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ROMA NUMISMATICS LIMITED

Auction XIII 23 MARCH 2017 Roma Numismatics Limited 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London W1T 6EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 7121 6518 www.romanumismatics.com email: info@romanumismatics.com

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Auction XIII

23 MARCH

10:00

Greek Coins

13:30 Roman, Migration Period, Byzantine and World Coins 18:00 Coins of Carausius, Allectus, and the mint of London

Location The alto Room The Cavendish Hotel London 81 Jermyn Street London SW1Y 6JF United Kingdom

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Viewing At the office of Roma Numismatics: 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London W1T 6EJ United Kingdom From February 23rd - March 22nd Monday – Friday, 09:30 – 17:30

lots will not be available for viewing during the sale

Lot pickup will be available from 10:00am on Friday 24th March

Roma Numismatics Limited Richard Beale – Director Alexander Morley-Smith Leslee Arlington Garfield Simon Parkin

Special Thanks to Italo Vecchi Deniz Grotjohann Salem Alshdaifat Fenella Theis UNUS PRO OMNIBUS, OMNES PRO UNO

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ABSENTEE BIDDING If you are unable to attend the auction in person, you may submit an absentee bid that will be executed on your behalf by Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics will attempt to obtain the lot for you at the lowest possible price, and will not purchase the lot for you at a price higher than the maximum you specify. This service is free and confidential. Absentee bids must be sent and received in good time. To place absentee bids please submit your list of lots, together with your maximum bids, either by email or post using the form provided, or online at www.RomaNumismatics.com. You may also participate live online during the sale at www. RomaNumismatics.com/live-bidding

email or postal bids The customer is responsible for submitting these in good time and confirming that the bids have been received. Please note we no longer accept bids by fax.

Telephone bids Bids may be placed by telephone as the auction is in progress, but are accepted only at the discretion of Roma Numismatics and at the risk of the customer. Roma Numismatics will not be held responsible for any failure to execute bids by telephone during the auction resulting from technical issues, miscommunication or any other reason. Any client wishing to bid by telephone should inform Roma Numismatics no later than 72 hours before the auction, and should have a prepared list of all the lots they wish to bid on.

Internet Bidding

BID ONLINE PRIOR TO THE AUCTION, SEE BIDS UPDATED IN REAL-TIME ON THE ROMA SITE. Internet bids may be submitted prior to the auction at www.RomaNumismatics.com - these bids will be automatically executed on the website. These bids will then be carried over into the live auction and executed by the auctioneer on the day. BID ONLINE DURING THE AUCTION, HEAR THE AUCTION LIVE ON YOUR COMPUTER. Real-time bids may be placed at www.the-saleroom.com on the day of the sale. These bids will be executed live on the floor. A 3% surcharge will apply to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. This charge is made through the-saleroom. com and is not connected with Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. It is advisable to register as early as possible for this service, since all internet bidders must be manually approved by the auctioneer.

Successful Bids Successful bidders will be notified and invoiced within a few days of the auction. Prices realised will be published around the same time.

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ROMA NUMISMATICS AUCTION XIII MAIL BID FORM First Name:

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Conditions of Sale The following terms and conditions will apply to this auction:

I.

All estimates are in POUNDS STERLING. The opening bids will be 80% of the estimate unless there are existing higher bids. There will be a 19% Buyer’s Fee added to the hammer price. II. VAT at 20% (applicable to customers within the UK and EU) is due on the Buyer’s Fee only, not the hammer price. III. The auctioneer guarantees the absolute authenticity of any and all coins sold. There is no expiration to this guarantee. Any coins subsequently found to be not authentic will be exchanged for a full refund of the purchase price. IV. Absentee bids must be submitted and received by 20:00 on the day before the auction at the latest. It is the bidder’s responsibility to ensure that bids have been received by Roma Numismatics. V. All grades and descriptions are the opinion of the cataloguer. Conditions of all lots are as per the photographs displayed on the Roma Numismatics website; condition reports are available upon request. It is not possible to note all marks or defects, and thus customers are encouraged to carefully examine in person all lots that they are interested in bidding on. Bids, once placed, are final and will not be rescinded. If, however, the description is found to be incorrect, the item is returnable within 21 days after the sale. No other returns will be accepted except on the grounds of non-authenticity. All prospective bidders who exercise the opportunity to examine lots in hand shall assume all responsibility for any damage they cause in so doing. The auctioneer shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by the prospective bidder. VI. The auctioneer will have absolute discretion to accept or decline any bid, withdraw lots from sale at any time until such point as the purchaser takes physical possession, re-open any lot, even after the hammer has fallen, in which a bidding error has occurred, and to determine in the event of a dispute, the final winner of a lot or to rescind the sale and put the lot up for sale again. VII. For the protection of mail or absentee bidders, no ‘unlimited’ or ‘buy’ bids will be accepted. When identical bids are received for the same lot, preference will be given to the bid received first. A mail bid will take preference over a floor bid. VIII. Some lots may carry a reserve. The auctioneer reserves the right not to sell an item below the confidential price, or will repurchase the item on behalf of the consignor or for the account of Roma Numismatics Ltd. If a reserve exists the auctioneer reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of the consignor up to the amount of the reserve against any floor or mail bidders. The auctioneer also reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of Roma Numismatics Ltd. IX. Title remains with the owner until such time as the customer has paid in full. X. Invoices are due immediately upon receipt. Roma Numismatics Ltd. reserves the right to charge interest on unpaid invoices at the rate of 2% per calendar month, except where prior agreement has been made with regards to payment arrangements. XI. A 3.5% surcharge will be applied to payments made via PayPal or credit/debit card. A £10 surcharge will be applied to payments made by bank transfer from outside of the UK. The customer is responsible for paying all bank charges and shipping and insurance costs. XII. A 3% surcharge will be applied to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. XIII. By making a bid the customer agrees to the above terms and conditions and accepts to be bound by them. These conditions shall take effect and be construed in accordance with the provisions of English Law.

US COIN IMPORT RESTRICTIONS

All coins in this sale that are subject to US import restrictions may be legally imported into the US (unless otherwise explicitly stated), and are accompanied by documentation proving that they were outside of the source country prior to the effective date, or a valid export certificate issued by the country of origin. Any coins subject to US import restrictions that may not lawfully be imported into the United States of America will be clearly indicated as such with the note: ‘not suitable for US market’. Roma Numismatics will make every effort to ensure that US import restrictions affect our clients as little as possible, and will carry out all necessary importations and procedures as required on behalf of the client.

PAYMENT METHODS Invoices to be settled in POUNDS STERLING immediately upon receipt unless previously agreed otherwise. Bank Transfer: Barclays Bank, 22 The Borough, Farnham, GU9 7NH, UK | Account Name: Roma Numismatics IBAN: GB81 BARC 2031 0663 0101 39 | BIC: BARC GB22 | SORT CODE: 20-31-06 | ACC #: 63010139 Cheque (GBP only): Please make payable to Roma Numismatics Limited PayPal (add 3.5%): sales@romanumismatics.com Credit/Debit Card (add 3.5%): contact us directly on +44 (0)20 7121 6518

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COINS OF THE CELTS SPAIN

1. Spain, Bolscan-Osca AR Denarius. Circa 150-100 BC. Bearded male head right; ‘BoN’ in Iberian characters behind / Rider with spear on prancing horse right; ‘BoLSCan’ in Iberian characters below. CNH p. 210, 3; SNG BM Spain 695-704 (Jenkins group I); Álvares Burgos 1911. 4.03g, 18mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned, an exceptionally attractive example.

300

Ex Künker 243, 21 November 2013, lot 4517.

BRITANNIA

2. Britannia, the Durotriges White AV Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. Wreath, cloak and crescents / Disjointed horse left, rectangular head, body of crescents, four vertical legs, three roughly horizontal lines for tail; pellet below; twelve pellets above. ABC 2157; VA 1235-1; BMC 2525-46. 5.80g, 18mm. Mint State, a superb example of the type.

200

From the estate of an English numismatist.

3. Britannia, the Durotriges AR Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. Wreath, cloak and crescents / Disjointed horse left, rectangular head, body of crescents, four vertical legs, three roughly horizontal lines for tail; pellet below; twelve pellets above. ABC 2157; SCBC 366. 4.89g, 18mm. Mint State.

200

From the estate of an English numismatist.

4. Britannia, the Durotriges AR Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. Wreath, cloak and crescents / Disjointed horse left, rectangular head, body of crescents, four vertical legs, three roughly horizontal lines for tail; pellet below; twelve pellets above. ABC 2160; VA 1238; BMC 2662, 2690. 5.95g, 19mm, 2h. Mint State. Rare. From the estate of an English numismatist.

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200


2x 5. Britannia, the Durotriges AV Quarter Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. ‘Three men on a boat’ design; pellet rosette to left / Zigzag thunderbolt across field; Y shape to each side, uncertain object to right, one quarter filled with roughened surface. Cf. ABC 2205 (different reverse composition); Roma e32, 9 (corr). 1.45g, 11mm. About Mint State. Apparently unpublished variant.

250

From the estate of an English numismatist.

2x 6. Britannia, the Durotriges AV Quarter Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. ‘Three men on a boat’ design; pellet rosette to left / Zigzag thunderbolt across field; Y shape and uncertain objects to each side. VA 1225; BMC 414-418; ABC 2205. 1.44g, 11mm. About Mint State.

200

From the estate of an English numismatist.

2x 7. Britannia, the Durotriges AV Quarter Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. ‘Three men on a boat’ design; pellet rosette to left / Zigzag thunderbolt across field; Y shape and uncertain objects to each side. VA 1225; BMC 414-418; ABC 2205. 1.45g, 11mm. About Mint State.

200

From the estate of an English numismatist.

Very Rare Durotriges Quarter Stater

2x 8. Britannia, the Durotriges AV Quarter Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. ‘Three men on a boat’ design; [pellet rosette to left] / Zigzag thunderbolt across field; pellets-in-crescents and uncertain objects to each side. Cf. ABC 2205 (obv. figures inverted and different reverse design); HJB 199, 1 = Superior May 1990, 6712. 1.36g, 13mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

200

From the estate of an English numismatist.

2x 9. Britannia, the Durotriges AR Quarter Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. ‘Three men on a boat’ design; pellet rosette to left / Zigzag thunderbolt and line of pellets across field; various motifs including rodent-like object, one or more double rings, and one or more ‘clamshell’ motifs to each side. VA 1260; BMC 2748-70; ABC 2214. 0.82g, 14mm. Very Fine. From the estate of an English numismatist.

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50


2x 10. Britannia, the Durotriges AR Quarter Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. ‘Three men on a boat’ design / Zigzag thunderbolt; pellets and rings across field, ‘clamshell’ motifs to each side. Cf. ABC 2217. 0.82g, 14mm. Very Fine. Extremely rare, possibly unique, with non-defaced obverse design.

150

From the estate of an English numismatist.

11. Britannia, the Durotriges AR Quarter Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. Five-armed starfish, lines of pellets between each arm / Zigzag thunderbolt and line of pellets across field; eight-rayed lighting bolts with rectangular body to each side. VA 1270-78; BMC 2780-81; ABC 2220. 1.09g, 13mm. Extremely Fine.

200

From the estate of an English numismatist.

Unpublished Durotriges Quarter Stater

12. Britannia, the Durotriges AV Quarter Stater. 58 BC - AD 43. Five-armed starfish, lines of pellets between each arm / Zigzag thunderbolt and line of pellets across field; eight-rayed lighting bolts with rectangular body to each side. Unpublished in gold, but for type in silver, cf. VA 1270-78; cf. BMC 2780-81; cf. ABC 2220. 0.98g, 12mm. Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished.

300

From the estate of an English numismatist.

13. Britannia, the Belgae AV Stater. Circa 60-20 BC. ‘Chute/Cheriton Transitional’ type. Degraded head of Apollo right / Disjointed horse left; a series of pellets above, crab(?) and patterned groundline below, three parallel lines and eye behind. ABC 752; VA 1210-1. 6.00g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

From the estate of an English numismatist.

14. Britannia, the Dobunni AR Unit. Circa 50-20 BC. Moon head right with sunburst on chin, crescents for hair, various symbols in field / Triple tailed annulate horse left, animal head and radiant sun above, cockerel head below, wheel before, dispersed symbols around. ABC 2012; VA 1020-1; S. 377. 0.99g, 16mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare, and in excellent condition for the type. From the estate of an English numismatist.

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500


2x 15. Britannia, the Dobunni AR Unit. Circa 50-20 BC. Moon head right with sunburst on chin, crescents for hair, various symbols in field / Triple tailed annulate horse left, ‘bird’s head’ above, flower motif below. ABC 2021; VA 1049-1; S. 377. 1.01g, 14mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

100

From the estate of an English numismatist.

16. Britannia, Trinovantes and Catuvellauni AV Stater. Addedomaros, circa 45-25 BC. ‘Spiral’ type. Spiral wreath of six arms extending from three back to back crescents at centre / Horse to right, ring pellets flanking; cornucopiae terminating in bucranium surmounted by three pellets below, [ADDIIDOM above]. ABC 2517; VA 1620-1; S. 201. 5.57g, 17mm. Good Very Fine.

750

GAUL Extremely Rare Osismii(?) AV Quarter Stater

2x 17. Northwest Gaul, the Osismii(?) AV Quarter Stater. Circa 70-50 BC. Celtic head left, with hair in curls; ornaments terminating in smaller, severed heads before and behind / Human-headed horse left; severed head above; below, boar right. D&T -; Depeyrot, NC -; de la Tour -; BN -; de Jersey, Armorica -; Gruel & Morin -; CNG 96, 612. 1.11g, 12mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Apparently only the second known example.

1,000

From the estate of an English numismatist.

18. Central Gaul, the Lemovices AR Quinarius. Circa 100/80-60 BC. Male head left with hair in three large locks / Horse advancing left; sword above, pentagram below. D&T 3437; Depeyrot, NC III 54; CCCBM II –; de la Tour 4097. 1.91g, 15mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent for the issue.

200

From the estate of an English numismatist.

GERMANIA

19. Southern Germania, Vindelici AV Stater. Circa 125-30 BC. Bird’s head to left (beak between two pellets) / Six pellets within torc, some connected with thin lines. Kellner 1962; Lanz Coll. 5; Forrer I, fig. 5. 7.62g, 17mm. Very Fine.

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1,250


CARTHAGINIAN SPAIN

COINS OF THE GREEKS Second Known Example

20. Carthaginian Spain, Barcid Dominion AV Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 229-221 BC. Laureate bust of Nike left, wearing earring and necklace / Horse prancing to right. Villaronga, Las monedas hispano-cartaginese, Barcelona 1973, 64 = Jenkins-Lewis 454 = CNH 20 = ACIP 560 = Hunter collection III, p. 608, 1 ‘Micipsa’ (same dies). 7.53g, 17mm, 11h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently only the second specimen known and the only one in private hands.

10,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 84, 20 May 2015, lot 540. In 237 Hamilcar Barca, after losing the First Punic War against Rome but having won the Mercenary Revolt against the Libyans, turned his attention to Spain and disembarked at Gadir with a Carthaginian army which according to Polybios was to “re-establish Carthaginian authority in Iberia” (Histories, 2.1.6). He proceeded to conquer southern and south-eastern Spain and the mining production of Baetica and the Sierra Morena before dying in battle in 229 at Heliké (Elche?). Hamilcar was succeeded by his son-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair who expanded the new province by skilful diplomacy and consolidated it with the foundation of Akra Leuka (Alicante) and Qart Hadasht (‘New Carthage’, the Latin: Carthago Nova), originally named Mastia, as his capital by 228. After his untimely death at Heliké in 221 he was succeeded by Hannibal, the oldest son of Hamilcar Barca, and his second son Hasdrubal.

ETRURIA

21. Etruria, Populonia Æ Triens. Late 3rd century BC. Head of Menvra right, wearing Corinthian helmet; •••• below / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’, owl facing with wings spread, •••• above. EC I, 133.26; HN Italy 184; Sambon 114. 26.02g, 30mm, 9h. Very Fine. Exceptional for the issue.

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2,500


CAMPANIA

22. Campania, Cales AR Stater. Circa 265-240 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet / Nike in biga galloping to left, holding reins and kentron, CALENO below. SNG ANS 171; HN Italy 434. 6.99g, 23mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

500

23. Campania, Neapolis AR Stater. Circa 275-250 BC. Head of nymph left; behind, heron or stork standing right / Man-headed bull standing right, Nike above flying to right and placing wreath on bull’s head; IΣ below, NEOΠOΛITΩN in exergue. Sambon 507; HN Italy 586. 7.32g, 20mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

500

Beautiful Didrachm of Nuceria Alfaterna

24. Campania, Nuceria Alfaterna AR Didrachm. Circa 250-225 BC. Head of Apollo Karneios left with horn of Ammon; Oscan legend ‘nuvkrinum alafaternum’ around / Dioskouros standing facing beside his horse, head turned to left, holding the reins and a thyrsos. HN Italy 608; SNG ANS 560; SNG Copenhagen 566; SNG München 388; Sambon 1008. 7.14g, 22mm, 5h. Very Fine. Attractive, lustrous metal. Rare.

1,500

Around the end of the seventh century BC, inhabitants of the Sarno Valley founded a new city in a strategic location between the gulfs of Naples and Salerno. Created from the synoecism (union) of several scattered villages, the new city was named Nuvkrinum (literally ‘new fortress’), and was situated astride the obligatory route between the aforementioned coastal areas, guarding a fertile valley. The city thus became one of the twelve most important centres of Etruscan colonisation in Campania created to stop the northward expansion of the Greeks. After the defeat of the Etruscan navy at the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC the Etruscans abandoned the region, and the city came into the possession of the Samnites who renamed it Nuvkrinvm Alfaternum, after the Samnite Alfaterni tribe. Hostile to the Romans during the Second Samnite War, in 308 BC it repulsed a Roman attempt to land at the mouth of the Sarnus, but in 307 BC it was besieged and surrendered. In defeat it became an ally of Rome and remained loyal during the war against Hannibal, for which loyalty it suffered greatly, being razed to the ground. The present coin dates to a period of prosperity between the two wars, and represents the only silver issue of this city.

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One of the Finest and Most Beautiful Known

25. Campania, Suessa Aurunca AR Didrachm. Circa 265-240 BC. Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath, hair long and flowing; bow behind / Dioskouros, wearing a pilos and holding a palm-branch tied with a fillet, riding to left with a second horse beside him; SVESANO in exergue. SNG ANS 594-7 var.; Sambon -; SNG France -; HN Italy 447. 7.12g, 23mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. One of the finest known coins of Suessa, and struck from an obverse die that is superior in both style and technical accomplishment to any other produced at this city. Very Rare. 10,000 From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 5; Ex Prospero Collection, New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 11. Aurunca, the ancient capital of the Aurunci, was originally located on the edge of the extinct crater of Roccamonfina, and dated back to at least the 8th century BC. On that site today there remain ruined walls of cyclopean masonry, which may have formed the fortified core of the city, or a defensive fort for the protection of the population. The Aurunci came into conflict with Rome as early as 503 BC, but following their defeat in the Latin War, were subject to Roman dominion. An apparently unmotivated attack by the Sidinici in 337 caused the Aurunci to abandon their towns in Campania in favour of the new site of Suessa, which they renamed Aurunca. In 313 the Romans made a colony of the city, renaming it to Suessa Aurunca. On account of its favourable position between the Via Appia and the Via Latina, it became a centre of industry and commerce, retaining the right of coinage.

LUCANIA

26. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 540-510 BC. Ear of barley with seven grains; ME-TA around / Incuse ear of barley with seven grains. Noe 88; HN Italy 1459. 8.13g, 30mm, 12h. Very Fine.

400

From a private American Collection.

27. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 540-510 BC. Ear of barley with eight grains; MET downwards to left / Incuse ear of barley with eight grains. Noe 14 (these dies); SNG ANS 166 (these dies); HN Italy 1459. 8.17g, 27mm, 12h. Very Fine. Attractive old tone. Privately purchased from Roma Numismatics Ltd, March 2009.

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400


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Paragon of the Incuse Coinage of Metapontion

28. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 510 BC. Ear of barley with eight grains, META downwards to left, grasshopper to right; raised and braided dotted border around / Incuse ear of barley, dolphin upwards to left in linear relief. Noe 104; HN Italy 1472. 8.05g, 27mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Extremely Rare. An issue of great fascination, and the finest known example of the type. Perfectly preserved, a magnificent paragon of the incuse coinage of Metapontion. 30,000 From the Louvière Collection, Belgium, privately purchased c.1970s. The most desirable of all the incuse types of Metapontion, this remarkable and brief series comprising only four known obverse dies for the staters and one for a third stater marks the first usage of adjunct symbols on the coinage of Metapontion. A series of great fascination, the meaning of the grasshopper and the dolphin has been a subject of debate for many years. Noe advocated the symbols as representing the badges of the moneyers’ houses, an argument not dissimilar to that which led the early archaic Athenian coins to be called ‘wappenmünzen’. Lenormant’s view that the insect has a propitiatory significance is rejected with the derisory rhetorical question ‘there may have been a plague of locusts but could there have been a plague of dolphins?’, while avoiding trying to explain its significance. Babelon (Traité, 1395-1396) proposed a punning reference to the hero Alybas, father of Metabos and legendary founder of the city, however the Greek word he proposes to mean locust is incorrect and the argument founders, still failing to explain the dolphin. It is most logical to follow Lenormant and view the appearance of the grasshopper-locust on the coins as being a propitiatory emblem or commemorating the deliverance of the city from a plague of locusts through the intervention of Apollo. Indeed, the god is closely associated with afflictions (and the relief of), and had as one of his epithets ‘Parnopios’, from πάρνοψ, “locust” – the expeller of locusts. Given that the dolphin was both a form he had taken and one of his sacred animals, as well as being a punning allusion to him as Apollo Delphinios, it seems eminently reasonable to determine the link between the two symbols as being in reference to a plague of locusts whose abatement was attributed to the intervention of Apollo. That the grasshopper-locust symbol recurs several times more throughout the extensive coinage of Metapontion and at appreciable intervals is hardly suggestive of descendants of a particular family holding office, as Noe suggested, but rather more likely indicative of recurrent swarms threatening the principle source of the city’s wealth and food.

29. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC. Head of Athena Tharragoras right, wearing Corinthian helmet; Σ behind / Ear of barley with stalk and leaf to right upon which, trophy; Π below, META to left. Johnston A 7.13 (obverse) – A 7.15 (reverse); HN Italy 1567. 7.85g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare (only one example recorded by Johnston), particularly so in this condition, and an apparently unrecorded die coupling. 6,000 Ex Dr. Roland Maly Collection, LHS 100, 23 April 2007, lot 115. The obverse portrait of this coin is traditionally identified as the unknown hero Tharragoras, following the attribution by Imhoof-Blumer. In studying the available specimens of the type (of which there were then five), he noted two with visible legends, one reading ‘ΘAPPAΓOPAΣ’, which he illustrated in his ‘Monnaies grecques’ (pl. A,2). Noting also that the portrait on this coin was ‘slightly bearded’, Imhoof-Blumer concluded that it therefore was not Athena, but rather an unknown hero whose name was given on the coin, and who must have been a companion or relation of Leukippos, given the contemporary nature of the two issues and the importance of the Leukippos type. That the name Tharragoras is nowhere else attested, either in literature, sculpture or on other coins, makes Imhoof-Blumer’s identification of this portrait as an unknown hero by that name very difficult to support indeed. The companion issue (Johnston A6.11 = HN Italy 1561) allows us to positively identify the portrait as that of Athena, on account of the long feminine eyelashes that would certainly be out of place on a male hero.

9


10


One of The Very Finest Known

30.

Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠOΣ behind / Incuse of obverse, but with ΠOΣ in relief. HN Italy 1107; Gillet photo file 207 (same dies); SNG Locker Lampson 25; NAC 64, 639 = NAC 78, 1352 (same dies). 7.53g, 30mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Very Rare. In truly exceptional state of preservation, displaying perfect metal and a wonderful level of detail. Engraved in finest archaic style; a bold, monumental type. One of the very finest of all the known incuse Poseidonia staters. 30,000 From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s. Little is known of Poseidonia from its foundation at around the end of the Seventh Century BC by colonists from Sybaris other than that information which can be gleaned from archaeological study of the city and its remaining artefacts. The literary tradition offers only a terminus ante quem for the foundation, circa 530, provided by Herodotos who refers to the city as in existence when Hyele was founded c.540-535. The archaeological evidence suggests a foundation date of c.600 (E. Greco; Poseidonia ii. 73 n. 7). Evidence from votive figurines and the city’s architecture suggest close trade relations with Metapontion during the sixth and fifth centuries, but the relationship with its mother city appears not to be have been particularly strong, since its coins are struck on the Campanian-Phokaian standard rather than the Italic-Achaian standard in use at Sybaris. Nonetheless, Poseidonia accepted refugees from Sybaris after their city was destroyed by Kroton in 510, evidenced by the fact that in the early fifth century Poseidonia’s coins adopted the Achaian weight standard and the bull seen on Sybarite coins. A. J. Graham (Colony and Mother City in Ancient Greece, 1999) thinks it was plausible that the number of refugees was large enough for some kind of synoecism to have occurred between the Poseidonians and the Sybarites, possibly in the form of a sympolity. Poseidonia’s relationship to the Sybarites then remained strong enough that in 453 Sybaris was refounded with the apparent blessing and sponsorship of Poseidonia. The city does not make further appearance in the classical sources until the late fifth century, when according to Strabo it was conquered by the Lucani. Although Aristoxenos would have us believe that the Greek identity of the city was effaced and that the Poseidoniatai were completely barbarianised, a sizeable Greek population must have remained despite the conquest, as the archaeological record shows both Greek and Oscan culture continuing to thrive alongside one another. Despite no single temple having been definitively identified as pertaining to Poseidon, the cult of this god must have played an important role in the city, as evidenced both by its name and by the principle type of its coinage, of which the present piece is a magnificent example. The outstanding quality of the engraving is noteworthy; we are presented with two well-proportioned and finely detailed images of what must surely have been a statue, which many scholars have with good reason assumed that this figure was inspired by, such is the consistency with which it is depicted (though minor variations of detail, including the beard, do occur) and the monumental quality it possesses. Indeed, the figure bears much similarity to the Artemision Bronze in compositional style; proponents of the argument that the Artemision Bronze is Poseidon (rather than Zeus) cite the coinage of Poseidonia in their favour.

11


31. Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠOΣ behind / Incuse of obverse, but with ΠOΣ in relief. HN Italy 1107; SNG Lloyd 428; New York Sale XXVII, 81 (same dies). 7.18g, 30mm, 12h. Very Fine.

3,000

From a private American collection.

Beautiful Late Period Poseidonia Stater

32. Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 445-420 BC. Poseidon advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠOMEΣ before / Bull standing left, ΠOMEΣ (retrograde) above. HN Italy 1114; SNG ANS 657. 8.07g, 18mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone with iridescent flashes.

4,000

Ex NGSA 7, 27 November 2012, lot 129; Ex Swiss private collection, acquired in April 1977. As a Lucanian city, Poseidonia sided with Pyrrhos of Epeiros when he landed in Italy, and upon the latter’s withdrawal the Lucani suffered severe reprisals from Rome throughout a ten year punitive campaign. When Hannibal invaded Italy it was unsurprising then that most of the Lucani sided with the Carthaginians. Poseidonia however, having become a Roman city in 273 BC, remained faithful to Rome’s cause and was granted civic honours as a result, including the right to mint its own coins once more.

33. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.26g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone.

1,500

From a private German Collection. Sybaris was founded in 720 BC by Achaean and Troezenian settlers. The city amassed great wealth thanks to its fertile land and busy port. Its inhabitants became famous among the Greeks for their hedonism, feasts, and excesses, to the extent that ‘sybarite’ and ‘sybaritic’ have become bywords for opulent luxury and outrageous pleasure-seeking. In 510/09 BC the city was conquered by its neighbor Kroton and its population driven out. Though many survivors fled to the Sybarite colonies of Laos and Skidros, some appear to have remained on the site which passed into Krotoniate dependency, as indicated by incuse coins bearing the joint ethnics of both Kroton and Sybaris and confirmed by a report that the Krotoniates appointed a governor at Sybaris.

12


34. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.88g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

35. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.03g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,250

From a private Swiss collection.

36. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.20g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

Privately purchased from Roma Numismatics Ltd, December 2009.

37. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.96g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

13

1,000


38. Lucania, Sybaris AR Drachm. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. SNG ANS 847-53; HN Italy 1736. 2.69g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Well centred on a broad flan; sound metal and lightly toned.

1,000

From a private English collection.

39. Lucania, Sybaris AR Drachm. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. SNG ANS 847-53; HN Italy 1736. 2.69g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine.

500

2x 40. Lucania, Sybaris AR Obol. Circa 550-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right / Large M V; four pellets around. SNG ANS 854 var. (VM in exergue on obv.); HN Italy 1739 var. (same). 0.24g, 10mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

150

2x 41. Lucania, Sybaris AR Obol. Circa 550-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right / Large M V; four pellets around. SNG ANS 854 var. (VM in exergue on obv.); HN Italy 1739 var. (same). 0.35g, 10mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Unusually good metal, and heavy weight. Very Rare.

150

2x 42. Lucania, Sybaris AR Obol. Circa 550-510 BC. Bull standing left, head reverted, [VM] in exergue / Large M V; two pellets around. HN Italy 1739; SNG ANS 854. Head p84, Hunter - ; BMC 10; SG 248. 0.17g, 10mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

100

Extremely Rare Obol of Sybaris

2x 43. Lucania, Sybaris AR Obol. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right / Incuse of obverse. Roma e31, 10; cf. NAC 25, 32 for similar incuse type. 0.14g, 10mm, 12h. Very Fine. Some cleaning marks. Lightly toned. Extremely Rare.

14

100


2x 44. Lucania, Sybaris AR Obol. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right / Incuse of obverse. Roma e31, 10; cf. NAC 25, 32 for similar incuse type. 0.20g, 11mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

150

Second Known

2x 45. Lucania, Sybaris AR Obol. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head reverted; VM in exergue / Ram’s head right. HN Italy -; Demeester 11 = NAC 82, 75 (CHF 2800). 0.29g, 11mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Apparently only the second known example.

1,000

From the estate of an English numismatist.

46. Lucania, Thourioi AR Stater. Circa 400-350 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla / Bull charging right, ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ above, IP below, fish to right in exergue. SNG ANS 1042 (same dies); SNG München 1096 var. 7.72g, 22mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 199, 10 October 2011, lot 45.

47. Lucania, Velia AR Nomos. Circa 400-340 BC. T Group. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin; T behind / Lion walking to right; owl facing above, T on exergual line; YEΛHTΩN in exergue. Williams 231-233 (same obverse die); HN Italy 1280; SNG ANS 1284-1285. 7.39g, 21mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

CALABRIA

48. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 400-390 BC. Nude rider on horse standing to right, holding reins with his left hand and crowning his horse with his right; Λ below / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding akrostolion in his right hand; TAPAΣ (partially retrograde) to right. Vlasto 356. 7.80g, 23mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, none on CoinArchives.

15

750


Ex Comte Chandon de Briailles Collection.

49. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 390-385 BC. Nude warrior on horseback left, holding reins in right hand, small round shield on left arm; A below / Taras astride dolphin left; P and ΤΑΡΑΣ below. Vlasto 379; SNG ANS 900 (but with A on obv. and P on rev. intact). 7.84g, 21mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine. A stunning and statuesque obverse from one of the briefest but most beautiful series in Tarentine coinage. Deep, attractive old cabinet tone. Extremely Rare. 8,000 From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 23; Ex Comte Chandon De Briailles Collection; Bourgey, 17 June 1959, lot 15. Tarentum, the only Spartan colony ever to be established, was founded in 706 BC by the Partheniae - Spartan children born to unmarried women as a product of Spartan desperation to ensure the survival and continuation of their demographic during the bloody Messenian wars, who were later disowned and expelled by the state - and Perioeci (subjects, but not citizens of Sparta), under the leadership of the Parthenian Phalanthos. According to legend, Phalanthos consulted the oracle at Delphi, and was told that he should found his new city ‘where rain fell from a clear sky’. After much searching, and despairing of finding a suitable location for a city, Phalanthos was consoled by his wife Aethra who laid his head in her lap, and as her tears splashed upon his forehead he understood the oracle’s words for his wife’s name itself meant ‘clear sky’, and thus he determined to make the nearby harbour the site of their new home, which they named after Taras, the son of Poseidon and the nymph Satyrion.

50. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 332-302 BC. Herakl..., magistrate. Nude warrior on horseback right, preparing to cast spear downward with right hand, holding shield and two spears in left hand; HPAKΛ below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding shield and spears in left hand and extending right hand upon which Nike flies right to crown him; ΦΙ below, ΤΑΡΑΣ behind. HN Italy 936; Vlasto 599 (these dies); SNG ANS 994 (these dies). 7.87g, 22mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 490 (then noted as sold with official documentation from the United Kingdom proving that it was outside Italy prior to 19th January 2011).

51. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 281-272 BC. Gu..., Sostratos, and Poly..., magistrates. Nude, helmeted warrior on horseback right, preparing to cast spear downward with right hand, holding shield and two spears in left hand; ΓΥ behind, ΣΩΣΤΡAΤΟΣ below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding Nike and cornucopia; thunderbolt behind, ΠΟΛΥ before, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 714; HN Italy 1001; SNG ANS 1037. 6.48g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone. Ex Northern California Collection.

16

2,000


52. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 280-272 BC. Neyme..., Zo... and Poly..., magistrates. Nude youth on horseback right, crowning horse that raises right foreleg; ZΩ above, NEY MH below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding horned helmet; sunbursts on either side, ΠΟΛΥ above, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 739ff; cf. HN Italy 1006. 6.37g, 23mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

300

53. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 280-272 BC. Eu... and Apollo..., magistrates. Nude youth on horseback right, crowning horse that raises left foreleg; EY above, ΑΠΟΛΛΩ and two amphorae below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding kantharos and cradling long trident; ΘI behind, TAPAΣ below. HN Italy 1010; Vlasto 763; SNG ANS 1119. 6.51g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

1,250

54. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC. Olympis, magistrate. Horseman riding right, brandishing spear; wreath to left, OΛYMΠIΣ below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding kantharos and cornucopiae; tripod to right, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 942; HN Italy 1055. 6.28g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

400

55. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Campano-Tarentine series, circa 275-250 BC. Head of nymph left, wearing head band and triple pendant earring / Nude youth on horseback right, crowning horse that raises left foreleg; TAP above, dolphin above tripod under horse. SNG ANS 1296 (same obverse die); Vlasto 1027; cf. HN Italy 1098. 7.38g, 20mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

400

56. Calabria, Tarentum AR Drachm. Circa 302-280 BC. Zor..., magistrate. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with Skylla hurling a stone / TAP, owl with folded wings standing right, head facing; in right field, ZOP downwards and olive branch. Vlasto 1047; SNG ANS 1303. 3.30g, 16mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned and excellent condition for the type. Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 9; Ex BVH Collection, Heritage 3012, 2 January 2011, lot 24377.

17

1,000


BRUTTIUM

Two Superb Krotoniate Staters

57. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, two serpents at base; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws. Attianese 4; SNG ANS 239-241; HN Italy 2075. 8.17g, 29mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

5,000

From the Louvière Collection, Belgium, privately purchased c.1970s. The importance of the Delphic oracle to the founding of Kroton was celebrated on its coinage from the earliest days. Despite later myths ascribing the founding of Kroton to Herakles, the city’s historical oikist is recorded as Myskellos of Rhypai who, on consulting the Delphic oracle about his lack of children was given the response that Apollo would grant children, but that first Myskellos should found the city of Kroton ‘among fair fields’. After being given directions on how to locate the site, Myskellos travelled to southern Italy to explore the land that he had been assigned, but seeing the territory of the Sybarites and thinking it superior, he returned once more to the oracle to ask whether he would be allowed to change. The answer came back that he should accept the gifts that the god gave him. A further element of the story is that Myskellos was accompanied on his expedition by Archias of Corinth; the Delphic oracle gave the pair the choice between health and wealth. Archias elected wealth, and was assigned the site of Syracuse, while Myskellos chose health: the favourable climate of Kroton, the eminent skill of its physicians and the prowess of its athletes later earned its citizens this reputation for good health.

58. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 227-234; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075. 8.11g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Exceptional for the issue.

5,000

From the estate of an English numismatist.

59. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 227-234; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075. 8.32g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very good metal for the type.

18

1,000


60. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl. SNG Ashmolean 1463; SNG ANS 230; HN Italy 2075. 7.32g, 28mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

2x 61. Bruttium, Kroton AR Hemiobol. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws; QPO to left / Incuse tripod. Unpublished in the standard references, cf. Roma Numismatics XII, 2016, 50 (0.24g); cf. Heidelberger 64, 2014, 37 (0.16g); cf. Gorny & Mosch 204, 2012, 1071 (0.14g). 0.15g, 11mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, perhaps the fifth known example.

125

Very Rare Stater of Medma

62. Bruttium, Medma AR Stater. 330-317 BC. Pegasos flying left / Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet; tiny M below neck. Gorini, Die, Group II, dies O4/R7; Pegasi 1/3 and 1/5 (same dies); HN Italy 2425; SNG ANS 590 = SNG Berry 783 (same dies); SNG Ashmolean 1572 (same dies); SNG Lloyd -; Dewing -; Gillet -; Triton XIX, lot 29 (same dies). 8.65g, 22mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous, with light golden tone. Very Rare.

2,500

Extremely Rare Early Stater of Rhegion

63. Bruttium, Rhegion AR Stater. Circa 485/3-481 BC. Euboic-Chalkidian standard. Facing lion’s head / Head of calf to left with truncation terminating in beaded collar; RECINOS around; all within incuse circle. Cf. Caltabiano 1-13; Attianese, Calabria Graecia 1306; SNG ANS 620; HN Italy 2469. 17.16g, 24mm, 2h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only sixteen specimens noted by Caltabiano, and one of only three examples on CoinArchives.

3,000

In 493 BC the city of Zankle had invited Samian refugees to settle in their territory following the Persian conquest of Samos, but at the behest of the tyrant of Rhegion, Anaxilas, the Samians instead betrayed their hosts and seized the undefended city for themselves. Not content with one betrayal, they proceeded to abandon their alliance with Anaxilas in favour of a treaty with Hippokrates of Gela. In 488 BC however, Anaxilas crossed the strait and drove out the Samians, repopulating the city with colonists from Peloponnesian Messenia, in whose honour he renamed the city Messana. Having thus secured control of both sides of the straits, Anaxilas issued a joint coinage in the name of both Messana and Rhegion utilising the same obverse and reverse types; the one being the first issue of coinage in the name of the refounded city of Messana, the other being the first coinage of Rhegion, excepting an extremely rare incuse type which had been struck some thirty years before.

19


2x 64. Bruttium, Rhegion AR Litra. Circa 415-387 BC. Facing lion’s head / Olive sprig and PH. Herzfelder pl. XI, J; HN Italy 2499. 0.72g, 10mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Ex Berkeley Collection, Classical Numismatic Group e329, 25 June 2014, lot 9.

200

65. Bruttium, Terina AR Stater. Circa 445-425 BC. Head of the nymph Terina left, wearing ampyx and earring, her hair tied up; all within olive wreath / Nike seated to left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand and resting left on stool; [TEPI]NAIΩN above. McClean pl. 62, 3 (same dies); Holloway-Jenkins 18; HN Italy 2576; Regling 18. 7.74g, 22mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica Auction Q, 6 April 2006, lot 1149. Little is known of the history of Terina. The city was probably founded by Kroton around the time of the Krotoniate defeat of Sybaris circa 510 BC. A war with Thourioi is attested a few years after 444/3 BC. In 356 the city was besieged and taken by the Brettians, and it became a Brettian community, surviving the conquest of Alexander the Molossian in 325. Ultimately, Terina was razed by Hannibal in 203 and never rebuilt.

66. Bruttium, Terina AR 1/3 Stater. Circa 325-300 BC. Head of the nymph Terina to right, TEPI behind / Nike, wearing chiton and himation, seated left on square cippus, dove alighting on her extended right hand. Holloway & Jenkins 96; HN Italy 2634; SNG München 1741; cf. SNG ANS 858. 2.33g, 15mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful old tone. Very Rare.

750

Privately purchased from Tom Cederlind, 26 April 2012.

67. Bruttium, Terina AR Drachm. Circa 300 BC. Head of the nymph Terina left, wearing triple-drop earring and pearl necklace; TEPINAIΩN to left, triskeles behind / Nike, wearing chiton and himation, seated left on square cippus, dove alighting on her extended right hand; star to left. SNG Lockett 680 (this reverse die); Holloway & Jenkins 114. 2.46g, 17mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Rare. Beautiful old tone over good metal, with appealing iridescent highlights around the devices.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Dove Collection, Morton & Eden, 9 June 2011, lot 201; Ex Leu 54, 28 April 1992, lot 19; Ex Ars Classica 15, 2 July 1930, lot 262; Ex Berlin Museum Collection, Hirsch 26 (Berlin Duplicates), 1910, lot 358.

NORTH AFRICA

68. Kingdom of Numidia, Juba I AR Denarius. Circa 60-46 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, with sceptre over shoulder; REX IVBA before / Octastyle temple, Punic inscription around. MAA 29; SNG Copenhagen 523. 3.78g, 18mm, 1h. Near Mint State.

20

500


21


22


SICILY The Influence of Greek Artists on Punic Coins

69.

Sicily, Panormos (as Ziz) AR Tetradrachm. Circa 405-380 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron in left hand, reins in both, driving fast quadriga right; Nike flying left above, crowning charioteer with wreath she holds with both hands; hippocamp swimming to right in exergue, Punic ṢYṢ before / Head of nymph left, wearing ampyx, triple-pendant earring and pearl necklace; three dolphins around. Jenkins, Punic 30 (O7/R26); SNG ANS 538 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd 1583 (same dies); Rizzo pl. LXIV, 27. 17.13g, 27mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Well centred and extremely well preserved, with a light grey cabinet tone.

18,750

From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich. The influence of Greek designs on the Punic coinage of Sicily is particularly evident on this coin. Jenkins (Coins of Punic Sicily, SNR 50, 1971) identifies the reverse portrait as being a ‘free adaptation’ of the portrait of Arethusa on Kimon’s dekadrachm. While the portrait lacks the hair net of Kimon’s Arethusa, the triple-drop earring and characteristic curls on the top of the head are emphasised in the design. While Jenkins admits that the result is ‘remote’ from Kimon’s original, the second generation of Kimonian copies (reverse dies 28-29) are much closer reproductions, such that the inspiration for the type is indisputable. The obverse is a copy of the work of ‘Euth...’, who produced a radical, energetic die (Tudeer obv. die 15) at Syracuse, a work whose key elements are reproduced here. As the reverse is a relatively free interpretation of Kimon, so too is the obverse an adaptation of ‘Euth...’; gone are the wings of the charioteer and the Skylla; instead of this symbol of Syracuse we see a hippocamp, perhaps taken from the coinage of either Himera or Messana, and in the place of the artist’s signature on the original is the Punic ethnik ‘Ziz’. Inspired by these types, the artist or artists responsible for this coin have produced immensely beautiful dies that are amongst the very finest in the whole Siculo-Punic series.

23


70. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Circa 320-300 BC. Head of Arethusa left, wearing wreath of grain ears, triple-pendant earring and necklace; four dolphins around / Horse’s head left, palm tree with date clusters behind, ‘MMHNT’ in Punic script below. Jenkins, Punic 183 (O53/R161); SNG Lloyd 1633 (same dies); Hunterian 7 (same dies). 17.11g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone.

5,000

71. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Circa 310-300 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Horse’s head left, palm tree with date clusters behind; ‘MHSBM’ (Paymaster, or Quaestor) in Punic script below. Dewing 983; Jenkins, Punic 394. 16.92g, 24mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 48; Ex Goldberg 59, 30 May 2010, lot 2056.

72. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Circa 300-289 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress; kerykeion below neck / Horse’s head left, palm tree with date clusters behind; three pellets before, ‘MHMHN’ in Punic script below. Jenkins, Punic 281 (O90/R232). 17.07g, 25mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Very rare variety.

2,000

High Grade Akragas Tetradrachm

73. Sicily, Akragas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-420 BC. Sea eagle standing left with folded wings; AKRACANTOΣ around / Crab within shallow incuse circle. SNG ANS 979; SNG Lloyd 810 (this obverse die). 17.09g, 24mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. Well struck for the type; beautifully toned. From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Tkalec Auction, 7 May 2009, lot 10.

24

10,000


Extremely Rare Didrachm of Akragas

74. Sicily, Akragas AR Didrachm. Circa 413-406 BC. Eagle standing left, with its wings spread, attacking a coiled serpent held in its talons, AKPAΓANTI-NON around, [ΣTPATΩN behind] / Crab, vine-leaf above, fish (Polyprium Cernium) below to left. K. Schefold, Meisterwerke Griechische Kunst, Basel (1960), 467; SNG ANS 1001; Rizzo, pl. III, 2; Gulbenkian 165 = Jameson 2416. 8.32g, 22mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

From the collection of a deceased English numismatist, purchased c. 1970s.

75. Sicily, Himera AR Chalkidian Drachm. Circa 520-482 BC. Cockerel standing left / Mill sail pattern incuse design. SNG Lockett 779; Kraay, The archaic Coinage of Himera, 103 (D74/R61). 5.46g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned and superb for the type. Very Rare.

4,000

Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 48. The Chalkidian colony of Himera, one of the first cities to begin coining in Sicily, followed the monetary standard of its mother city Chalkis, in Euboia. There the basic denomination was the stater of approximately 17.4 grams; the heaviest fractions being third staters. While neither Himera nor the other Chalkidian colonies Naxos or Zankle minted Euboian standard staters, they did strike smaller fractions, including the third, which are referred to as Chalkidian drachms.

76. Sicily, Himera AR Chalkidian Drachm. Circa 500 BC. Cockerel standing right / Hen standing right within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen -; Kraay 152; de Luynes 970; de Nanteuil 287 (same dies). 4.97g, 20mm, 7h. Very Fine. Rare.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 100.

77

78

77. Sicily, Kamarina Æ Tetras. Circa 425-400 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet with wing-shaped cheek guards folded up / Owl standing to left, head facing; lizard to left, KAMA to right, three pellets in exergue. Westermark-Jenkins 202; Calciati III, 39; SNG München 421. 3.05g, 15mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. 300 78. Sicily, Kamarina Æ Onkia. Circa 339-300 BC. Female head left / Bull butting left, ΚΑΜΑΡΙΝΑΙΩΝ around. Westermark and Jenkins 218; CNS 45; SNG ANS 1312. 1.71g, 13mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare. 200

25


Extremely Rare Type

79.

Sicily, Katane AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-450 BC. The river god Amenanos as a bearded, man-headed bull kneeling to right, fish below; above, a heron standing upon his back and walking left / Nike, wearing long chiton, advancing left, holding taenia in her outstretched right hand; KATANE around. Rizzo pl. IX, 2 (same dies); Randazzo pl. 3, 48-53 (same rev. die); Kraay-Hirmer 31 (same obv. die); Randazzo -; SNG ANS -; Boehringer Ognina 74 (same obv. die); Ognina Hoard AttiMem pl. 1, 3 (same obv. die). 17.31g, 29mm, 3h. Obverse die heavily used; Extremely Fine, light grey tone. Extremely Rare. From a private American collection.

17,500

The city of Katane, founded around 729 BC by Chalkidic colonists from Naxos, was established on the site of the archaic village of the same name that was then peopled by the indigenous Sikels, who had named their village after the rugged black lava landscape (katane, meaning sharp stones). The native Sikels were rapidly hellenized, but the Naxian founders kept the autochthonal name for their new home on the banks of the river Amenanos. This outstanding coin was struck within a few years of the refoundation of the city, issued in celebration of the return of the Chalkidic inhabitants of Katane to their homeland following the Aitna episode. Hieron, tyrant of Syracuse, had forcibly transferred the populations of Katane and Naxos, Katane’s parent city, to Leontinoi, renamed Katane as Aitna and settled it with 5000 colonists from Syracuse and 5000 Dorians from the Peloponnesos However, after the death of Hieron in 466 and the overthrow of his brother Thrasybulos less than a year later, relations between the newly democratic Syracuse and its former colony soured, leading to war in 461. Allied with the Sikels under Douketios, Syracuse through several battles compelled the newly settled inhabitants to retire to the fortress of Inessa (to which they gave the name of Aitna), while the old Chalkidic citizens were reinstated in the possession of the city. The obverse depicts clear civic types referencing both the life-giving river by which Katane was sited, and other types (see following lot) reference the wine-grapes that must have been key to the city’s prosperity through use of the type of Silenos. The taenia borne by Nike on the reverse here almost certainly alludes to the fall of the Deinomenid tyranny that, with the aid of Syracuse and the native Sikels, allowed the displaced people to return to their ancestral home.

26


Ex Moretti Collection

80.

Sicily, Katane AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-450 BC. The river god Amenanos as a bearded, man-headed bull swimming to right; above, a nude horse-tailed Silenos kneeling to right on left knee, stretching left hand over the god’s head; Ketos to right in exergue / Nike, wearing long chiton, advancing left, holding taenia in her outstretched right hand; KATANAION around. Rizzo pl. IX, 14 (these dies); Giesecke, Sicilia pl. 4, 1 (these dies); Mirone 31 no. 19 (these dies). 16.89g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Excellent quality for the issue. An extremely rare variety of an already very rare and spectacular series of coinage. 20,000 From the Ambrose Collection; Ex A. Moretti Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica 13, 8 October 1998, lot 382. The tetradrachms of Katane are today nearly without exception seen in poor condition, being corroded, poorly struck, off centre, double struck and over struck, from dies that were used to destruction. While displaying some limited evidence of corrosion, this example is remarkable for the precision of its striking and preservation that make it one of the finest examples not in a public collection. The prominence of Amenanos, the personification of the river that flowed through the territory of Katane (whose name itself can be translated as ‘harsh land’ or ‘rough soil’), on the early coinage of Katane suggests the vital importance of the river to the sustenance of the city, and the fertility of the surrounding lands. The Silenos most likely alludes to the fruit of the vine as an important part of the Katanaian economy, and the ketos similarly makes reference to the fruits of the sea.

27


81. Sicily, Katane AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-450 BC. The river god Amenanos as a bearded, man-headed bull swimming to right; branch above, fish below / Nike, wearing long chiton, advancing left, holding taenia in her outstretched right hand; KATANE around. Randazzo - (O54/R-). 17.29g, 26mm, 7h. Very Fine.

2,500

Ex N.R.S. Collection, Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 109.

82. Sicily, Katane AR Litra. Circa 410-405 BC. Head of Silenos left / KATANAIΩN, upright winged thunderbolt flanked by shields at both sides. C. Boehringer, ‘Katanishe Probleme: Silberne Kleinstmünzen’, in T. Hackens and W. Raymond (ed.), Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of numismatics, Luxembourg 1979, Bern 1982, pp. 71-83, 6; SNG Copenhagen 182. 0.77g, 12mm 11h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

400

A Superb Mamertinoi Hexas

83. Sicily, The Mamertinoi Æ Hexas. Messana, circa 270-220 BC. Laureate head of youthful Ares to right; two pellets behind head, ΑΡΕΟΣ before / Athena Promachos advancing to right, holding transverse spear in her right hand and resting her left on shield set on the ground before her; MAMEPTINΩN behind. CNS I 21; SNG ANS 420-422; Särström Series X, 155; SNG Morcom 631. 8.60g, 23mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. A superb specimen of this rare type with a wonderful, intact patina. From a private German collection.

28

2,500


Spectacular Naxos Drachm

84. Sicily, Naxos AR Drachm. Circa 460-430 BC. Bearded head of Dionysos right, wearing tainia decorated with an ivy branch / Nude and bearded Silenos squatting half-left, holding kantharos in right hand and resting his left hand on his knee, tail behind; NAXION around; all within shallow concave circular incuse. Cahn 56 (V41/R47); HGC 2, 990; SNG Lloyd 1152; BMC 9; Jameson 676; de Luynes 1064; Pozzi 507 (all from the same dies). 4.29g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very pleasant old cabinet tone, with remarkable visual appeal. Rare.

15,000

Ex James Howard Collection, Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 133. Though not as rare as its earlier counterpart, this wonderful type is however notoriously difficult to obtain in high grade. Of all the examples from various properties which Roma Numismatics has handled, this is by far the finest. It also greatly surpasses the two examples from the Niggeler and Hunt Collections which have been sold in recent years. Executed perhaps as little as a decade after the famous archaic tetradrachm (and corresponding drachm), the contrast between it and this coin could not be sharper. The god Dionysos has become increasingly humanised, with a less severe appearance not too dissimilar we may imagine from noblemen of that time. The reverse appears to continue the development away from static, romanticised scenes, instead portraying Silenos in a rather less than reverential pose, clearly inebriated and with an apparent carefree disregard for himself or his surroundings - instead preoccupied solely with his drinking cup.

85. Sicily, Naxos AR Drachm. Circa 460-430 BC. Bearded head of Dionysos right, wearing tainia decorated with an ivy branch / Nude and bearded Silenos squatting half-left, holding kantharos in right hand and resting his left hand on his knee, tail behind; NAXION around; all within shallow concave circular incuse. Cahn 56 (V41/R47); HGC 2, 990; SNG Lloyd 1152; BMC 9; Jameson 676; de Luynes 1064; Pozzi 507 (all from the same dies). 4.25g, 18mm, 2h. Very Fine. Toned. Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 22, 28 November 2015, lot 68.

29

2,500


30


A Remarkable, Statuesque Reverse

86.

Sicily, Selinos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 455-415 BC. Artemis driving slow quadriga right, holding reins in both hands, Apollo standing on her right, discharging an arrow; barley grain in exergue / River-god Selinos standing left, sacrificing with phiale over flaming altar, holding laurel branch in left hand, cock before altar, bull behind to left, standing on pedestal decorated with laurel garland, surmounted by selinon leaf; ΣΕΛΙΝΟΝΤΙΟΝ around. W. Schwabacher, Die Tetradrachmenprägung von Selinunt, MBNG 43, 1925, 18 (Q8/S23); SNG ANS 698; Rizzo 3, pl. XXXIII. 16.88g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful old tone with gold highlights around the devices.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 199, 10 October 2011, lot 81; Ex UBS 67, 5 September 2006, lot 5438. Selinos was one of the first Sicilian cities to issue coins, commencing c. 540-530, striking staters probably initially on the Corinthian standard, but later on the Attic. The early staters, which depicted a large selinon (celery) leaf as the obverse type, were eventually superseded by Syracusan-inspired chariot designs such as the present type, which retain the early emblem of the city on the reverse as an adjunct symbol. Two other subordinate elements of the design are present which have attracted considerable attention - the cockerel before an altar, and the bull set upon a platform. Since the bull and its platform vary considerably in form and style from one die to the next, a local statue is ruled out as a possibility. A. H. Lloyd (N.C. 1935) considered these two symbols to represent the longstanding friendship of Selinos with Himera, since the cockerel was the principal type of Himera (see lot 163), and he identified the bull as the infamous brazen bull of the tyrant Phalaris of Akragas, in which he is said to have roasted his enemies alive, on the basis that Himera was one of the important acquisitions of Phalaris in his quest to become master of Sicily. Both symbols are rendered in exquisite detail, the miniature bull easily the equal of any Thourians. The principal element of the reverse however is a real tour de force. The figure is the river-god Selinos, portrayed as an idealised nude youth holding a phiale and carefully detailed laurel branch, set with a wreath of laurels about his brow. The level of anatomical detail lavished on this depiction of the river-god is nothing less than sublime; from the toned calves and well-built thighs and torso, to the rippled skin above the knee and the hollow in front of the elbow, no effort has been spared on the part of the engraver. We should not be in any doubt that the individual responsible for this masterpiece was certainly in the first rank of die engravers active in mid-late fifth century Sicily.

31


87. Sicily, Selinos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 410 BC. Head of Herakles facing slightly left, wearing lion-skin / Charioteer, holding kentron in extended right hand and reins in left, driving galloping quadriga left; selinon leaf above, ΣEΛINONTION in exergue. HGC 2, 1228; SNG ANS 713; SNG Lloyd 1268; Pozzi (Boutin) 1195; Rizzo pl. XXXIII, 7. 1.74g, 16mm, 1h. Very Fine. Rare.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 139.

88. Sicily, Syracuse AR Didrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Gelon I, circa 485-480 BC. Nude rider on horseback to right / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied at back with pearl hairband; ΣVRΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ and three dolphins around. Jameson 748 (these dies); Pozzi 566; SNG Copenhagen 619; Dewing 700 (these dies); SNG ANS 26 (this obverse die); Kraay-Hirmer 77; Boehringer 99.6. 8.33g, 21mm, 5h. Very Fine. Rare.

2,000

A Masterful Portrait of the Severe Style

89. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 470-466 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; Nike above, flying left, crowning charioteer, ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied at back with pearl hairband; ΣVRΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 434; de Nanteuil 331 (these dies); Boston 360 (these dies). 17.51g, 27mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, one of only three examples on CoinArchives, and among the finest known specimens. A masterful portrait of the severe style. 12,500 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 97, 12 December 2016, lot 265; Ex Comery Collection, Roma Numismatics V, 23 March 2013, lot 112.

32


90. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 460-450 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; Nike above, flying right, crowning horses, ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl diadem, earring and necklace, her hair rolled in a bun at the back, ΣYRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 509 (V268/R365); SNG ANS 162 (same dies). 17.28g, 25mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Pleasing old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

5,000

Privately purchased from Numismatica Ars Classica, January 2011.

91. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 440-430 BC. Charioteer driving fast quadriga left; Nike above, flying right and crowning charioteer; ketos left in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied up with ribbon; ΣYRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 604 (V296/R410); SNG ANS 198-9; Jameson 775 (these dies). 17.02g, 25mm, 5h. Extremely Fine and attractively toned. Rare.

6,000

Ex David Freedman Collection. Engraved in wonderful style, the usual die break detracts nothing from the beauty of the artistry we observe here.

92. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 430-420 BC. Charioteer, wearing long chiton and holding the reins in both hands, driving slow quadriga right; [above, Nike flying left to crown the charioteer] / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and necklace, her hair bound with four bands, four dolphins and ΣYRAKOΣION around. Boehringer 686; SNG ANS 226. 17.22g, 26mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Peus 410, 31 October 2013, lot 88.

93. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Drachm. Time of Dionysios I, circa 405-367 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet decorated with wreath; ΣYPA before / Sea-star between two dolphins. CNS II 62; HGC 2, 1436. SNG ANS 454-459. 31.55g, 31mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

33

1,000


Beautifully Toned Syracuse Tetradrachm

94. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 470-466 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in left, driving slow quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with open wreath held in both hands; ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, hair in pearl band, wearing loop earring with single pendant and pearl necklace; ΣVRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 408 (V211/R288); SNG ANS 128; Hunterian 20; Bement 1050 (all from the same dies). 17.36g, 27mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Superbly lustrous metal with gold and purple toning. Rare.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1069.

Ex Leu 1989

95. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 470-466 BC. Charioteer, wearing long chiton and holding the reins in both hands, driving slow quadriga right; above, Nike flying left to crown the charioteer; ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl diadem, pearl necklace, and drop earring, hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins swimming clockwise around. Boehringer 442; Jameson 758. 17.19g, 26mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. A superb example of this simple but elegant type. Beautifully toned. Rare. Ex Leu 48, 10 May 1989, lot 60.

34

12,500


96. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Hemidrachm. Time of Timoleon, circa 344-338 BC. ΖΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ, laureate head of Zeus Eleutherios right / Upright thunderbolt; barley grain to right, ΣYRAKOΣION around. CNS II, 71; SNG ANS 472-6. 12.69g, 25mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; areas of old corrosion.

300

97. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Agathokles, circa 317-311 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Charioteer driving fast biga right; triskeles below, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Bérend, ‘De l’or d’Agothocle’ in Studies Price, pl. 9, 1; BAR issue 1; SNG ANS 552. 4.29g, 15mm, 10h. Traces of lustre, well centred, Near Extremely Fine.

5,000

98. Sicily, Syracuse EL 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-304 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left, bukranion behind / Ornate tripod-lebes; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Jenkins Group B (O11/R14); Dewing 941; SNG ANS 627; McClean 2774. 3.64g, 15mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Very well struck and preserved for the type.

3,000

99. Sicily, Syracuse EL 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa circa 310-304 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left, kithara behind / Ornate tripod-lebes; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Jenkins Group B (O8/R4); BMC 260; SNG ANS -; BAR Issue 10. 3.63g, 15mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,500

100. Sicily, Syracuse Æ25. Time of Hiketas II, circa 287-278 BC. Wreathed head of Kore left, grain ear to right; [ΣYPAKOΣIΩN] before / Nike driving biga right; star above, AΓ monogram in exergue. BAR Issue 38; CNS 123 Ds 95 var. (monogram); HGC 2, 1446. 9.36g, 25mm, 5h. Very Fine.

35

300


101

102

101. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Obol. Time of Hieron II, circa 285-246 BC. Imitative issue in the types of Ptolemy II Philadelphos. Laureate head of Zeus right / ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, with wings spread; oval shield to left, [N to right]. Svoronos 619; SNG Copenhagen 116. 17.15g, 27mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. 100 102. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Hemilitron. Time of Hieron II, circa 230-215 BC. Diademed head left. torch behind / Warrior, holding couched lance, on horse prancing right; ΑΓ monogram below, [IEPΩNOΣ] in exergue. SNG ANS 922. 17.71g, 26mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. 200

103. Sicily, Syracuse AR 4 Litrai. Gelon II, son of Hieron II, circa 218/7-216 BC. Diademed head of Gelon to left / ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣIOI ΓΕΛΩΝΟΣ, eagle with closed wings standing to right on a thunderbolt; E to left; BA to right. ANS 898-9; SNG Lloyd 1550; SNG München 1363; Weber 1704 (all same dies). 3.18g, 16mm, 5h. Extremely Fine, flaw on obv. Rare.

500

Polybios records of Gelon that he ‘made it his highest object in life to obey his father and not to consider wealth or royal power or anything else as more valuable than affection and loyalty to his parents’. His father Hieron certainly saw fit to associate him with his government, as evidenced by the coinage in his name, and appears even to have bestowed the title of king upon him. He married a daughter of Pyrrhos, and had a daughter as well as a son - the future king Hieronymos. Yet in contrast to Polybios’ account, Livy asserts that following the Roman defeat at Cannae, Gelon contravened his father’s wishes by attempting to subvert the Syracusan alliance with Rome. He also notes that Gelon’s conveniently timed death cast suspicion even on his father Hieron. Livy’s remarks should however be taken with a generous pinch of salt.

FDC Hieronymos 10 Litrai

104. Sicily, Syracuse AR 10 Litrai. Hieronymos, circa 215-214 BC. Diademed head of Hieronymos left / BAΣIΛEOΣ IEPΩNYMOY, winged thunderbolt; ΞΑ above. Holloway 55 (same dies); SNG ANS 1032. 8.53g, 24mm, 1h. Fleur De Coin.

4,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 183.

105. Sicily, Syracuse AR 10 Litrai. Hieronymos, 215-214 BC. Diademed head left; retrograde K behind / BAΣIΛEΩΣ IEPΩNYMOY, winged thunderbolt; KI above. Holloway 40 (O21/R32); BAR Issue 79; SNG ANS 1028 (same dies). 8.26g, 23mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

36

1,250


The Fall of Syracuse

106. Sicily, Syracuse AR 8 Litrai. Fifth Democracy, circa 214-212 BC. Signed by the engraver Ly(sid...). Head of Demeter to left, wearing wreath of grain leaves, triple pendant earring and pearl necklace; behind, owl standing left / Nike, holding goad in her right hand and reins in her left, driving quadriga galloping to right; above, monogram of ΑΡΚ; on ground line, in tiny letters, ΛΥ; [ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ in exergue]. Burnett D 53 = De Luynes 1395; Jameson 894 (this obverse die). 6.76g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica N, 26 June 2003, lot 1176. This issue belongs to the series of silver coins that continued to be minted while Syracuse was under siege by the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus. Syracuse had been ably and wisely ruled by Hieron II, who steadfastly maintained the city’s alliance with Rome. However, upon his death the throne passed to his grandson Hieronymos, who at the age of only fifteen allowed himself to be influenced by the pro-Carthaginian faction in Syracuse into renouncing the alliance his grandfather had so carefully preserved. This course of action resulted in revolution within the city; Hieronymos and his family were slain and democratic government was restored, but the following year a Roman army arrived to lay siege to the city. Though the defenders held out for three years, in part thanks to the engineering genius of Archimedes, the Romans finally stormed the city under cover of darkness. Much of the population fell back to the citadel, but this too fell after an eight month siege. As retribution for the city having changed its allegiance to Carthage at the height of the Second Punic War, and for having forced the Romans into a lengthy and costly siege while Italy and Rome herself remained in peril, the city was thoroughly sacked and the inhabitants put to the sword or enslaved. Though Marcellus gave instruction that Archimedes was to be spared, he too was slain in the sack. This extensive series of siege coinage reflects the last flourishing of Syracusan numismatic art; the diversity of the coinage is all the more impressive given that the city was being subjected to protracted warfare during this period. The series is special too for its depiction of so many deities, for whose divine assistance the people clamoured to deliver them from disaster.

AKARNANIA

107. Akarnania, Anaktorion AR Stater. 320-280 BC. Pegasos flying left; AN monogram below / Helmeted head of Athena left; AN monogram and omphalos to right. Pegasi 36; BCD Akarnania 105. 8.48g, 21mm, 4h. About Extremely Fine.

650

From the J.T.B. Collection.

108. Akarnania, Argos Amphilochikon AR Stater. Circa 340-300 BC. Pegasos flying left; A below / Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet; octopus behind. Pegasi 13; BCD Akarnania 131 (this coin); SNG Copenhagen -. 8.43g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare. Ex Münzen & Medaillen 23, 18 October 2007, lot 131; Privately purchased from Superior Galleries, November 1985.

37

600


2x 109. Akarnania, Leukas AR Diobol. 440-400 BC. Pegasos flying right / Pegasos rearing facing, turned slightly to left; Δ-Ι-[O] around; all within incuse square. BCD Akarnania 183; SNG Copenhagen -. 0.69g, 12mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

400

110. Akarnania, Leukas AR Stater. Circa 405-345 BC. Pegasos flying right; Λ below / Helmeted head of Athena right; bunch of grapes behind, Σ above. Pegasi 38; BMC 46; Weber 3855. 8.16g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine. Pleasant old tone.

500

Ex Gorny & Mosch 138, 7 March 2005, lot 1294.

111. Akarnania, Leukas AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC. Pegasos flying left; Λ below / Helmeted head of Athena left; to right, head of Attis left, wearing Phrygian cap. Imhoof-Blumer, Akarnaniens 33; Pegasi 97; BCD Akarnania 264; HGC 4, 825. 8.12g, 24mm, 2h. Very Fine. Very rare and interesting symbol.

600

THESSALY

112. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 479-460 BC. Horse left, grazing with head lowered; above, cicada left / Sandal of Jason left, ΛARISAION around from lower left; double axe above; all within incuse square. BCD Thessaly I 1095 (same dies). 4.63g, 17mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,750

Ex BCD Collection, Classical Numismatic Group e337, 22 October 2014, lot 35.

113. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 405/0-370 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly left, wearing ampyx, earring and necklace; garment clasp to left / Horse standing right, trailing rein, preparing to lie down; ΛΑΡΙΣAI below horse. L-S group 3, head type 14, dies O31/R2; BCD Thessaly II 205/207 (for obv. die/rev. type). 5.92g, 18mm, 8h. Very Fine. Ex Demetrios Armounta Collection, Classical Numismatic Group e308, 7 August 2013, lot 76; Ex BCD Collection; Classical Numismatic Group 90, 23 May 2012, lot 71.

38

400


114

115

114. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 380-365 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly right, wearing ampyx, earring, and necklace / Horse standing to left, ΛAPI above (P retrograde), ΣAΙΩN in exergue (N retrograde). L-S series 1, type A, dies O1/R2; CNG e292, 78 (same dies); BCD Thessaly II 283 var. (P and N not retrograde; same obv. die). 5.91g, 19mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. 300 From the estate of an English numismatist. 115. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 365-356 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly left, wearing ampyx, earring and necklace / Horse standing right, preparing to lie down; ΛΑΡΙΣ-ΑΙΩΝ above and below. Lorber, Hoard, Phase L-II, 27–37; BCD Thessaly II 316. 5.90g, 19mm, 11h. Very Fine. 500

Unusually Complete Stater of Larissa.

116. Thessaly, Larissa AR Stater. Circa 350 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly left, wearing ampyx, earring and necklace / Bridled horse advancing to right, right foreleg raised; ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ around. SNG Copenhagen 119; Jameson 1092; Hermann pl. V, 2. 11.98g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 48, 21 October 2008, lot 74; Ex LHS Sale 100, 23 April 2007, lot 223.

LOKRIS

Ajax of Lokris

117. Lokris, Lokris Opuntii AR Stater. Circa 360-50 BC. Head of Persephone left, wearing grain wreath, triple-pendant earring, and necklace / Ajax advancing right over two spears, nude but for crested Corinthian helmet, holding short sword and shield adorned with palmette and griffin; star below, ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ to left. Gulbenkian 491 (this reverse die); BCD 58 (this reverse die); cf. Dewing 1477; BMC 27. 12.29g, 24mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 55, 8 October 2010, lot 58. Ajax of Lokris (or Ajax ‘the Lesser’), who is depicted on the reverse of this attractive type, led a fleet of forty ships from Lokris Opuntii against Troy in the Greeks’ great war on that city. At Troy’s fall, he was alleged by Odysseus to have violated a sanctuary of Athena by ravishing Cassandra, who had sought refuge there. He thus brought down the wrath of Athena upon himself and his countrymen: Ajax himself was wrecked and killed in a storm as he made his way home from the war, and the rest of the Opuntians reached home only with great difficulty. Nevertheless, they annually honoured their former leader by launching a ship fitted with black sails and laden with gifts, which they then set alight, and whenever the Lokrian army drew up for battle, one place was always left open for Ajax, whose spirit they believed would stand and fight with them.

39


40


ELIS Unique and Pedigreed Olympia Stater

118.

Elis, Olympia AR Stater. ‘Zeus’ mint, 107th Olympiad, 352 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to left; behind, vertical thunderbolt with wings above and volutes below / Eagle, with closed wings, standing to right on Ionic column capital; F-A across fields. Käppeli F84 (this coin) = BCD Olympia (Leu 90) 133; Seltman - (cf. obverse CE). 11.73g, 24mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Unique.

35,000

Ex Hess-Divo 311, 22 October 2008, lot 379; Ex BCD Collection, Leu 90, 10 May 2004, lot 133; Ex R. Käpelli Collection, Lucerne 1963, F84; Ex R. Jameson collection (not in catalogue); Ex Jacob Hirsch stock, Naville - Ars Classica XVI, 3 July 1933, lot 1292. The obverse of this coin displays the subtly placed letters F-A before and behind the neck of Hera, an abbreviation of FAΛΕΙΩΝ, i.e. [coin] of the Eleans. Yet Olympia had not always belonged to Elis; though it had been theirs since the beginning of the eighth century BC and they had organized the first of the Olympic festivals, their power diminished and it fell into the dominion of the nearby city of Pisa. It was during this time that the first temple of Zeus was constructed at Olympia by the Sikoudians, allies of the Pisatans, which was built of limestone, brick and wooden columns. With Spartan assistance, the Eleans reconquered Pisatis in 580 BC and destroyed the city of Pisa, thus also bringing the sanctuary of Olympia back under their control. Yet The Eleans, much as they might have wished it, could not destroy all traces of the former inhabitants. The sacred temple of Zeus at Olympia could not be pulled down and so remained as a reminder of the occupation of Olympia which had lasted for nearly a whole century. In 476 the Greeks convened an arbitration court in Olympia to act as a mediator between the cities of the Greeks in cases of disputes to try to end the inter-city warfare that kept the Greeks divided and fractious. In commemoration of this newly found place at the heart of Greek politics the Eleans erected a massive new temple to Zeus built of marble (which would later house the gold and ivory statue by Phideas), which became the primary ‘Zeus’ mint of Olympia. The humble old temple of the Pisatans was rededicated to Hera, who had no important cult at Olympia until then. It was in this rededicated temple that the ‘Hera mint’ coins were supposedly struck. The impressive obverse head of Zeus shares many stylistic similarities with that found on the famous coins of the Arkadian League; some of the dies from that issue are nearly identical to the present one (see BMC 48, Boston MFA 1260 and Käppeli 85). It is also reminiscent of some of the early tetradrachms of Philip II of Macedon, though it surpasses all of these in elegance.

41


ARKADIA

119. Arkadia, Alea AR Obol. Circa 390-370 BC. Head of Artemis right / Bow over AΛ. HGC 5, 808; BCD Peloponnesos 1. 0.94g, 12mm, 9h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

400

CORINTHIA

120. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; Δ and krater behind. Ravel 1001; Pegasi 388/1 corr.; BCD Corinth 98. 8.55g, 21mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. By far the best example offered in the past decade. Very Rare.

1,750

Ex John Hayes Collection; Ex D.V. Collection, Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 151 (£3,200).

Fine Style Corinthian Drachm

121. Corinthia, Corinth AR Drachm. Circa 308-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Head of Aphrodite left, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied with ribbon and bound at top, falling loose behind; Δ-O across fields. Ravel, Chiliomodi Hoard, pl. X, 15; BCD 150. 2.80g, 15mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive old toning.

2,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Genevensis 7, 27 November 2012, lot 199. There was no other city in mainland Greece where the cult of Aphrodite flourished such as it did at Corinth. The goddess had her temple atop the monolithic rock known as the Acrocorinth, widely regarded as the most impressive acropolis in all of Greece. This mountain peak which towered over the city was assigned to Helios by Briareos when he acted as adjudicator between that god and Poseidon in their contest for the city, and was handed over, the Corinthians said, by Helios to Aphrodite. The temple of Aphrodite here was particularly wealthy, and according to Strabo it at one time possessed over a thousand temple slaves. A certain number of these appear to have performed a ritual courtesan function, such that Corinth became famed for its pleasures of the flesh, and rich because of it. As early as the fifth century BC we find reference to this in Pindar’s Eulogies (fragment 122): ‘Guest-loving girls! Servants of Peitho in wealthy Korinthos! Ye that burn the golden tears of fresh frankincense, full often soaring upward in your souls unto Aphrodite.’ It is fitting therefore that upon the drachms of Corinth we find a multitude of beautifully engraved images of the goddess Aphrodite. The present portrait certainly ranks among the most attractive of these.

122. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; A-Λ flanking neck truncation, wheel behind. Pegasi 413; Ravel 1052; BCD Corinth -; SNG Copenhagen -. 8.59g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Ex John Hayes Collection.

42

300


123. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; ΔΙ and pine cone behind. Pegasi 444. 8.43g, 22mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

From the J.T.B. Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics e-Sale 15, 31 January 2015, lot 82; Ex H.J. Schmidt collection.

ARGOLIS

124. Argolis, Epidauros AR Hemidrachm. Circa 295/80-250 BC. Laureate head of Asklepios left / Retrograde EΠ monogram within wreath. BCD 1230; Requier, SNR 72 (1993) 85 (D3/R3); SNG Copenhagen 114. 2.65g, 16mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

600

Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. 400, 22 April 2010, lot 112.

