Page 1


ROMA NUMISMATICS LIMITED

Auction XII 29 September 2016 Roma Numismatics Limited 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London W1T 6EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 7121 6518 www.romanumismatics.com email: info@romanumismatics.com

i


Auction XII

29 September

11:00

Greek Coins

13:00 Roman, Migration Period, Byzantine and World Coins 18:00 End of Sale

Location The alto Room The Cavendish Hotel London 81 Jermyn Street London SW1Y 6JF United Kingdom

ii


Viewing At the office of Roma Numismatics: 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London W1T 6EJ United Kingdom From August 29th - September 28th Monday – Friday, 09:30 – 17:30

lots will not be available for viewing during the sale

Lot pickup will be available from 10:00am on Friday 30th September

Roma Numismatics Limited Richard Beale – Director Alexander Morley-Smith Leslee Arlington Garfield Simon Parkin

Special Thanks to Italo Vecchi Deniz Grotjohann Salem Alshdaifat Fenella Theis UNUS PRO OMNIBUS, OMNES PRO UNO

iii


ABSENTEE BIDDING If you are unable to attend the auction in person, you may submit an absentee bid that will be executed on your behalf by Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics will attempt to obtain the lot for you at the lowest possible price, and will not purchase the lot for you at a price higher than the maximum you specify. This service is free and confidential. Absentee bids must be sent and received in good time. To place absentee bids please submit your list of lots, together with your maximum bids, either by email or post using the form provided, or online at www.RomaNumismatics.com. You may also participate live online during the sale at www. RomaNumismatics.com/live-bidding

email or postal bids The customer is responsible for submitting these in good time and confirming that the bids have been received. Please note we no longer accept bids by fax.

Telephone bids Bids may be placed by telephone as the auction is in progress, but are accepted only at the discretion of Roma Numismatics and at the risk of the customer. Roma Numismatics will not be held responsible for any failure to execute bids by telephone during the auction resulting from technical issues, miscommunication or any other reason. Any client wishing to bid by telephone should inform Roma Numismatics no later than 72 hours before the auction, and should have a prepared list of all the lots they wish to bid on.

Internet Bidding

BID ONLINE PRIOR TO THE AUCTION, SEE BIDS UPDATED IN REAL-TIME ON THE ROMA SITE. Internet bids may be submitted prior to the auction at www.RomaNumismatics.com - these bids will be automatically executed on the website. These bids will then be carried over into the live auction and executed by the auctioneer on the day. BID ONLINE DURING THE AUCTION, HEAR THE AUCTION LIVE ON YOUR COMPUTER. Real-time bids may be placed at www.the-saleroom.com on the day of the sale. These bids will be executed live on the floor. A 3% surcharge will apply to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. This charge is made through the-saleroom. com and is not connected with Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. It is advisable to register as early as possible for this service, since all internet bidders must be manually approved by the auctioneer.

Successful Bids Successful bidders will be notified and invoiced within a few days of the auction. Prices realised will be published around the same time.

iv


ROMA NUMISMATICS AUCTION XII MAIL BID FORM First Name:

Company Name (if applicable):

Surname:

(please indicate):

Address:

Debit / Credit Card (Visa, Mastercard):

Post/Zip Code:

Bank Transfer:

Country: Telephone:

Preferred Payment Method

Cheque: PayPal:

Email Address:

BIDS UNDER 80% OF THE ESTIMATE WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED Lot #

Max Bid

Lot #

Max Bid

Lot #

Max Bid

Lot #

Please POST OR EMAIL THIS FORM TO THE CONTACT DETAILS ON PAGE i. Signature: __________________________________________

v

Max Bid


vi


Conditions of Sale The following terms and conditions will apply to this auction:

I.

All estimates are in POUNDS STERLING. The opening bids will be 80% of the estimate unless there are existing higher bids. There will be a 19% Buyer’s Fee added to the hammer price. II. VAT at 20% (applicable to customers within the UK and EU) is due on the Buyer’s Fee only, not the hammer price. III. The auctioneer guarantees the absolute authenticity of any and all coins sold. There is no expiration to this guarantee. Any coins subsequently found to be not authentic will be exchanged for a full refund of the purchase price. IV. Absentee bids must be submitted and received by 20:00 on the day before the auction at the latest. It is the bidder’s responsibility to ensure that bids have been received by Roma Numismatics. V. All grades and descriptions are the opinion of the cataloguer. Conditions of all lots are as per the photographs displayed on the Roma Numismatics website; condition reports are available upon request. It is not possible to note all marks or defects, and thus customers are encouraged to carefully examine in person all lots that they are interested in bidding on. Bids, once placed, are final and will not be rescinded. If, however, the description is found to be incorrect, the item is returnable within 21 days after the sale. No other returns will be accepted except on the grounds of non-authenticity. All prospective bidders who exercise the opportunity to examine lots in hand shall assume all responsibility for any damage they cause in so doing. The auctioneer shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by the prospective bidder. VI. The auctioneer will have absolute discretion to accept or decline any bid, withdraw lots from sale at any time until such point as the purchaser takes physical possession, re-open any lot, even after the hammer has fallen, in which a bidding error has occurred, and to determine in the event of a dispute, the final winner of a lot or to rescind the sale and put the lot up for sale again. VII. For the protection of mail or absentee bidders, no ‘unlimited’ or ‘buy’ bids will be accepted. When identical bids are received for the same lot, preference will be given to the bid received first. A mail bid will take preference over a floor bid. VIII. Some lots may carry a reserve. The auctioneer reserves the right not to sell an item below the confidential price, or will repurchase the item on behalf of the consignor or for the account of Roma Numismatics Ltd. If a reserve exists the auctioneer reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of the consignor up to the amount of the reserve against any floor or mail bidders. The auctioneer also reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of Roma Numismatics Ltd. IX. Title remains with the owner until such time as the customer has paid in full. X. Invoices are due immediately upon receipt. Roma Numismatics Ltd. reserves the right to charge interest on unpaid invoices at the rate of 2% per calendar month, except where prior agreement has been made with regards to payment arrangements. XI. A 3.5% surcharge will be applied to payments made via PayPal or credit/debit card. A £10 surcharge will be applied to payments made by bank transfer from outside of the UK. The customer is responsible for paying all bank charges and shipping and insurance costs. XII. A 3% surcharge will be applied to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. XIII. By making a bid the customer agrees to the above terms and conditions and accepts to be bound by them. These conditions shall take effect and be construed in accordance with the provisions of English Law.

US COIN IMPORT RESTRICTIONS Any coins in this sale that fall under US import restrictions but may still be legally imported into the US are accompanied by documentation proving that they were outside of the source country prior to the effective date, or are accompanied by a valid export certificate issued by the country of origin. Any coins subject to US import restrictions that may not lawfully be imported into the United States of America will be clearly indicated as such with the note: ‘not suitable for US market’. Roma Numismatics will make every effort to ensure that US import restrictions affect our clients as little as possible, and will carry out all necessary importations and procedures as required on behalf of the client.

PAYMENT METHODS Invoices to be settled in POUNDS STERLING immediately upon receipt unless previously agreed otherwise. Bank Transfer: Barclays Bank, 22 The Borough, Farnham, GU9 7NH, UK | Account Name: Roma Numismatics IBAN: GB81 BARC 2031 0663 0101 39 | BIC: BARC GB22 | SORT CODE: 20-31-06 | ACC #: 63010139 Cheque (GBP only): Please make payable to Roma Numismatics Limited PayPal (add 3.5%): sales@romanumismatics.com Credit/Debit Card (add 3.5%): contact us directly on +44 (0)20 7121 6518

vii


viii


COINS OF THE CELTS

BRITANNIA

One of The Finest Known

3x

1. Britannia, Atrebates. Tincomarus AV 1/4 Stater. Calleva, circa 25 BC-7 AD. TINC on rectangular tablet, C-A above and below / Winged head of Medusa facing, a pair of snakes knotted below the chin, two large snakes descending on either side of the face. ABC 1076; BMC 811ff; Van Arsdell 378-1; SCBC 77; Spink 77. 1.18g, 11mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Among the finest known specimens, most of which are in museum collections.

7,250

Ex NGSA 5, 3 December 2008, lot 1. These coins were long thought to have been issued by one ‘Tincommius’, an error resulting from the combination of the two separate abbreviated legends TINC and the patronymic COM. The Medusa head is suggested by Van Arsdell to have been inspired by that on the extremely rare aurei of L. Aquillius Florus (RIC 302), which was itself a later incarnation of the design used on the denarii of L. Cornelius Lentulus and C. Claudius Marcellus (Crawford 445/1), that others have also cited as possible inspiration. However, there is no reason why the type should have been copied from another coin at all, since the winged medusa was a common motif on various artifices since the late seventh century BC, and Roman pottery and other imports had been appearing at Tincomarus’ capital of Calleva for some years before the start of his reign. The son and heir of Commius, Tincomarus succeeded his father around 25-20 BC. Based on coin distribution it is possible that Tincomarus ruled in collaboration with his father for the last few years of Commius’s life. Little is known of his reign although the numismatic evidence does suggest that he was sympathetic to Rome.

2. Britannia, Corieltauvi AV Stater. Circa 40-10 BC. South Ferriby Type. Wreath motif with brick-like leaves facing inwards / Lunate Celtic horse left, anchor and pellet ornament above, eight pointed star below. ABC 1743; BMC 3148; VA 811; SCBC 390. 5.84g, 20mm. Good Extremely Fine.

1

500


3. Britannia, Corieltauvi AV Stater. Volisios Dumnocoveros, circa AD 30-60. Schematic wreath crossed by linear frames; VO-LI SI-OS in two lines across field / DVM-NOCO-VER (VE ligate), curvilinear horse standing left; three pellets to left. ABC 1980; BMC 3330-36; VA 978-1; SCBC 416. 5.08g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

1,000

Finest Known Example

4. Britannia, Trinovantes AR Unit. Circa 50-40 BC. Late Whaddon Chase type (Lister’s Celtic Head). Male head right, with moustache, large locks of hair falling down to the back of neck in twisted strands, small horse before / Stylised Celtic horse with large ear and cabled mane prancing to right, winged object and pellets above, star above tail, ringed-pellet below. ABC 2478, VA 1540, BMC—, S—. 1.13g, 14mm, 4h. Mint State, struck on sound silver. Lustrous. Extremely Rare; with only 14 others recorded, and the finest known specimen.

5,000

Found at Meldreth, Cambridgeshire, 31 March 2014. Possibly issued by Cassivellaunos, commander of the British coalition against Caesar in 54 BC, it has been suggested by Chris Rudd that this coin bears the portrait of Cassivellaunos himself, though he admits this is by no means certain, and that it could just as likely represent a Catuvellaunian war-god. He further notes that “this is one of the most imposing male heads to be seen on any late iron age coin or Romano-British figurine.” The type was named ‘Lister’s Celtic Head’ in honour of Major Clement Wynter Lister (1920-2010), who served on the council of the British Numismatic Society for twelve years, from 1963-66, and 1969-76. The type had been unknown until 1958 when Major Lister published the first discovered specimen (see BNJ XXIX, 1958/9, pp 5-7 and plate XV), saying: “Julius Caesar, in his Gallic Wars, Book I, chap. xiv, records that the inhabitants of Britain ‘wear their hair long and have every part of their body shaved except the head and upper lip’’, This coin, almost alone among British coins, bears out this description…The head is likely to be that of some British or Belgic deity following the Roman pattern, though it might be argued that it could be of a tribal king’. The moustache, which although appearing smooth on this example, is serrated on the Lister example.

EASTERN EUROPE

5. Celts in Eastern Europe AR Tetradrachm. Zigzag type, 2nd century BC. Stylized head of Zeus left / Stylized horse and rider left, zigzag pattern and annulet above, circle in square before. Pink 460; Dessewffy 235; BMCC S132. 11.78g, 25mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2

1,750


SPAIN

COINS OF THE GREEKS Extremely Rare and Important Hispano-Carthaginian Dishekel

6. Carthaginian Spain, Barcid Dominion AR Dishekel. South-western region of Gadir, circa 237-228 BC. Diademed male head (Hamilcar?) to left, with hanging ties / Prow of galley to right, with rostra, oars, two shields on deck and a wreathed forepost, to which is attached a pennant; seahorse in exergue. MHC, Class II, 14 (same dies); ACIP 542; AB 481. 14.72g, 27mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known examples.

20,000

In 237 BC Hamilcar Barca, after having lost the First Punic War against Rome, but having won the Mercenary War against the Libyans, disembarked at Gadir with a Carthaginian expedition with the purpose of “re-establishing Carthaginian authority in Iberia” (Polybios, Histories, 2.1.6), and within 9 years he had expanded the territory of Carthage well into the Iberian peninsula, securing control of the southern mining district of Baetica and Sierra Morena, before dying in battle in 228. Hamilcar was succeeded by his son-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair who expanded the new province by skilful diplomacy and consolidated it with the foundation of Akra Leuka, Mahon and finally in 227, Qart Hadasht (Latin: Carthago Nova) as his capital. After his untimely death in 221 he was succeeded by Hannibal (247-182), oldest son of Hamilcar Barca, and Hamilcar’s second son Hasdrubal (245-207 BC). The Barcids now wielded control over much of the mineral rich Mediterranean side of the peninsula until 219 when Hannibal made the fateful move of taking and sacking Saguntum, a well established Roman ally. The wholesale slaughter of this Roman ally’s population, and the arrogance with which the Roman ambassadors sent to Carthage to seek redress were met, led directly to the Second Punic War: the great statesman Quintus Fabius, speaking to the Carthaginian senate, gathered a fold of his toga to his chest and held it out, saying “Here, we bring you peace and war. Take which you will.” The Carthaginians replied “Whichever you please - we do not care.” Fabius let the fold drop and proclaimed “We give you war.” The obverse of this coinage is popularly believed to depict Hamilcar Barca (or depict his features assimilated into Herakles-Melqart), who had after 247 commanded Carthage’s fleet and army in the Sicilian theatre of the First Punic War. The reverse of this type clearly alludes to the Carthaginian tradition of being a primarily naval power, and probably more specifically, to a renewed strengthening of the fleet, which had been so devasatated in the war - according to Polybius’ estimates, Carthage had lost 500 ships and he commented that the war was, at the time, the most destructive in terms of casualties in the history of warfare, including the battles of Alexander the Great. Yet despite rebuilding their ships, Carthage’s naval supremacy and the confidence to use them aggressively had been broken. Although Hamilcar himself had been an able admiral, after his death Carthaginian commanders (including his sons) appear not to have been sufficiently confident to aggressively challenge the Romans at sea in the Second Punic War, which in contrast to the preceding war, was largely a land-based conflict.

7. Carthaginian Spain, Barcid Dominion AR Shekel. South-western region of Gadir, circa 237-209 BC. Diademed male head (Hamilcar?) to left / Prow of galley to right, with rostra, oars, two shields on deck and a wreathed forepost, to which is attached a pennant; dolphin to right in exergue. MHC, Class II, 14 (same dies); ACIP 549 (same dies); AB 482. 7.34g, 20mm, 11h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and unusually well preserved in good metal.

3

5,000


Very Rare 1½ Shekel

8. Carthaginian Spain, Barcid Dominion AR 1½ Shekel. Akra Leuka, circa 229/228 BC. Laureate head left (Melqart or Hasdrubal), with club over right shoulder / Elephant to right. MHC, Class III, 44 (same obverse die); ACIP 554; AB 486. 11.10g, 24mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

The city of Qart Hadasht (or Carthago Nova, as it was known to the Romans), literally meaning ‘new city’ and identical in name to Carthage itself, had been re-founded by the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal the Fair in 228 BC on the site of a town named Mastia. The site was chosen as it possessed one of the best harbours in the western Mediterranean, thus enabling it to serve as the primary port and capital city of the Barcid dominion in Spain. This new ‘empire’ had been carved out by Hasdrubal’s predecessor and father-in-law Hamilcar Barca, who had sought to replace the possessions in Sicily and Sardinia lost to Rome in the First Punic War, and to serve as a means of enriching and strengthening Carthage for any future war with Rome, a conflict he saw as inevitable. Hasdrubal ably succeeded his father-in-law in expanding the family’s territory in Spain and power over the local tribes, but was assassinated in 221. He was succeeded by Hamilcar’s son, Hannibal Barca, who was now of sufficient age to command the Carthaginian military forces, and who wasted little time in aggressively expanding Carthaginian influence over the surrounding regions. Barely two years later, Hannibal’s would besiege Saguntum and massacre the population, leading to renewed war with Rome. This bold type has been dated to the early period of Hasdrubal’s command in Spain; in contrast to the coinage attributed to Hamilcar, this type makes no reference to the traditional naval power of Carthage, instead adopting the African elephant as the reverse type. Evidently not a warelephant (note the absence of either a mahout or a fighting tower) it is perhaps best interpreted as a sybol of Carthage or Barcid power in general. Indeed it is known that Hasdrubal favoured diplomacy and the demanding of hostages to further expand his influence in Spain; the club-wielding Herakles-Melqart implies the threat of force rather than its open display. Though Robinson (Essays Mattingly) interpreted the beardless head of Melqart on this coin as bearing the features of Hannibal Barca, the dating of the issue (as per Villaronga, MHC) suggests it is more likely to be Hasdrubal, if indeed an individual commander’s likeness is shown.

9

10

9. Carthaginian Spain, Barcid Dominion AR Half-Shekel. Carthago Nova, circa 218-209 BC. Male head left / Horse standing right. MHC 223 (same dies); ACIP 615; AB 615. 3.68g, 17mm, 12h. Near Very Fine. Rare. 200 10. Carthaginian Spain, Barcid Dominion AR Half-Shekel. Carthago Nova, circa 218-209 BC. Male head left / Horse standing right. MHC 223 (same dies); ACIP 615; AB 615. 3.69g, 17mm, 12h. Near Very Fine. Rare. 500

GAUL

11. Cisalpine Gaul AR Drachm. 2nd century BC. Female head right / ‘Scorpion’ type lion to right, garbled Greek legend derived from MΑΣΣΑ above. Pautasso 391-410; BMC 4-7. 2.77g, 16mm, 3h. Extremely Fine.

4

400


ETRURIA

12. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X:X below / Blank. EC I, 37 (O1); HN Italy 101. 8.34g, 20mm. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone.

2,500

From the Alban Collection.

13. Etruria, Vetulonia Æ Sextans. 3rd century BC. Head of Nethuns right, wearing ketos headdress; •• (mark of value) to left / Ornamental trident between two dolphins; • • (mark of value) flanking. EC Series 13, 1–23 (O11/R9); HN Italy 203. 9.68g, 24mm, 1h. Good Fine. Rare.

300

From the Alban Collection.

14. Etruria or Umbria, possibly Volsinii, Cast Æ Sextans. 3rd century BC. Club / • •. Haeberlin pp. 236-8, 1-266 pl. 81, 836-41; ICC 199; HN Italy 54; for a tentative identification of this issue’s minting authority see M. Crawford ‘The oval series of aes grave’ in CH 9 (2002), pp. 269-270. 27.46g, 31mm. Extremely Fine.

400

From the Alban Collection.

CAMPANIA

15. Campania, Neapolis AR Stater. Circa 320-300 BC. Head of nymph right; grape bunch behind, O below / Man-headed bull walking right, Nike flying to right above, placing wreath on bull’s head; O below, ΝΕΟΠΟΛΙΤHΣ in exergue. Sambon 446; HN Italy 571; SNG ANS 319. 7.30g, 19mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone. From the Alban Collection.

5

1,200


LUCANIA

16. Lucania, Herakleia AR Stater. Circa 330 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing single-pendant earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla throwing stone held in right hand; EY to right / |-HPAKΛEIΩN, Herakles wrestling the Nemean lion: Herakles stands facing, head and upper body turned to left, right hand holding club behind body, left hand grasping lion’s throat; fluted jug beneath. [Club and AΠΟΛ to left]. Work 47 (same dies); Van Keuren 51 (same obv. die); HN Italy 1378; SNG ANS 66; SNG Lloyd -; Basel -; Bement 138 (same obv. die); Gulbenkian -; Hunterian 7 (same dies); McClean 825 (same obv. die); Weber 706 (same dies). 7.76g, 21mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare. An excellent example of this type, one of the finest to have come to the market in the past fifteen years.

5,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Gemini VII, 9 January 2011, lot 30. The flourishing of an artistic culture in Herakleia is attested by the beauty and variety of its coinage, and that they survive in relative profusion is demonstrative of the wealth and commercial importance of the city. Despite this, it is not often that one encounters them in as good a state of preservation as is the case with the present coin. The depiction of Herakles on the reverse of this coin places the hero in a typical fighting stance of the Greek martial discipline Pankration, or Pammachon (total combat) as it was earlier known. Indeed, this fighting style was said to have been the invention of Herakles and Theseus as a result of their using both wresting and boxing in their encounters with opponents. The stance portrayed on this coin is paralleled on an Attic black-figure vase in the BM depicting two competitors, one in a choke hold similar to that of the lion here. The composition of this design is very deliberate - as the lion leaps forwards, Herakles who had been facing the lion, turns his body sideways. The myths tell us that Herakles had first stunned the beast with his club, and now he dodges the lion’s bite and reaches his right arm around its head to place it in a choke hold. Impressively careful attention has been paid to the detail on this die, including realistic rendering of the hero’s musculature, which has been engraved in fine style.

17. Lucania, Herakleia AR Stater. Circa 330 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing single-pendant earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla throwing stone held in right hand; EY to right / |-HPAKΛEIΩN, Herakles wrestling the Nemean lion: Herakles stands facing, head and upper body turned to left, right hand holding club behind body, left hand grasping lion’s throat; fluted jug beneath. [Club and AΠΟΛ to left]. Work 47 (same dies); Van Keuren 51 (same obv. die); HN Italy 1378; SNG ANS 66; SNG Lloyd -; Basel -; Bement 138 (same obv. die); Gulbenkian -; Hunterian 7 (same dies); McClean 825 (same obv. die); Weber 706 (same dies). 7.92g, 20mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare. Unobtrusive test punch on reverse, but very good for the type and attractively toned.

1,500

Ex Heritage 3012, 2 January 2011, lot 24380.

18. Lucania, Laos AR Stater. Circa 480-460 BC. Man-headed bull left, head reverted; ΛAΣ (retrograde) above, acorn below / Man-headed bull right, ΛAΣ (retrograde) above. H.-R. Sternberg, “Die Silberprägung von Laos ca. 510-440 v. Chr.,” Proceedings of the 8th International Numismatic Congress, 10 (V8/R9); SNG Lockett 364; McClean 880-1 (same dies); HN Italy 2275. 7.95g, 17mm, 11h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

6

1,800


19. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 540-510 BC. Ear of barley with eight grains on each side; MET downwards to right / Incuse of obverse. HN Italy 1459; Noe Class I. 8.15g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

750

From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich.

20. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 540-510 BC. Ear of barley with eight grains on each side; MET downwards to right / Incuse of obverse. HN Italy 1459; Noe Class I. 7.66g, 31mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

500

21. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 540-510 BC. Ear of barley with eight grains on each side; MET downwards to right / Incuse of obverse. HN Italy 1459; Noe Class I. 8.05g, 27mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

500

From a private German collection.

22. Lucania, Metapontion AR Drachm. Circa 540-510 BC. Ear of barley with seven grains, MET to left / Incuse barley ear of seven grains. HN Italy 1460; SNG ANS 175ff. 2.61g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

500

2x 23. Lucania, Metapontion AR Obol. Circa 540-510 BC. Ear of barley with six grains / Incuse ear of barley with six grains. Noe Class I, 35ff; HN Italy 1462. 0.17g, 11mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7

300


8


Most Desirable of All the Incuse Staters of Metapontion

24. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 510 BC. Ear of barley upright with seven grains on each side, META downwards to left, grasshopper to right; raised and braided dotted border around / Incuse barley ear, dolphin upwards to left in linear relief. Noe 102 (2 examples); HN Italy 1472. 7.95g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very attractive old cabinet tone. An issue of great fascination. Extremely Rare.

10,000

From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich. The most desirable of all the incuse types of Metapontion, this remarkable and brief series comprising only four known obverse dies for the staters and one for a third stater marks the first usage of adjunct symbols on the coinage of Metapontion. A series of great fascination, the meaning of the grasshopper and the dolphin has been a subject of debate for many years. Noe advocated the symbols as representing the badges of the moneyers’ houses, an argument not dissimilar to that which led the early archaic Athenian coins to be called ‘wappenmünzen’. Lenormant’s view that the insect has a propitiatory significance is rejected with the derisory rhetorical question ‘there may have been a plague of locusts but could there have been a plague of dolphins?’, while avoiding trying to explain its significance. Babelon (Traité, 1395-1396) proposed a punning reference to the hero Alybas, father of Metabos, and legendary founder of the city, however the Greek word he proposes to mean locust is incorrect, and the argument founders, still failing to explain the dolphin. It is most logical to follow Lenormant and view the appearance of the grasshopper-locust on the coins as being a propitiatory emblem or commemorating the deliverance of the city from a plague of locusts through the intervention of Apollo. Indeed, the god is closely associated with afflictions (and the relief of), and had as one of his epithets ‘Parnopios’, from πάρνοψ, “locust” – the expeller of locusts. Given that the dolphin was both a form he had taken and one of his sacred animals, as well as being a punning allusion to him as Apollo Delphinios, it seems eminently reasonable to determine the link between the two symbols as being in reference to a plague of locusts whose abatement was attributed to the intervention of Apollo. That the grasshopper-locust symbol recurs several times more throughout the extensive coinage of Metapontion and at appreciable intervals is hardly suggestive of descendents of a particular family holding office, as Noe suggested, but rather more likely indicative of recurrent swarms threatening the principle source of the city’s wealth and food.

25. Lucania, Metapontion AR Half-Shekel. Hannibalic issue, circa 215-207 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet / Ear of barley with leaf to right; META to left. HN Italy 1632; SNG Lloyd 403; SNG Lockett 437; E.S.G. Robinson NC 1964, The Coinages of the Second Punic War, p. 50, 1 and pl. VI, 4. 3.33g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

9

300


10


One of the Finest Known Poseidonia Staters

26.

Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠOΣ behind / Incuse of obverse, but with ΠOΣ in relief. HN Italy 1107; SNG ANS 609 (same obv. die). 7.59g, 32mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; usual striking weakness on obv. Very Rare. In outstanding state of preservation, displaying incredible metal quality and a superb level of detail. One of the very finest specimens known. From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich.

15,000

Little is known of Poseidonia from its foundation at around the end of the Seventh Century BC by colonists from Sybaris other than that information which can be gleaned from archeological study of the city and its remaining artefacts. The literary tradition offers only a terminus ante quem for the foundation, circa 530, provided by Herodotos who refers to the city as in existence when Hyele was founded c.540-535. The archaeological evidence suggests a foundation date of c.600 (E. Greco; Poseidonia ii. 73 n. 7). Evidence from votive figurines and the city’s architecture suggest close trade relations with Metapontion during the sixth and fifth centuries, but the relationship with its mother city appears not to be have been particularly strong, since its coins are struck on the Campanian-Phokaian standard rather than the Italic-Achaian standard in use at Sybaris. Nonetheless, Poseidonia accepted refugees from Sybaris after their city was destroyed by Kroton in 510, evidenced by the fact that in the early fifth century Poseidonia’s coins adopted the Achaian weight standard and the bull seen on Sybarite coins. A. J. Graham (Colony and Mother City in Ancient Greece, 1999) thinks it was plausible that the number of refugees was large enough for some kind of synoecism to have occurred between the Poseidonians and the Sybarites, possibly in the form of a sympolity. Poseidonia’s relationship to the Sybarites then remained strong enough that in 453 Sybaris was refounded with the apparent blessing and sponsorship of Poseidonia. The city does not make further appearance in the classical sources until the late fifth century, when according to Strabo it was conquered by the Lucani. Although Aristoxenos would have us believe that the Greek identity of the city was effaced and that the Poseidoniatai were completely barbarianised, a sizeable Greek population must have remained despite the conquest, as the archaeological record shows both Greek and Oscan culture continuing to thrive alongside one another. Despite no single temple having been definitively identified as pertaining to Poseidon, the cult of this god must have played an important role in the city, as evidenced both by its name and by the principle type of its coinage, of which the present piece is a magnificent example. The outstanding quality of the engraving is noteworthy; we are presented with two well-proportioned and finely detailed images of what must surely have been a statue, which many scholars have with good reason assumed that this figure was inspired by, such is the consistency with which it is depicted (though minor variations of detail, including the beard, do occur) and the monumental quality it possesses. Indeed, The figure bears much similarity to the Artemision Bronze in compositional style; proponents of the argument that the Artemision Bronze is Poseidon (rather than Zeus) cite the coinage of Poseidonia in their favour.

11


27. Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠOΣ behind / Incuse of obverse, but with trident and ΠOΣ in relief. HN Italy 1107; SNG ANS 611ff; 7.40g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

5,000

From an English collection, privately purchased from Roma Numismatics in 2010.

28. Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Bearded Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠΟΣ behind / Incuse of obverse, but with no trident, ΠΟΣ in relief. SNG ANS 612 (same obv. die); HN Italy 1107. 7.53g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Excellent metal quality, and lightly toned. From a private German collection.

7,500

29. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.99g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Minor delamination spot, but otherwise sound metal, lustrous and lightly toned. From a private German collection.

12

1,500


30. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.47g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful old cabinet tone with hints of old red-blue iridescence.

1,500

From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich.

31. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.67g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Struck on a broad flan, with a well rendered border, giving a medallic appearance. From the Alban Collection.

1,250

32. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.96g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

13

1,250


33. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.84g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

1,000

34. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.98g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine, struck from worn dies.

1,000

Exceptional Sybaris Drachm

35. Lucania, Sybaris AR Drachm. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; MV retrograde in exergue / Incuse of obverse, but to right and without letters. SNG ANS 847-53; HN Italy 1736. 2.10g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal, lightly toned. Exceptional metal quality for the type.

1,000

From a private German collection.

2x 36. Lucania, Sybaris AR Obol. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right / Large M V; three pellets interspersed. SNG ANS 854; HN Italy 1739. 0.32g, 11mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

2x 37. Lucania, Sybaris AR Obol. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right / Incuse of obverse. Cf. NAC 25, 32 for similar incuse type. 0.25g, 9mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

14

500


Beautiful Classical Style

38. Lucania, Thourioi AR Distater. Circa 350-300 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet decorated with Skylla; ΣΑΝ behind neck guard / Bull charging right, ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ ΕΥΦΑ above; two fish swimming to right in exergue. HN Italy 1823; Noe, Thurian J6-J8 (these dies). 15.17g, 27mm, 3h. Minor flatness on obverse, but otherwise Mint State. Ex ACR 4, 5 December 2011, lot 490.

10,000

A head of Athena engraved in the finest classical style, superbly detailed throughout, with facial features that convey a femininity rarely seen on the coins of this series. Golden toning around the devices. The types presented on this coin allude to the origins of the city in the mid-fifth century BC: the foundation of Thourioi was the outcome of an appeal made by the refugees of Sybaris, recently destroyed by Kroton, to Sparta and Athens for assistance and reinforcement in their attempt to reestablish their city in the face of Krotoniate opposition. Athens answered their plea, dispatching ten ships manned by Athenians and Peloponnesians. Thus Sybaris was refounded, though dissensions between the Sybarites and the new colonists ended in a civil conflict, on account of the former laying claim not only to honorary distinctions, but to the exclusive possession of important political privileges. At length many of the Sybarites were expelled, and Thourioi’s population was swelled by fresh colonists from all parts of Greece. Though the Athenians by now formed a relatively small proportion of the population, Thourioi continued to be regarded as an Athenian colony, maintaining close ties with Athens, and indeed providing assistance to Athens’ ill-fated campaign against Syracuse. It is therefore unsurprising that Athena should feature as the patron deity of the city, prominently displayed on its coinage, while the reverse is an adaptation of the emblem of Sybaris, upon which Thourioi was built.

CALABRIA

39. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 333-332 BC. Warrior, preparing to cast spear held in right hand, holding two spears and shield in left, on horse rearing right, eight-rayed star on hind leg; ΣA below / Taras, holding kantharos in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm, astride dolphin left; AP to left, TAPAΣ to right; below, small dolphin left. Vlasto 602 (this obverse die); SNG ANS 995 (this obverse die); HN Italy 937. 7.85g, 22mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive lustre. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 489 (then sold with documentation proving it was outside Italy prior to 19 January 2011).

15

2,500


A Pivotal Moment in History

40. Calabria, Tarentum AV Hemistater. Circa 276-272 BC. Head of youthful Herakles in lion-skin headdress to right / Ephebe driving galloping biga to right; ΣΩΚ above to right, ΤΑΡΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ in exergue. Fischer-Bossert G 33; HN Italy 985; Vlasto 29. 4.28g, 15mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

11,500

At the beginning of the 3rd century BC the increasing power and influence of Rome in Southern Italy became a source of great concern to Tarentum. Aggravated by what they perceived as Roman interference within their area of dominion, increasing numbers of Roman colonies in Apulia and Lucania, and a growing fleet which threatened Tarentine naval supremacy in Italy, the Tarentines came to an agreement with Rome in 282 BC, part of which forbade Roman ships from entering the Gulf of Taranto. In the same year, ten Roman ships were caught in a storm and driven into the gulf, arriving in the sea off Tarentum during the festival of Dionysos. Considering this a hostile act, the Tarentines attacked the Roman flotilla, sinking four ships and capturing a fifth. A Roman delegation sent to negotiate and seek redress from the Tarentines was insulted and mocked, resulting in the Roman Senate declaring war on Tarentum, and the latter calling for assistance from Pyrrhos of Epeiros. The ‘victories’ of Pyrrhos at Herakleia and Asculum did little more than grant the Tarentines and their allies a temporary reprieve. After these battles Pyrrhos embarked on a Sicilian adventure that brought him no better fortune, but in the meantime the Magna Graecians were left to their own devices. After returning and fighting another costly but inconclusive engagement at Beneventum, Pyrrhos abandoned Italy for good, leaving Magna Graecia to its fate. Pyrrhos’ departure was followed swiftly by the Roman conquest of Lucania, Samnium, and finally in 272, after fighting on for a further three years after Pyrrhos’ departure, Tarentum itself was forced to surrender. This coin, struck as a last-resort war issue by a Tarentum that was determined but increasingly desperate (evidenced by the use of its emergency bullion reserves), is the legacy of a pivotal moment in history frozen in time and gold. The defeat of Pyrrhos and Tarentum marked a great turning point in the affairs of the world - the Roman conquest of Italy was complete, and the defeat of a powerful Greek king with a trained, professional army by an unheard-of Italian republic had sent shockwaves throughout the Hellenistic east. The successor states of the Alexandrine empire took note: a new power had emerged in the central Mediterranean, and less than a decade later the emboldened Rome would embark on a major overseas war, challenging the might of Carthage for control of Sicily.

41. Calabria, Tarentum AR Reduced Nomos or Half-Shekel. Punic occupation, circa 212-209 BC. Nude youth on horseback to left, crowning horse with wreath; IΩ to right, ΣΩΓENHΣ below / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding cornucopiae and Nike who crowns him with wreath; TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 975-7; HN Italy 1079. 3.86g, 18mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

The climax of the Carthaginian invasion of Italy was reached when Tarentum changed sides in 212 BC. The takeover of the city was a carefully planned coup by Hannibal and members of the city’s democratic faction who opened the gates to Hannibal’s army. The Carthaginians failed to take the citadel, but subsequent fortifications around this enemy stronghold enabled the city to remain under Punic control. Hannibal installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half-shekel standard.

16


BRUTTIUM Beautiful Stater of Kaulonia

42.

Bruttium, Kaulonia AR Stater. Circa 525-500 BC. Nude Apollo walking right, holding laurel branch in upright right hand, small daimon running right on Apollo’s extended left arm, holding long branch; to right, stag standing right with head reverted, KAVL to left; all within dot and cable border / Incuse of obverse, but no ethnic and daimon without branch; stag horns and laurel in relief. Noe, Caulonia, Group A, 3 (same dies); SNG ANS 141 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 1698 (same obverse die); HN Italy 2035. 7.82g, 30mm, 12h. Struck from worn obv. die, but Near Mint State. Well struck, with an uncommonly complete border. Beautiful, lustrous metal. 7,500 From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich. Though there is no literary record of the foundation of Kaulonia, archeological evidence shows that it was established early in the second half of the seventh century BC. Both Strabo and Pausanias mention that it was founded by Achaean Greek colonists, and Pausanias additionally gives the name of the oikist as Typhon of Aegium. Others sources such as Pseudo-Scymnos claim that it was founded by Kroton but it could well be that Typhon and his settlers came at the request of Kroton. The design of the incuse staters of Kaulonia has elicited various interpretations over the years; those that were current at the time of writing Historia Numorum in 1911 were reviewed by Barclay Head. Head interpreted the figure as being a representation of the oikist Typhon, who holds in his hand a plant (καυλος) stalk, alike to that of the parsnip plant, which he takes to be a punning allusion to the city. Modern scholarship however tends to identify the figure as Apollo, as the symbolism is more easily associated with this deity – a laurel branch, for instance, being more easily recognisable and sacred to Apollo. The small running figure most likely represents a daimon, a divinity of a lower order, who serves as a messenger of the gods. It may be, given his occasionally winged feet, that this daimon should be seen to be a wind god such as Zephyros. The stag is the only element which has consistently defied explanation (even by Head); its meaning was clearly sufficiently explicit and important for it to have eventually served as a the principle reverse type of Kaulonia. It may be a reference to Artemis, who at Aegium was worshipped jointly with Apollo in a temple the two gods shared.

17


One of the Finest of All Incuse Kroton Staters

43.

Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet, two serpents at base; QPO to left / Incuse tripod. Attianese 4; SNG ANS 239-241; HN Italy 2075. 8.21g, 28mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

7,500

From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich. In terms of quality, this coin is easily the best preserved of its series that has been seen at auction in a great many years. Certainly its sharpness far exceeds that of any example listed on CoinArchives, and represents one of the very finest surviving incuse staters of Kroton - it must have been virtually fresh from the die when lost or deposited over two and a half millennia ago. The importance of the Delphic oracle to the founding of Kroton was celebrated on its coinage from the earliest days. Despite later myths ascribing the founding of Kroton to Herakles, the city’s historical oikist is recorded as Myskellos of Rhypai who, on consulting the Delphic oracle about his lack of children was given the response that Apollo would grant children, but that first Myskellos should found the city of Kroton ‘among fair fields’. After being given directions on how to locate the site, Myskellos travelled to southern Italy to explore the land that he had been assigned, but seeing the territory of the Sybarites and thinking it superior, he returned once more to the oracle to ask whether he would be allowed to change. The answer came back that he should accept the gifts that the god gave him. A further element of the story is that Myskellos was accompanied on his expedition by Archias of Corinth; the Delphic oracle gave the pair the choice between health and wealth. Archias elected wealth, and was assigned the site of Syracuse, while Myskellos chose health: the favourable climate of Kroton, the eminent skill of its physicians and the prowess of its athletes later earned its citizens this reputation for good health.

18


Struck on a Very Broad Flan

44. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod with legs terminating in lion’s paws; two serpents emerging from base, QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws. HN Italy 2075; SNG Ashmolean 1460; SNG ANS 240. 8.18g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Well centred on a broad flan with a virtually complete border.

2,000

From a private German collection.

45. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod with legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 227-234; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075. 8.19g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,250

46. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod with legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl. SNG Ashmolean 1463; SNG ANS 230; HN Italy 2075. 8.10g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. From the Alban Collection.

19

1,250


47. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod with legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 230; HN Italy 2075. 7.68g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,250

48. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod with legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 230; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075. 7.94g, 30mm, 12h. Very Fine.

750

49. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod with legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 228; SNG Lloyd 591. 7.55g, 29mm, 12h. Very Fine.

500

2x 50. Bruttium, Kroton AR Hemiobol. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod with legs terminating in lion’s paws; QPO to left / Incuse tripod. Unpublished in the standard references, cf. Heidelberger 64, 2014, 37 (0.16g) and Gorny & Mosch 204, 2012, 1071 (0.14g). 0.24g, 10mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely rare, only two other examples recorded in commerce.

500

From a private German collection. The early silver fractions of Kroton with an incuse design are all extremely rare - there are only 10 such obols present on CoinArchives - however all of these are of the later incuse eagle type. For a similar published unique obol of 0.43g (1/24-Stater) cf. P. Attianses, Kroton, Ex Numis Historia (1992), 27 = P. Attianese, Calabria greca III (1980), 1604a. This hemiobol, together with the two above mentioned hemiobols and one obol, is apparently all that survives of Kroton’s earliest silver fractional coinage.

20


Coverpiece of Giessener Münzhandlung 1994

51.

Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 400-325 BC. Head of Hera Lakinia facing slightly right, wearing necklace and polos decorated with palmettes; B to right / Young Herakles, nude, holding cup in extended right hand and club in left, reclining left on lion skin draped over rock; KPOTΩNIATAΣ around, bow below. Attianese 138; HN Italy 2169; SNG ANS 375 (same dies); SNG Lloyd –; Gulbenkian 131 (same dies); Kraay & Hirmer 270 = de Luynes 728 (same dies). 7.73g, 23mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Rare in this grade.

15,000

Ex Giessener Münzhandlung 69, 18 November 1994, lot 85 (and coverpiece). The depiction of Hera on the obverse is that of a local aspect of the deity, whose sanctuary the Heraion Lakinion was situated 10 kilometres away from Kroton at Lakinion, now Cape Colonna. The site takes its name from the sole surviving column of the temple built upon that spot in around 470 BC, which was largely intact until the sixteenth century when it was extensively quarried. Theokritos’ Korydon sings the praises of the ‘Lakinian shrine that faces the dawn’, and Livy 24.3.3-7 tells us that it was ‘a building more famous even than the city itself and held in reverence by all the peoples there around’ and that within were countless masterpieces and treasures including a column of solid gold dedicated to the goddess. By the time of Livy’s writings however, the temple had long been plundered. This facing portrait of Hera can be considered to be directly inspired by Kimon’s famous facing Arethusa tetradrachm that was widely admired and imitated throughout the ancient world; the difficulty of creating an attractive facing portrait apparently led to engravers considering the undertaking of such a die as a challenge and proof of their skill. Hera’s headdress, a low crown known as a polos, was no longer worn in classical times but was common in Mycenaean art. Many of the terracotta figurines from late Helladic IIIA Mycenaean period circa 1400–1300 BC seem to wear poloi, and its use can thus be seen as a deliberate archaism for representing a Mother Goddess. Herakles appears on the reverse of this coin in his role as ‘founder’ of Kroton. Later Krotoniate tradition conveniently bypassed Myskellos in favour of associating the city with a past more ancient even than the Trojan War; according to myth Herakles landed at the nearby promontory with the oxen of Gerion and was hospitably received by one Kroton and his wife Laureta. Her father Lakinio however, was discovered trying to steal an ox from Herakles’ sacred herd, resulting in Herakles fighting and killing him. In the confusion, it transpired that Herakles had also mortally wounded his host Kroton. Saddened, Herakles gave Kroton an honourable burial, and predicted the founding of a great city there that would bear his name. We see also on the reverse of this coin the fabled bow of Herakles, that Philoktetes (a Greek hero of the Trojan War) was said to have taken with him to the land between Sybaris and Kroton, where he founded the non-Greek cities Petelia, Chrone, Krimisa and Makalla. A prophecy arose as in the Trojan War, that victory would be Kroton’s if the bow and arrows of Herakles would be theirs. Thus, these sacred relics of Philoktetes were removed from his tomb and deposited in the Krotoniate sanctuary of Apollo Aleos. This coin is therefore rare among Greek coins in that it may be considered to have a threefold significance - referring directly to the sanctuary of Hera, to Herakles as ‘founder’ of the city, and to the sanctuary of Apollo.

21


52. Bruttium, Rhegion AR Tetradrachm. Circa 435-425 BC. Facing lion’s head; dotted border / RECINOS (retrograde), Apollo Iocastos enthroned left, holding long staff; laurel wreath around. Herzfelder 52 (same dies); HN Italy 2491; SNG Copenhagen -, cf. 1929; SNG ANS 640. 17.05g, 27mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Obv. of particularly fine style. Old cabinet tone.

3,750

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 9, 16-17 April 1996, lot 118. The lion on the obverse of Rhegion’s coinage is the sacred animal of Apollo, patron god of colonisation. The seated figure on the reverse has no distinctive attributes that aid identification, however current interpretations attribute him as being Iocastos, son of Aiolos, and who was king over much of the toe of Italy. That he died from the effects of a snake-bite we learn from Heraklides, a pupil of Plato: “Rhegion was founded by Chalkidians who had left Euripas on account of a pestilence; they were aided by Messenians, who settled down first near the grave of Iocastos, one of the sons of Aiolos, whom they say died from the bite of a snake.” The fact that his brothers Pheraimon and Agathurnos were commemorated on coins of Messana and Tyndaris renders it likely that Iocastos should likewise be made the subject of a type.

53. Bruttium, Terina AR Tetrobol. Circa 300 BC. Head of the nymph Terina left, TEPINAIΩN in front, triskeles behind / Nike seated to left on a cippus, the base shown in perspective, a small bird resting on outstretched right hand, monogram before. Holloway-Jenkins, Terina 112; SNG Copenhagen 2028; SNG ANS 861. 2.42g, 17mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Attractive golden toning.

2,000

Ex Peus 410, 3 November 2010, lot 35.

MAURETANIA

54. Mauretania, Lixus Æ Unit. Circa 50-1 BC. Two grain ears; LIXS between / Two tunny fish; Neo-Punic legend above and below. SNG Copenhagen 701-702; Müller, Afrique 239; MAA, J. Alexandropoulos - Les Monnaies de l’Afrique Antique, p. 478, 170. 11.12g, 29mm, 12h. Near Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

150

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 359, 9 September 2015, Lot 119.

55. Mauretania, Tingis Æ21. 1st Century BC. Head of bearded Baal-Melqart left; sceptre behind / Single corn-ear; Neo-Punic legend around. SNG Copenhagen 725; MAA 154. 7.29g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare, and in superb condition for the type.

22

250


One of 6 Known Denarii of Bogud

56. Kings of Mauretania, Bogud AR Denarius. 49-38 BC. Uncertain mint, circa 47-46 BC. Head of Africa left, wearing elephant skin / Griffin standing right; winged solar disk above, thunderbolt below. MAA 56; Mazard 103; Müller, Afrique 5; RPC I 853; CRI 547 (all referencing the specimen in the BN). 3.00g, 21mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of only six known examples.

1,000

Bogud, son of King Bocchus I of Mauretania, was joint king of Mauretania with his elder brother Bocchus II, with Bocchus ruling east of the Moulouya River and his brother west. An important ally of Julius Caesar, Bogud later supported Marc Antony in the power struggle between Antony and Octavian. He was deposed by his brother and was killed at the siege of Methone in 31 BC prior to the Battle of Actium.

57. Kings of Mauretania, Juba II Æ21. Circa 25 BC-AD 23. REX IVBA, laureate head right / War elephant advancing right with fighting turret on its back. Müller 76; MAA 235. 6.08g, 21mm, 8h. Good Fine. Very Rare.

200

Beautiful Portrait of Cleopatra Selene

58. Kings of Mauretania, Juba II AR Denarius. Caesarea, Circa 25 BC-AD 23. REX IVBA, laureate head right / ΒΑΣΙΛΙ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑ, head of Cleopatra Selene left. Mazard 364; MAA 107-8; Cf. SNG Copenhagen 566 (rev. legend and bust variant). 3.21g, 18mm, 5h. Good Very Fine, lightly toned with blue iridescence. Beautiful style, with a very sensitive portrait of Cleopatra Selene. Extremely Rare.

1,500

The Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene was born to Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony in about 40 BC, but the precise date of the death of is unknown - she may have died before AD 6/7 when Juba II married the Herodian Princess Glaphyra, but dated coin issues in her name indicate her being still alive until about AD 17 and that in fact Glaphyra was probably Juba’s second wife while she still lived. It is known that by the time Juba II died in AD 23 she was already dead, as it is recorded that he was buried alongside his first wife in the Royal Mausoleum near ancient Iol, later Caesarea Mauretaniae, modern Cherchell in what is today Algeria.

AFRICA

59. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; two pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis Group V, 259–79; MAA 10; SNG Copenhagen 975. 7.30g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

23

1,000


60. North Africa, Carthage Æ25. Spanish mint, circa 228-21 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left / Horse’s head right; in right field, Punic letter ‘Beth’. MHC, L. Villaronga, Las monedas hispano-cartaginesas, Barcelona 1973, Class VIII, 111B; AB 511. 10.15g, 25mm, 4h. Good Very Fine; earthen encrustations. Very Rare.

300

First Punic War Trihemistater

61. North Africa, Carthage EL Trihemistater. First Punic War, circa 264-241 BC. Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears, triple-pendant earring, and necklace with nine pendants / Horse standing right; ouraios above. Jenkins & Lewis 438ff. 10.60g, 23mm, 12h. Good Very Fine, hairline flan crack. Rare.

4,500

From the Alban Collection.

SICILY One of the Finest of All Motya Litrai

62. Sicily, Motya AR Litra. Circa 405-400 BC. Facing gorgoneion / Palm tree. Jenkins, Punic, pl. 23, 4a; Campana 15a; HGC 2, 936. 0.72g, 10mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely rare in such high grade; certainly among the finest survivng litrai of Motya.

750

As the Greek colonies in Sicily increased in numbers and importance the Phoenicians, who had established numerous small outposts there, gradually abandoned their settlements in the immediate neighbourhood of the newcomers, and concentrated themselves in the three principal colonies of Solus, Panormos, and Motya. This latter, on account of the natural strength of its position (being situated on a small island connected to the mainland only by an artificial causeway), and its proximity to Carthage, became one of the chief strongholds of the Carthaginians. During the campaign of Hannibal Mago in 409 BC, the city became the base for the Carthaginian fleet, as it was again during the second expedition under Hamilcar in 407. The strategic value of Motya thus caused Dionysios I of Syracuse to direct his principal efforts to its reduction when he launched a counter-invasion of the Carthaginian territories in Sicily in 397. The citizens of Motya made preparations for a vigorous resistance by cutting off the causeway and readying themselves for a protracted siege. Dionysios was compelled to construct his own approach across the gulf, and applied his siege engines to the walls, which included the newly invented catapult. Even when the siege towers were at the walls the Motyans continued a desperate resistance, and when the walls and towers were carried by the Greek forces they continued to fight from street to street and house to house. Such was the grim resistance offered by the defenders that when at last the troops of Dionysios made themselves masters of the city, they put the whole surviving population - men, women, and children, to the sword.

24


25


26


The Influence of Greek Artists on Punic Coins

63. Sicily, Panormos (as Ziz) AR Tetradrachm. Circa 405-380 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron in left hand, reins in both, driving fast quadriga right; Nike flying left above, crowning charioteer with wreath she holds with both hands; hippocamp swimming to right in exergue, Punic ṢYṢ before / Head of nymph left, wearing ampyx, triple-pendant earring and pearl necklace; three dolphins around. Jenkins, Punic 30 (O7/R26); SNG ANS 538 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd 1583 (same dies); Rizzo pl. LXIV, 27. 17.13g, 27mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Well centred and extremely well preserved, with a light grey cabinet tone.

25,000

From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich. The influence of Greek designs on the Punic coinage of Sicily is particularly evident on this coin. Jenkins (Coins of Punic Sicily, SNR 50, 1971) identifies the reverse portrait as being a ‘free adaptation’ of the portrait of Arethusa on Kimon’s dekadrachm. While the portrait lacks the hair net of Kimon’s Arethusa, the triple-drop earring and characteristic curls on the top of the head are emphasised in the design. While Jenkins admits that the result is ‘remote’ from Kimon’s original, the second generation of Kimonian copies (reverse dies 28-29) are much closer reproductions, such that the inspiration for the type is indisputable. The obverse is a copy of the work of ‘Euth...’, who produced a radical, energetic die (Tudeer obv. die 15) at Syracuse, a work whose key elements are reproduced here. As the reverse is a relatively free interpretation of Kimon, so too is the obverse an adaptation of ‘Euth...’; gone are the wings of the charioteer and the Skylla; instead of this symbol of Syracuse we see a hippocamp, perhaps taken from the coinage of either Himera or Messana, and in the place of the artist’s signature on the original is the Punic ethnik ‘Ziz’. Inspired by these types, the artist or artists responsible for this coin have produced immensely beautiful dies that are amongst the very finest in the whole Siculo-Punic series.

64. Sicily, Panormos (as Ziz) AR Tetradrachm. Circa 340-310 BC. Charioteer holding kentron and reins, driving galloping quadriga to left; Nike flying above to crown charioteer; Punic script ‘ṢYṢ’ (Ziz) below exergual line / Head of Arethusa left, wearing grain wreath, pendant earring and necklace; scallop shell below chin, four dolphins around. Jenkins 78; SNG Copenhagen 502; SNG ANS 540; SNG Lloyd 1586. 17.08g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Beautiful style. Very Rare.

27

5,000


28


One of the Finest Surviving Specimens

65. Sicily, uncertain Punic military mint AR Tetradrachm. Circa 320-310 BC. Head of ‘Dido-Tanit’ to left, wearing Phrygian cap encircled with plain diadem tied above forehead / Lion walking to left, head facing; behind, a palm tree with three clusters of dates; S’MMHNT (People of the Camp) in Punic characters in exergue. Rizzo pl. LXVI, 6; Jameson 911; SNG Lloyd 1628; Kraay-Hirmer pl. 73, 209; Jenkins SNR 56, 1977, pl. 61, 270 (all same dies). 17.10g, 25mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. In remarkable state of preservation for the type; sound and lustrous metal, with a light grey cabinet tone. Extremely Rare; one of the very finest surviving specimens. 50,000 From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich. Carthage, at the head of considerable commercial empire in the western Mediterranean, like Etruria and Phoenicia, did not adopt the Greek practice of coining until the last decade of the 5th century BC when she came into direct contact with the Greek city states of Sicily such as Naxos, Syracuse and Messana, which had started to produce coins of the highest technical quality in the artistic style of the late archaic Greek school in the last quarter of the 6th century BC. The origin of the so-called Siculo-Punic coinage, often of rather crude style mostly imitating contemporary Syracusan tetradrachms produced at Rash Melkarth (= ‘Promontory of Herakles’, possibly Kephaloidion), Panormos (Ziz, ‘the splendid’), Motya (the ‘spinning factory’) and the ‘people of the camp’ and ‘pay master’ military mint (generally considered that of Entella) for the payment of the army including many Italian and Greek mercenaries, is dated to about 410 BC and the Carthaginian military operations in Sicily. Hannibal, grandson of Hamilcar, taking the opportunity presented by the quarrels of the Greek cities in Sicily and of the mutual exhaustion of Athens and Syracuse, invaded western Sicily with a strong military force and defeated the Greeks at Himera in 409. This remarkable rarity belongs to a very small and isolated issue produced from three pairs of dies and is an undisputed masterpiece of Siculo-Punic coinage. Aspects of the engraving style led Jenkins to conclude that they belonged at the end of his series 2d (head of Kore/horse animated before palm tree) or the beginning of his series 3 (dolphins around the head of Arethusa/horse head and palm tree). This being the case, this coinage may well be associated with the Carthaginian invasion of Sicily in their war against Agathokles. Indeed, Jenkins goes so far as to suggest they may have been specially minted for the 2,000 elite citizens who headed the new Carthaginian armada led by Hamilcar Gisgo. The obverse female figure is wearing an oriental tiara in the form of a Phrygian cap, which in Greek iconography generally denotes personages of oriental origin, including Amazons, Trojans, Phrygians, Persians and the great Anatolian mother goddess Kybele and her youthful lover Attis, as seen on the coinage of Amastris (cf. SNG BM Black Sea 1304). 19th and 20th century numismatists poetically described this head as that of Dido (Virgil) or historically, Elissa (Timaeus), the sister of Pymalion, king of Tyre, who fled Phoenicia to found Carthage in 814 BC (cf. Pierre Straus in Münzen und Medaillon sale 43, 1970, 33-4). However, a realistically more convincing interpretation is that it is the portrait of a goddess also represented in certain terracotta figurines of the latter 4th century found at the archeological sites of Selinous and Gela, both within the Punic sphere of influence by this time. These terracottas depict a female in a Phrygian cap, sometimes accompanied by a lion and a palm tree. This goddess has been called Artemis-Astarte by some authorities and Kybele by others, but the only certainty is that she was one of the great Asian nature-deities, who were subject to syncretic amalgamation in the Hellenistic period (cf. P. Orlandini, ‘Typologia e cronologia del Materiale archeologico di Gela della nuova fondazione di Timoleonte all’atà di Ierone II,’ in Archeologia classica 9, 1957, pl. 14, 2). The reverse type combines two of her symbolic attributes. The palm tree is an ancient Semitic fertility symbol, recalling the Carthaginian homeland in Phoenicia. The lion is associated with the Asian mother goddess in her aspect as mistress of wild beasts. The lion is also a solar symbol as is the horse, which appears regularly on Punic coinage. The die engraving of both sides of this coin is of exceptional and restrained classical Greek workmanship, rarely found on 4th century Greek coins. The obverse is graced with a portrait of serene divinity, realistic curly hair below a convincingly soft headdress, reminiscent of the finest 5th century sculpture. The reverse is no less of a masterpiece, depicting a majestic lion with a muscular body, protruding veins, luxuriant mane and emphasis on the power of the animal reminiscent of 4th century funerary lions found in the Kerameikos cemetery in Athens.

29


Wonderful Siculo-Punic Tetradrachm

66. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. ‘People of the Camp’ mint, circa 320-315 BC. Head of Tanit left, wearing grain wreath, earring and necklace, three dolphins around / Horse’s head left, palm tree behind with clusters of dates, ‘MM’ in Punic characters below neck truncation. Weber 1774 (these dies); Jenkins, Punic Sicily, 215 (O55/R165). 16.93g, 24mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Of fine style; attractively toned with underlying lustre.

5,000

Ex Heritage 3012, 2 January 2011, lot 24408.

67. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Circa 310-300 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Horse’s head left, palm tree with date clusters behind; ‘MHSBM’ (Paymaster, or Quaestor) in Punic characters below. Jenkins, Punic Sicily IV 289; SNG Oxford 2164. 17.01g, 23mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

Extremely Rare Obol of Aitna

3x 68. Sicily, Aitna AR Obol. 5th century BC. Crayfish / A-I-T-N within four spoked wheel. Unpublished in the standard references, cf. C. Boehringer, ‘Hiero’s Aitna und das Hieroneion’, JNG 1968, pp. 67-98, pl. 7, 3. 0.60g, 10mm, 5h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,500

From the early 5th century BC Katane was under Syracusan control. In 476 BC Hieron I transferred the populations of Katane and Naxos to Leontinoi, renamed Katane as Aitna, and settled a new foundation of 10,000 oiketores from the Poleponnesos and Syracuse. This new polis was responsible for some of the most impressive coins in antiquity.

30


Extremely Rare and Intriguing Symbol

69. Sicily, Akragas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-450 BC. Sea eagle standing left with wings closed; AKRACANTOΣ around / Crab; below, fish (?) to right, prey protruding from mouth (?). Pozzi 381; Lockett 694. 17.58g, 24mm, 8h. Near Mint State, minor marks. Extremely Rare.

10,000

The Pozzi collection records this very rare symbol as being a fish with prey protruding from its mouth, in the act of devouring whatever hapless creature it has caught. The Lockett collection more conservatively describes it as a fish, ending in a die break. The truth could be either, or neither when viewed upside down it looks rather like a straightened-out seahorse.

70. Sicily, Akragas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-420 BC. Sea eagle standing left with wings closed; AKRACANTOΣ around / Crab within shallow incuse circle. SNG ANS 978 (this obverse die); cf. SNG München 70. 17.20g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned. Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 63.

31

6,000


2x 71. Sicily, Akragas AR Litra. Circa 450-439 BC. (9.5mm, 0.64 g, 10h). Sea eagle standing left on Ionic capital / Crab; ΛI (mark of value) below. HGC 2, 121; SNG ANS 989–995. 0.59g, 10mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

250

72. Sicily, Akragas AR Quarter-Shekel. Siculo-Punic Occupation, 213-211 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; Punic H to left, AKRAΓANΤΙΝΩΝ around. SNG ANS 1137. 1.65g, 15mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Very rare denomination.

250

73. Sicily, Amestratos Æ17. Late 3rd – early 2nd centuries BC. [ΑΜΕΣ]ΤΡΑΤΙΝΩΝ, head of Hephaistos right / Horse galloping right. Unpublished in the standard references. 4.10g, 17mm, 7h. Very Fine.

300

Nothing is known of the settlement of Amestratos before 1st century BC when it served as a depot for grain despoiled from Kalakte by the rapacious Verres.

2x 74. Sicily, Gela AR Litra. Circa 430-425 BC. Warrior on horseback to left, holding shield and spear / ΓΕΛΑΣ above forepart of man-headed bull to right. Jenkins, Gela, Group VI, 435 (these dies). 0.83g, 13mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

Very Rare ‘Fallen Hoplite’ Didrachm

75. Sicily, Gela AR Didrachm. Circa 425 BC. Warrior on horseback galloping to right, spearing a fallen hoplite beneath him / Horned and diademed head of the river-god Gelas to left within olive-wreath tied on the right. Jenkins 463; Jameson 594 (same dies); Antikenmuseum Basel 287 (same dies). 8.43g, 22mm, 3h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

32

3,500


76. Sicily, Gela AR Tetradrachm. Circa 415-405 BC. Charioteer holding kentron and reins, driving fast quadriga to left, eagle flying to left above; corn ear in exergue [ΓEΛAIΩN] to left / Forepart of man-headed bull (river-god Gelas) to right, barley grain above, ΓEΛAΣ (retrograde) below. Jenkins, Gela 486; SNG München 304; SNG ANS -. 16.83g, 25mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

5,000

Ex Hess-Divo 317, 27 October 2010, lot 48.

77. Sicily, Himera Æ Hemilitron. Circa 430-420 BC. Gorgoneion with protruding tongue and furrowed cheeks / Six pellets. Calciati I, 24. 26.31g, 18mm. Good Very Fine. Attractive emerald green patina.

1,250

Ex Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 165.

78. Sicily, Himera AR Tetradrachm. Circa 409-408 BC. Signed by the artist MAI(...). The nymph Himera driving a galloping quadriga right, Nike flying left above, holding wreath and tablet inscribed MAI; hippocamp left in exergue / The nymph Himera, wearing a long chiton and peplos, standing left, holding a phiale in her right hand and raising her left; to left, horned altar; to right, satyr standing right, showering in a fountain with a lion’s head spout. Basel 306; Guttmann & Schwabacher 20; Kraay-Hirmer 71; Arnold-Biucchi 22. 17.51g, 27mm, 11h. Mint State. Bold iridescent toning.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Nomos 5, 25 October 2011, lot 114; Ex European Collection, purchased circa 1980. The reverse of this coin shows the nymph Himera at the city’s principle altar, which was likely to have been that of Asklepios. The satyr to right bathes in the warm waters of the spring at Himera. The tablet on the obverse of this coin is the only known die signed by the artist ‘MAI...’; it is very possible that the career of this evidently talented artist was cut short by the complete destruction of Himera at the hands of the Carthaginian general Hannibal Mago.

33


79

80

79. Sicily, Kamarina Æ Tetras. Circa 420-405 BC. Helmeted head of Athena left / Owl standing left, head facing, grasping lizard; KAMA to right, ••• (mark of value) in exergue. Westermark & Jenkins 200; CNS 34; SNG ANS 1228-9. 3.66g, 15mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. A marvellously well preserved example. 300 80. Sicily, Kamarina Æ Onkia. Circa 339-300 BC. Female head left / Bull butting left, ΚΑΜΑΡΙΝΑΙΩΝ around. Westermark and Jenkins 218; CNS 45; SNG ANS 1312. 1.71g, 13mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare. 250

2x 81. Sicily, Katane AR Tetras. Circa 455-450 BC. Bearded head of Silenos left / K-A flanking kithara; three pellets around. Boehringer, Kataneische, 1-5. 0.18g, 8mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

Extremely Rare Drachm Signed by Choirion

82. Sicily, Katane AR Drachm. Circa 405 BC. Reverse die signed by Choirion. Female charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to left crowning charioteer with wreath held in outstretched arms; KATANAIΩN in exergue / Horned head of the rivergod Amenanos to left, wearing tainia, XOIPIΩN behind; two fish and a crayfish around. SNG Lloyd-; SNG Lockett-; SNG ANS-; Rizzo pl. XIV, 14. 3.79g, 18mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

83. Sicily, Katane AR Drachm. Circa 405-403/2 BC. Facing head of Silenos / Diademed head of Apollo left, olive leaf and berry behind, ΚΑΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ before; all within circular incuse. Mirone 103; SNG ANS 1262 var. (no leaf and berry); Jameson 554 (same dies). 3.56g, 17mm, 5h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

The depiction of Silenos is an unexpected departure from the typical Apollo/chariot issues of the main period; though Silenos features prominently on the coinage of Katane as a reference to its chief export, he had never been depicted by the Katanaians as the principal subject on a denomination greater than a litra. It is probable that the artist took some inspiration from an earlier electrum issue of Phokaia (Bodenstedt 43), struck circa 521478 that also featured a facing portrait of Silenos, and which has been described as a masterpiece of the Archaic period.

34


84. Sicily, Leontinoi AR Tetradrachm. Circa 430-420 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Lion’s head left, with open jaws and tongue protruding; four barley grains and LEONTINON around. Rizzo pl. XXIIII, 4 (these dies); SNG ANS 257 (these dies); SNG München 559 (these dies). 17.31g, 26mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

4,000

85. Sicily, Leontinoi AR Stater. Circa 339-337 BC. Pegasos flying left / Helmeted head of Athena right, ear of barley behind, ΛEONTINΩN before. Calciati, Pegasi 1/5 (same dies). 8.50g, 20mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Toned, with hints of iridescence and lustre around the devices. Very Rare.

400

86. Sicily, Zankle-Messana AR Chalkidian Drachm. Circa 520-493 BC. Dolphin swimming left within sickle shaped harbour of Zankle, DANKLE below / Scallop shell within incuse pattern. HGC 2, 766; SNG Lloyd 1076; Basel 359; Boston MFA 285; SNG ANS 298-303; Kraay-Hirmer 49. 5.08g, 22mm. Good Very Fine.

800

2x 87. Sicily, Zankle-Messana AR Diobol. Samian occupation, circa 493-488 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / Prow of a Samaina (Samian galley) left, Corinthian helmet before. A. Campana & A. Morello, Samos, Zankle e la Samaina, La nave di Policrate tra Samo e Messina, Cassino 2012, 46-7 (D17 / R22); A.P. Barron, The Silver Coins of Samos, London 1966, p. 1789, 4, pl. 7 (same dies); SNG Lloyd 1082 (same dies). 1.33g, 11mm, 2h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

88. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. Circa 425-421 BC. The Nymph Messana, wearing long chiton and holding whip and reins with both hands, driving biga of mules to right; bay leaf and fruit in exergue / MEΣΣANION, hare springing right; dolphin swimming to right below. SNG Lloyd 1094 (these dies); SNG Tubingen 608 (these dies); Caltabiano 494. 17.07g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal. Ex Goldberg 53, 24 May 2009, lot 1578.

