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ROMA NUMISMATICS LIMITED

Auction X 27 September 2015

Please note our new office location and auction venue Roma Numismatics Limited 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London W1T 6EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 7121 6518 Fax: +44 (0)20 7121 6501 www.romanumismatics.com email: info@romanumismatics.com

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Auction X

27 September

10:00

Greek Coins.

14:00 Roman & Byzantine Coins.

Location The Cambria Room The Grand Connaught Rooms 61-63 Great Queen Street, London WC2B 5DA

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Viewing At the office of Roma Numismatics: 20 Fitzroy Square, Fitzrovia London, W1T 6EJ United Kingdom From August 27th - September 25th Monday – Friday, 09:30 – 17:30 On Saturday September 26th: 11:00 - 18:00

lots will not be available for viewing during the sale.

Lot pickup will be available from 10:00am on Wednesday 30th September

Roma Numismatics Limited Richard Beale – Director Alexander Morley-Smith Leslee Arlington Garfield Simon Parkin

Special Thanks to Italo Vecchi Salem Alshdaifat Deniz Grotjohann UNUS PRO OMNIBUS, OMNES PRO UNO

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ABSENTEE BIDDING If you are unable to attend the auction in person, you may submit an absentee bid that will be executed on your behalf by Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics will attempt to obtain the lot for you at the lowest possible price, and will not purchase the lot for you at a price higher than the maximum you specify. This service is free and confidential. Absentee bids must be sent and received in good time. To place absentee bids please submit your list of lots, together with your maximum bids, either by mail, fax, or post using the form provided, or online at www.RomaNumismatics.com. You may also participate live online during the sale at www. the-saleroom.com.

Mail, fax or postal bids The customer is responsible for submitting these in good time and confirming that the bids have been received.

Telephone bids Bids may be placed by telephone as the auction is in progress, but are accepted only at the discretion of Roma Numismatics Ltd and at the risk of the customer. Roma Numismatics Ltd will not be held responsible for any failure to execute bids by telephone during the auction resulting from technical issues, miscommunication or any other reason. Any client wishing to bid by telephone should inform Roma Numismatics Ltd no later than 72 hours before the auction, and should have a prepared list of all the lots they wish to bid on.

Internet Bidding

BID ONLINE PRIOR TO THE AUCTION, SEE BIDS UPDATED IN REAL-TIME ON THE ROMA SITE. Internet bids may be submitted prior to the auction at www.RomaNumismatics.com - these bids will be automatically executed on the website. These bids will then be carried over into the live auction and executed by the auctioneer on the day. BID ONLINE DURING THE AUCTION, HEAR THE AUCTION LIVE ON YOUR COMPUTER. Real-time bids may be placed at www.the-saleroom.com on the day of the sale. These bids will be executed live on the floor. A 3% surcharge will apply to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. This charge is made through the-saleroom. com and is not connected with Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. It is advisable to register as early as possible for this service, since all internet bidders must be manually approved by the auctioneer.

Successful Bids Successful bidders will be notified and invoiced within a few days of the auction. Prices realized will be published around the same time.

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ROMA NUMISMATICS AUCTION X MAIL BID FORM First Name:

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Conditions of Sale The following terms and conditions will apply to this auction:

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII.

All estimates are in Pounds Sterling. The opening bids will be 80% of the estimate unless there are existing higher bids. There will be a 17.5% Buyer’s Fee added to the hammer price. VAT at 20% (if applicable) is due on the Buyer’s Fee only, not the hammer price. The auctioneer guarantees the absolute authenticity of any and all coins sold. There is no expiration to this guarantee. Any coins subsequently found to be not authentic will be exchanged for a full refund of the purchase price. Absentee bids should be submitted and received by 20:00 on the day before the auction. It is the bidder’s responsibility to ensure that bids have been received by Roma Numismatics. All grades and descriptions are the opinion of the cataloguer. Conditions of all lots are as per the photographs displayed on the Roma Numismatics website; condition reports are available upon request. It is not possible to note all marks or defects, and thus customers are encouraged to carefully examine in person all lots that they are interested in bidding on. Bids, once placed, are final and will not be rescinded. If, however, the attribution is found to be incorrect, the item is returnable within 21 days after the sale. No other returns will be accepted except on the grounds of non-authenticity. All prospective bidders who exercise the opportunity to examine lots in hand shall assume all responsibility for any damage they cause in so doing. The auctioneer shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by the prospective bidder. The auctioneer will have absolute discretion to accept or decline any bid, withdraw lots from the sale at any time until such point as the purchaser takes physical possession, re-open any lot, even after the hammer has fallen, in which a bidding error has occurred, and to determine in the event of a dispute, the final winner of a lot or to rescind the sale and put the lot up for sale again. For the protection of mail or absentee bidders, no ‘unlimited’ or ‘buy’ bids will be accepted. When identical bids are received for the same lot, preference will be given to the bid received first. A mail bid will take preference over a floor bid. Some lots may carry a reserve. The auctioneer reserves the right not to sell an item below the confidential price, or will repurchase the item on behalf of the consignor or for the account of Roma Numismatics Ltd. If a reserve exists the auctioneer reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of the consignor up to the amount of the reserve against any floor or mail bidders. The auctioneer also reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of Roma Numismatics Ltd. Title remains with the owner until such time as the customer has paid in full. Invoices are due immediately upon receipt. Roma Numismatics Ltd. reserves the right to charge interest on unpaid invoices at the rate of 2% per calendar month, except where prior agreement has been made with regards to payment arrangements. A 3.5% surcharge will be applied to debit / credit card payments or payments made via PayPal. The customer is responsible for paying all bank charges and shipping and insurance costs. A 3% surcharge will be applied to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. By making a bid the customer agrees to the above terms and conditions and accepts to be bound by them. These conditions shall take effect and be construed in accordance with the provisions of English Law.

US COIN IMPORT RESTRICTIONS Any coins in this sale that fall under US import restrictions but may still be legally imported into the US are accompanied by documentation proving that they were outside of the source country prior to the effective date, or are accompanied by a valid export certificate issued by the country of origin. Any coins subject to US import restrictions that may not lawfully be imported into the United States of America will be clearly indicated as such with the note: ‘not suitable for US market’. Roma Numismatics will make every effort to ensure that US import restrictions affect our clients as little as possible, and will carry out all necessary importations and procedures as required on behalf of the client.

Payment Methods Invoices to be settled in Pounds Sterling immediately upon receipt unless previously agreed otherwise. Bank Transfer: Barclays Bank, 22 The Borough, Farnham, GU9 7NH, UK | Account Name: Roma Numismatics IBAN: GB81 BARC 2031 0663 0101 39 | BIC: BARC GB22 | SORT CODE: 20-31-06 | ACC #: 63010139 Cheque (in GBP only): Please make payable to Roma Numismatics Limited PayPal (add 3.5%): sales@romanumismatics.com Debit / Credit Card (add 3.5%): contact us directly on +44 (0)20 7121 6518

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New Office Location Our new office is located at: 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London W1T 6EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 7121 6518 Fax: +44 (0)20 7121 6501

Our opening hours remain Monday-Friday, 9:30am -5:30pm.

New Auction Venue Auction X will be held at: The Cambria Room The Grand Connaught Rooms 61-63 Great Queen Street London WC2B 5DA United Kingdom

Please ensure you leave plenty of time to locate the auction room before the sale begins.

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COINS OF THE CELTS BRITANNIA An Outstanding Verica Quarter Stater

2x 1. Britannia, Atrebates, Verica AV 1/4 Stater. Circa AD 10-40. Thunderbolt, COM above, FILI below / Horse prancing to right, VIR above, pellet in circle below. Rudd, Ancient British Coins 1205; van Arsdell 4681. 1.29g, 11mm, 7h. Lustrous, reddish metal. Extremely Fine. A truly outstanding example. Very Rare.