PHLIASIA

2x 125. Phliasia, Phlious AR Obol. Late 6th - early 5th Century BC. Human leg bent to right, with prominent kneecap / Incuse square divided into six irregular compartments. BCD Peloponnesos 79; Cf. Nomos Auction 6, lot 68. 10.03g, 18mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

Ex Gutekunst Collection.

ATTICA

126. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 490-482 BC. Archaic head of Athena right wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before. Cf. Svoronos pl. 5, 42; cf. Asyut 390. 16.93g, 22mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine.

43

1,500


44


Dekadrachm of Athens

127.

Attica, Athens AR Dekadrachm. Circa 469/5-460 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing single-pendant earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over the visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing facing with wings spread, olive sprig and crescent to upper left, AΘE around; all within incuse square. Fischer-Bossert 11 (O7/R11); Starr 59a; Seltman 450a, pl. 21 (A305/P385); Svoronos pl.8, 13; Vinchon 14 April 1984, Comtesse de Béhague 123 = Rhousopoulos 1965 (all same dies). 42.98g, 34mm, 10h. Very Fine. Very Rare; weight adjustment (‘Stannard gouge’) marks.

50,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s; Ex private German collection, acquired c. 1960s. The Dekadrachms of Athens have always been regarded as one of the greatest masterpieces in all of ancient coinage, and have ever been amongst the most highly prized possessions of private and institutional numismatic collections. The occasion for the striking of these imposing coin has been a subject of scholarly debate for many years, and several different theories have been advanced concerning the motivation for the striking of such a prestigious issue, and the source of the bullion used. Babelon (Traité II, col. 769-770) and Head (HN, pp. 370-371) both perpetuated a misinterpretation of a passage in Herodotos who said that Athens paid ten drachms to each of its citizens for surpluses from the Laurion mines (7.144.1). They both therefore dated the dekadrachm issue to c. 490 BC, shortly after the Battle of Marathon, a date which has been subsequently shown to be far too early. Robinson (NC [1924], pp. 338-340) proposed the victory at Salamis as the reason for issue, while Regling (Die antiken Münzen), advanced a similar view, suggesting the combined victories of Salamis and Plataea. Only Starr and Kraay (NC [1956], p. 55; ACGC, pp. 66-68) understood the dating to be later than the prevailing views, having themselves reviewed the hoard evidence. It was Starr (Athenian coinage 480-449 BC) who suggested the victory at the battle at the Eurymedon river in c. 469/5 as the reason for the issue. The subsequent discovery of the Asyut hoard in 1968 or 1969, and the Elmali hoard in 1984 confirmed the dating around the mid 460s BC. Certainly the Eurymedon victory provided both the celebratory occasion and the means to finance such a grand issue of coinage. In either 469 or 466 BC, the Persians had begun assembling a large army and navy for a major offensive against the Greeks. Assembling near the Eurymedon, it appears that the expedition’s objective was to move up the coast of Asia Minor, capturing each city in turn, thus bringing the Asiatic Greek states back under Persian domination, and furthermore giving the Persians strategically important naval bases from which to launch further expeditions into the Aegean. Led by the Athenian general Kimon, a combined force of Delian League triremes moved to intercept the Persian force, and taking them by complete surprise, the Persian forces were utterly routed, 200 triremes were captured or destroyed, and their camp was taken along with many prisoners. The spoils were reportedly vast, and such a stunning triumph would have provided ample reason for Athens to strike coins displaying its emblematic owl now standing fully facing, its outspread wings a clear statement of Athenian military power.

45


128. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-454 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Starr Group V.B. 16.96g, 26mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. Obverse die a little worn, reverse struck in exceptional depth, well framed in a high-bordered flan.

6,000

129. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-454 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Starr Group V.B; Svoronos pl. X, 15; Dewing 1593. 16.99g, 23mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. Attractive light tone.

3,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 64, 17 May 2012, lot 2216.

130. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Late 450s-440s BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Cf. Starr pl. 22; Svoronos pl. 12, 1-11 var. 16.87g, 23mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,750

131. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.16g, 27mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

46

2,500


132. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.02g, 26mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned. Struck on a broad flan, and with a well centred reverse displaying a full incuse square.

2,500

133. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.22g, 25mm, 4h. Fleur De Coin.

2,000

134. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.24g, 26mm, 9h. Mint State.

2,000

135. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.21g, 26mm, 5h. Mint State. Perfectly centred with a full incuse square.

47

2,000


136. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.19g, 28mm, 3h. Near Mint State.

1,500

137. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.24g, 25mm, 3h. Near Mint State.

1,250

138. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.21g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,250

139. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.16g, 25mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

48

1,250


140. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.21g, 28mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,250

141. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry and crescent in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.10g, 26mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

142. Attica, Athens AR Drachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right with head facing, olive sprig with berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen 41-3; Kroll 10; Svoronos pl. XV, 23. 3.99g, 16mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

Beautiful Stater of Aegina

143. Islands off Attica, Aegina AR Stater. Circa 456/45-431 BC. Land tortoise with segmented shell / Large incuse square of heavy skew pattern. Milbank pl. 2, 12; Dewing 1683; BMC Attica p. 137, 146; SNG Copenhagen 516. 12.46g, 21mm. Near Extremely Fine. Struck on a very broad flan. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

49

5,000


CYCLADES

Extremely Rare Stater of Karthaia

144. Cyclades, Karthaia on Keos AR Stater. Circa 510-490/80 BC. Amphora / Incuse square of ‘mill-sail’ design. Sheedy, pp. 157-158, 1-8; Lanz 162, 67. 11.70g, 21mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

One of four city-states on the island of Keos, Karthaia is located on the southeastern coast at one of the island’s best anchorages, with a productive plain that flows down off the Keian plateau. The site was inhabited from approximately the 8th century BC, until it was abandoned in the 6th century AD. The town walls were probably demolished by Chabrias of Athens in 364, but with the Athenians’ permission the Karthaians were thereafter allowed to restore a slim defence circuit, most likely as protection against pirates. The ruins of Karthaia have always been visible, and the impressive sight in a scenic position has attracted travellers from as early as the 17th century. From the archaeological surveys, it appears to have been the most important site of Keos’ Tetrapolis. The types of Karthaia, which are not many, seem to point to the city having specialised in maritime trade, evidenced by the principal use of an amphora, sometimes with a dolphin adjunct. The principal content of their amphorae may have been wine, as is suggested by the use of Dionysos and a grape bunch on a type from the 4th-3rd centuries BC. Indeed, a rich and dark wine is produced there today.

145. Cyclades, Paros AR Drachm. Circa 520-500 BC. Goat kneeling right, within border of dots / Incuse square. K. Sheedy, The Archaic and Early Classical Coinages of the Cyclades, RNS SP 40, London 2006, 9a; SNG Lockett 2619. 6.00g, 16mm. Very Fine. Rare.

1,500

Ex Frank James Collection; Ex Baldwin’s 44, 2 May 2006, lot 73.

MACEDON Two Unpublished Pangaion Region Fractions

2x 146. Macedon, Pangaion Region EL 1/4-Stater(?). Circa 7th-6th centuries BC. Phokaic standard. Four lines across field / Checkered pattern across field. Unpublished in the standard references; for general type cf. A. Tsintsifos, Perix Pangeion Epeiros I, pp. 75-9, 6-8, especially 9 = CNG E-sale 209, 190 (1/3 Stater); M. Mitchiner, Ancient Trade and Early Coinage, London 2004, 64-75; Weidauer 5-9; 3.91g, 13mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

2x 147. Macedon, Pangaion Region EL Hekte. Circa 600-500 BC. Phokaic standard. Fish ‘tout seul’ to left / Rectangular incuse punch with irregular striations. Von Fritze -; Hurter & Liewald -; Rosen -; for similar issues with fish as obverse type attributed to Thraco-Macedonian region cf. Tzamalis 21; cf. Leu 45, 98 and 99; for similar reverse punch cf. Svoronos, l’hellenisme primitif de la macedoine, pl. XV, 31. 2.70g, 10mm. Near Mint State. Apparently unique and unpublished. Of significant numismatic interest.

50

5,000


Magnificent Akanthos Tetradrachm

148.

Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-430 BC. Lion right, attacking bull crouching left; in exergue, fish left / AKANΘION in shallow incuse around quadripartite square, the quarters raised and granulated. Cf. Desneux 96 (unlisted obv. die); SNG ANS -. 17.43g, 30mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. Sharply struck and perfectly centred within a full border.

25,000

The ubiquitous and persistent theme of the lion-bull combat can be traced back to the figurate art of the third millennium, where the geometrical motifs are replaced by narrative symbolic representations, and the scene is characteristic of Near Eastern art in its infancy. The earliest known depiction occurs on a ewer found at Uruk dated to the latter part of the Protoliterate period, circa 3300 BC. That ewer has a relief depiction of a lion attacking a bull from behind (see Henri Frankfort, Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient, 1963). The scene became widely distributed by 500 BC, featuring prominently in the Achaemenid Empire, and in particular at the palace of Darios in Persepolis, where it occurs no fewer than twenty seven times, including on the main staircase leading to the imperial complex. Its frequent appearance in key locations strongly suggests an important symbolic significance, which unfortunately has not survived antiquity in any explicitly clear form. Explanations for the symbolism and its power over the ancient peoples who reproduced it with prodigious enthusiasm have ranged from it being an expression of royal power, to it being an astronomical allusion, as well it being an embodiment of the constant struggle between civilisation (represented by the domesticated bull), and nature (represented by the untameable lion). This latter argument may well hold true for the Mesopotamians of Uruk, who it is known took a rather grim view of the world, seeing it as a battleground of opposing powers. One interpretation that has gained traction in recent years is that the motif is apotropaic in nature, serving to ward off evil in a similar function to the gorgoneion, which like the lion attack motif is very prevalent in ancient Greek coinage, though there is little evidence to support such a notion. G. E. Markoe (‘The Lion Attack in Archaic Greek Art’, Classical Antiquity Vol. 8, 1, 1989) convincingly suggests that a more likely explanation may be found in the examination of archaic Greek epic poetry, particularly in Homeric literature, wherein a lion attacking cattle or sheep is repeatedly employed as a simile for the aggression and valour of combatant heroes. In notable passages, Agamemnon’s victorious advance against the Trojans in the Iliad (11.113ff and 129) and Hektor’s successful pursuit of the Achaeans (15.630ff) are both likened to a lion triumphing over its hapless prey. In both of these cases the allusion is completed by the defeated being compared to fleeing prey animals. In all, there are twenty five examples present in the Iliad of heroic warriors being compared to leonine aggressors, with the victims variously compared to boars, sheep, goats, bulls or deer. The repetition of this literary device is clearly demonstrative of how deeply rooted the imagery was in the Greek (and perhaps more generally human) consciousness. Of further and great significance is the involvement of the gods as the primary instigators of heroic leonine aggression in almost every case, and as it is made clear that the lion itself is an animal that is divinely directed to its prey (11.480, by a daimon), so then is the lion attack a metaphor for divinely inspired heroic triumph.

51


149. Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 430-390 BC. Phoenician standard. Lion to right, attacking bull crouching left; counter-clockwise swastika above / AKANΘION in shallow incuse around quadripartite square, the quarters raised and granulated. Desneux –; CNG 99, 63 (same dies); New York Sale XXX, lot 83 (same dies). 13.88g, 25mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Attractive old tone with hints of iridescence. Very rare issue unknown to Desneux, only six in CoinArchives.

3,500

Ex Künker 216, 8 October 2012, lot 242.

Well Preserved Tetradrachm of Mende

150. Macedon, Mende AR Tetradrachm. Circa 425 BC. Dionysos, head facing, holding a kantharos in his right hand and thyrsos in his left, reclining on donkey walking to right / Grape vine with four grape-clusters on raised square; all within incuse square. Jameson 1960 (same dies); Noe 64 (same dies). 17.04g, 26mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare. Ex Leu 83, 6 May 2002, lot 170.

10,000

151. Macedon, Chalkidian League AR Tetradrachm. Olynthos, circa 390 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Kithara of seven strings, XAΛKIΔEΩN around; all within incuse square. Cf. Robinson & Clement Group F, 9 (A8/P-; unpublished reverse die); SNG ANS 470 (same obverse die). 14.45g, 24mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

5,000

From the Ambrose Collection. In 393 BC the king of Macedon Amyntas III was driven out by Illyrians. Amyntas transferred control of some of his territories to Olynthos during this period, and when in the following year he recovered his throne with the assistance of the Thessalians, these territories were restored to him. In order to counter the threat of the Illyrians, Amyntas established an alliance with Olynthos, granting them trade rights to Macedonian timber in exchange for their support. This timber was sold to Athens to rebuild their fleet, and with Athenian silver flowing north to Olynthos, the Chalkidian League gradually grew in wealth and power.

52


Spectacular Stater of Philippoi

152.

Macedon, Philippoi AV Stater. Circa 356-345 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Tripod with legs terminating in lion’s paws, circular ornaments on top; ΦIΛIΠΠΩN upwards in left field, grape bunch to right. Bellinger, ANSMN 11, 33, 20. 8.63g, 18mm, 8h. Mint State. Extremely Rare.

20,000

Originally a Thasian foundation, the town of Daton alternated between Athenian control for most of the fifth century, a brief period of local autonomy in the first half of the fourth century, and once more came under the control on Thasos in circa 360 BC when the local mines were recaptured with Athenian backing and the town was refounded with the new name of Krenides. Shortly thereafter however, in 356 Krenides was threatened by Thracians, and the citizens appealed to the rising power in the area, Philip of Macedon. Philip had conquered Amphipolis the year before, and he now took Krenides under his aegis. The city was strengthened greatly with new fortifications, enlarged with new colonists, and was renamed Philippoi in honour of the king. Having gained command of the Mount Pangeion region and the 1000 talents a year in gold that its mines provided, Philip at first permitted the city to continue striking coinage in its own name, using types that it had previously employed, in both gold and silver - it is to this period of production that the present coin belongs. For a time therefore, the coinage of Philippoi must have circulated alongside Philip’s royal coinage, however with the advent of Philip’s currency reforms of the 340s, gold production at Philippoi came to an end. Philip revolutionised the coinage of the kingdom of Macedon, which would eventually also supersede that of all Greece. Philip’s brother Perdikkas, though he had initially struck a silver coinage, was later like his elder brother Alexander II before him, only able to coin in bronze. Philip now had prodigious quantities of not only silver, but gold too in measure beyond what his brothers could have dreamed. Before Philip, gold coins issued by the Greeks had been extremely infrequent, and struck usually only in times of great emergency. Philip’s control of the Pangeion mines now enabled him to make Macedon the first state in the Greek world to issue gold uninterruptedly year on year, which he did with a new standardised Macedonian gold currency denominated in staters, hemistaters and quarter staters, as well as 1/8 and 1/12 fractions. This wealth would provide the driving force behind his successive conquests, expansion and diplomatic manoeuvres that enabled him to unify all Greece under Macedonian hegemony, and set the stage for his planned invasion of Persia. As for Philippoi, following its incorporation into the Kingdom of Macedon, it would next feature significantly on the pages of history only centuries later when in October 42 BC, on the plain to the west of the city, the legions of Octavian and Marc Antony faced those Brutus and Cassius to determine the fate of the Roman world.

53


153. Macedon, Skione AR Tetrobol. Circa 480-450 BC. Male head to right / Eye within incuse square, ΣKI around. SNG ANS 708. 2.27g, 11mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine, and beautifully toned. Very Rare.

250

Superb Early Philip II Tetradrachm

154. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Lifetime issue. Pella, circa 356–348 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right / The king, wearing kausia and chlamys, raising his right hand in salute and riding a horse walking to the left; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around, Δ under horse’s raised foreleg, star under belly. Le Rider 125 (D73/R99). 14.43g, 25mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. An exceptional example of the early coinage of Philip.

8,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex W.B. and R.E. Montgomery Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group 66, 19 May 2004, lot 176; Ex Numismatik Lanz 54, 12 November 1990, lot 121. Philip, despite Athenian opposition to his participation in the Olympics on the grounds that he was a non-Greek, went on to become an Olympic victor three times in 356, 352 and 348 BC. On the first occasion, Plutarch reports that upon having conquered Potidaia Philip was informed that his horse had won its race, and that this day he also learned of the victory of his general Parmenion against the Illyrians, and that his wife Myrtale had given birth to a son, Alexander. In commemoration of his Olympic victory, Philip decreed that his wife should henceforth be known as Olympias, and he caused these coins to be struck, proudly displaying both he and his horse in victorious stance upon the reverse.

2x 155. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Quarter Stater. Pella, circa 345/2-340/36 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / ΦIΛIΠΠOY below bow and club; above, facing lion head. Le Rider 2 (D2/R2); SNG ANS –; SNG Saroglos –; SNG Alpha Bank –; SNG München –; CNG 79, lot 152 (same dies). 2.12g, 12mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Very Rare. 2x

2x

156

157

2,000

156. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Twelfth Stater. Pella, struck 345/2-340/36 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / ΦIΛIΠΠOY, thunderbolt; facing lion head below. Le Rider 6-35; SNG ANS 209–15; SNG Alpha Bank 252–4. 0.72g, 9mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Struck on a broad flan.

750

157. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Twelfth Stater. Pella, struck 345/2-340/36 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / ΦIΛIΠΠOY, thunderbolt; facing lion head below. Le Rider 6-35; SNG ANS 209–15; SNG Alpha Bank 252–4. 0.72g, 8mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

54

500


158. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Pella, circa 340-328 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer driving biga to right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; kantharos below, ΦIΛIΠΠOY in exergue. Le Rider 133-226; SNG Copenhagen 529. 8.62g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; rev. slightly double-struck.

2,500

Very Rare Philip II Hemistater

159. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Hemistater. Amphipolis, circa 340-328 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Forepart of lion to right; scallop shell below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above. Le Rider 1a (D1/R1); SNG ANS 280. 4.29g, 14mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

160. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 336-328 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nude youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above, bee below, janiform-head vase to right. Le Rider 263-325; SNG ANS 510-20. 14.43g, 25mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Golden toning around the devices.

1,000

Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 136.

161. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nude youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; coiled serpent below, Boiotian shield to right, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around. Le Rider pl. 22, 529 (D281/R433). 14.38g, 25mm, 3h. Mint State. Ex Numismatik Lanz 150, 13 December 2010, lot 109.

55

1,500


162. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 323-317 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nude youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; wreath below, Λ to right, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around. Le Rider pl. 45, 22. 14.28g, 26mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine. Superb style. Pleasant toning around the devices.

1,500

163. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 307-297 BC. Head of Zeus right, wearing laurel wreath / Nude youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; below, Λ above torch; monogram to right, ΦIΛIΠΠOY around. Le Rider pl. 47, 23; SNG ANS 794; SNG München 137. 14.20g, 27mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned and struck on a broad flan.

2,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 54, 2 March 2010, lot 74.

164. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 332-326 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; grape bunch in left field, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 29; Troxell, Studies, Issue B7. 17.23g, 25mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

165. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 316-311 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; shield in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, Π with pellet below throne. Price 132. 17.23g, 25mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

56

400


166. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Quarter Stater. Amphipolis, circa 330-320 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested helmet ornamented with a coiled serpent / ΑΛΕΞΑΝ-ΔΡΟΥ in two lines, club between, thunderbolt and bow above. Price 165; SNG Alpha Bank 464–6; SNG Saroglos 179. 2.14g, 10mm, 12h. Very Fine.

750

Very Rare Left-Facing Alexander

167. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; Θ in left field, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 213A; Gemini IX, 63; cf. SNG Lockett 1439. 17.23g, 25mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

168. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 315-310 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; Boiotian shield in left field, coiled serpent under throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 249; SNG Copenhagen 728; Muller 754. 17.18g, 25mm, 10h. Well centred, Extremely Fine.

500

169. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in Greece or Macedon, circa 310-275 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; aphlaston in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 861 and pl. XLI, 861a (same obv. die); SNG München -; SNG Alpha Bank -. 17.07g, 27mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone. Very Rare. From the Angelo S. Collection; Ex Peus 380, 3 November 2004, lot 427.

57

3,500


170. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Abydos, circa 328-323 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, corn ear to left, monogram under left wing. Price 1518; Müller 573. 8.55g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

4,000

171. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Magnesia ad Maeandrum, circa 200-196 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monogram above horse-head left in left field; maeander pattern in exergue. Price 2049 var. (control marks); Mektepini 382 var. (same); Roma V, 23 March 2013, 262 (same dies). 16.98g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 425.

Medallic Tetradrachm of Alexander

172. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Civic issue of Kaunos, circa 300-280 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, drapery about legs and waist, holding sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, double headed axe to left. Price 2074; Müller 1128. For the reattribution to Kaunos, see R.H.J. Ashton, “Kaunos, not Miletos or Mylasa,” NC 2004, pp. 33–46. 17.05g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive iridescent tone. From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Prospero Collection, New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 311; Purchased from Spink & Son Ltd., London, February 1989. When one compares these dies to the contemporary issues of the type from this mint, which are uniformly of poor style and execution, it is not perhaps implausible to conceive of this having been a special issue intended for some specific purpose or occasion, such is its medallic quality.

58

6,000


173. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Miletos, circa 323-319 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent, and necklace / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monogram to left, doubleheaded axe below right wing. Price 2114. 8.61g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

174. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Civic issue of Miletos, circa 295-270 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, MI monogram in left field. Price 2150. 17.19g, 31mm, 1h. Fleur De Coin.

5,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 155.

175. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Sardes, circa 334-323 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; serpent in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 2532. 8.60g, 16mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

1,250

176. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Sardes, circa 322-318 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike alighting left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ to left, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, torch below left wing, pellet-in-A below right wing. Price 2633; ADM I Series XV 300 (this obverse die). 8.57g, 18mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Handsome, lustrous metal.

From the Ambrose Collection. An exceptionally graceful and elegant rendering of Nike, who we see at the moment of her alighting, wings still spread in their final beat to complete her descent, the delicate folds of her chiton billowing out behind her.

59

2,500


Magnificent Lifetime Tetradrachm

177. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Tarsos, 327-323 BC. Lifetime issue, struck under Balakros. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, plough in left field, Θ below throne, globe at upper right. Price 3032. 17.31g, 29mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous, lightly toned, well centred and struck on a very broad flan. A magnificent tetradrachm.

3,000

Prior to Alexander’s arrival at Tarsos there was already a well established Persian coinage produced from that city by the satrapal governors of Cilicia, whose silver staters displayed the figure of Baal, seated and holding his lotus-tipped sceptre. Indeed, the depiction of this deity is in some cases so similar to the Zeus of Alexander’s imperial coinage that O. Zervos and F. de Callataÿ suggested that Alexander’s tetradrachms could not have been issued until after his arrival at Tarsos – that the Baal of Tarsos was the model for his enthroned Zeus. Though shown to be an improbable notion by Price, what is certain is that the engravers working at Tarsos were immediately re-tasked to producing Alexandrine coinage without any great break in production. Balakros, son of Nikanor, was one of Alexander’s somatophylakes (bodyguards) and was appointed satrap of Cilicia after the Battle of Issos in 333 BC. He enacted many new fiscal measures in Alexander’s name, and served Alexander loyally until his death in circa 324 BC while leading an expedition against a revolt in Pisidia. In adulthood his three sons all served Antigonos Monophthalmos and his son Demetrios afterwards, and were honoured with dedications at the Sanctuary of Delos.

178. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Tarsos, circa 327-313 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; plough right in left field, Θ below throne, pellet in upper right field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 3032. 17.10g, 28mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

500

179. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Tarsos, circa 327-313 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; plough right in left field, Θ below throne, pellet in upper right field, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ around. Price 3034; Newell, Tarsos 40. 17.28g, 28mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

60

300


180. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Tarsos, circa 323-319 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent; Θ behind / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; monogram above Θ to left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 3045. 8.58g, 17mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare bearing the Θ initial on the obverse. Fine Style.

3,000

181. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Myriandros, circa 330-325 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left holding sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, scorpion in left field, ME monogram below throne. Price 3218; Newell, Myriandros 18. 17.16g, 26mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine; some corrosion spots. Rare.

300

182. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Arados, circa 323-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ in exergue, kerykeion in left field, AP monogram below throne. Price 3332; SNG Alpha Bank 675; SNG Saroglos 579-81. 17.18g, 25mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine, lustrous and highly attractive surfaces.

2,000

Struck from an obverse die of particularly fine style, this coin’s portrait has an intensity that makes it stand out among its peers. Herakles possesses a piercing gaze, and the textured effect on the lion skin demonstrates the engraver’s extra time and effort spent on his work. The striking effect is enhanced by high relief.

61


183. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Arados, circa 323-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ in exergue, kerykeion in left field, AP monogram below throne. Price 3332; SNG Alpha Bank 675; SNG Saroglos 579-81. 17.23g, 27mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. Fine style dies.

1,000

184. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Arados, circa 323-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ in exergue, kerykeion in left field, AP monogram below throne. Price 3332; SNG Alpha Bank 675; SNG Saroglos 579-81. 17.15g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Well centred reverse of fine style, struck on a broad flan.

750

185. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Arados, circa 323-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ in exergue, kerykeion in left field, AP monogram below throne. Price 3332; SNG Alpha Bank 675; SNG Saroglos 579-81. 17.19g, 27mm, 2h. Good Very Fine; X grafitto in field.

300

186. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Byblos, circa 330-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, AP monogram in left field. Price 3426; Müller 1375. 17.18g, 28mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

62

500


Exceedingly Rare and Stunning Alexander Stater

187. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Susa, circa 325-320 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing pendant earring, necklace and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with eagle / Nike standing to left, holding wreath in right hand and cradling stylis with left; monograms below left and right wings, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ to right. Price 3826A; SNG Berry 184. 8.59g, 19mm, 4h. Mint State. Exceedingly Rare.

7,500

The gold staters in the name of Alexander struck at Susa are today comparatively rare, but even among this scarce series this issue stands out prominently both in rarity and on account of the symbol found on the helmet of Athena. Rather than the commonly seen griffin, coiled serpent or sphinx, instead here we are presented with an eagle (or dove) in flight. The reason for this departure from normal form may hold some significance, or be nothing more than the whim of the engraver - we shall never know. The highly artistic engraving of Nike deserves special mention also, as it is rich with intricate and delicate features - Nike’s face is exceptionally well detailed, her wings likewise, and she clasps the laurel wreath delicately between thumb and index finger as she gazes reverentially at it.

188. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain Eastern mint, circa 325-300 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; torch in left field, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ below, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 4001. 17.27g, 25mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine.

63

400


189. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Lampsakos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, buckle above crescent-over-A in left field. Price P13A. 8.61g, 19mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. Superb, sharp strike and brilliant mint lustre.

5,000

190. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right, monogram in left field, serpent below left wing. Price P33; Müller P67. 8.65g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Engraved in fine style and stuck on a broad flan. An exceptionally bold reverse.

4,000

191. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing right, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right, monogram in left field, coiled serpent at feet to left. Price P34; Müller P66. 8.61g, 17mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

4,000

192. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Babylon, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin, single-pendant earring and necklace / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, facing head of Helios below left wing, KY below right wing. Price P203; Müller P116. 8.62g, 19mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

64

5,000


193. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with a coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right; monogram over pentagram to left, serpent under left wing. Price 1523; Müller 383. 8.62g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

4,000

Final Macedonian Issue of ‘Alexanders’

194. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip V AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III. Pella, circa 180 BC. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; club in left field, AΛEΞANΔPOY before, B below throne. Price 636; Müller -; Roma e30, 91. 16.67g, 30mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Good style. Extremely Rare; one of only two examples on CoinArchives.

1,500

This coin is part of the final issue of ‘Alexanders’ in Macedonia, as outlined by Seyrig (H. Seyrig, ‘Monnaies héllenistiques, 5. Philippe V ou les Bottiéens’, RN 1963, 14-8, pl. ii). Price notes: “It represents a revival of the coinage that is much later than the groups of te early part of Antigonus’ reign. Seyrig showed that the style of the head of Herakles on these later issues compared closely with that on bronze issues in the name of Philip V, dated from the use of the same symbol and monograms as are found on the silver tetradrachms to the later years of his reign. The Alexander issue is not, however, marked with the controls of the royal coinage of Philip, and was presumably struck to make a particular payment for which this type of coinage was stipulated. The letter B which occurs on the Alexanders of this group may be related to the name of the Bottiaeans of the Emanthian plain around Pella, who at this time struck fractional coinage parallel to the royal issues of Philip V. This suggestion is strengthened by the symbol of the prow (Price 640-2) which echoes the reverse type of the coinage of the Bottiaeans.” F. W. Walbank (Philip V of Macedon, Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 265) notes however that there is now evidence of at least three other regional issues - those of the Amphaxians, coined at Thessalonica, and those of two Paeonian peoples, the Doberes and Paroreians. Additionally, many cities minted in their own names including Amphipolis, Aphytis in Chalkidike, Apollonia, Pella and Thessalonica. Walbank concludes that this represents a concession of the king’s centralised political authority and an unprecedented devolution of minting authority. Rather than necessarily indicating weakness or insecurity though, Walbank makes that case for this devolution being a method of achieving some consolidation following the absolutist policies of the Antigonids, who had ever restricted coining rights, even to the great trading cities on the coasts. He proposes that the success Philip achieved in this policy should be measured by the prosperity of Macedon and the loyalty of its people to the king; the state of the Macedonian state on the eve of the Third Macedonian War indicate that this concession “weakened neither nation nor monarchy”.

195. Macedon under Roman Rule, First Meris AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, Circa 167-149 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder, in the centre of a Macedonian shield / Club; AP monogram and MAKEΔONΩN above, ΠPΩTHΣ below; all within oak wreath, thunderbolt to left. Prokopov, Silver 208–11 var. (O54/R– [unlisted rev. die]); SNG Copenhagen 1310–1. 16.82g, 30mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

65

400


Alexander and Bukephalos

196. Macedon, Koinon of Macedonia Æ26. Pseudo-autonomous issue. Time of Gordian III, AD 238-244. AΛEΞANΔPOV, head of Alexander III ‘the Great’ to right / ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ Β ΝΕΩKO, Alexander riding Bukephalos, galloping right; star below. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 1356, 1372; AMNG 647 var. 9.73g, 25mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

THRACO-MACEDONIAN TRIBES

2x 197. Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, Siris AR Trihemiobol or 1/8 Stater. Circa 525-480 BC. Satyr crouching right, two pellets flanking / Quadripartite incuse square divided diagonally. Smith Group 7; Svoronos pl 8, 11; SNG ANS 971-3 (all catalogued as Lete). 1.15g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare in such excellent condition.

1,000

THRACE Very Rare and Exceptional 9 Obols of Byzantion

198. Thrace, Byzantion AR 9 Obols. Circa 240-220 BC. Antipater, magistrate. Veiled and wreathed head of Demeter right / Poseidon seated right on rocks, holding trident and aphlaston; ΠΥ to left, monogram to right, EΠI ANTIΠATΡΟΥ below. Schönert-Geiss, Byzantion 1031; cf. SNG BM Black Sea 62; SNG Copenhagen 487. 3.66g, 21mm, 1h. Mint State. Very Rare; exceptional for the type.

1,000

Apparently Unpublished Diobol

2x 199. Thrace, Dikaia(?) AR Diobol. Head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin headdress / Head of lion left within incuse square. Apparently unpublished in the standard references; for similar types, cf. Gitbud & Naumann 37, 94 (erroneously attributed to Archelaos). 1.17g, 10mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

66

500


Extremely Rare Thasos Stater

200. Islands off Thrace, Thasos AR Stater. Circa 412-404 BC. Bald headed and nude Satyr in kneeling-running stance to right, carrying off a protesting nymph; Φ in right field / Quadripartite incuse square. Traité -; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; Svoronos, L’hellénisme primitif de la Macédoine, p. 99, 24; Le Rider pl I, 6; SNG Lockett 1219; SNG Berry 610. 8.72g, 21mm. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

Evidently from the same series as the celebrated ‘A’ die (see Kraay-Hirmer 437; Gulbenkian 464; Le Rider, Thasiennes, 6; SNG Copenhagen Suppl. 103), the Φ issue shares many of the same stylistic characteristics and was probably the work of the same engraver. It is far rarer; in contrast to the several dozen examples of the ‘A’ issue, there appear to have been fewer than half a dozen examples of the ‘Φ’ issue at auction in the past couple of decades.

Wonderfully Toned Tetradrachm of Lysimachos

201. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lysimacheia, circa 305-281 BC. Head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing diadem and horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros enthroned left, shield decorated with Medusa’s head resting against base of throne, on which monogram, spear resting behind; lion’s head below right hand, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙMΑXOY to left. Thompson 16. 17.15g, 30mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. Old cabinet toning with iridescent highlights over incredibly lustrous metal.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 118.

Extremely Rare Lysimachos Stater of Alexandrine Type

202. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AV Stater. In the types of Alexander III of Macedon. Sestos, circa 299/8-297/6 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing necklace and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis in left arm; BAΣIΛEΩΣ and forepart of lion above ΔI within circle to left, bukranion below left wing, ΛYΣIMAXOY to right. Thompson 20; Price L4; Müller –; SNG Lockett 1243 (same obv. die); Bement 885 (same obv. die); Jameson 2029 (same obv. die); N. Sicurella, “Gold stater of Lysimachus revisited,” The Celator 13/1 (January 1999), p. 35, fig. 3. 8.56g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

67

3,000


203. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lampsakos, circa 297-281 BC. Head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing diadem and horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros enthroned left, shield decorated with Medusa’s head resting against base of throne, below which star, spear resting behind; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙΜΑΞΟΥ to left, torch to inner left. Thompson 43; Müller 381; SNG France 2538-9. 17.07g, 29mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Beautiful style.

750

204. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Drachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Ephesos, circa 295-288 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ to right, Ε-Φ flanking bee in left field. Thompson -; Price 1877; Müller 1017. 4.29g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

205. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 288-281 BC. Head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing diadem and horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros enthroned left, shield decorated with Medusa’s head resting against base of throne, spear resting behind; monograms in inner left field and in exergue. Cf. Thompson 213 (different left monogram); Tkalec Auction May 2010, lot 32. 16.99g, 28mm, 12h. Very Fine. Attractively toned.

68

1,250


SKYTHIA Extremely Rare Borysthenes Stater

206. Skythia, Borysthenes EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Lydo-Milesian standard. Lion curled in foetal position / Two incuse squares with geometric patterns; incuse crescent on one side. Anokhin 150; H.S. Kim, “Electrum Ingot Hoard (2002)” in SNR 83 (2004), A corr. (not modern); CNG 102, lot 173 (same dies and punches). 14.29g, 23mm. Good Very Fine. Struck on a broad flan. Extremely Rare.

7,500

Extremely Rare Stater of Olbia

207. Skythia, Olbia AR Stater. Circa 320-315 BC. Head of Demeter left, wearing wreath of grain ears / Sea eagle standing to left on dolphin, wings spread and head right; OΛBIO below. SNG Stancomb 361 (same obv. die); SNG BM Black Sea 436. 12.74g, 24mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

CIMMERIAN BOSPOROS

208. Cimmerian Bosporos, Pantikapaion Æ21. Circa 310-304/3 BC. Bearded head of satyr right / Forepart of griffin left; Π-Α-Ν around, below, fish left. MacDonald 69; Anokhin 1023; HGC 7, 113; SNG BM 870; SNG Copenhagen 30. 7.02g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

75

CRETE

209. Crete, Itanos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 320-270 BC. Head of Athena to left, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with two olive leaves on the visor and a palmette on a tendril on the bowl / Eagle with folded wings standing left, head turned back to right; ΙΤΑΝΙΩΝ before, Skylla behind. BMC 16; Svoronos 38, pl. XIX, 21; Traeger, Itanos, NNB 48, C 43; Jacquier 40, 124 (same dies). 2.60g, 15mm, 3h. Good Very Fine.

69

250


Herakles Slays the Lernean Hydra

210.

Crete, Phaistos AR Stater. Mid 4th century BC. Herakles standing in fighting attitude to right, wearing Nemean lion skin, seizing with his left hand one of the heads of the Lernean Hydra, and with his right hand preparing to strike with club; bow and bowcase in left field / Bull standing to left. Svoronos 66, pl. XXIV, 23 (these dies); Le Rider pl. XXIII, 11 (same dies); BMFA Suppl. 125 (same dies). 11.60g, 26mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only two examples recorded by Le Rider.

15,000

From a private American Collection. The obverse of this coin depicts the second of Herakles’ Twelve Labours set by Eurystheos, the agent of Hera. He was tasked with slaying the ancient serpent-like monster that resided in the lake of Lerna in the Argolid, which guarded an underwater entrance to the underworld. Upon cutting off each of the Hydra’s heads however, Herakles found that two more would grow back in its place, an expression of the hopelessness of such a struggle for any but the hero. Realizing that he could not defeat the Hydra in this way, Herakles called on his nephew Iolaos for help. Iolaos then came upon the idea (possibly inspired by Athena) of using a firebrand to cauterize the stumps after each decapitation. When Hera saw that Herakles was gaining the upper hand she sent a large crab to distract the hero, but Herakles crushed it underfoot. He cut off the last and strongest of the Hydra’s heads with a golden sword given to him by Athena, and so completed his task. Hera, upset that Herakles had slain the beast she raised to kill him, placed it in the vault of the heavens as the constellation Hydra, and she turned the crab into the constellation Cancer. The encounter with the Lernean Hydra is not only well attested in epic, but is also the subject of some of the earliest securely identifiable Herakles scenes in Greek art. On two Boiotian fibulae of c. 750-700 BC (BM 3025, Philadelphia 75-35-1), the hydra is attacked by Herakles, at whose feet is the crab sent by Hera. This particular form of the scene would later be replicated on the coins of Phaistos (cf. Svoronos 60, pl. XXIV, 20), even including the crab. The present example is the earliest in the Herakles-Hydra series at Phaistos, and consequently is more archaistic in style. It has been extensively argued that the later designs of Phaistos copy a now lost masterpiece of sculpture or painting, perhaps even a statue group by the great sculptor Lysippos (see Lehmann, ‘Statues on Coins’, New York 1946; see also Lacroix, ‘Les Reproductions de Statues sur les Monnaies Grecques’, Liege 1949; see also Lattimore, ‘Lysippian Sculpture on Greek Coins’, California Studies in Classical Antiquity Vol. 5 1972). The present type however most likely draws its inspiration from a locally significant vase or wall painting, given that the composition is pictorial in nature, showing Herakles’ bow and quiver behind him in the field. Though the particular source of inspiration for this type is not known, clear parallels can be seen in surviving Greek art of the late Archaic and early Classical periods, notably on an Attic black figure Lekythos now in the Louvre (CA598) which depicts Herakles and the Hydra in a similar combat pose.

70


A Lost Sculpture by Lysippos?

211.

Crete, Phaistos AR Stater. Mid-Late 4th century BC. Herakles standing in fighting attitude to left, wearing Nemean lion skin, seizing with his left hand one of the heads of the Lernean Hydra, and with his right hand preparing to strike with club; by right foot, crab on exegual line / ΦΑΙΣΤΙOΝ, Bull butting to right on straight exergual line. Cf. obverse: Svoronos pl. 24, 22 and Svoronos pl. 24, 19 (same die), and reverse Le Rider pl. 24, 24. 11.88g, 27mm, 10h. Very Fine - Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

10,000

Ex Hess-Divo 329, 17 November 2015, lot 80. It has been repeatedly suggested that the later designs of Phaistos copy a now lost masterpiece of sculpture or painting, perhaps even a statue group by the great sculptor Lysippos (see Lehmann, ‘Statues on Coins’, New York 1946; see also Lacroix, ‘Les Reproductions de Statues sur les Monnaies Grecques’, Liege 1949; see also Lattimore, ‘Lysippian Sculpture on Greek Coins’, California Studies in Classical Antiquity Vol. 5 1972). Lattimore makes a plausible and convincing argument for the Herakles-Hydra confrontation as depicted here being copied from a sculpture; in particular he notes that a sculptural prototype is strongly suggested by ‘a feature that is rare, possibly unique, in Greek numismatic design: the group of combatants is shown from both sides, not in mirror reversal, but as two profile views of a three-dimensional group’ (cf. Svoronos pl. XXIV, 17 and 22, and Wroth pl. XV, 6). Lattimore notes two discrepancies: that the head of the lion skin is sometimes depicted whether we are shown the front or back view of Herakles, and the lion’s paw always passes behind the body of Herakles, but he explains these as a minor and illustrative artistic licence on the part of the die engraver, and a practical necessity to avoid overlapping planes, respectively.

71


Among the Finest Known

212. Crete, Polyrhenion AR Stater. 4th century BC. Magistrate Charisthe. Laureate head of Zeus to right / Head of sacrificial bull facing, with pendant fillets hanging from horns; ΧΑΡΙΣΘΕ above, ΠΟΛΥΡΗΝΙΟΝ around. Svoronos (1972) 6, pl. XXV, 29 (same dies); Le Rider (1966) pl. XXXIII, 19 (same dies). 11.43g, 25mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known examples.

7,500

From a private American Collection. Polyrhenion was one the oldest Dorian settlements of Crete, whose etymology is ‘rich in lambs’. According to Strabo it was settled in archaic times by Achaian and Lakonian immigrants who gathered into one city the existing population, who had lived in villages, some 7 km inland from the Bay of Kissamos. Excavations from 1938 have exposed several building foundations which defy identification, but it may safely be presumed that one of these was a temple dedicated to Zeus. The bull sacrifice was a universal and key element of Greek religion, and it held particular significance in Crete which was rich in mythological traditions relating to the bull as a divine animal, being either divinely directed or indeed itself a theriomorphic god in bull form. Indeed, the central importance of the bull in Cretan culture was an ancient one predating even the arrival of the Mycenean Greeks in the 14th century BC; twentieth century archaeological excavations begun by Arthur Evans in 1900 dramatically ‘resurrected’ the lost Minoan civilisation and uncovered a wealth of artefacts which, among other things, portray the bull as a major religious symbol. The mythical origin of the idea of bull or ox sacrifice was believed to be from the story of Prometheos in Hesiod’s Theogamy (521-616). At Mekone, in a a sacrificial meal marking the ‘settling of accounts’ between mortals and immortals, Prometheos purposely deceives Zeus by assigning to him a good-looking portion ‘wrapped in glistening fat’ that consists of nothing but bones, thus ensuring humans would keep the meat for themselves and burn the bones wrapped in fat as an offering to the gods.

TROAS

213. Troas, Alexandria Troas Æ24. Pseudo-autonomous issue, circa mid 3rd century AD. ALEX TRO, turreted and draped bust of Tyche right; vexillum behind / COL AVGO TROAD, she-wolf standing right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. Bellinger A495; SNG von Aulock 1465; SNG Copenhagen 104-7. 6.99g, 24mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Light ‘Tiber’ tone.

250

AEOLIS

214

215

214. Aeolis, Temnos AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Circa 188-170 BC. Echenikos and Geitas, magistrates. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; in left field, EXENI-KOΣ in two lines above oinochoe within vine tendril, ΓEI-TAΣ in two lines below throne. Price 1690; SNG Saroglos 431. 16.78g, 35mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; minor roughness before portrait. Lustrous metal. 750 215. Aeolis, Aigai AR Tetradrachm. Circa 151-143 BC. Wreathed head of Apollo Smintheos right, bow and quiver over shoulder / Zeus standing left, holding eagle and sceptre, AIΓAIEΩN to right, monogram to left; all within oak wreath. SNG Ashmolean 1252; SNG von Aulock 1595; SNG Copenhagen 6. 16.76g, 32mm, 1h. Very Fine. Very Rare. 500

72


2x 216. Aeolis, Kyme AR Hemiobol. Circa 450-400 BC. Head of eagle left; K to left / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG Ashmolean -; SNG von Aulock 1623 var. (K retrograde); SNG Copenhagen 31. 0.46g, 8mm. Good Very Fine.

200

Ex Classical Numismatic Group e322, 12 March 2014, lot 237.

217

218

217. Aeolis, Kyme AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-143 BC. Seuthes, magistrate. Head of the Amazon Kyme right, wearing tainia / Horse prancing right; one-handled cup below raised foreleg, ΣEYΘHΣ below; all within laurel wreath. SNG von Aulock 1640; SNG Fitzwilliam 4310; SNG Fitzwilliam 4311 = Pozzi 2301; Bement 1413. 16.74g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 218. Aeolis, Myrina AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath / Apollo standing right, holding phiale in right hand, filleted laurel branch in left; monogram and MYPINAIΩN to left, omphalos and amphora at feet; all within laurel wreath. Sacks 19; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 12. 16.06g, 32mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 750

219

220

219. Aeolis, Myrina AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath / Apollo standing right, holding phiale in right hand, filleted laurel branch in left; monogram and MYPINAIΩN to left, omphalos and amphora at feet; all within laurel wreath. Sacks Issue 22; SNG von Aulock 1663. 16.65g, 34mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Light golden tone. 750 220. Aeolis, Myrina AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath / Apollo standing right, holding phiale in right hand, filleted laurel branch in left; monogram and MYPINAIΩN to left, omphalos and amphora at feet; all within laurel wreath. Sacks Issue 29; SNG von Aulock 1665. 16.77g, 33mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; minor corrosion spots.

IONIA

500

Second and Finest Known

2x 221. Asia Minor (Ionia?), uncertain mint AR Drachm. Late 6th-early 5th centuries BC. Head of bull right / Incuse gorgoneion. CNG 100, 1441 (same obv. die?); otherwise unpublished in the standard references. 3.66g, 14mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Apparently the second (and finest) known example. Very interesting issue.

73

3,000


The Dawn of Coinage

222. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Stater. Circa 670-660 BC. Lydo-Milesian standard. Striated type. Flattened striated surface / Two rough incuse punches separated by a cleft. Cf. Weidauer 5 (trite); Traité I 16 = BMC 1. 14.40g, 18mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of only about a dozen known specimens.

10,000

The striated type staters are generally acknowledged as being the very first ‘true’ coins. Though globular lumps of electrum had been in circulation for some years already, and some began to come with a rough punch indicating conformity to a standard weight system, the addition of an obverse type was, as observed by Aristotle, the decisive step in converting bullion into coinage. The striated staters therefore are of immense historical importance, as they represent the largest denomination of the earliest issue of ‘true’ coinage.

Unpublished Early Hemistater

223. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hemistater. Circa 650-600 BC. Lydo-Milesian standard. Raised square on which four rough pellets in quarters, on diagonally divided linear square / Rough incuse punch. Unpublished in the standard references. 7.04g, 14mm. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

3,000

Apparently Unique Early Ionian Hekte

224. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Phokaic standard. Head of lion right, mouth open / Incuse square. Cf. Weidauer 184 (stater); Traité -; SNG Kayhan -; CNG 103, 284 (lion left). 2.62g, 12mm. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

2,000

Two of the Three Known Scarab Trites

225. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Trite. Circa 600-550 BC. Lydo-Milesian standard. Carapace of scarab beetle / Two patterned incuse punches of different size and shape. CNG 51, 432; Weidauer -; Traité I -; SNG Kayhan -; Boston MFA -; Rosen -. 4.69g, 15mm. Very Fine. Of the highest rarity, unpublished in the standard references and one of only three examples known.

2,000

226. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Trite. Circa 600-550 BC. Lydo-Milesian standard. Carapace of scarab beetle / Two patterned incuse punches of different size and shape. CNG 51, 432; Weidauer -; Traité I -; SNG Kayhan -; Boston MFA -; Rosen -. 4.68g, 12mm. Very Fine. Of the highest rarity, unpublished in the standard references and one of only three examples known.

74

1,500


2x 227. Ionia, uncertain mint (Erythrai?) EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Lydo-Milesian standard. Rosette of eight bordered petals / Irregular incuse punch. Gorny & Mosch 211, 336; Goldberg 21, 1558; Cf. SNG von Aulock 7786 (Trite); Weidauer -; Rosen -; SNG Kayhan -; Linzalone -. 2.31g, 9mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

Unique and Unpublished Early Ionian Hekte

2x 228. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hekte. Circa 575-560 BC. Lydo-Milesian standard. Stylised head of lion to left / Two square punches of rough lines. Unpublished in the standard references; for general type cf. Linzalone 1069. 2.34g, 11mm. Very Fine. Unique and of considerable early numismatic significance.

3,000

2x 229. Ionia, Ephesos EL Hemihekte - 1/12 Stater. Circa 550 BC. Bee / Incuse square. Karweise Serie III; Weidauer -; BMC Ionia -; Traité -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -; Rosen -; Triton VIII, 407. 1.13g, 7mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

Earliest of an Iconic Type

230. Ionia, Ephesos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 390 BC. Chian standard. Xeines, magistrate. Bee with slightly curved wings seen from above; Ε-Φ flanking / Forepart of stag to right with head reverted, palm tree to left; ΞΕΙΝΗΣ downward to right. Cf. Ashton et all, ‘The Hecatomnus hoard’, in Coin Hoards IX, RNS, London 2002, p. 102, 2a (different dies) = Spink NC 1953, 17478. 15.21g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - the second recorded example.

7,500

This is a particularly finely engraved example of Head’s period IV tetradrachms which introduced this bold new reverse type to the Ephesian repertoire of issues: the forepart of a stag, sacred to the goddess, and the palm tree under which Artemis was born. This magistrate, ΞΕΙΝΗΣ, is also recorded on a unique didrachm of the previous transition period III (Karwiese, Lysander as Herakliskos Drakonopnigon’, NC 1980 pp. 22-3 = ANS 12); the implication therefore is that this issue was one of the very earliest, if not in fact the first, of the now iconic stag and palm tetradrachms. The quality of engraving on this marvellous tetradrachm is worthy of note; the bee in particular is rendered in a particularly fine, naturalistic style. Evidently the engraver was working from life, having had in all likelihood a specimen to study while he worked. This lifelike image stands in contrast to later issues that most likely copied other coins; all too soon the bee becomes overly geometric and symmetrical - the wings are straightened and squared off, and much of the realistic character present in the design is lost.

75


Extremely Rare Gold Stater of Ephesos

231.

Ionia, Ephesos AV Stater. Circa 133-88 BC. Draped bust of Artemis to right, wearing stephane, necklace of pearls and with her bow and quiver over her shoulder / Cult statue of the Artemis of Ephesos facing, a fillet hanging from each hand, deer to inner left, bee to inner right; Ε-Φ across fields. B.V. Head, ‘On the chronological sequence of the coins of Ephesus’, Num. Chron. 1880, p. 69, 2, and plate 5, 3 = Berlin, SM 219. 8.51g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, possibly only the second example known.

15,000

The Hellenistic era gold coinage struck at Ephesos is extremely rare and rarely well preserved. Previously thought to have all been struck during the Mithradatic wars, this is now believed not to be the case. Some appear to be dated by the era of the Province of Asia and the dates they bear are too early for them to be Mithradatic War issues. That being said, they were not necessarily all issued at the same time, and such undated types as the present specimen could well have been issued much later. For an in depth discussion on the dating of this series cf. Gilbert K. Jenkins, ‘Hellenistic gold coins of Ephesus’, in Festschrift E. Akurgal, Anadolu-Anatolia 21, 1978/80, Ankara, 1987, pp. 1838, pls. A-B. The reverse of this coin depicts the famous cult statue of Ephesian Artemis, housed in the great temple of Artemis that is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The original image of the goddess was a wooden xoanon that had represented a pre-Hellenic goddess who the Greeks later equated with Artemis. This first image, which was kept decorated with jewellery, was possibly lost in a flood in the 8th or 7th century which destroyed the temple; excavations have discovered the tear-shaped amber drops of elliptical cross-section which must have dressed it. In circa 550 BC, when reconstruction of the temple was begun (partly financed by Kroisos), it was undertaken in grand style and was supposedly the first Greek temple to be built of marble. The wooden xoanon was replaced by a new ebony or grapewood statue sculpted by Enoidos, which presumably survived until the temple was again destroyed, this time by an act of arson on the part of one Herostratos. The second destruction of the temple coincided with the birth of Alexander the Great; Plutarch later noted that Artemis was too preoccupied with Alexander’s delivery to save her burning temple. The form of the goddess is distinctly near-eastern in appearance; characteristics such as her legs being enclosed in a tapering pillar-like term are closely related to Egyptian and Hittite images, and the curious feature of the many protruberances on her chest (usually described as breasts or eggs) are decidedly non-Greek in origin, and indeed have defied explanation or identification for centuries, though an association with fertility seems implicit.

76


An Excessively Rare Tetadrachm of Klazomenai

232.

Ionia, Klazomenai AR Tetradrachm. Circa 160 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Amazon standing facing slightly left, wearing short tunic and boots, one breast exposed, holding long sceptre and bipennis, short sword at side; palm branch at feet, ΔIOΣ ΣOTHPOΩ EΠIΦANOYΣ flanking, KΛAZO in exergue. Seyrig, Revue numismatique, 1971, p. 24-25; Gemini II, 2006, lot 115; cf. for similar but with additional monogram: NY Sale XXVII (Prospero Collection), 512 = A. Meadows, ‘The Hellenistic Silver Coinage of Clazomenae’, in ‘Ancient History, Numismatics and Epigraphy in the Mediterranean World’, p. 248, 1, pl. I, 1a = Coin Hoards VIII, 471 (Tartous, Syria, 1987), pl. LXIV, 1. 16.89g, 36mm, 12h. Very Fine. Excessively Rare, the finest of only five surviving coins from this entire issue, and just one of two in private hands. 10,000 Until 1987 the coinage of Klazomenai was believed to have come to an end at the close of the 3rd century BC with a fairly unremarkable issue of Alexander-type tetradrachms. Although the present type featuring Zeus and an amazon was known since at least the 1970s with the publication of a specimen by H. Seyrig, the ethnik was missing and it was not until the discovery and publication of another specimen by Kinns and Price that the type was attributable to Klazomenai. Since then a further two specimens were identified by Meadows, all of which (and also the present piece) are struck from the same obverse die. Meadows further noted that the reverse portrayal of what is clearly an Amazon, heavily armed and with one breast exposed, despite initially appearing inexplicable, may be rationally explained by the fact that the city was located in the centre of an area that was widely believed to have once been the realm of the Amazons. Indeed, a great many of the neighbouring cities such as Kyme, Ephesos, Smyrna and Myrina among others, claimed to have been founded by eponymous Amazons. He proceeds to hypothesise that the type was the product of a territorial war between Klazomenai and neighbourning Temnos in circa 175-150 BC. He concludes: “in such circumstances, the choice of Zeus Soter Epiphanes as a coin type may well have had a polemical function within the land-claim being made by Clazomenae. So too, perhaps, did the reference to an Amazonian past”. However, Meadows does not account for the extreme rarity of the coinage. Indeed, he notes that if the Alexandertype coins of Temnos from this period and the Zeus-Amazon coinage of Klazomenai are connected, that this would explain why Temnos had issued such a seemingly large coinage at so late a date. Yet the question of why a Klazomenian war-coinage, which would have necessarily equalled that of their adversary, is so poorly represented today goes unanswered. An alternative explanation for this issue may lie in the legend of the coin, which names Zeus as ‘Manifest Saviour’. Evidently the issue is connected with an epiphane of the god to the Klazomenians which led to a military victory (the war with Temnos can hardly have warranted ascribing the epithet of Soteros to the god, since the war ended in an apparent stalemate that was resolved through mediation by the city of Knidos). This coin may possibly represent a celebratory issue struck in honour of a festival of which all record has now vanished. Certainly, Zeus does not appear before on the coinage of Klazomenai, and the issue bears many similarities to other festival coinages such as the Hyakinthotrophia coinage of Knidos c. 200 BC, the Athena Nikephoros issue of Pergamon c. 165 BC, and the festival of Apollo at Daphne issues under Antiochos IV at approximately the same time (166/165 BC). The victory which was ascribed to Zeus and which occasioned this coinage cannot be identified from the surviving information. It may have been connected to the victory achieved by Eumenes II over the Galatians in 166 who had been lately conducting damaging raids throughout the region.

77


Very Rare Rhodian Standard Tetradrachm

233. Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum AR Tetradrachm. Circa 350-325 BC. Rhodian standard. Lykomedes, magistrate. Helmeted and cuirassed cavalryman on horseback, galloping right, holding lance in right hand, cloak flowing behind / Bull charging left; ΜΑΓΝ above, ΛΥΚΟΜΗΔ below; all within circular maeander pattern. Imhoof-Blumer (1901) p. 76, 3; SNG Kayhan 409 (but magistrate’s name differently arranged). 15.10g, 25mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautifully vivid iridescent toning. Very Rare.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex A. Tkalec, 18 February 2002, lot 62. A city of ancient founding, Magnesia was originally settled sometime in the second millennium BC by Magnetes from Thessaly, from whom the city took its name, along with some Cretans. According to myth, the settlers were soldiers from Agamemnon’s army, disbanded after the Trojan War. It occupied a commercially and strategically important position in the triangle of Priene, Ephesus and Tralleis. The city evidently grew in wealth and power relatively quickly, as in the 7th century it was already strong enough to challenge Ephesus and go to war with that city. According to Strabo, citing Archilochos, at some point around 650 BC the city was taken and destroyed by Kimmerians. Strabo also relates that the site was annexed by Miletos, who may have been responsible for its reconstruction (though Athenaeus gives a conflicting account, attributing the reconstruction to Ephesos). Regardless, the city was evidently rebuilt by 547/6, when it was plundered by Mazares and subjected to Persian dominion. The earliest coinage currently attributed to Magnesia appears to have been that issued by the exiled Athenian statesman and general Themistokles, who, having been cast out of his homeland, offered his services to his former enemy Artaxerxes. The Persian king was so elated at the offer of service from such a dangerous and illustrious foe, that he made Themistokles the governor of the district of Magnesia, and assigned him the revenue of not only that city, but also Myos and Lampksakos. Following the death of Themistokles, no further coinage appears to have been issued by Magnesia for possibly as much as a century, before the present issue of tetradrachms, didrachms and drachms. In 398 BC the city was moved from its original location at the confluence of the Meander and the Lethaeus, one of its tributaries, to its present location by Thibron who, at Pergamon, had succeeded Xenophon as commander of the Ten Thousand.

Unpublished Miletos Trite

2x

2x

234. Ionia, Miletos EL Trite. Circa 560-545 BC. Lion with open jaws crouching left on decorated double exergual line / Two square incuse punches of different size, one of which contains a bird standing left. Unpublished in the standard references; for a similar obverse type electrum 1/6 Stater cf. Weidauer 128 [= B. Head, The Coins in D. Hogarth, Excavations at Ephesus, London 1908, p. 84, 52]. 4.75g, 13mm. Very Fine. Unique and of considerable early numismatic significance.

2,500

2x 235. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 625-522 BC. Head of seal left; below small seal left / Incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 2.2; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; Boston MFA 1894; BMC 7. 2.58g, 9h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

78

1,000


2x 236. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Three seals swimming clockwise around central pellet / Incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 29; SNG von Aulock -; Boston MFA 1895 = Warren 1666; Traité II 2090. 2.59g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

From the J.T.B. Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group 94, 18 September 2013, lot 528; Ex Numismatik Lanz 149, 24 June 2010, lot 196.

2x 237. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Helmeted male head to left, with frontal eye and tendril ornament on bowl of helmet; below, seal swimming to left / Rough quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 30. 2.57g, 11mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

400

Very Rare and Attractive Hekte

2x 238. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Female head left, wearing helmet or close fitting cap; seal to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 31; BMC Ionia -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 7943; SNG Kayhan 518. 2.57g, 11mm. Near Mint State. Very Rare, Bodenstedt cites only four specimens.

3,000

Very Rare Diademed Deity

2x 239. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of female deity to left, wearing diadem and rosette earring; behind, seal downward / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 33; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; SNG von Aulock 7942; Boston MFA 1907; SNG Kayhan 519; McClean 8250; de Luynes 2644. 2.59g, 10mm. Extremely Fine, and among the finest known of the type. Very Rare; only eight examples listed by Bodenstedt (of which five are in museums). 1,500

2x 240. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of young male left, wearing Silenos mask on top of his head; behind, seal swimming downward to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 70; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA –; BMC 43. 2.53g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only three specimens cited by Bodenstedt, with a further five recorded in CoinArchives.

750

2x 241. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing earring, her crested Attic helmet adorned with a Pegasos on the bowl / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 91 (d/δ). 2.54g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Highly lustrous.

79

750


Stunning Tetradrachm of Samos

242. Ionia, Samos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 390 BC. Lion’s mask facing / Forepart of ox to right, wearing an ornamental collar and with a dotted truncation, olive branch to left; ΓEIPANΔPIΔHΣ above, ΣA and bee below. Barron 138 (same dies); NC 1926, 124f, 11; SNG Copenhagen -. 15.37g, 24mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Very Rare, and of exceptional quality. One of the very finest known examples of this issue.

10,000

243. Ionia, Samos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 390 BC. Lion’s mask facing / Forepart of ox to right, wearing an ornamental collar and with a dotted truncation, olive branch to left; ΗΓΗΣΙΑΝΑΞ above, ΣA and monogram within circle below. Cf. Barron 130b = Leu 91, 164 (same obverse die); Hecatomnus p. 106, 13 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 1688. 15.34g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

244. Ionia, Smyrna AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Head of Tyche right, wearing turreted crown / ΣΜΥΡ-ΝΑΙΩΝ over monogram, all within laurel wreath. Milne, Autonomous 141; Milne, Silver obv. die A; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 4 (same obv. die). 16.37g, 35mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Exceptionally sharp reverse with none of the usual flatness.

80

2,500


245. Ionia, Smyrna AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Head of Tyche right, wearing turreted crown / ΣΜΥΡ-ΝΑΙΩΝ over monogram, all within laurel wreath. Milne, Autonomous 141; Milne, Silver obv. die A; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 4. 16.76g, 34mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

246. Ionia, Smyrna AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Head of Tyche right, wearing turreted crown / ΣΜΥΡ-ΝΑΙΩΝ over monogram, all within laurel wreath. Milne, Autonomous 141; Milne, Silver obv. die A; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 4 (same obv. die). 16.48g, 36mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

1,500

LESBOS

2x 247. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-428 BC. Female head right, wearing sakkos / Two herms facing, one male, one female, within linear border; all within shallow incuse square. Bodenstedt 46. 2.52g, 10mm, 9h. Good Fine. Extremely Rare, Bodenstedt noted only six examples; four in CoinArchives.

300

MYSIA

248. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Winged tunny fish flying left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 33; Boston MFA 1405. 16.14g, 18mm. Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

2x 249. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Forepart of lioness left, with collar of pearls; tunny fish swimming upward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 39; SNG France 178. 2.68g, 11mm. Near Extremely Fine.

81

300


2x

2x

250

251

250. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Forepart of lioness left; with collar of pearls, tunny fish swimming upward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 39; SNG France 178. 2.69g, 11mm. Good Very Fine. 250 251. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Forepart of lioness left, with collar of pearls; tunny fish swimming upward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. von Fritze I 39 (unlisted denomination); cf. SNG France 178–80 (larger denominations); cf. Boston MFA 1414–5 (same); Rosen 433; Gemini X, lot 72. 1.31g, 8mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare denomination. 200

252. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Ketos to left; tunny fish above / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 52, pl. II, 2; Boston MFA 1407; SNG France -. 15.99g, 20mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

253. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Heads of lion and ram, conjoined, back-to-back; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 54; cf. SNG France 190 (hekte); Boston MFA 1422 = Warren 1543. 16.06g, 22mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

254. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Heads of lion and ram, conjoined, back-to-back; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 54; cf. SNG France 190 (hekte); Boston MFA 1422 = Warren 1543. 16.03g, 19mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

255. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet; tunny fish behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 63; Boston 1432; Greenwell 26; SNG France –; Boston MFA 1432 = Warren 1445; Gillet 1058; Jameson 2168; Gulbenkian II, 608. 16.10g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare

82

7,500


Extremely Rare Perseus Stater

256. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of youthful Perseus to left wearing winged cap; tunny fish downwards behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 65; SNG France 193. 16.16g, 21mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of very few known examples.

20,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 639. Kyzikos, purportedly the first Milesian colony, was located on the southwest shore of the Propontis in ancient Mysia next to the river Aisepos. Its prosperity was due principally to its two fine harbours, which made the city a convenient stopping point for merchant ships trading between the Aegean and Black Seas. Its principal export was the tunny, of which its waters had abundant stock. The prevalence of winged beings in Kyzikene coinage is a reflection of archaic mythological convention that assigned wings to most divine or sacred entities as an immediately visible and understandable symbol of their nature, and in the case of gods, of their power to move at will across great distances. In the case of the winged animals, we should probably understand these to be attributes of or animals sacred to a particular Olympian god. On the present coin we see Perseus, the child of Zeus and the mortal Danaë, the daughter of the king of Argos, who though he had no mythical connection to Kyzikos, is most likely chosen as the type in recognition of his divine status and widespread worship among the Hellenes. He wears here the Ἄϊδος κυνέην - the so-called Helm of Hades which rendered its user invisible to other supernatural entities, given to him by Athena to help him evade the gorgons Sthenno and Euryale after he had slain and decapitated their sister Medusa.

Published Kyzikos Hekte

2x 257. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Bearded archaic male head to left; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. Von Fritze 66 (stater); Greenwell 78; Boston MFA -; SNG BN 194; BMC -; Gillet -; Gulbenkian -; Jameson 2170; Weber -; R. Kappeli, Kunstwerke der Antike: Kunstmuseum Luzern, Sammlung Robert Käppeli, Sonderausstellung zum 25 Jubiläum der Internationalen Musikfestwochen, Luzern (1938 - 1963), 11 August bis 27 Oktober 1963 (Basel: Schwabe, 1963), 4 (this coin). 2.67g, 11mm. Very Fine; attractive reddish tone, minor flan flaw on obverse. Very Rare.

Ex R. Käppeli Collection, Numismatica Genevensis 7, 27 November 2012, lot 74.

83

2,000


Fine Style Athena with Crested Helmet

258. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-450 BC. Head of Athena to left, wearing crested Attic helmet, base of crest decorated with zig-zag and pellet pattern; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 67, pl. I, 20; Greenwell 25; SNG France –; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA 1446; Dewing –; Gillet 1053 = Kunstfreund 3 = Jameson 2171 = Weber 4971; Gulbenkian 609 (all from the same obv. die). 16.04g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

259. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-450 BC. Head of Athena to left, wearing crested Attic helmet, base of crest decorated with zig-zag and pellet pattern; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 67; Greenwell 25; SNG France –; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA 1446; Dewing –; Gillet 1053 = Kunstfreund 3 = Jameson 2171 = Weber 4971; Gulbenkian 609 (all from the same obv. die). 16.06g, 21mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

2x 260. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Helmeted head of Athena left on tunny left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 67; SNG France 195; cf. Boston MFA 1447 (hekte). 1.35g, 9mm. Very Fine.

250

261. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. 550-500 BC. Forepart of Sphinx left; below, tunny left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 71; SNG France 198; Boston MFA 1427 = Warren 1525. 15.97g, 19mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

84

2,000


262. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Winged sphinx crouching to left; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 72, pl. II, 25; Boston 1450; SNG France 200. 16.10g, 21mm. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

263. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Winged sphinx crouching to left; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 72, pl. II, 25; Boston 1450; SNG France 200. 16.18g, 22mm. Very Fine. Very Rare

2,000

264. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Siren, with two spiralled plumes on crown of head, standing to left, holding tunny fish by the tail in right hand, left hand outstretched / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 74, pl. II, 29; Boston 1441; cf. SNG France 203 (hekte). 16.17g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

The mythical Sirens are best known to us from two ancient epics: the ‘Argonautica’ by Apollonios in which Jason and the Argonauts have to travel past them on their quest for the Golden Fleece, and Homer’s ‘Odyssey’, where they are portrayed as a pair of dangerous creatures that lure passing sailors to their deaths with their sweet music (Odyssey XII, 40). They are supposed to have inhabited an island with a particularly rocky shoreline onto which sailors would be drawn by their desire to hear the Sirens sing, leading to shipwreck. Speaking to Odysseus and warning him of the dangers he would encounter further into his journey, Queen Circe describes the Sirens as sitting in a meadow, with around them ‘a great heap of bones of mouldering men’ (XII, 45).

2x 265. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Bearded facing head of Silenos, tunny fish swimming upwards on either side / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 77; SNG France 208; SNG von Aulock 7269; Rosen Coll. 455. 2.26g, 11mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

85

500


Beautiful and Extremely Rare Lion Stater

266. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Lion crouching to left, inclining head to left and seen from above; tunny fish below to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 83, pl. III, 2; SNG France -. 16.08g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only three other examples on CoinArchives.

15,000

267. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Dog standing left, fore-paw raised; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 93, pl. III, 12; Boston 1469; SNG von Aulock 1192; SNG France 230. 16.30g, 21mm. Extremely Fine, lustrous metal. Rare.

6,000

2x 268. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Dog crouching to left, tail raised; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 93; BMFA 1471. 1.30g, 8mm. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

86

300


269. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged lioness to left; tunny fish behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 96; SNG France 237; Boston –. 16.01g, 21mm. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and among the finest specimens known of the type.

12,500

270. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged lioness to left; tunny fish behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 96; SNG France 237; Boston –. 16.06g, 21mm. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

10,000

271. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged lioness to left; tunny fish behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 96; SNG France 237; Boston MFA -. 16.07g, 19mm. Near Extremely Fine.

5,000

Apparently Unique and Unpublished

2x 272. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Head of tunny fish to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -; Hurter & Liewald -. 1.33g, 9mm. Near Mint State. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,500

273. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged stag left; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 102, Plate III, 21; Rosen Plate XII, 222; SNG von Aulock 7281; Greenwell -; SNG France -; BMC -. 16.12g, 20mm. Good Very Fine, lustrous. Very Rare.

87

2,500


274. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Winged dog seated to left, head reverted to right; tunny fish below to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 104; BMFA 1433; SNG France 245. 16.10g, 21mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare and exceptional for the type.

10,000

2x 275. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Winged dog to left, head reverted; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 104, pl. III, 23; cf. Boston MFA 1433 (stater); SNG France 246–7. 2.66g, 11mm. Good Very Fine.

300

Second Known

276. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Female head left, wearing circular earring and necklace, hair bound in Kekryphalos or sphendone; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG France -; BMFA -; Hurter & Liewald -; apparently unpublished in the standard references, for type cf. Von Fritze 106 (hekte); CNG 93, 348. 16.12g, 22mm. Good Very Fine. Second known stater of this issue.

4,000

277. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, right hand holding tunny by its tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112, pl. III, 31; SNG France 253; Boston MFA 1487. 16.02g, 21mm. Extremely Fine.

7,500

278. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, right hand holding tunny by its tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112, pl. III, 31; SNG France 253; Boston MFA 1487. 15.85g, 19mm. Extremely Fine.

88

5,000


279. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, right hand holding tunny by its tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112, pl. III, 31; SNG France 253; Boston MFA 1487. 16.19g, 19mm. Extremely Fine.

5,000

280. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, right hand holding tunny by its tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112, pl. III, 31; SNG France 253; Boston MFA 1487. 15.91g, 20mm. Very Fine.

2,500

2x 281. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, holding tunny by its tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112; cf. SNG France 253 (stater); cf. SNG von Aulock 1202 (hemihekte). 2.69g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

2x 282. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, holding tunny by its tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112; cf. SNG France 253 (stater); cf. SNG von Aulock 1202 (hemihekte). 2.64g, 10mm. Near Extremely Fine. Pleasant archaic style.

300

2x 283. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, holding tunny by its tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112; SNG von Aulock 1202; cf. SNG France 253 (stater). 1.29g, 8mm. Good Very Fine.

250

284. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-450 BC. Sphinx with curved wings, raising right forepaw, standing left on tunny fish / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 127; Greenwell 99; Boston MFA 1456 corr. (“lacking in von Fritze”); SNG BN 277; Gillet -; cf. Gulbenkian 1618 (hekte); Jameson -; Prospero 445; cf. Rosen 504 (hekte); Traité II 2720; Weber -. 15.95g, 21mm. Extremely Fine. Rare.

89

5,000


285. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Facing gorgoneion with mouth open and tongue protruding, six serpents on top of head, another below each ear; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 129, pl. IV, 15; Boston 1445 = Warren 1492; cf. SNG von Aulock 7295 (hemihekte); SNG France -. 16.10g, 21mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

4,000

While the origin or inspiration for many of the types used at Kyzikos is obscure or uncertain, the apotropaic design used on this type may be reasonably considered to have been taken from the drachms of Apollonia Pontika on the Black Sea coast of Thrace. Both on account of its relative proximity to Kyzikos and the latter’s strategic location on the main trade route, Apollonia would inevitably have had close trade economic ties with this city.

2x 286. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Facing gorgoneion with mouth open and tongue protruding, six serpents on top of head, another below each ear; below, tunny fish to left [tooth-shaped countermark with pellet] / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 129; SNG France -; Boston MFA -; SNG von Aulock -; Rosen -. 2.69g, 11mm. Near Extremely Fine.

250

Beautiful Dolphin Rider Hekte

2x 287. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 450 BC. Naked boy (Taras?), seated astride a dolphin to left, holding a tunny by the tail in his extended right hand, tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -; Rosen Coll. 487. 2.67g, 12mm. Very Rare. Very Fine.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 270.

2x 288. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 450-400 BC. Head of Attis facing right, wearing ornamented Phrygian cap; [tunny fish below] / Quadripartite incuse square. Boston 1523; W. Greenwell, ‘The Electrum Coinage of Kyzikos’, NC 1887, 56, pl. III, 5; cf. Von Fritze 142 (stater and hekte); SNG France 291 (stater and hekte). 1.32g, 9mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - one of possibly only four known specimens.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection.

Kekrops, Mythical First King of Attica

2x 289. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. 5th-4th centuries BC. Kekrops left, holding branch; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 158; Boston MFA -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG France 306; Jameson -. 2.68g, 11mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

90

1,500


The Lyric Poetess Sappho?

290. Mysia, Lampsakos AV Stater. Circa 394-350 BC. Head of female (Sappho?) left, hair in sakkos, wearing laurel wreath / Forepart of Pegasos flying right within shallow incuse square. Baldwin, Lampsakos -; Leu 20, lot 118; Münzen und Medaillen AG 53, lot 89; CNG 100, 74; otherwise unpublished. 8.44g, 17mm, 11h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare - one of only four known examples.

10,000

It has been suggested that the head on the obverse of this important coin could be that of the lyric poetess Sappho. A native of the island of Lesbos, Sappho is best known for her poems about love. Much of this is now lost and survives in fragmentary form only, but her work was well known and greatly admired through much of antiquity. Today, only around 650 lines of Sappho’s poetry still survive, of which just one poem – the “Ode to Aphrodite” – is complete.

Only Example in Private Hands

291. Mysia, Lampsakos AV Stater. Circa 394-350 BC. Head of female left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace / Forepart of Pegasos flying right within shallow incuse square. Baldwin, Lampsakos 27; SNG France 1156 = Traité II 2565 (same obv. die); G.F. Hill, “Greek coins acquired by the British Museum in 1919,” NC 1920, p. 111 and pl. XIV, 6 = Weber 5102 (same obv. die). 8.40g, 16mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only three known, the other two in museum collections (the BN and BM) and both of which are struck from the same die pair - the present coin therefore adds a new reverse die to the corpus. 15,000 Ex Triton X, 9 January 2007, lot 273.