35

2,000


36


Two Superb Messana Tetradrachms

89. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. Circa 420-413 BC. The nymph Messana, holding kentron in left hand and reins in both, driving slow biga of mules right; MEΣΣANA above, two dolphins confronted in exergue / Hare springing to right; MEΣΣANION around; dolphin to right below. Caltabiano Series XIV, 526.6 (D208/R223) = Basel 363 (same dies); SNG ANS –; SNG Lloyd 1097; BMC 39 (same dies); Dewing 649 (same obv. die); Rizzo pl. XXVI, 3. 17.33g, 26mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous metal, lightly toned.

10,000

From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich.

90. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. Circa 412-408 BC. The nymph Messana, wearing chiton and holding reins with both hands, driving biga of mules walking to left; above, Nike flying right to crown Messana; in exergue, two opposed dolphins / Hare springing to right, head of youthful Pan below to right, with curly hair and with a tiny horn over his forehead; ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΟΝ around. Caltabiano 604; SNG ANS 369. 16.95g, 25mm, 11h. Obverse die somewhat rusted, otherwise Extremely Fine. Very Rare. Ex Nomos 5, 25 October 2011, lot 118.

37

8,000


91. Sicily, Naxos AR Drachm. Circa 460-430 BC. Bearded head of Dionysos right, wearing tainia decorated with an ivy branch / Nude and bearded Silenos squatting half-left, holding kantharos in right hand and resting his left hand on his knee, tail behind; NAXION around; all within shallow concave circular incuse. Cahn 56 (V41/R47); HGC 2, 990; SNG Lloyd 1152; BMC 9; Jameson 676; de Luynes 1064; Pozzi 507 (all from the same dies). 4.26g, 18mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

3,000

In contrast to the earlier archaic drachm, the god Dionysos has on this type become increasingly humanised, with a less severe appearance not too dissimilar we may imagine from noblemen of that time. The reverse appears to continue the development away from static, romanticised scenes, instead portraying Silenos in a rather less than reverential pose, clearly inebriated and with an apparent carefree disregard for himself or his surroundings - instead preoccupied solely with his drinking cup.

92. Sicily, Naxos AR Litra. Circa 415-403 BC. ΝΑΧΙΩΝ, young head of Dionysos left, wearing ivy wreath / Bunch of grapes on two vine leaves. Cahn 129-14; HGC 2, 975. 0.79g, 11mm, 1h. Very Fine. Rare.

200

93. Sicily, Stiela AR Litra. Circa 410 BC. Male standing left, holding branch, sacrificing out of patera over altar to left / ΣΤΙΕΛΑΝΑΙΟΝ, forepart of man-headed bull right. Holloway, A. Campana, Sicilia: Stiela (440/430 e 413/405 a.C.), Monete Antiche 57, 2011, 1; Rizzo pl. 40, 17. 0.58g, 12mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

350

94. Sicily, Syracuse AR Didrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Gelon I, circa 490-485 BC. Nude rider on horseback right, leading a second horse on far side / Diademed head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and necklace; three dolphins and ΣVRAQOΣION around. Boehringer Series IV, 50 (V28/R33); HGC 2, 1351 corr. (three or four dolphins). 8.57g, 22mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Toned and attractive. Rare. From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich.

38

5,000


95. Sicily, Syracuse AR Didrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Gelon I, circa 485-480 BC. Nude rider on horseback to right / Head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl diadem and necklace; ΣVRAKOΣΙΟN and three dolphins around. Boehringer 98 (same dies); Rizzo p. 34, 23; SNG ANS 26 (same dies). 8.32g, 21mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

4,250

Ex A. Tkalec, 15 May 2010, lot 13.

96. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 475-470 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga right; above, Nike flying right, crowning horses with wreath / Head of Arethusa right, hair in pearl band, wearing loop earring with single pendant and pearl necklace; ΣVRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 307; SNG ANS 96-113. 17.26g, 24mm, 8h. Very Fine. Pleasant cabinet tone.

1,250

Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 101.

3x 97. Sicily, Syracuse AR Pentonkion. ‘Demareteion’ style. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 466 BC. Laureate head of Arethusa right / Five pellets. SNG Lloyd 1303; SNG Ashmolean 1944; Boehringer 371. 0.28g, 7mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

300

Signed by Parmenides

98. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 415-405 BC. Reverse die signed by Parmenides. Galloping quadriga driven left by charioteer who looks sideways, holding reins and kentron in left hand and raising right arm; Nike above, flying right to crown him, ear of grain in exergue / Head of Arethusa left, hair in ornate ampyx, wearing triple-pendant earring and pearl necklace; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN above, ΠAPME below; four dolphins around, one emanating from below her neck. Kreutzer Parme I b; Tudeer 77 (V27/R49); SNG ANS 287; Basel 472; BMC 212-3; Boston MFA 416 = Warren 378; SNG Lockett 976; Jameson 836; Ward 297 (all from the same dies). 17.30g, 25mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. An Arethusa portrait of great beauty with a clear signature. Very Rare. Ex Peus 396, 5 November 2008, lot 158; Ex Peus 380, 3 November 2004, lot 254; Ex Peus 357, 28 October 1998, lot 241.

39

8,000


2x 99. Sicily, Syracuse AV 20 Litrai (Tetradrachm). Time of Dionysios I, circa 405-400 BC. Head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin; ΣYPA to left / Quadripartite incuse square, Σ-Y-P-A in quarters; in deeper incuse circle in centre, small female head (Arethusa?) left, wearing necklace. Bérend pl. XI, 3; Boehringer, Münzprägungen, pl. I, 6; HGC 2, 1289; SNG ANS 351; SNG Lloyd –; Dewing 865; Pozzi 1263; Rizzo pl. XLVIII, 9. 1.16g, 10mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

2x 100. Sicily, Syracuse AV Hemidrachm - 30 Litrai. Time of Timoleon and the Third Democracy, circa 344-338 BC. ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, laureate head of Zeus Eleutherios right; helmet (?) behind / Pegasos flying right; ΣΩ below. SNG ANS -; SNG Copenhagen -; Gemini 12, 45 (same dies); ACR Auctions 6, 287 (same dies). 2.14g, 12mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare - the right facing type is seldom seen compared to the left facing, and this obverse symbol appears to be unrepresented in all the major references.

2,750

101. Sicily, Syracuse AR Stater. Time of Timoleon and the Third Democracy, circa 344-338 BC. Pegasos flying left / Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; ΣVΡΑΚΟΣΙΩN around. HGC 2, 1400; Pegasi 2; SNG ANS 496. 8.68g, 20mm, 1h. Fleur De Coin.

2,500

102. Sicily, Syracuse AR Stater. Time of Timoleon and the Third Democracy, circa 344-338 BC. Pegasos flying left / Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. HGC 2, 1400; Pegasi 2; SNG ANS 496. 8.50g, 20mm, 5h. Very Fine.

500

103. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Litra. Time of Timoleon and the Third Democracy, circa 344-338 BC. ZEYΣ EΛEYΘEPIOΣ, laureate head of Zeus Eleutherios left / [ΣYPAKOΣ]IΩN, thunderbolt. SNG ANS 489; Calciati II p. 177, 74 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 730; SNG Morcom -; Favorito 32; Laffaille -; Virzi 1555-1556. 5.22g, 19mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

104. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 317-311 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Charioteer driving galloping biga right, holding kentron and reins; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around, triskeles below. Bérend, ‘De l’or d’Agothocle’ in Studies Price, pl. 9, 1; BAR issue 1; SNG ANS 552. 4.31g, 15mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal. Rare. From the Ambrose Collection.

40

3,000


105. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 317-310 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left; kantharos behind / Charioteer driving galloping biga right, holding kentron and reins; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around, triskeles below. Roma V, 138 (same dies); cf. SNG ANS 552; SNG Copenhagen 747 var. (no obverse symbol); BMC 339; Triton VIII, 11 January 2005, 91. 4.30g, 16mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Well detailed reverse. Lustre around the devices. Extremely rare variety with kantharos.

2,500

106. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 317-310 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left, ear of barley behind / Charioteer driving galloping biga right, holding kentron and reins; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around, triskeles below; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around, triskeles below. Jameson 858; Dewing 934; SNG ANS 552; SNG Lockett 1000; SNG München 1190.4.28g, 16mm, 12h. Very Fine. Scattered contact marks.

2,000

107. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Hemidrachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 317-310 BC. Diademed head of Apollo left; Palladion behind, AI below / Gorgoneion at the centre of a triskeles of human legs with winged feet. Calciati 121/DS i. SNG ANS 545. 6.76g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Rare, and in excellent condition for the type.

750

2x 108. Sicily, Syracuse EL 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-306 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left, altar behind / Tripod lebes, phiale above, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Jenkins O6-R5; SNG Ashmolean 2059. 3.62g, 15mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

109

1,000

110

109. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Litra. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-306 BC. Diademed head of Herakles left, [ΣVRΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ] before, bow behind / Lion standing right, raising foreleg; club above, race torch in exergue. Cf. BAR Issue 24 var. (head right); CNS 151 var. (same); HGC 2, 1465 (Fourth Democracy) var. (same). 7.10g, 20mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. 500 110. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Hemilitron. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-306 BC. Draped bust of Artemis Soteira right, quiver over shoulder, ΣΩTEIPA before / Winged thunderbolt; ΣYPAK-OΣIΩN above and below. BAR Issue 20; CNS 138; HGC 2, 1461. 10.33g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Pleasing style, well detailed. 200

41


42


One of the Finest Surviving Specimens

111.

Sicily, Syracuse EL 100 Litrai. Agathokles, circa 304-289 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to left; tripod behind, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN before / Head of Artemis to right, wearing earring and pearl necklace, a ribbon in her hair and a quiver over her shoulder; ΣΩTEIPA before, tripod behind. Jenkins, ‘Electrum Coinage at Syracuse’, in Essays to Robinson, Group D, pl. 15, 3 (these dies); SNG Lockett 992; Gulbenkian 344. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and among the finest specimens known.

35,000

Ex Leu 33, 3 May 1983, lot 245; Ex Monnaies et Médailles 54, 26 October 1978, lot 132. With the usurpation of Agathokles in 317 BC, Syracuse once more monopolised the right of coinage for the whole of Sicily, even more distinctly than in the time of Dionysios. Yet the reign of Agathokles, as noted by Malcolm Bell (Morgantine Studies I, 1981) “was a watershed for the arts in Sicily, just as it was for politics. The change from a conservative late-classical style to the new modes of the early-Hellenistic period came very quickly, within the space of a decade, and it coincided with the replacement of democratic government by the new monarchy. It is clearly perceptible in the coins that Agathokles issued... the bronze Artemis Soteira and the electrum Apollo-Artemis issues, both of which belong after Agathokles’ assumption of the kingship in 304, document the full acceptance of early-Hellenistic style.” Certainly, the quality of the artistry demonstrated on this coin is of the highest standard. The opposing portraits of the divine twins were no doubt favoured by Agathokles on account of being patron deities of the island-fortress of Ortygia, the ancient heart of Syracuse, where according to myth the goddess Leto stopped to give birth to Artemis – and in some versions Apollo too. A temple is present on Ortygia which according to its inscription honours Apollo, but when Cicero visited Syracuse he wrote that it was dedicated to Artemis. Despite having suffered a humiliating defeat against Carthage and settled a peace treaty re-establishing the status quo between Carthage and Syracuse, the latter years of Agathokles’ reign were comparatively peaceful, and were prosperous times for the city. From c.300 Agathokles concentrated his efforts on southern Italy (Diod. Sic. 21 4 ff). In two campaigns he briefly brought Bruttium under his control, and supported Tarentum in 298/7 against the native Lucanians and Messapians. He conquered Kroton in 295 and concluded alliances with other cities. His aim seems to have been the union of Sicilian and south Italian Greeks under his rule. His preparations for another campaign against Carthage were brought to nothing however, as he was assassinated in 289/8, and owing to familial rivalries his designs for a dynasty were thwarted. Thus he ‘restored to the people their self-government’ (Diod. Sic. 21. 16. 5). Depicted often as a cruel and unscrupulous adventurer and tyrant, Agathokles achieved little of lasting historical importance; indeed after his death anarchy erupted both in Syracuse, where a damnatio memoriae was decreed, and in other places that had been under his rule (Diod. Sic. 21. 18). Nonetheless, his patronage of the arts left a legacy of beauty as embodied by a small number of surviving works of art from his reign, and smaller but no less wonderful objects such as this stunning coin.

43


112. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Hemilitron. Time of the Fourth Democracy, circa 289-287 BC. Head of Artemis left, ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ before / Thunderbolt, ΔΙΟΣ ΕΛΕΥ-ΘΕΡΙΟΥ above and below. CNS 147 corr.; SNG ANS 746; SNG Morcom -. 7.79g, 18mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and extremely well preserved for the type.

250

113. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Litra. Time of Hiketas II, circa 282-278 BC. Laureate head of young Zeus Hellanios right, ΔIOΣ EΛΛANIOY before / ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; to left, A above star. BAR Issue 39; CNS 168; HGC 2, 1449. 11.09g, 25mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. Very rare in this condition.

500

114. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Litra. Time of Pyrrhos, 278-276 BC. Head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin; club behind / Athena Promachos right, hurling spear and holding shield; wreath to left. CNS II, 177 (Ds 69/Rs 42/1); SNG ANS 852-7. 11.28g, 24mm, 9h. Good Very Fine.

300

Uncommonly Well Preserved Bronze of Hieron II

115. Sicily, Syracuse Æ27. Time of Hieron II, circa 240-215 BC. Diademed head left; axe to right / Armoured cavalryman on horseback to right, holding spear; ΑΓ monogram and pellet below; IEPΩNOΣ in exergue. Cf. CNS 193 Ds 10; HGC 2, 1547 (unlisted control marks); BAR Issue 61; HGC 2, 1548. 17.39g, 27mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Exceptionally well detailed reverse.

44

1,500


116. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Hemilitron. Time of Hieron II, circa 230-215 BC. Diademed head left. torch behind / Warrior, holding couched lance, on horse prancing right; ΑΓ monogram below, [IEPΩNOΣ] in exergue. SNG ANS 922. 17.71g, 26mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

300

117. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Hemilitron. Time of Hieron II, circa 230-215 BC. Diademed head left / Warrior, holding couched lance, on horse prancing right; AP monogram below, IEPΩNOΣ in exergue. CCO period IIb; BAR issue 62; CNS 195 R1 8; SNG ANS 933. 17.65g, 28mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Pleasing style.

500

118. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm. Time of Hieron II, circa 220-217 BC. Head of Persephone left with long flowing hair, head wreathed in grain ears; [torch behind] / Charioteer driving biga left, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; Π below horses, [IE]PΩN[OΣ] in exergue. Carroccio 39 (D24/R34); SNG Lloyd 1539; Jameson 875 (same dies). 4.23g, 24mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Minor flan flaw on cheek, beautifully detailed reverse. Rare.

3,500

From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich. Carroccio’s redating of this series places it just prior to the outbreak of hostilities with the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. He believes, therefore, that the issue was most likely struck to finance the imminent military conflict.

ILLYRIA

119. Illyria, Dyrrhachion AR Stater. Circa 400-330 BC. Pegasos flying right, Δ below / Helmeted head of Athena right; club and Δ behind, dolphin above helmet. Pegasi 31; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC Corinth 10. 8.44g, 21mm, 11h. Good Very Fine.

45

350


PAEONIA

120. Kings of Paeonia, Patraos AR Tetrobol. Circa 335-325 BC. Head of Apollo right / ΠΑΤΡAΟΥ, eagle standing right, monogram in left field. AMNG III 2, p. 203, 12, pl. 37, 26 (same dies). 1.98g, 16mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

300

EPEIROS

121. Epeiros, Ambrakia AR Stater. Circa 404-360 BC. Pegasos flying right; A below / Helmeted head of Athena left; behind, forepart of bull butting left. Pegasi 72; Ravel 111 (A52/P74); SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 18. 8.28g, 22mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

350

AKARNANIA

122. Akarnania, Anaktorion AR Stater. Circa 355-320 BC. Pegasos flying left; ANA monogram below / AKTIO, helmeted head of Athena left; kithara behind. Pegasi 2/3; BMC 4; SNG Lockett 2253. 8.35g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

350

123. Akarnania, Leukas AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC. Pegasos flying left; Λ below / Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet; Λ and mast with yard-arm behind. Pegasi 132. 8.35g. 21mm, 2h. Good Very Fine.

150

Very Rare and Exceptional Akarnanian Hemidrachm

124. Akarnania, Akarnanian Confederacy AR Hemidrachm. Stratos, circa 420 BC. Head of Acheloos right / F within incuse square. BCD Akarnania 3.1; SNG Copenhagen 405. 2.28g, 14mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. In exceptional condition for the type. Very Rare. From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

46

1,500


THESSALY Stunning Head of Larissa in Profile

125. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 400-350 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa left, wearing pearl necklace and triple-drop earring, her hair raised and bound / Bridled horse trotting right, tail curling upwards; ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ around. Obolos 7, p. 22 (pl. 3), 23 (these dies). 6.09g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; probably one of only two coins struck from this obverse die.

2,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex BCD Collection, Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 184. Given not only the extraordinary beauty of the portrait we see here, but also the fact that it appears to be only one of two known coins struck from this obverse die, it is easy to forgive the light double striking on the reverse and the tiny metal flaw on the cheek of Larissa. The latter, far from detracting from the beauty of the piece, lends a certain charm to the artist’s fine vision of serene, noble beauty.

Third Known Example

126. Thessaly, Larissa AR Trihemiobol. Plei... magistrate. Circa 375 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa right, wearing pendant earring / Half length and bearded bust of Asklepios to right, drapery over his left shoulder and around his waist, his left hand raised and holding a plant or a bunch of herbs; [ΛΑΡΙ to right], ΠΛΕΙ to left. Unpublished but see Nomos 4, 1138 (same dies). 1.16g, 12mm, 11h. Good Fine. Extremely Rare; apparently only the third, and arguably most complete example known.

500

This extremely rare and enigmatic type can now, thanks to the present example, be shown to form part of the series issued by the magistrate Plei... in the first half of the fourth century BC.

127. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 365-356 BC. Bull running to right; ΛAPIΣAION above / Thessalos, wearing a petasos, cloak and tunic, galloping on horseback to right. F. Hermann ‘Die Silbermünzen von Larissa in Thessalien’ ZfN XXXV, 1925, pl. IV, 17; C. Lorber, ‘Thessalian Hoards and the Coinage of Larissa’, AJN 20, 2008, pl. 46, 101; SNG Copenhagen 118; BCD 1136. 6.03g, 20mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,250

Privately purchased from Spink & Son Ltd., London, June 1989.

128. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Early to mid 4th century BC. Head of the nymph Larissa turned slightly to right, wearing double band necklace with central medallion and circular earring decorated with pellets, scroll like element dangling from it; border of dots / ΛΑΡΙΣAI above, horse with straight legs grazing right on ground line on which grows plant. Lorber, Early, 36.1. 5.97g, 18mm, 11h. Very Fine. Lightly toned. Ex BCD Collection, Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 225.

47

750


129. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Mid 4th century BC. Head of the nymph Larissa turned slightly to right, wearing pendant earring and plain necklace / Horse with straight legs standing to right on ground line, feeding; ΛΑΡΙΣ above, ΑΙΩΝ below. Herrmann, pl. VII, 5. 6.17g, 20mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned and sharply struck. Fine style.

750

Ex BCD Collection, Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 281.

130. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 350-300 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa turned slightly to left, wearing pendant earring and plain necklace, her hair combed back behind the ampyx / Horse right, preparing to lie down; ΛΑΡΙΣ above, ΑΙΩΝ in exergue. Cf. J. Schulman 231, 6 March 1958, lot 3656 (same dies); cf. Auctiones 15, 18 September 1985, lot 88 (same obv. die). 6.13g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Well struck on a large flan, this beautiful obverse die engraved in fine style diverges from the other late heads on account of the unusual combing of the nymph’s hair. 1,000 Ex BCD Collection, Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 318.

2x 131. Thessaly, Pharkadon AR Hemiobol. Circa 425-375 BC. Head and neck of bull facing slightly right / Ram standing left within incuse square; ΦA above. BCD Thessaly II 611. 0.38g, 9mm, 2h. Good Very Fine.

132

100

133

132. Thessaly, Pharsalos AR Hemidrachm. 480-440 BC. Head of Athena right in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three coiled serpents above visor and spiral at bottom of bowl / Horse’s head right, ΦAP to right; all within incuse square. BMC 4; SNG Copenhagen 217-18. 2.82g, 15mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine. 100 From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s. 133. Thessaly, Pharsalos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 440 BC. Head of Athena right in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three coiled serpents above visor and spiral at bottom of bowl / Horse’s head right, ΦAR to right; all within incuse square. BMC 4; SNG Copenhagen 217-18. 2.92g, 15mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine. 200

48


134. Thessaly, Skotussa AR Obol. Circa 465-460 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Forepart of bridled horse right; ΣKO below. BCD Thessaly II 736. 1.17g, 12mm, 3h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

100

Very Rare Late Fraction of Skotussa

135. Thessaly, Skotussa AR Trihemiobol. Circa 220 BC. Wreathed head of young Herakles right, wearing lion skin around neck / ΣKOTOY downwards to right, ΣAIΩN downwards on right, Hekate standing left, dressed in long robes, holding long torch in her right hand and with left on her waist with drapery folded over it. BCD Thessaly 756; Traité IV, 629, pl. CCXCV, 8; BMC -. 1.09g, 12mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

250

BCD notes that the late silver fractions are remarkably rare, and missing from most public collections.

LOKRIS

136. Lokris, Lokris Opuntii AR Stater. Circa 360-350 BC. Head of Persephone left, wearing grain wreath, triple-pendant earring, and necklace / Ajax advancing right over two spears, nude but for crested Corinthian helmet, holding short sword and shield adorned with palmette and griffin; star below, ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ to left. Gulbenkian 491 (this reverse die); BCD 58 (this reverse die); cf. Dewing 1477; BMC 27. 12.16g, 23mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

3,000

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s. Ajax of Lokris (or Ajax ‘the Lesser’), who is depicted on the reverse of this attractive type, led a fleet of forty ships from Lokris Opuntii against Troy in the Greeks’ great war on that city. At Troy’s fall, he was alleged by Odysseus to have violated a sanctuary of Athena by ravishing Cassandra, who had sought refuge there. He thus brought down the wrath of Athena upon himself and his countrymen: Ajax himself was wrecked and killed in a storm as he made his way home from the war, and the rest of the Opuntians reached home only with great difficulty. Nevertheless, they annually honoured their former leader by launching a ship fitted with black sails and laden with gifts, which they then set alight, and whenever the Lokrian army drew up for battle, one place was always left open for Ajax, whose spirit they believed would stand and fight with them.

PHOKIS Extraordinarily Well Preserved Phokaian Hemiobol

2x 137. Phokian League AR Hemiobol. Circa 485-480. Head and neck of bull right / Corinthian helmet right. Williams 63; BCD 197. 0.42g, 9mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Extraordinarily well preserved for the issue, and among the finest known.

49

250


ELIS Extremely Rare and Attractive Olympia Stater

138. Elis, Olympia AR Stater. ‘Hera’ mint, 105th Olympiad, 360 BC. Head of Hera left, wearing pendant earring and low stephane ornamented with F-A between palmettes / Eagle with closed wings standing to left; thunderbolt behind, olive wreath around. Seltman 334 (FE/ιρ). 12.05g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

4,000

Ex P. Gérard Collection, Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 246. In 476 the Greeks convened an arbitration court in Olympia to act as a mediator between their cities in cases of disputes to try to end the inter-city warfare that kept the Greeks divided and fractious. In commemoration of this newly found place at the heart of Greek politics the Eleans erected a massive new temple to Zeus built of marble (which would later house the gold and ivory statue by Phideas). The humble old temple was rededicated to Hera, who had no important cult at Olympia until then. It was in this rededicated temple that the ‘Hera mint’ coins were supposedly struck. A substantial coinage was struck for the 105th Olympiad in celebration of the sanctuary of Olympia having been liberated from Arkadian occupation in 363 BC. Master engravers were employed to create dies for both workshops, one of which had been closed since 380 BC. An extremely rare stater struck at the Zeus workshop (see Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 141) formalises the celebratory nature of the coinage by depicting the nymph Olympia for the first time along with the legend FAΛEIΩN OΛYMΠIA - ‘Olympia belongs to the Eleians’.

LAKONIA

139. Lakonia, Lakedaimon (Sparta) AR Hemidrachm. Circa 125-75 BC. Laureate head of Herakles right / Amphora between the pilei of the Dioskouroi, monograms above and below; all within olive wreath. SNG Copenhagen 557; BCD Collection 853ff. 2.34g, 15mm, 9h. Fleur De Coin. Rare.

2,000

Ex Hirsch 195, 5-7 May 1997, lot 208.

ARKADIA

140. Arkadia, Pheneos AR Obol. Circa 370-340 BC. Bust of youthful Hermes to right, his cloak tied around his neck and with his petasos hanging behind, suspended by a cord / ΦΕ, ram standing to right; above, kerykeion to right. BCD 1608; BMC 5; Traité II, 3, 891; Weber 4317. 0.85g, 13mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

50

1,500


CORINTHIA Rare and Excellent Early Corinthian Stater

141.

Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 500-480 BC. Pegasos with curved wing flying to right, Q below / Head of Athena to left, wearing necklace and Corinthian helmet pushed back on head. Pegasi 47; Asyut 563. 8.65g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. A superb example of this early type.

10,000

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s. The types of the Corinthian coins from their earliest days refer to the myth of its most famous son Bellerophon, who with the assistance of the goddess Athena was able to tame the divine winged horse Pegasos. Having been charged with his seemingly impossible mission to slay the Chimaera, Bellerophon consulted the Corinthian seer Polyleidos, who told him he would need the assistance of Pegasos to complete his task. On his advice, Bellerophon slept in the temple of Athena. While he slumbered, he dreamed that Athena set a golden bridle beside him. He awoke to find the bridle, and thus bearing it he approaching Pegasos as he drank from his favoured well of the Peirene on the Acrocorinth, sacred to the muses, and was able to tame him. The Pegasos staters of Corinth became the principal medium of exchange along all the coasts of the Corinthian Gulf, and even beyond the seas in Italy and Sicily, where the largest hoards of them have historically been found. This is due in part to the distribution of Corinthian colonies and colonists far beyond the range of the mother city’s territory, and also due to the practical advantage of the Corinthian coinage over both the Attic and the Aeginetic, which because of its divisional system (1 stater equalled 3 drachms, etc.) it was easily acceptable in the territories of its great rivals. Thus the Corinthian stater was equivalent to an Attic didrachm, while the Corinthian drachm was practically equivalent to an Aeginetic hemidrachm.

51


142. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 400-375 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; trident above. Pegasi 133; Ravel 411. 8.71g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. An excellent strike on a huge flan.

1,250

143. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 400-375 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Helmeted head of Athena right, scorpion fish and AΓAΘOKΛEOΣ graffito to left. Ravel 603; Pegasi 158; BCD Corinth –; HGC 4, 1833. 8.33g, 23mm, 6h. Very Fine, die shift on obverse. Very Rare; only three on CoinArchives. Interesting graffito.

350

144. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 400-375 BC. Pegasos flying right, Q below / Helmeted head of Athena right; double-bodied owl behind. Pegasi 161; Ravel 619. 8.44g, 24mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

350

Fine Style Portrait of Aphrodite

145. Corinthia, Corinth AR Drachm. Circa 375-345 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Head of Aphrodite left, wearing necklace, hair bound in elaborately decorated sakkos; A before, P behind. SNG Cop -; BCD Corinth -; BMC pl. XII, 9. 2.66g, 15mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Of the 34 Classical period drachms amongst the 981 coins of the BCD Collection of Corinth, there were none of this type. 1,250 From the B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich.

52


146. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 375-345 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; Δ and krater behind. Ravel 1001; Pegasi 388/1 corr.; BCD Corinth 98. 8.42g, 22mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

200

147. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; behind, Δ and Dionysos standing right, holding kantharos and grape cluster. Pegasi 389; BCD Corinth -. 8.48g, 21mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine.

550

148. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below, eagle standing left behind. Pegasi 426; Ravel 1008; BCD Corinth 101; SNG Copenhagen 73-4. 8.63g, 21mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Pleasing tone.

750

Ex John Hayes Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 119 (£1,100).

149. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below, aegis behind. Pegasi 427; Ravel 1009; SNG Copenhagen 71. 8.56g, 24mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex D.V. Collection.

150. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below, plough behind. Pegasi 441; Ravel 1022b. 8.54g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive, old tone. Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 121.

53

500


SIKYONIA

151. Sikyonia, Sikyon AR Triobol. Circa 450-425 BC. Chimaera prowling to left, san below / Dove flying to right, inverted san above, inverted Τ (= triobolon) below; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 163; CNG 81 (2009), 2048 (ex BCD, same dies); SNG Copenhagen 21 = Traité 739, pl. CCXIX, 16. 3.05g, 14mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and the finest known.

1,500

Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 273.

152. Sikyonia, Sikyon AR Stater. Circa 350-330 BC. Chimaera advancing left, right paw raised, ΣE below, [wreath above] / Dove flying left, N below beak; all within laurel wreath. BMC 57; SNG Copenhagen 48; BCD 218. 12.31g, 24mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Light deposits on reverse.

1,500

ATTICA Very Rare ‘Wappenmünzen’ Drachm

153. Attica Athens AR Drachm. Circa 515-510 BC. ‘Wappenmünzen’ type. Wheel with four spokes / Quadripartite incuse square, divided diagonally. Seltman pl. IV, δ–ε; Svoronos, Monnaies 59; HGC 4, 1622. 4.08g, 18mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

2x 154. Attica, Athens AR Obol. Circa 515-510 BC. “Wappenmünzen” type. Wheel with four spokes / Quadripartite incuse square, divided diagonally. Seltman pl. IV, ρ; Svoronos, Monnaies, pl. I, 54–6; SNG Copenhagen 7. 0.74g, 7mm. Extremely Fine. Well centred and complete.

54

1,000


155. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 500-490 BC. Archaic head of Athena right, wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before. Cf. Svoronos Pl. 4, 15. 17.41g, 24mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare with a full crest.

7,500

156. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 490-482 BC. Archaic head of Athena right, wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before. Cf. Svoronos pl. 5, 38; cf. Asyut 268. 17.74g, 24mm, 8h. Very Fine. In unusually good condition for the issue, with a full crest. Very Rare.

5,000

157. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 475-465 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent to left, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Starr Group IV; SNG Copenhagen -. 17.18g, 24mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. Sound, lustrous metal.

2,500

158. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent, all within incuse square. Starr group V; SNG Copenhagen -. 17.23g, 24mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine.

55

2,000


159. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent, all within incuse square. Starr group V; SNG Copenhagen -. 17.23g, 24mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,000

160. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-454 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with three olive leaves and palmette, round earring and pearl necklace / Owl standing right with head facing, ΑΘΕ to right, crescent and olive sprig to left; all within incuse square. Starr Group V.B. 17.17g, 23mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

2,500

161. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-454 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with three olive leaves and palmette, round earring and pearl necklace / Owl standing right with head facing, ΑΘΕ to right, crescent and olive sprig to left; all within incuse square. Starr Group V.B. 17.18g, 23mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

162. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with three olive leaves and palmette, round earring and pearl necklace / AΘE, owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent moon behind; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.23g, 24mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Displaying a virtually complete crest, rare thus.

56

2,500


163. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-430 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with three olive leaves and palmette, round earring and pearl necklace / AΘE, owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent moon behind; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.21g, 25mm, 10h. Mint State. Struck on a very broad flan with a full reverse incuse square; displaying brilliant mint lustre.

2,000

164. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-430 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / AΘE, owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent moon behind; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.27g, 27mm, 7h. Mint State; brilliant mint lustre.

1,000

165. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / AΘE, owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent moon behind; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.23g, 25mm, 9h. Mint State, with brilliant mint lustre.

1,000

166. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.16g, 24mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine.

57

1,000


167. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.12g, 23mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Some corrosion spots to reverse.

500

168. Attica, Athens AR Drachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen 41-3; Kroll 10; Svoronos pl. XV, 23. 4.18g, 16mm, 9h. Very Fine. Attractive style. Old collection tone.

300

169. Attica, Athens AR Drachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen 41-3; Kroll 10; Svoronos pl. XV, 23. 4.18g, 16mm, 9h. Very Fine. Attractive style. Old collection tone.

1,500

170. Attica, Athens AR New Style Tetradrachm. Circa 154-3 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with vine tendril and Pegasos / Owl standing right, head facing, on amphora; AΘE across, monograms flanking, caps of the Dioskouroi to right; all within wreath. Thompson 61 (this obv. die). 17.05g, 34mm, 12h. Very Fine. Beautifully toned. Rare early issue.

750

An obverse die of excellent style, vastly superior to the usual New Style tetradrachms. In approximately 165 BC, Athens introduced a new series of silver tetradrachm, referred to today as ‘New Style Coinage’. At the time, it represented a landmark change in the coinage of Athens. Although the types had not changed, and still depicted Athena on the obverse and an owl on the reverse, this new coinage saw a marked change in the artistic styles employed in the engraving. The traditional, more archaising devices that had been the norm during the previous three centuries were replaced with a contemporary interpretation of the Athena Parthenos of Pheidias, wearing her triple-crested Attic helmet adorned on its visor with the foreparts of four or more horses, and a flying Pegasos on the bowl. On the reverse, the owl was now shown standing on a horizontal amphora, with a profligacy of magistrates’ names, symbols, and other letters occupying every available space, all enclosed within a large olive wreath. These new depictions were facilitated by, or more likely the result of, the coins’ oversized flans which were broader and thinner, offering the engraver a larger canvas upon which to work, while also requiring some innovative thinking to make use of the space.

58


171

172

171. Islands off Attica, Aegina AR Stater. Circa 480-457 BC. Sea turtle with line of pellets down the back of its shell / Incuse punch. Milbank pl. I, 15; SNG Copenhagen 507. 12.22g, 21mm. Very Fine. Light cabinet tone. 750 172. Islands off Attica, Aegina AR Stater. Circa 456/45-431 BC. Land tortoise with segmented shell / Large square incuse with skew pattern. Meadows, Aegina, Group IIIb; HGC 6, 437. 12.37g, 20mm. Very Fine. 500

A Coin for the Boatman

2x 173. Greek AV Danake. 5th-1st centuries BC. Bearded facing male head / Blank. Cf. CNG e220, 239; cf. CNG e214, 259; cf. CNG 55, 359 and 1866. 0.53g, 10mm. From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

500

Such thin and lightweight pseudo-coins are known in a variety of types that mimic coin designs, (see, e.g., CNG 55, lot 359, mimicking the reverse type of New Style Tetradrachms of Athens; and CNG 55, lot 1866, mimicking the reverse type of Sikyon staters). They are commonly found in burial sites and have no signs of attachment for use as jewellery or decoration. Part of the ancient Greek funerary customs was the placing of a coin with the dead so that the deceased could pay the boatman Charon to ferry them across the river Styx. These pseudo-coins most likely served the same purpose.

BOIOTIA

174. Boiotia, Thebes AR Stater. Circa 379-338 BC. Boiotian shield / Amphora, magistrates’ names in abbreviated form; AΩ in left field; Σ, bunch of grapes in right field. SNG Copenhagen 321; Hepworth 15; BMC 123. 12.15g, 24mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

350

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

MACEDON

Very Complete Archaic Archaic Akanthos

175. Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-470 BC. Lion right, biting into the hind-quarter of a bull standing left; Θ above, floral ornament in exergue / Quadripartite incuse square. Desneaux 63var.; AMNG III/2, 4; SNG ANS 10. 17.67g, 28mm. Good Extremely Fine.

59

5,000


60


A Gem-Like Akanthos Tetradrachm

176.

Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-430 BC. Lion right, attacking bull crouching left; in exergue, fish left / AKANΘION in shallow incuse around quadripartite square, the quarters raised and granulated. Cf. Desneux 95 and 97–8 (unlisted dies); AMNG III/2, 21; SNG ANS –; Numismatica Genevensis SA 3, lot 23 (same dies); Triton XVII, lot 116 (same dies). 17.23g, 28mm, 10h. Fleur De Coin. Sharply struck, well centred on a full flan and displaying brilliant mint lustre. A coin of medallic, gem-like quality. 30,000 The ubiquitous and persistent theme of the lion-bull combat can be traced back to the figurate art of the third millennium, where the geometrical motifs are replaced by narrative symbolic representations, and the scene is characteristic of Near Eastern art in its infancy. The earliest known depiction occurs on a ewer found at Uruk dated to the latter part of the Protoliterate period, circa 3300 BC. That ewer has a relief depiction of a lion attacking a bull from behind (see Henri Frankfort, Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient, 1963). The scene became widely distributed by 500 BC, featuring prominently in the Achaemenid Empire, and in particular at the palace of Darios in Persepolis, where it occurs no fewer than twenty seven times, including on the main staircase leading to the imperial complex. Its frequent appearance in key locations strongly suggests an important symbolic significance, which unfortunately has not survived antiquity in any explicitly clear form. Explanations for the symbolism and its power over the ancient peoples who reproduced it with prodigious enthusiasm have ranged from it being an expression of royal power, to it being an astronomical allusion, as well it being an embodiment of the constant struggle between civilisation (represented by the domesticated bull), and nature (represented by the untameable lion). This latter argument may well hold true for the Mesopotamians of Uruk, who it is known took a rather grim view of the world, seeing it as a battleground of opposing powers. One interpretation that has gained traction in recent years is that the motif is apotropaic in nature, serving to ward off evil in a similar function to the gorgoneion, which like the lion attack motif is very prevalent in ancient Greek coinage, though there is little evidence to support such a notion. G. E. Markoe (‘The Lion Attack in Archaic Greek Art’, Classical Antiquity Vol. 8, 1, 1989) convincingly suggests that a more likely explanation may be found in the examination of archaic Greek epic poetry, particularly in Homeric literature, wherein a lion attacking cattle or sheep is repeatedly employed as a simile for the aggression and valour of combatant heroes. In notable passages, Agamemnon’s victorious advance against the Trojans in the Iliad (11.113ff and 129) and Hektor’s successful pursuit of the Achaeans (15.630ff) are both likened to a lion triumphing over its hapless prey. In both of these cases the allusion is completed by the defeated being compared to fleeing prey animals. In all, there are twenty five examples present in the Iliad of heroic warriors being compared to leonine aggressors, with the victims variously compared to boars, sheep, goats, bulls or deer. The repetition of this literary device is clearly demonstrative of how deeply rooted the imagery was in the Greek (and perhaps more generally human) consciousness. Of further and great significance is the involvement of the gods as the primary instigators of heroic leonine aggression in almost every case, and as it is made clear that the lion itself is an animal that is divinely directed to its prey (11.480, by a daimon), so then is the lion attack a metaphor for divinely inspired heroic triumph.

61


177. Macedon, Neapolis AR Stater. Circa 500-480 BC. Facing gorgoneion with protruding tongue / Quadripartite incuse square. AMNG III/2, 6; SNG ANS 406–19; Dewing 1604; Traité I 1740. 9.25g, 20mm. Good Very Fine.

1,000

178. Macedon, Chalkidian League AR Tetradrachm. Olynthos, circa 420-355 BC. Aristonos, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo right / Kithara with six strings, ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ around, magistrate’s name EΠI APIΣTΩNOΣ below. Robinson & Clements Group V, 135 (A82 / P113) (same dies); SNG ANS 496, Dewing 1071. 14.48g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

4,000

Ex Goldberg 59, 30 May 2010, lot 2065. A beautiful piece with the original find patina intact. This example was likely part of the hoard recovered at Olynthos during excavations in the early 1930s. An outstanding example with a portrait of fine style.

179. Macedon, Chalkidian League AR Tetradrachm. Olynthos, circa 364-361 BC. Archidamos, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo to left / Kithara with seven strings, ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ around; above bridge of Kithara, ΕΠΙ ΑΡΧΙΔΑΜΟΥ. Robinson & Clement Group S, 111; SNG ANS 492-3 var. 14.48g, 23mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. An Apollo head of great beauty and refined style.

12,000

Ex Jean Elsen 91, 24 March 2007, lot 91. Olynthos, son of Herakles, was according to mythological tradition the founder of this city which rose to prominence as head of the Chalkidian League during the Peloponnesian War. In practice, Olynthos most likely took its name from the Greek olunthos: a fig which matures too early, for the area abounded with this fruit. Philip II of Macedon deprived the city of its League by both diplomacy and force, then undertook to besiege the city itself in 348 BC. Through the treachery of the city’s two leading citizens Euthykrates and Lasthenes the city was betrayed to Philip who sacked it, razed it to the ground and sold all those within into slavery, including an Athenian garrison.

2x 180. Kingdom of Macedon, Perdikkas III AR Diobol. 365-359 BC. Head of bearded Herakles facing right, wearing lion’s skin headdress / Club and bow crossed, Π-Ε-Ρ around; all within shallow incuse square. Gemini VI, 10 January 2010, lot 63 (same dies); otherwise apparently unpublished; cf. SNG Alpha Bank 237-8; BMC 3 (Perdikkas II); Traité II, 805 and pl. CCCIII, 18 (same). 0.96g, 11mm, 7h. Very Fine. Toned. Extremely Rare.

62

1,000


181. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 342/1-337/6 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; thunderbolt below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around, N in exergue. Le Rider 199 (D116/R163); SNG ANS 380. 14.46g, 24mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

2,400

Ex Goldberg 75, 24 September 2013, lot 2421.

Attractive Left-Facing Philip II Tetradrachm

182. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 342-336 BC. Laureate head of Zeus facing left / Youth on horseback right, nude, holding palm; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above, Θ below foreleg. Le Rider 439; SNG ANS 430. 14.37g, 25mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Fine style and attractively toned. Very Rare.

3,000

Ex Triton VI, 14 January 2003, lot 147.

183. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Pella, circa 340-328 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer driving biga to right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; kantharos below, ΦIΛIΠΠOY in exergue. le Rider 145 (D34/R106); SNG ANS 141; SNG München 76; SNG Alpha Bank -; SNG Saroglos -. 8.60g, 17mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Lustre around the devices.

63

2,500


Exceptional Philip II Gold Hemistater

184. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Hemistater. Lifetime issue. Amphipolis, circa 340-328 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Forepart of lion to right, crescent below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above. Le Rider 2 (D1/R2); SNG ANS 280 var. (same obverse die; scallop shell on reverse). 4.30g, 14mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and exceptional condition for the issue, being both well preserved and prefectly centred on a very large flan.

12,500

Ex Roma Numismatics VI, 29 September 2013, lot 544. Philip II inherited a poor kingdom on the verge of collapse. His brother Perdikkas III had died in battle against the Illyrians along with a great part of the Macedonian army. As A. B. Bosworth (1988, 6) puts it, “Philip came to power... when Macedon was threatened by dissolution, debilitated by a decade of dynastic feuding and crippled by military defeat at the hands of the Illyrians”, and he is joined by J. R. Ellis (1976, 44, cf. 1980, 36f) who writes “seldom can any state have so nearly approached total dismemberment without utterly disintegrating”. Philip’s predecessors had paid large tribute to the Illyrians since the 390s, and it was really only through bribery and a complex and changing system of alliances that Macedon was able to stave off invasion and conquest. Despite his precarious position, within two years and with little money to do it, Philip had reformed the shattered Macedonian peasant-army, introducing the innovative, professional and highly effective Phalanx corps armed with 18 foot long sarissas. Putting to good use all he had learned from Epaminondas, from whom he had received a military and diplomatic education, Philip pushed back the Thracians and Paeonians with promise of tribute and crushed the Athenian force that had come against him in 359. He conquered Amphipolis in 357, follwed by Krenides in 356, and thus gained command of the Mount Pangeion region and the 1000 talents a year in gold that its mines provided. Following hot on the heels of his military reforms, Philip revolutionised the coinage of the kingdom of Macedon, which would eventually also supersede that of all Greece. Philip’s brother Perdikkas, though he had initially struck a silver coinage, was later like his elder brother Alexander II before him, only able to coin in bronze. Philip now had prodigious quantities of not only silver, but gold too in measure beyond what his brothers could have dreamed. Before Philip, gold coins issued by the Greeks had been extremely infrequent, and struck usually only in times of great emergency. Philip’s control of the Pangeion mines now enabled him to make Macedon the first state in the Greek world to issue gold uninterruptedly year on year, which he did with a new standardised Macedonian gold currency denominated in staters, hemistaters (such as the present example) and quarter staters, as well as 1/8 and 1/12 fractions. This wealth would provide the driving force behind his successive conquests, expansion and diplomatic manoeuvres that enabled him to unify all Greece under Macedonian hegemony, and set the stage for his planned invasion of Persia.

185. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 336-328 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; crescent below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around. Le Rider (O214/R –). 14.43g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine - Good Very Fine. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 64, 17 May 2012, lot 2178.

64

1,200


186. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Pella, 323-315 BC. Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath / Charioteer driving biga right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; bukranion below. Le Rider 522 (D224/R382); SNG ANS 178.8.62g, 17mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,250

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

187. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nude youth on horseback right, holding palm in right hand and reins in left; ΦIΛIΠΠOY around, aphlaston and Π below. Le Rider pl. 46, 18. 14.27g, 24mm, 9h. Virtually Mint State. Attractive light golden toning.

750

188. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 307-297 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nude youth on horseback right, holding palm in right hand and reins in left; ΦIΛIΠΠOY around, Λ, torch and monogram below. Le Rider pl. 47, 23; SNG ANS 794; SNG München 137. 14.16g, 27mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Stunning golden toning.

2,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1134.

189. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 325-323/2 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; herm in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 78; Troxell, Studies, Issue E2. 17.09g, 25mm, 6h. Very Fine.

65

300


Two Stunning Alexander Distaters

190. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Distater. Amphipolis, circa 325-323 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing triple crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing to left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand and stylis over left shoulder; thunderbolt to left, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 163; Müller 1; for the date, see Troxell, p. 128. 17.23g, 22mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. Exceptionally well preserved for the issue; one of the very finest surviving distaters.

25,000

Alexander’s stunning conquest of the Persian Achaemenid Empire delivered into his hands a vast wealth of proportions so incredible that it was scarcely believable. At the time of the death of Alexander’s father Philip II in 336 BC the Macedonian state was indebted to the sum of five hundred talents of silver. Yet less than five years later Alexander was the wealthiest man on the face of the earth and the Macedonian kingdom spanned some three thousand miles at its greatest length. The treasuries of Susa, Babylon and Persepolis rendered a treasure estimated at some one hundred and eighty thousand talents. A significant quantity of the captured gold was sent back to Amphipolis where a part was used for the striking of the Alexandrine distaters, the heaviest gold coins the world had yet known. Valued at forty silver drachms, this new denomination meant that Alexander’s discharged veteran soldiers could be paid out their one talent in 120 distaters. In practice, the relatively low output of gold distaters compared with the staters seems to suggest that perhaps they fulfilled a more ceremonial than practical role.

191. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Distater. Amphipolis, circa 336-323 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled snake / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, trident in left field; AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ to right. Price 171; SNG Copenhagen 623. 17.16g, 22mm, 9h. About Extremely Fine. Ex David Walsh Collection, privately purchased in 2001.

66

15,000


192. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Amphipolis, circa 325-319 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing triple crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, trident head downward in left field; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ to right. Price 172b-d; SNG Saroglos 103. 8.56g, 18mm, 11h. Good Very Fine.

500

193. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-318/7 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated to left, holding sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, bee alighting on rose to left. Price 206; Moore 23-43. 17.20g, 25mm, 6h. Minor scrape on obverse, otherwise Extremely Fine.

750

194. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne, holding sceptre; Θ below seat, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 213; Moore 10–17; Demanhur 1601-3. 17.24g, 26mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. A superb example of a left facing Alexander tetradrachm.

4,000

195. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 315-310 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, holding sceptre; Boeotian shield in left field, coiled serpent under throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 249; SNG Copenhagen 728; Muller 754. 17.30g, 26mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

67

1,000


196. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, 320-315 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; monogram in left field, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to left, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Λ under chair. Price 421. 17.30g, 26mm, 11h. Near Mint State.

750

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

197. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 320-315 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion’s skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; Λ above bukranion in left field, monogram below throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 430; Müller 102; Ehrhardt 19. 17.30g, 26mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

200

198. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 315-294 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion’s skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; Λ above torch in left field, star above cone below throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 475; Müller 72; Ehrhardt 53. 17.30g, 26mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Minor scratches to reverse. Lightly toned, with golden highlights.

300

199. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Kallatis, circa 250-225 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, monogram to left. Price 901. 8.53g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

68

2,000


2x 200. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Quarter Stater. Lampsakos, circa AD 328-323. Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet / ΑΛΕΞΑΝ-ΔΡΟΥ in two lines above and below bow and club; conjoined foreparts of two horses in central upper field. Price 1361; SNG Berry 147. 2.14g, 10mm, 9h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, no examples present on CoinArchives with this symbol.

500

201. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Miletos, circa 323-319 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monogram to left, double-headed axe below right wing. Price 2114. 8.55g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

2,000

202. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Side, circa 325-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AI in left field, BΣ below throne, BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 2952; Müller 1483. 17.18g, 27mm, 7h. Very Fine. Struck in high relief and lightly toned. Rare.

250

203. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in Southern Asia Minor, 320-280 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monogram in left field, ΛE below throne. Price -, cf. 3064 (same monograms, but with conjoined horse foreparts in left field). 17.16g, 26mm, 4h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare, an apparently unrecorded variant.

500

204. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Kition, circa 325-320 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ to right, TK monogram to left. Price 3104. 8.58g, 17mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

69

1,000


205. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Laodicea ad Mare, circa 325-323 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; monogram in left field, pellet above and monogram below strut of throne, BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 3233; Müller -. 17.27g, 25mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

206

200

207

206. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Arados, circa 324-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; kerykeion in left field, AP monogram below throne; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ below, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 3332; SNG Alpha Bank 675; SNG Saroglos 579-81. 17.10g, 26mm, 1h. Very Fine. 250 207. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Byblos, circa 330-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AP monogram in left field, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 3426; Müller 1375. 17.18g, 27mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. 250

208. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Babylon, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with serpent, and necklace; M to left / Nike standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand and cradling stylis in left arm, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left; ΛY below left wing. Price 3691; SNG München –; SNG Alpha Bank –; SNG Saroglos –; SNG Ashmolean –. 8.57g, 18mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

1,500

209. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Lampsakos, 323-317 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, buckle above crescent-over-A in left field. Price P13; ADM II Series IX, 182. 8.62g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

70

2,500


210. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-316 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, monogram, pentagram and cornucopiae to left. Price P36; Thompson, Abydos 171a. 8.56g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

211. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AR Tetradrachm. Arados, circa 323-316 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, ΦIΛIΠΠOY to right; combined thunderbolt and monogram in left field, I below throne. Price P141. 17.20g, 28mm, 8h. Good Very Fine.

250

212. Kingdom of Macedon, Antigonos II Gonatas AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 274/1-260/55 BC. Horned head of Pan left, lagobolon over shoulder, on boss of Macedonian shield / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ, Athena Alkidemos advancing left, holding shield decorated with aegis, preparing to cast thunderbolt; crested Macedonian helmet to inner left, KT to inner right. Touratsoglou 41-2; SNG Saroglos 926-7. 17.14g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,250

213. Kingdom of Macedon, Antigonos II Gonatas AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 274/1-260/55 BC. Horned head of Pan left, lagobolon over shoulder, on boss of Macedonian shield / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ, Athena Alkidemos advancing left, holding shield decorated with aegis, preparing to cast thunderbolt; crested Macedonian helmet to inner left, TI to inner right. SNG Ashmolean 3260; Mathisen p. 114; SNG Alpha Bank 983. 17.00g, 31mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

71

1,250


Extremely Rare Variety

214. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip V AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 202-200 BC. Head of the hero Perseus right, wearing winged helmet surmounted by griffin’s head; harpa in background; all in the centre of a Macedonian shield / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΦIΛIΠΠOY, club; all within oak wreath tying to left, M monogram to left. F. Burrer. “Die Tetradrachmenprägung Philipps V. von Makedonien Serie II” in JNG 59 (2009), 3 (same dies). 17.04g, 32mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only one example of this variant cited by Burrer.

1,000

215. Macedon under Roman Rule, First Meris AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, 167-149 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder, all within tondo of Macedonian shield / ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΗΣ, horizontal club, monograms above and below, all within oak wreath; thunderbolt to left. AMNG 177 (only 14 recorded); SNG Copenhagen 1314; BMC 7, McClean 749. 17.02g, 33mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare. Ex Noble Numismatics 96, 5 April 2011, lot 4990.

750

216. Macedon under Roman Rule, First Meris AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, 167-149 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder, all within tondo of Macedonian shield / ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΗΣ, horizontal club, monograms above and below, all within oak wreath; thunderbolt to left. AMNG 165; Hunter 3. 17.05g, 33mm, 2h. Very Fine. Very rare variety.

72

300


THRACO-MACEDONIAN TRIBES

2x 217. Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, The Orreskioi (?) AR Obol. Circa 500-480 BC. Bearded centaur in the ‘running-kneeling’ posture to right, his head turned back to left to look at a kantharos held in his right hand / Quadripartite incuse square. AMNG III, p. 134, 6 and pl. XXVI, 3; Lanz 151, 341; Nomos 6, 38. 1.16g, 9mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

THRACE

300

Very Rare Oktadrachm of Abdera

218. Thrace, Abdera AR Oktadrachm. Circa 490 BC. Griffin, with right foreleg raised, seated to left; EKAT retrograde to left / Quadripartite incuse square. AMNG 4; Asyut 138; May 45. 29.77g, 28mm. Very Fine. Very Rare, perhaps the fourth specimen known.

2,500

219. Thrace, Dikaia AR Diobol. Circa 450-420 BC. Female head left / Bull’s head facing within incuse square, ΔΙΚ-ΑΙΑ around. Traité 1436 and pl. CCCXL, 1; Schönert-Geiss Bisanthe 16. 1.14g, 11mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Surface somewhat porous. A very attractive portrait. Extremely Rare.

150

220. Islands off Thrace, Thasos AR Stater. Circa 480-463 BC. Ithyphallic satyr advancing right, carrying off protesting nymph / Quadripartite incuse square. Le Rider, Thasiennes 5; SNG Copenhagen 1010; HGC 6, 331. 8.69g, 21mm. Near Extremely Fine.

1,250

221. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint, circa 305-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on shield, transverse spear in background; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙΜΑΞΟΥ crowned by Nike to left, oinochoe in inner left field and bucranium in exergue. Cf. Müller 299/300; SNG Copenhagen -. 16.95g, 28mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Struck in high relief, and lightly toned. Minor scuff behind portrait.

73

600


222. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lampsakos, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on shield, spear behind; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ to left, monogram in inner left field, crescent in exergue. Thompson 49; SNG Copenhagen 1097. 16.64g, 31mm, 12h. Some scrapes, otherwise Extremely Fine.

500

223. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena enthroned left, holding Nike in right hand and resting left elbow on shield. SNG Copenhagen 1136. 17.00g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Light iridescent tone.

750

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 72, 16 May 2013, lot 889.

224. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Drachm. Ephesos, circa 294-287 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena enthroned left, holding Nike and resting on a shield at her side, behind her rests a spear, a bee to right between E and Φ on left. Thompson 168; Müller 421. 4.30g, 17mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent style.

1,250

The Only Surviving Coin of Paktye

225. Thracian Chersonesos, Paktye Æ11. Circa 375-325 BC. Head of roaring lion left / Wheat grain, scallop shell below, ethnik ΠAK-TY around. Roma Numismatics IV, 256 (this coin); see IACP p. 909, 671 for information on this polis. 0.91g, 11mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Unique and of significant numismatic importance. Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 256.

1,500

It is rare now to encounter a real novum in Greek numismatics. This coin bears the ethnik of Paktye, attested as a polis in ancient sources, that was founded by Athenians under Miltiades in the sixth century BC. Situated on the Propontic coast of the isthmus of the Chersonesos near the site of Helle’s tomb, at the eastern end of the fortification wall constructed by Miltiades, Paktye appears to have been a settlement of limited size, and was never included in the Athenian tribute lists. Before the discovery of this coin it was believed that the city had never issued its own coinage. This wonderfully preserved specimen proves that not to be the case. A lion of distinctly Chersonesean style occupies the obverse, and this animal representation of the sun is paired with the wheat grain, for whose germination and growth it was responsible; on the reverse we see also the scallop shell, a noted symbol of fertility. The Thracian Chersonesos was renowned for its production of wheat, and as the foundation of their economy this grain has appropriately been taken for a civic emblem much as it was at Metapontion.

74


CIMMERIAN BOSPOROS Rare and Attractive Pantikapaion Silver Drachm

226. Cimmerian Bosporos, Pantikapaion AR Drachm. Circa 340-325 BC. Bearded head of Pan to left, three-quarters facing / Bull’s head to left, turned slightly to front, ΠΑΝ around. Anokhin 121; MacDonald 57; SNGBM 880; SNG Stancomb 548. 3.46g, 16mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,750

227. Cimmerian Bosporos, Pantikapaion Æ26. Circa 340-325 BC. Wreathed head of Pan left / Bow and arrow, ΠANTI below. MacDonald 59; Anokhin 1022; HGC 7, 106. 11.76g, 27mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

150

228. Cimmerian Bosporos, Pantikapaion Æ20. Circa 310-304/3 BC. Bearded head of satyr right / Forepart of griffin left, Π-Α-Ν around; below, fish left. MacDonald 69; Anokhin 1023; HGC 7, 113; SNG BM 870; SNG Copenhagen 30. 7.29g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

229

300

230

229. Cimmerian Bosporos, Pantikapaion Æ21. Circa 310-304/3 BC. Bearded head of satyr right / Forepart of griffin left, Π-Α-Ν around; below, fish left. MacDonald 69; Anokhin 1023; HGC 7, 113; SNG BM 870; SNG Copenhagen 30. 7.06g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. 150 230. Cimmerian Bosporos, Pantikapaion Æ20. Circa 310-304/3 BC. Bearded head of satyr right / Forepart of griffin left, Π-Α-Ν around; below, fish left. MacDonald 69; Anokhin 1023; HGC 7, 113; SNG BM 870; SNG Copenhagen 30. 6.69g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 150

75


CRETE Unique Stater of Axos

231.

Crete, Axos AR Stater. Circa 4th century BC. Young beardless head right with short cropped hair / Tripod with handles and animal feet. Unpublished variant, for general type cf. Le Rider 238-43 pl. 8, 16-20; Svoronos p. 10, 3, pl. 1 (Apollonia); BMFA Suppl. 107 (Apollonia or Axos). 11.70g, 25mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished. From the Eckenheimer Collection.

7,500

The ancient city of Axos occupied the hill above the modern village of the same name. The protecting deity of Axos was probably Apollo, perhaps called Axios, whose son Oaxos was according to tradition the eponymous founder of the city. Two archaic temples have been excavated at Axos, one on the acropolis and a second below it to the east. Temple I is attributed to Apollo and Temple II has been attributed to Aphrodite on the basis of votive figurines. The young and beardless male head on the obverse of this coin, used in conjunction with the tripod-lebes, must then surely be intended to represent Apollo. The nature of the coin itself seems archaic, primitive even, considering the date to which its production is assigned. In this it somewhat resembles and recalls the highly stylized efforts of some Celtic engravers, yet its stylistic simplicity is not so surprising when we consider the relatively backward nature of Crete in the Archaic and Classical periods: though Crete was a pioneer of art and culture in the 10th-7th centuries, a major change occurred circa 630 BC, which seems to have led to a petrification of Cretan institutions, and Cretan art and culture lost all their innovative power. The cities of Crete became inward-looking, and internecine war became the norm among the island’s city-states, many of which sought to challenge the power of Knossos and gain superiority over the others. Interestingly, the only attestation of a post-Minoan king on Crete occurs at Axos, which according to Herodotos was ruled by the basileos Etearchos, who reigned sometime in the 8th or 7th centuries and was the maternal grandfather of Battos, the oikistes (founder) of Kyrene.

76


One of the Finest Known

232.

Crete, Polyrhenion AR Stater. 4th century BC. Magistrate Charisthe. Laureate head of Zeus to right / Head of sacrificial bull facing, with pendant fillets hanging from horns; [ΧΑΡΙΣΘΕ above], ΠΟΛΥΡΗΝΙΟΝ around. Le Rider p. 38, 305, pl. 10, 11; Svoronos p. 276, 4 pl. 25, 23-24 (same dies). 11.69g, 25mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known examples. From the Eckenheimer Collection.

7,500

Polyrhenion was one the oldest Dorian settlement of Crete, whose etymology is ‘rich in lambs’, and according to Strabo was settled in archaic times by Achaian and Lakonian immigrants who settled into one city the existing population, which had lived in villages, some 7 km inland from the Bay of Kissamos. Excavations from 1938 have exposed several building foundations which defy identity, but it may safely be presumed that one of these was a temple dedicated to Zeus. The bull sacrifice was a universal and key element of Greek religion, and it held particular significance in Crete which was rich in mythological traditions relating to the bull as a divine animal, being either divinely directed or indeed itself a theriomorphic god in bull form. Indeed, the central importance of the bull in Cretan culture was an ancient one predating even the arrival of the Mycenean Greeks in the 14th century BC; twentieth century archaeological excavations begun by Arthur Evans in 1900 dramatically ‘resurrected’ the lost Minoan civilisation and uncovered a wealth of artefacts which, among other things, portray the bull as a major religious symbol. The mythical origin of the idea of bull or ox sacrifice was believed to be from the story of Prometheos in Hesiod’s Theogamy (521-616). At Mekone, in a a sacrificial meal marking the ‘settling of accounts’ between mortals and immortals, Prometheos purposely deceives Zeus by assigning to him a good-looking portion ‘wrapped in glistening fat’ that consists of nothing but bones, thus ensuring humans would keep the meat for themselves and burn the bones wrapped in fat as an offering to the gods.

77


TROAS Second Known and Perhaps Earliest Coinage of Abydos

233.

Troas, Abydos EL Stater. Circa 520-500 BC. Milesian standard. Eagle with closed wings standing to left, head reverted, dolphin in left field, floral tendril to right; all within circular border / Incuse punch. Head, Historia Numorum, p.538; Head, ‘Metrological Notes on Ancient Electrum Coins’ in NC 1875, p.275, pl. VII, 7 (same dies). 14.16g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently the second known example and more complete than the example published by Head in 1875. Of significant numismatic importance, and perhaps the earliest coinage of Abydos. 25,000 Abydos was first mentioned in the Iliad among the catalogue of Trojan allies. It was initially probably a Thracian town, as Strabo relates, but it was afterwards colonized by Milesians, with the consent of Gyges, king of Lydia, around 700 BC. The city was under the control of a pro-Persian tyrant, Daphnis, in the 520s, and was directly occupied by the Persians in 514. Abydos was one of the unfortunate Hellespontine cities destroyed by fire by the Persian king Darios after his Skythian expedition; Strabo tells us that ‘he burned them because he had learned after his return from his attack upon the Skythians that the nomads were making preparations to cross the strait and attack him to avenge their sufferings, and was afraid that the cities would provide means for the passage of their army.” The very similar stater type bearing an eagle standing in an identical posture but of later style and with a quadripartite incuse square (BMC Ionia pl. I, 23; Kraay ACGC 75) has long been attributed by noted numismatists including Head, Jameson and Kraay to Abydos. Kraay ascribed that type to the coinages of the Ionian Revolt in 499 against Persian overlordship, which Abydos certainly had good cause to join, and with the gold mines it possessed, had the means to support. The present coin’s obverse style is considerably more archaic in form than the aforementioned type, a fact borne out not only in the eagle itself, but also in the primitive form of the dolphin and the placement of the curious ‘floral tendril’ symbol above and right of the eagle. The reverse punch too is indicative of a striking date earlier than that proposed for Kraay 75, having more in common with the staters of Chios and other uncertain mints dated c. 525-500 (see for example R. Jameson, ‘Trouvaille de Vourla’, RN 1911, pl. I, 1; BMC 31, pl. I, 19); the fabric too retains more resemblance to early globular type struck coins than does Kraay 75. It is therefore proposed that the present type, first catalogued by Head in 1875 and seemingly forgotten since, potentially represents the earliest known coinage of Abydos.

78


79


234. Troas, Alexandria Troas Æ21. Circa AD 253-268. CO ALEX TRO, turreted head of Tyche to right / Apollo, holding lyre, riding griffin to right; COL AV TROA around. Bellinger 483. 6.42g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

200

235. Troas, Skepsis AR Drachm. 4th century BC. Forepart of Pegasos right; ΣKHΨION around / Palm tree within linear square with boarder of dots. SNG Copenhagen 470; SNG von Aulock 7643. 3.54g, 16mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

IONIA

500

Among the Finest of Very Few Known Examples

3x 236. Ionia, Uncertain EL 1/24 Stater. Circa 600-550 BC. Phokaic standard. Figural type. Lion seated right / Incuse square punch. Unpublished, cf. CNG 97, 17 September 2014, lot 215. 0.63g, 7mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known of very few examples.

750

Extremely Rare Portrait of Spithridates

2x

2x

237. Ionia, Achaemenid Period AR Tetrobol. Spithridates, Satrap of Lydia and Ionia, under Darius III. 335-334 BC. Head of satrap left, wearing Persian headdress / Forepart of Pegasos right, ΣΠI-ΘPI behind and below. BMC 18; Traité II 2, pl. LXXXIX, 1-3; L. Mildenberg, Vestigia Leonis, p. 9, pl. III, 26; W. Wroth, NC (1900), pp. 289-90, no. 23; H.A. Cahn, Revue des etudes anciennes 91 (1989), pp. 97-105; C. Harrison in: Oikistes. Studies in Honor of A.J. Graham (Leiden, 2002), pp. 301-319; J. Bodzek, Israel Numismatic Review 3 (2008), pp. 4-6. 3.04g, 15mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Extremely rare portrait of the satrap Spithridates.

5,000

Spithridates acted as a satrap of Lydia and Ionia under the rein of King Darios II. He participated as a commander for the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 BC, the first significant battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. During this battle, Spithridates spotted an opportunity to strike Alexander. Arrian (I. 15) narrates as follows: “Alexander’s spear being shattered in the conflict, he asked Aretis, one of the royal guards, whose duty it was to assist the king to mount his horse, for another spear. But this man’s spear had also been broken whilst he was in the thickest of the struggle, and he was conspicuous fighting with the half of his broken spear. Showing this to Alexander, he bade him ask some one else for one. Then Demaratos, a man of Corinth, one of his personal Companions, gave him his own spear; which he had no sooner taken than seeing Mithridates, the son-in-law of Darios, riding far in front of the others, and leading with him a body of cavalry arranged like a wedge, he rode on in front of the others, and hitting at the face of Mithridates with his spear, struck him to the ground. But hereupon, Rhoesaces rode up to Alexander and struck at his head with his sword, but though it shore off a piece of his helmet, the helmet broke the force of the blow. This man too Alexander struck to the ground, striking him in the chest through the breastplate with his lance. And now Spithridates from behind had already raised aloft his sword against the king, when Kleitos, son of Dropidas, anticipated his blow, and hitting him on the arm, cut it off, sword and all.” If not for the intervention of Kleitos that day, history would have taken a very different course. Alexander’s invasion of Persia would have been a dismal failure, cut short just days after crossing the Hellespont. Tens of thousands of Greek and Macedonian soldiers would have been left leaderless in Asia Minor, and the Hellenisation of the East would almost certainly never have come to pass.