2,000

A son of Commius, Verica succeeded his elder brother Eppillus as King of the Atrebates in about AD 15. He was recognised by Rome as Rex and as an ally. A disastrous war with the Catuvellauni eventually led to his capital of Calleva being conquered in or around AD 25, and the total loss of his kingdom by about AD 40. Expelled from Britain around this time, the emperor Claudius used the pretext of aiding Verica as cause to launch his invasion of Britain.

SPAIN

2. Spain, Bolscan-Osca AR Denarius. Circa 150-100 BC. Bearded male head right; ‘BoN’ in Iberian characters behind / Rider with spear on prancing horse right; ‘BoLSCan’ in Iberian characters below. CNH p. 210, 3; SNG BM Spain 695-704 (Jenkins group I); Álvares Burgos 1911. 4.03g, 18mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned, an exceptionally attractive example.

500

Ex Künker 243, 21 November 2013, lot 4517.

GAUL

3. Gaul, Senones AV Stater. Circa 100-60 BC. Gallo-Belgic Bullet Type. Small cross (with an axe ornament?) in centre of plain globule with prominent rim / Plain convex reverse. Delestrée-Tache 2537; Allen/Nash 159. 7.37g, 14mm. Good Very Fine.

300

DANUBE REGION

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4. Dacian (?) Imitation of Republican AR Denarius. After 46 BC. Head of Ceres to right, wearing grain wreath, C MEMMI C F before / Cupid riding dolphin to right, N CORDIVS (sic) below. Cf. Crawford 427/1 obv.; cf. Crawford 463/3 rev. 3.79g, 19mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone.

300

5. Dacian (?) imitation of M. Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. After 41 BC. Bare head of Antony to right, garbled legend around / Bare head of Octavian to right, garbled legend around. Cf. Crawford 517/2 for type. 3.87g, 18mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone.

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1,000


COINS OF THE GREEKS

GALLIA TRANSALPINA

6. Gaul, Massalia AR Tetrobol. Circa 150-125 BC. Diademed bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver at shoulder / MAΣΣΑ-ΛΙHΤΩΝ, lion at bay to right, Η/Δ before. G. Depeyrot, Les monnaies hellénistiques de Marseille, Moneta 16, Wetteren 1999, 37.11; G. Maurel, Corpus des monnaies de Marseille et Provence 525-20 avant notre ère, Marseille 2013, 112. 2.60g, 17mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

7. Gaul, Massalia AR Tetrobol. Circa 150-125 BC. Diademed bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver at shoulder / MAΣΣΑ, lion at bay to left, Λ below, ΛΙΔ in exergue. Depeyrot 44.12; Maurel 168. 2.73g, 17mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

400

8. Gaul, Massalia AR Tetrobol. Circa 150-125 BC. Diademed bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver at shoulder / MAΣΣΑ-ΛΙHΤΩΝ, lion at bay to right, Ζ-Σ below. Depeyrot 41.18; Marel 115. 2.69g, 17mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

400

THE VCV Collection of Etruscan Coins Presented here is the first part of the VCV collection, which is the most extensive group of Etruscan coins to be offered since the ADM collection in Numismatica Ars Classica sales 7 in 1994 and 13 in 1998, and ‘An Important Etruscan Collection’ Spink sale 81, 27 March 1991. Formed with great care and devotion over the last 50 years, it matches major museum collections in size and scope, and vies in importance with such great private collections as Strozzi. Despite the great age and grandeur of Etruscan civilisation its coinage is mainly late and has been thoroughly reappraised by Italo Vecchi in Italian Cast Coinage, A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, 2013, and in his monumental study: Etruscan Coinage Part 1, A corpus of the struck coinage of the Rasna, 2012, in which many of the VCV coins are published

9. Etruria, Luca (?) AR 5 Units. Circa 325-300 BC. Laureate young male head right, Λ behind, dotted border / Blank. EC I, 4.30 (this coin): HN Italy 97; Sambon 101. 11.18g, 23mm. Good Very Fine.

2,500

From the VCV Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 29, 11 May 2005, lot 1. Luca (Modern Lucca) was originally inhabited by a Ligurian population, 20 km inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea and located on an island in the river Auser (Serchio); its territory reached the Arno to the southeast and hence the Etruscan frontier. Numerous recent site finds of Ligurian and Etruscan material excavated by the local superintendency in the surrounding area point to an aggressive confrontation of the two cultures from the fifth century BC, probably with alternating Ligurian and Etruscan occupations. Etruscan coin finds from nearby Gattaiola near Lucca, Ponte Gini in Orentano and Bora dei Frati in Versilia, make it virtually certain that by the third century BC Luca was an Etruscan city, the remains of which probably lie beneath the subsequent Roman and medieval town. Luca may have been an outpost of Volterrae, the principal city-state of northwest Etruria, or of Pisae, which from the end of the 6th century had become an important Etruscan centre extending its influence into Versilia and Pian di Lucca.

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Extremely Rare Tridrachm

10. Etruria, Populonia AR Tridrachm. 5th century BC. Boar stepping to right on rocky ground; dotted border around / Blank. EC I, 2.8 (this coin): HN Italy 112; Sambon 19. 16.56g, 28mm. Good Very Fine, minor porosity on edge. Extremely Rare; one of only eight known specimens, and among the finest.

20,000

From the VCV Collection. The earliest struck silver Etruscan tridrachms (as well as didrachms and drachms) seem to be those of Populonia and Vulci, and are attributed to the 5th century BC. They seem to be struck on the ‘Chalkidian’ silver drachm standard of nominally about 5.8g, a model provided by Etruria’s nearest Greek neighbour, Cumae in circa 475-470 BC. This weight standard is also found at other Greek cities important to Etruscan seaborne commerce in the early 5th century such as Himera, Naxos and Zankle-Messana. The coins, of which this type is certainly no exception, are of Greek style with an Etruscan flavour and display a predilection for apotropaic (demon-dispelling) images of exotic animals and monsters.

One of Only Four in Private Hands

2x 11. Etruria, Populonia AR Drachm. Early 5th century BC. Head and neck of roaring lion to left, with raised mane and tongue protruding; dotted border around / Blank. EC I, 5.6 (this die): HN Italy 114; Sambon 17. 3.85g, 15mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of just seven known specimens, certainly one of the finest, and one of only four in private hands.

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10,000


Only Example in Private Hands

12.

Etruria, Populonia (or Pisae) AR 20 Units. Early 5th century BC. Amphora with blunt base set in elaborate stand, from the top of which emerges an Octopus, tentacles spread to either side, XX below, all within linear border. EC I, Pisae 1.5 (this coin): HN Italy 104 (Pisae?); Sambon 20. 22.55g, 29mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of just five recorded examples, of which it is among the finest and the only one in private hands. 40,000 From the VCV Collection. The tentative attribution to Pisae of the octopus/amphora series is based on Garrucci’s statement (p. 49, 18) that two examples, first published by Bompois 1879, pl. 18, come from Pisa and that the name teuthÏs or teuthòs, Greek for octopus, is similar to the ethnic Teuta-Teutones recorded by Pliny and Cato as the name of the first inhabitants of Italian Pisa. Subsequent provenances attested for in and around Pisa including Toscanelli 1933 (p. 369 note 2 ), Neppi-Modona 1953 (p. 30h and p. 42 k), Bruni 1993 (pp. 81-82), ASAT (p. 63), Tesei 1992 (p. 196), BTCGI XIII (pp. 597-598) and HN Italy (p. 30) only tentatively imply a Pisan provenance for the series. The design on this coin is impressive for its boldness and novelty, and at the same time highly enigmatic. Depicting an amphora on an elaborate (and probably weighted) stand intended to keep it upright when dropped from a boat into the sea, along with the top of the head of an octopus emerging from the opening with its tentacles splayed outwards on all sides, a quotidian fishing tool is transformed into a powerful sigil for the issuing authority. Along with the ubiquitous Gorgoneion, this type is emblematic of the Etruscan coinage series, though because of its extreme rarity few have ever seen one in hand and so it has for the most part been considered unobtainable by collectors and institutions alike. The elusive nature of the coin is matched by the obscurity of its significance; why the octopus motif occurs repeatedly on the coinage of Populonia is not known. It seems unlikely to be apotropaic in nature despite the qualities (some real, some imagined), attributed to octopodes by the ancients, since though it was known to be a dangerous, crafty and venomous animal, it was evidently also prized as a food souce by the coastal Etruscans. The portrayal of the octopus in an amphora therefore suggests a usage similar to that of the crab of Akragas or the barley grain of Metapontum, which represented a prime local produce. As a powerful marine predator it is tempting to visualise a connection between the recurrent octopus theme and Etruscan naval prowess. Aside from their extensive maritime trade connections, the Etruscans were also renowned for possessing a formidable navy - something which only the richest states could afford to construct, equip and maintain. Indeed, Herodotus credits the Etruscans with the invention of the rostrum - the bronze beak affixed to the prow of warships to ram enemy vessels. Until the 5th century BC the Etruscans had effectively dominated the Tyrrhenian Sea, and at the Battle of Alalia were strong enough to form a combined fleet of 120 warships with the Carthaginians to resist Greek encroachment and piracy. The other principal types of the period - the Chimaera, the lion, the boar, and a marine lion-serpent monster - are clearly carefully chosen for their connotations of strength and intimidatory qualities. A simply mundane significance to this particular issue would therefore seem particularly incongruous. It thus seems highly likely that the ancient observer was intended to infer some deeper level of meaning from this motif, perhaps related to guile and ferocity in a marine context.