Memnon of Rhodes

292. Mysia, Lampsakos AR Drachm. Memnon of Rhodes, mid 4th century BC. Pseudo-Rhodian type. Youthful head of Helios to left on radiate solar disk / Rose with buds to either side; M-E flanking. Ashton, Memnon 26; SNG France -; SNG Copenhagen 913 (Rhodes); SNG von Aulock 2769 (Megiste). 3.07g, 14mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Pleasant style. Rare.

300

Memnon was the commander of the Greek mercenaries in the service of Darios III when Alexander launched his invasion of the Persian empire in 334 BC. Though his troops were massacred at the Granicus by the victorious Macedonians, he led a competent resistance which, had he not died of illness, would have seriously endangered Alexander’s campaign in Asia.

293. Mysia, Parion AR Hemidrachm. 4th century BC. Bull standing left, head right; ΠΑ above, PI and wreath below / Facing gorgoneion. SNG France -; BMC 38-9. 2.36g, 15mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

91

200


Bold Portrait of Seleukos I

294.

Kingdom of Pergamon, Philetairos I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 270-265 BC. Diademed head of the deified Seleukos I to right / Athena, helmeted and wearing long robes, seated to left on low throne with lion’s feet, resting her left elbow on support in the form of a sphinx, holding a transverse downward pointing spear in her left hand and resting her right on the edge of a round shield adorned with a gorgoneion standing before her; above, ivy leaf; to right, bow. BMC 28; De Hirsch 1459; Kraay/Hirmer 736; Newell 14, XVI-36a (same dies); SNG Lockett 2718 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 7451 (same dies). 17.03g, 28mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

15,000

Philetairos began his career serving under Antigonos Monophthalmos, but after the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC where Antigonos was killed, he shifted his allegiance to Lysimachos, who entrusted him with command of the fortress of Pergamon, and a treasury of nine thousand talents of silver (234 metric tonnes). Philetairos served Lysimachos until 282 BC, when perhaps because of conflicts involving the court intrigues of Arsinoe, Lysimachos’ third wife, Philetairos deserted Lysimachos, offering himself and the important fortress of Pergamon, along with its treasury to Seleukos, who subsequently defeated and killed Lysimachos at the Battle of Korupedion in 281 BC. Seleukos himself was murdered by Ptolemy Keraunos, a brother of Arsinoe, a few months later at Lysimacheia. After the death of Seleukos, though he and Pergamon remained nominally under Seleukid dominion, Philetairos had considerable autonomy and with the help of his considerable wealth was able to increase his power and influence beyond Pergamon. His first coinage was struck under the reign of Antiochos I, the son of Seleukos, and though it proclaims his loyalty to Seleukos, the presence of his name upon the reverse must have inevitably raised suspicions about his ambitions. Nevertheless, Philetairos never went so far as to proclaim himself king, and remained loyal to the Seleukids until his death in 263. Having no children of his own, Philetairos passed the rule of Pergamon to his nephew Eumenes, who almost immediately revolted against Antiochos, defeating the Seleukid king near Sardes in 261. Eumenes was thus able to free Pergamon, and greatly increased the territory under his control. In his new possessions, he established garrison posts in the north at the foot of Mount Ida called Philetaireia after his adoptive father, and in the east, north-east of Thyatira near the sources of the river Lykos, called Attaleia after his grandfather, and he extended his control south of the river Caïcus to the Gulf of Kyme as well. Demonstrating his independence, he began to strike coins as his predecessor had done, only now the obverse portrait was that of his uncle and adoptive father Philetairos.

92


93


Excessively Rare Coin in the Name of Alyattes

295. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 610 BC. Lion’s head right with open jaws and protruding tongue, solar-disk above forehead, confronting open jaws of lion’s head left; between the two, upwards Lydian legend ALYA; granular field / Two square punch-marks. For similar issues with Lydian legends cf. Weidauer groups XVII (‘VALVEL’) and XVIII (‘..KALIL..’); ATEC pp. 215-216, groups a and b; Kraay ACGC p. 24, 63 (WELVES) or (WELVET). 4.71g, 13mm. Extremely Fine. Unpublished, and of the highest rarity and importance.

70,000

From a private German Collection. The Lydians were commercial people, who, according to Herodotus, had customs like the Greeks and were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins, and the first to establish retail shops in permanent locations (Herodotus I, 94). The kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Alyattes, the fourth Lydian king of the house of Gyges, son of Sadyattes and father of Kroisos. He is seen as the founder of the Lydian Empire and continued the war begun by his father against powerful Miletos, though he was soon obliged to turn his attention towards the Medes and Babylonians. On 28 May 585 BC, during the Battle of Halys fought against Kyaxares, king of Media, a solar eclipse took place; hostilities were suspended, peace concluded, and the Halys fixed as the boundary between the two kingdoms. He proceeded to drive the Kimmerians out of Phrygia, thus securing the trade route with the east. In the west he was able to subdue the Karians, and took several important Ionian cities including Smyrna and Kolophon, enabling him to consolidate a Mediterranean trading outlet. The earliest electrum coinage of Lydia has been the subject of much scholarly debate and variously attributed to the reigns of Gyges, Sadyattes and Alyattes. In a well thought out article ‘KUKALIṂ, WALWET, and the Artemision deposit’, in Agoranomia, Studies in Money and Exchange Presented to John H. Kroll, ANS New York 2006, R.W. Wallace not only corrects the reading of the two previously known legends, ‘VALVEL’ and ‘..KALIL..’, but convincingly demonstrates that the two series, with their several die links, belong to the same period during the reign of Alyattes, datable to about 600 BC. However, Wallace’s interpretation of WALWET as the Lydian name of Alyattes is put seriously in doubt by the appearance of the above ALYA issue, a legend much closer to the Hellenized form of Alyattes. WALWET may be connected to the Luwian word ‘walwi’ (lion) and ‘KUKALIṂ’ may be translated as ‘I am of Kukas’. These legends are probably the names of moneyers, mint-officials or regal titles appertaining to Alyattes. The ALYA issue was struck at 1/3 of a stater on the so-called Lydo-Milesian weight standard of 14.1 grams in alluvial electrum, a naturally occurring gold-silver alloy found in abundance in the washings of the Pactolos river which runs from the slopes of Mount Tmolos, through Sardis and empties into the Hermos. According to legend, King Midas divested himself of the golden touch by washing himself in the river (Ovid, Met. 11.140-144). The variable composition of electrum rendered it a difficult commodity to trade without a seal of guarantee of value, unlike pure gold or silver which had been merely weighed throughout the middle east for millennia. The seal of guarantee initially chosen was the image of a lion’s head, the personification of royal authority, strength, courage, wisdom, justice, protection, fire and gold (‘subterranean sun’), all attributes that the ambitious kings of Lydia would have been keen to emphasise. The lion, with its golden-brown coat and radiate mane was principally the personification of the sun itself, and hence it is found as a symbol of eastern sun-gods such as Mithras. The zodiac sign Leo was occupied by the Sun in the hottest part of the year, July 22 to August 22, and it was probably on account of this that it was believed that the lion was able to gaze directly at the sun without blinking. In Egypt the male lions were the guardians of the eastern and western horizons, and hence sun-rise and sun-set. It is not by chance that the head of the lion of this coin has a disk on the forehead, which can only be the solar disk, later replaced by a radiate setting or rising sun on the anonymous 1/3-staters (trites), usually attributed to Alyattes, hardly a wart ‘Warz’ as suggested by Weidauer for group XV. Indeed the very name of Anatolia (from the Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ) means the ‘east’ or [land of] ‘sunrise’.

94


2x

2x

296. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-560 BC. Lion’s head right with open jaws and protruding tongue, solar-disk above forehead, confronting open jaws of lion’s head left; WALWET (in Lydian retrograde script) between / Two incuse square punches. Weidauer Group XVII; SNG von Aulock 8204. 4.72g, 13mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, particularly so with all six letters present.

10,000

From a private German Collection. This issue was struck with an obverse die that featured two lions, but without exception, one lion is always missing or only partially visible. Due to the incompatibility in size of the die and flan, it is also almost always the case that the legend WALWET is only partially visible, with one or (usually) more letters completely missing. On this exceptional example though, we have the complete legend, with all six letters present on the flan.

2x

2x

297. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Hekte - 1/6 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-560 BC. Lion’s head left with open jaws, solar-disk above forehead, confronting open jaws of lion’s head right; WALWET (in Lydian retrograde script) between / Two incuse square punches. Weidauer 99. 2.37g, 10mm. Very Fine; exceptional for the type. Rare.

5,000

From a private German Collection. As with the trites (see above), the hektes bear two lions’ heads, though like their larger counterparts they normally suffer from being struck on flans too small for the dies, and consequently it is usual to only find one lion and a partial legend. On this example however, we see a significant portion of the second lion’s head, and five out of six letters of the legend.

2x 298. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Hekte - 1/6 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-560 BC. Lion’s head left with open jaws, solar-disk above forehead, confronting open jaws of lion’s head right; WALWET (in Lydian retrograde script) between / Two incuse square punches. Weidauer 99; SNG Kayhan 1012. 2.32g, 10mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

High State of Preservation

2x

2x

299. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.72g, 13mm. Good Extremely Fine. In excellent high state of preservation for the type.

95

3,000


2x

2x

300. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.72g, 13mm. Good Very Fine.

2x

1,500

2x

301. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.71g, 13mm. Near Extremely Fine.

2x

1,500

2x

302. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.72g, 12mm. Good Very Fine.

1,500

Charming Lydian Hemihekte

3x

3x

303. Kingdom of Lydia EL Hemihekte - 1/12 Stater. Time of Alyattes - Kroisos. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sun on forehead (later style) / Incuse square punch. Weidauer group XVI, 90; Traité I 47; SNG Kayhan 101; Rosen 654; Elektron I 72. 1.17g, 8mm. About Extremely Fine.

96

500


Beautiful Heavy Series Stater of Kroisos

304. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Stater. Heavy series. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion and bull / Two incuse squares of unequal size. Berk 2; Le Rider, Naissance, pl. V, 2; Traité I 396; BMC 30; Boston MFA 2068–9; Gulbenkian 756. 10.79g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Rare.

20,000

Kroisos is credited with issuing the first true gold coins with a standardised purity for general circulation. The series began on a ‘heavy’ standard, with gold and silver staters of equal weight, around 10.6-10.7 grams, which was later reduced to about 8.17 grams for the gold. Studies have shown that coins of both standards circulated together, but that the heavy standard was only used for a relatively short time compared to the light standard, which continued to be used into the Persian period. All of the coins of Kroisos feature without variation his heraldic badge, the confronted heads of a lion and a bull, both ancient symbols of power. The badge itself doubtless stems from the ubiquitous and persistent theme of the lion-bull combat scene, which may be interpreted as a metaphor for divinely inspired heroic triumph. Indeed, divinely inspired heroic triumph was exactly what Kroisos expected when, encouraged by a prediction by the Delphic Oracle that if he attacked Persia he would destroy a great empire, Kroisos made his preparations for war with Cyrus the Great. The war resulted in defeat for Kroisos; his numerically superior army was smashed, and the capital Sardes was captured along with Kroisos and his family, who were immolated on the orders of Cyrus. Lydia became a satrapy of the Persian Empire, though it continued to mint coins in the traditional types, and indeed the legendary wealth of Kroisos was used by Cyrus to form the basis of a new Persian gold standard currency.

305. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Stater. Heavy series. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion and bull / Two incuse squares of unequal size. Berk 2; Le Rider, Naissance, pl. V, 2; Traité I 396; BMC 30; Boston MFA 2068–9; Gulbenkian 756. 10.79g, 17mm. Good Very Fine; a few minor marks.

97

7,500


306. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Stater. Light series. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion right and bull left / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Berk 3; Traité I 401-3; SNG Kayhan -; SNG Ashmolean -; SNG von Aulock 2875. 8.04g, 17mm. Good Very Fine.

2x

7,500

2x

307. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Trite –Third Stater. Light standard. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion and bull / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Walberg Group II; Berk 6; Traité I 404–5; SNG von Aulock 8212; BMC 36; Boston MFA 2074; de Luynes 2779. 2.70g, 12mm. Extremely Fine. Exceptionally high grade for the issue.

3,000

2x 308. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Hekte - 1/6 Stater. Light standard. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion and bull / Incuse rectangular punch. Walburg group IV, 3 (same punches); Berk 8; Traité I 406 = de Luynes 2801; SNG Kayhan –; SNG von Aulock –; Weber 6772. 1.35g, 8mm. Very Fine.

1,000

Magnificent Double Siglos

309. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Stater - Double Siglos. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two square punches of unequal size. Berk 20; Traité I 407; SNG Kayhan 1018; SNG von Aulock 2874; SNG Copenhagen 455; SNG Ashmolean 760; CNG e300, lot 66 (same dies). 10.66g, 20mm. Near Mint State. In excellent state of preservation, displaying uncommonly sound and lustrous metal. An incredibly beautiful example of this iconic type. 15,000

310. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Stater - Double Siglos. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion right and bull left / Two incuse squares of unequal size. Berk 20; Traité I 407; SNG Kayhan 1018; SNG von Aulock 2874; SNG Copenhagen 455; SNG Ashmolean 760. 10.78g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Wonderfully sound metal for the issue.

98

5,000


311. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Stater - Double Siglos. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion right and bull left / Two incuse squares of unequal size. Berk 20; Traité I 407; SNG Kayhan 1018; SNG von Aulock 2874; SNG Copenhagen 455; SNG Ashmolean 760. 10.73g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Wonderfully sound metal for the issue.

5,000

312. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Stater - Double Siglos. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion right and bull left / Two incuse squares of unequal size. Berk 20; Traité I 407; SNG Kayhan 1018; SNG von Aulock 2874; SNG Copenhagen 455; SNG Ashmolean 760. 10.62g, 21mm. Good Very Fine.

2,000

Rare Early Kroiseid Half-Stater

313. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Half Stater - Siglos. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion right and bull left / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Berk 23; Traité -; SNG Kayhan -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -. 5.25g, 16mm. Good Very Fine. Rare.

1,000

The vast majority of Kroiseid type half staters were struck by the Persians after their conquest of Lydia. The pre-Persian Lydian issues can be distinguished by their style, which is more lifelike - the later Persian issues being more stylized. The earlier Lydian half staters are seldom seen, particularly in a good state of preservation.

314. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Half Stater - Siglos. Sardes, circa 560-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion right and bull left / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Berk 23; Traité -; SNG Kayhan -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -. 5.38g, 15mm. Good Very Fine. Rare, and uncommonly sound metal.

1,000

315. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Half Stater - Siglos. Sardes, circa 560-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion right and bull left / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Berk 23; Traité -; SNG Kayhan -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -. 5.18g, 18mm. Very Fine. Rare.

99

750


316. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Third Stater. Sardes, circa 560-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion right and bull left / Two incuse square punches. Berk 24; Traité I 412; SNG Kayhan –; SNG von Aulock –; SNG Copenhagen –; Boston MFA 2071. 3.55g,14mm. Very Fine.

500

317. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Half Stater – Siglos. Sardes, circa 545-520 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion and bull / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. SNG Copenhagen 456; SNG von Aulock 2877-79; SNG Kayhan 1025; Rosen Coll. 663. 5.29g, 15mm. Good Very Fine.

KARIA

300

Third and Finest Known

2x 318. Asia Minor (Karia?), uncertain mint EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Forepart of lion to right / Irregular incuse square. CNG 73,418; G&N 30, 93; otherwise unpublished 2.73g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. Apparently the third (and finest) known example.

2,000

This coin is likely a product of a mint in Ionia or Karia. The style of the lion is similar to those found on the coins of Miletos, Knidos, and Lindos. Of these cities, however, only Miletos has known electrum coinage, but the design in the Miletos incuses is distinctly different from this coin. The incuse on this coin is most similar to those of Samos. While Samos has electrum coinage with lion types, none of these types are similar to that on the present coin.

Unique Karian Trite

2x 319. Karia, uncertain mint AR Trite. Circa 500 BC. Forepart of lion with open jaws standing left before sunburst; in front, forepart of boar with legs extended left / Irregular rough incuse markings. Cf. Roma Numismatics III, 287 (stater). 3.36g, 15mm. Unpublished and Unique.

2,000

The ancient district of Karia in south-western Anatolia was one of the most thoroughly Hellenized areas in Asia Minor, with Greek cities along its Aegean coast; a mountainous interior surrounded by Ionia, Lydia, Phrygia and Lykia was populated by the non-Greek Karians, mentioned by Homer (Iliad 2.867ff) who considered themselves autochthonous, formerly calling themselves Leleges - the pre-Hellenic population of the Aegean who inhabited its islands and served in the navy of Minos. They claimed kinship with the Lydians and Mysians, with whom they shared a common worship. By 546, under Cyrus II the Great, most of Asia Minor was incorporated into the Achaemenid empire and Karia was placed under Lydian satrapy. However, the region was allowed the freedom to trade so long as it paid tribute to Persia. Electrum and silver coinage had already been circulating in Ionia and Lydia for at least one hundred years on various weight standards. This Karian coin seems to be on the Persian silver standard, theoretically about 10.9 to 11.2 grams, struck just before or at the time of the Ionian revolt (499494), in which the Karians took part. The iconography used by its issuing authority seems to have been stylistically influenced by the uncertain mint Karian mainland lion/incuse staters (ACGC 99; Traite II 1, 735 pl. 19, 11; SNG von Aulock 2077; 284, 13; BMC Ionia, pl. 21, 1) on the Aeginetan silver standard of about 12.2 grams, and the lion/incuse staters (ACGC 100; Rosen coll. 613; SNG Kayhan 930; SNG Keckman 64 [Kaunos] also on the Persian standard). This remarkable new addition to the archaic coinage of western Anatolia (a word symbolically suggesting “east” or “[sun]rise”) depicts a totally original scene: a lion and a boar facing left before a sunburst. In myth the lion has always been associated with the sun and it was believed to be able to gaze at the sun without blinking, as can be seen on the electrum 1/3 staters (trites) attributed to Alyattes; Weidauer group XV, 63-75; ATEC group d, 14-25), which are characterized by a sunburst on the forehead of the lion. The boar is a primordial symbol of strength, fearless aggression and resolute courage, whose ferocity aroused fear, admiration and reverence amongst the peoples of Anatolia. It was the slayer of Adonis and an attribute of Demeter, goddess of the earth and of fertility. Both these symbols were widely used as coin types throughout Ionia, Lydia, Lykia and the Aegean islands.

100


320. Karia, uncertain mint AR Hemistater. Circa 490-470 BC. Aeginetic standard. Forepart of winged man-headed bull left / Head of female left in dotted square border within incuse square. Konuk, Orou 1.1; cf. SNG Ashmolean 349–50; SNG Copenhagen -; CNG 96, 501. 5.82g, 17mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

321. Karia, uncertain mint AR Quarter Stater. Circa 490-470 BC. Aeginetic standard. Forepart of winged man-headed bull left / Head of female left in dotted square border within incuse square. Cf. Konuk, Orou 1.1 (hemistater); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 8475; Vismara 91; cf. CNG 96/501 (Hemistater). 2.88g, 14mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

200

2x 322. Karia, uncertain mint AR Eighth Stater. Circa 490-470 BC. Aeginetic standard. Forepart of winged man-headed bull left / Head of female left in dotted square border within incuse square. Konuk, Orou 2.2; Falghera 90-3 (Uvug); SNG Copenhagen Suppl. 4301 (Uvug). 1.50g, 12mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

250

323. Satraps of Karia, Maussolos AR Tetradrachm. Halikarnassos, circa 370-360 BC. Head of Apollo facing slightly right, wearing laurel wreath, drapery around neck / Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding labrys and inverted spear; wreath to left, MAYΣΣΩΛΛO to right. Konuk, Identities 21; Babelon, Perses 403; Traité II 95; SNG von Aulock 2359 var. (no wreath, small O on rev.); SNG Kayhan 872 var. (no wreath, small O on rev.); BMC 6. 14.77g, 23mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

750

324. Satraps of Karia, Hidrieos AR Tetradrachm. Halikarnassos, circa 351/0-344/3 BC. Head of Apollo facing slightly right, wearing laurel wreath, drapery around neck / Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding labrys and inverted spear; small M below elbow, IΔPIEΩΣ to right. BMC 1 var.; SNG von Aulock 8046 var.; SNG Copenhagen -. 14.82g, 23mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

101

1,000


325. Karia, Alabanda AR Tetradrachm. Dated CY 1 = 169/8 BC. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; Pegasos in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, A (date) below throne. Meadows, Alabanda, Group 3; Price 2460; DCA 311. 16.83g, 30mm, 11h. Good Very Fine.

300

Highly Lustrous Alabanda Tetradrachm

326. Karia, Alabanda AR Tetradrachm. Circa 167/6 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / ΑΛΑΒΑΝΔΕΩΝ, Pegasos springing right; A below. Waggoner Series 4; Boehringer, Chron., p. 189, 9; SNG Keckman 5; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 8050. 16.70g, 34mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous metal. Rare.

5,000

Third Known Example

2x 327. Karia, Halikarnassos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 400-387 BC. Head of Apollo facing slightly right / Eagle standing half-right, wings spread; AΛIKA around, olive branch to right; all within incuse square. Konuk, Hecatomnus, p. 121; cf. SNG Keckman 40 (drachm). 1.80g, 12mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; the third known example, and the only one not in a private collection (the others being in New York, Paris). 1,000

102


One of Only Three Known

328.

Karia, Halikarnassos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 400-387 BC. Head of Apollo facing slightly right / AΛIKAPNAΣΣEΩN, eagle standing to right, with wings spread, star to right; all within shallow incuse square. Cf. S. Hurter, ‘42 Tetradrachmen von Klazomenai’, SNR 45, 1966, p. 45, pl. VI, F = Lorber, Amphipolis, the Civic Coinage in Silver and Gold, 1990, pl. IV, fig 21; cf. The New York Sale XXVII, 533. 15.76g, 21mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Of the highest rarity; one of only three known tetradrachms of Halikarnassos.

20,000

A single example of this important tetradrachm type was published in 1966 by S. Hurter (‘42 Tetradrachmen von Klazomenai’, SNR 45, 1966, p. 45, pl. VI, F) which for over half a century remained the only known example to have survived. A second specimen was recently published in Triton XX which though clearly from the same issue, bore a different control mark (sunburst, not bow). The present example, which is of the same dies as the Triton coin, therefore brings the total number of surviving tetradrachms to three. Numismatists have been aware of the coinage series as a whole for quite some time; approximately 34 drachms are known to exist, along with 3 hemidrachms (see the preceding lot), yet it is remarkable that so few of the larger denomination survived. Originally thought to have been struck after the satrap Maussollos moved the capital of the satrapy of Karia from the Hekatomnid ancestral seat of Mylasa to Halikarnassos, the dating of the Hecatomnus hoard disproves this notion. This coinage therefore most likely represents a civil issue of Halikarnassos struck prior to the King’s Peace of 387 BC, when virtually all civil coinages of the Greek states in Asia Minor ceased. Certainly, despite the city having been firmly aligned with Persia in the days of Artemisia in the early fifth century, her grandson Lygdamis II brought the city into the Delian League and the city was, for an uncertain period of time, independent of Persian rule. It is tempting therefore to view this type as a product of the turbulent early years of the fourth century, when the Athenian general Thrasyboulos, in response to renewed conflict with Sparta, began re-establishing Athenian alliances with the cities in Asia Minor that had previously been allies. If this issue, evidently intended to be a reasonably substantial one considering that at least two die pairs existed, was begun in circa 389-387 and cut short by the reassertion of Persian influence in 387, this would explain the relative rarity of this series today. That the obverse of this coinage was heavily influenced by the Rhodian facing-head coinage that had been recently introduced is clear. That it was retained by the Hekatomnid satraps as the obverse type of their coinage once the move from Mylasa to Halikarnassos was complete is also evident, but more difficult to explain. Relegating his father’s obverse of Zeus Labraundos to the reverse while doing away entirely with the lion motif may have been nothing more than political expedient aimed at cultivating goodwill, but perhaps it may also reflect the distinct thread of philhellenism that ran through the Hekatomnid family.

103


Very Rare Drachm of Idyma

329. Karia, Idyma AR Drachm. Late 5th-early 4th centuries BC. Head of Pan facing / Fig leaf within incuse square, ΙΔVΜΙΟΝ around. Hecatomnus 1c; SNG Copenhagen 419; SNG Keckman 60; SNG von Aulock 2559; Gulbenkian 760 = Jameson 1539 (all same dies). 3.79g, 16mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; excellent for the type. Very Rare.

500

Beautiful and Rare Stater of Kaunos

330. Karia, Kaunos AR Stater. Circa 430-410 BC. Winged female goddess moving to left, her head turned back to right, holding a wreath in left hand and a kerykeion in her right / Triangular baetyl flanked by two bunches of grapes hanging from tendrils, inverted delta above to left; all within incuse square. Konuk, in Price FS, 98 (O40/R39); SNG Kayhan 792; Troxell 27; De Luynes 2776. 11.38g, 23mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

5,000

331. Karia, Kaunos AR Stater. Circa 410-390 BC. Winged female figure in kneeling-running stance left, head right, holding kerykeion and wreath / Triangular baetyl flanked by inverted Δ and Γ; all within incuse square. Konuk 101 (O42/R42); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 2349 (same dies). 11.74g, 22mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,250

Two Excessively Rare Archaic Coins of Kindya

332. Karia, Kindya Half Stater. 510-480 BC. Aeginetic standard. Ketos with scaled body, forked tail and dorsal sail to right / Geometric pattern in star format, uncertain legend (AΠ..A..ΩNOΣ?) around; all within shallow incuse circle. Cf. Kritt, Kindya, pl. 47, 4 = Troxell, Greek Accessions, ANSMN 22, pp. 17-21; cf. Roma e32, 437 (corr. and var.). 5.96g, 18mm. About Extremely Fine. An apparently unique variety of just five known examples from this issue.

104

3,500


333. Karia, Kindya Half Stater. 510-480 BC. Aeginetic standard. Ketos with scaled body, forked tail and dorsal sail to right / Geometric pattern in star format, grain(?) beside design; all within shallow incuse circle. Cf. Kritt, Kindya, pl. 47, 4 = Troxell, Greek Accessions, ANSMN 22, pp. 17-21; cf. Roma e32, 437 (corr. and var.). 5.96g, 18mm. About Extremely Fine. An apparently unique variety of just five known examples from this issue.

3,000

Herakliskos Drakonopnigon

334. Karia, Knidos AR Tridrachm. Symmachy coinage, circa 405/4 BC. Herakliskos Drakonopnigon: the Infant Herakles, nude, crouching facing on rock, head left, strangling a serpent in each hand; ΣY[N] around / Head of Aphrodite right, prow below chin, KNIΔIΩN around; all within incuse square. Hecatomnus 1 (A1/P1); SNG Keckman 164 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -. 11.42g, 22mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

At some point around the turn of the fifth to fourth century BC several major cities in Asia Minor issued a joint symmachy (alliance) coinage, all bearing as the obverse type the figure of the Herakliskos Drakonopnigon, with the letters ΣYN featured prominently, which is generally interpreted as syn[machoi] (allies). Byzantium, Knidos, Kyzikos, Ephesos, Iasos, Lampsakos, Rhodes, and Samos were evidently all participants, and their coins retain their individualistic reverse types - for example, the bee for Ephesos, the roaring lion for Kyzikos, and as seen here, the head of Aphrodite for Knidos. The dating and purpose of this extraordinarily rare alliance coinage remains a subject of some debate, and its placement in the chronology and events of the age depend partly on the interpretation of the obverse type by various scholars. At this juncture, we may relate the myth from which the type is derived: on the night that Herakles was to be born, Hera, knowing of her husband Zeus’ adultery with the mortal Alkmene, persuaded Zeus to swear an oath that the child born that night to a member of the House of Perseus would be High King. Hera did this knowing that while Herakles was to be born a descendant of Perseus, so too was Eurystheos, son of Sthenelos. Once the oath was sworn, Hera hurried to Alkmene’s dwelling and slowed the birth of Herakles by forcing Ilithyia, goddess of childbirth, to sit cross-legged with her clothing tied in knots, thereby causing Herakles to be trapped in the womb. Meanwhile, Hera caused Eurystheos to be born prematurely, making him High King in place of Herakles. She would have permanently delayed Herakles’ birth had she not been foiled by Galanthis, Alkmene’s servant, who lied to Ilithyia, saying that Alkmene had already delivered the baby. Upon hearing this, she jumped in surprise, untying the knots and thus allowing Alkmene to give birth to Herakles. Having failed to prevent his birth, Hera sent two serpents to kill the baby Herakles as he lay in his cot. While his twin brother Iphikles screamed in terror, Herakles throttled the snakes, one in each hand, and was found by his nurse playing with their limp bodies as if they were toys. Karweise (Lysander as Herakliskos Drakonopnigon, NC 140, 1980, pp. 1-27) proposes interpreting this iconic design as representing Spartan domination over Athens in the Peloponnesian War, referring specifically to the Spartan admiral Lysander (who was of the Heraklidai and thus claimed direct descent from Herakles) who had ‘strangled’ the hegemonic power of Athens with his victory at Aigospotamoi. Certainly this was an overwhelming naval victory, in which the Spartans captured or destroyed nine tenths of the Athenian fleet with minimal losses of their own. It thus ended the war at a stroke since Athens, long reliant on its naval supremacy, could no longer import grain to feed herself nor maintain communication with and contol over its empire. The analogy of having strangled Athens into submission is indeed fitting. For Karweise therefore, these coins should have been issued shortly after Aigospotamoi in c. 404. Delrieux (Les ententes monétaires au type et à la légende SYN au début du IVe siècle” in Mecanismes et innovations monetaires dans l’Anatolie Achemenide, Paris, 2000) on the other hand favours attributing this coinage to the period after the ‘shine’ on the Spartan victory had worn off. Following their victory at Aigospotamoi, Spartan relations with Persia deteriorated to the point where Spartan forces began raiding the satrapies of Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes. Led by the Athenian commander Konon, an Athenian-Persian alliance established a base of operations at Rhodes in 395, and the following year in 394 the allied fleet won a decisive naval victory at Knidos. At this point, many cities including Ephesos and Samos joined the alliance, no doubt partly due to the fact that the fear of a resurgent Athenian empire had led the Spartans to offer to ‘hand over’ all of the Greek cities in Asia Minor to the Persians, in the hope of securing their own position in Greece. Then, from 389-387 the Athenian general Thrasyboulos began re-establishing Athenian alliances with the cities in Asia Minor that had previously been their allies (many of them having once once belonged to the Delian League), with the result that Sparta deployed its forces to attack the cities of the Hellespont and the Propontis, driving more cities into the pro-Athenian alliance. The settlement of the Peace of Antalkidas, or the King’s Peace in 387, confirmed Persian overlordship of the Ionian Greek cities and parts of the Aegean, effectively ending the alliance and its symmachy coinage.

105


The Hyakinthotrophia of 200 BC

335.

Karia, Knidos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 200 BC. Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath / Artemis Hyakinthotrophos standing facing, head left, holding phiale in extended right hand, her left arm resting on the statue of an archaic deity with a sheathed body and wearing a polos; to lower left, forepart of stag standing left, upon which drips liquid from Artemis’ phiale; KИIΔIOИ to right. G. Le Rider, “Un tétradrachme hellénistique de Cnide” in Essays Thompson, pp. 155–7 and pl. 18, 1 = BN inventory FRBNF41778907 (same dies). 16.61g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; apparently only the second known example, the other in the BN.

10,000

Known only from two specimens, the other in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, this exceptionally rare type depicts Artemis Hyakinthotrophos (literally: ‘Artemis, nurse of Hyakinthos’), who as a result of her repeated manifestations during Philip V of Macedon’s siege of Knidos in 201 BC, was believed by her divine will to have secured victory for the Knidians, and she was accorded the epithet Epiphanes. In her honour a panhellenic festival with games was instituted. Two surviving inscriptions confirm the augmentation of what must have been a smaller, local festival: a text from Kos containing the Knidian decree of invitation and the Koans acknowledgement of the 200 BC Hyakinthotrophia; a second inscription may be found at the Knidian treasury at Delphi - a Delphic decree of recognition. That text states that Knidos has sent ambassadors to Delphi and has undertaken to increase the honors of the goddess, asking Delphi to join in this effort; Delphi decrees to praise the Knidians for the piety they show Artemis Hyadnthotrophos. Several victors in the panhellenic Hyacinthotrophia are subsequently attested in late Hellenistic inscriptions. Apart from these few surviving inscriptions, little else is known of Artemis Hyakinthotrophos or her festival - the present state of literary and archaeological evidence means that this aspect of the goddess remains nebulous. The use of the epithetic Hyakinthotrophos for Artemis, is unusual and at present unexplained, since she does not feature in the traditional myth of Hyakinthos, the hero-youth beloved by Apollo, who was accidentally killed by the god. The epithet perhaps suggests that she was responsible for tending to either Hyakinthos or to her brother Apollo with that epithet, however an alternative interpretation is that the epithet referred to the raising of beautiful boys in general, since the goddess is also attested with the epithet of kourotrophos, and was worshipped for her protection of those rearing infants. The striking of coinage for the specific occasion of panhellenic games is well attested, from the earliest Olympian coinage issued for the purpose of the Games, to the coinage issued by Antiochos IV Epiphanes for his augmented festival of Apollo at Daphne in 166/5 BC. Given the extreme rarity of the coinage indicating a brief output, it seems reasonable to conclude that this type was produced for this event.

106


2x 336. Rhodos, Kamiros AR Trihemiobol. Circa 500-460 BC. Fig leaf / Square incuse punch. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 714-5 (hemiobol); SNG Keckman 3201. 1.48g, 12mm. Extremely Fine. Struck on a very broad flan for the type and unusually well preserved. Extremely Rare.

500

Uncommonly Fine Stater of Lindos

337. Rhodos, Lindos AR Stater. Circa 515/10-485 BC. Head of roaring lion to right / Two parallel rectangular incuses with irregular striations. Cahn, Archaischen, Group D; HGC 6, 1397; SNG von Aulock 2782; SNG Keckman 352; Asyut 710. 13.96g, 22mm. Good Very Fine; an uncommonly good example of the type. Rare.

3,000

338. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Tetradrachm. Circa 408/7-404 BC. Head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose, eagle standing on rock to right, [POΔION] above; all within incuse square. Hecatomnus 11 (A5/P?); SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; Lanz 131, 388 (same obverse die). 15.29g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

339. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Hemidrachm. Circa 340-316 BC. Head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right, grape bunch to left; P-O across lower fields; all within incuse square. Ashton 103; SNG Keckman 442-4; SNG Copenhagen -. 1.63g, 13mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

107

500


340. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Plinthophoric Hemidrachm. Magistrate Dexikrates. Circa 170-150 BC. Radiate head of Helios right / ΔΕΧΙΚΡΑΤHΣ, Rose with bud; Isis crown in left field. Jenkins 1989, 45; SNG Lockett 2696; HGC 6, 1462. 1.36g, 15mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

100

LYCIA

2x 341. Dynasts of Lycia, Kuprilli AR Tetrobol. Circa 470-440 BC. Forepart of a winged lion left / Triskeles within incuse square. Müseler IV, 44; Mørkholm & Zahle 179; Vismara -; SNG Copenhagen Suppl. -; SNG von Aulock -; Traité II 275. 1.14g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

250

Extremely Rare Tetrobol of Kuprilli

2x 342. Dynasts of Lycia, Kuprilli AR Tetrobol. Circa 470-440 BC. Forepart of winged and horned monster right / KOΠ, triskeles within incuse square. Müseler IV, 31; cf. SNG von Aulock 4135 (type left). 2.60g, 13mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

250

Apparently Unpublished Denomination for Tnnemi

2x 343. Dynasts of Lycia, Tnnemi AR Diobol. Circa 460-450 BC. Griffin standing to right, right forepaw raised / Triskeles, T-Ξ across fields; all within dotted linear border within incuse square. Cf. Babelon, Traité II/2, 212 (stater); cf. Müseler IV, 19 (stater); SNG Copenhagen Suppl. -; Lanz 162, 139 (obol). 1.20g, 11mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished denomination.

250

2x 344. Dynasts of Lycia, Teththiveibi AR Tetrobol. Circa 440-430 BC. Two cockerels facing one another on a round shield / Tetraskeles in dotted square; Lycian script around. Cf. SNG von Aulock 4158 (Stater); Traité pl. xcviii, 15. 2.69g, 14mm, 5h. Very Fine. Rare.

108

100


Extremely Rare Tetrobol of Teththiveibi

2x 345. Dynasts of Lycia, Teththiveibi AR Tetrobol. Circa 440-430 BC. Facing head of Silenos / Tetraskeles, TETHTHIVEIBI in Lycian script around; all within beaded square frame and incuse square. BMC 88, pl. 5, 6; SNG Berry 1164. 2.74g, 13mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of very few known specimens.

500

Extremely Rare Obol of Ddenevele

2x 346. Dynasts of Lycia, Ddenevele AR Obol. Circa 420/10-400 BC. Head of dynast right, wearing kyrbasia / Helemeted head of Athena right, within incuse circle. Müseler VI, 77; Roma Numismatics X, 536; Traité pl. CI, 9. 0.70g, 11mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

300

Extremely Rare Hemistater - Drachm of Kherei

347. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei AR Hemistater - Drachm. Circa 410-390 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Bearded head of dynast to right, wearing Persian kyrbasia, KHERË in Lycian script before; all within incuse circle. Müseler VI, 49; Mørkholm and Zahle 46; Schwabacher (Essays Robinson) plate 11, 9; SNG von Aulock 4176; Franke-Hirmer 653. 4.20g, 17mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

348. Dynasts of Lycia, Zagaba AR 1/3 Stater. Circa 400-380 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / Head of Athena, facing three-quarter to left, wearing elaborate necklace and crested and plumed helmet, Lycian script around; all within incuse circle. Podalia 14. 3.01g, 17mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

349. Dynasts of Lycia, Perikles AR Third Stater. Circa 380-360 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / Triskeles; Head of Hermes right in upper field; Lycian script around. SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. 3.03g, 16mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

109

600


Unpublished Diobol of Aru

2x 350. Dynasts of Lycia, Aru AR Diobol. Xanthos, circa 400-300 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / APΞ, female head right wearing ampyx, diskeles behind. Unpublished in the standard references; for legend cf. Traité II, 394 and BMC p. xxxi. 1.23g, 13mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

200

2x 351. Dynasts of Lycia, Uncertain dynast AR Obol. Circa 410-400 BC. Head of dynast left, wearing kyrbasia / Facing head of goddess, wearing kalathos, necklace, and earrings; all within incuse circle. CNG e374, 278; Falghera -; Podalia -; Traité II -; SNG Copenhagen Supp. 502 (Twelwes); SNG von Aulock -. 0.54g, 10mm, 7h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

100

2x 352. Dynasts of Lycia, Uncertain dynast AR Obol. Circa 425-400 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, within incuse circle / Head of dynast right, wearing kyrbasia. Cf. Roma Numismatics X, 536; cf. SNG von Aulock 4178; cf. Traité pl. XCIX, 10. 0.57g, 9mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

100

2x 353. Dynasts of Lycia, Uncertain dynast or mint AR Hemiobol. Circa 4th century BC. Head right, wearing kausia (?) / Diademed head facing. Unpublished in the standard references. 0.31g, 8mm, 10h Very Fine. Metal flaw on obverse. Apparently unique and unpublished in the standard references.

100

Second Known Example

2x 354. Lycia, Araxa AR Hemiobol. Circa 400-380 BC. Lion’s scalp facing / APA, fish left. Müseler VII, 58; Gorny & Mosch 79, 246. 0.27g, 8mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. The second known example.

200

355. Lycia, Phaselis AR Stater. 4th century BC. Prow of galley right, fighting platform decorated with Pegasos flying right; owl flying upward before, dolphin to right above waves below / Stern of galley left, tripod and ΦAΣ above, dolphin to right below. Heipp-Tamer Series 6, unlisted variety; CNG E-368, lot 95 (same dies). 10.34g, 22mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

110

1,000


356. Lycia, Phaselis AR Stater. 4th century BC. Prow of galley right, fighting platform decorated with dolphin / Stern of galley left; ΦAΣHΛ above. Heipp-Tamer Series 6, unlisted variety; CNG 102, lot 538; Triton XIX, lot 261; CNG 100, lot 1526; CNG 99, lot 286 (all from same dies). 10.47g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

357. Lycia, Phaselis AR Stater. 4th century BC. Prow of galley right, fighting platform decorated with facing gorgoneion; cicada upward to right / Stern of galley left, Nike flying to left above, holding wreath over ΦAΣ in both hands. Heipp-Tamer Series 6, unlisted variety; Triton XIX, lot 258; CNG 100, lot 1523; CNG 99, lot 282 (all from the same dies). 10.12g, 23mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

358. Lycia, Phaselis AR Stater. 4th century BC. Prow of galley right, fighting platform decorated with coiled serpent right; dolphin to right below / Stern of galley left; swastika and ΦAΣH above. Heipp-Tamer Series 6, unlisted variety; CNG 102, lot 529; Triton XIX, lot 252; CNG 100, lot 1513; CNG 99, lot 278 (all from the same obv. die). 10.34g, 21mm, 3h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

359. Lycia, Phaselis AR Stater. 4th century BC. Prow of galley right, fighting platform decorated with lion; eight-pointed star to right, ketos above waves below to right / Stern of galley left; tripod and ΦAΣ above; below, dolphin right. Heipp-Tamer Series 6, unlisted variety; Triton XIX, lot 254; CNG 100, lot 1515; CNG 99, lot 285 (all from the same dies). 10.38g, 22mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

360. Lycia, Phaselis AR Stater. 4th century BC. Prow of galley right; monogram to right / Stern of galley left; ΦAΣH above. Heipp-Tamer Series 6, unlisted variety; CNG 102, lot 541 (same dies); Triton XIX, lot 263; CNG 100, lot 1528 (same dies); CNG 99, lot 288 (same dies). 10.50g, 24mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

111

1,000


2x 361. Lycia, Tlos AR Diobol. Circa 400-390 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / TLR-FI (Lycian), facing male bust with frizzy hair and chlamys fastened at throat; all within beaded border within incuse circle. Müseler VII, 93; SNG von Aulock 4191; Traité, pl. CII, 17; Jameson 1579. 1.26g, 12mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

2x 362. Lycia, Tlos AR Diobol. Circa 400-390 BC. Helmeted head of Athena to right / Two panthers seated facing each other, each raising forepaw, diskeles below beaded groundline; all within beaded border. Müseler VII, 12; Vismara II, 188; BMC -; Babelon, Traité II/2, 441; SNG v. Aulock 4189. 1.31g, 12mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

200

2x 363. Lycia, Tlos AR Hemiobol. Circa 400-390 BC. Helmeted head of Athena left / Panther sitting right, head facing, raising forepaw. Müseler VII, 16. 0.27g, 8mm, 2h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

100

Second Known

2x 364. Lycia, Tlos AR Hemiobol. Circa 400-390 BC. Head of Apollo facing slightly left / Panther sitting left, raising forepaw. Müseler VII, 18; CNG e383, 204 = Peus 413, 102. 0.29g, 9mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Apparently only the second known example.

200

2x 365. Lycia, Xanthos AR Obol. Helmeted head of Athena left / Helmeted head of Athena left. BMC 109; cf. Gitbud & Naumann Auction 11, 336 (hemiobol or tetartemorion); SNG von Aulock -. 0.60g, 10mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

200

PAMPHYLIA

366. Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Stater. Circa 420-400 BC. Two wrestlers grappling; the one on the left holding his opponent’s leg and a belt wrapped around his opponent’s waist, the one on the right holding a belt wrapped around his opponent’s waist [Π between] / ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙΥΣ, slinger to right; triskeles in field. SNG BN 47; BMC Lycia pg. 95, 15, pl. xix, 13; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -. 10.94g, 24mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

112

300


367. Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Stater. Circa 420-400 BC. Two wrestlers grappling; the one on the left holding his opponent’s leg and a belt wrapped around his opponent’s waist, the one on the right holding a belt wrapped around his opponent’s waist Π between / ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙΥΣ, slinger to right; triskeles in field. SNG BN 47; BMC Lycia pg. 95, 15, pl. xix, 13; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -. 11.04g, 24mm, 5h. Very Fine. Rare.

300

368. Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Stater. Circa 420-400 BC. Two wrestlers grappling; the one on the left holding his opponent’s leg and a belt wrapped around his opponent’s waist, the one on the right holding a belt wrapped around his opponent’s waist [Π between] / ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙΥΣ, slinger to right; triskeles in field. SNG BN 47; BMC Lycia pg. 95, 15, pl. xix, 13; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -. 11.00g, 24mm, 4h. Very Fine. Rare.

300

2x 369. Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Obol. Circa 420-360 BC. Facing gorgoneion / Helmeted head of Athena right within incuse square. SNG France 28-36; SNG Copenhagen 249; SNG Kayhan -; SNG von Aulock 4500. 1.07g, 10mm, 11h. Very Fine.

200

The Earliest Issue of Side

370. Pamphylia, Side AR Stater. Circa 490-450 BC. Pomegranate, ΣIΔH (retrograde) to left; all within beaded circular border / Raven standing to right, ‘NRBISBÆK’ in Sidetic around; all within square beaded border within squre incuse. A. Destrooper-Georgiades, “An Unusual Coin from Side” in NK 14 (1995), fig. 1 = D. Tsangari, Hellenic Coinage: The Alpha Bank Collection (Athens, 2007), 157 (same dies); Triton XVI, 516 = Gemini III, 210 (same dies); otherwise unpublished. Good Very Fine. Excessively Rare; one of only three known examples - one in the Alpha Bank Collection, the other sold at Triton XVI, 2013 for $8,500 despite being severely cut. 5,000 This wonderful type has been suggested as being the first issue of coinage from Side. Certainly, the fabric of the coin is highly archaic, and the avian type does not repeat itself ever again at Side, except as an adjunct symbol of Apollo.

113


CILICIA Second and Finest Known

371. Cilicia, uncertain mint AR Stater. 5th century BC. Amazon(?) running right, bow in case on far hip, holding branch (?) over shoulder and axe (?) in right hand / Lion right, attacking bull, kneeling left; ‘DRGL’ or ‘RRYL’ (?) in Aramaic above; all in dotted square within incuse square. CNG 103, 344 (same dies); otherwise unpublished. 10.70g, 22mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare - apparently the second and finest known example.

500

2x 372. Cilicia, uncertain mint AR Obol. 4th century BC. Female head (Arethusa?) facing slightly left / Facing head of Bes. Göktürk 44; SNG France 486; SNG Levante 233. 0.79g, 9mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

200

Ex Classical Numismatic Group e322, 12 March 2014, lot 323.

A Perfect Stater of Kelenderis

373. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 425-410 BC. Nude rider, holding whip in his left hand, jumping from horse galloping to left; A below horse / Goat kneeling to left, head turned back to right; KEΛEN and ivy branch above. Kraay, The Celenderis Hoard, NC 1962, 4b (same dies); SNG Paris 53; SNG von Aulock 5617 (same dies). 10.58g, 20mm, 10h. Fleur De Coin. Perfectly centred on a broad flan, and in a perfect state of preservation.

5,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

374. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 425-410 BC. Nude rider, holding whip in his left hand, jumping from horse galloping to left; A below horse / Goat kneeling to left, head turned back to right; KEΛEN above, A in exergue. Kraay, The Celenderis Hoard, NC 1962, 5b (same dies); SNG France -; SNG von Aulock 5618. 10.47g, 21mm, 4h. Mint State. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

114

2,000


375. Cilicia, Mallos AR Stater. Balakros, Satrap of Cilicia. Circa 361/0-334 BC. Baaltars seated left, holding lotus-tipped sceptre; to left, ear of grain and grape bunch; M below throne / Helmeted and draped bust of Athena facing slightly left. Casabonne series 2 (D9/R1); SNG Levante 169 (same dies); SNG France 410 (same dies). 10.69g, 23mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

376. Cilicia, Nagidos AR Stater. Circa 400-385/4 BC. Aphrodite seated left, holding phiale over altar to left; to right, Eros standing left, crowning her with wreath / Dionysos standing left, holding grape bunch on vine and thyrsos; ΝΑΓΙΔΕΩ-Ν around. Casabonne Type 4; Lederer 25 (same dies); SNG France –; SNG Levante –; BMC 12 (same dies). 10.80g, 24mm, 4h. Mint State. Lightly toned, with hints of iridescence.

500

From the estate of an English numismatist.

377. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. 425-400 BC. Amazon, nude to the waist and seen from behind, kneeling to left and stringing her bow, wearing bonnet and with her gorytos at her hip; to right, facing head of satyr / ΣΟΛΕΩΝ, large bunch of grapes; below right, fly; all within incuse square with linear border of dots. BMC 3; SNG France 128; SNG Levante 40; SNG von Aulock 5858. 10.89g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare in this condition.

1,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

378. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. 425-400 BC. Amazon, nude to the waist and seen from behind, kneeling to left and stringing her bow, wearing bonnet and with her gorytos at her hip; to right, facing head of satyr / ΣΟΛΕΩΝ, large bunch of grapes; below right, fly; all within incuse square with linear border of dots. BMC 3; SNG France 128; SNG Levante 40; SNG von Aulock 5858. 10.89g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare in this condition.

250

379. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. Circa 410-375 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin / Grape bunch within incuse square; ivy leaf on vine and ΣO-ΛE-ΩN in margins; all within shallow incuse circle. Casabonne type 4; SNG France 171 (same rev. die); SNG Levante –; SNG von Aulock –; Jameson 1607. 10.14g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

115

3,000


380. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 420-410 BC. Lion right, attacking bull standing left / Grain ear, ‘TRZ’ to left; all within circular dotted linear border within shallow incuse circle. Cf. SNG France 200-201; apparently unpublished variety. 10.72g, 23mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unpublished variety.

750

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

381. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 420-410 BC. Lion right, attacking bull standing left / Grain ear, ‘TRZ’ to left; all within diamond-shaped linear border within shallow incuse circle. SNG France 201-2 var. (symbol in left field of rev., ethnic to right); SNG Levante 54 var. (uncertain object in exergue). 10.69g, 22mm, 1h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

382. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Datames, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. Circa 384-362 BC. Female head (of Arethusa?) facing slightly left / Bearded male head (Ares?) right, wearing crested helmet, Aramaic ‘Datames’ before. SNG Levante 79; SNG France 260. 10.75g, 23mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone.

1,250

383. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Datames, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. Circa 384-362 BC. Female head (of Arethusa?) facing slightly left / Bearded male head (Ares?) left, wearing crested helmet; Aramaic ‘Datames’ before. SNG Levante 80; Moysey Issue 4; SNG France 276-7. 10.55g, 23mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Very rare variety.

2,000

384. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Pharnabazos, Persian military commander. Circa 380-374/3 BC. Baaltars seated left, holding lotus tipped sceptre / Bearded male head (Ares?) left, wearing crested Attic helmet, Aramaic ‘Pharnabazos’ around. Casabonne series 4; Moysey Issue 2; SNG France 256 = de Luynes 2833; SNG Levante -. 10.56g, 24mm, 10h. Well struck on a broad flan, minor porosity. Extremely Fine.

116

1,250


385. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 370 BC. Herakles wrestling the Nemean Lion; club below / Head of Hera left, wearing stephane decorated with palmette between two circles; [TEPΣIKON] before. SNG Levante 63; SNG France 235; Robinson, NC 1948, 58, pl. V, 11. 9.66g, 23mm, 2h. Very Fine; fields smoothed. Rare.

1,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 203, 5 March 2012, lot 247.

An Exceptional Example

386. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Mazaios, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. Circa 361-334 BC. Baaltars seated left, his torso facing, holding lotustipped sceptre in extended right hand, left hand holding chlamys at his waist; thymiaterion surmounted by eagle to left, barley grain below throne, B’LTRZ (in Aramaic) to right / Lion walking left; Z (in Phoenician[?]) above. Casabonne Series 5, Group E; SNG France –; SNG Levante Supp. 28 (Myriandros); Sunrise 60 corr. (mint; this coin). 10.85g, 23mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. An exceptional example of this sought-after type. Rare.

6,000

Privately purchased from Kirk Davis, December 2000. The attribution of the walking-lion series of Mazaios had originally been given to the mint of Tarsos, but Newell argued that they were more likely were struck at Myriandros in his study of that mint in AJN 53 (1919). Later, J.D. Bing, in AJN 1 (1989), argued for an alternative attribution of the Myriandros coinage to the mint of Issos. While most numismatic works continue to follow Newell, Casabonne’s significant study of Cilicia during the Persian period convincingly returns these coins of Mazaios to the mint of Tarsos (cf. Casabonne, pp. 215–7).

Extremely Rare Stater Depicting Artaxerxes III

387. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Mazaios, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, circa 361-334 BC. Crowned figure of Artaxerxes III, Great King of Persia, in the guise of Baaltars seated right on throne with back terminating in swan’s head, holding lotus flower in right hand, lotus-tipped scepter in left; B’LTRZ (in Aramaic) to left, M (in Aramaic) to lower right / Lion recumbent left; bow above. Casabonne Series 6; Newell, Myriandros 1; SNG France 422 var. (legend retrograde; Myriandros); SNG Levante Supp. 26 (same dies); Jameson 1621 var. (legend retrograde). 10.65g, 27mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; test cut. Extremely Rare; one of only three examples to be offered at auction since 1990.

7,500

This intriguing issue has been conclusively shown to depict a synthesis of the god Baaltars and the Persian Great King Artaxerxes III. The appearance of Baaltars on this type differs significantly from the otherwise standard image of the god, which portrays him in a form akin to the Greek ideal of Zeus - nude to his waist, and wearing a laurel wreath - certainly not an elaborate headdress as is found here. Moreover, the figure is clothed with attire that closely resembles that of the royal Persian coinage struck at Sardes.

117


388. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Balakros, satrap of Cilicia under Alexander III. Circa 333-323 BC. Baaltars seated left, holding lotus-tipped sceptre; grain ear and grape bunch to left, B above ivy leaf to right, T under throne / Facing bust of Athena, draped, wearing triple-crested helmet and necklace. SNG Levante Suppl. 21; SNG France 368; SNG von Aulock 5964. 10.63g, 25mm, 11h. About Extremely Fine.

1,000

BITHYNIA

389. Bithynia, Kalchedon AR Stater. Circa 367/6-340 BC. Rhodian standard. Bull standing left on grain ear right; KAΛX above, ΠY monogram to left / Quadripartite incuse square with stippled surface. Cf. SNG BM Black Sea 93-99 (different monograms). 15.07g, 23mm. Good Very Fine. Rare.

1,000

PAPHLAGONIA

390. Paphlagonia, Sinope AR Drachm. Circa 425-410 BC. Head of sea-eagle left; below, dolphin to left / Quadripartite incuse square with two opposing quarters filled. Cf. SNG BM 1367-70; RG -; HGC 7, 388 var. (pellet in quarters). 6.12g, 17mm. Very Fine. Rare.

CAPPADOCIA

2,000

Ariarathes IX, Son of Mithradates VI

391. Kings of Cappadocia, Ariarathes IX Eusebes Philopator. First reign. Dated year 3 = 97 BC. Diademed head of Ariarathes IX right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΑΡΑΘΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ, Athena standing left, right hand supporting Nike who offers wreath to her, left hand resting on grounded shield, vertical spear in background behind; Γ in exergue. Mørkholm, Essays Robinson, 8 (A2/P11); Simonetta 4b (Ariarathes V); NC 1961, pl. III, 14. 16.27g, 30mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; Mørkholm records only 2 examples.

2,500

Son of the infamous Mithradates VI of Pontos, Ariarathes IX was installed on the throne of Cappadocia at the age of eight by his father, who had treacherously killed the previous Cappadocian king Ariarathes VII, his sister’s son. Though a few years into the new boy-king’s reign a faction renounced his rule and called upon the former king’s brother to lead the revolt, this was soon suppressed and Ariarathes XI ruled for a couple of years more, until in 95 BC the Roman Senate resolved to depose him. After a short period of turmoil, the Romans directed the Cappadocians to choose whomsoever they wished to rule, and thus the kingdom passed to Ariobarzanes I Philoromaios. After a brief restoration by his father’s ally Tigranes the Great of Armenia, Ariarathes was again deposed, and thus deprived of his kingdom, he was apparently killed while serving as a commander of his father’s troops in northern Greece during the First Mithradatic War. Despite what must have been a prodigious quantity of coinage issued in the name of Ariarathes IX, today it is extremely rare. Only five of his coins have come to auction over the past couple of decades, of which three are similarly from his first reign, and all from year 2.

118


PONTOS The First Mithradatic War

392.

Kingdom of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Bithyno Pontic year 208 = June 89 BC. Diademed head right / Pegasos on ground line to left, preparing to lie down, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; star within crescent to left, HΣ (year) and monogram to right, Θ (month) below; all within ivy wreath. De Callataÿ D47/R5; SNG von Aulock 6678 (same dies). 16.77g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

7,500

Privately purchased from Tradart; From a European collection, bought in 1977. Struck in June of 89 BC, this silver tetradrachm was issued in the buildup to the First Mithradatic War, just one month before Mithradates swept into Cappadocia in a strategic manoeuvre intended to provoke Rome into open conflict. In the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Seleukid Empire and the Macedonian kingdom the influence of Rome was still only weakly felt in Asia Minor in the first decade of the 1st century BC. Following repeated Roman interference in the region (95-92 BC, which had been procured by substantial bribes by Nikomedes III of Bithynia) which prevented Mithradates from expanding his kingdom, the Pontic king appears to have resolved that a war with Rome was inevitable. Though the Pergamene king Attalos III had bequeathed his kingdom to Rome in 133 BC, Rome remained reluctant to involve itself in matters in the east, and had little desire to maintain a direct governmental presence. Indeed, a revolt in the Pergamene kingdom in 129 BC led to the partition of the state and the voluntary distribution by Rome of parts of its territory to neighbouring powers, including Pontos. Given this reluctance to get directly involved, the presence of no more than 5,000 Roman troops in all of Asia, and the ongoing Social War in Italy that threatened to dismember the Roman state, Mithradates judged that his chances of victory in a direct confrontation were good. In the event, discontent with the Romans and their taxes indeed meant that Mithradates’ forces would be welcomed throughout Asia Minor, and he might well have believably claimed to be the Hellenistic champion against Roman oppression. Despite a prevalent view in Rome that the reoccupation of Cappadocia was the last straw and that the Pontic king should be attacked and deposed, there yet remained the possibility, in the context of the disastrous Social War losses, that the Senate might prefer to negotiate a settlement. However, the matter was settled the following year when, on the radical advice of the philosopher Metrodoros of Skepsis, Mithradates orchestrated the infamous ‘Asiatic Vespers’ – the massacre of between 80,000 and 150,000 Roman men, women and children present in the region. This heinous act profoundly affected Roman-Hellenistic relations, and forced the Senate to send east a large force under Sulla with the aim of countering the Mithradatic threat.

119


Preparations for the Third Mithradatic War

393.

Kingdom of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AV Stater. Bithyno-Pontic year 223, intercalary month 13 = October 74 BC. Diademed head right / Stag grazing left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY / EYΠATOPOΣ in two lines below; to left, star-in-crescent above ΓKΣ (year); two monograms to right, IΓ (month 13) in exergue; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. Unpublished in the standard references; Roma VII, 758 (this coin); CNG 96, 372 (same dies); cf. for date: Callataÿ 1997, tetradrachms D56-59. 8.41g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Unpublished; one of only two known a coin of great numismatic importance.

25,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 758. A beautifully idealized portrait of the ageing king, the obverse die of this coin was also used to strike a previously unrecorded stater dated with the intercalary month IB (i.e., September 74 BC; see CNG 93, 22 May 2013, lot 339). This places this unique coin circa October 74 BC, making it one of the very latest gold staters of Mithradates of which we are currently aware. The facts that the obverse die was reused and the paucity of surviving specimens both suggest that the issue was a small one. Additionally, this coin stands out for having been issued more than ten years after the main series of staters had ended in 85 BC. This revival of gold issues by Mithradates can only be explained by the events unfolding at the time: the death of Nikomedes IV of Bithynia in 75 left no heirs to the kingdom, and instead bequeathed the state to Rome. Faced with the prospect of losing a coveted territory to his old enemy who would not share a border with his own lands, Mithradates began renewed preparations for war. This coin was struck on the very eve of Mithradates’ invasion of the new Roman province of Bithynia and the start of the Third Mithradatic War (73-63 BC). This conflict would result in great devastation being wrought on Pontos, betrayal on the part of Mithradates’ son Machares who allied himself with Rome, and rebellion by another son Pharnakes (see lot 765) who assumed control of the army and forced his father to commit suicide. Armenia, which under Tigranes ‘the Great’ had suppopported Mithradates in his war on Rome, suffered several heavy defeats and the loss of its capital; it ended the war as a client state of Rome. Pontos would cease to exist as a kingdom, and would be declared to be a Roman province by a victorious Pompey. Intercalation - the inserting of months, days, even hours and seconds - into the calendar is a practice which aligns the calendar in use with the observable seasons or phases of the moon. There are many recorded instances of intercalation from classical antiquity, and the Romans used it extensively until Julius Caesar reformed the Roman Calendar of 355 days replacing it with his own Julian Calendar of 365.25 days, which took effect in 45 BC.

120


121


122


PHOENICIA

394. Phoenicia, Arados AR Stater. Uncertain king, circa 380-351/0 BC. Head of marine deity right, wearing laurel wreath / Galley right; ‘m a’ in Phoenician script above, waves below; all within dotted border within incuse square. Betlyon 10; Rouvier 2; HGC 10, 29 corr. (see below); SNG Copenhagen 10; BMC 18; Hunt IV 471 (this coin); Pozzi 3041–5. 10.64g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

1,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

395

396

395. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Dated year 29 = 98/97 BC. Laureate bust of Melkart right / ΤΥPΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ , eagle standing left on prow, palm branch at shoulder; ΘK (date) above club to left, Phoenician B between legs, monogram to right. BMC Phoenicia p. 240, 114. 14.05g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 500 396. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Dated year 33 = 94/3 BC. Laureate bust of Melkart right / ΤΥPΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, eagle standing left on prow, palm branch at shoulder; ΓΛ (date) above club to left, Phoenician B between legs, monogram to right. DCA-Tyre 82; HGC 10, 357; DCA 919. 14.14g, 30mm, 12h. Very Fine. 500

397

398

397. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Dated year 128 = 2/3 BC. Laureate bust of Melkart right / ΤΥPΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, eagle standing left on prow; palm branch at shoulder; PKH (date) above club to left, Phoenician B between legs, monograms to right. RPC I Suppl. 4650b. Cf. BMC Phoenicia 233. 14.18g, 26mm, 1h. Very Fine; harshly cleaned. Very rare date. 300 398. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Dated year 171 = AD 45/6. Laureate bust of Melkart right / ΤΥPΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, eagle standing left on prow; palm branch at shoulder; POA (date) above club to left, Phoenician B between legs, KP above monogram to right. RPC I 4671; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; HGC 10, 357; DCA 920. 13.55g, 25mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 750

CYPRUS

399. Cyrpus, Kition AR Stater. Azbaal, circa 449-425 BC. Herakles in fighting stance to right, wearing lion skin upon his back and tied around neck, holding club overhead in right hand and bow extended before him in left hand; monogram or ankh to right / Lion attacking stag crouching right; L’Z’B’L (in Aramaic) above; all inside dotted border within incuse square. Zapiti & Michaelidou 5–6; Tziambazis 17; BMC 16–8. 10.94g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine. Unusually complete for the issue.

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

123

500


400. Cyrpus, Kition AR Stater. Azbaal, circa 449-425 BC. Herakles in fighting stance to right, wearing lion skin upon his back and tied around neck, holding club overhead in right hand and bow extended before him in left hand; monogram or ankh to right / Lion attacking stag crouching right; L’Z’B’L (in Aramaic) above; all inside dotted border within incuse square. Zapiti & Michaelidou 5–6; Tziambazis 17; BMC 16–8. 11.17g, 21mm, 3h. Very Fine. Well detailed obverse for type.

500

From a private Canadian collection.

401. Cyrpus, Kition AR Stater. Azbaal, circa 449-425 BC. Herakles in fighting stance to right, wearing lion skin upon his back and tied around neck, holding club overhead in right hand and bow extended before him in left hand; monogram or ankh to right / Lion attacking stag crouching right; L’Z’B’L (in Aramaic) above; all inside dotted border within incuse square. Zapiti & Michaelidou 5–6; Tziambazis 17; BMC 16–8. 11.05g, 26mm, 7h. Very Fine.

500

From the estate of an English numismatist.

402. Cypus, Kition AR Stater. Azbaal, circa 449-425 BC. Herakles in fighting stance to right, wearing lion skin upon his back and tied around neck, holding club overhead in right hand and bow extended before him in left hand; monogram or ankh to right / Lion attacking stag crouching right; L’Z’B’L (in Aramaic) above; all inside dotted border within incuse square. Zapiti & Michaelidou 5–6; Tziambazis 17; BMC 16–8. 11.00g, 23mm, 4h. Very Fine.

300

From the estate of an English numismatist.

Extremely Rare Stater of Lapethos

403. Cyprus, Lapethos AR Stater. Uncertain king, circa 425 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a floral motif on the bowl / Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress, within incuse square. Tziambazis –; Traité –; BMC –; ACGC 1094 = Boston MFA Supp. 253 = Celenderis 8a (same dies); CNG 72, lot 852 (same rev. die); Münzen und Medaillen AG XIX (5 June 1959), lot 514 (same rev. die). 11.04g, 23mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

124

7,500


404. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Uncertain king, circa 480 BC. Man-headed bull (river god Bokaros) reclining to right, head turned to left / Astragalos, Cypriot script ‘pa-si’ around. Cf. BMC 1-2, pl. VII, 1-2, and pl. XXI , 1 (same dies?) - 2. 11.02g, 23mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of just a handful of known examples.

2,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

Redating the Reign of Onasioikos

405. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Onasioikos, circa 450-440 BC. Bull standing left on beaded double line; winged solar disk above, ankh to left / Eagle standing left; ankh to left, ‘pa-si o-na’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square border in incuse square. Tziambazis -; BMC -; DestrooperGeorgiades, p. 196, 13; Gubenkian 809; NFA sale 2, 1976, 275. 11.12g, 22mm, 10h. Very Fine. The second known example. Of great numismatic and historical importance.

5,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s. The existence of this issue in name of ‘Ona’ in the style of the coinage struck in the name of Stasandros illustrates the many problems of attribution in early Cypriot numismatics. We know of coins attributed to a king ‘Onasioikos’ which utilise the same obverse type of a bull with ankh and solar disk, but with a flying eagle as the reverse design (BMC pl. XXI, 14 = Traité II 1306). This in itself is not unusual, since Cypriot cities often continued the same obverse type under different rulers much as other Greek city-states did. The present coin however, which bears the name of ‘Ona’(sioikos), but utilises the same reverse type as the staters of King Stasandros with the only difference being the legend, suggests a more direct link between the two rulers than has hitherto been widely assumed. Indeed, the style of the reverse is so similar to archaic style issues of Stasandros (see following lot, certainly the work of the same hand), that it appears to conclusively demonstrate that this king Onasioikos was the immediate predecessor of Stasandros, since the latter retained the same types as seen on this issue for his first coinage. This theory is supported by the difference in style between the issues of Stasandros - the following lot, the ‘earlier’ issue, being distinctly archaic in appearance, while the ‘later’ issue is more classical in style. In a thorough analysis of this mint and inscriptions, A. Destrooper-Georgiades (Le monnaies frappées à Paphos (Chypre) durant la deuxième moitié du Ve siècle et leur apport à l’histoire de l’île” in Proceedings of the 12th International Numismatic Congress, Berlin 2000, pp. 194-8), proposes a sequence of kings based on the available numismatic evidence which securely places Onasioikos prior to the reign of Stasandros, who is in turn succeeded by at least two other kings, Mineos and Zoalios, who are known to history only from their inscriptions on re-engraved coins of Stasandros. The evidence presented by Destrooper-Georgiades demonstrates with a high degree of probability that the issues attributed to Onasioikos bearing the flying eagle reverse (generally dated to 400 BC without supporting evidence) are in fact an earlier issue of the same king named on the present type, and that his flying-eagle coinage should clearly be redated to before the reign of Stasandros. The archaistic appearance of the flying-eagle type weighs heavily in favour of this, since a backwards step from classical style to archaic is counterintuitive. Destrooper-Georgiades proposes a revised dating of circa 450 BC for the flying-eagle type of Onasioikos, and a period from the mid-fifth century to the first decades of the fourth century for the standing-eagle coinage of Onasioikos, Stasandros, Mineos and Zoalios.

406. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 440-425 BC. Bull standing left on beaded double line; winged solar disk above, [ankh to left] / Eagle standing left; ankh to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa-to’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square border in incuse square. Babelon, Perses 749a; BMC pl. XXI, 9; Tziambazis -. 10.93g, 24mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,500

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s. The similarities in style and fabric of this coin with the preceding lot attributed to Onasioikos indicate that it was the first known issue in the name of Stasandros, who has evidently succeeded Onasioikos as king. Both sets of dies are very clearly the work of the same engraver(s).

125


One of the Finest Known

407. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 425 BC or later. Bull standing left; winged solar disk above, ankh to left, palmette ornament in exergue / Eagle standing left; one-handled vase to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square in incuse square. DestrooperGeorgiades 15; Tziambazis 7; Traité II 1291 = BMC 17; SNG Copenhagen 26; ACGC 1089. 11.15g, 22mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and among the finest known examples.

7,500

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

Very Rare Variety of a Very Rare Type

408. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 425 BC or later. Bull standing left; winged solar disk above, ankh to left, two-leafed shoot in exergue / Eagle standing left; one-handled vase to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square in incuse square. BMC pl. XXI, 11; Roma e32, 495 (corr., same dies). 11.17g, 22mm, 5h. Near Mint State; unobtrusive test cut. Very rare variety of a very rare type.

2,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

409. Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Uncertain king, circa 480-460 BC. Ram lying to left, above, Cypriot script ‘pa-si-le-wo’ under winged solar disk / Large ankh, ‘pa-o-si-u’ clockwise around. BMC 30, pl. X, 8; Tziambazis -. 11.17g, 21mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

126

1,000


410. Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Evanthes, circa 450 BC. Ram recumbent to left; Cypriot script ‘e-u-wa-te-o-se’ around / Ram’s head to left, ankh symbol below flanked by Cypriot script ‘pa-si’, ‘jo-e’ above; all within incuse circle. SNG Copenhagen -; cf. BMC 1 var. (rev. letters); CNG 69, 506 (same dies). 11.20g, 23mm, 9h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,500

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

The Unknown Phoenician King?

2x

2x

411. Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Uncertain (Phoenician?) king, circa 450-430 BC. Ram recumbent to left, retrograde Cypriot script from top right to bottom left: ‘pa-si-le-wo-se ma-xa-ko-sa’; all within dotted border / Ram’s head to left, retrograde Cypriot script ‘pa-si ku-ru-ko’ above, ankh, astragalos and facing panther’s head below; all within incuse circle. Unpublished in the standard references, for general type, fabric and style cf. K. McGregor, The Coinage of Salamis, Cyprus, from the Sixth to the Fourth Centuries, University College London (unpublished PhD Thesis 1998, J.I, 336-7, Euwateteos) = ACGC 1082 = BMC 38-9 = Traité II, 1135-6 (all in the name of king Evanthes). 10.98g, 22mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine, some areas of flatness. Unique and of considerable numismatic and historical importance.

10,000

From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s. The Greek dynasty of Salamis traced its ancestry back to the legendary hero Teukros, son of Telamon, king of the Greek island of Salamis in the Saronic Gulf. The first king and founder of the dynasty of Cypriot Salamis whose name appears on the Persian standard double sigloi and fractions is that of Evelthon (560-525 BC). It has long been recognised and confirmed by the Celenderis, Asyut, Lanarca, Zagazig and Jordan hoards, that many if not all of these issues were minted by his successors from c. 515 until the mid 5th century. Herodotus (5.104) lists four successors to Evelthon: Siromos, Chersis, Gorgos and Onesilos, none of whom are confirmed by the numismatic record. The only other names recorded on coins before the well attested Evagoras I are: Phausis (cf. J. Kagan and K. McGregor 1995: “The Coinage of king Phausis of Salamis”, CCEC 23, 3-9, 1995); Nikotamos (cf. BMC 31-32 (Nikodamos) and Evanthes (BMC 38-9) dated to the period 480-450 BC. This brings us to a short and obscure period of Phoenician rule which, according to Isokrates (Evagoras 19-20), came about when “there came from Phoenicia a fugitive, who after he had gained the confidence of the king who then reigned, and had won great power, showed no proper gratitude for the favor shown him; on the contrary, he acted basely toward his host, and being skilled at grasping, he expelled his benefactor and himself seized the throne. But distrustful of the consequences of his measures and wishing to make his position secure, he reduced the city to barbarism, and brought the whole island into subservience to the Great King. Such was the state of affairs in Salamis, and the descendants of the usurper were in possession of the throne when Evagoras was born.” Evagoras I, possibly as early as the 440s, took power from the Phoenician usurpers, the second of whom is recorded as having been named Abdemon, but the first whose usurpation is related by Isokrates is unknown to history. It appears that the above coin, clearly following the style of Nikodamos and Evanthes, but later than both and bearing an unrelated and strange obverse name, belongs to this brief Phoenician interlude. The syllables ‘ku’ and ‘ko-ru’ appear elsewhere on the coinage of Salamis. A range of issues attributed to Evelthon and/or his successors feature an Ankh with ‘ku’ in the centre (cf. BMC, Salamis 18, p. 49, p. IX. 15), which given the royal associations of the ankh symbol, must impart some especial pertinence to that particular syllable; an association with Kuprou = Cyprus is logical (and indeed this association has often been posited by various scholars), which may possibly suggest an implied meaning: ‘Basileos of Kuprou’. Similar issues contemporary to the aforementioned coins of Evelthon and/or successors (cf. Dikaios 1961, p. 175, 6-7 = McGregor 223-224) additionally feature the syllables ‘ru-ko’ or ‘ko-ru’ adjacent to the ankh. The meaning of ‘ko’ and ‘ru’ remains elusive; K. McGregor 1999, (The Coinage of Salamis, Cyprus, From the Sixth to the Fourth Centuries BC, UCL doctoral thesis, p.52) notes the confusion and divided opinion concerning the ku-ru-ko legend: “Six 1883, p. 271, nos. 18-21 attributed the inscription to Gorgos; Deecke, 168 D read the syllables pu and po; Babelon 1893, p. cxiv-cxivi, no. 569 read the syllables as ru and po and combined the ku reading ku-po-ru ‘Kuprou’... Certainly ko-ru can be read as go-ru, gru, or indeed gor. See A. Leukart, ‘Syllabaire et dialecte chypriotes classiques’, Chypre des origines au Moyan-Age, 1975, p. 107.” None of these explanations is entirely satisfactory, however since it seems unlikely that a Phoenician usurper would bear the same name ‘Gorgos’ as one of Evelthon’s successors (and have a mixed-up partially retrograde legend, if that is in fact how we are expected to read it: ‘pa-si ku ko-ru’ instead of the way it is actually written, which is ‘pa-si ku ro-ko’), then a direct association with Cyprus seems more appropriate. Therefore if we discount ‘ku-ru-ko’ as being the name of the king, we may tentatively attribute this coin on the basis of the obverse legend to a ‘pasi-le-wo-se ma-xa-ko-sa’, or King ‘Maxakosa’ (=Mazaios or similar?).

