laureate head to right / IMP XIIII COS XIII CENS P P P, female German captive seated on shield to right in attitude of mourning; broken spear below. RIC II.1 513 (R2); C. -; BMCRE -; Calicó 882. 7.62g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; light traces of mounting and marks, an excellent example, with wonderful reverse detail. Previously graded Ch XF, Strike: 5/5, Surface: 3/5, Fine Style, edge filed (#4282739-003). Very Rare. 20,000 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 120, 6 October 2020, lot 738; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXIII, 14 January 2020, lot 711; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 2, 11 May 2018, lot 248; Ex cgb.fr, e-Monnaies March 2017, lot 68. This beautiful issue was struck in commemoration of Domitian’s campaigns against the Chatti in Germany in AD 83. At Domitian’s accession following the death of both his father and brother, Domitian was keen to accrue military victories of his own. Much of his career had been spent performing a purely ceremonial role in the governance of the provinces, and his lust for glory following his father and brother’s impressive military victories was noted by Suetonius, as he explains he “...planned a quite unnecessary expedition into Gaul and Germany, from which his father’s friends managed to dissuade him”. Domitian’s pathological need to prove himself and equal his familial predecessors’ achievements is perhaps understandable given the shadow of reflected glory he had lived in all his life; the new emperor’s opportunity presented itself when the Chatti, a German tribe, invaded Roman territory in the area of modern Mayence. By AD 83/84 Domitian had successfully dealt with the incursion and for his victory, a distinction he had long been craving, Domitian staged a triumphal entry to the capital with pomp and splendour. He also granted himself the title of ‘Germanicus’ (see Jones, The Emperor Domitian, p. 128-131), he renamed the month of September ‘Germanicus’ and from the year AD 85 he began minting coins with the legend GERMANIA CAPTA, an echo of the magnificent triumphal celebrations of AD 71, when Vespasian and Titus returned to Rome following the pacification of Judea. It was in this context that the present aureus was struck. Encompassed by the emperor’s new title ‘Germanicus’ and the formula denoting his consulship for the fourteenth time sits a figure with her head bowed, resting in her hand, the personification of Germania - mourning. Soft drapery falls over Germania’s lap as she sits beside an ornate hexagonal shield that could not withstand the might of the Roman forces and a spear, broken in the middle and rendered unusable. The pathos of this scene is reminiscent of the sculpture now generally referred to as the Dying Gaul and housed in the Capitoline Museums in Rome. However, doubt is cast on the validity of Domitian’s success against the Chatti by Suetonius, who deemed the campaign ‘unjustified’ (Suetonius, Life of Domitian 6) and Tacitus in his ‘Agricola’. Though perhaps somewhat biased as Tacitus was writing about the life of his father-in-law, when discussing his successes in Britain he mentions that “Domitian heard, as was his wont, with joy in his face but anxiety in his heart. He felt conscious that all men laughed at his late mock triumph over Germany, for which there had been purchased from traders people whose dress and hair might be made to resemble those of captives, whereas now a real and splendid victory, with the destruction of thousands of the enemy, was being celebrated with just applause.” These writers saw the campaign and the proceeding celebrations as extravagant beyond reason. To them it seemed a construction to overshadow the glory granted to Vespasian and Titus, considering the very small territorial gain the campaign resulted in and the fact that neither Vespasian nor Titus took the title ‘Iudaicus’ following their victories in Judea (Jones, The Emperor Domitian, p. 129). Yet despite being wrapped up in a programme of self-aggrandizement the campaign was in itself significant and had a lasting historical impact, not so much for the territory gained than for the measures taken to secure this territory in the future. With his victory over the Chatti, Domitian laid the foundations for a new system of securing the Roman frontiers in Germany, which resulted in the Limes: a series of watch towers, signal stations and a network of roads with which the borders of the empire could be rapidly reinforced and defended.

310


311


Fleur De Coin

903. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 88. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII, laureate head to right / COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC, herald advancing to left with wand and shield. RIC II.1 596; BMCRE 131; RSC 76/77. 3.56g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin; lustrous.

2,000

Ex Scipio Collection; Purchased from J. Fernandez in 2000.

904. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 88-89. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII, laureate head to right / IMP XVII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva standing to left, holding thunderbolt and spear, shield at her side. RIC II.1 659; BMCRE 149; RSC 245. 3.57g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

250

From the collection of Z.P., Austria; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29th October 2020, lot 587.

905. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 92-93. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XII, laureate head to right / IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing to right on capital of rostral column, brandishing spear and shield, owl at feet to right. RIC II.1 740; BMCRE 202; BN 184; RSC 281. 3.48g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone with hints of red-gold iridescence around devices.

250

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG.

906. Julia Titi (daughter of Titus) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80-81. IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F•, diademed and draped bust to right / VENVS AVGVST, Venus standing to right, leaning on column, holding helmet and spear. RIC II.1 388 (Titus); BMCRE 141 (same); RSC 14. 3.13g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; lustrous.

1,000

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 21, 17 May 2001, lot 419.

312


CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM

907. Nerva AV Aureus. Rome, AD 96. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II P P, laureate head to right / CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM, clasped hands before aquila resting on prow. RIC II 3; C. 24; BMCRE 7; Calicó 957; Roma XXI, 573 (sold for £13,000). 7.29g, 18mm, 6h. About Good Very Fine.

10,000

From the Pinewood Collection. ‘A period of rare felicity, in which one may think what one wishes and say what one thinks,’ was how Tacitus characterised the rule of his consular colleague Nerva and the latter’s successor, Trajan (Histories, 1), ‘a most happy age [when] Caesar Nerva blended things once irreconcilable: sovereignty and freedom’ (Agricola, 3). Since Tacitus, it seems, never did write his intended account of Nerva’s principate, and as the biographies of Suetonius concluded with Domitian, coinage like the present issue offer an invaluable insight into the period. Indeed, the elegantly carved portrait, with its distinctive hooked nose and long neck, likely offers a realistic representation of the emperor, unlike the idealistic obverses of late types under his controversial predecessor (Mattingly and Sydenham, RIC II, p.222). Following the murder of Domitian in September AD 96, the new emperor Nerva made calculated efforts to distance himself from the last Flavian ruler, exonerating those on trial for maiestas and restoring those exiled by Domitian (Cassius Dio, 68.2). In Suetonius’ account, the previous emperor was cremated unceremoniously by his old nurse (Life of Domitian, 17.3), and Cassius Dio claimed that silver and gold images of Domitian were even melted down and used in coin production under Nerva (68.1). Coin types bearing the legend ‘Roma Renascens’ (RIC 67) heralded the dawn of a new and peaceful age and poet Martial lavished praise upon the good government of Nerva, claiming that if the staunch republican Cato were to rise from the dead, even he would be Caesarianus, a champion of this lenient kind of imperial regime (11.5.14). ‘Concordia Exercituum’ featured on another coin type under Nerva: RIC nos. 2, 48, 53 depicted clasped hands alone in a design similar to those produced under Vitellius in a context of civil and foreign war (clasped hands with legend ‘Fides Exercituum’ as on RIC 47, 67). The imagery on this present type further highlighted the explicit relation to the military: the aquila and prow illustrated a union between the emperor pictured on the obverse and the army and navy symbolised on the reverse. Such iconography seemed to reflect the broader approach of the emperor, whose decision to retain Domitian-era governors in important military provinces like Britain, Cappadocia-Galatia and the Danubian provinces, for instance, likely aimed at avoiding disruption to military administration and, so, at preserving ‘concordia’ (Syme, Tacitus, 1958, p.51-2). A. Berriman and M. Todd cited astute consular appointments, like that of the aged Verginius Rufus, ex-commander of legions on the Rhine, as further probable attempts by Nerva to ingratiate himself with the military forces (‘A Very Roman Coup: The Hidden War of Imperial Succession, AD 96-8’, 2001, p. 316). Yet, ‘Concordia’ on the coinage of a weak ruler ‘strikes a dangerously apologetic note,’ as expressed by H. Mattingly (BMCRE Volume III, p.xxxvii; p.xliv). The present type, from the first of six coin series identified by D. C. A. Shotter, proclaimed a harmony which proved very delicate (‘The Principate of Nerva: Some Observations on the Coin Evidence’, 1983, p.217). In both disposition (mitissimo seni, mildest of old men, in Pliny, Panegyric, 6; ‘mildest of princes’ in Martial, 12.6), and body (so frail, according to Cassius Dio, that he had to vomit up his food, 68.1), Nerva emerged as a somewhat feeble figure. The mutiny of the Praetorian Guard in AD 97 undermined the notion of lasting concord in the state, forcing Nerva to surrender the murderers of his predecessor to be killed in turn (Dio 68.3.3), and Pliny, elevating Trajan’s role as saviour, credits him with correcting a breakdown of discipline which had occurred in Nerva’s army (Panegyric, 6). Though the circumstances of the adoption were obscure, the designation of Trajan as heir was interpreted by Syme as a victory for the Praetorian Guard over Nerva (Tacitus, 1958, p.35) and presented by Dio in the context of Nerva’s reduction in power (68.3). Despite conciliatory measures, then, the rule of Nerva showed signs of instability which complicates the professed ‘concordia’ of this rare and beautiful type.

313


908. Nerva AV Aureus. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head to right / CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM, clasped hands before aquila set on prow. RIC II 15; C. 28; BMCRE 27; BN 16; Calicó 958 corr. (incorrect plate shown). 7.30g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

909. Nerva AV Aureus. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head to right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing to left, holding pileus in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC II 19; C. 112; BMCRE 46 note; Calicó 976. 7.45g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

910. Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head to right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing to left, holding pileus and short sceptre. RIC II 19; BMCRE 46; RSC 113. 3.43g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

250

From the collection of Z.P., Austria, collector’s ticket included.

911. Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P II COS III P P, laureate head to right / AEQVITAS AVGVST, Aequitas standing to left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC II 25; BMCRE 52; RSC 9. 3.16g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; some weak striking to rev.

250

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

314


912. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97-118. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head to right / P•M•TR•P•COS•IIII•P•P, Victory walking to left, holding wreath and palm. RIC II 60; BMCRE 122; Woytek 130a; RSC 242a. 3.41g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

250

Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 339, 22 October 2020, lot 95.

913. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 98-99. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head to right / P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P•P•, Fortuna standing to left, holding rudder attached to prow and cornucopiae. RIC II 4; C. 205; BMCRE 32-3; Woytek 53a; Calicó 1042. 7.21g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; an expressive portrait.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

914. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 101-102. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate bust to right, aegis on far shoulder / P•M•TR P• COS•IIII•P•P, Hercules standing facing on low base, holding club in right hand and lion skin in left. RIC II 50; C. 232; BMCRE 81; Woytek 99c (same dies); Calicó 1053. 7.27g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; a beautifully centered example.

5,000

From the Pinewood Collection. Trajan was the first of the Roman emperors to depict the figure and attributes of Hercules on his coinage. This was perhaps on account of Trajan having been born in Italica in southern Spain where Hercules was particularly venerated as Hercules Gaditanus (the name pertaining to the temple to Hercules outside the Phoenician city of Gadir on the southern coast of Spain). Strack argued that this type is a depiction of the cult-image of Hercules Gaditanus, and though the image is certainly suggestive of being a representation of a cult-statue, there is no corroborating evidence (Untersuchungen zur römischen Reichsprägung des zweiten Jahrhunderts. I. Die Reichsprägung des Traian, Stuttgart, 1931). Indeed, the reverse types of Hadrian make specific reference to Hercules Gaditanus and depict Hercules standing from an altogether different viewpoint, with the attribute of the apples of the Hesperides rather than the lion skin (see RIC II 125). An equally likely source for the representation may have been the statue that stood near the Ara Maxima Herculis Invicti, the great altar to the hero in the Forum Boarium in Rome. This was a sacred spot which legend tells us was where Hercules killed the giant Cacus who had stolen some of the cattle of Geryon from him (for the full story see Livy 1.7). Despite this, the gilded bronze statue discovered on the site of the Forum Boarium, now housed by the Capitoline Museum of Rome, also lacks the attribute of the lion skin. Lacking a clear source for the representation, this attractive aureus is best understood within the context of the close association Trajan cultivated between himself and Hercules. The orations addressed to Trajan by Dio Chrysostom directly identify the emperor with Hercules, a comparison also made by Pliny (see Dio Chrysostom, On Kingship A, 84 and Pliny, Panegyricus, 14.5). A series of quadrantes struck under Trajan make the same equation, depicting Hercules in the place of the emperor on the obverse, alongside his imperial titles (RIC II 698, 700-2). In another numismatic representation, the column celebrating Trajan’s victory over the Dacians is depicted in the form of a club resting on a lion skin pedestal (see RIC II 581, pl. XI, 202), likening the emperor’s triumph to a Herculean labour. A statue in the collection of the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme in Rome makes the association most clear, depicting Trajan as Hercules-Silvanus, draped with a lion skin in much the same manner as Hercules depicted on the aureus presented here (for further discussion, see O. J. Hekster, Propagating power: Hercules as an example for second-century emperors in Herakles and Hercules, 2003, pp. 20-35).

315


915. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 102. IMP TRAIANVS AVG GERM DACICVS, laureate head to right, wearing aegis on far shoulder / TR P COS IIII P P, Emperor in quadriga to left, holding branch and sceptre. RIC II 72 var. (bust type); BMCRE p.49 ¶ var. (bust type); Woytek 144c1 (same dies); RSC 596c. 3.48g, 18mm, 7h. Mint State; superbly lustrous metal. Extremely Rare.

2,250

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from J. R. Cayón, May 2000.

The First to Come to Auction in 20 Years

916. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 103-107. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, emperor standing in slow triumphal quadriga, advancing to left, holding branch and eagle-tipped sceptre. RIC II 207 var. (bust type); C. 493 var. (same); BMCRE 247; Woytek 195bA; Biaggi 535 var. (same); Calicó 1101 var. (same). 7.26g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine. Exceedingly rare with this bust type; not recorded in either RIC or Calicó, the first example to come to auction in at least twenty years. 3,000 From the Pinewood Collection.

917. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 103-104. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, emperor standing facing, holding spear and parazonium, being crowned by Victory standing to left, holding palm. RIC II 212 var. (drapery); BMCRE 238; Woytek 185b; RSC 514a. 3.49g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State; hints of golden iridescence.

250

From the collection of Z.P., Austria, collector’s ticket included.

918. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 103-107. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Pax standing to left, holding olive branch and cornucopiae, treading on bust of captured Dacian to left; S-C across fields. RIC II 503 var. (bust type); C. 407; BMCRE 800; Woytek 200b. 27.12g, 34mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; fields lightly smoothed.

500

From the inventory of a European dealer.

316


919. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 104-107. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, emperor riding to right on galloping horse, cloak billowing behind, spearing fallen Dacian below to right, head reversed. RIC II 208 var. (bust type); C. 501 var. (same); BMCRE 246; Woytek 202f2; Calicó 1107a. 7.20g, 20mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection. Trajan had in AD 101-102 launched an offensive against the powerful Dacian king Decebalus with whom Domitian had signed an unfavourable (and some would argue shameful) treaty some twenty years before, the price of which was the payment of an annual ‘subsidy’ of eight million sestertii and the presentation of a diadem from Domitian to Decebalus. In that war, Trajan succeeded in defeating the Dacians in a series of pitched battles, and reduced Decebalus to the status of client king. The victory was celebrated with a triumph (Trajan’s first), and later by the construction of the Tropaeum Traiani. Although this victory had greatly eroded Decebalus’ power, he nonetheless began to rearm straight away, to harbour Roman runaways and to pressure the neighbouring barbarian tribes to ally themselves with him. In 104 he organised a failed attempt on Trajan’s life by means of some Roman deserters, as well as capturing Trajan’s legate Longinus who he tried to use as a bargaining chip; Longinus however took poison to avoid compromising his country and emperor. Then finally in 105 Decebalus launched an invasion of the Roman-held territories north of the Danube. Trajan was not unprepared; by 105 the concentration of Roman troops assembled in the middle and lower Danube regions amounted to fourteen legions – half of the entire Roman army. Trajan ordered the construction of a massive bridge over the Danube designed by Apollodorus of Damascus, which for over 1,000 years was the longest arch bridge ever built both in terms of total and span length. The counter-offensive consisted mostly of the reduction of the Dacian fortress network which the Romans systematically stormed while denying the Dacians the ability to manoeuvre in the open. At last Decebalus’ main stronghold of Sarmizegetusa was taken by storm and razed to the ground. Decebalus himself escaped, but soon after committed suicide as a Roman cavalry scout named Tiberius Claudius Maximus was closing on him. Maximus delivered the head and right hand of the enemy king to his emperor. Trajan’s second triumph was understandably a grand affair, which was accompanied by spectacular games that the emperor held in celebration: ten thousand gladiators fought in these games, and ten thousand animals were sacrificed in thanks to the gods. The riches of Dacia (estimated recently at 165 tons of gold and 331 tons of silver) were invested in a series of important public works, the jewels of which were the forum and great market in Rome which bore the emperor’s name, and the magnificent celebratory column depicting the glorious achievements of the campaign. As reward for his service the cavalry scout Tiberius Claudius Maximus was decorated and immortalised in a relief on Trajan’s column. A grave stele he ordered made for himself while he lived tells us of his deeds and honours, and bears his likeness on horseback, riding down the Dacian king. The relief is nearly identical to the reverse of this coin type.

The Finest of Fewer than Five Known

920. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 104-107. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate head to left / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Pax, draped, standing to left, holding branch downwards in right hand and cornucopiae in left, right foot treading down bust of fallen Dacian; S-C across fields. RIC II 506; C. 409; Lacourt I, Ia1, pl. 2, 1 (this coin); Woytek 200o-1 (same obv. die); BMCRE 803 (same obv. die). 28.68g, 34mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; a perfectly centered specimen featuring a handsome portrait and a beautiful green patina, lightly smoothed in fields. Extremely Rare; seemingly the finest of fewer than five known examples. 5,000 This coin published in J. Lacourt, Sesterces des Antonins, Volume I - Nerva - Trajan (France, 2022); Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 59, 4 April 2011, lot 967.

317


921. Trajan Æ As. Rome, AD 104-107. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate head to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, elaborately decorated oval shield set over an oblong shield; behind, three spears, a falx (curved Dacian sword), and a vexillum; SC in exergue. RIC II 584 var. (bust type); C. 569; Woytek 198bA (same dies); BMCRE 949. 10.24g, 27mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; an attractive example. Scarce with this bust type.

500

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG, old collector’s ticket included.

922. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 107-108. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Jupiter, naked to waist, seated to left, holding Victory in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC II 113 var. (bust type); C. 62 var. (bust type); BMCRE 264; Woytek 264f; Calicó 994a. 7.26g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

923. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 107-108. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, trophy set on stump, with helmet on top, three oval shields, two swords and two javelins; below, crossed greaves. RIC II 147a var. (trophy configuration, bust drapery); BMCRE 355; Woytek 269b-2; RSC 99 var. (trophy configuration, note). 3.37g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,250

Ex Scipio Collection; Acquired from J. Herrero, December 1995.

924. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 107. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI in three lines within oak wreath. RIC II 150; C. 581; BMCRE 253-6; Strack 99; Woytek 224f; Calicó 1121. 7.28g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

318


925. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 108-109. [IMP] TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate head to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Aequitas standing to left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC II p. XIV, Addenda to p.252; BMCRE 281; Woytek 278bC; RSC 85. 3.08g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone with vivid blue iridescence.

200

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

926. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 108-110. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Ceres standing to left, holding two grain ears in left hand and long torch in right. RIC II 109 var. (bust type); C. 65 var. (same); BMCRE 261-2; Woytek 291f; BN 414; Calicó 996a. 7.22g, 20mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine; a wonderfully centered specimen.

4,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

927. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 108-109. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Aequitas standing to left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC II 118 corr. (denomination not listed); BMCRE 281; Woytek 278b; RSC 85. 3.33g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; light scratch to obv.; hints of blue-gold iridescence around the devices.

200

From the collection of Z.P., Austria, collector’s ticket included.

928. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 111. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate head to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing to right, inscribing DACICA in three lines on shield set on palm tree stump. RIC II 130; BMCRE 322; Woytek 346b; RSC 80. 3.35g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

319


929. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 112-113. IMP TRAIANVS AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / DIVVS PATER TRAIAN, Trajan Senior seated to left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC II 252 var. (bust type); BMCRE 500; Woytek 406b; RSC 140. 3.32g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

200

From the Santana Collection; Ex Benito Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, E-Auction 478, 7 October 2020, lot 419.

Trajan’s Forum

930. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 112-113. IMP TRAIANVS AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / Frontal view of the hexastyle façade of Trajan’s Forum, with central entrance and two alcoves containing statues to either side, an elaborate statue group comprised of a facing chariot drawn by six horses between three statues on each side atop the roof; FORVM TRAIAN in exergue. RIC II 257; BMCRE 509; Woytek 409f; Calicó 1031a. 7.28g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. A superb and sought-after architectural reverse type.

5,000

From the Isar Collection. Trajan became consul for the sixth and final time on January 1, AD 112; on the same day he dedicated his new Forum complex. It is thought to have been designed by the architect Apollodorus who accompanied Trajan on his campaigns in Dacia and is famous for building a bridge across the Danube river recorded by ancient authors and artists. When complete, the vast complex consisted of the area fori (main square), the Basilica Ulpia, the column of Trajan, and two libraries, all situated adjacent to the Markets of Trajan on one side and the Forum Augustum on another. The project sought to exceed previous imperial fora in plan, scale and ornamentation while focusing directly on Trajan’s military achievements in Dacia. Each imperial forum had specific architectural and decorative schemes which created specific ambiences; thus, Trajan’s military theme is vastly different from the Forum of Vespasian (also known as the Temple of Peace and not officially called a forum since there is no evidence of it serving a political function) which instead contains gardens, fountains and promenades. One ancient account tells us that “all along the roof of the colonnades of Trajan’s forum there are placed gilded statues of horses and representations of military standards, and underneath is written Ex manubiis [from money obtained through spoils]” (Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 13.25.1). Perhaps the message the emperor wished to send was that his rule saw such great military achievement that his successes alone were capable of creating the greatest public architectural space in Rome. Following Trajan’s death, Hadrian is reported to have added a colossal temple to the deified Trajan and his wife Plotina (of which very little survives) so that the completed Forum focused not only on Trajan’s military victories, but also on his apotheosis. The magnificence of this complex in comparison to previous imperial fora is emphasised by ancient witnesses, one of whom, when describing the emperor Constantius II’s reaction when he first visited Rome in AD 357, says it was “a construction unique under the heavens, as we believe, and admirable even in the unanimous opinion of the gods...” (Ammianus Marcellinus 16.10.15). It was later a space where various important events occurred; Hadrian and Aurelian ordered the burning of notes of debt to the state here (Historia Augusta, Hadrian 7.6, Aurelian 39.3), Marcus Aurelius held a sale of imperial treasures here following a period of war as an alternative to taxing the provinces (Historia Augusta, Marcus Aurelius 17.4) and here laws were frequently fastened up on bronze tablets to be read by the public. This coin was produced following the dedication of the forum and depicts the magnificent arch commemorating Trajan’s victories in Dacia which acted as its entrance. Martin Beckmann (see The Early Gold Coinage of Trajan’s Sixth Consulship in The American Journal of Numismatics Vol. 12 (2000), pp. 119-156) argues that it was part of the first production of AD 112 which contained a group of types focusing on commemorating the forum such as depictions of the Basilica Ulpia, and Equus Traiana (the following year saw the production of coins showing the newly built Trajan’s Column). His study reveals that there were ten dies for this reverse type and that “from the die links it appears that the forum type carried on strongly, perhaps to the end of the entire series...” implying that significant importance was attached to the promulgation of this great architectural work, the grandest of all imperial fora to date, made possible by the emperor’s military victories.

931. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / CONSERVATORI PATRIS PATRIAE, Jupiter, with cloak draped across arms, standing to left, holding sceptre and thunderbolt over emperor, togate, standing to left and holding branch. RIC II 249 var. (bust type); C. 46 var. (same); BMCRE 494; Woytek 428f-2(1) (same rev. die); BN 736 (same rev. die); Calicó 991. 7.22g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

5,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

320


Extremely Rare

932. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / S P Q R • OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Genius standing facing, head to left, holding patera over lighted and garlanded altar and grain ears. RIC II 278; BMCRE 432; Woytek 413f; Calicó 1093. 7.26g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; a sculptural rev. type of fine style. Extremely Rare; only 5 others present on CoinArchives. From the Pinewood Collection.

321

15,000


REGNA ADSIGNATA

933. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 114-117. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIM AVG GER DAC PARTHICO ▾, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / REGNA • ADSIGNATA, emperor seated to left on platform, two attendants standing behind him; before platform, three kings standing to right. RIC II 367; BMCRE 614-5; Woytek 564f; Calicó 1079 corr. (obv. legend). 7.26g, 19mm, 6h. 15,000

Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From the Pinewood Collection.

This historically significant type proclaims Trajan’s assignment of rulers to the freshly conquered kingdoms of Armenia, Parthia and Mesopotamia following his victories in the East. In his campaign of AD 114-116 Trajan expanded the territories of the empire to what was then the greatest extent of Rome’s borders; her dominion now stretched from the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean to the waters of the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Trajan had his statue set up on the shore of the latter, and sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close but bemoaning that he was too old to go on any further and repeat the conquests of Alexander the Great, to whose conquests this expedition was widely compared. The admiration and respect in which Trajan held the Macedonian king was evidenced by his determination to return to Babylon where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 BC. The successes referenced on this coin were to be short-lived however, as shortly after his death revolts erupted in Armenia, Mesopotamia, Cyprus and Cyrene, as well as in North West Africa and along the Northern borders of Europe, prompting his successor Hadrian to abandon much of the newly gained territory in favour of a smaller but more defensible empire.

322


A ‘Heroic’ Portrait of Trajan

934. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 114-116. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, laureate heroic bust to right, wearing aegis with strap over chest, globe below bust / P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Fortuna seated to left, holding rudder and cornucopiae; FORT RED in exergue. RIC II 321; C. 151; BMCRE 576; Woytek 525tt+-1¹ = Calicó 1024 (same dies). 7.35g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; a beautiful example of Trajan’s ‘heroic’ portraiture. Extremely Rare; only the second example to appear at auction in the past 20 years. 15,000 Trajan’s portrait on the obverse of the present aureus casts him in a heroic guise, imbued with symbolism. The date for the striking of this coin coincides with his consenting to take the epithet of ‘Optimus’ as part of his personal title, an honorific that had been bestowed on him by the Senate back in AD 105. Indeed, there appears to be no modesty in the iconography of this portrait; not only is he wearing the divine attribute of the aegis, but he is also portrayed above a globe, highlighting the unending nature of his empire. The style of this portrait could furthermore be seen as combining a tradition of veristic portraits, which evokes the senatorial portraits of the Republican period, with a more idealised, allegorical image of a benevolent warrior emperor.

935. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 114-116. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Fortuna seated to left, holding rudder and cornucopiae; FORT RED in exergue. RIC II 319; BMCRE 569-575; Woytek 525f-1; Biaggi 489; Calicó 1026. 7.31g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

7,500

From the Isar Collection.

323


936. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 114-116. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, laureate and draped bust to right / P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Fortuna seated to left, holding rudder and cornucopiae; FORT RED in exergue. RIC II 318; BMCRE 578; Woytek 526v; RSC 154. 4.12g, 19mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

937. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 114-116. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Bonus Eventus standing facing, head to left, holding patera and ears of corn. RIC II 347 var. (bust type); C. 275 var. (same); BMCRE 545; Woytek 517f; Calicó 1067. 7.07g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; a well-centered example.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

Extremely Rare

938. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 114-116. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Genius of the Senate standing to right, holding sceptre, Genius of the Roman people standing to left, holding cornucopiae and sacrificing out of patera over altar; VOTA SVSCEPTA in exergue. RIC II 374; C. 657; BMCRE 587; Woytek 530f (same dies); Biaggi 550 (same rev. die); Calicó 1131 (same rev. die). 6.98g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; well-centered. Extremely Rare; rated ‘R2’ by both RIC and Calicó, only six other examples on CoinArchives. From the Pinewood Collection.

324

5,000


The Subjugation of Parthia

939. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 116. IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GER DAC PARTHICO, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Parthia seated to right, head facing, in attitude of mourning, and Parthian seated to left in attitude of mourning; both below trophy; PARTHIA CAPTA in exergue. RIC II 324; C. 184; BMCRE 603; Woytek 560f; Biaggi 496; Calicó 1035a. 7.24g, 19mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Rare, particularly so in this condition; a historically important type.

10,000

From the Pinewood Collection. Commemorating his final great campaign, this aureus of Trajan is a clear indication to the people of Rome that the Emperor had succeeded in expanding the Empire still further through his conquest of Parthia and the capture of the Parthian capital, Ctesiphon. However, the areas of Armenia and Mesopotamia that Trajan conquered were unwieldy and difficult to secure, and it was left to the new Emperor Hadrian in AD 117 to abandon these indefensible lands in favour of a smaller, but more easily governable, empire. Trajan’s campaign against the Parthians was prompted by their unacceptable installation of a puppet king in Armenia. Both the Parthian and Roman Empires had shared a hegemony over the Armenian kingdom for fifty years, but Trajan now resolved to remove the Parthian client king and annexe Armenia as a Roman province. After so doing, Trajan moved southwards, receiving acknowledgement of hegemony from various tribes on the way to Mesopotamia, a large part of which he had conquered by the time this coin was struck in AD 116.

325


The Cult of Sol Indiges

940. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 116-117. IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, radiate and draped bust of Sol to right. RIC II 329; BMCRE 621-623; Woytek 572f; BN 880-882; Biaggi 499; Calicó 1038. 7.18g, 19mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous metal.

15,000

From the Pinewood Collection. While it is very likely that the Romans, like many other cultures, had a reverence for the sun from the earliest of times, the ‘official’ cult of the sun-god, Sol Indiges, did not have a very high profile initially. According to Roman sources, the worship of Sol was introduced by Titus Tatius. A shrine to Sol stood on the banks of the Numicius, near many important shrines of early Latin religion. In Rome itself Sol had an ‘old’ temple in the Circus Maximus according to Tacitus, and this temple remained important in the first three centuries AD. Sol also had an old shrine on the Quirinal Hill where an annual sacrifice was offered on August 9. Romans were therefore well acquainted with the concept of a sun god, though his appearance on coinage was infrequent; it would require an Eastern revival of the cult to bring it to prominence. It is known that by AD 158 the cult of Sol Invictus was established at Rome, as evidenced by a votive military inscription (see Campbell, 1994, The Roman Army, 31 BC-AD 337: A Sourcebook, p. 43 and Halsberghe, 1972, The Cult of Sol Invictus, p. 45), however Rome’s first contact with the Syrian cult that would come to worship the sun under this name probably occurred sometime during the reign of Hadrian, whose Eastern connections led to an intensification of relations with the Eastern provinces of the empire. Hadrian had accompanied Trajan on all his campaigns in Dacia and the East, and had been appointed legate of Syria, and remained there to guard the Roman frontiers as Trajan, now seriously ill, returned to Rome. Sol appears on the coinage of Trajan where the type is used as a deliberate and obvious reference to his campaign of conquest in the East. Sol also appears early on in the coinage of Hadrian’s reign, personifying the East more explicitly still with the inscription ORIENS below the portrait, doubtless representing not only a continuation of Trajan’s legacy but also an indirect reference to the emperor himself who, like the sun, had risen to power in the east.

941. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 116-117. IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, radiate and draped bust of Sol to right. RIC II 329; BMCRE 621-623; Woytek 572f; BN 880-882; Biaggi 499; Calicó 1038. 7.18g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

326


942. Divus Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 117-118. DIVO TRAIANO PARTH AVG PATRI, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / Radiate and nimbate phoenix standing to right on laurel branch. RIC II.3 2455 (Hadrian); C. 659; BMCRE 49 (Hadrian) corr. (aureus); Calicó 982a (same dies). 7.24g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

7,500

From the Isar Collection.

Either the Second or Third Known

943. Divus Trajan AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 118. DIVVS TRAIANVS PATER AVGVSTVS, laureate bust to right / IMP HADRIA[N DIVI] NER TRAIAN OPT FIL, Hadrian standing to left, sacrificing over lighted altar; REST in exergue. RIC II.3 2963 (same dies); BMCRE p. 244, *; Woytek, The pious son. On the restored denarius issue signed by Hadrian, NC 178 (2018) p. 173-175; Strack -; BN -; RSC 663. 1.93g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Excessively Rare; the only Divus Trajan denarius offered at auction since 1864.

500

From the GK Collection. This incredible rarity is either the second or third known example of the type, the first being in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, the second identified in Woytek (2018) - that second example, formerly from the Michelet d’Ennery and Pascal-François-Joseph Gosselin collections, is currently untraced and no photographs of it can be found, therefore definite attribution of the present coin to Woytek specimen 2 cannot be made and it could thus be an additional third example. However if evidence comes to light to associate this coin with Woytek specimen 2, its impressive provenance would stretch back to the when it was in the Michelet d’Ennery Collection and described by Thomas Mangeart in 1763. Given the extraordinary rarity of the type it is not inconceivable that this could be the long-lost d’Ennery-Gosselin specimen.

944. Matidia (niece of Trajan) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 112-117. MATIDIA AVG DIVAE MARCIANAE•F•, draped bust to right, wearing double stephane / PIETAS AVGVST, Pietas standing to left, placing hands on heads of two children, Sabina and Matidia, standing on either side, raising hands to her. RIC II 759 (Trajan); C. 9 (same); BMCRE 659 (same); Woytek 728.1; Calicó 1157a. 7.20g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine.

5,000

From the Isar Collection.

327


Hadrian in the East

945. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 117. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA PARTH F, laureate and cuirassed bust to right, wearing balteus strap / DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS, radiate and draped bust of Sol to right; ORIENS in exergue. RIC II.3 50; C. 1003 corr. (bust type); BMCRE 35 corr. (bust type); Calicó 1293 corr. (bust type). 7.29g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

15,000

From the Pinewood Collection. Struck in AD 117 at the beginning of Hadrian’s reign and shortly after the death of Trajan on his return journey from the campaign against Parthia, this stunning aureus contains layers of symbolism hidden within its splendour. The murky circumstances surrounding Hadrian’s accession needed to be legitimised. He had, officially, been adopted by Trajan on his deathbed. Yet whether this was actually the case, and whether it was Trajan’s uninfluenced will, were subjects of whispered debate. It was rumoured that Plotina might have compelled the dying emperor to adopt her favourite, Hadrian, or even perhaps that Trajan had died leaving no successor and that Plotina had afterwards forged Trajan’s will herself. Hadrian was therefore required to cement his own position as well as to consolidate the vast territorial gains of his predecessor, tasks that he undertook quickly and decisively. Realising the untenable position that the annexation of Mesopotamia had created, Hadrian withdrew the legions stationed there and effectively abandoned this province, also later giving up Armenia to a local king, who was soon defeated by Parthia. Unpopular as Hadrian’s abandonment of his predecessor’s conquests in Mesopotamia would have been, it did help to stabilise the empire. These tactical withdrawals also left him able to concentrate on quelling the last pockets of resistance left over from the Kitos War, the second great Jewish-Roman war which had begun under Trajan and which was estimated by contemporaries to have cost the lives of many hundreds of thousands of Greeks and Roman citizens. As a result of the insurrection, the Legio VI Ferrata was also moved to a new permanent station at Caesarea Maritima in Judaea. The rumour of a falsified adoption carried little weight, but in any case Hadrian was keen to emphasise the legitimacy of his position, and therefore we see on his coinage legends proudly proclaiming the deified Trajan and Nerva as his father and grandfather. The reverse type of Oriens may be understood to have several meanings. At the time it was struck, Hadrian remained in the East consolidating the frontiers of the empire and assisting in the restoration of Egypt, Cyprus, Cyrene and Judaea. Thus it may refer to the new emperor who had arisen in the East, yet it might also be viewed as a celebration of the end to the Jewish rebellion that had so ravaged the eastern provinces. One may also see in this type a melancholic marking of the conclusion to Trajan’s glorious conquests on that most distant border of the Roman empire, a demanding campaign that had ultimately claimed the life of this great and wise emperor.

328


946. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 118. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS II, Fortuna seated to left, holding rudder and cornucopiae; FORT RED in exergue. RIC II.3 113; BMCRE 72; Strack 35; Calicó 1259. 7.10g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Rare; among the finest known examples.

15,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

947. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 118. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS II, Salus seated to left, feeding out of patera snake coiled around altar; SALVS AVG in exergue. RIC II.3 137; C. 1349; BMCRE 84 note; Calicó 1368. 7.32g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

948. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 118. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / PONT MAX TR POT COS II, Roma, helmeted, seated to right on cuirass, holding spear and clasping hands with Hadrian, standing to left, togate; ADVENTVS AVG SC in two lines in exergue. RIC II.3 158; C. 91; Banti 73; BMCRE 1123. 26.96g, 35mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; a handsome example of Hadrian’s heroic portraiture. From A Lady’s Winged Horse Collection; Ex Antonio Carmona Collection.

329

1,500


Only Four Others on CoinArchives

949. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 119-120. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Genius standing to left, holding patera and cornucopiae; GEN-P R across fields. RIC II.3 194 (same rev. die); C. 796; BMCRE 273 corr. (bust type, same dies); Biaggi -; Calicó 1267a. 7.27g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; a perfectly centered example, lustrous metal. Extremely rare with this bust type; only four other examples on CoinArchives.

10,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

950. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 119-120. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Genius standing to left, holding patera and cornucopiae; GEN-P R across fields. RIC II.3 195; C. 796; BMCRE 273 (as described rather than as plated (cuirassed only)); Calicó 1267. 7.46g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

330


951. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 119-120. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Jupiter standing to right, head facing, with cloak over shoulder, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC II.3 211; C. 1058; BMCRE 103; Calicó 1301. 7.39g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

10,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

952. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 119-120. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Jupiter standing to right, head facing, with cloak over shoulder, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC II.3 212; C. 1058; BMCRE 104; Calicó 1301b (same dies). 7.39g, 20mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

7,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

331


A Sculptural Depiction of Mars

953. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 120-121. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Mars standing facing, wearing full armour, holding spear and resting shield on ground. RIC II.3 319; C. 1071; BMCRE 109; Strack 94; Biaggi 634; Calicó 1312. 7.29g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Scarce.

15,000

From the Pinewood Collection. The reverse of this coin depicts a highly sculptural image of Mars, the style and composition of which evokes the statuary of Classical Greece, particularly that of renowned sculptors Polykleitos and Lysippos. Mars’ contrapposto stance is distinctly reminiscent of Polykleitos’ Doryphoros, the spear-bearer, thought to have been cast circa 440 BC and arguably the definitive archetype of the Classical ideal; despite the position of Mars’ arms being slightly different, he is otherwise a mirror for Polykleitos’ heroic figure. His lean physique, however, is perhaps more comparable to later works by Lysippos, who was working in the early 4th Century BC and has been characterised as producing more slender, elegant figures creating the impression of unnatural height, as exemplified by his Victorious Youth. This image of Mars depicted on the present aureus neatly embodies the paradigms of the male form established 500 years earlier, and it is not hard to imagine that it may represent a now lost statue of the god.

332


Very Rare

954. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 120-121. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Mars, helmeted, standing facing with foot on helmet, holding inverted spear and parazonium. RIC II.3 326; C. 1146 corr. (Mars not Virtus); BMCRE 110; Biaggi 645; Calicó 1339 corr. (same); Roma XXII, 766 (sold for £36,000). 7.28g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare; only seven examples offered at auction in the past two decades.

15,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

955. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 120-121. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Libertas seated to left, holding laurel branch and sceptre; LIB•PVB in exergue. RIC II.3 361; BMCRE 281; Biaggi 619; Calicó 1284. 7.36g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

10,000

From the Isar Collection.

333


A Rare Facing Figure of Hercules

956. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 121-123. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Hercules seated facing on pile of armour, holding club in right hand and distaff in left. RIC II.3 508; C. 1082; BMCRE 97; Calicó 1318. 7.34g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

10,000

From the Pinewood Collection. Succeeding Trajan as emperor in AD 117 whilst on campaign in the east, Hadrian returned to Rome in AD 118. However, by AD 119 he was already planning his next foray abroad, as we see him invoking the favour of the gods on his coinage in advance of the journey. As seen on this reverse type, Hercules the great adventurer and traveller was one of those whose blessing was sought. That Hercules is present on the coinage of Hadrian is only natural after his appearance on types of his adoptive father Trajan, and his presence is further explained by Hadrian’s familial ties with southern Spain (he is thought to have been born in the city of Italica), where the cult of Hercules was prominent. Other reverse types struck under Hadrian explicitly mention the cult of Hercules Gaditanus, who enjoyed the highest honours in southern Spain. The present reverse shows Hercules in the style that many Roman citizens would have been familiar with, seated and resting after his toils in the manner of statues from Kroton and the south. The inclusion of the distaff in this image of Hercules is somewhat unusual. Rather than alluding to his masculinity and strength as shown through the Twelve Labours, it draws attention to the story of the period when Hercules, as penance for the murder of Iphitus, was remanded as a slave to Omphale for a year and was subjected to holding the yarn for her maids as they spun. This Greek myth, which survived through the writings of the early Roman writer Ovid among others, is not one we immediately associate with Hercules today, though it was a more common feature of his cult in antiquity.

334


957. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 121-123. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust to right, wearing balteus strap / P M TR P COS III, Jupiter seated to left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC II.3 512; C. 1060 var. (bust type); BMCRE 107 var. (bust type); Calicó 1304b. 7.22g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

7,500

This coin cited and plated in R.A. Abdy and P.F. Mittag, Roman Imperial Coinage II.3 (London, 2019); Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 94, 18 September 2013, lot 1168 (hammer: $13,000); Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Mail Bid Sale 78, 14 May 2008, lot 1778; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 151, 9 October 2006, lot 432.

958. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 121-123. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust to right, wearing balteus strap / P M TR P COS III, Jupiter seated to left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC II.3 512; C. 1060 var. (bust type); BMCRE 107 var. (bust type); Calicó 1304b. 7.25g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

4,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

959. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 121-123. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate and draped bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Concordia seated to left, holding patera and resting on statuette of Spes; CONCORD in exergue. RIC II.3 552; BMCRE 257 var. (bust type); RSC 255 var. (bust type). 3.48g, 18mm, 7h. Near Mint State; beautiful old cabinet tone, an exceptional example.

1,000

Ex Scipio Collection.

335


960. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 121-123. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Roma seated to left, holding Victory in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC II.3 538; C. 1097; BMCRE 134; Calicó 1333. 7.20g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

12,500

From the Pinewood Collection.

961. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 121-123. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Roma seated to left on cuirass, holding Victory and spear; shield at side, bow and quiver with arrows behind. RIC II.3 538; BMCRE 133; Strack 121; Calicó 1334. 7.25g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; a desirable type with a charming reverse composition.

10,000

From the Isar Collection.

336


Extremely Rare

962. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 121-123. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate and draped bust to right / P M TR P COS III, Minerva standing to left, holding spear in right hand; olive tree and rabbit on left. RIC II.3 584; C. 1069 var. (bust type); BMCRE 118 var. (bust type); Calicó 1309 (same obv. die). 7.34g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only one other example offered at auction in the past two decades, in considerably inferior condition.

15,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

963. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 121-123. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head to right / P M TR P COS III, Neptune standing facing, head to left, with cloak over shoulders, holding acrostolium and trident. RIC II.3 586; C. 1079; BMCRE 125; Calicó 1314. 7.19g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

10,000

From the Isar Collection.

337


Fleur De Coin

964. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 124-125. HADRIANVS AVGVST, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS, she-wolf standing to left, suckling Romulus and Remus seated below; III in exergue. RIC II.3 708; C. 424; BMCRE 448 note; Biaggi 598 var. (obv. legend); Calicó 1236 corr. (bust type). 7.38g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin; a beautiful and well-struck example with lustrous metal. Very Rare.