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13. Etruria, Populonia (or Pisae) PB 20 Units. Early 5th century BC. Octopus emerging from amphora, [X below, linear border], rectangular countermark with Punic letters: mem sad ? / Blank. EC I, Pisae 2.11 (this coin); cf. HN Italy 105 (Pisae ?); Sambon 21. 13.52g, 24mm. Fine. Unique.

500

From the VCV Collection.

Ex Ratto 1933

2x 14. Etruria, Populonia (or Pisae) AR Diobol. Early 5th century BC. Octopus, linear border / Blank. EC I, Pisae 5.29 (this coin); HN Italy 227; Sambon 28-29. 1.08g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

From the VCV Collection; Ex Ratto List 10, 1933, no. 181.

2x 15. Etruria, Populonia (or Pisae) AR Diobol. Early 5th century BC. Octopus, linear border / Blank. EC I, Pisae 5.27 (this coin); HN Italy 227; Sambon 28-29. 1.07g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

From the VCV Collection.

Previously Unpublished Type

2x 16. Etruria, Populonia AR Unit. Eagle with closed wings standing right / I. Unpublished in the standard references. 1.14g, 11mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, unpublished and apparently one of only two known.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

17. Etruria, Populonia AR Unit. Eagle with closed wings standing right / I. Unpublished in the standard references. 1.13g, 11mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, unpublished and apparently one of only two known. From the VCV Collection.

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1,000


One of the Finest Known

18. Etruria, Populonia AR Didrachm of 10 Units (or Litrai?). Late 5th century BC. Head of Metus facing, hair bound with diadem, X below, dotted border / Blank. EC I, 8.10 (this coin); HN Italy 117; Sambon 35-56. 8.07g, 22mm. Extremely Fine, beautifully toned. Very Rare; exceptionally well struck, centred, and preserved for the type. One of the finest known.

4,000

From the VCV Collection. The second coinage - the first silver Metus group and its fractions - is dated by hoard evidence to the late fifth century. The principal denominations are 10 ‘units’ (EC I, 7-8), close to the silver Attic didrachm or Corinthian stater, theoretically of 8.6g, and 5 ‘units’ (EC I, 9).

19. Etruria, Populonia AR Didrachm of 10 Units (or Litrai ?). Early 4th century BC. Head of Metus facing, hair bound with diadem, X below, dotted border / Blank. EC I, 8.32 (this coin); HN Italy 117; Sambon 35-36. 7.16g, 21mm. Very Fine.

2,000

From the VCV Collection; Ex Kölner Münzkabinett 62, 1995, lot 12; Ex Numismatica Wien 4, 1974, lot 414.

20. Etruria, Populonia PB Didrachm of 10 Units (or Litrai ?). Late 5th century BC. Head of Metus facing, hair bound with diadem, X below, dotted border / Blank. Cf. EC I, 8.46-7 and HN Italy 117. 8.04g, 22mm. Fine.

250

From the VCV Collection.

2x 21. Etruria, Populonia AR Drachm of 5 Units (or Litrai ?). Late 5th century BC. Head of Metus facing, Λ below, dotted border / Blank. EC I, 9.2 (this coin); HN Italy 118; Sambon 38. 3.41g, 16mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of just four known examples, and the only one in private hands.

5,000

From the VCV Collection.

22. Etruria, Populonia AR Hemidrachm of 2.5 Units (or Litrai?). Late 5th century BC. Head of Metus facing, II< below, dotted border around / Blank. EC I, 10.7 (this coin); HN Italy 119; Sambon 39. 2.03g, 16mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only nine recorded examples, and one of just four in private hands.

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4,000


One of the Finest of All Surviving Etruscan Coins

23.

Etruria, Populonia AR Didrachm. 4th century BC. Head of Turms left, wearing winged petasos, around Etruscan legend ‘poepl’, dotted border / Blank. EC I, 11 (O1, this die); HN Italy -; Sambon -; Vicari -; Vecchi -. 8.32g, 22mm. Good Extremely Fine. In incredible state of preservation, and one of the very finest of all surviving Etruscan coins. Of the Highest Rarity - one of only four known examples, and the only one in private hands. 40,000 From the VCV Collection. There is a general consensus that the Etruscan deities were not originally envisioned in human form, but instead as generalised, aniconic and fairly mysterious forces which manifested themselves through their effects. Several observations support this hypothesis, such as the lack of clarity regarding the sexes of the deities, some of whom are variously portrayed as both male and female. It is also apparent that the depiction of the Etruscan gods broadly follows those of Greek deities, but only in so far as a comparable Greek god could be found for an Etruscan one. Gods for whom a Greek counterpart could not so easily be found were thus not assimilated with Greek mythology. The Etruscan god Turms generally fulfilled the same functions as his Greek and Roman counterparts Hermes and Mercury, being the god of commerce and the messenger between mortals and the immortal gods. In a uniquely odd way however, the Etruscans divided the Greek Hermes into two gods - Turms, who was associated with Tinia (Zeus), and Turms Aitas, associated with Aita (Hades). The latter appears to fulfil the role of a psychopomp, (from the Greek word psychopompos, literally meaning the ‘guide of souls’), thus indicating at least a partial syncretism of the Greek Charon and Hermes. Meanwhile the Etruscan Charun, confusingly, is perhaps best seen as a death daimon and a guardian of the dead and of the underworld. Turms therefore cannot be understood to be simply a local form of Hermes as he is in the Roman pantheon; while he inarguably retains all of the visual attributes of the Greek source of his depiction like the winged cap, Turms (like the other Etruscan gods) more importantly represents specific functions or myths from archaic Etruscan belief which are still poorly understood.

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24. Etruria, Populonia AR Drachm of 5 Units. 4th century BC. Head of Turms left, wearing winged petasos, Λ behind / Blank. EC I, 12.5-11 (same die); HN Italy 123; Sambon 91. 3.73g, 22mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the VCV Collection.

25. Etruria, Populonia AR Drachm of 5 Units. 4th century BC. Head of Turms left, wearing winged petasos, Λ behind / Blank. EC I, 12.13 (this coin); HN Italy 123; Sambon 91. 3.91g, 16mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the VCV Collection.

2x 26. Etruria, Populonia AV 10 Units. Early 3rd century BC. Male head right, X before chin / Blank. EC I, 29.23 (this coin); HN Italy 135; Sambon 7. 0.55g, 9mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

From the VCV Collection. The third and most extensive coin phase of Populonia consists of gold coins with marks of value of 50, 25, 12.5 and 10 (series 20-36) on a weight standard of a single gold unit of about 0.06g, very close to the standards of the gold litra of Sicily at the time of Agathokles from 304-289 BC, and the Roman gold Mars/eagle issues of c. 211 (Crawford 44/2-4) of 0.056g, one series of which is attributed to a mint in Etruria (Crawford 106/2).