80


‘Shining Sun’

238. Ionia, Ephesos (?) EL Stater. Circa 575-560 BC. Forepart of bridled horse left, sunburst before; lotus flower on its back / Rectangular incuse punch between two square incuse punches, all with roughly patterned surfaces. Weidauer 138 (these dies); Mitchiner 135; ACGC 56. 14.31g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 5,000 The lotus flower that appears upon the horse’s back is an element common to several electrum staters from uncertain mints attributed to Lydia or Ionia, all struck on the Milesian standard: the recumbent lion type (Rosen 245; NAC 72, 16 May 2013, 369), bull kneeling with its head reverted (Rosen 148), and two rampant lions upright on their hind legs with heads reverted and paws extended (Rosen 149). On all of these coins the lotus flower may initially appear incidental, though its commonality to all types indicates otherwise – it is evidently to be seen as the key element of the obverse type that links the different animal designs together. The lotus flower appears only sporadically in Greek mythology, though it had a deep rooted use in Egyptian art and legend, where it was taken as a symbolic representation of the sun on account of its physical behaviour: it closes at night time and descends into the water, rising and flowering again at dawn. In Egyptian creation myth, the lotus was the first thing to spontaneously form from chaos, and it was from the lotus that the sun itself was born on the first day. The eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean in the sixth century BC had been for a long time familiar with Egyptian religious beliefs that spread as a consequence of trade and population dispersal; the lotus’ insinuation in its Egyptian meaning into Greek culture is evident in the lotus-tipped sceptre carried by Zeus on the coinages of Karia, Mysia and Kilikia (among others), being a legacy of the assimilation of an attribute of the major Egyptian solar deity Ra with the principal god of the Greek pantheon Zeus. The lotus’ appearance here as a polyvalent symbol can best be understood then in the context of assimilated Egyptian beliefs, representing at once both a solar and divine aspect, as well as a clear allusion to the minting city’s location. Interestingly however, the lotus is not the only solar element present on this coin – immediately before the horse’s chest we can discern the presence of a sunburst similar in depiction to those found on the contemporary coinage of Alyattes. This element may have been included on account of its being more universally familiar, being well understood to signify what we now refer to as Anatolia, which comes from the Greek Aνατολή (Anatolē) meaning the ‘East’ or more literally ‘sunrise’, used to refer to the Ionian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. Moreover the horse was itself considered a solar symbol, not only throughout the East, but also among Celtic and Germanic tribes, suggesting a common ancient root to this association. Such preponderance of solar symbology is indeed only fitting for this metal, and is in fact an overt statement of the coin’s composition: ἤλεκτρον, the Greek word for electrum, is derived from the word ἠλέκτωρ (ēlektōr) - ‘shining sun’.

239. Ionia, Ephesos AR Diobol. Circa 390-325 BC. Bee; Ε-Φ across / Two stag’s head facing one another; ΕΦ above. SNG Kayhan 208-42; SNG Copenhagen 243; SNG von Aulock 1835; SNG München 32. 1.00g, 11mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

100

Rare and Complete Early Klazomenai Drachm

240. Ionia, Klazomenai AR Drachm. Circa 499-494 BC. Forepart of winged boar right / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG von Aulock 1981-2; SNG Copenhagen 1-2; Asyut 615. 6.68g, 18mm. Good Very Fine. Well centred and struck on a broad flan. Unusually complete and well preserved for the issue. Rare.

81

1,500


82


Unsigned Work by Theodotus of Klazomenai

241.

Ionia, Klazomenai AR Drachm. Circa 386-301 BC. Mandronax, magistrate. Head of Apollo facing slightly left, wearing laurel wreath / KΛ-A, swan standing left, wings spread; MANΔΡΩNA[Ξ] to left. SNG Copenhagen -; SNG München -; cf. BMC 26 (hemidrachm); SNG Lockett 2792 (same dies); Traité II 1998. 4.04g, 16mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Exceptional metal for issue. Rare.

15,000

Ex David Herman Collection, Triton X, 9 January 2007, lot 295. Settled by colonists from Phlios and Kleonai, Klazomenai was a member of the Ionian League, and originally stood on the isthmus connecting the mainland with the peninsula on which Erythrai stood; but the inhabitants, alarmed by the encroachments of the Persians, removed themselves to one of the small islands of the bay, and there established their city. In the King’s Peace of 386 Klazomenai is explicitly mentioned as belonging to Persia, though the city continued to mint coinage in its own name. There was a Klazomenian treasury at Delphi, and Klazomenai consulted the oracle there in 383 about their dispute with Kyme over the city of Leukai. Both cities wished to gain control of Leukai and its cult centre of Apollo, and thus the oracle responded that the city that first managed to make a sacrifice at Leukai on a specified date should be the winner of the dispute. Since it was stipulated that representatives from the two cities should depart from their territory at dawn on the day specified for the sacrifice, the Klazomenians founded a colony close to Leukai and thus won the contest. This event was celebrated by a festival called Prophthaseia, and a beautiful series of coinage, to which this type belongs, was caused to be struck in commemoration of the city’s victory. Apollo is proudly displayed on the obverse, and the reverse bears a majestic image of a swan, a bird sacred to the god. According to myth, swans would draw the chariot in which Apollo every year flew south from his winter home in the land of the Hyperboreans. The reverse is also a punning allusion to the name of the city itself, as Klazomenai was also home to large numbers of swans, and κλaζειν meant ‘to scream’, and was used to describe the call of the swan. Leukai’s striking of similar coinage in this period attests to Klazomenai’s control over that city. This beautiful coin is believed to be an unsigned work by the famous artist Theodotus of Klazomenai, who was responsible for engraving the dies for the outstanding Klazomenian tetradrachm in the British Museum. That coin, which bears Theodotus’ signature, is of a sufficiently proximate style as to make this a very distinct probability.

83


242. Ionia, Kolophon AR Drachm. Circa 330-310 BC. Eklataios, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo right / Kithara; EKΛATAIOΣ to left, ΚΟΛΟΦΩ to right. SNG von Aulock 2007; cf. Milne Kolophon 73. 3.00g, 11mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Superb metal quality. Very Rare.

500

243. Ionia, Kolophon AR Drachm. Circa 330-310 BC. Eklataios, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo right / Kithara; EKΛATAIOΣ to left, ΚΟΛΟΦΩ to right. SNG von Aulock 2007; cf. Milne Kolophon 73. 3.08g, 15mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Excellent metal quality. Very Rare.

500

244. Ionia, Kolophon AR Diobol. Circa 330-310 BC. Phyrson, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo left / Kithara, KOΛOΦΩ to left, magistrate [Φ] YPΣΩN to right. SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Kayhan -, cf. 380 for type, cf. 383 for magistrate. 1.07g, 10mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Lightly toned and in good style.

120

245. Ionia, Kolophon AR Hemidrachm. Circa 330-310 BC. Platon, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo left, with long hair / Kithara, KOΛO to right, ΠΛATΩN to left. SNG Kayhan -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -; cf. Kinns 86 & Milne, Kolophon 74 for magistrate. 1.66g, 12mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Lightly toned with underlying lustre.

150

More commonly shown with his hair tucked into the laurel wreath, this rare obverse type shows Apollo with long hair falling down his neck, similar to the bronzes attributed to 330-285 BC.

246. Ionia, Kolophon AR Hemidrachm. Circa 330-310 BC. Straton, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo left / Tripod; KOΛΟΦ to left, ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝ to right. Milne Kolophon 89. 1.52g, 11mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

300

247. Ionia, Kolophon AR Drachm. Circa 330-310 BC. Platon, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo right / Kithara, ΚΟΛΟΦΩ to right, ΠΛATΩN to left. SNG Kayhan 374 (same obv. die); Milne Kolophon 56; BMC 7382. 3.04g, 15mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. In good style. Lightly toned with underlying lustre.

84

400


248. Ionia, Kolophon AR Drachm. Circa 330-310 BC. Aminias, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo left / Kithara, AMINIAΣ to right. Kinns 89; Milne, Kolophon 85; SNG Copenhagen -. 3.06g, 15mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Very rare with such sound metal.

300

249. Ionia, Miletos EL Stater. Circa 600-550 BC. Lion reclining left, head right, within rectangular frame / Central oblong punch containing a running fox and three pellets, two of which are connected by bar; flanked by square punches containing stellate pattern and stag’s head right, respectively. Weidauer 126; SNG Kayhan 440. 13.98g, 22mm. Near Very Fine. Rare.

1,000

2x 250. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 560-545 BC. Head of griffin to left with protruding tongue; behind, small seal upward / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 22.1; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA –; BMC –; Jameson 1510; Weber 6072 = Bement 1470. 2.59g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

Fine Style Archaic Female Head

3x

3x

251. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Female head left, wearing helmet or close fitting cap; seal to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 31; BMC Ionia -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 7943; SNG Kayhan 518. 2.59g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, Bodenstedt cites only four specimens.

1,000

2x 252. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 480 BC. Forepart of man-headed bull left, collar with row of pearls; behind, seal swimming upward / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 35. 2.61g, 10mm. Mint State.

85

1,000


All images on this page are 2x enlargements

253

254

253. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 480-450. Forepart of rooster to left; above, seal swimming to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 40. 2.62g, 10mm. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare - only of only four known examples. 2,000 254. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of lion left; seal swimming right above / Quadripartite incuse square. Unpublished; cf. Roma XI, 7 April 2016, lot 308 and Triton XII, 6 January 2009, lot 300. 2.59g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Well centred and attractive. Unpublished: the third known specimen. 1,000

255

256

255. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Helmeted male head to left, with frontal eye and tendril ornament on bowl of helmet; below, seal swimming to left / Rough quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 50. 2.60g, 10mm. Mint State. 1,000 256. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of Hephaistos left; seal behind / Quadripartite incuse punch. Bodenstedt 69; SNG Copenhagen –; Boston MFA 1910. 2.56g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, only four examples on CoinArchives. 500

257

258

257. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of young male left, wearing Silenos mask on top of his head; behind, seal swimming downward to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 70; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA –; BMC 43. 2.57g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only three specimens cited by Bodenstedt. 750 258. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of Pan left / Incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 73; SNG von Aulock 7950 = Nomos 8, lot 177; BMC –; Boston MFA –. 2.52g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only three cited by Bodenstedt, and a further two new specimens recorded in CoinArchives. 750 The obverse of this coin depicts a particularly pleasant head of Pan, the god of the wild, of shepherds and flocks, and of rustic music.

259

260

259. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-437 BC. Laureate head of Zeus left / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt -; cf. 76; Boston MFA 1916; Traité 2124, pl. 158, 41. 2.55g, 11mm. Extremely Rare, apparently only the fourth known. 1,000 260. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Bearded head of Herakles to left, wearing lion skin headdress / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 80; Boston MFA 1911; SNG von Aulock –. 2.54g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; only four coins cited by Bodenstedt, two of which are in museums (Boston and Karlsruhe), eight in CoinArchives. 750 All images on this page are 2x enlargements

86


Tissaphernes, Villain of Xenophon’s Anabasis

261.

Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Bearded head of Tissaphernes to left, wearing satrapal headdress / Quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 86; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA –; BMC –; Pozzi –; Traité –; Winzer 6.6; CNG e342, lot 287; CNG e210, lot 43; Gemini VI, lot 192; Peus 361, lot 184. 2.55g, 11mm. Mint State. Extremely Rare, only one example recorded by Bodenstedt, and apparently only the fifth known.

5,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. Since it is known that satraps issued coins in their own name with their own portraits, both Bodenstedt and Winzer named the satrap depicted on this coin as Tissaphernes on the basis of parallels between the portrait as seen here and those on other coinages. Indeed there are distinct physical similarities (the shape of the nose, brow and eye sockets) between the present type and the portrait of Tissaphernes on the Kyzikene-issued tetradrachms of Athenian owl reverse type struck c.420-395. Tissaphernes was born in 445 into an important Persian family; his grandfather was Hydarnes, who was a general under Xerxes, and commander of the Immortals during the invasion of Greece in 480. He rose to the position of commander in chief of the Persian armies in Asia Minor, and was appointed satrap of Lydia and Karia. Yet because Tissaphernes preferred duplicitous negotiation to open warfare, in 408 he was replaced in his position as general by the King’s second son, Cyrus the Younger. When King Darius II died in 404, his eldest son Artaxerxes II was crowned. Cyrus, seeking the throne for himself, attempted to have his brother assassinated, though Tissaphernes learned of the plot and informed Artaxerxes. Imprisoned, but soon pardoned through the intercession of their mother, Cyrus was sent back to his command, where he now gathered an army which included Xenophon’s ‘Ten Thousand’ Greek mercenaries. Tissaphernes was instrumental in warning Artaxerxes of his perfidious brother’s intentions, and in gathering an army to oppose Cyrus. Cyrus was undone at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401, through the disobedience of the Greek commander Klearchos of Sparta, who refused to move his troops to the centre of the line (wary of his undefended right flank) in order to directly attack Artaxerxes. The Greeks instead charged and scatted the loyal Persian left wing, but meanwhile Cyrus died in his assault on the centre while attempting to kill or capture his brother. Tissaphernes was then able to rout all of Cyrus’ leaderless and demoralised forces, except the Greek mercenaries who steadfastly maintained their discipline, and were unassailable by frontal assault. Tissaphernes therefore dealt with the Greeks by supplying them with food and leading them northwards for home. He invited the senior Greek commanders to attend a feast, whereupon he took them prisoner, led them before Artaxerxes, and had them decapitated. As a reward for his loyalty, Artaxerxes gave Tissaphernes one of his own daughters in marriage and restored him as governor of Lydia and commander in chief of the Persian armies in Asia Minor. Xenophon, until then a middle ranking officer, was hereupon elected one of the leaders of the Ten Thousand. In his Anabasis, he describes Tissaphernes as lacking in all honour, the supreme example of faithlessness and oathbreaking, for he used his hospitality to delude and decoy his victims before having them executed - a treachery of the most heinous kind.

87


Extremely Rare Samos EL Stater

262. Ionia, Samos EL Stater. Euboic-Samian standard. Circa 600 BC. Uncertain amorphous type / Two parallel rectangular incuses with broken surfaces. E.S.G. Robinson. “Some Electrum and Gold Greek Coins” in Centennial Publication of the American Numismatic Society, New York, 1958, 8, and pl. 29, 8; Weidauer 195-196; ACGC 66 (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford [Loan collection], found in Samos); Barron p. 15; ATEC 88. 17.45g, 21mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

C. Kraay (Archaic and Classical Greek Coins, 1976) ascribed these coins to a period in Samian history of prosperity and creativity around the end of the seventh century or early sixth century BC; in contrast to much of the contemporary early electrum coinage of Asia Minor whose mints remain uncertain or debated, the early coinage of Samos has been identified to its mint thanks to a locally discovered hoard and other finds of single coins on that island. Operating on a different weight standard (the Euboic-Samian, rather than Milesian) to much of Ionia, the Samian electrum stands apart; it is also distinguished by the use of two parallel rectangular punches on the staters, one rectangle and one square on the half stater, and a square only on smaller denominations. The nature of the obverse is the most unusual feature of this coinage however, since though the Samians were renowned artists and artificers, it is but an incoherent design of amorphous shapes. While many numismatists have attempted to read meaning into and find patterns within these shapes, it seems likely that they do not represent anything particular, and such efforts are akin to ascribing shapes to cloud formations. Rather, these amorphous obverses should be viewed in the same class as the striated pattern staters of Ephesos. A later type features a facing lion’s head emerging from the incoherent background, which Kraay notes is ‘reminiscent of the similar head which is the first step towards a reverse type on the Athenian Wappenmünzen’.

263. Ionia, Teos AR Stater. Circa 510-490 BC. Griffin seated to right, with left paw raised, vines and bunch of grapes in lower right field; THIOΣ around / Quadripartite incuse square. Balcer 15; BMC 55 var. 12.09g, 26mm. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

1,250

264. Ionia, Teos AR Drachm. Circa 370-340 BC. Griffin seated to left, raising paw / Kantharos; ΤΗΙ above, ΑΡΙΣ-ΤΩΝA.. across fields. BMC 29 var.; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -; Hauck & Aufhäuser 20, 127. 2.87g, 16mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and excellent metal quality for the issue.

265

500

266

265. Ionia, Teos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 370-340 BC. Iphikrates, magistrate. Griffin charging right / Kantharos; ΙΦΙΚΡ–ΑΤΗΣ across fields. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 1446-1449. 1.51g, 13mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 300 266. Ionia, Teos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 370-340 BC. Sokrates, magistrate. Griffin charging right / Kantharos; ΣΩKP-ATHΣ across fields. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 1446-1449. 1.47g, 12mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 100

88


LESBOS Extremely Rare Stater of Methymna

267.

Lesbos, Methymna AR Stater. Circa 420-377 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested helmet ornamented with vine tendrils, ivy leaf and crescent / MAΘYMNAION around lyre on square tablet in relief; all within incuse square. BMC 10, pl. XXXVI, 11; Franke, Methymna 7A-7D; Imhoof MG 248; McClean 7987; Boston I 1666; Perkins 452; Montagu I, 537. 6.44g, 19mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

Little is known concerning the foundation of Methymna; the only recorded historical event predating the Classical period is Herodotos’ piece of information that Methymna conquered the neighbouring city of Arisba, the sixth polis on Lesbos, and enslaved its population. Nonetheless, the city must have existed from an early date, since the story of Arion and the dolphin, which involves the Corinthian tyrant Periander and is evidently set at the turn of the 7th century BC, suggests that at this time Methymna must have already been a prominent city with far-reaching contacts across the Greek world. Viewed as the second city of Lesbos after Mytilene, the two cities were long-standing rivals. With the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, Mytilene revolted against Athenian hegemony (428 BC), and was joined by all the other cities of Lesbos except for Methymna, which despite Mytilenaian collaboration with an anti-Athenian faction in Methymna, sided with Athens. When the revolt was put down the following year, only Methmyna was spared from having its territory colonised and garrisoned by the Athenians. Indeed, after 427, along with Chios, Methymna was the only member of the Delian League allowed to remain self-governing and exempt from paying the phoros (tribute). The city’s unwillingness to join the other cities of Lesbos in revolt does seem to have been motivated by a genuine sense of loyalty within the city’s populace, as Thucydides indicates that the Methymnaians were much more inclined to side with Athens than Sparta, and when the Spartan commander Kallikratidas besieged Methymna in 406, the city stayed loyal to its Athenian garrison and held out until betrayed by several traitors. The present coin continues a long Methymnaian tradition of placing Athena on the obverse of their coinage, a practice that seems to have begun at the time of the founding of the Delian League. Methymna must have been an original member of the League, and was one of the city-states that encouraged Athens to replace Sparta as hegemon in the war with Persia. Given that the city remained in Spartan hands until c.379, the type, with its clear proAthenian character, most likely dates either to the period of the Peloponnesian War or to the time immediately after it had freed itself from Spartan influence and became one of the founding members of the Second Athenian Naval League.

89


All images on this page are 2x enlargements

268

269

268. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of bull to right / Incuse head of lion to left; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 5; HGC 6, 929; SNG von Aulock 7720; SNG Lockett 2751. 2.57g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Rare. 750 269. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of winged boar right / Incuse head of lion right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 9.2; SNG von Aulock -; Boston MFA -; BMC -. 2.58g, 10mm. Mint State. Extremely Rare - apparently only the second known specimen, and the only one in private hands (the other in the ANS collection). 1,000

270

271

270. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of winged lion left / Incuse head of cockerel left; small rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 9.1; HGC 6, 933; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA –; BMC 25; Jameson 1472; Weber –. 2.57g, 10mm. Extremely Fine.

750

271. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of ram to right; below, cockerel standing left / Incuse head of lion left; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 11; SNG von Aulock 7718; SNG Copenhagen 300. 2.58g, 10mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 750

272

273

272. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf left; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 12; HGC 6, 937. 2.59g, 10mm. Mint State. 500 273. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 13; SNG Copenhagen 301. 2.57g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. 750

274

275

274. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 13; SNG Copenhagen 301. 2.59g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. 750 275. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 13; SNG Copenhagen 301. 2.50g, 10mm, 1h. Very Fine. 300

All images on this page are 2x enlargements

90


All images on this page are 2x enlargements

276

277

276. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 13; SNG Copenhagen 301. 2.46g, 11mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 300 277. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of winged boar right / Incuse head of roaring lion to right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 15; HGC 6, 940. 2.59g, 11mm. Extremely Fine.

278

500

279

278. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Youthful male head right / Head of calf right in linear square. Bodenstedt 39; HGC 6, 965; SNG Copenhagen 310. 2.53g, 11mm, 7h. Extremely Fine, very well preserved for the issue. 300 279. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Diademed head of youthful male to right / Crested Corinthian helmet to right; M before; all within linear frame. Bodenstedt 40; Boston MFA 1699; SNG Copenhagen -; De Luynes 2558; Weber 5612. 2.52g, 11mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and exceptionally well preserved for the issue. 500

280

281

280. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Forepart of boar right / Head of lion right within linear square. Bodenstedt 41; Traité pl. CLIX, 30; Boston MFA 1684; BMC Lesbos p. 159, 31; SNG Copenhagen 309; SNG von Aulock 1694. 2.53g, 11mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare, and very well preserved for the type. 500 281. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Forepart of goat right, head reverted / Owl standing facing, wings spread, within incuse square. Bodenstedt 42; HGC 6, 968; SNG von Aulock 1693; SNG Lockett 2757 = Pozzi 2320; Boston MFA 1682; BMC 29–30; Weber 5606. 2.53g, 11mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 500 The reverse design of this coin is thought to have been copied from the Athenian dekadrachms, coins famous and impressive even in their own day.

282

283

282. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Head of a bearded satyr with horse’s ears to right within incuse square. Bodenstedt 51; Traité II 2, 2173, pl. 160, 7; SNG Copenhagen 307. 2.58g, 10mm, 4h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare, only five examples recorded by Bodenstedt, of which three are in museum collections. 1,000 283. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Diademed head of youthful river-god right, small horn over forehead / Bearded head of old rivergod to right in archaic style, wearing wreath of reeds, within incuse square. Bodenstedt 52; HGC 6, 978. 2.59g, 11mm, 12h. Slightly flat-struck on rev., otherwise Mint State. 750

All images on this page are 2x enlargements

91


2x 284. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-428 BC. Head of Aktaion right / Facing gorgoneion within incuse square. Bodenstedt 54; Boston MFA 1701. 2.57g, 11mm, 6h. Near Mint State. One of the finest known specimens.

750

2x 285. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Confronted rams’ heads; floral symbol above and below; all within incuse square. Bodenstedt 57; HGC 6, 983 corr. (floral symbols not noted). 2.54g, 10mm, 6h. Mint State.

750

2x 286. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 430-410 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of griffin to right, with stylised eagle head and reptile crest, within a dotted frame; all within incuse square. Bodenstedt 60.1; Boston MFA 1704. 2.58g, 10mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Bodenstedt records five examples, all in museum collections; CoinArchives records two.

500

2x 287. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Head of Io facing slightly to right / Forepart of bull to right. Bodenstedt 61; Traité II, 2168, pl. 160, 2. 2.54g, 11mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; Bodenstedt records four examples.

300

Inspired by the ‘Parthenon Group’ Tetradrachms of Amphipolis

2x 288. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 357-326 BC. Laureate head of youthful Apollo three-quarters facing / Head of an Amazon to right wearing ornamented helmet with cheek guards up. Bodenstedt 64.3; Traité II, pl. 160, 38; BMC 94, pl. 34, 8. 2.55g, 10mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently one of only seven known, and in exceptional state of preservation. 1,000 The obverse of this beautiful coin was inspired by the remarkable and widely praised ‘Parthenon Group’ tetradrachms of Amphipolis issued during that city’s short-lived war with Philip II of Macedon (see Kurt Regling, ZfN 33 (1922), p. 48, Anm. 2 and p. 60). It is a direct stylistic copy of this brief issue, which has been described as ‘the most beautiful of all the facing-head tetradrachms of Amphipolis and one of the prettiest of all ancient Greek coins’.

92


93


MYSIA Extremely Rare Cerberus Stater

289.

Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Cerberus standing to left on tunny fish / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 10; Boston 1538. 15.90g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Ex David Walsh Collection, privately purchased in 2001.

20,000

Early Greek descriptions of Cerberus (Kerberos) vary greatly. The earliest literary appearance of Cerberus in Hesiod’s Theogeny (c. 8th – 7th centuries BC) portrays the monster with fifty heads, while Pindar (c.522-443 BC) gives him one hundred heads. Later writers however almost all describe Cerberus as having three heads. For practical reasons, representations of Cerberus in Greek art often depict him with two visible heads (the third being assumed to be hidden), but occasionally three heads, and rarely only one, are also seen. The earliest securely datable artefact depicting a three-headed Cerberus is a mid-sixth century BC Laconian cup by the Hunt painter, which clearly shows the beast with three canine heads, covered by a coat of snakes, and a tail ending in a snake’s head, held on a chain leash by Herakles. A slightly later amphora fount at Vulci c.525-510 (Louvre F204) shows a twoheaded Cerberus in similar pose to that on our present coin, also with a snake-headed tail. Though representations of Cerberus in Greek art are fairly common, with the familiar story of Herakles’ twelfth labour being a popular motif, depictions of Cerberus on Greek coins are seemingly limited to only this issue of Kyzikos, an extremely rare bronze issue of Epeiros (see Roma Numismatics 4, lot 114), and an exceedingly rare stater of Cumae in Campania (Rutter 76). Barclay Head proposed that the appearance of the monster here was in reference to or in honour of the city of Kimmerikon, sited on the southern shore of the Cimmerian Bosphorus which had previously been known as Cerberion (Pliny 6, 6, 6, 18), based on the assumption that the city would have been a familiar destination for Kyzikene traders. However it is probably incorrect to assign any specific significance to the type, since it is well known that Kyzikos frequently took inspiration for its coin types from the art of other Greek city-states’ coins and wares. The designs of Kyzikos’ coinage appear to have been decided upon apparently without necessarily requiring said types to have any deep meaning to either Kyzikene citizens or indeed anyone else in particular, often being admired it seems purely for their compositional beauty. Since the design of this coin does not copy any known type (the Epeirote bronze not being issued until the mid-fourth century), and Cerberos on Rutter 76 being of markedly different style (and only part of the design), it is probable that it copies the design of a vase or other vessel, such as the aforementioned Louvre F204 - an Attic red figure amphora - which found its way to Kyzikos. Regardless of the origin of the design, the present coin is a magnificent example of this important mythological theme, and is one of very few known staters of the type, the hektes being relatively more plentiful, but still rare.

94


290. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Forepart of a lion to left, devouring prey; tunny fish upwards behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 41, pl. I, 42; Boston MFA 1416; cf. SNG France 181 (hemihekte). 15.96g, 20mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

291. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-450 BC. Female boar (sow) standing left; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 45, pl. I, 46; Greenwell 136, pl. V, 30. 16.08g, 20mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

Fine Style Athena with Crested Helmet

292. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-450 BC. Head of Athena to left, wearing crested Attic helmet, base of crest decorated with zig-zag and pellet pattern; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 67, pl. I, 20; Greenwell 25; SNG France –; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA 1446; Dewing –; Gillet 1053 = Kunstfreund 3 = Jameson 2171 = Weber 4971; Gulbenkian 609 (all from the same obv. die). 16.04g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

95

7,500


Stunning Stater Depicting Kore-Persephone

293.

Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Half-length bust of a winged female deity or spirit to left, wearing kekryphalos headdress, round earring and long-sleeved chiton, in her right hand holding a tunny fish by the tail, and raising a flower to her chin; bust truncation indicated by dotted line between parallel lines / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 75, pl. II, 30; SNG France 205; Boston MFA 1448 = Warren 1519. 16.15g, 19mm. About Extremely Fine, struck on a very broad flan. Very Rare, among the finest known specimens of the type. 20,000 Ex James Howard Collection, Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 642. The winged figure on this coin of Kyzikos is most frequently simply described as a ‘winged female’, though on occasion numismatists have ventured to suggest that the depiction is that of a harpy, one of the mythical ‘snatchers’ who were sent by the gods to torment Phineos, the blind seer-king of Thrace, for his transgressions. Though in the Homeric poems the harpies are nothing more than the personifications of storm winds, Hesiod (c. 750-650 BC) described them as the daughters of Thaumas by the Oceanid Electra; fair-haired and winged maidens, who surpassed the winds and birds in the rapidity of their flight. Archaic pottery depicts them thus, in a manner that closely resembles the winged figures on the coins of Kaunos in Karia - see in particular Wagner Museum L164 – black figure clay vase. It was only later tradition that portrayed the harpies as hideous half-woman, half-bird creatures - a development resulting from a confusion of harpies with sirens. By the time of Aeschylus (c. 525-455 BC), this transformation was largely complete, though the harpy’s ‘beautiful’ image is still occasionally seen as late as 480 BC - see the J. Paul Getty Museum hydria/kalpis by Kleophrades, on which the harpies are rendered as young winged girls. The identification of the winged figure on this stater as a harpy is therefore possible, though other identifications are equally plausible. Iris, goddess of the rainbow, was depicted as a winged woman with a herald’s staff, as likewise was Nike, though the latter usually carried a wreath or palm. However, none of these beings was associated with flowers, which above all were an attribute of Aphrodite and Kore-Persephone. Only one parallel for the present type exists in surviving Greek art: the 5th century BC funerary stele now known as ‘The Exaltation of the Flower’, held in the Louvre. Carved in a similarly severe archaic style, the stele depicts two female figures holding up flowers; the left figure in a pose very similar to that shown on this coin. Those figures have been identified either as unknown mortals, or as Demeter and her daughter Persephone - the view favoured by its discoverer Léon Heuzey. The wings on our figure clearly identify her as a goddess though, and the flower is most likely the key to understanding her identity. Kore-Persephone, daughter of Demeter, therefore seems to be a logical choice: she was gathering flowers when Hades came to abduct her, and her return to earth each year was heralded by the blossoming of the meadows. Her overwhelming prominence on the later coinage of Kyzikos further strengthens the case for her depiction here. Regardless of her identity, the winged deity on this coin is rendered in exquisite detail, from her ornamented cap to her expressive face and crinkly chiton. The same treatment of the chiton can be observed in major art of the archaic period, for example in the east frieze of the Siphnian treasury at Delphi.

96


Beautiful and Rare Lion Stater

294. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Lion crouching to left, inclining head to left and seen from above; tunny fish below to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 83, pl. III, 2; SNG France -. 16.20g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives.

20,000

2x 295. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Panther crouching to left; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG France 219-20; Boston MFA 1472; cf. von Fritze 86, pl. III, 5 (stater). 2.67g, 11mm. Extremely Fine.

600

296. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Dog standing left, fore-paw raised; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 93, pl. III, 12; Boston 1469; SNG von Aulock 1192; SNG France 230. 16.08g, 20mm. Extremely Fine, lustrous metal. Rare. Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 618.

97

7,500


Extremely Rare Nike Stater

297. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Nike advancing left in kneeling-running pose, head right, holding tunny fish by the tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 121; SNG France 267. 16.13g, 20mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare as a stater; only one other example on CoinArchives.

12,500

Silenos Refills his Wine-Cup

298. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Silenos crouching to right supporting amphora on left leg and with left hand pouring wine into cup he holds in his right; below, tunny fish to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Hurter & Liewald I 172 (same obv. die); cf. Von Fritze 172 (unlisted denomination); cf. Greenwell 42 (same); cf. SNG France 318-9 (stater); SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA –. 2.68g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known examples.

98

5,000


99


100


Exceptionally Rare Sphinx Stater

299.

Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Double-bodied winged sphinx standing with head facing atop tunny fish to right, wearing ouraios, hair falling in plaited locks behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -, cf. 128, pl. IV, 14 (hekte); Greenwell -, cf. 101 (hekte); SNG France -, cf. 280 (hekte); CNG inventory 925160. 16.16g, 20mm. Of the highest rarity, one of only three known specimens, and arguably the finest.

30,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 631. The sphinx as a type recurs frequently on the coinage of Kyzikos and new types are still being discovered today, yet the double-bodied sphinx is certainly the most curious depiction of this mythological monster, and the reason for it being so is not easy to divine. Greenwell (p. 102), who was citing Cousinéry, proposed that it was simply an artistic device for showing the sphinx as seated facing, ‘arising from the difficulty of depicting a figure in that position’. This proposition appears plausible, until one considers that double-bodied owls are also engraved on coins at various cities including Athens, where they certainly had no problem with engraving a front-facing owl. More damning still for this simplistic view, the double-bodied sphinx appears also in statuary where again there is no logical reason to sculpt it so unless it possesses some significance - see in particular the limestone Tarentine column capital of the Corinthian order at the Metropolitan Museum, New York, and also the marble gravestone decorated with a loutrophoros supported by a double-bodied sphinx at the British Museum (both 4th century). The concept of double-bodied monsters was an ancient one, and probably originated in ancient Sumeria, as they are seen on cylinder seals from this culture, and are repeated later on ancient Iranian goldwork. Here, the doublebodied monsters probably signified a dualistic nature that is easily adaptable and can be one thing or another, or a span between two distinct yet connected elements such as sunrise and sunset. Tom Rasmussen (Corinth and the Orientalising Phenomenon) proposes that the artistic portrayal of the sphinx as a double-bodied monster was first devised at Corinth, where it can be found on a Protocorinthian olpe vase, circa 640 BC, known as the Chigi olpe which is now in the Villa Giulia in Rome. This was likely the product of a blending of Greek and Eastern imagery, yet the result is wholly original; indeed Rasmussen points out that ‘Greek Orientalising is rarely straight copying of Oriental’. It has often been suggested that the electrum staters of Kyzikos take their types from a wide range of artistic sources across a broad geographical range, as might be expected for a city-state that relied almost entirely for its prosperity on being a commerce hub where east and west would meet and exchange wares and ideas. Whether or not Corinth was the origin of the double-bodied Sphinx, it is not surprising that such an intriguing motif should be adopted at Kyzikos.

101


One of Only Two on CoinArchives

300. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Head of Zeus Ammon right; below, tunny right / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 130, pl. IV, 16; Boston MFA 1520; SNG von Aulock –; SNG France 281; Gulbenkian 640. 16.06g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, only the second example present on CoinArchives and by far the finest.

15,000

301. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. The infant Herakles, nude and muscular, seated facing, head turned right, supporting himself with his left hand while holding tunny by the tail with his right / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 169, pl. V, 17; SNG France 316; SNG von Aulock 7314. 15.93g, 20mm. About Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 290;

Second Known Example of a Stunning Type

2x

2x

302. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Lion to right, gnawing on the leg of a prey animal, its hoof held in his right paw and the upper part held in his mouth; below, tunny fish swimming to left / Quadripartite incuse square. BMFA 1502 (stater); Hurter-Liewald 177; Von Fritze 177, pl. V, 25 (stater); Sternberg XI, 106 = LHS 102, 259 (same dies), sold for CHF 34,000. 2.66g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - apparently only the second known example.

5,000

Prior to the appearance of the particularly well preserved hekte at Sternberg XI in 1981, most cataloguers and scholars had referred to the object in the lion’s mouth as a sword or harpa, and that the lion is therefore engaged in an illogical animalistic act, attacking a weapon that perhaps had been used against it. This strange conclusion may be forgiven due to the fact that those surviving examples of the type (staters in inferior condition, and two fractions - a twelfth and a twenty-fourth) were indistinct, thus preventing accurate description. Thanks to the superb condition of the Sternberg example, the cataloguer was able to finally recognise the object in the lion´s mouth as being the lower leg and thigh of an animal, presumably that the lion had just attacked and killed.

3x 303. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Eagle standing right, head left, [on tunny fish]; all on raised circular disk / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. von Fritze 222, pl. VI, 34 (stater); Traité II, 2790, pl. CLXXVII, 26 (same). 1.35g, 8mm. Very Fine. Apparently unpublished as a hemihekte.

102

500


Ex Prospero Collection

304. Mysia, Lampsakos EL Stater. Circa 412 BC. Forepart of Pegasos to left, Ξ below, all within a vine-wreath with bunches of grapes / Quadripartite incuse square. Baldwin 12; BMC 8, pl. VIII, 8 (this obverse die); Gulbenkian 679; SNG France 1112 (this obverse die); SNG von Aulock 1292 (this obverse die); Kraay - Hirmer pl. 202, 727. 15.29g, 21mm. Extremely Fine. Among the finest known examples of this beautiful and prestigious issue.

15,000

Ex Prospero Collection, New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 465.

Only Example in Private Hands

305. Mysia, Lampsakos AV Stater. Circa 394-350 BC. Head of female left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace / Forepart of Pegasos flying right within shallow incuse square. Baldwin, Lampsakos 27; SNG France 1156 = Traité II 2565 (same obv. die); G.F. Hill, “Greek coins acquired by the British Museum in 1919,” NC 1920, p. 111 and pl. XIV, 6 = Weber 5102 (same obv. die). 8.40g, 16mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only three known, the other two in museum collections (the BN and BM) and both of which are struck from the same die pair - the present coin therefore adds a new reverse die to the corpus. 20,000 Ex Triton X, 9 January 2007, lot 273.

103


104


Ex Hirsch XXV, November 1909

306.

Mysia, Lampsakos AV Stater. Circa 350 BC. Laureate head of Zeus left, sceptre over right shoulder, tip showing behind his neck / Forepart of Pegasos facing to right. Baldwin 29; SNG von Aulock 7394 (same dies); BMC 28, pl. XIX, 6; SNG France 1138 (same obverse die); Babelon, Traité II, pl. CLXXI, 3; Boston 1594; Kraay - Hirmer pl. 202, 729. 8.42g, 17mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine.

20,000

Privately purchased from Spink & Son Ltd., London, 7 August 1984; Ex Gustav Philipsen Collection, Jacob Hirsch Auction XXV, 29 November 1909, lot 1790. Lampsakos was founded in around 654/3 BC by Phokaian colonists, and in the sixth century became a dependency of Lydia; when the Lampsakenes had captured Miltiades, the Athenian tyrant of the Chersonesos, they were forced by Kroisos to set him free. After the fall of the Lydian kingdom in 547, the city then fell under the dominion of Persia. Lampsakos joined the Ionian cities in revolt in 499, but was conquered by Daurises (a son-in-law of Darios I) in 498 or 497, and thereafter remained under Persian control until it was given by Artaxerxes to the exiled Athenian general Themistokles as part of the governorship of the Magnesian district. Themistokles’ district also included the cities of Myos, and Magnesia itself, who along with Lampsakos paid him revenue of 50 talents per year, for ‘meat’, ‘bread’ and ‘wine’ respectively. At an uncertain date after the death of Themistokles in 459 BC, Lampsakos joined the Delian League, and is recorded in the tribute lists from 453/2, paying a phoros of fifteen talents. Lampsakos was the first Greek city to make regular issues of gold coinage which enjoyed an international circulation. Struck on the standard of the Persian daric, Lampsakos’ use of the Pegasos protome as its invariable reverse type led to widespread recognition of its gold abroad, such that like the cities of Kyzikos and Phokaia who respectively employed tunny fish and seal badges, it was unnecessary to identify the mint by an inscription upon the coin. Indeed, the esteem in which Lampsakene staters were held was due in significant part to the regularity of their issue. Whereas most civic gold coinages of the Greeks were struck only in times of emergency, Lampsakos appears to have issued 41 series of gold staters over a period of 50 or 60 years, evidently for the purpose of facilitating commerce. Deriving its wealth from the traffic passing between the Aegean and the Black Sea, on account of possessing an excellent harbour in a strategic position guarding the eastern entrance to the Hellespont, Lampsakos appears to have enjoyed significant commercial ties with the northern Black Sea lands, which were likely the primary source of its gold.

105


307. Kingdom of Pergamon, Eumenes II AR Tetradrachm. Circa 197-158 BC. Laureate head of Philetairos right / Athena seated to left, left elbow resting on shield, crowning ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ with wreath; trident to outer left, AΣ to inner left, bow to outer right. Westermark Group VII (V.CXLVII/-); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 1361; SNG France -. 16.51g, 33mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Light tone, scattered minor marks in fields, underlying lustre. Very rare variety.

500

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

LYDIA

308. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.77g, 13mm. Good Very Fine.

1,000

309. Kings of Lydia, Kroisos AV Hekte - 1/6 Stater. Light standard. Sardes, circa 560-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of lion and bull / Incuse rectangular punch. Walburg group IV, 3 (same punches); Berk 8; Traité I 406 = de Luynes 2801; SNG Kayhan –; SNG von Aulock –; Weber 6772 (same punches). 1.34g, 8mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

310. Lydia, Philadelphia Æ17. 1st century BC. Ermippos, magistrate. Ivy-wreathed head of Dionysos to right, ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕWΝ behind / Panther standing to left, head reverted, supporting thyrsos over shoulder; APXIEPEVS above, EPMIΠΠOΣ below. SNG Copenhagen 340; BMC 167; SNG von Aulock 3057. 5.61g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful onyx-black patina.

200

KARIA

311. Karia, Achaemenid Period AR Tetradrachm. Circa 341-334 BC. Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow; thunderbolt to right / Warrior, wearing kyrbasia, on horseback right, thrusting spear he holds aloft in right hand. Konuk, Influences, pl. XXX, 12 = Leu 28, 214. 15.06g, 21mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

106

2,000


312. Karia, Achaemenid Period AR Tetradrachm. Circa 341-334 BC. Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow / Satrap on horseback right, thrusting spear; to left, bearded male head right. Konuk, Influences, Group 5 var. (head of Herakles); SNG Copenhagen (Persian Empire) 290-291 var. (same); Traité II 121 var. (same); CNG 72, 14 June 2006, 801. 14.72g, 24mm, 11h. About Very Fine. Very Rare, and unpublished in the standard references with this symbol.

1,000

Struck in the last years before Alexander’s invasion of the Persian empire, the archer-horseman tetradrachms of Achaemenid Karia are one of the rarest and most enigmatic Persian coinages struck in Asia Minor. We are unfortunately aware neither of where nor why they were produced - no inscription is present to facilitate identification of the issuing authority, with only various symbols and letters present as control marks. These control marks allowed Konuk to discern two distinct series: those with subsidiary symbols, and those without. Analysis of the Pixodarus Hoard has allowed the coinage to be dated from the decade beginning circa 350 BC. Additionally, since that hoard contained only the earlier, nonsymbol, type, Meadows concluded that the date of deposit of the hoard (341 BC) should be seen as the earliest possible start of the second series, to which this coin belongs.

313. Karia, Achaemenid Period AR Tetradrachm. Circa 341-334 BC. Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow; Aramaic ṣ to left, two Aramaic ‘ayin’ to right / Warrior, wearing kyrbasia, on horseback right, thrusting spear he holds aloft in right hand; star above. Konuk, Influences, Group 8, 2 and pl. XXX, 22; cf. Meadows, Administration 327; Mildenberg, Münzwesen –; SNG Ashmolean (Caria) 381. 13.52g, 25mm, 8h. Very Fine. Rare.

750

Pedigreed Hekatomnos Tetradrachm

314. Satraps of Karia, Hekatomnos AR Tetradrachm. Mylasa, circa 380 BC. Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding labrys in right hand, left hand on staff set on ground to right / Lion at bay right; [EKAT]O[MNΩ] above; all within incuse square. Hecatomnus 16 (A3/P8) = Sunrise 76 (this coin); Konuk, Identities 15; Karl 3; Traité II 82. 14.78g, 24mm, 8h. About Extremely Fine. An exceptional example of this type, of which this is the finest example offered at auction in the past fifteen years. Rare. 3,000 Ex Christie’s New York, 2 May 1989, lot 702; Ex Kovacs XI, 21 November 1988, lot 102; Ex Empire Coins FPL 42 (undated), no. 27; Ex Sternberg VIII, 16 November 1978, lot 126; From the Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387).

107


Unique Pixodaros Quarter Stater

315. Satraps of Karia, Pixodaros AV Quarter Stater. Halikarnassos, circa 341/0-336/5 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Zeus standing right, holding labrys and sceptre; PIΞΩΔΛPO downwards to right. Cf. Triton XIX, 2057 (hemistater), Konuk, Identities 31 (hemistater) and Traité II 108 (hemistater); cf. SNG Kayhan 897 (twelfth stater). 2.64g, 12mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished for this denomination.

3,000

This coin, engraved in a beautiful style and clearly by the same hand as the Triton specimen, fills in the missing denominational gap in the only gold series to have been issued by the satraps of Karia, which is otherwise known in 1/2, 1/8, 1/12 and 1/24 stater fractions. Konuk has proposed that the reason for this gold series may have been a shortage of silver, a situation that began under Pixodarus’ predecessor, Hidrieus. Given the readily interchangeable values (a twelfth stater would equate to a silver didrachm, thus this quarter stater represents six drachms), the use of gold in this manner would not have proven difficult.

316. Satraps of Karia, Pixodaros AR Didrachm. Halikarnassos, circa 340-334 BC. Laureate head of Apollo, three quarters facing, drapery at neck / Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding double-axe (labrys) and lotus-tipped sceptre; ΠIΞΩΔAPOY to right. SNG von Aulock 2375; SNG Copenhagen 596. 7.01g, 19mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Attractively toned. From the Mark Christenson Collection; Privately purchased from B. P. Murphy.

1,000

Portraits of Mausolos and Artemisia?

317. Islands off Karia, Kos AR Didrachm. Biton, magistrate, circa 345-340 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Veiled head of Demeter left, BITΩN to right, KΩIO[N] below. Pixodaros 27a; SNG Keckman 289; SNG von Aulock 2751-2; SNG Copenhagen 621; Jameson 1545 (this obv. die). 6.98gm 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Superbly toned, with golden iridescence over highly lustrous metal around the devices; even grey tone in fields.

1,250

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 314. It has been suggested (S. Hurter, Studies Price, p. 150) that the reverse portrait is that of Artemisia (sister, wife and successor of Mausolos, ruler of Karia and Kos) in the guise of Demeter. This identification is based on similarities between the features of Artemisia as they appear on her statue from the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos (Tomb of Mausolos), now in the British Museum, and those as they appear on the coinage. It is similarly argued that the obverse portrait we see is that of Mausolos himself in the guise of Herakles.

108


RHODOS Ex Marmaris Hoard, 1971

318.

Rhodos, Rhodes AR Tetradrachm. Circa 404-385 BC. Head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right; POΔION above, [grain ear and Δ to left]; all within incuse square. Hecatomnus 56 (A37/P48); IGCH 1209 = Bérend, SNR 51, pl. 5, 51 (this coin). 15.24g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of apparently only two known examples.

10,000

From a European collection, privately purchased from NAC; From the Marmaris Hoard, 1971 (IGCH 1209). In Pindar’s ode, the island of Rhodos was said to be born of the union of Helios the sun god and the nymph Rhodos, and the cities Lindos, Ialyssos and Kameiros were named for their three sons. The Persians invaded and overran the island, but were in turn defeated by forces from Athens in 478 BC. The cities then joined the Athenian League, although when the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC, Rhodes remained largely neutral, even though officially it was still a member of the League. In 408 BC the cities of the island united to form one territory, building for themselves a new capital, the city of Rhodes, on the northern end of the island. Its regular plan was superintended by the Athenian architect Hippodamos. In 357 BC however, the island was conquered by the king Mausolos of Karia, and later it fell to the Persians in 340 BC. To the great relief of its citizens, Rhodes became a part of the growing Macedonian empire in 332 as Alexander the Great passed through Asia Minor, liberating or conquering the Persian lands as he went. Following the death of Alexander, Rhodes formed strong commercial and cultural ties with the Ptolemies in Alexandria, and together formed the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance that controlled trade throughout the Aegean in the 3rd century BC. The city developed into a maritime, commercial and cultural centre; its coins circulated throughout the Mediterranean. Its famous schools of philosophy, science, literature and rhetoric shared masters with Alexandria. Its school of sculptors developed a rich, dramatic style that can be characterized as ‘Hellenistic Baroque’.

109


319. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Didrachm. Circa 305-275 BC. Head of Helios facing slightly right / POΔION, rose with bud to right; to left, jug above EY. Ashton 160; Ashton, Colossus, Series 2; SNG Keckman 461; SNG Copenhagen 730. 6.80g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. An exceptional example.

320

750

321

320. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Didrachm. Circa 275-250 BC. Herasikles, magistrate. Raditate head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right; EPAΣIKΛHΣ above, Phrygian cap to left. Ashton 187; SNG Keckman -; SNG von Aulock 2806; SNG Copenhagen 738. 6.70g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine. 300 321. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Didrachm. Circa 250-229 BC. Timotheos, magistrate. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right; TIMOΘEOΣ above, term to left. Ashton 209; SNG Keckman 540–1; HGC 6, 1439; SNG Copenhagen 767-8. 6.70g, 20mm, 1h. Very Fine. 300

322. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Tetradrachm. Circa 229-205 BC. Tharsytas, magistrate. Radiate head of Apollo Helios facing slightly to right / Rose with bud to right; ΘAPΣYTAΣ above, eagle with wings spread on thunderbolt to left, P-O flanking stem below. Ashton 215; SNG von Aulock 2802; BMC 126. 12.95g, 27mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

323. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Tetradrachm. Circa 229-205 BC. Aristokritos, magistrate. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right; POΔION above, aphlaston to left, APIΣTOKP-ITOΣ across lower fields. Ashton 213; HGC 6, 1432; SNG Keckman 544. 12.43g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; extraordinarily well preserved for the type.

110

1,500


324. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Tetradrachm. Circa 229-205 BC. Ameinias, magistrate. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right; POΔIΩN above, prow to left, AMEIN-IAΣ flanking stem. Ashton 212; HGC 6, 1432; SNG Keckman 542; Karl 484. 13.61g, 24mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. In exceptionally good condition for the series.

1,500

325. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Tetradrachm. Circa 229-205 BC. Ameinias, magistrate. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right; POΔIΩN above, prow to left, AMEIN-IAΣ flanking stem. Ashton 212; HGC 6, 1432; SNG Keckman 542; Karl 484. 13.56g, 25mm, 11h. Good Very Fine.

750

326. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Tetradrachm. Circa 229-205 BC. Eukrates, magistrate. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right; thunderbolt to left; EYKPA-THΣ across lower field. Ashton 214; SNG Keckman 547-8; SNG Copenhagen 754. 13.51g, 25mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Worn obv. die and minor metal flaw on rev.

111

1,000


327. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Didrachm. Circa 229-205 BC. Ameinias, magistrate. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose with bud to right; stern to left, AMEI-NIAΣ across lower fields. Ashton 217; SNG Keckman 543; SNG Copenhagen 758-9. 6.76g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

328

500

329

328. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Drachm. Circa 229-205 BC. Eukrates, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose flanked by P - O; tripod to left, EYKPATHΣ above. Ashton 225; SNG Keckman 559-60. 3.16g, 15mm, 1h. Mint State. 300 329. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Drachm. Circa 229-205 BC. Eukrates, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose flanked by P - O; tripod to left, EYKPATHΣ above. Ashton 225; SNG Keckman 559-60. 3.16g, 14mm, 12h. Near Mint State. 300

330. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Drachm. Circa 229-205 BC. Eukrates, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose flanked by P - O; tripod to left, EYKPATHΣ above. Ashton 225; SNG Keckman 559-60. 3.22g, 15mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

100

331. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Tetradrachm. Circa 205-190 BC. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Obverse die signed by ‘Dan...’ Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress signed ΔΑΝ on the lip / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, holding eagle on extended right hand and sceptre in left; PO beneath throne, monogram above rose in left field. Price 2513 var.; F.S. Kleiner, ANSMN 17, 1971, 106 (H-21) = SNG Berry 320 (same obverse die). 17.21g, 34mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,400

Ex Gorny & Mosch 169, 13 October 2008, lot 554; Ex Künker 67, 9 October 2001, lot 409. The ΔΑΝ on the lip of the lion’s mouth appears to be the signature of a Rhodian die engraver, who was sufficiently proud of his accomplishment that he felt it was appropriate to sign his name on the die. ΔΑΝ might stand for Danaos, a Rhodian name that is well evidenced in the numismatic record, and which was borne by mythical founder of Rhodos. For the monogram see R.H.J. Ashton, The Coinage of Rhodes 408 - c. 190 BC, in: A. Meadows - K. Shipton (Ed.), Money and its Uses in the Ancient World, Oxford 2001, 107, where it is interpreted as ‘Ainetor’.

112


332. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Drachm. Circa 205-190 BC. Gorgos, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / ΓΟΡΓΟΣ, rose with bud right, bow in bowcase to left; P-O across lower fields. Ashton 288. 2.78g, 16mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine.

150

Attractive Style and Well Preserved

333. Rhodos, Rhodes AR Drachm. Circa 88 BC - AD 14. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right / Rose seen from above; below, grain ear right; P-O across lower fields. Ashton & Weiss 1-27; HGC 6, 1456; SNG von Aulock 2839. 4.27g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

500

LYCIA

334. Dynasts of Lycia, Ddenewele AR Stater. Telmessos, circa 420/10-400 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with spiral palmette and three olive leaves; monogram to right / Bearded head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin; monogram to left, DDÊNEWELE (in Lycian) before; all in dotted circle within incuse circle. Falghera 180 var. (square incuse); Reuter 90 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen Supp. –; SNG von Aulock –; BMC 131 (same dies). 8.35g, 23mm, 4h. Very Fine. Rare.

300

335. Dynasts of Lycia, Trbbenimi AR Stater. Zemura (Limyra), circa 390-375 BC. Facing lion scalp; small triskeles and horizontal Z (in Lycian) below / Triskeles with small T in centre; TRBBẼNE (in Lycian) around; all within incuse circle. Falghera –; Podalia 124 = SNG von Aulock 4214 var. (no obv. controls); SNG Copenhagen Supp. –; Traité II 474 var. (no letter on obv.). 9.90g, 27mm. Good Very Fine.

113

500


336. Lycia, Phaselis AR Stater. 4th century BC. Prow of galley right, fighting platform decorated with wreath; grape bunch on vine to right / Stern of galley left; ΦAΣ above. Heipp-Tamer Series 6, unlisted variety; CNG Auction 99, lot 275 (this coin). 10.40g, 22mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. High relief.

500

PAMPHYLIA

337. Pamphylia, Perge AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander III ‘the Great’ of Macedon. Dated CY 20 (circa 202/1 BC). Head of Herakles right, wearing lion’s skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; K (date) in left field, retrograde ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 2932; DCA 314. 16.69g, 27mm, 12h. Very Fine. Scattered marks, old cabinet tone with lustre. Interesting example with die engravers error of a retrograde ethnic.

200

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

CILICIA

338. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 450-400 BC. Nude ephebe left, holding whip and dismounting from horse at the gallop in a calpe or anadates race, Π below / Goat crouching left, head to right [KEΛE above]. SNG Levante 19; SNG von Aulock 5623; SNG France 51. 10.72g, 19mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

750

339. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 410-375 BC. Nude youth, holding whip, dismounting from horse rearing right / Goat kneeling right, head left; KEΛEN above, plant below. Casabonne type 4; SNG France 69-70 var. (no plant); SNG Levante 25-6 var. (same); CNG e303, 57 (same dies). 10.70g, 23mm, 2h. Good Very Fine.

114

500


340. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 410-375 BC. Nude youth, holding whip in right hand, dismounting from horse rearing right / Goat kneeling left, head right; KEΛE and ivy leaf above. SNG France -; SNG Levante -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Delepierre -; BMC -; Kraay, “The Celenderis Hoard,” in NumChron 1962 -. 10.24g, 23mm, 6h Near Extremely Fine.

300

341. Cilicia, Nagidos AR Stater. Circa 375-365 BC. Aphrodite enthroned to left, holding a phiale; Eros stands at her side, with wings displayed / Dionysos standing to half-left, wearing a himation, holding a vine-branch with grapes in his right hand and a thyrsos in his left; NAΓIΔEΩN around, Π in exergue. SNG France 25 (these dies); P. Lederer, ‘Die Staterprägung der Stadt Nagidos’, ZfN XLI, 1931, 23; BMC 11, pl. XIX, 10; SNG von Aulock 5754 var. 10.61g, 22mm, 8h. Mint State. Sound, beautiful metal and superb for the type.

3,000

Ex Prospero Collection, The New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 591; Purchased from Spink & Son Ltd., London, 1990.

342. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. 425-400 BC. Amazon, nude to the waist and seen from behind, kneeling to left and stringing her bow, wearing bonnet and with her gorytos at her hip; to right, facing head of satyr, monogram in exergue / ΣΟΛΕΩΝ, large bunch of grapes; below right, fly; all within incuse square with linear border of dots. BMC 3; SNG France 128; SNG Levante 40; SNG von Aulock 5858. 10.76g, 20mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare in this condition.

1,000

343. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. 425-400 BC. Amazon, nude to the waist and seen from behind, kneeling to left and stringing her bow, wearing bonnet and with her gorytos at her hip; to right, facing head of satyr; monogram in exergue / ΣΟΛΕΩΝ, large bunch of grapes; below right, fly; all within incuse square with linear border of dots. BMC 3; SNG France 128; SNG Levante 40; SNG von Aulock 5858. 10.76g, 20mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare in this condition.

115

600


Apparently Unpublished Bellerophon Type

344. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 425-400 BC. Bellerophon riding Pegasos to right, ankh symbol below / Bellerophon riding Pegasos to left, ankh symbol below. Cf. Baldwins 34, 214 for similar types on a tetrobol; otherwise apparently unpublished in the standard references. 10.78g, 20mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unpublished in the standard references, and an important addition to the numismatic corpus.

1,000

The use of Bellerophon on this coin is a reflection of one of the city’s early foundation legends. The myths tell us that as Bellerophon’s fame grew, so did his hubris. He felt that because of his victory over the Chimera, and because he thought he was a god he deserved to fly to Mount Olympus, the realm of the gods. This presumption angered Zeus and he sent a gadfly to sting Bellerophon’s mount, Pegasos, causing Pegasos to accidentally throw Bellerophon to the ground. The story as it pertains to Tarsos is that it was on the site of the future city that Bellerophon landed, hurting his foot, thus leading the city to be named tar-sos (the sole of the foot). In this region, on the Plain of Aleion (“Wandering”), Bellerophon lived out his life in misery as a blinded and crippled hermit, grieving and shunning the haunts of men until he died.

345. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Mazaios, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. Circa 361-334 BC. Baaltars seated left, holding eagle, ear of corn and bunch of grapes in right hand, lotus-headed sceptre in left, Aramaic legend ‘BLTRZ’ = Baaltars, to right, Aramaic letters on left and below seat / Lion attacking a bull to left, Aramaic legend ‘MZDI’ (= Mazaios) above; monogram below. SNG Levante 106 (these dies). 10.84g, 23mm, 1h. Near Mint State; minor flan flaw on obv. Highly lustrous.

750

346. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Balakros, satrap of Cilicia under Alexander III. Circa 333-323 BC. Facing bust of Athena, draped, wearing triple-crested helmet and necklace / Baaltars seated left, holding lotus-tipped sceptre, grain ear and grape bunch to left, B above ivy leaf to right, T under throne. SNG Levante Suppl. 21; SNG France 368; SNG von Aulock 5964. 10.48g, 23mm, 10h. Good Very Fine.

500

Extremely Rare Stater of Ura

347. Cilicia, Ura AR Stater. Mid 5th century BC. Stag (ibex) recumbent to right; ‘RH in Aramaic above / Crenelated city wall with two towers; ‘RH in Aramaic above; all in pelleted square within incuse square. CNG 102, lot 572 (same dies); otherwise unpublished, but cf. Casabonne p. 90 and pl. I, 13; and A. Lemaire, “Remarques à propos du monnayage cilicien d’époque perse et de ses légendes ara-méennes” in REA XCI (1989), pl. III, 15–20. 10.76g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine; test cut. Apparently the second known example, and one of only three examples of this city’s coinage on CoinArchives. 1,000

116


348. Cilicia, Ura AR Stater. Mid 5th century BC. Stag (ibex) recumbent right, head reverted; pellet below, tree(?) behind / Crenelated city wall with two towers; Aramaic legend above; all inside pelleted border within incuse square. Cf. Casabonne p. 90 and pl. I, 13; and A. Lemaire, “Remarques à propos du monnayage cilicien d’époque perse et de ses légendes ara-méennes” in REA XCI (1989), pl. III, 15–20. 10.30g, 20mm, 4h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of only three examples of this city’s coinage on CoinArchives.

BITHYNIA

750

High Relief Prusias I Tetradrachm

349. Kingdom of Bithynia, Prusias I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 238-183 BC. Diademed head right / Zeus standing left, holding wreath in right hand, lotus tipped sceptre in left; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΠΡΟΥΣΙΟΥ to left; thunderbolt above two monograms to inner left. BMC Pontus p. 209, 1-2 var. (monograms); Waddington pl. XXIX. 16.80g, 32mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent style, struck in high relief.

5,000

PHRYGIA

350. Phrygia, Kibyra AR Drachm. Circa 166-84 BC. Young male head right, wearing crested helmet / Helmeted and cuirassed horseman galloping right, wielding spear and shield; ΚΙΒΥΡAΤΩΝ below. SNG Copenhagen 263; SNG von Aulock 3702; HGC 7, 706. 3.40g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

300

PONTOS

351. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Pergamon, dated year 209 BE (April 88 BC). Diademed head right / Pegasos on ground line to left, preparing to lie down, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; star within crescent to left, date and monogram to right. De Callataÿ D58/R42. 16.84g, 30mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 752.

117

1,500


352. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Pergamon, dated year 213 BE (October 85 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ, stag grazing left; star in crescent to left, ΓIΣ (year) to right, IA (month) in exergue; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. De Callataÿ D5/R4. 16.59g, 34mm, 11h. Very Fine; some discolouration. 1,000

Extremely Rare and Attractive Mithradates Tetadradrachm

353. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Pergamon, dated year 219 BE (July 78 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ, stag grazing left; to left, star-in-crescent above monogram; to right, ΘIΣ (date) above monogram; I in exergue; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. De Callataÿ pl. VIII, D19/-. 16.85g, 30mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal. Extremely Rare. 5,000

354. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Pergamon, dated year 222 BE (July 75 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ, stag grazing left; to left, star-in-crescent above monogram, BKΣ (year) above monogram; I (month) below; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. De Callataÿ D34/- (reverse die not listed). 16.89g, 32mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. 2,000

355. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Pergamon, dated year 223 BE (August 74 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ, stag grazing left; to left, star-in-crescent above monogram; to right, ΓKΣ (date) above monogram; IA in exergue; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. De Callataÿ pl. 11, D51/R2a. 16.82g, 30mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 2,500

118


119


One of Four Known

356.

Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AV Stater. Pergamon, dated month 12, year 223 BE (September 74 BC). Diademed head right / Pegasos grazing left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ in two lines below; to left, star-in-crescent above ΓKΣ (year); two monograms to right, IB (month) in exergue; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. CNG 93, 22 May 2013, 339; otherwise unpublished, but cf. Callataÿ dies D52-55 for tetradrachms from the same date, certainly by the same engraver. 8.42g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of only four known examples, and one of the very latest known staters from Mithradates’ reign. 15,000 Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 757. Although some sources cite the initial battles of the Third Mithradatic War taking place in 74 BC, more recently the Battle of Chalkedon and the siege of Kyzikos have been dated to 73 BC. Cicero supports this dating, as he places Lucullus in Rome in November of 74 BC – Lucullus was only dispatched after reports of Mithradates invasion into Bithynia had reached Rome. Appian also supports the dating of hostilities to early in 73, stating that Mithradates spent ‘the remainder of the summer and the whole of the winter’ before the outbreak of war in building ships and augmenting his army. In this light, the present stater should be seen as part of Mithradates financial preparations for the war to come, struck on the eve of his invasion of the new Roman province of Bithynia and the start of the Third Mithradatic War (73-63 BC). This conflict, sparked when Nikomedes IV of Bithynia died without heirs in 75 and left his kingdom to Rome, was carefully timed to coincide with the outbreak of the Sertorian rebellion in Spain, thus causing the threat to become greater than its parts, and have serious potential of overturning Roman power. Despite early success, Mithradates was outclassed by the successive Roman generals Cotta, Lucullus and Pompey. Over the course of ten years, great devastation was wrought on Pontos, which eventually in 65 BC was declared by Pompey to be a Roman provice. The kingdom of Armenia, which had been allied to Mithradates and fought alongside him, was subjugated and made a client state. Defeated, Mithradates fled to Colchis and from there to the Cimmerian Bosporos. Mithradates’ sad end came as he sought the assistance of his son Machares, King of the Cimmerian Bosporus, in raising a new army. Machares, who had allied himself with Rome, refused to assist his father, who according to Cassius Dio, had him put to death, and took the throne of the Bosporan kingdom for himself. His younger son, Pharnakes, backed by a disgruntled and war weary populace, led a rebellion against his father. Mithradates, either despairing now for the loss of his authority or because he was forced to do so by Pharnakes, attempted to commit suicice by taking poison. However, because he had taken tiny doses of all available poisons throughout his life to guard against assassination, the attempt failed and he was forced to ask his Gallic friend and bodyguard Bituitus to kill him by sword. His body was sent to Pompey, by whose instruction it was buried with all decorum alongside those of his ancestors.

120


357. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Pergamon, dated year 224 BE (December 74 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ, stag grazing left; to left, star-in-crescent above ΔKΣ (year); two monograms to right, Γ below; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. De Callataÿ D61/-. 16.91g, 32mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,500

358. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Pergamon, dated year 224 BE (December 74 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ, stag grazing left; to left, star-in-crescent above ΔKΣ (year); two monograms to right, Γ below; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. De Callataÿ D62/-. 16.80g, 34mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

2,500

359. Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Pergamon, dated year 224 BE (December 74 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ, stag grazing left; to left, star-in-crescent above ΔKΣ (year); two monograms to right, Γ below; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. De Callataÿ D61/-. 16.83g, 33mm, 11h. Good Very Fine.

121

2,000


ARMENIA

360. Kingdom of Armenia, Tigranes II AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, 83-70 BC. Draped bust right, wearing Armenian tiara with five peaks and emblazoned with star between two eagles, bead and reel border / BAΣIΛEOΣ TIΓPANOY, Tyche of Antioch seated right on rock pile, holding palm frond; Θ to inner right; monogram to lower left; to lower right, river god Orontes swimming right; all within laurel wreath. M&D 1; CAA 19; AC 30. 15.71g, 27mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

1,000

361. Kingdom of Armenia, Tigranes II AR Tetradrachm. Tigranocerta, 70-69 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing Armenian tiara decorated with star between two eagles / BAΣILEΩΣ TIΓPANOY, Tyche of Antioch seated right on rock, holding palm; at her feet, river-god Orontes swimming right; monogram in inner right field, monogram on rock; all within wreath. M&D 29; CAA 20; AC 34. 15.92g, 26mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

1,500

PHOENICIA

362. Phoenicia, Arados AR Sixth Stater – Diobol. Uncertain king, circa 400-380 BC. Ba’al-Arwad right, holding dolphin in each hand / Galley right, hippocamp right below; all within incuse square. Betlyon 7; HGC 10, 44. 2.88g, 15mm, 1h. Near Very Fine. Test cut. Old collection tone. Rare.