25,000

From the Pinewood Collection. The only shared component in the many foundation legends of Rome recorded since the third century BC is that Romulus and Remus were the twin sons of a Vestal Virgin called Rhea Silvia. For the rest of the myth there are many variances, but one of the most commonly attested narratives is that recorded by Livy in his History of Rome written under Augustus. According to Livy, Rhea Silvia was the daughter of Numitor, the rightful king of Alba Longa (the city founded by Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, at the foot of the Alban hills) who was usurped by his brother Amulius and his descendants killed or, in his daughter’s case, deprived of hope of having children through being forced to be a Vestal Virgin. Rhea Silvia became pregnant through an encounter with the god Mars and the twins were set afloat on the flooded Tiber in the hope they would drown as ordered by Amulius. Their crying attracted the attention of a she-wolf who nursed them and was so gentle that the shepherd Faustulus, who found them saw the wolf licking the human babies. The twins were then taken in by Faustulus and his wife and raised in the area around the Palatine hill until, as adults, they overthrew the usurper Amulius and founded Rome in the area where they had grown up. This type can be traced back to the earliest coinage of the Republic; a silver Hercules didrachm (Crawford 20/1) dated to circa 264-255 BC depicts on the reverse the twins being suckled by the she-wolf. The type, either alone or as an adjunct motif, was sporadically reused into imperial times and featured prominently on aurei and denarii of Domitian. It was perhaps particularly useful for Hadrian, who spent more than half his reign outside Italy, to draw upon a traditional Roman image in his coinage while away on his travels across the empire. Later examples of the type include coins produced under Constantine I, who, from AD 330, issued a vast number of small coins celebrating Rome by pairing a helmeted head of Roma with the twins and she-wolf motif following his foundation of Constantinople as a new capital in the East. The coin type was probably inspired by ancient statues of the wolf and twins, which unfortunately do not survive but their existence is verified by several ancient accounts; Livy’s History of Rome (10.23) states that in 295 BC a statue was placed near the Ficus Ruminalis (the fig tree at the foot of the Palatine hill by the Tiber which the legend says is the spot where the twins floated ashore) and Cicero reports that a statue of Romulus being suckled by the she-wolf was struck by lightning in 65 BC (Against Catiline, 3.19). While this instantly recognisable foundational motif is popular on Hadrian’s coinage, the combination of this bust type and abbreviated obverse legend makes this particular type, of which this is a stunning Fleur De Coin example, particularly rare.

338


339


965. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 124-125. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS III, Capitoline wolf standing to left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. RIC II.3 709; C -; BMCRE 449; Calicó 1233b. 7.30g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

15,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

Extremely Rare

966. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-127. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / COS III, emperor on horseback to right, brandishing spear. RIC II.3 773; C. 414 var. (bust type); BMCRE 438; Biaggi 595 var. (same); Calicó 1226. 7.26g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; an attractive specimen. Extremely Rare.

15,000

From the Pinewood Collection.

340


341


An Exquisitely Detailed Portrait

967. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-127. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / COS III, emperor riding to right, raising right hand. RIC II.3 781 (same dies); C. 406; BMCRE 429; Calicó 1218a. 7.23g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State; exquisitely detailed portrait.

30,000

From the Pinewood Collection. This very attractive equestrian aureus was struck to mark the triumphant return to Rome of the emperor, and shows him riding into the city accepting the honours and praise of the people. Mattingly and Sydenham argue that during his four year absence from Rome there had been little change in the coinage, no development of style, and the mint had been virtually inactive. However, upon his return there was a great new output of coinage, of which this is a stunning example. For his new coinage, Hadrian drops the long legends favoured by his predecessor Trajan, preferring to simplify them to HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS on the obverse and COS III on the reverse. This new obverse legend very distinctly calls into mind the coinage of the first emperor Augustus, while the new, larger and more gracious style of imperial portrait that fills the fields of the flan is a complete change from the small, careful and cramped types of Trajan. Reverse types such as this one complement the new style and the result is a very attractive and artistic coin. Hadrian’s reign was dominated by his extensive travels across the provinces, and indeed he spent more than half of his reign outside of Italy. A known Hellenophile, shortly before the return to Rome that prompted the issue of coinage to which this aureus belongs the emperor had toured Greece and this, coupled with his studies in Greek academia, art and sculpture led to a shift towards the very Hellenistic style we see here, a piece which can be seen as the product of the highest flourishing of Roman art and sculpture. Although no sculpture or written record of such survives, it is quite probable that this reverse type was modelled on an equestrian statue of Hadrian that stood in Rome and that is lost to us today. We know that numerous equestrian statues of emperors once graced Rome. Indeed, if it were the case that this coin depicts a now lost sculpture, this missing statue would easily fit into a series of imperial equestrian statues that are both well-attested and displayed on the Roman coinage, beginning with the sculpture of Augustus that can be seen on denarii of 16 BC struck under the moneyer L. Vinicius (RIC 362), through Domitian’s addition to the Forum Romanum in AD 91 and Trajan’s own statue in the Forum Traiani. All of these followed a traditional mode, of which the gilt bronze statue of Marcus Aurelius, which was also featured on that emperor’s coinage and which is preserved in the Capitoline Museum, is the sole surviving example. We know that equestrian statues of Hadrian in particular existed - sources corroborate one at Aelia Capitolina on the Temple Mount directly above the Holy of Holies, and another is known to have adorned the Milion built by Constantine I at Constantinople, which along with an equestrian statue of Trajan, must have been removed from its original location and placed there.

342


343


968. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS III, emperor riding horse to right, and raising hand. RIC II.3 781; BMCRE 430-2; Strack 146; Calicó 1215a. 6.88g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

7,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd, Auction XVIII, 29 September 2019, lot 1153.

969. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 125-127. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS III, Neptune standing to right, foot set on prow, holding trident and acrostolium; S-C across fields. RIC II.3 814; BMCRE 1288. 27.65g, 35mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine; a highly attractive example.

1,000

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

344


970. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 128-129. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate head to right / COS III, star within crescent. RIC II.3 924; BMCRE 510 note; RSC 458. 3.36g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State; attractive light old cabinet tone.

500

From the Paulo Leitão Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton VII, 12 January 2004, lot 944.

971. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 133-135. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head to right / TELLVS STABIL, Tellus standing to left, holding plough and hoe, two corn-ears in ground to right. RIC II.3 2052; BMCRE 741; RSC 1427. 3.03g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone.

400

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Gilbert Steinberg Collection of Roman Coins, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, 16 November 1994, lot 403.

972. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 136. [HA]DRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head to right / FIDES PVBLICA, Fides standing to right, holding corn-ears and basket of fruit. RIC II.3 2199; BMCRE 629; RSC 717. 3.43g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous metal.

200

From the Santana Collection.

973. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 136. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / MONETA AVG, Moneta standing to left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC II.3 2224; BMCRE 676 note; RSC 965. 3.21g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

250

From the collection of Z.P., Austria, collector’s ticket included.

345


A Spectacular Expeditio Judaica Commemorative

974. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 136. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare-headed bust to right, slight drapery on far shoulder / VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing to right, head to left, holding wreath and palm branch. RIC II.3 2236 (this coin illustrated); C. 1452; BMCRE p. 335 note; Calicó 1394a (cf. 1393, same rev. die). 7.38g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Very Rare and among the finest known examples of the type.

35,000

This coin illustrated in R.A. Abdy and P.F. Mittag, Roman Imperial Coinage II.3 (London, 2019); Ex Bolla Collection, A. Tkalec AG - Astarte S.A., 28 February 2007, lot 36; Reportedly privately purchased from M. Ratto in 1958. This reverse type most likely makes reference to Hadrian’s victory over Simon Bar Kochba in Judaea during the last Romano-Jewish war, known to contemporary Romans as the Expeditio Judaica (Jewish Expedition). Strack (pp. 132–9) and Mattingly (BMCRE p. cxlvi), both attribute the Victory reverses on the late aurei of Hadrian to this victory. This large-scale rebellion lasted from AD 132-136, and succeeded in establishing an independent state of Israel over parts of Judaea for over two years. Jewish gains were short-lived however, as Hadrian drafted in six full legions with auxiliaries and vexillations from up to six further legions, which finally crushed the revolt. According to Cassius Dio, 580,000 Jews were killed during the rebellion, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages were razed to the ground, and many more Jews sold into slavery. Roman military casualties were significant; Cassius Dio claimed that “many Romans, moreover, perished in this war”. Therefore, Hadrian, in writing to the Senate, did not employ the opening phrase commonly affected by the emperors: “If you and your children are in health, it is well; I and the army are in health.” Legio XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after severe losses, and Legio IX Hispana was possibly also disbanded as a result of the war, according to recent scholarship.

346


347


A Beautiful Portrait in High Relief

975. Sabina (wife of Hadrian) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 128-129. SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P, draped bust to left, wearing double stephane / Vesta seated to left, holding palladium and sceptre. RIC II.3 2485 (same dies); C. 86; BMCRE 927 (Hadrian, same dies); Calicó 1421 (same obverse die). 7.25g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State; a beautiful portrait in high relief. Extremely Rare; only 4 other examples offered at auction in the past 20 years, of which this is by a very considerable margin the finest. 50,000 From the Isar Collection. Sabina, newly proclaimed AVGVSTA on this beautiful type minted less than a year after she was granted the title in AD 128, accumulated more public honours than any other imperial woman since Augustus’ wife Livia. Indeed, she was the first woman to have regular issues struck in her name at Rome, with a wider breadth of portraits and reverse types than ever before seen for female imperial figures. This visibility could be attributed to her key role in her husband Hadrian’s accession: the Historia Augusta (Hadrian, 2.10) reveals that Plotina influenced her husband Trajan to allow the dynastic marriage of his great-niece Sabina to Hadrian, ultimately resulting in Hadrian’s succession of Trajan as emperor in AD 118. Richard Abdy remarks that both Plotina and Matidia (Sabina’s mother) were “key allies in Hadrian’s rise to power and were given rare lifetime issues at the beginning of Hadrian’s reign” (Chronology of Sabina’s coinage at the Roman Mint, Revue Numismatique, 2014, p.75): it could be extrapolated that after their deaths early in Hadrian’s reign, the decision to produce regular coinage with Sabina’s image was both a continuation of this new emphasis on imperial women and an action designed to highlight Hadrian’s secure connection to his revered predecessor. Her beauty was well-attested during her lifetime in the poetry of Julia Balbilla and is reflected here in a graceful high-relief portrait with a magnificent decorative hairstyle intricately rendered by the die-engraver. This stunning anepigraphic reverse type features a detailed image of Vesta, a goddess associated with hearth, home and family who was central to the Roman state religion. Anthropomorphic representations of her outside of imperial numismatic images were extremely rare: the famous Roman poet Ovid wrote in AD 8 “for a long time I foolishly believed there were images of Vesta; afterwards I learned that there are none… in her temple an undying fire is hidden, but it holds no statue of Vesta nor of the fire” (Fasti, 6.295-298). She was often represented simply by this sacred fire, tended to by Vestal Virgins. The first emperor Augustus established an integral link between Vesta and the imperial family after he assumed the role of Pontifex Maximus and incorporated a new shrine to Vesta within his private house in 12 BC. Coins of emperor Titus’ daughter Julia Titi with this type of Vesta seated with palladium and sceptre, in fact the first coins completely dedicated to an imperial woman, reinforced the link between Vesta and the female relatives of the emperor (Lien Foubert, ‘Vesta and Julio-Claudian Women in Imperial Propaganda’, Ancient Society, 2015, p.198). The type next appeared on the coinage of Plotina, wife of Trajan, in AD 112. On the coinage of Sabina, it formed part of a more elaborate and systematised programme for the empress, amidst types of Concordia, Juno Regina, Pietas, Ceres, Pudicitia and Venus Genetrix, associating her with qualities of fidelity, chastity, piety and fertility. The image of Vesta, the personification of hearth and household, reflects the stability and integrity of the Roman empire under Hadrian’s rule, but sadly does not tally with ancient accounts of the relationship between Sabina and Hadrian as at best platonic and at worst mutually adulterous, involving Hadrian’s dismissal of more than one member of imperial staff for their behaviour with his wife. The Historia Augusta also notes that, despite celebrating and elevating Sabina above most previous imperial women, Hadrian “would have sent his wife away too, on the ground of ill-temper and irritability, had he been merely a private citizen.” (Hadrian, 11.3)

348


349


976. Sabina (wife of Hadrian) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 130-133. SABINA•AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P, diademed and draped bust to right, wearing stephane / CONCORDIA•AVG, Concordia seated to left on throne, holding patera and resting arm on statue of Spes on low cippus. RIC II.3 2498; BMCRE 894 (Hadrian); pl. 64, 12 (same dies); Calicó 1429 (same dies). 7.36g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; light reddish tone. Rare.

6,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 606; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 59, 4 April 2011, lot 1981.

977. Sabina (wife of Hadrian) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 130-133. SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P, diademed and draped bust to right / CONCORDIA AVG, Concordia seated to left, holding patera and leaning elbow on figure of Spes; cornucopiae under chair. RIC II.3 2501; BMCRE 895; RSC 12. 3.23g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State; attractive old cabinet tone.

300

From the Santana Collection; Ex Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH, Auction 108, 4 June 2019, lot 187; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 106, 9 May 2018, lot 1512.

978. Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 145-161. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head to right / COS IIII, Aequitas standing to left, holding scales and rod. RIC III 127; BMCRE 512; RSC 228. 3.19g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

100

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

Fleur De Coin

979. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 148-149. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, bare head to right / COS IIII, Aequitas, draped, standing to left, holding scales in outstretched right hand and cornucopiae in left. RIC III 177a; C. 237; BMCRE 646; Biaggi 706; Calicó 1498. 7.24g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin; beautifully centered and featuring a handsome portrait of Pius. Scarce with this bust type. From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

350

4,000


980. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 148-149. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate and draped bust to right / COS IIII, Aequitas, draped, standing to left, holding scales in outstretched right hand and cornucopiae in left. RIC III 177f; C. 235; BMCRE 651; Biaggi 704; Calicó 1505c. 7.01g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Scarce with this bust type; unquestionably among the finest known.

3,500

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

981. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 151. IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head to right / TR POT XIIII COS IIII, Pax standing to left, holding olive branch and sceptre; PAX in exergue. RIC III 200c; C. 581 corr. (rev. misdescribed); BMCRE 728; Biaggi 744 var. (bust type); Calicó 1590 (same dies). 7.19g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State; a portrait of magnificent style struck in high relief. Scarce.

7,500

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

Extremely Rare

982. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 151-152. IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, bare head to right / TR POT XV COS IIII, Pax standing to left, holding olive branch and sceptre; PAX in exergue. RIC III 216a; BMCRE 745; Calicó 1592. 7.31g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; lustrous. Extremely Rare; only three other examples present in CoinArchives. Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 610.

351

7,500


Excessively Rare

983. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 153-154. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to left / COS IIII, Emperor, togate, standing to left, holding globe in outstretched right hand. RIC III 233d; C. 315 var. (bust type); BMCRE 814; Biaggi 714; Calicó 1529 (same dies). 7.10g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Excessively Rare with this bust type; perhaps the fourth known example and only the second to come to auction in the past two decades. 3,000 From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

Fleur De Coin

984. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 155-156. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, laureate head to right / TR POT XIX COS IIII, Victory, draped, advancing to left, holding wreath in extended right hand and palm at shoulder in left. RIC III 255a; C. 993; BMCRE 862; Biaggi 770; Calicó 1670 (same dies). 7.30g, 18mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin; a truly spectacular specimen.

4,000

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

985. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 157-158. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, laureate head to right / TR POT XXI COS IIII, Salus, draped, standing to right, feeding out of patera in left hand snake held in right hand. RIC III 279a; C. 1042; BMCRE 905; Biaggi 775 var. (bust type); Calicó 1684. 7.28g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State; highly lustrous.

3,000

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

352


986. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 159-160. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PIETATI AVG COS IIII, Pietas standing facing, head to left, holding globe in extended right hand and child in her left arm; two children at feet. RIC III 302a-c var. (bust type); C. 623 var. (bust type); BMCRE 983; Biaggi 750; Calicó 1601. 7.33g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Scarce with this bust type.

3,000

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

987. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Rome, after AD 161. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head to right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing to right, head to left, upon garlanded altar. RIC III 431 (Aurelius); BMCRE 48 (Aurelius and Verus); RSC 155. 3.00g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; attractive light cabinet tone.

250

Acquired from Warden Numismatics LLC (USD 550); Ex Ponterio, Sale 112, 27 April 2001, lot 437.

988. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Rome, after AD 161. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head to right / DIVO PIO, square altar with double doors. RIC III 441 (Aurelius); BMCRE 71 (Aurelius and Verus); RSC 357. 3.59g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive iridescent toning.

200

From the Santana Collection; Ex Freeman & Sear, Mail Bid Sale 3, 10 December 1996, lot 433.

353


The Finest Of Two Surviving Examples

989. Diva Faustina I (wife of A. Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 141-161. DIVA FAVSTINA, veiled, diademed and draped bust to left / AETERNITAS, Fortuna, veiled and draped, standing to left, holding rudder and globe. RIC III 348 (Pius) var. (bust type); C. 5 var. (same); BMCRE 359 (Pius) var. (same); Biaggi -; Calicó 1747 var. (same); Maison Palombo 19, 97. 7.35g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Exceedingly Rare variant, unpublished in the standard reference works; perhaps the third known (one apparently stolen and melted down in 1936, according to C. Alfaro Asins -Catálogo de las monedas de oro del Museo Arqueológico Nacional, Madrid 1993, n° 383), making this the finest of just two surviving examples. 10,000 From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969. Annia Galeria Faustina was born into a distinguished and well connected family; her father Marcus Annius Verus was three times consul and prefect of Rome, and she counted Sabina and Matidia as her maternal aunts. Sometime between AD 110 and 115 she married Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus (who would later gain favour with Hadrian, be adopted and succeed to the throne, and be known to history as Antoninus Pius). Her marriage to Antoninus was a happy one and she bore him two sons and two daughters; her namesake, the only one to survive to adulthood, would marry the future emperor Marcus Aurelius. Faustina was by all accounts a beautiful woman noted for her wisdom, though the Historia Augusta criticized her as having ‘excessive frankness’ and ‘levity’. Throughout her life, as a private citizen and as empress, Faustina was involved in assisting charities for the poor and sponsoring the education of Roman children, particularly girls. When she died in AD 140 shortly after her fortieth birthday her husband Antoninus was devastated. To honour her memory he had her deified, built a temple for her in the Forum and issued a prodigious coinage in her name as Diva Faustina. The most fitting and touching act of this grieving husband and emperor was to ensure her legacy of charitable work would be continued; he established an institution called Puellae Faustinianae (‘The Girls of Faustina’) to assist orphaned Roman girls, evidenced by the extremely rare aurei and denarii with the legend PVELLAE FAVSTINIANAE (cf. RIC 397-399 [Pius]) and he created a new alimenta or grain dole to feed the poor. Unusually, the posthumous coinage in her name was produced over a sustained period, though this is clearly linked to the significant role she played in the ideological theme of pietas that characterised the reign of Antoninus, and which Martin Beckmann (Diva Faustina: coinage and cult in Rome and the provinces, ANS, New York, 2012) suggests likely included a distribution of the issues with the reverse legends PIETAS and AETERNITAS, being evocative of “the ‘spiritual side’ of Faustina’s divinisation” (p. 19), at a public ceremony in her memory on the tenth anniversary of her deification.

990. Diva Faustina I (wife of A. Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 141-161. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust to right / AETERNITAS, Fortuna, veiled and draped, standing to left, holding patera and long rudder set on globe. RIC III 349a (Pius); C. 2; BMCRE 371 (Pius); Calicó 1743b. 7.36g, 20mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine; some mineral deposits, lustrous metal.

4,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 614.

354


Ex Bourgey 1956

991. Diva Faustina I (wife of A. Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 141-161. DIVA FAVSTINA, diademed and draped bust to right / AVGVSTA, Ceres standing facing, veiled head to left, holding lit torches in her upraised hands. RIC III 357a (Pius); C. 75; BMCRE 403 (Pius); Calicó 1758b. 7.13g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State; lustrous, a splendid portrait struck in exceptionally high relief.

10,000

Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 613; Ex L. Harold Collection, Hess-Divo AG, Auction 324, 23 October 2013, lot 29; Ex Émile Bourgey, 26 November 1956, lot 107.

992. Diva Faustina I (wife of A. Pius) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 141-161. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust to right / AVGVSTA, throne with wreath placed on it and sceptre leaning against it. RIC III 377 (Pius); BMCRE 454 (Pius); RSC 131. 3.37g, 17mm, 6h. Near Mint State; lustrous metal.

400

From the Santana Collection; Ex Benito Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 471, 1 July 2020, lot 278; Ex CNG Inventory 771660, May 2006.

355


993. Marcus Aurelius AV Aureus. Rome, March - December AD 161. IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG, bare head to right / CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR TR P XV, emperor standing to right, holding roll, clasping hands with Lucius Veres standing to left; COS III in exergue. RIC III 8; C. 70; BMCRE 7; Calicó 1822a (same dies). 7.24g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; minor flan flaw to rev.; wonderfully centered.

6,000

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 347, 22 March 2021, lot 1152; Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 336, 27 May 2019, lot 145; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 236, 7 October 2013, lot 1085; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 182, 14 March 2011, lot 722. Rome was to be ruled by two emperors for the first time upon the accession of both Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus in AD 161, and the first joint rule and political union of the Roman Empire was depicted on the reverses of early gold issues belonging to both emperors; this example is struck in the name of Marcus Aurelius. The reverse legend CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR denotes the ideal of concordia working within this new political system of diarchy. Concordia represented the condition of harmonious union between two individuals, which in turn produced harmony within the state. Such an ideal is presented here as an advertised benefit of the empire under the joint rule of Aurelius and Verus.

994. Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 161-162. IMP M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG, bare head to right / CONCORD AVG TR P XVI, Concordia seated to left, holding patera and resting arm on statue of Spes; cornucopiae under seat, COS III in exergue. RIC III 35; BMCRE 177; RSC 35. 3.40g, 18mm, 1h. Mint State; beautiful iridescent toning, an exceptional example.

450

Ex Scipio Collection.

995. Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 162-163. IMP M ANTONINVS AVG, bare head to right / CONCORD AVG TR P XVII, Concordia seated to left, holding patera and resting left arm on statue of Spes; cornucopiae under seat, COS III in exergue. RIC III 59; BMCRE 209; RSC 37. 3.31g, 18mm, 12h. Near Mint State; attractive old cabinet tone.

450

Ex Scipio Collection; Ex Gilbert Steinberg Collection of Roman Coins, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, 16 November 1994, lot 466.

356


357


Fleur De Coin

996. Marcus Aurelius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 177-178. M AVREL ▾ ANTONINVS AVG ▾, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / TR P XXXII ▾ IMP VIIII COS III P ▾ P, Annona standing to left, holding cornucopiae and two ears of corn over modius at feet on left; prow to right at feet on right. RIC III 389; C. 957 var. (bust type); BMCRE 771 (same obv. die); Biaggi 905 (this coin); Faces of Power 302 (same obv. die); Calicó 2020 (same dies) corr. (bust type). 7.35g, 20mm, 12h. 30,000

Fleur De Coin. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 119 with Jesús Vico S.A., 6 October 2020, lot 111, then sold with an export licence issued by the government of Spain; Privately purchased from Cayón Numismática, 1981; Ex Leo Biaggi de Blasys Collection; Privately purchased from H. A. Cahn in June 1950. Annona was the divine personification of the grain supply to the city of Rome, a creation of Imperial pseudo-religious propaganda, manifested in iconography and cult practice, but lacking in narrative mythology or a historical tradition of devotion.