2x 27. Etruria, Populonia AV 10 Units. 3rd century BC. Male head right, X behind / Blank. EC I, 31.19 (this coin); HN Italy 136; Sambon 7. 0.68g, 8mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

From the VCV Collection; Ex Artemide 37, 8 December 2012, lot 4.

28. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X:X below / Blank. EC I, 37 (O1); HN Italy 101. 6.20g, 19mm. Very Fine.

500

From the VCV Collection. The second silver Metus group is the most extensive of all Etruscan groups and consists of denominations similar to the first Metus group, but with value marks of exactly the double: 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1 and possibly a half unit (series 37-111). The average weight of the 20 unit pieces clusters around 8.4 g, but enough examples weigh over 8.5 g to indicate that their theoretical intended weight may have been a stater of 8.6 grams, close to that of the Corinthian type staters current in southern Italy and Sicily in the early 3rd century. This denomination is divided by 20 units, presumably Roman libral cast asses, dominant throughout central Italy from the 280s BC, rendering a silver unit of about 0.43g, close to the standard of Rome’s earliest 10-as denarii. Although similar in weight standard, they seem only to anticipate the Roman denarius of c. 211 BC, since the chronological evidence from both the Populonia (1939) and Ponte Gini (1986) finds point to a burial date of the first half of the 3rd century BC.

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29. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X:X below / Blank. EC I, 37.248 (this coin); HN Italy 142; Sambon 59.1. 6.29g, 19mm. Fine, very worn die. From the VCV Collection; Ex SKA Bern list 42, 1984, no. 14.

300

30. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, [X X below] / Etruscan legend: [pvpl]vna and crescent around six pointed sun-burst. EC I, 38 (O3/R3); HN Italy 143; Sambon 59. 8.00g, 21mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; although EC records 53 known specimens, there are none on CoinArchives.

2,000

From the VCV Collection.

31. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, [X X below] / Etruscan legend: [pvpl]vna and crescent around six pointed sun-burst. EC I, 38 (O3/R3); HN Italy 143; Sambon 59. 6.96g, 21mm. Very Fine, Very Rare.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

32. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X X below / Etruscan legend: pvplvna and crescent around six pointed sun-burst. EC I, 38.34 (O4/R5, this coin); HN Italy 143; Sambon 59. 4.50g, 21mm. Good Fine. Very Rare.

300

From the VCV Collection.

33. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X X below / Garbled Etruscan legend. EC I, 38 (O4/R?); HN Italy 143; Sambon 59. 5.64g, 22mm. Fine. From the VCV Collection.

10

250


34. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with granulated diadem, X X below / Octopus. EC I, 44.14 (O11/R14, this coin); HN Italy 148; Sambon 58. 7.81g, 24mm. Very Fine. Very Rare. Scratch across obverse.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

35. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, [X:X] below / Blank. EC I, 47.94 (O12, this coin); HN Italy 146; Sambon 48B. 8.20g, 20mm. Fine - Near Very Fine.

500

From the VCV Collection.

36. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X X below / Two caducei, head to tail. EC I, 48.44 (O14/R18, this coin) HN Italy 150; Sambon 52. 8.04g, 20mm. Very Fine. Rare, only three examples offered at auction since online records began.

2,000

From the VCV Collection.

37. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X X below / Two caducei, head to tail. EC I, 48.43 (O14/R18, this coin); HN Italy 150; Sambon 52. 7.69g, 20mm. Very Fine. Rare, only three examples offered at auction since online records began.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

38. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X X below / Uncertain protuberances. EC I, 48.42 (O14/R18, this coin); HN Italy 150; Sambon 52. 7.69g, 20mm. Good Very Fine. Rare. From the VCV Collection.

11

2,000


39. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X:X below / Blank. EC I, 52 (O20); HN Italy 142; Sambon 59. 8.06g, 22mm. Near Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the VCV Collection.

40. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X:X below / Blank. EC I, 52.123 (O20, this coin); HN Italy 142; Sambon 59. 8.50g, 21mm. Good Very Fine, obverse die-break.

750

From the VCV Collection.

41. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, OX::XO below / Blank. EC I, 54. (O23); HN Italy 152; Sambon 41. 6.32g, 22mm. Good Fine.

300

From the VCV Collection.

42. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X X below / Blank. EC I, 58.7 (O31, this coin); HN Italy 152; Sambon 42. 5.33g, 22mm. Good Very Fine.

2,000

From the VCV Collection.

43. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, [X:X] below / X. EC I, 58.62 (O32, this coin); HN Italy 152; Sambon 42. 8.50g, 21mm. Very Fine, slightly off centre. From the VCV Collection.

12

500


44. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X X below / Blank. EC I, 59.34 (O36, this coin); HN Italy 152; Sambon 42-49. 8.43g, 22mm. Good Very Fine, die break on obverse.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

45. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem, X X below / Blank. EC I, 60.72 (O38, this coin); HN Italy 152; Sambon 42-49. 8.67g, 22mm. Good Very Fine.

1,500

From the VCV Collection.

46. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing youthful head of Hercle, wearing lion skin knotted at neck, X X below / Blank. EC I, 65.43 (O1, this coin); HN Italy 155; Sambon 61. 8.12g, 22mm. Very Fine.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

47. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Menvra facing three-quarter left, wearing three-crested helmet, earring and necklace, X either side of head / Etruscan legend pvplvna around star of four rays and crescent. EC I, 67.16 (O1/R1, this coin); HN Italy 157-158; Sambon 65. 8.47g, 25mm. Very Fine. Very Rare; one of only eleven examples in private hands. From the VCV Collection.

13

1,000


14


The Finest of Only Two Known Examples

48.

Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Bearded head of Tinia facing three-quarters right, open wreath (of ivy?) suspended above, ties hanging loose to either side; X on either side of forehead; thunderbolt with arrow-head shaped tip to right / Large winged thunderbolt within a circle of smaller thunderbolts. EC I, 69.2 (O1/R2, this coin); HN Italy 160; Sambon -; Vicari -. 7.00g, 23mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Of the Highest Rarity - one of only two known examples, and easily the finest and most complete (the other being the ADM specimen sold in NAC 2, 17 = NAC 7, 46, which lacked most of the reverse design). 40,000 From the VCV Collection. Tinia, the local equivalent of Zeus and Jupiter, was the supreme Etruscan thunder-god who wielded three of the eleven types of thunderbolts known to what the Romans called the Etrusca disciplina - the Etruscan systematic teachings about how to divine the will of the gods and act in accordance with it. Inscriptions and representations in art confirm beyond doubt that Tinia was the head of the Etruscan pantheon, though unlike his Greek and Roman counterparts he stood at the centre of a council or circle of gods and was bound by their will in a way that seems irreconcilable with the temperamental and unruly Zeus/Jupiter. According to Etruscan lore preserved by the Romans, the three types of bolts Tinia might throw were: a benign bolt that served as a warning; a bolt that could do either good or harm, for which he needed the approval of the Twelve Gods; a completely destructive bolt, for which he had to have permission from a group called the Shrouded Gods (Dii Involuti). The Etruscan belief in a wide variety of lightning bolts is reflected in the many different sizes and shapes of such bolts depicted with Tinia in Etruscan art. A bronze mirror c. 470 BC in the Vatican Museums illustrates the entreaties of Thethis (Thetis) and Thesan (Eos) to spare their sons, Achilles and Memnon. Tinia is shown holding two types of thunderbolts; in his left hand are three undulating serpent-like bolts; in his right hand is a single pointed bolt, the other end appearing not unlike the feathered end of an arrow. The bolts he is shown with in other artistic depictions vary wildly from each other, quite unlike the Hellenic Zeus or Roman Jupiter, whose bolts are regularly symmetrical. The Etruscan belief in a rich and widely varying lightning repertoire is therefore quite consistent with its representations alongside Tinia in their artworks, and indeed on this particular coin we can observe several very different types of thunderbolt.