100

363. Phoenicia, Arados AR Tetrobol. Uncertain king, circa 380-351/0 BC. Laureate head of Ba‘al-Arwad right / Galley sailing right over waves within dotted square border. Betlyon 11; HGC 10, 40. 3.14g, 15mm, 6h. Very Fine. Oxidised.

100

364. Phoenicia, Sidon AR Half Shekel. Time of Baalshallim I-Ba’ana, circa 425-402 BC. War galley to left before city wall with four towers; two lions back to back in exergue / Persian king standing right, holding knife and grasping lion by its mane. BMC 9; Elayi & Elayi 312-61; Betlyon 9; Hoover 224. 6.79g, 20mm, 12h. Near Very Fine.

122

200


Ex Leu 1995

365. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Stater. Circa 425-394 BC. Melkart, holding bow in extended left hand and reins in right, riding hippocamp to right; below, waves above dolphin swimming to right / Owl standing to right, head facing; crook and flail diagonally in background. E&E-T Group II.1.1.1.a, 259 var. (O9/R– [unlisted rev. die]); Betlyon 18; Rouvier 1788; HGC 10, 315; BMC 19; Traité pl. CXXII, 16. 13.45g, 25mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare, and in exceptional condition for the type. Beautiful, lustrous metal.

7,500

Ex Leu 61, 17 May 1995, lot 166. G. Markoe (Phoenicians, 2000) offers a succinct description of the early Tyrian coinage: “On its earliest issues, datable c.450 BC, Tyre chose, for its obverse, a flying dolphin and a murex shell, both obvious references to the city’s maritime greatness (the latter was subsequently replaced by the figure of a marine deity riding on a hippocamp). Equally revealing is the motif chosen by the city as the reverse emblem: an owl with a crook and flail. These implements, venerable symbols of Egyptian royal power and authority, were closely associated with the falcon god Horus, a subject widely adopted in Phoenician art. The Tyrian diemaker, however, chose to replace the falcon with an owl, an image unattested in the ancient Near East, but closely connected with the city of Athens. As the symbol of its tutelary goddess Athena, the owl appears prominently on the reverse of Athenian coinage, beginning in the late sixth century BC. Like its Athenian precursor, the Tyrian owl exhibits the same frontal head pose with staring eyes.” The adoption of the owl on the reverse of the coin attests to the importance of commercial relations between Tyre and its great Greek rival, Athens, on the one hand, and Egypt on the other. A similar influence is felt on early Palestinian coins, as strikingly shown by the coins of Gaza, which imitate not only the type and legend of the Athenian coinage, but are also struck on the Attic standard. Tyre too would eventually adopt the Attic standard shortly before the mid-fourth century.

2x

2x

366

367

366. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Dated CY 135 = AD 9/10. Laureate bust of Melkart right / Eagle standing left [on prow], palm frond behind; to left, PΛE (date) above club; to right, KP above monogram; Phoenician letter between legs. BMC -; RPC I 4654. 14.24g, 25mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine, and attractively toned. 250

EGYPT 367. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I, as satrap, AR Tetradrachm. Memphis, circa 323 BC. In the name and types of Alexander III. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, drapery about legs and waist, holding sceptre and eagle; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, rose before, moneyer’s signature ΔI-O beneath. Price 3971. 17.13g, 25mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

123

1,500


124


One of Only Three in Private Hands

368.

Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I, as satrap, AV Stater. Alexandria, circa 312/11 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, wearing elephant skin and aegis, horn of Ammon over ear / Prow of galley to right, adorned with one large and one small protective eye. Svoronos 25; Zervos Type V, Issue 87 (unlisted dies); Gulbenkian 1071 = Jameson 999; Saida 41; Triton XIX, 2076 = Nomos 7, 149 = NAC 46, 303 (same dies). 8.60g, 16mm, 12h. Mint State. Extremely Rare, one of only six known, and one of only three in private hands (the others in Athens, Lisbon, and Paris). 65,000 One of the greatest rarities of the Ptolemaic coinage, this type is not only wonderful in its simplicity, but stunningly beautiful in its execution. Bearing neither inscription nor control symbols – a unique feature that makes it stand out from the rest of Ptolemy’s coinage – the type nonetheless is inextricably linked to the Athena Promachos and Zeus Aëtophoros tetradrachms and a unique gold stater (NAC 66, 77) which all use the deified head of Alexander wearing an elephant skin headdress as the obverse type, as well as small bronzes which feature a portrait of Ptolemy I and a prow on the reverse. Zervos, in his study of the early coinage of Ptolemy I, although certain that the type was contemporary to the Attic weight silver coins and minted at Alexandria, was unable to ascribe it to a historical context. Clearly struck in celebration of his naval exploits, the occasion for the striking of this coin may be found in the reconquest of Cyprus in 313/312 from cities who had switched their allegiance to Antigonus Monophthalmos. Although his own Cypriot allies had been conducting operations against those aligned with Antigonos for several years with some success, Ptolemy himself proceeded to Cyprus at the head of a significant army and fleet. Once there he swiftly eliminated the pro-Antigonid factions, capturing and killing the king of Kition, and subduing Marion and Lapithos-Kyrenia, the former of which was destroyed. Many of the formerly independent kingdoms of Cyprus were subjugated or absorbed by his local allies. The use of the head of Alexander on the obverse of this coin and others mentioned above is a clear illustration of Ptolemy’s claim to be the legitimate successor to the legacy of Alexander. Intercepting the body of Alexander in 322/1 in Syria as it was being moved from Babylon to Macedon and diverting it to Memphis was a very direct statement of this claim, since by custom, Macedonian kings asserted their right to the throne by burying their predecessor. Alone among the Diadochi, Ptolemy did not attempt to regain control over the entirety of Alexander’s empire, but of all the successor states, his came the closest to realising Alexander’s dream of cultural unity.

125


369. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I, as satrap, AR Tetradrachm. In the name of Alexander III. Alexandria, circa 310-305 BC. Head of Alexander right, wearing horn of Zeus Ammon and elephant’s skin headdress / AΛEΞANΔPOY, Athena Alkidemos advancing right, ΔI, helmet and eagle to right. Svoronos 33; Zervos Issue XIII; SNG Copenhagen 30. 15.65g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. A superbly detailed example with a particularly fine style Athena Alkidemos, ‘defender of the people’.

1,500

370. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II AR Tetradrachm. Alexandria, circa 261-246 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy right, wearing aegis / BAΣIΛEOΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY, eagle with closed wings, standing on winged thunderbolt to left; ΠT ΣΩ in left field. Svoronos 403. 14.25g, 26mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

150

371. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Arsinoe II AV Mnaieon - Oktadrachm. Alexandria, circa 253-246 BC. Head right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped sceptre in background; K to left / Double cornucopiae, grape bunches hanging at sides, bound with fillet; APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY around. Svoronos 1498-9; Troxell p. 67, 8; SNG Copenhagen 321-2. 27.49g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine, some minor marks on reverse, small dent on edge between 4-5h.

7,500

From the Alban Collection.

372. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy VI Philometor Æ Obol. Cyprus, First sole reign, 180-170 BC. Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right / Eagle with closed wings standing left on thunderbolt; lotus flower in left field, EYΛ between legs; countermark: Seleukid anchor. Svoronos 1398 (Ptolemy VI with Eulaios); Lorber, Lotus Series VI.3; Weiser 152 (Ptolemy VI with Eulaios); SNG Copenhagen 294; Noeske –. 15.64g, 26mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Sand patina.

100

As seen on this example, many of the coins of Ptolemy VI’s first sole reign in Egypt are found countermarked with the anchor of the Seleukid Empire, and also often appear to have had the name ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ defaced on the reverse. Antiochos IV of the Seleukid Empire invaded Egypt during the first sole reign of Ptolemy VI, and it is thought that coins with the countermark were perhaps captured during the invasion and marked for circulation in the Seleukid Empire, and that those such as this piece that have suffered iconoclasm as well were struck from captured dies and subsequently countermarked.

126


373. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy VIII AR Tetradrachm. Paphus Cypri, circa 144-143 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I right / ΠΤΟΛEΜΑΙΥ BAΣΙΛEΩΣ, eagle with closed wings standing to left on thunderbolt. Svoronos 1502. 14.34g, 26mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 349.

PERSIA

2x

2x

374. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero in kneeling-running stance to right, holding spear and bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B. 8.42g, 16mm. Mint State.

2x

3,000

2x

375. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero in kneeling-running stance to right, holding spear and bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B. 8.39g, 15mm. Mint State.

2x

2,500

2x

376. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero in kneeling-running stance to right, holding spear and bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B. 8.37g, 16mm. Near Mint State.

127

2,500


2x

2x

377. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero in kneeling-running stance to right, holding spear and bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B. 8.37g, 18mm. Extremely Fine.

2,500

From the Alban Collection.

2x

2x

378. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero in kneeling-running stance to right, holding spear and bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B. 8.36g, 16mm. Extremely Fine.

2x

1,500

2x

379. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero in kneeling-running stance to right, holding spear and bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B. 8.34g, 14mm. Good Very Fine.

1,500

380. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero in kneeling-running stance to right, holding spear and bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb, C. 8.37g, 17mm. Near Extremely Fine.

128

1,500


Unique and of Unparalleled Quality

381. Persia, Alexandrine Empire AR Tetradrachm. Satraps of Babylon, time of Stamenes - Seleukos, circa 328-311 BC. Baaltars seated left, his torso facing, holding short sceptre in right hand, left hand placed on throne; M to left / Lion standing left; monogram above, Γ in exergue. Nicolet-Pierre 11 var. (unlisted with Г); Sunrise 161 (this coin). 17.07g, 25mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Engraved in fine style, and with an attractive old tone. Apparently unique variety. An exceptional example of a very rare type, and among the finest known examples of the series. 10,000 Ex Triton VII, 13 January 2004, lot 371. Following Alexander’s great victory at Gaugamela, and once it was known that the Macedonian army would not plunder Babylon, the city gates were opened to the victorious king. In recognition of his change of allegiance to Alexander, Mazaios the satrap of Babylonia was retained in his position, which he held until his death in 328 BC. Alexander made Babylon his royal seat and established an important mint in the city. It was during this period that a series in gold and silver was begun under Mazaios’ direction that harked back to types produced under Achaemenid Persian rule and which were in stark contrast to the regular ‘imperial’ coinage instituted by Alexander. Having previously been satrap of Cilicia, Mazaios chose for his silver issues a type familiar to him: Baaltars, a god equivalent to Zeus from the city of Tarsos, and a lion attacking a bull on the reverse (see F. Holt & O. Bopearachchi, The Alexander Medaillion (2011), note 106). It is interesting to note that the reverse depiction of Zeus on Alexander’s tetradrachms bears a striking resemblance to the Persian type of Baaltars. Indeed, the depiction of this deity is in some cases so similar to the Zeus of Alexander’s imperial coinage that O. Zervos and F. de Callataÿ suggested that the Baaltars of Tarsos was the model for Alexander’s enthroned Zeus. Though shown to be an improbable notion by Price, it is hard to imagine that Alexander would not have been consulted on the theme of the new Babylonian coinage, and it is probable that the similitude of the Baaltars and Zeus images would have well met with his approval, being another small step towards his dream of cultural unity.

SYRIA Extremely Rare Didrachm of Bambyke-Manbog

382. Kyrrhestike in Syria, Bambyke-Manbog AR Didrachm. Circa 342-331 BC. Zeus as Baltaars seated to left, head facing, holding sceptre and eagle; plough to left, Aramaic legend ‘Ateh’ to right / Facing female head, wearing double pearl necklace; Aramaic legend to left, O to right. L. Mildenberg. “A note on the coinage of Hierapolis Bambyce” in Travaux Le Rider (1999), 26, pl. 27, 27 in error (same dies); H.Seyrig, RN 13, 197 pl.1, 6. 7.19g, 20mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Bambyke-Manbog was a temple state ruled by priests who recognised the authority of the Great Kings of Aštart (Hellenised as Astarte).

129

1,000


383

384

383. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander. Babylon, circa 311-305 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion’s skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; MI above lion’s head left in left field, monogram in wreath below throne, BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. SC 82.3c; Price 3759; Müller 743. 17.09g, 26mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. 200 384. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right; H in left field, monogram within wreath below throne. SC 82.7; Price 3708; HGC 9, 10f. 17.12g, 28mm, 11h. Very Fine. 300

385. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 305-298/7 BC. Deified head of Alexander right, wearing Dionysian helmet, covered with panther’s skin, with bull’s ear and horns / BΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ, Nike standing right, crowning trophy; on left, M; at centre, AX. SC 173.12; Kraay-Hirmer pl. 204, 720. 16.83g, 28mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Rare, bold portrait, old cabinet tone.

1,500

386. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia, circa 300-281 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion’s skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; monogram in left field, ΔΙ below throne, BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, ΣEΛEYKOY to right. SC 117.1c; ESM 4; HGC 9, 12i. 17.14g, 27mm, 3h. Very Fine. Minor flan crack. Toned, with golden highlights.

300

387. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. Seleukeia on the Tigris, circa 296/5–281 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, serpent on helmet / Nike standing right, holding wreath and cradling stylis, ΣEΛEYKOY to right; monogram under left wing, Θ below right wing. SC 138.5 var. = ESM 121A var. = Baron von Koehne, “Brief an Herrn, A. von Rauch” in Mémoires de la Société Impériale d’archéologie de St. Pétersbourg, p. 21, 10 var. (monogram); HGC 9, 4e; Triton XIX, 26. 8.59g, 18mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; edge bruise. Extremely Rare, apparently only the second known example.

2,000

388. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Alexander I Balas AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, dated SE 165 (148-147 BC). Diademed head right / Zeus Nikephoros seated left; monogram to inner left, EΞP (date) and monogram in exergue. SC 1784. 16.26g, 29mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

130

200


Extremely Rare Alexander Balas Tetradrachm

389.

Seleukid Kings of Syria, Alexander I Balas AR Tetradrachm. Seleucia Pieria, year 166 = 147/6 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right, with full beard and with his hair arranged in long curls of archaizing form / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, thunderbolt, ϚΞΡ (= 166) and monogram above, two monograms below; all within elaborate laurel wreath with ties to right. CSE 409; Gulbenkian 1044; A. Houghton, ‘A Tetradrachm of Seleucia Pieria at the Getty Museum,’ J. Getty Museum Journal 10 (1982), A2/P4 and fig. F = SC 1798 = Wealth of the Ancient World 112. 16.70g, 23mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of as few as fifteen known specimens, of which at least seven are in museum collections. 7,500 From a European collection; Ex Gemini VII, 9 January 2011, lot 575. This rare and remarkable tetradrachm represents a very interesting episode in the history of the Seleukid empire. Of humble origins, Alexander Balas pretended that he was the son of Antiochos IV Epiphanes and Laodice IV, and thus heir to the imperial throne. He was ‘discovered’ by Herakleides, a former minister of Antiochos IV and brother of Timarchos, an usurper in Media who had been executed by the reigning king Demetrios I Soter. Alexander’s claims were recognised by the Roman Senate and Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt; he was even granted the hand in marriage of Cleopatra Thea, a daughter of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Though his revolt was initially unsuccessful, in 150 BC Alexander was able to defeat Demetrios, and claim overlordship of the empire. Despite his victory however, Alexander remained heavily dependent on Ptolemaic support. Antioch refused to acknowledge him, and struck its own series of posthumous coinage in the name of Antiochos IV. Alexander was therefore forced to strike his own coinage at Seleukeia, previously only a peripheral mint, but which at the beginning of his reign was the only city in northern Syria completely under his control. Thus we see here a tetradrachm which unlike the usual royal issues, employs types that are directly related to the city in which it was struck. The Pheidian-influenced portrait of Zeus on the obverse clearly represents Zeus Kasios, whose cult in the city of Seleukeia was well noted. The reverse type of the thunderbolt was also an important cult symbol, which Appian (Syr. 58) tells us was held in great reverence by the inhabitants of Seleukeia. Zeus Kasios was himself a Hellenization of Ba’al Zaphon, the latter term being derived from the mountain named Hazzi (or Kasios to the Greeks), which remained in use from the 2nd millennium BC onwards. Zeus Kasios was locally venerated as a storm god renowned for his battle against the sea monster now known as Typhon, whose name and various features are derived from Zaphon.

131


390. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Demetrios II Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Tyre, Dated SE 184 = 129-128 BC. Diademed and draped bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY, eagle standing left on prow; palm branch under far wing, APE monogram above YTP monogram on club in left field, AΣ above AΠP in right field, FP monogram between eagle’s legs. SC 2195.2. 14.25g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

150

391. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, dated SE 168 (145-144 BC). Diademed and radiate head right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ, the Dioskouroi riding left, with couched lances, ΗΞΡ (date) in lower left field, TPY and K in right field; all within wreath. A. Houghton, “The Revolt of Tryphon and the Accession of Antiochus VI at Apamea,”SNR 71 (1992) pg. 126, 18-21 (A5/uncertain reverse die); SNG Spaer 1757 var. (no K). 16.17g, 30mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

500

392. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, dated SE 170 (143/2 BC). Radiate and diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY, the Dioskouroi, holding reins in right hand and couched lances in left, on horses rearing left; to right, TPY above monogram above ΣTA; OP (date) below; all within wreath of laurel, ivy, and grain ears. SC 2000.3d; SMA 249; Houghton 232; Hess-Divo 317, 288 (same dies). 16.75g, 30mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Exceptional for the type.

132

2,000


393

394

393. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VI Dionysos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, dated SE 170 (143/2 BC). Radiate and diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY, the Dioskouroi, holding reins in right hand and couched lances in left, on horses rearing left; to right, TPY above monogram above ΣTA; OP (date) below; all within wreath of laurel, ivy, and grain ears. SC 2000.3d; SMA 249; Houghton 232. 16.77g, 31mm, 1h. Very Fine. 150 394. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VII Euergetes AR Tetradrachm. Cappadocian mint, circa 138-129 BC. Posthumous issue. Diademed head right / Athena Nikephoros standing left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY to right, EϒΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ to left; to outer left, monogram above A; O to inner left, Λ to inner right; all within laurel wreath. SC 2148; HGC 9, 1069. 16.65g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Toned. 200

395. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VII Euergetes AR Tetradrachm. Tyre, Dated SE 183 = 130-129 BC. Diademed and draped bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, eagle standing left on prow; palm branch under far wing, APE monogram above YTP monogram on club in left field, AΣ above ΓΠP in right field, FP monogram between eagle’s legs. SC 2109.11. 14.22g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

350

396. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Alexander II Zabinas AR Drachm. Antioch, 128-122 BC. Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY, filleted double cornucopiae; to inner left, monogram above Δ. SNG Copenhagen 363; SNG Spaer -; Houghton 306 = SMA 342. 4.02g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

397

150

398

397. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Alexander II Zabinas AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, 128-122 BC. Diademed head right / Zeus Nikephoros seated left, holding sceptre; monogram in outer left field, monogram below throne, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ on right, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ on left. SC 2219.3d; SNG Spaer 2288; HGC 9, 1149d. 15.80g, 28mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. 250 398. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, circa 121-113 BC. Diademed head right / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding star in outstretched hand and long sceptre, crescent above, IE over A in left field, N to inner right; all within laurel wreath border. SC 2298.2e; HGC 9, 1197e. 16.60g, 28mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Lightly toned. 250

133


399

400

399. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, circa 121-113 BC. Diademed head right within fillet border / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding star in outstretched hand and long sceptre; crescent above, IE over A in outer left field, Δ in exergue, all within laurel wreath. SC 2297. 16.46g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Toned, with hints of iridescence. 300 400. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, circa 121-113 BC. Diademed head right within fillet border / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding star in outstretched hand and long sceptre; [crescent above], monogram above A in left field, tiny Δ inner right field. SC 2302.1f. 16.74g, 28mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 350

401

402

401. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, circa 121-113 BC. Diademed head right within fillet border / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding star in outstretched hand and long sceptre; crescent above, IE over A in left field, O in inner right field, all within wreath. SC 2297.2b. 16.61g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 350 402. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Tetradrachm. Ake-Ptolemais, circa 121-113 BC. Diademed head right within fillet border / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding star in outstretched hand and long sceptre; crescent above, AP monogram in left field, all within wreath. SC 2336.2. 16.56g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 350

403. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, circa 121-113 BC. Diademed head right within fillet border / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding star in outstretched hand and long sceptre; crescent above, monogram above A in left field, tiny K inner right field. SC 2302.1h. 16.48g, 28mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

404

400

405

404. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Drachm. Antioch on the Orontes, 112-110 BC. Diademed head right / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, tripod; control mark above Γ in left field. SC 2304c; HGC 9, 1209. 3.91g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine, attractive old cabinet tone. 100 405. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos IX Philopator AR Drachm. Antioch on the Orontes, second reign, circa 110/09-108/7 BC. Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOV in two lines to right, ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ on left, Nike standing left, holding wreath; two monograms in outer left field. SC 2367b. 3.88g, 17mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Pleasant toning and fine style. 150

134


406

407

406. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos IX Eusebes Philopator Kyzikenos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, second reign, circa 110-109 BC. Diademed head right / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ, Athena Nikephoros standing left; monogram above A to outer left, all within wreath. SC 2366.2; HGC 9, 1228i. 16.31g, 29mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine, lightly toned and lustrous. 200 407. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos IX Eusebes Philopator Kyzikenos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, second reign, circa 110-109 BC. Diademed head right / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ, Athena Nikephoros standing left; monogram above A to outer left, tiny AI monogram to right, all within wreath. SC 2366.1k; HGC 9, 1228i. 16.27g, 29mm, 2h. Fleur de Coin. Highly lustrous surfaces. 200

408. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Demetrios III Eukairos AR Tetradrachm. Damaskos, Dated SE 219 = 94-93 BC. Diademed head right / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOV ΦEOV ΦIΛOΠΛTOPOΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ, cult statue of Atargatis standing facing, arms extended, holding flower in left hand, barley stalk rising from each shoulder; N over monogram to outer left field, ΦIԐ in exergue. SC 2451.2. 16.19g, 29mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

200

CHARACENE

409. Kings of Characene, Apodakos AR Tetradrachm. Dated SE 209 = 104/3 BC. Diademed head right / Herakles seated left on rock, holding club on knee, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, AΠΠΟΔAKΟΥ to left; monogram in outer left field, ΘΣ (date) in exergue. Alram 496; De Morgan pl. 49, 3 var.; BMC Arabia p. 289, 1 var.; DCA 480. 15.90g, 31mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; excellent metal for the type. Extremely Rare.

2,250

Ex Triton XIX, 5 January 2016, lot 338; Ex Roma Numismatics Auction VII, 22 March 2014, lot 836. This is without doubt the finest tetradrachm of Apodakos to have appeared on the market in many years. All we know of Apodakos is learned from his coins, and as such our understanding is extremely limited. It is uncertain whether he was the son of Hyspaosines, who the latter’s widow Thalassia tried to install on the throne after the king’s death, or whether he was a usurper.

135


410. Kings of Characene, Attambelos I BI Tetradrachm. Charax-Spasinu, dated SE 269 = 44/43 BC. Diademed head right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΤΤΑΜΒΗΛΟΥ ΣΟΤΗΠΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ, Herakles seated left on rocks, holding club; monogram above arm; ΘΞΣ (date) in exergue. Hill, Attambelos 7; Alram -; BMC 1; DCA 485. 11.22g, 30mm, 12h. Very Fine.

200

Ex Classical Numismatic Group e168, 11 July 2007, lot 81.

ELYMAIS

411. Kings of Elymais, Kamnaskires III, with Anzaze, AR Tetradrachm. Circa 82-75 BC. Conjoined busts left of Kamnaskires and Queen Anzaze; monogram above anchor symbol behind / Zeus seated left, holding sceptre and Nike, who crowns him, MAKEΔΩN before; IΛCIΛEΩC KΛMNΛIKIPOY KΛI IΛIIΛIICHC ANZAZH (BAΣIΛEΩΣ KAMNΣKIROY KAI BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ ANZAZHΣ) around, date in exergue. BMC 245/1; Alram 454. 15.42g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine, struck on sound, toned metal and exceptionally well preserved and detailed for the issue. Very Rare.

412

1,500

413

412. Kings of Elymais, Kamnaskires IV AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Hedyphon, dated SE 254 (59/8 BC). Diademed and draped bust left, c/m: Nike standing left / BACIΛEΩC KAMNACKIPOY TOY ET BACIΛEΩC KAMNACKIPOY, Zeus Nikephoros seated left, holding sceptre; monogram K above knee, date ΔNΣ in exergue. Alram 458. 14.68g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. In superb style with a fine portrait. Very Rare, especially dated. 500 413. Kings of Elymais, Kamnaskires V AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Hedyphon, Year 267 = 46/5 BC. Diademed and draped bust left, with pointed beard; star and anchor behind / BACIΛEΩC KAΠNACKIPOY TOY EΓ BACIΛEΩC KAΠNACKIPOY, diademed and draped bust left, wearing beard, date in exergue. Van’t Haaff p. 75, subtype 1-4. 13.61g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 500

414

415

414. Kings of Elymais, Kamnaskires V AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Hedyphon, Year 267 = 46/5 BC. Diademed and draped bust left, with pointed beard; star and anchor behind / BACIΛEΩC KAΠNACKIPOY TOY EΓ BACIΛEΩC KAΠNACKIPOY, diademed and draped bust left, wearing beard, date in exergue. Van’t Haaff p. 75, subtype 1-4. 14.01g, 30mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 500 415. Kings of Elymais, Kamnaskires V AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Hedyphon, dated SE 269 (44/3 BC). Diademed and draped bust left, wearing long beard and torque; to right, eight-rayed star above anchor symbol / [B]ACIΛEΩC KAΠNACKIPOY [TO]Y EΓ BACIΛE[ΩC K] AΠNACKIPOY, diademed and draped bust left, wearing beard; (retrograde Σ)ΞΘ (date) in exergue. Van’t Haaff Type 9.1.1-7 (date unlisted); cf. Alram 463 (for type); Sunrise 479 var. (date); DCA 524 (date unlisted). 13.01g, 30mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Some minor cleaning scratches and double strike on reverse, slight porosity, lightly toned. Very Rare. 500

136


PERSIS

Very Well Preserved Bagadat Tetradrachm

416. Kings of Persis, Bagadat (Bayadad) AR Tetradrachm. Istakhr (Persepolis), early 3rd century BC. Head right, with short beard, moustache, and earring, wearing kyrbasia with flaps tied behind / Aramaic legend: (br) bgwr[t] (= “(son of) Baywār[d]”) downward to right, bgdt prtrk’ zy (= “Baydād frataraka of”) in exergue, ‘lhw’ (= “the gods”) upward to left, fire temple of Ahura-Mazda; to left, Bagadat standing right; standard to right. Alram 515; BMC p. 196, 2; Sear GC 6186. 28mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. High relief portrait, well struck and very complete for the issue. A superior example.

7,500

BAKTRIA

417. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Demetrios I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 200-185 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing elephant skin headdress; all within pelleted border / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY, Herakles standing facing, crowning himself with wreath held in right hand and cradling club in left arm draped with lion skin; monogram to inner left. Bopearachchi 1C corr. (monogram) = Qunduz 28 (same obv. die); Bopearachchi & Rahman –; SNG ANS –; Boston MFA Supp. 309 (same obv. die); cf. Calcutta I 1 and pl. I, 9; MIG –. 16.38g, 35mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,500

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 87, 18 May 2011, lot 731.

418. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Antimachos I Theos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 180-170 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing kausia; bead-andreel border / Poseidon, laureate, standing facing, holding trident and filleted palm; monogram to inner right. Bopearachchi 1A var. (pellet border on obv.); Bopearachchi & Rahman 173-4 var. (same); SNG ANS 274-5 var. (same); MIG Type 124f var. (same); HGC 12, 106 var. (same); Qunduz 98 var. (monogram). 15.80g, 34mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very rare with bead and reel border. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 77, 26 May 2014, lot 113

137

500


138


Superb Eukratides I AV Stater

419.

Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear; all within pelleted border / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛΟΥ above, EYKPATIΔOY below, the Dioskouroi on rearing horses right, holding palm fronds and spears; monogram in lower right field. Al. N. Oikonomedes, ‘The Gold Coinage of the Indo-Greek King Eukratides I (171-155 B.C.),’ North American Journal of Numismatics 7.6 (1968), Group B; F.L. Holt, ‘Eukratides of Baktria,’ Coins, Cults, History and Inscriptions III: Studies in Honor of Al. N. Oikonomedes, pp. 72-76; Bopearachchi 5 var. (unlisted monogram); cf. Bopearachchi 7A (drachm); cf. SNG ANS 463 (monogram); MIG Type 176 var. (unlisted monogram); HGC 12, 129; Triton XVIII, lot 837 (same obv. die); Triton XIV, lot 428 (same obv. die); Triton VIII, 645 (same dies); Triton I, lot 618 (same dies); Tkalec (29 February 2000), lot 199 (same obv. die). 8.50g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State; lustrous.

45,000

The close die links (only one obverse die and two reverse dies) suggest that this issue was very limited and struck for a special occasion, no doubt at the same time as the fabulous 20 stater medallion weighing 169.2g now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in France, which is the largest gold coin to have been struck in antiquity. The occasion that merited such grand celebration was undoubtedly the victory over Demetrios of India and the conquest of the western parts of the Indo-Greek kingdom: ‘Eukratides led many wars with great courage, and, while weakened by them, was put under siege by Demetrios, king of the Indians. He made numerous sorties, and managed to vanquish 60,000 enemies with 300 soldiers, and thus liberated after four months, he put India under his rule’ (Justin XLI, 6). Eukratides was one of the last but most important Greco-Baktrian kings, responsible for the overthrow of the Euthydemid dynasty and for waging numerous campaigns against the Indo-Greek kings, temporarily holding territory as far east as the Indus. By the range, quantity and quality of his coinage, which included the above mentioned medallion, we can surmise that his was a reign of considerable significance and prestige. Eukratides was murdered on his way home from India, apparently by his son, who hated his father so much that he ‘ran with his chariot over the blood of his father, and ordered the corpse to be left without a sepulture’ (Justin XLI,6). The subsequent civil war between rival members of the dynasty, combined with external pressures from the Indo-Greeks, Sogdians and Parthians led to the ultimate collapse of the Greco-Baktrian Kingdom a mere fifteen years later, when it was conquered by the Parthians under Mithradates.

139


420. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Heliokles II Dikaios AR Tetradrachm. Circa 90-75 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔIKAIOY HΛIOKΛEOYΣ, diademed and draped bust right / ‘Maharajasa dhramikasa Hiliyakresasa’ in Kharosthi, Zeus standing left, brandishing thunderbolt in right hand and holding long sceptre in left; monogram to inner left. Mitchiner 2904 (Heliokles I); SNG ANS -, cf. 1139-1141 for obv, 1149 for same rev. monogram. 9.65g, 27mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Apparently unique variety of a very rare type.

1,500

421. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Philoxenos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 125-110 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANIKHTOY ΦΙΛOΞENOY, diademed heroic bust left, seen from behind, wearing crested helmet covered with pelt of scales and adorned with head of Gorgon and wing, aegis on shoulder and brandishing spear with right hand / ‘Maharajasa apadihatasa Philasinasa’ in Kharosthi, Philoxenos, in military attire, on horse rearing right; Σ and monogram to upper left. Mitchiner 343c; Bopearachchi 9C; SNG ANS 1198. 9.81g, 25mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and of exceptional metal quality for the type.

1,500

The present type is something of an exciting anomaly within the Indo-Greek series. Although the use of an aegis as part of the king’s raiments is a well known element on the Indo-Greek series, it is most unusual to find the helmet itself similarly decorated with the elements of an aegis. It is shown covered with a pelt of scales, set with the head of the Gorgon, with a wing to the side. This is a notable departure from the usual bull’s horn decoration, a custom that went back to Eukratides I (circa 171-145 BC). For the use of these elements in denoting the aegis in Classical and Hellenistic art, see the late fifth century BC Athena Lemnia of Pheidias, the first century BC Alexander Mosaic, and the first century AD Blacas Cameo.

422. Baktria, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Archebios Dikaios Nikephoros AR Tetradrachm. Circa 75-65 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔIKAIOY NIKHΦOPOY APXEBΙOY, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, wearing crested helmet covered with pelt of scales and adorned with head of Gorgon and wing / ‘Maharajasa dhramikasa jayadharasa Akhebiyasa’ in Kharosthi, Zeus standing facing, brandishing thunderbolt in raised right hand and cradling sceptre in left arm; monogram to left. Bopearachchi 4E; Bopearachchi & Rahman –; SNG ANS 1300. 9.72g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very rare with the helmet adorned with the Gorgon head and wing.

1,000

JUDAEA

423. Judaea, Jewish War AR Shekel. Dated year 2 (67/8 CE). Omer cup; “Y 2” (date) in Hebrew above,“Shekel of Israel” in Hebrew around / Sprig of three pomegranates; “Jerusalem the holy” in Hebrew around. Meshorer 193; AJC 8; Hendin 659; Kadman 8; Bromberg 63–4. 13.73g, 23mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

140

2,000


141


ROMAN PROVINCIAL COINS

424. Augustus Æ ‘Sestertius’ of Gades, Spain. L. Cornelius Balbus Minor, pontifex. Struck 20 BC. Head of Hercules left, wearing lion skin headdress; club across neck / PONT BALBVS, knife, simpulum, axe and star. RPC 85; Alfaro Asins 1305. 41.34g, 37mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

200

426 425 425. Augustus AR Drachm of the Lycian League. Cragus, circa 27-20 BC. Bare head right / Lyre; laurel branch in right field, Λ-Y and K-P across fields. RPC 3307; SNG von Aulock 4311-4312. 3.49g, 21mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Old cabinet tone. 250 426. Livia Æ21 of Corinth, Corinthia. L. Arrius Peregrinus and L. Furius Labeo, duovirs. Circa AD 32-34. L ARRIO PEREGRINO II VIR, draped bust of Livia right / L FVRIO LABEONE II VIR, hexastyle temple, COR below. BCD 383; SNG Copenhagen 214 var. (variety with bust right). 7.09g, 22mm, 4h. About Very Fine. Very Rare. 150

427. Tiberius Ӕ ‘Sestertius’ of Gades, Spain. Circa AD 16. NERO, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS, simpulum. RPC 89. 45.54g, 37mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare and in good quality for rarity.

750

428. Tiberius Æ ‘Dupondius’ of Oea, Syrtica. AD 22-29. Bare head of Tiberius left; before, eagle facing, head right, with wings spread, holding palm frond in beak; laurel branch behind / Laureate and draped bust of Apollo right; lyre before; all within laurel wreath. RPC 832; MAA 34; SNG Copenhagen 31. 11.71g, 22mm, 2h. Good Very Fine.

200

429. Vespasian AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. Dated “New Holy Year” 2 = AD 69-70. AYTOKPA OYECΠACIANOC KAICAP CEBACTOC, laureate bust right / ETOYC NEOY IEP[OY B], eagle standing on club facing, head left; wreath in beak, palm in left field. Prieur 122; McAlee 345; RPC II, 1954. 14.52g, 26mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

142

150


431 430 430. Vespasian AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. Dated “New Holy Year” 4, AD 71-72. AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OVEΣΠAΣIANOY, laureate head right / ETOYΣ Δ IEPOY, eagle standing to left on club; palm branch in field. Prieur 116; McAlee 338. 15.22g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 750 431. Domitian AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. Dated RY 2 = AD 82-83. ΑVΤΟΚΡΑΤ ΚΑΙΣΑP ΔOMITIANOY CEB, laureate head right, wearing archaic aegis / ΕΤΟΥΣ ΝΕΟΥ ΙΕΡΟΥ, eagle standing right on thunderbolt; palm in right field, B above. Prieur 143; McAlee 396. 14.22g, 27mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 150

432. Trajan AR Tetradrachm of Tarsos, Cilicia. AD 100. AVTOKP KAIΣ NEP TPAIANOΣ ΣEB ΓEPM, laureate head right / ΔHMAPX ΞVΠATΓ, Tyche seated to right on rock, holding palm; river god Kydnos swimming to right at her feet, TAP (partially ligate) in field before. Prieur 752; SNG Levante 990. 14.70g, 26mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; struck from dies of very fine style and beautifully toned with hints of iridescence. Rare.

1,000

434 433 433. Hadrian AR Didrachm of Caesarea, Cappadocia. AD 119-121. AYT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB, laureate and draped bust right / ΔHMAPX ΕΞ YΠAT Γ, Helios, holding globe and sceptre, standing atop Mt. Argaeus. RPC Vol III 3080. 6.96g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 200 434. Hadrian AR Didrachm of Caesarea, Cappadocia. AD 128. AΔΡIANOC CEBACTO, laureate head right / YΠATOC Γ ΠATHR ΠAT, Helios, holding globe and sceptre, standing atop Mt. Argaeus; star to left, crescent to right. Metcalf 94; RPC Vol III 3094. 7.44g, 20mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 150

435. Hadrian Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 12 = AD 127-128. AYT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CԐB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / Nilus reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae with infant Genius, who offers him wreath; crocodile right below; Iς above, LΔωΔЄK in exergue. RPC 5717; Emmett 1014; Dattari (Savio) 1806; BMC 784. 24.57g, 36mm, 11h. Very Fine.

125

436. Hadrian Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 14 = AD 129-130. AYT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CԐB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / Zeus reclining left on eagle standing on thunderbolt, holding patera and sceptre; L-IΔ across fields. RPC 5743; Emmett 1069; BMC 673; Dattari (Savio) 1879. 28.04g, 35mm, 11h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

143

100


438 437 437. Hadrian Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 15 = AD 130-131. AYT KAI TPAI [AΔPIA CԐB], laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / Alexandria standing right and holding two corn-ears, bowing head and kissing the hand of Hadrian, who stands facing with head left and holds sceptre; L-IE across fields. RPC 5777; Emmett 964; Dattari (Savio) 1610; BMC 870. 25.82g, 33mm, 12h. Very Fine. 150 438. Hadrian Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 17 = AD 132-133. AYT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CԐB, laureate head right, with slight drapery over left shoulder / Isis Pharia advancing right, holding sistrum and sail; [LI]-Z across fields. RPC 5837; Emmett 1002; Dattari (Savio) 1757. 21.92g, 34mm, 12h. Very Fine. 125

Unpublished Alexandrian Drachm of Nemesis

439. Hadrian Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 19 = AD 134-135. AVT KAI C TPAIAN AΔPIAN[OC CԐB], laureate head right, with slight drapery over left shoulder / [LԐNN]ԐAKΔ, Nemesis(?) advancing right, raising fold of drapery. Emmett -; Dattari (Savio) -; BMC-. 25.80g, 33mm, 11h. Near Very Fine. Apparently Unpublished.

100

Exceptional Didrachm of Antoninus Pius

440. Antoninus Pius AR Didrachm of Caesarea, Cappadocia. Struck AD 139. ANTONINOC CEBACTOC, laureate head right / YΠATB ΠATΠATP, Helios, holding globe and sceptre, standing atop Mt. Argaeus; star in exergue. Sydenham 301c var. (reverse legend); Metcalf 124b. 6.71g, 23mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous, struck on a broad flan, and extremely rare in such superb condition.

1,000

Attractive Heroic Bust

441. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 4 = AD 140-141. AVT K T AIΛ A[ΔP ANTωNIN]OC CԐV CԐB, laureate head left, with slight drapery over shoulder, seen from behind / Elpis standing left, holding flower and hem of skirt; L-Δ across fields. Emmett 1501; Dattari (Savio) 8412. 27.02g, 34mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

144

150


443

442

442. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 8 = AD 144-145. AVT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTωNINOC ԐV CԐB, laureate head right / Hermanubis standing right within temple, holding caduceus and palm-branch; jackal standing right behind, small statue of Elpis before, L-H across fields. Emmett 1570. 23.93g, 33mm, 12h. Very Fine. 150 443. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 9 = AD 145-146. AVT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTωNINOC CԐB ԐVC, laureate head right / [L]ENATOV, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding parazonium and Nike, who offers wreath; shield behind. Emmett 1644; Dattari (Savio) 8661. 27.30g, 35mm, 1h. Very Fine. 125

444. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 10 = AD 146-147. AYT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTωNINOC CԐB ԐVC, laureate and cuirassed bust right, wearing paludamentum and aegis, seen from behind / LΔԐKATOV, Isis seated right, holding Harpokrates. Emmett 1585; Dattari (Savio) 2649; BMC 1125. 27.90g, 37mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

150

445. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 10 = AD 146/147. AVT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTωNEINOC CEB EVC, laureate head right / Hercules standing right, holding lion’s skin and club, plucking an apple from the tree of the Hesperides; coiled body of the dead serpent Ladon around tree; LΔEKATOV (date) around. Emmett 1554; Köln -; Dattari -; Milne -. 22.96g, 33mm, 12h. Good Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

447

446

446. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 14 = AD 150-151. AVT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTωNINOC CԐB ԐVC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left / Triptolemos in biga drawn by two serpents right; LIΔ above. Emmett 1683; Dattari (Savio) 2905; BMC 1027. 25.46g, 33mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 150 447. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 15 = AD 151-152. AVT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTωNINOC CԐB ԐVC, laureate and draped bust left / Peristyle altar of Agathodaemon, with four columns and garlanded entablature; statue within, burning pyre above; LI-E across fields. Emmett 1449; Dattari (Savio) 2999-3000. 23.18g, 35mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. 150

145


449 448 448. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 16 = AD 152-153. AVT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTωNINOC [CԐ]B ԐVC, laureate head right / Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm; [L]IS in left field. Emmett 1607; Dattari (Savio) 2697. 26.90g, 34mm, 11h. Very Fine. 100 449. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 17 = AD 153-154. AVT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTωNЄINOC CЄB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / Peristyle altar of Agathodaemon, with six columns and garlanded entablature; burning pyre above and aplustre in each corner; I-Z across fields, L in exergue. Emmett 1448; Dattari (Savio) 8860. 25.91g, 35mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

150

451

450

450. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 19 = AD 155-156. AVT K T AIΛ AΔP ANTωN[INOC CԐB ԐVC], laureate and draped bust right / Laureate and draped bust of Zeus right; L-IΘ across fields. Emmett 1690; Dattari (Savio) 8786. 25.53g, 34mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine, flan flaws. 150 451. Antoninus Pius Æ Drachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 21 = AD 157-158. AVT K T AIΛ AΔ ANTωNINOC, laureate and draped bust right / Nilus reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae with infant Genius, who offers him wreath and to whom he looks back; crocodile right below, LK in left field, A in right field. Emmett 1621 var. (obverse legend). 26.86g, 35mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Excellent style. 150

452. Septimius Severus AR Tetradrachm of Laodicea ad Mare, Syria. AD 207-208. AYT KAI CEOYHPOC CE, laureate and draped bust right / ΔHMAPX EΞ VPATOCΓ, eagle standing facing, head left, holding beak in wreath, star between legs. Prieur 1140. 13.59g, 26mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

500

Possibly Only the Fifth Known

453. Julia Domna AR Drachm of Petra, Syrian Decapolis. Struck AD 211-212. IOYΛIA ΔOMNA CEB, draped bust right / ΔHMAPX EΞOY, Tyche seated left on rock outcropping, holding baetyl(?) in extended right hand and cradling trophy in left arm. K. Butcher, “Two Notes on Syrian Silver of the Third Century AD,” NC 1989, dies O5/R5; Hauck & Aufhäuser 18, 490. 3.29g, 18mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine, toned. Extremely Rare, only the fifth example known and the fourth to appear at auction in the last twelve years.

146

750


454. Caracalla Æ Tetrassarion of Philippopolis, Thrace. AD 212-215. AΥT K M AΥΡH ANTΩNINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding a spear in his right hand and a shield bearing a head of the Medusa on left shoulder / ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ, Nike standing left with open wings, holding wreath in her right hand and palm frond with her left. Varbanov - (but cf. 1639 and 1640, this reverse type struck under Geta). 16.98g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

Extremely Rare Tetradrachm of Caracalla

455. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Aradus, Phoenicia. AD 215-217. AYTOK M A ANTΩNINOC, laureate and cuirassed bust left, shield on left shoulder decorated with aegis, sceptre over right shoulder / ΔHMARX EΞ YΠATOCT Δ, eagle standing facing, head and tail to left; crescent below. Prieur 1258. 14.62g, 30mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

457 456 456. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Tyre, Phoenicia. AD 213-217. ΑΥΤ Κ[ΑΙ ΑΝΤΩ]ΝΙΝΟC CΕ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ΔΗΜΑΡX ΕΞ Υ[ΠΑΤΟC ΤΟ] Δ, eagle standing facing on club, head left; wreath in beak, murex shell between legs. Prieur 1546a. 13.82g, 25mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Pleasant toning. 250 457. Caracalla Æ31 of Paphos, Cyprus. AD 193-211. Μ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟC ΑVΓΟVCΤΟC, laureate head right / [ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΚΥΠΡΙ]ΩΝ, conical cult xoanon of Aphrodite of Paphos within central distyle tower; distyle porticoes flanking, each containing candelabra and with dove above; the entire structure set on low basis; semicircular fencing below. Parks 25; SNG Copenhagen 92; BMC 60. 18.69g, 31mm, 7h. Near Very Fine. 100

459 458 458. Caracalla Æ32 of Paphos, Cyprus. AD 193-211. [Μ ΑΝΤΩ]ΝΕΙΝΟC ΑVΓΟVCΤΟC, laureate head right / [ΚΟΙΝΟΝ] ΚΥΠΡΙΩΝ, conical cult xoanon of Aphrodite of Paphos within central distyle tower; distyle porticoes flanking, each containing candelabra and with dove above; the entire structure set on low basis; semicircular fencing below. Parks 25; SNG Copenhagen 92; BMC 61. 26.40g, 32mm, 7h. Near Very Fine. 100 459. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Caesarea Maritima, Samaria. AD 215-217. AYT KAI ANTΩNINOC CEB, laureate head right / ΔHMAPX EZ ΥΠΑΤΟC ΤΟ Δ, eagle standing facing on torch, around which serpent is coiled, with head left, wreath in beak, and bucranium between legs. Prieur 1666a. 13.54g, 28mm, 12h. Very Fine. Lightly toned. 100

147


460. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Gadara, Syria. AD 215-217. AYT KAI ANTWNINOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ΔHMAPX EZ ΥΠΑΤΟC ΤΟ Δ, eagle standing facing, head left; wreath in beak, the three graces within wreath between legs. Prieur 1594. 11.28g, 26mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Toned, with lustrous highlights around the devices. Very Rare.

350

461. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Laodicea ad Mare, Syria. AD 205-207. AYT • KAI • ANTΩNЄINOC • C •, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / • ΔHMAPX • ЄΞ • VΠATOC • B •, eagle standing facing on ground line, head and tail right, with wings displayed; star between legs. McAlee, Severan Group 1, 5; Prieur 1130. 13.96g, 26mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Superbly sharp detail.

750

462. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Laodicea ad Mare, Syria. AD 209-211. • AVT • KAI • ANTΩNЄINOC • CЄ •, laureate head of Caracalla right / • ΔHMAPX • ЄΞ • VΠATOC • TO • Γ •, eagle standing facing with wings spread, head left, holding wreath in beak; star between legs. McAlee group 4, 33; Prieur 1164. 13.53g, 27mm, 2h. Fleur De Coin. Perfect, lustrous metal and lightly toned.

500

463. Geta, as Caesar, Æ34 of Mylasa, Caria. AD 198-209. ΠO CEΠTIMIOC ΓETA C KAIC, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / MYΛACEΩN, statue of Zeus Labraundos within tetrastyle temple. SNG von Aulock 2630. 16.46g, 34mm, 6h. Very Fine.

148

300


464. Geta, as Caesar, AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. AD 205-207. GETAC KAICAP, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VΠATOC TO •A•, eagle standing left, head right, with wings displayed, holding wreath in beak, on thigh of sacrificial animal. Prieur 204; McAlee 716. 10.89g, 28mm, 11h. About Extremely Fine. Rare.

300

465. Diadumenian, as Caesar, AR Tetradrachm of Gaza, Judaea. AD 217-218. M OΠ ANTΩN KAI, bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right / ΔHMAPX EZ ΥΠΑΤΟC Τ Δ, eagle standing facing, head left, wreath in beak, star in upper right field, sign of Marnas between legs. Prieur 1697. 13.56g, 27mm, 2h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

350

466. Severus Alexander Ӕ33 of Aegeae, Cilicia. Dated CY 227 = AD 230-231. AYT KAI M AVP CEV AΛEΞ[ANΔPOC], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / AΛEZANΔPOVΠOΛIC AΔPIANΩN, Tyche and three figures standing right before ship with sail; ZOC in field above, AIΓAIWN above •M•Ԑ•Π•Θ• in exergue. SNG France 2364 corr. (obverse legend); SNG Levante 1767 (same dies). 20.49g, 33mm, 7h. Near Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

150

467. Severus Alexander BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated RY 12 (AD 232/3). A KAI MAP AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC E, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Zeus seated left, holding patera and sceptre; at his feet to left, eagle standing left, head right; L IB (date) to upper left, palm frond to right. Emmett 3146. 11.99g, 24mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous. Arguably one of the finest known.

300

468. Philip I AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. AD 249. AYTOK K M IOΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ΔHMAPX EΞOYCIAC YΠATOΔ, eagle standing left holding wreath in beak; ANTIOXIA SC in in two lines in exergue. Prieur 444; McAlee 935. 14.66g, 27mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

149

200


470 469 469. Otacilia Severa Æ28 of Heliopolis, Syria. AD 244-249. OTACILIA SEVERA AVG, draped bust right, with crescent at shoulder / COL IVL AVG FEL, the Tyche of Heliopolis, wearing chiton, peplos and turreted head-dress, standing facing, holding rudder and cornucopiae; naked male to left and right, inflated veil above held aloft by two female figures on pedestals; HEL in exergue. BMC 24; SNG Copenhagen 436. 18.12g, 28mm, 12h. Very Fine. Sand patina. 150 470. Philip II AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. AD 244-249. AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ΔHMAPX EΞOYCIAC YΠATOΔ, eagle standing left holding wreath in beak; ANTIOXIA SC in in two lines in exergue. Prieur 473; McAlee 1043. 13.37g, 26mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. 200

471. Trajan Decius AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. Circa AD 250-251. AYT K Γ ME KY TPAIANOC ΔEKIOC CEB, radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; S below bust truncation / ΔHMAPX EΞOYCIAC, eagle with head right, tail left and wings spread, standing on palm; SC in exergue. Prieur -; RPC IX -; Unpublished in the standard references. 12.71g, 25mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Centrally struck on a planchet of generally good metal. Toned.

250

472. Herennia Etruscilla AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. AD 249-251. EPENNIA ETROYCKIΛΛA CEB, diademed and draped bust right, resting on a crescent; [•• below bust] / ΔHMAPX EΞOYCIAC, eagle standing right on palm branch, holding wreath in beak. McAlee 1165b; Prieur 608 (citing 4). 12.74g, 25mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

200

473. Gallienus Ӕ28 of Berytus, Phoenicia. AD 253-268. IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate bust right, wearing paludamentum and cuirass / Lion walking left; inscription around and in exergue, COL IVL AVG FEL BERV. BMC 270; Rouvier 616. 15.10g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Pleasing sand patina. Very Rare, with no examples listed on CoinArchives.

250

The Usurper Domitius Domitianus

474. Domitius Domitianus BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated year 2 = AD 297/8. ΔOMETIANOC CEB, laureate head right / Nike advancing right on ground line, holding wreath in outstretched right hand and palm frond over left shoulder; L-B (date) across fields. Köln 3368; Dattari (Savio) 6183; K&G 126.6; Emmett 4244. 7.77g, 18mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

150

1,000


COINS OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Extremely Rare Half Unit

475. Anonymous Æ Half Unit. After 276 BC. Helmeted head of Roma left, bowl decorated with griffin; [star behind], ROMANO before / Horse’s head left, ROMANO around. Balbi De Caro, RIN 1988, p. 118, II.d (only five specimens cited); Crawford 17/1i var.; HN Italy 278. 5.69g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

900

From the Alban Collection.

476. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Neapolis(?), circa 276-265 BC. Diademed head of Hercules right, wearing lion skin around neck; club on shoulder / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; ROMANO in exergue. Crawford 20/1; RSC 8; RBW 23; HN Italy 287. 6.76g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

1,500

477. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Neapolis(?), circa 276-265 BC. Diademed head of Hercules right, wearing lion skin around neck; club on shoulder / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; ROMANO in exergue. Crawford 20/1; RSC 8; RBW 23; HN Italy 287. 7.19g, 22mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

478. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome, circa 240 BC. Head of Mars right, wearing Corinthian helmet adorned with griffin / Horse’s head right, wearing bridle; falx behind, ROMA below. Crawford 25/1; RSC 34. 6.70g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

151

4,000


479. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome, 234-231 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Horse prancing left, ROMA above. Crawford 26/1. 6.51g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant old tone.

5,000

Privately purchased from Tradart. After the victory over the Samnites, the Senate instated a new, standardised monetary system. For the first two decades, bronze bars were the predominant issues, after which point silver coinage began to appear. This type is from what H. Mattingly describes as ‘Mint D’ which he locates either at Apulia or Beneventum. The legend on the older design (struck from 269 BC onwards) was ROMANO which had been shortened to ROMA by the time this type was struck, however the significance of this is unclear. Showing distinct Greek influence, this is a fine example of early Roman silver coinage. Cf. Mattingly, H, The First Age of Roman Coinage, The Journal of Roman Studies 35, Parts 1 and 2 (1945), pp. 65-77.

480. Anonymous Æ Litra. Rome, 234-231 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below. Crawford 26/3. 2.76g, 15mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

100

481. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, in quadriga to right, driven by Victory; ROMA incuse on tablet below. Crawford 28/3; RSC 23. 6.65g, 24mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

750

482. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, in quadriga to right, driven by Victory; ROMA incuse on tablet below. Crawford 28/3; RSC 23. 6.66g, 24mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

750

483. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, in quadriga to right, driven by Victory; ROMA incuse on tablet below. Crawford 28/3; RSC 23. 6.61g, 22mm, 11h. About Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone. Ex H. D. Rauch 95, 30 September 2014, lot 274.

152

750


484. Anonymous Cast Æ As. Rome, circa 225-217 BC. Libral standard. Laureate head of bearded Janus; horizontal I (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk / Prow of galley right; I (mark of value) above; all on a raised disk. Crawford 35/1; HN Italy 337; ICC 74. 249.91g, 63mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

2,000

From the Alban Collection.

486

485

485. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; V (mark of value) behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right; ROMA below in linear frame. Crawford 47/1a; King 3; RSC -. 1.81g, 15mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. 200 486. Anonymous AR Victoriatus. Rome, after 211 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right / Victory standing right, crowning trophy. Crawford 53/1; RSC 9. 3.27g, 17mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Lightly toned and lustrous. 500

488 487 487. Anonymous AR Victoriatus. Rome, 211-208 BC. Laureate bust of Jupiter right; bead and reel border / Victory standing right, crowning trophy; V in field; ROMA in exergue. Crawford 97/1a. 3.08g, 17mm, 4h. Near Mint State. Iridescent tone. 300 488. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Apulia, circa 211-210 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, V behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right; MT ligate below horse on right, ROMA in linear frame below. Crawford 103/2a; RSC 33h; King 27. 1.85g, 17mm, 10h. Very Fine. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica B, 26 February 1992, lot 1602; Ex Auktion Tigurina–Adolph Hess AG & Erwin Dietrich, 27 October 1988, lot 92.

200

Extremely Rare Sow Series Denarius

489. Sow series AR Denarius. Rome, circa 206-195 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right, sow below horses; ROMA in partial tablet. Crawford 121/2. 3.45g, 20mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only six examples on CoinArchives.

From the Alban Collection.

153

2,000


490. Female head series AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, circa 206-200 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind / The Dioscuri riding right; female head below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 127/1; RSC Horatia 1. 3.86g, 20mm, 3h. Near Very Fine. Rare.

100

Very Rare L. Autronius Denarius

491. L. Autronius AR Denarius. Rome, 189-180 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; two stars above, AVTR monogram below. Crawford 146/1; Autronia 1. 4.00g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and exceedingly well preserved for the type.

1,500

From the Alban Collection.

492

493

494

492. Q. Marcius Libo AR Denarius. Rome, 148 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, LIBO behind / The Dioscuri on horseback to right, Q•MARC below horses, ROMA in linear frame below. Crawford 215/1; RSC Marcia 1. 3.68g, 20mm, 3h, Good Very Fine. 150 493. C. Antestius AR Denarius. Rome, circa 146 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; C•ANTESTI behind, X below chin / The Dioscuri on horseback charging right, each holding a couched spear, dog running to right below; ROMA on tablet in exergue. Crawford 219/1e; Kestner 2076-7; BMCRR Rome 859; Antestia 1. 3.69g, 20mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. 250 Ex Triton XVII, 7 January 2014, lot 501; Ex Archer M. Huntington Collection, ANS 1001.1.22634. 494. Cn. Gellius AR Denarius. Rome, 138 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, X behind; all within laurel wreath / Mars and Nerio in quadriga right; CN•GEL below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 232/1. 3.86g, 19mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

150

495. C. Servilius M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 136 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; wreath behind; ROMA below / Dioscuri riding apart; C SERVEILI•M•F in exergue. Crawford 239/1; Servilia 1. 3.82g, 18mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. An uncommonly well detailed example, displaying both complete Dioscuri.

500

496. M. Marcius M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 134 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, XVI monogram below chin, modius behind / Victory in biga right, M MARC ROMA in two lines below horses, divided by two ears of corn. Marcia 8; Crawford 245/1. 3.96g, 19mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine.

154

300


497. M. Acilius M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 130 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, M•ACILIVS•M•F around within two dotted lines / Hercules, holding trophy and club, walking right in quadriga, ROMA in exergue. Acilia 4; Crawford 255/1. 3.92g, 20mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Attractive golden toning; highly lustrous.

750

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 376.

498. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus AR Denarius. Rome, 128 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; XVI monogram below chin, corn-ear behind / Victory in biga right; ROMA above, man spearing a lion below, CN•DOM in exergue. Crawford 261/1; RSC Domitia 14. 3.82g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

125

499. M. Furius L. f. Philus AR Denarius. Rome, 120 BC. Laureate head of Janus, M•FOVRI•L•F around / Roma standing left, holding wreath and sceptre; to left, trophy of Gallic arms flanked by a carnyx and shield on each side; star above, ROMA to right, PHI(ligate)•L•I in exergue. Crawford 281/1; RSC Furia 18. 3.96g, 19mm, 2h. Near Mint State. In excellent state of preservation for the type.

500

500. L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius AR Serrate Denarius. Narbo, circa 118 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, L•POMPONI•CNF• around / Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) driving galloping biga right, hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx; L•LIC•CN•DOM in exergue. Crawford 282/4; RSC Pomponia 7a. 3.96g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

300

Superb L. Marcius Philippus Denarius

501. L. Marcius Philippus AR Denarius. Rome, 113-112 BC. Head of Philip V of Macedon right, wearing diademed royal Macedonian helmet with goat horns; Roma monogram to upper left, Φ below chin / Equestrian statue right on tablet inscribed L•PHILIPPVS, holding laurel branch; flower below horse; mark of value in exergue. Crawford 293/1; Marcia 12. 3.82g, 18mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. Sound, lustrous metal. A suberb example of the type.

155

1,000


503 502 502. L. Valerius Flaccus AR Denarius. Rome, 108-107 BC. Draped bust of Victory right; below chin, XVI monogram / Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy; apex before, grain ear behind, L•VALERI•[FLACCI] in two lines downward in left field. Crawford 306/1; RSC Valeria 11. 3.57g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. 200 503. L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 106 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter left / Jupiter driving fast quadriga right, holding sceptre and reins and hurling thunderbolt; N• above, L•SCIP•ASIAG in exergue. Crawford 311/1d. 3.92g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 250 Privately purchased from Den of Antiquity, Coinex 2014.

504. L. Thorius Balbus AR Denarius. Rome, 105 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; I•S•M•R downwards behind / Bull charging right; P above, L•THORIVS below, BALBVS in exergue. Crawford 316/1; RSC Thoria 1. 3.88g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

400

506 505 505. L. Cassius Caecianus AR Denarius. Rome, 102 B.C. Bust of Ceres left; CAEICIAV G • behind / Yoke of oxen left; plough; X P• above; L CASSI in exergue. Crawford 321/1. 3.67g, 19mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. A very attractive example with beautiful lustre. 250 506. C. Allius Bala AR Denarius. Rome, 92 BC. Diademed female head right; BALA behind, T below chin / Diana in biga of stags to right, with quiver over shoulder and holding sceptre and reins in left hand and torch in right, grasshopper below horses, C•ALLI in exergue; all within laurel wreath. Crawford 336/1b; RSC Allia 4. 3.90g, 17mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. 200 From the Alban Collection.

Very Rare Social War Denarius

507. The Social War, C. Papius AR Denarius. Mint moving Papius in Campania, circa 90 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Mars right; mark of value X• and Viteliú in Oscan characters / Oath-taking scene of four soldiers, two on each side, pointing their swords at pig held by kneeling youth; in exergue, C•PAAPI•C• (retrograde and in Oscan characters). Campana 83; HN Italy 425; RBW 1225. 3.85g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine, pleasant and lustrous metal. Overstruck on a coin of L. Flaminius. Very Rare. 3,500 From the Alban Collection. Marcus Livius Drusus, who was Tribune of the Plebeians in 91 BC, attempted to bring Roman citizenship to the Italian allies. This, along with his land reform proposals, proved unpopular with the Senate and Roman landowners and he was assassinated before his plans were actioned. With the promise of citizenship rights removed, a rebellion of the Italian allies began, known as the Social War (cf. Livy, Periochae 71). During this war, the allies struck coins which were often inspired by the types found on Roman denarii, with some, like the present example, detailing the names of the rebel generals.

156


508. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 90 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Naked horseman galloping to right, holding whip; ear of grain above, L•PISO•FRVGI and ROMA in two lines below. Crawford 340/1; RSC Calpurnia 12. 3.89g, 19mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

509. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 90 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; XXXXV behind / Naked horseman galloping right carrying long palm; ↓XV above, L•PISO FRVGI and ROMA monogram below. Crawford 340/1; Calpurnia 12. 3.89g, 19mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine.

150

Ex Classical Numismatic Group e309, 21 August 2013, lot 218.

510. C. Norbanus AR Denarius. Rome, 83 BC. Diademed head of Venus right; C•NORBANVS below, CXXXXVII behind / Ear of barley, fasces, and caduceus. Crawford 357/1b; RSC Norbana 2. 4.17g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

200

511. P. Crepusius AR Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; control-letter and sceptre behind / Horseman riding right, brandishing spear; control-numeral above; P•CREPVSI in exergue. Crawford 361/1; RSC Crepusia 1. 3.74g, 18mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

512. L. Censorinus AR Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Marsyas standing left, holding wineskin over shoulder; to right, column surmounted by statue of Minerva (?) standing left; L•CENSOR downwards to left. Crawford 363/1d; RSC Marcia 24. 3.71g, 18mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive cabinet tone.

400

From the Alban Collection.

513. L. Censorinus AR Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Marsyas standing left, holding wineskin over shoulder; to right, column surmounted by statue of Minerva (?) standing left; L•CENSOR downwards to left. Crawford 363/1d; RSC Marcia 24. 3.90g, 17mm, 4h. Near Mint State.

157

300


514. L. Censorinus AR Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Marsyas standing left, holding wineskin over shoulder; to right, column surmounted by statue of Minerva (?) standing left; L•CENSOR downwards to left. Crawford 363/1d; RSC Marcia 24. 3.77g, 18mm, 8h. Very Fine.

125

515. Q. Antonius Balbus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right; •C before, S•C behind / Victory driving quadriga right, holding reins, wreath, and palm frond; Q•ANTO•BALB PR in two lines in exergue. Crawford 364/1c; RSC Antonia 1b. 4.03g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

516. C. Annius T. f. T. n. and L. Fabius Hispaniensis AR Denarius. North Italy and Spain, 82-81 BC. C•ANNI•T•F•T•N•V•PRO• COS•EX•S•C•, diademed, draped bust of Anna Perenna right; scales before, winged caduceus behind, Carnyx below / Victory driving quadriga right, holding reins and palm-branch; Q above, [L•]FABI•L•F•H[ISP] in exergue. Crawford 366/1a; RSC Annia 2a. 3.69g, 20mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

300

517. Q. Fabius Maximus AR Denarius. Restoration issue under Sulla, Rome, 82-80 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; Q•MAX below, ROMA behind, lyre and monogram before / Cornucopiae over thunderbolt, all within wreath. Crawford 371/1; RSC Fabia 6. 3.88g, 17mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine.

250

Ex Karl Sifferman Collection, Classical Numismatic Group E-Sale 171, 22 August 2007, lot 173.

518. A. Postumius A. f. Sp. n. Albinus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 81 BC. Head of Hispania right, wearing veil; HISPAN behind / Togate figure standing left, raising right hand; legionary eagle to left, fasces with axe to right; A - ALBIN - N•S across fields; POST•A•F in exergue. Crawford 372/2; Postumia 8. 3.79g, 20mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

200

519. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Uncertain mint, 81 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Victory standing right, crowning trophy with wreath; IIX between. Crawford 373/1b; King 50. 1.84g, 14mm, 8h. Good Very Fine.

158

100


520. L. Procilius AR Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right, S•C behind / Juno Sospita advancing right, hurling spear and holding shield decorated with thunderbolt; L•PROCILI•F downwards to left, serpent to right. Crawford 379/1; RSC Procilia 1. 4.09g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

250

521. C. Poblicius Q. f. AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Draped bust of Roma right, helmet decorated with corn ears and control mark above head, ROMA behind / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion, club at his feet, bow and arrow on left; C•POBLICI•Q•F on right. Poblicia 9; Crawford 380/1. 3.75g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

200

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 51, 5 March 2009, lot 711.

522. Ti. Claudius Ti. f. Ap. n. Nero AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 79 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; S•C before / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins, palm frond and wreath; CXXXXII below; T•CLAVD•TI•F AP•N in exergue. Crawford 383/1; RSC Claudia 6. 3.86g, 19mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine; scratching on obv.

150

523. L. Papius AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 79 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat’s skin; symbol behind / Griffin springing right; symbol below; L• PAPI in exergue. Crawford 384/1; RSC Papia 1. 3.93g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful iridescent toning.

1,000

524. L. Papius AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 79 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat’s skin; aplustre behind / Griffin springing right; prow of galley below; L• PAPI in exergue. Crawford 384/1; RSC Papia 1. 3.98g, 18mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant toning.

159

300


525. M. Volteius M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 78 BC. Head of young Hercules right, wearing lion skin headdress / Erymanthian Boar charging right; M•VOLTEI•M•F in exergue. Crawford 385/2; RSC Volteia 2. 4.02g, 17mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

400

From the Alban Collection.

526. L. Cassius Q. f. Longinus AR Denarius. Rome, 78 BC. Head of Liber (or Bacchus) right, wearing ivy wreath; thyrsus over shoulder / Head of Liber left, wearing vine wreath; L•CASSI•Q•F behind. Crawford 386/1; Cassia 6. 3.93g, 20mm, 7h. Very Fine.