127


One of the Finest Known

412.

Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Evagoras I, circa 411-374 BC. Head of bearded Herakles wearing lion skin headdress to right, Cypriot script ‘e-u-wa-ko-ro’ before / Goat with long horns and beard lying to right on dotted ground line; combined Cypriot and Greek legend ‘pa-si-le-wo-se’ EV around. BMC 55 var.; Boston 2144 var.; Tziambazis 113 var. 10.87g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Remarkably well struck and preserved for this type. Very Rare.

15,000

Ex Roma Numismatics V, 23 March 2013, lot 438. Coinage commenced in Cyprus around 525 BC, with the city of Salamis minting a primitive currency which from its earliest days featured the type of a ram lying down on its obverse. This design would remain common on the coinage of Salamis, no doubt implying that the region’s economy was heavily reliant on goat herding. Interestingly, in these early days the reverse was blank and flat, without even a punch mark. In this respect the coins of Salamis differ significantly from those of Greece or Asia Minor. Evagoras I, the greatest king of Salamis, claimed descent from Teukros son of Telamon and half-brother of Ajax. Having failed to avenge his brother’s death, Teukros was thus prevented from returning home from the Trojan war and supposedly settled in Salamis, becoming the mythical founder of the city. But Evagoras was born under the rule of the Phoenician usurpers, and according to Isocrates, was so possessed of “beauty... strength... manly courage, wisdom and justice” that “one of the princes, starting a conspiracy, slew the tyrant and attempted to arrest Evagoras, believing that he would not be able to retain the rule himself unless he should get him out of the way.” First escaping to Soloi in Cilicia, then returning with a picked band of fifty men, Evagoras attacked the palace by night and established himself as ruler of the city. The king produced a substantial issue of coinage in support of Athens and to further his ambitions for the domination of Cyprus. Indeed, with Athenian aid Evagoras succeeded in extending his rule over the greater part of the island, and even conquered several cities in Phoenicia, including Tyre. Yet when Athenian support was withdrawn under the terms of the Peace of Antalkidas, Evagoras continued to fight alone against the Persian Empire, which resulted in an invasion of the island that effectively reduced him to the status of a vassal king. In 374 he was assassinated by a eunuch for motives of private revenge, and was succeeded by his son, Nikokles. The inscription on the reverse of this coin is written in a combination of Cypriot syllabic and Greek characters. Although Cypriots were Greeks and their language a dialect of Greek, their written language was recorded in an older and more difficult system, the Cypriot syllabary, which was ultimately derived from the Linear A script of the Minoans. Evagoras has been called a pioneer of the adoption of the Greek alphabet in Cyprus in place of the older Cypriot syllabary.

128


COMMAGENE

413. Kings of Commagene, Epiphanes & Kallinikos Æ19. Laranda mint, AD 72. Epiphanes and Kallinikos on horseback left; BACIΛΕΩC YIOI below / ΛYKAONΩN, Capricorn to right, star above, anchor below; all within wreath. RPC I 3535 (Antiochos IV Epiphanes) = von Aulock, Lykaoniens 11 (same dies); AC 228 (same dies). 8.14g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

300

KYRENAIKA Early Kyrenaikan Hemidrachm

2x 414. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AR Hemidrachm. Circa 570-525 BC. Silphium fruit / Rough incuse stamp. BMC 7, pl. II, 14. 1.95g, 11mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

2x 415. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AR Hemidrachm. Circa 500-480 BC. Silphium fruit / Incuse square divided into five sections. Buttrey, Coins 46–8; SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 7–8 var. (incuse). 1.82g, 12mm. Very Fine, toned. Slightly porous. Extremely Rare early issue.

500

2x 416. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AV 1/10 Stater. Circa 435-331 BC. Head of female (Kyrene?) right / Head of Karneios left; [...]Δ(?) behind. Naville 12 var. (no letters on rev.); SNG Copenhagen -. 0.86g, 8mm, 8h. Very Fine, ding or metal flaw on obverse, scuff across reverse right field onto nose.

400

Very Rare Gold Hemistater

417. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AV Hemistater - Drachm. Time of Theupheides, circa 375-308 BC. Youth, wearing chlamys and petasos, mounted on pacing horse left; [grain ear to right] / Silphium plant, KYPA around. Naville 31-2; BMC 125 (same dies). 4.27g, 13mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

129

2,500


2x 418. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AV 1/10 Stater. Time of Theupheides, circa 375-308 BC. ΘEO..., Magistrate. Head of Karneios left, with short hair; ΘEO around / Female head (Kyrene?) right. BMC 143-144 var. (arrangement of legend). 0.83g, 8mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. 2x

2x

419

420

800

419. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AV 1/10 Stater. Circa 375-308 BC. KYΔ..., Magistrate. Head of Karneios left, with short hair; KYΔ downwards before, sixpointed star behind / Female head (Kyrene?) right. Naville 62; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 150; Jameson 2531; Weber 8443. 0.80g, 8mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. 500 420. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AV 1/10 Stater. Circa 375-308 BC. KY..., Magistrate. Head of Karneios left, with short hair; KY upwards behind / Female head (Kyrene?) right. BMC 148. 0.88g, 8mm, 3h. Very Fine. Bump to obverse cheek. 400

Rare Kyrene Gold Stater

421. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AV Stater. Time of Ophellas, Ptolemaic governor, first reign, circa 322-313 BC. Polianthes, magistrate. Nike, driving fast quadriga right, holding kentron and reins; KΥΡANAIΩN above / Zeus Ammon standing left, holding patera and lotus-tipped sceptre; thymiaterion to left, ΠOΛIANΘEYΣ to right. Naville 84; Mørkholm, Cyrene, p. 151, no. 23; SNG Copenhagen 1210. 8.61g, 20mm, 11h. Very Fine. Rare.

3,500

Ex private Swiss collection.

EGYPT

Ex MoneyMuseum Zurich

422. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Alexandria, circa 300-285 BC. Diademed head right, wearing aegis around neck, small Δ behind ear / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY, eagle standing left on thunderbolt; to left, P above monogram. Svoronos 255; SNG Copenhagen 70–1; Boston MFA 2264; Hunt IV 498; Meydancikkale 3404 (same dies); Noeske 41–2. 14.33g, 27mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone.

Ex collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich; Ex Leu 65, 21 May 1996, lot 270.

130

2,000


423. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I AV Half Mnaieion - Tetradrachm. Alexandreia, circa 272-261/0 BC. Conjoined busts of Ptolemy II and Arsinöe II right; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Arsinöe is diademed and veiled; AΔEΛΦΩN above, shield to left / Conjoined busts of Ptolemy I and Berenike I; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Berenike is diademed and veiled; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 604; SNG Copenhagen 133; Noeske 38; Boston MFA 2275; Dewing 2753-4. 13.95g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

4,000

424. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I AV Half Mnaieion - Tetradrachm. Alexandreia, circa 272-261/0 BC. Conjoined busts of Ptolemy II and Arsinöe II right; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Arsinöe is diademed and veiled; AΔEΛΦΩN above, shield to left / Conjoined busts of Ptolemy I and Berenike I; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Berenike is diademed and veiled; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 604; SNG Copenhagen 133; Noeske 38; Boston MFA 2275; Dewing 2753-4. 13.90g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

3,500

425. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I AV Half Mnaieion - Tetradrachm. Alexandreia, circa 272-261/0 BC. Conjoined busts of Ptolemy II and Arsinöe II right; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Arsinöe is diademed and veiled; AΔEΛΦΩN above, shield to left / Conjoined busts of Ptolemy I and Berenike I; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Berenike is diademed and veiled; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 604; SNG Copenhagen 133; Noeske 38; Boston MFA 2275; Dewing 2753-4. 13.91g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

426

3,000

427

426. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy VI Philometor AR Tetradrachm. Second sole reign. Paphos, dated RY 31 = 151/150 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I right, wearing aegis / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt; LΛA (date) to left, ΠA to right, ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ around. Svoronos 1445; SNG Copenhagen 620 (same obv. die). 13.90g, 27mm, 12h. Near Mint State. 1,000 427. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Kleopatra III and Ptolemy IX Soter AR Tetradrachm. Alexandria, dated RY 2 = 116/5 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I right, wearing aegis / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt; LB (date) to left, ΠΑ to right, ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEOΣ around. Svoronos 1660; SNG Copenhagen 348; Noeske 301; DCA 60. 14.31g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 500

131


Cleopatra

428.

Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII AR Tetradrachm. Askalon, Year 64 Era of Askalon = 41/40 BC. Diademed bust of Cleopatra right, wearing necklace, hair plaited in rows and tied at back in a chignon / [ΙΕΡΑΣ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ] ΑΣΚΑΛΩ[ΝΙΤΩΝ] “Sacred and Inviolate of (the people of) Ascalon”, eagle standing to right, palm over left wing; monogram and dove to left, LΞΔ to right. Unpublished, but cf. Svoronos 1883 (year 52) and 1885 (year 55) = BMC Palestine 20, p.108; cf. Naville XVI, 1933, 1473 (year 66). 12.70g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Unique, unpublished and of considerable historical and numismatic interest. A marvellous example of Cleopatra’s excessively rare ‘Greek’ silver coinage. Only three other tetradrachms issued by Cleopatra at Askalon are known to exist. That they are so exceedingly rare can only be explained if they were issued occasionally and in small numbers. 50,000 The dating of the Askalon tetradrachms of Cleopatra was for many years calculated incorrectly due to the extreme rarity of the coinage and the paucity of information available. BMC Palestine initially assigned the example with the date LNE (year fifty-five) to 30/29 BC, on the basis of an era assumed by Svoronos, following Feuardent, to have begun in 84 BC. These tetradrachms bearing Cleopatra’s portrait would therefore have been struck when the queen, born in 69, would have been about forty years old. Svoronos, who saw the portrait as representing a woman of middle-age, clearly regarded this as appropriate. Indeed, Agnes Baldwin Brett (A New Cleopatra Tetradrachm of Ascalon, American Journal of Achaeology, vol. 41, 3) relates the anecdote that on the BM specimen, “Cleopatra so resembles an aged woman – children would call her a witch or a hag, with her beak of a nose and deeply wrinkled neck”. However, the V. Adda collection example (formerly S. H. Chapman collection; presented in Naville XVI 1933 1473) displayed a year 66 date which required the redating of the series: if the coins had been dated from Svoronos’ hypothetical era beginning 84 BC, the Naville specimen would have been struck some ten years after Cleopatra’s death in c. 19 BC. Now reckoned from the year of autonomy of Askalon in 104/103 BC, the present piece dated to 41/40 BC must have been struck when Cleopatra was twenty-eight or twenty-nine years old. Much has been written concerning the differences in appearance of the queen on her various coinage issues, and the apparent inconsistency in depicting both her age and beauty. Collectors often wonder at her plain appearance on the surviving coins both in her sole name and those issued jointly with Marc Antony, an appearance which seems at odds with her famous seduction of two of the most powerful men in history – first, Julius Caesar in 48/47 BC when she was twenty-one, then Marc Antony in 41/40 BC, the year this coin was struck. Surviving busts of Cleopatra certainly are more flattering than her coinage; the exaggeration of certain features on the coinage can often be explained by deliberate emphasis on attributes associated with strength and power, notably the angular jaw and chin, and distinctive Ptolemaic nose. Moreover, while Svoronos erroneously assumed that the Askalon coinage emanated from a mint under Cleopatra’s direct control (an error subsequently perpetuated), in fact Askalon was an autonomous city under the protection of the Ptolemies, issuing coinage in their name only sporadically, apparently coinciding with important events and occasions (see A. Baldwin Brett, A New Cleopatra Tetradrachm of Ascalon, American Journal of Archaeology 41, 3, pp. 452-463). Cleopatra should therefore be expected to have had limited or no direct influence over her own image as portrayed on the coinage. Indeed, a further factor contributing to a stylised form of portrait may be found in the occasion for the striking of this issue, if it was produced in haste. Given the dating, the most likely events that would have occasioned its striking are either the conclusion of the alliance between Cleopatra and Antony in 41 BC, or more likely, the immediate threat posed to the city and its environs in 40 BC by the Parthian invasion of Syria led by Quintus Labienus and Pacorus. They had already forced the capitulation of Antioch, Phoenicia and Judaea, and were prevented from besieging Tyre only by the lack of a fleet; it would not be until the following year, 39, that Publius Ventidius Bassus would be dispatched east with 11 legions to drive back the invaders. It is possible therefore that this issue may have been produced in anticipation of anticipated warfare, as an appeal to Cleopatra for protection while advertising the city’s loyalty to the Ptolemaic dynasty.

132


133


ARABIA

429

430

429. Southern Arabia, Himyar AR Unit. ‘Taran Yaub’. Raydan mint, late 2nd century AD(?). Long haired head right within serpent-headed torque; monogram to left / Long haired head right; monogram behind, ‘sceptre’ before. Munro-Hay 3.24i. 1.75g, 15mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

150

430. Southern Arabia, Himyar AR Unit. ‘Taran Yaub’. Raydan mint, late 2nd century AD(?). Long haired head right within serpent-headed torque; monogram to left / Long haired head right; monogram behind, ‘sceptre’ before. Munro-Hay 3.24i. 1.72g, 15mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

150

PERSIA Fleur De Coin

431. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero, wearing kidaris and kandys, in kneeling-running attitude on exergual line to right, holding apple-tipped spear and strung bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B. 8.41g, 15mm. Fleur De Coin.

2,500

The ancient Greeks themselves believed that the term ‘dareikos’ was derived from the name of Darius the Great, an assessment that many modern scholars agree with. Others however have generally supposed that the Greek term can be traced back to old Persian ‘dari’ (“golden”) and that it was first associated with the name of Darius only in later folk etymology. Both suppositions may be equally valid. While the Persians had not traditionally used coinage, Cyrus the Great had introduced it to the Persian empire with the conquest of the Lydian Kingdom in 546 BC. The Lydian coinage series featuring a confronted lion and bull type was continued at first, but under the reign of the third Great King, Darios I, the Lydian gold stater was converted into a type bearing the stylised image of the Persian ruler or a hero, a type which would last with little modification until the conquest of Persia by Alexander in the 330s BC. One of the principal motivating factors behind this institution of an official Persian currency was the requirement to pay Greek mercenaries, who were accustomed to receiving payment in coinage, or for official use as bribes and subsidies. Indeed, nothing demonstrates the power of the gold daric more succinctly than when Sparta was waging an increasingly successful war led by Agesilaos II against Persia in Asia Minor (398-395 BC). Unable to defeat the Spartan army, the satrap Pharnabazos sent an Asiatic Greek by the name of Timocrates of Rhodes to distribute ten thousand gold darics in the major cities of mainland Greece and thus incite them to war against Sparta. Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Argos quickly entered into conflict with Sparta, precipitating a messenger to be sent to Agesilaos ordering him to return to Greece. The recall was a bitter disappointment to Agesilaos, who wryly observed that “but for ten thousand ‘archers’, he would have vanquished all Asia”.

432. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero, wearing kidaris and kandys, in kneeling-running attitude on exergual line to right, holding apple-tipped spear and strung bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B (pl. XIII, 27); BMC pl. XXIV, 25. 8.32g, 16mm. Mint State.

2,500

433. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero, wearing kidaris and kandys, in kneeling-running attitude on exergual line to right, holding apple-tipped spear and strung bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B (pl. XIII, 27); BMC pl. XXIV, 25. 8.30g, 15mm. Mint State.

134

2,000


SELEUKID EMPIRE

434. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Babylon, circa 311-308 BC. Head of Athena right wearing Corinthian helmet ornamented with griffin / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY, to right, MHP monogram in wreath at feet to left. SC 81.3; Price 3749. 8.56g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous; well centred on a broad flan.

2,500

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 354.

435. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Carrhae, circa 305-300 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre, [crescent] above ΔI in left field, monogram below throne; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. SC 41.3c; Price 3818. 17.04g, 27mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

436. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia, circa 300-281 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; ΣEΛEYKOY to left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, monograms in left field and below throne. SC 117.1c; ESM 4; HGC 9, 12i. 7.14g, 26mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful obverse style.

500

437. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 300-281 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; ΣEΛEYKOY to left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, monograms in left field and below throne. SC 399.7; HGC 9, 125c; Roma Numismatics e21 , 446. 16.92g, 29mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

135

2,000


438. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 305-295 BC. Head of Seleukos I right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around, monogram in lower middle field. SC 173.4; HGC 9, 20. 16.91g, 27mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

4,000

The trophy series of Seleukos was issued over an extended period, and used 67 obverse dies and at least 93 reverses that we are aware of. The type is generally assumed to commemorate the victories of Seleukos as he pushed eastwards into India, occupying territory as far as the Indus, and eventually waging war against the Mauryan Empire. This campaign against Chandragupta Maurya was however a failure. While there is no record of what transpired to prevent Seleukos achieving his aims, the two leaders eventually reached an accord whereby Seleukos ceded some of his easternmost territory in exchange for a gift of 500 war elephants. The massive beasts were to play a significant role in the coming wars of the Diadochi, in particular at the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC. The assertion that the trophy reverse commemorates a victory by Seleukos in the east or in the Upper Satrapies, and his subsequent assumption of a the royal title in 305/4 BC is problematic. The dating of the issue was proposed by Kritt (The Early Seleukid Mint of Susa, 1997) and subsequently accepted by the numismatic community seemingly without question. Moreover, the important detail of the trophy’s composition is ignored. The trophy is unquestionably built from Macedonian arms, as evidenced by the Vergina Sun (or Argead Star) clearly emblazoned on the shield. That this should therefore represent an eastern victory is impossible, particularly given the inconclusive nature of Seleukos’ campaign against Chandragupta, and its stale conclusion. The issue bears far more significance when viewed in the context of a victory over other Macedonians - for which we should look to the battle of Ipsos, in which Seleukos’ elephants played a decisive role in the victory over Antigonos.

Excellent Style Antiochos I Tetradrachm

439. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, Apollo seated to left on omphalos, holding arrow and resting left hand on bow which is set on ground; monogram in each outer field. Newell, ESM 177; SC 379.6; HGC 9, 128g. 17.14g, 30mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Well struck and centred; engraved in very fine style and very well preserved for the type.

5,000

Ex Numismatik Lanz 112, 25 November 2002, lot 229; Ex Münzen und Medaillen Basel list 530, 1990, no. 4. Antiochos I was the son of Seleukos I and Apama, Seleukos’ Persian wife. His date of birth is unknown, but was probably circa 320 BC as he was old enough to lead the Seleukid cavalry at the battle of Ipsos in 301. When Seleukos was assassinated in 281, Antiochos was probably in Ekbatana, where he had maintained court ruling the eastern satrapies on behalf of his father since 294. With his accession, Antiochos faced immediate attacks by Ptolemy II in Asia Minor and revolts of the cities of Syria. He left his eldest son, Seleukos, as governor of the eastern satrapies and marched west to meet the threats, which he soon overcame. However, it was not long before his attention was once again drawn to disturbances, this time from a menacing force of warlike Celtic tribes that had crossed over the Hellespont in the winter of 278/7 and invaded Asia Minor, and also shortly thereafter, renewed hostilities with Ptolemy II (First Syrian War, 274-271 BC). After defeating the Celts and receiving the title of Saviour (Soter) by the Greek cities of Asia Minor, Antiochos concluded an uneasy truce with Ptolemy which allowed him to focus on public relations and administrative work in Asia Minor. His subsequent reign was relatively peaceful, with the exceptions of sedition by his son and co-regent, Seleukos, whom he was forced to execute and replace with his younger son, the future Antiochos II, and the loss of northwest Asia Minor to Eumenes I of Pergamon. The figure of Apollo seated on the omphalos gained prominence under Antiochos, publicizing his supposed descent from the god, and became the characteristic reverse type for most Seleukid precious metal coinage down through the reign of Antiochos IV.

136


A Line in the Sand

440. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos IV Epiphanes AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, circa 168-164 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right, with the features of Antiochos / Zeus Nikephoros seated left, with Nike standing right crowning Zeus with laurel wreath; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY to right, ΘEOY EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKHΦOPOY to left. SC 1398; Le Rider, Antioche, Series IIIA; Mørkholm Series III; SMA 63; SNG Spaer 1003; Houghton 106-107. 16.79g, 33mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

Struck to commemorate Antiochos’ return to Antioch following the conclusion of his second Egyptian campaign, this coin features a head of Zeus that bears distinct resemblance to Antiochos IV himself. Evidence to support an interpretation of the obverse as an amalgamation of Antiochos and Zeus can be found in the facts that Antiochos both caused the radiate diadem – a symbol of royal apotheosis - to be introduced on Seleukid coinage, and added the self-given title EΠIΦANHΣ (God Manifest) to his coinage. Yet despite his grand titles, Antiochos IV’s second Egyptian campaign was brought to a conclusion not by any great victory of his or his enemy’s. Before reaching Alexandria, Antiochos’ path was blocked by a single, old Roman ambassador named Gaius Popillius Laenas. Popillius, with whom Antiochos had been friends with during his stay in Rome during his youth, offered Antiochos not a friendly welcome, but an ultimatum from the Senate: he must withdraw his armies from Egypt and Cyprus, or consider himself in a state of war with the Roman Republic. Antiochos begged to have time to consider but Popillius drew a circle around him in the sand with his cane and told him to decide before he stepped outside it. Weighing his options, Antiochos decided to withdraw; only then did Popillius agree to shake hands with him.

The Panhellenic Festival

441. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos IV Epiphanes AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, circa 166/5 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, his hair long, draping his shoulders / Apollo, wearing a long peplos, standing facing right, holding a patera and a kithara; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY ΘEOY to right, EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKHΦOPOY to left. Houghton & Lorber, SC 1401; Newell, SMA 64; Houghton 110; Gulbenkian 1040. 16.79g, 33mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

Issued for the Panhellenic festival celebrated in the sanctuary of Apollo at Daphne, near Antioch, only around 15 examples of this exceptionally beautiful issue are known to have survived antiquity. The Panhellenic festival had been celebrated before the reign of Antiochos IV, but it was he that caused the importance and size of the festival at Daphne to be greatly increased, such that after this time Daphne became a central cult location and oracle of the dynasty’s patron deity Apollo. Antiochos had sent ambassadors and envoys to the Greek cities, and many were eager to send delegations. The festival was preceded by a grand military parade of forty thousand infantry, ten thousand cavalry and sixty four war elephants. More than half of the infantry were elite Seleukid shock troops, including the bronze and silver shield battalions, and a ten-thousand strong formation of soldiers equipped in the Roman legionary fashion (for a full description of the parade, see Polybios 31.16.1). There followed a great number of sacrificial animals and offerings to the gods, and lastly came a great parade of gilded images of ‘every god or demigod or hero known or worshipped by mankind’. At least part of Antiochos’ motivation in transforming the festival into such an imposing and lavish monarchical spectacle was to enhance his own reputation and the status of Daphne. Since Didyma had been lost to the Seleukids since the treaty of Apameia in 188, it is likely that he also sought to supplant Didyma with a cult centre within Seleukid territory. More importantly, the Treaty of Apameia had explicitly forbidden Seleukid possession of war elephants, and therefore the primary purpose of the grand military parade was to announce his power to all the world and make a clear statement that he would not be cowed by Rome, nor abide by the treaty imposed upon his father.

137


A Pheidian-influenced Portrait of Zeus

442. Seleukid Empire, Alexander I Balas AR Tetradrachm. Seleucia Pieria, year 166 = 147/6 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right, with full beard and with his hair arranged in long curls of archaizing form / Thunderbolt, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, ϚΞΡ (year) and monogram above, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ and two monograms below; all within elaborate laurel wreath with ties to right. CSE 409; Gulbenkian 1044; A. Houghton, “A Tetradrachm of Seleucia Pieria at the Getty Museum,” J. Getty Museum Journal 10 (1982), A2/P4 and fig. F = SC 1798 = Wealth of the Ancient World 112. 16.98g, 30mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine; in outstanding condition for the type with sound, lustrous metal. One of, if not the finest example of only approximately two dozen surviving specimens. Extremely Rare. 15,000 This rare and remarkable tetradrachm represents a very interesting episode in the history of the Seleukid empire. Of humble origins, Alexander Balas pretended that he was the son of Antiochos IV Epiphanes and Laodike IV, and thus heir to the imperial throne. He was ‘discovered’ by Herakleides, a former minister of Antiochos IV and brother of Timarchos, an usurper in Media who had been executed by the reigning king Demetrios I Soter. Alexander’s claims were recognized by the Roman Senate and Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt; he was even granted the hand in marriage of Cleopatra Thea, a daughter of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Though his revolt was initially unsuccessful, in 150 BC Alexander was able to defeat Demetrios, and claim overlordship of the empire. Despite his victory however, Alexander remained heavily dependent on Ptolemaic support. Antioch refused to acknowledge him, and struck its own series of posthumous coinage in the name of Antiochos IV. Alexander was therefore forced to strike his own coinage at Seleukeia, previously only a peripheral mint, but which at the beginning of his reign was the only city in northern Syria completely under his control. Thus we see here a tetradrachm which unlike the usual royal issues, employs types that are directly related to the city in which it was struck. The Pheidian-influenced portrait of Zeus on the obverse clearly represents Zeus Kasios, whose cult in the city of Seleukeia was well noted. The reverse type of the thunderbolt was also an important cult symbol, which Appian (Syr. 58) tells us was held in great reverence by the inhabitants of Seleukeia. Zeus Kasios was himself a Hellenization of Ba’al Zaphon, the latter term being derived from the mountain named Hazzi (or Kasios to the Greeks), which remained in use from the 2nd millennium BC onwards. Zeus Kasios was locally venerated as a storm god renowned for his battle against the sea monster now known as Typhon, whose name and various features are derived from Zaphon.

443. Seleukid Empire, Alexander I Balas AR Tetradrachm. Seleucia Pieria, year 166 = 147/6 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right, with full beard and with his hair arranged in long curls of archaizing form / Thunderbolt, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, ϚΞΡ (year) and monogram above, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ and two monograms below; all within elaborate laurel wreath with ties to right. CSE 409; Gulbenkian 1044; A. Houghton, “A Tetradrachm of Seleucia Pieria at the Getty Museum,” J. Getty Museum Journal 10 (1982), A2/P4 and fig. F = SC 1798 = Wealth of the Ancient World 112. 17.01g, 32mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

138

5,000


139


444. Seleukid Empire, Demetrios II Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, dated SE 167 = 146/5 BC. Diademed head right within wreathed border / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY ΘEOY ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦOY NIKATOPOΣ, Apollo Delphios seated left; palm branch to outer left, monogram above knee and between legs, ZΞP (date) in exergue. SC 1906.6b; HGC 9, 957d. 16.80g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful portrait engraved in fine style.

1,000

445. Seleukid Empire, Demetrios II Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, dated SE 168 (145-144 BC). Diademed head right within filleted border / Nude Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow in right hand, left hand resting on bow; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔEMETRIOY to left, ΘEOY ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY NIKATOPOΣ to right, palm to outer left, monograms to inner left, K between legs, ΗΞΡ (date) in exergue. SC 1907.1h; SNG Spaer 1601 var. (monogram between legs); SMA 207; Houghton -. 16.37g, 30mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; M graffito on rev. Rare.

750

446. Seleukid Empire, Demetrios II Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, dated SE 168 = 145-144 BC. Diademed head right within wreathed border / Nude Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow in right hand, left hand resting on bow; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔEMETRIOY to left, ΘEOY ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY NIKATOPOΣ to right, palm to outer left, monograms to inner left, H between legs, ΗΞΡ (date) in exergue. SC 1907.1i; SMA 209. 16.66g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

140

1,000


447. Seleukid Empire, Demetrios II Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Tyre, dated SE 167 = 146/5 BC. Diademed and draped bust right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, eagle standing left on prow, palm frond behind; club surmounted by Tyre monogram to left, ZΞP above monogram to right. SC 1959.1c; Rouvier 1874 corr. (monogram to right); HGC 9, 970; DCA 153. 14.13g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch Stuttgart 1, 22 November 2010, lot 283.

Rare ‘Star’ Issue of 144/3 BC

449. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Tetradrachm. Apameia, dated SE 169 = 144/3 BC. Radiate and diademed head right; star behind / The Dioskouroi riding left, holding couched lances; to right, TPY above monogram and Φ; ΘΞP (date) below; all within wreath of lily, ivy, and grain ears. SC 2010.4c; Houghton, Revolt, Group XV, 59; HGC 9, 1032 correction. 16.97g, 29mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare issue with star on obverse.

2,000

The star on the obverse only appears on issues of Antioch and Apameia dated SE 169. Its significance remains unknown.

450. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Tetradrachm. Apameia, dated SE 169 = 144/3 BC. Radiate and diademed head right; star behind / The Dioskouroi riding left, holding couched lances; to right, TPY above monogram and Φ; ΘΞP (date) below; all within wreath of lily, ivy, and grain ears. SC 2010.4e; Houghton, Revolt, Group XV, 62 (A10/P29); HGC 9, 1032 correction. 16.37g, 30mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare issue with star on obverse.

141

2,000


451. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Tetradrachm. Apameia, dated SE 169 = 144/3 BC. Radiate and diademed head right / The Dioskouroi riding left, holding couched lances; to right, TPY above monogram; HΞP (date) below; all within wreath of lily, ivy, and grain ears. SC 2009.1a; HGC 9, 1032; DCA 177. 16.70g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

452. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, dated SE 169 = 144/3 BC. Radiate and diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY, the Dioskouroi, holding reins in right hand and couched lances in left, on horses rearing left; to right, TPY above monogram above ΣTA; ΘΞP (date) below; all within wreath of laurel, ivy, and grain ears. SC 2000.2f; SMA 230. 16.54g, 30mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Finely detailed.

2,000

453. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, dated SE 169 = 144/3 BC. Radiate and diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY, the Dioskouroi, holding reins in right hand and couched lances in left, on horses rearing left; to right, TPY above monogram above ΣTA; ΘΞP (date) below; all within wreath of laurel, ivy, and grain ears. SC 2000.2f; SMA 230. 17.29g, 32mm, 1h. Near Mint State.

142

2,000


454. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, dated SE 169 = 144/3 BC. Radiate and diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY, the Dioskouroi, holding reins in right hand and couched lances in left, on horses rearing left; to right, TPY above monogram above ΣTA; ΘΞP (date) below; all within wreath of laurel, ivy, and grain ears. SC 2000.2a; SMA 232. 16.67g, 35mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

455. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Drachm. Apameia, dated SE 168 (144/3 BC). Radiate and diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY, Apollo Delphios seated left on omphalos; grape bunch to outer left, monogram between feet; HΞΡ (date) in exergue. SC 2011.1g; HGC 9, 1036g. 4.08g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

456. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VII Euergetes AR Tetradrachm. Cappadocian mint, circa 138-129 BC. Posthumous issue. Diademed head right / Athena Nikephoros standing left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY to right, EϒΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ to left; to outer left, monogram above A; O to inner left, Λ to inner right; all within laurel wreath. SC 2148; HGC 9, 1069. 16.56g, 30mm, 12h. Mint State; lightly toned. 500

457. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VII Euergetes AR Tetradrachm. Tyre, circa 135-134 BC. Diademed, draped bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, eagle standing left on prow, TYP monogram on club to left, APE monogram above club, monogram in right field above HOP, control mark between legs. SC 2109.6. 14.11g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Pleasantly toned. Rare. 750

143


Excessively Rare Cleopatra Thea Tetradrachm

448.

Seleukid Empire, Cleopatra Thea Eueteria AR Tetradrachm. Sole reign. Ake-Ptolemais, dated SE 126/125 BC. Diademed and veiled bust of Cleopatra Thea right, wearing stephane / BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ KΛEOΠATΡAΣ ΘEAΣ EΥETHPIAΣ, double-cornucopiae tied with fillet, monogram to right, [date IΠP (= year 187) in exergue]. sc 2258.2; BMC 1 = LSM, NNM 84, 7; Houghton, CSE 803; Seyrig, Tresors II, 30.242; Spink 3014, 87 (same obverse die). 16.74g, 30mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine. Excessively Rare; the fifth known example.

12,500

The life of Kleopatra Thea Eueteria (“Kleopatra the Goddess of Plenty”) would have been worthy of immortalisation in Shakespearean tragedy as few but the lives of the Ptolemies are; such was the complexity of her life and the constant intrigue that surrounded her, it is most surprising that she has never been the subject of major artistic work or representation in historical fiction. Born into the Ptolemaic royal family of Egypt in circa 164 BC, Cleopatra was the daughter of Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II, who were brother and sister. It seems that early in her life she had been betrothed to her uncle Ptolemy VIII Physcon, who was the rival King of Egypt in an uneasy triumvirate. However in 150 BC she was married to the usurper king of the Seleukid Empire, Alexander Balas, at a sumptuous ceremony in Ake Ptolemais; this marriage would produce a son, Antiochos VI Dionysos. In 145 though, her father invaded Syria, defeated Balas in battle and remarried her to Demetrios II, the son of the former king deposed by Balas, only to die himself a few days later in uncertain circumstances. With the death then of her father Ptolemy VII Philometor, Cleoptra Thea’s erstwhile fiancé Ptolemy Physcon married her mother Cleopatra II, and six years later replaced her with her daughter Cleopatra III, Cleopatra Thea’s sister. Cleopatra bore her new husband Demetrios II two sons who would later grow up to be kings themselves: Seleukos V Philometor, and Antiochos VII Grypos. In 139, Demetrios II was captured while fighting the Parthians, and held hostage. With the loss of the king, Demetrios’ younger brother Antiochos VII Sidetes assumed the throne, taking Cleopatra Thea as his wife the following year. She bore him too at least one son, Antiochos IX Kyzikenos. In 129, in a bid to destabilise the Seleukid Empire, the Parthians released Demetrios II to reclaim his throne and wife from his brother. Conveniently, that same year Sidetes was killed in battle against the Parthians, and thus Demetrios regained his throne, taking Cleopatra as his wife once more. By now though the empire was a shadow of its former self, and Demetrios faced difficulties maintaining his control over his reduced territories. Recollections of his old cruelties and vices, along with his humiliating defeat and apparent good treatment in Parthia, caused him to be detested. Ptolemy Physcon, now at odds with his former wife Cleopatra II, who had fled Egypt to the court of her daughter and son-in-law, set up the usurper Alexander II Zabinas in opposition to Demetrios. Alexander defeated Demetrios in battle at Damascus in 126, and fled to Ptolemais whereupon Cleopatra closed the gates against him. After this final desertion by his wife, he was captured, possibly tortured, and died a miserable death on a ship near Tyre. This coin was struck in the brief period after the death of Demetrios and before his eldest son Seleukos V became king in 125. During that time Cleopatra held the reins of empire and ruled as Queen in her own right, issuing this very brief (and today extremely rare) coinage. Seleukos V was murdered on his mother’s orders soon after his accession, and then from 125 to 121 BC Cleopatra Thea ruled jointly with Demetrios’ younger son Antiochos VIII Grypos, who was still a teenager at his crowning. Defeating Alexander II Zabinas in 123, the victorious returning king was offered a poisoned cup of wine by his mother, who apparently feared losing her control over him, but the suspicious Antiochos instead forced her to drink it herself. So perished Cleopatra Thea, though her influence was yet felt for many years: while Antiochos Grypos proved a competent king, reorganising the state and providing stability and financial recovery, all this would end in 114 when Cleopatra’s son by Antiochos Sidetes, Antiochos Kyzikenos, returned to Syria to claim the throne, sparking renewed civil war.

144


Very Rare Demetrios III Tetradrachm

458. Seleukid Empire, Demetrios III Eukairos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, Circa 96-87 BC. Diademed head right / Zeus enthroned left, holding Nike and sceptre; ΒΑΣΛΙΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡIΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ to right, ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΟΤΗΡΟΣ to left, [N above A in outer left field], monogram below throne. SC 2445; HGC 9, 1302; SNG Spaer 2823; SMA 435. 15.36g, 27mm, 1h. Very Fine. Very Rare; one of only 6 examples on CoinArchives.

2,500

459. Seleukid Empire, Demetrios III Eukairos AR Tetradrachm. Damaskos, dated SE 222 = 91/0 BC. Diademed head right / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOV ΦEOV ΦIΛOΠΛTOPOΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ, cult statue of Atargatis standing facing, arms extended, holding flower in left hand, barley stalk rising from each shoulder; N above A to outer left; BKΣ (date) and monogram in exergue; all within wreath. SC 2451.7; HHV 87–8 var. (A17/P– [unlisted rev. die]); HGC 9, 1305; DCA 304. 15.55g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

200

PERSIS Probably the Finest Known

460. Kings of Persis, Vahbarz (Orbozos) AR Tetradrachm. Persepolis, circa 200-150 BC. Diademed head of Vahbarz to right, with luxuriant moustache and jutting beard; wearing kyrbasia or satrapal hat, with flap down to form a visor, and pendant earring / Fire Temple; to left, Vahbarz standing right in attitude of prayer; to right, standard. Alram 526; Boston MFA 2343; Sunrise 566 (this coin). 16.00g, 28mm, 2h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare; probably the finest surviving example. Ex Sunrise Collection; Ex Superior Galleries, 1-12 December 1992, lot 2219.

145

10,000


BAKTRIA Artistic Dies for Euthydemos

461. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I Theos Megas AR Tetradrachm. Mint B (‘Baktra’), circa 210-206 BC. Diademed head right / Herakles seated left on lion skin draped over rocks, holding club set on rock behind knee; monogram below to right; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, EYΘYΔHMOY to left. Mitchiner 94; Kritt B14; Bopearachchi 9A; Bopearachchi & Rahman 110-2; SNG ANS 136. 16.62g, 29mm, 12h. Struck from dies of artistic merit, Good Extremely Fine.

5,000

462. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Antimachos II AR Drachm. Circa 174-165 BC. Nike walking left, holding palm and fillet; monogram to left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ NIKEΦOPOΣ ANTIMAXOY around / King on horseback right; Karosthi script around. Bopearachchi 1A; SNG ANS 396; Mitchiner 135b. 2.43g, 17mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

100

From the estate of an English numismatist.

463. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Straton I AR Drachm. Circa 105-85 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΕΡΟΣ ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝΟΣ around / Athena Alkidemos standing facing, holding shield and thunderbolt; Karosthi script around, monogram to left. Mitchiner 312; Bopearachchi 5A. 2.33g, 17mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

150

From the estate of an English numismatist.

464. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter AR Drachm. Circa 155-130 BC. Diademed bust left, wielding spear, aegis on shoulder; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ around / Athena standigng right, hurling thunderbolt and holding shield; monogram in right field, Karosthi script around. Bopearachchi 3B; SNG ANS 686-690. 2.42g, 17mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From the estate of an English numismatist.

146

150


465. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter AR Drachm. Circa 155-130 BC. Diademed and draped bust right; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ around / Athena Alkidemos advancing left; monograms to right and left, Karosthi script around. Bopearachchi 13J; SNG ANS 805. 2.44g, 18mm, 11h. Mint State. Very Rare.

150

From the estate of an English numismatist.

466. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter AR Drachm. Circa 155-130 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing crested helmet with bull’s horn and ear, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENANΔPOY around / Athena Alkidemos advancing left, shield decorated with aegis over arm, hurling thunderbolt; monogram to right; Karosthi inscription around. Mitchiner 218b; Bopearachchi 16I; SNG ANS 879-92. 2.48g, 17mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

200

467. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter AR Drachm. Circa 155-130 BC. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, wearing crested helmet covered with pelt of scales and adorned with wing; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ around / Athena Alkidemos advancing left, shield decorated with aegis over arm, hurling thunderbolt; monogram to right, Karosthi script around. Mitchiner, Type 218c; Bopearachchi 16I; HGC 12, 193. 2.47g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State.

150

From the estate of an English numismatist.

468. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter AR Drachm. Circa 155-130 BC. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, wearing crested helmet covered with pelt of scales and adorned with wing; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ around / Athena Alkidemos advancing left; monogram to right, Karosthi script around. Mitchiner, Type 218c; Bopearachchi 16I; HGC 12, 193. 2.46g, 18mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

150

From the estate of an English numismatist.

Exceptional Antialkidas Nikephoros Drachm

469. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Antialkidas Nikephoros AR Drachm. Circa 130-120 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing crested helmet decorated with bull’s horn and ear; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΑΛΚΙΔΟΥ around / Zeus Nikephoros seated slightly left, forepart of elephant to left, monogram to right; Karosthi script around. Bopearachchi 12B; SNG ANS 1072-77. 2.48g, 15mm, 11h. Mint State; exceptional for the type and rare thus. From the estate of an English numismatist.

147

150


470. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Zoilos II Soter AR Drachm. Circa 55-35 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΕΡΟΣ ΖΩΙΛΟΣ around / Athena Alkidemos advancing left, holding shield and thunderbolt; monogram to right, Karosthi script around. Mitchiner 459o; Bopearachchi Série 1f. 2.33g, 17mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

100

From the estate of an English numismatist.

471. Indo-Skythians, Azes AR Tetradrachm. Mint in central or northern Gandhara, circa 58-12 BC. King on horseback right, holding whip; Vi before, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΜΕΓAΛΟΥ ΑZOΥaround / Zeus standing right, holding sceptre; monogram to left, Si to right. Senior 99.60T. 9.60g, 24mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent metal - a choice example.

100

From the estate of an English numismatist.

INDIA

472. Kushan Empire, Kanishka I AV Dinar. Main mint in Baktria (Balkh?), circa AD 127-151. Early phase. Kanishka standing left, holding goad and sceptre, sacrificing over altar to left; flame at shoulder / Miiro (Mithra) standing left, extending in benediction and holding hilt of sword; tamgha to left. MK 31 (dies unlisted); ANS Kushan –; Donum Burns 114. 7.92g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

1,750

473. Kushan Empire, Huvishka AV Dinar. Circa AD 152-192. Mint I (A). Nimbate, diademed, and crowned half-length bust facing, head left, on clouds, holding mace-sceptre and filleted spear over shoulder / APΔOXÞO, Ardoxsho standing right, holding cornucopia; tamgha to right. MK 219. 7.88g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

474. Kushan Empire, Vasudeva II AV Dinar. Circa AD 290-310. Mint III (C). Vasudeva, nimbate, standing facing, head left, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; flame at shoulder; filleted trident to left, tamgha to right; symbol to left of filleted trident; annulet to left of Vasudeva’s right leg; between legs, pellet above retrograde swastika; symbol to right of of Vasudeva’s left leg; triple pellets below Vasudeva’s left arm / Ithyphallic Siva standing facing, holding a garland or diadem in upraised right hand and trident in left; behind, the bull Nandi, with annulet on rump, standing left; tamgha to upper left; triple pellets below Nandi’s head. MK 688 (dies unlisted); Donum Burns -. 7.80g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

148

750


475. Kushan Empire, Mahi AV Dinar. Uncertain mint, circa AD 300-305. Mahi standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding filleted staff; filleted trident to left; pu in Brahmi below arm; mahi in Brahmi to outer right / Ardoxsho enthroned facing, holding filleted investiture garland and cornucopia; tamgha to upper left. ANS Kushan 1666; MK 588; Donum Burns 766-8. 7.73g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

750

PARTHIA

476. Kings of Parthia, Arsakes I AR Drachm. Mithradatkart-Nisa(?), circa 247-211 BC. Head of Arsakes I left, wearing bashlyk / Archer seated right on backless throne, holding bow, monogram below throne. Sellwood 4.1; A&S type 4, obv. 4/6, rev. 4/6; Shore -; Sunrise 239 (this coin). 4.11g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,500

Ex Sunrise Collection; Ex Bellaria Collection, Triton VII, 13 January 2004, lot 390; Ex Khalili Collection, Leu 57, 25 May 1993, lot 145.

477. Kings of Parthia, Artabanos I (Arsakes II) AR Drachm. Rhagai-Arsakeia(?) mint, circa 211-209 BC. Head left, wearing bashlyk / Archer (Arsakes I) seated right on backless throne, holding bow; to right, eagle standing facing, head left. Sellwood 6.1; A&S type 6; Shore 4; Sunrise 242 (this coin). 4.06g, 17mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Rare.

1,250

Ex Sunrise Collection.

478. Kings of Parthia, Phriapatios to Mithradates I AR Drachm. Hekatompylos, circa185-132 BC. Head of king left, wearing bashlyk / Archer seated right on omphalos, holding bow. Sellwood 9.1 (Mithradates I); Shore 7-8; Sunrise 252 (this coin). 3.95g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State. Rare. A wonderful example of the type.

Ex Sunrise Collection.

149

1,750


Ex Santa Barbara Museum Collection

479. Kings of Parthia, Mithradates I AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Tigris, circa 141/0 BC. Diademed and draped bust right of Mithradates right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY APΣAKOY ΦIΛEΛΛHNOΣ, diademed and beardless young Herakles standing left, holding skyphos in extended right hand and cradling club in lion skin-draped left arm; monogram in exergue. Sellwood 13.2; Shore 35; BMC 50; Sunrise 260 (this coin). 15.02g, 26mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

6,000

Ex Sunrise Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 129, 8 March 2004, lot 195; Ex Santa Barbara Museum Collection, Numismatic Fine Arts I, 20 March 1975, lot 195. This type represents the first issue of tetradrachms by the Parthians. They were coined shortly after the Parthians had conquered Mesopotamia from the waning Seleukid Empire. As was to be expected, the die engravers of the mint at the Seleukid capital produced coinage that stylistically differed very little from the issues of the previous century under the Seleukid kings. While this could be viewed as both expedient and pragmatic – the Parthians had not struck coins since the reign of Arsakes and probably lacked experienced die cutters – Mithradates in fact actively promoted Hellenism in his territories and indeed styled himself ‘Philhellenos’ as seen on this coin. He also assumed the traditional Greek symbol of kingship, the diadem. Yet by the end of his reign, the Greek qualities that were so apparent on his early coinage were in decline, and by the reign of Orodes I in around 90 BC, the coins had become thoroughly eastern in style.

480. Kings of Parthia, Phraates III AR Drachm. Mithradatkart mint, circa 70/69-58/7 BC. Diademed and draped facing bust / MBAEIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY APΣAKOY ΘEOΠATPOΣ EYEPΓETOY KΣΠIΦANOYΣ AIΦIΛEΛΛHNOΣ, archer (Arsakes I) seated right, holding bow; monogram below bow. Sellwood 35.4 (Darius?) var. (rev. legend); Shore -; Sunrise 328. 4.19g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. A bold portrait of fine style.

1,750

481. Kings of Parthia, Orodes II AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Tigris, 48/7 BC. Diademed bust of Orodes II left, wart on forehead / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟY ΕYΕΡΓΕΤΟY ΔΙΚΑΙΟY ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟYΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ, king seated right, receiving palm from Tyche standing left, holding sceptre, AV and monogram in exergue. Sellwood 46.1; Shore -; Sunrise 367 (this coin). 14.98g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone. 2,500 Ex Sunrise Collection; Privately purchased from William B Warden, 1990.

150


482. Kings of Parthia, Vologases V AR Drachm. Ekbatana, circa AD 191-208. Diademed facing bust, with pointed beard of straight lines; hair in bunches above diadem and at sides / Degraded legend [but first line: ‘King Vologases’ in Parthian script], archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow; monogram below bow. Sellwood 86.3; Shore 448; PDC 7235. 3.69g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. 750

Mint State Gold Dinar of Shapur I

483. Sasanian Kings, Shapur I AV Dinar. Ctesiphon, AD 260-272. Draped bust right, wearing diadem and mural crown surmounted by a korymbos; one pellet above and two below diadem ties / Fire-altar flanked by two regal attendants wearing mural crowns, symbol to left of flames. SNS type IIc/1b. Göbl type I/1. 7.51g, 21mm, 3h. Mint State. Rare. 4,000 In AD 253 Shapur met and annihilated a Roman army of 60,000 at the Battle of Barbalissos, and proceeded then to burn and ravage the Roman province of Syria. Armenia was conquered, and Georgia submitted to Sasanian control. With his northern borders secure, Shapur then led an army which penetrated deep into Syria, plundering all the way to Antioch which quickly fell to his forces. The Roman counter-offensive under emperor Valerian was slow, but by 257 Antioch had been recovered and the province of Syria returned to Roman control. Shapur’s speedy retreat caused the Romans to launch a hasty pursuit of the Sasanians all the way to Edessa, where they were severely defeated by the Persians, and Valerian along with the survivors of his army were led away into captivity. The defeat and capture of Valerian surely marks the greatest achievement in the reign of Shapur, who is also called ‘the Great’, and the submission of Valerian is commemorated in a mural at Naqsh-e Rustam, which shows the emperor bending the knee before Shapur on horseback. Valerian’s army was sent to Bishapur, and the soldiers were used in engineering and development works, such as the Band-e Kaisar (Caesar’s dam) near the ancient city of Susa.

Azarmidokht, daughter of Khosrau II

484. Sasanian Kings, Azarmidokht AR Drachm. WYHC (Weh-az-Amid-Kavad) mint, AD 631. Bust of Khosrau II right, wearing mural crown with frontal crescent, two wings, and star set on crescent; star-in-crescents in border / Two attendants flanking fire altar with ribbons; star and crescent flanking flames; star-in-crescents in border. Göbl -; Mochiri 505; Saeedi -. 3.28g, 30mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine; edge lightly corroded at 6 o’clock obv., otherwise good metal. Extremely Rare. 6,000

485. Nezak Huns, Anonymous ‘Nezak Shah’ AR Drachm. Kabul, sixth century AD. Bust right wearing headdress surmounted by bull’s skull / Crude firealtar with attendants. Göbl 198; FPP fig. 84, 1. 3.11g, 28mm, 4h. Mint State; weak reverse but exceptionally clear and bold obverse. 300 From the estate of an English numismatist.

151


JUDAEAN COINS

486. Herodians, Agrippa II, with Domitian, Æ21. Caesarea Maritima, dated RY 26 = 85/6 CE. IM CA D VES F DOM AV GER COS XII, laureate bust of Domitian right, wearing aegis / EΠI BA AΓPI around large SC; ET KS (date) in exergue. RPC II 2272; Meshorer 164; Hendin 1326. 6.25g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare; an outstanding example of the type.

500

487. Jewish War Æ Quarter Shekel. Dated year 4 = 69/70 CE. Etrog, ‘for the redemption of Zion’ in paleo-Hebrew script around / Two bundles of lulavs, ‘year four, quarter’ in paleo-Hebrew script around. Meshorer 213; Bromberg 75-6; Hendin 1368; HGC 10, p. 153, D. 8.09g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine; earthen repatination.

1,000

Herod V of Chalkis

488. Herodians, Herod V of Chalkis Æ25. Chalkis, dated RY 3 = AD 43/4. Diademed head of Herod of Chalkis right / KΛAVΔI Ω KAIΣA PI ΣEBAΣ TΩ ETT in four lines within linear circle; all within wreath. RPC 4778.5; Meshorer TJC 362; Hendin 1252. 12.98g, 26mm, 1h. Good Fine. Pleasant dark patina; earthen repatination. Extremely Rare.

4,000

Continued Herodian support for the Romans allowed the dynasty to extend its influence beyond Jewish territories. Herod V, the grandson of Herod the Great, was granted the kingdom of Chalkis by Claudius in 41 upon the request of Agrippa I, and all of his rare coins name the emperor. His friendship with and loyalty to the emperor continued to benefit him; following the death of Agrippa in 44, Claudius extended to him authority over affairs at the Temple in Jerusalem, a right he retained until his death some four years later.

489. Agrippa II, with Vespasian, Æ34 of Caesarea Paneas, Judaea. Year 27 = AD 86/7. AYTOKPA OYECΠACIANW KAICAPI CEBACTW, laureate and draped bust of Vespasian right / ETOYC KZ BACIΛEWC AΓPIΠΠA, Tyche, wearing calathos, standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae; [star in upper right field]. RPC 2282. 25.05g, 34mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, and exceptional for the type.

152

2,500


ROMAN PROVINCIAL COINS

490. Marc Antony and Octavia AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Ephesus, 39 BC. M•ANTONIVS•IMP•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, conjoined busts of Antony, wearing ivy wreath, and Octavia right / III•VIR• R•P•C, Dionysus standing left on cista mystica between twisting snakes, holding sceptre. RPC 2202; Sydenham 1198; CRI 263. 12.17g, 27mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

491. Marc Antony and Octavia AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Ephesus, 39 BC. M•ANTONIVS•IMP•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath, lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers / II•VIR• R•P•C, head of Octavia atop cista mystica, between twisting snakes. RPC 2201; RSC 2; CRI 262. 12.40g, 27mm, 12h. Very Fine.

500

492. Marc Antony and Octavia AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Ephesus, 39 BC. M•ANTONIVS•IMP•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, conjoined busts of Antony, wearing ivy wreath, and Octavia right / III•VIR• R•P•C, Dionysus standing left on cista mystica, between twisting snakes, holding sceptre. RPC 2202; Sydenham 1198; CRI 263. 12.24g, 26mm, 12h. Very Fine.

500

493. Marc Antony Æ Semis. Uncertain mint in Syria, 38-37 BC. Fleet Coinage. L. Bibulus M. f., praetor designatus. M•ANT•TER•COS•DES• ITER•ET•TER•III•VIR•R•P•C (NT ligate), bare head right / L•BIBVLVS•M•F•PR•DESIG, quinquereme right, with three oars and stern ending in boar’s head left. RPC 4092.1 = Amandry, Bronze I, Series I.E, 1. 6.00g, 20mm, 9h. Near Very Fine. Rare.

153

200


494. Octavian AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Ephesus, circa 28-20 BC. IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•COS•VI•LIBERTATIS•P•R•VINDEX•, laureate head right / PAX, Pax standing left, holding caduceus; to right, serpent arising from cista mystica. RIC 476; Sutherland Group I; RPC 2203; RSC 218; BMC 691; CRI 433. 12.22g, 27mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

495. Livia Æ Diobol of Alexandria, Egypt. Year 42 = AD 12/13. Draped bust right / Athena standing left, L [MB] across fields. RPC 5072; Emmett 53. 9.93g, 25mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare; one of only two examples on CoinArchives.

750

Excessively Rare Lycian Drachm of Claudius

496. Claudius AR Drachm of The Lycian League, Lycia. AD 41-54. TIBEPIOC KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP CEBACTOC, laureate head right / ΓEPMANIKOC AYTOKPATWP, Leto running to left, holding infant twins. RPC 3338; Troxell Lycia C5. 3.21g, 21mm, 6. Good Very Fine; some corrosion spots. Excessively Rare.

500

RPC notes that the silver coinage of Claudius from Lycia was produced in a single issue of six types, of which Troxell recorded only twenty four specimens. Of this type, there are no other examples recorded on CoinArchives.

Superb Alexandrian Bronze of Claudius

497. Claudius Æ Diobol of Alexandria, Egypt. AD 41-54. Dated RY 3 = AD 42/3. TI KΛAY KAI CEBAC ΓEPM, laureate head right; star before / Bull butting right, AYTOKPA above; L Γ (date) in exergue. Köln 80; Dattari (Savio) 175; K&G 12.29; RPC 5138; Emmett 77.3. 10.02g, 25mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare, and exceptionally well preserved.

154

200


498. Nero and Divus Claudius AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Circa AD 63-68. NERO CLAVD DIVI CLAVD F CAESAR AVG GER, laureate head of Nero to right; behind head, above the wreath ties, ivy leaf / DIVOS CLAVD AVG GERMANIC PATER AVG, laureate head of the deified Claudius. RPC 4122 var.; McAlee 269; Prieur 47. 13.77g, 25mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Two portraits of fine style.

500

499. Galba AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. Dated ‘New Holy Year’ 1 = AD 68. ΓAΛBAC KAICAP AYTOKPATΩP CEBACTOC, laureate head right; star before / ETOYC NEOY IEPOY • A, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, with wings spread; palm frond in left field. McAlee 305; Prieur 96; RPC 4196. 15.38g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

1,500

500. Galba AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. Dated ‘New Holy Year’ 1 = AD 68. ΓAΛBAC KAICAP AYTOKPATΩP CEBACTOC, laureate head right; star before / ETOYC NEOY IEPOY • A, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, with wings spread; palm frond in left field. McAlee 305; Prieur 96; RPC 4196. 14.79g, 25mm, 1h. Very Fine.

1,000

501. Galba AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. AD 68-69. AYTOKPATWP CEPOYIOC ΓAΛBAC CEBACTOC, bare head right / Eagle standing facing on opposed laurel branches, head left, wreath in beak, palm in left field; [ETOYC B] in exergue. Prieur 99; RPC 4197. 14.98g, 27mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

300

502. Galba Æ30 of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. AD 68-69. IM SER SVL GAL CAE, laureate head right / SC within laurel wreath. RPC 4314; BMC Galatia pg. 176, 203; Wruck 61. 18.49g, 31mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. A bold portrait of superb style.

155

1,000


503. Otho AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. Dated RY 1 = AD 69. AYTOKPATWP M OΘWN KAICAP CԐBACTOC, laureate head right / Eagle standing facing on wreath, head left, with wreath in beak; palm in left field, crescent between legs; [ЄTOVC A] (date) in exergue. RPC 4199; McAlee 316; Prieur 101. 14.68g, 25mm, 12h. Very Fine.

504

500

505

504. Vespasian AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. Dated ‘New Holy Year’ 2 = AD 69/70. AYTOKPA OYECΠACIANOC KAICAP CEBACTOC, laureate head right / ETOYC NEOY IEPOY • B, eagle standing left on club, with wings spread, holding wreath in beak; palm frond to left. McAlee 345; Prieur 122; RPC 1954. 15.13g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 300 505. Vespasian AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. Dated New Holy Year” 4, = AD 71-72. AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OVEΣΠAΣIANOY, laureate head right / ETOYΣ Δ IEPOY, eagle standing to left on club; palm branch in field. Prieur 116; McAlee 338. 13.17g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

500

506. Domitian, as Caesar, Æ Quadrans. Struck in Rome for circulation in Syria, AD 74. CAES AVG F, laureate head left / DOMIT COS II, winged caduceus. BMC 885; RIC 1581; RPC 2005. 3.40g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Attractive ‘desert’ patina.

300

507. Nerva AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. New Holy Year 2 = AD 97-98. AYT NEPOYAΣ KAIΣ ΣEB ΓERM, laureate head right, wearing aegis / ETOYΣ NEOY IEPOY B, eagle standing on thunderbolt, wings spread, head right and tail left, palm branch in left field. Prieur 150. 14.26g, 26mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

The inclusion of the title Germanicus on Nerva’s year 2 tetradrachms from Antioch date them to a short period between November 97, when he received the title, and his death in January 98. Prieur could find only 8 specimens.

156


Fine Style Arabian Drachm

508. Trajan AR Drachm of Bostra, Arabia. AD 114-116. AYTOKP KAIC NEP TRAIANW ARICTW CEB ΓΕΡΜ ΔΑΚ, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left / ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠATO S, two-humped (Bactrian) camel to left. Metcalf, Tell Kalak 20; SNG ANS -; Sydenham, Caesarea –; Kindler pl. VI, 12. 2.98g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; lustrous. Struck from dies of very fine style. Rare.

1,000

509. Trajan Æ As. Struck in Rome for circulation in Syria, AD 116. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GERM, radiate and draped bust right / DAC PARTHICO P M TR POT XX COS VI P P, S•C within oak wreath. RIC 647; Woytek 937v; McAlee 509; Strack 479; BMCRE 1093-4; BN 953-5. 8.44g, 24mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. In exceptional state of preservation.

500

The Great Lighthouse of Alexandria

510. Hadrian Æ Hemidrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. AD 117-138. Dated RY 17 = AD 132/3. AVT KAIC TPAIAN A∆PIANOC CЄB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / The great Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria with monumental entryway at base, surmounted by two Tritons, each blowing a trumpet, between them the lantern housing with statue at pinnacle which holds situla and sceptre, L-IZ (date) across fields. Köln 1082; Dattari (Savio) 1933; K&G 32.557. 14.30g, 30mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, and one of the finest known examples.

157

5,000


Exceptional Tetradrachm of Sabina

511. Sabina BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated Year 15 = AD 130-131. CABEINA CEBACTH, diademed and draped bust right / CABEINA CEBACTH, Sabina seated left, holding corn-ears and sceptre; LIE (date) above. Milne 1306; Emmett 1334; Curtis 558-559, 561; BMC 917 var. 13.68g, 25mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine, attractive and still partially lustrous metal. Extremely Rare, and likely the finest known example.

3,000

Sabina is here depicted wearing an intricately detailed headdress and diadem, but underlying this proud representation was a dark secret: the empress is known to have had an affair with Suetonius, her husband Hadrian’s personal secretary, an affair recorded in the Historia Augusta, Life of Hadrian (1.11.3). However, it is also known that Hadrian was not left in the position of the cuckold, as he had a famously passionate relationship of his own with his favourite, Antinous. This interesting coin is a good exemplar of the power of propaganda and the representation of the Imperial family as a united front. It highlights the importance given to the portrayal of the emperor and his family, ensuring that they be seen, from the outside at least, as models of dignity and virtue. The charming portrayal of Sabina on this issue, which was struck in the same year Suetonius died, may have coincided with a renewal and strengthening of the ties between the emperor and his empress.

Unique Commodus Tetradrachm

512. Commodus AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. AD 179-180. AYT KAIC KOMMOΔΟC CEB, laureate and draped bust right / ΓΕΡ CAP ΔHM EΞ ∆ ΠΑΤ B, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, head right. Prieur -; McAlee -; BMC -. 11.46g, 26mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Unique and unpublished.

500

Wonderful Portrait of Didius Julianus

513. Didius Julianus Æ25 of Prusa ad Olympum, Bithynia. AD 193. ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΔΙΔΟC ΙΟΥΛΙΑΝΟC ΑΥΓ, laureate and cuirassed bust right / Hexastyle temple with shield in pediment; ΠΡ-ΟΥ across fields, CΑΕΩΝ in exergue. BMC 15; Rec. gen. I, 4, 66 and pl. C, 17. 13.97g, 25mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 72, 16 May 2013, lot 1626 (professionally conserved since).

158

5,000


Exceptional Severan Provincial Bronze

514. Septimius Severus and Julia Domna Æ Pentassarion of Marcianopolis, Moesia Inferior. AD 193-211. Flavius Ulpianus, legatus consularis. AV K Λ CЄΠT CЄVHPOC IOVΛIA ΔOMNA CЄB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Septimius Severus and draped bust of Julia Domna facing one another / V ΦΛ OVΛΠIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛΙΤ Є, Cybele seated left on throne, holding patera and resting elbow upon tympanum; lions reclining to left and right. Varbanov 857; H&J 6.15.31.1. 13.06g, 29mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. In an exceptional state of preservation.

350

515. Septimius Severus Æ30 of Isaura, Cilicia. AD 193-217. ΑΥ Κ Λ ΣΕΠ ΣΕΟΥΗΡΟΣ ΠΕΡΤ, laureate head right / MHTPOΠOΛEΩC ICAVPΩN, city gate with three castellated towers; Tyche seated within, holding cornucopiae, foot on prow. SNG Levante 259; SNG von Aulock 5408; SNG France 490. 13.55g, 30mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. A wonderful combination of a splendid portrait, detailed architectural type and beautiful patina. Rare.

1,000

516. Septimius Severus AR Tetradrachm of Tyre, Phoenicia. AD 209-211. AVT KAI CEΠ CEOVHPOC CE, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ΔHMAPX EΞ VΠATO Γ, eagle standing facing on club, head left, holding wreath in beak; murex shell between legs. Prieur 1534; Bellinger 295. 12.99g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

200

517. Julia Domna Æ31 of Isaura, Cilicia. AD 193-217. IOVΛIA ΔOMNA CEBAC, draped bust right / MHTPOΠOΛEΩC ICAVPΩN, Athena Promachos advancing right with spear and shield. SNG Levante 260; SNG France 491. 13.82g, 31mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful patina with perfect surfaces.

159

1,000


518

519

518. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Sidon, Phoenicia. AD 213-217. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟC CΕ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ΔΗΜΑΡX ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤΟC Δ, eagle standing facing, head left, with wings displayed, holding wreath in beak; cart of Astarte below. Prieur 1362. 12.54g, 28mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare. 200 519. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Beroea, Cyrrhestica. AD 215-217. ANTΩNEI NOC CEB AYT K M A, radiate head left / ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠATOCΔ, eagle standing facing, head and tail left, with wings displayed, holding wreath in beak; below, B Є flanking bird facing. Prieur 882. 11.42g, 26mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 200

Unpublished Tetradrachm of Aelia Capitolina

520. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Aelia Capitolina, Judaea. AD 215-217. AYT KAI ANTωNINOC CE, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ΔHMAPX ЄΞ VΠATOC TOΔ, eagle standing left on thyrsus; below, panther seated to right, rearing up to amphora which it tips over with its front legs. Unpublished in the standard references. 12.37g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

521

3,000

522

521. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Aelia Capitolina, Judaea. AD 215-217. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟC CΕ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ΔΗΜΑΡX ΕX ΥΠΑΤΟC ΤΟ Δ, eagle standing facing on vine branch, head left with three bunches of grapes, amphora between legs. Meshorer 91 var. (legends); Prieur 1633. 13.63g, 26mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare. 750 522. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Caesarea Maritima, Judaea. AD 215-217. AYT KAI ANTωNINOC CE, laureate head right / ΔHMAPX ЄΞ VΠATOC TOΔ, eagle standing facing on serpent-entwined torch, head left, with wings displayed, holding wreath in beak. Kadman -; Rosenberger 62 var. (obv. legend); SNG ANS 788 var. (same); Prieur 1663A (same obv. die as illustration); Hendin 838 var. (same). 10.92g, 27mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. 500

Very Rare and Sharp Macrinus Tetradrachm

523. Macrinus AR Tetradrachm of Edessa, Mesopotamia. AD 217-218. AYK M OΠEΛ CE MAKPEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ΔHMAP X EΞ YΠATOC, eagle standing facing, head right, holding wreath in beak; shrine between legs. Prieur 852. 12.70g, 28mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Superb style and metal quality. Very Rare.

160

1,750


524. Macrinus AR Tetradrachm of Aelia Capitolina, Judaea. Late July - September AD 217. AYT K M OΠΛ MAKPINO CEB, laureate head of Macrinus right, seen from the front / ΔHMAPX EΞYΠATOC ΠΠ, eagle standing left on thyrsus; amphora between legs. Prieur 1639; Meshorer 96 (same dies). 13.35g, 25mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

Extremely Rare Zodiacal Issue

525. Julia Paula Æ29 of Sidon, Phoenicia. AD 219-220. IVLIA PAVLA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane / Cart of Astarte containing baetyl within centre of zodiacal wheel. Rouvier 1571; BMC - (but cf. 10 for rev. type on coin of Elagabalus); Triton XV, 1433. 19.84g, 29mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

Stunning Medallion of Severus Alexander

526. Severus Alexander Æ39 Medallion of Magnesia ad Sipylum, Lydia. AD 222-235. A K M AVP CE AΛEΞANΔPOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / EΠ CTP... OV MAΓNETΩN CIΠVΛOV, Tyche seated to left, holding patera, lion on each side with head upraised. Apparently unpublished; for this reverse type, cf. BMC 64 [Julia Domna] and 70 [Julia ]. 32.26g, 39mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished.

5,000

Extremely Rare Bronze of Apameia on the Axios

527. Gordian III Æ30 of Apameia, Phrygia. AD 238-244. ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΝ ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟΣ, laureate and cuirassed bust right / ΠΑΡ ΒΑΚΧΙΟΥ ΠΑΝ ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ, cult statue of Artemis of Ephesos facing, arms outstretched horizontally at sides, fillet hanging from each; two deer behind, both with heads upturned; Ζ in right field. SNG von Aulock -; BMC -; SNG Cop -; SNG München -; SNG Tübingen-; Hauck & Aufhäuser 18, 512 and Gorny & Mosch 241, 1916 (this coin); otherwise apparently unpublished. 13.86g, 31mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

161

1,250


528. Philip I Æ39 of Tripolis, Lydia. AD 244-249. AVT•K•M•IOVA•ΦIΛIΠΠOC•AVΓ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front / TRIΠOΛE-I-TON K• ΛAOΔIK• [NEΩK], Leto, with veil billowing, advancing left while looking backwards; in each arm she holds a twin, the innermost leans to crown Zeus Laodikeos who stands left, holding sceptre and extending right hand towards her; OMONOIA in exergue. SNG von Aulock -, cf. 3323 (different obverse bust type and legend); Franke-Nollé pl. 102, 2371. 22.48g, 39mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

529. Philip I Æ 8 Assaria of Antioch, Seleucia and Pieria. AD 244-249. AVTOK K M IOVΛΙ ΦΙΛIΠΠOC CЄB, laureate and cuirassed bust left / ΑΝΤΙΟΧЄΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΚΟΛΩΝ, turreted, draped and veiled bust of Tyche right, ram leaping to right above, star below; Δ-Є and S-C across fields. McAlee 985a. 18.88g, 32mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very attractive example.

200

530. Trebonianus Gallus Æ30 of Seleucia ad Calycadnum, Cilicia. AD 251-253. AVK ΓA OYIB CABIN ΓAΛΛOC, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CЄΛЄYKEΩN TΩN ΠΡΟC KΛΔN, Athena advancing right, thrusting spear at serpent-legged giant throwing stones. SNG Levante 780; SNG BN 1055. 12.04g, 31mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

500

The reverse of this coin depicts a scene from the Gigantomachy, the great battle fought between the Giants and the Olympian gods for supremacy of the cosmos. The most important divine struggle in Greek mythology, the Gigantomachy was the second major conflict of Zeus’ reign. In this scene we see Athena spearing a serpent-legged Giant, perhaps Enkelados.

Uranius Antoninus

531. Uranius Antoninus BI Tetradrachm of Emesa, Seleucis and Pieria. AD 253-254. AVTOK C COVΛΠ ANTωNINOC CE, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, hand raised before / ΔHMAPX ЄΞ OVCIAC, eagle standing facing, head right with wreath in beak; S-C to either side of wings, EMICA in exergue. Baldus, Nachtrage 3, 9-10; Prieur 1041. 9.49g, 25mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, the fourth example known with this bust type.

162

2,000


COINS OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

532. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome, circa 240 BC. Head of Mars right, wearing Corinthian helmet adorned with griffin / Horse’s head right, wearing bridle; falx behind, ROMA below. Crawford 25/1; RSC 34. 6.61g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Attractive old tone.

3,000

533. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome, 234-231 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Horse prancing left; ROMA above. Crawford 26/1; Sydenham 27; RSC 37; HN Italy 306. 6.66g, 20mm, 5h. About Very Fine.

500

534. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome, circa 230 BC. Helmeted head of Mars right; club to left / Horse on ground line rearing right; club above, ROMA below. Crawford 27/1; Sydenham 23; HN Italy 314; Kestner 76; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 49; RSC 32. 6.66g, 19mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Pleasant tone.

2,500

535. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-212 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt in quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA incuse on raised tablet below. Crawford 28/3; Sydenham 64; RSC 23. 6.60g, 25mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Struck on a broad flan and lightly toned. Ex Heritage 3019, 26 April 2012, lot 23234.

163

750


The First Gold Coinage of the Roman Republic

536.

Roman Republic AV Half-Stater. Circa 216 BC. Laureate, janiform head of the Dioscuri / Oath-taking scene: two warriors, one Roman and the other representing the Italian allies, standing facing each other, holding spears and touching with their swords a sacrificial pig held by a youth kneeling left between them; ROMA in exergue. Crawford 28/2; Sydenham 70; Bahrfeldt 2.2, pl. I, 13 (same dies); Biaggi 2; RBW 62. 3.43g, 15mm, 5h. Extremely Fine, and among the best preserved specimens known. Very Rare.

40,000

From the collection of Gianfranco Galfetti; Privately purchased from Kunst und Münzen, Lugano in 1956. The first gold coinage ever issued by the Roman Republic, this half stater represents one of the most desperate moments in all of Roman history. The Second Punic War of 218-203 BC was waged at an unthinkable cost to Rome in terms of men, materiel and money. For nearly fifteen years the conflict was fought on Italian soil, bringing devastation to the peninsula on a scale it had never before endured. Yet the greatest shocks came in the opening phase of the war – Hannibal’s crossing of the Alps into the Po plain, considered one of the greatest military achievements in military logistics, and the devastating defeats he inflicted on the Roman legions in a quick sequence of major battles, at the Trebia (December 218 BC), Lake Trasimene (June 217 BC), and Cannae (August 216 BC), brought Rome to her very knees. As a measure of the extent of the disaster, Hannibal had defeated the equivalent of eight consular armies (16 legions plus an equal number of allies), and within the space of just three campaign seasons, Rome had lost one-fifth of the entire population of male citizens over 17 years of age. Furthermore, the ruinous effect these defeats had on morale was such that most of southern Italy defected to Hannibal’s cause, thus prolonging the war for a decade. In addition to the wholesale destruction of Rome’s armies, the most crucial damage inflicted by Hannibal’s invasion of Italy was the total collapse of Rome’s young monetary system. The Roman monetary system was at that time based on bronze, for which the demand in wartime was competing with the needs for weaponry. The weights of the bronze currency were radically decreased, and it therefore became necessary to make bronze convertible to silver, which, however, was also in short supply. The strain on the Roman treasury was extreme. The decision was therefore taken in c. 216 BC to issue a gold coinage as an attempt to provide further stability for and increase faith in the bronze coinage by creating the impression that bronze could be freely exchanged for gold, thus making the token bronze coinage acceptable. The types of this new gold coinage were evidently given some consideration, and in the event were highly appropriate. A Meadows (‘The Mars / eagle and thunderbolt gold and Ptolemaic involvement in the Second Punic War’ in Essays Hersh, 1998) writes: “the oath scene gold, as befitted its status as a creator of confidence in the new denominational system, was something of a showpiece. Its design reflected the ambience of ‘strength through cooperation’ that the Roman state sought to emphasise at the time of its production. That the unity of Rome and her allies was a very live issue in 216 BC is clear from the defections that followed the disastrous battle of Cannae in that very year.”

164


165


537. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding sceptre, in galloping quadriga right driven by Victory; ROMA incuse on raised tablet below. Crawford 28/3; Sydenham 64; RSC 23. 6.66g, 22mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

600

538. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Uncertain mint, 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding sceptre, in galloping quadriga right driven by Victory; ROMA incuse on raised tablet below. Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b. 6.71g, 23mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Pleasant style; attractive toning. Some unobtrusive deposits.

1,500

Ex Varesi 57, 12 November 2010, lot 31.

539. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Uncertain mint, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding sceptre, in galloping quadriga right driven by Victory; ROMA incuse on raised tablet below. Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b; RSC 23. 6.66g, 22mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Pleasant light tone.

500

Very Rare Cast Quadrans

540. Anonymous Cast Æ Quadrans. Libral standard. Rome, circa 225-217 BC. Head of Hercules left, wearing lion skin headdress; three pellets behind / Prow to left; three pellets below. Crawford 36/4; Haeberlin pl. 22, 15; HN Italy 340; ICC 91. 59.33g, 39mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, and in excellent condition for the type.