The Roman government used the term Cura Annonae (“care for the grain supply”), in reference to the import and distribution of grain to the residents of the city of Rome. Rome imported most of the grain consumed by its urban population, estimated to number one million people by the second century AD. Most of this grain was distributed through commercial or non-subsidized channels, but a dole of subsidized or free grain, and later bread, was provided by the government to about 200,000 of the poorer residents of the city of Rome. It has been estimated that each year as much as 60,000,000 modii of grain (about 420,000 tonnes) reached the city, equivalent to approximately 1,200 large vessels containing 50,000 modii (about 350 tonnes) each. The grain ships that sailed principally from Egypt and Africa, and the shipping lanes they travelled were therefore of strategic importance. Whoever controlled the grain supply had an important measure of control over the city of Rome, which was utterly reliant on regular imports. The depiction of Annona with a modius and grain ship on this coin is therefore closely associated with the principate, being one of the most ubiquitous and important manifestations of the emperor’s power to care for his people. The date when the Cura Annonae ended is unknown, but it may have lasted even into the 6th century, by which time the population of Rome had greatly declined through famine, war and economic ruin to as little as 100,000. The great machinery of empire that had once spanned all of Europe and sustained the greatest city on earth had been effectively shattered by barbarian migration and subsequent warfare, and with the eventual disappearance of the great grain fleets it would not be until the sixteenth century that vessels of similar tonnages would ply the waters of the Mediterranean again.

358


359


997. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 178-179. M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXXIII, laureate head to right / FELICITAS AVG IMP X COS III P P, Felicitas standing to left, holding sceptre and caduceus; S-C across fields. RIC III 1239; C. 186; BMCRE 1695. 21.78g, 31mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; beautiful green patina.

400

From the Santana Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Sale 73, 23 July 2020, lot 789 (hammer: 500 GBP).

The Second To Come To Auction in 20 Years

998. Faustina II (daughter of A. Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 145-161. FAVSTINAE AVG PII AVG FIL, draped bust to right / CONCORDIA, Concordia standing facing, head to right, holding cornucopiae and raising skirt. RIC III 500a (Pius); C. -; BMCRE 1041 (Pius) (same obv. die); Biaggi 918 var. (Concordia head to left); Calicó 2041a; iNumis 9, 159. 7.22g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State; a majestic portrait struck in high relief. Exceedingly Rare with this obv. legend; seemingly only the second example to come to auction in the past two decades. 7,500 From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969. Little has survived in historical sources concerning the life of Annia Galeria Faustina Minor, and what does survive is often less than kind. She accompanied Aurelius on various military campaigns, which perhaps gave rise to the scurrilous rumours and negative views that Roman sources generally give of her character. The Historia Augusta alleges that she consorted with soldiers, gladiators and men of rank, and that she was perhaps behind the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband in 175. However, it is clear that Faustina and Aurelius were devoted to each other; she was held in high esteem by the army and by her husband, who grieved deeply for her when she passed, and accorded her divine honours. Faustina is here presented with utmost femininity; the proportions of her facial features are delicate, the folds of her drapery are intricately rendered, and the exquisite detail of her coiffure reflects the glamour of the young future empress.

The Finest Known Example

999. Faustina II (daughter of A. Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 145-161. FAVSTINA AVG ANTONINI AVG PII FIL, draped bust to right / CONCORDIA, Concordia standing facing, head to left, holding hem of skirt and cornucopiae. RIC III 500a (Pius) var. (obv. legend, Concordia head to right); C. 41 var. (same); BMCRE 1078 note (Pius); Biaggi 918 var. (obv. legend); Calicó 2043 var. (Concordia head to right); Roma XXII, 809; CNG 108, 642 = NAC 92, 598; G&N 10, 515; Künker 124, 7637. 7.25g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Extremely Rare; seemingly the finest of just five known examples. From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

360

4,000


1000. Faustina II (daughter of A. Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 145-161. FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL, draped bust to right / CONCORDIA, dove standing to right. RIC III 503a (Pius); C. 61; BMCRE 1089 (Pius); Biaggi 923; Calicó 2045b. 7.12g, 19mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin; a charming portrait struck in high relief, preserved on lustrous metal.

7,500

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969. Struck under her father Antoninus Pius, this magnificent aureus commemorates the April AD 145 marriage of Annia Galeria Faustina Junior to her maternal cousin Marcus Aurelius. The marriage was arranged by her father Antoninus at the time of his adoption and nomination as successor by Hadrian. Faustina had previously been engaged to Lucius Verus, whose father had been Hadrian’s designated heir until the time of his death. At the time of the engagement Antoninus also formally adopted Aurelius. Since Aurelius was therefore legally Antoninus Pius’ son, under Roman law he was marrying his sister; Antoninus would thus have had to formally release Faustina from his paternal authority for the ceremony to take place. Little is specifically known of the ceremony, but the Historia Augusta claims it to have been ‘noteworthy’. The reverse type featuring the dove and the legend CONCORDIA relate directly to the invocation of the goddess for a harmonious and stable marriage, while the dove is known to be monogamous throughout its lifetime.

1001. Faustina II (daughter of A. Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 145-161. FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL, draped bust to left / CONCORDIA, dove standing to right. RIC III 503b (Pius); C. 60; BMCRE 1090 (Pius); Biaggi 918 (same dies); Calicó 2044. 7.22g, 20mm, 5h. Mint State; highly lustrous and featuring a beautiful portrait struck in high relief.

7,500

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

1002. Lucius Verus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 161. IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG, bare head to right, aegis on far shoulder / CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR TR P, togate figures of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus standing facing each other, clasping hands; COS II in exergue. RIC III 453; C. 46; BMCRE 32; Calicó 2115. 7.19g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Scarce.

3,500

From a private UK collection.

1003. Lucilla (daughter of M. Aurelius) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 164-166. LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F, draped bust to right / PIETAS, Pietas standing to left, raising hand over altar and holding perfume box. RIC III 775 (Aurelius); BMCRE 317 (Aurelius); RSC 50. 3.36g, 17mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

From the Santana Collection; Ex Áureo & Calicó, Auction 351, 17 September 2020, lot 108.

361


Mint State

1004. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 180. L AVREL COMMODVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust to left / TR P V•IMP IIII COS II P•P, Victory seated to left, holding patera in right hand and palm cradled in left arm. RIC III 8b; C. 788; BMCRE p. 691; Biaggi 1016 (same dies); Calicó 2343 (same obv. die). 7.24g, 20mm, 12h. Mint State. Scarce.

15,000

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

Exceptionally Rare

1005. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 180. M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust to right / LIB AVG TR P V IMP IIII COS II P P, Liberalitas, draped, standing to left, holding abacus in right hand and cornucopiae in left. RIC III 10a (same dies); C. 300; BMCRE 689 (same dies); Biaggi -; Calicó 2275. 7.25g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; a handsome portrait of a youthful Commodus. Exceptionally Rare; the very first example to come to auction since at least 1999, and one of fewer than five known specimens. 10,000 From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

362


The Second To Come To Auction

1006. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 183-184. M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / [P] M TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII P P, Jupiter, half draped, seated to left, holding Victory in extended right hand and spear in left. RIC III 69 var. (bust type not listed); C. 421; BMCRE 117-8 var. (same); Biaggi 1001 var. (only cuirassed); Calicó 2296-8 var. (bust type not listed); Künker 193, 816 (misdescribed, same dies). 7.26g, 20mm, 12h. Mint State. Excessively Rare; not recorded by either RIC or Calicó, only one other example on CoinArchives.

15,000

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

Extremely Rare

1007. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 186-187. M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate and draped bust to right / HILAR AVG P M TR P XII IMP VIII COS V P P, Hilaritas, draped, standing to left, holding branch in right hand and long palm in left. RIC III 150 var. (also cuirassed); C. -; BMCRE 210 note; Biaggi 992 var. (also cuirassed, same rev. die); Calicó 2263a (same dies). 7.22g, 20mm, 12h. Mint State; perfectly centered. Extremely Rare with this bust type.

12,500

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

363


Exceedingly Rare

1008. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 186-189. M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate head to right / VICTORIAE FELICI, Victory, draped and turreted, flying to left, holding diadem in both hands above two oval shields set on base inscribed C V P P. RIC III -, cf. 196 (denarius); C. -, cf. 952 (denarius); BMCRE 240 note; Biaggi 1022; Calicó 2360 (same dies); Roma XXII, 819 (hammered for £120,000). 7.26g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State. Exceedingly Rare; seemingly one of only approximately six known specimens.

20,000

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969. This coin was struck at least a decade into Commodus’ rule as co-Augustus and more than five years after the death of his father, the esteemed Marcus Aurelius, had left him as sole ruler of the Roman Empire. The shield base inscribed C V P P for Consul V Pater Patriae celebrates his fifth consulship, which began in AD 186. The exceedingly rare type is one of celebration, with a stunning festive image of a winged Victory holding a diadem. Indeed, this period of Commodus’ reign was marked by a comprehensive victory in Britain in AD 185 (for which he received the title Britannicus which appears as BRIT in the obverse legend) and the celebration of his decennalia (tenth year of power) marked by the Primi Decennales games and advertised as the dawn of a new golden age. On the obverse, a magnificent high-relief portrait of Commodus, with painstakingly deeply-carved and intricate curls, gazes out serenely in the characteristic mode of Antonine emperors. The victorious and prosperous image of Commodus’ rule proclaimed by this coin was, however, only one side of a highly perilous rule. A recent revolt by the praetorian prefect Perennis, who reportedly intended to proclaim his own son as emperor, threatened the emperor’s position. He reacted with a spate of executions and a demonstration of largess to the army to ensure loyalty. This event was quickly followed by an attempted assassination by a deserter named Maternus in AD 187, and a conspiracy by enemies of Cleander, a freedman favourite of Commodus who manoeuvred his way into the control of the Praetorian guard in AD 188, but was later beheaded on Commodus’ orders in AD 190. Commodus was eventually assassinated in AD 192 and thereafter immediately declared a public enemy by the senate; the serene festivity of this coin which celebrates the military and civic achievements of Commodus’ reign belies the atmosphere of treachery, paranoia and complex political manoeuvring around the man himself.

364


365


Among The Finest Surviving Examples

1009. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 187-188. M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate and draped bust to right / NOBILIT AVG P M TR P XII IMP VIII COS V P P, Nobilitas, draped, standing to right, holding sceptre in right hand and statuette of Minerva in extended left hand. RIC III 155a var. (also cuirassed); C. 384 var. (same); BMCRE 216 note; Biaggi 999 var. (same, same rev. die); Calicó 2292 (same rev. die). 7.18g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare with this bust type; among the finest surviving examples.

12,500

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

A Superlative Specimen

1010. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 187-188. M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P XIII IMP VIII COS V P P, Aequitas, draped, standing to left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left. RIC III 164 var. (not draped); C. 536; BMCRE 242 note; Biaggi 1004; Calicó 2306. 7.31g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Extremely Rare with this bust type; the finest of only six examples offered at auction in the past two decades. From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

366

15,000


Unique and Unpublished

1011. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 187-188. M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P XIII IMP VIII COS V P P, Genius, nude, standing to left, sacrificing out of patera with outstretched right hand and holding corn-ears in left. RIC III 167 var. (no drapery or cuirass); C. 531 (not cuirassed); BMCRE 245 var. (no drapery or cuirass); Biaggi 1003 var. (not cuirassed); Calicó 2303 var. (same); Roma XXII, 821 var. (same, hammered for £25,000). 7.34g, 21mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. An apparently unique and unpublished variant of a type rated ‘R2’ by Calicó.

15,000

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969. In contrast to the internal turmoil centred on his court, Commodus’ reign was mostly uneventful from the military point of view. Apart from a war in Dacia of which few details survive, the greatest contest Roman armies faced was in Britannia when in c. AD 181 the northern tribes breached Hadrian’s Wall and, according to Cassius Dio “proceeded to do much mischief and cut down a general together with his troops” (LXII.8). The identity of this individual is uncertain, but it may well have been the provincial governor Caerellius Priscus, indicating a serious state of affairs indeed. Alarmed, Commodus dispatched a previous governor, Ulpius Marcellus to counter the invasion. Marcellus prosecuted the campaign with punitive raids north of the border, possibly even as far as the southern highlands, before ultimately withdrawing back to Hadrian’s Wall. By 184 the situation in Britannia was stabilised and victory was declared; Commodus took the title ‘Britannicus’, and this became a feature of his coinage, recurring again and again in the legends on the obverses of his coins, such as the present (BRIT). As a result of the success of this campaign, and possibly his victories over the Sarmatians, Commodus also took the title ‘Felix’ (blessed) in this year as we see in the abbreviation FEL in the present coin. The year before, Commodus had engaged in some similar titular propaganda, when he added the name Pius to his list of official titles (P), an adoption which ‘looks like a direct appeal to the memory of the beloved Antoninus: Commodus insists that he is the true heir - perhaps also that the impiety of the family quarrel is entirely on the other side’ (RIC III p.358). These additions demonstrate the taste that Commodus had for self-aggrandisement and honorifics, a vice which resulted in the absurd full name he assumed for himself in AD 191 of ‘Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus Herculeus Romanus Exsuperatorius Amazonius Invictus Felix Pius’. By the time this coin was likely minted, Commodus had at least lived up to ‘Felix’. He had just overcome the coup of Perennis, the praetorian prefect, who wanted to install his own son on the throne, and also the rebellion in Gaul and Iberia led by the soldier Maternus, who in AD 187 planned to come to Rome and assassinate the emperor during the celebrations for the festival of the Hilaria, but who was betrayed just before the festival and beheaded.

367


Only Two Others Auctioned in the Past 20 Years

1012. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 187-188. M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate and draped bust to right / P M TR P XIII IMP VIII COS V P P, Genius, nude, standing to left, sacrificing out of patera and holding corn-ears. RIC III 167 var. (no drapery); C. 531 var. (same); BMCRE 245 var. (same); Biaggi 1003 (same dies); Calicó 2303 (same dies); Roma XXII, 821 (same dies, hammered for £25,000). 7.18g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Exceedingly Rare; only two other examples offered at auction in the past 20 years. From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969.

368

15,000


Unpublished and The Finest of Two Known

1013. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 189. M COMM ANT P FEL•AVG BRIT, laureate and draped bust to right / PACI•AETERNAE, Pax seated to left, holding olive branch and sceptre; C•V•P•P. RIC III - cf. 193 (denarius); C -; BMCRE -; Calicó -; NAC Spring Sale 2021, lot 1371; otherwise unpublished. 7.16g, 21mm, 12h. Mint State. Unpublished in the standard references; the second known example and easily the finest.

17,500

This stunning aureus exhibits to a spectacular degree all the hallmarks of the energetic artistic style of the Antonine period in the intricate virtuoso handling of the traditional curled hairstyle and long beard worn by the emperor, like his father and adopted grandfather before him, and the realistic treatment of Pax’s draped garments on the reverse. However, the employment of Pax on this issue is extraordinary, since Pax is otherwise conspicuously absent from Commodus’ gold coinage. Indeed, this type is known only from its denarius counterpart, and from a single other example of very poor quality. The legend PACI AETERNAE or ‘eternal peace’ may in hindsight represent ironic wishful thinking: Commodus’ reign was dogged by both external and internal strife. While his military exploits in Dacia and Britannia were a success, leading to his adoption of the title ‘Britannicus’, which features in this obverse legend, there were several attempted coups, such as that of Perennis in AD 185 and that of Maternus in AD 187. Commodus, who seemed to develop paranoia and megalomania as the powerful men around him continued to jostle and frame each other in order to move closer to the emperor, likely felt no peace throughout his reign until his untimely and violent death by poison and strangling as the result of a plot by his mistress Marcia.

369


Fleur De Coin

1014. Crispina (wife of Commodus) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 180-183. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust to right / VENVS•FELIX, Venus seated to left, holding Cupid, who grasps open diadem, and sceptre; dove standing to left below chair. RIC III 287 (Commodus) corr. (Cupid, not Victory); C. 39; BMCRE 49 (Commodus) corr. (same); Biaggi 1034; Calicó 2377 corr. (same). 7.17g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin; a portrait of marvellous style. Scarce.

25,000

From the Altstetten Collection, kept in the vault of Crédit Suisse Geneva (documentation available upon request) since 26 November 1969. At first glance this sensually draped portrait of the goddess Venus - associated with beauty, love and sexuality - seems an appropriate reverse type for a coin minted in the name of Bruttia Crispina, the young wife of Commodus. From an illustrious aristocratic family closely associated with the imperial family since the time of Trajan and able to count her father as well as maternal and paternal grandfathers as former consuls, she was reportedly exceptionally beautiful as her youthful profile and intricate, elegant hairstyle in this portrait suggest. Crispina was fourteen when she was married to Commodus, then Caesar and around two years her senior, in AD 178. The first legitimate biological son to be born to an emperor since Vespasian, Commodus succeeded his father as sole ruler in 180, whereupon Crispina was given the title of Augusta. Conspicuous on the Roman coinage, Antonine empresses followed the extensive Hadrianic issues in the name of his wife Sabina - a significant divergence from the Flavian and Trajanic coinage, on which the imperial women only had a token presence. Beyond her youthful good looks the similarities with Venus, the mythical mother of Aeneas (and by extension the Roman people), quickly begin to diminish. ‘Felix’ can mean both ‘lucky’ or ‘fruitful’ - a title highlighting Venus’s association with fertility and prosperity as also represented by the presence of Cupid, her son, and a dove in her portrait. Neither of these traits characterise either Commodus’ reign or Bruttia’s life: Commodus, a megalomaniac, grew ever more capricious and often had prominent citizens tortured or murdered in horrific ways; Crispina meanwhile remained childless, causing a dynastic succession crisis. The marriage was plagued by Commodus’ extravagant extramarital indiscretions, yet in 182 it was Crispina who was (falsely) accused of adultery and banished by the emperor to the island of Capri, divorced a year later, and eventually strangled on his orders. The Historia Augusta notes her adulterous behaviour as the cause, but historians often associate her demise with implication in her sister-in-law Lucilla’s plot to assassinate Commodus.

370


371


1015. Pertinax AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head to right / AEQVIT AVG TR P COS II, Aequitas standing to left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC IV 1a; BMCRE 15; RSC 2. 3.11g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; hairlines under old cabinet tone, a bold portrait, in great condition for the type.

1,000

Pertinax was the first emperor in the tumultuous ‘Year of Five Emperors’. His early life and career is well documented in the Historia Augustus, and confirmed in many places by existing inscriptions. Born into a humble family and the son of a freedman, Pertinax had originally tried to make his way in life as a teacher of grammar, but at some point decided to try to attain a greater station, and with the help of a patron he was commissioned an officer in the Roman army. Pertinax distinguished himself in a campaign against Parthia, and after postings in Britain and on the Danube he served as procurator in Dacia. His career suffered a serious setback during the reign of Marcus Aurelius on account of court intrigues, however he was recalled to assist Claudius Pompeianus during the Marcomannic Wars. In 175 he was made suffect consul, and he then served as governor of a string of provinces including Syria and Britain. In the 180s he was recalled to Britain where the army was in a state of mutiny. His attempt to calm the restive soldiers resulted in his bodyguard being attacked, and Pertinax was left for dead. After his recovery he severely punished the mutinous legion, adding to his reputation as a disciplinarian. In 187 he was forced to resign due to the legions having grown hostile to his strict command style. His career culminated when he was given the proconsulship of Africa, the urban prefecture of Rome, and a second consulship with the emperor as his colleague. When Commodus was murdered on the last day of AD 192, Pertinax was still serving as urban prefect, and hurried to the Praetorian camp where he was proclaimed emperor the following morning. His attempts at reform and restraint, along with attempts to impose discipline on the unruly Praetorians, did not endear him to the Guard who had expected a large donative. After a reign of only three months, during which time he refused imperial titles for his wife and son, a contingent of several hundred Praetorian Guardsmen rushed the palace and Pertinax, although he almost succeeded in reasoning with them, was struck down. Yet by his understanding of the danger of his station and his wise decision not to associate his family with the purple, they were spared from violence.

1016. Didia Clara (daughter of D. Julianus) AR Denarius. Rome, April-June AD 193. DIDIA CLARA AVG, draped bust to right / HILAR TEMPOR, Hilaritas standing to left, holding long palm and cornucopiae. RIC IV 10 (Julianus); BMCRE 14 (Julianus); RSC 3. 3.03g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

Acquired from Maison Palombo; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1088. This denarius, struck in the year her father Didius Julianus bought the throne of the Roman Empire at auction, shows Didia Clara as the proud bearer of the title Augusta which she and her mother Manlia Scantilla had assumed. Although she was allegedly the most beautiful woman in all of Rome, we know hardly anything about her life. She was married to Cornelius Repentinus, who served as a prefect of Rome during her father’s brief reign. Silver coins of this enigmatic Augusta are rare, and in gold they are very seldom seen. Hilaritas commonly appears on the coinage of Didia Clara. This Roman goddess personified happiness and celebration, often in the wake of the birth of a child into the imperial family. There are no records available to confirm whether Didia had children, but perhaps this type of coinage offers a clue that she may have. However these children would have never received imperial positions as the new emperor Septimius Severus removed her title following the death of her parents in the summer of 193. The fate of this mysterious woman following such tragedy is unknown.

1017. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. I[MP CAE]S C PESC NIGER IVS AVG COS II, laureate head to right / BONI E[V]ENTVS, Fides standing facing, head to left, holding basket of fruit and corn ears. RIC IV 5c note; BMCRE p. 72, *; RSC 10a. 2.10g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone. Rare.

1,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Spring Sale 2020, 25 May 2020, lot 1111; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 100, 29 May 2017, lot 1925; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 84, 20 May 2015, lot 1054.