150

527. P. Satrienus AR Denarius. Rome, 77 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, control mark XI / She-wolf left; ROMA above, P•SATRIE-NVS in exergue. Crawford 388/1b; Satriena 1. 4.00g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State; dig on obv. Highly lustrous metal with light golden tone.

150

528. L. Rustius AR Denarius. Rome, 76 BC. Helmeted head of Mars right; S•C behind, XVI monogram below chin / Ram standing right; L•RVSTI below. Crawford 389/1; Rustia 1. 3.90g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

529. L. Lucretius Trio AR Denarius. Rome, 74 BC. Laureate head of Neptune right, trident at shoulder and control number behind / Infant Genius riding dolphin right; L•LVCRETI TRIO in two lines below. Crawford 390/2; Lucretia 3. 3.76g, 17mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Very well detailed reverse.

500

530. L. Lucretius Trio AR Denarius. Rome, 74 BC. Laureate head of Neptune right, trident at shoulder and control number behind / Infant Genius riding dolphin right; L•LVCRETI TRIO in two lines below. Crawford 390/2; RSC Lucretia 3. 3.89g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Very attractively toned. Ex Archer M. Huntington Collection, ANS 1001.1.24776.

160

500


531. C. Postumius AR Denarius. Rome, 74 BC. Draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder / Hound running right, spear below; C•POSTVMI and TA monogram in exergue. Crawford 394/1a; RSC Postumia 9. 3.93g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

250

532. C. Piso L. f. Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 67 BC. Head of Apollo right, hair bound with taenia; control mark behind / Horseman galloping right, holding reins and palm; control mark above, C·PISO·L·F·FRVG in exergue. Crawford 408/1a. 3.71g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

250

533. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. Rome, 66 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, sandal behind / Thalia standing left, holding comic mask, resting elbow on column; Q POMPONI on right, MVSA on left. Crawford 410/9b. 3.85g, 18mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

Thalia, like all the Muses, is the daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne and the eighth born of the nine. Her name means ‘the joyous’, or ‘the flourishing’, and she presides over comedy and idyllic poetry.

534. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. Rome, 66 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; wreath behind / Polyhymnia facing, wearing wreath; Q•POMPONI downwards to right, MVSA downwards to left. Crawford 410/10a; RSC Pomponia 15. 3.50g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very well centred and attractively toned. Rare.

600

535. L. Manlius Torquatus AR Denarius. Rome, 65 BC. Ivy-wreathed head of Sybil right, SIBYLLA below neck truncation / L•TORQVAT III•VIR, tripod on which stands amphora flanked by two stars; all within torque. Crawford 411/1b; RSC Manlia 12. 3.82g, 17mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

300

536. C. Servilius C. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 57 BC. FLORA•PRIMVS, head of Flora right, wearing flower-wreath, lituus behind / Two soldiers standing confronted, each holding a shield and upright short sword, C•F in lower right field; C•SERVEIL in exergue. Crawford 423/1; RSC Servilia 15. 4.03g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

161

300


An Extremely Rare Eight-Arch Variant

537. L. Marcius Philippus AR Denarius. Rome, 57 BC. Diademed head of Ancus Marcius right, lituus behind; ANCVS below / Equestrian statue rearing right on aqueduct of eight arches; flower below horse; PHILIPPVS downwards to left; AQVA MARC in exergue. Crawford 425/1 var. (legend in exergue); Marcia 29 var. (six arches). 3.95g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. A variety of the greatest rarity.

1,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 1765 (mistakenly catalogued as the ordinary Marcia 28, Crawford 425/1 variety). From the Alban Collection.

539

538

538. C. Memmius C.f., AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing wreath of grain ears; C•MEMMI•C•F downwards before / Naked captive, his hands tied behind, kneeling right, on right knee, at foot of trophy of arms with a Greek shield; C•MEMMIVS downwards to right, IMPERATOR downwards to left. Crawford 427/1; RSC Memmia 10. 4.02g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 250 539. C. Memmius C.f., AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Laureate head of Quirinus right; QVIRINVS behind, C•MEMMI•C•F downwards before / Ceres seated right, holding torch and corn-ears, snake before; MEMMIVS•AED•CERIALIA•PREIMVS•FECIT around. Crawford 427/2; RSC Memmia 9. 3.61g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; banker’s mark on obv. 250

541 540 540. Q. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Q•CASSIVS VEST, veiled head of Vesta right / Curule chair within circular temple of Vesta between urn and vota tablet inscribed AC. Crawford 428/1. 3.88g,19mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. 300 541. P. Licinius Crassus AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Diademed, laureate and draped bust of Venus right, [S•C behind] / Female figure leading horse left with right hand, and holding spear in left; at her feet, cuirass and shield; P•CRASSVS•M•F around. Crawford 430/1; RSC Licinia 18. 4.07g, 20mm, 5h. Very Fine. 200

543 542 542. Cn. Plancius AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Head of Diana Planciana right, wearing petasus; CN•PLANCIVS AED•CVR•S•C around / Cretan ibex standing right, bow and quiver behind. Plancia 1; Crawford 432/1. 3.93g, 18mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. 400 543. Man. Acilius Glabrio AR Denarius. Rome, 49 BC. Laureate head of Salus right; SALVTIS behind / Salus standing left, leaning against column and holding serpent; MN•ACILIVS behind; III•VIR•VALETV before. Crawford 442/1a; RSC Acilia 8. 3.98g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 150

162


545

544

544. Man. Acilius Glabrio AR Denarius. Rome, 49 BC. Laureate head of Salus right; SALVTIS behind / Salus standing left, leaning against column and holding serpent; MN•ACILIVS behind; III•VIR•VALETV before. Crawford 442/1a; RSC Acilia 8. 3.91g, 19mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Lustrous metal with wonderful iridescence. 100 545. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Female head right, wearing oak wreath / L•HOSTILIVS SASERN, Victory walking right, holding trophy over left shoulder, and caduceus in right hand. Crawford 448/1b. 4.09g, 18mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. 200

547

546

546. C. Vibius C. f. C. n. Pansa Caetronianus AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Mask of bearded Pan right; PANSA below / Jupiter Axurus (or Anxurus) seated left, holding patera in right hand, sceptre in left; C•VIBIVS•C•F•C•N IOVIS•AXVR around. Crawford 449/1a; CRI 20; Kestner 3543; BMCRR Rome 3978; Vibia 18. 3.91g, 18mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Pleasantly toned, and very complete for the type.

400

547. P. Accoleius Lariscolus AR Denarius. Rome, 43 BC. Draped bust of Diana Nemorensis right; P•ACCOLEIVS upwards to left, LARISCOLVS downwards to right / Triple cult statue of Diana Nemorensis facing, supporting on their hands and shoulders a beam, above which are five cypress trees; the figure on left holding a poppy, that on right holding a lily. Crawford 486/1; RSC Accoleia 1. 3.69g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. 250

549

548

548. P. Accoleius Lariscolus AR Denarius. Rome, 43 BC. Draped bust of Diana Nemorensis right, P•ACCOLEIVS upwards to left, LARISCOLVS downwards to right / Triple cult statue of Diana Nemorensis facing, supporting on their hands and shoulders a beam, above which are five cypress trees; the figure on left holding a poppy, that on right holding a lily. Crawford 486/1; RSC Accoleia 1. 3.71g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 200 549. P. Clodius M. f. Turrinus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right; lyre behind / Diana standing facing, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lighted torch in each hand; P•CLODIVS M•F across fields. Crawford 494/23; RSC Claudia 15. 3.58g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Lightly toned and lustrous. 200

Very Rare Mussidius Longus Denarius

550. L. Mussidius Longus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Draped bust of Victory right / Victory in prancing biga to right; L•MVSSIDIVS above, LONGVS below. Mussidia 4; Sear Imperators 186; Crawford 494/40. 3.77g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine, unobtrusive banker’s mark. Very complete and in fine style for the issue. Very Rare. From the Alban Collection.

163

2,500


551. L. Mussidius Longus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Veiled head of Concordia right; XVI monogram below chin, CONCORDIA behind / Shrine of Venus Cloacina, inscribed CLOACIN; L•MVSSIDIVS•LONGVS above. Crawford 494/42b; BMC 4244. 4.14g, 20mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

300

COINS OF THE IMPERATORS

552. Cnaeus Pompey Magnus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Pompey, 49 BC. CN•PISO PRO•Q•, head of Numa Pompilius right wearing diadem inscribed NVMA / Prow of galley right; MAGN above; PRO•COS below. BMC 62; Crawford 446/1; Calpurnia 30. 3.69g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

500

553. Sextus Pompey Ӕ As. Spain or Sicily, 45 BC. Laureate head of Janus, with the features of Cn. Pompeius Magnus; [MGN] above / Prow right; [PIVS] above, IMP below. Crawford 479/1; RPC I 671. 22.25g, 31mm, 12h. Very Fine.

250

554. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Sicily, 42-40 BC. The Pharos of Messana surmounted by a statue of Neptune; in foreground, galley left adorned with legionary eagle, sceptre and trident; [MAG•PIVS•IM]P•ITER around / Scylla left, wielding a rudder in both hands; PRÆF•[CLAS•ET•ORÆ•MAR IT•EX•S•C] around. Crawford 511/4; Sear, Imperators 335. 3.92g, 19mm, 3h. Areas of flatness, otherwise Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Randy Haviland Collection; Ex UBS Auction 55, 16 September 2002, lot 1866.

555. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Sear 9; Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49; Kestner 3515-20; BMCRR Gaul 27-30; RBW 1557. 3.83g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautifully lustrous surfaces.

164

1,000


Extremely Rare Caesar Denarius

556.

Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Caesar, 48-47 BC. Diademed female head right, wearing oak-wreath, cruciform earring, and pearl necklace; IIT behind / Gallic trophy holding oval shield and carnyx above bearded captive (Vercingetorix?) seated to right on ground with hands tied behind back, wearing neck torque; CAESAR across field. Crawford 452/4; Kestner -; BMCRR Rome 3959; RSC 19a. 3.61g, 19mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine, a couple of very minor marks. Extremely Rare.

20,000

With the help of his political allies, Caesar had succeeded in making himself the governor of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, with Transalpine Gaul later added, giving him command of four legions. The term of this governorship, and therefore his immunity from prosecution, was set at an extraordinary five years, instead of the usual one. Deeply in debt, Caesar wasted little time in taking advantage of the unstable situation in Gaul to expand his territory through conquest, and thicken his holdings with plunder. What eventually became known as Caesar’s Gallic campaign was initially a piecemeal affair, but within six years he had expanded Roman rule over the whole of Gaul. Following years of relative success, mainly thanks to the disconnected nature of the tribes allowing him to take them on separately, he was faced with the chief of the Arverni tribe, Vercingetorix, who too late had built a confederation to stand against Caesar. In 52 BC, despite formidable resistance, Caesar finally defeated Vercingetorix at the Battle (or Siege) of Alesia. This illegal war which by Caesar’s own account had left a million dead, was instrumental in elevating him to a position of supreme power among the statesmen of the late Republic, making him incredibly wealthy through war booty, and also making him dangerously popular with the plebs. Struck in the course of Caesar’s war against the Senatorial faction led by Pompey and later Metellus Scipio, Caesar’s triumphant coinage trumpets his military achievements and conquest in Gaul, while reminding the bearer also of his claimed descent from Venus through Aeneas. The reverse figure tied below the trophy of arms is popularly believed to depict the defeated Vercingetorix. Although Crawford and Sear are sceptical of this identification, it has often been said that the carefully rendered details of the figure, from the prominent brow and sunken eyes to the torque around his neck are highly suggestive of an individualised portrait. In 48/7 BC the defeated Gallic chieftain still languished in the Tullianum, the underground prison beneath the Comitium. He would be hauled out for Caesar’s triumph in 46, then returned to his cell and strangled. This type is an early example of what would become a standard representation on Roman imperial coinage of a defeated captive seated on the ground beneath or beside a trophy of arms, a type proclaiming conquest that was used to great effect by Vespasian and Titus following their victorious campaign­in Judaea.

165


557. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Caesar, 48-47 BC. Diademed female head right, wearing oak-wreath, cruciform earring, and pearl necklace; LII behind / Trophy of Gallic arms; axe surmounted by an animal’s head to right; CAESAR below. Crawford 452/2; RSC 18. 3.83g, 19mm, 7h. Virtually as struck.

1,250

Ex Auctiones 17, 7 June 1988, lot 493; Ex Leu 30, 28 April 1982, lot 265. Since the numerals behind the head of Pietas have long been recognized to represent Caesar’s age at the time, this denarius was struck shortly after the battle of Pharsalus, where Pompey met his ultimate defeat, and Caesar became master of Rome. The reverse deliberately references Caesar’s Gallic victories, rather than his recent victory over fellow Romans, the celebration of which would have been distasteful; Caesar’s conduct after the battle was similarly conciliatory - he forgave the large part of Pompey’s officers and army. The depiction of Pietas wearing the corona civica, or oak wreath, however, may be a subtle allusion to his Pompeian victory. This award was granted to any citizen who had personally saved the life of another citizen; in this case, Caesar had saved the citizen-body of Rome and the Republic from further civil war.

558. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. African mint, 47-46 BC. Diademed head of Venus right / Aeneas advancing left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder; CAESAR to right. Crawford 458/1; RSC 12. 3.85g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State, lightly toned.

500

559. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. African mint, 47-46 BC. Diademed head of Venus right / Aeneas advancing left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder; CAESAR to right. Crawford 458/1; RSC 12. 3.91g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

560. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Head of Venus right, wearing stephane; Cupid behind shoulder / Trophy of Gallic arms between two seated captives: female resting head in right hand to left, and bearded male with hands tied behind back on right; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/1; CRI 58; RSC 13; Kestner 3641-3643; BMCRR Spain 86. 3.89g, 18mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

561. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 46 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing grain ear wreath; COS•TERT downwards behind, DICT•ITER upwards before / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, capis, and lituus; [D to right], AVGVR above, PONT•MAX below. Crawford 467/1a; RSC 4a. 3.97g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

166

500


562. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, February-March 44 BC. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Wreathed head of Caesar right; CAESAR DICT PERPETVO around / Venus Victrix standing left, head lowered, holding Victory and sceptre; shield set on ground to right, P SEPVLLIVS MACER around. Crawford 480/10; CRI 107a; RSC 38. 3.69g, 18mm, 10h. Good Very Fine.

500

563. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Struck under Marc Antony. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Rome, April-May 44 BC. Tetrastyle temple with globe in pediment; CLEMENTIAE • CAESARIS / Desultor (horseman who leaps from one horse to another), wearing conical cap and holding whip, right on horseback, second horse behind; palm frond and wreath to left; P • SEPVLLIVS above, MACER below. Crawford 480/21; Alföldi Type XXII, 32-40 (A2/R2); CRI 110; Kestner 3692; BMCRR Rome 4177; RSC 44. 3.90g, 18mm,1h. Near Very Fine. Very Rare.

300

Ex Harlan J. Berk 166, 15 October 2009, lot 284

564. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Mint moving with Brutus, 43-42 BC. Head of Libertas right; LEIBERTAS before / CAEPIO•BRVTVS•PRO•COS, plectrum, lyre and laurel branch tied with fillet. Crawford 501/1; RSC Junia 34. 3.85g, 18mm, 1h. Very Fine. Irregular flan, slightly porous.

250

Ex Hervera Auction 59, 20 April 2010, lot 90; Ex Giessener Münzhandlung 50, 24 September 1990, lot 517.

565. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in Western Asia Minor or Northern Greece, 43-42 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; COSTA LEG around / Trophy of arms; IMP BRVTVS around. Crawford 506/2; RSC 4. 3.86g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. Attractive old tone, banker’s punch on rev.

300

566. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus and C. Flavius Hemicullus AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Brutus, 43-42 BC. Draped bust of Apollo right, lyre in front; C•FLAV•HEMIC•LEG•PRO•PR around / Victory standing left, crowning trophy with wreath; Q•CAEP below, BRVT to right, IMP to left. Crawford 504/1; Sear 205. 3.70g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

The military imagery on this type is presumably related to Brutus’ operations in Thrace and Lycia prior to the final engagement with Octavian and Antony at Philippi. The precise identity of the legate C. Flavius Hemicullus has not been established, and there are a number of accounts which paint an unclear image of his role. In his correspondence to Atticus, Cicero makes mention of a ‘Flavius Noster’, and Plutarch relates that ‘Flavius, Brutus’ chief of engineers’ came to him in his last hours. This indicates some confusion since the obverse legend names Flavius as ‘legatus pro praetore’. Appian recalls another Flavius, with the correct praenomen of Gaius, as an enemy of Octavian. Whilst very little is known about Brutus’ legate, it is of interest to note that the style of the engraving, particularly the obverse, is very different to that of Brutus’ contemporary issues; the Apollo portrait present on Crawford 503/1 is of almost identical style to the local Lycian silver currency.

167


567. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Quinarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in western Asia Minor or northern Greece, spring-early summer 42 BC. Diademed head of Libertas right; LEIBERTAS before / Stem of prow and anchor in saltire. Crawford 506/3; CRI 210; King 79; RSC 5a. 1.67g, 13mm, 10h. Very Fine. Rare.

300

568. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus in Asia Minor, 42 BC. Veiled and draped bust of Libertas right; L•SESTI PRO•Q around; P in left field / Tripod between sacrificial axe and simpulum, all within beaded border; Q•CAEPIO•BRVTVS•PRO COS around. Crawford 502/2; RSC Junia 37. 3.73g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

750

569. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in western Asia Minor or northern Greece, late summer-autumn 42 BC. L. Plaetorius Cestianus, moneyer. Laureate, veiled and draped female bust right, wearing polos on top of her head; L•PLAET•CEST around / Sacrificial axe and simpulum; BRVTVS below. Crawford 508/2; CRI 214; RSC 2; Kestner 3780; BMCRR East 66-67. 3.88g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Struck on a very broad flan. Light surface deposits. Rare.

2,000

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

570. C. Cassius Longinus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus (Smyrna?), 43-42 BC. C•CASSI IMP, tripod with cauldron, decorated with two laurel-branches / LENTVLVS SPINT, jug and lituus. Crawford 500/1; RSC 7. 3.83g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State; struck on sound and lustrous metal. Lightly toned.

1,500

571. C. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Military mint, probably at Smyrna, Spring 42 BC. P. Lentulus Spinther, legate. Diademed and draped head of Libertas right; LEIBERTAS before, C•CASSI•IMP behind / Capis and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/3; RSC 4. 3.62g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Attractive iridescent tone.

500

572. C. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Military mint, probably at Smyrna, Spring 42 BC. P. Lentulus Spinther, legate. Diademed and draped bust of Libertas right; LEIBERTAS before, C•CASSI•IMP behind / Capis and lituus; LENTVLVS SPINT in two lines below. Crawford 500/5; RSC 6. 3.74g, 18mm, 6h. About Very Fine.

168

250


573. Cn. Domitius Calvinus AR Denarius. Osca, 39 BC. Head of Hercules right; OSCA downwards behind / Simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex; DOM•COS•ITER•IMP around. Crawford 532/1. 3.55g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Toned.

500

Ex Auctiones AG Auction 11, 30 September 1980, lot 368.

574. M. Aemilius Lepidus and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Lepidus in Italy, November-December 43 BC. Bare head of Lepidus right; LEPIDVS•PONT•MAX•III•V•R•P•C• around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IM[P•III•]VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 495/2a; RSC 2a. 3.75g, 20mm, 8h. Near Very Fine.

500

Ex Karl Sifferman Collection, Classical Numismatic Group e171, 22 August 2007, lot 290.

575. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Rome, 44 BC. Bearded head of Antony to right, wearing veil, lituus in right field, jug in left / P SEPVLLIVS MACER, desultor with two horses to right, holding reins and whip, palm branch and wreath in left field. Crawford 480/22; C. 74; Sear 142. 3.26g, 19mm, 4h. Near Very Fine. Very Rare.

250

Ex Karl Sifferman Collection, Classical Numismatic Group e171, 22 August 2007, lot 291.

577

576

576. Marc Antony AR Quinarius. Late summer-autumn 43 BC. Military mint travelling with Antony and Lepidus in Transalpine Gaul. Lituus, capis, and raven standing left on ground line; M A(N)T IMP above / Victory standing right, holding palm frond, crowning trophy with wreath. Crawford 489/4; CRI 121; RSC 82; Kestner 3716; BMCRR Gaul 36; CNR II 133. 1.86g, 14mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 250 577. Marc Antony AR Quinarius. Lugdunum, early 42 BC. Winged bust of Victory right, with the likeness of Fulvia; M•VIR•R•P•C around / Lion walking right; XLI across fields; ANTONI above; IMP in exergue. Crawford 489/6; Lyon 3; King 76; CRI 126; RSC 3 (Fulvia). 1.77g, 13mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Scarce. 250

578. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Mint travelling with Antony in Greece and Asia, Autumn 42 BC. Bare head of Antonius right; [lituus and IMP behind] / Radiate head of Sol right, M•ANTONIVS III•VIR•R•P•C. Crawford 496/3; CRI 129; RSC 70a. 3.62g, 19mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

169

500


579. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Antony in Greece, 42 BC. M•ANTONI IMP, bare head right / [III] VIR R•P•C, facing head of Sol on disk within distyle temple. Crawford 496/1; CRI 128; RSC 12. 3.97g, 17mm, 10h. Good Very Fine.

750

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica L, 18 May 2001, lot 2003.

580. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•B[ARBAT•Q•P] around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; RSC 8a. 3.80g, 21mm, 10h. Good Very Fine, several banker’s marks. Light tone.

1,000

Two Rare Antony Denarii

581. Marc Antony and Lucius Antony AR Denarius. Ephesus, late summer 41 BC. M. Nerva, quaestor pro praetore. Bare head of Mark Antony right; capis to left; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•NERVA•PRO•Q•P• around / Bare head of Lucius Antony right; L•ANTONIVS COS around. Crawford 517/5c; CRI 247; RSC 2b; Sydenham 1186; Kestner –; BMCRR East 108. 3.91g, 21mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

582. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Antony and Plancus in central Greece, 39 BC. M•ANTON•IMP•AVG•III VIR•R•P•C, lituus and vase / L•PLANCVS•IMP•ITER, thunderbolt, vase and caduceus. Crawford 522/4; Sear, CRI 255; R. Newman, “A Dialogue of Power in the Coinage of Antony and Octavian,” ANSAJN 2 (1990), 39.2; BMCRR (East) 118; RSC 22. 3.79g, 19mm, 7h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only 12 examples on CoinArchives.

1,000

583. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Athens, 38-37 BC. III•VIR•R•P•C•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, radiate bust of Sol right / M•ANTONIVS•M•F•M•N• AVGVR•IMP•TER, Antony standing right, dressed as priest, veiled, wearing toga and holding a lituus. Crawford 533/2; RSC 13a. 3.81g, 20mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Areas of flat strike.

170

300


584. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony in northern Syria, late summer-autumn 38 BC. Bare head right, ANT•AVGVR•III•VIR•R•P•C around / Trophy holding two oblong shields; two round shields at the base; IMP - TER across fields. Crawford 536/4; CRI 270; RSC 17a. 3.75g, 19mm, 1h. Very Fine; bankers’ marks on obv. Very Rare.

500

Excellent Chortis Speculatorum Denarius

585. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony (Patrae?), 32-31 BC. ANT•AVG•III VIR•R•P•C•, praetorian galley to right / Three signa decorated with wreaths and rostra; CHORTIS•SPECVLATORVM above. Crawford 544/12; CRI 386; RSC 6; Kestner 3841; BMCRR East 185. 3.60g, 17mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. One of the most pleasing examples sold in recent years. Rare.

1,000

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

587

586

586. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony (Patrae?), 32-31 BC. ANT•AVG• III•VIR•R•P•C•, praetorian galley to right / LEG V, aquila between two standards. Crawford 544/18; RSC 32. 3.82g, 18mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone. 300 587. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony (Patrae?), 32-31 BC. ANT•AVG•III VIR•R•P•C•, praetorian galley to right / LEG VI, aquila between two standards. Crawford 544/19; RSC 33. 3.62g, 17mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 300

588. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony (Patrae?), 32-31 BC. ANT•AVG•III VIR•R•P•C•, praetorian galley to right / LEG XX, aquila between two standards. Crawford 544/36; RSC 27. 3.75g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Scattered marks.

200

From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

589. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony (Patrae?), 32-31 BC. ANT•AVG•III VIR•R•P•C•, praetorian galley to right / LEG XXI, aquila between two standards. Crawford 544/37. 3.48g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

171

1,000


Rare Legio XXIII Denarius

590. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony (Patrae?), 32-31 BC. ANT•AVG•III VIR•R•P•C•, praetorian galley to right / LEG XXIII, aquila between two standards. Crawford 544/39. 3.40g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare; only 17 examples on CoinArchives.

400

XXIII was the highest number given to a legion within Marc Antony’s order of battle. This legion appears to have been disbanded after Actium, as XXIII was never again employed as a legionary numeration following Augustus’ reorganisation of the Roman army, in which he consolidated and decreased the total number of serving legions.

591. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Uncertain mint (Actium?), 31 BC. D. Turillius, moneyer. Bare head right; M•ANTONIVS•AVG•IMP•IIII•COS•TERT• III•VIR•R•P•C / Victory standing left, holding wreath in right hand and palm frond over left shoulder, D TVR in lower right field; all within wreath. Crawford 545/2; CRI 388; RSC 81; Kestner -; BMCRR East 228. 3.76g, 19mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

300

592. Marc Antony and L. Pinarius Scarpus AR Denarius. Cyrene, 31 BC. M•ANTO•COS•III•IMP•[IIII], head of Jupiter Ammon right / Victory standing right, holding wreath and palm; ANTONIO AVG before, SCARPVS IMP behind. Crawford 546/2a; RSC 1. 3.40g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine, banker’s mark on reverse, attractive deep old cabinet tone.

500

Ex Marc Poncin Collection, CNG MBS 72, 14 June 2006, lot 1354; Ex William C. Boyd Collection, Baldwin’s 42, 26 September 2005, lot 130; Purchased from W.S. Lincoln, July 1905. Lucius Pinarius Scarpus was the grandson of a sister of Julius Caesar, and a general for Antony in the war against Brutus and Cassius. Shortly before the battle of Actium he was placed in charge of Cyrene with the command of four legions. The obverse type refers to his new position as Jupiter was the chief deity of Cyrene and featured prominently on their old coinage. This is the last issue struck in Marc Antony’s name before his defeat at Actium and subsequent suicide.

593. Octavian and L. Livineius Regulus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. C•CAESAR III•VIR•R•P•C•, head of Octavian with light beard to right / L•LIVINEIVS REGVLVS, Victory standing right, holding palm branch over left shoulder and wreath in right hand. Livineia 4 and Julia 82; C. 443; Sear Imperators 157; RBW 1731; Crawford 494/25. 3.39g, 18mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

594. Octavian and Agrippa AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Agrippa in Gaul or with Octavian in Italy, 38 BC. [IMP]•CAESAR•DIVI•[IVLI•F], bare head of Octavian right / M•AGRIPPA•COS DESIG, legend in two lines across field. Crawford 534/3; RSC 545. 3.90g, 19mm, 3h. Very Fine, banker’s marks on both the obverse and reverse.

172

400


Extremely Rare Octavian Denarius

595. Octavian AR Denarius. Southern or central Italian mint, summer 37 BC. IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•III•VIR•R•P•C around empty field / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, guttus, and lituus. Crawford 537/1; CRI 310; Kestner -; BMCRR Gaul 113-4; RSC 128. 3.71g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; banker’s mark. Extremely Rare; only 9 examples on CoinArchives.

596

2,000

597

596. Octavian AR Denarius. Southern or central Italian mint, summer 37 BC. IMP•CAESAR DIVI•F•III•VIR•ITER•R•P•C, bare head right / COS•ITER•ET•TER•DESIG, emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, guttus and lituus. Crawford 538/1; CRI 312; RSC 91; Kestner 3831; BMCRR Gaul 116-8; RBW 1826. 3.98g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. 300 597. Octavian AR Denarius. Rome or Brundisium, 32-27 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Pax right; olive branch before, cornucopiae behind / Octavian in military attire advancing right, raising hand and holding spear over shoulder; CAESAR-DIVI F across fields. RIC 253. 3.66g, 19mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. 150

598

599

598. Octavian AR Denarius. Brundisium or Rome, 32-27 BC. Bare head right / Apollo Actius seated right on Actium’s rock, with petasos slung behind and playing lyre; CAESAR-DIVI F across fields. RIC 257. 3.58g, 20mm, 4h. Very Fine, banker’s mark on obverse. 250 Ex Soler y Llach, 2008, lot 1277. 599. Octavian AR Denarius. Rome or Brundisium, 32-27 BC. Bust of Venus right, wearing stephane, earring and necklace / Octavian in military attire advancing left, hand extended and holding spear; CAESAR–DIVI F across fields. RIC 251. 3.81g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Toned and attractive. 500 Ex Stack’s Coin Galleries, 18 July 2007, lot 629.

Extremely Rare Scarpus Quinarius

2x

2x

600. Octavian, with M. Pinarius Scarpus, AR Quinarius. Cyrenaica, 31 BC. Open hand right; above, SCARPVS; below, IMP / Victory standing right, holding wreath tied with fillet in right hand and palm-branch over shoulder; CAESARI DIVI F downwards before. Crawford 546/8; RSC Pinaria 14 and Julia 144. 1.96g, 15mm, 6h. Very Fine. Toned. Extremely Rare, only three other examples on CoinArchives.

173

1,500


601. Octavian AR Denarius. Rome, 29-27 BC. Bare head of Octavian right / IMP CAESAR, on architrave of arch surmounted by facing quadriga bearing Octavian. RIC 267; RIC 267; BMC 624; Sear Imperators 422; RSC 123 (Augustus). 3.81g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

500

A coin struck to commemorate Octavian’s victory at the Battle of Actium over the forces of Marc Antony and Cleopatra, the reverse probably depicts the triumphal arch erected in the Forum in Rome to honour Octavian, circa 29 BC.

602. Octavian AR Denarius. Rome, 29-27 BC. Bare head of Octavian right / IMP CAESAR, on architrave of arch surmounted by facing quadriga bearing Octavian. RIC 267; BMC 624; Sear Imperators 422; RSC 123 (Augustus). 3.83g, 20mm, 2h. Good Very Fine.

300

603. Octavian AR Denarius. Rome, 29-27 BC. Helmeted head of Mars right; IMP below / Round shield with eight-pointed star in centre, lying over sword and spear in saltire; CAESAR on rim of shield. RIC 274; RSC 44. 3.67g, 20mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

400

Ex Monnaies d’Antan Mail Bid Sale 7, 21 May 2010, lot 178.

605

604

604. Octavian AR Denarius. Rome, 29-27 BC. Helmeted head of Mars right; IMP below / Round shield with eight-pointed star in centre, lying over sword and spear in saltire; CAESAR on rim of shield. RIC 274; RSC 44. 3.43g, 18mm, 2h. Very Fine. 200 605. Octavian AR Denarius. Rome, 28 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo of Actium, right, with features of Octavian / Octavian, veiled and in priestly robes, ploughing right with team of oxen; IMP•CAESAR in exergue. RIC 272; BMC 638; RSC 117. 3.73g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. 350 Ex Classical Numismatic Group MBS 72, 14 June 2006, lot 1358; Ex Coin Galleries, 16 February 2000, lot 202.

606. Octavian AR Denarius. Rome, 28 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo of Actium, right, with features of Octavian / Octavian, veiled and in priestly robes, ploughing right with team of oxen; IMP•CAESAR in exergue. RIC 272; BMC 638; RSC 117. 3.88g, 19mm, 4h. Very Fine.

300

The obverse of this rare coin borrows from the Greek tradition of moulding the features of a deity to resemble the ruler, as was the case on the coinage of Alexander and his father Philip. The reverse depicts Octavian as city founder of Nicopolis in Epeiros, established in 31 BC at the site of the battle of Actium in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra. The sacred boundary was marked by a pomerium or sacred furrow. On the spot where Octavian’s own tent had been pitched he built a monument adorned with the beaks of the captured galleys; and in further celebration of his victory he instituted the so-called Actian games in honour of Apollo Actius, who had an ancient temple on the promontory there.

174


ROMAN IMPERIAL COINS

607. Augustus AR Cistophorus. Pergamum, 19-18 BC. IMP IX TR PO V, bare head right / Temple of Mars Ultor: circular, domed, tetrastyle temple set on five-tiered base, a signum within; MART - VLTO across fields. RIC 507; Sutherland Group VIIg, – (O55/R- [unlisted rev. die]); RPC I 2220; RSC 202. 11.96g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 650 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 84, 20 May 2015, lot 1726; Ex SKA 3, 19 April 1985, lot 481; Ex V. C. Vecchi & Sons 11, 8 October 1984, lot 257.

608. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19-18 BC. Head right, wearing oak wreath / Two laurel trees, CAESAR above, AVGVSTVS below. RIC 33a; RSC 47. 3.61g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. 250

609. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, head left, wearing oak wreath / Eight-rayed comet with tail upwards, DIVVS IVLIVS across fields. RIC 37b; RSC 97; BMCRE 326-7 = BMCRR Gaul 138-9; BN 1298-304. 3.82g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. 1,500

610. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Oak wreath; OB•CIVIS above; SERVATOS below. RIC 40a; BMC 330. 3.69g, 20mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

611. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / S•P•Q•R• CL•V in two lines on round shield. RIC 42a; RSC 294; cf. RCV 1637. 3.83g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 In the year 27 BC Augustus was awarded with the Clipeus Virtutis, which is shown on the reverse of our coin and is also mentioned in the Res Gestae (VI, 18). The Res Gestae states: ‘A golden shield was set in the Curia Julia, which the Roman Senate and the Roman People have consecrated for my bravery and gentleness, my righteousness and devotion, as the inscription on this shield testifies to.’

175


612. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 20-19 BC. Laureate head right / Two laurel trees; CAESAR above; AVGVSTVS below. RIC 51; RSC 47. 3.89g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine.

250

613. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Round shield inscribed CL•V, aquila and signum flanking; SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS below, S P Q R around. RIC 86a; RSC 265; BMC 418. 3.77g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous.

1,250

Ex Stack’s (Saint Ludovico and Firth of Clyde Collections), 22 April 2009, lot 1370.

Ex Numismatic Fine Arts 1989

614. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 17-16 BC. SPQR CAESARI AVGVSTO, bare head right / VOT•P•SVSC•PRO •SAL•ET•RED•I•OM•SACR•, Mars, nude but for sagum from shoulders over left arm, standing left on ground line, holding vexillum in right hand and cradling parazonium in left. RIC 150a; RSC 325; BMCRE 438-9 = BMCRR Rome 4459-60; BN 1242-5. 3.79g, 19mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone. Rare.

2,000

Ex D. Fagan Collection; Privately purchased from Numismatic Fine Arts, 16 March 1989.

615. Augustus and Agrippa Æ Dupondius. Nemausus, AD 10-14. IMP DIVI F P P, heads of Agrippa to left, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and of Augustus to right, wearing oak wreath, back to back / COL NEM, palm tree, top bent top right with a wreath above, with chained crocodile behind. Cohen 10; RIC 158; RPC 524. 12.11g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful glossy green patina.

176

300


616. Augustus AV Aureus. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting right, left foreleg raised, lashing his tail; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 166a; Lyon 18; Calicó 212; BMCRE 450 = BMCRR Gaul 162; BN 1372. 7.85g, 19mm, 8h. Very Fine.

7,500

617 618 617. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / IMP•X, Diana standing left, head right, leaning on spear and holding bow; dog at her feet to left; [SICIL• in exergue]. RIC 173a; RSC 146. 3.67g, 18mm, 4h. Very Fine. 250 618. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 12 BC. AVGVSTVS [DIVI•F], laureate head right / Diana, wearing long hunting tunic and low polos on head, advancing right, with right hand drawing an arrow from quiver slung behind her and holding bow in left; IMP•XI across field; [SICIL] in exergue. RIC 175. 3.68g, 19mm, 8h. Very Fine. Rare. 200 From the G.J.P. Collection, purchased c. 1920s.

619 620 619. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 11 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting left; IMP•XII in exergue. RIC 178a; Lyon 31; RSC 158; BMCRE 476 = BMCRR Gaul 183; BN 1411-3. 3.89g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. 300 620. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 10 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting right; IMP•XII in exergue. RIC 187a; RSC 153. 3.49g, 19mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine. 500

621. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 8 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, laureate head right / Caius Caesar on horseback, galloping right, holding sword in left hand and reins in right; behind him, an aquila between two signa; C•CAES• above, AVGVS•F in exergue. RIC 199; Lyon 69; RSC 40; BMCRE 500-502 = BMCRR Gaul 223-225; BN 1461, 1463-1465, 1469. 3.70g, 19mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

750

622. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 7-6 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Gaius and Lucius Caesars standing facing, each togate and resting hand on shield, spear behind each shield, simpulum and lituus above, C L CAESARES in exergue. RIC 207; RSC 43c. 3.84g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

177

300


623. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19-18 BC. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. TVRPILIANVS III•VIR, head of Liber right, wearing ivy-wreath / CAESAR AVGVSTVS•SIGN•RECE•, Parthian kneeling right in attitude of submission, offering up vexillum (marked X) and extending hand. RIC 287; RSC 485. 3.90g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

300

624. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19-18 BC. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. TVRPILIANVS III•VIR FERON, diademed and draped bust of Feronia right / CAESAR AVGVSTVS SIGN RECE, bareheaded Parthian kneeling right, extending a standard with attached vexillum [marked X] and holding out hand. RIC 288; RSC 484. 3.86g, 19mm, 3h. Very Fine.

100

625. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19-18 BC. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / P•PETRON•TVRPILIAN•III•VIR, Pegasus walking right. RIC 297; RSC 491; BMCRE 23-6 = BMCRR Rome 4536-9; BN 147-52. 3.79g, 20mm, 10h. Very Fine.

300

Extremely Rare M. Durmius Denarius

626. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19-18 BC. M. Durmius, moneyer. M DVRMIVS III VIR HONORI, head of Honos to right / CAESAR AVGVSTVS, quadriga to right pulling modius shaped car, on top of which three corn ears; SC in exergue. RIC 313; BMC 55; C. 429. 3.75g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only 7 examples on CoinArchives.

300

627. Augustus Æ Sestertius. Rome, circa 17 BC. P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer. OB CIVIS SERVATOS above, below and within oak wreath between two laurel branches / P LICINIVS STOLO IIIVIR AAAFF around large S•C. RIC 345; BMCRE 195; C. 441. 26.62g, 35mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Unusually complete and well preserved.

178

500


Very Rare L. Mescinius Rufus Denarius

628. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 16 BC. L. Mescinius Rufus, moneyer. CAESAR•AVGVSTVS•TR•POT, laureate head right / L•MESCINIVS•RVFVS III VIR, cippus inscribed IMP CAES AVG LVD SAEC in five lines; XV SF across field. RIC 355; RSC 461; BMCRE –; BN 339. 3.85g, 19mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

629. Augustus Æ As. Rome, 15 BC. Cn. Piso Cn. F, moneyer. CAESAR•AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC•POTEST•, bare head right / CN•PISO•CN•F•IIIVIR•A•A•A•F•F• around large S•C. RIC 382. 10.95g, 27mm, 4h. Very Fine. Attractive portrait.

100

630. Augustus Æ As. Rome, 15 BC. C. Plotius Rufus, moneyer. CAESAR•AVGVSTVS•TRIBVNIC POTEST•, bare head right / C•PLOTIVS•RVFVS•II I•VIR•A•A•A•F•F• around large S C. RIC 389; BMC 153; C. 504. 11.47g, 29mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. 150

631. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 12 BC. L. Caninius Gallus, moneyer. AVGVSTVS, bare head right / L CANINIVS GALLVS III VIR, German kneeling right, offering up vexillum and extending hand below left knee. RIC 416; RSC 383. 3.59g, 19mm, 10h. Good Very Fine.

500

632. Augustus Æ Quadrans. Rome, 5 BC. Apronius, Galus, Messala, Sisenna, moneyers. GALVS MESSALLA A A A F F around large S•C / SISENNA APORONIVS III VIR, garlanded altar. RIC 450b; BMCRE 247; BN 787. 3.51g, 16mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

179

100


633. Augustus AR Denarius. North Peloponnesian mint, circa 21 BC. AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Laurel wreath intertwined with prows, the wreath ties arranged centrally. RIC 473; BMC 669. 3.70g, 18mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Scarce.

750

634. Augustus AR Denarius. Pergamum, 27 BC. CAESAR, bare head right / AVGVSTVS, heifer standing to right. RIC 475; RSC 28; BMCRR East 2845 = BMCRE 662-3; BN 941-3. 3.64g, 21mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; hairline flan crack.

1,000

Among the first coins to be struck bearing the new title Augustus, this denarius is of exceptional style and engraved with beautiful craftsmanship. Struck in Pergamum, the reverse type of the charging bull or heifer may be a reference to the famous type of Thurium, a city to which Octavian’s family had a connection: Suetonius relates that Gaius Octavius, Augustus’ father, defeated a Spartacist army near the town. Due to the high regard in which the family was held in the town Augustus was granted the surname Thurinus, and thus the type has a primarily personal illusion to him. An alternative theory is that it is based on Myron’s famous bronze heifer, much admired in antiquity. Augustus was personally aware of the sculptor’s work as he is known to have restored Myron’s Apollo to Ephesos, which Marc Antony had taken.

635. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 17 BC. CAESAR, youthful head right (possibly Gaius Caesar), within oak-wreath / AVG-VST, to left and right of candelabrum ornamented with rams’ heads; all within wreath entwined with bucrania and paterae. RIC 540; BMC 684. 3.86g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous surfaces. Very Rare.

2,500

Ex Gorny & Mosch 176, 10 March 2009, lot 2074.

636. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 17 BC. CAESAR, youthful head right (possibly Gaius Caesar), within oak-wreath / AVG-VST, to left and right of candelabrum ornamented with rams’ heads; all within wreath entwined with bucrania and paterae. RIC 540; BMC 684. 3.73g, 19mm, 4h. About Good Very Fine. Rare.

180

300


Extremely Rare Divus Augustus Dupondius

637. Divus Augustus Æ Dupondius. Struck under Tiberius, Rome, circa AD 22/3-30. DIVVS AVGVSTVS [PATER], radiate head left / Victory alighting left, holding shield inscribed SPQR. RIC 77; C. 242; BMC 157. 13.70g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only 2 examples on CoinArchives.

1,500

638. Divus Augustus Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, Rome, circa AD 34-37. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left / Winged thunderbolt between S-C. RIC 83; BMC 157. 10.83g, 29mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

400

639. Livia Æ Dupondius. Rome, circa 21-22 AD. SALVS AVGVSTA, draped bust of Livia as Salus right, hair in knot behind / TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVF P M TR POT XXIIII around large SC. RIC 47 (Tiberius); C. 5. 14.10g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive Tiber tone; some surface granularity. An elegant and finely detailed portrait.

1,500

640. Antonia Minor AV Aureus. Struck under Claudius, Rome, AD 41-45. ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Antonia as Ceres right, wearing wreath of corn ears / SACERDOS DIVI AVGVSTI, two long torches lighted and linked by ribbon. RIC 67; Calicó 319. 7.68g, 21mm, 6h. Near Very Fine. Rare.

181

4,750


182


Stunning Antonia Denarius

641. Antonia Minor AR Denarius. Struck under Claudius, Rome, AD 41-45. ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing crown of corn-ears, hair in long plait behind / SACERDOS DIVI AVGVSTI, two vertical long torches, lighted and linked by ribbon. RIC 68; BMC 114. 3.82g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal with deep old cabinet tone and iridescent highlights. Very Rare.

7,500

This coin bears the posthumous representation of Antonia Minor, and was struck in memory of her by her son, Claudius upon his ascension to the throne. This well liked and respected Roman woman who was celebrated for her virtue and beauty was the younger of the two daughters of Marc Antony and Octavia, who after Antony’s death was allowed by Augustus to benefit from her father’s estate. She thus became wealthy and influential, and married Nero Claudius Drusus, general and consul, bearing him several children. Three survived into adulthood: the popular Germanicus, the future emperor Claudius, and a daughter Livilla. Following the death of her husband in AD 9 whilst on campaign in Germania, the rest of Antonia’s life was plagued by ill fortune as she outlived her eldest son, her daughter and several of her grandchildren. After first the death of her husband, her eldest son Germanicus died in AD 19 in mysterious circumstances in Asia, where he had successfully defeated the kingdoms of Commagene and Cappadocia and turned them into Roman provinces. It is thought that he was perhaps poisoned by his adoptive father Tiberius as his influence and popularity with his troops was becoming too great. Her younger son Claudius, who was born with severe disabilities, was ostracised by his family and excluded from public office until his consulship in AD 37 which he shared with his nephew Caligula. Ironically, this action by his family may have actually saved his life as he was not perceived as a threat to power and therefore survived the purges of Tiberius and Caligula’s reigns, going on to prove himself a worthy emperor. Antonia’s woes did not stop with her sons, as her daughter Livilla is supposed to have poisoned her husband Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. According to Cassius Dio, Tiberius handed Livilla over to her mother, who locked her up in a room and starved her to death. After the death of Tiberius, her grandson Caligula became emperor, and though Antonia would often offer him advice, he once told her, ‘I can treat anyone exactly as I please!’ Caligula was rumoured to have had his young cousin Gemellus beheaded, to remove him as a rival to the throne. This act was said to have outraged Antonia, who was grandmother to Gemellus as well as to Caligula. Able to stand no more of Caligula’s tyranny, Antonia committed suicide, though Suetonius’s ‘Caligula’, clause 23, suggests she might also have been poisoned by her grandson. Despite what must have been a painful childhood, rejected by his own mother, Claudius clearly idolised her and after his accession gave her the posthumous title of Augusta, and her birthday became a public holiday, which had yearly games and public sacrifices held and her image was paraded in a carriage.

642. Antonia Minor Æ Dupondius. Struck under Claudius. Rome, AD 41-42. ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius standing left, holding simpulum and volumen; S C across field. RIC 92; von Kaenel Type 59. 9.24g, 26mm, 9h. Very Fine.

183

150


Rare Tiberius Aureus

643. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-15. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / TR POT XVI, Tiberius, laureate and cloaked, in slow quadriga right, holding laurel branch and eagle-tipped sceptre; IMP VII in exergue. RIC 1; Calicó 307. 7.65g, 20mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection, Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 173, 11 January 2013, lot 5424. This type recalls the aureus issued under Augustus in commemoration of Tiberius’ triumphal procession upon his return to Rome, awarded on account of his successful campaigns in Germany and Pannonia. It was on this occasion that Tiberius’ rank and powers were made equal to those of Augustus himself, an act which ensured that upon the passing of Augustus there would be no interregnum, and that Tiberius would continue to rule without possible upheaval.

644. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right on throne with plain legs, holding branch and sceptre; double exergual line. RIC 25; BMC 30; Calicó 305d. 7.87g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Pleasing style, lustre around the devices.

7,500

From the B.H.R. collection.

645. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right on throne with plain legs, holding branch and sceptre; double exergual line. RIC 25; CBN 14; Giard, Lyon 143/18a; BMC 30; Calicó 305e. 7.77g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

4,000

646. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 14-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding branch and sceptre; single exergual line. RIC 30; RSC 16a; BMC 48. 3.64g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

300

647. Germanicus Æ As. Struck under Claudius, Rome, AD 50-54. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, large S•C. RIC 106; C. 9; BMC 215. 12.20g, 29mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

Ex Auctiones 24, 23 June 1994, lot 461.

184

200


648. Nero Claudius Drusus Major, father of Claudius, AR Denarius. Struck under Claudius, Rome, AD 41-54. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, laureate head left / DE GERMANIS on architrave of triumphal arch surmounted by equestrian statue to left between two trophies. RIC 72; RSC 4; BMCRE 102. 3.88g, 19mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Pleasant old tone.

649

750

650

649. Nero and Drusus Caesar Æ Dupondius. Struck under Caligula, Rome, AD 40-41. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding right, cloaks flying / C•CAESAR•DIVI•AVG•PRON•AVG•P•M•TR•P•IIII•P•P around large S•C. RIC 49 (Caligula) corr. (rev. legend). 15.39g, 30mm, 6h. Very Fine. Attactive surfaces. 500 650. Caligula Æ As. Rome, circa AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PONT M TR POT, bare head left / VESTA, Vesta seated left, holding patera and transverse sceptre. RIC 38. 10.35g, 29mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 150

651. Caligula, with Agrippina Senior, AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 37-38. C•CAESAR•AVG•GERM•P•M•TR•POT, laureate head of Caligula right / AGRIPPINA•MAT•C•CAES•AVG•GERM, draped bust of Agrippina right, wearing hair in waves from brow downwards and knotted in a long plait at the back, one lock falls loose down the neck. RIC 14 (Rome mint); Lyon 169; RSC 2; BMCRE 15; BN 24-6. 3.68g, 18mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Two beautiful portraits of fine style.

7,500

652. Caligula Ӕ Sestertius. Rome, AD 39-40. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT III P P, veiled and draped figure of Pietas, seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small facing figure; PIETAS in exergue / DIVO AVG to the left and right of hexastyle garlanded temple surmounted by quadriga, before which Caligula, veiled and togate, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar; one attendant leads bull to the altar, a second holds patera; S-C across fields. RIC 44; C. 10; BMC p.156; BN 104; Hill, Monuments p. 20, no.18. 29.48g, 35mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine. Very pleasant dark Tiber tone with glossy surfaces; very difficult to capture in a photograph but immensely satisfying in hand. 3,000

185


Uncommonly Well Preserved Claudius Aureus

653.

Claudius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 41-42. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis advancing right, pointing a winged caduceus towards a snake on the ground before her, and holding out a fold of drapery below her chin. RIC 9; Calicó 363a; BMC 6. 7.71g, 19mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. An attractive and powerful portrait. Rarely preserved in such high quality.

25,000

Ex Kroisos Collection, Stack’s, 14 January 2008, lot 2353; Ex Stack’s, 3 December 1996, lot 123. In AD 41 the Jews and the Greeks of Alexandria began to squabble and fight again as they had for decades. The Jews sought more privileges, and to be allowed into Greek-only institutions such as the gymnasia. This swiftly escalated into riots and running battles in the streets of Alexandria between Greeks and Jews. Appealing to Claudius for aid, the authorities in Alexandria received back the famous letter of Claudius to the Alexandrians, which settled the issue. At the same time Claudius accepted the offer to erect a golden statue ‘made to represent the Pax Augusta Claudiana’ at Rome, while declining a similar one in Alexandria, wisely thinking it might be the cause of new disturbances. Some scholars (cf. Rostovtzeff 1926, 25) have interpreted this golden statue to be an image of Pax-Nemesis, and have therefore chronologically linked the letter to Claudius’ first issue of coins with the Nemesis reverse and legend PACI AVGVSTAE. However, there is no record of the appearance of the statue, and the link is uncertain and indeed tenuous. Nonetheless, the appearance of Nemesis on this coin is significant - depictions of Nemesis on imperial coinage are very rare. As the spirit of divine retribution against those who succumb to hubris, her appearance here may best be interpreted in the context of Claudius’ other first gold issues. These emphasise perseverance in the face of adversity (CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI), the achievements of his father (DE GERMANIS), the traditional honours given to the princeps (OB CIVES SERVATOS) and his assumption of power through the Praetorian guard (IMPER RECEPT and PRAETOR RECEPT). Pax Nemesis in this context could therefore be an indirect reference to the excesses and despotism of his predecessor Caligula, and the righteousness of his removal from power: the legend and the image together suggest the active role of Nemesis in the achievement of a state of peace presided over by the emperor.

186


187


654. Claudius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 41-42. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P, laureate head right / CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, Constantia seated left on curule chair, feet on stool, raising hand. RIC 14; von Kaenel Type 9; RSC 6. 3.77g, 18mm, 8h. Excellent silver quality, attractive tone, Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,000

655. Claudius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 46-47. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P VI IMP XI, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis advancing right, holding caduceus in left hand pointing at snake and raising fold of drapery below chin. RIC 38; Calicó 367; BMC 39. 7.17g, 18mm, 3h. Fine.

1,000

656. Claudius Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 41-45. TI CLAVDIVS•CAESAR•AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / CERES AVGVSTA, Ceres, veiled and draped, seated left on ornamental throne, holding grain-ears and torch; S•C in exergue. RIC 94; BMCRE 136. 14.97g, 31mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful surfaces, exceptional quality of detail.

188

6,000


The Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus

657. Claudius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 41-45. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head of Claudius to right / NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP, the triumphal arch of Nero Claudius Drusus, surmounted by equestrian statue of Drusus to right, spearing downwards; trophies to left and right. RIC 98; BMC 122; C. 48. 27.47g, 36mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. A superb portrait of fine style, with a well-detailed reverse displaying a beautiful red-brown patina.

4,000

A triumphal arch was commissioned in honour of Drusus’ glorious campaigns in Germania, and was erected by the senate some time after his death in 9 BC (Suet. Claud. 1). It was built of marble and adorned with trophies, and it stood on the via Appia, probably a little north of its junction with the via Latina. It seems to have given its name to the Vicus Drusianus, which may be under the modern Via della Ferratella. It has been suggested that it is the Arcus Recordationis of the Einsiedeln Itinerary (a 9th century guide to the city of Rome), situated near the Baths of Caracalla, however the exact origins of that arch are unclear and modern scholarship takes the view that this arch is not that of Drusus.

659

658

658. Claudius Æ As. Rome, AD 50-54. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left / CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, Constantia, in military dress, standing left, raising right hand and holding a sceptre; S-C across fields. RIC 111. 10.88g, 29mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 300 659. Nero Claudius Drusus Minor, son of Tiberius, Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, Rome, AD 21-22. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head of Drusus to left / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C. RIC 45; BMC 99; C. 2. 10.81g, 29mm, 6h. Very Fine. 200

660. Nero, with Agrippina Junior, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 55. NERO CLAVD DIVI [F CAES AVG GERM] IMP TR P COS, jugate busts right of Nero, bareheaded with slight drapery over shoulder, and of Agrippina II, draped and bareheaded / AGRIPP AVG DIVI CLAVD NERONIS CAES MATER, quadriga of elephants left, bearing Divus Claudius, radiate right, holding eagle-tipped sceptre, and Divus Augustus, radiate, seated facing, head right, holding patera and sceptre; EX S C in left field. RIC 7. 3.52g, 18mm, 4h. Near Very Fine. Rare.

189

500


662 661 661. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 64-68. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / IANVM CLVSIT PACE P R [TERRA] MARIQ PARTA, the closed doors of the temple of Janus. RIC 50; Calicó 409. 7.14g, 19mm, 7h. Near Very Fine. 1,000 662. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 64-68. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / VESTA, Vesta within domed hexastyle temple, holding patera and long sceptre. RIC 61; Calicó 448. 6.98g, 20mm, 6h. Near Very Fine. 1,000

663. Nero AR Denarius. Rome, AD 64-68. IMP NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / SALVS, Salus seated left on throne holding patera in right hand, left resting at her side. RIC 67. 3.44g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

500

664. Nero Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 64. NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP P P, radiate head right / MAC AVG, façade of the Macellum Magnum; S-C across fields; [II (mark of value) in exergue]. RIC 162, 187; BMCRE 195; CBN II, 153, 312; C. 130. 13.13g, 30mm, 6h. About Good Very Fine.

300

Ex ACR 3, 31 May 2011, lot 294.

665. Nero Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 64. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head left / Emperor with couched spear riding to right, second rider in background, standard bearer before; S-C across fields, DECVRSIO in exergue. RIC 175; WCN 133. 25.64g, 34mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

750

Ex UBS 63, 6 September 2005, lot 294.

666. Nero Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 64. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, radiate head left / VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory flying right, holding wreath and palm; S-C across fields, II in exergue. RIC 203; WCN 209; BMCRE 223; C. 350 var. (head right). 14.70g, 29mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare; only one example on CoinArchives.

200

667. Nero Æ Quadrans. Rome, AD 62. NERO CLA CAES AVG GER, crested helmet right on column, round shield decorated with Gorgoneion beside, transverse spear behind / P M TR P IMP P P, upright olive branch, three dots forming corners of triangle among leaves as mark of value; S-C across fields. RIC 250; C.111. 2.25g, 14mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

190

100


Ex Leu 1973

668.

Nero Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 65. NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery / Roma, helmeted and draped, seated left on cuirass, right foot on helmet, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and resting left hand on parazonium; to right, shields set on ground, S-C across field, ROMA in exergue. RIC 275 var. (wearing aegis); WCN 137 var. (same); BMCRE 180 var. (same); BN 364 var. (same). 27.90g, 35mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Engraved in fine style; superbly detailed reverse.

12,500

Ex MoneyMuseum Zurich Collection; Ex Kurt P. Wyprächtiger Collection, Leu 7, 9 May 1973, lot 346. The reverse of this magnificent sestertius displays a finely detailed depiction of Roma. Conceived of by Romans as ‘Amazonian’, militaristic by nature, holding Victory in her palm and gripping the parazonium (a leaf-shaped blade that was a ceremonial mark of rank and used to rally troops), she is the embodiment of the city of Rome, and more broadly the Roman state. Unexpectedly, the cult of dea Roma had emerged not at Rome, but in the Greek East. The earliest appearances of Roma are most likely found in the helmeted figure appearing on Roman cast bronze coins dating from 280-276 BC, however the identification is contestable. Other early Roman coinage displays a similarly warlike ‘Amazon’ type, who is also possibly Roma, but more likely a genius (defined as the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place, or thing) of Rome than a distinct goddess. Certainly, Roma was in the time of the Republic not the subject of cult worship at Rome itself. The earliest attested temple dedicated specifically to Roma appears in Smyrna around 195, and around the same time the cult of Roma appeared at Rhodes and other cities nearby. Such democratic city-states accepted Roma as analogous to their traditional cult personifications of the demos (the people). The cult of Roma spread relatively quickly within the provinces, and is accepted as having been the precursor for the later principate era state-sanctioned worship of living emperors as gods. When in 30/29 BC the koina of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honour Augustus as a living god, a cautious solution was devised; republican values held monarchy and Hellenic honours in contempt (the courting of both had proved fatal for Caesar), but refusal might offend loyal allies. Thus it was determined that non-Romans could only offer worship to Augustus as divus jointly with dea Roma. This dual worship of the State together with the head of state was a political and religious expedient, but while Augustus, Tiberius and Claudius were careful to refuse divine honours within Rome itself, subsequent rulers of arguably less stern moral fibre allowed or actively promoted worship of their own person. Indeed, Nero had in AD 64, the year before this coin was struck, instituted his depiction on the Roman coinage with the radiate crown previously reserved for deified (and deceased) emperors.

191


669. Nero Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 65. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right / PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, Temple of Janus with latticed windows and garland hung across closed doors on right; S-C across fields. RIC 283; BMC 199; WCN 210. 26.19g, 34mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Some old cleaning marks on rev. Very Rare.

500

670. Nero Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 66. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR P P P, laureate head right, globe at point of bust / Roma, helmeted and in military dress, seated left on cuirass, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and resting left on parazonium; around and behind, various shields; S-C across fields, ROMA in exergue. RIC 515. 25.55g, 35mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant desert patina. Very Rare.

4,000

671. Nero Æ Dupondius. Lugdunum, AD 66. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head left, globe at point of neck / SECVRITAS AVGVSTI, Securitas seated right, holding sceptre; garlanded and lighted altar before, against which leans lighted torchs; SC in exergue. RIC 519; BMC 342. 14.69g, 31mm, 7h. Very Fine. Attractive surfaces and brown patina.

View of the Circus Maximus

250

672. Nero Æ Contorniate. Rome, late 4th century AD. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P M X, laureate bust right / View of the Circus Maximus, with central spina and both metae; to the left of the central obelisk is a statue of Cybele on a lion and a two-columned structure for indicating the number of laps run, to the right is a statue of a leaping lion and an arch topped with three dolphins (there were actually seven); in the arena are four racing chariots, and a dog chasing a hare. Alföldi 230.1; Mittag Nero XVIII/145. 37.30g, 42mm, 12h. Near Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

673. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Spanish mint in support of Vindex/Galba, early AD 68. LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, bust of Libertas wearing necklace right / S P Q R on round shield within oak wreath. RIC 27; BMC 12. 3.54g, 18mm, 5h. Very Fine.

750

In early 68 AD, as a reaction to Nero’s tax policy, the governor Vindex attempted a revolt in Gaul, calling on Galba to join the rebellion against Nero. Although Vindex was defeated, popularity was growing for Galba, and, sensing this, Nero fled Rome. Shortly after, the Senate decided to oust Nero by declaring him a public enemy, thus spurring on Nero’s suicide. His death saw the arrival of the first civil war since the defeat of Marc Antony in 30 BC. Consequently, between June 68 AD and December 69 AD, Rome witnessed a period of anarchy and a series of quick successions. Four Emperors ruled in this period: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian, with the latter securing the imperial throne and founding the Flavian dynasty.

192


Unique Vindex Denarius Featuring Juno Moneta

674.

Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. MONETA, head of Juno Moneta to right / PACI•P•R, clasped hands holding winged caduceus. Martin -, cf. 55 for obverse type and 41-43 for reverse type; BMC -; RIC -; C. -; Nicolas -. 3.83g, 17mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished. Of great numismatic interest.

7,500

Vindex was a descendent of a family of chieftains granted Roman citizenship during the time of Julius Caesar and who were admitted to the Senate by Claudius. On account of this it is tempting to view his revolt as a campaign for Gallic independence. The numismatic evidence, however, suggests the contrary and demonstrates that rather than having an anti-Roman agenda, Vindex was specifically anti-Neronian and anti-tyrannical. Indeed, allegedly in one of his speeches he condemned Nero on all fronts, only complimenting him when he stated he had done the right thing putting his own mother to death, as she had borne such a monster. His coinage employs consistently Augustan propaganda, recalling the great Pax inaugurated by Augustus following his defeat of Marc Antony, as seen on the reverse of this coin. The coins of Vindex are notoriously rare and difficult to obtain. Until relatively recently they had largely been ignored by scholars, though in the 1970s Peter-Hugo Martin, Colin Kraay and Etienne-Paul Nicolas all published studies on this obscure series. Despite the revolt being brief, a matter of just a few months, the coinage is exceptionally diverse. This is due in great part certainly to the large number of men Vindex was able to call to his standards - by his account, over 100,000 though more probably about 20,000 as reported by Plutarch - and the need to pay them. This remarkable and unique coin pairs Juno Moneta (Juno ‘who warns’) with a reverse type that is only otherwise known with an obverse type featuring a female head and the legend BONI EVENT (Martin 41-43). The Juno obverse was previously known only with a reverse that reproduced the types of T. Carisius (Crawford 464/2), which had been struck a little over a century before. In that context the head of Juno Moneta must be connected to the coinage implements depicted on the reverse (namely the dies and tongs), and her depiction should be understood to be in the guise of the protectress of the money. Juno Moneta’s appearance here cannot be a mere error of mixed die sets, since the portrait is of a significantly superior style to that used to strike Martin 55, which is crude and shrewish. It is worth noting that the obverse type of Juno Moneta is also used on the denarii of L. Plaetorius Cestianus (Crawford 396/1), where it is paired with a reverse type of no connection to monetary matters. The massive 10th Century encyclopedic work known as the Souda draws on old oral traditions that Juno had counselled the Romans to undertake none but just wars. Roman tradition also revered Juno as a protectress who warned of impending disaster and of how to avert it; Cicero suggests that the name Moneta derived from the verb ‘monere’, because during an earthquake, a voice from her temple had demanded the expiatory sacrifice of a pregnant sow to stay the tremors. He also connects her epithet to the old legend wherein Juno’s sacred geese had warned the Roman commander Marcus Manlius Capitolinus of the surprise attack made by the Gauls during the siege of the city in 390 BC. We may therefore interpret her presence in this instance as being that of a protectress of the Roman people, and patroness of a just effort to remove the cancer at the heart of the empire.

193


675. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head of the deified Augustus left / SENAT P Q R, Victory standing to left, holding shield inscribed CL V, palm branch over shoulder. Martin A25; BMC 57; RIC 110. 3.53g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare – the third known specimen.

3,000

677

676

676. Galba AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Tarraco?), circa April to late AD 68. SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P, laureate head right / CONCORDIA PROVINCIARVM, Concordia standing left, holding branch in right hand and cornucopiae in left. RIC 54. 3.37g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Usual die break at wreath end on neck, scratch to reverse under toning.

200

677. Galba AR Denarius. Rome, April AD 68-January AD 69. IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right / S P Q R O B C S in three lines within oak wreath. RIC 167; RSC 287; BN 76-7. 3.30g, 17mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Old cabinet tone.

500

678. Galba Æ Sestertius. Rome, circa November AD 68. SER GALBA IMP CAES AVG P M TR P, laureate head right / Livia, draped, seated left on stool, holding patera and vertical sceptre; S-C across fields, AVGVSTA in exergue. RIC -, cf. 432 (diff. obv. legend); BMC -; cf. Nomos Obolos 4, lot 574 (same obv. die). 26.53g, 35mm, 7h. Very Fine. Rare.

250

Second Recorded Example

679. Galba Æ Sestertius. Rome, July AD 68-January AD 69. SER SVLPI GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG TR P, laureate and draped bust right with globe at point of bust / HISPANIA CLVNIA SVL, Galba, bare-headed and in military dress, seated left on curule chair, holding parazonium and extending hand to the draped figure of Hispania standing right, holding cornucopiae and extending palladium to emperor; in exergue, SC. AGC 367 (A122 / P189) = Hess, Luzern 211, 1932, 444; for similar varieties cf. RIC 469-73; CBN 237-8; BMC 252-254; Cohen 86-8 (200 francs). 24.90g, 35mm, 7h. Near Very Fine. Extremely Rare; the second recorded example. Attractive light golden-brown Tiber tone.

7,500

At the outbreak of the Civil War of Vindex on 2 April AD 68 the scion of the gens Sulpicia and governor the province of Tarraconensis, Servius Supicius Galba, declared himself legatus SPQR. Soon after the news of Nero’s death on 9 June of the same year Galba accepted the titles Augustus and Caesar from the Senate. The remarkable Hispania Clunia Sul commemorative issue, struck later in the short Augustate of Galba, emphasises his Spanish power-base and has been fully discussed by Kraay in ACG, pp. 39-40. This singular reverse type depicts Galba at Clunia, curiously referred to by his family name SVL[picius] and seated on a sella curulis before the standing personification of Hispania, who offers him the imperium in the form of the palladium. The older theory that the legend ‘SVL’ after CLVNIA was an honorary epithet given by Galba to that city, has no corroborating evidence to support it, and must therefore be dismissed. In the 1st century BC the original Iberian settlement of the Arevaci, had struck denarii with the Iberian legend Kolounioko and asses with the Latin legend CLOVNOQ. It was refounded, probably as a municipium, during Tiberius’s reign. By the time of Galba’s revolt against Nero it was an important fortified town in the Conventus Tarraconensis. It was at Clunia that Galba had given the standard to the new Legio VII Gemina in June 68 (Tacitus, Histories 2.11.1; 3.22.4; Dio Cassius 55.24; Suetonius, Galba 10) and it was at Clunia that Galba took refuge after the defeat of Vindex in Gaul in June 68, and before his slow march to Rome with Otho in the autumn of 68. In an interesting providential anecdote concerning Clunia, it is recorded that according to the priests of Jupiter at Clunia, a certain nobly-born girl matched the prophecies spoken of in a trance by another girl two centuries before, that ‘the lord and master of the world would some day arise in Spain’ (Suetonius, Galba 9).