15


49. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. 3rd century BC. Laureate male head left, X behind / Shallow protuberance. EC I, 70 (O3, this die); HN Italy 168; Sambon 73-74. 4.02g, 18mm. Good Very Fine.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

50

51

50. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. 3rd century BC. Laureate male head left, X behind / Blank, but with traces of border and inscription. EC I, 70.269 (O6, this coin); HN Italy 168; Sambon 73-74. 3.14g, 18mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare. 500 From the VCV Collection. 51. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. 3rd century BC. Female head right, wearing broad hair band and triple-pendant earring, X behind / Blank. EC I, 75.60 (O2, this coin); HN Italy 165, Sambon 68. 3.84g, 18mm. Very Fine. Faint scratches. Rare. 750 From the VCV Collection.

52. Etruria, Populonia AR 10 Asses. 3rd century BC. Female head right, wearing broad hair band and triple-pendant earring, X behind / Blank. EC I, 75 (O2); HN Italy 165; Sambon 68. 3.92g, 18mm. Good Fine.

500

From the VCV Collection.

53

54

53. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Turms right, wearing winged petasos, › behind / Etruscan legend ‘pvplv[na]’ around undistinguishable pattern. EC I, 80; HN Italy 162; Sambon -. 1.26g, 15mm. Fine. Extremely Rare. From the VCV Collection.

500

54. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Turms right, wearing winged petasos, › behind / Blank. EC I, 84.10 (O4, this coin); HN Italy 163; Sambon 93. 1.42g, 15mm. Very Fine. Very Rare. 500 From the VCV Collection.

55

56

55. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Turms right, wearing winged petasos, [›] behind / Three protuberances. EC I, 84.21(011, this coin); HN Italy -. 1.16g, 14mm. Fine-Very Fine, chipped. Unique. 300 From the VCV Collection. 56. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Head of Turms left, wearing winged petasos, Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’ above, < behind / Blank. Unpublished in the standard references. 1.76g, 13mm. Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished in the standard references. 1,000 From the VCV Collection.

16


2x 57. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Diademed and beaded head right, > behind / Blank. EC I, 89.25 (O1, this coin); HN Italy 174; Sambon 98. 1.82g, 15mm. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

From the VCV Collection.

58. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Diademed and beaded head right, > behind / Blank. EC I, 89.23 (O1, this coin); HN Italy 174; Sambon 98. 1.93g, 15mm. Very Fine.

500

From the VCV Collection.

59

60

59. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, > behind / Blank. EC I, 90.23 (O7, same die); HN Italy 170; Sambon 81. 1.81g, 13mm. Very Fine. Very Rare. Only one example on CoinArchives. 750 From the VCV Collection. 60. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, > behind / Blank. EC I, 90.34 (O11, same die); HN Italy 170; Sambon 81. 1.16g, 14mm. Good Fine. Very Rare. Only one example on CoinArchives. 250 From the VCV Collection.

61. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Owl standing left, Î&#x203A; to left / Blank. EC I, 94.1 (O1, same die); HN Italy 225; Sambon 32. 1.97g, 14mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently only the fourth known example, and one of just three in private hands.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

62. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Owl standing left, V to left / Blank. EC I, 94.1 (O1, same die); HN Italy 225; Sambon 32. 1.78g, 14mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently only the fifth known example, and one of just three in private hands.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

63. Etruria, Populonia AR 5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Owl standing right, Î&#x203A; to right / Blank. Cf. EC I, 90 (type left); cf. HN Italy 225 (type left). 1.93g, 13mm. Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished. From the VCV Collection.

17

2,000


64

65

64. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, VII behind / Blank. EC I, 95.12 (O1, this coin); HN Italy 175; Sambon 84, 88. 0.88g, 13mm. Very Fine. Very Rare; only three examples on CoinArchives. 500 From the VCV Collection. 65. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, UII behind / Blank. EC I, 95.33 (O1, this coin); HN Italy 175; Sambon 84, 88. 0.74g, 11mm. Very Fine. Very Rare; only three examples on CoinArchives. 500 From the VCV Collection.

66

67

66. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, VII behind / Blank. EC I, 95.37 (O5, this coin); HN Italy 175; Sambon 84, 88. 0.95g, 12mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, only three examples on CoinArchives. 1,000 From the VCV Collection. 67. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, UII behind / Blank. EC I, 95.40 (O7, this coin); HN Italy 175; Sambon 84, 88. 0.80g, 11mm. Good Fine, over struck on same type. Very Rare; only three examples on CoinArchives. 250 From the VCV Collection.

68. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, VII behind / Part of dotted border and uncertain object. Cf. EC I, 95.41(O8, same obverse die); HN Italy 175; Sambon 84, 88. 0.89g, 12mm. Extremely Fine.

2,000

From the VCV Collection; Ex Artemide 41, 29 November 2014, lot 4.

69. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, wearing necklace, UII behind / Blank. EC I, 96.17 (O15, this coin); HN Italy 175. 1.00g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

70. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, CII behind / Blank. EC I, 96.18 (O16, this coin); HN Italy 175. 0.67g, 10mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

From the VCV Collection.

71. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, CII behind / Blank. EC I, 96.18 (O19, same die); HN Italy 175. 1.07g, 10mm. Very Fine. Very Rare. From the VCV Collection.

18

500


72. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right, CII behind / Blank. EC I, 96.21-3 (O19, same die); HN Italy 175. 0.95g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the VCV Collection.

73. Etruria, Populonia AR As. 3rd century BC. Male head left, I behind / Blank. EC I, 108.2 (O1, this coin); HN Italy -; Sambon -; Vicari -. 0.42g, 9mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of two known examples and the only one in private hands.

500

From the VCV Collection.

74. Etruria, Populonia AR As. 3rd century BC. Male head right / Blank. EC I, 109.3 (O3, this coin); HN Italy 182; Sambon -; Vicari -. 0.60g, 9mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of less than a dozen known examples.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

75. Etruria, Populonia AR As. 3rd century BC. Male head right, I behind / Blank. EC I, 109; HN Italy 182; Samon -; Vicari -. 0.45g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

76. Etruria, Populonia AR As. 3rd century BC. Male head right, I behind / Blank. EC I, 109; HN Italy 182. 0.37g, 9mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

From the VCV Collection.

77. Etruria, Populonia AR As. 3rd century BC. Male head right / Blank. EC I, 109.9; HN Italy 182. 0.35g, 7mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

78. Etruria, Populonia AR Semis. 3rd century BC. Male head right, < behind / Blank. EC I, 111.1 (O1, same die); HN Italy 197 (5 Units); Sambon -; Vicari -. 0.38g, 8mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently the second known example (the other in the British Museum). From the VCV Collection.

19

1,000


79. Etruria, Populonia AR Drachm. 3rd century BC. Hare leaping right / Blank. EC I, 116.9 (O4, this coin); HN Italy 223; Sambon 31. 4.06g, 18mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of only nine known examples, of which five are in museum collections. A charming type.

2,500

From the VCV Collection.

2x 80. Etruria, Populonia AR Obol. 3rd century BC. Two dolphins, belly to belly, swimming in a circle / Blank. EC I, 122; HN Italy 223; Sambon -; Vicari 147. 0.66g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,500

From the VCV Collection.

81. Etruria, Populonia AR Obol. 3rd century BC. Two dolphins, belly to belly, swimming in a circle / Blank. EC I, 122.2 (O2, this coin); HN Italy 223; Sambon -; Vicari 147. 0.65g, 10mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

82. Etruria, Populonia AR Obol. 3rd century BC. Head of young Hercle right / Blank. EC I, 126; HN Italy –. 0.97g, 10mm. Fine, heavily encrusted. Extremely Rare, possibly only the second known example.

250

From the VCV Collection.

2x 83. Etruria, Populonia AR Hemiobol. 3rd century BC. Young male head facing / Blank. EC I, 124; HN Italy 233; Sambon 34. 0.53g, 8mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, the fourth known example and the only one in private hands.