372


Very Rare

1018. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AV, laureate head to right / INVICTP IMPEPAT (sic), trophy; arms at base. RIC IV 34a var. (rev. legend); BMCRE p. 77, § note var. (same); RSC 33 var. (same). 2.94g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Spring Sale 2020, 25 May 2020, lot 1110; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 54, 24 March 2010, lot 1205; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 114, 4 March 2002, lot 348. The scarcity of Pescennius Niger’s coinage today belies the fact that it was struck on a monumental scale, and we can only assume that after his defeat at the hands of Septimius Severus in AD 194 his coins were meticulously recalled and melted. Although it has been extensively published, there are such a huge number of minor varieties that no single catalogue is without numerous lacunae. It appears that the all of Niger’s coins were struck at Antioch and possibly a subsidiary mint operating at Caesarea in Cappadocia.

1019. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Caesarea in Cappadocia, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head to right / SALVTI AVG, Salus standing facing before altar, head to right, holding serpent in her arms and feeding it from a patera. RIC IV 75b; BMCRE 312A (Wars of the Succession); RSC 66a. 2.73g, 19mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; struck from dies of fine style.

2,500

Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG.

1020. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head to right / VICTORIAE AVG, Victory standing to left, holding wreath and raising dress. RIC IV -, cf. 89; BMCRE 315 (Wars of the Succession); RSC 75h. 3.08g, 17mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

373


A Very Rare Dynastic Issue

1021. Septimius Severus, with Caracalla and Geta, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 200-201. SEVERVS AVG PART MAX, laureate head of Severus to right / AETERNIT IMPERI, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla to right, facing bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Geta to left. RIC IV 155c; BMCRE 184; Calicó 2598a. 7.31g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; three excellent portraits of fine style. A very rare dynastic issue.

25,000

From the inventory of a European dealer. There is a certain sense of irony that might occur to the modern viewer of this aureus of Septimius Severus, which proudly portrays his progeny in an overt display of familial unity and stability, belying the ultimately fatal rivalry that was to arise between the two Severan sons. As far as the contemporary viewer was concerned, however, this imagery was consistent with the imperial propaganda circulating at the time, the emphasis of which was on the dynastic permanency secured by Septimius Severus’ defeat in AD 197 of the many challengers vying for the position of emperor after the death of the emperor Pertinax. The multiple-portrait issues struck in particular around AD 200 – 201 presented a strong message of stability from an ostensibly virtuous and cohesive imperial family, thus creating the potential for a stable succession by being seen to be preparing the next generation for the duty of ruling the empire; the present aureus is a compelling illustration of these sentiments. The elder son, Caracalla, although only aged only 13 at the time of its striking, is portrayed on this coin as an emperor-in-waiting, wearing the laurel wreath of Roman authority; indeed this was an eminently appropriate depiction, given he had already been appointed Augustus by his father in AD 198 at the age of 10. Geta, the younger son by one year, had been raised to the rank of Caesar at the same time and is consequently shown in a junior capacity on this coin, subservient to his older brother’s superior position. Geta was not promoted to Augustus by his father until AD 209, with the intended outcome being that he would rule together with Caracalla as Septimius Severus’ successors, securing the longevity of the Severan dynastic line. It seems that for the duration of their father’s rule the two brothers were able to maintain at least an artifice of unity, however, after Septimius’ death in AD 211 relations between the two began to deteriorate swiftly and their father’s ambitions of a smooth transition of power without bloodshed did not come to fruition. The Historia Augusta tells of how Geta was always hated by his brother and intimates that he enjoyed a closer relationship with their mother, Julia Domna (Geta. 5.1), a fact perhaps stressed by the writer for dramatic effect to make his later murder all the more distressing, as it is said that Geta died in his mother’s arms. Cassius Dio presents a particularly emotive description of the murder scene, writing that after he had been struck down by the Praetorian Guard on the orders of Caracalla, he ran to his mother, clung to her bosom, crying and that she “saw her son perishing in the most impious fashion in her arms and received him at his death into the very womb, as it were, whence he had been born” (Roman History, 78.5). Thus Septimius Severus’ efforts to establish a peaceful, long-lasting dynasty were categorically undermined. So precarious did the rule of the empire become in the 90 years after his death, the period has been characterised by later scholars as ‘The Crisis of the Third Century’.

1022. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 204. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head to right / FELICITAS, emperor and sons, togate, seated to right on platform with urn and attendant standing to right, citizen standing to left below; SAECVLI in exergue. RIC IV 263; BMCRE 326; RSC 134. 3.20g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; small chip to edge; attractive golden iridescence around devices. Extremely Rare; only three other examples offered at auction in the past 20 years. 3,000 From the GK Collection.

374


375


The Severan Monetary Propaganda

1023. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 205. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head to right / P M TR P XIII COS III P P, Jupiter standing to left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, eagle standing to left at his feet. RIC IV 196; C. 468; BMCRE 469; Biaggi 1090; Hill 719; Calicó 2508. 7.29g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State; highly lustrous surfaces. Rare.

20,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 631; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 1039. The present aureus represents part of a concerted monetary propaganda campaign designed to reinforce the cult of the emperor and strengthen the association between the imperial family and the numerous deities and demigods depicted on the Roman coinage. Dynastic imagery depicted on the multiple-portrait issues struck in particular around AD 200/1 presented a strong message of stability from an ostensibly virtuous imperial family, thus creating the potential for a stable succession by being seen to be grooming the next generation for the duty of ruling the empire. On their jugate-portrait issues, the mutual dependence of the sun and the moon is harnessed as a device to portray the strong bond of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, while emphasising the concept of permanence - in this case, of the principate and the empire it ruled. Septimius’ radiate crown denotes him as a representation of Sol, and the bust of Domna is set upon a crescent moon, the attribute of Luna. The legend inscribed on that type, CONCORDIAE AETERNAE (eternal harmony) is intended to refer not only to the imperial family, connoting firm hands on the tiller of the empire, the prospect of a secure succession, while also reflecting Septimius’ (largely justifiable) claim to have brought peace and a renewed golden age to Rome. There existed among the general populace a heartfelt belief that a stable imperial family was conducive to having a stable domain, and this reassurance is dovetailed neatly into another key element of the Roman collective psyche - the idea that Rome and its empire were everlasting - a concept that features heavily in literature such as the Aeneid, a work that had had a profound impact on Roman culture. For Septimius’ sons Caracalla and Geta meanwhile, an association was cultivated with the tutelary deities of Septimius Severus’ home city of Lepcis Magna (also spelt Leptis). For them, the Phoenician gods Shadaphra and Melqart (who were equated with Liber Pater or Bacchus, and Hercules respectively) were invoked as patron deities for the young princes. Indeed, on the provincial coinage in the name of Caracalla reverse types of Hercules dominate, while on those of Geta, Liber or Bacchus appear with great frequency. Similarly, on a parallel issue of aurei of extreme rarity the reverse type for Caracalla portrays Hercules feasting (Leu 93, 68), whereas Bacchus and Ariadne, thronged by the god’s company of maenads and satyrs, were chosen for Geta (Leu 87, 66). That these two gods were important to Severus on a personal level is also evident, as they clearly served as the tutelary deities of his regime, appearing on several other coin issues during his reign, and on the provincial coinage in his sons’ names. On an extremely rare series issued in 204, the two gods are specifically referred to as the ‘Di Patrii’; A. Peck (University of Warwick, 1 March 2015) cohesively argues that since “in literature also, the phrase di patrii appears to have been used almost exclusively in relation to the gods of Rome, particularly with regards to the penates that were according to legend brought to Italy from Troy by Aeneas”, the issue is intended to demonstrate the “equal importance that was placed upon local and imperial identities, proudly displaying the emperor’s attachment to his local patria, whilst also honouring the religious elements that were at the heart of Rome’s conceptualisation of patria”. Moreover, while the coinage in the sole name of the empress Julia Domna places her alongside such deities as Juno, Diana, Venus and Cybele, Septimius coinage here parallels that of his wife with what could be interpreted as either a hubristic tacit equation of the emperor to Jupiter, king of the Gods, or as an invocation of the supreme Roman deity as patron of the emperor in his role both as the gubernator of the state and pontifex maximus.

376


377


Extremely Rare

1024. Divus Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 211. DIVO SEVERO PIO, bare head to right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing to left on thunderbolt, with wings outstretched. RIC IV 191a (Caracalla); BMCRE 19 (Caracalla); Calicó 2440. 7.22g, 20mm, 12h. About Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only three other examples present in CoinArchives.

10,000

In AD 208 Severus travelled to Britannia at the head of an army numbering over 40,000 with the intent of subjugating Caledonia. Despite allegedly high Roman casualties on account of the Caledonians’ guerrilla tactics, by 210 Severus had made significant gains. The Caledonians sued for peace, which was granted in return for their forfeit of the Central Lowlands. Renewed conflict ensued almost immediately with a Caledonian revolt supported by the Maeatae, and Severus set himself to the task of exterminating the Caledonians, though illness forced him to withdraw back to Eboracum, where he died on February 4th AD 211. Severus was returned to Rome and laid in the tomb of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, whom of all the emperors he revered so greatly that he even deified his son Commodus, and held that all emperors should thenceforth assume the name Antoninus as they did that of Augustus. At the demand of his sons, who gave him a most splendid funeral and who caused to be struck this commemorative aureus, he was added by the Senate to the ranks of the deified. The prominence of the eagle on such issues stems from the consecration ceremony itself; a funeral pyre was lit and an eagle was set loose from its summit, symbolising the elevation of the soul from the earth to the ranks of the gods.

378


Diana Lucifera

1025. Julia Domna (wife of S. Severus) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 196. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust to right / DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana standing to left, holding torch in both hands. RIC IV 548 var. (Severus, crescent on neck); Hill 223; Calicó 2610. 7.35g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Beautiful lustre. Rare.

20,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 637; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction V, 23 March 2013, lot 839; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 77, 11 May 2000, lot 588; Ex Münzen und Medaillen AG Basel, Auction 43, 12 November 1970, lot 392. During her lifetime, Julia Domna was probably the most celebrated of all Roman women in history and received more honorific titles than any previous imperial female relative, including the first empress Livia. In numismatics, extensive issues were minted solely under her name, marking her significant role in her husband Septimius Severus’ dynastic propaganda after he emerged victorious from the bloody civil wars of AD 193, the ‘Year of the Five Emperors’, following the assassination of emperor Commodus. She was designated Augusta immediately following Severus’ accession, and the title appears in full on her coinage following AD 195. Julia Domna’s considerable coinage emphasised her vital function in the Severan dynasty of producing Severus’ sons and heirs, Caracalla and Geta, and associated her with desirable qualities of fertility, piety and fidelity through combinations with female deities and personifications to highlight the rise of a so-called new golden age under a new, harmonious Severan dynasty. These were traditional types employed for female imperial relatives from Livia through to the Antonine empresses, although to an unprecedented extent: the traditionalism of her coinage belies both the abrupt circumstances of her husband’s accession and their non-Italian roots (Domna was born in Syria to an Arab family, while Severus was born in Lepcis Magna in modernday Libya). This rare reverse type of Diana Lucifera holding a blazing torch highlights Domna’s role as mother and guarantor of the imperial dynasty, for, as Cicero notes in De Natura Deorum, in this role the goddess was historically called on for assistance in childbirth. (II.27) She also appears as Luna Lucifera elsewhere on coinage of Domna. The word ‘lucifera’ or ‘light-bringing’, symbolic of new light and the birth of new life, was particularly appropriate for the early years of Severus’ reign, where a new dynasty seemed to bring hope and stability to the empire after years of capricious brutality under Commodus and the violent struggle which followed his death. Diana Lucifera’s role in childbirth was linked to her connection with the moon, whose cycle was associated even in antiquity with fertility and gestation. (De Nat. Deo. II.27) With the introduction of the antoninianus under her son Caracalla, which was marked by a radiate crown for emperors, Julia Domna was the first person to appear set on a crescent moon, the denominational mark for female authorities.

379


1026. Julia Domna (wife of S. Severus) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 196-211. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust to right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated to left, resting right hand on breast and left arm on chair. RIC IV 576 (Severus); BMCRE 72 note (Septimius and Caracalla); RSC 168. 3.26g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State; lustrous.

150

From the collection of Z.P., Austria, collector’s ticket included.

1027. Julia Domna (mother of Caracalla) Æ As. Rome, AD 214. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, diademed and draped bust to right / VESTA, four vestal virgins sacrificing before temple of Vesta behind; SC in exergue. RIC IV 607 (Caracalla); C. 234; BMCRE 232 (Caracalla); Hill 1438-9. 9.73g, 24mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; well detailed. Rare.

1,750

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 639; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 265, 14 October 2019, lot 1411.

1028. Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 198-201. M AVRELIVS ANTON AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla to right / P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Geta to right. RIC IV 17; BMCRE 121; Calicó 2863. 7.20g, 20mm, 6h. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 1/5. Fine Style; edge bends, smoothing, ex-mount (#6158066-008). Very Rare. From the GK Collection.

380

15,000


381


An Extremely Rare Variant

1029. Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 213. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P XVI IMP II, Caracalla, laureate and draped, riding in triumphal quadriga to right, holding reins and eagle-tipped sceptre; COS IIII P P in exergue. RIC IV -, cf. 210 corr. (rev. legend); C. 232 var. (placement of rev. legend); BMCRE 55, pl. 68, 18 var. (placement of rev. legend; same obv. die); Calicó 2712a (same dies) = Athena Münzen der Antike GmbH, Auction 1, 8 October 1987, lot 247 (same dies); Lanz 97, 22 May 2000, lot 744 (Dr. H. Winz Coll.; same dies) = Triton VI, 14 January 2003, lot 1016 (M. Melcher Coll.; same dies). 7.43g, 20mm, 12h. Previously ANACS graded AU 50 (#6120680). Excellent detail, and lustrous metal. An extremely rare variant with the reverse legend partially in the exergue, and possibly only the third known example after the 1987 Athena and 2003 CNG (Melcher and Winz Collections) examples. 20,000 Ex Stack’s Bowers Galleries, Collector’s Choice Auction, 20 October 2020, lot 71053. This remarkably rare issue was struck at some point during AD 213, during which year Cassius Dio relates that Caracalla had departed Rome in order to suppress an alliance of Germanic tribes who had broken through the Limes Germanicus into the province of Raetia (Roman History, LXXVIII.13). Broadly referred to as the ‘Alemanni’ by the contemporary writer Herodian (History of the Empire IV.7), this confederation was to become an especially implacable enemy of future Roman emperors such as Aurelian. Dio describes, in some detail, the causes of the conflict. A vocal detractor of Caracalla’s arbitrary operations and bent morality in his Roman History, Dio states that the emperor had ignored Alemmanic pleas for aid over a tribal conflict, and resolved instead to publically execute their leaders (ibid.). It was these slayings, according to the historian, that had incited the initial surge across the Limes. In retaliation, Caracalla quickly mobilised the famed Legio II Traiana Fortis, renowned for their campaigns in Parthia, Egypt and Syria during the reign of Trajan, who crushed the marauders with ease. This prompted Dio to reflect that the whole debacle was likely devised by Caracalla as a guaranteed way of acquiring military prestige; a notion sustained by the modern historian John F. Drinkwater, who asserts that the Alamanni were yet to develop into a potent force by 213, rendering them somewhat easy pickings for the emperor (The Alamanni and Rome 213-496: Caracalla to Clovis p. 43-44). One must deduce from its dating that the present specimen was struck to commemorate Caracalla’s Germanic victories either during or directly after the campaign (a theory supported by Mattingly, RIC IV, p. 86). The obverse legend, ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, indicates that it was minted before he was granted (or self-granted) the cognomen Germanicus Maximus, which first began to appear in the form ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM on his coinage the following year (see, for instance, RIC IV 316). The detailed reverse is characteristically braggadocious; it displays Caracalla riding in a quadriga and holding an eagle-tipped sceptre aloft in a triumphal fashion. Assessing the situation in 213, Caracalla might have thought his reign was progressing satisfactorily. He had cemented the support of the legions by quadrupling their rate of pay to four denarii per day and had in the previous year finally eliminated his brother and rival, Geta, along with 20,000 of his ‘sympathisers’, according to modern estimates (see Varner, Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture, p. 168). His introduction of unprecedentedly high tax rates, consistent confiscation of Roman estates and deplorable character however meant that he remained a loathed figure, unpopular among the aristocracy and masses alike. Unsurprisingly, then, multiple attempts were made against his life before he succumbed to a plot instigated in 217 by the praetorian prefect Macrinus; his successor and the first emperor to hail from the equestrian class.

382


383


1030. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing facing, head to right, holding standard in each hand, right foot on helmet. RIC IV 67; BMCRE 65; RSC 23b. 2.99g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

200

Ex Ernst Ploil Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 106, 9 May 2018, lot 1616.

1031. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing to left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, diminutive figure of Emperor standing to left. RIC IV 76; BMCRE 20; RSC 37. 2.83g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; pleasant old cabinet tone.

250

From the Santana Collection; Ex Collection of a Hanseatic Romanophile, Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 333, 16 March 2020, lot 1132.

1032. Diadumenian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. M OPEL DIADVMENIANVS CAES, bare-headed and draped bust to right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Prince standing to left, holding baton and sceptre, two standards behind. RIC IV 107; BMRE 82 note (Macrinus); RSC 12. 3.24g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

From the Santana Collection; Ex Áureo & Calicó, Auction 351, 17 September 2020, lot 121.

384


1033. Diadumenian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed and draped bust to right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Prince standing facing, head to right, holding standard and sceptre; two standards to right. RIC IV 102 corr. (no wreath); BMCRE 87 (Macrinus); RSC 3. 3.03g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

1034. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust to right / FIDES MILITVM, aquila between two signa, with shields at base of each. RIC IV 78; BMCRE 202; RSC 44. 2.87g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

Acquired from Nomos AG; Ex German collection, acquired in Paris in May 2000.

1035. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust to right / LIBERALITAS AVG III, Liberalitas standing to left, holding cornucopiae and abacus; star in right field. RIC IV 103; BMCRE 216; RSC 86. 3.22g, 18mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

100

From the Santana Collection; Ex Benito Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 477, 23 September 2020, lot 555; Privately purchased from Glenn W. Woods, 19 July 2004.

1036. Severus Alexander, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 221-222. M AVR ALEXANDER CAES, bare-headed and draped bust to right / PIETAS AVG, pontifical implements: from left, lituus, knife, jug, simpulum and sprinkler. RIC IV 3; BMCRE 266 (Elagabalus); RSC 198. 3.16g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; in exceptional condition for the issue.

600

From the Santana Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 95, 6 October 2016, lot 342; Ex A. Tkalec AG, May 2009 Auction, 7 May 2009, lot 171 (hammer: CHF 2,700).

385


The Second Known

1037. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 223. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P II COS P P, the south-western prospective of the Amphitheatrum Flavium seen from the Caelian Hill; the building consists of four stories, the first with five arches, the second and third with five arches containing figurative statues, the fourth decorated with square and round architectural elements; to left, togate figure to right (Severus Alexander?) sacrificing from patera and uncertain figure holding torch facing to left, behind which is the upper torso and radiate bust of the Colossus Solis; to right, column on base supporting edge of a pediment; at back, view of top spectators’ tier of the ‘cavea’ divided by columns; on top rim at of the structure, poles of the ‘velarium’. For the only other published example of this denomination cf. RIC IV 33 = BMC VI p. 129 = RSC 247 = Cohen 247 (Ex Charles d’Orléans de Rothelin collection, now in the Museo Arqueológico Nacional, Madrid). 2.18g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine; area of flatness on obv., several flan cracks. Of the greatest rarity; one of only two known, and the only one in private hands.

20,000

From a private North European collection. The Flavian amphitheatre requires no introduction as one of the most famous and extraordinary buildings of the ancient world, dedicated by Titus in AD 80. One of the principle reasons for its construction was for controlling the raging Roman ‘mobs’ and used as a political mouthpiece to help the emperors and senators garner public votes. It was used for public spectacles well into Christian times in the 6th century, when it became a major quarry for many medieval and Renaissance buildings which has left only one third of it standing today. The Historia Augusta informs us: ‘Alexander Severus ordered that the taxes paid by bawds and prostitutes, male and female, should no longer go to the public treasury, but used for the restorations of the theatre of Marcellus, the Circus Maximus, the Amphitheatre, and the Atadium of Domitiaon’. (Severus Alexander 24) The scene depicted on the reverse of this extremely rare coin is part of a series in gold and bronze celebrating the re-inauguration of the Flavian Amphitheatre in AD 223 after its partial destruction by fire of 217 during the reign of Macrinus. The column on base supporting edge of a pediment is most probably part of the monumental entrance, also damaged by the fire, leading to the Baths of Titus on the southern base of the nearby Esquiline Hill, an area of parkland and luxury estates which had been taken over by Nero for his Domus Aurea.

386


387


1038. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 226. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust to right / PAX AVG, Pax running to left, holding olive branch and sceptre. RIC IV 168; BMCRE 363; RSC 187. 3.52g, 18mm, 5h. Mint State; a handsome portrait.

200

Ex Ernst Ploil Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 106, 9 May 2018, lot 1631.

1039. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 231. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI PROPVGNATORI, Jupiter standing to left, head to right, hurling thunderbolt. RIC IV 235; BMCRE 790; RSC 76. 2.81g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

150

From the Santana Collection; Ex Benito Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Electronic Auction 478, 7 October 2020, lot 491.

1040. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 232. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate head to left, slight drapery over far shoulder / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing facing, head to left, holding two corn-ears over modius on ground and anchor. RIC IV 252; BMCRE 814 note; RSC 508a. 3.07g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

100

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

Ex CNG - NAC AG, 1996

1041. Sallustia Orbiana (wife of S. Alexander) AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 225-227. SALL BARBIA ORIBANA AVG, diademed and draped bust to right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated to left, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC IV 319 (Alexander); BMCRE 287 (Alexander); RSC 1. 2.82g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone, an exceptional example. From the Santana Collection; Ex Maxwell Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 115, 16-17 September 2020, lot 694; Ex James Fox Collection, Classical Numismatic Group - Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 40, 4 December 1996, lot 1613.

388

750


1042. Julia Mamaea (mother of S. Alexander) Æ As. Rome, AD 228. IVLIA MAMA•EA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust to right / FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas standing facing, head to left, legs crossed, holding caduceus and leaning on short column; S-C across fields. RIC IV 677 (Alexander); C. 22; BMCRE 495 (Alexander). 11.36g, 26mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive sage green patina.

750

Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group; Ex inventory of a European dealer, Roma Numismatics Ltd, Auction XVIII, 29 September 2019, lot 1198.

1043. Julia Mamaea (mother of S. Alexander) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 231. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed and draped bust to right / PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas standing to left, sprinkling incense over lighted altar on left and holding incense box. RIC IV 346 (Alexander); BMCRE 821 (same dies); RSC 48. 2.69g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State.