1,000

541. Anonymous Æ Uncia. Rome, 217-215 BC. Helmeted head of Roma lef;, pellet behind / Prow right; ROMA above, pellet below. Crawford 38/6; Sydenham 86. 11.64g, 24mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. In excellent high state of preservation for the type.

166

400


Beautiful Example of the Mars-Eagle Coinage

542. Roman Republic AV 60 Asses. Circa 211-207 BC. Bearded and draped head of Mars right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; LX (mark of value) below / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt with spread wings; ROMA below. Bahrfeldt 4; Sydenham 226; Crawford 44/2. 3.34g, 15mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

5,000

543. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, 207 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet ornamented with griffin’s head; X behind / The Dioscuri on horseback right, each holding couched spear; crescent above; ROMA in relief in linear frame below. Crawford 57/2; Sydenham 219; RSC 20i. 3.78g, 20mm, 3h. Good Very Fine.

200

544. Anonymous AR Quinarius. South East Italian mint, 211-210 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet ornamented with griffin’s head; V behind / The Dioscuri on horseback to right, each holding couched spear; two stars above, H below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 85/1a; Sydenham 174; King 16; RSC 33b. 2.16g, 16mm, 9h. Very Fine. Rare.

150

545. Spearhead Series AR Denarius. South East Italian mint, 209 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet ornamented with griffin’s head; X behind / The Dioscuri riding right, spearhead below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 88/2b; Sydenham 222. 4.65g, 19mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

200

546. Anonymous AR Victoriatus. Luceria, 211-208 BC. Laureate bust of Jupiter right; bead and reel border / Victory standing right, crowning trophy; V in central field, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 97/1a; Sydenham 121. 3.14g, 16mm, 8h. Near Mint State.

500

547. L. Saufeius AR Denarius. Rome, 152 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet ornamented with griffin’s head; X behind / Victory in biga right; L•SAVF below horses, ROMA in exergue. RSC 1; Crawford 204/1. 3.80g, 18mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine.

167

120


548. P. Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Rome, circa 151 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet ornamented with griffin’s head; X behind / Victory, naked to the hips, driving galloping biga right, holding reins in left hand and whip in right; P•SVLA below; ROMA in exergiue. Crawford 205/1; RSC 1. 3.86g, 17mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine; beautiful light red-golden tone, bold strike.

300

From a Private Swiss Collection.

549. S. Afranius AR Denarius. Rome, 150 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet ornamented with griffin’s head; X behind / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins in left hand and whip in right; SAFRA below; ROMA in exergue. Crawford 206/1; RSC 1. 3.50g, 19mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine; beautiful light red-golden tone, bold strike.

300

From a Private Swiss Collection.

550. Q. Marcius Libo AR Denarius. Rome, 148 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet; X below chin, LIBO behind / The Dioscuri on horseback right; Q•MARC below horses, ROMA in exergue. RSC 1; Crawford 215/1. 3.64g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

400

551. M. Junius AR Denarius. Rome, 145 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet; ass’s head behind, X below chin / The Dioscuri riding right; M•IVNI below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 220/1; RSC 8. 3.63g, 18mm, 2h. Near Mint State.

250

552. C. Caecilius Metellus AR Denarius. Rome, 125 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing helmet surmounted by eagle’s head; ROMA behind; monogram before / Jupiter, crowned by flying Victory, in biga of elephants left, holding thunderbolt and reins; C•METELLVS in exergue. Crawford 269/1; Sydenham 485; RSC 14. 3.84g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Old cabinet tone. Exceptionally well detailed for the issue.

168

1,000


553. L. Pomponius Cn. f. AR Denarius. Narbo, 112-109 BC. L•POMPONI•CNF, head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet; X behind / Naked warrior (Bituitus) standing right, holding shield, carnyx, and reins in biga galloping right; L•LIC•CN DOM in exergue. Crawford 282/4; Sydenham 522. 3.89g, 21mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Lightly toned with underlying lustre.

250

554. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, 115-114 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, wearing winged and crested helmet; X behind, ROMA below / Roma, helmeted, seated right on two shields, holding spear before her; wolf standing right at her feet, head turned back, suckling Romulus and Remus; in left and right fields, two birds flying towards her. Crawford 287/1; Sydenham 530; Kestner 2478-81; BMC Italy 562-5; RSC (Anonymous) 176. 3.77g, 21mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Pleasantly toned; an exceptional example.

1,500

A notoriously difficult issue to find in good condition, this iconic reverse design portrays the Roman foundation myth in a new manner – showing the goddess Roma watching over the twins Romulus and Remus as they are suckled by the she-wolf, waiting for the day that Rome will be built. The contemporary popularity of the type is evidenced by its subsequent reproduction on the later coinage of Titus. (see Lot 799)

555. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 90 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; symbol behind / Horseman galloping right, holding palm frond and reins; L PISO FRVGI and XVI in two lines below. Calpurnia 11; Crawford 340/1; Sydenham 665. 3.93g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Attractive light tone with iridescent highlights.

100

The Social War

556. The Social War, C. Papius AR Denarius. Mint moving with Papius in Campania, circa 90 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Mars right; X• and Viteliú in Oscan characters behind / Oath-taking scene of four soldiers, two on each side, pointing their swords at pig held by kneeling youth; C•PAAPI•C• (retrograde and in Oscan characters) in exergue. Sydenham 637; Campana 83; HN Italy 425; RBW 1225. 3.94g, 20mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

3,500

Marcus Livius Drusus, who was Tribune of the Plebeians in 91 BC, attempted to bring Roman citizenship to the Italian allies. This, along with his land reform proposals, proved unpopular with the Senate and Roman landowners and he was assassinated before his plans were actioned. With the promise of citizenship rights removed, a rebellion of the Italian allies began, known as the Social War (cf. Livy, Periochae 71). During this war, the allies struck coins which were often inspired by the types found on Roman denarii, with some, like the present example, detailing the names of the rebel generals.

169


557. The Social War, C. Papius AR Denarius. Mint moving with Papius in Campania, circa 90 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Mars right; X• and Viteliú in Oscan characters / Oath-taking scene of four soldiers, two on each side, pointing their swords at pig held by kneeling youth; C•PAAPI•C• (retrograde and in Oscan characters) in exergue. Sydenham 637; Campana 83; HN Italy 425; RBW 1225. 3.45g, 19mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

558. The Social War, Marsic Confederation AR Denarius. Corfinium, circa 89 BC. Laureate head of Italia right, X below chin / Italia seated left on pile of shields, holding spear and parazonium, crowned by Victory standing behind her; C in left field, ITALIA in exergue. Sydenham 624; Campana 106; RBW 1216; HN Italy 412b. 3.54g, 19mm, 11h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

559. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Rome, 81 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Victory standing right, crowning trophy; D between, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 373/1b; Sydenham 609a; RSC 227a. 1.92g, 15mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine.

100

560. L. Cornelius Sulla Felix, as Dictator, AR Denarius. Italy, 81 BC. Diademed head of Venus right, wearing single-pendant earring and necklace / Filleted double cornucopiae; Q below. Crawford 375/2; Sydenham 755; Cornelia 33. 4.01g, 21mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

400

While Sulla’s enemy Marius claimed Apollo as his divine patron, Sulla himself invoked the goddess Venus, and consequently she appears on the obverse of his coinage. The double cornucopiae is an attribute of Fortuna and may allude to Sulla’s cognomen, Felix, but it likely also suggests that this issue was intended to defray the expenses of some special largesse of grain - the inhabitants of Rome must have badly needed some such assistance after the recent struggle.

561. L. Procilius AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; S•C behind / Juno Sospita, holding spear and shield, in biga right; serpent below, L•PROCILI•F in exergue. Crawford 379/2; Sydenham 772; Procilia 2. 3.83g, 19mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

170

300


562. C. Poblicius Q. f. AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Draped bust of Roma right, helmet decorated with corn ears; control mark above head, ROMA behind / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion, club at his feet, bow and arrow on left,;C•POBLICI•Q•F in right field. Poblicia 9; Crawford 380/1. 3.55g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

600

Superb Kalenus Denarius

563. Q. Fufius Kalenus and Mucius Cordus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 70 BC. Jugate heads right of Honos, laureate, and Virtus, wearing crested helmet; KALENI below, HO behind, VIRT before / Italia standing right, holding cornucopiae, and Roma standing left, foot on globe and holding sceptre, clasping hands; winged caduceus and ITAL behind Italia, RO behind Roma, CORDI in exergue. Crawford 403/1; RSC 1. 3.91g, 19mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone. Unusually complete and bold for the type.

1,000

Ex Sternberg XXVII, 7 November 1994, lot 305.

564. T. Vettius Sabinus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 70 BC. Bareheaded and bearded head of King Tatius right; SABINVS behind, S•C before, TA monogram (for Tatius) below chin / Togate figure, holding reins and magistrate’s sceptre, driving biga left; IVDEX above, stalk of grain to right, T•VETTIVS in exergue. Crawford 404/1; RSC 2. 3.75g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

565. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 69 BC. Bust of Ceres right; S behind / Winged caduceus; M•PLAETORI downwards to right; CEST•EX•S•C downwards to left. Crawford 405/3b; RSC 6. 3.92g, 19mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

750

566. C. Hosidius C. f. Geta AR Denarius. Rome, 68 BC. Draped bust of Diana right, wearing stephane, earring, and double necklace of pendants, bow and quiver over shoulder; III VIR downwards to left, GETA downwards to right / Caledonian Boar standing right, pierced by spear and harried by hound below; C HOSIDI C F in exergue. Crawford 407/2; Sydenham 903; Kestner 3317-3318; BMCRR Rome 3389-3391; Hosidia 1. 3.84g, 18mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautifully detailed reverse.

Ex Freeman and Sear MBS 1, 10 March 1995, lot 300.

171

500


567. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 67 BC. Bust of ‘Vacuna’ right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder; cornucopiae below chin CESTIANVS behind S•C before / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left; M• PLAETORIVS M•F•AED•CVR around. Crawford 409/1; RSC 4. 3.95g, 21mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Struck on a broad flan.

400

Ex Numismatik Lanz 72, 29 May 1995, lot 398.

568. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 67 BC. Bust of ‘Vacuna’ right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder; cornucopiae below chin, CESTIANVS behind, S•C before / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left; M• PLAETORIVS M•F•AED•CVR around. Crawford 409/1; Sydenham 809; RSC 4. 3.90g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

400

569. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 67 BC. Bust of ‘Vacuna’ right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder; cornucopiae below chin, CESTIANVS behind, S•C before / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left; M• PLAETORIVS M•F•AED•CVR around. Crawford 409/1; RSC 4. 3.94g, 19mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

570. L. Roscius Fabatus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 59 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress; pileus of the Dioscuri surmounted by star behind / Female standing right, feeding serpent; pileus of the Dioscuri surmounted by star to left. Crawford 412/1 (symbols 18); Sydenham 915; RSC 3. 3.94g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare symbols.

750

571. L. Roscius Fabatus AR Denarius. Rome, 59 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress; cetus behind / Female standing right, feeding serpent; hippocamp to left. Crawford 412/1; Sydenham 915; RSC 3. 3.98g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely rare symbols.

172

750


572

573

572. L. Furius Brocchus AR Denarius. Rome, 63 BC. III VIR BROCCHI, bust of Ceres right, between wheat-ear and barley corn / L•FVRI CN•F, curule chair between fasces. Sydenham 902; Crawford 414/1. 3.88g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 300 573. L. Furius Brocchus AR Denarius. Rome, 63 BC. III VIR BROCCHI, bust of Ceres right, between wheat-ear and barley corn / L•FVRI CN•F, curule chair between fasces. Sydenham 902; Crawford 414/1. 3.67g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Well centred, and struck on a full flan with attractive iridescent toning. 200

574

575

574. L. Furius Brocchus AR Denarius. Rome, 63 BC. III VIR BROCCHI, bust of Ceres right, between wheat-ear and barley corn / L•FVRI CN•F, curule chair between fasces. Crawford 414/1; RSC 23. 3.76g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 150 575. L. Marcius Philippus AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Head of Ancus Marcius right, wearing diadem; lituus behind, [ANCVS below] / Aqueduct on which stands equestrian statue, flower at horse’s feet; PHILIPPVS to left, AQVA MAR ligate within arches of aqueduct. Crawford 425/1; RSC 28. 4.02g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 200

576. Faustus Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Draped bust of Diana right, wearing diadem with crescent; lituus behind, FAVSTVS before / Sulla seated left on raised seat, FELIX behind; before him, Bocchus, king of Mauretania, kneels, offering an olive branch, behind, Jugurtha, king of Numidia, also kneeling, his hands tied behind him. Crawford 426/1; RSC 59. 3.48g, 19mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. A superb example of the type without any of the usual weaknesses.

2,000

577. Faustus Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Bust of Hercules right, wearing lion skin headdress; S•C behind / Globe surrounded by four wreaths; aplustre below left, corn ear below right. Crawford 426/4b; RSC 61. 4.04g, 19mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

578. Q. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Q•CASSIVS VEST, veiled head of Vesta right / Curule chair within circular temple of Vesta; between urn and vota tablet inscribed AC across fields. Crawford 428/1. 3.66g, 18mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous.

173

500


579. Q. Sicinius AR Denarius. Rome, 49 BC. Diademed head of Fortuna right, P•R behind, FORT before / Palm-branch and caduceus crossed, laurel wreath above, III VIR across fields, Q•SICINIVS below. Crawford 440/1; RSC Sicinia 5. 3.98g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

300

Ex Vecchi 13, 4 September 1998, lot 687.

580. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Bare head of Gallia right, wearing long, dishevelled hair; carnyx behind / Artemis (Diana) standing facing, laureate, wearing long hair falling down her shoulders and long flowing robes, holding spear in left hand and stag by its antlers in her right; L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA around. Crawford 448/3; RSC Hostilia 4. 3.76g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

750

581. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Female head right, wearing laurel wreath / L•HOSTILIVS SASERN, Victory walking right, holding trophy over left shoulder, and caduceus in right hand. Crawford 448/1a; RSC Hostilia 5. 3.80g, 17mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

300

Well Detailed Head of Medusa

582. L. Plautius Plancus AR Denarius. Rome, 47 BC. Head of Medusa, facing, with coiled snake on either side; L•PLAVTIVS below / Aurora flying right, conducting the four horses of the sun and holding palm frond; PLANCVS below. Crawford 453/1a; CRI 29; Sydenham 959; RSC Plautia 11. 3.79g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive lustre and golden toning.

1,500

From the Ambrose Collection. This moneyer was the brother of L. Munatius but was adopted into the Plautia gens. Ovid relates that during the censorship of C. Plautius and Ap. Claudius Caecus in 312 BC, the latter quarrelled with the Tibicenes, who retired to Tibur. As the people resented their loss, Plautius caused them to be placed in wagons and conveyed back to Rome early in the morning, and in order that they should not be recognised their faces were covered with masks. The depiction of Aurora is an allusion to their early arrival and the mask to the concealment of their faces. In commemoration of this event the Quinquatrus Minusculae were celebrated yearly at Rome on the 13th June, at which those who took part in them wore masks.

583. L. Plautius Plancus AR Denarius. Rome, 47 BC. Head of Medusa, facing, with coiled snake on either side; L•PLAVTIVS below / Aurora flying right, conducting the four horses of the sun and holding palm frond; PLANCVS below. Crawford 453/1a; CRI 29; Sydenham 959; RSC Plautia 11. 3.98g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

174

750


584. L. Plautius Plancus AR Denarius. Rome, 47 BC. Head of Medusa, facing, with coiled snake on either side; L•PLAVTIVS below / Aurora flying right, conducting the four horses of the sun and holding palm frond; PLANCVS below. Crawford 453/1a; CRI 29; Sydenham 959; RSC Plautia 11. 3.97g, 20mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

585. L. Papius Celsius AR Denarius. Rome, 45 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress tied at neck; all within border of dots / Shewolf standing right, placing stick on fire; on right, eagle standing left, fanning the flames; CELSVS•III•VIR above, L•PAPIVS in exergue. Crawford 472/1; CRI 82; Sydenham 964; Kestner 3649-50; BMCRR Rome 4018-22; Papia 2. 3.93g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal, lightly toned, with hints of gold iridescence.

500

586. Lollius Palikanus AR Denarius. Rome, 45 BC. Head of Libertas right, wearing pearl diadem, cruciform earring, pearl necklace, hair collected into a knot behind, one lock falling down her neck, jewels in hair above forehead; LIBERTATIS downwards to left / View of the Rostra in the Roman Forum surmounted by a subsellium (tribune’s bench); the Rostra consist of a platform supported by an arcade; each column being ornamented with a rostrum; PALIKANVS above. Crawford 473/1; CRI 86; Sydenham 960; Kestner 3655-6; BMCRR Rome 4011-2; Lollia 2. 3.92g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

500

This type, like the others issued by Lollius, may relate to the vigorous and successful exertions of the tribune M. Lollius Palikanus (possibly the moneyer’s father), to obtain for the tribunes the restoration of those powers and privileges of which they had been deprived by Sulla.

587. P. Accoleius Lariscolus AR Denarius. Rome, 43 BC. Draped bust of Diana Nemorensis right; P•ACCOLEIVS upwards to left, LARISCOLVS downwards to right / Triple cult statue of Diana Nemorensis facing, supporting on their hands and shoulders a beam, above which are five cypress trees; the figure on left holding a poppy, that on right holding a lily. Crawford 486/1; RSC Accoleia 1. 3.86g, 20mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. A very good example of the type.

750

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 11, 29 April 1998, lot 81.

588. L. Mussidius Longus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Diademed and veiled head of Concordia right; star below chin, CONCORDIA behind / L•MVSSIDIVS•LONGVS, shrine of Venus Cloacina: two statues on platform with balustrade inscribed Cloacina. Crawford 494/42b; CRI 188a; Sydenham 1093a; Mussidia 6. 3.57g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

175

500


589. P. Clodius M. f. Turrinus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; lyre behind / Diana standing facing, head right, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lighted torch in each hand; P•CLODIVS M•F• across fields. Crawford 494/23; RSC Claudia 15. 4.03g, 21mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

250

590. L. Livineius Regulus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Bare head right / Gladiatorial scene: in foreground, lion charging right toward a combatant who spears it; in background on left, a wounded bear sits right; on right, another gladiator, holding sword and shield, defends himself against a tiger charging left; L•REGVLVS in exergue. Crawford 494/30; RSC Livineia 12. 4.08g, 17mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. An uncommonly well preserved reverse. Rare.

1,000

COINS OF THE IMPERATORS

591. Pompey Magnus and M. Poblicius AR Denarius. Spanish mint, 46-45 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; M•POBLICI•LEG•PRO upwards before; PR downwards behind / Female figure standing right, with shield slung on back, holding two spears in left hand and with right hand giving palmbranch to soldier, standing left on prow of ship; CN•MAGNVS•IMP around. Crawford 469/1d. 3.80g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

600

592. Q. Metellus Pius Scipio AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Scipio in Africa, 47-46 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right, in archaic style with beard and hair in ringlets; Q•METEL PIVS around / Elephant standing to right; SCIPIO above, IMP below. Crawford 459/1; CRI 45; Sydenham 1050; Caecilia 47; Kestner; BMCRR Africa 1. 4.04g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Struck on a broad flan, displaying virtually complete borders. Very rare in such excellent condition.

176

1,000


Eldest Son of Pompey Magnus

593.

Cnaeus Pompeius Junior and M. Minatius Sabinus AR Denarius. Corduba, 46-45 BC. CN•MAGN IMP•F, head of Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus right / Personification of Corduba, turreted, standing right amidst heap of arms, holding transverse spear in left hand and welcoming a Pompeian soldier who debarks from stern of a ship; PR•Q to left, M•MINAT SABIN in exergue. Babelon Minatia 2 and Pompeia 11; C. 5; Sydenham 1036; Buttrey, ANSMN 9, 1960, p. 76, type A and pl. VII, obv. 3, rev. c; CRI 49; Crawford 470/1a. 3.91g, 19mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and in exceptional condition for the type.

15,000

The eldest son of Pompey Magnus, Cnaeus Pompeius (also commonly referred to as Pompey Junior) and his brother Sextus grew up in the long shadow of their father’s fame as the greatest general of his age. The elder Pompey had seemed to hold the whole Roman world in the palm of his hand, yet in the struggle for mastery of the Republic against his former friend and ally Caesar, Pompey was forced to abandon Italy with his family, and was utterly undone at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. Defeated, Pompey and his family took flight to Egypt where the general believed they would be safe, since the boy king Ptolemy XIII was indebted to the friendship and the help Pompey had given to his father. Upon their arrival in Egypt however, Pompey was treacherously murdered by a former comrade on the orders of the Egyptian king, who had been advised that this would forestall further civil war, and ingratiate him with Caesar. Stabbed to death by sword and daggers, his head severed and his unclothed body thrown into the sea, Pompey died the day after his sixtieth birthday. Horrified, his family put back out to sea. Cnaeus and Sextus joined the remainder of the resistance to Caesar in Africa, and after the defeat at Thapsus the brothers escaped to the Balearic islands, whence they crossed over to the Spanish mainland with Titus Labienus, a former lieutenant of Caesar. Struck at Corduba, which became the Pompeian military headquarters, this coin is laden with symbolism. The reverse is as imaginative and unusual as any reverse in the Republican series, and propagandises the welcome received by the brothers in Spain, which readily provided them with the means with which to continue the fight against Caesar. The obverse bears the first securely datable portrait of their dead father Pompey Magnus, whose success in bringing the Sertorian War to a close in 71 BC would still have been remembered in Spain. The legend names ‘Cnaeus Magnus Imperator, son’, a pious statement that the authority behind the striking of this coinage is that of the wronged and murdered Pompey Magnus, on whose behalf the resistance to Caesar was taken up by his son. This coin must have been struck only shortly before the Pompeian and Caesarian armies met on 17 March 45 BC; the extreme rarity of the issue argues for a limited production run. At the Battle of Munda, some 70,000 troops commanded by Cnaeus, Sextus, and Titus Labienus met Caesar’s battle-hardened veteran force of 40,000. The result of the contest was a decisive victory for Caesar; Labienus was killed along with around 30,000 Pompeian troops, and the brothers Cnaeus and Sextus were once again forced to flee. Cnaeus was quickly captured and executed, but Sextus would survive his brother in Sicily for over a decade.

177


594. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Mint moving with Sextus Pompey, probably in Sicily, under the fleet commander Q. Nasidius, 42-38 BC. NEPTVNI, bare head of Cn. Pompeius Magnus to right; below, dolphin swimming downwards; trident before / Galley sailing right; in the prow commander standing right with his right hand raised in salute; in the stern, helmsman holding rudder; [above left, star], Q•NASIDIVS in exergue. Babelon (Nasidia) 1, (Pompeia) 28; Crawford 483/2; CRI 235; Sydenham 1350. 3.86g, 22mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Struck on a remarkably broad flan.

2,500

595. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily (Catania?), 42-40 BC. MAG•PIVS•IMP•ITER, bare head of Pompey Magnus right; capis behind, lituus before / Neptune standing left, holding aplustre in right hand, resting right foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, carrying their parents on their shoulders; [PRÆF] above, CLAS•ET•ORÆ•MARIT•EX•S•C in two lines in exergue. Crawford 511/3a; Sydenham 1344; Sear 334; RRC 511/3a; BMCRR Sicily 7; Pompeia 27; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great); Catalli 2001, 824. 3.68g, 19mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Unusually complete reverse.

3,000

596. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily, (Catania?), 42-40 BC. MAG•PIVS•IMP•ITER, bare head of Pompey Magnus right; capis behind, lituus before / Neptune standing left, holding aplustre in right hand, resting right foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, carrying their parents on their shoulders; PRAEF above, CLAS•ET•[ORAE MARIT•EX•S•C] in two lines in exergue. Crawford 511/3a; Sydenham 1344; Sear 334; RRC 511/3a; BMCRR Sicily 7; Pompeia 27; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). 3.81g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

1,000

597. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily, (Catania?), 42-40 BC. MAG•PIVS•IMP•ITER, bare head of Pompey Magnus right; capis behind, lituus before / Neptune standing left, holding aplustre in right hand, resting right foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, carrying their parents on their shoulders; PRAEF above, CLAS•ET•ORAE MARIT•EX•S•C in two lines in exergue. Crawford 511/3a; Sydenham 1344; Sear 334; RRC 511/3a; BMCRR Sicily 7; Pompeia 27; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). 3.80g, 20mm, 1h. Very Fine. Worn, but uncommonly complete for the issue.

178

750


598. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Sicily, 42-40 BC. The Pharos of Messana surmounted by a statue of Neptune, in foreground, galley left adorned with legionary eagle, sceptre and trident; MAG•PIVS•IMP•ITER around / Scylla left, wielding a rudder in both hands; PRÆF•CLAS•ET•ORÆ•[MAR IT•EX•S•C] around. Crawford 511/4a; CRI 335; Sydenham 1348; RSC 2. 3.83g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

750

599. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; RSC 49. 3.85g, 18mm, 10h. About Extremely Fine.

750

600. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis surmounted by wolf’s head, and apex. Crawford 443/1; RSC 49. 3.67g, 19mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

400

601. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 48-47 BC. Diademed female head right, wearing oak-wreath, cruciform earring, and pearl necklace; LII behind / Trophy of Gallic arms; axe surmounted by an animal’s head to right; CAESAR below. Crawford 452/2; RSC 18. 3.85g, 19mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone.

750

602. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 48-47 BC. Diademed female head right, wearing oak-wreath, cruciform earring, and pearl necklace; LII behind / Trophy of Gallic arms; axe surmounted by an animal’s head to right; CAESAR below. Crawford 452/2; RSC 18. 4.00g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone.

750

603. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 48-47 BC. Diademed female head right, wearing oak-wreath, cruciform earring, and pearl necklace; LII behind / Trophy of Gallic arms; axe surmounted by an animal’s head to right; CAESAR below. Crawford 452/2; RSC 18. 3.95g, 18mm, 3h. Extremely Fine.

179

500


604. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Lilybaeum, late 47 BC. A. Allienus, proconsul. Draped bust of Venus right, wearing stephane; C•CAESAR IMP•COS•ITER around / Trinacrus standing left, foot on prow, holding triskeles, resting elbow on knee; [A•ALLIENVS] to left, PRO•COS to right. Crawford 457/1; CRI 54; RSC 1; Sydenham 1022; Kestner 3575-3576; BMCRR Sicily 5. 3.68g, 18mm, 1h. Near Extrmely Fine. Rare.

1,000

605. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. African mint, 47-46 BC. Diademed head of Venus right / Aeneas advancing left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder; CAESAR to right. Crawford 458/1; RSC 12; CRI 55; Sydenham 1013; Kestner 3577-9; BMCRR East 31. 3.78g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

606. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. African mint, 47-46 BC. Diademed head of Venus right / Aeneas advancing left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder; CAESAR to right. Crawford 458/1; RSC 12. 3.72g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

607. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. African mint, 47-46 BC. Diademed head of Venus right / Aeneas advancing left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder; CAESAR to right. Crawford 458/1; RSC 12. 3.92g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

500

608. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. African mint, 47-46 BC. Diademed head of Venus right / Aeneas advancing left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder; CAESAR to right. Crawford 458/1; RSC 12. 3.80g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

180

500


609 Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 46 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing grain ear wreath; COS•TERT downwards behind, DICT•ITER upwards before / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, capis, and lituus; [M to right], AVGVR above, PONT•MAX below. Crawford 467/1a; RSC 4a. 4.02g, 19mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

610. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 46 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing grain ear wreath; COS•TERT downwards behind, DICT•ITER upwards before / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, capis, and lituus; D to right, AVGVR above, PONT•MAX below. Crawford 467/1a; RSC 4a. 3.69g, 18mm, 10h. Good Very Fine.

500

611. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Head of Venus right, wearing stephane; Cupid behind shoulder / Trophy of Gallic arms between two seated captives: female resting head in right hand to left, and bearded male with hands tied behind back on right; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/1; CRI 58; RSC 13; Kestner 3641-3643; BMCRR Spain 86. 3.77g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Well centred reverse.

1,000

612. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Head of Venus right, wearing stephane; Cupid behind shoulder / Trophy of Gallic arms between two seated captives: female resting head in right hand to left, and bearded male with hands tied behind back on right; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/1; CRI 58; RSC 13; Kestner 3641-3643; BMCRR Spain 86. 3.96g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant old tone.

500

613. Julius Caesar AV Aureus. Rome, 45 BC. L. Munatius Plancus, urban prefect. C•CAES DIC•TER, draped bust of Victory right / L•PLANC PRAEF•VRB, ewer with handle. Crawford 475/1a; Calicó 45a. 7.68g, 20mm, 10h. Very Fine.

181

3,000


614. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, January - February, 44 BC. Lifetime issue. L. Aemilius Buca, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right; CAESAR•IM before, P M and crescent behind / Venus Victrix standing left, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and leaning on sceptre with left; L•AEMILIVS behind, BVCA before. Crawford 480/4; Sear 102; Sydenham 1060; Kestner 3685; BMCRR Rome 4152-3; RSC 22. 3.87g, 19mm, 2h. About Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

3,500

615. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, February - March, 44 BC. Lifetime issue. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right; eightrayed star behind, CAESAR•IMP before / Venus standing left, holding Victory in right hand and sceptre with star at bottom of shaft in left; P•SEPVLLIVS downwards behind, MACER upwards before. Crawford 480/5b; Sydenham 1071; CRI 106a; Sydenham 1071; Kestner -; BMCRR Rome 4165-6; RSC 41. 3.18g, 21mm, 9h. Very Fine.

1,000

616. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, February - March 44 BC. Lifetime issue. L. Aemilius Buca, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right; CAESAR DICT PERPETVO around / Venus standing left, holding Victory and sceptre; L•BVCA to right. Crawford 480/8; CRI 105; Sydenham 1061; RSC 23. 4.01g, 20mm, 9h. Good Fine.

500

617. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, February - March 44 BC. Lifetime issue. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Wreathed and veiled head right; CAESAR downward to right, DICT•PERPETVO upward to left / Venus Victrix standing left, holding Victory and sceptre, to right at feet, shield set on ground; P•SEPVLLIVS downward to right, MACER downward to left. Crawford 480/13; CRI 107d; Sydenham 1074; RSC 39. 3.78g, 18mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone.

3,000

Ex Lanz 109, 27 May 2002, lot 268; Ex Cahn 71, 14 October 1931, lot 1374.

618. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, February - March 44 BC. Lifetime issue. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Wreathed and veiled head right; CAESAR downward to right, DICT•PERPETVO upward to left / Venus Victrix standing left, holding Victory and sceptre, to right at feet, shield set on ground; P•SEPVLLIVS downward to right, MACER downward to left. Crawford 480/13; Alföldi pl. LXXX, 76 (same dies); CRI 107d; Sydenham 1074; RSC 39. 3.71g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Ex Lanz 64, 7 June 1993, lot 370; Ex Giessener Münzhandlung 60, 5 October 1992, lot 339; Ex Hirsch 173, 19 February 1992, lot 601.

182

2,500


619. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, April 44 BC. C. Cossutius Maridianus, moneyer. CAESAR PARENS•PATRIAE, laureate and veiled head right; apex behind, lituus before / C•COSSVTIVS and MARIDIANVS arranged in form of cross; A A A F F in angles. Crawford 480/19; CRI 112; Sydenham 1069; RSC 8; Kestner –; BMCRR Rome 4187. 4.11g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,000

620. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. L. Mussidius Longus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right / L•MVSSIDIVS• LONGVS, cornucopiae on globe, between rudder on left, and caduceus and apex on right. Crawford 494/39a; CRI 116; Sydenham 1096a; RSC 29; Kestner 3750; BMCRR Rome 4237-41. 3.96g, 19mm, 9h. Very Fine, small area of delamination on obv.

1,000

621. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. L. Mussidius Longus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right / L•MVSSIDIVS• LONGVS, cornucopiae on globe, between rudder on left, and caduceus and apex on right. Crawford 494/39b; CRI 116; Sydenham 1096c; RSC 29. 3.94g, 19mm, 3h. Extremely Fine.

3,000

622. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, quaestor designatus. Laureate head of Caesar right / Signum, aquila, plow, and decempeda (measuring rod); TI•SEMPRONIVS above, GRACCVS in exergue, •Q•DESIG to left; S-C across fields. Crawford 525/3; CRI 327; Sydenham 1128; Kestner 3806; BMCRR Rome 4316-8; RSC 48. 18mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

623. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, quaestor designatus. Laureate head of Caesar right; S C across fields / Signum, aquila, plow, and decempeda (measuring rod); TI•SEMPRONIVS above; GRACCVS in exergue; •Q•DESIG to left. Crawford 525/4a; CRI 327a; Sydenham 1129; RSC 47; Kestner 3636; BMCRR Rome 4319. 3.88g, 19mm, 9h. Very Fine.

183

1,500


184


185


Two Outstanding Portraits Issue of Julius Caesar

624.

Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right / Signum, aquila, plow, and decempeda; TI•SEMPRONIVS above, GRACCVS below, Q•DES downwards to left, S-C across fields. Crawford 525/4c var. (no S-C on obverse); Sydenham 1128a; CRI 327 var.; Gorny & Mosch 219, 353 (same dies). 3.90g, 19mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely rare variety of a very rare type. A superb portrait coin of Julius Caesar.

625.

20,000

Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Q. Voconius Vitulus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right; DIVI•IVLI before, lituus behind / Bull-calf walking left; Q•VOCONIVS above, VITVLVS in exergue. Crawford 526/2; CRI 329; Sydenham 1132; Kestner 3808; BMCRR Rome 4308-10; RSC 46. 3.96g, 20mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. A bold portrait of Caesar. Very Rare.

186

30,000


2x

2x

626. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Q. Voconius Vitulus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right; DIVI•IVL before, lituus behind / Bull-calf walking left; Q•VOCONIVS above, [VITVLVS in exergue]. Crawford 526/2; CRI 329; Sydenham 1132; RSC 46. 3.99g, 19mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

2x

5,000

2x

627. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Q. Voconius Vitulus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right / Bull-calf walking left; Q•VOCONIVS above, VITVLVS•Q DESIGN in two lines below, S-C across fields. Crawford 526/4; CRI 331; Sydenham 1133; RSC 45. 3.84g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2x

10,000

2x

628. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Q. Voconius Vitulus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right / Bull-calf walking left; Q•VOCONIVS above, VITVLVS•Q DESIGN in two lines below, S-C across fields. Crawford 526/4; CRI 331; Sydenham 1133; Kestner -; BMCRR Rome 4311-2; RSC 45. 3.76g, 20mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine; minor areas of weak strike. Rare.

187

3,000


629. L. Mussidius Longus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Draped bust of Victory, with the features of Fulvia, right / Victory in prancing biga to right; L•MVSSIDIVS above, LONGVS below. Crawford 494/40; Mussidia 4; CRI 186; Sydenham 1095. 4.03g, 18mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Very complete and in fine style for the issue. Very Rare.

2,000

This rare type has long been recognised to depict Fulvia, the aristocratic and politically ambitious wife of Marc Antony. She was the first nonmythological Roman woman to ever appear on a Roman coin.

630. L. Mussidius Longus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Draped bust of Victory, with the features of Fulvia, right / Victory in prancing biga to right; L•MVSSIDIVS above, LONGVS below. Crawford 494/40; Mussidia 4; CRI 186; Sydenham 1095. 3.60g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, an excellent example of this type.

1,000

631. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Smyrna, 43-42 BC. Sacrificial axe, simpulum and sacrificial dagger; BRVTVS below / Jug and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/7; CRI 198; Sydenham 1310. 3.86g, 19mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

632. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Quinarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus, 43-42 BC. Sella against which rests staff, modius below; L•SESTI above, [PRO Q] in exergue / Tripod, simpulum on left, apex on right; Q•CAEPIO•BRVTVS•PRO•COS around. Crawford 502/4; Junia 39 and Sestia 4; C. 13; Sydenham 1292; CRI 203. 1.33g, 13mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

188

500


633. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Quinarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus, 43-42 BC. Sella against which rests staff, modius below; L•SESTI above, [PRO Q] in exergue / Tripod, simpulum on left, apex on right; Q•CAEPIO•BRVTVS•PRO•COS around, all within beaded border. Crawford 502/4; Junia 39 and Sestia 4; C. 13; Sydenham 1292; CRI 203. 1.66g, 15mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

634. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus in Asia Minor, 42 BC. Veiled and draped bust of Libertas right; L•SESTI PRO•Q around; P in left field / Tripod between sacrificial axe and simpulum; Q•CAEPIO•BRVTVS•PRO COS around, all within beaded border. Crawford 502/2; RSC Junia 37. 3.65g, 19mm, 12h., Near Mint State. Struck on a broad flan; lustrous metal. Perfectly centred reverse.

2,000

635. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in Western Asia Minor or Northern Greece, 43-42 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; COSTA LEG around / Trophy of arms; IMP BRVTVS around. Crawford 506/2; CRI 209; Sydenham 1296; RSC 4. 3.95g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone.

1,500

Ex Schweizerischer Bankverein 43, 15 September 1997, lot 263.

636. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in Western Asia Minor or Northern Greece, 43-42 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; COSTA LEG around / Trophy of arms; IMP BRVTVS around. Crawford 506/2; CRI 209; Sydenham 1296; RSC 4. 3.83g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; banker’s mark.

300

637. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Quinarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in western Asia Minor or northern Greece, spring - early summer 42 BC. Diademed head of Libertas right; LEIBERTAS before / Stem of prow and anchor in saltire. Crawford 506/3; CRI 210; King 79; RSC 5a. 1.95g, 13mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

189

500


638. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus with P. Servilius Casca Longus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with the army (western Asia Minor or northern Greece), summer - autumn 42 BC. CASCA LONGVS, laureate bust of Neptune right, trident below / BRVTVS IMP, Victory in long tunic walking to right, palm branch over left shoulder and breaking diadem with both hands, broken sceptre on ground. Crawford 507/2; CRI 212; RSC 3; Sydenham 1298; Kestner 3779; BMCRR East 63-65. 3.90g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Sound, lustrous metal. A superb example.

4,000

639. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus with P. Servilius Casca Longus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with the army (western Asia Minor or northern Greece), summer - autumn 42 BC. CASCA LONGVS, laureate bust of Neptune right, trident below / BRVTVS IMP, Victory in long tunic walking to right, palm branch over left shoulder and breaking diadem with both hands, broken sceptre on ground. CCrawford 507/2; CRI 212; RSC 3; Sydenham 1298; Kestner 3779; BMCRR East 63-65. 3.94g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

2,000

640. C. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Military mint, probably at Smyrna, Spring 42 BC. P. Lentulus Spinther, legate. Diademed and draped bust of Libertas right; LEIBERTAS before, C•CASSI•IMP behind / Capis and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/5; RSC 6. 3.80g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Lustrous metal.

1,500

L. Staius Murcus

641. L. Staius Murcus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Murcus, 42-41 BC. Head of Neptune right, with trident over shoulder / Male figure on right, holding sword in left hand and right hand raising kneeling female figure on left, between them, trophy with sword and shield, MVRCVS•IMP in exergue. Crawford 510/1; Sydenham 1315; CRI 337; Statia 1. 3.87g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

Like many commanders of the Imperatorial age, not a great deal is known about the career of L. Staius Murcus. Appian relates that he served under Caesar in Gaul and Africa, and was present at the Senate House on the Ides of March and whilst he did not participate in Caesar’s murder, he approved of the deed. Following Caesar’s assassination, the Senate sent Murcus to Syria as proconsul to besiege Q. Caecilius Bassus alongside Cassius. Murcus was posted to blockade the fleet of Cleopatra as she came to the aid of Marc Antony and Octavian. Domitius Ahenobarbus was sent to assist him in this, and the two formed a highly successful partnership, which resulted in dominance over the seas between Greece and Italy. This partnership was not to last long however, and as a rift formed between the two Murcus joined forces with Sextus Pompey. Murcus’ stubborness and refusal to cooperate with Pompey’s plans led to a growing suspicion on behalf of the latter, who soon had Murcus assassinated.

190


642. Cn. Domitius L. f. Ahenobarbus AR Denarius. Uncertain mint along the Adriatic or Ionian Sea, 41-40 BC. Bare head of Ahenobarbus right, wearing short beard; AHENOBAR before / Prow right surmounted by a military trophy; CN•DOMITIVS•IMP below. Crawford 519/2; CRI 339; Sydenham 1177; Domitia 21; Kestner 801-802; BMCRR East 94-97. 3.90g, 19mm, 8h. Very Fine.

1,000

643. Cn. Domitius Calvinus AR Denarius. Osca, 39 BC. Head of Hercules right; OSCA downwards behind / Simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex; DOM•COS•ITER•IMP around. Crawford 532/1; CRI 342; Sydenham 1358. 3.57g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Sharply struck; lustrous metal. Rare.

2,500

644. M. Aemilius Lepidus and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Lepidus in Italy, November - December 43 BC. Bare head of Lepidus right; LEPIDVS•PONT•MAX•III•V•R•P•C• around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 495/2a; RSC 2a. 3.77g, 19mm, 5h. Very Fine. Rare.

500

645. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Rome, April - May 44 BC. Bearded head of Antony to right, wearing veil; capis to left, lituus to right / Desultor on horseback to right, wearing conical cap and holding whip, second horse behind; palm frond and wreath to left, P•SEPVLLIVS above, MACER below. Crawford 480/22; CRI 142; RSC 74; Sydenham 1077; Kestner –; BMCRR Rome 4178. 3.89g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

646. Marc Antony and Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Antony in Cisalpine Gaul, autumn 43 BC. Bearded head of Antony right; lituus to left, M•ANTON•IMP downward to right / Wreathed head of Julius Caesar right, capis to left; CAESAR•DIC downward to right. Crawford 488/1; CRI 118; Sydenham 1165; RSC 3a; Kestner 3712; BMCRR Gaul 53. 3.81g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; old scratches under light tone. Fine style. Rare.

191

5,000


647. Marc Antony and M. Lepidus AR Denarius. Gallic mint, 43-42 BC. Lituus, jug and raven, M•ANTON•IMP above / Simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex, M•LEPID•IMP around. Crawford 489/2; CRI 119a; Sydenham 1156; RSC 2. 3.94g, 18mm, 1h. Very Fine. Lustrous metal. Rare.

1,500

648. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Military mint (Italy), 42 BC. Bearded bust right; lituus behind / Radiate bust of Sol right; M•ANTONIVS•III•VIR• R•P•C around. Crawford 496/2; Sydenham 1170; CRI 127. 3.66g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine; usual area of flatness. Fine style portrait of Antony.

750

649. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Mint travelling with Antony in Greece and Asia, autumn 42 BC. Bare head right; lituus and IMP behind / M•ANTONIVS III•VIR•R•P•C, radiate head of Sol right. Crawford 496/3; CRI 129; Sydenham 1169; RSC 70a. 3.97g, 20mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare; in excellent condition for the issue.

2,000

650. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, 41 BC. Bare head right, lituus behind, M•ANTONIVS•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C• around / Pietas standing left, holding turibulum and cornucopiae upon which two storks perch, PIETAS - COS across fields. Crawford 516/5; CRI 238; Sydenham 1172; RSC 79. 3.66g, 18mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine; banker’s mark on obv. Very Rare.

1,000

Medallic Antony and Octavian Denarius

651. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181; RSC 8a. 3.79g, 23mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Struck on a broad, medallic flan.

192

5,000


652. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181; RSC 8a. 3.88g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

653. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181; RSC 8a. 3.93g, 19mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction G, April 1997, lot 1440.

654. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181; RSC 8a. 3.94g, 21mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

655. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181; RSC 8a. 3.92g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

750

656. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Antony (Ephesos?), autumn 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANTON•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C AVG around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 528/3; CRI 251; RSC 2; Sydenham 1194; Kestner -; BMCRR East 123. 3.85g, 19mm, 1h. Very Fine. Rare issue which does not name moneyer M. Barbatius Pollio.

193

500


One of the Finest Known

657. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Athens, 38-37 BC. III•VIR•R•P•C•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, radiate bust of Sol right / M•ANTONIVS•M•F•M•N• AVGVR•IMP•TER, Antony standing right, dressed as priest, veiled, wearing toga and holding a lituus. Crawford 533/2; CRI 267; Sydenham 1199; RSC 13a. 3.70g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Among the finest known examples.

5,000

Ex Leo Benz Collection, Numismatik Lanz 88, 23 November 1998, lot 844. This coin is a truly outstanding example of the type, being well struck on sound metal, lacking the always-present areas of flatness, and having been barely circulated. Of the hundred or so examples present on CoinArchives, this is by a very significant margin the finest.

658. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Athens, 38-37 BC. III•VIR•R•P•C•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, radiate bust of Sol right / M•ANTONIVS•M•F•M•N• AVGVR•IMP•TER, Antony standing right, dressed as priest, veiled, wearing toga and holding a lituus. Crawford 533/2; CRI 267; Sydenham 1199; RSC 13a. 3.72g, 18mm, 3h. Good Very Fine.

500

A Victory over Parthia

659. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Antony in northern Syria, late summer - autumn 38 BC. Bare head right, ANT•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C• around / Trophy of arms; at base to left, prow left; Macedonian shield to right; IMP-TER across fields. Crawford 536/3 note; CRI 272; RSC 18b; Sydenham 1204; Kestner 3830 var. (obv. legend); BMCRR East 149. 4.01g, 19mm, 4h. Near Mint State. Sound, lustrous metal. A wonderful example of this desirable type. Very Rare.

5,000

The Parthians had been well aware of Caesar’s ambitions to invade their territory, and during the civil war that followed the dictator’s assassination, they actively supported the cause of the Liberators, sending a contingent of troops which fought with them at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC. Following that defeat the pro-republican general Titus Labienus, who had lately served as Cassius’ ambassador to Parthia, assisted the Parthians in their bid to invade the Eastern Roman territories. Along with the Parthian prince Pacorus, Labienus commanded the invasion forces which swept into Syria and down the Phoenician coast. Distracted first by his dalliance with Cleopatra, then by his wife Fulvia, in the following year Marc Antony eventually dispatched his lieutenant Publius Ventidius Bassus with eleven legions to drive back the invaders. Ventidius first surprised and defeated Labienus at the Cilician Gates, executing the traitor, then encountered a Parthian army at the Amanus pass which he also defeated. Finally in the spring of 38 at the Battle of Cyrrhestica, Ventidius inflicted an overwhelming defeat against the Parthians which resulted in the death of the Pacorus. Antony at this point hurried to take command of Ventidius’ forces in the prosecution of a campaign of reprisal against Antiochus of Commagene, who had aided the Parthians. Ventidius meanwhile was pensioned off back to Rome, where he became the first Roman to celebrate a triumph over the Parthians.

194


660. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Mint moving with M. Antonius 37. M•ANT•AVGVR•III•VIR•R•P•C, bare head right / IMP-TER Trophy with figure-ofeight shield attached to each arm; at its base, two spears and two round shields. Crawford 536/4; Antonia 78; Sydenham 1202; CRI 270; RSC 17a. 3.72g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; among the finest known examples of the type.

7,500

The Invasion of Armenia

661. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Antioch or military mint travelling with Canidius Crassus in Armenia, 37 BC. ANTONIVS•AVGVR•COS•DES•ITER• ET•TERT, bare head right / IMP•TERTIO•III•VIR•R•P•C, Armenian crown, decorated with three stars over crossed bow and arrow. Crawford 539/1; CRI 297; RSC 195; Sydenham 1205; Kestner -; BMCRR East 172. 3.76g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare; in remarkably high state of preservation for the issue.

5,000

Sear suggests that this type marks the successful invasion of Armenia in 37 BC by Antony’s general Canidius Crassus, which was undertaken as a prelude to the Triumvir’s attack on Parthia in the following year. This issue has a celebratory nature that was ultimately to be dashed by Artavasdes’ betrayal of the Romans at a most critical juncture, resulting in a disastrous defeat for Marc Antony. Sear also comments that the fine style of the engraving tends to suggest that this issue was struck by Antony at his headquarters in Antioch, rather than by a military mint travelling with Canidius Crassus in Armenia.

Only Signed Roman Republican Coin

662. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Obverse die signed by ‘P.’ Athens, 33 BC. Bare head of Marc Antony right; in hair below ear, small P•; ANTON•AVG•I MP•III•COS•DES•III•V•R•P•C• around / ANTONIVS AVG•IMP•III in two lines. Crawford 542/2; CRI 347; Sydenham 1209; RSC 2. 3.85g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare. Struck on a broad flan, well centred for the type and very complete for the issue.

2,000

The small P on the obverse represents the only example of an artist engraving his initials on a Roman Republican coin. This fact went unnoticed for centuries, until it was first pointed out in a Santamaria sales catalogue in 1920.

195


Unpublished Mark Antony and Cleopatra Denarius

663.

Cleopatra and Marc Antony AR Denarius. Uncertain Eastern mint, autumn 34 BC. ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡA ΒΑCΙΛICΗC ΒΑCΙΛΕWΝ Τ...N, diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right; at point of bust, prow right / ANTONI•ARMENIA•DEVICTA, bare head of Marc Antony right; Armenian tiara to left. Crawford -, but cf. 543/1 for types of different style and legends; CRI -; Sydenham -; RSC -; Kestner -; BMCRR East -; RBW -. 3.71g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished; a coin of great numismatic importance.

25,000

This unexpected novum is a remarkable addition to the coinage of these most famous of lovers, and the late imperatorial period in general. Bearing more refined portraits of both Cleopatra and Antony, and more importantly an obverse legend in Greek and a reverse legend in Latin, it offers us new insights into the production of these iconic dual-portrait denarii. Bilingual coins were, although extremely uncommon, not unheard of by the late 1st century BC. Among the earliest are certain Italian coins that bear dual Oscan and Greek inscriptions; there are also numerous issues of formerly Punic-dominated cities, particularly in Spain, where bilingual inscriptions occur, sometimes on the same side as in the case of Bailo (SNG BM Spain 477-8); certain Alexander-type issues at Tyre retain their Phoenician-character dating alongside the Greek legends. The most conspicuously bilingual Greek coins are those of the late GrecoBaktrian and Indo-Greek kings, whose coinage frequently bears a Greek obverse inscription naming the king, and a Karosthi reverse legend. Even in more recent years, a denarius-standard coinage had been issued by the Roman-allied king of Numidia, Juba I, which bore a Latin obverse legend, and a neo-Punic reverse inscription. The precedent therefore certainly existed for such coins when they were considered politically expedient. While a certain number of the Antony-Cleopatra denarii feature the head of the Queen on the reverse die, the vast majority of surviving specimens have a Cleopatra obverse die, and an Antony reverse die. Though these coins are commonly referred to as denarii of Antony and Cleopatra, it is more proper to refer to them as denarii of Cleopatra, for Antony. The Queen is depicted here with the prow of a galley at the point of her bust, symbolising her importance to the naval building programme that would eventually see the combined Antonian-Ptolemaic navies field 290 warships at Actium. Lamentably, the die was substantially degraded at the time of striking this coin - part of the legend which appears to be ‘T….N’ is illegible – however this degradation of the die is interesting, as is the case of the Queen’s name. We know that despite their scarcity today the dual-portrait denarii were issued in large numbers, and clearly hastily so, to pay Antony’s troops. The numerous die breaks on this specimen point to extensive usage on a level that the (many) other dies with exclusively Latin legends do not. What therefore became of these Greek-legend coins, and why were no other Greek-legend dies produced? Perhaps it was a much smaller part of the issue intended for the payment of a particular group of Ptolemaic-pattern troops, or it may be that this specimen represents a prototype strike that was rejected by Antony or his men, and replaced with the Latin-only coins. It is noteworthy that the Latin-only coins display Cleopatra’s name in the genitive (Cleopatrae), while this coin, in common with the Isisheaddress bronzes of Patras, displays it in the nominative. T. V. Buttrey (‘Grammar and History: Thoughts on Some Late Roman Republican Coins’ in Essays Russo) argues that on the Latin-only issues “Cleopatra acknowledged openly, with the Hellenistic genitive legend, that Antony was, effectively, equal sharer of the monarchy”. Certainly this appears not to have been the case with this obverse die, and if it did indeed precede the more substantial issue of Latin-only dies, this would present us with another possible reason for it being discontinued, and possibly recalled, which could thus explain its exceedingly low survival rate. In any case, this unique and important coin represents one of the last missing pieces of a puzzle which now permits us with a greater degree of certainty to attribute the dual-portrait denarii to a mint authority controlled by Cleopatra, not Antony.

196


197


Mark Antony and Cleopatra Denarius

664.

Cleopatra and Marc Antony AR Denarius. Uncertain Easterm mint, autumn 34 BC. CLEOPATRAE•[REGINA E•REGVM]•FILIORVM•REGVM, diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right; at point of bust, prow right / ANTONI•ARMENIA•DEVICTA, bare head of Marc Antony right; Armenian tiara to left. Crawford 543/1; Antonia 95; Sydenham 1210; CRI 345. 3.91g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Two bold, well-struck portraits. Very Rare.

15,000

Issued in the wake of the successful campaign against Armenia in early-mid 34 BC, this type proudly commemorates the victory with the legend ‘Armenia Devicta’ (Armenia vanquished). In the execution of his war on Parthia in early 36 BC, Antony had followed the advice of the Armenian king Artavasdes to invade Parthia not from the West (which would have been the shortest route) but from the North, subduing the Parthian allied kingdom of Media Atropatene along the way, whose king was (conveniently) an enemy of Artavasdes. At the fortified town of Phraaspa however, the attack foundered and Artavasdes abandoned Antony in the face of the enemy, allowing his logistics train and two legions to be massacred in an ambush. Following a failed two-month siege of Phraaspa, Antony was forced to call off the campaign and effect a fighting retreat back to friendly territory, in the course of which no fewer than eighteen battles were fought. Antony arrived back in Syria by late 36 BC, having lost about 40% (some 80,000 men) of his original force. In early 34 BC, after variously attempting to lure Artavasdes out to meet with him to discuss marriage proposals and renewed war on Parthia, pleasant inducements and entreaties through the king’s companions, and then a forced march to the capital Artaxata and what Cassius Dio describes as ‘aggressive use of his soldiers’, eventually Antony convinced Artavasdes to come to his camp, where the king was promptly arrested. Antony proceeded to plunder the country as best he could, and returned to Alexandria with his captives: King Artavasdes, his wife, and his family. There he celebrated a mock Roman triumph – an eastern pastiche of Rome’s most important military ceremony – wherein Antony paraded through the streets in a chariot with his captives walking behind him. Cleopatra watched, seated high above with Caesarion at her side. As a grand finale, the whole city was summoned to the gymnasium to bear witness to a political statement which became known as the Donations of Alexandria. Antony and Cleopatra, dressed as Dionysus-Osiris and Isis-Aphrodite, sat on golden thrones while Antony distributed kingdoms among his children by Cleopatra: Alexander Helios was named king of Armenia, Media and Parthia, his twin Selene was awarded Cyrenaica and Libya, and the young Ptolemy Philadelphus was given Syria and Cilicia. Cleopatra was proclaimed Queen of Kings, a title evidenced on the obverse of this coin type, which also names ‘her Children, who are kings’. Most damaging of all to his relations with Octavian was the naming of Caesarion as a legitimate son and heir of Julius Caesar. This caused a fatal rupture of Antony’s relations with Octavian, and Rome. When the triumvirate officially expired on the last day of 33 BC it was not renewed, and the Roman world again found itself at war.

198


199


665. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG II across fields. Crawford 544/14; CRI 349; RSC 27; Sydenham 1216; BMCRR East 190. 3.34g, 17mm, 7h. Mint State. Attractive old tone.

1,500

666. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG II across fields. Crawford 544/14; CRI 349; RSC 27; Sydenham 1216; BMCRR East 190. 3.71g, 17mm, 6h. Mint State. Beautiful, highly lustrous metal.

1,000

Magnificent LEG III Denarius

667. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG III across fields. Crawford 544/15; CRI 350; RSC 28; Sydenham 1217; BMCRR East 193. 3.73g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State; lightly toned. Engraved in wonderful style, struck on a very broad flan and displaying a pleasant old cabinet tone. Without a doubt the most beautiful legionary denarius we have ever handled. 3,000

668. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG IV across fields. Crawford 544/17; CRI 352; RSC 30; Sydenham 1219; BMCRR East 195. 3.86g, 17mm, 8h. Fleur De Coin. Very rarely seen complete and in high grade.

200

2,000


669. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG IV across fields. Crawford 544/17; CRI 352; RSC 30; Sydenham 1219; BMCRR East 195. 3.60g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

670. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG V across fields. Crawford 544/18; CRI 354; RSC 32; Sydenham 1221; BMCRR East 196. 3.80g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

750

671. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VI across fields. Crawford 544/19; CRI 361; RSC 33; Sydenham 1223; BMCRR East 197. 3.53g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

2,000

Ex CNG Inventory 803247, November 2007; Ex Hauck & Aufhäuser 20, 16 October 2007, lot 245.

672. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VI across fields. Crawford 544/19; CRI 361; RSC 33; Sydenham 1223; BMCRR East 197. 3.69g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

673. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VI across fields. Crawford 544/19; CRI 361; RSC 33; Sydenham 1223; BMCRR East 197. 3.48g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

Ex Gemini XI, 12 January 2014, lot 382.

201

750


674. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VII across fields. Crawford 544/20; CRI 357; RSC 34; Sydenham 1224; BMCRR East 198. 3.55g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

675

750

676

675. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VIII across fields. Crawford 544/21; CRI 358; RSC 35; Sydenham 1225; BMCRR East 199. 3.69g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. 750 676. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VIII across fields. Crawford 544/21; CRI 358; RSC 35; Sydenham 1225; BMCRR East 199. 3.72g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. 750

Double-struck Legionary Denarius

677. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VIII across fields. Crawford 544/21; CRI 358; RSC 35; Sydenham 1225; BMCRR East 199. 3.72g, 20mm, 12h. Mint State. Interesting double strike.

300

Rare LEG VIIII

678. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VIIII across fields. Crawford 544/22; CRI 360; RSC 36; Sydenham 1226; BMCRR East 200. 3.73g, 18mm, 2h. Very Fine. Rare.

400

679. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG IX across fields. Crawford 544/23; CRI 359; RSC 37; Sydenham 1227; BMCRR East 201. 3.69g, 17mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

202

750


680. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG X across fields. Crawford 544/24; CRI 361; RSC 38; Sydenham 1228; BMCRR East 202. 3.63g, 23mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Lightly toned and lustrous, struck on a very broad flan. A superb example of the type.

1,000

681. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XI across fields. Crawford 544/25; CRI 362; RSC 39; Sydenham 1229; BMCRR East 203. 3.83g, 17mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

1,000

682. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XII across fields. Crawford 544/26; CRI 365; RSC 41; Sydenham 1230; BMCRR East 204. 3.79g, 16mm, 6h. Mint State; slight die shift on rev.

750

683. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XIII across fields. Crawford 544/27; CRI 367; RSC 42; Sydenham 1232a; BMCRR East 205-206. 3.67g, 19mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

750

684. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XIV across fields. Crawford 544/29; CRI 369; RSC 44; Sydenham 1234; BMCRR East 209. 3.79g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State. Lustrous; a wonderfully sharp galley in fine style.

1,000

685. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XIV across fields. Crawford 544/29; CRI 369; RSC 44; Sydenham 1234; BMCRR East 209. 3.64g, 19mm, 3h. Extremely Fine.

203

400


686. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XVI across fields. Crawford 544/31; CRI 372; RSC 48; Sydenham 1236; BMCRR East 211. 3.48g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

750

687. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XVI across fields. Crawford 544/31; CRI 372; RSC 48; Sydenham 1236; BMCRR East 211. 3.86g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

750

688. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG•XVII•CLASSICAE above. Crawford 544/10; CRI 373; RSC 50; Sydenham 1238; BMCRR East 223. 3.81g, 17mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare in high grade.

1,000

Rare LEG XVIII in Exceptional Quality

689. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XVIII across fields. Crawford 544/33; CRI 376; RSC 51; Sydenham 1239; BMCRR East 213. 3.65g, 18mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; sound metal - Extremely Rare thus.

1,000

690. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XIX across fields. Crawford 544/35; CRI 378; RSC 55; Sydenham 1242; BMCRR East 214. 3.73g, 16mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

750

691. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XX across fields. Crawford 544/36; CRI 380; RSC 57; Sydenham 1243; BMCRR East 215. 3.41g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Beautiful surfaces; pleasant light tone.

204

2,000


692. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XX across fields. Crawford 544/36; CRI 380; RSC 57; Sydenham 1243; BMCRR East 215. 3.66g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

693. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XXI across fields. Crawford 544/37; CRI 381; RSC 58; Sydenham 1244; BMCRR East 216. 3.94g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

694. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XXII across fields. Crawford 544/38; CRI 382; RSC 59; Sydenham 1245; BMCRR East 217. 3.83g, 17mm, 6h. Near Mint State; attractive old tone.

750

Antony’s XXIII

695. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XXIII across fields. Crawford 544/39; CRI 383; RSC 60; Sydenham 1246; BMCRR East 219. 3.57g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

750

XXIII was the highest number securely known to have been given to a legion within Marc Antony’s order of battle. This legion appears to have been disbanded after Actium, as XXIII was never again employed as a legionary numeration following Augustus’ reorganisation of the Roman army, in which he consolidated and decreased the total number of serving legions. However, the following numerations of legions unknown to history have been noted on fleet denarii by Sydenham in Roman Republican Coinage, 1952. p. 196, nos. 1247-1253: XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX and XXX; A. Banti and L. Simonetti, in Corpus Nummoum Romanorum II, pp. 38-41, no. 102-8) record denarii for legions: LEG XXIV (= Turin, Fava 1964, pl. 19, 3); LEG XXV (= Hamburger sale 32, 1933, 547); LEG XXVI (= Babelon 104); LEG XXVII (Paris, BnF); LEG XXVIII (= Babelon 143); LEG XXIX (= Paris, BnF); LEG XXX (= BMCRR II, pl. 116, 12; Brunacci collection, Santamaria sale 1958, 797 [struck over a denarius of Julius Caesar with P. Sepullius Macer]; Ratto sale 1924, 1392). The following lot is an unpublished and apparently unique denarius bearing the Legion number XXXIII, which strengthens the case for a reevaluation of the denarii recorded by Sydenham and Banti-Simonetti.

205


LEG XXXIII

696. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XXXIII across fields. Unpublished; for type cf. Crawford 544/14-39. 3.66g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique.

1,000

This coin displays a reverse legend denoting a thirty-third legion, though the numismatic record hitherto securely identifies legions numbered only up to twenty-three. Though the coin is die-shifted on the reverse, the style and fabric appear completely consistent with other legionary issues. At the close of the Civil War, Octavian found himself with several armies comprising elements of 60 legions, some of which had sworn loyalty to opposing factions. We only know the names and numbers of some of these legions - of those which were not retained after the disbanding and amalgamation of many legions, and the discharging of over 100,000 veterans mostly to old and newly founded colonies, very little information survives. The existence of several Marc Antony fleet denarii with numbers above 23 has long been debated by numismatists, though they have been largely dismissed as either fakes or die engraver’s errors. The following numerations of legions unknown to history have been noted on fleet denarii by Sydenham in Roman Republican Coinage, 1952. p. 196, nos. 1247-1253: XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX and XXX; A. Banti and L. Simonetti, in Corpus Nummoum Romanorum II, pp. 38-41, no. 102-8) record denarii for legions: LEG XXIV (= Turin, Fava 1964, pl. 19, 3); LEG XXV (= Hamburger sale 32, 1933, 547); LEG XXVI (= Babelon 104); LEG XXVII (Paris, BnF); LEG XXVIII (= Babelon 143); LEG XXIX (= Paris, BnF); LEG XXX (= BMCRR II, pl. 116, 12; Brunacci collection, Santamaria sale 1958, 797 [struck over a denarius of Julius Caesar with P. Sepullius Macer]; Ratto sale 1924, 1392). Antony is known to have commanded a Legio XXXV at the Battle of Mutina: in a remarkable passage in Servius Sulpicius Galba’s 43 BC letter to Cicero we are provided with the only surviving evidence for this legion’s existence: “on the 15th of April, the day on which Pansa was to arrive at the camp of Hirtius, with the former of whom I was - for I had gone along the road a hundred miles to hasten his arrival - Antony brought out two legions, the second and the thirty-fifth, and two praetorian cohorts….” (Epistulae ad Familiares 10.30). The existence therefore of legions in the service of Antony with numbers greater than XXIII which have escaped the notice of history is entirely possible; many of his units were never at full strength, and some may have effectively marched only on paper. Certainly, it seems to be the case that the suppressed Republican legions in Antony’s service had their records completely erased after the war. It remains probable then that not all of these fleet denarii for legions over XXIII are false or errors as has been assumed, as is demonstrated by the present clearly genuine example unambiguously inscribed LEG XXXIII.

697. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Uncertain mint (Actium?), summer 31 BC. M•ANTONIVS•AVG•IMP•IIII•COS•TERT•III•VIR•R•P•C, head of Antony right / Victory standing left, holding palm branch and wreath tied with fillet; all within wreath. Crawford 545/2; CRI 388; Antonia 147; RSC 81; Sydenham 1211a; Kestner -; BMCRR East 228. 3.83g, 18mm, 1h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare; among the finest known examples.

5,000

698. Marc Antony and L. Pinarius Scarpus AR Denarius. Cyrene, 31 BC. M•[ANTO•COS]•III•IMP•IIII, head of Jupiter Ammon right, pellet below chin and truncation / Victory, naked to the waist, walking right, holding wreath and palm; ANTONIO AVG before, SCARPV IMP behind. Crawford 546/2d; Sydenham 1280; CRI 390; RSC 1b. 3.73g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Vivid iridescent toning. Rare in such good condition.

5,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 405. Ex Hess-Divo 320, 26 October 2011, lot 312. Lucius Pinarius Scarpus was the grandson of a sister of Julius Caesar, and a general for Antony in the war against Brutus and Cassius. Shortly before the battle of Actium he was placed in charge of Cyrene with the command of four legions. The obverse type used here refers to his new position, as Jupiter was the chief deity of Cyrene and featured prominently on their old coinage. This was the last issue struck in Marc Antony’s name before his defeat at Actium and subsequent suicide.

206


699. Marc Antony and L. Pinarius Scarpus AR Denarius. Cyrene, 31 BC. M•ANTO•COS•[III•IMP•IIII], head of Jupiter Ammon right / Victory, naked to waist, walking right, holding wreath and palm; ANTONIO AVG before, SCARPVS IMP behind. Crawford 546/2a; Sydenham 1280; CRI 390; RSC 1. 3.72g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State. Rare.

2,000

700. Marc Antony and L. Pinarius Scarpus AR Denarius. Cyrene, 31 BC. M•ANTO•COS•III•IMP•IIII, head of Jupiter Ammon right / Victory, naked to the waist, walking right, holding wreath and palm; ANTONIO AVG before, SCARPV IMP behind. Crawford 546/2d; Sydenham 1280; CRI 390; RSC 1b. 3.46g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine. Flan crack and metal flaws.

500

701. Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Octavian in Greece, autumn 42 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of young Mars right, spear over left shoulder; CAESAR III VIR•R•P•C around / Aquila between two signa, all set on ground line; above, trophy, holding oval shields; S-C flanking aquila. Crawford 497/3; CRI 138; Sydenham 1320; RSC 248. 2.61g, 18mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

500

702. Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Octavian in Italy, late 41 BC. L. Cornelius Balbus, propraetor. Bare head right; C•CAESAR•III VIR•R•P•C around / Club of Hercules left; BALBVS above, PRO•PR below. Crawford 518/1; CRI 298; RSC 417; Sydenham 1325a; Kestner 3798; BMCRR Gaul 83. 3.30g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare, particularly so well preserved.

1,000

703. Octavian AR Denarius. Southern or central Italian mint, summer 37 BC. IMP•CAESAR DIVI•F•III•VIR•ITER•R•P•C, bare head right, with beard / COS•ITER•ET•TER•DESIG, emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, guttus and lituus. Crawford 538/1; CRI 312; RSC 91; Kestner 3831; BMCRR Gaul 116-8. 3.86g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Sound, lustrous metal; lightly toned.

207

2,000


208


704. Octavian AR Denarius. Southern or central Italian mint, spring - early summer 36 BC. IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•III• VIR•ITER•R•P•C, bare head right, with beard / COS•ITER•ET•TER•DESIG, tetrastyle temple of Divus Julius: statue of Julius Caesar as augur standing within temple; DIVO•IVL on architrave, star within pediment, figures along roof line; lighted altar to left. Crawford 540/2; CRI 315; Sydenham 1338; RSC 90. 3.91g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

500

705. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 32 - summer 31 BC. Bare head right / Venus standing right, seen from back and with drapery covering only her thighs, holding transverse sceptre in left hand, resting left elbow on column, and holding helmet in right hand; on left, shield with star motif set on ground, leaning against column; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 250a; CRI 395; RSC 62; BMCRE 599 = BMCRR Rome 4333; BN 19-22. 4.09g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

In contrast to the singular type seen in Marc Antony’s ‘Legionary’ series, the coinage of Octavian was carefully constructed to send a powerful message reinforcing his divine ancestry, as well as his position as Caesar’s true heir. Part of this message is conveyed through the use of two interesting pairs of types that bear reference to directly opposed attributes, Venus and Pax. Illustrated by the present coin and the following three lots, on which Octavian and Venus swap obverse for reverse in the first instance, followed by Octavian with Pax, these types were likely intended to strengthen the belief that Caesar’s heir was fully capable of bringing peace to Rome.

706. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 32 - summer 31 BC. Head of Venus right, wearing stephane, earring and necklace / Octavian, in military attire and with cloak billowing out behind, advancing left, extending right hand and cradling spear in left arm; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 251; CRI 397; RSC 70; BMCRE 609-10 = BMCRR Rome 4327-8; BN 1-4. 3.74g, 21mm, 3h. Near Mint State; light weakness in the die. Sound, lustrous metal. Struck on a very broad flan, displaying full borders.

2,000

707. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 32 - summer 31 BC. Bare head right / Pax standing left, holding olive branch and cornucopiae; CAESAR to left, DIVI•F to right. RIC 252; CRI 399; BMCRE 605-8 = BMCRR East 236-9; RSC 69. 3.91g, 21mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

708. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 32 - summer 31 BC. Head of Pax right, wearing stephane; olive branch before, cornucopiae behind / Octavian, in military attire, advancing right, raising right hand and holding spear over left shoulder; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 253; CRI 400; RSC 72; BMCRE 611, 613-4 = BMCRR 4329, 4331-2; BN 6-11. 4.06g, 19mm, 10h. Near Mint State. Lustrous.

209

2,000


Outstanding Octavian Denarius

709. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 32 - summer 31 BC. Bare head right / Mercury (or Apollo), nude, seated to right on rock upon which is spread his cloak, petasus slung on his back, holding lyre with both hands; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 257; CRI 401; RSC 61; BMCRE 596-8 = BMCRR Rome 4335-6; BN 73-6. 3.55g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; light, variegated cabinet tone. In outstanding condition for the type; Extremely Rare thus, and certainly the finest example present on CoinArchives.

5,000

Ex Kallman Collection; Ex Prideaux Collection, Triton XI, 8 January 2008, lot 642; Ex Aufhäuser 12, 1 October 1996, lot 418; Ex Schweizerischer Kreditanstalt 5, 18 April 1986, lot 345.

710. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 32 - summer 31 BC. Bare head right / Mercury (or Apollo), nude, seated to right on rock upon which is spread his cloak, petasus slung on his back, holding lyre with both hands; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 257; CRI 401; RSC 61; BMCRE 596-8 = BMCRR Rome 4335-6; BN 73-6. 3.87g, 20mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

711. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 31 - summer 30 BC. Bare head right / Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 254a; CRI 406; BMCRE 602 = BMCRR Rome 4338; RSC 65; BN 35. 3.95g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

712. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 31 - summer 30 BC. Bare head left / Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 254b; CRI 407; BMCRR Rome 4339 = BMCRE 603; RSC 64. 3.58g, 22mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Lustrous metal. Very rarely seen in such high grade.

210

3,000


713. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 31 - summer 30 BC. Bare head left / Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 254b; CRI 407; BMCRR Rome 4339 = BMCRE 603; RSC 64. 3.84g, 23mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

714. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 31 - summer 30 BC. Bare head left / Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 255; CRI 408; RSC 66; BMCRE 604 = BMCRR Rome 4340; BN 41-42. 3.65g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. In excellent state of preservation for the type.

3,000

715. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 31 - summer 30 BC. Winged bust of Victory right / Octavian, as Neptune, standing left, foot set on globe, holding aplustre and sceptre; CAESAR DIVI•F across fields. RIC 256; CRI 409; RSC 60; BMCRE 615 = BMCRR Rome 4341; BN 12-17. 3.90g, 21mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Very rare in such high state of preservation.

2,000

716. Octavian AR Denarius. Cyrene, autumn 31 BC. L. Pinarius Scarpus, moneyer. Open right hand; SCARPVS above, IMP below / Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm; CAESARI downwards on right, DIVI•F downwards on left. Crawford 546/7; RIC 534; CRI 414; Sydenham 1283. 3.67g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare with the shortened legends, and known from only one obverse die.

750

According to Crawford, this coin represents the last denarius of the Roman Republic. L. Pinarius Scarpus commanded four legions for Marc Antony in Cyrenaica against Octavian’s African army, which was under the command of Cornelius Gallus. After learning of Antony’s defeat at Actium, Scarpus changed his allegiance to Octavian. This issue was struck shortly after the battle of Actium, the open hand signalizing a gesture of friendship toward Octavian.

717. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 BC. Octavian driving triumphal quadriga right, the car ornamented with figures on its front and side panels, holding reins in left hand and branch in right; IMP•CAESAR in exergue / Victory, draped, standing right on prow, holding palm frond over left shoulder in left hand and wreath in extended right hand. RIC 264; CRI 416; RSC 115; BMCRE 617-9 = BMCRR Rome 4343-5; BN 98-104. 4.00g, 2mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Sound metal, lustrous surfaces.

211

1,000


718. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 BC. Octavian driving triumphal quadriga right, the car ornamented with figures on its front and side panels, holding reins in left hand and branch in right; IMP•CAESAR in exergue / Victory, draped, standing right on prow, holding palm frond over left shoulder in left hand and wreath in extended right hand. RIC 264; CRI 416; RSC 115; BMCRE 617-9 = BMCRR Rome 4343-5; BN 98-104. 3.75g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

719. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Bare head right / Military trophy, its base crossed with rudder and anchor and set on prow right; IMP CAESAR across fields. RIC 265a; BMC 625; BN 58; CRI 419. 3.74g, 22mm, 3h. Good Very Fine.

500

Extremely Rare Head Left Variety

720. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Bare head left / Military trophy, its base crossed with rudder and anchor and set on prow right; IMP CAESAR across fields. RIC 265b; CRI 420; BMCRE 626; RSC 120. 3.82g, 20mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only two examples on CoinArchives.

500

721. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Bare head right / Facade of the Roman Curia with a tetrastyle porch; IMP CAESAR on the architrave; figure seated between animals, vis-à-vis, in pediment; Victory standing facing on globe, holding wreath and vexillum, on apex of roof; statues, each holding a parazonium and sceptre, standing at each end of architrave. RIC 266; CRI 421; BMCRE 631; RSC 122. 3.91g, 20mm, 10h. Near Mint State.

1,000

Begun by Caesar shortly before his assassination in 44 BC, the Curia Julia was officially dedicated by Octavian on 28 August 29 BC.

722. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Bare head right / Facade of the Roman Curia with a tetrastyle porch; IMP CAESAR on the architrave; figure seated between animals, vis-à-vis, in pediment; Victory standing facing on globe, holding wreath and vexillum, on apex of roof; statues, each holding a parazonium and sceptre, standing at each end of architrave. RIC 266; CRI 421; BMCRE 631; RSC 122. 3.98g, 22mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

212

750


723. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Bare head right / IMP•CAESAR on architrave of arch surmounted by facing quadriga bearing Octavian. RIC 267; CRI 422; RSC 123; BMCRE 624 = BMCRR Rome 4348; BN 66. 4.00g, 20mm, 2h. Good Very Fine.

500

A coin struck to commemorate Octavian’s victory at the Battle of Actium over the forces of Marc Antony and Cleopatra, the reverse probably depicts the triumphal arch erected in the Forum in Rome to honour Octavian, circa 29 BC.

724. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Laureate head right / Rostral column ornamented with two anchors and six beaks of galleys, surmounted by a statue of Octavian, naked but for cloak over left shoulder, holding spear in right hand and parazonium in left; IMP CAESAR across fields. RIC 271; CRI 423; RSC 124; BMCRE 633-6 = BMCRR Rome 4349-51; BN 68-71. 3.98g, 20mm, 4h. Fleur De Coin. One of the very finest surviving examples of this sought-after type.

3,000

725. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo Actius right, with features of Octavian / Octavian, veiled and in priestly robes, ploughing right with team of oxen; IMP•CAESAR in exergue. RIC 272; CRI 424; RSC 117; BMCRE 638-40 = BMCRR Rome 4363-5; BN 92-6. 3.58g, 21mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

The obverse of this rare coin borrows from the Greek tradition of moulding the features of a deity to resemble the ruler, as was the case on the coinage of Alexander and his father Philip. The reverse depicts Octavian as city founder of Nicopolis in Epeiros, established in 31 BC at the site of the battle of Actium in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra. The sacred boundary was marked by a pomerium or sacred furrow. On the spot where Octavian’s own tent had been pitched he built a monument adorned with the beaks of the captured galleys, as seen in the preceeding lot; and in further celebration of his victory he instituted the so-called Actian games in honour of Apollo Actius, who had an ancient temple on the promontory there.

726. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Laureate bust of Octavian, as Jupiter Terminus, right; thunderbolt behind / Octavian, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding Victory in right hand, left hand on lap; IMP CAESAR across fields. RIC 270; CRI 427; RSC 116; BMCRE 637 = BMCRR Rome 4362; BN 43-47. 3.69g, 20mm, 3h. Near Mint State. Sound, lustrous metal. Better than all examples present on CoinArchives, and certainly one of the very finest known examples of this beautiful type, which is virtually impossible to find in high state of preservation.

2,000

727. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Youthful head of Mars right, with slight beard, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; IMP below / CAESAR around upper rim of circular shield, the central boss ornamented with a star, lying on top of a sword and spear in saltire. RIC 274; CRI 428; RSC 44; BMCRE 644-5 = BMCRR Rome 4368-9; BN 87-90. 3.72g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

213

1,000


214


AEGVPTO CAPTA

728.

Octavian AR Denarius. Uncertain Eastern mint, 28 BC. CAESAR•DIVI•F COS•VI, bare head right; small Capricorn right below neck truncation / Nile crocodile standing right with jaws closed; AEGVPTO above, CAPTA below. RIC 545; CRI 432; RSC 4; BMCRE 653 = BMCRR East 246; BN 928-30. 3.86g, 21mm, 2h. Near Mint State. A marvellous example of the type. Very Rare.

25,000

Bearing the Nile crocodile as the sole element of the reverse design, and with the simple legend conveying a succinct message, this coin proudly announces Octavian’s annexation of Egypt to the Empire. After the Battle of Actium Octavian invaded Egypt in August 30 BC and, with the conquest that followed, at once assured his supremacy by the death of Marc Antony and Cleopatra, and guaranteed his power through the great wealth of Egypt and the grain supply that could be harnessed for Rome. The Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, the last of the great Hellenistic kingdoms, had been reduced to the status of a Roman province. However, this coin is more than just a propagandistic type proclaiming the achievements of Rome’s de-facto ruler to the masses, as the subtle imagery makes an important statement about Octavian himself. In contrast to the issues of this type minted in Italy, which bear a lituus on the obverse in reference to Octavian’s membership of the priestly College of Augurs, those struck in the East bear the Zodiac sign of the Capricorn under the bust truncation. Appropriately for this reverse type, in ancient mythology the origins of the Capricorn could be found in Egypt. Represented as a goat with a fish tail, it is often thought to be a representation of Pan escaping an attack by the monster Typhon for, having jumped into the Nile, the half of Pan’s body which was submerged was transformed into a fish. The significance of the constellation Capricorn to Augustus is subject to debate, with some ancient sources reporting that it was his birth sign and others relating that he was conceived under the sign - the latter tying in with his official birthday on 23rd-24th September. Although we now view conception and birth as two separate events, the Romans viewed conception through to birth as a continuous process, which perhaps explains this anomaly. Under the tropical Zodiac, the sun transits Capricorn from late December to late January, marking midwinter and the shortest day of the year. For this reason, it was often considered a hostile sign and indeed it was in January 43 BC that the Senate had granted Octavian Imperium, which many would have seen as a bad omen. However, Octavian clearly chose to interpret his Zodiac sign positively as the Capricorn remains a prominent feature on the coinage even after he has been honoured with the title ‘Augustus’, an event which fittingly occurred on 16 January 27 BC.

215


729. Octavian AR Denarius. Uncertain Eastern mint, 28 BC. CAESAR•DIVI•F COS•VI, bare head right; small Capricorn right below neck truncation / Nile crocodile standing right with jaws closed; AEGVPTO above, CAPTA below. RIC 545; CRI 432; RSC 4; BMCRE 653 = BMCRR East 246; BN 928-30. 3.81g, 19mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Wonderful, lustrous metal.

5,000

730. Octavian AR Denarius. Uncertain Eastern mint, 28 BC. CAESAR•DIVI•F COS•VI, bare head right; small Capricorn right below neck truncation / Nile crocodile standing right with jaws closed; AEGVPTO above, CAPTA below. RIC 545; CRI 432; RSC 4; BMCRE 653 = BMCRR East 246; BN 928-30. 3.91g, 19mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; area of flat strike on rev.

1,000

731. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), 28 BC. Bare head right; lituus to left; CAESAR COS•VI around / Crocodile, with mouth open, standing to right on ground line; AEGVPTO above, CAPTA in below. RIC 275a; CRI 430; RSC 2; BMCRE 650 = BMCRR East 243; BN 905. 3.51g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone. A wonderful example of this rare type. Privately purchased from Numismatica Fiorentina.

12,500

732. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), 28 BC. Bare head right; lituus to left; CAESAR COS•VI around / Crocodile, with mouth open, standing to right on ground line; AEGVPTO above, CAPTA in below. RIC 275a; CRI 430; RSC 2; BMCRE 650 = BMCRR East 243; BN 905. 3.67g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

216

3,000


ROMAN IMPERIAL COINS One of the Finest Known

733. Augustus AR Denarius. Emerita, circa 25-23 BC. P. Carisius, legate. IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / P CARISIVS LEG PRO PR, trophy of Celtiberian arms, consisting of helmet, cuirass, shield, and javelins, erected on heap of round shields, lances, and other arms. RIC 5 var. (obv. leg.); RSC 403; BMC -; BN 1055; C 403. 3.86g, 19mm, 4h. Fleur De Coin; light golden tone. Rare; in outstanding condition for the type, and one of the finest known examples of the type, easily surpassing the few recorded on CoinArchives. 3,000

734. Augustus AR Denarius. Emerita, circa 25-23 BC. P. Carisius, legate. IMP CAESAR AVGVST, bare head left / P CARISIVS LEG PRO PR, bird’seye view of town, with gateway, in which are two doors and on which are three battlements in front and walls around and behind; EMERITA inscribed above doors. RIC 9b; RSC 398; BMCRE 291 = BMCRR Spain 128; BN 1039-43. 3.93g, 21mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Very Rare variety with left facing bust.

1,250

735. Augustus AR Denarius. Emerita, circa 25-23 BC. P. Carisius, legate. IMP CAESAR AVGVST, bare head left / P CARISIVS LEG PRO PR, bird’seye view of town, with gateway, in which are two doors and on which are three battlements in front and walls around and behind; EMERITA inscribed above doors. RIC 9b; RSC 398; BMCRE 291 = BMCRR Spain 128; BN 1039-43. 3.67g, 19mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare variety with left facing bust.

1,250

736. Augustus AR Denarius. North Peloponnesian mint, circa 21 BC. AVGVSTVS, bare head right / IOVI OLVM, Hexastyle temple of Zeus at Olympia, seen from front, round shield in pediment and palmettes on roof. RIC 472; BMC 665; BN 939; C. 182. 3.80g, 20mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 1827.

217

1,750


737. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / OB CIVIS SERVATOS in three lines within oak wreath. RIC 77a; BMC 378; RSC 208. 3.90g, 19mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin.

2,000

738. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / OB CIVIS SERVATOS in three lines within oak wreath. RIC 77a; BMC 378; RSC 208. 3.95g, 20mm, 7h. Mint State; highly lustrous and lightly toned.

1,250

739. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head left / SIGNIS RECEPTIS, Mars standing left, three-quarters facing, head turned slightly right, holding legionary aquila and standard. RIC 81; C. 262; BMC 412; BN 1115. 3.98g, 19mm, 7h. Mint State. Highly lustrous metal.

2,000

740. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Round shield inscribed CL•V; aquila and signum flanking, SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS below, S P Q R around. RIC 86a; RSC 265; BMC 418. 4.06g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; beautiful, lustrous metal.

1,000

741. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAES[AR AVGV]STVS, bare head right / Round shield inscribed CL•V; aquila and signum flanking, SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS below, S P Q R around. RIC 86a; RSC 265; BMC 418. 3.86g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State; minor areas of flatness. Highly lustrous.

218

750


742. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), circa 19-18 BC. Head right, wearing oak wreath / CAESAR AVGVSTVS, shield inscribed CL•V; S P Q R around, laurel branches flanking. RIC 36a; ACIP 4037; RSC 51. 3.46g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous metal. Rare.

2,000

Ex Editions V. Gadoury, 1 December 2012, lot 38.

Very Rare Variety

743. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), circa 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, head right, wearing oak wreath / DIVVS IVLIVS above and below comet of eight rays with tail upward. RIC 38a; RSC 100; BMCRE p. 59, note; BN 1305. 3.77g, 21mm, 4h. Near Mint State. Very Rare; only one other example on CoinArchives.

2,500

744. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19/18 BC. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. TVRPILIANVS III•VIR, head of Liber right, wearing ivy-wreath / CAESAR AVGVSTVS•SIGN•RECE•, bare-headed Parthian kneeling right, extending in right hand a standard, to which is attached a vexillum marked X, and holding out left hand. RIC 287; RSC 485. 3.79g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

2,000

The disastrous Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, in which 30,000 Roman soldiers from the army commanded by Crassus were slain by the Parthians, had been a crushing defeat. The reverse type of this coin and the following were struck as part of a proclamation by Augustus of the diplomatic coup he had achieved in 20 BC with the return of the legionary battle standards captured by the Parthians, and he emphasised the importance of this diplomatic coup in art such as the breastplate design on the statue of Augustus at the Prima Porta, and in monuments such as the Temple of Mars Ultor (‘Mars the Avenger’) built to house the returned standards.

745. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19/18 BC. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. TVRPILIANVS III VIR FERON, draped bust of Feronia right, wearing stephane and pearl necklace / CAESAR AVGVSTVS•SIGN•RECE•, bare-headed Parthian kneeling right, extending in right hand a standard, to which is attached a vexillum marked X, and holding out left hand. RIC 288; RSC 484; BMC 14; BN 127-37. 3.73g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Fine light golden tone. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 72, 16-17 May 2013, lot 1387.

219

750


746

747

746. Augustus AR Denarius. Q. Rustius, moneyer. Rome, circa 19/18 BC. Q•RVSTIVS•FORTVNAE, jugate busts of Fortuna Victrix wearing round helmet and Fortuna Felix, diademed; ANTIAT in exergue / CAESARI•AVGVSTO, ornamented rectangular altar inscribed FOR•RE; EX•SC in exergue. RIC 322; RSC 513. 3.79g, 19mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare. 500 747. Augustus AR Denarius. Q. Rustius, moneyer. Rome, circa 19/18 BC. Q•RVSTIVS•FORTVNAE, jugate busts of Fortuna Victrix wearing round helmet and Fortuna Felix, diademed; ANTIAT in exergue / CAESARI•AVGVSTO, ornamented rectangular altar inscribed FOR•RE; EX•SC in exergue. RIC 322; RSC 513. 4.00g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; bankers’ marks. Rare. 300

748. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 18 BC. CAESARI AVGVSTO, laureate head right / The Temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, hexastyle temple with acroteria set on podium of three steps, an aquila between two signa within; MAR-VLT across fields. RIC 105a; RSC 190; BMCRE 373-4 = BMCRR Rome 4419-20; BN 1202-4. 3.71g, 20mm, 7h. Mint State. Lustrous metal.

2,000

749. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-17/16 BC. Bare head right / Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder, cornucopiae over its shoulder; AVGVSTVS below. RIC 126; RSC 21; BMC 346; C. 21; BN 1273. 3.86g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State. Lustrous metal; excellent quality for the type.

2,500

750. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-17/16 BC. Bare head right / Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder, cornucopiae over its shoulder; AVGVSTVS below. RIC 126; RSC 21; BMC 346; C. 21; BN 1273. 3.77g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Lightly toned, lustrous, with light golden tone.

2,000

751. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-17/16 BC. Bare head left / Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder, cornucopiae over its shoulder; AVGVSTVS below. RIC 130; RSC 22; BMC 307 (Emerita); C. 22; BN 1354. 3.88g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State and lustrous. Very Rare, and one of the finest specimens known.

220

2,500


Exceptional Example of a Very Rare Type

752. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-17/16 BC. S•P•Q•R•IMP•CAESARI•AVG•COS•XI•TR•POT•VI, bare head right / CIVIB•ET•SIGN•MILITA•PART•RECVPE, facing quadriga on central part of triumphal arch, figures on left and right holding standard, aquila and bow. BMC 428; RIC 134a var. (RECVPER); C. 84 var. (same); CBN 1232 var. (same). 3.81g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous metal. Very Rare, and one of the finest known examples of the type, certainly the best offered at auction in many years.

3,000

One of the Rarest of Augustus’ Denarii

2x

2x

753. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-17/16 BC. S•P•Q•R• IMP CAESARI, bare head left / QVOD• VIAE• MVN• SVNT• in four lines between two equestrian statues, holding aloft trophies, which face each other from arches on a viaduct. RIC 142; BMC 435; BN 1263 (plated). 3.78g, 19mm, 4h. Fleur De Coin. Exceedingly Rare, missing from virtually all major collections.

10,000

This issue is among the very rarest of Augustus’ denarii - only two other examples, both in very modest condition, have come to the market in recent years.

754. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 167a; Lyon 19; RSC 137; BN 1381; C. 137. 3.75g, 19mm, 4h. Fleur De Coin.

3,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 224, 13 October 2014, lot 437.

755. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 167a; Lyon 19; RSC 137; BN 1381; C. 137. 3.85g, 19mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin. Perfectly centred with mirror-like lustre.

221

3,000


756. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / IMP X flanking Apollo Citharoedus of Actium, standing left, holding plectrum and lyre; ACT• in exergue. RIC 171a; Lyon 28; RSC 144; BMCRE 461-2 var. = BMCRR Gaul 175-6 var. (no pellet after ACT); BN 1399-401. 3.81g, 19mm, 8h. Fleur De Coin. Easily the finest example present on CoinArchives.

2,000

Apollo Actius is honoured by Augustus in this reverse type for his victory at the Battle of Actium, where an ancient temple dedicated to Apollo overlooked the sea. Augustus also had the temple enlarged and renovated as an expression of his gratitude, and he similarly dedicated the Actian Games in further celebration.

Unrecorded Variant

757. Augustus Æ Quadrans. Rome, 5 BC. Apronius, Galus, Messala, Sisenna, moneyers. SISENNA APRONIVS A A A F F around large S•C / GALVS MESSALLA III VIR around garlanded altar. RIC -, cf. 450 (transposition of obverse and reverse legends). 3.26g, 17mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. An apparently new variety.

100

758. Divus Augustus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 34-35. DIVO•AVGVSTO•S•P•Q•R, shield within wreath inscribed OB CIVES SER supported by two capricorns; globe beneath / TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXVI around large S•C. C. 302; BMC (Tiberius) 103; RIC (Tiberius) 54. BN -. 28.72g, 35mm, 1h. Very Fine. Beautiful Tiber tone. Rare.

2,500

Privately purchased from Roma Numismatics Ltd.; Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. 400, 22 April 2010, lot 299.

759. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right on throne with plain legs, holding branch and sceptre; double exergual line. RIC 25; BMC 30; Calicó 305d. 7.87g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Pleasing style, lustre around the devices. From the B.R.H. Collection.

222

5,000


760. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on chair with ornamented legs above a single exergual line, holding long vertical sceptre in right hand and branch in left. RIC 29; C.15; Calicó 305b; BMC 46; BN 26. 7.82g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful, refined style.

7,500

761. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 36-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on chair with ornamented legs above a single exergual line, holding long vertical sceptre in right hand and branch in left. RIC 30; RSC 16a; BMC 48. 3.89g, 18mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful golden tone, sound metal.

750

762. Tiberius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 35-36. The Temple of Concordia: Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and sceptre, above altar within hexastyle façade set on podium; entrance flanked by statues of Hercules and Mercury; pediment decorated with statues of Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and Victories in acroteria; wings of transverse cella with windows behind; pediments decorated with statues / TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXVII around large S•C. RIC 61; C. 69; BMC 116; BN 100. 27.15g, 34mm, 5h. Very Fine.

500

The Temple of Concordia stood at the northern end of the Roman Forum, and was restored by the future Emperor Tiberius in AD 10, as described in Pliny’s ‘Natural History’.

Beautiful Sestertius of Caligula

763. Caligula Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate head left / S•P•Q•R P•P OB•CIVES SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath. RIC 37; BN 50; C. 24. BMC 38. 28.67g, 35mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful, untouched surfaces. Very rare thus.

223

7,500


764. Caligula Æ Quadrans. Rome, AD 40-41. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, pileus; S-C across fields / PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT around RCC. RIC 52; BMCRE 64. 2.69g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

765. Claudius Æ Quadrans. Rome, AD 41. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG, three-legged modius / PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT, around large S•C. RIC 84; BMCRE 179. 4.04g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

150

Fine Style Claudius Sestertius

766. Claudius Æ Sestertius. Rome, circa AD 41/42. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head right / EX SC OB CIVES SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath. Von Kaenel type 54; C. 39; BMC 115; RIC 96; CBN 152. 29.60g, 35mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. A magnificent portrait of Claudius in the finest style.

15,000

From the James Howard Collection. Struck for his accession, the reverse of this stunning sestertius bears a simple yet pleasing type that highlights Claudius’ familial ties to Augustus while at the same time bestowing upon him the honour of the corona civica, the award traditionally given to those who had saved the life of a citizen. A prerogative that was passed to each new emperor ‘by decree of the Senate’ (EX S C), the corona civica had originally been granted to Augustus for ending the strife of the civil wars and thus ‘saving’ the citizens of Rome.

224


767. Claudius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 41-42. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head right / SPES AVGVSTA, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt; SC in exergue. BMC 124; C. 85; RIC 99. 25.98g, 35mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; well struck and engraved in fine style.

1,500

Wonderfully Detailed Denarius

768. Claudius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 46-47. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P VI IMP XI, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis, winged and draped, advancing right, with right hand holding out fold of drapery below chin, with left hand holding winged caduceus, pointing down at snake, gliding right. RIC 39; von Kaenel Type 24; RSC 58; BMCRE 40-1; BN 51. 3.65g, 19mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Uncommonly well preserved reverse details.

2,000

769. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 59-60. NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, youthful bare head right / PONTIF MAX TR P VI COS IIII P P around oak wreath enclosing EX S C. RIC 19; BMC 21; Calicó 426. 7.75g, 19mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Minor scrape to obv. Rare.

4,000

On his accession at the death of Claudius in AD 54, the seventeen year old Nero became the youngest Emperor to have worn the laurel wreath. Heavily influenced during his first year on the throne by his mother Agrippina, he gradually resisted her interventions in favor of the advice given by his tutor Seneca and the Praetorian Prefect Burrus, eventually having her murdered in 59. When this aureus was struck in 60 Nero was fully under the power of Seneca and Burrus, a fact which RIC suggests is evidenced on the coinage by the single type employed to strike gold and silver alike. Coins from this issue such as the present piece featured simply Nero’s name and titles, with the corona civica and formula EX S C (by decree of the Senate), and continued to link the Emperor back through the Julio-Claudian line to Augustus. Issues of gold and silver in the name of Nero from before 64 are generally rare, and this is thought to be due to the recall and melting of as much as possible of this early coinage. The melted coins were replaced by new types on reduced weight standards, a policy enacted in order to defray the huge costs required by the rebuilding of Rome, which included the construction of Nero’s infamous Domus Aurea.

225


226


Stunning Aureus of Nero

770.

Nero AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 63. NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, youthful bare head right / PONTIF MAX TR P X COS IIII P P, Roma standing left, holding spear and balancing parazonium on knee while she places foot on head of defeated enemy, around which pile of shields; EX-SC across fields. RIC 40; C. 232; BMC 45; Calicó 437. 7.70g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Rare, and in exceptional state of conservation.

30,000

This issue is interesting in that it demonstrates noble intentions on the part of the young Nero. The presence of EX SC (by decree of the Senate) on this and other early coins of his reign was a result of a deliberate change in imperial policy. Although under Augustus the bronze coinage bore the mark SC as a recognition of the Senate’s historical role in coinage and as proof of his desire to work together with the Senate for the good of Rome, the production of gold and silver coinage remained the prerogative of the Princeps. Nero decided that the Senate should be granted a say in the coining of gold and silver, and as a result the formula SC appears on his coins until AD 64 when this Senatorial privilege was revoked. The exclusion of the Senate from responsibility for the gold and silver coinage may have been a political expedient required in the aftermath of the Great Fire of Rome which began on 18 July and burned for five days, destroying three of fourteen districts and severely damaging seven more. According to Tacitus, Nero’s response was commendable. Upon hearing news of the fire, Nero returned to Rome from Antium to organize a relief effort, which he paid for from his own funds, and personally took part in the search for and rescue of victims of the blaze, spending days searching the debris without even his bodyguards. He opened his palaces to provide shelter for the homeless, and arranged for food supplies to be delivered in order to prevent starvation among the survivors. In the wake of the fire, Nero began a massive reconstruction effort utilising a new urban plan; houses after the fire were spaced out, built in brick, and faced by porticos on wide roads. The cost to rebuild the city was immense, requiring funds the state treasury did not have. Nero therefore devalued the Roman currency for the first time in the Empire’s history, reducing the weight of the denarius from 84 per Roman pound to 96. He also reduced the silver purity from 99.5% to 93.5%. Furthermore, the weight of the aureus was reduced from 40 per Roman pound to 45.

227


228


771. Nero Æ Quadrans. Rome, circa AD 64. NERO CLAV CAE AVG GER, crested helmet right on column, round shield decorated with Gorgoneion to right, transverse spear behind / P M TR P IMP P P, laurel branch. RIC 255; BMCRE 294. 2.14g, 16mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

772. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 64-65. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTA, Concordia seated left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left. C. 66; BMC 31; RIC 48; BN 207; Calicó 405. 7.36g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine - Extremely Fine.

3,000

773. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 64-65. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTA, Concordia seated left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left. C. 66; BMC 31; RIC 48; BN 207; Calicó 405. 7.29g, 18mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare in this quality.

3,000

A Magnificent Denarius of Nero

774. Nero AR Denarius. Rome, AD 65-66. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / SALVS, Salus seated left on throne, holding patera in right hand, left resting at her side. RIC 60; C. 314; BMC 90. 3.52g, 18mm, 5h. Near Mint State. A superlative example of the type - the finest specimen represented on CoinArchives.

3,000

775. Nero Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 65. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right / Roma, helmeted and in military dress, seated left on cuirass, holding Victory in right hand, left resting on parazonium, and various shields around and behind; S-C across fields, ROMA in exergue. RIC 273 var. (no aegis); BMC 173. 26.16g, 34mm, 6h. About Good Very Fine.

229

1,000


776. Nero Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 65. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right; globe at point of bust / ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES, Ceres, veiled and draped, seated left, holding corn-ears and torch, her feet on stool, facing Annona standing right, one hand resting on hip and other holding cornucopiae; modius on garlanded altar between them, ship’s stern behind, SC in exergue. RIC 430; C. 14; CBN 70; BMC -. 27.77g, 33mm, 7h. Olive-green patina, Near Extremely Fine.

1,500

Ex Paulo Morais Leitao Collection.

777. Nero Æ Dupondius. Lugdunum (Lyon), AD 67. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head right; globe at point of bust / SECVRITAS AVGVSTI, Securitas seated right, resting right elbow on back of chair and hand on head, left holding sceptre; garlanded and lighted altar before, against which leans lighted torch, SC in exergue. RIC 596; Lyon 210; WCN 531. 13.29g, 28mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. A splendid portrait of Nero and a wonderfully detailed reverse scene, with a beautiful olive-green patina.

3,000

The Revolt of Vindex

778. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. SALVS GENERIS HVMANI, Victory standing to left on globe, holding palm branch and wreath / SPQR within corona civica with circular jewel in bezel at apex. Nicolas 77; RIC 72; BMC 34. 2.99g, 19mm, 7h. Good Fine.

300

Unusual and distinctive due to the lack of a portrait or the titles of a living emperor, this Civil War issue of Vindex defines his revolt clearly; while the obverse proclaims that the uprising is to be the salvation of the people, the reverse hints that Rome will be set free and the days of Augustus restored to the city. Although Vindex was defeated, he served to swell popularity for Galba and, sensing this, Nero fled Rome. Shortly after, the Senate decided to oust Nero by declaring him a public enemy, thus spurring his suicide. Consequently, between June 68 AD and December 69 AD, Rome witnessed a period of anarchy and a series of quick successions. Four Emperors ruled in this period: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian, with the latter securing the imperial throne and founding the Flavian dynasty.

Second Known Example

779. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head of the deified Augustus to left / Victory standing to left, holding shield inscribed CL•V. Martin -, cf. 25 (same obverse die); RIC -, cf. 110; BMC -, cf. 57; Nicolas pl. XXII, A26BR. 3.17g, 17mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare – the second known example. From the Durand Collection.

230

3,000


Restoring Augustan Ideology

780. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. AVG DIVI•F, laureate head of the deified Augustus to right / S•P•Q•R within oak wreath, circular jewel in bezel at apex. Martin -; Nicolas -; BMC -; C. -; RIC -, cf. 104. 3.50g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

4,000

From the Durand Collection. Kraay noted the unusual presence of SPQR within a wreath on these coins of Vindex. He states: “it will have been noticed that the earlier formula of SPQR has replaced the Neronian EX SC. In strict Augustan usage SPQR never accompanied the corona, but always the clipeus virtutis of the inscription on which it formed the opening words. However, the choice of SPQR was probably deliberate and represented something more than the mere blurring of Augustan distinction. That broad basis of public and Senatorial support which the principate had had in the days of Augustus was to be restored to it.”

781. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. AVG DIVI•F, laureate head of the deified Augustus to right / S•P•Q•R within oak wreath, circular jewel in bezel at apex. Martin -; Nicolas -; BMC -; C. -; RIC -, cf. 104. 3.29g, 16mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Unpublished in the standard references and of the highest rarity.

2,000

The Peace of Augustus

782. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. DIVVS AVG P P, laureate head of the deified Augustus to right / PAX, clasped hands holding winged caduceus. Martin A23; C. 200 and 336 (Augustus); BMC 304; RIC 113. 3.66g, 18mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare – one of only five known examples.

5,000

Ex Durand Collection, Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1015. Often seen as a reaction to Nero’s tax policy and a campaign for Gallic independence, the numismatic evidence of the revolt suggests the contrary and demonstrates that rather than having an anti-Roman agenda, Vindex was specifically anti-Neronian and anti-tyrannical. His coinage employs consistently Augustan propaganda, the example seen on this reverse type recalling the great Pax inaugurated by Augustus following his defeat of Marc Antony.

783. Galba AV Aureus. Rome, July AD 68 - January 69. IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, laureate head right / DIVA AVGVSTA, Livia, draped, standing left, holding patera and leaning on long sceptre. C. 54; BMC 4; RIC 184; Calicó 473. 7.29g, 19mm, 5h. Good Fine.

231

3,000


784. Galba AR Denarius. Rome, July 68 - January 69. IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, laureate and draped bust right / VICTORIA P R, Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm. BMC 49; CBN 97; C. 328; RIC 217. 3.26g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,500

Ex Gorny & Mosch 146, 6 March 2006, lot 414.

785. Galba Æ As. Restitution under Titus. Rome, AD 80-81. SER GALBA IMP CAES AVG TR P, laureate bust right / IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST around large SC. RIC 444; C 351. 10.45g, 28mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

Bold Portrait of Otho

786. Otho AR Denarius. Rome, 15 January - 8 March AD 69. IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right / SECVRITAS P R, Securitas, draped, standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand, cradling sceptre in left arm. RIC 10; RSC 15; BMCRE 19; BN 11-13. 3.20g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; a bold portrait with clearly visible legend. Hairline flan crack . Very Rare. Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 530; Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1500.

787

788

787. Otho AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right / VICTORIA OTHONIS, Victory, draped, flying right, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left. RIC 14; BMC 22. 3.44g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

500

788. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and long staff. RIC 105; RSC 47. 2.98g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. 500 Privately purchased from Pars Coins.

232


789. Vitellius AR Denarius. Tarraco, AD 69. A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate head right; [globe at point of bust] / FIDES EXERCITVM, clasped hands. RIC 27; C. 21; BMC 87; BN 9. 3.49g, 18mm, 11h. Very Fine. 300

790. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 69-70. IMP CAES VESPAS AVG, laureate head right / LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus and Domitian, both veiled and togate, standing facing, each holding a patera; Φ in exergue. RIC 1404; BMC 430; RSC 248a; CBN 334; RPC 811. 3.23g, 17mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

400

791. Vespasian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right / IVDAEA CAPTA, palm tree, with captive standing right on left and Judaea seated right on cuirass to right; various shields around and behind, SC in exergue. RIC 159; C. 234; BMC 533. 27.27g, 33mm, 6h. Very Fine. Cleaned and repatinated.

2,000

Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 177, 20 August 2013, lot 11144.

792. Vespasian Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right / Roma seated left on shield and cuirass, holding wreath and parazonium; S-C across fields, ROMA in exergue. RIC 279; C. 411. 13.32g, 28mm, 7h. Very Fine. An expressive portrait.

500

793. Vespasian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right / IVDAEA CAPTA, palm tree, with Vespasian standing right on left, holding a spear and parazonium and with his left foot resting on a helmet, and Judaea on right, seated to right; SC in exergue. RIC 733. 23.98g, 34mm, 5h. Fine.

233

300


794. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres seated left, on ornate backed chair, with corn-ears and poppy in left hand, cornucopiae in right; EPHE (ligate) in exergue. RIC 1428; RPC 830. 3.16g, 17mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

795. Vespasian ร† Quadrans. Rome, AD 75. IMP VESPASIAN AVG, rudder on globe / P M TR P P P COS V, winged caduceus; S-C across fields. C. 346; RIC 736; BMCRE 706. 3.60g, 15mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

150

796. Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 75. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, resting left elbow on throne and holding branch. RIC 772; RSC 366. 3.31g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Very well detailed reverse.

300

797. Vespasian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 76. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / Bull standing right; COS VII above. RIC 840; BN -; BMC 176; Calicรณ 622. 7.27g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; area of smoothing on rev.

4,000

798. Titus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 74. T CAESAR IMP VESPASIAN, laureate head right / PONTIF TR P COS III, Titus seated right on curule chair, holding sceptre and branch. RIC 705 (Vespasian); RSC 161. 3.29g, 19mm, 7h. About Extremely Fine; old cleaning marks under tone. Very Rare.

234

300


The Rebirth of Rome

799.

Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 77-78. T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, laureate bust right / Roma, helmeted, seated right on two shields, left foot on helmet, holding spear before her; wolf standing right at her feet, head turned back, suckling Romulus and Remus, in left and right fields, two eagles flying towards her; COS VI in exergue. RIC 954; BMC 223; CalicĎŒ 738a. 7.21g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

20,000

The Flavians came to power after a year of civil war, vicious intrigue and three short-lived reigns which all ended in bloodshed. Vespasian and his son Titus thus sought to restore the security of the empire, and more importantly the confidence of the people in the office of emperor, by establishing a clear and peaceful succession through a strong father and son line, both of whom had proven themselves capable generals and administrators, that would renew belief in the eternity of Rome. The revival of earlier reverse types was to be a feature of the coinage struck by the Flavian dynasty and Titus, along with his father Vespasian and brother Domitian, struck a series of coins which recalled types of the Republican and Augustan periods. Part of these issues, the present piece is particularly significant as it bears an unusual variant of the Roman foundation myth; the goddess Roma watching over the she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, waiting patiently for the day that Rome will be built. Repeating a type seen on an anonymous Republican denarius of 115114 BC (Crawford 287/1, see lot 554), this was the first such representation on an Imperial coin and is clearly used to symbolise the rebirth of Rome under the Flavians.

235


Well Detailed

800. Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 77-78. T CAESAR VESPASIANVS, laureate head right / ANNONA AVG, Annona seated to left on throne, holding cloth in lap with both hands, on which three grain ears. RIC 971; BMC 316; Calicó 726. 7.21g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Boldly struck on a broad flan.

17,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 898. The reverse of this detailed aureus depicts the emperor’s power to care for his people through the provision of grain, personified in the form of the goddess Annona. A type utilised by both Titus, his father Vespasian and his brother Domitian, it formed part of the propaganda campaign deployed by the nascent Flavian dynasty to restore confidence in the government of the Empire, specifically in relation to the continued grain supply required to feed the people of Rome. Indeed, early in his reign and before he had ever set foot in the city as emperor, Vespasian was required to quell protests and unrest in Alexandria brought about by the imposition of new taxation policies that had disrupted the regular grain shipments from Egypt. However as emperor, Titus’ reign was marred by catastrophic events beginning just two months after his accession the effects of which were far outside the scope of the Virtues which he claimed within his power. On the 24th August AD 79, Mount Vesuvius erupted over the Bay of Naples burying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum in stone, lava and ash and killing thousands. A year later and whilst Titus was coordinating the relief effort and on his second visit to the southern coast of Italy, a fire broke out in Rome which burned for three days and nights which destroyed many important public buildings and areas of housing; in the poor living conditions of those whose houses had burned, disease broke out and brought further suffering and death to Rome. Titus himself died in 81, having only been emperor for a little over two years.

801. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 77-78. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right / Soldier on horse, riding right, raising right hand; COS V below. RIC 57 (Vespasian); RSC 49a. 3.54g, 19mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

300

802. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 77-78. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right / She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; COS V above, boat in exergue. RIC 961; BMC 240; BN 209. 3.39g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; minor metal flaws on obv.

350

803. Domitian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 85. IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI, laureate head right, aegis on far shoulder / Emperor standing left, holding spear; German captive kneeling right before, presenting shield set amongst various arms; S-C across fields, broken spear in exergue. BMC 299; RIC 279; C. 488; BN 320. 29.85g, 36mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Earthen encrustations.

236

1,000


Extremely Rare Aureus of Domitian

804. Domitian AV Aureus. Rome, 1 January - 13 September AD 88. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VII, laureate head right / IMP XIIII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Germania, bare-chested but wearing drapery from the waist, seated to right in attitude of mourning upon Germanic hexagonal shield, a broken spear below her. RIC 586; BMC 125; Calicó 893. 6.64g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Attractive lustre. Extremely Rare; Calicó displays only a line drawing of the type.

5,000

This aureus belongs to an issue which was first struck in commemoration of Domitian’s campaigns against the Chatti in Germany in AD 83, for which he celebrated a triumph and was hailed Germanicus, an honour which he had been craving. The reverse type of Germania that we see here became a standard type on the coinage of Domitian and continued to be used throughout the rest of his reign; it is likely that the Domitian was simply emulating the ‘Judaea Capta’ series of coinage begun by his father Vespasian, and it is hard to ignore the parallel between this display of military success and the celebration of the successful First Jewish War. However, from the very outset it seems that commentators doubted the truth of Domitian’s success against the Chatti and believed that his victory might have been exaggerated. Suetonius notes that before the campaign against the Chatti, the emperor had been dissuaded from “a quite unnecessary expedition into Gaul and Germany”, while Tactius in his ‘Agricola’ states that Domitian “felt conscious that all men laughed at his late mock triumph over Germany”. That the tribe had not been decimated in battle by Domitian is confirmed by their involvement in quelling the Revolt of Saturninus in AD 89, confirming the hints left by the ancient authors that the conquest of Germania was something of a sham.

Extraordinarily Well Preserved Nerva Sestertius

805. Nerva Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, holding pileus in right hand and sceptre in left; S-C across fields. RIC 86; C. 114; BMC 112; BN 100. 26.66g, 33mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. In outstanding state of preservation for the type.

5,000

806. Trajan AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Ephesus(?), AD 98-99. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M TR P P P, laureate head right / Six grain ears upright, tied in a bundle; COS-II across fields. RIC -, cf. 721 for obv., 715 for rev.; RSC -, cf. 52a for obv., 50 for rev. 10.50g, 25mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Attractive cabinet tone with golden highlights. Noteworthy for the portrait, which bears a striking likeness to Domitian. Ex Freeman & Sear, Mail Bid Sale 17, 15 December 2009, lot 266; Ex A. Lynn Collection, Classical Numismatic Group E-Auction, 3 November 2001, lot 62519.

237

750


238


Spectacular Trajan Aureus

807.

Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, circa AD 104/105-107. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan in military dress, on horseback galloping to right, hurling spear at fallen barbarian to right. C. 501 var. (bust not cuirassed); BMC 245 (same); RIC 208 var. (same); CBN 241; Calicó 1107a; Woytek 202 f2. 7.29g, 20mm, 7h. Mint State.

30,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 21, 17 May 2001, lot 433. Trajan had in AD 101-102 launched an offensive against the powerful Dacian king Decebalus with whom Domitian had signed an unfavourable (and some would argue shameful) treaty some twenty years before, the price of which was the payment of an annual ‘subsidy’ of eight million sestertii and the presentation of a diadem from Domitian to Decebalus. In that war, Trajan succeeded in defeating the Dacians in a series of pitched battles, and reduced Decebalus to the status of client king. The victory was celebrated with a triumph (Trajan’s first), and later by the construction of the Tropaeum Traiani. Although this victory had greatly eroded Decebalus’ power, he nonetheless began to rearm straight away, to harbour Roman runaways and to pressure the neighbouring barbarian tribes to ally themselves with him. In 104 he organised a failed attempt on Trajan’s life by means of some Roman deserters, as well as capturing Trajan’s legate Longinus who he tried to use as a bargaining chip; Longinus however took poison to avoid compromising his country and emperor. Then finally in 105 Decebalus launched an invasion of the Roman-held territories north of the Danube. Trajan was not unprepared; by 105 the concentration of Roman troops assembled in the middle and lower Danube regions amounted to fourteen legions – half of the entire Roman army. Trajan ordered the construction of a massive bridge over the Danube designed by Apollodorus of Damascus, which for over 1,000 years was the longest arch bridge ever built both in terms of total and span length. The counter-offensive consisted mostly of the reduction of the Dacian fortress network which the Romans systematically stormed while denying the Dacians the ability to manoeuvre in the open. At last Decebalus’ main stronghold of Sarmizegetusa was taken by storm and razed to the ground. Decebalus himself escaped, but soon after committed suicide as a Roman cavalry scout named Tiberius Claudius Maximus was closing on him. Maximus delivered the head and right hand of the enemy king to his emperor. Trajan’s second triumph was understandably a grand affair, which was accompanied by spectacular games that the emperor held in celebration: ten thousand gladiators fought in these games, and ten thousand animals were sacrificed in thanks to the gods. The riches of Dacia (estimated recently at 165 tons of gold and 331 tons of silver) were invested in a series of important public works, the jewels of which were the forum and great market in Rome which bore the emperor’s name, and the magnificent celebratory column depicting the glorious achievements of the campaign. As reward for his service the cavalry scout Tiberius Claudius Maximus was decorated and immortalised in a relief on Trajan’s column. A grave stele he ordered made for himself while he lived tells us of his deeds and honours, and bears his likeness on horseback, riding down the Dacian king. The relief is nearly identical to the reverse of this coin type.

239


Rare and Excellent Trajan Aureus

808. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, circa AD 107. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI in three lines within oak wreath C. 581; BMC 253; RIC 150; Woytek 224f; Calicó 1121. 7.39g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; lightly toned. Very Rare, and undoubtedly the finest example of this type to have been offered at auction in many years, normally being seen in worn condition and/or with surface flaws.

15,000

Ex Archer M. Huntington Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica 67, 17 October 2012, lot 144; HSA inventory number 22179. A reverse legend that became a standard feature on his coinage, encircled here by the corona civica is the proud declaration made in AD 103 or 104 that the Senate and the Roman People (SPQR) recognised Trajan as the ‘Optimus Princeps’ or Best Emperor, linking him immediately with Jupiter Optimus Maximus, the protector and predominant deity of the Roman state. Likely struck after the Conquest of Dacia and the annexation of Nabataea to the empire, the inclusion of the oak wreath (traditionally awarded to those who had saved the life of a Roman citizen, but which had been a prerogative for every emperor since Augustus) and this legend may be seen as a further honorific gesture. For seven years following the completion of the Dacian campaign Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, and this legend was utilised in many of the coin types that celebrate the public building works that he undertook. He improved the city water supply by building the Aqua Traiana, and embellished the centre of Rome with the Forum and famous column which bear his name, while further afield he had constructed the Via Traiana from Benevetum to Brundisium, and added an additional basin to the facilities available to ships at Porto near Ostia.

809. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 114-115. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, Jupiter standing left, naked except for cloak draped from shoulders, holding sceptre in left hand, and thunderbolt in right, protecting Trajan, togate, standing to lower left, holding laurel branch in right hand. RIC 336 var. (bust not cuirassed); Woytek 512f; Strack 229; Calicó 1065; BMCRE 533; BN 814-6 var. (pellets in rev. legend); Biaggi 515. 7.39g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

240

4,000


Trajan’s Eastern Campaign

810. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 116-117. IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / PARTHICO P M TR P P COS VI P P SPQR, radiate and draped bust of Sol right. RIC 329; Calicó 1038; BMC 621. 7.21g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Attractive lustre around the devices.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 674. In AD 113, Trajan left Rome to embark upon his Parthian campaign. Osroes despatched an embassy from the Parthian court which finally met the emperor in Athens, by which point it was too late for him to turn back, and as R. P. Longden so eloquently writes, ‘their apprehensive humility would have no doubt only sharpened his zest for the enterprise’. (Cf. Longden, R.P., Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan, The Journal of Roman Studies 21, (1931), pp. 1-35). The following year, Trajan invaded Armenia, deposed its king Parthamasiris, and annexed it as a Roman province. In 115, Trajan also annexed Northern Mesopotamia, and later the same year he captured the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. Following the conquest of Ctesiphon, Trajan accepted the title ‘Parthicus’ in 115-116, which features as the reverse legend on the types of this lot; the bust of Sol, who rises in the East, may symbolise Roman dominance over the region. Trajan’s glory was short-lived, however, since in late 116 revolts broke out in Armenia and Northern Mesopotamia, forcing Trajan to abandon his campaign to increase the territory of the Rome and consolidate that which he had already gained. Dio Cassius relates that on looking out towards India, Trajan lamented that his age prevented him from following in the footsteps of Alexander (LXVIII 28.1).

811. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 116-117. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate bust right, wearing aegis / REX PARTHIS DATVS, Trajan seated left on platform, presenting Parthamaspates to Parthia kneeling right; behind Trajan, prefect standing left. RIC 668; BN -; C. 328; BMC 1045. 23.26g, 34mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; reverse smoothed. Very Rare.

241

1,000


Hadrian Invokes Favour from Hercules

812. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS III, Hercules seated facing, on shield and cuirass, holding club and distaff, with lion’s skin below left arm. RIC 55; Calicó 1318; BMC 97. 7.15g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection. Succeeding Trajan as emperor in AD 117 whilst on campaign in the east, Hadrian returned to Rome in 118. However, by 119 he was already planning his next foray abroad, as we see him invoking the favour of the gods on his coinage in advance of the journey. As seen on this reverse type, Hercules the great adventurer and traveller was one of those whose blessing was sought. That Hercules is present on the coinage of Hadrian is only natural after his appearance on types of his adoptive father Trajan, and his presence is further explained by Hadrian’s familial ties with southern Spain (he is thought to have been born in the city of Italica), where the cult of Hercules was prominent. Other reverse types struck under Hadrian explicitly mention the cult of Hercules Gaditanus, who enjoyed the highest honours in southern Spain. The present reverse shows Hercules in the style that many Roman citizens would have been familiar with, seated and resting after his toils in the manner of statues from Kroton and the south. The inclusion of the distaff in this image of Hercules is somewhat unusual. Rather than alluding to his masculinity and strength as shown through the Twelve Labours, it draws attention to the story of the period when Hercules, as penance for the murder of Iphitus, was remanded as a slave to Omphale for a year and was subjected to holding the yarn for her maids as they spun. This Greek myth, which survived through the writings of the early Roman writer Ovid among others, is not one we immediately associate with Hercules today, though it was a more common feature of his cult in antiquity.

To Him Who Enriches the World

813. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG PM TR P COS III, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder / LOCVPLETATORI ORBIS TERRARVM, Trajan seated left on raised platform, extending arm before him, Liberalitas standing left, emptying cornucopiae into folds of togas of two citizens standing on ground before them right; SC in exergue. RIC 585a; BMC 1193; C. 950. 25.48g, 33mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and in exceptionally good condition for the issue.

2,500

Known from ancient sources such as Dio Cassius (LXIX.8.1a) to have made regular and generous largesse to the the people of Rome, Italy and indeed many of the provinces as well, Hadrian is here presented as the ‘Benefactor of the World’ in a reverse legend never used before or seen again on any Roman coinage. Taken with the rare type of the same issue that depicts the similarly unusual scene of a lictor burning the promissory notes relating to tax arrears of nine million sestertii that Hadrian had cancelled, which is accompanied by the legend RELIQVA VETERA HS NOVIES MILL ABOLITA (RIC 590 ff.; BMC 1206 ff.), it would appear that the munificence of Hadrian knew no bounds. Modern historians have, to a certain extent, viewed this behaviour as simply a means to securing his power in the wake of the scandal surrounding the legality of his adoption by Trajan and the execution of four senators suspected of conspiring against him, however the regularity and continued occurrence of liberalities throughout his reign as we find recorded on the coinage perhaps suggest that Hadrian also had a desire to raise the living standards of the citizenry of all classes and distributed the wealth of the state as he saw appropriate.

814. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 119-124/5. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head right / P M TR P COS III, Roma seated left on cuirass with shield at side, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and sceptre in left. RIC 77; RSC 1102; BMC 136. 3.46g, 19mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

242

500


Peace Through Strength

815. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / COS III, Hadrian on horseback galloping right, holding couched lance, cloak billowing out behind. RIC 186; Calicó 1226. 7.34g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Well struck on a broad flan; beautiful lustre.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex H.D. Rauch 86, 12 May 2010, lot 763. Though not a warrior emperor in the same manner as his predecessor Trajan, the iconography of this coin immediately recalls the similar types issued under Trajan, and also the ancient denarii of the Republic which featured the Dioscuri in similar posture with couched lance. Despite the militaristic theme of this coin and others issued during his reign (which are almost as common as coins with peaceful themes), Hadrian’s policy was peace through strength, or threat of strength, with an emphasis on discipline. His skills as a military administrator were well applied during his reign, and aside from the consolidation of the empire’s frontiers, Hadrian also made a great many beneficial reforms to the Roman military system, including the introduction of the first regular unit of auxiliary, mailed cataphract cavalry, the ala I Gallorum et Pannoniorum cataphractata, whose primary armament was a heavy lance far more effective than a regular cavalry spear, capable of puncturing two layers of chain mail.

816. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS III, she-wolf standing right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. RIC 192; Calicó 1231. 7.18g, 18mm, 6h. Fine style portrait, Good Very Fine. Ex Paulo Morais Leitao Collection. This reverse type is probably associated with Hadrian’s decennalia year in 127 and the renewal of the Golden Age.

243

5,000


817

818

817. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / FELICITATI AVGVSTI, galley travelling left, with four oarsmen and hortator at stern. RIC 240e; RSC 712a. 3.04g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone. Rare variety - only two examples on CoinArchives.

300

818. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / TELLVS STABIL, Tellus standing left, holding plough handle and rake; in ground, two corn-ears. RIC 276; RSC 1425a. 3.42g, 17mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 200

819. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right / VENERIS FELICIS, Venus seated to left on ornate throne, holding reversed sceptre in left hand and Cupid in outstretched right hand. RIC 280a; C. 1447; Calicó 1391. 7.26g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; some minor edge bumps and small scrapes. Extremely rare variety of an already very rare type.

7,500

820. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right / BRITANNIA, Britannia seated slightly left, head facing and resting on right arm, with spear lying on left arm and right foot set on rocks; round shield to right; SC in exergue. RIC II 845; BMC 1723 (same obverse die); SCBC 636. 22.03g, 32mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; untouched emerald green patina. Extremely Rare.

5,000

Featured continuously on British coins from 1672-2008, Britannia is the Roman personification of the island province of Britain, and first appeared on coins during the reign of Hadrian as this well preserved example illustrates. Intended to be a visual signifier of the province itself, Britannia is appropriately equipped with a spear and a distinctive shield with a sharp central point, both military attributes referencing Britain’s position at the farthest edge of Roman power. She is also well clothed against the inclement weather of the island in a birrus Britannicus, or hooded cloak. Hadrian’s reign was characterised by his travels abroad as he gave direct instruction for the defence and enhancement of the empire. He is known to have visited Britain in around AD 122, when he ordered that the northern frontier of the empire be protected by a monumental construction known to us as Hadrian’s Wall.

Exceptional Aelius Denarius

821. Aelius, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 137. L AELIVS CAESAR, bare head right / TR POT COS II, Concordia seated left, holding patera in right hand and resting left elbow on cornucopiae behind; CONCORD in exergue. RIC 436; RSC 1. 3.30g, 18mm, 5h. Mint State; an uncommonly beautiful denarius of Aelius, engraved in fine style and perfectly preserved. Privately purchased from Freeman & Sear; Ex Nomos 2, 18 May 2010, lot 189.

244

2,000


822. Antoninus Pius Æ As. Rome, AD 140. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG P P, laureate head right / TR POT COS III, Mars right, holding spear and shield, descending through the air towards Rhea Silvia, reclining left. RIC 694a. 11.47g, 27mm, 12h. Slight chip on reverse, otherwise about Extremely Fine. Rare.

750

Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 1020. Livy, in his ‘Ad Urbe Condita’, gives an account of the myth of Rhea Silvia’s encounter with the god Mars, which led to the birth of Romulus and Remus and the founding of Rome. Although Livy’s account was somewhat euphemistic in its approach to the subject matter, the myth persisted and can be found depicted on various famous artworks from the ancient world, such as the Casali Altar in the Vatican Museums.

823. Antoninus Pius Æ As. Rome, AD 140-144. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / IMPERATOR II, Victory advancing left, holding shield inscribed BRITAN; S-C across lower fields. RIC 732. 11.95g, 27mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

Antoninus Pius received his second imperial acclamation, as recorded in this coin’s reverse legend, for the victory by his governor in Britannia, Q. Lollius Urbicus, over the Brigantes. It was Urbicus who also constructed the Antonine Wall in Scotland between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde, which was to be the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire.

824. Antoninus Pius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 140-144. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / SALVS AVG, Salus standing left, holding sceptre and feeding from patera a serpent rising from altar; S-C across fields. RIC 635; Banti 340. 29.18g, 35mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

1,000

825. Antoninus Pius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 141-143. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / Italia, wearing tutulus, seated left on globe with zones and stars, holding cornucopiae in right hand and cradling sceptre in left arm; S-C across fields, ITALIA in exergue. RIC III 746a; Strack 836δ; Banti 193; BMCRE 1643. 30.45g, 33mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

245

1,500


Extremely Rare Antoninus Pius Gold Quinarius

2x

2x

826. Antoninus Pius AV Quinarius. Rome, AD 150-151. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIIII, bare head right / COS IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding account board and vexillum, LIB-VI across fields. RIC 198a. 3.57g, 15mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

6,000

From the Ambrose Collection. Attested by the Historia Augusta (Life of Antonius Pius, IV, 9) as having been a generous and munificent emperor, Antoninus Pius is known to have given liberalities to coincide with major events in the Roman calendar such as the ninth centenary of the founding of the city of Rome in AD 148149, and his third quinquennalia in 151-152. However the sixth largesse that he gave, which is celebrated in this reverse type, appears not to have been for a specific event save perhaps being given at the same time as a donative to the army; the first appearance of the vexillum as an attribute of Liberalitas in this series might have been intended to signify the coupling of the civilian largesse and army donative into one. It is somewhat ironic to note that Antoninus Pius, while so generous with his largesse to the people and the games and events held to mark the ninth centenary of the city, did in fact devalue the Roman currency concurrently: the silver purity of the denarius was decreased from 89% to 83.5%, the actual silver weight dropping from 2.88 grams to 2.68 grams. Reverse types such as this one, associating the traditional Roman Virtues such as Liberalitas with the emperor, are therefore cast in a different light.

827. Antoninus Pius Æ As. Rome, AD 154-155. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate head right / BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated left on rock, resting her head on her right hand, and resting her left on rock, round shield and vexillum in background; SC in exergue. RIC 934; BMC 1971; SCBC 646. 12.68g, 26mm, 12h. Good Very Fine, some corrosion. Very Rare.

300

It has been suggested that the Britannia asses of Antoninus Pius were struck at a mint in the province as significant quantities have been found on Romano-British sites, such as Coventina’s Well at Carrawburgh Fort on Hadrian’s Wall. However, the enterprise of creating a mint is enormous and out of proportion for such a small issue, the product of quintessentially Roman style die engraving. It is therefore far more likely that this issue was produced in Rome and shipped to Britainnia in bulk for distribution.

828. Divus Antoninus Pius Æ Sestertius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius in Rome, after AD 161. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right, with drapery on far shoulder / CONSECRATIO, funeral pyre of four tiers decorated with garlands, surmounted by facing quadriga; SC in exergue. RIC 1266 (Aurelius); Banti 74. 32.09g, 36mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful dark green patina; struck on a broad, medallic flan.

246

2,500


829. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus in Rome, after AD 161. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing right, head left, upon garlanded altar. RIC 431 (Aurelius); MIR 18, 24-4/10; RSC 155-6. 3.77g, 19mm, 5h. Near Mint State. Well centred and struck on a broad flan.

500

830. Diva Faustina I Æ Sestertius. Struck under Antoninus Pius in Rome, circa AD 146-161. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AVGVSTA, Vesta standing left, holding long torch and palladium with shield. RIC 1125; Banti 40. 25.85g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful surfaces.

1,500

831. Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 163-164. ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right / P M TR P XVIII IMP II COS III, Mars standing right, holding spear and resting left hand on shield. RIC 92; Cohen 469. 3.25g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State.

200

832. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 166-167. M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right / TR POT XXI IMP IIII COS III, Victory in long dress, advancing left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand and palm cradled in her left arm; S-C across fields. RIC 948; Banti -, cf. 438; BMC -, cf. 1318. 24.63g, 29mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely rare variant with this obverse legend.

750

Ex Nomisma 48, 26 October 2013, lot 142.

833. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 166-167. M ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right / TR POT XXI IMP IIII COS III, Victory in long dress, advancing left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand and palm cradled in her left arm; S-C across fields. RIC 948; Banti 438; BMC 1318. 25.15g, 32mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Attractive emerald green patina.

247

1,500


Aurelius as Jupiter

834. Marcus Aurelius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 172. M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IMP VI COS III, Marcus Aurelius in military dress standing to left, holding thunderbolt in his right hand and reversed spear in his left; behind him stands Victory, who crowns him with a wreath held in her right hand, and holds a palm with her left; between them, pellet. Biaggi 856; BMC 566; C. 308; Foss 46; RIC 264; Sear II 4860; Calicó 1873. 7.19g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

6,250

Ex D. J. Foster Collection, Noble Numismatics 109, 28 July 2015, lot 3513; Ex Spink Noble 40, 18-20 November 1992, lot 2613; The image of the emperor on the reverse of this coin is not only unusual, but also historically very interesting. Aurelius has here assumed the symbols of Jupiter, holding a thunderbolt and spear while Victory crowns him with laurels; we should interpret this image as representing the close connection between the supreme god Jupiter and the person of the emperor who was not only the head of state but also the pontifex maximus. Yet the dating of this issue seems to precede two important events that occurred across the Danube in the campaign of 172-4: namely, the ‘lightning miracle’ and the ‘rain miracle’, which two incidents are recorded on the column of Marcus Aurelius in Rome. The Historia Augusta (Marcus 24.2) tells us that in the case of the ‘lightning miracle’ the emperor ‘summoned a thunderbolt from heaven against a siege-engine of the enemy by means of his prayers’ - the column clearly shows a stone enclosure filled with Romans, and outside a siege tower struck by a bolt of lightning that has burst into flames. The second and more important of the two events, the ‘rain miracle’ as related by Cassius Dio, describes how the legio XII Fulminata was surrounded and entangled in a defile, suffering from thirst, and almost forced to surrender. A sudden storm then gave abundance of rain which refreshed the Romans, while hail and thunder confounded their enemies who were struck down by bolts of lightning. Thus the Romans were able to achieve a near bloodless victory. This was considered for a long time afterwards to have been a miracle and nothing less than divine intervention by Jupiter on behalf of the Romans. That the issue pre-dates the rain miracle seems relatively certain, since it is well attested that Aurelius’ seventh acclamation as Imperator occurred in the immediate aftermath of this event. The depiction then of Aurelius on the reverse of this coin, wielding the power of Jupiter, seems curiously prophetic.

835. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 174-175. M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVIII, laureate head right / IMP VI COS III, Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and sceptre; SC in exergue. RIC 1096; C. 250. 26.94g, 31mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

248

1,000


Fleur De Coin

836. Faustina II AV Aureus. Rome, AD 161-176. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / SALVTI AVGVSTAE, Salus seated left, holding patera in outstretched right hand, feeding snake that rises entwined around altar. RIC 716 (Aurelius); C. 198; BMC 153 (Aurelius); Calicó 2075. 7.21g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. A charming, feminine portrait; lustrous metal with a subtle red tone.

15,000

Ex Sincona 4, 25 October 2011, lot 4111; Ex Leu 72, 12 May 1998, lot 455.

Received by the Stars

837. Diva Faustina II Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 175-176. DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, draped bust right / SIDERIBVS RECEPTA, Diva Faustina as Diana, standing right, with crescent at shoulders, holding long torch in both hands; S-C across fields. RIC 1715 (Aurelius); MIR 18, 64-6/10; Banti 120. 21.46g, 30mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful, untouched patina. Scarce.

200

Falling ill whilst accompanying her husband Marcus Aurelius in journeying to the East, the passing of Faustina II was marked on the coinage with a series of ‘Consecration’ issues in the usual types, but also with the unusual legend we see on the present piece. Faustina is depicted here as Diana Lucifera (the “Bringer of Light”) carrying a lit torch, illuminating the scene of her entry into the afterlife. That Faustina would be received into the firmament, and that the people of Rome and the Empire would appreciate the fact, was clearly very important to Marcus Aurelius as this coin proudly proclaims that she had indeed been ‘Received by the Stars’.

249


The Rule of Two

838. Lucius Verus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 161-162. IMP L AVREL VERVS AVG, bare head right, wearing aegis on left shoulder / CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR TR P II, M. Aurelius standing right and holding scroll, clasping hands with L. Verus, standing left; COS II in exergue. RIC 473; Calicó 2123 (these dies); BMC p. 411 note †. 7.24g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Traces of mounting. Highly lustrous.

7,500

Rome was to be ruled by two emperors for the first time upon the accession of both Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus in AD 161, and the first joint rule and political union of the Roman Empire was depicted on the reverses of early gold issues belonging to both emperors; this example is struck in the name of Lucius Verus. The reverse legend CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR denotes the ideal of Concordia working within this new political system of diarchy. Concordia represented the condition of harmonious union between two individuals, which in turn produced harmony within the state. Such an ideal is presented here as an advertised benefit of the empire under the joint rule of Aurelius and Verus.

Very Rare Aureus of Lucilla

839. Lucilla AV Aureus. Struck under Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus in Rome, AD 161-162. LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F, draped bust right, hair waved and knotted low at back in chignon / VOTA • PVBLICA in four lines within laurel wreath. RIC 790 (Aurelius); MIR 18, 22-2(a); Calicó 2219; BMCRE 328 (Aurelius and Verus); Biaggi 980. 7.22g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

840. Commodus AR Denarius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius in Rome, AD 179. L AVREL COMMODVS AVG, laureate head right / TR P IIII IMP III COS II P P, Victory seated left, holding patera and palm. RIC 666. 3.21g, 17mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

150

Beautiful Pertinax Denarius

841. Pertinax AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two grain ears in right hand, resting left on seat of chair. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19-20. 3.55g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Ex Triton XII, 6 January 2009, lot 652; Ex Ex Freeman & Sear FPL 6, Summer 2001, lot F125.

250

1,750


Mint State Pertinax Denarius

842. Pertinax AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / PROVID DEOR COS II, Providentia standing left, raising one hand toward star and resting the other on her breast. RIC 11a; RSC 43; C. 43; BMC 13. 3.31g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State.

1,500

Exceptional Metal Quality

843. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IM P CAES C PESC F N NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right / MAPTI VICTORI, Mars standing left, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and reversed spear in left. RIC 55 var. (legends); RSC 51 var. (same); BMC 308 var. (same). 3.73g, 18mm, 1h. Mint State. Exceptional metal quality and preservation for a denarius of Pescennius Niger.

6,000

844. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right / SALVTI AVGVSTI, Salus standing right before lighted altar, holding serpent in her arms and feeding it from a patera. RIC 77. 2.91g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

750

Privately purchased from Harlan J. Berk.

845. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES PESC NIGER IVS AVG COS II, laureate bust right / MARTI VICT, Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy. BMC -; RSC -; RIC -, cf. 53 for rev. type; cf. Rauch Summer Auction 2008, 659 (same obv. legend and rev. type, but uncertain legend). 2.92g, 18mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Unpublished and possibly unique.

500

846. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGE..., laureate head right / ERER FRVG, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch. Cf. RIC 7b and note (legends); cf. RSC 29 (same); CNG e161, 249 (same dies). 2.29g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, perhaps the second known.

251

500


252


Mint State Aureus of Septimius Severus

847. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 193-194. IMP CAE•L•SEP• SEV•PERT•AVG, laureate head right / VIRT•AVG TR P•COS, Virtus standing left, holding Victory and reversed spear. RIC 24; Calicó 2570; BMCRE 32; Biaggi 1114. 7.27g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State. A stunning example.

20,000

Struck as part of the first issue to be produced for Septimius Severus in AD 193, the reverse type of the present piece is understandably military in flavour. Following the assassination of Commodus, and the swift removal of his successor Pertinax by the Praetorian Guard, Severus was still challenged by three rival claimaints to the throne: Didius Julianus, whom Herodian (ii.6.4) tells us bought the emperorship at an auction organised by the Praetorian Guard; Pescennius Niger in Syria, whose legions had proclaimed him emperor; and the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus. Condemed to death by the Senate, Julianus posed no threat to Severus and he was able to enter Rome unopposed, an event likely the specific catalyst for this reverse type where Severus is hailed as the ‘Virtuous (or Corageous) Emperor’. Securing his powerbase in Rome and keeping Albinus closely allied by raising him to the rank of Caesar, Severus travelled to the East to quell the revolt led by the other claimant Niger and routed his army at the Battle of Issus. However once back in Rome, and having proclaimed his son Caracalla his successor, Albinus’ troops revolted and declared their leader emperor: meeting Albinus’ army near Lugdunum in 197, a great battle ensued after which, with Albinus dead and his army defeated, Severus had cemented his control over the whole Empire.

848. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 196-197. L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder / P M TR P IIII COS II P P, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch. RIC 86 var. (no drapery); BMC 145 var. (same); C. 418 var. (same); Calicó 2495. 7.28g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

253

7,000


Septimius’ Hope For Unity

849. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 201. SEVERVS AVG PART MAX, laureate head right / FVNDATOR PACIS, Severus, veiled, standing left, holding branch and scroll. RIC 160; Calicó 2459; C. 202; BMC 189. 7.25g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatik Lanz 112, 25 November 2002, lot 598. Severus’ rise to power required him to remove the threat of two other rivals who had been proclaimed emperor: Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Having routed Niger, pacified the eastern provinces, and defeated Albinus at the Battle of Lugdunum, Severus consolidated support in the western provinces before turning his attention back to increasing the bounds of the Roman Empire eastwards. In 197 Severus invaded Parthia and captured the Parthian capital Ctesiphon. The sack of Ctesiphon was particularly devastating. Severus gave his soldiers liberty to plunder the city at will, and brutal slaughter ensued. According to Cassius Dio, as many as 100,000 women and children were sold into slavery, and an enormous amount of treasure was carried off from the city. Ctesiphon was however not garrisoned, and Severus withdrew from the city. Though he failed to reduce the city of Hatra, which had also held out against Trajan, the northern half of Mesopotamia was annexed to the empire, and for this victory Severus took the title Parthicus Maximus, as seen on the obverse legend of this type. While he could not claim total victory over the Parthians, he had dealt a severe blow to that kingdom, which endured no more than another twenty seven years before a revolt by the Sassadids overran the weakened empire. This reverse however, reiterates Severus’ role as a bringer of peace and stability, who had successfully dealt with both the usurpers within the empire and Rome’s external enemies. Indeed, the reign of Severus can be considered to have been a prosperous and largely stable period - a last golden period before the coming of an age of ‘iron and rust’.

Pleasing Dynastic Aureus

850. Septimius Severus, with Caracalla and Geta, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 202-210. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM, Caracalla and Geta, each laureate and togate, standing facing each other, jointly holding Victory standing left on globe with their right hands. RIC 255; Calicó 2435; BMC 312. 7.00g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection. This reverse type neatly shows the hope Severus held for unity and amity between his two sons, and his wish for them to rule together following his death and thus continue the dynasty he had founded. Yet the brothers’ disdain for one another is well-attested; Dio Cassius relates that ‘the two pretended to love and commend each other, but in all that they did they were diametrically opposed, and anyone could see that something terrible was bound to result from the situation.’ Indeed after less than a year of joint rule, Caracalla had had Geta murdered.

254


Extremely Rare Sestertius of Septimius

851. Septimius Severus Ӕ Sestertius. Rome, AD 203. SEVERVS PIVS AVG P M TR P XI, laureate and cuirassed bust right / INDVLGENTIA AVGG, Dea Caelestis(?) riding right on lion, holding drum and sceptre, over waters gushing from rock; SC in right field, IN CARTH in exergue. Hill, Severus 619 var. (bust type); BMC -; RIC -, cf. 759 (As). 30.84g, 32mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

4,000

As he hailed from Leptis Magna in the province of Africa, the production of coins under Septimius Severus bearing this interesting reverse scene and specifically referencing Carthage in the legend have traditionally been taken to mark the granting of a special favour to this city of his native land. It is often suggested that perhaps Severus caused to have built a new aqueduct to improve the water supply, based on the presence of water in the design, though being struck as it was in AD 203 after his successful campaign during the previous year this issue is perhaps more likely to be celebrating the newly expanded and refortified province of Africa as a whole. Although not being named on the coin, that the figure on the reverse is the principle female deity of Carthage, Dea Caelestis, is a generally accepted point. Also understood is Severus’ attachment to the province of Africa, and therefore we can assume a continued reverence and worship of the traditional deities of the land by the Emperor. Perhaps then we might see in the scene depicted here the emperor appropriating the local deity of Carthage and carrying her to Rome over the waves of the Mediterranean, just as we see the similar action taken by a later emperor of the Severan dynasty marked in the numismatic record with reverse types showing the transportation of the sacred Stone of Emesa to Rome by Elagabalus in 218.

The Restoration of Rome

852. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 207. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / RESTITVTOR VRBIS, Roma seated left on shield, holding palladium and sceptre. RIC 288; Calicó 2529; BMC 358; Hill 840. 6.76g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal. Rare.

17,500

Septimius Severus was credited with restoring stability to the Roman Empire after the turbulent reign of Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of the emperor’s murder, and by the time this coin was struck he had enlarged the empire in the East and strengthened the southern borders through the expansion of the Limes Tripolitanus, a frontier zone of defensive forts in north Africa that secured the agricultural base of the empire against raids from the desert nomads of the Sahara. The improved security of the empire enabled Severus to undertake restorative works in Rome itself, the theme of this reverse type. Roma, personification of Rome, is portrayed here as a direct reference to Severus’ having restored peace and prosperity to the city, which was marked in the landscape by the building of monuments such as the Triumphal Arch celebrating the successful conclusion of the war against Parthia, and the Septizodium, a building of no known practical purpose but which Ammianus Marcellinus (XV, 7, 3) is understood to have noted as ‘a popular place’, though the sentence is ambiguous.

853. Septimius Severus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 210. L SEPT SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / P M TR P XVIII COS III P P, two Victories facing, each holding round shield set on palm tree; two captives seated at foot, SC in exergue. C. 547; BMC 186; RIC 796. 17.89g, 30mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Pleasant green patina. Rare.

255

1,000


Mother of the Senate and Rome

854.

Julia Domna AV Aureus. Rome, AD 193-196. IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right, with hair in six waves and bound up at the back / VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, seen from behind, half nude with drapery hanging low beneath her posterior, holding a palm branch in her left hand, a globe in her right and leaning with her left elbow on a low column to her left. BMC 47; Calicó 2641a; Hill 100; RIC 536 (Severus). 7.26g, 18mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. A very attractive example with beautiful lustre.

12,500

Cassius Dio relates an anecdote that, prior to the wedding of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, Septimius is supposed to have dreamt that Faustina Junior, wife to the last worthy emperor Marcus Aurelius, prepared their nuptial chamber within the Temple of Venus and Roma, near the imperial palace. Such a link back to the golden years before the depravations of Commodus and the ensuing civil war implied to the ever-superstitious plebs Faustina’s approval of Septimius and Julia, offering her blessing to them while portending their destiny as the rightful rulers of the empire, sent to guide Rome back to better times. Septimius aspired to restore peace and stability to the Roman Empire, and his wife Julia was to play an instrumental role in this endeavour. By all accounts their marriage was a very happy one, and it is testament to affection in which Julia held her husband that she chose to accompany Septimius on all of his military campaigns at a time when the women of Rome were expected to stay behind in the city and await their husband’s return. Fittingly, the high regard in which Septimius held his wife for her resilience, political views and faithfulness is attested to by the great number of titles conferred upon her, including that of Mater Senatus et Patriae (mother of the Senate and Rome) and, on account of her companionship in the field, Mater Castrorum (mother of the camp). The naturally strong bond exhibited by Septimius and Julia could not have been a better stabiliser to the teetering empire after the so-called ‘Year of the Five Emperors’ in AD 193, and the opportunity was not lost on the new emperor and empress to secure their own positions. An association with Venus was favoured for the Empress’ early coinage, so that the first issues struck for Julia feature the goddess, as we see on this stunning aureus. Julia was to be presented as a model of traditional Roman values, and here we see why the association with Venus was a crucial starting point: Venus is here represented as the goddess of victory, holding a globe in her hand to signify Roman dominion over the known world. Of course, her other roles as goddess of love, beauty, fertility and motherhood, all equally important to Julia, are not forgotten in the design of this reverse type and further secure her position as the mother of the state.

256


855. Julia Domna AV Aureus. Rome, AD 193-196. IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right, with hair in six waves and bound up at the back / VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, seen from behind, half nude with drapery hanging low beneath her posterior, holding a palm branch in her left hand, a globe in her right and leaning with her left elbow on a low column to her left. BMC 47; Calicó 2641a; Hill 100; RIC 536 (Severus). 7.35g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

7,500

856. Julia Domna AV Aureus. Rome, AD 193-196. IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right, with hair in six waves and bound up at the back / VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, seen from behind, half nude with drapery hanging low beneath her posterior, holding a palm branch in her left hand, a globe in her right and leaning with her left elbow on a low column to her left. BMC 47; Calicó 2641a; Hill 100; RIC 536 (Severus). 7.17g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine.

7,500

Extremely Rare Domna Aureus

857. Julia Domna AV Aureus. Rome, AD 194. IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right, with hair in six waves and bound up at the back / VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left, holding apple and sceptre, Cupid at her feet. RIC 537; C. 203; Calicó 2643a. 7.30g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

10,000

Following the infighting of AD 193, Septimius Severus and Julia Domna sought to establish a new dynasty of rulers for the empire. Together with their sons Caracalla and Geta they intended to present to the world a vision of the imperial family as striving harmoniously together for the good of Rome and the Empire, with each person appointed their role in the machinery of governance. As befitted the mother of the future emperors, Julia Domna quickly appropriated the role of ‘Mother Venus’ as the reverse legend of this coin attests. Julia, as Empress and mother to the future emperor’s Caracalla and Geta, was particularly suited to the aspects of motherhood and domesticity that Venus Genetrix embodied, characteristics that were further expressed in the companion type of the same issue which features Fecunditas with two children (RIC 534). This reverse type, by highlighting these attributes, places particular emphasis on traditional Roman family values, which were an important part of the harmonious dynastic picture Severus and Julia wished to cultivate. However, it also ensured to glorify Severus by association through the presence of Cupid who, in some Latin mythology, was the son of Venus and Mars, God of War.

257


258


Very Rare and Attractive Dynastic Aureus

858.

Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 201. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PON TR P IIII, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIAE AETERNAE, jugate busts right of Septimius Severus, radiate and draped, and Julia Domna, diademed and draped, on crescent. RIC 52 var.; C. 1; BMC 260; Calicó 2849. 7.38g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

30,000

Struck during the period of rule in which both Caracalla and his father Septimius Severus were co-Augusti, this coin’s obverse legend refers to Caracalla’s official name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, given to him in order to further legitimise the rule of the Severans through a fictitious link to the Antonine adoptive emperors who came before them. A decade before the death of Septimius, and Caracalla’s despicable murder of his brother Geta, the Severan family are here portrayed as unified in the rule of the empire. The imagery presented is a strong propagandistic message of stability offered by a virtuous imperial family, creating the potential for a long-lasting dynasty by grooming the next generation for the duty of ruling the empire. Having been made Augustus at the age of ten, and only thirteen when this type was minted, the clear implication is that Rome should look forward to many more years of Severan peace. The mutual dependence of the sun and the moon is used as a means to portray the strong bond of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, while emphasising the concept of permanence – in this case, of the principate and the empire it ruled. Septimius’s radiate crown denotes him as a representation of Sol, and the bust of Domna is set upon a crescent moon, the attribute of Luna. The legend CONCORDIAE AETERNAE (eternal harmony) is intended to refer not only to the imperial family, connoting firm hands on the tiller of the empire and a secure succession, but also reflects Septimius’ (largely justifiable claim) to have brought peace and a renewed golden age to Rome. There existed among the general populace a heartfelt belief that a stable imperial family was conducive to having a stable domain, and this reassurance is dovetailed neatly into another key element of the Roman collective psyche - the idea that Rome and its empire were everlasting - a concept that features heavily in literature such as the Aeneid, a work that had had a profound impact on Roman culture.