194


680. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and long staff. RIC 81. 3.03g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Bold portrait and attractive surfaces. Rare.

1,500

681. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, late April - 20 December AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right / CONCORDIA P R, Concordia seated left holding patera and cornucopiae. C. 18; BMC 20; RIC 90; BN 52. 3.37g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Vivid red-gold toning.

500

682 683 684 682. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and long staff. RIC 105; RSC 47. 3.31g, 19mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Light scratches and minor corrosion spot on obv. 500 683. Vespasian, with Titus and Domitian, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 70. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / CAESAR AVG F COS CAESAR AVG F PR, heads of Titus, bare right and Domitian, bare left, confronting. RIC 16. 2.86g, 18mm, 6h. Near Very Fine. 150 684. Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, July-December AD 71. [IMP] CAES VESP AV[G P M], laureate head right / AVGVR TRI POT, priestly implements: simpulum, sprinkler, ewer and lituus. RIC 43. 3.53g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Ex CGB Mail Bid Sale 32, 6 December 2007, lot 162; Ex Münzen & Medaillen List 366, April 1975, lot 21.

100

685. Vespasian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M TR P P COS III, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory standing right, left foot on helmet, inscribing [OB CIV SERV] on shield set on palm tree; S-C across fields. RIC 127. 27.18g, 35mm, 6h. Very Fine; tooled and smoothed. Very Rare.

350

686. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPAS [AVG COS III] TR P P P, laureate head right / PACI ORB TERR AVG, turreted and draped bust of Pax right; EPHE below. RPC 835; RIC 1433. 3.51g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

250

687. Vespasian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 72-73. IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII, laureate head right / Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath and palm; VIC-AVG across fields. RIC 361; Calicó 699. 7.13g, 18mm, 6h. Good Fine.

195

1,500


From the Boscoréale Hoard of 1895

688. Vespasian AV Aureus. Lugdunum, circa AD 72-73. IMP CAES VESPAS AVG P M TR P IIII P P COS IIII, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTI, Nemesis advancing right, pointing caduceus at snake before her. C. 284; BMC 403; CBN 307; RIC 1180; Calicó 656. 7.19g, 20mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Archer M. Huntington Collection, HSA 22292; From the Boscoréale Hoard of 1895. The famous Boscoréale hoard, recovered in 1895, consisted of 109 pieces of gold and silver plate, along with over 1,000 gold aurei. The hoard had belonged to the owners of a wine-producing villa rustica on the south-eastern slopes of Vesuvius near the modern-day village of Boscoréale, hence its name. The hoard was placed in an empty cistern in the wine cellar of the villa when its owners fled before the eruption of AD 79, and while the villa began to be excavated in 1876 the coins remained undisturbed until 1895.

689. Vespasian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 73. IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN, laureate head right / VESTA, Temple of Vesta: round-domed, tetrastyle temple with four steps leading up to it; statue of Vesta within, statue to left and right of temple. RIC 516; Calicó 690b. 7.10g, 19mm, 11h. Good Fine.

2,000

690. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 74. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres seated left, on ornate backed chair, with corn-ears and poppy in left hand, cornucopiae in right; ‘o’ under throne, star in exergue. RIC 336; RPC II 852; RSC 68. 3.06g, 17mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful old deep tone, expressive portrait.

196

500


Superb Vespasian Dupondius

691. Vespasian Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 74. IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG, laureate head right / PON MAX TR POT P P COS V CENS, winged caduceus between crossed cornucopiae. RIC 756; RPC 1982; McAlee 368. 13.11g, 28mm, 7h. About Extremely Fine. An outstandingly detailed portrait; wonderful golden surfaces with light Tiber tone.

1,500

692. Vespasian Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 74. IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG, laureate head right / PON MAX TR POT P P COS V CENS, winged caduceus between crossed cornucopiae. RIC 756; RPC 1982; McAlee 368. 11.68g, 28mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

200

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica Q, 6 April 2006, lot 1737.

693. Divus Vespasian AR Denarius. Struck under Titus in Rome, AD 80-81. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right / SC inscribed on shield supported by two capricorns; orb below. RIC 357; RSC 497. 3.56g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Lightly toned, with lustrous golden highlights.

200

694. Titus, as Caesar, Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 72. T CAES IMP PON TR P COS II CENS, radiate head right / PAX AVGVST, Pax standing left, holding branch and leaning on column. RIC 616 (Vespasian). 13.09g, 28mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

300

695. Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 72-73. T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT, laureate head right / NEP RED, Neptune standing left, resting right foot on globe, holding acrostolium and spear. Biaggi -; BMC -; RIC 365; Calicó 743. 7.17g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. From the Thersites Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica F, 17 April 1996, lot 1568; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica E, 4 April 1995, lot 2892.

197

7,500


198


A Magnificent Dupondius of Titus

696.

Titus, as Caesar, Æ Dupondius. Rome, 1 July AD 72-30 June AD 73. T CAESAR VESPASIAN IMP IIII PON TR POT III COS II, radiate head right / FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae; S-C across fields. RIC 504, citing two known specimens (in Paris and Vienna); BMC -; C. -. 13.63g, 28mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. An imperial bronze of truly exceptional quality.

30,000

Ex Numismatik Lanz 150, 13 December 2010, lot 150. Having been hailed emperor by the legions under his command while in the field, Titus’ father Vespasian departed Judaea to return to Rome and claim the throne from the usurper Vitellius, who had meanwhile already deposed Otho, second of the four emperors to rule Rome in the year AD 69. Vespasian had led a successful campaign to restore order in the province after the disastrous attempts by the legate of Syria, Cestius Gallus, who had suffered a defeat considered to be the worst the Roman military had been subjected to by a rebel province throughout its history. Titus was thus charged with concluding the war, having been left in a strong position by his father, with the remaining rebel factions largely cut off within the city of Jerusalem. Against his father’s designs, Titus resolved to besiege the city and over seven months in AD 70 he completely circumvallated it with a permanent army camp. Eventually breaching the walls, the city was ransacked, burnt and the treasures from the Temple were carried off. Depicted on the Arch of Titus on the Via Sacra in Rome, built by Domitian after his brother’s death, these same treasures were carried into Rome as part of the Triumph that Titus celebrated on his successful return in AD 71. Struck shortly after the suppression of the uprising in Judaea and his triumphant return to Rome to take his place as Caesar beside his father, the depiction of the goddess Felicitas on the reverse of this magnificent coin is highly appropriate for Titus at this time. Reinforced by the wonderfully detailed attributes she carries, with peace symbolised by the caduceus and plenty brought by the cornucopiae, Felicitas personified the luck, blessedness and happiness of the successful general, while the use of the epithet Publica more specifically highlighted the prosperity of the Roman people that he had helped to enhance. Looking very much his father’s son, the obverse portrait gives us a vigorous impression of Titus and shows him to be strong, robust and in the prime of life, qualities very important to highlight as held by the men of the fledgling Flavian Dynasty.

199


697. Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 73. T CAES IMP VESP CEN, laureate head right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left, resting left elbow on column and cradling palm branch in left arm, holding winged caduceus over tripod to left. RIC 542a; Calicó 744. 7.36g, 20mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

Attractive Aureus of Titus Caesar

698. Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 73. T CAES IMP VESP CENS, laureate head right / PONTIF TRI POT, Titus, togate, seated right, feet on footstool, holding sceptre in right hand and branch in left. RIC 555 (Vespasian); Calicó 753; BMCRE 114-5 (Vespasian); BN 95/96 (Vespasian); Biaggi 371. 7.25g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; very well preserved and detailed for the type.

10,000

At the accession of Vespasian to the purple in AD 69, his sons Titus and Domitian were both raised to the rank of Ceasar as was customary, and granted those powers which the emperor traditionally gave his successor. Having returned to Rome in 71 and celebrated his triumph for the victory which he had secured in the east with the seige of Jerusalem, as the elder brother Titus shared tribunician power with his father, became Consul and was given command of the Praetorian Guard, as well as religious roles such as pontifex, as the reverse of this stunning aureus shows us. Domitian’s honours, however, were largely ceremonial and highlighted the superior position of Titus, both politically and militarily. In contrast to the extensive Judaea Capta coinage that was first struck under Vespasian to commemorate the military victory in the east and which continued to be struck for 25 years under both Titus and Domitian, this coin celebrates Titus as a respectful, pious figure following the traditional path to becoming emperor, whilst confirming his position as the chosen heir to Vespasian. The attributes which he is depicted with make reference to qualities he was taken to have attained, the sceptre underlining his imperial power and the branch representing the peace he had already brought to the empire. On the death of Vespasian in 79 the careful positioning of Titus as effective co-emperor made for a smooth succession, though by 81 he was dead: according to some sources he was poisoned by the overlooked Domitian, who went on to succeed him.

200


McLendon Collection, Christie’s 1993

699.

Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 76. T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, laureate head of Titus to right / AETERNITAS, Aeternitas, draped and veiled, standing left, holding heads of the Sun and Moon, lighted altar at feet to left. RIC 866; BMCRE 303-4; C. 13 var. (obv. legend); Calicó 723. 7.48g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and in exceptional condition for the type; easily the finest of just six examples on CoinArchives, all five others of which are very heavily worn. 20,000 Ex Andre Constantine Dimitriadis Collection; Ex McLendon Collection, Christie’s New York, 12 June 1993, lot 109. Among the duties bestowed upon Titus by his father Vespasian was the command of the Praetorian Guard, a move designed to strengthen the position of the emperor, as well as to ensure the loyalty of this very powerful force in Roman politics. The ancient sources record that the worst of Titus’ violent personality came to the fore while in charge of the guard, and he gained notoriety in Rome for the brutal tactics they employed. Further tarnishing his reputation, whilst on campaign in the east Titus had begun a relationship with the princess Berenice, sister of the Herodian king Herod Agrippa II, who had sent archers and cavalry to fight alongside the Romans to show his allegiance to the Empire. After the conclusion of the war, Agrippa and Berenice journeyed to Rome whereupon Titus and Berenice rekindled their controversial relationship, with the princess reportedly living in the palace with Titus and acting in every way as his wife. Suspicious of the woman seen as an intrusive eastern outsider, Berenice was openly mocked in the city and Titus was forced to send her away in order to re-establish his standing and popularity. Struck during this turbulent period, the interesting reverse of this wonderful aureus can be seen as an attempt by Titus to propagate his loyalty to the empire through the depicton of Aeternitas, the divine personification of eternity, which is used to symbolise permanence and the everlasting nature of the Roman Empire. Furthermore, the design here uses the gods Sol and Luna to add another dimension to the imagery: by possessing both day and night in her grasp, Aeternitas demonstrates her dominion over all time. First introduced on the gold and silver coins of Vespasian, the concept behind this reverese type is not a wholly Roman one, as the same idea was employed on some Parthian coins as a means of validating the King’s power over the entirety of the Empire.

201


700. Titus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 76. T CAES IMP VESP AVG, laureate head right, annulet below / COS V, bull standing to right on ground line. C. 56; BMC 486 (Vespasian); RIC 1483 (Vespasian); CBN Vespasian 374; RPC 1458; BN 374. 2.75g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and in exceptional condition for the issue. Minor flan crack.

3,500

Ex Triton V, 15 January 2002, lot 1927. Aesthetically, this Ephesian denarius of Titus is highly impressive. The quality of the engraving on both obverse and reverse is extremely high, far surpassing that of the companion Rome mint issue. The portrait of the emperor is bold and vigorous, and is possessed of far more lifelike qualities than most contemporary issues. Titus’ head and facial features are well proportioned, and the crown of laurels set upon his head seems to rest farther back than normal – the effect is quite charming, and further enhances what is a most fair and pleasing likeness. The reverse of this coin is an example of the favour demonstrated by the Flavians towards the types employed by Augustus, evoking the memory of that golden period of stability and prosperity.

701. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, 23-31 June, AD 79. IMP T CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / TR POT VIII COS VII, bearded captive, wearing trousers and cape, kneeling right at base of trophy. C. 334; BMC Vespasian 258; RIC Vespasian 1076; CBN Vespasian 229. 3.55g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State, a couple of very minor metal issues.

702

300

703

702. Anonymous Æ Quadrans. Time of Domitian to Antoninus Pius. Rome, AD 81-161. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Mars right / Cuirass; S-C across fields. RIC 19. 3.30g, 17mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. 150 703. Anonymous Æ Quadrans. Time of Domitian to Antoninus Pius. Rome, AD 81-161. Draped bust of Mercury left, wearing winged petasos; caduceus over shoulder / Cock standing right; S-C across fields. RIC 30. 2.86g, 16mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine, and in excellent style. 300

Annius Verus as the Personification of Summer and Winter

704

705

704. Anonymous Æ Quadrans. Time of Domitian to Antoninus Pius. Rome, AD 81-161. Head of Annius Verus right, as the personification of Summer, crowned with vine-leaves and with grape-clusters over neck / S•C within wreath of vine-leaves and grapes. RIC 34. 3.89g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare. 150 The head on the obverse has been identified as Annius Verus, a son of Marcus Aurelius (Cohen). Van Heesch, in Studia Paulo Naster Oblata I, pp. 193-197, distinguished four types of busts in the series, and connects them with representations of the four seasons, the bust on this coin being that of Summer, and the following lot 705 being that of Winter. 705. Anonymous Æ Quadrans. Time of Domitian to Antoninus Pius. Rome, AD 81-161. Draped bust of Annius Verus right, as the personification of Winter / S•C within wreath. RIC 35. 3.70g, 19mm, 11h. Very Fine. Rare. 200

202


706. Domitian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 80. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, garlanded and lighted altar. RIC 265; Calicรณ 918a (same dies). 6.79g, 19mm, 7h. Near Very Fine.

1,250

707. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80-81. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Altar, lighted and garlanded. RIC 266 (Titus); RSC 397a. 3.46g, 17mm, 7h. About Extremely Fine.

200

708. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80-81. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, crested Corinthian helmet on draped pulvinar. RIC 271 (Titus); RSC 399a. 3.14g, 17mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

100

Very Rare Left-Facing Bust Type

709. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 84. IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANIC, laureate and draped bust left / P M TR POT III IMP V COS X P P, Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear, shield at side. RIC 188. 3.43g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. A very pleasing left-facing bust of fine style. Very Rare.

500

710. Domitian ร† Sestertius. Rome, AD 86. IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI, laureate head right / Emperor on horseback, holding shield and brandishing spear, trampling kneeling Germanic warrior; SC in exergue. RIC 280; BMC 300a; BN 317. 29.42g, 36mm, 7h. Very Fine. Rare. Privately purchased from Dr. Michael Brandt, November 2007.

203

1,000


204


Extremely Rare Aureus of Domitian

711.

Domitian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 87. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VI, laureate head right / IMP XIIII COS XIII CENS P P P, Minerva standing to right on prow, brandishing javelin in upraised right hand and holding shield in left; at feet, owl. BMC 321 note; C. 216 var. (omits GERM); RIC 506; Calicó 885. 7.54g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

30,000

Although the very extensive series of denarii issued under Domitian bearing the type of Minerva atop a capital today survive in great numbers, the companion aurei are remarkably rare. The rarity of this particular issue is well demonstrated by the fact that Calicó could not find an image to illustrate the type, and settled for a line drawing. The great many images of Minerva that were promulgated during Domitian’s reign, such as those on his coinage, are the physical record of his adoption of Minerva as his patron deity and personal protectress. Indeed, the reverence he showed for the goddess led him to establish a new legion in her name in AD 82 to fight against the Chatti in Gaul, and in 89, the Legio I Minervia were acknowledged by Domitian for suppressing the revolt of the Governor of Germania Superior, being awarded the cognomen ‘Pia Fidelis Domitiana’. Seen on this reverse type brandishing her javelin in warlike countenance, and struck as it was in 87, Minerva might here be invoked to bring success to the Roman army, which launched a counter-invasion of Dacia in this year against king Decebalus, who had in the previous year attacked Roman Moesia and killed its governor. After the severe defeats the Roman forces had suffered at the hands of the Dacians in 85/86, which resulted in loss of the Praetorian Guard battle standard and the complete destruction of the Fifth, one can hardly blame Domitian for seeking divine assistance from his patron deity. According to Suetonius, after ‘several battles of varying success’, Domitian was distracted by elsewhere, and when Decebalus proposed a peace treaty, Domitian agreed. Value Minerva as he might, in the end no divine assistance spared Domitian from the palace conspiracy organised by court officials that resulted in his assassination in AD 96. Having had a difficult relationship with the Senate throughout his reign due to his autocratic rule and the removal of all their decision-making powers, upon news of his death the senators voted to bring damnatio memoriae against him.

205


712. Domitian AR Quinarius. Rome, AD 87. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VI, laureate bust right / IMP XIIII COS XIII CENS P P P, Victory seated left holding wreath and palm. RIC 516; King 7. 1.54g, 15mm, 6h. Good Fine. Rare.

150

713. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 88. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VII, laureate bust right / IMP XV COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva advancing right, holding spear and shield. RIC 591; C. 242; BMC 129. 3.58g, 19mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine; stunning iridescent toning. Rare.

200

714. Domitian Ӕ Sestertius. Rome, AD 88-89. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P, laureate head right, with aegis on far shoulder / IOVI VICTORI, Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and sceptre; SC in exergue. RIC 634. 24.96g, 35mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

715. Domitian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 88-89. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P, laureate head right / Domitian standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear, being crowned by Victory standing left behind him; SC in exergue. RIC 639; BMC -. 25.21g, 35mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Pleasing style.

300

716. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 90. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIIII, laureate head right / IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing left holding spear. RIC 692; RSC 259. 3.52g, 18mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

150

717. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 95-96. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XV, laureate head right / IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P, winged figure of Minerva flying left, holding spear and shield. C. 294; BMC 237; RIC 791; CBN 210. 3.56g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

The iconography of this coin is most intriguing. This is the only depiction of a winged Minerva in all of Roman coinage, and indeed the concept itself has few parallels in surviving classical art. The closest comparable figure may be found in the winged statue of Minerva Victrix at Ostia, which originally formed part of the decoration of the upper gate known as the Porta Romana. This winged form of Minerva may well have been taken from earlier Greek images of Athena, such as that shown on a black-figure vase found at Orvieto and illustrated in Röm. Mitt. XII, pl. xii, which shows two representations of Athena – one winged and one without wings. With the exception of Nike-Victoria, most of the Greco-Roman gods had shed their wings by the early classical period; that such an archaism should be revived in the time of Domitian is therefore quite inexplicable, save perhaps for the possibility that it was simply an act of whimsy by an emperor who was known to favour Minerva above all other gods.

206


Ex Feirstein, Fox and Bunker Hunt Collections

718.

Domitia AR Denarius. Rome, AD 81-84. DOMITIA AVGVSTA IMP DOMIT, draped bust right, hair falling in long plait behind neck / CONCORDIA AVGVST, peacock standing to right on ground line. C. 2; BMC 61 (Domitian); RIC 151 (Domitian); CBN 65. 3.57g, 19mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

Ex Barry Feirstein Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica 39, 16 May 2007, lot 115; Ex James Fox Collection, CNG 40, 4 December 1996, lot 1465; Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection, Sotheby’s, 21 June 1990, lot 713; Ex Leu 28, 5 May 1981, lot 422. Together with Jupiter and Minerva, the goddess Juno was worshipped in Rome as part of the Capitoline Triad of supreme deities. Goddess of marriage and childbirth, she was the protector and special counsellor of the state, and took a further role safeguarding the women of Rome. It is therefore fitting that this bird above all should feature on the reverse of this rare and attractive denarius, for the peacock was an attribute of Juno and the goddess was often depicted with a peacock at her feet, signifying her watchful and warlike countenance. That the peacock was specifically linked to Juno is affirmed in myth by Ovid in his Metamorphoses, Book 1, where he relates the story of Zeus, his lover Io, and his jilted wife Hera, the Greek equivalent to Juno. Ovid tells us that after Zeus was caught with his lover, she was turned into a pure white heifer by his enraged wife and set under the guard of Argus, the hundred-eyed watchman. Sent by Jupiter to free Io, Hermes distracted Argus by playing the panpipes and telling stories, eventually slaying the giant and freeing Io. To honour her faithful watchman, Ovid tells us that Hera transferred Argus’ eyes to the tail feathers of the peacock so as to preserve them forever. Further meaning can be found in the use of the peacock for this reverse type however, that also arises from the beliefs of the ancient Greeks, for the bird was seen as a symbol of immortality and is therefore an appropriate motif to highlight the desired concord and harmony that the legend references, between not only the emperor and empress but across the empire.

207


719. Julia Titi AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80-81. IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F, draped bust right / VENVS AVGVST, Venus standing right, seen from behind, half nude with drapery hanging low beneath her posterior, holding sceptre in her left hand and helmet in her right and leaning with her left elbow on a column to her left. RIC 388 (Titus); RSC 14. 3.21g, 20mm, 7h. Very Fine.

400

720. Julia Titi Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 80-81. IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA, draped bust right / Vesta seated left, holding palladium and sceptre; S-C across fields, VESTA in exergue. RIC 398 (Titus). 15.67g, 25mm, 7h. Very Fine.

200

Very Rare Tetradrachm of Julia Titi

721. Julia Titi AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Ephesus, AD 81-82. IVLIA AVGVSTA DIVI TITI F, draped bust right / Vesta seated left, holding palladium and sceptre; VESTA in exergue. RIC 848; RPC 871; RSC 15. 10.98g, 26mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

722. Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate bust right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre. RIC 19; BMC 46. 3.36g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

300

723. Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR POT, laureate head right / COS III PATER PATRIAE, priestly emblems: simpulum, aspergillum, guttus, and lituus. RIC 24; RSC 48. 3.48g, 18mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

208

150


Attractive Early Aureus of Trajan

724. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 98. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / PONT MAX TR POT COS II, Germania, nude to waist, seated left on pile of shields, resting left arm on hexagonal shield and holding olive branch in outstretched right hand. RIC 15; BMC 8; Woytek 23a; Calicรณ 1070. 7.52g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

725. Trajan AR Denarius. February-Autumn AD 98. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / PONT MAX TR POT COS II, Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm branch. BMC 21; RIC 22; Woytek 62b. 3.38g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

100

726. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 107. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate head right, with slight drapery on far shoulder / COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Spes advancing left, holding flower and lifting skirt. RIC 127; RSC 84. 3.07g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Highly lustrous surfaces.

150

727. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 112-114. IMP TRAIANVS AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder / DIVVS PATER TRAIAN, Trajan Pater, bare-headed and togate, seated left on curule chair with feet on stool, holding patera in extended right hand and sceptre in left. RIC 252; RSC 140; BMC 500. 2.89g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

150

728. Trajan AR Quinarius. Rome, AD 114-117. IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC, laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder / PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Victory walking right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 335. 1.63g, 15mm, 6h. Very Fine. Old cabinet tone. Scarce.

209

150


210


Beautiful Trajan Sestertius

729. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 104/5-107. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and cornucopia, foot on shoulder of half-length Dacian bust left; S-C across field. RIC 503; Woytek 200aB; Banti 133. 28.01g, 35mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. A wonderful example of the type, the best on CoinArchives, and in an excellent state of preservation for a sestertius of this period. 4,000

730

731

730. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 103-111. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, with slight drapery on left shoulder / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Spes walking left holding flower; S-C across fields. RIC 519; Woytek 338b. 24.99g, 35mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 500 731. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 103-111. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan on horse riding right, spearing fallen Dacian; SC in exergue. Woytek 203b; RIC 534. 27.85g, 34mm, 6h. Very Fine. Pleasing patina. 500

732. Trajan Ӕ Sestertius. Rome, AD 114-117. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate and draped bust right / Trajan seated on platform right, addressing soldiers accompanied by two officers; IMPERATOR VIIII below, SC in exergue. RIC 658; C. 178. 25.22g, 33mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Pleasant Tiber tone.

1,250

Ex Cayon, 12-14 December 2007, lot 3256.

733. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 117. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA, laureate bust right, with slight drapery on far shoulder / PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS, Pietas standing left, raising right hand, PIE-TAS across fields. RIC 13. 3.40g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

211

100


Attractive Sol Issue

734. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 118. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS II, bust of Sol, radiate and draped, facing right; ORIENS in exergue. RIC 43b; Calicó 1295. 7.20g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

7,500

Struck in AD 118 at the beginning of Hadrian’s reign and shortly after the death of Trajan on his return journey from the campaign against Parthia, this stunning aureus contains layers of symbolism hidden within its splendour. The murky circumstances surrounding Hadrian’s accession needed to be legitimised. He had, officially, been adopted by Trajan on his deathbed. Yet whether this was actually the case, and whether it was Trajan’s uninfluenced will, were subjects of whispered debate. It was rumoured that Plotina might have compelled the dying emperor to adopt her favourite, Hadrian, or even perhaps that Trajan had died leaving no successor and that Plotina had afterwards forged Trajan’s will herself. Hadrian was therefore required to cement his own position as well as to consolidate the vast territorial gains of his predecessor, tasks that he undertook quickly and decisively. Realising the untenable position that the annexation of Mesopotamia had created, Hadrian withdrew the legions stationed there and effectively abandoned this province, also later giving up Armenia to a local king, who was soon defeated by Parthia. Unpopular as Hadrian’s abandonment of his predecessor’s conquests in Mesopotamia would have been, it did help to stabilise the empire. At the same time, although the rumour of a falsified adoption carried little weight, Hadrian was keen to emphasise the legitimacy of his position and therefore we see on his coinage of this period obverse legends that closely follow those of Trajan’s, proudly proclaiming his adoptive heritage. The reverse type of Oriens may be understood to have several meanings. At the time it was struck, Hadrian remained in the East consolidating the frontiers of the empire and assisting in the restoration of Egypt, Cyprus, Cyrene and Judaea. Thus it may refer to the new emperor who had arisen in the East, yet it might also be viewed as a celebration of the end to the Jewish rebellion that had so ravaged the eastern provinces. One may also see in this type a melancholic marking of the conclusion to Trajan’s glorious conquests on that most distant border of the Roman empire, a demanding campaign that had ultimately claimed the life of this great and wise emperor.

735. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 118. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust left with slight drapery on far shoulder / P M TR P COS II, Pietas, veiled, standing left and raising right hand, PIE-TAS across fields. RIC 45. 2.60g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

736. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS III, Jupiter, naked to waist, seated to left on throne, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC 64; Calicó 1304a; BMC 107. 7.41g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine.

5,000

737. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right with drapery on far shoulder / P M TR P COS III, Oceanus, holding anchor, reclining left and resting arm on a dolphin. RIC 75; RSC 1111b. 3.16g, 17mm, 7h. Extremely Fine, attractive old tone.

212

150


738 739 738. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder / P M TR P COS III, Concordia seated left, holding patera in right hand. RIC 82; C. 82; BMC 164. 3.44g, 18mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. 100 739. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / P M TR P COS III, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising dress. RIC 100 var. (bust type). 3.28g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine - Near Mint State. Struck on a broad flan and lustrous. 150

740 741 740. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right with slight drapery on far shoulder / P M TR P COS III, Aeternitas standing left, holding heads of Sol and Luna, AET-AVG across fields. RIC 114. 3.16g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine. 100 741. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, circa AD 119-125. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head right / P M TR P COS III, Providentia standing facing, head left, extending hand and holding sceptre; globe at feet to left; PRO-AVG across fields. RIC 133a; RSC 1198. 3.35g, 17mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. 100

742 743 742. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, with drapery on far shoulder / P M TR P COS III, Salus seated left, holding patera, feeding snake rising from altar, SALVS AVG in exergue. RIC 137 var. (SAL AVG), cf. RIC 139. 3.27g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. 100 743. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 117-138. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / P M TR P COS III, Pietas standing right, raising both hands; VOT-PVB across field. RIC 141. 3.40g, 19mm, 7h. About Good Extremely Fine. 200

744 745 744. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / COS III, Neptune standing left, right foot on prow, holding trident and dolphin. RIC 157. 3.35g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare. 100 745. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / COS III, Neptune standing left, right foot on prow, holding trident and acrostolium. RIC 158 corr. (sceptre). 3.44g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. 200

746. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / COS III, Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm; globe in exergue. RIC 184. 3.38g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

213

150


214


Exceptional Hadrian Aureus of Fine Style

747.

Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / Hadrian on horseback right, raising right hand; COS III across field. RIC 186c; Calicó 1218a. 7.13g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State. Well struck from dies of very fine style, perfectly centred and displaying brilliant lustre. Certainly among the finest surviving aurei of Hadrian. 50,000 This very attractive equestrian aureus was struck to mark the triumphant return to Rome of the emperor, and shows him riding into the city accepting the honours and praise of the people. Mattingly and Sydenham argue that during his four year absence from Rome there had been little change in the coinage, no development of style, and the mint had been virtually inactive. However, upon his return there was a great new output of coinage, of which this is a stunning example. For his new coinage, Hadrian drops the long legends favoured by his predecessor Trajan, preferring to simplify them to HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS on the obverse and COS III on the reverse. This new obverse legend very distinctly calls into mind the coinage of the first emperor Augustus, while the new, larger and more gracious style of imperial portrait that fills the fields of the flan is a complete change from the small, careful and cramped types of Trajan. Reverse types such as this one complement the new style and the result is a very attractive and artistic coin. Hadrian’s reign was dominated by his extensive travels across the provinces, and indeed he spent more than half of his reign outside of Italy. A known Hellenophile, shortly before the return to Rome that prompted the issue of coinage to which this aureus belongs the emperor had toured Greece and this, coupled with his studies in Greek academia, art and sculpture led the change to the very Hellenistic design we see here, a piece which can be seen as the product of the highest flourishing of Roman art and sculpture. Although no sculpture or written record of such survives, it is quite probable that this reverse type was modelled on an equestrian statue of Hadrian that stood in Rome and that is lost to us today. We know that numerous equestrian statues of emperors once graced Rome, and we know that equestrian statues of Hadrian in particular existed – sources corroborate one at Aelia Capitolina on the Temple Mount directly above the Holy of Holies, and another is known to have adorned the Milion built by Constantine I at Constantinople, which along with an equestrian statue of Trajan, must have been removed from its original location and placed there. Indeed, if it were the case that this coin depicts a now lost sculpture, this missing statue would easily fit into a series of imperial equestrian statues that are both well-attested and displayed on the Roman coinage, beginning with the sculpture of Augustus that can be seen on denarii of 16 BC struck under the moneyer L. Vinicius (RIC 362), through Domitian’s addition to the Forum Romanum in AD 91 and Trajan’s own statue in the Forum Traiani. All of these followed a traditional mode, of which the gilt bronze statue of Marcus Aurelius, which was also featured on that emperor’s coinage and which is preserved in the Capitoline Museum, is the sole surviving example.

215


748. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder / COS III, Hadrian on horseback right, raising right hand. RIC 186; Strack 146; Calicรณ 1215a; BMC 430-2. 7.24g, 21mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

8,000

749. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder / COS III, Hadrian on horseback right, raising right hand. RIC 186; Strack 146; Calicรณ 1215a; BMC 430-2. 7.27g, 19mm, 7h. Very Fine.

2,000

750. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS III, eagle standing on thunderbolt, head right. RIC 190. 2.95g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

250

751. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, with drapery on far shoulder / COS III, emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, guttus, and lituus. RIC 198; RSC 454. 3.41g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

100

Ex H.D. Rauch MBS 10, 2 March 2006, lot 433.

752. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 132-134. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head left / INDVLGENTIA AVG P P, Indulgentia seated left, extending right hand and holding sceptre; COS III in exergue. RIC 213 var. (unlisted bust type). 3.01g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

216

250


753

754

753. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right / PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left by altar, raising both hands. RIC 257. 3.04g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 100 754. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right / SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake coiled round altar. RIC 267. 3.28g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 150 Ex Classical Numismatic Group 50, 23 June 1999, lot 1516.

755

756

755. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right / SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake coiled round altar. RIC 267. 3.42g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Attractive underlying lustre. 150 756. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right / SALVS AVG, Salus standing left, sacrificing out of patera over altar and holding sceptre. RIC 268. 3.23g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone. 100

757. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, draped bust right / SECVRITAS AVG, Securitas seated right, her right arm resting on back of chair and supporting her head, sceptre in left hand. RIC 271 var. (drapery on left shoulder); Calicรณ 1373. 7.21g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine.

758

1,500

759

758. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right / TELLVS STABIL, Tellus standing left holding plough handle and rake; in ground, two corn-ears. RIC 276. 3.35g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 150 759. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory seated left, holding wreath and palm. RIC 286. 3.14g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine. 100

760. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right / VOTA PVBLICA, veiled emperor standing left, sacrificing out of patera over tripod. RIC 290; BMC 777; C. 1481. 3.27g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

217

200


761

762

761. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right / AEGYPTOS, Egypt reclining left, holding sistrum and resting arm on basket around which snake coils, ibis before her. RIC 296. 3.52g, 17mm, 7h. Very Fine. 100 762. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right / AFRICA, Africa reclining left holding scorpion and cornucopiae, basket of grain at feet. RIC 299; RSC 140. 3.62g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 100

763. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right / ASIA, Asia standing left, foot on prow, holding hook and rudder. RIC 301; RSC 189. 3.43g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

200

764. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, with drapery on left shoulder / COS III, Roma seated left on cuirass, with her right foot on a helmet, holding Victory and cornucopiae; shields behind, SC in exergue. RIC 636. 25.23g, 32mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

765

1,000

766

765. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate and draped bust right / RESTITVTORI HISPANIAE, Hadrian, togate, standing right, raising kneeling figure of Hispania, who holds a branch; rabbit between figures, SC in exergue. RIC 952. 25.16g, 32mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. 300 766. Sabina Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 128-136. SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P, diademed and draped bust right, hair in long tail at back / PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing facing, head left, resting hands on the heads of two children; S-C across fields. RIC 1030. 23.62g, 30mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 200

767

768

767. Diva Sabina AR Denarius. Rome, circa AD 137. DIVA AVG SABINA, draped bust right, wearing diadem / PIETATI AVG, altar. RIC 422c. 3.07g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine. Minor flan crack. Rare. 200 768. Aelius, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 137. L AELIVS CAESAR, bare head right / TR POT COS II, Pietas standing right, before altar, right hand raised, left hand holding box of incense, PIE-TAS across fields. RIC 439; RSC 36; BMC 989. 3.25g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. 200

218


Securing a Stable Succession

769.

Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 140. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / AVRELIVS CAE•SAR AVG P II F COS, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust left. RIC III 417e; Strack 115δ; Calicó 1728 = Biaggi 797 (same dies); BMCRE 154 (same dies); NAC 49, 235 (same dies). 7.17g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous; two finely detailed portraits of handsome style. Very Rare.

20,000

Ex Jacquier 24, 1 January 2000, lot 276. Antoninus Pius was adopted as Hadrian’s successor in 138, following the death of his first adopted son Lucius Aelius. In order to gain Hadrian’s favour, Antoninus had agreed to adopt Aelius’ son, Lucius Verus, as well as Marcus Aurelius, who was betrothed to Aelius’ daughter Ceionia Fabia. This acceptance of pre-determined successors was representative of Antoninus’ role as a surrogate emperor and the guardian of Hadrian’s adoptive line. Despite adopting Hadrian’s chosen successors, Antoninus was able to claim Marcus Aurelius as his own chosen heir. As the nephew of the Emperor’s wife Faustina, Marcus Aurelius was already a distant relative. Following Hadrian’s death, Antontinus convinced Aurelius to amend his marriage arrangements by annulling his betrothal to Ceionia Fabia and instead agreeing to marry the Emperor’s daughter Faustina. Aurelius was advanced in successive stages to near equality with Antoninus; he was granted the title of Caesar in 139 and become consul the following year, while Verus was almost neglected. This coin was most probably struck to commemorate the consulship of Marcus Aurelius in 140, and emphasise his legitimacy as the successor to the Emperor. The attempt to strengthen Aurelius’ claim to the Imperial throne over that of Verus was effective, for the Senate sought to make Aurelius sole emperor upon Antoninus’ death. It was only on the insistence of Aurelius that the Senate was to accept his adoptive brother Verus as joint ruler.

219


770. Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 140. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right / TR POT COS III, Italia, wearing turreted crown, holding cornucopiae and sceptre, seated left on globe; ITALIA in exergue. RIC 98c; RSC 467. 3.32g, 19mm, 7h. Mint State.

200

771. Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 148-149. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P F TR P XII, laureate head right / COS IIII, Annona standing facing, head left, holding grain-ears over modius and anchor. RIC 175; RSC 284. 3.44g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

100

772. Antoninus Pius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 140-144. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / CONCORDIAE, Pius standing right, holding small statuette of Concordia, clasping right hands with Faustina Senior standing left, holding sceptre; between them stand Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior, clasping hands over an altar. RIC 601; Banti 60. 25.39g, 32mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

300

Ex Santamaria 1938

773. Antoninus Pius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 140-144. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / Ops seated left, holding transverse sceptre and drawing up drapery with left hand, left elbow resting on throne. RIC 612a; C. 569. 22.76g, 33mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Lovely surfaces. Rare. Ex Venturi-Ginori collection, NAC R, 17 May 2007, lot 1531; Ex Santamaria 33, 24 Jan 1938, lot 551.

220

1,500


774. Antoninus Pius Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 140-144. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, radiate head right / FELICITAS AVG, Felicitas standing left, holding branch and caduceus; S-C across fields. RIC 658; C. 367. 13.88g, 27mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

200

Ex ACR 6, 10 December 2012, lot 929.

775. Antoninus Pius Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 140-144. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, radiate head right / SALVS AVG, Salus standing left, holding sceptre and feeding serpent coiled around altar to left; S-C across fields. RIC 668; C. 714. 14.24g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; some areas of flatness.

150

776. Antoninus Pius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 143-144. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right / IMP II TR POT COS III, Victory standing to right, holding trophy in both hands; S-C across fields. RIC 715; C. 417. 23.81g, 30mm,12h. Good Very Fine. Lovely olive-green patina.

500

777. Antoninus Pius Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 157-158. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXI, radiate head right / COS IIII, togate statue of Antoninus standing on cippus, holding branch and eagle-tipped sceptre, within tetrastyle shrine with ornate arch; SC in exergue. RIC 989; C. -; BMCRE 2046. 11.89g, 26mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Ex H.D. Rauch 82, 23 April 2008, lot 346.

221

400


778

779

778. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius. Rome, after AD 161. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing right, head left, on altar. RIC 431. 3.31g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. 200 779. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius. Rome, after AD 161. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, funeral pyre of four tiers surmounted by facing quadriga. RIC 438; RSC 164. 3.49g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. 100

780

781

780. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius. Rome, AD 161-162. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right / DIVO PIO, column surmounted by statue of Antoninus Pius, surrounded by balustrade. RIC 439. 2.88g, 19mm, 5h. Very Fine.

100

781. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius. Rome, AD 162. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right / DIVO PIO, square altar. RIC 441; C. 353. 3.65g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

150

782. Diva Faustina I Æ Sestertius. Struck under Antoninus Pius, Rome, AD 146-161. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing left, holding globe surmounted by phoenix in right hand, lifting hem of dress with left. RIC III 1105 (Pius); Banti 5. 21.82g, 38mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

250

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 34, 6 May 1995, lot 342.

783. Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Æ As. Struck under Antoninus Pius, Rome, AD 145. AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F, bare head right / COS II, Cornucopiae; S-C across fields. C. 112; RIC 1259 (Pius). 10.38g, 29mm, 11h. Very Fine. Ex Künker 111, 18 March 2006, lot 6782.

222

200


Harmony in Marriage

784. Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Struck under Antoninus Pius, Rome, AD 148-149. AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F, bare head right / CONCORDIA TR POT III COS II, Concordia standing facing, head left, sheltering with her mantle small draped figures of Marcus Aurelius (on the left) and Faustina Junior; both figures of Aurelius and Faustina are standing facing, their heads turned toward Concordia. RIC III 441 (Pius) var. (COS II in exergue); Strack 205 (Pius) var. (same); Calicó 1820a; Biaggi –; BMCRE 680 (Pius) var. (same). 6.59g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, only three examples on CoinArchives.

12,500

Ex CNG Triton XVII Sessions 1 & 2, 7 January 2014, lot 714. Beautifully rendered on the reverse of this stunning aureus is a charming scene representing the harmony (concordia) that prevailed between Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior, who had been married in AD 145. Struck under Antoninus Pius, the depiction of Concordia gathering and sheltering Aurelius and Faustina near her, a representation of harmony in marriage and hope for a life of happiness, belies nothing of the forethought and planning that was undertaken to arrange the match. Instituted by Hadrian during his final two years of life with his adoption of Pius and the subsequent direction for Pius to adopt Aurelius, the wedding commemorated on this coin was, as seen under Roman law, of a brother marrying his sister and Pius would have had to formally release either the bride or groom from his paternal authority in order for the ceremony to go ahead. Inauspicious as the legal challenges may have been at the start of their union, Aurelius and Faustina were married for thirty years and Faustina bore thirteen children over this period, heralding a time of stability in the imperial family. As Carlos Noreña posits, “With the decline of independent senatorial authority and concurrent ascent to power of those individuals who had privileged access to the emperor, especially emperors’ wives, concordia within the imperial family, above all between emperor and empress, became paramount.” (Imperial Ideals in the Roman West: Representation, Circulation, Power, CUP 2011). Following the carefully orchestrated succession organised by Hadrian, propaganda such as this reverse type, which emphasised the harmony and benefits brought to the empire by the Antonine dynasty, were plentiful and became a lasting feature of imperial coinage.

Apparently Unpublished Variant

785. Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 148-149. AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F, bare-headed and draped bust right / TR POT III COS II, Clementia standing left, holding patera and holding out skirt with left hand; CLEM in exergue. RIC -, cf. 448a (different bust type); Calicó -. 6.38g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unpublished variant.

223

3,000


Very Rare Bust Variant

786. Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Struck under Antoninus Pius. Rome, AD 158-159. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare-headed and cuirassed bust right / TR POT XIII COS II, Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre. RIC 477b; C. 736; Calicó 1965. 7.33g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very rare bust variant; no examples on CoinArchives.

10,000

Unusual among the Roman pantheon for keeping his original Greek identity, Apollo was raised from the position of a minor healing deity to one of the patron gods of the city of Rome by Augustus after the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, when he had a temple built to the god on the Palatine Hill, significantly within the pomerium (the formal and ritual boundary of the city). In a further departure from the pattern of the major Roman gods Apollo did not rule a specific domain, but covered a more eclectic range of functions as god of ‘youthful masculine beauty’, the god of ‘music and poetry’ and the god of ‘light and purity’. The depiction seen on the reverse of this rare and attractive aureus is Apollo Musagetes, the leader of the Muses, shown with the lyre to signify music and the patera showing religious sensibility. The design was most likely based on the cult statue of Apollo by the sculptor Bryaxis, of which ancient descriptions survive, that was placed in the Temple of Apollo at Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, in the early third century BC and survived until the temple burnt down in AD 362. This particular representation of Apollo is a fitting depiction for a coin of Marcus Aurelius as he is known to have been heavily influenced by the philosophic way of life during his schooling as a young man. Indeed, he is said to have found the transition to his new station as heir designate to his adoptive father Antoninus Pius, with all the pomp of the imperial court and the responsibilities that came with being princeps iuventutis, head of the equestrian order, particularly difficult to reconcile with his chosen lifestyle. Struck in AD 158-159, the portrait of Aurelius that we see on this coin is markedly different to the representation of the man ten years earlier, as can be seen in the previous lot. Here we have a man of approximately 37 who is shown with the vigour and skill to lead the empire, a prescient issue coming as it did only two years before the death of Pius. This particularly rare obverse bust type, shown with the military cuirass, presents us with an interesting contrast to the more gentle attributes the future emperor is given in the reverse design and again pre-empted events to come, though Aurelius took no active part in them himself: upon the death of Pius his old enemy Vologases IV of Parthia invaded the Kingdom of Armenia, which was at this time a Roman client state and had been the subject of disputes since AD 155.

787

788

787. Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 161-162. M ANTONINVS AVG, laureate head right / PROV DEOR TR P XVI COS III, Providentia standing left, holding globe and cornucopiae. RIC 49. 3.74g, 17mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Beautiful old cabinet tone. 100 788. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus AR Denarius. Restitution issue of Mark Antony legionary type. Rome, AD 165-166. ANTONINVS AVGVR, praetorian galley left; III VIR R P C in exergue / ANTONINVS ET VERVS AVG REST, aquila between two signa; LEG VI across field. RIC 443 (Aurelius and Verus); RSC 83 (Antony). 3.11g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine. 100

224


789. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, March-December AD 161. IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG P M, laureate bust right with drapery on far shoulder / LIB AVGVSTOR TR P XV COS III, Aurelius and Verus seated to left on platform; before them, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and wand, below, man standing to right, looking up. RIC 806 var.; C. 402 var. 24.22g, 33mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

750

Ex Numismatik Lanz 146, 25 May 2009, lot 462.

Very Rare ‘Profectio’ Type

790. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 169-170. M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIIII, laureate head right / COS III, Aurelius, wearing cuirass, on horse right, holding spear; in front, soldier with spear and shield, three soldiers holding standards behind; PROFECTIO AVG S C in exergue. RIC 977. 24.48g, 30mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

300

791. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 171. IMP M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXV, laureate head right / PRIMI DECEN-NALES COS III S C in five lines within wreath. RIC 1006; MIR 18, 219-6/30; Banti 241. 26.37g, 30mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

792. Divus Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Struck under Commodus in Rome, AD 180. DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing right, with head left and wings open, on garlanded altar; S-C across fields. RIC 657. 23.66g, 33mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Flan flaw on reverse and minor crack. Ex Jean Elsen 98, 13 December 2008, lot 336.

225

350


793. Divus Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Struck under Commodus in Rome, AD 180. DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle, carrying a thunderbolt in its talons, flying right bearing aloft Marcus Aurelius, who holds a sceptre; S-C across fields. RIC 660. 25.67g, 32mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Fields very slightly smoothed. Of excellent style and with a beautiful patina.

750

Ex HD Rauch Summer Auction, 15 September 2008, lot 621.

794. Faustina Junior AV Aureus. Rome, AD 161-164. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair waved and fastened in bun on back of head / SALVTI AVGVSTAE, Salus, draped, seated left on throne, resting elbow on arm of throne and feeding out of patera snake coiled around and rising from altar to left. RIC 716 (Aurelius); Calicó 2073a; BMC 151-2 (Aurelius and Verus); Biaggi 935. 7.36g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

5,000

795. Lucius Verus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 161-162. IMP L AVREL VERVS AVG, bare head right, wearing aegis on left shoulder / CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR TR P II, M. Aurelius standing right and holding scroll, clasping hands with L. Verus, standing left; COS II in exergue. RIC 473; Calicó 2123 (these dies); BMC p. 411 note †. 7.24g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Traces of mounting. Highly lustrous.

10,000

Rome was to be ruled by two emperors for the first time upon the accession of both Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus in AD 161, and the first joint rule and political union of the Roman Empire was depicted on the reverses of early gold issues belonging to both emperors; this example is struck in the name of Lucius Verus. The reverse legend CONCORDIAE AVGVSTOR denotes the ideal of concordia working within this new political system of diarchy. Concordia represented the condition of harmonious union between two individuals, which in turn produced harmony within the state. Such an ideal is presented here as an advertised benefit of the empire under the joint rule of Aurelius and Verus.

Unpublished Bust Variant

796. Lucius Verus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 163-164. L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, bare-headed and draped bust right / TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Mars standing right, holding spear and resting on shield set on ground. RIC -, cf. 514-516; C. -; BMC -. 3.35g, 17mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished bust variant.

226

150


Ex Leu 50, 1990

797.

Lucius Verus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 164. L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Victory, naked to waist, standing right, holding writing instrument in right hand and with left hand steadying shield inscribed VIC AVG that is set atop palm tree. BMC 296; Calicó 2177; C. 247 var.; RIC 525. 7.26g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Leu 50, 25 April 1990, lot 321. Shortly after the Lucius Verus succeeded to the position of co-emperor in AD 161, a position he shared with Marcus Aurelius, the peace Antontinus Pius had negotiated with the Parthians collapsed. The Parthian king Vologases IV invaded the Kingdom of Armenia, then a Roman client state, expelling the king and installing his own. Both initial attempts to recover the territory of Armenia by the Governor of Cappadocia, Marcus Sedatius Severianus, and the Governor of Syria, L. Attidius Cornelianus, were unsuccessful. Marcus Aurelius took the decision to send his imperial colleague Lucius Verus to defend the Eastern territories in person. This aureus was struck shortly following the successful invasion of Armenia and capture of Artaxata in AD 183 by M. Statius Priscus, the former Governor of Britain who had been sent to replace Severianus as the Governor of Cappadocia. The obverse proudly boasts the title of Armeniacus, which was granted to Verus despite him having never seen combat. Verus is believed to have spent the majority of the campaign in Antioch, where his contribution to military matters is one of historical dispute. Nevertheless, the recovery of Armenia into the empire as a subordinate client kingdom saw the end of the limited themes which had featured on the early gold issues of the two Augusti in favour of the new – Minerva, Felicitas, Pax – including Victory, who is depicted on the reverse of this coin.

227


798. Lucilla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 161-163. LVCILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopiae. RIC 759; RSC 7. 3.49g, 18mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

100

799. Lucilla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 161-169. LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F, draped bust right / VENVS, Venus standing left, holding apple and sceptre. RIC 784. 3.32g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

100

800. Commodus, as Caesar, Æ Dupondius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius, Rome, AD 175-176. COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM, bareheaded and draped bust right / PIETAS AVG, emblems of the pontificate: secespita, aspergillum, guttus, lituus, and simpulum. RIC 1539. 11.21g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

200

Ex Jean Elsen 98, 13 December 2008, lot 338.

801. Commodus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius, Rome, AD 177. IMP CAES L AVREL COMMODVS GERM SARM, laureate draped bust right / TR POT II COS, Salus standing left, holding sceptre and feeding snake coiled around altar. RIC 626; C. 741. 3.11g, 18mm, 5h. Mint State; struck from worn dies.

100

802. Commodus, as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius, Rome, AD 177. IMP CAES L AVREL COMMODVS GERM SARM, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / TR P II COS, two captives seated left and right at foot of trophy; S-C across fields, DE GERM in exergue. RIC 1555. 25.34g, 32mm, 5h. Very Fine. Rare.

228

400


803. Commodus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 183-184. M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS, laureate head right / P M TR P VIIII I MP VI COS IIII P P, Minerva advancing right, holding javelin and shield; owl at feet. RIC 72; C. 424. 2.68g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

804. Commodus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 180. L AVREL COMMODVS AVG TR P V, laureate and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / IOVI VICTORI IMP III COS II P P, Jupiter seated left, holding Victory in extended right hand, sceptre in left; S-C across fields. RIC 291f; MIR 18, 46716/35; BMCRE 1722 (Marcus and Commodus); Cohen 264. 22.32g, 30mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. An attractive sestertius from the final joint-reign issue of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.

500

805. Commodus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 188. M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT, laureate head right / P M TR P XIII IMP VIII COS V P P, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae; S-C across fields. RIC 513; MIR 18, 748-6/30. 33.79g, 31mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

300

Second Known Example

806. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 189. M COMM ANT P FEL AVG G BRIT P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MIN VICT P M TR P XIIII COS V DES VI, Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear; trophy behind. RIC -; C. -; Calicό 2290a = Stack’s 1993, no. 465. 7.10g. 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently only the second known example.

7,500

This aureus displays Commodus on the verge of his infamous descent into megalomania. As a result of various attempts on his life and a rather tumultous reign, Commodus preferred to spend the late 180s on his private estates rather than in the public eye at Rome. During this time, a favourite of Commodus’ named Cleander took advantage of the emperor’s absence and began administration in Rome to further his own power. An example of his extreme self-given governance can be found in his appointment of 25 suffect consuls, the highest number in all the history of Rome. Cleander fell into disrepute and Commodus had to eventually have his old favourite executed in AD 190. The appearance of Minerva on the reverse of this coin is significant as its production hails from the period before the obsession with Hercules consumed Commodus. Like Hadrian before him, he chose Minerva as his patron deity and protectress and pays her respect with this reverse type, while his coinage also featured other deities from the Roman pantheon as well. We can clearly see the change that occurs in his character over time with a comparison of the types, for the traditional deities are dispensed with while Hercules becomes dominant, as can be seen on lot 808 where Commodus appears on the obverse wearing the lion skin headdress associated with the hero.

229


230


Commodus’ Aspirations to Divinity

807. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 190-1. M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT P P, laureate and draped bust right / MIN AVG P M TR P XVI COS VI, Minerva hurrying right, head turned back, holding branch, spear and shield. RIC 222; Calicó 2287; BMC 301, pl. 98.18 (same dies). 7.07g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. A very fine style portrait of Commodus.

25,000

Ex Gemini VIII - Heritage, 14 April 2011, lot 358; Ex Peus 364, 27 April 2000, lot 197; Ex Peus 361, 3 November 1999, lot 616. Commodus is often credited by the ancient sources with the near destruction of the Roman Empire, through a combination of disinterest in the governance of Rome and an all-consuming belief that he was of god-like status. With his accession, says the contemporary historian Cassius Dio, “our history now descends from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust, as affairs did for the Romans of that day” (LXXII.36.4). By the latter years of his reign when this aureus was struck, Commodus believed Hercules was his divine patron, and he worshipped him so intensely that eventually he came to believe himself an incarnation of the mythological hero, reinforcing the image he was cultivating of himself as a demigod who, as the son of Jupiter, was the representative of the supreme god of the Roman pantheon. The growing megalomania of the emperor permeated all areas of Roman life, as is witnessed in the material record by the innumerable statues erected around the empire that had been set up portraying him in the guise of Hercules, and his coinage. The reverse of this stunning aureus depicts Minerva, daughter of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad; she had been the patron deity of Domitian, and perhaps ignoring the failure of the goddess to protect his predecessor, Commodus here solicits her favour. The other types of Commodus featured on the coinage of his later years also boldly proclaim his aspirations to divinity, for example the following lot depicting Commodus as Hercules himself.

808. Commodus Æ As. Rome, AD 192. L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, head right, wearing lion skin / HERCVL ROMAN AVGV S C in four lines to left and right of upright club, all within laurel wreath. RIC 644; C. 193. 10.93g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

231

300


809. Pertinax AR Denarius. Rome, 1st January-28th March AD 193. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / IANO CONSERVAT, Janus standing facing, holding sceptre, left hand resting on hip. RIC 3; C.17. 3.51g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. Attractive full-length rendering of Janus.

750

Ex Goldberg 55, 29 October 2009, lot 178.

810. Pertinax AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / SAECVLO FRVGIFERO, caduceus upright with six corn-ears attached to it as wings. RIC 12; BMC 5. 2.91g, 17mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

Ex Beaussant Lefèvre - Thierry Parsy 8, 30 June 2009, lot 57.

811. Pertinax Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, radiate bust right / LIBER AVG TRP COS II, Liberalitas left with abacus and cornucopia; S-C across fields. RIC 25a; C. 26. 10.38g, 25mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

Ex Jesus Vico 115, 15 November 2007, lot 236.

812. Divus Pertinax AR Denarius. Struck under Septimius Severus. Rome, AD 193-194. DIVVS PERT PIVS PATER, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing right on globe, head left. RIC 24A (Septimius); RSC 6. 3.39g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,250

Ex Numismatik Lanz 141, 26 May 2008, lot 497.

813. Didius Julianus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right / RECTOR ORBIS, Didius Julianus, togate, standing left, holding globe in outstretched right hand and roll in left. RIC 3; RSC 15; BMC 7-8. 2.40g, 16mm, 6h. Very Fine.

500

814. Didius Julianus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 193. [IMP CAES M DID S] EVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right / RECTOR ORBIS, Julian standing left, holding globe and roll. RIC 16. 19.01g, 28mm, 5h. Very Fine. Rare.

232

1,500


Extremely Rare Aureus of Didia Clara

815.

Didia Clara AV Aureus. Struck under Didius Julianus, Rome, April-May AD 193. DIDIA CLARA AVG, draped bust right / HILAR TEMPOR, Hilaritas standing left, holding palm branch in right hand and cornucopiae in left. C. 2; BMC 13; RIC 10; Calicó 2402. 6.56g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Scattered marks and scratches. Extremely Rare.

10,000

Ex Sotheby’s ‘Collection of Highly Important Greek and Roman Coins’, 20 June 1979; lot 123; Ex Münzen & Medaillen XXI, 9 March 1960, lot 64; Ex Vicomte de Quelen Collection, Rollin-Feuardent, 7 May 1888, lot 1267. This aureus, struck in the year her father Didius Julianus bought the throne of the Roman Empire at auction, shows Didia Clara as the proud bearer of the title Augusta which she and her mother Manlia Scantilla had assumed. Although she was allegedly the most beautiful woman in all of Rome, we know hardly anything about her life. She was married to Cornelius Repentinus, who served as a prefect of Rome during her father’s brief reign. Silver coins of this enigmatic Augusta are rare, and in gold they are very seldom seen. Hilaritas commonly appears on the coinage of Didia Clara. This Roman goddess personified happiness and celebration, often in the wake of the birth of a child into the imperial family. There are no records available to confirm whether Didia had children, but perhaps this type of coinage offers a clue that she may have. However these children would have never received imperial positions as the new emperor Septimius Severus removed her title following the death of her parents in the summer of 193. The fate of this mysterious woman following such tragedy is unknown.

233


816. Didia Clara AR Denarius. Struck under Didius Julianus, Rome, April-May AD 193. DIDIA CLARA AVG, draped bust right / HILAR TEMPOR, Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm frond and cornucopiae. RIC 10; RSC 3. 2.71g, 17mm, 12h. Good Fine. Rare.

200

817. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGERIVS AVG COS II, laureate bust right / MONETAE AVG, Moneta wearing polos, standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 64c var. (obv. legend). 3.03g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

300

818. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right / SALVTI AVGVSTI, Salus standing right before lighted altar, holding serpent in her arms and feeding it from a patera. RIC 77. 2.57g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine, minor flan crack 7h.

1,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch Auction 122, 10 March 2003, lot 2187.

Extremely Fine and Apparently Unique

819. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESCEN NIG IVST AVG, laureate head right / VICTOR IVST AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. RIC -, cf. 81a-f; BMC -; C. -. 3.16g, 18mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique variety of this very rare type.

234

1,000


820. Clodius Albinus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. D CLODIVS ALBINVS CAES, bare head right / PROVID AVG COS, Providentia standing left holding wand over globe and sceptre. RIC 1a. 3.62g, 18mm, 4h. Very Fine.

200

821. Clodius Albinus, as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 194-195. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head of Clodius Albinus right / MINERVA PACIF COS II, Minerva standing left, holding olive branch, spear and shield; S-C across fields. RIC 54; BMCRE 535. 24.70g, 31mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,200

822. Clodius Albinus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 195-197. IMP CAES D CLO ALBIN AVG, laureate head right / GEN LVG COS II, the Genius of Lugdunum, towered and standing front with head left, holding sceptre and cornucopiae; eagle at feet. RIC 23c. 2.82g, 17mm, 11h. Near Very Fine. Rare.

250

Ex HD Rauch Auction 76, 17 October 2005, lot 555.

823. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right / LEG XIII GEM M V, legionary eagle between two standards; TR P COS in exergue. RIC 13. 3.07g, 18mm, 6h. Very Fine.

235

100


236


Very Rare Aureus of Septimius Severus

824.

Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 195. L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII, laureate head right / DIVI M P II F PM TR P III COS II P P, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy. RIC 66; C. -; Calicรณ 2448. 7.27g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine, almost as struck. Very Rare.

20,000

Ex Gemini 1, 11 January 2005, lot 395. The death of Commodus marked the beginning of a turbulent year for the Empire, with five individuals claiming the throne in quick succession. Pertinax was immediately instated as emperor, but after just three months he was assasinated by the Praetorian Guard and succeeded by Didius Julianus. Three simultaneous challengers arose; Pescennius Niger in Syria, Clodius Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Pannonia. Severus made an ally of Albinus and appointed him Caesar having entered Rome without opposition in AD 193. With Albinus placated and defending the west, he marched east and defeated Pescennius Niger, in so doing finally securing rule of the empire. Having removed the most serious threat to his power, Severus now sought to establish the legitimacy of his succession and in 195 styled himself son of the deified Marcus Aurelius (Dio, LXXVI.7), to which the reverse legend of this type refers (DIVI MARCVS PII FILIVS). In addition, Septimius renamed Bassianus, his eldest son, as Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Thus did Severus hope to legitimise his rule by portraying it as a natural succession and continuation of the Antonine adoptive emperors. Seeing that Severus had no intention of sharing power, Albinus proclaimed himself emperor but was defeated at the Battle of Lugdunum in 197, paving the way for a Severan dynasty that spanned the next four decades.

237


238


825

826

825. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 196-197. L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and sceptre. RIC 92a. 3.38g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. 100 826. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 200-201. SEVERVS AVG PART MAX, laureate head right / RESTITVTOR VRBIS, Severus standing left, sacrificing with patera over tripod and holding spear. RIC 167. 3.48g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 100

827

828

827. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 202-210. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / AFRICA, Africa standing right, wearing elephant skin headdress; lion at side. RIC 253; RSC 25. 3.62g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare. 100 828. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 202-210. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / INDVLGENTIA AVGG, the Dea Caelestis riding on a lion right, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; below, waters gushing from rock; IN CARTH in exergue. RIC 266; C. 222. 3.07g, 19mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. 100

829. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 202-210. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Julia Domna right. RIC 273; RSC 3. 3.25g, 19mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine, minor flan crack 9h. Pleasant tone.

400

830. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 202-210. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right / LAETITIA TEMPORVM, the spina of the Circus Maximus decorated as a ship facing left, with the turning posts at its prow and stern, a sail mounted on the central obelisk, and the spina’s other monuments visible in between; above the ship, four quadrigas racing left; below, seven animals: an ostrich at left and a bear at right; between them a lion and a lioness chasing a wild ass and a panther attacking a bison. RIC 274; BMC 343. 3.43g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine, attractive deep old cabinet tone. Very Rare. Ex Gemini Auction IV, 8 January 2008, lot 441; Ex CNG Mail Bid 73, 13 September 2006, lot 634; Ex Alexandre de Barros Ship Collection, CNG 47, 16 September 1998, lot 1776; Ex Classical Numismatic Review 23, January 1998, lot 89.

239

850


831. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 202-210. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right / LAETITIA TEMPORVM, the spina of the Circus Maximus decorated as a ship facing left, with the turning posts at its prow and stern, a sail mounted on the central obelisk, and the spina’s other monuments visible in between; above the ship, four quadrigas racing left; below, seven animals: an ostrich at left and a bear at right; between them a lion and a lioness chasing a wild ass and a panther attacking a bison. RIC 274; BMC 343. 2.23g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

750

832 833 832. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 197. L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIIII, laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae. RIC 493; BMC 464; Cohen 442. 2.63g, 20mm, 12h. Mint State. 150 833. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 198-202. L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, laureate head right / COS II P P, Victory advancing left, holding wreath in right hand and palm frond with her left. RIC 503a; BMC 655; C. 96. 3.08g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

834

150

835

834. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 198-202. L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, laureate head right / IVSTITIA, Iustitia seated left, holding sceptre and patera. RIC 505; C. 251. 3.36g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 100 835. Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 198-202. [L] SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI P[ART MAX], laureate head right / VOTIS DECENNALIBVS in four lines within wreath. RIC 520a; RSC 798. 3.68g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

836. Septimius Severus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 196. SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P IIII COS II P P, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch; S-C across fields. C. 420; BMC 591; RIC 725. 15.76g, 28mm, 5h. Very Fine.

837

200

838

837. Divus Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Struck under Caracalla in Rome, AD 211. DIVO SEVERO PIO, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing facing on globe, with open wings and head left. RIC 191c (Caracalla); BMC 21 (Caracalla); Hill 1232; RSC 84. 3.44g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 200 838. Divus Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Struck under Caracalla in Rome, AD 211. DIVO SEVERO PIO, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing facing on globe, with open wings and head left. RIC 191c (Caracalla); BMC 21 (Caracalla); Hill 1232; RSC 84. 3.26g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. 200

240


Superb Aureus of Julia Domna

839.

Julia Domna AV Aureus. Rome, AD 193-196. IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust of Julia Domna right, her hair in six waves and bound up at the back / VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, seen from behind, half nude with drapery hanging low beneath her posterior, holding palm branch in her left hand, a globe in her right and leaning with her left elbow on a low column to her left. BMC 47; Calicó 2641a; Hill 100; RIC 536 (Severus). 7.29g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Hirsch 281, 2 May 2012, lot 899. Cassius Dio relates an anecdote that, prior to the wedding of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, Septimius is supposed to have dreamt that Faustina Junior, wife to the last worthy emperor Marcus Aurelius, prepared their nuptial chamber within the Temple of Venus and Roma, near the imperial palace. Such a link back to the golden years before the depravations of Commodus and the ensuing civil war implied to the ever-superstitious plebs Faustina’s approval of Septimius and Julia, offering her blessing to them while portending their destiny as the rightful rulers of the empire, sent to guide Rome back to better times. Septimius aspired to restore peace and stability to the Roman Empire, and his wife Julia was to play an instrumental role in this endeavour. By all accounts their marriage was a very happy one, and it is testament to affection in which Julia held her husband that she chose to accompany Septimius on all of his military campaigns at a time when the women of Rome were expected to stay behind in the city and await their husband’s return. Fittingly, the high regard in which Septimius held his wife for her resilience, political views and faithfulness is attested to by the great number of titles conferred upon her, including that of Mater Senatus et Patriae (mother of the Senate and Rome) and, on account of her companionship in the field, Mater Castrorum (mother of the camp). The naturally strong bond exhibited by Septimius and Julia could not have been a better stabiliser to the teetering empire after the so-called ‘Year of the Five Emperors’ in AD 193, and the opportunity was not lost on the new emperor and empress to secure their own positions. An association with Venus was favoured for the Empress’ early coinage, so that the first issues struck for Julia feature the goddess, as we see on this stunning aureus. Julia was to be presented as a model of traditional Roman values, and here we see why the association with Venus was a crucial starting point: Venus is here represented as the goddess of victory, holding a globe in her hand to signify Roman dominion over the known world. Of course, her other roles as goddess of love, beauty, fertility and motherhood, all equally important to Julia, are not forgotten in the design of this reverse type and further secure her position as the mother of the state.

241


840. Julia Domna AR Denarius. Rome, AD 196-211. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / MATER DEVM, Cybele, towered, seated left on throne between two lions, holding branch in right hand, and sceptre in left, left arm resting on drum. RIC 564. 3.39g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

100

841. Julia Domna, with Geta as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 196-211. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right. RIC 571. 3.99g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

Ex Numismatic Fine Arts 18, 1 April 1987, lot 507.