200

Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group.

1044. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 235-236. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing to left, holding branch in raised hand and transverse sceptre. RIC IV 12; BMCRE 70; RSC 31a. 3.22g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State; perfectly centered and well-detailed, a stellar example.

400

From the Santana Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XXI, 25 March 2021, lot 672.

1045. Maximinus I Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 235-236. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing to left, holding cornucopiae and wand over globe at feet; S-C across fields. RIC IV 61; C. 80; BMCRE 90. 19.78g, 29mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive brown patina.

400

From the Santana Collection; Ex North German collection of Roman Imperial bronze coins, Leu Numismatik AG, Web Auction 13, 15 August 2020, lot 1354 (hammer: CHF 650); Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 320, 26 October 2011, lot 366.

389


1046. Maximus (son of Maximinus I), as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 235-236. IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, bare-headed and draped bust to right / PIETAS AVG, emblems of the pontificate: from left, lituus, knife, jug, simpulum and sprinkler. RIC IV 1; BMCRE 118 (Maximinus); RSC 1. 3.60g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

750

Acquired from Nomos AG.

1047. Maximus (son of Maximinus I), as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 235-236. IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, bare-headed and draped bust to right / PIETAS AVG, emblems of the pontificate: from left, lituus, knife, jug, simpulum and sprinkler. RIC IV 1; BMCRE 118 (Maximinus); RSC 1. 3.00g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

300

From the Santana Collection; Ex Tauler & Fau, Auction 77, 9 March 2021, lot 112.

1048. Maximus (son of Maximinus I), as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 236-237. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare-headed and draped bust to right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, prince standing to left, holding baton and spear; two standards to right. RIC IV 3; BMCRE 211 (Maximinus); RSC 10. 3.48g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; somewhat weakly struck on rev., but featuring a bold portrait. Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group.

390

400


1049. Gordian I Africanus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SECVRITAS AVGG, Securitas seated to left, holding short sceptre. RIC IV 5; BMCRE 11; RSC 10. 2.95g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State; pleasant light cabinet tone, a highly attractive example. Rare.

3,500

Ex Solidus Numismatik, Online Auction 6, 19 July 2015, lot 339 (hammer: EUR 6,000).

1050. Gordian II Africanus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory advancing to left, holding wreath in extended right hand, cradling palm frond with left arm. RIC IV 2; BMCRE 28; RSC 12. 3.27g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; pleasant cabinet tone.

4,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 650; Ex Classical Numismatic Group Inc. - Numismatica Ars Classica AG - Freeman & Sear, Triton II, 2 December 1998, lot 985.

1051. Gordian II Africanus AR Denarius. Rome, March- April, AD 238. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS AVGG, Virtus standing to left, holding inverted spear and shield. RIC IV 3; BMCRE 30; RSC 14. 2.83g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

391


1052. Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing facing, head to left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC IV 2; BMCRE 22; RSC 8. 3.19g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State; a fine style strong portrait of Balbinus.

750

From the Santana Collection; Ex Áureo & Calicó, Auction 260, 27 May 2014, lot 2046.

1053. Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, Providentia standing to left, holding wand over globe and cornucopiae. RIC IV 7; BMCRE 33; RSC 23. 3.36g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; light cabinet tone with underlying lustre.

750

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 243, 21 November 2013, lot 5052.

1054. Pupienus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated to left, holding patera and cornucopiae. RIC IV 1; BMCRE 42; RSC 6. 2.08g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the Paulo Leitão Collection.

1055. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, AD 240. IMP CAES GORDIANVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS AVG, Mars standing facing, head to left, holding olive branch and inverted sceptre, shield at feet. RIC IV 60 corr. (Mars not Virtus); C. -; Calicó 3240 corr. (Mars not Virtus). 5.07g, 22mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

5,500

Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 7, 24 October 2020, lot 1663; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 72, 16 May 2013, lot 1685.

392


393


Only Six Auctioned in the Past Two Decades

1056. Philip I AV Aureus. Rome, AD 245. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / P M TR P II COS P P, emperor seated to left on curule chair, holding globe and short sceptre. RIC IV 2a; C. 119 var. (bust type); Biaggi 1381; Bland, Gold 14 (dies PI 11/TRP II 03); Calicó 3254. 4.34g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare; one of only six examples to appear at auction in the past two decades, of which this is one of the two finest specimens. 25,000 Acquired from Classical Numismatic Group. Philip I, a man of Arab descent who rose to the post of Praetorian Prefect under Gordian III (AD 238-244), became emperor after allegedly staging a coup against the young emperor while they were on campaign in Persia. Although the empire was beset with many troubles, the reign started off with some promise. Philip was a conscientious ruler who showed tolerance toward Christians and other persecuted groups. He spent much of his reign on campaign on the Danube subduing invasions by Germanic tribes, but returned to Rome to preside over the Saecular Games in AD 248 which marked the one-thousandth year anniversary of Rome’s founding, along with his son Philip II whom he had elevated to co-Augustus. Unfortunately, trouble on the frontiers prompted Philip to dispatch the general Trajan Decius to quell the rebellions and deal with barbarian incursions. Instead, Decius was proclaimed emperor by the discontented legions in AD 249 and immediately marched on Rome. The elder Philip’s army met the usurper near modern Verona that summer, but was easily defeated. Philip himself either died in battle or was assassinated by his soldiers soon after (Michael L. Meckler, Philip the Arab). Gold coins dating from the reign of Philip I are exceptionally rare due to the increasing scarcity of precious metals in the mid-third century. This coin is one of the finest of only six examples of the type to appear at auction in the past two decades, and it depicts the emperor so well-known for the violence which bookended his reign as a consummate civil leader, seated on a curule chair - the ancient symbol of magisterial power likely as old as Rome itself.

394


395


A Great Rarity in Spectacular Condition

1057. Philip II, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 245. M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, bare-headed and draped bust to right / PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip standing to right, holding spear in right hand, globe in left. RIC IV 216a; Bland, Gold 22 (dies 7/- [unlisted rev. die]); Biaggi 1390; Calicó 3276. 4.50g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Very Rare; the finest example offered at auction in the past 20 years.

27,500

Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 654; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXI, 9 January 2018, lot 827 (hammer: USD 45,000). Born in AD 237, Marcus Julius Severus Philippus was seven years old when his father and namesake, the emperor Philip I, had him proclaimed Caesar early in AD 244. Despite his youth, Philip II accompanied his father on campaigns against the Quadi and Carpi on the Danube frontier in AD 245-247, and when Philip I returned in triumph, his 10-year-old son was elevated to the rank of co-Augustus and together they oversaw the extravagant Saecular Games that marked Rome’s one-thousandth anniversary in AD 248. However, in the following months further turmoil on the frontiers led to a rash of attempted usurpations, the most serious by the general Trajan Decius, who then marched against Rome in mid-AD 249, resulting in the overthrow of the administration of father and son and, ultimately, their deaths. The circumstances of the younger Philip’s demise are uncertain, but the writer Aurelius Victor (Epitome de Caesaribus xxviii) suggests he was murdered by the Praetorian guard when news of his father’s defeat reached Rome. This beautiful aureus displays an exceptionally lifelike portrait of the young Caesar, then about eight or nine years of age. To a modern viewer it is a somewhat tragic portrait of a youth killed before he could reach adulthood.

1058. Trajan Decius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 249-251. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust to right / ADVENTVS AVG, Emperor on horseback to left, raising right hand in salutation, holding sceptre in left. RIC IV 11a var. (bust also draped); Biaggi 1392; Calicó 3283. 4.49g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

4,000

From a private North European collection.

396


397


The First Roman Emperor Killed in Battle Against a Foreign Enemy

1059. Trajan Decius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 249-251. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust to right / PANNONIAE, the two Pannoniae, veiled and draped, standing facing, their heads turned to left and right, each holding standard pointed outwards. RIC IV 21a; C. 85; Calicó 3295. 4.82g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State; minor edge marks, lustrous metal. Fine style.

10,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 656; Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 1, 25 October 2017, lot 318. Trajan Decius was acclaimed emperor by his troops while campaigning in Moesia and Pannonia on behalf of Philip I ‘the Arab’. He had been sent to quell the revolt of the usurper Pacatian, who had been proclaimed emperor himself by his troops but was, ultimately, also killed by them before the intervention of Decius. According to Zosimus, Decius was apparently reluctant and unwilling to take power. However, having taken the purple, Philip now advanced against Decius and the two met in battle near Verona, where Philip’s forces were routed and he himself was killed. Subsequently, Decius’ accession was recognised by the Senate, who conferred on him the name Traianus in reference to his predecessor Trajan, the optimus princeps (‘best ruler’) of the Roman Empire. Taking the name of Trajan was more than simple vainglory - in the first Dacian War of AD 101-102 Trajan had reduced the Danube region to the status of a client kingdom, later absorbing it into the empire after the second Dacian War in 105-106. The new emperor, who hailed from the very same region, was seen to have already quelled a revolt in the troubled frontier area, and it was hoped he would restore the strength of the State. This however was not to be. Barbarian incursions into the empire were becoming more frequent and more daring, while internally the empire was weakened and unable to secure its frontiers. In 250-251 a major Gothic incursion crossed the Danube and raided parts of Moesia and Thrace. Decius surprised the Goths as they were laying siege to Nicopolis, and while they at first made to retreat, they doubled back and in turn caught Decius unprepared, dispersing the Roman army and sacking their camp. Once the Roman army had reformed, Decius again marched to confront the Gothic invaders along with his son Herennius Etruscus and the general Trebonianus Gallus. At the Battle of Abritus in the second week of June 251 on a swampy patch of ground the Roman army initially routed the Goths’ front line, but made the mistake of pursuing their opponents into the swamp where they were ambushed and destroyed under a barrage of missiles. Both Herennius Etruscus and Decius were slain, their bodies never recovered. Decius’ paychests amounting to several tons of gold, along with many weapons, were despoiled by the Goths and have since been discovered hoarded in many locations throughout the historic Gothic territories (The Battle of Abritus, the Imperial Treasury and Aurei in Barbaricum, Numismatic Chronicle 173, 2013, p. 151). Trajan Decius thus earned for himself the dubious distinction of becoming the first reigning Augustus to be killed in battle by a foreign enemy. Trebonianus Gallus, maligned by Zosimus (1.25), became emperor on Decius’ death, and adopted his predecessor’s younger son, Hostilianus, as joint emperor despite the latter’s young age preventing him from ruling in his own right.

398


1060. Trajan Decius AV Aureus. Rome, mid-late AD 250. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust to right, seen from behind / VBERITAS AVG, Uberitas, draped, standing to left, holding purse in extended right hand, cradling cornucopiae in left arm. RIC IV 28; Biaggi 1397; Hunter 19; Calicó 3299. 4.38g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

7,500

From a private North European collection.

1061. Herennia Etruscilla (wife of T. Decius) AV Aureus. Rome, early-mid AD 250. HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, draped bust to right, wearing stephane / PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia, veiled and seated to left, drawing away veil with right hand and holding transverse sceptre in left. RIC IV 59a (Decius); Biaggi 1403; Calicó 3308a. 4.09g, 20mm, 6h. NGC graded AU 4/5 - 2/5, brushed, flan flaw.

3,500

From a private North European collection; Ex Heritage World Coin Auctions, ANA Signature Sale 3094, 19 August 2021, lot 34247.

1062. Herennius Etruscus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 250-251. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, youthful bare-headed and draped bust to right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Prince in military attire standing to left, holding transverse spear in left hand and baton in right. RIC IV 147a (Decius); C. 25; Calicó 3311a (same dies). 4.36g, 19mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine; plugged hole at 12h? Very Rare.

4,000

Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 5, 27 October 2019, lot 488.

399


Only Four Offered at Auction in the Past Two Decades

1063. Valerian I AV Aureus. Rome, AD 253-254. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing to left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC V.1 37; MIR 23a (1); Calicó 3421. 2.95g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only four other examples offered at auction in the past 20 years.

15,000

From a private North European collection. Unlike many of the men who vied to rule the Roman Empire during the third century AD, Valerian came from a noble senatorial family and had held the consulship and been princeps senatus under the fateful year of the six emperors. He was given significant control over affairs both civil and military by Trajan Decius and Trebonius Gallus, and when Gallus was killed by his own troops in AD 253 AD, Valerian was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers and swiftly acknowledged by the Senate. He quickly appointed his son Gallienus as Caesar and sent him to shore up the western frontier while he focused on the threats posed by the Persians and Goths in the east. While he enjoyed initial success against the Goths, his long and futile campaign against the Persian king Shapur I ended with his capture, an unprecedented blow which marked the empire’s darkest hour. He allegedly endured such humiliations as being forced to serve as Shapur’s footstool for many years, until he died in captivity and was flayed and stuffed. In this context, the supreme traditional reverse type of IOVI CONSERVATORI, with an image of protective power exuded by the great god Jupiter’s muscular figure, assertive stance and deadly thunderbolt, seems bitterly ironic.

400


Extremely Rare

1064. Valerian I AV Aureus. Rome, AD 255. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / LIBERALITAS AVGG, Liberalitas standing to left, holding tessera and cornucopiae. RIC V.1 43; MIR 66a (same dies); Biaggi 1439; Calicó 3425. 2.79g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

15,000

Unique

1065. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus mint(?), AD 287-293. IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust to right / TVTELA AVG, galley sailing to right. Unpublished in the standard references, but included in Moorhead’s corpus for forthcoming RIC revision. 2.27g, 18mm, 7h. About Extremely Fine. Unique.

500

Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 50, 23 June 1999, lot 1677 (hammer: $2,750).

1066. Tacitus AV Aureus. Serdica, June AD 276. IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated to left on a shield, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; SC in exergue. RIC V.1 205 (Cyzicus); MER-RIC 3918 (temporary, Serdica); Estiot 104c (same obv. die); Calicó 4096 (Antioch). 4.46g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

7,500

From a private North European collection.

401


Very Rare

1067. Florian AV Aureus. Ticinum, AD 276. VIRTVS FLORIANI AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust to left, holding sceptre and shield / VIRTVS AVGVSTI, Mars walking to right, holding spear and trophy, captive at feet to right. RIC V.1 24 (Rome); MER-RIC 4152 (temporary); C.106 (Rome); Calicó 4135 (Rome). 3.97g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; tooled. Very Rare.

15,000

From the GK Collection. The period of Roman history now referred to as the Crisis of the Third Century saw the empire riven by climate change, plague, foreign invasions and near constant civil war that resulted in a profound and long-lasting breakdown of the Roman internal trade network and led inexorably to a shift towards localism and feudalistic practices. The emperor Aurelian had done much to restore the Roman Empire to a semblance of its former self by repulsing the Iuthungi and Goths as well as re-incorporating by conquest the breakaway Gallic and Palmyrene states into the empire, but was assassinated in AD 275 while marching east to confront the Sassanids. After an interregnum lasting eight months during which the army declined to elevate one of its own, the Senate at last offered the throne to the aged Tacitus, who was able to wield the support of both Senate and army as well as influence in the Praetorian Guard through his maternal half-brother Florian who he appointed to command the Guard. After less than a year however, Tacitus died en route to deal with a Frankish and Alamannic invasion of Gaul. Florian immediately claimed the purple as the brother of Tacitus and was recognised by both the Senate and the western provinces in July of 276. Florian never visited Rome during his short time as emperor, having been primarily occupied with repelling an invasion of the Goths in Pannonia. A competent military leader, he defeated them in battle within weeks of his accession. He was unable, however, to fully capitalise on their defeat, owing to the revolt of Probus, a proven commander who had served under both Aurelian and Tacitus, who had been hailed Imperator by the legions of Syria in opposition to Florian. He would reign for less than 90 days before being defeated and slain. This Florian aureus represents an early example of the portrait style depicting the emperor with a shield and spear, a composition previously utilised sporadically by Gallienus and Aurelian, but which only came into standard use under Probus, Florian’s successor. The style would bloom in the early fourth century and onwards with some meticulously-engraved minute decorative scenes on the emperor’s shield, most often including the iconic motif of a horseman bearing down on a fallen enemy. At this early stage, Florian’s shield bears a simple scale pattern. The martial valour of the emperor is further emphasised on the coin by both the obverse and reverse legends ‘VIRTVS FLORIANI AVG’ and ‘VIRTVS AVGVSTI’ and the reverse type depicting Mars.

402


One of Three Known

1068. Probus AV ‘Heavy’ Aureus. Siscia, AD 277. IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / ORIENS AVGVSTI, Sol standing facing, head to left, raising right hand in salutation and holding globe in left; SIS in exergue. RIC V.2 590 var. (obv. legend); C. 392 var. (same); Biaggi 1619 var. (same); Calicó 4171a; LHS 95, lot 843. 7.34g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only three known examples.

15,000

From the inventory of a UK dealer. The aureus was regularly issued from the first century BC until the beginning of the fourth century AD. Initially struck at a weight of approximately 7-8 grams following standardisation by Julius Caesar, the weight declined incrementally throughout the early and mid-imperial periods. Caracalla attempted to curb inflation by introducing new denominations such as the Antoninianus, valued at two denarii, in AD 215 and the binio or double aureus a few years later, which never became a gold denomination of any significant importance. By the time of the Crisis of the Third Century which was characterised by short and violent reigns, gold was in such short supply that the weight of aurei, which became considerably rarer, dropped to just over two grams in some cases. Indeed, the Historiae Augustae Scriptores contains rescripts attributed to Valerian I in which the different aurei in circulation were referred to variously as ‘Philippeos nostri vultus’ (Philips bearing our likeness) for the common aureus (use of the same term is ascribed to Aurelian for those later aurei which he had restored in weight), ‘third-Philips’ for lighter-weight gold coins, ‘aurei Antoniniani’ for coins of the Antonines and Caracalla (superior at the time to any coined since); Gallienus meanwhile is purported to refer to his father’s gold coinage as ‘aurei Valeriani’. Although much within the Historiae Augustae Scriptores is considered to be of quite questionable accuracy insofar as historical documents were actually written by those claimed to have authored them, it is nonetheless a valuable source. Written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine I, it is evidence firstly of a general awareness that the aureus in the time of Valerian was not of its former weight and quality, and moreover demonstrates that rather than all being referred to as simply ‘aurei’, the different weights of the coins in circulation had inevitably required that they be treated as different denominations, and so more colloquial names found their way into common parlance, as well as perhaps official usage. It is in this context that this extremely rare ‘heavy’ aureus, which matches the weight of aurei from the beginning of the empire, should be considered. Siscia was an important strategic town in Pannonia or modern-day Croatia, built as it was on two navigable rivers. It had been captured by Tiberius and made a colony by Vespasian, but was reinvigorated with fresh colonists during the reign of Septimius Severus and gained an imperial mint under Gallienus when the old Lugdunum mint fell into the possession of the usurper Postumus. The mint was instituted in order to supply money to troops on the border of the Danube, and is characterised by the especially high number of its bronze issues, making this Siscian ‘heavy’ aureus altogether rarer and of greater numismatic interest. Less than half a century after this coin was minted, the aureus would fall out of standard issue altogether and be replaced by the lighter solidus of more precise weight as a gold denomination under Constantine I ‘the Great’, which would continue to be minted in some form for the next five hundred years. Siscia too declined in importance soon after the reign of Probus, and would also be superseded by Sirmium as a place of strategic importance in the region, which would become the imperial base for the tetrarch Galerius.

403


The Third Known Example

1069. Probus AV Aureus. Siscia, AD 279. VIRTVS PROBI AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust to right, helmet decorated with Victory driving biga / P M TRI P, Emperor standing in car of slow quadriga to right, laureate and togate, holding eagle-tipped sceptre in left hand and extending right hand with open palm; COS III in exergue. RIC V.2 579 var. (bust to left); C. 453 var. (same); Calicó 4177 var. (same); Hunter 182 (same dies); NAC 105, lot 89 (same dies). 6.32g, 21mm, 7h. Mint State. Exceedingly Rare; only the third known example and one of just two in private hands.

50,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 120, 6 October 2020, lot 825. Raised to power by the army, Marcus Aurelius Probus was a product of the Third Century Crisis that saw a marked shift in the paradigm of imperial leadership. No longer did an emperor emerge from a system of succession, either as son or inherited heir of a sitting emperor, instead emperors were chosen by the military based on factors that included popularity, generosity towards the troops and their ability to produce measurable outcomes. “As a youth Probus became so famed for his bodily strength that by approval of Valerian he received a tribuneship almost before his beard was grown” (Historia Augusta, 3.1). From this early recognition Probus went from strength to strength, becoming one of the highest placed lieutenants of the Emperor Aurelian and then supreme commander of the East under the Emperor Tacitus. Upon the death of Tacitus, Probus was made emperor by the army of Syria in AD 276, having defeated Florianus who too had attempted to ascend the imperial throne. The senate duly acknowledged the exploits of Probus and conferred upon him the names: Caesar, Augustus, Pontifex Maximus as well as granting him Tribunitian power and Proconsular command. However, the apparent stability granted to Probus by the affirmation of his leadership was not enough to quell the economic and social unrest that continuously threatened peace across the empire. Probus’s rule was marked by the threat of both usurpation and of advances from invaders along the borders. This instability made it all the more important for Probus to deliver, at all times, a composite vision of the emperor ‘victorious’ and we can see this reflected in his coinage. This specimen, of the highest rarity, encapsulates this idea across both its obverse and reverse. On the reverse Probus stands garbed in ceremonial attire: togate with a laureate crown, he holds an eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and guides a quadriga with calm composure in the other. This composition draws direct parallels with triumphal and consular processions and thereby contributes a formal ritualistic facet to the image of the emperor victorious. On the obverse, the militant dimension of this image is added. Probus is presented as an emperor poised for battle in helmet and cuirass and the decoration of Victory driving biga clearly indicates the likely outcome of any action. This image of Probus victorious prevails across his coinage and few issues celebrate any specific events, which presents a challenge to numismatists when trying to establish a chronology in his reign. We can however presume that due to the pairing of TRI P with COS III the coin celebrates the third or fourth renewal of his tribunician power due to the unorthodox (but consistent) links between titles across his coinage.

404


405


1070. Carinus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Siscia, AD 282. M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory standing to left on globe, holding wreath and trophy. RIC V.2 190; C. 139; Biaggi 1676; Calicó 4373. 4.64g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; tooled. Rare.