1,500

From the VCV Collection.

84. Etruria, Populonia Æ Sextans. Late 3rd century BC. Young male head, •• behind / Two crescents and four stars. EC I, 130.8 (O1, this coin); HN Italy 115; Sambon 144. 12.32g, 28mm. Good Very Fine. Glossy green patina. From the VCV Collection.

20

1,500


85

86

85. Etruria, Populonia Æ Uncia. Late 3rd century BC. Female head right, hair caught up with band, • behind / Two crescents and four stars. EC I, 131.1 (this coin); HN Italy 116. 5.67g, 23mm. Fine. Extremely Rare, one of only two known examples. 250 From the VCV Collection. 86. Etruria, Populonia Æ Uncia. Late 3rd century BC. Head of Sethluns right, •• behind / Etruscan legend ‘vetalv pvflvna’, hammer and tongs, •• between. EC I, 132.7 (this coin); HN Italy 188; Sambon 120. 11.90g, 23mm, 2h. Very Fine, weakly struck and pitted. Very Rare, no examples on CoinArchives. 250 From the VCV Collection. The interpretation of vetalv as a personal name is more probable than that of Vetulonia, while pvflvna would seem to be a variant of the city’s name preferred by the magistrate, cf. TLE 379 and 794.

87. Etruria, Populonia Æ Triens. Late 3rd century BC. Head of Menvra right, wearing Corinthian helmet, •••• below / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’, owl facing with wings spread, •••• between; countermarked crescent over line with two pellets. EC I, 133.26 (this coin); HN Italy 184; Sambon 114. 20.14g, 30mm, 11h. Very Fine, weakly struck. Rare.

500

From the VCV Collection. The main bronze issues are made up of various denominations tariffed in unciae (represented by pellets) on a weight standard based on a nominal bronze as of 81g which was extant in Rome after the post-semilibral phase of c. 215-212 BC (Crawford 1974, 41).

88

89

88. Etruria, Populonia Æ Sextans. Late 3rd century BC. Head of Menvra right, wearing Corinthian helmet, •• above / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’, owl facing standing right on two pellets, crescent above. EC I, 135.48 (same dies); HN Italy 186; Sambon 117. 14.75g, 26mm, 1h. Very Fine. Rare. 750 From the VCV Collection. 89. Etruria, Populonia Æ Sextans. Late 3rd century BC. Head of Menvra right, wearing Corinthian helmet, •• above / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’, owl facing standing right on two pellets, crescent above. EC I, 135.81-4 (same dies); HN Italy 186; Sambon 117. 10.58g, 26mm, 11h. Very Fine. Rare. 500 From the VCV Collection.

90. Etruria, Populonia Æ Sextans. Late 3rd century BC. Diademed head of young Hercle right, club over shoulder / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’, bow, arrow and club, •••• between. EC I, 136.15 (this coin); HN Italy 187; Sambon 116. 12.22g, 28mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Rare, and unusually well preserved for this issue. From the VCV Collection.

21

1,500


91. Etruria, Populonia Æ 11 Units. Late 3rd century BC. Bust of Turms right, wearing winged petasos, crescent to left / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’ between two caducei, X/ between. EC I, 139.3 (this coin); HN Italy 190. 12.53g, 27mm, 11h. Very Fine, light sage-green patina and unusually good for this issue. Rare; only two examples on CoinArchives.

750

From the VCV Collection.

92. Etruria, Populonia Æ Triens of 10 Units. Late 3rd century BC. Bust of Sethlans right, wearing pileus decorated with laurel-wreath, X behind / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’ below hammer and tongs, •••• between. ECI, 140.54 (this coin); HN Italy 195; Sambon 119. 8.04g, 24mm, 3h. Very Fine. Rare.

800

From the VCV Collection. The final bronze issues (EC I, 139-140) are also tariffed with X and /X and may be metrologically connected with the remarkable struck bronze coins with incuse reverse and marks of value 1 to 100, cf. Uncertain Central Italy, EC I, 1-17.

93

94

93. Etruria, Populonia Æ Triens of 10 Units. Late 3rd century BC. Bust of Sethlans right, wearing pileus decorated with laurel-wreath, X behind / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’ below hammer and tongs, •••• between. ECI, 140.67 (this coin, overstruck on Menvra/Owl sextans, type EC I, 135); HN Italy 195; Sambon 119. 10.69g, 29mm, 9h. Good Fine - Very Fine. Rare, only two examples on CoinArchives. 500 From the VCV Collection. 94. Etruria, Populonia Æ Triens of 10 Units. Late 3rd century BC. Bust of Sethlans right, wearing pileus decorated with laurel-wreath, X behind / Etruscan legend ‘pvplvna’ below hammer and tongs, •••• between. ECI, 140.102 (this coin, countermarked radiate circle and ••••; cf. HN Italy 195 note. 7.38g, 25mm, 5h. Very Fine. Very Rare. 800 From the VCV Collection.

95. Etruria, uncertain mint Æ 25 Units (Centesimae). Late 4th century BC. Helmeted head of Menvra right, ΛXX at right, all within laurel wreath / Incuse cock standing left within laurel wreath. EC I, 6 (O1/R3?); HN Italy 81. 8.17g, 22mm, 9h. Very Fine. Very Rare. From the VCV Collection.

3,000

The carefully engraved bronze series characterized by wreath-bordered obverses and incuse reverses clearly belongs to a single mint, but the widely dispersed provenances (Acanaro, Cecina, Cetona, Gravisca, Populonia, Valle d’Orcia, Valle Fuino di Cascia and Vetulonia) are of little help in identifying it. However, bronze cast and struck issues did predominate in central Etruria where 4 of the finds were made. The denominations are tariffed in centesimal marks of value from 1 to 100 Units, with the basic bronze unit on a standard somewhere between 0.6g and 1g. This may have been an attempt to divide a nominal as by centesimae rather than oncie as seen on the double denominated Populonia bronze series 139 with /X (11 Units equated to a triens) and Populonia series EC I, 140 with X (= 10 Units equated to a triens of lower weight) and the > or (5 Units) denominated bronzes from the Val di Chiana - cf. HN Italy 72, 74 and 75.

22


96

97

96. Etruria, uncertain mint Æ 10 Units (Centesimae). Late 4th century BC. Diademed and bearded male head right, + behind / Incuse fish within laurel wreath. EC I, 12 (these dies); HN Italy 86. 4.63g, 18mm. Fine. 200 From the VCV Collection. 97. Etruria, uncertain mint Æ 10 Units (Centesimae). Late 4th century BC. Diademed and bearded male head right, + behind / Incuse fish within laurel wreath. EC I, 12 (these dies); HN Italy 86. 4.51g, 20mm. Fine. 200 From the VCV Collection.

Only Example in Private Hands

98. Etruria, uncertain inland mint, possibly Arretium Æ Cast As. 3rd century BC. Wheel of six spokes within double linear border, ivy leaf countermark between two spokes / Wheel of six spokes within double linear border, •••••••••••• around rim. Cf. Haeberlin p. 254, 2 pl. 85, 1; EC II, 1; ICC 155; HN Italy 56a. 181g, 64mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and of significant numismatic importance. A splendid example with fine olive-green patina. Haeberlin lists 11 examples, all in museum collections. Only one has ever appeared in a public sale: Sir Edward Bunbury collection II, Sotheby sale 10 June 1895, 27, now in the Haeberlin collection in Berlin. 20,000 From the VCV Collection. Inland Etruria is dominated by the valley of the river Clanis (Val di Chiana) which played a major part in the economic development of Etruria. From its source near Arretium (Arezzo), the Clanis ran past Curtun (Cortona), Clusium (Chiusi) and after being joined by the Pallia (Paglia) tributary, flowed into the Tiber beside Volsinii (Orvieto). These four cities are amongst the oldest and most eminent of the Etruscan dodecapoleis and owed much of their wealth to the fertility of the Clanis valley, especially in grain. This region was also strategically located at the centre of a network of roads, and with its proximity to the Tiber it was a centre of trade and industry, especially that of bronze working. Notable masterpieces produced there include the celebrated Chimaera of Arezzo, now in the Museo Archeologico of Florence, and the richly decorated lamp of Cortona, not to mention the 2000 bronze statues looted by the Romans in 264 BC from the federal sanctuary of the nomen etruscum at Volsinii, from whence the celebrated Mars of Todi possibly originates. By the 3rd century the whole of Etruria was allied to Rome and therefore all the cast and struck series of Etruria must have been produced under its auspices. The hoard and single find evidence points to a federal coinage between several cities. Although none of the issues has an ethnic, many have Etruscan initials and intriguing countermarked symbols.