842. Julia Domna AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 196-202. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / LAETITIA, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. RIC 641; RSC 101. 3.91g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

100

843. Julia Domna AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 196-202. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia, veiled, seated left, right hand on breast, left at side of chair. RIC 644. 3.19g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

100

844. Julia Domna AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 196-202. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENVS FELIX, Venus standing left, holding apple and sceptre. RIC 646; RSC 197. 3.43g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

242

100


845. Julia Domna AR Denarius. Rome, AD 211-217. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, set on crescent / LVNA LVCIFERA, Luna in biga left. RIC 379a; RSC 105. 5.03g, 23mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

150

Very Rare Julia Domna Quinarius

2x

2x

846. Julia Domna AR Quinarius. Rome, AD 211-217. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / IVNO, Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre; peacock at her feet. RIC 376; C. 84. 1.63g, 15mm, 12h. Extremely Fine, very well preserved for the issue. Very Rare.

1,500

From the Alban Collection.

847

848

847. Julia Domna AR Denarius. Rome, AD 211-217. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / MATRI DEVM, Cybele, towered, standing left, leaning on column, holding drum in right hand and short sceptre in right; lion to left. RIC 382; RSC 137. 3.41g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Scarce. 100 848. Julia Domna AR Denarius. Rome, AD 211-217. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left, extending right hand and holding sceptre in left. RIC 388. 3.15g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 100

849. Julia Domna AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 211-217. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, diademed and draped bust right, set on crescent / VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left, extending right hand and holding sceptre in left. RIC 388. 4.92g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

850. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 199-200. ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PONTIF TR P III, Sol standing right, head left, with orb and sceptre. RIC 30b. 3.37g, 17mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

243

100


Very Rare Aureus of Caracalla

851.

Caracalla AV Aureus. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 200. ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, laureate and draped bust right / P MAX TR P III, Roma seated to left on round shield, holding Victory in her right hand and a reversed spear with her left. Biaggi 1187; BMC p. 295, 715; Calicó 2703; C. 182; RIC 342a; Sear 6727. 7.22g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

10,000

A charming early portrait of Caracalla, struck two years after his elevation to the rank of Augustus, the young emperor is seen here as a vision of youth. If one looks at the progression of the portraits throughout his reign, they become more sinister looking, starting off youthful and moving towards a more intense face with furrowed brow. Those later portrayals appear to have been highly accurate, and are confirmed by the historical sources, which are not kind to him. They universally describe him as an angry and savage character who was not well liked. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father Septimius Severus until the latter’s death in AD 211 and subsequently shared a joint rule with his brother Geta. Despite the strong bond between their parents and Septimius’ attempt to forge a strong and close-knit imperial family, Caracalla and Geta were irretrievably at odds and incapable of working together. Contrary to the picture of the imperial family presented to the outside world, fragments of which can be seen on the coinage of Septimius, which shows a united family sharing the responsibilities of rule, the truth of the matter was that Julia Domna spent much of her time mediating in her sons’ conflicts – a prescient warning of the future. The depiction of Roma on the reverse of this rare aureus is consistent with other issues from the third century which were heavy with military depictions and religious themes, and it is a fittingly patriotic image with which to associate the young co-emperor. The implication of this type, struck while Caracalla was still only twelve, is that he is being carefully prepared by his father to one day take over the rule of the empire. Laodicea ad Mare, the mint of this particular coin, had pledged its allegiance to Septimius during the civil war, and thus the town was granted titles and privileges, including the establishment of a provincial mint striking gold and silver, of which the present piece is a fine example. It is also quite possible, given the output of gold at Laodicea in 198-202, that the gold used in the minting of this and other coins was sourced from the spoils of war Septimius collected in the course of his victorious Parthian campaign.

244


The Severan Dynasty

852.

Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 201. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PON TR P IIII, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIAE AETERNAE, jugate busts right of Septimius Severus, radiate and draped, and Julia Domna, diademed and draped, on crescent. RIC 52 var.; C. 1; BMC 260; Calicó 2849. 7.27g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; very slight wave in flan. Very Rare.

17,500

Struck a during the period of rule in which both Caracalla and his father Septimius Severus were co-Augusti, this coin’s obverse legend refers to Caracalla’s official name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, given to him in order to further legitimise the rule of the Severans through a fictitious link to the Antonine adoptive emperors who came before them. A decade before the death of Septimius and Caracalla’s despicable murder of his brother Geta, the Severan family here portrayed as unified in the rule of the empire. The imagery present here is a strong propagandistic message of stability offered by a virtuous imperial family, creating the potential for a long-lasting dynasty by grooming the next generation for the duty of ruling the empire. Having been made Augustus at the age of ten, and only thirteen when this type was minted, the clear implication is that Rome should look forward to many more years of Severan peace. The mutual dependence of the sun and the moon is used as a means to portray the strong bond of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, while emphasising the concept of permanence – in this case, of the principate and the empire it ruled. Septimius’s radiate crown denotes him as a representation of Sol, and the bust of Domna is set upon a crescent moon, the attribute of Luna. The legend CONCORDIAE AETERNAE (eternal harmony) is intended to refer not only to the imperial family, connoting firm hands on the tiller of the empire and a secure succession, but also reflects Septimius’ (largely justifiable claim) to have brought peace and a renewed golden age to Rome. There existed among the general populace a heartfelt belief that a stable imperial family was conducive to having a stable domain, and this reassurance is dovetailed neatly into another key element of the Roman collective psyche - the idea that Rome and its empire were everlasting - a concept that features heavily in literature such as the Aeneid, a work that had had a profound impact on Roman culture.

245


853. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 201. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped beardless young bust right / PART MAX PONT TR P IIII, trophy; at base, bound captive seated at either side. RIC 54b; RSC 175. 3.62g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

100

854. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 201-206. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / VIRTVS AVGG, Virtus standing left holding Victory and spear. RIC 149. 3.65g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

200

855. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 206-210. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / FELICIA TEMPORA, the Four Seasons as boys at play. RIC 153. 2.19g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

500

856. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 210-213. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate bust right / MARTI PACATORI, Mars, helmeted, standing facing, his head turned to left, holding branch in his right hand, spear and shield set on ground with his left. RIC 222; BMC 81; C. 149. 3.43g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

857. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 214. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, nude Hercules standing half-left, holding branch and club upward, lion’s skin draped over arm. RIC 239; RSC 244. 3.22g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

246

100


858

859

858. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 214. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Jupiter, naked to waist, standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; eagle at feet. RIC 240; C. 239. 3.00g, 18mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 100 859. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 215. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Apollo, naked, standing facing, holding branch and resting hand on lyre set on altar. RIC 254; RSC 282. 3.55g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

100

860. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 215. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis, wearing polos, standing left, raising right hand and holding transverse sceptre. RIC 263f; RSC 296. 3.29g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State.

861

200

862

861. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 216. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter standing facing, head left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC 275a; RSC 337. 3.06g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 100 862. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 216. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Serapis wearing polos, standing left, raising right hand and holding transverse sceptre. RIC 280c. 2.80g, 18mm, 7h. Mint State; pleasant iridescent tone. 100

863. Caracalla AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 217. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis standing facing, head left, holding wreath and sceptre. RIC 289f; RSC 383. 5.15g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

864 865 864. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 213-217. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 302; BMC 70; Cohen 139. 2.97g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 100 865. Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 215. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM , laureate head right / P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Fides Militum standing left between two standards. RIC 266; RSC 315. 3.33g, 18mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

247

100


Ex Bally-Herzog Collection; Merzbacher 1903

866. Caracalla Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 210. IMP AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / PONTIF TR P XIII COS III, Caracalla and Geta, each togate, standing facing each other, sacrificing from paterae over altar behind which stands veiled Concordia facing; SC in exergue. RIC 452a. 23.23g, 34mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; a couple of light marks. Rare.

1,000

Ex Arthur Bally-Herzog Collection; Münzen & Medaillen 14, 16 April 2004, lot 190; Purchased on 13 June 1903 from Dr. E. Merzbacher, Munich.

867. Plautilla AR Denarius. Rome, AD 202. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right / CONCORDIAE AETERNAE, Plautilla and Caracalla standing facing, clasping hands. RIC 361. 3.20g, 19mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Minor flan crack. Attractively toned.

150

868. Plautilla AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 202-205. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right / CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC 370. 3.74g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Old collection tone with iridescent highlights.

869. Geta, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 200-202. P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, bare headed and draped bust right / FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae. RIC 9a. 3.52g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Vivid iridescent toning.

870

150

100

871

870. Geta, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 200-202. P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, bare-headed and draped bust right / SECVRIT IMPERII, Securitas seated left, holding globe, left arm on chair. RIC 20a. 3.55g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Old cabinet tone with vivid flashes. 100 871. Geta, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 200-202. P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, bare-headed and draped bust right / SECVRIT IMPERII, Securitas seated left, holding globe, left arm on chair. RIC 20a. 3.55g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Old cabinet tone with vivid flashes. 100

248


Wonderful Sestertius of Geta

872.

Geta Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 211. P SEPTIMIVS GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate bust right / TR P III COS II P P, Italia seated left, holding sceptre and cornucopiae; at her feet, female figure (Annona or Ceres?) seated to left holding stalk of grain; at side of throne, river-god Tiber reclining to right, hand on urn. RIC 171a; BMC 45; Banti 55. 25.33g, 33mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Very Rare, and in incredible state of preservation. Untouched surfaces, and undoubtedly the finest known. 6,500 From the Alban Collection. The intense mutual dislike that the sons of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna had for each throughout their lives is well known. Although Septimius intended for Caracalla and Geta to jointly rule the empire after his death in the manner of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, and despite the best efforts of the emperor and empress to reconcile their sons, the two brothers were incapable of working together. Until the death of Septimius in AD 211, Caracalla and Geta had portraits on the imperial coinage that were so similar that they were virtually indistinguishable by their faces alone. However, after the death of Septimius, in an effort to be seen as the true successor by virtue of similitude, Geta had his portraits made in the old likeness his father, with a longer beard sporting luxuriant curls, which he no doubt hoped would add a look of maturity as well as implying that the apple had not fallen far from the tree. The seated figure on the reverse, though not specifically named as Italia, is identified as the personification of Italy on the basis of the presence of the river god beside her throne, who must represent Tiber, and the small figure before holding a stalk of grain, marking her out as either Ceres or Anonna (most likely the latter, since Ceres would take precedence over Italia). Holding a cornucopiae, the figure of Italia is likely intended to convey a theme of prosperity and bounty, a positive message for the beginning of his reign, which would be cut brutally short by his brother only months later.

249


873. Geta Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 210-212. P SEPTIMIVS GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right / VOTA PVBLICA, Geta, veiled, standing left, sacrificing out of patera over tripod behind which a bull; S-C across fields. RIC 187a; C. 232. 24.46g, 32mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

4,000

874. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; diminutive figure of Macrinus standing to left. RIC 5; RSC 142a. 3.10g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

150

Ex Adolph Hess AG & Bank Leu AG 45, 12 May 1970, lot 597; Ex Hirsch 12, 25 April 1957, lot 461.

875. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / VOTA PVBL P M TR P, Felicitas standing, half left, holding caduceus and long sceptre. RIC 6. 3.13g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

150

Ex Classical Numismatic Group e130, 4 Jan 2006, lot 373.

876. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / PONTIF MAX TR P COS P P, Fides standing front, holding two standards. RIC 22a; RSC 60. 3.03g, 18mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

100

877. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopiae. RIC 26; RSC 47a (Antioch). 3.38g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State.

250

300


878. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing, head left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 53. 3.37g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

300

879. Diadumenian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing facing, head right, holding standard and sceptre, two more standards to right. RIC 102. 3.68g, 20mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Scarce.

300

Ex DNW Auction 73, 14 March 2007, lot 533.

880. Diadumenian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing facing, head right, holding standard and sceptre, two more standards to right. RIC 102. 2.54g, 20mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

200

881. Diadumenian, as Caesar, Æ As. Rome, AD 217-218. M OPEL ANTONINVS DIADVMENIANVS CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing facing, head right, holding standard in right hand and sceptre in left; two standards behind. RIC 212; Cohen 9; BMC 159. 11.20g, 26mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

400

Ex Numismatik Lanz 56, 13 May 1991, lot 610; Ex Spink & Son Circular 88, May 1980, lot 3552.

882 883 882. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 219. IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / P M TR P II COS II P P, Pax advancing left, holding branch and sceptre. RIC 21. 2.88g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Old collection tone with golden highlights. 100 883. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 220. IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / P M TR P III COS III P P, Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and sceptre; eagle at his feet. RIC 27. 3.06g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Minor flan crack. Attractively toned. 100

251


884. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 221. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, horned and draped bust right / P M TR P IIII COS III P P, Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over lit altar, holding patera and club(?); a star in left and right fields. RIC -, cf. 46 (one star); BMC -, cf. 256258 (same); Eauze 350; Solidus 6, 19 July 2015, lot 333 (same dies). 2.89g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State. Well struck on sound, lustrous metal. Extremely rare variant unlisted by RIC or BMC, though both note the difficulty in differentiating between the interchangeable branch or club that the Emperor holds.

100

885. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. laureate and draped bust right / FIDES MILITVM, aquila between two signa, with shields at each base. RIC IV 78; Thirion 246; RSC 44. 2.93g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

150

886 887 886. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / LAETITIA PVBL, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder placed on globe. RIC 95. 3.47g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Toned, with golden highlights. 100 887. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / LIBERALITAS AVG III, Libertas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae; star in right field. RIC 103. 3.15g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State. Old collection tone with vivid blue iridescence on reverse. 100

888. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre; star in right field. RIC 107. 2.81g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine - Near Mint State. Toned, with underlying lustre.

100

889. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / PROVID DEORVM, Providentia standing left, legs crossed, holding rod and cornucopiae and leaning on column; globe at her feet. RIC 130. 2.96g, 21mm, 12h. Mint State. Well detailed and lightly toned, with iridescent highlights.

252

200


890 891 890. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, horned and draped bust right / SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGAB, Elagabalus standing right, sacrificing over lighted altar, holding patera and club; star in right field. RIC 131. 3.72g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Old cabinet tone.

100

891. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / SALVS ANTONINI AVG, Salus standing right, feeding a snake, which she holds in her arms, from a patera. RIC 140. 3.44g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Toned and lustrous, with iridescent highlights. 100

892. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 221. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over tripod, holding patera and branch; star in left field. RIC 146b. 2.73g, 18mm, 12h. Mint State. Minor flan crack. Attractive light old cabinet tone, lustrous surfaces.

200

893. Elagabalus AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP CAES ANTONINVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right / VICTOR ANTONINI AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 152. 5.53g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Old cabinet tone.

894

100

895

894. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / VICTOR ANTONINI AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 156. 3.41g, 19mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine, attractive light old cabinet tone, lustrous surfaces. 150 895. Elagabalus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory flying left, holding diadem in both hands; small shield to either side, star in right field. RIC 161. 3.41g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Well centred, lustrous and attractively toned. 150

896. Julia Paula AR Denarius. Rome, AD 219-220. IVLIA PAVLA AVG, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, holding patera in her extended right hand, resting left arm on armrest; star in left field. RIC 211 (Elagabalus); Thirion 452; RSC 6a; BMCRE 172-4. 3.10g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

253

100


897. Aquilia Severa AR Denarius. Rome, AD 220-222. IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Concordia standing left, holding patera and double cornucopiae; lit altar to left, star in left field. RIC 225. 2.93g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

150

898 899 898. Julia Soaemias AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus Caelestis standing facing, head left, holding apple and sceptre; star to right. RIC (Elagabalus) 241. 2.81g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 100 899. Julia Soaemias AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus Caelestis standing facing, head left, holding apple and sceptre. RIC (Elagabalus) 241. 3.06g, 18mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine. 100

900 901 900. Julia Soaemias AR Denarius. Rome, AD 218-222. IVLIA SOEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus Caelestis seated left, holding apple and sceptre; at left, child reaches up to her. RIC 243. 3.55g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 100 901. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 222. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS P P, Mars standing facing, head left, holding inverted spear and branch. RIC 7; C. 207; BMC 28. 2.93g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. 100

902 903 902. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 222. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS P P, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopiae. RIC 11; BMCRE 21; RSC 216. 3.38g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous with pleasant light toning. 100 903. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 223. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Mars standing left holding branch and spear. RIC 23; BMC 92; Cohen 231. 3.45g, 19mm, 1h. Near Mint State. 100

904. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 228. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right / P M TR P VI COS II P P, Severus Alexander standing facing, head left, sacrificing with patera over lighted altar to left. RIC 81. 3.03g, 18mm, 1h. Mint State. Bold strike; lustrous and lightly toned.

254

150


FDC Aureus of Severus Alexander

905. Severus Alexander AV Aureus. Rome, AD 230. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder / P M TR P VIIII COS III P P, Romulus, radiate, walking right, carrying spear and trophy. RIC 103; BMC 620; Calicรณ 3121 (same dies). 6.33g, 20mm, 7h. 5h. Fleur De Coin; perfectly centred on the flan. Rare.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 633; Ex Triton X, 9 January 2007, lot 701.

906. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 231. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P X COS III P P, Sol, radiate, standing left, raising right hand and holding globe. RIC 109. 3.21g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous and toned.

100

907. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 232. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P XI COS III P P, Sol advancing left, holding whip and raising hand. RIC 112. 3.16g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous, with hold iridescent tone.

255

100


908 909 908. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 222-228. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right / AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 127. 3.57g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Struck in high relief. Lightly toned with golden and blue highlights. 100 909. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 222-228. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas standing facing, holding pileus and cornucopiae. RIC 156. 3.32g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 100

910 911 910. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 222-228. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing facing, head left, holding spear and branch. RIC 160. 2.96g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. 100 911. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 222-228. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right / PAX AETERNA AVG, Pax standing facing, head left, holding sceptre and branch. RIC 165. 3.67g, 20mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 100

912. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 228-231. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / ABVNDANTIA AVG, Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopiae. RIC 184. 3.11g, 20mm, 3h. Almost as Struck. Toned, and with excellent detail.

100

Rare Severus Alexander Quinarius

2x

2x

913. Severus Alexander AR Quinarius. Rome, AD 228-331. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / ANNONA AVG, Annona standing right, resting foot on prow, holding rudder on globe and filled modius. RIC 191. 1.34g, 15mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

200

914. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 228-231. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt in right hand over small figure of the Emperor, and holding sceptre. RIC 200. 3.29g, 20mm, 1h. Almost as struck. Toned and lustrous.

256

100


915 916 915. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 228-231. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / LIBERALITAS AVG IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 205. 3.63g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

100

916. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 228-231. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / PERPETVITATI AVG, Perpetuitas (or Securitas) standing left, holding globe and transverse sceptre, and leaning on column. RIC 208. 2.87g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Scarce. 100

917. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 228-231. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS AVG, Emperor in military dress, walking right, carrying spear and trophy. RIC 225. 2.70g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent style. Wonderful toning.

918

150

919

918. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 228-231. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS AVG, Emperor in military dress, standing left, foot on helmet, holding globe and reversed spear. RIC 226. 3.15g, 19mm, 1h. As Struck. Vividly toned, lustrous metal. 100 919. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 231-235. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / IOVI PROPVGNATORI, Jupiter walking left, holding thunderbolt and eagle. RIC 238. 2.98g, 21mm, 12h. As Struck. Old collection tone with underlying lustre. 100

920. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 231-235. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / MARS VLTOR, Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield. RIC 246. 3.33g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State.

921

100

922

921. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 231-235. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MARS VLTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear and shield. RIC 246. 3.03g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 150 922. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 231-235. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing facing, head left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. RIC 250; RSC 501b. 2.53g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. 100

257


923 924 923. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 231-235. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing facing, head left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopiae. RIC 250; RSC 501b. 4.22g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 100 924. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 231-235. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising skirt. RIC 254. 3.16g, 20mm, 7h. Almost as struck. Toned and lustrous.

100

925. Severus Alexander Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 223. IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PONTIF MAX TR P II COS P P, Pax seated left, holding branch and sceptre; SC in exergue. RIC 402. 21.94g, 31mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Well detailed, with an expressive portrait. Warm brown patina.

200

926 927 926. Severus Alexander Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 229. IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / P M TR P VIII COS III P P, Severus Alexander, holding eagle-tipped sceptre, driving triumphal quadriga right; SC in exergue. RIC 495. 23.10g, 30mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 300 Ex Ponterio & Associates 146, 25 April 2008, lot 1437. 927. Severus Alexander Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 222-231. IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate head right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, extending his right hand to small figure of Alexander; S-C across lower fields. RIC 558. 21.68g, 29mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. 150

928. Severus Alexander Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 231-235. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, radiate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing facing, head left, holding two corn-ears over modius and cornucopiae; S-C across fields. RIC 643. 13.28g, 25mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Fine style portrait.

500

929. Severus Alexander Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 231-235. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / SPES PVBLICA, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt; S-C across fields. RIC 648; BMCRE 902-4; Banti 162. 30.61g, 32mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

258

200


930. Julia Mamaea AR Denarius. Rome, AD 222-235. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane / FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae. RIC 338. 2.78g, 20mm, 1h. Mint State.

100

931. Julia Mamaea AR Denarius. Rome, AD 222-235. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing facing, head left, holding helmet and sceptre; round shield to left. RIC 358; RSC 76. 3.32g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

100

932. Julia Mamaea Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 222-235. IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right / FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas standing facing, head left, legs crossed, holding caduceus and leaning on column; S-C across fields. RIC 676. 18.92g, 28mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful, glossy surfaces.

150

933. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 235. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P P P, Emperor in military dress, standing left between two standards, raising hand and holding sceptre. RIC 1. 3.25g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

100

934. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 236. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor in military dress, standing left between two standards, raising hand and holding sceptre. RIC 3; RSC 55. 3.75g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

259

100


260


935. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 235-236. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing facing, head left, holding military standard in each hand. RIC 7a. 3.02g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Lightly toned.

100

936. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 235-236. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar. RIC 14; RSC 85a. 3.07g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State.

200

937. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 236-237. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing facing, head left, holding signum in each hand. RIC 18a; RSC 9. 3.33g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

100

938. Maximinus I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 236-237. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding cornucopia and wand over globe set on ground to left. RIC 20; RSC 75. 2.75g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

150

939. Maximinus I Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 235-236. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar; SC in exergue. RIC 64. 15.60g, 28mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

261

150


940. Maximus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 236-238. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare-headed and draped bust right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left, holding baton and transverse spear; two standards to right. RIC 3. 3.63g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

100

941. Maximus, as Caesar, Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 235-236. C IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right / PIETAS AVG, priestly emblems: lituus, secespita, capis, simpulum, and aspergillum; SC in exergue. RIC 7. 12.14g, 26mm, 1h. Very Fine.

100

942. Maximus, as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 236. C IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Maximus in military dress standing left, holding wand, two legionary signa to right; S-C across fields. RIC 9. 18.25g, 30mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Attractive dark patina.

1,000

Ex Wayne C. Phillips Collection of Roman Sestertii; Ex CNG Mail Bid Sale 84, 5 May 2010, lot 1182.

943. Maximus, as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 236-238. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare-headed and draped and bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear, two standards behind him. RIC 13. 20.75g, 30mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

400

944. Diva Paulina AR Denarius. Rome, AD 236. DIVA PAVLINA, veiled and draped bust right / CONSECRATIO, Diva Paulina, raising right hand and holding transverse sceptre in left, reclining left on peacock flying right. RIC 2 (Maximinus); BMC 127-8 (Maximinus); RSC 2. 3.18g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

262

500


945. Gordian I Africanus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / SECVRITAS AVGG, Securitas seated left, holding sceptre in right hand. RIC 5; BMCRE 11; RSC 10. 2.76g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

946. Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS II P P, emperor, togate, standing left, holding branch and parazonium. RIC 5; RSC 20. 3.29g, 20mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine.

500

947. Balbinus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS II P P, emperor, togate, standing left, holding branch and parazonium. RIC 16; BMC 28. 13.69g, 30mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

948. Pupienus AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CARITAS MVTVA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 10b. 4.38g, 23mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

263

300


Beautiful Sestertius of Pupienus

949.

Pupienus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae; SC in exergue. RIC 20; BMC 43. 24.00g, 31mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful, untouched surfaces.

4,000

Pupienus was born around AD 164 into humble origins. He is remembered mainly for the brevity of his rule, a mere three months, but he in fact had an impressive military and political record behind him. He worked his way up the cursus honorum and held the consulship in 217 and 234. He was governor of both Germania and Asia during his career, as well as the city prefect of Rome. Much of Pupienus’s energy was put towards the effort against Maximinus following the deaths of the two Gordians. His high political standing had meant he was placed among 20 senators appointed to defend Italy against Maximinus. Out of this group, he and Balbinus were selected as successors to the purple in AD 238. Pupienus was 72 years old. Although the concept of co-emperors was not new, what was revolutionary was the fact that both men were entirely equal, for example in the way they were both Pontifex Maximus. However, Pupienus’s harsh style of ruling meant he was unpopular with the people. The demands from the public of putting another Gordian on the throne were sated by making the young Gordian III Caesar. In spite of this, the anger of the Praetorian Guard against the turmoil of the imperial court only increased as the cracks between Pupienus and Balbinus became more apparent. The Praetorian Guard eventually stormed the imperial palace, and stripped, paraded, and finally tortured to death the two emperors. They had ruled for 99 days.

264


950. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, AD 239. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Providentia standing facing, head left, holding globe and transverse sceptre. RIC 23; Calicรณ 3213. 5.35g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous. Rare.

3,000

951. Gordian III AR Antoninianus. Rome, January-March AD 240. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing half-left, head left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 34. 3.93g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

952. Gordian III AR Antoninianus. Rome, January-March AD 240. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / LIBERALITAS AVG II, Liberalitas standing half-left, holding abacus and double cornucopiae. RIC 36. 3.37g, 21mm, 12h. Mint State.

100

953. Gordian III AR Antoninianus. Rome, January-March AD 240. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor, togate and veiled, standing facing, head left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over lit altar; wand in left hand. RIC 37. 4.39g, 24mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Lightly toned, lustrous, and with golden highlights.

265

100


Fleur De Coin

954. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, AD 241-243. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate and draped bust right / P M TR P IIII COS II P P, Apollo, bare to waist, seated left, holding branch and resting left elbow on lyre. RIC 102; CalicĂł 3221a. 5.22g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Rare.

7,500

The depiction of Apollo seated with branch and lyre, as seen on this aureus, was a reverse type never seen on an imperial coin prior to the reign of Caracalla. The iconography of Apollo as depicted here has as its origin the provincial coinage of Colophon, the city responsible for the administration of the oracle of Apollo at Claros. Milne (Kolophon and its Coinage, NNM 96, 1941) concluded that this type must have been associated with the oracle at Claros, as early roman provincial issues suggest (see RPC II 1052). Whilst Colophon minted few coins during the imperial period until the reign of Caracalla, it would mint regularly thereafter until the cessation of provincial coinage in Ionia under Gallienus. Whilst the Roman mint may not have been consciously alluding to the Clarian cult, it has been suggested by C. Rowan (Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period, 2012) that this iconography was most likely introduced to represent an emperor’s patronage and consultation of the oracle at Colophon.

955. Gordian III AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 241-243. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing right, with wreath and anchor. RIC 86; RSC 121. 5.71g, 23mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Toned and lustrous.

100

956. Gordian III AR Denarius. Rome, AD 241. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana Lucifera standing right, holding lighted torch. RIC 127; RSC 69. 3.08g, 20mm, 1h. Mint State.

266

100


957. Gordian III Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 238-239. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding transverse sceptre and globe; S-C across fields. RIC 257a; C. 304-305. 20.55g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

200

958. Gordian III Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 240-244. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / AETERNITATI AVG, Aeternitas standing left, raising hand and holding globe; S-C across fields. RIC 297a; Banti 20. 20.43g, 30mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful, glossy surfaces.

300

959. Gordian III Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 240-244. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae; S-C across fields. RIC 330; Banti 29. 21.50g, 31mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful, glossy surfaces.

250

960. Philip I AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 244-247. Commemorating the 1000th anniversary of Rome. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SAECVLARES AVGG, Lupa Romana standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus; II in exergue. RIC 15. 3.37g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

100

961. Philip I AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 244-247. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 27b. 4.48g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

267

100


962. Philip I AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 244-247. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRIT ORBIS, Securitas seated left, holding sceptre and propping head on left hand. RIC 48b. 5.37g, 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Old collection tone with golden highlights.

100

963. Philip I AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 247-249. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS IMPP in three lines within wreath. RIC 60; RSC 39. 3.85g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Ex Lanz Auction 138, 26 November 2007, lot 812.

100

964. Philip I Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 244-249. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SALVS AVGG, Salus standing left, feeding serpent rising from altar to left and holding sceptre. RIC 187; Banti 55. 18.17g, 32mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Light scratch on cheek.

100

965. Otacilia Severa AR Antoninianus. Rome, 3rd century AD. M OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped and diademed bust right, set on crescent / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC 125. 4.54g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

100

966. Otacilia Severa Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 244-249. MARCIA OTACILIA SEVERA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae; SC in exergue. RIC 203a; C. 10. 22.09g, 31mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

268

200


967. Otacilia Severa Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 244-249. MARCIA OTACILIA SEVERA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae; SC in exergue. RIC 203a; C. 10. 16.74g, 28mm, 12h. Very Fine.

100

968. Otacilia Severa Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 244-249. MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG, diademed and draped bust right / PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas standing facing, head left, raising right hand and holding box of perfume in left; S-C across fields. RIC 208a. 17.14g, 29mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

150

969. Philip II AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 247-249. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / LIBERALITAS AVGG III, Philip I and Philip II seated left on curule chairs; Philip I holds short sceptre. RIC 230. 4.01g, 24mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Old collection tone with attractive iridescent highlights.

100

970. Trajan Decius AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 250-251. IMP CAE TRA DEC AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PANNONIAE, the two Pannoniae, veiled, standing right and left, facing one another, clasping right hands in front of standard in centre. RIC 41a. 3.40g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare with this obverse legend.

269

100


Very Rare Aureus of Herennia Etruscilla

971. Herennia Etruscilla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 249-251. HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right / PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia seated left, drawing veil from face and holding sceptre. RIC 59a; Calicó 3308. 4.02g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; small contact mark at 1 o’clock on obverse. Very Rare.

7,500

Ex Numismatik Lanz Auction 150, 13 December 2010, lot 395.

972. Herennius Etruscus, as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 250. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, bareheaded and draped bust right / PIETAS AVGG, Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus. RIC IV 167a note (Decius); Banti 1. 20.43g, 29mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

270

250


973. Herennius Etruscus, as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 250-251. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / PIETAS AVGVSTORVM, sprinkler, simpulum, jug, patera, and lituus; SC in exergue. RIC 168a. 19.15g, 31mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant patina.

1,500

Ex Robert Schulman 291, 25 September 1990, lot 1162; Ex Hess-Leu 28, 5-6 May 1965, lot 495.

974. Diva Mariniana AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 254-256. DIVAE MARINIANAE, diademed, veiled and draped bust right, set on crescent / CONSECRATIO, peacock in splendour looking left. RIC 3. 3.54g, 23mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

100

975. Diva Mariniana AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 254-256. DIVAE MARINIANAE, veiled and draped bust right, set on crescent / CONSECRATIO, Apotheosis of Mariniana: Mariniana, raising hand and holding sceptre, reclining left on peacock flying upward to the right. RIC 6; RSC 16. 3.92g, 22mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. 100

Extremely Rare Volusian Aureus

976. Volusian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 251-253. IMP CAE C VIB VOLVSIANO AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX AVGG, Pax standing left holding branch and transverse sceptre. RIC 157; C. 69. 3.28g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

271

7,500


977. Aemilian AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 253. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / HERCVL VICTORI, Hercules standing right, leaning on club and holding bow. RIC 3b; RSC 13. 4.40g, 21mm, 11h. Struck from weak dies, but otherwise Extremely Fine.

100

978. Valerian I AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 253-254. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / APOLINI PROPVG Apollo standing right, drawing bow. MIR 44d; RIC 74. 4.27g, 22mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

100

979. Valerian I AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 253-254. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing facing, head left, holding two signa. RIC 89; MIR 36, 22d; RSC 65. 3.07g, 22mm, 12h. Very Fine.

100

980. Gallienus AR Antoninianus. Lugdunum, AD 258-259. GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / GERMANICVS MAX V, two captives bound and seated at base of trophy. RIC 18j. 3.82g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

100

Very Rare Gallienus Antoninianus

981. Gallienus AR Antoninianus. Mediolanum, AD 260-268. IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right / VICTORIAE AVG, Victory on globe upheld by two Victories. RIC 450. 3.59g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine. Old collection tone with golden highlights. Very Rare.

272

300


Extremely Rare Aureus of Salonina

982. Salonina AV Aureus. Viminacium, circa AD 254-257. CORN SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right / IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC 10 var. (joint reign; obv. legend); MIR 36, 902c; Calicó 3675. 3.26g, 19mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

10,000

Salonina was married to Gallienus around 240 and accorded the titles of Augusta and Mater Castrorum (Mother of the Camp) in 254; coinage in bronze, silver and gold, as exemplified by the present specimen, was issued in her name. The reverse depiction of Juno with the accompanying legend IVNO REGINA references the deity’s role as patron goddess of Rome and the empire. Wife of the supreme God Jupiter ‘Greatest and Best’, Juno had a multi-faceted role in Roman religion, performing many interrelated functions. The goddess is represented here in her role as both protector of the state, and of the lives of women (and in particular the empress). The divine association suggested by this aureus between Juno and Salonina as Augusta is one that was often used on imperial coinage, and mirrors the gold issues of her husband which place upon the reverse Jupiter in his alternate roles of guardian and avenger.

Exceptional Quietus Antoninianus

983. Quietus BI Antoninianus. Samosata, AD 260-261. IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / SOLI INVICTO, Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe; star in left field. RIC 10; RSC 12; Göbl 1741. 4.21g, 23mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely well preserved for the type. Well centred on a broad flan.

273

300


984. Postumus Æ Double Sestertius. Treveri, AD 261. IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMUS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm frond; captive at feet to left. RIC 169. 14.95g, 26mm, 12h. Near Very Fine.

250

985. Laelianus Æ Antoninianus. Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), early AD 269. IMP C LAELIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 9. 3.22g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

986. Marius Æ Antoninianus. Cologne, AD 269. IMP C MARIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SAEC FELICITAS, Felicitas standing facing, head left, holding caduceus in her right hand and cornucopiae with her left. RIC 10; AGK (corr.) 4b; Elmer 634. 2.56g, 20mm, 1h. About Extremely Fine.

200

987. Victorinus Æ Antoninianus. Cologne, AD 270. IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left, holding box of perfumes with her left hand and sacrificing over altar to left. RIC 57; Cunetio 2572. 3.17g, 17mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

988. Carausius Æ Antoninianus. Londinium, AD 287-293. IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and vertical sceptre; F-O across fields; ML in exergue. RIC 101. 5.47g, 23mm, 11h. Very Fine.

274

200


989. Carausius Æ Antoninianus. Londinium, AD 286-297. IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 857. 4.18g, 23mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

300

990. Allectus Æ Antoninianus. ‘C’ mint, AD 293-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, holding signum in each hand; S-P across fields, C in exergue. RIC 70; Burnett, Coinage 127. 4.10g, 22mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Partial silvering remaining.

300

991. Allectus Ӕ Quinarius. Camulodunum, AD 293-296. IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, galley right; QC in exergue. RIC 128. 3.02g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

250

Very Rare Antoninianus of Vabalathus

992. Vabalathus Æ Antoninianus. Antioch, March-May AD 272. IM C VHABALATHVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; star to left. RIC 6; MIR 47, 357o; BN 1267. 3.12g, 23mm, 11h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

993. Divus Claudius II Gothicus Æ Half Nummus. Commemorative issue, struck under Constantine I in Rome, AD 317-318. DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP, laureate and veiled head right / REQVIES OPTIMOR MERIT, emperor seated left in curule chair, raising right hand and holding short sceptre; R P in exergue. RIC 106. 3.47g, 18mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

275

100


994. Divus Claudius II Gothicus Æ Half Nummus. Commemorative issue, struck under Constantine I in Rome, AD 317-318. DIVO CLAVDIO OPT IMP, laureate and veiled head right / MEMORIAE AETERNAE, eagle standing right, head left, with wings spread; R S in exergue. RIC 112. 2.21g, 16mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

150

995. Aurelian and Vabalathus Æ Antoninianus. Antioch, AD 270-275. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust of Aurelian; H below / VABALATHVS VCR IM DR, laureate bust of Vabalathus. RIC 381. 1. 3.79g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

100

996. Severina Æ Denarius. Rome, AD 274-275. SEVERINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing diadem / VENVS FELIX, Venus standing left, holding seated figure on right hand and sceptre in left; Γ in right field, VSV in exergue. RIC 6; Göbl 137t. 2.48g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

100

Very Rare Tacitus Denarius

997. Tacitus Æ Denarius. Siscia, AD 275-276. IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated to left on shield holding spear and Victory. RIC - ; C. - ; CBN - ; Estiot (1999) -; Rauch 71, 28 April 2003, lot 906. 3.20g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

300

998. Tacitus Æ Antoninianus. Ticinum, AD 276. IMP C M CL TACTIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA GOTTHI, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm; P in exergue. RIC 172. 4.16g, 23mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Ex Helios Auction 4, 14 October 2009, lot 682.

276

150


999. Probus Æ Silvered Antoninianus. Rome, AD 281. IMP PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and mantled bust left, holding eagle-tipped sceptre / SOLI INVICTO, Sol driving quadriga left, holding whip and globe and raising hand; R(thunderbolt)Γ in exergue. RIC 200. 3.82g, 20mm, 5h. Virtually as struck, Good Extremely Fine. Much silvering remaining, which has an attractive iridescent tone.

150

1000. Divus Carus Ӕ Antoninianus. Struck under Carinus in Rome, AD 284-285. DIVO CARO, radiate head right / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing facing, with head left and wings open; KAA in exergue. RIC 47. 4.15g, 24mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Pleasing style.

150

Ex Tkalec Auction, 9 May 2006, lot 366.

1001. Carinus Æ As. Rome, AD 283-285. IMP CARINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVGG, Emperor standing right, holding spear and globe. RIC 288. 7.99g, 22mm, 5h. Very Fine. Fine style portrait. Very Rare.

500

Ex Monetarium SKA, 1 December 1989, lot 42.

1002. Magnia Urbica Æ Antoninianus. Ticinum, August AD 283. MAGNIA VRBICA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, set on crescent / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding helmet and sceptre; shield at side, SXXIT in exergue. RIC 347; Pink VI/2 p. 29. 4.18g, 22mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

300

1003. Julian I of Pannonia BI Antoninianus. Siscia, circa AD 284-285. IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PANNONIAE AVG, the two Pannoniae standing beside each other, with right hands outstretched, the figure on the right holding an ensign; S in left field, XXIΓ in exergue. RIC V 4; Venèra 4399. 3.69g, 24mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

277

2,000


1004. Diocletian AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 284. DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, naked but for cloak, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; SMN in exergue. RIC 5a; Calicรณ 4494; C. 251; Depeyrot 2/4; Lukanc Nicomedia 2. 5.34g, 18mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

8,000

1005. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 300. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / XCVI - T in two lines across field within wreath. RIC 20a; RSC 548a. 3.04g, 18mm, 7h. Fleur de Coin. Tiny flan crack, lustrous surfaces. Very Rare.

2,000

The Roman number 96 (XCVI) denotes that 96 Argentei were minted from a Roman pound of silver.

1006. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Rome, AD 294-295. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four Tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before arched gateway to circuit of city walls with six raised towers. RIC 27a; RSC 516e. 3.31g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Vivid iridescent toning.

500

1007. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Siscia, AD 294-295. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four Tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before arched gateway to circuit of city walls with six raised towers; SIS in exergue. RIC 46a. 3.13g, 19mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare.

750

1008. Domitius Domitianus ร† Nummus. Alexandria, AD 298. IMP C L DOMITIVS DOMITIANVS AVG, laureate head right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding cornucopiae and sacrificing with patera; to left, eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak; B to left, ALE in exergue. RIC 20. 7.49g, 26mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

278

750


279


Ex Hirsch XXIX, November 1910

1009.

Maximianus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 293-294. MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / HERCVLI VICTORI, Hercules seated facing on rock, head to right, lion’s skin on lap, holding club with left hand; bow and quiver resting to right; PR in exergue. RIC -; Depeyrot 5B/5 (these dies); Calicó 4682 (this obverse die). 6.02g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Insignificant trace of double striking on obverse; exceptionally bold reverse.

30,000

Ex Jean P. Lambros Collection, J. Hirsch XXIX, 9 November 1910, lot 1347. Given the title ‘Herculius’ by Diocletian, Maximianus’ role was always that of the military might to Diocletian’s stategic planning. Whilst the title reflected the adoption of Hercules as the heavenly father of Maximianus and thus, his familial ties to divinity, it was also representative of his role as junior emperor. Taking the cognomen of ‘Jovius’, Diocletian assumed familial ties to the more authoritative deity of Jupiter, as the father of Hercules, and so indicated his superiority over Maximianus as the director of imperial policy. The reverse depiction of Hercules on this gold aureus displays this imperial theology with the inscription HERCVLI VICTORI (“Hercules the Victor”). Whilst this issue suggests military success, Maximianus was beginning to falter in his role as a military instrument of the empire. His failed invasion of Britain in 289, against the ever-increasing threat of Carausius, led Diocletian to conclude that their divinely sanctioned diarchy was insufficient to manage the Empire. Constantius was appointed to the office of Caesar in the West and Galerius was granted the same position in the East, establishing a Tetrarchy that would relieve Maximianus of his military responsibilities. This coin was most probably produced in response to the increase in bureaucracy that the appointment of two new Caesars in 293 will have occasioned, as well as the ever present needs of the army protecting the eastern frontier of the Empire.

280


281


1010. Maximianus AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 295. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIA SARMAT, the four Tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before arched gateway to circuit of city walls with six raised towers. RIC 16b; Sisak Hoard 39. 3.40g, 20mm, 1h. Mint State.

500

1011. Maximianus AR Argenteus. Carthage, AD 300. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / XC • VI surrounded by laurel wreath. RIC 16a. 3.33g, 18mm, 1h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare.

1,000

Ex Th. Voltz Collection; Ex Hess-Divo Sale, June 2007, lot 1713; Ex Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 81, September 1995, lot 326.

1012. Constantius I, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Rome, AD 295-297. CONSTANTIVS CAES, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four Tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before arched gateway to circuit of city walls with six raised towers; A in exergue. RIC 42a. 2.80g, 20mm, 6h. Struck from weak dies, but otherwise Extremely Fine.

200

1013. Constantius I AR Argenteus. Serdica, AD 305-307. CONSTANTIVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, three-turreted camp gate with no doors; •SM•SDΔ• in exergue. RIC 11a; Gautier 25; RSC 304a. 3.40g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

282

400


Unique Gold Quinarius of Galerius as Caesar

1014. Galerius, as Caesar, AV Quinarius. Rome, AD 298-299. D N MAXIMIANO CAES, laureate bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, emperor standing right, holding transverse spear and globe; PROM in exergue. RIC -, cf. 9 for another gold quinarius of Galerius; Depeyrot -, cf. 10/2 for quinarius of Maximian with same reverse type. 2.93g, 17mm, 6h. Near Very Fine. Unique.

1015

7,500

1016

1015. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Rome, AD 295-297. MAXIMIANVS CAES, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four Tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before arched gateway to circuit of city walls with six raised towers; Γ in exergue. RIC 38b; Jelocnik 84a. 3.19g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 200 1016. Maximinus II Æ Nummus. Nicomedia, AD 311. IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and sceptre; Г in right field, SMN in exergue. RIC 69b. 4.67g, 22mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. 100 Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 4, 28 December 2013, lot 917.

Alexander of Carthage, Usurper

1017. Alexander Æ Nummus. Carthage, AD 308-311. IMP ALEXANDER P F AVG, laureate head right / [ROMAE] AETERNAE, Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; [PK] in exergue. RIC 71. 6.33g, 22mm, 12h. Near Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

The usurper L. Domitius Alexander (Alexander of Carthage) was governor of Africa and had sworn allegiance to Maxentius, securing the allimportant Carthaginian grain supply for Rome. Constantine and Maximian convinced Alexander to renege on this alliance, and thus he deserted to their camp and halted the grain shipments, causing famine and severe rioting in Rome. Maxentius sent his praetorian prefect Volusian with several Legions to North Africa to put an end to Alexander’s revolt and, when Constantine and Maximian offered no help, Volusian’s legions swiftly defeated Alexander and his troops. Alexander himself was captured and strangled shortly thereafter.

1018 1019 1018. Divus Romulus Æ Quarter Nummus. Ostia, late AD 309-312. DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS, bare head right / AETERNAE MEMORIAE, eagle with wings spread standing right on domed shrine; MOST(?) in exergue. Cf. RIC 59 (Half Nummus). 1.99g, 16mm, 7h. About Extremely Fine. 100 1019. Licinius II, as Caesar, Æ Nummus. Siscia, AD 320. LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate bust right / CAESARVM NOSTRORVM around VOT I•S •V; ΔSIS• in exergue. RIC 143. 2.96g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 100

283


Second Known, Only One in Private Hands

1020.

Constantine I AV Solidus. Ticinum, AD 324. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate bust right / VICTORIB AVGG ET CAESS NN, Victory seated right on cuirass and shield, holding shield inscribed VOT XX, trophy and captive before; SMT in exergue. RIC 110; Depeyrot 17/12. 4.44g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently the third and finest known specimen, the only one in private hands. 15,000 This type, known only from one example in Leningrad and a rather sad example acquired by the BM in 1981, was curiously dated by RIC to AD 320/1, despite the obvious vicennalia celebrated on the reverse, and the corresponding issues of Sirmium, Nicomedia and Cyzicus being dated all to 324. Struck in anticipation of Constantine’s vicennalia which would begin the following year on 26 July 325, this coin proudly advertises the military victories of Constantine and his sons Crispus and Constantine Caesar, and the shield held by Victory announces the coming vicennalia. The emperors had much to celebrate; the preceding four years had seen a string of dazzling victories. In 320 Crispus had led a victorious campaign against the Franks, bringing twenty years of peace to the Rhine frontier. The following year Constantine had expelled the Goths from the Danube frontier and led an expedition into the old province of Dacia, either repairing Trajan’s bridge or erecting a wholly new one in the process. In 323, taking with him his seven year old son and namesake, Constantine defeated an invasion of Goths and Sarmatians north of the Danube in Dacia, and claimed the title of Sarmaticus Maximus. Then in mid-324 renewed conflict with Licinius saw Constantine win a great victory at the Battle of Adrianople, and ultimately claim sole rule of the empire by year’s end. Yet despite the auspicious lead-up to Constantine’s vicennalia, the year’s celebrations would end in great bitterness. The climax of the vicennial year celebrations was to be in Rome in July 326, but while en route to Rome Constantine gave the order for the execution of his eldest son Crispus, supposedly on charge of attempted rape of Constantine’s wife Fausta. Zosimus in the fifth century and Joannes Zonaras in the twelfth century both reported that Fausta, jealous of Crispus, and ambitious for the succession of her own sons, brought this untrue accusation against Crispus. Constantine, believing her, and true to his strong personality and short temper, executed his beloved son. A short while later, discovering the truth, Constantine had Fausta killed by suffocation and ordered a damnation memoriae with the result that no contemporary sources record the specific details of her fate.

284


1021. Helena Æ Nummus. Alexandria, AD 325-326. HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding olive branch; SMALA in exergue. RIC 38; LRBC 1406. 3.63g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine, much silvering remaining; golden tone.

100

1022. Helena Æ Nummus. Antioch, AD 324-325. Diademed and mantled bust right, wearing necklace / FL HELENA AVGVSTA, legend in three lines; star in crescent above, SMANTB and • below. RIC 61; LRBC 1329. 1.99g, 19mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine, attractive ‘desert’ patina. Extremely Rare.

500

1023. Hanniballianus Æ Nummus. Constantinople, AD 336-337. FL HANIBALLIANO REGI, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS PVBLICA, Euphrates seated right, leaning on sceptre; urn at his side, reed in background, CONSS in exergue. RIC 147. 1.93g, 15mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

200

1024. Hanniballianus Æ Nummus. Constantinople, AD 336-337. FL HANIBALLIANO REGI, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS PVBLICA, Euphrates seated right, leaning on sceptre; urn at his side, reed in background, CONSS in exergue. RIC 147. 1.56g, 15mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

285

100


Constantine II as Caesar and ‘Prince of Youth’

1025. Constantine II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 326-327. FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C, laureate head right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantine II standing right, in military attire and with cloak spread, holding transverse spear in right hand and globe in left; TR in exergue. RIC 500; Alföldi 347; Depeyrot 31/1. 4.58g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Andre Constantine Dimitriadis Collection; Ex Dreesmann Collection, Spink London, 13 April 2000, lot 150. With his defeat of Licinius in 324, Constantine I finally secured sole rule over the empire, thus conferring greater responsibilities onto the capable shoulders of his son and heir Crispus. The young Caesar had been appointed Commander of Gaul after his accession in 317, and had shown himself to be a highly capable military commander on both land and sea. His successful command at the naval engagement of the Hellespont and of part of the army at Chrysopolis contributed significantly to Constantine’s victory over Licinius. Crispus was honoured with statues, mosaics and cameos. Yet in 326 Constantine mysteriously ordered the execution of his beloved son, apparently at the instigation of his wife Fausta, motivated by jealousy and ambition, who falsely claimed Crispus had attempted to rape her. This led to the elevation of Constantine II as commander of Gaul in the same year, despite his being only ten at the time. Depicted here possessing the clear likeness of his father, the young Caesar is also portrayed on the reverse in his role as Prince of Youth, armed and garbed in military dress. An important part of the imperial propaganda, this coinage was intended to inspire public confidence in Constantine Caesar and to reassure the population of the empire that the line of succession remained secure.

1026. Constantine II AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 337-340. IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. RIC 25. 2.70g, 19mm, 6h. Struck from worn dies, but otherwise Extremely Fine. Ex Tradart 3, 1 December 1985, lot 326.

286

150


Ex F. Trau Collection, Hess et al, May 1935

1027. Constans AR Siliqua. Thessalonica, AD 340-350. CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA DD NN AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy; TES in exergue. RIC 98. 3.39g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

400

Ex The New York Sale XVII, 9 January 2008, lot 219; Ex F. Trau Collection, Gilhofer & Ranschburg and Hess, May 22-23, 1935, lot 4114.

1028. Constans AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 347-348. CONSTANS AVGVSTVS, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG, two Victories standing facing each other, holding shield inscribed VOT X MVLT XX; TR in exergue. RIC 135. 4.42g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine, die break on reverse. Lustrous metal.

2,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 845.

1029. Constans Æ Half Centenionalis. AD 337-350. Trier, AD 348-350. D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, radiate phoenix standing to right on banded and dotted globe; TRS• in exergue. RIC 234; LRBC 35. 2.79g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Exceptionally sharp.

200

1030. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Sirmium, AD 351-355. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in four lines within wreath; SIRM in exergue. RIC 15. 2.86g, 20mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

250

1031. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Sirmium, AD 351-355. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX, in four lines within wreath; SIRM in exergue. RIC 15. 2.16g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine, vivid iridescent tone.

287

100


1032. Constantius II AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 351-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman motif / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma, helmeted and draped, seated facing, holding spear in left hand, and Constantinopolis, turreted and draped, seated left, holding sceptre in left hand and resting right foot on prow; they support between them a shield inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; SMNC in exergue. RIC 74; Depeyrot 5/2. 4.45g, 22mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine, light scratch on obv. Rare.

2,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Andreas Sommer Collection; Ex Aretusa 4, 22 March 1996, lot 697.

1033. Constantius II AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 351-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman motif / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma, helmeted and draped, seated facing, holding spear in left hand, and Constantinopolis, turreted and draped, seated left, holding sceptre in left hand and resting right foot on prow; they support between them a shield inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; SMNT in exergue. RIC 74; Depeyrot 5/2. 4.55g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; minor mark on obv. field.

1,250

1034. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Antioch, AD 337-347. Pearl-diademed head right, with eyes raised to heaven / VOTIS XV MVLTIS XX in four lines within laurel wreath with jewel at apex; ANT in exergue. RIC 35; RSC 338A. 3.07g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

1035. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 351-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE,Roma, helmeted and draped, seated facing, holding spear in left hand, and Constantinopolis, turreted and draped, seated left, holding sceptre in left hand and resting right foot on prow; they support between them a shield inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; SMANE• in exergue. RIC 86; Depeyrot 7/1. 4.47g, 20mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

288

1,000


1036. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 351-355. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in four lines within wreath; C(palm)Γ in exergue. RIC 104; RSC 342-3k. 3.39g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

200

1037. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Thessalonica, AD 350-355. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed head right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in four lines within wreath; TES in exergue. RIC 163. 3.12g, 20mm, 5h. Very Fine. Toned.

150

1038. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Rome, AD 352-355. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; R in exergue. RIC 238. 2.87g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

200

1039. Constantius II Æ Nummus. Rome, AD 326. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left / CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES in three lines, wreath above; SMRQ below. RIC 284. 2.54g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

200

1040. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Siscia, AD 355-361. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in four lines within wreath; SIS in exergue. RIC 360; RSC 342-3t. 1.89g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Deep old cabinet tone.

150

1041. Julian II, as Caesar, AR Siliqua. Arelate, AD 360-361. D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS V MVLTIS X, in four lines within wreath; TCON in exergue. RIC 264; RSC 154b. 2.25g, 18mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Vivid iridescent toning to obverse.

289

200


1042. Julian II, as Caesar, AR Siliqua. Arelate, AD 360-361. D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS V MVLTIS X, in four lines within wreath; TCON in exergue. RIC 264; RSC 154b. 1.87g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

200

1043. Julian II Æ Double Maiorina. Sirmium, AD 361-363. D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REI PVB, bull standing right, two stars above; *ASIRM(wreath) in exergue. RIC 105. 9.04g, 28mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

300

1044. Julian II Æ Double Maiorina. Sirmium, AD 361-363. D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REI PVB, bull standing right, two stars above; *BSIRM(palm) in exergue. RIC 107. 8.69g. 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Well centred and complete.

200

1045. Roman Gaming Token (?), cut from a Julian II Æ Nummus. Uncertain mint, AD 361-363. [D N FL CL] IVL[IANVS P F AVG], diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield / VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, tied with ribbons upwards; [mintmark in exergue]. 2.08g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. Original coin of good style.

100

1046. Jovian AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 363-364. D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT V MVL X in four lines; CP•Δ in exergue. RIC 173; RSC 33†b. 2.21g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

290

300


1047. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Lugdunum, AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding Victory on globe and labarum; SMLVG• in exergue. Bastien 24; Depeyrot 11/1; RIC 1a. 4.57g, 21mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Contact mark on obv. cheek.

500

1048. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Aquileia, September AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding Victory on globe and labarum; SMAQ in exergue. RIC 2a; Depeyrot 12/1. 4.46g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

3,500

Ex Sotheby’s, 27 October 1993, lot 1752.

1049. Valens AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 364-367. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding Victory on globe and labarum; SMNI in exergue. RIC 2d. 4.44g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Well struck on a large flan with full borders; superbly lustrous surfaces.

3,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 860.

1050. Valens AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 367-375. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath with jewel at apex; (palm) C (Christogram) S (wreath) in exergue. RIC 37b; RSC 96†d. 2.31g, 18mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Scarce.

291

500


1051. Procopius AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 365-366. D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOT V in two lines within wreath; C•Δ in exergue. RIC 13e.4; RSC 14†c. 2.12g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

750

1052. Gratian AV Solidus. North Italian mint (Mediolanum?), AD 380-382. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors, in consular robes, seated facing on throne with their legs draped, together holding a globe; between and behind them the upper portion of a Victory with outspread wings; between and below them, a palm branch; COM in exergue. RIC 5d; Depeyrot 1/1. 4.51g, 21mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

2,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group 72, 14 June 2006, lot 1845; Ex Leu 77, 11 May 2000, lot 710.

1053. Gratian AR Siliqua. Thessalonica, AD 378-383. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOT VX MVLT XX in four lines within wreath with jewel at apex; T (Christogram) E in exergue. RIC 30b; RSC 73†. 2.13g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Scarce.

250

Ex Münzen & Medaillen 38, 6 December 1968, lot 632.

1054. Valentinian II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 375-378. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG Δ, Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing, head right, on throne ornamented with lions heads, holding sceptre and globe; right foot on prow, CONOB in exergue. RIC 95b. 4.53g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

450

1055. Theodosius I AR Siliqua. Aquileia, AD 378-388. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated facing, head left, holding sceptre and globe; AQPS in exergue. RIC IX 28d, 41b; RSC 56†d. 2.00g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Well detailed reverse. Toned.

292

150


293


Very Rare Theodosius Solidus

1056. Theodosius I AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 378-383. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Theodosius I and Valentinian II enthroned facing, holding globe between them; above throne, Victory facing with wings spread; between, palm frond; COM in exergue. RIC 34j.1. 4.51g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

1057. Theodosius I AR Siliqua. Rome, AD 378-383. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VRBS ROMA, Roma enthroned to left, holding sceptre and Victory on globe; R*P in exergue. RIC 35c; C. 71. 2.12g, 19mm, 1h. Mint State.

300

1058. Aelia Flaccilla Æ24. Alexandria, AD 383-328. AEL FLACCILLA AVG, draped bust right, with elaborate head-dress, necklace and mantle / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Empress standing facing, head right, with arms folded; ALEB in exergue. RIC 17. 4.76g, 24mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Scarce.

150

Ex Münzen & Medaillen 43, 12 November 1970, lot 501.

1059. Magnus Maximus Æ Nummus. Arelate, 25 August AD 383-28 August 388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SPES ROMANORVM, camp gate with star between its two turrets; PCON in exergue. RIC 29a.1. 1.30g, 13mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

294

100


Exceptional Magnus Maximus Solidus

1060. Magnus Maximus AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors, in consular robes, seated facing on throne with their legs draped, together holding a globe; between and behind them the upper portion of a Victory with outspread wings; between and below them, a palm branch, TROB in exergue. RIC 77b; Depeyrot 52/1. 4.51g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Rare, particularly in such exceptional state of preservation.

12,500

Magnus Maximus was acclaimed emperor by his troops whilst he was a general of the field army of Britain in 383. After defeating the senior western emperor Gratian, he sent ambassadors to Theodosius I in the East and Valentinian II in Italy, and was recognized by Theodosius as Augustus in return for leaving Valentinian II in power. The reverse of this coin, showing two emperors sharing a globe, reflects the sharing of imperial power across the whole of the Empire, and this is reinforced by the presence of the second ‘G’ in the last word of the reverse legend (AVGG = Augustorum), indicating that it is of two emperors rather than one. Sutherland and Carson suggest in RIC that, due to a number of factors including the similar size of the figures of the emperors, this coin was struck during the period of relative peace between Maximus and Theodosius; other issues of this type from the Italian mints show one figure much smaller than the other, which is thought to indicate the elevation of Maximus’ son Flavius Victor to Augustus in 384.

1061. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri, AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear; TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b. 1.73g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Well centred and extremely well preserved, with a pleasant old cabinet tone.

200

1062. Eugenius AR Siliqua. Mediolanum, AD 392-394. D N EVGENIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and reversed spear; MDPS in exergue. RIC 32c. 1.96g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

295

750


1063. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 397-402. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust three-quarters facing, holding spear over shoulder and shield with horseman motif / CONCORDIA AVGG Є, Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing, head left, holding Victory on globe and spear; CONOB in exergue. RIC 7. 4.45g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

1064. Arcadius AR Siliqua. Mediolanum, AD 393-394. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and reversed spear; MDPS in exergue. RIC 32b; RSC 27b. 1.53g, 17mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

200

1065. Arcadius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 395-402. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and crowned by Victory on globe, with foot on captive to lower right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC IX 35b = RIC X 1205; Depeyrot 16/1. 4.43g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

1066. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 388-392. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG H, Constantinopolis, turreted, seated facing, head right, foot on prow, holding sceptre and globe; lions’ heads on throne; CONOB in exergue. RIC 67c; Depeyrot 46/3. 4.39g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

500

1067. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 388-392. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG I, Constantinopolis, turreted, seated facing, head right, holding sceptre and shield inscribed VOT V MVL X; CONOB in exergue. RIC 70c.6; Depeyrot 46/3. 4.46g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

296

750


1068. Aelia Eudoxia Æ3. Antioch, AD 401-403. AEL EVDOXIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, being crowned by the hand of God above / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, supporting on a low column a shield inscribed with christogram; ANTΓ in exergue. RIC 104. 2.37g, 17mm, 11h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

Perhaps the Second Known

1069. Honorius AR Half-Siliqua. Uncertain mint, AD 395-402/408. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding cross chrismée in right hand and spear in left hand. Unpublished in the standard references, cf. cgb.fr MBS 38, 30 April 2009, lot 1358. 0.59g, 12mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one other example on CoinArchives.

300

1070. Honorius AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 402-408. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pear-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG Γ, Emperor standing right, holding standard and Victory on globe, treading on captive seated left; S-M across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC 15d; Depeyrot 34/3. 4.40g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Minor earthen encrustations. Rare.

1,000

1071. Honorius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 394-395. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding standard and Victory on globe, treading on captive seated left; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. Depeyrot 16/2; RIC IX 35c; cf. RIC X 1206a. 4.50g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

1072. Honorius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 397-402. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, helmeted bust facing, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman spearing fallen enemy / CONCORDIA AVGG E, helmeted Constantinopolis seated facing, head to right, placing right foot on prow and holding sceptre and Victory on globe; star in left field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 201; Depeyrot 73/1. 4.46g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State.

297

1,000


1073. Honorius AV Solidus. Rome, AD 404-416. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding standard and Victory on globe, treading on captive seated left; R-M across fields; COMOB in exergue. RIC 1252; Depeyrot 34/2. 4.32g, 20mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

500

1074. Honorius AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 402-406. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding standard and Victory on globe, treading on captive seated left; R-V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC 1287. 4.50g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

1075. Honorius AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 402-406. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding standard and Victory on globe, treading on captive seated left; R-V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC 1287; C. 44. 4.41g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

1076. Honorius Æ Exagium Solidi Weight. D N HONORIVS AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; all within square beaded border / EXAGIVM SOLIDI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae; all within square beaded border. Bendall, Byzantine Weights, p. 17, 5; Sabatier 3. NGSA 5, 3 December 2008, 322. 4.23g, 15mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

No mint marks indicate where the exagium solidi were manufactured – the only differentiation that can be discerned is that the exagia from the West are square, and those from the East are round.

1077. Constantine III AR Siliqua. Lugdunum, AD 408-411. D N CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA [AAVGGG], Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and inverted spear; SMLD in exergue. RIC 1531; Lyon 251; King, Fifth, 2; RSC 4b. 1.60g, 16mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Deep toning. Rare.

298

500


Very Rare Siliqua of Jovinus

1078. Jovinus AR Siliqua. Arelate, AD 411-413. D N IOVINVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIP, Roma seated left on curule chair, holding Victory on globe in outstretched right hand and reversed spear in left; KONT in exergue. RIC 1721; King, Fifth, p. 290 and pl. 22, 9; Ferrando 1717; RSC 2†b; DOCLR -. 1.23g, 15mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

Very little is known about the origins of Jovinus. During the anarchic period of AD 406-411, when the western Roman Empire essentially disintegrated under repeated barbarian invasions and local insurrections, Jovinus gained the support of several Germanic tribes near the city of Mogontiacum (Mainz) as an alternative to the distant and feeble regime of Honorius. In 411, he was proclaimed emperor at Mainz by the Alan king Goar and the Burgundian king Gundahar. Soon afterwards he won the support of Athaulf, king of the Visigoths, and for a time it seemed Jovinus had secured control of all Gaul and Roman Germany. The Gallic nobility supported him and coins were struck in his name at Treveri, Lugdunum and Arelate. However, Jovinus made a serious mistake in obtaining the backing of another powerful Visigoth, Sarus, who was a blood-enemy of Athaulf. In 412, Jovinus appointed his brother Sebastianus as co-emperor, which further alienated Athaulf and caused him to open secret negotiations with Honorius. In 413 Athaulf openly switched sides and allied himself with the Ravenna regime. Sebastianus was swiftly captured and executed. Jovinus took refuge in the city of Valentia but surrendered after a brief siege. Although he had apparently been promised a fair hearing, Jovinus was summarily executed en route to Ravenna and his head sent on to Honorius.

Johannes, Usurper

1079. Johannes Æ Nummus. Rome, AD 423-425. D N IOHANNES P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left, holding trophy over shoulder and dragging captive; staurogram to left. RIC 1916; LRBC 833. 1.32g, 12mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

100

1080. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 402-403. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, helmeted, three-quarter facing bust, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / CONCORDIA AVGGG Z, Constantinopolis seated facing, holding sceptre and Victory on globe, resting her foot on a prow; CONOB in exergue. RIC 27; Depeyrot 56/2. 4.16g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

500

1081. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 408-420. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, helmeted, three-quarter facing bust, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / CONCORDIA AVGG I, Constantinopolis seated facing, holding sceptre and Victory on globe, resting her foot on a prow; star in left field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 202; Depeyrot 73/2. 4.47g, 21mm, 6h. Tool mark on obverse in right field, otherwise, Extremely Fine.

300

1082. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 408-420. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, helmeted, three-quarter facing bust, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / CONCORDIA AVGG E, Constantinopolis seated facing, holding sceptre and Victory on globe, resting her foot on a prow; star in left field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 202; Depeyrot 73/2. 4.50g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

299

750


1083. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 408-420. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, helmeted, three-quarter facing bust, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / CONCORDIA AVGG S, Constantinopolis seated facing, holding sceptre and Victory on globe, resting her foot on a prow; star in left field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 202; Depeyrot 73/2. 4.47g, 21mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Struck on a broad flan of lustrous metal. Minor edge mark to obv.

750

Very Rare Solidus of Theodosius II

1084. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 408-420. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right, holding spear pointing forward and shield with a horseman and enemy motif / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis enthroned facing, heads turned towards one another, each holding a sceptre and supporting between them a shield inscribed VOT XV MVL XX; prow beneath right foot of Constantinopolis, star in left field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 207; Depeyrot 61/1. 4.46g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

1085. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 441-450. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust three-quarters facing, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / IMP XXXXII COS XVII P P, Constantinopolis enthroned left with shield behind, holding globus cruciger and sceptre; foot on prow, star in left field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 323; Depeyrot 84/1. 4.44g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

1086. Roman Gaming Token (?), designed and elaborately cut from a Theodosius II Æ Nummus. [D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right] / Cross within wreath, X in jewel at top; [SMKA in exergue]. RIC 449. 1.48g, 13mm. Very Fine. Coin of good style, interesting re-working of the design.

100

1087. Aelia Pulcheria AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 441-450. AEL PVLCHERIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, crowned by the Hand of God / IMP•XXXXII COS XVII P•P•, Constantinopolis seated left, holding globus cruciger and sceptre; star to left, shield set on ground to right, COMOB in exergue. RIC X 316 var. (point in rev. legend); Depeyrot 84/3. 4.29g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; minor marks. Rare.