3,000

From the GK Collection. Raised to the rank of Caesar in the West in AD 282 under his father Carus, who had been proclaimed emperor after the assassination of the emperor Probus, Carinus immediately set out on campaign against the Germanic Quadi tribes whom he met with some success. Returning to Rome in early 283, he celebrated a triumph and was proclaimed Augustus, and thus began his joint rule with his father. Meanwhile his brother Numerian, also Caesar, was on campaign with their father against the Sassanid Persians in the East. It was here that Carus died in July or August 283, but not before having made significant gains against the Sassanids under Bahram II: he had taken the capital Ctesiphon, crossed the River Tigris and was marching his troops further into Mesopotamia. Carus’ death is most likely attributable to natural causes (an unknown illness, though some sources claim it was a lightning strike), and Numerian succeeded him as Augustus unchallenged. The army however wished to return to the West, and Numerian was unable to do more than acquiesce. As the column proceeded slowly back toward Roman territory Numerian himself was taken ill and died under suspicious circumstances - the general Diocletian was proclaimed emperor by the troops and accepted the purple on a hill outside Nicomedia. Upon hearing the news, Carinus marched his army eastwards and the two met in Moesia at the Battle of the Margus River. Again, accounts differ as to the progress of the battle: some say that Carinus had the upper hand until he was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced, while others suggest that the battle was a complete victory for Diocletian and that Carinus’ army deserted him. Following the victory, both the eastern and western armies recognised Diocletian as sole emperor, and he marched unopposed on Rome. Struck in late 282 when Carinus still held the rank of Caesar, this aureus depicts him in military gear on the obverse, while the reverse type depicts the Victoriola, the cult statue of Victory standing on a globe. It symbolises the power and majesty conferred on an emperor by victory in battle, and is often shown on later reverse types being conferred on the emperor by Jupiter or another deity. Used in this context, it appears to attest to a recent military victory, perhaps Carinus’ own successes against the Germanic tribes. That this coin was struck shortly before Carinus was raised to the rank of Augustus might partly explain its relative rarity, however the Damnatio Memoriae which Diocletian wrought on Carinus after his death would also reflect the scarcity of gold coins in his name.

1071. Diocletian AV Aureus. Lugdunum, June AD 285 - April AD 286. IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / MARS VICTOR, Mars advancing to right, holding spear in right hand and trophy over left shoulder. RIC V.2 2; C. 313; Lukanc p. 232, 2 (same dies as Paris example); Bastien, Lyon 1a; Depeyrot 1/1; Calicó 4543 (same dies). 3.85g, 20mm, 12h. NGC graded MS 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158068-005).

6,500

From the GK Collection; Ex George W. La Borde Collection of Roman Aurei, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 91, 23 May 2016, lot 53; Ex RCM Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XVI, 9 January 2013, lot 1132; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XII, 6 January 2009, lot 753; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton VII, 12 January 2004, lot 1040.

406


This Coin Cited in Depeyrot

1072. Diocletian AV Aureus. Siscia, AD 286. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing facing, head to left, nude but for chlamys on back, holding long sceptre in left hand and thunderbolt in right. RIC V.2 247; C. 149; Depeyrot 1/2 (this coin). 5.37g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare; no other examples offered at auction in the past 20 years.

15,000

This coin cited in G. Depeyrot, Les monnaies d’or (Wetteren, 1995-1996); Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 672; Ex Münzen und Medaillen AG Basel, Auction 43, 12 November 1970, lot 437. It would ultimately be religious legitimisation, not military achievements, that would elevate Diocletian above his predecessors. The quasi-republican ideals of Augustus’ ‘primus inter pares’ system were abandoned for all but the tetrarchs themselves. Diocletian took to wearing a gold crown and jewels, and forbade the use of purple cloth to all but the emperors. His subjects were required to prostrate themselves in his presence (adoratio); the most fortunate were allowed the privilege of kissing the hem of his robe (proskynesis). The reverse of this coin further alludes to the quasi-divine aspects of the new ‘dominate’ system of government. Around 287 Diocletian assumed the title Iovius, and his colleague Maximian assumed the title Herculius; these grandiose new titles not only reflected the working dynamic between Diocletian and Maximian (while the one acted as supreme strategist, the other enforced imperial will by brute force), but more importantly by taking on divine attributes Diocletian intended to make the person of the emperor inviolate as the gods’ representative on earth. Diocletian’s administrative and bureaucratic reforms encompassed far more than the decentralisation of imperial power. Some of his most enduring changes were to the Roman military. Instituting systematic annual conscription for the first time since the days of the Republic, Diocletian increased the overall size of the Roman army by roughly 33%, and more than doubled the number of legions and auxiliary units by creating smaller, more mobile detachments. A massive upgrade of the empire’s defensive infrastructure was undertaken across great swathes of the borders including new fortifications and roads. Centralised fabricae were introduced to provide arms and armour for the army on an industrial scale. The most significant change to the Roman military structure was the establishment of large personal escort armies (comitatus praesentales) which typically comprised 2030,000 elite palatine troops. These highly mobile armies were designed to quickly reinforce the border defences or crush potential usurpers. Indeed, while they proved highly effective during Diocletian’s reign, in his retirement he would live to see them misused by his successors, who now each had a substantial comitatus at their disposal to enforce their claims.

1073. Diocletian AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 294. DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing facing, head to left, wearing chlamys that falls behind, holding thunderbolt and spear; SMN in exergue. RIC VI 5a; C. 251; Depeyrot 2/4; Calicó 4494. 5.33g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; faint hairline on obv.

5,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 675.

407


A Very Attractive Aureus of Maximian

1074. Maximian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 286. IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing to left, nude but for drapery over shoulders, holding thunderbolt in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC V.2 492a; C. 348; Depeyrot 2D/3; Calicó 4688. 5.33g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State; previously NGC graded MS 5/5 - 4/5 (#6030744-010), a very attractive example. Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica AG.

408

20,000


409


1075. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 295. MAXIMIANVS CAESAR, laureate head to right / VICTORIA SARMAT, the four Tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before arched gateway to circuit of city walls with six raised towers. RIC VI 17b. 2.81g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State; attractive cabinet tone.

500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 683; Ex Bertolami Fine Arts - ACR Auctions, Auction 19, 11 November 2015, lot 770 (hammer: EUR 1,700).

1076. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Antioch, AD 297. MAXIMIANVS CAESAR, laureate head to right / VIRTVS MILITVM, three-turreted camp gate without doors; ANT • H in exergue. RIC VI 40b; RSC 225c. 3.35g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; a highly attractive example. Very Rare; rated R4 by RIC. Ex Hess-Divo AG, Auction 314, 4 May 2009, lot 1624.

410

1,000


Mint State And Possibly Unique

1077. Licinius I AV Aureus. Thessalonica, circa AD 310-315. LICINIVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing to left, holding sceptre and victory on globe, eagle with wreath in beak at feet to left; •TS•Γ• in exergue. RIC VII -; Depeyrot -; Calicó -; Biaggi -; seemingly unpublished in the standard references. NGC graded MS 5/5 - 3/5 (#4282628-001). Possibly Unique; unpublished in the standard references and no other examples on CoinArchives.

12,000

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG, Auction 304, 19 March 2018, lot 1362; Ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 79, 14 October 1996, lot 706.

Apparently Unique and Unpublished

1078. Martinian BI Nummus. Cyzicus, AD 321-324. IM C S MAR MARTINIANVΓ P F AVS (sic), radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing to left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and eagle-tipped sceptre in left, X-IIΓ above captive on ground to right, eagle to left holding wreath in beak; SMKΓ in exergue. RIC VII 16 var. (obv. legend, unlisted officina). 3.30g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; apparently an unpublished officina for Cyzicus.

2,000

From the inventory of a UK dealer.

Martinian

1079. Martinian BI Nummus. Nicomedia, AD 324. D N M MARTINIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing to left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and eagle-tipped sceptre in left, X-IIΓ above captive on ground to right, eagle to left holding wreath in beak; SMNΓ in exergue. RIC VII 45; C.3. 3.79g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

411


Thrice Published; Ex MoneyMuseum Zürich Collection

1080. Constantine I ‘the Great’ AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 314-315. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head to right / RESTITVTORI LIBERTATIS, Roma enthroned to right, shield at side, holding sceptre in left hand and handing globe held in right hand to Constantine in military attire, standing to left, extending right hand to receive globus and cradling parazonium in left arm; PTR in exergue. RIC VII 25 var. (rev. legend breaks); cf. Alfoldi 428-9 (for type); Depeyrot 20/7; Calicó -; DOC -; Hunter -; Biaggi 1990; Kampmann 18 (this coin) = AdG p. 42 (this coin) = DDTP p. 25 (this coin); NAC 49, lot 468. 4.45g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Excessively Rare.

15,000

This coin published at www.moneymuseum.com; This coin published in U. Kampmann, Menschengesichter. Gotter, Herrscher, Ideale- das Antlitz des Menschen im Munzbild (Zurich, 2005); This coin published in A. Wenzel, D. Pommerening, G. Frick, Atlas des Geldes (Zurich, 2003); This coin published in U. Kampmann, Drachme, Dirhem, Taler, Pfund- Geld und Wehrungen in der Geschichte. Von den Anfangen bis zum EURO (Zurich, 2000); Ex Long Valley River Collection, Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 688; Ex MoneyMuseum Zurich Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XVIII, 6 January 2015, lot 1241 (hammer: USD 27,500); Ex Antiqua Inc. (Steve Rubinger), List VII, 1999/2000, no. 111; Ex A. Tkalec AG, 23 October 1998, lot 311. This excessively rare solidus of Constantine I ‘the Great’ illustrates the dual nature of his imagery that pervaded his time in power, emphasising on the one side tradition and innovation on the other. The synergy between these two concepts was key to his eventual success and was present in much of the propaganda he and his allies circulated. Becoming sole ruler of the Roman Empire in AD 324 after forty years of the Tetrarchy system of government was an achievement that was hard-won on the battlefield through nearly two decades of civil war, but his designs on individual power were made manifest in his self-representation much earlier, as this coin shows. The iconography of Constantine’s portrait on the obverse of this coin appears to represent a break with the artistic tradition associated with the Tetrarchy prevalent at the time, and instead draws on an older style of portraiture for inspiration. In place of the schematic, somewhat simplistic portraiture favoured by the Tetrarchs, here Constantine discards this style in favour of a more naturalistic and youthful image, perhaps inspired by JulioClaudian portraiture, which was first propagated by Augustus after his own civil war victory, which resulted in the beginning of the principate. The comparison with Augustus is further corroborated by the obverse legend RESTITVTORI LIBERTATIS – ‘to the restorer of freedom’, which implies that Constantine wished to portray himself as reinstating ancient principles of government, in much the same way as Augustus himself did when he assumed power in 27 BC, declaring that he was restoring the Golden Age of Rome. This interpretation suggests that a full 10 years before Constantine became sole emperor, he was subtly referencing his long term aspirations. In contrast to the notions of restoring the historic Augustan age represented on the obverse of this coin, the reverse could be seen to preconfigure dramatic change, namely the most significant geographical shift of power in over three centuries of the Roman Empire. In AD 314-315, when this coin was minted at Treveri, Constantine’s victory over his fellow emperor Maxentius had left him in control of the western half of the Roman empire, while Licinius still ruled in the East. The fact that the reverse of this coin depicts the goddess Roma entrusting Constantine with a globe, symbolic of the Roman ‘imperium sine fine’ or ‘empire without end’ (Virgil, Aeneid 1.279), perhaps suggests that Constantine thought himself worthy of ruling over the whole empire, not just the empire in the West. Fifteen years later, after his rival Licinius had been defeated at the battle of Chrysopolis, Constantine decided to move the administrative capital of the empire to Byzantium, which he christened Constantinopolis and styled as the ‘New Rome’, which constituted a fundamental break with centuries of tradition geographically, but through shrewd deployment of propaganda was cast politically as a continuation of Augustan traditions.

412


A Wonderful Example

1081. Constantine I ‘the Great’ AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 324. Head of Constantine to right, wearing plain Hellenistic-style diadem, gaze uplifted / CONSTANTINVS AVG, Victory seated to left on throne, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and cradling cornucopiae with left, shield at feet; SMN in exergue. RIC VII 70; C. 102; Depeyrot 34/1; Alföldi 46. 4.44g, 19mm, 11h. Near Mint State; unobtrusive marks to obverse, a wonderful example. Rare.

15,000

Acquired from Numismatica Ars Classica. Constantine gazes heavenward on this extremely desirable anepigraphic type, his beautifully engraved portrait larger and more impressive than those of Crispus and the Caesars Constantine and Constantius on parallel coin types (cited in L. Ramskold, Constantine’s Vicennalia and the Death of Crispus, in Miša Rakocija (ed.), Niš and Byzantium Symposium XI, 2013, p. 434). The interpretation of Christian theologian Eusebius infuses this obverse type - developed from AD 324 - with a religious dimension: the emperor looks “upwards in the manner of one reaching out to God in prayer”, and is elevated as a divinely inspired ruler in a state of prayer (VC 4.15.1). According to Sutherland and Carson, ‘the less known the ruler, the more explicit was the legend’ (RIC VII, p.27), and the lack of inscription grants even greater prominence to this striking portrait of Constantine, ruling over a united empire by the time of minting. The varied depictions of male family members on obverse busts following the Battle of Chrysopolis makes the unified dynastic series of Constantine and his imperial household wearing matching band-diadems, as on this type, a rare and notable occurrence (RIC 108-13 Nicomedia; RIC VII, p.35). The band-diademed portrait, an innovation in imperial portraiture, was apt in the context of Constantine’s vicennalia celebrations (starting in July AD 325). Such a development also followed in the wake of the decisive victory at Chrysopolis in September AD 324: this ‘holy war’, so termed by C. Odahl (Constantine and the Christian Empire, 2010, p.177), was fought and won on a huge scale, even accounting for exaggeration by Zosimus who numbers Constantine’s army at 120,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry (Hist. Nova, II.22.1-2). The prominent use of Victory herself holding in her hand a small Victoriola is certainly a thinly veiled reference to Constantine’s triumph over his rival Licinius in the Civil War of AD 324, and perhaps alludes specifically to the Battles of the Hellespont and Chrysopolis. Eusebius later rejoiced that “with the impious defeated and the gloomy cloud of tyrannic power dispersed, the sun once more shone brightly” (VC, II. 19) and this present type was minted in that celebratory context, heralding the inception of a shining new era.

413


Constantine’s Earliest Use of Christian Symbolism

1082. Constantine I ‘the Great’ BI Nummus. Constantinople, AD 327. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed head to right / Labarum, with three medallions on vexillum and surmounted by Christogram, piercing serpent below; SPES PVBLIC across fields, A in left field, CONS below. RIC VII 26 (R5); C. 552. 2.73g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

The reverse of this nummus, remarkable for being Constantine’s earliest use of Christian symbolism on his regular coinage, has been the subject of academic discourse for decades. The first numismatic instance of Constantine’s use of the Chi-Ro symbol was in a series of medallions struck after his victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in AD 312, where he famously experienced a vision featuring a ‘cross of light in the heavens, above the sun’ (Eusebius, Life of Constantine, 1:28), the wearing of which would lead his troops to victory. Peter Weiss has convincingly argued that the physical phenomena that was witnessed that day was likely a parhelion, which rather like eclipses may have been responsible for more than one inspirational pre-battle vision throughout history (Weiss, ‘The Vision of Constantine’ in Journal of Roman Archaeology: 16, 2003). Whatever the worldly cause, Constantine’s intentions following this event are what have caused controversy. According to Weiss, rather than experiencing an immediate revelation Constantine only interpreted this vision as Christian years later, which explains the long delay and very small proportion of coins featuring Christian imagery. Another interpretation of these events argues that Constantine was actually pursuing a deliberately slow strategy, in order to not stir resistance - particularly given the civil wars which already troubled his reign (DesRosiers and Vuong, Religious Competition in the Greco-Roman World, 2016). However, as early as 1962 (even before the publication of the relevant RIC volume) numismatic historian Richard Bruun expressed scepticism that the sign of the Chi-Ro would have been recognised as religious, in his seminal article ‘The Christian Signs on the Coins of Constantine’. The wider ‘pagan’ audience who handled coins of this type would have instead recognised it as a personal badge of the emperor - in this example, it is certainly presented as such in its placement atop the vexillum, where the medallions stand in for portraits of the imperial family. The meaning of the serpent suffers from similar ambiguities surrounding its meaning and reception. Depending on an author’s views on the overtness of the other Christian imagery present, the serpent can be interpreted either as a ‘universal’ symbol of evil, a representation of the recently-defeated pagan Licinius I, or a Judeo-Christian image of the demonic.

1083. Constantine I ‘the Great’ AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 336-337. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory seated to right on cuirass, inscribing VOT XXX on shield supported by winged Genius; CONS in exergue. RIC VII 107; Depeyrot 7/12. 4.58g, 21mm, 11h. NGC graded Ch XF 5/5 - 4/5 (#6158068-006). Very Rare; the only example on CoinArchives. From the GK Collection; Ex MDC Monnaies de Collection sarl, Auction 1, 2 December 2016, lot 116 (hammer: 6,300 EUR); Ex Spink, Auction 15007, 2 December 2015, lot 647; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 35, 20 September 1995, lot 1015.

414

4,000


1084. Constantine II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 320. D N CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, prince standing to left, holding standard; two standards to right; SIRM in exergue. RIC VII 7 var. (legend arrangement); Depeyrot 2/4 var. (reverse legend arrangement). 4.29g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - particularly with this unusual legend spacing on reverse.

3,000

From a private North European collection.

1085. Constantine II AV Nine Siliquae - 1½ Scripulum. Treveri, AD 337-339. IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SECVRITAS REI PVBLICAE, Securitas standing facing, head to right, leaning on column with left arm, placing right hand on head; TR in exergue. RIC VIII 18 (R4); C. 500 (Constantine I); Depeyrot 1/5. 1.42g, 15mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; cheek repaired. Extremely Rare; no other examples on CoinArchives.

4,000

From the GK Collection; Ex Heidelberger Münzhandlung Herbert Grün eK, Auction 77, 12 November 2019, lot 370.

1086. Constans AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 337-340. FL IVL CONSTANS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA DD NN AVGG, Victory walking to left, holding palm branch and trophy on spear; TES in exergue. RIC VIII 28; Depeyrot 4/3. 4.43g, 22mm, 12h. NGC graded AU 5/5 - 3/5, wavy flan (#6158074-013).

1,500

From the GK Collection; Ex MDC Monnaies de Collection sarl, Auction 4, 15 November 2018, lot 135.

415


Unpublished And Seemingly Unique

1087. Constans AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 337-347. FL IVL CONSTANS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor on horseback to left, raising right hand, turreted figure kneeling to right before, proffering wreath; SMANTΓ in exergue. RIC VIII -; C. -; Depeyrot -; for similar type, cf. Roma XVI, lot 820 (Constantius II). 4.75g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; perfectly centered. Unpublished and seemingly unique, an important addition to the corpus of Neo-Flavian coinage.

15,000

From a private UK collection. The death of Constantine I ‘the Great’ near Nicomedia in AD 337 represented the end of a period of internal peace under the rule of the famous emperor, who had governed alone for the last thirteen years of his thirty-one year reign. Initially, power passed to five men, his three sons Constantine II, Constans and Constantius II and their half-cousins Delmatius and Hanniballianus, whom they quickly conspired to murder. In the tripartite division of the empire which followed, Constans was given control of Italy, Illyricum and Africa, but also gained Gaul after his army defeated and killed his brother Constantine II in battle in AD 340. On this unpublished and seemingly unique coin, Constans is the picture of victory and power: he performs the ritual of the imperial adventus, a ceremony which would mark the emperor’s victorious arrival in a city following their accession or a military campaign. The event is immediately recognisable from the archetypal gesture of greeting in the raised right hand of an emperor on horseback. This particular type is engraved in a lively and decorative style, and elements such as Constans’ flowing cape, the horse’s bouncy waved tail and the vivid expressions of the characters all contribute to an engaging scene. Constans is met by a kneeling city-goddess, although being as this was the territory of his brother Constantius II and given that the reverse legend seems to bear out that this is a generic type rather than one referring to a specific event, it seems unlikely that Constans himself would ever have visited Antioch, let alone in a formal and ceremonial capacity. He was killed on 18 January 350 on the western frontiers of the empire by supporters of the usurper Magnentius, a general who declared himself emperor at Augustodunum (Autun) with the support of the troops on the Rhine frontier.

1088. Constans AV Solidus. Decennalia issue. Treveri, AD 347-348. CONSTANS AVGVSTVS, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG, two Victories standing facing each other, holding shield inscribed VOT X MVLT XX; TR in exergue. RIC VIII 135; Depeyrot 6/3. 4.49g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; a couple of minor marks to obv., otherwise highly lustrous, untouched surfaces. Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29th October 2020, lot 698; Privately purchased from Numismatic Fine Arts Inc. prior to 1995.

416

3,000


1089. Constantius II AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 351-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly to right, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman motif / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear, and Constantinopolis enthroned to left with foot on prow and holding sceptre, supporting between them shield inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; (pellet in crescent)SIRM in exergue. RIC VIII 9; Depeyrot 7/1. 4.34g, 21mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

Acquired from Leu Numismatik AG.

A Statuesque Portrait

1090. Constantius II AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 355-361. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed head to right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear, and Constantinopolis enthroned to left with foot on prow and holding sceptre, supporting between them shield inscribed VOT XXXX; SMNS in exergue. RIC VIII 100; Depeyrot 6/1. 4.47g, 22mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

2,000

From a private UK collection. Bearing an obverse portrait of fine style and striking similarity to the monumental head of Constantius that can be seen in the Capitoline Museum in Rome, this solidus was struck in celebration of the emperor’s thirty-fifth anniversary. According to Ammianus Marcellinus (XVI, 10, 1-20), to mark the occasion Constantius entered Rome in triumphal style, held equestrian games and had an obelisk brought from Egypt and erected in the Circus Maximus.

Pedigreed to 1963

1091. Constantius II AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 355-361. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed head to right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear, and Constantinopolis enthroned to left with foot on prow and holding sceptre, supporting between them shield inscribed VOT XXXX in two lines; *TES* in exergue. RIC VIII 198; Depeyrot 14/4. 4.57g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 7, 24 October 2020, lot 1769; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XVII, 7 January 2014, lot 799; Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Mail Bid Sale 61, 25 September 2002, lot 2105; Ex B.A. Seaby Ltd., Coin and Medal Bulletin 540, May 1963, G996.