99. Etruria, uncertain inland mint, possibly Arretium Æ Cast Uncia. 3rd century BC. Wheel of four spokes / Wheel of four spokes. Haeberlin p. 256-7, 1-76 pl. 85, 16-17; EC II, 6; ICC 160; HN Italy 56f. 12.32g, 25mm. Very Fine. From the VCV Collection.

23

250


100. Etruria, uncertain inland mint, possibly Arretium Æ Struck Semuncia. 3rd century BC. Wheel of six spokes / Bipennis, Etruscan letter v in field. EC II, 23; ICC 171; HN Italy 60. 4.77g, 19mm. Very Fine.

250

From the VCV Collection.

101. Etruria, uncertain inland mint, possibly Arretium Æ Quartuncia. 3rd century BC. Wheel of six spokes / Bipennis with handle. EC II, 29; ICC 172; HN Italy 61. 1.29g, 13mm. Fine.

250

From the VCV Collection.

102. Etruria, uncertain inland mint, possibly Arretium Æ19. 3rd century BC. Head of African right, wearing earring / Indian elephant standing right with bell at neck. HN Italy 69; Baglione 1e. 4.13g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

103. Etruria, Volaterrae Cast Æ As. 3rd century BC. Janiform head, wearing pointed hat / Etruscan legend ‘velaθri’ and I around club. Haeberlin p. 246, 1-23 pl. 84, 1-3; ICC 136; HN Italy 109b. 140g, 61mm, 6h. Very Fine. Rare.

1,500

From the VCV Collection. Volaterrae (Etruscan Velathri, modern Volterra), the defensive fortress of northern Etruria, firmly under Roman control by the early third century, issued three series of cast bronze. A Janiform head wearing a pointed cap is the obverse type common to all three issues, very possibly influenced by the contemporary Roman asses and quadrigati depicting the Janiform heads of the Dioscuri and the bronze asses characterized by the head of Janus. The Volaterran Janiform head is perhaps Culsans, the Etruscan equivalent of Janus as depicted by the celebrated statue from Cortona. The three reverse types are: mark of value, club and dolphin surrounded by the ethnic.

24


104. Etruria, Volaterrae Cast Æ Semis. 3rd century BC. Janiform head, wearing pointed hat / Etruscan legend ‘velaθri’ and ) around club. Haeberlin p. 246, 1-31 pl. 83, 7-9; ICC 137; HN Italy 109c. 71g, 47mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare; no examples on CoinArchives.

1,500

From the VCV Collection.

105. Etruria, Volaterrae Cast Æ Triens. 3rd century BC. Janiform head, wearing pointed hat / Etruscan legend ‘velaθri’ and •• •• around club. Haeberlin p. 247, 1-42 pl. 84, 4-5; ICC 138; HN Italy 109d. 52g, 44mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

From the VCV Collection.

106. Etruria, Volaterrae Cast Æ Sextans. 3rd century BC. Janiform head, wearing pointed hat / Etruscan legend ‘velaθri’ and • • around club. Haeberlin p. 244, 1-61 pl. 84, 8-9; ICC 140; HN Italy 109f. 24.64g, 34mm, 6h. Near Very Fine. Rare; only two examples on CoinArchives.

500

From the VCV Collection.

107. Etruria or Umbria, possibly Volsinii, Cast Æ Sextans. 3rd century BC. Club / • •. Haeberlin pp. 236-8, 1-266 pl. 81, 836-41; ICC 199; HN Italy 54; for a tentative identification of this issue’s minting authority see M. Crawford ‘The oval series of aes grave’ in CH 9 (2002). pp. 269-270. 13.68g, 29mm. Very Fine. From the VCV Collection.

25

250


108. Central Italy, uncertain mint Cast Æ Uncia. Early 3rd century BC. Club, • in field / Pentagram, • at centre. Haeberlin pp. 237-8, 1-34 pl. 81, 836-41; ICC 306; HN Italy 385. 18.06g, 34mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, no examples on CoinArchives.

1,500

From the VCV Collection.

109. Central Italy, uncertain mint Æ20. 1st century BC. Bearded head of Vulcan right, wearing wreathed pileus, P CAIO behind / Ring from which are suspended two strigils and an aryballos. Cf. C. Stannard, Iconographic parallels between the local coinages of central Italy and Baetica in the first century BC, 1996, 39. 6.90g, 20mm, 7h. Very Fine. Very Rare. From the VCV Collection.

100

CAMPANIA Beautiful Didrachm of Nuceria Alfaterna

110. Campania, Nuceria Alfaterna AR Didrachm. Circa 250-225 BC. Head of Apollo Karneios left with horn of Ammon, Oscan legend ‘nuvkrinum alafaternum’ around / Dioskouros standing facing beside his horse, head turned to left, holding the reins and a thyrsos. HN Italy 608; SNG ANS 560; SNG Copenhagen 566; SNG München 388; Sambon 1008. 7.14g, 22mm, 5h. Very Fine. Attractive, lustrous metal. Rare.

2,500

Around the end of the seventh century BC, inhabitants of the Sarno Valley founded a new city in a strategic location between the gulfs of Naples and Salerno. Created from the synoecism (union) of several scattered villages, the new city was named Nuvkrinum (literally ‘new fortress’), and was situated astride the obligatory route between the aforementioned coastal areas, guarding a fertile valley. The city thus became one of the twelve most important centres of Etruscan colonisation in Campania created to stop the northward expansion of the Greeks. After the defeat of the Etruscan navy at the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC the Etruscans abandoned the region, and the city came into the possession of the Samnites who renamed it Nuvkrinvm Alfaternum, after the Samnite Alfaterni tribe. Hostile to the Romans during the Second Samnite War, in 308 BC it repulsed a Roman attempt to land at the mouth of the Sarnus, but in 307 BC it was besieged and surrendered. In defeat it became an ally of Rome and remained loyal during the war against Hannibal, for which loyalty it suffered greatly, being razed to the ground. The present coin dates to a period of prosperity between the two wars, and represents the only silver issue of this city.

26


One of the Finest and Most Beautiful Known

111. Campania, Suessa Aurunca AR Didrachm. Circa 265-240 BC. Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath, hair long and flowing, bow behind / Dioskouros, wearing a pilos and holding a palm-branch tied with a fillet, riding to left with a second horse beside him; SVESANO in exergue. SNG ANS 594-7 var.; Sambon -; SNG France -; HN Italy 447. 7.12g, 23mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. One of the finest known coins of Suessa, and struck from an obverse die that is superior in both style and technical accomplishment to any other produced at this city. 15,000 From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 5. Ex Prospero Collection, New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 11. Aurunca, the ancient capital of the Aurunci, was originally located on the edge of the extinct crater of Roccamonfina, and dated back to at least the 8th century BC. On that site today there remain ruined walls of cyclopean masonry, which may have formed the fortified core of the city, or a defensive fort for the protection of the population. The Aurunci came into conflict with Rome as early as 503 BC, but following their defeat in the Latin War, were subject to Roman dominion. An apparently unmotivated attack by the Sidinici in 337 caused the Aurunci to abandon their towns in Campania in favour of the new site of Suessa, which they renamed Aurunca. In 313 the Romans made a colony of the city, renaming it to Suessa Aurunca. On account of its favourable position between the Via Appia and the Via Latina, it became a centre of industry and commerce, retaining the right of coinage.