259


Spectacular Caracalla Aureus

859. Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 205. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PONTIF TR P VIII COS II, Mars standing left, right foot on helmet, holding olive branch and reversed spear. RIC 80a; BMC 476; C. 419; Calicó 2777. 7.16g, 20mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. A bold portrait, struck on a broad flan. Lustrous metal and perfect surfaces. Rare.

12,500

From the Getrudenstrasse hoard found in Cologne in 1909.

Beautiful and Very Rare Caracalla Sestertius

860. Caracalla Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 214. M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P, Mars standing left, holding Victory in right hand, resting left hand upon shield with spear behind, with bound captive seated to left before; S-C across fields. RIC 524b var. (AVREL, bust); BMC p. 480, * var. (bust); NAC 40, 768 (same dies). 25.09g, 32mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. A marvellous portrait of Caracalla. Very Rare; only two examples with the FELIX legend on CoinArchives, only one of which shares the same bust type.

7,500

Celebrating the victories in Germania that Caracalla had achieved through a combination of diplomacy and defeat, this attractive reverse type is complimented by a very rare and fine style undraped bust of Caracalla and a short-lived obverse legend. In 213 Caracalla dropped his ‘British’ title, perhaps because he had been sharing it with his now-dead brother Geta, and took up the title ‘Felix’ in addition to that of ‘Pius’ which he already used; however, a year later after the successes he had achieved in Germania, Caracalla chose to take the honorific ‘Germanicus’ into his titles for the rest of his reign, thus assuring the scarcity of the other legends.

260


Caracalla’s Eastern Campaign

861.

Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 216. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, radiate lion radiate walking to left, thunderbolt in jaws. RIC 283a; C. 366; Biaggi -; Calicó 2754; BMC -; Hill 1546. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

20,000

From the Ambrose Collection. This aureus was struck at the beginning of Caracalla’s ill fated campaign against the Parthian Empire, and a year before the emperor’s assassination in AD 217. The invasion of Parthia in 216 was the culmination of an aggressive foreign policy in the east, and followed the invasions of adjoining kingdoms, which resulted in the annexation of Osroene. Prior to the invasion, Caracalla had agreed to marry the daughter of King Artabanus V and commit to maintaining peace in the region, only to attack the bride and guests at the wedding in order to provoke war. The reverse design alludes to Caracalla’s eastern military ambitions at this time, depicting a radiate lion with a thunderbolt in its jaws. Whilst the radiate lion is a clearly solar symbol and thus represents the East, the thunderbolt refers to Jupiter. This composite image therefore has been interpreted as Roman dominance over the east, and as a symbol of the combined divinity of Jupiter and Sol. Caracalla is thus drawing heavily on celestial imagery to propagandise his eastern campaign; the type would subsequently be revived by Philip I, Philip II, Gallienus, Aurelian and Probus, all of whom mounted campaigns in the East. The lion type may also have held some personal significance for Caracalla, who Cassius Dio tells us would surround himself with lions, one of which was a special pet called Akinakes (Persian for ‘short sword’) that was his companion at table and in bed. However it may have lost some of its shine for Caracalla when, after having been disturbed by a dream of his father Septimius warning him he would avenge Caracalla’s murder of his brother, his lion Akinakes seized him and tore his clothes, fulfilling the bad omen of his dream.

261


262


Superb Aureus of Elagabalus

862.

Elagabalus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 218-219. IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MILITVM, laureate figure of Elagabalus standing right, dressed in military attire and holding transverse spear, flanked by a soldier carrying standard and shield to right and a second soldier holding a standard topped by a hand behind; a third standard in the background. RIC 76d; BMCRE 16 note; C. 42; Calicó 2994. 7.26g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

35,000

Ex Numismatik Lanz 58, 21 November 1991, lot 743. An incredibly unlikely emperor of no proven ability or wisdom, Elagabalus’ rise to power was due to the persistence of his vengeful grandmother, Julia Maesa, sister to Julia Domna and sister in law to Septimius Severus. Having been exiled to Syria with her children and grandchildren by Macrinus in order that they not cause trouble at his accession, she plotted to have him assassinated and promote Elagabalus to the throne in revenge for the murder of Caracalla and the usurpation of the Severan line. Using her wealth and influence, and in combination with a public statement that Elagabalus was Caracalla’s illegitimate child, she gained the backing of various Senators and soldiers who were loyal to the deceased emperor. Having achieved the allegiance of the Third Legion at Raphana, it took but little encouragement for Elagabalus to be declared emperor by the army in AD 218. Accepting the purple at the tender age of fourteen, Elagabalus took the formal name of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, reaffirming the fabricated story that he was the illegitimate son of Caracalla and thus the true heir. This reverse type was used to further secure Elagabalus’ position as Emperor, calling as it does for ‘the loyalty of the soldiers’, but the strong military type seen here was struck before the young emperor had shown his real character traits of religious fanaticism and sexual perversion, interests which only surfaced after his arrival in Rome. The ancient sources spare no detail in their descriptions of life in the Imperial palace of Elagabalus, aspects of which become evident on his later coinage.

263


264


863. Elagabalus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 218-219. IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTOR ANTONINI AVG, Victory walking right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 154; C. 288; BMC 30; Calicó 3038. 6.77g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Noble Numismatics 99, 17 April 2012, lot 3599. The unusual reverse legend of this coin, specifically referencing the Antonine family from which Elagabalus falsely claimed descent, is evidently a slur on Macrinus and his son Diadumenian as dynastic interlopers whom the new emperor had triumphantly defeated, thus bringing about the restoration of the family line.

Rare Severus Alexander Aureus

864. Severus Alexander AV Aureus. Rome, AD 227. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right / P M TR P VI COS II P P, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy. RIC 60c; BMC 407 note; C. -; Biaggi 1328; Calicó 3111. 6.34g, 20mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare; only 6 examples on CoinArchives.

9,000

Ex H. D. Rauch 75, 6 May 2005, lot 644. A naturally unwarlike young man, Severus Alexander’s early coinage is almost entirely without any types of specific interest, likely because the hands in which power lay at this time wished it so. While Alexander was still a minor, government was maintained by Julia’s Maesa and Mamaea, women who one would assume preferred to see Alexander’s figure remain on the throne while avoiding any of the degrading practices and licentiousness instigated by Elagabalus. Here shown simply as the god Mars, later issues of a very similar reverse type depict either Alexander with the same attibutes, or perhaps Romulus, one of the two mythical founders of Rome and the supposed son of Mars.

865. Severus Alexander AV Aureus. Rome, AD 231-235. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MARS VLTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear and shield. RIC 245; Calicó 3072a. 6.04g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

265

4,000


866. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 235-236. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar. RIC 14; RSC 85a. 3.67g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

867. Maximus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 236-237. IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right / PIETAS AVG, emblems of the pontificate: lituus, secespita, guttus, simpulum, and aspergillum. RIC 2; RSC 3; BMCRE 201-203. 3.18g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State; lustrous metal.

300

868. Gordian II AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath in extended right hand, cradling palm frond with left arm. RIC 2; RSC 12. 3.08g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

2,000

869. Gordian II AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath in extended right hand, cradling palm frond with left arm. RIC 2; RSC 12. 3.03g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

870. Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, Providentia standing left, holding a wand in lowered right hand over a globe at feet to left, and cornucopiae in left hand. RIC 7; RSC 23. 2.61g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

266

300


871. Balbinus AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MVTVA AVGG, clasped right hands. RIC 11; RSC 6. 4.32g, 23mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

400

872. Balbinus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopiae; SC in exergue. RIC 22; BMC 18-20; Banti 1. 20.70g, 32mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; smoothed.

1,500

873. Pupienus AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / AMOR MVTVVS AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 9b; C. 2; BMC 83. 4.99g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. A bold, expressive portrait.

750

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 47, 3 June 2008, lot 37.

874. Pupienus AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / PATRES SENATVS, clasped right hands. RIC 11b; RSC 21. 4.42g, 21mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

267

300


875. Pupienus Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 238. IMP C M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left holding wreath and palm; S-C across fields. RIC 23a. 23.50g, 31mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

4,000

876. Pupienus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / LIBERALITAS AVGVSTORVM, Liberalitas standing facing, head left, holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 14; C. 15; BMC 10-12; Banti 3. 20.01g, 30mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Slight die shift on reverse.

2,500

877. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, AD 239. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Jupiter standing facing, holding thunderbolt and sceptre over Gordian, standing facing to left. RIC 21; Calicó 3211. 4.89g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

6,000

878. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, late AD 240 - early 243. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / AETERNITATI AVG, Sol standing facing, head left, raising right hand and holding globe. RIC 97; Calicó 3186. 4.67g, 21mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

268

5,000


879. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, late AD 240 - early 243. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / LAETITA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in left hand and anchor in right. RIC 101; Calicó 3202a; Biaggi 1359. 4.68g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

2,000

880. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, late AD 240 - early 243. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVTI AVGVSTI, the ‘Farnese’ Hercules standing facing, head right, resting right hand on hip and placing left on club set on rock; lion skin beside club. RIC 108; Calicó 3242. 4.69g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; light mark in reverse left field.

3,000

881. Gordian III AV Aureus. Contemporary (Indian?) imitation, circa AD 241-243. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVTI AVGVSTI, Hercules standing facing, head right, resting right hand on hip and placing left on club set on rock; lion skin beside club. Cf. RIC 108; cf. Calicó 3242. 4.10g, 20mm, 2h. Good Very Fine; small contact mark on ear. Rare.

2,000

882. Philip I AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 248. Commemorating the 1000th anniversary of the founding of Rome. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SAECULARES AVGG, broad column inscribed COS III. RIC 24c; RSC 193. 3.92g, 23mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Privately purchased from Gorny & Mosch.

269

100


Rare and Beautiful Aureus set in Ancient Bezel

883.

Otacilia Severa AV Aureus. Rome, AD 245-247, in a gold pendant with an openwork border of leaf-pattern with a ribbed suspension loop. M•OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped bust of Otacilia right, wearing stephane, hair in six tight waves with turned up plait / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae. R. Bland, ‘The gold coinage of Philip I and family’, in RN 171, 2014, pp. 93-149, 30 (OS10/O3); RIC Philip I 125; Calicó 3264. For a similar openwork gold setting with loop see: F.H. Marshall, Catalogue of the Jewellery, Greek, Etruscan and Roman, in the Department of Antiquities, British Museum, London 1969, pl. 68, 2937 (Philip I). 25.17g (including mount and chain), 28mm (coin in mount), 1h (coin). Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal and unmarked surfaces with light reddish tone. Rare.

25,000

Little is known about Otacilia, the wife of Philip I, and the coinage struck in her name is rather typical of a third century empress. Honorary and milestone inscriptions tell us that Otacilia received the title ‘Mater Castrorum’ (mother of the camps) and may indicate that she accompanied Philip on his military campaigns, although the title does not appear on any of her surviving coinage. The reverse types of Otacilia emphasise her piety and role within the imperial family, as the personification of Concordia on this rare aureus. Concordia embodied harmony and her attributes, the patera and cornucopia, allude to the act of sacrifice and material abundance that arise from stable conditions. The concept of concord was often used to describe imperial marital harmony and represented the political relations which underpinned the empire as a whole. Sixteen men would be given or claim the title of Augustus during the years 244 to 260, and many were met with an untimely death. Otacilia’s husband Philip I was the first of this series of short-lived emperors, who reigned for just five years between 244 and 249. Philip was a praetorian commander serving under Gordian III on a campaign against Persia, when the army stationed in camp at Circesium on the Euphrates declared Philip emperor and murdered the young Gordian. Philip quickly agreed to pay 500,000 denarii, in addition to an annual indemnity, in order to secure peace terms with the Persian king Shapur so that he could return to Rome and consolidate his power. Upon Philip’s accession, Otacilia was given the title Augusta and their son, Philip the younger, was raised to the rank of Caesar and later promoted to Augustus in 247. The events of the following three years are unclear however; Philip seems to have spent much of his time on the Danube frontier fighting the Carpi for which he celebrated a triumph in Rome. The most significant event of his reign was the celebration of the 1000th anniversary of the founding of the city, marked by a series of games in 248. In the same year, the legions of Moesia and Pannonia declared their commander Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus emperor. The uprising on the Danube frontier was short lived for Pacatian was killed by his own men, but a second would soon break out in the east when Jotapian was proclaimed emperor. The rebellion was not crushed until the following year, and two other abortive rebellions are known from the coins struck by Silbannacus on the Rhine, and Sponsianus on the Danube. Philip appointed a respected senator Quintus Decius Valerinus to be governor of the provinces of Moesia and Pannonia in an attempt to secure the loyalty of the legions in the Danube and repel an incursion by the Goths. This placed several legions under the control of Decius who were known to wish for a change of emperor. After Decius defeated the Goths in 249, he was proclaimed Augustus by his legions and marched on Rome. Philip was defeated near Verona and killed in the battle, and it is thought that once the news reached Rome, his son was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. It is unknown whether Otacila suffered the same fate as her son or was allowed to live in retirement.

270


Impressive Trajan Decius Aureus

884. Trajan Decius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 249-251. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / ADVENTVS AVG, Trajan Decius on horseback left, raising right hand in salutation, holding sceptre in left. RIC 11a var. (bust also draped); Calicó 3283; Biaggi 1392. 3.78g, 18.5mm, 12h. Extremely Fine, lustrous. Very Rare.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection. Trajan Decius was acclaimed emperor by his troops while campaigning in Moesia and Pannonia on behalf of Philip I ‘the Arab’. He had been sent to quell the revolt of the usurper Pacatian, who had been proclaimed emperor himself by his troops but was, ultimately, also killed by them before the intervention of Decius. According to Zosimus, Decius was apparently reluctant and unwilling to take power. However, having taken the purple, Philip advanced against Decius and the two met in battle near Verona, though he was routed and killed. Subsequently, Decius’ accession was recognised by the Senate, who conferred on him the name Traianus in reference to his predecessor Trajan, the optimus princeps (‘best ruler’) of the Roman Empire. Taking the name of Trajan was more than simple vainglory - in the first Dacian War of AD 101-102 Trajan had reduced the Danube region to the status of a client kingdom, later absorbing it into the empire after the second Dacian War in 105-106. The new emperor, who hailed from the very same region, was seen to have already quelled a revolt in the troubled frontier area, and it was hoped he would restore the strength of the State. Seen on the obverse of this very rare and attractive aureus with a furrowed brow, we may imagine from the worries of his new position, the reverse type ADVENTVS AVG proclaims the accession of the new emperor and depicts his arrival in Rome.

Superb Double Sestertius of Decius

885. Trajan Decius Æ Double Sestertius. Rome, AD 249-251. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS SECVLI, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae; S-C across fields. RIC 115c; C. 40. 41.82g, 37mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful patina; finely detailed and of excellent style.

271

7,500


Very Rare Double Sestertius of Herennia Etruscilla

886. Herennia Etruscilla ร† Double Sestertius. Rome, AD 249-251. HERENNIA ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right set on crescent / PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia, veiled, seated left, holding sceptre in left hand and drawing out veil with right; SC in exergue. RIC 136a; C. 21. 30.66g, 33mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare; only six other examples on CoinArchives.

4,000

Extremely Rare Aureus of Herennius Etruscus

887. Herennius Etruscus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 250-251. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, bare-headed and draped bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Herennius Etruscus standing left, holding standard in his right hand and spear in his left. Calicรณ 3312 (but with a photograph of a coin of Hostilian in error); C. 32; RIC 148a; Trau 2806 (same obverse die); Nomos 13, 282 (same dies). 3.17g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

888. Gallienus AR Antoninianus. Lugdunum, AD 258-259. GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate bust left, with spear and shield / VICT GERMANICA, Victory running right, holding wreath and trophy. RIC 42. 4.66g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine, well centred and attractively toned.

272

100


Exceptional Aureus of Gallienus

889.

Gallienus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 260-268. GALLIENVS AVG, head left, crowned with reeds / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing facing, head left, holding two standards. RIC 38 var. (rev. legend); Calicó 3494-5 var. (same). 3.66g, 20mm, 1h. Mint State. A handsome portrait of Gallienus in fine style. Extremely Rare.

15,000

Gallienus was named Caesar at the same time his father Valerian became emperor in AD 253. Within a month, he was promoted to the rank of Augustus and joint ruler. The responsibility for the western provinces was handed to him the following year as Valerian marched east to campaign against the Persian army. Gallienus proceeded to take military action to secure the Rhine and Danube frontiers from German attacks. His efforts were successful and he earned the title ‘Germanicus Maximus’ five times between 255 and 258, though he lost his eldest son during a campaign in the Danube early in 258. This loss was the beginning of a series of misfortunate events to befall the western emperor. Valerian was captured by the Persian king Shapur I in 260, significantly weakening Gallienus’ position and leaving a power vacuum in the east. The first to take advantage was Ingenuus, governor of Pannonia and Moesia, who was proclaimed emperor at Sirmium by the troops under his command but defeated soon after by Gallienus’ general Aureolus. Rebellion also broke out on the Danube frontier when Regalianus proclaimed himself emperor, requiring prompt and successful action from Gallienus. A further uprising occurred in 260, when Macrianus and Quietus were proclaimed joint emperors, making Antioch their capital with widespread support in the Eastern provinces. Macrianus marched against Gallienus but was killed by Aureolus in 261, while Quietus was murdered in Emesa where he was taking refuge. The following year saw Aureolus revolt, although he was swiftly convinced to make peace. Whilst the uprisings in the east had been successfully quelled, it had cost Gallienus dearly in the West. By the end of 261, Postumus had taken control of Gaul, Britain and Spain and assumed the title of Augustus, establishing an independent empire which would survive for almost 15 years. Unable to successfully challenge the Gallic Empire led by Postumus, Gallienus spent the following years dealing with minor invasions and rebellions until the Goths and the Heruli launched a large scale invasion of the Balkans in 268. Leaving Aureolus in charge at Milan, Gallienus advanced to counter the invasion, although he was unable to prevent the sacking of Athens before defeating the invaders at Naissus. Taking advantage of the Gothic War, Aureolus defected to Postumus, prompting Gallienus to return to Italy in September 268, where he defeated Aureolus at Pontirolo and laid siege to him at Milan. Gallienus was unable to bring matters to a decisive conclusion for he was murdered in his camp by the commander of his Dalmatian cavarly. The reverse legend of this beautiful aureus ironically bears the legend ‘loyalty of the soldiers’ and depicts Fides, the Roman goddess of trust and loyalty. Many reverse types depicting Fides were minted after 260 and Mark Hebblewhite (The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire, AD 235–395, 2016) has suggested this was in repsonse to the uprisings of 260, reflecting Gallienus’ desire to show the army that he trusted in their continued support. Indeed, Gallienus had barred senators from taking military office after some had shown disloyalty in their support of the usurpers, and increasingly relied on the support of his existing officers.

273


Unique Antoninianus of Gallienus

890. Gallienus AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 267-268. GALLIENVS P F AVG, cuirassed bust of Gallienus left, wearing crested helmet, holding spear over right shoulder, shield with aegis on left / P M TR POT C VII P P (sic?), Mars, wearing crested helmet and chlamys, and carrying spear and shield, descending right towards to Rhea Silvia, who reclines left, nude to waist, raising right hand above head. RIC -; RSC -; C. -; Göbl, MIR -, cf. 945-946 for reverse type with alternate legends. 2.91g, 20mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished. A beautiful coin combining a bold militaristic portrait engraved in fine style, with a classic scene from Roman mythology. This scene, while well attested in surviving Roman artwork, occurs only one other time in the entirety of the vast Roman coinage series, on an As of Antoninus Pius (see lot 822); a medallion of Faustina Senior, clearly not intended for monetary use, also bears the type, and was probably created around the same time. 2,000

891. Gallienus Æ Antoninianus. Rome, AD 267-268. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right / HERCVLI CONS AVG, boar running to right on ground line; E in exergue. RIC 202; C. 317; MIR 36, 729b. 3.32g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. A very attractive example of the type. Rare.

200

892. Macrianus Æ Antoninianus. Antioch, AD 260-261. IMP C FVL MACRIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust of Macrianus right, slight drapery on far shoulder / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter enthroned left, holding patera and sceptre; eagle at feet, star in left field. RIC 9; C. 8. 4.00g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

250

893. Quietus BI Antoninianus. Antioch, AD 261-262. IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, helmeted, wearing long dress and cloak, holding spear and Victory with wreath; star in left field. RIC 9; C. 11. 4.38g, 22mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

274

200


Spectacular Postumus Double Sestertius

894.

Postumus Ӕ Double Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 261. IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate,draped and cuirassed bust right / LAETITIA AVG, galley right with four rowers. RIC 143; Bastien 87. 15.92g, 32mm, 6h. Virtually Mint State – apart from a light patina, this remarkable specimen is otherwise exactly as it was when it left the die. One of the very finest known sestertii of Postumus in existence. 15,000 Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1223. Postumus appears to have been an imperial legate of Lower Germany when he defeated a Juthungian army which was returning from Italy, laden with goods and captives (even though they had been turned back by Gallienus at Mediolanum). Postumus had already distributed the captured wealth to the legions he commanded when he received the command of Gallienus’s son and Caesar, Saloninus, to hand over the recovered spoils. Renouncing Gallienus and Saloninus, the troops hailed Postumus as emperor, and proceeded to attack Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium and kill Saloninus. Postumus immediately secured the loyalty of Gaul, Upper and Lower Germania, and Raetia. The following year Britannia, Gallia Narbonensis and Hispania followed suit. Though Postumus relied on the army which kept him in power for a decade, the safety of the provinces was not solely an army matter, for the coasts required protection also, and so it is reasonable that his navy deserved mention on the coinage. The issues which couple the reverse legends FELICITAS and LAETITIA with scenes of a galley probably show that the emperor by no means neglected his navy, and perhaps that it achieved success. The type of galley depicted on the reverse of the present coin could be a navis lusoria, which was a small military vessel of the late Roman Empire that served as a troop transport. It was smaller and narrower than similar earlier vessels, and ideally suited to the rivers close to the Limes Germanicus; the presence of this type of vessel in the Classis Germanica is shown through the discovery of the Mainz Roman ships in 1981-2, thus proving that they operated on the Rhine and Danube.

275


895. Postumus AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 263. POSTVMVS PIVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P IMP V COS III P P, Postumus seated left on curule chair, holding globe and sceptre. RIC 7 var. (bust type). 5.61g, 20mm, 7h. Extensively smoothed and tooled. Sold as seen. Extremely Rare.

4,000

896. Laelianus Æ Antoninianus. Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), early AD 269. IMP C LAELIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 9; C. 4. 2.83g, 20mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

897. Vabalathus Æ Antoninianus. Antioch, AD 272. IM C VHABALATHVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IVԐNVS AVG, Hercules standing right, leaning on club and holding three apples, lion skin over left arm; star to right. C. 4; RIC 4; Göbl 359; BN 1265. 3.98g, 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

750

898. Vabalathus Æ Antoninianus. Antioch, AD 272. IM C VHABALATHVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IVԐNVS AVG, Hercules standing right, leaning on club and holding three apples, lion skin over left arm; star to right. C. 4; RIC 4; Göbl 359; BN 1265. 3.64g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

276

750


899. Vabalathus Æ Antoninianus. Antioch, March-May AD 272. IM C VHABALATHVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VENVS AVG, Venus standing left, holding helmet and transverse spear, leaning on shield behind her; star to left. RIC 5 corr. (bust type); BN 1266; MIR 47, 361a. 3.31g, 23mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

900. Vabalathus Æ Antoninianus. Antioch, March-May AD 272. IM C VHABALATHVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; star to left. RIC 6; MIR 47, 357o; BN 1267. 2.92g, 22mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

Superb Zenobia Antoninianus

901. Zenobia Æ Antoninianus. Antioch, March-May AD 272. S ZENOBIA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, set on crescent / IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre, peacock standing left at her at feet; star in left field. RIC 2 corr. (star not noted); Bland, Coinage 29, e–k, dies 45/Jun ii; Carson, Zenobia 3 (same dies); MIR 47, 360b/0; BN 1267a. 3.31g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare; exceptional for the type.

5,000

The wife of the ruler of Palmyra, Septimia Zenobia came to power as regent for her son Septimius Vabalathus in AD 267 after the murder of her husband Septimius Odenathus, who had been entrusted with the defence of the Roman provinces in the east by the Emperor Gallienus. A strong character and very ambitious, Zenobia expanded her sphere of influence through the capture of the province of Egypt and the expulsion of the Roman prefect Tenagino Probus and his forces in 269, a campaign aided in its success in part due to the turmoil inside the Roman Empire after the death of Gallienus. The Roman east remained under the control of the kingdom of Palmyra under the subsequent emperors Claudius II and Quintillus, and when Aurelian came to power in 270 he pragmatically chose to acknowledge Zenobia and Vabalathus in order to allow himself time to first deal with various barbaric incursions and usurpers. Though the mint for the rare portrait coins of Zenobia has long been a topic of debate, it is generally agreed now that they were struck in Syria, most likely at Emesa or Antioch, both Roman mints that were taken by Zenobia during her advance into Roman territory and expansion of her empire. The imperial title Augusta is proudly displayed on her coinage, but Zenobia’s power was not to last. Having subdued the uprisings in the west, Aurelian marched on her with an army. Their forces met outside Antioch, resulting in a battle that routed Zenobia’s army, which fled to Emesa. Zenobia and her son attempted to escape through the desert with the help of the Sassanid Persians, but were captured by Aurelian’s horsemen and subsequently taken to Rome to be displayed during the emperor’s triumphant return to the city.

277


The Last Elected Emperor

902. Tacitus AV Aureus. Antioch, AD 275-276. IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on a shield, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; SC in exergue. RIC 209; Calicó 4096; C. 116. 4.27g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Mount mark at 12 o’clock skillfully removed. Rare.

12,500

Ex New York Sale XXXIV, 6 January 2015, lot 670. Although an ageing man when he became the last emperor to be elected to the purple by the Senate on the 25th September AD 275, Tacitus was a Roman by birth and a Senator, and accepted the burden that was thrust on his shoulders out of a sense of duty for his country. The reverse type that we see on this rare aureus - Romae Aeternae, the Eternal Rome, coupled with the the restoration of the old senatorial letters SC (Senatus Consulto) in the exergue - is indicative of this. Once his ascension to the purple had been ratified by the army he arrived for a short stay in Rome, before he was obliged to travel east to Asia Minor to quell troubles arising from the auxiliary troops gathered by his predecessor Aurelian, who had enlisted Scythian and Gothic troops to aid him in a campaign against Persia. With the campaign no longer expected to go ahead, the gathered men were restless and had plundered several towns in the Eastern Roman provinces. Tacitus, with the aid of his half-brother the Praetorian Prefect Florian, pacified some and defeated others, but was overcome by fatigue, old-age and the hardships of campaign and died at Tyana in Cappadocia in April 276. Following the monetary reforms introduced by Aurelian, coins produced under Tacitus are remarkable for their uniformity and careful adherence to a regular standard. Although no gold quinarii were struck for Tacitus, so far as we know, there have been two separate weight standards noted for the aurei. The present example falls into the lighter category, being between four and five grammes, and was likely struck at 72 to the pound. The heavier examples, usually between six and seven grammes, were struck at 50 to the pound.

Very Rare Probus Denarius

903. Probus Ӕ Denarius. Rome, AD 281. PROBVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P VI COS V P P, emperor standing left, holding sceptre and raising right hand; standards to either side. RIC 249. 2.60g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Earthen ‘desert’ patina. Very Rare.

278

500


279


280


Calicó and Sear Plate Coin

904. Carinus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Siscia, AD 282. M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory standing left on banded globe, holding laurel wreath in outstretched right hand and palm frond over left shoulder. RIC -, cf. 190E (Victory carrying trophy); cf. Cohen 139 (same); Sear 12287 (this coin); Calicó 4372 (this coin). 4.84 gm, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

20,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Andre Constantine Dimitriadis Collection; Ex McLendon Collection, Christie’s New York, 12 June 1993, lot 191. Raised to the rank of Caesar in the West in AD 282 under his father Carus, who had been proclaimed emperor after the assasination of the emperor Probus, Carinus immediately set out on campaign against the Germanic Quadi tribes whom he met with some success. Returning to Rome in early 283, he celebrated a triumph and was proclaimed Augustus, and thus began his joint rule with his father. Meanwhile his brother Numerian, also Caesar, was on campaign with their father against the Sassanid Persians in the East. It was here that Carus died in July or August 283, but not before having made significant gains against the Sassanids under Bahram II: he had taken the capital Ctesiphon, crossed the River Tigris and was marching his troops further into Mesopotamia. Carus’ death is most likely attributable to natural causes (an unknown illness, though some sources claim it was a lightning strike), and Numerian succeeded him as Augustus unchallenged. The army however wished to return to the West, and Numerian was unable to do more than acquiesce. As the column proceeded slowly back toward Roman territory Numerian himself was taken ill and died under suspicious circumstances - the general Diocletian was proclaimed emperor by the troops and accepted the purple on a hill outside Nicomedia. Upon hearing the news, Carinus marched his army eastwards and the two met in Moesia at the Battle of the Margus River. Again, accounts differ as to the progress of the battle: some say that Carinus had the upper hand until he was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced, while others suggest that the battle was a complete victory for Diocletian and that Carinus’ army deserted him. Following the victory, both the eastern and western armies recognised Diocletian as sole emperor, and he marched unopposed on Rome. Struck in late 282 when Carinus still held the rank of Caesar, this aureus depicts him in military gear on the obverse, while the reverse type depicts the Victoriola, the cult statue of Victory standing on a globe. It symbolises the power and majesty conferred on an emperor by victory in battle, and is often shown on later reverse types being conferred on the emperor by Jupiter or another deity. Used in this context, it appears to attest to a recent military victory, perhaps Carinus’ own successes against the Germanic tribes. That this coin was struck shortly before Carinus was raised to the rank of Augustus might partly explain its relative rarity, however the Damnatio Memoriae which Diocletian wrought on Carinus after his death would also bear on the scarcity of gold coins in his name.

Magnia Urbica Æ striking face of forger’s die (?)

905. Magnia Urbica Æ striking face of forger’s die (?) or uniface plaquette in negative. 6.61g, 24mm. Condition as seen.

281

750


282


Impressive Aureus of Diocletian

906.

Diocletian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 284-293/4. VIRTVS DIOCLETIANI AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear in right hand, left hand holding strap of ornamented shield and two javelins / IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left, wearing chlamys, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; PR in exergue. RIC 140; C. 223; Calicó 4475; Depeyrot 4a/3. 5.21g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Rare; apparently only the fourth known example, and the only one in private hands.

25,000

The obverse of this coin displays a most remarkable portrait of the emperor Diocletian. A half-length bust of highly militaristic character has been most ingeniously engraved within the confines of the aureus die, and it is noteworthy for the attention to detail that has been lavished on the subject. It follows closely in the tradition of military bust types so favoured by Probus, but surpasses those types in richness of detail and complexity. It is fitting for an emperor who rose through the ranks of the army to become cavalry commander to the emperor Carus, prior to assuming the purple himself after the former’s death in battle, and whose reforms had widespread and long-lasting effects on the Roman military. Though not chiefly remembered as a military figure in the same manner as the general-emperor Probus, Diocletian’s reign is nonetheless marked for having secured the empire’s borders and purged it internally of all threats to his power. Diocletian well understood the dangers presented to the empire by the concentration of supreme power in one individual; the assassinations of Aurelian and Probus had amply demonstrated this in the preceding years. The internal and external threats to the empire were too many for one man to deal with, and thus in 285 Diocletian made his fellow-officer Maximian co-emperor. This diarchy would soon be made a tetrarchy, to better distribute the responsibilities and military commands required. Diocletian’s administrative and bureaucratic reforms encompassed far more than the decentralisation of imperial power. Some of his most enduring changes were to the Roman military. Instituting systematic annual conscription for the first time since the days of the Republic, Diocletian increased the overall size of the Roman army by roughly 33%, and more than doubled the number of legions and auxiliary units by creating smaller, more mobile detachments. A massive upgrade of the empire’s defensive infrastructure was undertaken across great swathes of the borders including new fortifications and roads. Centralised fabricate were introduced to provide arms and armour for the army on an industrial scale. The most significant change to the Roman military structure was the establishment of large personal escort armies (comitatus praesentales) which typically comprised 20-30,000 elite palatine troops. These highly mobile armies were designed to quickly reinforce the border defences or crush potential usurpers. Indeed, though while they proved highly effective during Diocletian’s reign, in his retirement he would live to see them misused by his successors, who now each had a substantial comitatus at their disposal to enforce their claims. Yet it would ultimately be religious legitimisation, not military, that would elevate Diocletian above his predecessors. The quasi-republican ideals of Augustus’ ‘primus inter pares’ system were abandoned for all but the tetrarchs themselves. Diocletian took to wearing a gold crown and jewels, and forbade the use of purple cloth to all but the emperors. His subjects were required to prostrate themselves in his presence (adoratio); the most fortunate were allowed the privilege of kissing the hem of his robe (proskynesis). The reverse of this coin further alludes to the quasi-divine aspects of the new ‘dominate’ system of government. Around 287 Diocletian assumed the title Iovius, and Maximian assumed the title Herculius; these grandiose new titles not only reflected the working dynamic between Diocletian and Maximian (while the one acted as supreme strategist, the other enforced imperial will by brute force), but more importantly by taking on divine attributes Diocletian intended to make the person of the emperor inviolate as the gods’ representative on earth.

283


907. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Ticinum, circa AD 294. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets. RIC 14a; Jelocnik 24; RSC 516d. 3.38g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State; lustrous metal.

800

908. Maximian, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 300. MAXIMIANVS CAESAR, laureate head right / XCVI - T in two lines across field within wreath with large central jewel. RIC 21b; RSC 250a. 3.69g, 18mm, 10h. Mint State; tiny flan crack, lustrous surfaces on reverse. Very Rare.

1,250

909. Maximian AR Argenteus. Nicomedia, AD 295. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, camp gate with four turrets and open doors; SMNΓ in exergue. RIC 22b; RSC 553a. 3.33g, 23mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

800

910. Maximian AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 295. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIA SARMAT, the four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets. RIC 16b; Sisak Hoard 39. 2.97g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; attractively toned. Very Rare.

284

750


An Exceptionally Detailed and Fine Style Argenteus

911. Constantius I, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Siscia, AD 294. CONSTANTIVS CAESAR, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with eight turrets. RIC 44a; Jelocnik 9b; RSC 315†c. 2.69g, 18mm, 12h. Near Mint State. A magnificently well detailed coin, engraved in exceptionally fine style.

1,000

One of Two Known

912. Galerius, as Caesar, AV Quinarius. Rome, AD 298-299. D N MAXIMIANO CAES, laureate head right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, emperor standing right, holding transverse spear and globe; PROM in exergue. Roma Numismatics XII, 1014 (same dies); RIC -, cf. 9 for another gold quinarius of Galerius; Depeyrot -, cf. 10/2 for quinarius of Maximian with same reverse type. 3.05g, 17mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. One of just two known examples.

5,000

Extremely Rare Severus II Argenteus

913. Severus II, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Serdica, AD 305-306. SEVERVS NOB C, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, three-turreted camp gate with no doors; •SM•SDA• in exergue. RIC -; NAC 62, 6 October 2011, lot 2089 (same dies). 3.29g, 20mm, 12h. Minor bump behind portrait, otherwise Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of very few known examples.

6,000

Ex Heritage 3026, 25 September 2013, lot 23432. Most likely struck to mark the commencement of the Second Tetrarchy in AD 305, this extremely rare coin is one of only a handful known. A number of argentei of Severus II came to light in a hoard about a decade ago; prior to this, they were virtually unknown. Cohen lists no such types, and RIC lists one argenteus of Severus II (21), but as Augustus rather than Caesar. The scarcity of these types might be explained by the short period of time during which Severus held the position of Caesar before being elevated by Galerius after the death of Constantius I in summer 306 - in a matter of months he was raised from the senior ranks of the army to Augustus in the West. However, his time as Augustus came to an abrupt end when he was tasked with the suppression of the revolt of Maxentius in Rome: he marched on the city at the head of an army previously commanded by Maximian, father of Maxentius, to whom his soldiers deserted. Severus fled to Ravenna where, in 307, he was persuaded by Maxentius to surrender. Despite Maximian’s assurances that he would be treated with respect, Severus was nonetheless displayed as a captive and later imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. When Galerius invaded Italy to suppress Maxentius and Maximian himself, Maxentius ordered Severus’ death. He was executed (or forced to commit suicide) on 16 September 307.

285


914. Maximinus II, as Caesar, Æ Nummus. Antioch, circa AD 309-310. MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with battle scene: two horseman riding to left brandishing weapons, four infantrymen in combat below / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Virtus standing left, holding spear and decorated shield set on ground; altar in left field, S to right, ANT in exergue. RIC 125. 6.47g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

915. Maximinus II, as Caesar, Æ Nummus. Antioch, circa AD 309-310. MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with battle scene: two horseman riding to left brandishing weapons, four infantrymen in combat below / SOLI INVICTAE, Sol standing in facing quadriga, raising hand and holding globe; Z below, ANT in exergue. RIC 145b. 7.78g, 23mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

916. Time of Maximinus II Æ Nummus. Antioch, AD 310-313. ‘Persecution Issue’. GENIO ANTIOCHENI, Tyche seated facing, river-god Orontes swimming below / APOLLONI SANCTO, Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre; Γ in right field, SMA in exergue. McAlee 170; Vagi 2954; Failmezger 229. 1.79g, 17mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

100

917. Maxentius Æ Nummus. Aquileia, AD 307. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated left on shield in tetrastyle temple, handing globe to Maxentius and holding sceptre; seated captive between, Victories as acroteria, wolf and twins in pediment; AQS in exergue. RIC 113. 7.21g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

918. Maxentius Æ Nummus. Ostia, AD 309-312. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETERNITAS AVG N, Castor and Pollux facing one another, holding horses to centre and spears to outside; MOSTP in exergue. RIC 35. 5.98g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Attractive emerald green patina.

286

100


287


The Decennalia of 317

919.

Licinius I AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 317, celebrating the Decennalia of November 11. LICINIVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / IOVI CONS LICINI AVG, laureate and bearded Jupiter, nude to waist, enthroned to left, holding sceptre in left hand and Victoriola with palm and wreath in right; at his feet, eagle to left with head reverted and wreath in beak; all on high podium inscribed on frontispiece SIC X SIC XX in two lines; SMNΔ in exergue. C. 130 var. (Jupiter facing); Bastien, Donativa 126, 14 and pl. 14, 14 (same obverse die, but attributed to Licinius II, in error?); Depeyrot, 25B/1 (this coin cited); RIC 20 (wrong obverse legend by error); Calicó 5100 var. (off. Γ). 5.23g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Münzen & Medaillen Basel 92, 22 November 2002, lot 297; Ex Auctiones 22, 16 June 1992, lot 815. Struck to celebrate his decennalia in AD 317 this beautifully detailed aureus was minted during a period of peace between Licinius and his co-emperor Constantine. The reverse, marked on the platform with SIC X SIC XX, gives thanks for ten years of rule and seeks the gods’ favour for a further ten such years, that they might be enjoyed in health and prosperity. Licinius may well have held such hopes, for 317 marked a high point of peace and stability, and it was in this year that he elevated his young son to the rank of Caesar, despite his being only two years old. Alas, it was not to be. After 317 the uneasy truce the two Augusti maintained after their previous conflicts quickly soured again; Licinius reneged on the jointly issued Edict of Milan in 320, beginning a new persecution of Christians in the Eastern Roman Empire - an act that further alienated him from his colleague. Then in 321 tempers rose when Constantine pursued a band of Sarmatians that had been ravaging his territory across the Danube into Licinius’ realm. When this was repeated in 323 Licinius accused Constantine of breaking the treaty between them. Constantine wasted no time in invading Licinius’ lands, defeating his fleet in 323 and routing his army at the Battle of Adrianople. By 325, having been defeated again at sea at the Battle of the Hellespont and on land at the final pitched Battle of Chrysopolis, Licinius and his son were prisoners of Constantine who, despite promising clemency, soon found cause to have both father and son executed. The reverse design of this aureus featuring Jupiter atop a platform, at first standing and later seated, was an innovation in design that became a standard type at Nicomedia with little variation until the Battle of Chrysopolis in AD 324. That he should use Jupiter so prominently on his coinage is not surprising given the opposing beliefs of Licinius and Constantine. The latter had taken readily to Christianity, using the Chi-Rho symbol as his talisman, emblazoning it on the shields and standards of his army, while himself placing the worship of Sol Invictus first and foremost among the religions of his territory. Licinius on the other hand might have seen himself as being the bastion of traditional Roman religious beliefs, taking Jupiter as his patron and protector, as seen here in the legends of his coins. This religious rivalry was borne out at the Battle of Chrysopolis, where Licinius drew up his battle line with images of the Roman gods prominently displayed in the ranks; this was mirrored by a multitude of Chi-Rho symbols in the opposing army of Constantine. Apparently, Licinius had developed a superstitious dread of the symbol which he allowed to infect the morale of his soldiers. The resulting slaughter of his army was viewed by Christians throughout the empire as a triumph of their god over the old pagan deities, further hastening the decline of traditional Roman religious beliefs.

288


Two Beautiful Solidi of Constantine I

2x

2x

920. Constantine I AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 313-314. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / VICTOR OMNIVM GENTIVM, Constantine standing left, holding signum and shield, with two suppliants before him and a captive behind; PTR in exergue. RIC 72; Schulten Em. 16; Depeyrot 19/1. 4.41g, 19mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine. Rare.

10,000

In 312 Constantine I defeated Maxentius’ army at Turin and Verona, securing northern Italy before marching southward to Rome. Just beyond the Milvian Bridge to the west of Rome, Constantine decisively defeated Maxentius to become sole western emperor. Soon after in 313, Constantine successfully conducted another military campaign against the Franks and the Alemanni in Gaul to secure the Rhine frontier. This solidus was struck in Constantine’s capital of Treveri, where he celebrated his victories in the winter of 314, and the reverse legend proclaims Constantine the ‘victor over all people’. The same phrase was used by Eusebius (Life of Constantine, 1.3-5) when describing Constantine’s victories as a manifestation of God’s power and support for the emperor. Indeed, it was Licinius’ dismissal of Christians from both the army and government, and his order of the execution of Christian bishops, which prompted Constantine to invade Licinius’ territories. In 324, Constantine defeated Licinius at Chrysopolis and later had him hanged, thus becoming the first sole ruler since Diocletian.

2x

2x

921. Constantine I AV Solidus. Ticinum, AD 313-315. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / P M TRIB P COS IIII P P PROCOS, togate Emperor seated facing on curule chair, head left, holding short sceptre and globe. RIC 30; Depeyrot 21/4; Alföldi 301. 4.32g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 1166.

922. Constantine I Æ Nummus. London, AD 314-315. IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / ADVENTVS AVG N, Constantine on horseback left, right hand raised, holding spear in left hand; S-F across fields, PLN in exergue. RIC 1. 3.47g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. This type, the earliest struck at the London mint under Constantine I, commemorates the emperor’s arrival in the city.

289

350


Constantine I AV Medallion of 1.5 Solidi

923.

Constantine I AV Medallion of 1.5 Solidi. Nicomedia, AD 325-326. D N CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / EQVIS ROMANVS, Constantine on horseback to right, raising right hand; SMN in exergue. RIC 100; C. 139; Gnecchi 9; Depeyrot p. 154; Bastien, Donativa, p. 79 note 1 and pl. 4, 16; Biaggi 1966. 6.76g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

15,000

After the naval defeat inflicted on Licinius by Constantine at the Battle of the Hellespont, Licinius withdrew his forces from Byzantium across the Bosphorus to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Pursued by Constantine, it was here that the decisive Battle of Chrysopolis was fought, in which Licinius was routed and fled with his remaining troops to the eastern capital of Nicomedia. Here he threw himself on the mercy of Constantine, capitulating in order to save his own life. Struck shortly after the mint at Nicomedia had begun striking gold for Constantine as sole emperor, and issued for Constantine’s vicennial celebrations in 326, this unusual type honours the traditional concept of the Roman state by hailing the equestrian rank; a similar issue was struck at the same time with the reverse legend SENATVS. Alföldi proposed that these particular reverse types might also commemorate the emperor’s experiment with reorganisation of the equites, which began in 326.

290


The Security of the Republic

924. Constantine I AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 326. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Securitas standing facing with legs crossed, head right, hand on head and leaning on column; TR in exergue. RIC 502; Alföldi 457; Depeyrot 32/6. 4.46g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Leu 91, 10 May 2004, lot 690. Struck after the end of the Tetrarchy and once Constantine had sole control over the whole empire, this reverse type can be seen to reference the peace and stability that he brought to pass. The ‘Security of the Republic’, as proclaimed by the reverse legend, was an important message for Constantine to broadcast - in ancient Rome Securitas meant freedom from care, and an attitude of relaxed confidence that resulted from “good” government. Indeed, Constantine proved himself to be an able administrator, notably dividing the military into groups of frontier troops and a central field army, which would prove to be effective in both the civil war against Licinius and his early frontier campaigns.

925. Constantine I Æ Nummus. Constantinople, AD 327. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed head right / GLORIA ROMANORVM, Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; A in left field, CONS in exergue. RIC 23. 2.59g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Earthen ‘desert’ patina.

100

926. Constantine I Æ Nummus. Constantinople, AD 327. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed head right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Victory standing facing on galley, head left, holding wreath in each hand; B in left field, CONS in exergue. RIC 25. 3.41g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

291

100


Attractive Victory Reverse Type

927. Constantine I AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 335. Rosette-diademed head right, with uplifted gaze / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory, wearing long dress, seated to right on cuirass inscribing VOT XXX on shield held by Genius; SMNC in exergue. RIC 175; Depeyrot 44/1; Bastien, Donativa 81, g) and note 8. 4.49g, 22mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Rare.

15,000

928. Constantine I AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 335. Rosette-diademed head right, with uplifted gaze / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory, wearing long dress, seated to right on cuirass inscribing VOT XXX on shield held by Genius; SMNC in exergue. RIC 175; Depeyrot 44/1; Bastien, Donativa 81, g) and note 8. 4.36g, 22mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; scattered marks. Rare.

4,000

929. Divus Constantine I Æ Nummus. Antioch, AD 337-347. DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG, veiled head right / IVST VEM MEM, Aequitas standing left, holding scales; SMANB in exergue. RIC 64; C. 314. 2.37g, 16mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

292

200


293


294


Superb Portrait of Crispus

930. Crispus AV Solidus. Aquileia, AD 320. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and mappa in left / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Crispus standing facing, head right, holding legionary standard surmounted by eagle and sceptre, another standard behind; AQ in exergue. RIC -; C -; Depeyrot -; Paolucci 282 = NAC 25, 594. 4.39g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - apparently only the second known example.

30,000

931. Constantine II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 336-337. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantine standing left, in military dress, holding vexillum with right hand and long sceptre with left hand; two standards behind, CONS in exergue. RIC 109. 4.61g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Minor surface marks on reverse. Very Rare.

8,000

From the Ambrose Collection.

Constans is Born

932. Constans, as Caesar, AR Siliqua. Siscia, AD 334. FL IVL CONSTANTIS BEA C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA CAESARVM, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch; SIS in exergue. RIC 234 (citing unique example in BM). 2.75g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; minor spots of corrosion. Of the highest rarity, apparently only the second known example of the type, and one of only a handful of surviving coins from the first issue struck in Constans’ name in the very first year of his life. 2,000

295


Attractive Solidus of Constantius II as Caesar

933. Constantius II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Siscia, AD 334. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantius in military attire standing left, holding vexillum in right hand and sceptre in left, two standards in right field; SIS in exergue. RIC -; Depeyrot -; cf. Numismatica Genevensis SA Auction 4, 11 December 2006, lot 268. 4.56g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine, pleasant light reddish tone. Very Rare.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection. After the defeat of Licinius in 324, Constantine I finally secured sole rule over the empire and sought to begin securing the succession of his three sons: Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans. The second eldest son of Constantine, Constantius II, was raised to the rank of Caesar that same year and would later be given control over the eastern territories of the empire. After 324, the reverse types of Constantinian solidi become increasing dominated by images of the emperor and his family; Constantius II, like his brothers Constantine II, Constans, and their half-brother Crispus before them, is portrayed as the Prince of Youth; a title of great honour even in the days of the republic that since the reign of Augustus had been conferred on those who were intended to succeed to the throne. By this time, the role was a highly militaristic one (as necessity demanded), and the confidence placed in the heirs to the empire by entrusting them with important commands demonstrated the security of the imperial succession.

934. Constantius II AV Solidus. Siscia, AD 337-340. Decennalia issue. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA DD NN AVG, Victory seated right on cuirass, holding shield inscribed VOT X MVLT XX in four lines and supported by winged Genius standing left; SIS* in exergue. RIC 30; Depeyrot 5/2; Biaggi 2176. 4.43g, 25mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

4,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 1170.

935. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 347-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma seated facing and Constantinopolis seated facing slightly left, with right foot on prow, each holding sceptre and supporting shield between them inscribed VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines; SMANB in exergue. RIC 83; Depeyrot 6/3. 4.47g, 21mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

296

1,000


936. Constantius II AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 350-355. DN CONSTANTIVS MAX AVGVSTVS, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma seated facing and Constantinopolis seated facing slightly left, with right foot on prow, each holding sceptre and supporting shield between them inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX; *TESSU* in exergue. C. 122; Depeyrot 12/1; RIC 153. 4.66g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

4,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 80, 20 October 2014, lot 269.

937. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Sirmium, AD 351-355. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in four lines within wreath; SIRM in exergue. RIC 17. 2.21g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

250

938. Commemorative Series Æ Nummus. Struck under Constantius II and Constans in Rome, AD 348. ROMA, helmeted and draped bust of Roma right / Virtus standing facing in military attire, head right, holding spear and shield; P-R across fields. RIC 104; Vagi 3049. 2.42g, 16mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Earthen ‘desert’ patina. Rare, and in exceptional condition for the type.

500

939. Constantius Gallus, as Caesar, Æ Centenionalis. Alexandria, 15 March AD 351 - Winter AD 354. D N CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier advancing left, spearing fallen horseman; Г in left field, ALEA in exergue. RIC 74; LRBC 2838. 8.10g, 24mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Unusually heavy module.

100

940. Julian II AR Light Miliarense. Arelate, AD 360 - 26 June 363. DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Soldier standing facing, head right, holding inverted spear and resting hand on shield; in right field, eagle standing with head reverted, holding wreath in beak; TCONST in exergue. C. 72 var. (P/S CONST); RIC 308. 4.14g, 22mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

297

1,500


941. Julian II Æ Maiorina. Constantinople, AD 361-363. D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right; two stars above, (palm)CONSPΔ(palm) in exergue. RIC 163; LRBC 2059. 8.48g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Some original silvering remaining.

500

942. Jovian Æ Maiorina. Thessalonica, AD 363-364. D N IOVIANVS P F P P AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum with Christogram and Victory on globe; •TESS• in exergue. C. 22; RIC 238. 9.15g, 28mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Earthen ‘desert’ patina. Excellent for the type.

750

943. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Rome, AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; •RT(palm) in exergue. RIC 2(a).11; Depeyrot 27/1. 4.44g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

944. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; *SIRM in exergue. RIC 1; Depeyrot 27/1. 4.54g, 21mm, 12h. Mint State.

298

1,500


Contemporary Forgery in Superb Condition

945. Valentinian I FourrĂŠe Solidus. Contemporary imitation of Sirmium, circa AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; SIRM in exergue. Cf. RIC 1a (*SIRM). 3.67g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. In outstanding condition for a plated solidus, being given away only by its low weight and an edge nick probably caused by a plough while buried. 625 A superb example of an ancient counterfeit in gold. Such coins are extremely rare, at least in part due to the severe penalties that were imposed on those caught counterfeiting imperial gold - offenders might be condemned to the mines, crucified or given to wild beasts to be torn apart.

946. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; SMNE in exergue. RIC 2a; Depeyrot 10/1. 4.54g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

1,500

947. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; SMNE in exergue. RIC 2a; Depeyrot 10/1. 4.57g, 22mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

1,500

948. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Arelate, AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTIVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; KONSTAN in exergue. RIC 1b; Depeyrot 13/1. 4.44g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Exceptionally well detailed reverse.

299

1,500


949. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Arelate, AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTIVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; KONSTAN in exergue. RIC 1b; Depeyrot 13/1. 4.40g, 21mm, 12h. Two light edge bumps, otherwise Mint State.

1,250

950. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; TR(wreath) in exergue. RIC 1; Depeyrot 22/1. 4.50g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

951. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Contemporary imitation of Treveri, circa AD 364-367. D N VALENTINVS P F AVG (sic), pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVOR REIPVBLICAE (sic), Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; *TRM* in exergue. Cf. RIC 1b. 4.42g, 21mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

500

Unique and Previously Unknown Type

952. Valentinian I BI Maiorina. Constantinople, AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA ROMANORVM, Valentinian and Valens standing in facing quadriga, nimbate and togate, each holding sceptre and mappa; CONSP in exergue. RIC -, cf. p. 209, 1 (Aureus with single emperor in quadriga distributing coins); LRBC -; DOC Late Roman -; Hunter -; ERIC II -; C. -. 6.56g, 25mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Unique and unpublished; a fascinating type.

2,000

Julian II was the last surviving male relative of Constantine and as such marked the end of his dynasty. The demise of Jovian left no natural successor, and according to Ammianus Marcellinus (Res Gestae XXVI.1.5), the generals and civil officials met in conclave to name a new emperor, a Pannonian officer of humble origin, Valentinian I, who was proclaimed Augustus on 28 February 364. This event is celebrated on the reverse of the unique Valentinian I aureus in the British Museum (also with mintmark CONSP) depicting the emperor alone scattering coins from a facing quadriga, which must be his first distribution issue on accepting the Augustate. However, the above hitherto unknown billon issue depicts Valentinian with a co-emperor, his brother Valens, who he nominated Augustus in Constantinople one month later, on 28 March 364. From the Codex Theodosius we learn that the largest billon coins which modern numismatists call Æ 1, were known as ‘maiorina pecunia’ and ‘cententionales communes’ (CTh 9.23.1), and that there were severe penalties for defacing them. They were a continuation of the billon nummi of Diocletian’s currency reform of 293 which originally had a silver wash and content of about 4%, rarely seen; for discussion cf. RIV VIII pp. 48 and 65-6.

300


Extremely Rare Semissis

953. Valens AV Semissis. Antioch, AD 373-375. D N VALENS PER F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory seated right on cuirass, supporting a shield inscribed VOT X MVL XX in four lines; shield behind, staurogram in right field, ANOBE in exergue. RIC -; Depeyrot 43/1; M&M, 12 November 1970, 494. 2.20g, 12mm, 5h. Very Fine. Scrape to reverse. Extremely Rare.

500

954. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 367-375. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, jointly holding globe; Victory above, wings spread; palm branch below; TROBT in exergue. RIC 17g; Depeyrot 43/3. 4.50g, 21mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

3,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Gemini VIII - Heritage, 14 April 2011, lot 458; Ex H. D. Rauch 80, 1 June 2007, lot 287.

955. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 367-375. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, jointly holding globe; Victory above, wings spread; palm branch below; TR•OB• in exergue. RIC 17f. 4.47g, 22mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 866.

956. Gratian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 380. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG•, turreted figure of Constantinopolis seated facing on throne, head right, holding sceptre and globe; right foot on prow, CONOB in exergue. RIC 43a; Depeyrot 30/1. 4.49g, 20mm, 12h. Mint State. Rare.

301

1,000


957. Valentinian II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 375-378. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG E, helmeted figure of Constantinopolis seated facing on throne, head right, holding sceptre and globe; right foot on prow, CONOB in exergue. RIC 69b1. 4.50g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

950

958. Valentinian II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 388-392. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG S, helmeted figure of Constantinopolis seated facing on throne, head right, holding sceptre and globe; right foot on prow, CONOB in exergue. RIC 69b.2; Depeyrot 47/5; Biaggi 2288. 4.45g, 21mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

959

500

960

959. Theodosius I AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 378-388. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and reversed spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 58b.1 and 84a; RSC 56a. 2.06g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

150

960. Theodosius I AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 378-388. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and reversed spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 58b.1 and 84a; RSC 56a. 2.00g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

100

961. Theodosius I AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 379. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Theodosius and Gratian seated facing on throne, holding globe between them; palm between legs, figure of Victory with wings spread above, TESOB in exergue. RIC 34c; Depeyrot 34/3. 4.49g, 20mm, 5h. Mint State.

302

1,000


Excessively Rare Magnus Maximus Heavy Miliarense

962. Magnus Maximus AR Heavy Miliarense. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, laurel-and-rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS V MVLTIS X in four lines within wreath with jewel at apex; TRPS in exergue. RIC 80; C. -; Vierhoff 5 March 1823, 2873. 4.46g, 25mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Of the highest rarity.

963

7,500

964

963. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, head right, holding sceptre and cornucopiae; TRPS in exergue. RIC 83b; RSC 1. 1.79g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 200 964. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, head right, holding sceptre and cornucopiae; TRPS in exergue. RIC 83b; RSC 1. 1.97g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 200

965

966

965. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, head right, holding sceptre and cornucopiae; TRPS in exergue. RIC 83b; RSC 1. 1.98g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. 200 966. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 1.93g, 17mm, 12h. Mint State. 200

967 968 967. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.12g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State. 200 968. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.16g, 17mm, 11h. Mint State. 200

303


969 970 969. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 1.61g, 17mm, 12h. Mint State. 200 970. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.29g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State. 200

971 972 971. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.08g, 18mm, 7h. Mint State. 200 972. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.27g, 18mm, 7h. Mint State. 200

973 974 973. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.10g, 17mm, 6h. Mint State. 200 974. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 1.78g, 17mm, 12h. Mint State. 200

975 976 975. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.20g, 17mm, 6h. Mint State. 200 976. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 1.91g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State. 200

977 978 977. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 1.89g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State. 200 978. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 1.98g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Light iridescent tone. 200

304


979

980

979. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.15g, 17mm, 11h. Mint State. 200 980. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.05g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Unusual brockage coin with re-struck reverse. Light iridescent tone. 200

981

982

981. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b; RSC 20a. 2.22g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State. 200 982. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Mediolanum, circa AD 387-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and reversed spear; MDPS in exergue. RIC 19a; RSC 20c. 1.53g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. 200

Exceptional Flavius Victor Siliqua

983. Flavius Victor AR Siliqua. Mediolanum, AD 387-388. D N FL VICTOR P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; MDPS in exergue. RIC 19b; RSC 6Ac. 1.53g, 17mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Minor mark on cheek, but nonetheless one of the finest examples present on CoinArchives. Very Rare.

750

984. Flavius Victor AR Siliqua. Aquileia, AD 387-388. D N FL VICTOR P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; AQPS in exergue. C. 6; RIC 54b; RSC 6Ad. 1.78g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

305

500


985. Flavius Victor AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 387-388. D N FL VICTOR P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84d; RSC 6Ab; Hoxne 545. 1.80g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State. Old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

500

986. Eugenius AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 392-395. D N EVGENIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and reversed spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 106d; RSC 14a. 7.66g, 18mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

500

987. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 388-392. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG Δ, Constantinopolis, turreted, seated facing, head right, holding sceptre and shield inscribed VOT V MVL X; CONOB in exergue. RIC 70c.2; Depeyrot 46/3. 4.45g, 21mm, 12h. Mint State.

950

988. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 388-392. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG H, Constantinopolis, turreted, seated facing, head right, holding sceptre and shield inscribed VOT V MVL X; CONOB in exergue. RIC 70c.4; Depeyrot 46/3. 4.45g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

625

989. Arcadius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 395-402. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and crowned by Victory on globe, with foot on captive to lower right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC IX 35b = RIC X 1205; Depeyrot 16/1. 4.49g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

306

625


Superb Arcadius Solidus

990. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 403-408. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, helmeted, diademed and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear over right shoulder and shield, ornamented with a horseman spearing a fallen foe / NOVA SPES REIPVBLICAE Δ, Victory seated right on cuirass, supporting shield inscribed XX XXX; star in left field, CONOB in exergue. Depeyrot 34/2; RIC 29. 4.48g, 22mm, 6h. Mint State; rare thus. Struck on an extraordinarily broad flan.

1,500

991. Honorius Æ Exagium Solidi Weight. AD 393-423. D N HONORIVS AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; all within square beaded border / EXAGIVM SOLIDI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae; all within square beaded border. Bendall, Byzantine Weights, p. 17, 5; Sabatier 3; NGSA 5, 3 December 2008, 322 (same obverse die). 4.23g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

No mint marks indicate where the exagium solidi were manufactured – the only differentiation that can be discerned is that the exagia from the West are square, and those from the East are round.

992. Honorius Æ Exagium Solidi Weight. AD 393-423. D N HONORIVS AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; all within square beaded border / EXAGIVM SOLIDI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae; all within square beaded border. Bendall, Byzantine Weights, p. 17, 5; Sabatier 3; NGSA 5, 3 December 2008, 322. 4.43g, 17mm, 12h. 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Beautiful Patina.

1,500

993. Honorius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 394-395. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, treading on captive to right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. Depeyrot 16/2; RIC IX 35c; cf. RIC X 1206a. 4.53g, 21mm, 12h. Mint State.

307

750


994. Honorius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 394-395. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, treading on captive to right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. Depeyrot 16/2; RIC IX 35c; cf. RIC X 1206a. 4.43g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

625

995. Honorius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 394-395. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl- diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, treading on captive to right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. Depeyrot 16/2; RIC IX 35c; cf. RIC X 1206a. 4.43g, 21mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

625

996. Honorius, with Theodosius, II Æ Exagium Solidi. Constantinople, AD 408-423. DD NN AVGG, diademed and draped facing busts of Honorius and Theodosius / EXAGIVM SOLIDI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae; CONS in exergue. Bendall, Weights 12; Sabatier –; Geneva 281. 4.37g, 20mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

1,250

Exceedingly Rare

997. Priscus Attalus AR Siliqua. Rome, AD 409-410. PRISCVS ATTALVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / INVICTA ROMA ET AETERNA, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and transverse spear; star in left field, PST in exergue. RIC 1412. 2.17g, 18mm, 6h. Condition as seen; flan bent. Exceedingly Rare; one of very few specimens known.

308

1,500


The Man who Lost Britain

998. Constantine III AV Solidus. Lugdunum, AD 408-409. D N CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIAA AVGGG (sic), Emperor standing right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, treading on captive to right; L-D across fields, CONOB in exergue. RIC 1512; C. 5 var.; Bastien Lyon pl. 28, 250n (same dies); LRC 793; Depeyrot 22/2. 4.43g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare; an exceptional example of the type.

7,500

Thessalonica Solidus

999. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 408-420. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with the motif of Victory holding spear with serpent before / CONCORDIA AVGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, holding sceptre and Victory on globe; right foot on prow, star in left field, TESOB in exergue. RIC -, cf. 351, 353, 358 for similar type with different shield designs. 4.42g, 20mm, 5h. 1,000 Near Mint State. An apparently unlisted and perhaps unique variety of this very rare issue, all of which are rated in RIC (nos. 348-360) as R3-R4.

1000. Theodosius II AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 408-420. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory walking right, her head turned left, holding wreath in her right hand and globus cruciger in her left; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. Depeyrot 70/1; RIC 213. 1.47g, 14mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

500

1001. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 426-429. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / SALVS REIPVBLICAE B, Theodosius II and Valentinian III seated facing on double throne, each nimbate and wearing consular robes, holding mappa in right hand, cruciform sceptre in left; star above, CONOB in exergue. RIC 237; Depeyrot 79/1. 4.35g, 22mm, 5h. Good Very Fine; several ‘N’ graffiti in fields.

309

500


1002. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 430-440. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / VOT XXX MVLT XXXX Z, Constantinopolis enthroned left, holding globus cruciger and sceptre, resting foot on prow; round shield behind throne, star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 257; Depeyrot 81/1. 4.47g, 21mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

500

1003. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 430-440. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / VOT XXX MVLT XXXX, Constantinopolis enthroned left, holding globus cruciger and sceptre, resting foot on prow; round shield behind throne, star in right field, TESOB in exergue. RIC 366. 4.42g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Lustrous metal.

500

1004. Theodosius II AV Semissis. Constantinople, AD 444. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory seated right on cuirass, inscribing + XXXV in two lines on shield set on knee; star and shield to left, staurogram to right, CONOB in exergue. RIC 331; MIRB 42c; Depeyrot 80/4. 2.17g, 18mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

500

1005. Theodosius II Ó”4. Constantinople, AD 445-450. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Monogram of Theodosius within wreath with jewel at apex; [CON] in exergue. RIC 463. 1.54g, 11mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

200

1006. Aelia Eudocia AV Tremissis. Constantinople, circa AD 430-440. AEL EVDOCIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right / Cross within wreath; CONOB* in exergue. RIC 335; Depeyrot 72/2. 1.39g, 13mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 1,000

310


1007

1008

1007. Aelia Eudocia AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 444. AEL EVDOCIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right / Cross within wreath; CONOB* in exergue. RIC 281; Depeyrot 72/2. 1.48g, 14mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare. 750 1008. Aelia Pulcheria AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 414-420. AEL PVLCHERIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right / Cross within wreath; CONOB* in exergue. RIC 214; Depeyrot 72/4. 1.47g, 15mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Rare. 750

Perfect Solidus of Marcian

1009. Marcian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 450. D N MARCIANVS P F AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust three quarters facing, holding spear over right shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / VICTORIA AVGGG A, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 510. 4.47g, 21mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

1,000

1010. Leo I AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 474. D N LEO PERPET AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SAL REI PYI within wreath; CONS* in exergue. RIC 646; RSC 12a. 1.20g, 16mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Toned. Rare.

400

Ex Marc Poncin Collection, Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 1134; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 64, 17 May 2012, lot 2771; Ex Gorny & Mosch 156, 5 March 2007, lot 2379.

Leo II and Zeno

1011. Leo II and Zeno AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 474. D N LEO ET ZENO P P AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman spearing an enemy / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Leo and Zeno seated facing on double throne, each holding mappa in right hand; star and cross above, CONOB. RIC 803 note; MIRB 1b; LRC 600; Depeyrot 99/1. 4.47g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; minor scratch and some hairlines. Rare.

311

3,000


1012. Zeno AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 474-475. D N ZENO PERP AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman / VICTORIA AVGGG I, angel standing left, holding long cross; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 910 and 929; Depeyrot 108/1. 4.49g, 19mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

1,000

1013. Zeno AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 474-475. D N ZENO PERP AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over and shield decorated with horseman / VICTORIA AVGGG H, angel standing left, holding long cross; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 910 and 929; Depeyrot 108/1. 4.48g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

1014. Zeno AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 474-475. D N ZENO PERP AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman / VICTORIA AVCCC Δ, angel standing left, holding long cross; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 910 and 929; Depeyrot 108/1. 4.46g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

1015. Zeno AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 474-475. D N ZENO PERP AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman / VICTORIA AVGGG B, angel standing left, holding long cross; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 910 and 929; Depeyrot 108/1. 4.49g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

400

Very Rare Basiliscus and Marcus Solidus

1016. Basiliscus and Marcus AV Solidus. Constantinople, autumn AD 475 - August AD 476. D N bASILISCI ET MARC P AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Basiliscus and Marcus seated facing on double throne, each nimbate, holding mappa and globus; in field between, star and cross, CONOB in exergue. RIC 1022; Depeyrot 104/1; DOC 621. 4.38g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

312

3,000


MIGRATION PERIOD Two Extremely Rare Suevic Tremisses

1017. Suevic Kingdom of Gallaecia AV Tremissis. Time of Hermeric, Rechila and Rechiar. Bracara Augusta, AD 425-455. In the name of Valentinian III. DN VΛLTININΛT, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right with prominent jewelled fibula and jewelled paludamentum over far shoulder; all within beaded border / Cross pattée within double wreathed circles, flanked by two lateral beaded and curved rectangles; ligate BR in left rectangle; wreath ties above, CONOB in exergue; the whole composition within beaded border. See Roma Numismatics IX, lot 871 (same type, but different dies). For the contemporary analogous tremisses see J.M. Peixoto Cabral and D.M. Metcalf, A moeda sueva - Suevic Coinage, Porto 1997, p. 285, 3-6 (retrograde BR) and p. 289, 1-2 (inverted BR); W. Reinhart, ‘Die Münzen des Schwebenreiches’, in Mittailungen der bayerischen Numismatiischen Gesellschaft 55, 1937, pp. 151-190, pl. 35, 54 pl. 36, 67 (inverted BR), pl. 36 70-3 (BR retrograde); A. Gomez, Moedas portuguesas, Lisboa 2003, p.45, 02.5 (ligate BR retrograde, valued at € 7,500); for B-R as a mint mark cf. RIC X, 3786 (siliqua in the name of Rechiar, ‘ivssv rechiari reges’) and Dix Noonan Webb sale, 27 September 2007, lot 2861 (solidus in the name of Honorius); for generic group of tremisses without BR cf. MEC I, 286-92. 1.50g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. The second known example of this excessively rare variant.

6,000

The generic term Suevi is applied to a group of West Germanic peoples of whom the most important were the Alamanni, which settled in southwestern Germany in what is now called Schwaben (Swabia). In 406 much of the tribe joined the Vandals, Quadi and Alans in breaching the Roman frontier at Mainz and launching an invasion of Gaul. In their company the Suevi crossed the Pyrenees in 409 and settled in the western half of the Roman province of Gallaecia (modern-day Galicia in Spain and northern Portugal) where, swearing loyalty to the Emperor Honorius, they obtained the status of foederati in about 410/11. By the 430s their king Hermeric had established a virtually independent state around the Roman capital of Gallaecia, Bracara Augusta (modern Braga). The indigenous Hispano-Roman population did not take kindly to the new settlers and it was not until the mid-5th century that the situation became more peaceful. Hermeric abdicated in favour of his son Rechila in 438, and on the death of Rechila in 448 his bellicose and ambitious son Rechiar, newly converted to Catholicism, inherited the crown. Rechiar died in 455 after being defeated by the Visigothic king Theodoric II. Subsequently the Suevian kingdom in Gallaecia was divided in two, with the boundary line at the River Minho and with different kings ruling each side of the river. The last king of the Suevi, Andeca, was defeated by the forces of the Visigothic king Leovigild in 585.

‘LATINA EMERI MVNTA’

1018. Suevic Kingdom of Gallaecia AV Tremissis. Uncertain mint in Gallaecia, circa AD 558-585. LATINA EMERI MVNTA, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right with prominent jewelled fibula and jewelled paludamentum over left shoulder, three pellets in field; all within beaded border / Cross pattée within double wreathed circles, flanked by two lateral beaded and curved rectangles; COINOI (retrograde) in exergue. Peixoto Cabral and Metcalf, p. 300, 1; W. Reinhart, ‘Die Münzen des Schwebenreiches’, in Mittailungen der bayerischen Numismatiischen Gesellschaft 55, 1937, p. 186, 50; cf. Gomes, Moedas portuhesas, Lisboa 2003, p. 45, 02.11. 1.17g, 17mm, 5h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

The extraordinary issues with enigmatic legends based on Latin legends akin to Latina munita (i.e. ‘Latin mint’) belong to the late period of the Suevic kingdom after it had been defeated by Theodoric II and divided in two. The reverse legend is difficult to explain: it may refer to a municipal (‘Latin’) origin of the coins, possibly arising from an incompetent interpretation of the wording of an instruction to the moneyers to place on the coins a Latin name of the mint. The issues have been tentatively attributed to an unspecified new mint, possibly in the newly conquered territories north of the Minho in the time of king Miro (570-583). For an in depth analysis on the legends and mint identifications see: ‘The LATINA MVNTA Tremisses’, in J.M. Peixoto Cabral and D.M. Metcalf, A moeda sueva - Suevic Coinage, Lisboa 1997, pp. 89-97.

313


1019. Merovingians, AV Tremissis (7 siliquae). Arelatum (Arles, Bouches-du-Rhône), circa AD 600-620. In the name of Maurice Tiberius. [D N ]MAVRI ooo IIVB PP P V, diademed and draped bust right / [VICAORI A]VTOAV around wreath enclosing cross potent; A-R across upper fields, V-II across lower fields, CONOB in exergue. G. Depeyrot, le numéraire mérovingien l’Iâge de l’or, IV, Wetteren 1998, p. 82, 8, (= pl. 28, 8); Belfort 273; Prou 1360a. 1.25g, 16mm, 5h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

An example of this extremely rare issue from Arles was found amongst the 37 Merovingian coins in the celebrated 1939 Sutton Hoo treasure now in the British Museum, and helped to establish the burial date of the ship to the early decades of the 7th century AD. Cf: J.P.C. Kent, 1975, Catalogue of the Sutton Hoo coins, blanks and billets, in R.L.S. Bruce-Mitford, ‘The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial’, I, no. 22.

1020. Visigoths, Egica AV Tremissis. Toledo, AD 687-702. + IND•INM EGICΛR, bust right, holding cruciform sceptre with leaves on staff / + TOLETOPIVS, cross on three steps; (•) below. Miles 436f. 1.36g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

1021. Visigoths, Witiza AV Tremissis. Mentesa (La Guardia, Jaén), c.AH 700-710. +VVITTIZ+, bust of Christ facing with cross behind head / +MENTES PIV, cross potent on three steps, between two pellets. Miles 496 X (Unique); Cf. CNV 606 (PIVS). 0.87g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare - the second recorded example.

314

1,000


COINS OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE

1022. Anastasius I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 498-518. D N ANASTASIVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with cavalryman motif / VICTORIA AVGGG Δ, Victory standing left, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram; star in left field, CONOB in exergue. MIBE 7; Sear 5. 4.51g, 21mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin.

1,000

1023. Justinian I AR Half Siliqua. Ravenna, AD 552-565. D N IVSTINIANVS P P, diademed bust right, wearing robe / Large staurogram set on globe; stars flanking, all within wreath. DOC 339; MIBE 78; Ranieri 361; Sear 320. 0.65g, 12mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

100

1024. Anonymous AR Half Siliqua. Constantinople, circa AD 530. Time of Justinian I. Helmeted and draped bust of Constantinopolis right / Large K. Bendall, Anonymous 8c (fig. 18; dated to the sixth century AD); Kent, “Urbs Roma and Constantinopolis Medallions at the mint of Rome”, Essays Sutherland, pl. 2, 28; Vagi 3051. 1.34g, 15mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

100

1025. Justin II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 567-578. D N IVSTINVS P P AVI, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding shield and globus surmounted by crowning Victory / VICTORIA AVGGG Γ, Constantinopolis seated facing, head right, holding spear and globus cruciger; C to left, CONOB in exergue. DOC 7a; MIBE 3a; Sear 348. 4.47g, 21mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Light edge dent at 2 o’clock obv.