417


Apparently Unique and Unpublished

1092. Constantius II AV Solidus. Rome, AD 355-367. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear and shield decorated with star / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear, and Constantinopolis enthroned to left with foot on prow and holding sceptre, supporting between them shield inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; •RSMЄ• in exergue. RIC VIII 290 var. (mintmark); C. 117 var. (same); Depeyrot 12/1 var. (same); cf. Gorny & Mosch 236, lot 504 (same rev. die, but with christogram in shield on obv.). 4.55g, 21mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Apparently unique and unpublished.

5,000

Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XVII, 7 January 2014, lot 798.

Extremely Rare

1093. Constantius II AV Solidus. Siscia, AD 355-361. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman and fallen enemy motif / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing, holding spear, and Constantinopolis enthroned to left with foot on prow and holding sceptre, supporting between them shield inscribed VOT XXXV MVLT XXXX in four lines; SMSIS• in exergue. RIC VIII 357; Depeyrot 22/1. 4.54g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

From a private UK collection.

1094. Magnentius AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 350-353. IM CAE MAGNENTIVS AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA•AVG•LIB•ROMANOR, Victory standing to right, facing Libertas, draped, standing to left, holding transverse spear, both supporting trophy on shaft with hook between them; TR in exergue. RIC VIII 253 corr. (no palm branch); Depeyrot 8/1 var. (plain shaft). 4.39g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; tooled. Extremely Rare.

5,000

From the GK Collection. Victory does not appear to be holding a palm branch on the reverse of this coin, however this is also the case with the only other example of this coin on CoinArchives (Heritage 3094, lot 34258) which is from a different die. This suggests that RIC describes the reverse type as including a palm branch simply because that is typical of the design, rather than because they have evidence from this coin type. Without any plates to back this up we can only speculate.

418


A Superb Nepotian

1095. Nepotian (Usurper) BI 25mm. Rome, 3rd-30th June AD 350. FL NEP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VRBS ROMA, Roma seated to left on throne, holding Victory on globe and spear; shield at side; RЄ in exergue. RIC VIII 203; LRBC 644. 5.76g. 25mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare and one of the finest examples of the type to come to auction.

10,000

From a private North American collection. In the midst of the chaos and infighting which ensued after the death of Constantine I ‘the Great’, Nepotian’s reign lasted only twenty-eight days. The son of Constantine I’s half-sister, and grandson of Emperor Constantius Chlorus, Nepotian proclaimed himself emperor at Rome in AD 350 following the revolt of Magnentius in the west against Constans. He gathered a band of gladiators to kill Titianus, the praetorian prefect who Magnentius had charged with the governance of Italy, but in turn was swiftly killed by the troops of Magnentius’ general Marcellinus, who was sent to deal with the usurper. The brevity of his reign ensured the rarity of his coinage, and this particularly fine example celebrating the city in which he briefly assumed power recalls the propaganda of Maxentius, another usurper who based himself in Rome from AD 306-312.

One of Three Known

1096. Magnentius AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 353. D N MAGNENTIVS AVG, bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICT CAES LIB ROM ORB, Victory standing to right, holding palm frond over left shoulder, and Libertas, holding sceptre in left hand, standing to left, both supporting trophy on shaft between them; TR in exergue. RIC VIII 296; Bastien 76 (same dies, two examples cited); Blätter für Münzfreunde 56, 1921, pl. 246, 14; Depeyrot 13/2; F. Trau Collection, Gilhofer & Ranschburg and A. Hess, 1935, 4288 (same dies). 3.84g, 22mm, 6h. NGC graded MS 5/5 - 2/5, marks, slight bend (#6158066-011). Extremely Rare; the third known example, much better than the Trau specimen. Struck with a reverse die of Decentius. 7,500 From the GK Collection; Ex Nomos AG, obolos 5, 26 June 2016, lot 870 (hammer: CHF 15,000).

419


1097. Decentius, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 351-353. D N DECENTIVS FORT CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA•CAES•LIB•ROMANOR, Victory standing to right, and Libertas, holding sceptre in left hand, standing to left, both supporting trophy on shaft between them; TR in exergue. RIC VIII 293; C. 31; Depeyrot 12/3. 3.93g, 22mm, 6h. NGC graded XF 5/5 - 1/5, wrinkled, ex-mount (#6158068-009). Extremely Rare.

4,000

From the GK Collection.

1098. Constantius Gallus, as Caesar, AR Siliqua. Sirmium, AD 351-354. CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare head to right / VOTIS V MVLTIS X in four lines within laurel wreath with jewel at apex; SIRM below. RIC VIII 16; RSC 56b; CNG e488, 559; Roma XIX, 964 (hammer: £2,800); CNG e122, 389. 3.00g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; minor flan crack, attractive light cabinet tone with an underlying lustre. Very Rare.

1,000

From the GK Collection. The reverse of this issue denotes both a vota quinquennalia and decennalia (V-X). This issue cannot be commemorating a vota celebrated by Constantius Gallus himself as he reigned for only three years as Caesar before being executed by Constantius II for treason. It is not unusual for two vota enumerations to appear on the same issue, the second usually being anticipatory in its reference to the next celebration (typically five or ten years), nor was it unusual for imperial colleagues to harmonise their vota even if their accession dates were incompatible. It is known that Constantius celebrated his tricennalia on 8 November 353 and issues bearing the vota XXX-XXXX were struck in commemoration. It is plausible that this issue was struck within the context of the trincennalia and bears two anticipatory vota enumerations representing the next five and ten year celebrations (for further discussion, see RIC VIII, pp. 50-54).

1099. Julian II AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 361-363. FL CL IVLIANVS P P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS ROMANORVM, emperor standing to right, head to left, holding trophy and dragging captive; *SIRM(wreath) in exergue. RIC VIII 96; C. 78; Biaggi 2219; Depeyrot 21/1. 4.40g, 21mm, 7h. Near Mint State; minor marks. Rare.

5,000

From a private UK collection.

420


1100. Jovian BI 28mm. Thessalonica, AD 363-364. D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing facing, head to right, holding standard and Victory on globe; HERACA in exergue. RIC VIII 107. 8.57g, 28mm, 12h. Near Mint State; flan crack at 1h, a highly attractive example.

500

1101. Jovian AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 363-364. D N IOVIANVS P F P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Roma enthroned facing with right breast exposed, holding spear, and Constantinopolis enthroned to left, holding sceptre, foot on prow, holding between them a shield inscribed VOT V MVLT X in four lines; •SIRM(palm frond) in exergue. RIC VIII 115; C. 12; Depeyrot 25/1 corr. (obv. legend); Biaggi 2226 var. (no pellet in mintmark). 4.47g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State. Rare.

4,000

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 29 October 2020, lot 703.

1102. Jovian AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 363-364. D N IOVIANVS P F P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Roma enthroned facing with right breast exposed, holding spear, and Constantinopolis enthroned to left, holding sceptre, foot on prow, holding between them a shield inscribed VOT V MVLT X in four lines; •SIRM(palm frond) in exergue. RIC VIII 115; C. 12; Depeyrot 25/1 corr. (obv. legend); Biaggi 2226 var. (no pellet in mintmark). 4.49g, 22mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,000

From a private UK collection.

1103. Jovian AV Solidus. Antioch, 27 June AD 363 - 16 February AD 364. D N IOVIANVS PEP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Roma enthroned facing with right breast exposed, holding spear, and Constantinopolis enthroned to left, holding sceptre, foot on prow, holding between them a shield inscribed VOT V MVL X; ANTΓ in exergue. RIC VIII 223; Depeyrot 18/2. 4.47g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,000

From a private UK collection.

421


1104. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum with cross and Victory on globe; cross in left field, *ANTI* in exergue. RIC IX 2a, xxxviii.10; Depeyrot 20/1. 4.54g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

750

From a private UK collection.

1105. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum and Victory on globe; SMTES in exergue. RIC IX 2a; Depeyrot 24/1. 4.45g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; minor graffito in obv. field.

500

From a private UK collection.

Ex Comte H. de Lestrange Collection, 1905

1106. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Siscia mint, January AD 365. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, consular bust to left, wearing pearl-diadem and imperial mantle, holding mappa in right hand and sceptre in left / SALVS REIP, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum in right hand and Victory on globe in left, with foot on bound captive kneeling left with head to right; star in right field, SMSISC(palm) in exergue. RIC IX 1a; Depeyrot 27/1; Biaggi -. 4.38g, 22mm, 12h. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5 - 3/5, scuff, brushed (#6158066-012). Very Rare.

7,500

From the GK Collection; Ex Maison Palombo, Auction 17, 20 October 2018, lot 114 (hammer: CHF 11,000); Ex Pepe Fernandez Molina (Imagines Imperatorvm) Collection, Áureo & Calicó, Auction 241, 8 February 2012, lot 365 (hammer: EUR 11,000); Ex S. Bourgey, 4-5 June 1991, lot 309; Ex Comte H. de Lestrange (1853-1926) Collection, R. Serrure (Paris), 29-31 May 1905, lot 586.

422


1107. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 365. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum with cross and Victory on globe; ANTI* in exergue. RIC IX 2a, xxx.6; Depeyrot 22/1. 4.47g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous.

750

From a private UK collection.

1108. Valens AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 364. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum with christogram and Victory on globe; SMNI in exergue. RIC IX 2d; Depeyrot 10/2. 4.46g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State; scattered marks, slight die shift to obv.

750

From a private UK collection.

1109. Valens AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 364-367. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed consular bust to left, draped in imperial mantle, holding mappa and sceptre / SALVS REIP, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, spurning kneeling captive; * in right field, SMTES in exergue. RIC IX 3b.1; Depeyrot 30/2. 4.46g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

From a private UK collection.

Apparently Unpublished Mintmark

1110. Valens AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 364. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum with christogram and Victory on globe; •CONSP* in exergue. RIC IX 3c var. (mintmark); Depeyrot 11/3 var. (same). 4.50g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished with this mintmark.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

423


1111. Valens AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 364. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum with christogram and Victory on globe; CONSP* in exergue. RIC IX 3c var. (obverse legend arrangement); Depeyrot 11/3 var. (same). 4.39g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

From a private UK collection. Depeyrot notes an example with this legend arrangement but as an imitative copy. The style and fabric of this coin however convinces this cataloguer that it is a regular issue.

Valens and Valentinian

1112. Valens AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 364. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the two emperors Valens and Valentinian standing facing, heads turned towards each other, holding spear each and between them Victory on globe crowning them; CONSP in exergue. RIC IX 5b.1; C. 75; Biaggi 2265 var. (mint mark); Depeyrot 10/4. 4.44g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

From a private UK collection.

1113. Valens AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 366. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum with cross and Victory on globe; •CONS(palm) in exergue. RIC IX 3d; Depeyrot 16/2. 4.48g, 22mm, 6h. Mint State. Very Rare.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

424


1114. Valens AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 367. D N VALENS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum with cross and Victory on globe; *CONS(wreath) in exergue. RIC IX 25b; Depeyrot 21/2. 4.48g, 22mm, 6h. Mint State.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

1115. Valens AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 368. D N VALENS P F AVG, consular bust to left, wearing pearl-diadem and imperial mantle, holding mappa in right hand and sceptre in left / VOTA PVBLICA, Valens and Valentinian seated facing, both nimbate, holding a mappa in raised right hand, and sceptre in left; bound captive to left and right, *CONS(wreath) in exergue. RIC IX 29(b); Depeyrot 22/2. 4.48g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous. Very Rare.

2,000

From a private UK collection.

1116. Valens AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 372. D N VALENS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, Valentinian and Valens enthroned facing, holding globe between them; above, Victory facing with wings spread, palm between; TR•OB• in exergue. RIC IX 17d corr. (mintmark); Depeyrot 42/2. 4.48g, 22mm, 12h. Mint State.

2,500

Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XX, 30 October 2020, lot 705; Ex Pierre Bastien Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Auction 114, 6 May 2019, lot 922; Privately purchased from Jean Vinchon Numismatique in 1966.

425


Usurper Against Valentinian and Valens

1117. Procopius AV Solidus. Constantinople, September-December AD 365. D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / REPARATIO FEL TEMP, emperor, in military dress, standing facing, head to right, holding spear in right hand and resting left hand on shield set on ground; CONS in exergue. RIC IX 2a.1; Depeyrot 14/4; Biaggi 2271 (same dies); Kent & Hirmer 699. 4.52g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Very Rare; an exceptional example.

40,000

During the fourth century there was only one major usurper in the east: Procopius, a maternal cousin of Emperor Julian, who rebelled against Valentinian and Valens at the beginning of their reign in September 365. When Julian was proclaimed emperor, Procopius became a comes in his retinue and in 363 was placed in command of 30,000 soldiers. He was ordered to join forces with the allied king of Armenia, Arsaces, and to then meet with Julian in Mesopotamia to assist in his campaign against the Sasanian Empire. However, by the time Procopius reached Thilsaphata in the south of Mesopotamia, Julian was dead and his general Jovian was emperor. According to Zosimus (Historia Nova 4.4.1-3), prior to this Julian had entrusted an imperial robe to Procopius. When Jovian became emperor, Procopius quickly handed the robe over, requesting that he be allowed to retire from his military command and live with his family on his private estates. His request was granted and Procopius moved to Cappadocia in Caesaraea. In contrast to this, Ammianus’ account (26.6.2) does not include the earlier discussion of succession but reports that following Julian’s death Procopius became aware of a rumour that Julian had ordered Procopius to assume the purple with his dying breath, making him a threat to the new emperor Jovian. Driven by fear of Jovian following the latter’s execution of another potential rival, Jovianus, Procopius removed himself and his family to Cappadocia where he lived in hiding, awaiting his chance to seize the purple. Following the abrupt death of Jovian a few months later, Valentinian and his brother Valens became emperors in the West and East respectively. The ancient sources agree that it was at the point when Valens departed from Constantinople for Syria that Procopius moved to set himself up as emperor. Ammianus tells us that “Procopius, worn out by long-continued troubles, and thinking that even a cruel death would be more merciful than the evils by which he was tormented...tempt[ed] the legions of Divitenses and the Younger Tungricani” (26.6.12) and was able to bribe them into proclaiming him emperor. We are told that he attempted to garner further support through linking himself to the emperor Constantius II, whose widow and daughter were present when Procopius received the insignia of the imperial rites. In an attempt to secure support in Illyricum, Procopius sent men with gold coins bearing the image of the new ‘princeps’, however, these efforts proved to be inadequate. While the revolt was seemingly easy to begin, it was impossible to maintain and Procopius’ support faded while Valens was able to group together his forces and crush Procopius in a battle at Nacolea in May 366. Ammianus tells us that the usurper was beheaded on the spot (26.9.9), however a more gruesome account is recorded by Socrates (Hist. eccl. 4.5), Sozomenus (Hist. eccl. 6.8) and Theophanes (AM 5859), who say that two trees were bent and Procopius tied to them so that when they were released they ripped him apart. The exceptional portrait on this coin depicts Procopius with a close beard, which has been interpreted as a symbol of pagan sympathies, assuming that Procopius followed the sentiments held by his cousin Julian. Since Procopius’ numismatic evidence makes use of Christian imagery (some of his coins displayed the Chi Rho monogram - cf. RIC 7 of Heraclea and RIC 10 of Nicomedia), we cannot say with any certainty whether Procopius was himself a Christian or not. An alternative interpretation is that the beard is a display of mourning following the death of his cousin.

426


427


Seemingly Unique

1118. Gratian AV Imitative Solidus. Uncertain mint copying Treveri, AD 367-383. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORES AVGVSTI, two emperors seated facing, holding globe together and crowned by Victory flying to left above; palm-branch in ground between, TROB• in exergue. For obverse, see RIC IX 13c; for reverse of Valens and Valentinian see RIC IX 16d. 4.05g, 21mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; scattered marks. A seemingly unique contemporary imitation of somewhat ‘barbaric’ style.

1,500

From a private UK collection.

1119. Gratian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 367. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PRINCIPIVM IVVENTVTIS, emperor, nimbate, standing facing, head to right, holding transverse spear and globe; *CONS(wreath) in exergue. RIC IX 24; Depeyrot 21/3. 4.42g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; some surface hairlines.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

1120. Gratian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 367. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PRINCIPIVM IVVENTVTIS, emperor, nimbate, standing facing, head to right, holding transverse spear and globe; *CONS(wreath) in exergue. RIC IX 24; Depeyrot 21/3. 4.41g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

1121. Gratian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 367. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PRINCIPIVM IVVENTVTIS, emperor, nimbate, standing facing, head to right, holding transverse spear and globe; *CONS(wreath) in exergue. RIC IX 24; Depeyrot 21/3. 4.51g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

428


1122. Gratian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 367. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / PRINCIPIVM IVVENTVTIS, emperor, nimbate, standing facing, head to right, holding transverse spear and globe; *CONS(wreath) in exergue. RIC IX 24; Depeyrot 21/3. 4.48g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

1123. Gratian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 371. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory seated to right on cuirass, shield behind, VOT X MVLT XX inscribed in four lines on shield; christogram in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC IX 28b; Depeyrot 28/5. 4.41g, 22mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; minor scrapes to surface. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

1124. Gratian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 382-383. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / CONCORDIA AVGGG S, Constantinople, helmeted, seated facing, head to right, on throne ornamented with lions’ heads, holding sceptre and globe, right foot on prow; CONOB in exergue. RIC IX 45a; Depeyrot 33/1. 4.44g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

1125. Theodosius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 382-383. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / CONCORDIA AVGGG Є, Constantinople, helmeted, seated facing, head to right, on throne ornamented with lions’ heads, holding sceptre and globe, right foot on prow; CONOB in exergue. RIC IX 45d; Depeyrot 33/3. 4.47g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

From a private UK collection.

429


A Wonderful Example

1126. Magnus Maximus AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding labarum with christogram and Victory on globe; star in left field, SMTR in exergue. RIC IX 76.2; Depeyrot 50/1 corr. (location of star). 4.45g, 21mm, 12h. Near Mint State; hairlines on rev. field. Very Rare; a wonderful example of the type.

10,000

Ex Morton & Eden Ltd, Auction 108, 22 October 2020, lot 241.

1127. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 378-383. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / CONCORDIA AVGGGG I, Constantinople, helmeted, seated facing, head to right, on throne ornamented with lions’ heads, holding sceptre and globe, right foot on prow; CONOB in exergue. RIC IX 46f var. (unlisted officina); Depeyrot 38/6 var. (same). 4.49g, 21mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From a private UK collection.

1128. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 388-392. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / CONCORDIA AVGGG Δ, Constantinopolis seated facing, head to right, foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield inscribed VOT X MVLT XV in four lines; CONOB in exergue. RIC X 71d2; Depeyrot 47/2. 4.49g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

430


Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection, Sotheby’s 1991

1129. Honorius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 397-402. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust facing slightly to right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman motif / CONCORDIA AVGG Γ, Constantinopolis seated facing, head to right and with foot on prow, holding sceptre and Victory on globe; star in left field, CONOB in exergue. RIC X 8; Depeyrot 55/2. 4.48g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 94, 18 September 2013, lot 1238 (hammer: $3,500); Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection, Sotheby’s, 19 June 1991, lot 998.

3x

3x

1130. Honorius AR Half Siliqua. Ravenna, AD 402-406. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing to left, holding wreath and palm; RV in exergue. RIC X 1346; RSC 35b. 0.98g, 14mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

300

1131. Honorius AV Solidus. Rome, AD 407-408. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing to right, holding standard and Victory on globe, stepping on captive to right; R-M across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 1252; C. 44; Depeyrot 34/2. 4.33g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

750

From a private European collection.

431


The Only Example in Private Hands

1132. Priscus Attalus AR ‘24 Siliquae’. Rome, AD 409-410. PRISCVS ATTALVS P F AVG, draped and cuirassed bust to right, wearing diadem with row of jewels between double row of pearls / INVICTA ROMA AETERNA, Roma seated facing on throne ornamented with two lion’s heads; she is helmeted and wears a necklace, armlet and bracelets, and is robed in a tunic which leaves her right breast bare, and a peplum, one end of which hangs over her left arm and is fastened to a fibula; in her right hand she holds a globe surmounted by Victory to right bearing wreath and palm, and with her left, a reversed spear; RMPS in exergue. RIC X 1408; Gnecchi I, p. 83, 1-2 pl. 37, 6-7; Toynbee p. 174 note 77, pl. 49, 2; H. Grueber, Roman Medallions in the British Museum 1874, p. 101, pl. 66 (77.98g); Cohen VIII, p. 205, 5-6. 64.05g, 51mm, 5h. Mint State; surfaces somewhat corroded. Of the greatest rarity: one of four recorded examples, and the only one in private hands, with the others being in the Berlin Staatliche Münzsammlung, the British Museum and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris. 50,000 Ex Italo Vecchi Ltd - Bonhams, Auction 5, 19 March 1981, lot 457; Reportedly found in Rome (date uncertain) stopping up one end of a lead pipe filled with solidi, most likely secreted around the time of the sack of the city. The intended weight of these massive coins is calculated from the few known examples which indicate that they were struck to the equivalent of a quarter of a Roman pound - theoretically about 80 grams. The metrology of this coinage is unique and seems to reflect 24 so-called ‘siliquae’, equivalent to 1/24 of a solidus each as fixed by the law of 397 and later mentioned in a law of the year 428 (Cod. Theod. xii.4.1, and xiii.2; Nov. Majoriani, vii.6). The actual Roman name for this silver unit of what should by law have been about 2.7 grams is unknown. It must be remembered that term ‘siliqua’ was officially applied to 1/144 of the Roman pound, the lowest weight of the Roman metrological scale, equivalent to 0.19 grams, for which there is no known coin in silver or gold. The contemporary ratio of gold to silver in the 5th century was 1:18 which renders this gigantic silver denomination the equivalent of one gold solidus. The reason for their issue is probably as an accession donative where 20 pieces would have constituted the customary four solidi and a pound of silver, a supplement to the solidi struck with the same types and legends. These particularly heavy silver coins are the largest silver issues in Roman coinage, excluding a unique medallion of Valentinian which is very unlikely to have served any monetary function. Priscus Attalus was a Romano-Greek from Asia of noble descent whose father had moved to Italy under Valentinian I. He became an important senator in Rome, serving as praefectus urbi at the time of the Visigothic king Alaric’s second siege in 409. Angered by the western emperor Honorius’ lack of concessions, Alaric pressured the senate of Rome by threatening to destroy the granaries at Ostia. Faced with starvation, the Senate was forced to cooperate with the Visigoths by electing one of their own members to be raised to Augustus as a rival for Honorius, whose court was based in Ravenna. In so doing, Alaric hoped to bring Honorius to negotiations. Attalus wa