300

3,000


Extremely Rare Justa Grata Honoria Solidus

1088. Justa Grata Honoria AV Solidus. Struck under Valentinian II in Ravenna, circa AD 430-455. D N IVST GRAT HONORIA P F AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, wearing single-drop earring and pearl necklace, crowned by manus Dei above / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated left on cuirass, inscribing shield with Chi-Rho; R-V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC 2053. 4.44g, 20mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, none on CoinArchives.

1,500

1089. Valentinian III AR Half-Siliqua. Ravenna, circa AD 455. D N PLA VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; [R V in exergue]. RIC 2084; cf. NAC 84, 20 May 2015, 1301 (same obv. die). 0.93g, 14mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Edge chipped, a little porous, lightly toned. Extremely Rare.

250

1090. Marcian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 450-457. D N MARCIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust three-quarters facing, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / VICTORIA AVGGG Δ, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross in right hand; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 510; Depeyrot 87/1. 4.48g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

1091. Marcian Æ4. Constantinople, AD 450-457. D N MARCIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Monogram, cross above, all within wreath; CON in exergue. RIC 545. 1.30g, 12mm, 12h. Very Fine. Attractive sand patina.

100

1092. Leo I AV Solidus. Constantinople, circa AD 465-466. D N LEO PERPET AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust three quarters facing, holding spear over right shoulder and shield, decorated with horseman motif, on left arm / VICTORIA AVGGG B, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross; star in right field; CONOB in exergue. RIC 605; MIRB 3b; LRC 527; Depeyrot 93/1. 4.49g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

301

750


A Perfect Leo Solidus

1093. Leo I AV Solidus. Constantinople, circa AD 465-466. D N LEO PERPET AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust three quarters facing, holding spear over right shoulder and shield, decorated with horseman motif, on left arm / VICTORIA AVGGG B, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross; star in right field; CONOB in exergue. RIC 605; MIRB 3b; LRC 527; Depeyrot 93/1. 4.50g, 20mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin.

1,000

1094. Leo I AV Solidus. Constantinople, circa AD 465-466. D N LEO PERPET AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust three quarters facing, holding spear over right shoulder and shield, decorated with horseman motif, on left arm / VICTORIA AVGGG B, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross; star in right field; CONOB in exergue. RIC 605; MIRB 3b; LRC 527; Depeyrot 93/1. 4.51g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

750

1095. Leo I AV Solidus. Constantinople, circa AD 465-466. D N LEO PERPET AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust three quarters facing, holding spear over right shoulder and shield, decorated with horseman motif, on left arm / VICTORIA AVGGG B, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross; star in right field; CONOB in exergue. RIC 605; MIRB 3b; LRC 527; Depeyrot 93/1. 4.50g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

750

1096. Leo I AV Solidus. Constantinople, circa AD 465-466. D N LEO PERPET AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust three quarters facing, holding spear over right shoulder and shield, decorated with horseman motif, on left arm / VICTORIA AVGGG B, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled cross; star in right field; CONOB in exergue. RIC 605; MIRB 3b; LRC 527; Depeyrot 93/1. 4.49g, 20mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin.

1,000

1097. Leo I AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 474. D N LEO PERPET AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SAL REI PYI within wreath; CONS* in exergue. RIC 646; RSC 12a. 1.14g, 17mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

302

200


Very Rare Libius Severus Half Siliqua

1098. Libius Severus AR Half Siliqua. Rome, AD 461-465. D N LIB SEVERVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Chi-rho within wreath; RM in exergue. RIC 2713; RSC 16†a; DOCLR 899 corr. (obv. legend). 0.80g, 12mm, 5h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

1099. Zeno AV Tremissis. Second Reign, Constantinople, AD 476-491. D N ZENO PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory advancing to front, head left, holding wreath in right hand and globus cruciger in left; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 919. 1.48g, 14mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

300

MIGRATION PERIOD

1100. Vandals, Municipal coinage of Carthage Æ 4 Nummi. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; palm to left / N over IIII in two lines across field. Hahn, Wertsystem 16; MEC 1, 51-6; BMC Vandals 12-4. 1.33g, 11mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Sand patina.

200

1101. Ostrogoths, Theodahad Ӕ Decanummium. In the name of Justinian I. Ravenna, AD 534-536. INV[ICT]A ROMA, helmeted and cuirassed bust of Roma right / D N THEODAHATHVS REX, in four lines within wreath. BMC Vandals 16 (Ravenna); Kraus 23 (Ravenna); MIB 82; MEC I, 144; Metlich 90. 1.95g, 15mm, 6h. Very Fine, attractive sand patina.

150

Final Coinage of the Ancient Romans

1102. Municipal coinage of Rome Æ 20 Nummi. Municipal coinage of Rome, AD 526-534. INVICTA ROMA, draped bust of Roma to right, wearing crested helmet, pendant earring and necklace / She-wolf standing to left, head turned back to watch the two infants Romulus and Remus suckling; two stars flanking Chi-Rho above, mark of value XX below. Hahn, MIB 71c (Theoderic); Kraus 29; Metlich 84b. 4.40g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare, and very well preserved for the type.

750

Although the most noticeable of the bronze coins used in Italy under the Ostrogoths are the countermarked asses and other earlier types, in fact these did not make up the bulk of the copper coinage in circulation at that time. Under Odovacar and the Ostrogoths the Roman Senate enjoyed a brief Indian summer of power; amongst its activities was a revival of the ancient Senatorial privilege of minting in bronze, which after a very brief issue in the name of Zeno, then consisted of types purely Roman in character, making no reference to either imperial or royal authority. This revived Senatorial coinage features the helmeted bust of Roma along with the ironic obverse inscription INVICTA ROMA, and recalls the ancient silver coins of the Republic. This Senatorial coinage came to an end in 535/6 when it was briefly replaced by the portrait coins of Theodahad. In 537, after the occupation of Rome by the forces of Belisarius, this was in turn replaced by a regular ‘Byzantine’ imperial coinage in the name of Justinian. When Rome again fell under Ostrogothic control and the mint was reopened in 549, the coinage issued there was purely royal and Ostrogothic in character. This series may therefore be rightfully described as the final issue of coinage struck by the ancient Romans in their own name.

303


Very Rare Merovingian Pseudo-Imperial Solidus

1103. Merovingians, AV Solidus. In the name of Anastasius (AD 491-518), struck in the time of Clovis I - Chlothar II, circa AD 500-587. PHΛNΛCTA[...] SIV - YUAVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust of Anastasius facing, holding spear and shield; Θ to right / VICTORI ΛUYGG, Victory standing left, holding long voided cross; star over monogram (FET?) in right field, CONOB in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references, for type cf. Belfort 5045-68; MEC 343-348; Collection NK 1013-23; for monogram cf. Prou p. cxvi. 4.43g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Unique.

5,000

There is still no modern comprehensive study on the Frankish coinage of the early Merovingian period, namely the pseudo-imperial gold solidi and tremisses issued in the names of the eastern emperors Anastasius, Justin I and Justinian I, with Victory as a reverse type. The largest collection of material is published in A. De Belfort, Description générale des monnaies mérovingiennes, tome IV (Paris, 1894, reprinted in 1996), nos. 50225356. Under the Roman Empire the minting of gold coins was a jealously guarded imperial monopoly, a privilege respected by the early Frankish kings who had little idea of the state as a public institution and could not conceive of any other form of government or economic system beyond that of their primitive Frankish tribal groupings. These pseudo-imperial issues were initially struck in the name of the eastern emperor Anastasius (491-518), who realised the military qualities of Clovis I and in 508 bestowed on him the titles of consul and patrician. Gold solidi continued to be struck until the late 580s in various styles and engraving quality and exhibit a large variety of mint initials and symbols for an ever expanding kingdom which had once been Roman civilised Gaul. This pseudo-imperial gold appears to have been withdrawn in about 587 in favour of a new national coinage with clearer mint marks, moneyers names and royal titles, so characteristic of later Merovingian coinage. Throughout this period the Frankish kings had usually deferentially respected the imperial convention of issuing pseudo-imperial gold coins in the emperor’s name, but there was a striking exception: Theodebert I (534-548) had the audacity to break imperial custom by minting gold coins containing his own name and image (cf. Belfort 5467-5472and MEC 389). Not surprisingly, the Byzantine chronicler Agathias recorded the rumour in Constantinople that Theodebert was suspected of planning an invasion of Thrace. During the migration period of the 4th and 5th centuries AD the Franks were one of the principal elements in the West Germanic peoples, which included the Suevi, Burgundians, Ostrogoths and Visigoths. They settled in two principal groups; the Salians to the north-west of the river Rhine frontier covering modern Brabant and Flanders up to the Somme, and the kingdom of the Riparians around Cologne in the area between the rivers Moselle and Rhine. As Roman federate allies for much on the 5th century, the Franks achieved political mastery of much of Gaul under the leadership of the Salian Childeric (c. 457-481) and his son Clovis I (Chlodovech, 481-511), who became king as a boy of 15 at Tournai and whose talents can only be inferred from his legendary achievements. Culturally the Franks owed nearly everything to their contact with Gallic Rome, and they spoke a Latin dialect, the basis of modern French. The very name Clovis (in reconstructed Frankish ‘Hlodoweg’ meaning ‘renowned fighter’) was to morph into Latin as Ludovicus and the modern names Louis and Ludwig. During his reign Clovis increased Frankish power by brute force, putting to an end the old divisions between Ripuarian and Salic Franks and defeating the independent Roman governor Syagrius at Soissons in 476. According to the late 6th century History of Gregory of Tours, Clovis’ conversion to Catholicism was largely due to the influence of his second wife, the Burgundian Princess Clothilda who he married in 493. This was a brilliant diplomatic move, followed by a long series of royal baptisms started in Rheims by St Remi in 496. Clovis now a forged a new Frankish identity allied to the Roman population of Gaul which was of great help in the struggle with the Arian Visigoths whom he defeated at Vouillé in 507 when he took over Aquitaine. Eventually he gained control over most of ancient Gaul, now called the Kingdom of the Franks (Francia). From his chosen capital at Paris, Clovis coordinated the political and economic organization of his kingdom with a council of bishops. There he also instituted the Salic Law, which codified the traditions of the Salian Franks with Roman law, still in force in Provence in southern France. Part of the Salic Law stipulated that a kingdom be equally divided among the immediate heirs of a ruler. On the death of Clovis in 511, Francia was divided into four nearly equal shares. His immediate successors, styling themselves ‘Merovingian’ after their semi-mythical ancestor named Merovech, were: Thierry I, Chlodomir, Childebert and Chlotar I, who inherited Metz, Orleans, Paris and Soissons respectively. Their greed and discord made them bitter and faithless enemies. When Chlodomir died in 524, Childebert and Chlotar murdered his sons and took his share. Yet Francia survived as one kingdom: Childebert I died in 558, and the extinction of his debauched grandson Theodebald I in 555 left the remaining Merovingian Chlotar I sole king. By this time Francia was even larger than it had been under Clovis: Thuringia was conquered by Thierry I in the early 530s; Burgundia occupied in 534 and Provence taken from the Ostrogoths in 537; much of northern Italy was occupied by Theodebert I in the early 540s, though not retained and recovered by Justinian’s reconquest of Italy in the 560s.

304


1104. Uncertain Germanic Tribes, AR 1/2 Siliqua. Imitating Leo I, circa AD 457-474. ON LEO PEPRET AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / SAL REI PYI in three lines within wreath; CONS* in exergue. RIC 650; RSC 12†a. 0.54g, 14mm, 6h. Very Fine.

100

1105. Gepids, Pseudo-Imperial coinage AV Tremissis. Late 5th centuries AD. CXTYPIIO-QXXXTOII, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed imperial bust right / XIIXXO-ORXXXИC, Victory standing left, holding long jewelled voided cross; star to right; in exergue, CONO. Unpublished in the standard references. Cf. Rauch sale 81, 2007, 813. 1.44g, 15mm, 6h. Very Fine.

750

1106. Rectangular Æ Solidus Weight (?) or Dedicatory Plaquette. Circa AD 507-511. Silver inlay legend: BAC AVD APV in three lines. Unpublished in the standard references, for similar examples cf. S. Benadall, Byzantine Weights, 1996, 172 (in the names of Zeno, Odovacar and Symmachus, now in the BnF, Paris); J. Forien de Rochesnard, Album des poids antiques 3, Rome et Byzance, p. 51 (in the name Albinus); NAC sale 5, 1992, 621 = NAC sale 54, 2010, 1339 (in the name Paulinvs praef. vrb.). 4.30g, 15mm. 1,000 If these are solidus weights they usually suffer the drawback of being light, perhaps due the deterioration of the bronze, and weigh between 4.28g and 3.66g. H. Dressel in ‘Corpus Inscriptiones Latinorum’ (CIL) 15, listed these as ‘tesserae monumetorum’ or dedicatory plaquettes intended to mark dedications, reconstructions or repairs to buildings on the basis that some bear the formula renovavit, which perhaps points to this conclusion.

Very Rare Ispali Tremissis of Recceswinth

1107. Visigothic Kingdom of Spain, Recceswinth AV Tremissis. Ispali (Seville), AD 653-672. RECCES VINTVSR, diademed head right / +ISPALI PIVS, cross on three steps. CNV 453. 1.50g, 19mm, 12h. Almost as struck. Very Rare.

305

1,500


Extremely Rare Desiderius Tremissis

1108.

Lombards, Desiderius AV Tremissis. Castelnovate, AD 757-774. +DN DESIDERIVS RXV (sic), cross potent / +FL•AVIA NOVATE, six-rayed star with small leaves between rays within circle. Bernareggi 166; Arslan 64/66. 1.03g, 18mm, 4h. Mint State. Extremely Rare.

15,000

From the Alban Collection; Ex Editions V. Gadoury, 1 December 2012, lot 432. The Lombards are descended, according to the Benedictine monk Paul the Deacon’s account, from a Scandinavian tribe. Their name is allegedly from the reputable length of the beards they grew (Latinised as Langobardi; Longbeards). Gradually the Lombard people migrated down across Europe encountering other tribes such as the Vandals as they went. They are mentioned as early as AD 9 by Roman historian Velleius Paterculus and also by Strabo and Tacitus. As a result of the highly destructive Gothic War from AD 535 to 554, Italy was left underpopulated and vulnerable. The Lombards crossed over into Northern Italy and established their rule there, making Ticinum (modern-day Pavia) the capital of the new state. Over the next two hundred years the Kingdom of the Lombards became increasingly Romanised, and by the 8th century, was partially Catholic. Coinage gradually developed from being mainly Byzantine imitations to their own style of independent gold and silver coins. Desiderius was the last king of the Lombards, ruling from AD 756 to 774. He married his daughter off to Charlemagne, the King of the Franks. However their political relationship grew sour as disputes over the papacy resulted in Charlemagne besieging Desiderius at Pavia. Eventually the Lombards surrendered, and Desiderius was exiled to Corbie Abbey in France until he died in AD 786. Charlemagne proclaimed himself King of the Lombards and because of this and his other conquests he is known by some as the ‘father of Europe’, as he was the first to unite most of the Western Empire since the fall of Rome. The Lombards that were left continued to live on as lesser duchies in Southern Italy.

306


COINS OF THE BYZANTINE IMPIRE

1109. Anastasius I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 492-507. D N ANASTASIVS PERP AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding shield with horseman device on left shoulder; spear in right hand over shoulder / VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory standing to left, holding long cross; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. Sear 3. 4.47g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare obverse legend and unusually lacking an officina letter on the reverse.

1,500

1110. Anastasius I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 492-507. D N ANASTASIVS PERP AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding shield with horseman device on left shoulder; spear in right hand over shoulder / VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory standing to left, holding long cross; officina Γ, star in right field, CONOB in exergue. Sear 3. 4.36g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Die break across obverse. Lustre around the devices.

1111

325

1112

1111. Anastasius I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 492-507. D N ANASTASIVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding shield with horseman device on left shoulder; spear in right hand over shoulder / VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory standing to left, holding long cross; officina A, star in left field, CONOB in exergue. Sear 4. 4.25g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. 300 1112. Anastasius I AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 491-518. D N ANASTASIVS P P AV, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory advancing right, head left, holding wreath and globus cruciger; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. Sear 8. 1.46g, 15mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous and well preserved for the issue. 250

1113. Justin I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 518-527. D N IVSTINVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding shield with horseman device on left shoulder; spear in right hand over shoulder / VICTORIA AVGGG E, angel standing facing, holding long cross and globus cruciger; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. Sear 56; DOC 2; MIBE 3. 4.44g, 26mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous.

307

350


1114. Justinian I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 542-565. D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, shield with horseman device on left shoulder, globus cruciger in right hand / VICTORIA AVGGG, angel standing facing, holding long cross in right hand, globus cruciger in left hand; officina Θ, star in right field, CONOB in exergue. Sear 139; DOC 6. 4.47g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

1115. Justin II AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 565-578. D N IVSTINVS P P AVI, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory advancing right, head left, holding wreath and globus cruciger; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. DOC 13; MIBE 11a; Sear 353. 1.42g, 15mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

1116. Tiberius II Constantine AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 579-582. D M TIB CONSTANT P P AVG, crowned and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger and shield / VICTORIA AVGG H, cross potent set on four steps, CONOB in exergue. MIBE 15; Ranieru 437; Sear 468. 4.49g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Very well struck and centred on a broad flan.

2,500

1117. Maurice Tiberius AV Solidus. Carthage, AD 590-1. D N MAVRIT G PP AV AN Θ, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger in right hand / VICTORIA AV AGG N Θ, angel standing facing, holding christogram in right hand, and globus cruciger in left hand; CONOB in exergue. DOC 223; MIBE 25a; Sear 548. 4.45g, 19mm, 6h. Virtually Mint State; two small scratches in obverse right field below cheek. A remarkably well struck and preserved example. Struck on a broad flan, and well framed. 1,000 Ex Argenor Numismatique, 23 April 1999, lot 169.

308


1118. Phocas AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 602-610. dN N FOCAS PERP AVI, draped and cuirassed facing bust, wearing crown without pendilia, holding globus cruciger / VICTORIA AVGV E, angel standing facing, holding staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. MIBE 9; DOC 10; Sear 620. 4.44g, 20mm, 7h. As Struck and Uncirculated. Untouched fields of incredible lustre.

400

1119. Phocas AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 602-610. d N FOCAS PERP AVI, draped and cuirassed facing bust, wearing crown without pendilia, holding globus cruciger / VICTORIA AVGV Z, angel standing facing, holding staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. MIBE 9; DOC 10; Sear 620. 4.42g, 22mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin. Brilliant mint lustre.

400

1120. Phocas AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 602-610. dN FOCAS PERP AVI, draped and cuirassed facing bust, wearing crown without pendilia, holding globus cruciger / VICTORIA AVGV I, angel standing facing, holding staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. MIBE 9; DOC 10; Sear 620. 4.49g, 21mm, 7h. Near Mint State, minor scrape on rev.

300

1121. Phocas AV Solidus. AD 603. DN FOCAE PERP AVG, facing bust wearing consular robes and crown with pendilia, surmounted by cross on circlet and holding mappa and cross / VICTORIA AVGG I, angel standing facing, holding globus cruciger and long linear staff surmounted by Christogram; CONOB in exergue. DOC 3; MIBE 1; Sear 622. 4.49g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

309

1,000


The Revolt of the Heraclii

1122.

Revolt of the Heraclii AV Solidus. Alexandria or Cyprus, dated fixed IY 11 (summer AD 608). D N ERACLIO CONSVLI BA, facing busts of Heraclius and the Exarch Heraclius, each wearing slight beard and consular robes; cross between / VICTORIA CONSAB IA, cross potent set upon four steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 11; MIBE 3; Sear 719; Berk 112. 4.46g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Insignificant scratch on rev., tiny edge bump. Very Rare.

7,500

Having been appointed Exarch of Africa by the Emperor Maurice Tiberius, Heraclius the Elder was venerated at Carthage where he had established ties with the local elite and enjoyed a safe and strong position. His son and namesake Heraclius the Younger married into the local African elite, his first wife Eudocia being the daughter of a local landowner. Although not as wealthy an area of the Empire as Egypt, Africa was able to stand alone in self sufficiency whilst also being a provider of grain and revenues to Constantinople, a position that further strengthened the Heraclii’s position for the events of AD 608. Maurice was murdered by disaffected soldiers after they had rebelled against him and proclaimed their fellow soldier Phocas to be Emperor in 602, the culmination of a long struggle with the finances of the Empire, for which he had imposed high taxes and intended to introduce reforms to reduce expenditure on the maintenance of the army. The change of regime at first being welcomed due to the lowering of taxes, Phocas’ methods of ensuring loyalty and keeping control of the government by killing thousands of dissenters (a claim we ought to take with caution as no contemporary histories remain), coupled with the disintegrating stability of the Eastern provinces where the Sasanian Persian king Khosrau II was preparing an invasion, led to increasing hostility towards him. In opposition to the tyranny of Phocas, Heraclius the elder and the younger were proclaimed Consuls, perhaps by the Senate at Carthage (a body which had no power to do so), and began issuing coinage depicting themselves in consular robes only, as we see on this very rare solidus, as they did not hold the imperial title at that time. Gaining support from Egypt, Syria, Cyprus and Sicily, Heraclius the Younger sailed to Constantinople, arriving in October 610, and the revolt culminated in a coup where he was crowned and saw to the execution of his predecessor, establishing a dynasty which would last a century, ending with the execution of Justinian II in 711.

310


1123. Revolt of the Heraclii AV Solidus. Alexandria or Cyprus, Dated fixed IY 11 (summer AD 608). DN ERACLIO CONSVLI BA, facing busts of Heraclius and the Exarch Heraclius, each wearing slight beard and consular robes; cross between / VICTORIA CONSAB IA, cross potent set upon four steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 11; MIBE 3; Sear 719; Berk 112. 4.35g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

1124. Justinian II AV Solidus. First reign, Constantinople, AD 687-692. D IVSTINIANVS PE AV, bust facing, with short beard, wearing chlamys and crown decorated with cross on circlet, and holding globus cruciger / VICTORIA AVGV Θ, cross potent on three steps, CONOBΓ in exergue. DOC 6; Sear 1247. 3.98g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Slight edge knock by globus. Underlying lustre. Rare.

350

1125. Tiberius III AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 698-705. D TIBERIVS PE AV Γ, cuirassed bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown and holding spear / VICTORIA AVGV H, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in exergue. Sear 1360; MIB 1. 4.45g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

1126. Tiberius III AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 698-705. D TIBERIVS PE AV Γ, cuirassed bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown and holding spear / VICTORIA AVGV I, cross potent on three steps; CONOB in exergue. Sear 1360; MIB 1. 4.46g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

1127. Justinian II AV Solidus. Second reign, Constantinople, AD 705-711. dN IhS ChS REX REGNANTIYM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator, wearing pallium and colobium, holding Book of Gospels, and raising hand in benediction / dN IVSTINIANVS MULTUS AN, crowned facing bust of Justinian, wearing loros, holding cross potent set on three steps in right hand, patriarchal cross on globe inscribed PAX in left. DOC 1; MIB 1; Sear 1413. 4.30g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State and Uncirculated. Minor die break across cross potent. Highly lustrous and well detailed.

311

1,500


1128. Justinian II AV Solidus. Second reign, Constantinople, AD 705-711. dN IhS ChS REX REGNANTIYM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator, wearing pallium and colobium, holding Book of Gospels, and raising hand in benediction / DN IUSTINIANUS ET TIbERIUS P P A’, crowned half-length figures of Justinian, on left, and smaller figure of Tiberius, on right, both wearing divitision and chlamys, jointly holding with their right hands a cross potent on three steps. Sear 1414; DOC 2a; MIB 2a. 4.35g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex SKA Monetarium Zurich List, May 1991, no. 90.

1129. Leo III the Isaurian, with Constantine V, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 725-732. d N D LEON PA MYL, crowned facing bust of Leo, wearing chlamys pinned at right shoulder, holding globus cruciger in right hand and akakia in left / d N CONSTANTINYS M, crowned facing bust of Constantine, beardless, wearing chlamys pinned at right shoulder, holding globus cruciger in right hand and akakia in left. Sear 1504; DOC 5. 4.47g, 20mm, 6h. Almost as Struck. Lustrous, well struck on a full flan.

500

1130. Constantine V Copronymus, with Leo III, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 741-751. B CONSTANTINVS, bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown and chlamys, holding cross potent and akakia / G LEON P A MVL, facing bust of Leo III, with short beard, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding cross potent and akakia. DOC 1g var.; Füeg 3.A.2; Sear 1550. 4.46g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

1131. Constantine V Copronymus, with Leo IV and Leo III, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 750-756. CONSTANTINOS S LEON O NEOS, crowned facing busts of Constantine V and Leo IV, each wearing chlamys; cross above, pellet between / C LEON P A MUL B, crowned facing bust of Leo III, wearing loros, holding cross potent in right hand. DOC 2f.1-3; Füeg 7.A.5; Sear 1551. 4.31g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

312

750


1132. Constantine V Copronymus, with Leo IV and Leo III, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 750-756. CONSTANTINOS S LEON O NEOS, crowned facing busts of Constantine V and Leo IV, each wearing chlamys; cross above, pellet between / C LEON P A MUL, crowned facing bust of Leo III, wearing loros, holding cross potent in right hand. DOC 2c.4; Füeg 4.B.6; Sear 1551. 4.47g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

1133. Constantine V Copronymus AR Half Siliqua. Naples(?), AD 741-775. Facing bust wearing loros and crown with trefoil ornament; flanked by two stars / Same type as obverse. DOC 23; Sear 1582c. 0.57g, 14mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

1134. Leo IV the Khazar, with Constantine VI, Leo III, and Constantine V AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 776-778. LEON PAP S CONSTANTINOS PATHR, crowned and draped busts of Leo IV and Constantine VI facing; cross above, pellet between / LEON VS S EGGON CONSTANTINOS O NEOS Θ, crowned busts of Leo III and Constantine V facing, each wearing loros; cross above, pellet between. DOC 1b; Sear 1583. 4.39g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Lustrous; all four portraits finely detailed.

1,000

1135. Constantine VI and Irene AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 780-797. CONSTANTINOS CA, facing busts of Constantine VI, on left, and Irene, on right, both crowned and with a cross between their heads; Constantine, beardless, wears chlamys and holds globus cruciger in right hand; Irene wears loros and holds globus cruciger in right hand, cruciform sceptre in left hand; pellett in field between their faces / SVN IRI AGOVSTI MITRI AV, Leo III, Constantine V and Leo IV seated facing, each wearing crown and chlamys. DOC 1; Sear 1593. 4.36g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

313

1,000


Beautiful Irene Solidus

1136. Irene AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 797-802. EIPINH bASILISSH, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger in right hand, cruciform sceptre in left / •EIPINH bASILISSH X, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger in right hand, cruciform sceptre in left. DOC 1c; Sear 1599. 4.42g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

7,500

Struck after AD 797, when Irene had had her son Constantine VI deposed and murdered, this solidus depicts Irene on both the obverse and reverse, and marks a distinct shift from the types of her predecessors. Gone is the cross-on-steps reverse type, or figures of deceased members of the dynasty, to be replaced by two facing busts of Irene. Here we have Irene proclaiming herself Empress and sole ruler in the most public way possible. However, after just five years on the throne she herself was deposed and replaced by her Minister of Finance, Nicephorus, and thus ended the first period in the history of the empire during which the throne was occupied by a woman exercising power in her own right. Beginning during the time she ruled as regent for her son Irene severely depleted the state treasuries with her policy of reducing taxation and making generous gifts to buy popularity, leaving the empire weak and unable to offer effective resistance to foreign aggressors. Having had to accept terms from the Arab Caliphs both in 792 and 798 in order to protect the fragile security of the realm, and being harried by the Bulgarians simultaneously, Irene was powerless to stop the formation of a new empire in the west under Charlemagne, who in AD 800 was crowned in Rome by Pope Leo III as Holy Roman Emperor due to his belief that the Imperial position was vacant, as it could not be filled by a woman.

1137. Nicephorus I, with Stauracius, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 803-811. NICIFOROS bASILE’, crowned and draped facing bust of Nicephorus, holding cross potent in right hand, akakia in left / STAVRACIS dESPO’ X, crowned and draped facing bust of Stauracius, holding cross potent in right hand, akakia in left. DOC 2c.2; Sear 1604. 4.48g, 20mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

1138. Theophilus AV Solidus. Syracuse, AD 830/1-842. ΘEOFILOS, crowned bust facing, wearing loros and holding cross potent in right hand / ΘEOFILOS, crowned bust facing, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand. DOC 24; Sear 1670. 3.88g, 16mm, 5h. Mint State.

314

500


1139. Basil II Bulgaroktonos, with Constantine VIII, AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1005-1025. +IhS XIS REX REGNANTINM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; crescents in upper quarters of nimbus / +bASIL C CONSTANTIN b R, crowned half-length busts of Basil, wearing loros and being crowned from above by manus Dei, and Constantine, wearing chlamys, holding long cross between them. Sear 1800; DOC 6a. 4.40g, 26mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

1140. Michael IV the Paphlagonian AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1034-1041. +IhS XIS REX REGNANTINM, bust of Christ facing, with ornate crossed nimbus, raising right hand in blessing and holding Book of Gospels in left / +MIXAHL bASILEUS RM, bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown with cross and loros, holding labarum and globus cruciger; above to left, the hand of God. Sear 1824; DOC 1. 4.41g, 26mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Areas of flatness. Well detailed and centred.

750

1141 1142 1141. Constantine IX Monomachus AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1042-1055. +IhS XIS REX REGNANTINM, Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing / +CWNSTANTN bASILEYS RM, crowned bust facing, wearing loros, holding cruciform sceptre with tendril ornament in right hand, globus surmounted by patriarchal cross in left. Sear 1828; DOC 1a. 4.37g, 29mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. 500 1142. Constantine IX Monomachus AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1042-1055. +IhS XIS REX REGNANTINM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; crescents in upper quarters of nimbus / +CWNSTANTN bASILEYS RM, crowned facing bust of Constantine, wearing loros, holding cruciform sceptre and globus cruciger. DOC 3; Sear 1830. 4.41g, 29mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Coin has been flattened: was originally scyphate. 200

1143. Constantine IX Monomachus AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1042-1055. +IhS XIS REX REGNANTINM, bust of Christ facing, wearing crown, pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction and holding book of Gospels in left hand / +CWNSTANTN bASILEYS RM, bearded bust facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding long cross and globe surmounted by pelleted cross. DOC 3; Sear 1830. 4.35g, 28mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

1144. Constantine IX Monomachus AV Tetarteron Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1042-1055. +IhS XIS REX REGNANTINM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator, wearing nimbus crown, and holding book of Gospels / +CWNSTANTNOS’ LE RM, crowned bust facing, wearing jewelled chlamys, holding labarum in right hand and globus cruciger in left. DOC 6; Sear 1833. 4.03g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

315

300


1145. Constantine IX Monomachus AV Tetarteron Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1042-1055. +IhS XIS REX REGNANTINM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator, wearing nimbus crown, and holding book of Gospels / +CWNSTANTNOS’ LE RM, crowned bust facing, wearing jewelled chlamys, holding labarum in right hand and globus cruciger in left. DOC 6; Sear 1833. 4.06g, 17mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

750

1146. Theodora AV Tetarteron Nomisma. Second reign, Constantinople, AD 1055-1056. Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus crown, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction, holding Book of Gospels with left; IC-XC across fields / +ΘEOΔWP AVΓO, bust of Theodora facing, wearing crown, saccos and loros, and holding jewelled sceptre and globus cruciger. DOC 2; Sear 1838. 3.97g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Of fine style, well centred, with underlying lustre. Very Rare.

2,000

Very Rare Michael VI Tetarteron Nomisma

1147. Michael VI Stratioticus AV Tetarteron Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1056-1105. Facing bust of the Virgin, nimbate and orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; MHP ligate – ΘV across field / +MIXAHL AVTOCRAT, Michael standing facing, wearing loros and crown with cross and pendilia, holding long cross in right hand and akakia in left. DOC 2; Sear 1841. 4.03g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. A wonderful example of the type. Very Rare.

1148

5,000

1149

1148. Isaac I Comnenus AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1057-1059. +IhS XIS REX REGNANTINM, Christ, nimbate, seated facing on backless throne, raising right hand in benediction and holding book of Gospels in left / +ICΛΛKIOC RACIΛE CPWM, Issac standing facing, wearing crown with cross and pendilia, and loros, holding labarum in right hand and resting his left on sheathed sword. DOC 1; Sear 1844. 4.44g. 26mm, 6h. Mint State. Brilliant mint lustre. 350 1149. Constantine X AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1059-1067. +IhS IXS REX REGNANTINM, Christ, nimbate, seated facing on straight-backed throne, raising hand in benediction, holding Gospels / + KWN RACΛ O ΔOVKAC, Constantine standing facing on round footstool, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum with pellet on shaft, and globus cruciger. DOC 1b; Sear 1847. 4.42g, 29mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous. Well struck on a full flan. 350

316


1150. Constantine X AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1059-1067. +IhS IXS REX REGNANTINM, Christ, nimbate, seated facing on straight-backed throne, raising hand in benediction, holding Gospels / + KWN RACΛ O ΔOVKAC, Isaac standing facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum and globus cruciger. DOC 1; Sear 1847. 4.32g, 26mm, 6h. Mint State. Lustrous metal.

350

1152

1151

1151. Eudocia, with Michael VII and Constantius, AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1067. +IhS XIS REX REGNANTINM, Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing / +MIX EVΔK KWNS, Eudocia, holding jewelled sceptre in right hand, standing facing on footstool, flanked by her sons Michael and Constantius, each holding globus cruciger and akakia. DOC 1; Sear 1857. 4.33g, 25mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare. 750 1152. Romanus IV AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1068-1071. +PWMAN EVΔOKIA, Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus crown, pallium and colobium, and crowning Romanus (on left) and Eudocia (on right) , each wearing saccos and loros and holding globus cruciger; IC-XC across fields / KWN MX ANΔ, Michael (in centre) Constantius (on left) and Andronicus (on right) all standing facing on footstools, all beardless, and all wearing crowns, saccos and loros and holding globus cruciger and akakia. Sear 1859; DOC 1. 4.39g, 25mm, 6h. Mint State, with brilliant mint lustre. 500

1153

1154

1153. Michael VII AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1071-1078. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; IC-XC across fields / + MIXAHΛ RACIΛ O Δ, crowned facing bust, wearing loros, holding labarum with pellet on shaft and globus cruciger. DOC 2d; Sear 1868. 4.34g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 150 1154. Michael VII AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1071-1078. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; IC-XC across fields / + MIXAHΛ RACIΛ O Δ, crowned facing bust, wearing loros, holding labarum with pellet on shaft and globus cruciger. DOC 2d; Sear 1868. 4.34g, 28mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. 200

1155

1156

1155. Michael VII AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1071-1078. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; IC-XC across fields / + MIXAHΛ RACIΛ O Δ, crowned facing bust, wearing loros, holding labarum and globus cruciger. DOC 2d; Sear 1868. 4.28g, 29mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine, slight die shift (most apparent on obv.) and minor cleaning marks on the borders.

150

1156. Theodore I Comnenus-Lascaris AR Aspron Trachy. Emperor of Nicaea. Magnesia, AD 1208-1212. Christ Pantocrator enthroned facing; with cruciform nimbus, pellet in each branch of cross, wearing pallium and colobium, holding book of Gospels in lap, two pellets on stalks to either side on throne; barred IC - XC across upper fields / ΘΕΟΔWPOC ΔECΠOT O ΘΕΟΔWΡΟC, standing facing figures of Theodore, wearing crown and chlamys, holding sword in outer hand, and St. Theodore, nimbate and wearing armor, holding sword in outer hand; both grip staff topped by eightpointed star between them. Sear 2064; DOC 2.3-4. 1.97g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; light edge bruise. Rare. 500

317


The Last Byzantine Emperor

1157. Constantine XI Palaeologus AR Stavraton. Constantinople, Siege of Constantinople, AD 1453. Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger and holding book of Gospels, IC and B to left and right / KWNCTANTINOC ΔΕCΠΟΤΗC Ο ΠΑΛΕΟΛΟΓ in the outer circle, ΘV ΧΑΡΙΤΗ ΒΑCΙΛΕΩC ΡΟΜΕΟΝ in the inner circle, crowned bust of Constantine facing, wearing maniakon. Bendall, Revue Numismatique 1991, ‘The Coinage of Constantine XI’, pp. 135-142, pl. XV, 93 (this coin). 6.78g, 23mm, 12h. Extremely Fine for this issue. Extremely Rare and of great historical importance.

15,000

Purchased from Harlan J. Berk Ltd., 16 July 1990; From the Constantine XI Hoard. The reign of Constantine XI is primarily remembered for marking the end of the so-called ‘Byzantine’ Empire, the remainder of the Eastern Roman Empire that had stood for a thousand years after the fall of Rome and the West. Constantine XI succeeded his brother John VIII Palaiologos on 6 January 1449, and had reigned for only two years when the Ottoman Sultan Murad II died, being followed by his zealous nineteen year old son Mehmed II, who was obsessed with the conquest of Constantinople. A diplomatic miscalculation on the part of Constantine was seized upon by Mehmed as a convenient casus belli, and preparations for war commenced. In the winter of 1451/2 Mehmed cut off Constantinople from the Black sea by establishing a fortification on the European side of the Bosporus which together with the existing fort on the Asian side, gave the Turks complete control of the strait. Specifically, it prevented help from Genoese colonies on the Black Sea coast from reaching Constantinople. Realising that a siege was imminent, Constantine prepared his defence of the city. Despite appealing to the Pope and Western princes for aid in the defence of the city, little help came. France and England were weakened by the Hundred Years War, Spain was in the final stages of the Reconquista, the German states were wracked by infighting and Hungary and Poland had suffered a crushing defeat at Varna which they had not recovered from. In the end only a few soldiers from the northern Italian city states arrived, together with some adventurers and independent companies. Any hope of help from Constantine’s brothers in Morea was dashed by an Ottoman invasion of the peninsula intended to pin down their troops. In the winter of 1452 Mehmed arrived with his army at Constantinople, and the siege of the city began. Greatly depopulated over the years, Constantinople was now a city of just 50,000 inhabitants, with an army of only 7,000 to defend them. Arrayed against Constantine was a force at least ten times larger than his, with state of the art artillery provided by the gunsmith Orban. After a siege of fifty-three days and determined fighting, the city fell. When all hope had faded, according to Michael Critobulus (writing later in Mehmed’s service) Constantine tore off his imperial regalia so as to let nothing distinguish him from any other soldier and led his remaining men in a last charge, perishing in the fighting. Struck during the siege of Constantinople, the present coin is illustrative of how far the empire had fallen. Its fabric is crude, struck on recycled silver from church altar vessels in order to pay mercenaries, and the quality of the artistry no better than the worst barbaric imitative issues of the migration period, yet the historical importance of these extremely rare coins cannot be overstated. 29 May 1453 is often cited as end of the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era, and the start of the early-modern period. The siege coinage of Constantine XI can thus rightly considered to be the last ‘ancient’ coins.

318


1158. Byzantine Empire Æ 2 Unciae square weight. 5th-7th Century AD. Two nimbate, crowned and draped imperial figures standing facing, each holding a vertical spear and globe, their faces, hands and shins inlaid with silver; star between their heads, Γ-B across lower fields. 53.66g, 29 x 30mm, 8mm thick. Attractive style, glossy patina.

250

1159. Byzantine Empire Æ 2 Unciae square weight. 5th-7th Century AD. Large cross of silver inlay; B-A-C-Γ-O-Y around and across fields, Γ-B across lower fields. 55.02g, 31 x 31mm, 8mm thick. Bevelled edges, rear plate added to bring to correct weight.

GERMANY

200

MEDIEVAL AND MODERN COINS Very Rare 1/2 Lichttaler

1160. Germany. Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, Julius (1568-1589) AR 1/2 Lichttaler. Goslar, 1578. Coat of arms between two ‘wildmen’ / ‘Wild man’ standing facing, holding tree trunk. Welter 585. 14.55g, 34mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

GREAT BRITAIN Extremely Rare Offa Penny

1161. Great Britain. Kings of Mercia, Offa (757-796) AR Penny. Heavy Coinage. Ciolhard, moneyer. OFFA between two pelleted lines; M above, REX below / +CIOLHARD partially inverted in two lunettes with fleurs in the junctions divided by beaded border. S. 908; Chick 203. 1.25g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

319

5,000


HUNGARY

1162. Hungary. Kingdom of Hungary, Ferdinand II (1619-1637) AR Taler. Kremnica (Kremnitz), 1637 KB. FERDINAND-•D•G•RO•I•S•AVG•GER•HVBOH•REX•, laureate, armoured and draped bust right, wearing elaborate ruff / ARCHIDVX•AVS•DVX•BVR•MAR•MOR•CO•TYR•1637, crowned and nibate double-headed eagle with, on breast, crowned coat-of-arms within Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, holding sword and sceptre; K-B across fields. Davenport 3129; Herinek 580. 28.34g, 47mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Minimal wear. Lightly toned and lustrous.

500

Very Rare Gulden of Ferencz Jozsef I

1163. Hungary. Kingdom of Hungary, Ferencz Jozsef I (1848-1916) AR Gulden. Kremnica (Kremnitz), 1878. FERENCZ JÓZSEF I•K•A•CS•ÉS M•H•S•D•O•AP •KIR•, laureate head right / JÓZSEF.NEVÛ ALTÁRNA SELMECBÁNYÁN* around 1782 - 1878. J. 366. 12.39g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

ITALY

1164. Italy. Firenze, Ferdinand II de Medici (1621-70) AR Testone. 1624. FERD II MAG DVX ETRV, draped and cuirassed bust right / S IOANNES BAPTISTA, John the Baptist seated facing. CNI 36/8; MIR 296/2. 9.13g, 31mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

1165. Italy. Livorno, Cosimo III de Medici (1670-1723) AR Tollero or Livornina. 1697. COSMVS III MAG DVX ETRVRIAE VI, crowned bust right / ET PATET ET FAVET, view of the lighthouse and port of Livorno. CNI 41/2; MIR 64/12. 27.13g, 42mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

320

700


1166. Italy. Mantova, Ferdinando Carlo Gonzaga-Nevers (1669-1707) AR Medal. By Giovan Battista Guglielmada. 1686. FERD CAR D G DVX MANTMONTIF CAROLIV GVASTETC, armoured bust left wearing elaborate cravat; below arm, G.F. 1686 / CERTISSIMAS SIGMA SEQVENTVR, Zodiac signs Leo, Vergo and Libra above sun in majesty. Magnaguti 86; Johnson 154. 32.85g, 42mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

400

1167. Italy. Mantova, Ferdinando Carlo Gonzaga-Nevers (1669-1707) AR Half Lira. 1702. DOMINE PROBASTI, crucible; MANTVA and date in exergue / QVI LEGES IVRAQE (sic) SERVAT, unbridled horse prancing free, S.10 in exergue. MIR 744; Bignotti 17; Magnaguti 955; CNI 46. 2.57g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine. Toned. Rare. 100 This example displays the variant reverse legend that went unnoticed by Bignotti and MIR. 1168. Italy. Milano, First Republic (1250-1310) AR Ambrosino piccolo da 8 Denari. MEDIOLANVM, cross surrounded by trifoils / S AMB ROSIV’, St Ambrose enthroned facing. Crippa I, p. 356, 27/A; CNI 23/30; MIR 68. 2.05g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Rare. 250

1169. Italy. Milan, Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1466-1476) AV Ducato. G3 MA SF VICECOMES DVX MELI V, cuirassed bust right / PP ANGLE Q3 CO AC IANVE DNS 3C, coat of arms surmounted by ducal helmet, G-3 across fields. Crippa II 2/A; Fr. 688; MIR. 200/1. 3.50g, 24mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

1170

1,250

1171

1170. Italy. Modena, Ercole II d’Este (1534-1559) AR Bianco da 10 Soldi. HERCVLES II DVX MVTINAE III, armoured bust right / MONETA COMVNITATIS MVTINAE, city coat of arms. CNI p. 207, 37; MIR 645. 4.94g, 29mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

500

1171. Italy. Modena, Ercole II d’Este (1534-1559) AR Bianco da 10 Soldi. HERCVLES II DVX MVTINAE III, armoured bust right / MONETA COMVNITATIS MVTINAE, city coat of arms. CNI p. 209, 55; MIR 645. 5.09g, 29mm, 9h. Good Very Fine.

500

321


1172. Italy. Napoli, Ferdinand IV (1759-1816) AR 120 Grana. 1805. FERDINANDVS IV D G REX, 1805 below, draped bust right / VIR SIC HIER HISP INF G.120, crowned arms, L-D below. MIR 424; P-R 11. 27.53g, 38mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Usual adjustment marks in surface.

800

1173. Italy. Rome, issues in the name of the Roman Senate AV Ducato. Circa 1350-1439. +ATOR VRBIS S PETRVS, St. Peter standing right, holding Gospels, presenting banner to kneeling senator / + ROMA CAPVT MVNDI SPQR, Christ standing facing within mandorla of nine stars. Muntoni 106; CNI 595; Berman 151; Friedberg 2 (Vatican). 3.52g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

500

1174. Italy. Rome, Sisto IV (1471-1484) AR Grosso. SIXTVS IIII PONT MAX VRBE REST, bust left / PVBLICAE VTILITATI, papal tiara and keys over della Rovere arms. Muntoni 14; CNI 63; Berman 451. 3.52g, 26mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare. Fine renaissance portrait.

1,500

1175. Italy. Rome, Clemente XI (1700-1721) AR Piastra. CLEMENS XI P M A XV, bust right / Papal tiara and keys over Albani arms. Muntoni 49; CNI 196; Berman 2384. 32.01g, 46mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,200

1176. Italy. Rome, Pius VII (1800-1823) AV Doppia. 1804. PIVS VII PON M A V, Papal tiara and keys over Chiaramonte coat-of-arms / APOSTOL PRINCEPS, St Peter enthroned facing in clouds, holding keys; Zambelli coat-of-arms below. Pagani 55; CNI 54; Berman3217; Friedberg 248. 5.44g, 23mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

322

700


1177. Italy. Venice, Louis the Pius (814-840) AR Denier. +HLVDOVICVS IMP, cross / +VENECIAS in two lines across field. MEC 789; Paolucci 2; CNI 1. 1.36, 20mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

600

1178. Italy. Venice, Pietro Gradenigo (1289-1311) AR Grosso. PE GRADONICO DVX S M VENETI, Doge and S. Marco standing facing, holding banner between them / Christ seated facing on throne, wearing nimbus crown, pallium, and colobium; annulet to left of legs; barred IC XC across fields. Papadopoli 2, segno 6; Paolucci 2. 2.10g, 20mm, 6h. Almost as Struck. Toned, lustrous, and with excellent detail.

150

1179. Italy. Venice, Antonio Venier (1382-1400) AV Ducato. ANTO•VENERIO•S•M•VENETI•, St. Mark standing right, holding Gospels and presenting flag to Doge kneeling left; DVX downwards in field / •SIT•T•XPE•DAT •Q•TV•REGISISTE DVCAT•, Christ standing facing, raising hand in benediction and holding Gospels, surrounded by elliptical halo containing 9 stars. Paolucci 37.1; Friedberg 1229. 3.49g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

250

1180. Italy. Venice, Antonio Venier (1382-1400) AV Ducato. ANTO•VENERIO•S•M•VENETI•, St. Mark standing right, holding Gospels and presenting flag to Doge kneeling left; DVX downwards in field / •SIT•T•XPE•DAT •Q•TV•REGISISTE DVCAT•, Christ standing facing, raising hand in benediction and holding Gospels, surrounded by elliptical halo containing 9 stars. Paolucci 37.1; Friedberg 1229. 3.49g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

250

1181. Italy. Venice, Michele Steno (1400-1413) AV Ducato. MICHAEL STEN•M•VENETI•, St. Mark standing right, holding Gospels and presenting flag to Doge kneeling left; DVX downwards in field / •SIT•T•XPE•DAT •Q•TV•REGISISTE DVCAT•, Christ standing facing, raising hand in benediction and holding Gospels, surrounded by elliptical halo containing 9 stars. Mont.148; Friedberg 1230. 3.47g, 22mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

323

250


1182. Italy. Venice, Leonardo Loredan (1501-1521) AR Mocenigo or Lira. LEONAR LAVREDAN S M VENET, doge kneeling before St Mark; DVX downwards in field / TIBI SOLI GLORIA, Christ standing facing, blessing and holding cross on globe; below, F.A. Paolucci p. 55, 3. 6.51g, 33mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

400

1183. Italy. Venice, Pietro Grimani (1741-1752) AV Zecchino. PET * GRIMANI DVX S•M•VENET*, Doge with standard kneeling before St. Mark; DVX downwards in field / SIT•T•XPE•DAT•Q•TV REGIS•ISTE•DVCA, Christ Pantokrator, holding Book of Gospels, standing facing within mandorla of sixteen stars. Fr 1401; CNI XXVIII, 11; Paolucci 9. 3.50g, 22mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous, mirror-like surfaces. Well struck on a full flan.

350

1184. Italy. Venice, Marco Foscari (1762-1763) AR Osella. MARCI / FOSCARENI / PRINCIPIS / MUNUS / ANNO I within cartouche / PICTIS VENETORUM ITINERIBUS AULA EXORNATA, female figure seated by globe; in exergue, MDCCLXII / VET M (Vettore Morosini, massaro). Paolucci II 245. 9.74g, 35mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

1185. Italy. Venice, Alvise IV Mocenigo (1763-1778) AR Scudo della croce. DVX VENETIAR, floriated cross; below, D G (Domenico Gritti, massaro) / SANCTVS MARCVS VENET, lion of St Mark on shield; in exergue 140. Paulucci p. 128, 7. 31.20g, 44mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

324

1,500


1186. Italy. Venice, Paolo Ranier (1779-1789) AV 10 Zecchini. PAVL•RAINER•S•M•VENET•, doge kneeling before St. Mark; DVX downwards in field / SIT•T•XPE•DAT•Q•TV• REGIS•ISTE•DVCAT, Christ blessing standing facing in mandorla with 16 stars. Paulucci p. 130, 10; Friedberg 1431. 33.44g, 50mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare. Pierced.

7,500

1187. Italy. Verona, Ottone I (962-973) AR Denario scodellato. OTTO IMPERATOR, cross in circle / VERONA, cross in circle. Biaggi 2954.1.00g, 21mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

1188. Italy. Verona, Bishop Giuseppe Grasserio AR Medal. By Giuseppe Zapparelli. 1839. IOSEPHVS GRASSERIVS EPISCVPVS VERONENSIS A MDCCCXXXVIIII, bishop’s bust right; below, ZAPPARELLI / PIETATE SAPENTIA LIBERTATE CLARISSIMVS, Pietas, Sapentia and Libertas standing by cippus with a child; below, ZAPPARELLI. 48.00g, 44mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

400

1189. Italy. Kingdom of Sicily, Costanza of Svevia and Pietro III of Aragon (1282-1285) AV Pierreale. Messina, AD 1182-1185. + SVMMA POTENCIA EST IN DEO, within: + P DEI GRA ARAGON SICIL’REX, coat of arms of Aragon / + COSTA DEI GRA ARAG SICIL’REG, within: XPS VINCIT XPS REGNAT XPS IMPACT, eagle with spread wings standing left, head right. Spahr 1; MIR 170; MEC 14, 756 var. (annulet on arms); Friedberg 654. 4.36g, 24mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

325

2,500


1190. Italy. Kingdom of Sicily, Charles I of Anjou AV Saluto d’oro. Naples, struck after AD 1278. + KAROL’ • DEI • GRA • IERL’m • SICILIE • REX, coat-of-arms of Jerusalem and Anjou; rosette flanked by stars on either side; above, upturned crescent flanked by stars / + AVE • GRACIA • PLENA • DOMINYS TECYM, the Annunciation: Archangel Gabriel standing right, holding lily in left hand and pointing with outstretched right at Virgin standing facing slightly left, raising hands in adoration; between them, lily in vase. CNI XIX 1-4; Spahr -; MEC 14, 675-676; Friedberg 808; MIR 18; Pannuti-Riccio 1. 4.35g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

SERBIA

1191. Serbia. Stefan Uroš II Milutin (1282-1321) AR Grosso. VROSIVS REX S STEFAN, Christ and Stefan standing facing one another, heads facing, holding patriarchal cross between them / IC – XC, Christ Pantokrator seated facing on throne. Jovanovic 7.2. 1.84g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

150

THE E.A.K COLLECTION AUSTRALIA

1192. Australia. Victoria (1837-1901) AV Sovereign. 1870. VICTORIA D:G BRITANNIAR:REG:F:D, young head with oak leaf hair tie / AUSTRALIA and crown within wreath; SYDNEY MINT above, ONE SOVEREIGN below. Friedberg 10. 7.94g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine.

250

AUSTRIA

1193. Austria. Salzburg. Bishop Paris von Lodron (1619-1653) AV Half-Ducat. 1652. SANCTVS•RVDDERTVS•EPS:SALISB:1652, Saint seated / PARIS•DGARCHEPS•SALSE:AP:L:, coat of arms. Friedberg 758. 1.74g, 16mm, 12h. Very Fine.

250

1194. Austria. Salzburg. Bishop Max Gandolph (1668-1687) AV Half-Ducat. 1668. S:RVDBERTVS•EPS•SALISBVRG:1668, Saint seated / MAX:GAND:D:GAR:EPSAL:SE:AP:L:, coat of arms. Friedberg 815. 1.61g, 15mm, 12h. Very Fine.

326

150


1195. Austria. Salzburg. Bishop Hieronymous Graf Collorado (1772-1803) AV Ducat. 1783. HIERONYMVSDGA&P•S•A•S•L•N•GPRIM, bust right / coat of arms; 1783 below. Friedberg 880. 3.47g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

BULGARIA

1196. Bulgaria. Ferdinand (1887-1918) AV 10 Leva. 1894. Bare head left / Coat of arms, value across fields. Friedberg 4. 3.21g, 19mm, 7h. Very Fine.

150

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

1197. Czechoslovakia. Commemorative AV 2 Ducat. 1928. Saint holding plow drawn by the devil; medieval miner ascending ladder and holding oil lamp above, barren tree and machinery on either side, all within square / Coat of arms inscribed 1918-1928. Friedberg 7. 7.00g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

150

FRANCE

1198. France. Napoleon I (1804-1814) AV 20 Francs. 1809. NAPOLEON EMPEREUR, laureate head left / EMPIRE FRANÇAISE•A, value within wreath; 1809 below. Friedberg 511. 6.43g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

200

1199. France. Louis XVIII (1814-1824) AV 20 Francs. 1817. LOUIS XVIII ROI DE FRANCE, bare head right, hair tied with ribbon, horse head below / Crowned coat of arms within wreath; 20-F across fields, 1817A below. Friedberg 538. 6.42g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

327

150


1200. France. Louis Philippe I (1814-1824) AV 20 Francs. 1831. LOUIS PHILIPPE I. ROI DES FRANÇAIS., bare head left / Value; anchor and A, 1831 below, all within wreath. Friedberg 553. 6.39g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

150

GERMANY

1201. Germany. Bavaria (Bayern). Maximilian II Emanuel (1679-1726) AV Goldgulden. 1704. M•E•V•B&P•S•D•C•P•R•S•R•I•A&E•L•L•, bare-headed and draped bust right / IN TE SPERANTIR CLYPEVS OMNIB, bust on Madonna over coat of arms; 17-04 across fields. Friedberg 219. 3.21g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine.

200

1202. Germany. Bavaria (Bayern). Karl Albert (1726-1744) AV Carolin. 1731. C•A•V•B•&P•S•D•C•P•R•S•R•I•A•&E•L•L•, long haired head right; star below / IN TE SPERANTIB CLYPEVS OMNIB, Madonna seated; 1731 below. Friedberg 229. 4.79g, 22mm, 12h. Very Fine.

250

1203. Germany. Bavaria (Bayern). Ludwig I (1825-1848) AV Ducat. 1842. LUDWIG I KOENIG VON BAYERN, bare head right; VOIGT below / GERECHT UND BEHARRLICH, coat of arms supported by two lions; 1842 below. Friedberg 271. 3.48g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

250

1204. Germany. Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Karl I (1735-1780) AV 2½ Taler. 1763. CAROLVS D•G• DUX BR•ET LVN•, armoured bust right, hair tied with ribbon / NVNQVAM RETRORSVM•1763, horse galloping left; 2 1/2 THALER I•D•B in exergue. Friedberg 715. 3.32g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine.

328

250


1205. Germany. Frankfurt. Leopold II (1790-1792) AV Ducat. 1790. LEOPOLDUS II•ROMANORUM IMPERATOR, laureate bust right / FELICITAS PUBLICA, altar. Friedberg 1017. 3.49g, 23mm, 12h. Very Fine.

350

1206. Germany. Palatinate (Pfalz). Karl Theodor (1743-1799) Rhine-gold Ducat. 1764. CAR•THEODOR•D28/07/2016G•C•P•R•S•R•I•A•T•&EL•, draped bust right, hair tied with ribbon; AS below / SIC FULGENT LITTORA RHENI, view of the city of Mannheim and a group of gold miners, intersected by the Rhine; AD•NORM•CONV 1764 in exergue. Friedberg 2037. 3.48g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

500

1207. Germany. Rostock. Franz II (1792-1806) AV Ducat. 1796. ROSTOCHIENSIS 1796 MONETA AVREA, coat of arms / FRANCISCVS•II•D•G•RO M•IMP•SEMP•AVGVST, double eagle. Friedberg 2597. 3.49g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

800

1208. Germany. Würzburg. Christoph Franz von Hutten (1724-1729) AV ¼ Ducat ND. HERB: SOLA., coat of arms / DEFENDIT NON LAEDIT, sword and stola. Friedberg 3699. 1.72g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

150

GERMAN EMPIRE

1209. German Empire. Baden. Friedrich (1852-1907) AV 10 Marks. 1898. FRIEDRICH GROSHERZOG VON BADEN, bare head left; G below / DEUTCHES REICH 1898 * 10 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3757. 3.95g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

329

150


1210. German Empire. Baden. Friedrich (1852-1907) AV 5 Marks. 1877. FRIEDRICH GROSHERZOG VON BADEN, bare head left; G below / DEUTCHES REICH 1877 * 5 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3759. 1.98g, 16mm, 12h. Very Fine.

200

1211. German Empire. Bremen. Free City AV 20 Marks. 1906. FREIE•HANSESTADT•BREMEN, Bremen city coat of arms; J below / DEUTCHES REICH 1906 * 20 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3773. 7.96g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

400

1212. German Empire. Brunswick (Braunschweig). William (1831-1884) AV 20 Marks. 1875. WILHELM HERZOG Z. BRAUNSCHWEIG U. LUN., bare head left; A below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1875 * 20 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3775. 7.94g, 22mm, 12h. Very Fine.

300

1213. German Empire. Hamburg. Free City AV 5 Marks. 1877. FREIE UND HANSESTADT HAMBURG, Hamburg city coat of arms; J below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1877 * 5 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3782. 1.98g, 16mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

150

1214. German Empire. Hessen. Ludwig III (1848-1877) AV 10 Marks. 1872. LUDWIG III GROSHERZOG VON HESSEN, bare head right; H below / DEUTSCHES REICH, eagle; 10-M across fields, 1872 below. Friedberg 3785. 3.98g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

330

150


1215. German Empire. Hessen. Ludwig III (1848-1877) AV 10 Marks. 1875. LUDWIG III GROSHERZOG VON HESSEN, bare head right; H below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1875 * 10 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3786. 3.94g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

1216. German Empire. Hessen. Ludwig III (1848-1877) AV 10 Marks. 1875. LUDWIG III GROSHERZOG VON HESSEN, bare head right; H below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1875 * 10 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3786. 3.95g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

1217. German Empire. Hessen. Ludwig IV (1877-1892) AV 10 Marks. 1879. LUDWIG IV GROSHERZOG VON HESSEN, bare head right; H below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1879 * 10 MARKS *, eagle. Friedberg 3789. 3.93g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

200

1218. German Empire. Hessen. Ludwig IV (1877-1892) AV 10 Marks. 1880. LUDWIG IV GROSHERZOG VON HESSEN, bare head right; H below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1880 * 10 MARKS *, eagle. Friedberg 3789. 3.93g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

200

1219. German Empire. Hessen. Ludwig IV (1877-1892) AV 10 Marks. 1890. LUDWIG IV GROSHERZOG VON HESSEN, bare head right; A below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1890 * 10 MARKS *, eagle. Friedberg 3791. 3.94g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

331

400


1220. German Empire. Hessen. Ernst Ludwig (1892-1918) AV 20 Marks. 1897. ERNST LUDWIG GROSHERZOG VON HESSEN, bare head left; A below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1897 * 20 MARKS *, eagle. Friedberg 3794. 7.94g, 22mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

1221. German Empire. Hessen. Ernst Ludwig (1892-1918) AV 20 Marks. 1905. ERNST LUDWIG GROSHERZOG VON HESSEN, bare head left; A below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1905 * 20 MARKS *, eagle. Friedberg 3795. 7.95g, 22mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

1222. German Empire. Hessen. Ernst Ludwig (1892-1918) AV 10 Marks. 1898. ERNST LUDWIG GROSHERZOG VON HESSEN, bare head left; A below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1898 * 10 MARKS *, eagle. Friedberg 3797. 3.96g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

200

1223. German Empire. Lübeck. Free City. AV 10 Marks. 1910. FREIE UND HANSESTADT LUBECK, Lübeck city arms; A below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1910 * 10 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3799. 3.99g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

250

1224. German Empire. Prussia (Preussen). Wilhelm I (1861-1888) AV 10 Marks. 1888. FRIEDRICH DEUTSCHER KAISER KÖNIG V. PREUSSEN, bare head right; A below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1888 * 10 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3822. 3.99g, 19mm, 12h Good Very Fine.

332

150


1225. German Empire. Saxony (Sachsen). Albert (1873-1902) AV 10 Marks. 1898. ALBERT KOENIG VON SACHSEN, bare head right; E below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1898 * 10 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3844. 3.96g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

1226. German Empire. Saxony (Sachsen). Georg (1902-1904) AV 20 Marks. 1903. GEORG KOENIG VON SACHSEN, bare head right; E below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1903 * 20 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3846. 7.97g, 22mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

1227. German Empire. Württemberg. Karl (1864-1891) AV 10 Marks. 1877. KARL KOENIG VON WUERTTEMBERG, bare head right; F below / DEUTSCHES REICH 1877 * 10 MARK *, eagle. Friedberg 3873. 3.93, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

GREAT BRITAIN

1228. Great Britain. George IV (1830-1837) AV Sovereign. 1828. GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA, bare head left; 1828 below / BRITANNIARUM REX FID: DEF:, crowned shield and mantle. 1825. SCBC 3801. 7.97g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine.

400

1229. Great Britain. Victoria (1837-1901) AV Half-Sovereign. 1899. VICTORIA•DEI•GRA•BRITT•REGINA•FID•DEF•IND•IMP, veiled bust left; T•B• below / St George and the dragon; 1899 in exergue. SCBC 3879. 3.99g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

333

150


1230. Great Britain. Victoria (1837-1901). AV Half-Sovereign. 1900. VICTORIA•DEI•GRA•BRITT•REGINA•FID•DEF•IND•IMP, veiled bust left; T•B• below / St George and the dragon, 1900 in exergue. SCBC 3879. 3.99g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

1231. Great Britain. George V (1910-1936) AV Sovereign. 1911. GEORGIVS V D.G.BRITT:OMN:REX F.D.IND:IMP:, bare head left; B.M. on truncation / St George and the dragon, date in exergue. SCBC 3996. 7.99g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

225

HUNGARY

1232. Hungary. Franz II (1806-1835) AV Ducat. 1830. FRANCISCVS I•D•G•AVSTRIAE IMPERATOR•, laureate head right; B below / GAL•LOD•IL•REX•A•A•1830• HVN•BOH•LOMB•ET VEN•, double eagle. Friedberg 218. 3.49g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine. Partially Bent.

200

1233. Hungary. Franz Joseph I (1848-1916) AV 20 Korona. 1901. FERENCZ JOZSEF I•K•A• CS•ES M•H•S•D•O•AP•KIR•, ruler standing right; 1901 in exergue / MAGYAR KIRALYSAG, crowned arms with angels to left and right; value below. Friedberg 250. 6.79g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

100

1234. Hungary. Franz Joseph I (1848-1916) AV 10 Korona. 1901. FERENCZ JOZSEF I•K•A• CS•ES M•H•S•D•O•AP•KIR•, ruler standing right; 1901 in exergue / MAGYAR KIRALYSAG, crowned arms with angels to left and right; value below. Friedberg 252. 3.39g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

334

100


ITALY

1235. Italy. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (1197-1250) AV Augustale. Messina circa 1231-1250. CAESAR AVG – IMP ROM, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / +FRIDE – RICVS, eagle with spread wings standing facing, head right. H. Kowalski, Die Augustalen Kaisar Friedrichs II von Hohenstaufen, SNR 55, 1976, pl. 1, U7; Spahr 98; Friedberg 134 (Brindisi); MEC XIV, 514-515. 5.22g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine, somewhat double-struck on obverse.

4,000

1236. Italy. Kingdom of Sardinia. Carlo Alberto (1831-1849) 10 Lire. 1833. CAR•ALBERTVS D•G•REX SARD•CYP•ET HIER•, bare head left; 1833 below / DVX SAB•GENVAE ET MONTISF•PRINC•PED•&•, arms; anchor and L 10 below. Friedberg 1145. 3.23g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine.

250

1237. Italy. Papal State. Pius IX (1846-1878) AV 20 Lire. 1866. PIVS IX PON. MAX. AN. XXI, bishop’s bust left / * STATO * PONTIFICIO *, date and value within wreath. Friedberg 281 (Vatican). 6.46g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine.

150

NETHERLANDS

1238. Netherlands. United Provinces. Utrecht AV 7 Gulden. 1760. BELG:TRAIECT.MO:AUR:PRO:CONFOED, knight on horseback; crest of arms below, CONCORDIA RES PARVAE CRESCUNT, crowned crest of arms; 1760 above, 7-GL across fields. Friedberg 289. 4.97g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine.

335

150


POLAND

1239. Poland. Danzig (Gdansk). Free City AV 25 Gulden. 1923. Coat of arms between two columns, supported by lions; 1923 below / Neptune standing left, holding trident; wave and horse below, GUL-DEN across fields, 25 in upper left field. Friedberg 43. 8.00g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

RUSSIA

1240. Russia. Alexander II (1855-1881) AV 5 Roubles. 1877. Eagle; H-I across field below / Value and date within dotted circle. Friedberg 163. 6.55g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

500

1241. Russia. Nicholas II (1881-1894) AV 7.5 Roubles. 1897. bare head left / Eagle, date and value below. Friedberg 178. 6.46g, 21mm, 12h. Very Fine.

200

SPAIN

1242. Spain. Carlos IV (1788-1808) AV 1 Escudo. 1793 Madrid MF. CAROL•IIII•D•G• HISP•ET IND•R•, bust right, hair tied with ribbon, date below / •IN•UTROQ• FELIX•A•D•, arms. Friedberg 298. 3.35g, 17mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

END OF SALE 336

100


Roma Numismatics Auction XII  

Roma Numismatics Auction XII

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you