315

300


1026. Tiberius II Constantine AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 578-582. d m TIb CONSTANT P P AVI, crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield / VICTORIA AVGG Θ, cross potent set on four steps; CONOB in exergue. Sear 422; DOC 4; MIBE 4. 4.27g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

300

1027. Maurice Tiberius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 583-602. D N MAVRC TIb P P AVI, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger / VICTORIA AVGG Δ, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. MIBE 6; DOC 5d; Sear 478. 4.14g, 22mm, 6h. Mint State; lustrous metal.

750

1028. Maurice Tiberius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 583-602. D N MAVRC TIb P P AVI, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger / VICTORIA AVGG Δ, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. MIBE 6; DOC 5d; Sear 478. 4.18g, 21mm, 7h. Mint State; lustrous metal.

750

1029. Maurice Tiberius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 583-602. D N MAVRC TIb P P AVI, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger / VICTORIA AVGG Z, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. DOC 5; Sear 478. 4.48g, 23mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

316

300


One of the Finest Known

1030. Maurice Tiberius AV Solidus. Constantinople, Consular issue of AD 602. D N MAVRC TIb PP AVI, Emperor enthroned facing, crowned and wearing consular robes, holding aloft mappa and cross / VICTORIA AVGG H, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. DOC 2a; MIBE 2; Sear 474. 4.43g, 23mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. One of the very finest known examples. Very Rare.

5,000

1031. Maurice Tiberius AV Solidus. Constantinople, Consular issue of AD 602. D N MAVRC TIb PP AVC, Emperor enthroned facing, crowned and wearing consular robes, holding aloft mappa and cross / VICTORIA AVGG Δ, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. DOC 2a; MIBE 2; Sear 474. 4.39g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Light marks on rev. at 1 o’clock. Very Rare.

3,000

1032. Phocas AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 602-603. D N FOCAS PERP AVG, draped and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger, wearing crown with pendilia / VICTORIA AVCC I, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. DOC 1; MIBE 5; Sear 616. 4.24g, 21mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

500

Rare Phocas Solidus

1033. Phocas AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 602-603. DM N FOCAE PERP AVC, draped and cuirassed bust facing holding globus cruciger, wearing crown with pendilia / VICTORIA AVGG H, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. Bendall, A New mint for Focas, NC 92, 8, fig. 2; DOC -; MIB 3; Sear 617a. 4.34g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State. Rare.

317

1,500


1034. Phocas AV Solidus. Constantinople, circa AD 602-610. O N FOCAS PERP AVC, draped and cuirassed bust facing holding globus cruciger, wearing crown with pendilia / VICTORIA AVCC Δ, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; N in right field, CONOB in exergue. MIBE 6 (same rev. die); DOC 2; Sear 617. 4.41g, 21mm, 7h. Almost as Struck. Extremely Rare.

750

Struck as a special issue perhaps commemorating the start of his reign, this solidus bears a particularly lifelike portrait of an emperor who was known to have had a grotesque physical appearance.

The Revolt of the Heraclii

1035. Revolt of the Heraclii Æ Nummus. Mint in Cyprus, dated year 3 = AD 610. DM N ERACLIO CONSVLII, facing busts of Heraclius, on left, and his father, the exarch Heraclius, on right, both crowned and wearing consular robes; cross above / Large M; A beneath, cross above, ANNO III (date) across fields; KYΠPOY in exergue. DOC (18) = Ratto 1438; MIBE 182; Sear 725. 9.98g, 27mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. ‘Desert’ patina. Extremely Rare, only four cited by Hahn (MIBE), two in CoinArchives.

1,500

Mint of Jerusalem?

1036. Heraclius AV Solidus. Uncertain eastern mint (Jerusalem or a mint in Syria?), late AD 610-611. DN hERACLIVS P P AVI, crowned and cuirassed bust facing (which resembles Phocas), holding globus cruciger / VICTORIA AVGV IΠ, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. DOC 186 (Alexandria); MIB 76 (Cyprus?); Bendall, Jerusalem 3 (Jerusalem?); Sear 850 (Jerusalem). 4.39g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Minor die break at 2h on rev., slight bend in outer edge of flan in same area. Struck on a broad flan and with lustrous, mirrorlike surfaces. Extremely Rare. 3,000 After two years of fuelling discontent at the tyranny of Phocas, at last the younger Heraclius felt confident to challenge the emperor in his capital and was successful in deposing him. Struck at an uncertain eastern mint that still has yet to be definitively located, this extremely rare solidus represents one of the first issues for Heraclius as sole emperor and clearly depicts the new emperor with the likeness of Phocas, as a new imperial image had not yet been received at the mint. Originally attributed to Jerusalem, more recent scholarship has cast doubt on this without giving a definite alternative, though a date of late 610-611 is certain. Issues with the IΠ, I and IX mintmark were likely struck to pay soldiers who had been loyal to the Heraclii rather than being regular issues and, disappearing shortly after the Sasanian invasion of the eastern provinces in 614, may even have been the product of a military mint.

1037. Heraclius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 610-613. DN hERACLIVS P P AVG, cuirassed bust right, wearing plumed helmet and chlamys, holding cross in right hand / VICTORIA AVG I, cross potent set on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 3b; MIB 5; Sear 731. 4.49g, 20mm, 7h. Mint State.

318

750


Fleur de Coin

1038. Heraclius, with Heraclius Constantine, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 613-618. dd NN hERACLIVS ET hERA CONST PP AVI, crowned and draped busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine facing; cross above / VICTORIA AVGV E, cross potent on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 8; MIB 8a; Sear 734. 4.39g, 21mm, 6h. 1,000 Fleur de Coin. Very slight die rust and flatness to rev. Struck in high relief and with almost untouched, lustrous surfaces. An exceptional example.

1039. Heraclius, with Heraclius Constantine, AV Solidus. Uncertain eastern mint (Jerusalem or a mint in Syria?), AD 613-618. dd NN h[ERACLIVS ET h]ERA CONST PP AV, crowned and draped busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine facing; cross above, exergual line below busts / VICTORIA AVGV E, cross potent set on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 187 (Alexandria) var. (officina letter); MIB 77 (Cyprus?) var. (same); Bendall, Jerusalem 4 var. (same); Sear 851 (Jerusalem) var. (same). 4.49g, 21mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Area of flatness to obv. Well centred and struck on lustrous metal. Unpublished with this officina letter.

1,000

Struck utilising the same obverse die as examples sold by Gorny & Mosch in 2012 (Auction 207, 15 October 2012, lot 787) and Heritage (CICF Signature Sale 3040, 9 April 2015, lot 29299), the present piece adds a second previously unpublished officina letter to the series so far known, the 2012 example showing an H appending the reverse legend and an I in the right field, the 2015 piece having the officina letter Θ. Postulated by Simon Bendall in his article ‘The Byzantine coinage of the mint of Jerusalem’ (RN 159, 2003, pp.307-22) was the theory that rather than there being one fixed mint operating in the east during the troubled period in which these pieces were struck, it is far more likely that a number of temporary and possibly transferable mints were in operation in this frontier war zone. The increasing number of differing variants seen in recent years would seem to give this position further credence.

1040. Heraclius, with Heraclius Constantine, AV Solidus. Uncertain eastern mint (Jerusalem or a mint in Syria?), AD 613-618. dd NN h[ERACLIVS ET hERA] CONS[T PP AV], crowned and draped busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine facing; cross above / VICTORIA AVGV IΠ, cross potent on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 188 (Alexandria); MIB 77 (Cyprus?); Bendall, Jerusalem 4; Sear 852 (Jerusalem). 4.47g, 22mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Struck with a narrow diameter rev. die, leading to areas of flatness to obv. Scarce.

500

1041. Heraclius, with Heraclius Constantine, AV Solidus. Constantinople, circa AD 616-625. dd NN hERACLIVS ET hERA CONSƮ PP AVG, crowned and draped busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine facing; cross above / VICTORIA AVGV E, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in exergue. MIB 11; DOC 13d; Sear 738. 4.48g, 22mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine; struck on a broad flan.

319

250


A New Byzantine Type

1042. Constans II AV Solidus. Syracuse, circa AD 659-662. D N CONStA-NY…, crowned bust of Constans II with long beard and holding globus cruciger, and Constantine IV facing / VICTORIA TYS YI Γ:, cross potent set on four steps between facing figures of Heraclius and Tiberius, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. MIB -; DOC -; Spahr -; Sear -; MIC -; M. Anastasi, monete byzantine di Sicilia, 171 (misdescribed); for the reverse type cf. MIB 945. 4.31g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Excessively Rare - the second recorded example.

1,500

This solidus, with the emperor holding a globus cruciger on the obverse, is a completely new addition to the repertoire of Constans II’s Syracusan solidi. Anastasi included the image of a similar example under number 171, but failed to recognise that it was a new type also not recorded for the mints of Constantinople, Rome or Ravenna.

1043. Constantine IV AV Solidus. Syracuse, circa AD 668-673. D N CONSt…, crowned bust facing, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger with thumb emerging from behind globe / VICTORI…, cross potent set on three steps between facing figures of Heraclius and Tiberius, both holding globus cruciger with thumb emerging from behind globe; CONOB in exergue. Cf. MIB 30; DOC 55a; Spahr 161; Sear 1201 (all with spike or finger emerging only from obverse globe); Elsen sale 114, 2012, 526 (same dies). 4.40g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

600

The thumb emerging from the globes held by Constantine IV and his family have not been noted in the standard publications.

1044. Tiberius III AR Solidus. Constantinople, AD 698-705. D TIbERIVS PE AV, crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear in right hand and shield over far shoulder / VICTORIA AVGY Δ, cross potent set on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 1d; MIB 1; Sear 1360. 4.43g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

320

2,500


1045. Anastasius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 713-715. d N ARTEMIVS ANASTASIVS MVL, crowned and draped bust facing, holding globus cruciger and akakia / VICTORIA AVGu Δ, cross potent set on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 2i; MIB 2; Füeg 2.K.11; Sear 1463. 4.44g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; a couple of minor scrapes. Rare.

1,000

1046. Leo IV, with Constantine VI, Leo III, and Constantine V AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 776-778. LEON VS S EGGON CONSTANTINOS O NEOS, crowned busts of Leo III and Constantine V facing, each wearing loros; cross above, pellet between / LEON PAP S CONSTANTINOS PATHR Θ, crowned and draped busts of Leo IV and Constantine VI facing; cross above, pellet between. DOC 1b; Sear 1583. 4.39g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State. Exceptional condition for the type, engraved in fine style and struck in comparatively high relief.

1,250

1047. Irene AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 797-802. EIPINH bASILISSH, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger in right hand, cruciform sceptre in left / •EIPINH bASILISSH Θ, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger and cruciform sceptre. DOC 1c; Sear 1599. 4.43g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

5,000

Struck after AD 797, when Irene had had her son Constantine VI deposed and murdered, this solidus depicts Irene on both the obverse and reverse, and marks a distinct shift from the types of her predecessors. Gone is the cross-on-steps reverse type, or figures of deceased members of the dynasty, to be replaced by two facing busts of Irene. Here we have Irene proclaiming herself Empress and sole ruler in the most public way possible. However, after just five years on the throne she herself was deposed and replaced by her Minister of Finance, Nicephorus, and thus ended the first period in the history of the empire during which the throne was occupied by a woman exercising power in her own right. Beginning during the time she ruled as regent for her son, Irene severely depleted the state treasuries with her policy of reducing taxation and making generous gifts to buy popularity, leaving the empire weak and unable to offer effective resistance to foreign aggressors. Having had to accept terms from the Arab Caliphs both in 792 and 798 in order to protect the fragile security, and being harried by the Bulgarians simultaneously, Irene was powerless to stop the formation of a new empire in the west under Charlemagne, who in AD 800 was crowned in Rome by Pope Leo III as Holy Roman Emperor due to his belief that the Imperial position was vacant, as it could not be filled by a woman.

321


Extremely Rare Michael II Solidus

1048. Michael II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 820/1-822. * MIX AHL ЬASILE’, crowned facing bust, wearing slight beard and chlamys, and holding akakia and cross potent / MIXAH L ЬASILEЧ’ E, crowned facing bust, wearing slight beard and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre and globus cruciger. DOC 1 (same obv. die); Füeg 1.A (same dies); Sear 1639. 4.36g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives.

10,000

Born into a humble family of professional peasant-soldiers, Michael was born in 770 in Amorium, Phrygia. As a soldier, he rose quickly to high rank, becoming a close aide to the general Bardanes Tourkos, along with his colleagues and future antagonists Leo the Armenian and Thomas the Slav. Both he and Leo married daughters of Bardanes, though both renounced the general after he rebelled against the emperor Nicephorus I in 803 and were rewarded with higher military positions. Following the death in battle of the emperor Nicephorus against Khan Krum of Bulgaria, and the abdication of his severely wounded son Stauracius, the throne was passed to Michael I Rhangabe. The new emperor was unable to counter the Bulgarian threat, and under his leadership the progress of the war went from bad to worse, with the Imperial army suffering a devastating defeat at Versinikia. Leo, with the assitance of Michael the Amorian, was able to force the emperor to abdicate in his favour. Thus Leo became emperor and Michael the Amorian and Thomas the Slav were raised still higher in standing. Yet the relationship between Leo and his colleague Michael soon soured; Michael was imprisoned on suspicion of conspiracy. Whether or not Michael was indeed conspiring to usurp the throne before his imprisonment, when faced with his impending execution he arranged Leo’s assassination from his prison cell. The deed was carried out in the chapel of St. Stephen on Christmas of 820, and Michael the Amorian was crowned Michael II with the prison irons still around his legs. Immediately forced to deal with his former colleague Thomas the Slav who had set himself up as a rival emperor, Michael was forced to call upon the aid of Omurtag of Bulgaria to defeat Thomas’s forces, whose surrender he eventually obtained in October of 823. With a severely weakened army, Michael was thus unable to prevent the conquest of Crete in 824 by a relatively small force of Arabs, and failed in a subsequent attempt to retake it in 826. The following year, the Muslim conquest of Sicily began, an assault Michael was powerless to stop. Despite these serious failures, Michael established a stable dynasty and his direct descendants would rule the empire for more than two centuries, inaugurating the Byzantine renaissance of the 9th and 10th centuries.

1049. Theophilus AV Tremissis. Syracuse, AD 831-835. ΘEOFILOS, crowned facing bust, wearing loros, holding cross potent / ΘEOFILOS, crowned facing bust, wearing chlamys, holding globus cruciger. DOC 27; Anastasi 561; Sear 1678. 1.31g, 13mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

322

200


Leo VI Miliaresion

1050. Leo VI AR Miliaresion. Constantinople, AD 886-908. IhSVS XRISTVS hICA, cross potent set on three steps atop globe / +LEωh Eh X’ω EVSEbHS bASI-LEVS Rω-mAIωh in five lines within dotted border interspersed with eight equally spaced globules. Sear 1726; DOC 3. 2.75g, 24mm, 12h. Mint State. Rare.

500

1051. Constantine VII, with Romanus I, AV Solidus. Constantinople, circa AD 943-944. + IhX XPS REX REGNANTIЧM, Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing / + COhSTAhTIhOS CE R-OMAh’ Eh’ Xω b’ R’, Romanus, crowned and draped, and Constantine, crowned and wearing loros, standing facing, each holding globus cruciger and patriarchal cross between. DOC 10; Sear 1749. 4.38g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; scrape on obv. Very Rare.

1052

2,500

1053

1052. Constantine VII, with Romanus II, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 955-959. + IҺS XPS REX REGNANTIVM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / CONSTANT CE ROMAN’ AVGG Ь R, crowned facing busts of Constantine VII, wearing loros, and Romanus II, wearing chlamys, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 15; Sear 1751. 4.38g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 300 1053. Constantine VII, with Romanus II, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 955-959. + IҺS XPS REX REGNANTIVM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / CONSTANT CE ROMAN’ AVGG Ь R, crowned facing busts of Constantine VII, wearing loros, and Romanus II, wearing chlamys, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 15; Sear 1751. 4.41g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 300

Very Rare Solidus of Nicephorus II and Basil II

1054. Nicephorus II, with Basil II, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 963-969 . + IҺS XPS REX REGNANTIVM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / NIKHΦOP KAI BACIΛ’ AVΓ, RP’, crowned facing busts of Nicephorus, left, in loros and Basil II, right, in chlamys, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 2; Sear 1777. 4.31g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

323

1,500


1055. John I AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinopole, AD 969-976. + IҺS XPS REX REGNANTIVM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / + ΘԐOTOC b’Θ ‘IωdЄSP’, half-length facing busts of John, wearing crown and loros, holding patriarchal cross, and the Virgin Mary; MΘ above her, manus Dei above John. DOC III 3; Sear 1785. 4.35g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

1056. Romanus III AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1028-1034. + IhS XIS REX REGNANTIVM, Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing / ΘCE bOHΘ RωMANω, the Virgin, nimbate on right, and Romanus, bearded to left, both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears saccos and loros, and holds globus cruciger in left hand; MΘ between their heads. DOC 1; Sear 1819. 4.41g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

300

1057. Constantine X AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1059-1067. + IhS IXS REX REGNANThIm, Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing / + KWN RACΛO ΔOVKAC, Constantine standing facing, holding labarum and globus cruciger. DOC 1a; Sear 1847. 4.36g, 26mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

1058

300

1059

1058. Michael VII EL Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1071-1078. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; IC-XC across fields / + MIXAHΛ RACIΛ O Δ, crowned facing bust, wearing loros, holding labarum with pellet on shaft and globus cruciger. Sear 1868. 4.33g, 28mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

200

1059. Michael VII EL Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1071-1078. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; IC-XC across fields / + MIXAHΛ RACIΛ O Δ, crowned facing bust, wearing loros, holding labarum without pellet on shaft and globus cruciger. Sear 1868. 4.25g, 28mm, 6h. Very Fine.

150

324


Very Rare Tetarteron of Alexius I

1060. Alexius I AR Tetarteron. Constantinople, AD 1081-1092. Pre-reform coinage. + EMMANOVHA, Christ standing facing, holding Gospels; IC-XC across fields / + AΛΕXΙW ΔΕCΠOT TW KOMN +, Alexius standing facing, holding sceptre and globus cruciger. DOC 7; Sear 1896. 3.94g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; three examples in CoinArchives.

500

1061. John III of Nicaea AV Hyperpyron. Magnesia, AD 1222-1254. Christ enthroned facing, raising hand in benediction and holding Gospels; IC-XC across fields / John standing facing, holding labarum and being crowned by the Virgin Mary. DOC 5; Sear 2073. 4.18g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

200

1062. Byzantine Æ Six Nomismata Coin Weight. Circa 4th century AD. Silver inlaid design of N S, six crosses around; all within square / Blank. 25.36g, 24mm. 200

1063. Germanus III, Patriarch of Constantinople, PB Seal. May 25, 1265 - September 14, 1266. The Virgin Mary, nimbate and seated facing on a high backed throne / ΓΕΡMANOΣ ΕΛΕΩ ΘΥ ΑΡΧΙΕΠΙΣΚΟΠΟΣ ΚΩΝSTΑΝΤΝΙVΠΟΛEΩΣ NΕΑΣ PΩΜΗΣ ΚΑΙ OIKVΜΕΝΗΚΟΣ ΠΑΤΡΙΑΡΧHΣ (Germanos, by the grace of God, archbishop of Constantinople, the New Rome, and ecumenical patriarch) in eight lines. Zacos 38b; DOC 125.1; Laurent, Corpus 5.3, 1633. 36.98g, 46mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

325

1,000


MEDIEVAL AND MODERN COINS ANGLO-GALLIC Beautiful Leopard d’Or

1064.

Anglo-Gallic. Edward the Black Prince, lord of Aquitaine (1362-1372) AV Léopard d’or. Aquitaine, c.1362-1369. + ED : PmO : GnIS : AnGLIE : P’nCPS : AQVITNIE, crowned leopard passant left, raising right forepaw, within tressure of 10 arches, quatrefoils on points and within spandrels; double quatrefoil stops / + XPC : VInCIT : XPC REGnAT : XPC : IMPERAT, floriate cross within quatrefoil, leopards passant in angles. Withers-Ford 150.3c; Elias 140; Schneider III, 31; S 8121; Friedberg p. 220, 4 (Aquitaine). 3.47g, 28mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

5,000

An exceptional military commander, Edward ‘the Black Prince’ was the eldest son of King Edward III, on whose behalf he campaigned in France from the age of 15. Scoring decisive military victories over the French at Crécy in 1346 and Poitiers in 1356, the Black Prince twice crippled the French army for a decade each time. Struck at the height of the Black Prince’s popularity, the leopard d’or is an example of his use of iconography to bolster the English position in Aquitaine, as it appears to deliberately supersede the French mouton d’or – the Paschal Lamb on the obverse and the fleur de lys on the reverse are all replaced by English leopards. This coin was one of the last issues of leopards struck in the period 1357-1361, and the entire series was probably recalled in 1361, when Edward III renounced his title of king of France in exchange for ratification of his possession of Aquitaine in the Treaty of Brétigny. The captured French king John II had to pay three million gold crowns for his ransom, and would be released after he paid one million; he was also required to provide numerous hostages, including two of his sons. While the hostages were held, John returned to France to try and raise funds to pay the ransom. In 1362 John’s son Louis of Anjou escaped captivity. John thus felt honour-bound to return to captivity in England, where he died in 1364. In 1362, the Black Prince was invested as Prince of Aquitaine. He and his wife Joan of Kent moved to Bordeaux, the capital of the principality, where they spent the next nine years, and had two sons. The elder son, named Edward after his father and grandfather, died at the age of six. Around the time of the birth of their younger son, Richard (who would become King Richard II), the Black Prince was lured into a war on behalf of King Peter of Castile. The ensuing Battle of Nájera in 1367 was one of the Black Prince’s greatest victories. While the English longbow again demonstrated its devastating power, driving off the opposing cavalry, unlike in other battles of the Hundred Years’ War however, at Nájera it was the English who assaulted the French lines, with the English vanguard pinning the French formation while their mounted knights flanked and routed the enemy lines. Yet it was this campaign that shattered the Prince’s health, and he died some nine years later after a long-lasting illness contracted in Spain, becoming the first Prince of Wales not to become king, and thus robbing England of a capable and greatly respected heir.

326


AUSTRIA

Siege of Vienna Dukat Klippe

1065. Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Charles V (Emperor, 1519-1556) AV Dukat Klippe. Siege of Vienna issue, dated 1529. Crowned and armoured bust of Ferdinand I (Archduke of Austria, 1521-1564) right; 15-Z9 flanking bust; TVRK • BLE/GERT • WI/: EN : ; arabesques at cardinal points / Long cross pattée; in quarters at angles, coats-of-arms of Niederösterreich, Castile, Hungary, and Bohemia; each shield surmounted by an arabesque. Brause-Mansfeld pl. XLII, 9; Markl 278; Mailliet 2²; Friedberg 22. 3.53g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Struck on a slightly irregular flan, scattered marks, some flatness. Underlying lustre. Extremely Rare, and in excellent condition for the issue. 2,000 The 1529 Siege of Vienna halted the seemingly inexorable march of Ottoman conquest that had spread westward across eastern Europe during the previous century or so. Following a successful military campaign in Hungary led by Sultan Suleiman I ‘the Magnificent’, the Ottoman army had set out to besiege the city of Vienna in September 1529. The long advance to Austria depleted Ottoman resources and the European wet season caused many of the troops to arrive in a poor state of health. The Austrian resistance, an impromptu collaboration of the city’s population and European mercenaries, fortified the ancient heart of the city around St. Stephen’s Cathedral and prepared for a lengthy siege. The treasures of Vienna’s churches were used to strike an emergency issue of coinage, of which the present piece is an excellently preserved example, in order to pay the mercenaries sent by the Holy Roman Emperor. Abandoning the siege in mid-October, the Ottoman retreat was further hampered by the weather. This humiliating end to the campaign in Hungary ended Ottoman expansion into central Europe and marked the zenith of their predominance, and for more than a century afterwards the Ottoman Empire was unable to threaten central Europe.

CYPRUS

Very Rare Cypriot Tetarteron of Richard I ‘the Lionheart’

1066. Crusaders. Cyprus, Richard I ‘the Lionheart’ Æ Tetarteron. King of England, 1189-1199. Crowned facing bust, holding cross-tipped sceptre and globus cruciger / Cross on three steps; arms ending in R E X. Metcalf, Lusignan p. 2; Bendall, “A Cypriot Coin of Richard I Lion-heart?”, NumCirc April 2002, pp. 62-63; Schultze, A Cypriot Coin of Richard I Lion-heart”, NumCirc February 2003, pp. 6-7; Bendall, “Richard I in Cyprus Again”, NumCirc April 2004, pp. 85-86. 0.88g, 17mm, 11h. Very Fine. Very Rare, and in excellent condition for the type.

1,000

1067. Crusaders. Cyprus, Richard I ‘the Lionheart’ Æ Tetarteron. King of England, 1189-1199. Crowned facing bust, holding cross-tipped sceptre and globus cruciger / Cross on three steps; arms ending in R E X. Metcalf, Lusignan p. 2; Bendall, “A Cypriot Coin of Richard I Lion-heart?”, NumCirc April 2002, pp. 62-63; Schultze, A Cypriot Coin of Richard I Lion-heart”, NumCirc February 2003, pp. 6-7; Bendall, “Richard I in Cyprus Again”, NumCirc April 2004, pp. 85-86. 0.96g, 17mm, 1h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

327

750


THE ACADEMIC COLLECTION OF ROMANO-BRITISH COINS OF A WELL KNOWN CONNOISSEUR One of the best remembered dates in British history is 55 BC when Julius Caesar, after having reduced the greater part of Gaul, attempted to strike terror into the inhabitants of Britain because they were suspected of giving assistance to their kinsmen on the other side of the Channel. Caesar crossed the straits of Dover with two legions, but his stay was short as autumn was advancing and all the tribes of the north were in arms against him. The following year Caesar landed unopposed with 25,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry. Meanwhile Cassivellaunus, king of the Catuvellauni, had roused the native tribes against the invader. Caesar reacted with a forced march through the Thames valley and took the Catuvellaunian capital Verulamium (St Albans). Many of the chiefs including Cassivellaunus paid homage to Caesar who, on receiving hostages and the promise of tribute, returned to Gaul. After these expeditions there was no immediate Roman plan to conquer the island, though Augustus entertained the idea. Caligula revived the suggestion, but it was left to the emperor Claudius to invade Britain in AD 43 following the death of Cunobelinus, who was called ‘Britannorum rex’ by Suetonius. The invasion was spearheaded by Aulius Plautius with four legions landing at Rutupiae (Richborough), overrunning the Medway and crossing the Thames, at which point the army was joined by Claudius himself who led the capture of the Catuvellaunian royal city, Camulodunum (Colchester), which from then on became the official capital of Roman Britain. Subsequently Claudius returned to Rome to celebrate a triumph for which a triumphal arch was built, now in the Capitoline Museum, whose inscription commemorates his victory across the ocean and his capture of eleven British kings, an event schematically recorded on two DE BRITANN[IS] coin issues (RIC I, Claudius 33 and 122). Within five years most of lowland Britain was subdued and a Roman province was established. The Roman advance was resumed under the Flavian dynasty, and several competent generals carried the border far into the north culminating in Agricola’s incursion into Scotland from 81-84. By the end of the 1st century the border was fixed at the Clyde-Forth line. However, after the withdrawal of a considerable number of troops and a serious revolt in about 118-120, after which the Legio IX Hispana stationed at Lincoln seems to have disappeared from the records, the Carlisle-Newcastle line was chosen as the frontier, and the ‘Vallum Aelium’ (Hadrian’s Wall) built along it. As the northern tribes continued to harass the province, Antoninus Pius decided to push the frontier once again to the Clyde-Forth line with the construction of the ‘Vallum Antonini’. This frontier stood until the end of the 2nd century, when Septimius Severus restored Hadrian’s Wall and evacuated the area beyond it. During the 3rd century Britain avoided much of the anarchy afflicting the continent, though there were incursions from the north and sea raids by Saxon pirates. In 293 Diocletian completed his far-reaching plans for reorganising the empire on a stable basis to prevent the recurrence of the anarchy of the previous half-century. A major element was the establishment of a college of emperors, known to modern scholars as the tetrarchy. Under the new regime, power was shared by two Augusti (for the East and West respectively), each of whom had a Caesar to help him and to succeed after 20 years. All laws, edicts and coin series were to be issued in the names of all four rulers and no sanction was required from the Senate. From 286 to 296 the usurpers Carausius and Allectus separated Britain from central imperial rule until it was re-established by Constantius I, then Caesar of the West. Following the island’s recovery by the empire in 296, Diocletians’s reforms were introduced into Britain which as a whole became the Diocese of the Britons under the administration of the Prefecture of the Gauls, based in Augusta Treverorum (Trier), and was increased from two provinces into four or five. The tetrarchic system survived until 324 when Constantine defeated his colleague Licinius at the battle of Chrysopolis and reunited the empire under a sole Augustus, as is witnessed by his coinage. For the first half of the 4th century Britain enjoyed a renewed prosperity and was not directly affected by the troubles on the eastern fronts of the continent. However, the removal of troops from Britain in 383 in order to support the campaigns of the usurpers Magnus Maximus (383-388), the Macsen Wledig of Welsh tradition who briefly established a mint in London under the name AVG (for Augusta) issuing solidi and siliquae (RIC IX pp. 1-3), began the slow decline of the province. This was exacerbated after 407 by Constantine III, who established himself in Gaul leaving a depleted garrison unable to defend the province, which now gradually fell to the Saxons. The sub-Roman period that followed has been uniquely recorded by Britain’s earliest historical chronicler, the 6th century monk Gildas, in De excidio et conquestu Britanniae, a tradition that passed into the semi-mythological British foundation histories of the Venerable Bede, Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth.

The Province of Britannia

1068. Hadrian Ӕ As. Rome, AD 119. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head right / PONT MAX TR POT COS III, Britannia seated facing, foot on rock, resting head on hand and holding sceptre; large shield right; S-C across fields; BRITANNIA in exergue. RIC 577a; BMC 1175; SCBC 635. 7.78, 24mm, 5h. Very Fine. Fine untouched even green patina. Very Rare.

500

The first appearance on a coin of the personification of the Roman province of Britannia was struck early in the reign of Hadrian and presumably commemorates the suppression of an uprising of the northern British tribes that had begun shortly before or after Trajan’s death. The trouble on the northern frontier made obvious the need for a strong fortification to mark the northern boundary of Roman Britain, which would eventually manifest itself as the Vallum Aelium (Hadrian’s Wall).

328


Carausius, Allectus, and the establishment of a mint at London In about AD 285/6, Marcus Aurelius Maus(aeus?) Carausius, a Menapian of humble origin who had served as a helmsman, was given command of the North Sea Roman fleet based at Gesoriacum-Bononia (Boulogne) by the Western Emperor Maximian in order to clear the Germanicum Mare and Fretrum Gallicum of barbarian pirates. Success led to allegations that he was not handing over his booty to public funds, for which he was sentenced to death. In late 286 Carausius accordingly used his forces to seize Britain and northern Gaul and proclaim himself emperor. Maximian failed to dislodge him in 290 and, despite several attempts by Carausius to associate himself with the imperial college of Diocletian and Maximian as ‘… frates sui’ (cf. RIC V pp. 550-1) and adding AVGGG to many of his late radiate issues, he failed to convince the Augusti, though he did succeed for the next three years to efficiently kept down Saxon piracy. However Carausius had misjudged the tetrarchs’ willingness to share power and by 293 the newly appointed Caesar of the West, Constantius I, was already making inroads into his territories in Gaul when the usurper was assassinated and replaced by Allectus. The near contemporary author Eutropius describes Allectus as an associate or ally of Carausius who, according to the late 4th century historian Aurelius Victor, was in charge of Carausius’ treasury department ‘summae rei praesset’, as ‘rationalis summae rei’. Allectus ruled for only three years and in 296 he was defeated and eliminated by Constantius’ subordinate Julius Asclepiodotus. Constantius was greeted at the gates of Londonium (London) with the welcoming title, ‘Redditor lucis aeternae’. He rebuilt York, London and Verulamium, fortified the ‘Saxon Shore’ and did much to restore the prosperity of Britain including the restoration of Allectus’ mint to produce the newly reformed tetrarchic coinage with initially ‘monetarii’ from Lugdunum, as well as utilising local die engravers that had worked for Allectus. From a numismatic point of view Carausius’ reign is important for establishing the not inconsiderable logistical task of a mint first at Rotomagus (Rouen) in late 286, and then at Londinium in early in 287, issuing an immense coinage on the prevailing denominational standard of his time. The standard denomination was that of the last phase of what 19th and 20th century numismatists customarily called ‘antoniniani’, originally issued from 214 under Caracalla as a two denarius piece of up to 50% silver content and referred to by the Historia Augusta as ‘argentei antoniniani’. Due to the economic crises and rampant inflation of the second half of the 3rd century, so-called ‘antoniniani’ had devalued to merely small copper pieces widely copied in the breakaway Gallic empire of Postumus, Marius, Victorinus, and the Tetrici, and at the mint of Rome under Claudius Gothicus during the late 260s. Eutropius reports that during the reign of Aurelian (270-278) an extraordinary event occurred, and that the monetarii at Rome and Antioch rebelled after being accused of ‘corroding’ the coinage, which in the case of Rome ended with heavy loss of life. This gave Aurelian a chance to enact a fundamental reform of the now discredited standard coinage by introducing a new denomination, the name of which has not survived. The new silver washed billon denomination is characterised by bearing marks of value XXI or Greek KA (= 21), sometimes combined with mintmarks in the exergue, thought to represent a tariff ratio of 20:1 (i.e. 1 part of silver to 20 parts of bronze) indicating a silver content of about 5%. Some modern numismatists now refer to these new coins as ‘aureliani’ or, more correctly but awkwardly, ‘aurelianiani’. All these terms have been avoided in this catalogue in favour of ‘billon radiates’ since they always bear the radiate head of an emperor, but have such a low silver content that it is uncertain how many denarii they officially represent, which by this time had become a unit of account.

1069. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus, October AD 286 - March 287. IMP C CARAVSIVS IVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / FOR-TVNA RE, Fortuna standing left, holding wheel and cornucopiae. RIC 641; Webb 697. 3.48g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

150

1070. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus, October AD 286 - March 287. […] CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate and cuirassed bust right / FE-LI-CIT […], galley with mast and rowers. Cf. RIC 635-6; Webb 693, 1267. 3.49g, 22mm, 6h. Fine.

50

1071. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus, October AD 286 - March 287. IMP C CARAVSIVS IVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / L-ETIT-I-A, galley right, five figures on deck and eight oars; OPR in exergue. RIC 649; Webb 709. 2.92g, 21mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

329

200


1072. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus, October AD 286 - March 287. IMP C CARAVSIVS IVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / L-ETIT-I-A, galley right, six figures on deck and eight oars; OPR in exergue. RIC 649; Webb 709. 2.31g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine. Weak strike.

100

1073. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus, October AD 286 - March 287. IMP C CARAVSIVS [‌], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVI-D-EN AVG, Providentia standing left, holding three ears of corn and transverse spear. Cf. RIC 655-6; Webb 727-9. 4.06g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

150

1074. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus, October AD 286 - March 287. IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / SALV-S-IIII AVG, Salus standing left, feeding serpent rising from altar and cornucopiae. RIC 673; Webb 747. 2.71g, 20mm, 6h. Extremey Fine.

200

1075. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus, October AD 286 - March 287. IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / TVT-ELA, Tutela standing left, holding patera over altar and cornucopiae. RIC 684; Webb 761. 3.14g, 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

150

1076. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus, October AD 286 - March 287. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / TVTELA, Tutela standing left holding patera over altar and holding cornucopiae. RIC 682; Webb 762. 3.36g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

330

150


1077. Carausius BI Radiate. Rotomagus, October AD 286 - March 287. IMP[…] ASIV […] AVG, radiate and trabeate bust right / [VI]-R-TVS AVG, Mars standing left, holding Victory on globe and spear leaning on globe. Cf. RIC 696-8; Webb 787-8. 3.65g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine. Metal flaw on obverse.

200

1078. Carausius debased AR Laureate. London, March - October AD 287. IMP CARAVSIVS [...], laureate and draped bust right / ADVENTVS […], Carausius on horseback left, holding sceptre, XX< in exergue. Cf. RIC 1067; Baldwin’s 99, 748. 5.17g, 21mm, 4h. Fair.

100

1079. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, circa AD 287. [IMP CARA]VSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / LITI-IA (sic), Laetitia standing right holding trident, clasping hand of Carausius standing left holding sceptre. Unpublished in the standard references, for reverse type with legend EXPECTATE VENI or similar, cf. RIC 16 (MSC) and 554 (RSR); Webb 264-5 and 603. 3.23g, 19mm, 10h. Fine/Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

250

This new addition to the known coinage of Carausius has the reverse legend LITIA (sic), which expresses the joy of Britannia in the arrival of the new emperor and the consequent opening of the new mint of London in early 287.

1080. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, circa AD 287. [IMP CARA]VSIVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / LITI-IA (sic), Laetiitia standing right holding trident, clasping hand of Carausius standing left holding sceptre (same reverse die to previous coin). Unpublished in the standard references, for reverse type with legend EXPECTATE VENI or similar, cf. RIC 216 (MSC) and 554 (RSR); Webb 264-5 and 603. 2.70g, 19mm, 10h. Fine. Extremely Rare.

100

1081. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-289. [IMP C CARA]VSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / COMES AVG, Victory advancing right, holding palm branch and wreath. RIC 747; Webb 840. 3.87g, 25mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare. Weak strike.

331

200


1082. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-289. […] CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / [CONCO]-R-D MILIT, Concordia seated left holding patera (?) and cornucopiae. RIC 755; Webb -. 3.23g, 22mm, 6h. Fine. Very Rare.

100

1083. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-289. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA M, clasped right hands. RIC 759; Webb 846. 4.56g, 24mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

500

1084. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-289. […] CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MILITV, Carausius standing right, clasping hands with Concordia standing left. RIC 761; cf. Webb 849-50. 4.03g, 23mm, 7h. Fine. Rare.

100

1085. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES M-I-LITVM, Fides standing left, holding two signa. RIC 783; Webb 872. 4.23g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Attractive dark green patina.

200

1086. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES M-I-LITVM, Fides standing left, holding two signa. RIC 783; Webb 872. 3.64g, 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

332

100


1087. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES M-I-LITVM, Fides standing left, holding two signa. RIC 783; Webb 872. 3.31g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1088. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right / F[ORTV]-NA AVG, Fortuna standing left, holding baton and cornucopiae. RIC 787; Webb 885. 3.75g, 22mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

200

1089. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right / IOVI-V-ICTORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. Cf. RIC 816; Webb 910. 3.56g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

200

Purchased from Spink and Son Ltd., May 1992.

1090. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right / LETI-TIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. RIC 832; Webb 910 (corr.). 3.81g, 20mm, 7h. Very Fine.

100

1091. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. [IMP] CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / [MARS-] Vâ&#x20AC;Ś, Mars standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield. RIC 842; Webb 939. 4.04g, 21mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

333

200


1092. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. [IMP] CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MAR[S-VI] CTOR, Mars standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield. Cf. RIC 842 and Webb 939. 2.48g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Purchased from Spink and Son Ltd., May 1992.

150

1093. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. [IM]P CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / [MA]-RS-V…, Mars standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield. RIC 842; Webb 939. 2.63g, 23mm, 8h. Very Fine.

100

1094. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MAR-S VICTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy over shoulder. RIC 843; Webb 940. 3.50g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine.

150

1095. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed right / MAR-S VICTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy over shoulder. RIC 843; Webb 940. 4.46g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine.

150

1096. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / M-ON-E-TA […], Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 854; Webb 960. 4.40g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Fine dark green patina.

334

250


1097. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. [CAR]AVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / [M-ONI-T]A AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. Cf. RIC 855-8; Webb 952, 954-60 3.29g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1098. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP C CARAVSIVS [P F AVG], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MONE-TA AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. Cf. RIC 855-8; Webb 952, 954-60. 3.09g, 26mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1099. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP C CARAVSIVS [P F] AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / M-ONI-T-A AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 867; Webb 966. 4.36g, 21mm, 6h. Fine.

175

1100. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ORI-E-N AVG, Sol walking left with right hand raised, holding globe in left; star in left field. RIC 94; Webb 119; Hunter 15 (same dies). 3.06g, 20mm, 7h. Very Fine. Rare.

200

Purchased from Spink and Son Ltd., May 1992.

1101. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X A-VG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC 878; Webb 986. 5.64g, 22mm, 7h. Very Fine.

335

100


1102. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC 878; Webb 996. 4.63g, 22mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

150

1103. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X A-VG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC 878; Webb 996. 2.47g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1104. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC 879; Webb 980. 4.89g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1105. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC 879; Webb 980. 3.69g, 21mm, 8h. Good Very Fine.

100

1106. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC 879; Webb 980. 3.49g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

150

1107. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC 883; Webb 977. 5.17g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine.

336

100


1108. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC 883; Webb 977. 3.52g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine.

100

1109. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X A-VG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre. RIC 895; Webb 996. 4.61g, 22mm, 7h. Very Fine.

100

1110. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X A-VG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre. RIC 895; Webb 996. 3.91g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine.

100

Ex Classical Numismatic Group E-Auction 118, 13 July 2005, lot 232.

1111. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X A-VG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre. RIC 895; Webb 996. 3.58g, 21mm, 8h. Good Very Fine.

150

1112. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X A-VG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre. RIC 895; Webb 996. 3.46g, 23mm, 7h. Very Fine.

337

100


1113. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA IVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC -; Webb -. 3.53g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine.

100

1114. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVETVTIS, youth in military attire standing left, holding ensign and sceptre. RIC 947; Webb 1057. 3.83g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

250

1115. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVS[â&#x20AC;Ś], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ROVID[â&#x20AC;Ś], Providentia standing left, holding baton over globe and cornucopiae. Cf. RIC 950-4; Webb 108-1063. 4.24g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

150

1116. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SALV-S [AV]G, Salus standing left, holding sceptre and feeding serpent rising from altar. RIC 984; Webb 1101. 4.22g, 24mm, 12h. Very Fine.

100

1117. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG], radiate and draped bust right / SALV-S AVG, Salus standing left, holding sceptre and feeding serpent rising from altar. RIC 984; Webb 1101. 4.10g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine. Some pitting.

75

1118. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / [SALV-S] AVG, Salus seated left holding cornucopiae and feeding serpent rising from altar. Cf. RIC 994-5; Webb 1116-7. 2.94g, 20mm, 5h. Fine. Extremey Rare.

338

100


1119. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F [â&#x20AC;¦], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIR-TVS, Laetitia (?) standing left, holding wreath and anchor. RIC -; Webb -, for a similar type cf. RIC 1035 and Webb 1167. 2.92g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

200

1120. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIR-TVS, Virus standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield. RIC 1042; Webb 1179. 4.41g, 22mm, 1h. Very Fine. Rare.

150

Ex Blackmoor Hoard.

1121. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P I AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIR-TVS AVG, Virus advancing right, holding spear and trophy. RIC 1046; Webb 1180. 4.01g, 21mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

250

1122. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, AD 287-290. IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTV-S [AVG], Virus standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield. Cf. RIC 1037-9; Webb 1173-4. 3.79g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

1123. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, October AD 290 - March 291. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MERCVRI CONS AV, Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus; S-C across fields. Cf. RIC 468; Webb -. 4.05g, 24mm, 7h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

339

200


1124. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, October AD 290 - March 293. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae: S-C across fields. RIC 470; Webb 521 (same obverse die as previous coin). 5.13g, 24mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

200

1125. Carausius BI Radiate. London, no mintmark, October AD 290 - March 293. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields. RIC 475; Webb 532. 4.75g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Some silvering.

200

1126. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. CARAVSI-VS AVG, radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear over right shoulder and shield over left arm / ADVENTVS AVG, Carausius, with right hand raised and holding sceptre in left, on horseback left, captive below hoof; ML in exergue. RIC 11; Webb 16. 3.96g, 24mm, 6h. Fine. Very Rare.

100

1127. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ADVENTVS AVG, Carausius, with right hand raised and holding sceptre in left, on horseback left, captive below hoof; ML in exergue. RIC 10; Webb 17. 4.17g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

150

1128. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ADVENTVS AVG, Carausius, with right hand raised and holding sceptre in left, on horseback left, captive below hoof; ML in exergue. RIC 10; Webb 17. 3.27g, 23mm, 6h. Fine. Rare.

340

100


1129. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. IMP CARAVSIVS […], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / LEG I MIN, ram standing right; ML in exergue. RIC 56; Webb 60-1. 3.48g, 22mm, 6h. Fine. Very Rare.

100

1130. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. […] CARAV […], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / [LEG II PARTH], Centaur walking left; ML in exergue. RIC 61; Webb 73-4. 3.65g, 22mm, 6h. Fair, pitted. Very Rare.

50

1131. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / [LEG IIXX P] RIMIG, Capricorn left; ML in exergue. RIC 80; Webb 107. 2.41g, 22mm, 6h. Fair. Very Rare. 50

1132. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; ML in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 5.42g, 22mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

150

1133. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; L in left field, ML in exerue. RIC 98; Webb 1139. 5.33g, 26mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine.

200

1134. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 287 - March 288. [CARAVSIVS] AVG, helmeted, radiate and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield / PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre. RIC 115; Webb 207. 2.52g, 22mm. Very Fine. Double struck. Very Rare.

341

100


1135. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 289 - March 290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, trabeate and cuirassed bust left, holding scipio / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; F-O across fields, ML in exergue. RIC 104; Webb -. 3.68g, 23mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

250

1136. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 289 - March 290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; F-O across fields, ML in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 5.78g, 23mm, 12h. Suberb Extremely Fine.

200

1137. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 289 - March 290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; F-O across fields, ML in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 5.06g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Silvered.

150

1138. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 289 - March 290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; F-O across fields, ML in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 4.53g, 26mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

1139. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 289 - March 290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; F-O across fields, ML in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 3.95g, 25mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

342

150


1140. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 289 - March 290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; F-O across fields, ML in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 3.48g, 25mm, 6h. Very Fine.

50

1141. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 289 - March 290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right with laureate shoulder straps / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; F-O across fields, ML in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 3.54g, 26mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Some silvering.

100

1142. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 289 - March 290. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right with laureate shoulder straps / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; F-O across fields, ML in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 3.40g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

100

1143. Carausius BI Laureate. London, March - October AD 290. IMP CARAVS P F AV, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVR-IT PERPET, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, hand raised to head; MIXXII (sic) in exergue. Williams, Carausius, A consideration of the historical, archaeological and numismatic aspects of his reign, BAR 378, Oxford 2004, pl. 6, 15-16 (this coin). 5.68g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Unique.

100

1144. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 290 - March 291. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / COMES AVG, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm branch; B - E across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 15; Webb 20. 5.21g, 24mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

343

200


1145. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 290 - March 291. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and trabeate bust left, holding scipio / CONS-ERVAT AVG, Sol standing facing with right hand raised, holding globe in left; B-E across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 29; Webb -. 3.05g, 23mm, 12h. Fine - Very Fine. Very Rare.

150

1146. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 290 - March 291. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; B-E across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 4.02g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Silvered.

150

1147. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 290 - March 291. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; B-E across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 3.80g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Silvered.

100

1148. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 290 - March 291. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; B-E across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 101; Webb 128. 3.64g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Silvered.

100

1149. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 290 - March 291. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SALV-S AVG, Salus standing left, feeding serpent and holing sceptre; B-E across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 155; Webb 181. 4.17g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine.

344

75


1150. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, no mintmark in exergue. RIC -; Webb -, for general type cf. RIC 98 and Webb 139. 4.26g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Some silvering.

100

1151. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, no mintmark in exergue. RIC -; Webb -, for general type cf. RIC 98 and Webb 139. 3.58g, 24mm, 5h. Very Fine.

100

1152. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, [MLXXI or ML] in exergue. RIC 98; Webb 139. 4.29g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine.

75

1153. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; S-P across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 118; Webb 149. 4.14g, 25mm, 6h. Very Fine.

75

1154. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; S-P across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 118; Webb 149. 4.16g, 25mm, 6h. Very Fine.

345

75


1155. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP CARAVSIVS P AV, radiate and draped bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; S-P across fields, WL in exergue. RIC - Webb -, for general type cf. RIC 118 and Webb 149. 3.22g, 22mm, 1h. Fine.

50

1156. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291- October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SAL-V-S AVG, Salus standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, ML in exergue. RIC 161; Webb 189. 3.74g, 23mm, 5h. Very Fine.

175

1157. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / HILARITA-S AVGGG, Hilaritas standing left, holding palm branch and cornucopiae; S-P across fields, MIXXI in exergue. RIC 42; Webb 48. 4.44g, 23mm, 6h. Exremely Fine.

150

1158. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX A-VGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, MIXXI in exergue. RIC 141; Webb 167-8. 4.38g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1159. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX A-VGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, MIXXI in exergue. RIC 141; Webb 167-8. 4.21 g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine.

346

100


1160. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX A-VGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, MIXXI in exergue. RIC 141; Webb 167-8. 4.20g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1161. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX A-VGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, MIXXI in exergue. RIC 141; Webb 167-8. 3.67g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine/Fine. Very Rare.

250

1162. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 287. [VIRTVS CAR]AVSI, helmeted, radiate and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / LIBERALITAS AVG, Carausius seated left on platform, holding branch; behind him, Liberalitas standing left holding tesserae and cornucopiae; to left, citizen ascending steps; C in exergue. RIC 278; Webb 326. 3.78g, 25mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

400

Early attributions of the C mintmark to Clausentum, Calleva, Camulodunum or for the fleet (Classiensis), are now considered unlikely since many issues share the same sequence marks such as S-P or S-C as those coins struck at the mint of London. Thus, the C mintmark (for Caesar?) may indicate the existence of a separate officina at the London mint issuing coins for distribution to civil administrators and the army.

1163. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 287 - October 288. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / COMES AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch; C in left field. RIC 199; Webb 242. 3.49g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

200

1164. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 287 - October 288. IMP [CARAV]SIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / GE[NIV]S EXE, Genius standing left, feeding serpent rising from altar and holding cornucopiae; C in exergue. RIC -; Webb -, for general type cf. RIC 24. 3.55g, 24mm, 6h. Fine. Very Rare.

347

100


1165. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 287 - October 288. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTV-S AVG, Virtus standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield; C in exergue. RIC 438; Webb 485. 5.31, 23mm, 7h. Very Fine.

100

1166. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 287 - October 288. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTV-S AVG, Virtus standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield; C in exergue. Cf. RIC 438 and Webb 485 (IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG). 4.48g, 24mm, 7h. Very Fine. Silvered.

100

1167. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; C in exergue. Cf. RIC 306 and Webb 355 (vertical sceptre). 3.33g, 25mm, 6h. Fine.

50

1168. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 287 - March 288. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SPES P-VBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising hem of robe; C in exergue. Cf. RIC 306 (S-P); Webb 462. 3.39g, 24mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

150

1169. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 288. IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTV-S AVG, Virtus standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield; MC in exergue. Cf. RIC 438 and Webb 485 (only C in exergue). 5.44g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

348

400


1170. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 289. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / APPOLINI GO AV, Griffin walking left; MSC in exergue. Cf. RIC 192; Webb 232-3. 2.31g, 21mm, 7h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

1171. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 289. IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate and draped bust right / VIRT-VS, Virtus standing right, holding long spear, facing Hercules standing left, holding club; S-P across fields, SMC in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references. 3.62g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

200

1172. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 289 - March 290. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; CXXI in exergue. Cf. RIC 300 and Webb 367 (vertical sceptre), same obverse die to previous coin. 5.02g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1173. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 289 - March 290. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; CXXI in exergue. RIC 300; Webb 367. 4.34g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1174. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 290 - March 291. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor; S-C across upper fields, C in exergue. RIC 255; Webb 312. 5.16g, 24mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

349

200


1175. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 291. IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right / LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor; S-P across upper fields, C in exergue. RIC 257; Webb 310. 3.55g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Some silvering.

200

1176. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March - October AD 291. IMP CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MART-I AVGGG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm branch; [S]-P across upper fields, C in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references. 3.26g, 26mm, 3h. Fine-Very Fine. Some silvering. Extremely Rare.

200

1177. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC 300; Webb 367. 4.11g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1178. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F IN AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX A-VGGG, Pax standing left holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC 338; Webb 394. 5.08g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Silvered.

200

1179. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F IN AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX A-VGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC 338; Webb 394. 4.81g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine.

350

100


1180. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F IN AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX A-VGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC 338; Webb 394. 3.98g, 24mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Silvered.

150

1181. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX A-VGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC 339; Webb 397. 4.67g, 24mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Silvered.

150

1182. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVID VG, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopiae, globe at feet; S-C across fields. RIC 500; Webb 550. 3.72g, 25mm, 6h. Extremey Fine.

200

1183. Carausius BI Radiate. London, March AD 291 - October 292. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F INV AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVI-D AVGGG, Providentia standing left, holding globe and transverse sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC 372; Webb 431. 3.60g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Some silvering. Rare.

200

1184. Carausius BI Radiate. London, October AD 292 - March 293. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / [FORT]-VNA REDV.., Fortuna seated left on curule chair, holding rudder and cornucopiae; [S]PC in exergue. Cf. RIC 237 and Webb 292 (Fortuna seated on wheel). 3.47g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

351

200


1185. Carausius BI Brockage Radiate. London, early in the reign. IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / Same type incuse. 2.65g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine.

100

1186. Carausius Æ Radiate. Uncertain mint and date. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ..V - INNV.., Fortuna standing left, holding cornucopiae. 2.34g, 23mm, 4h. Very Fine.

50

1187. Carausius Æ Radiate. Uncertain mint and date. IMP CARAVSIVS ….C, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ..X.., Moneta standing left, holding scales and sceptre. 2.18g, 20mm, 10h. Very Fine.

50

1188. Carausius Æ Radiate. Uncertain mint and date. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / …AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre. 3.58g, 20mm, 9h. Very Fine.

50

1189. Carausius Æ Radiate. Uncertain mint and date. IMP CARAVSIVS P I A, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / …X HΛC, Pax standing left, holding horizontal sceptre; O and curved line in left field. 3.21g, 20mm, 8h. Very Fine.

100

1190. Carausius Æ Radiate. Uncertain mint and date. IMP CARAVSIVS P L C, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / V-I-C-TO, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre. 3.11g, 21mm, 4h. Very Fine.

352

100


1191. Carausius Æ Radiate. Uncertain mint and date. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X…, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre. 3.07g, 21mm, 4h. Very Fine.

50

1192. Carausius Æ Radiate. Uncertain mint and date. IMP CARAV…, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / … AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre; Γ-O across field; MI in exergue. 2.87g, 23mm, 3h. Very Fine.

50

1193. Carausius Æ Radiate. Uncertain mint and date. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SA-L - S HVC. Salus standing left, feeding serpent and holding sceptre. 3.30g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine.

75

1194. Carausius Æ Radiate. Uncertain mint and date. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AV, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SPI VIIV, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising hem of robe. 2.90g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine.

75

1195. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / ADVENTVS AVG, Allectus, with right hand raised and holding sceptre in left, on horseback left, captive below hoof; ML in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references. For general type cf. Burnett 4 and 117 = RIC 1 (aureus) and RIC 62 (SPC) ; for a similar example cf. Spink sale 13013, 26 June 2013, 59 (same obverse die). 4.25g, 21mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Fine earthy green patina.

500

1196. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor; S-A across fields, ML in exergue. Burnett 7; RIC 22; Webb 27. 4.10g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

353

200


1197. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / LAETIT-IA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor; S-A across fields, ML in exergue. Burnett 8; RIC 22; Webb 27. 4.18g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

200

1198. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ORIENS AVG, Sol standing right, looking back, with right hand raised and holding globe in left; S-P across fields, ML in exergue. Burnett 9; RIC 26; Webb 34. 3.53g, 23mm, 1h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

200

1199. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; S-P across fields, ML in exergue. Burnett 11; RIC 33; Webb 44. 3.33g, 23mm, 7h. Very Fine.

100

1200. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-A across fields, ML in exergue. Burnett 15; RIC 28; Webb 27. 3.66g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1201. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with laureate shoulder straps / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-A across fields, ML in exergue. Burnett 15; RIC 28; Webb 27. 3.64g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine.

354

150


1202. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with laureate shoulder straps / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, ML in exergue. Burnett 15; RIC 28; Webb 37. 2.89g, 23mm, 8h. Very Fine.

100

1203. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / PROVID DEOR, Providentia standing left, holding baton over globe and cornuciopiae; S-P across fields, ML in exergue. Burnett p. 37; RIC 39; Webb 53. 3.34g, 25mm, 4h. Very Fine.

100

1204. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with laureate shoulder straps / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; S-A across fields, ML in exergue. Burnett 44; RIC 33; Webb 44. 4.76g, 23mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

250

1205. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / PROVID AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornuciopiae, globe at feet; S-A across fields, ML in exergue. Cf. Burnett 61; RIC 35; Webb 52. 78g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Attractive green patina.

200

1206. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding globe and transverse sceptre; S-A across fields, MSL in exergue. Burnett 66; RIC 38; Webb 56. 4.80g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant green patina.

355

200


1207. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / ROMAE AETER, Roma standing left in temple, crescent in pediment; ML in exergue. Burnett 75; RIC 40; Webb 65. 3.11g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

1208. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with Victory to left amidships; QL in exergue. Burnett 107; RIC 58; Webb 94. 3.02, 19mm, 12h. Fine. Rare.

100

1209. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast and six oars; QL in exergue. Cf. Burnett 109; RIC 56; Webb 90. 3.13g, 19mm, 12h. Fine. Extremely Rare.

100

1210. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast, six oars and acrostolium ending in dragon’s head; QL in exergue. Cf. Burenett 111; RIC 55; Webb 89; CNG 108, 2016, 761. 2.89g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

100

1211. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast and five oars; QL in exergue. Burnett 111; RIC 55; Webb 89. 3.01g, 21mm, 6h. About Good Very Fine.

356

75


1212. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast and five oars; QL in exergue. Burnett 111; RIC 55; Webb 89. 2.75g, 20mm, 7h. About Good Very Fine.

100

1213. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast and five oars; QL in exergue. Burnett 111; RIC 55; Webb 89. 2.56g, 20mm, 7h. About Good Very Fine.

100

1214. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSER, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. Cf. Burnett p. 37; RIC 72 and Webb 109 (PFI AVG). 3.35g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine. Some erosion. Extremely Rare.

100

1215. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / ORIENS AVG, Sol standing right, looking back, with raised right hand and holding globe with left, between two captives; S-P across fields, C in exergue. Cf. Burnett 144; RIC 84 (no captives). 4.36g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

1216. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / [PA-X] AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. Burnett 151; RIC 86; Webb 137. 3.16g, 23mm, 7h. Very Fine. Some silvering.

357

100


1217. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVID AVG, Providentia standing left, holding globe and cornucopiae; S-P across fields, C in exergue. Burnett 160; RIC 94; Webb 150. 4.83g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine.

75

1218. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F I AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVI-D AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton over globe and cornucopiae; S-P across fields, C in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references, cf. Burnett 162; RIC 97; Webb 153. 4.06g, 23mm, 6h. Fine-Very Fine. Very Rare.

75

1219. Allectus BI Radiate. London, AD 293-295. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, holding two signa; S-P across fields, CL in exergue. Burnett 202; RIC 69; Webb 109. 3.90g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

200

1220. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right with, decorated shoulder straps / LAETITIA AVG, galley right, with mast and six oars; QC in exergue. Burnett 210; RIC 124; Webb 118-9. 2.62g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

150

1221. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / LAETITIA AVG, galley right, with mast and six oars; QC in exergue. Burnett 210; RIC 124; Webb 119. 2.10g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine.

358

100


1222. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast and five oars; QC in exergue. Burnett 215; RIC 128; Webb 186. 2.51g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

150

1223. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast and five oars; QL in exergue. Burnett 215; RIC 128; Webb 186. 2.09g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1224. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast, five oars, and Victory to left on prow, holding wreath; QC in exergue. Burnett 219; RIC 132; Webb 202. 2.70g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

200

1225. Allectus BI ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / VIRTVS AVG, galley left, with mast, five oars, and Victory to left on prow, holding wreath; QC in exergue. Burnett 219; RIC 132; Webb 202. 2.22g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

200

1226. Allectus BI Brockage ‘Quinarius’. London, AD 295-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / Same type incuse. 2.83g, 21mm, 12h. Fine.

359

50


Further Issues from the Roman Mint at London As part of Diocletian’s comprehensive restructuring of the imperial coinage system new denominations were created: in gold at 60 to the Roman pound, silver at 96 to the Roman pound and finally a 10 gram copper alloy denomination at 32 to the Roman pound depicting on the obverse the laureate bust of the emperor. This new denomination has approximately a 4% silver content with a silver wash which in 301 at Alexandria (RIC VI p, 665, 31-33) is marked with the same XXI formula and content as that of Aurelian’s billon radiates, which it replaced. There is considerable uncertainty about the contemporary names of this new billon laureate, traditionally but erroneously called folles by 19th and 20th century numismatists. The term nummus would seem to be more appropriate, a name encountered on Egyptian papyri which as late as 320 refer to iταλικόν νούμiσμα (Italian money/coin/coinage) or simply νούμμος (money, coin). The nummus (pl. nummi) is the Latin equivalent of the Greek nómos, ‘custom, habit, practice, rule, order, institution, constitution or law’, in numismatics meaning the standard denomination of any coin series, probably tariffed at 4 or 5 denarii. This change may have provoked a partial reform of the monetary system of Allectus who, while not issuing the new nummus piece, did issue a new denomination marked with a Q, possibly for ‘quinarius’, traditionally implying a half unit of possibly 2 denarii, in conjunction with the London mintmarks L and C. The retaking of Britain is spectacularly celebrated on the reverse of the gold medallion of Constantius I, struck at Treveri and found near Arras, with the legend REDDITOR LVCIS AETERNAE above London, personified by a woman kneeling left (labelled LON), with arms outstretched in supplication as the Caesar rides right towards the gates of the city; below is a galley with four rowers that represents his arrival by sea (= RIC VI, p. 167, 34). After the fall of Allectus in 296 the London mint was reactivated to produce the new tetrarchic nummi in the names of the four legitimate rulers, many of which have the imperial portraits in the style of engravers trained at the mint Allectus. The first mintmark used was LON, soon abandoned for no mintmark and 307 replaced with PLN in the exergue, which remained the standard formula until the mint’s closure in 325. The everyday overvalued billon nummus was relentlessly under pressure of devaluation. The remedy to stop this inflation was attempted in 301 by Diocletian with the ‘Edictum de pretiis rerum venalium’ (Edict Concerning the Prices of Goods for Sale), in which the unit of account was the ‘denarius communis’, implying that some other kind of denarius also existed, possibly what we call the ‘argenteus’. The prices of goods listed in the Edict are nearly all expressed in sums of two or five denarii communes, or amounts that can be divided by these numbers. The failure of the edict to stem inflation meant that under Constantine I and his successors the billon coinage continued to devalue, so much so that by the closure of the London mint in 325 the nummus mean weight was little more than 3 grams with a minimal amount of silver wash struck at 96 to the Roman pound.

1227. Diocletian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / PA-X AVGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC 20; Webb 1242. 4.67g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

150

1228. Diocletian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PIVS(?) AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / PA-X AVGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. Cf. RIC 20 and Webb 1242. 5.27g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

1229. Diocletian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / PA-X AVGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, C in exergue. Cf. RIC 20 and Webb 1242. 4.25g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

360

150


1230. Diocletian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / VIRTV-S AVGGG, Virtus standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield; S-P across fields, C in exergue. Cf. RIC 30 and Webb 1249. 4.15g, 24mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

150

1231. Diocletian BI Nummus. London, circa AD 296-297. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 1.03.001; RIC 6a. 10.93g, 29mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1232. Diocletian BI Nummus. London, circa AD 296-303. IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 2.01.003 (9); RIC 6a & 16a. 9.17g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1233. Diocletian BI Nummus. London, circa AD 303 - 1 May 305. IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 3.01.003; RIC 24 corr.9.91g, 31mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

361

150


1234. Diocletian BI Nummus. London, circa AD 303 - 1 May 305. IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 3.01.005; RIC 28a. 9.97g, 30mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

100

1235. Diocletian BI Nummus. London, circa May AD 305 - Sping 307. D N DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle and holding olive-branch and mappa / PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia and Quies standing facing each other, the latter holding branch and sceptre. CT 4.01.002; RIC 77a. 8.38g, 30mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1236. Maximian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / PA-X AVGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 34; Webb 1253. 5.13g, 24mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

1237. Maximian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / PA-X AVGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and vertical sceptre; S-P across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 34; Webb 1253. 3.94g, 25mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

1238. Maximian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / PA-X AVGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; S-P across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 34; Webb 1254. 3.58g, 22mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

362

150


1239. Maximian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / PA-X AVGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; S-P across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 34; Webb 1254. 3.46g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

1240. Maximian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / PA-X AVGGG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre; S-P across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 34; Webb 1254. 4.40g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

100

1241. Maximian BI Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / VIRTV-S AVGGG, Virtus standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield; S-P across fields, MLXXI in exergue. RIC 39; Webb 1256. 4.62g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

150

1242. Maximian BI Brockage Radiate. Struck under Carausius. London, AD 291-292. IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / Same type incuse. 4.81g, 23mm, 12h. Very Fine.

100

1243. Maximian BI Nummus. London, circa AD 296-303. IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 3.01.013; RIC 25. 9.81g, 30mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

363

100


1244. Maximian BI Nummus. London, circa May 305 - Spring 307. D N MAXIMIANO BEATISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle and holding olive-branch and mappa / PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia and Quies standing facing each other, the latter holding branch and sceptre. CT 4.01.003; RIC 76B. 10.54g, 29mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

1245. Maximian BI Nummus. London, circa May - end of November 307. D N MAXIMIANO P F S AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; PLN in exergue. CT 5.01.003; RIC 85 and 90. 5.40g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1246. Constantius I, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 296-303. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 2.01.010; RIC 14a and 20. 10.22g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1247. Constantius I, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 303 - 1 May 305. CONSTANTIVS NOBIL C, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 3.01.022; RIC 32 corr. 10.91g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

364

100


1248. Constantius I, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 303 - 1 May 305. CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 3.01.024; RIC 37a. 9.89g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1249. Constantius I, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 303 - 1 May 305. CONSTANTIVS NO-B C, laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 3.01.026; RIC 39. 8.12g, 29mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

200

1250. Divus Constantius I BI Nummus. London, 26 July - Spring 307. DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO, laureate and cuirassed bust right / MEMORIA FELIX, lighted and garlanded altar, eagle to either side; PLN in exergue. CT 5.04.010; RIC 110. 5.36g, 23mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

100

1251. Galerius, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, AD 296-297. C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate and cirassed bust right, with laureate shoulder strap / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 1.03.010; RIC 14b. 9.36g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

365

100


1252. Galerius, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, AD 296-303. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate and cirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 2.01.015; RIC 15. 10.61g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1253. Galerius, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 303 - 1 May 305. MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 3.01.031; RIC 33. 9.62g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1254. Galerius, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 303 - 1 May 305. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 3.01.034; RIC 36. 8.76g, 29mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1255. Severus II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, 1 May AD 305 - 26 July 306. SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 4.02.016; RIC 59a. 10.86g, 30mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

366

150


1256. Maximinus II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, 1 May 305 - Spring 307. GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 4.03.024; RIC 57. 9.21, 31mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

100

1257. Maximinus II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa May - end of November AD 307. GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; PLN in exergue. CT 5.01.005; RIC 89b. 7.31g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1258. Licinius I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.05.008; RIC 209c. 4.26g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

75

1259. Constantine I, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, 26 July - Spring AD 307. CONSTANTINVS NOBILI CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. CT 4.04.007; RIC -. 10.87g, 28mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

367

100


1260. Constantine I, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa May â&#x20AC;&#x201C; end of November AD 307. CONSTANTINVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right, with decorated shoulder straps / GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; PLN in exergue. CT 5.01.008; RIC 88b. 7.01g, 29mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1261. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, AD 307-310. IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; PLN in exergue. CT 5.04.003; RIC 103 corr. 6.16g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1262. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa late AD 309. IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / MARTI CO-NSERVATORI, Mars in military dress, standing right, holding spear and shield; PLN in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references, for general type cf. CT 6.01.001-2 and RIC 107. 3.36g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine/Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

100

1263. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / ADVEN-TVS AVG, emperor, with right hand raised, holding spear over shoulder with left, on horse pawing seated captive to left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.01.003; RIC 133. 4.67g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare. 75

1264. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / ADVEN-TVS AVG, emperor, with right hand raised, holding spear over shoulder with left, on horse pawing seated captive to left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references, for obverse type cf. CT 7.01.018; RIC -. 3.24g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

368

200


1265. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust left, with laureate shoulder straps, holding spear and shield / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe in left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.03.009; RIC 164. 4.16g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

150

1266. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe in left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.03.016; RIC 165. 4.10g, 23mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

100

1267. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe in left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.03.036; RIC 177. 4.65g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1268. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe in left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.03.037; RIC 170. 4.30g, 30mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

1269. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate, helmeted and trabeate bust left, holding Victory on globe / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe in left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.03.040; RIC 174 corr.4.63g, 23mm, 4h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

369

100


1270. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe in left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.03.041; RIC -. 3.79g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

100

1271. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTI-NVS AVG, laureate and trabeate bust left, holding scipio / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe in left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.03.047; RIC 182. 5.04g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

100

1272. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS A-VG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and studded shield / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe in left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.03.049 var; RIC 186 var. 3.30g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

150

1273. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS A-VG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield decorated with Victory holding wreath and palm branch / COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe in left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.03.058; RIC 66-66a. 4.44g, 23mm, 5h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

1274. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding forward pointing spear and shield / CONCO-R-D MILIT, Concordia standing slightly left, holding signum in each hand; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.04.013; RIC 195. 3.88g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

370

150


1275. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield decorated with head of Medusa / CONCO-R-D MILIT, Concordia standing slightly left, holding signum in each hand; star in right field, PLN in exergue. Cf. CT 7.04.024; RIC 203. 3.84g, 23mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

150

1276. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AV-G, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield decorated with central boss / CONCO-R-D MILIT, Concordia standing slightly left, holding signum in each hand; star in right field, PLN in exergue. Cf. CT 7.04.024 (3); RIC 203. 3.68g, 23mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

75

1277. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / PRICIPI IV-VENTVTIS, prince standing slightly left, holding globe and spear; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.07.013; RIC -. 4.07g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

150

1278. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / PRICIPI IV-VENTVTIS, prince standing slightly left, holding globe and spear; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.07.021; RIC -. 6.12g, 22mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

100

1279. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate and trabeate bust left, holding scipio / PRICIPI IVVENTVTIS, prince standing slightly left, holding globe and spear; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.07.025; RIC -. 4.19g, 22mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

371

100


1280. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AV-G, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / SPES R-EIPVBL, emperor, with raised right hand, holding spear over shoulder with left, on horse pawing seated captive to left; star in right field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.08.016; RIC -. 4.14g, 25mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

150

1281. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 311-312. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / FELICITA-S AVGG NN, Roma seated left, holding branch and globe; star in left field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.09.008; RIC 246. 4.59g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1282. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 312-313. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / ROMAE RESTITVTAE, Roma seated left, holding branch and globe; star in left field, PLN in exergue. CT 7.12.007; RIC -. 5.05g, 23mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

150

1283. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 314. IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / MARTI CON-SERVATORI, Mars standing right, holding spear and shield; S-F across fields, PLN in exergue. CT 8.02.009; RIC 4. 3.72g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

100

1284. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, circa AD 314. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / SOLI INVI-C-TO COMITI, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe with left; S-F across fields, PLN in exergue. CT 8.02.021; RIC 14. 3.48g, 22mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

372

100


1285. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, late AD 314 - early 315. CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate and trabeate bust left / SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left in quadriga seen from front, with raised right hand, holding globe and whip in left; MSL in exergue. CT 8.07.031 (this coin); RIC -. 3.10g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare. Ex Vecchi 12, 5 June 1998, lot 896.

250

1286. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, AD 319. IMP CONSTANT-INVS MAX AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories standing facing one another, holding together a shield inscribed VOT/PR set on garlanded column or altar; PLN in exergue. Cf. CT 9.01.006 (lozenge); RIC 157 note 1 (Vienna). 3.14g, 20mm, 6h. Superb Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

100

1287. Constantine I BI Nummus. London, AD 319-320. IMP CONSTAN-TINVS P AVG, radiate and trabeate bust left, with raised right hand, holding globe with left / VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories standing facing one another, holding together a shield inscribed VOT/PR set on altar decorated with cross within wreath; PLN in exergue. CT 9.01.019; RIC -. 2.27g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. 75

1288. Helena BI Nummus. London, circa AD 325. FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right / SECVIRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch and raising pallium; PLON in exergue. CT 10.02.009; RIC -. 3.12g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

200

1289. Fausta BI Nummus. London, circa AD 325. FLAV MAX FAVST AG, draped bust right / SALVS REIP-VBLICAE, veiled empress standing left, holding two children in her arms; PLON in exergue. CT 10.02.011; RIC 300. 3.35g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Rare.

500

1290. Crispus, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 320. CRISPVS NOB CAES, helmeted and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCIT, vexillum inscribed VOT XX, between two captives; PLN in exergue. CT 9.02.018; RIC 189. 3.47g, 20mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

75

373


1291. Constantine II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, AD 317. FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C, laureate and draped bust right, seen from behind / SOL INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left, with raised right hand, holding globe with left; crescent in left field, PLN in exergue. CT 8.11.009; RIC -. 2.87g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

100

1292. Constantine II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, AD 319-320. CONSTANTI-NVS IVN N C, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind / VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories standing facing one another, holding together a shield inscribed VOT/PR set on altar decorated with cross within wreath; PLN in exergue. CT 9.01.040; RIC 182 corr. 2.61g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Silvered. Rare.

100

1293. Constantine II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 321-323. CONSTANTI-NVS IVN N C, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind / BEATA TRA-NQVILLITAS, globe set on altar inscribed VOTIS XX in three lines; three stars above, P-A across fields, PLON in exergue. CT 9.04.024; RIC -. 3.19g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

100

1294. Constantine II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 321-323. CONSTANTI-NVS IVN N C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding Victory on globe and sword with eagle-headed handle / BEAT TRA-NQLITAS, globe set on altar inscribed VOTIS XX in three lines; three stars above, PLON in exergue. CT 9.05.034; RIC 288. 3.37g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

1295. Constantine II, as Caesar, BI Nummus. London, circa AD 325. CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets and no door; star above, PLON in exergue. CT 10.02.007; RIC -. 3.01g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

374

75


END OF SALE

375


376


Roma Numismatics Auction XIII  

March 23, 2017. Full colour catalogue.