LUCANIA

112. Lucania, Herakleia AR Stater. Circa 330 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet decorated with Skylla throwing a rock; EY in left field / ΗΕΡΑΚΛΗΙΩΝ, Herakles wrestling the Nemean lion: Herakles stands facing, head and upper body turned to left, right hand holding club behind body, left hand grasping lion’s throat; fluted jug beneath. [Club and AΠΟΛ to left]. HN Italy 1378; SNG ANS 65; Van Keuren 51. 7.76g, 21mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare. An excellent example of this type, one of the finest to have come to the market in the past fifteen years.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Gemini VII, 9 January 2011, lot 30. The flourishing of an artistic culture in Herakleia is attested to by the beauty and variety of its coinage, and that they survive in relative profusion is demonstrative of the wealth and commercial importance of the city. Despite this, it is not often that one encounters them in as good a state of preservation as is the case with the present coin. The depiction of Herakles on the reverse of this coin places the hero in a typical fighting stance of the Greek martial discipline Pankration, or Pammachon (total combat) as it was earlier known. Indeed, this fighting style was said to have been the invention of Herakles and Theseus as a result of their using both wrestling and boxing in their encounters with opponents. The stance portrayed on this coin is paralleled on an Attic black-figure vase in the BM depicting two competitors, one in a choke hold similar to that of the lion here. The composition of this deisgn is very deliberate - as the lion leaps forwards, Herakles who had been facing the lion, turns his body sideways. The myths tell us that Herakles had first stunned the beast with his club, and now he dodges the lion’s bite and reaches his right arm around its head to place it in a choke hold. Impressively careful attention has been paid to the detail on this die, including realistic rendering of the hero’s musculature, which has been engraved in fine style.

27


113. Lucania, Metapontion AR Diobol. Circa 470-440 BC. Barley-ear with five grains / Incuse barley-grain; annulet to either side. Cf. Noe 297; cf. SNG ANS 274-5; HN Italy 1488. 0.76g, 10mm. Very Fine.

200

Athena Tharragoras

114. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC. Head of Athena Tharragoras right, wearing Corinthian helmet, Σ behind / Ear of barley with stalk and leaf to right upon which, trophy; Π below, META to left. Johnston A 7.13 (obverse) – A 7.15 (reverse); HN Italy 1567. 7.85g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare (only one example recorded by Johnston), particularly so in this condition, and an apparently unrecorded die coupling. Ex Dr. Roland Maly Collection, LHS 100, 23 April 2007, lot 115.

7,500

The obverse portrait of this coin is traditionally identified as the unknown hero Tharragoras, following the attribution by Imhoof-Blumer. In studying the available specimens of the type (of which there were then five), he noted two with visible legends, one reading ‘ΘAPPAΓOPAΣ’, which he illustrated in his ‘Monnaies grecques’ (pl. A,2). Noting also that the portrait on this coin was ‘slightly bearded’, Imhoof-Blumer concluded that it therefore was not Athena, but rather an unknown hero whose name was given on the coin, and who must have been a companion or relation of Leukippos, given the contemporary nature of the two issues and the importance of the Leukippos type. That the name Tharragoras is nowhere else attested, neither in literature, sculpture nor on other coins, makes Imhoof-Blumer’s identification of this portrait as an unknown hero by that name very difficult to support indeed. Strabo, who does acknowledge Leukippos (6.1), makes no mention of a Tharragoras; the ‘slight beard’ seen by Imhoof-Blumer is almost certainly in fact locks of hair that fall from beneath the helmet. No trace of a beard can be discerned meanwhile around the chin or jaw. Where Imhoof-Blumer inferred a connection with Ἄρρα, or Ares, we should perhaps more properly see a connection with a ‘dialectic form of Θάρσω, a more ancient name for the goddess Athena (schol.IL.5.2).’ ‘Θάρρά’ itself has connotations of ‘courage’, ‘boldness’ or ‘confidence’ - the intended meaning here must have been clear to the people of Metapontion and fitting for the circumstances of its issue. The companion issue (Johnston A6.11 = HN Italy 1561) allows us to positively identify the portrait as that of Athena, on account of the long feminine eyelashes that would certainly be out of place on a male hero.

115. Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 445-420 BC. Poseidon standing right wielding trident, chlamys draped over both arms; ΠOMEΣ before / Bull standing left, ΠOMEΣ (retrograde) above. HN Italy 1114; SNG ANS 657. 8.07g, 18mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone with iridescent flashes.

5,000

Ex NGSA 7, 27 November 2012, lot 129; Ex Swiss private collection, acquired in April 1977. Little is known of Poseidonia from its foundation at around the end of the Seventh Century BC by colonists from Sybaris, other than that information which can be gleaned from archaeological study of the city and its remaining artefacts. Evidence from votive figurines and the city’s architecture suggest close trade relations with Metapontion during the Sixth and Fifth Centuries, but the city is not mentioned in the classical sources until the Fifth Century, when it was conquered by the Lucani. A sizeable Greek population must have remained despite the conquest however, as the archaeological record shows both Greek and Oscan culture continuing to thrive alongside one another. As a Lucanian city, Poseidonia sided with Pyrrhos of Epeiros when he landed in Italy, and upon the latter’s withdrawal the Lucani suffered severe reprisals from Rome throughout a ten year punitive campaign. When Hannibal invaded Italy it was unsurprising then that most of the Lucani sided with the Carthaginians. Poseidonia however, having become a Roman city in 273 BC, remained faithful to Rome’s cause and was granted civic honours as a result, including the right to mint its own coins once more.

28


116. Lucania, Sybaris AR Drachm. Circa 550-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; MV retrograde in exergue / Incuse of obverse, but to right and without letters. Fabricius Class B; SNG ANS 847-53; HN Italy 1736. 2.39g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

1,000

Extremely Rare Issue with Branch

117. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 525-510 BC. Bull standing to left, head reverted; branch above, MV (retrograde) in exergue / Incuse bull standing to right, head reverted; branch in relief above. Fabricius class A; Gorini -; HN Italy 1732; Traité I 2090, pl. LXVII, 7 = De Luynes 554 (same dies). 8.13g, 29mm, 1h. Very Fine. Extremely rare issue with branch.

3,000

Very Beautiful Stater of Thourioi

118. Lucania, Thourioi AR Stater. Circa 400-350 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla / Bull charging right, ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ above; fish to right in exergue. SNG ANS 1007. 7.93g, 22mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Dark, old cabinet tone.

5,000

Privately purchased from Edward Waddell; this coin’s tone indicates it must have a much older pedigree, which we have not been able to locate.

119. Lucania, Thourioi AR Stater. Circa 400-350 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla / Bull charging right, ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ above, IP below, fish to right in exergue. SNG ANS 1042 (same dies); SNG München 1096 var. 7.72g, 22mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Ex Gorny & Mosch 199, 10 October 2011, lot 45.

29

1,250


CALABRIA

120. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 400-390 BC. Nude rider on horse standing to right, holding reins with his left hand and crowning his horse with his right; below, Λ / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding akrostolion in his right hand; below dolphin, Λ and TAPAΣ. HN Italy 868; Vlasto 355. 7.58g, 22mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,750

Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 16 (sold for £1,400 but not paid); From a private English collection, purchased in the late 1970s.

Ex Comte Chandon de Briailles Collection

121. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 390-385 BC. Nude warrior on horseback left, holding reins in right hand, small round shield on left arm; A below / Taras astride dolphin left; P and ΤΑΡΑΣ below. Vlasto 379; SNG ANS 900 (but with A on obv. and P on rev. intact). 7.84g, 21mm, 10h. Extremely Rare. Near Extremely Fine. A stunning and statuesque obverse from one of the briefest but most beautiful series in Tarentine coinage. Deep, attractive old cabinet tone. 10,000 From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 23; Ex Comte Chandon De Briailles Collection; Bourgey, 17 June 1959, lot 15. Tarentum, the only Spartan colony ever to be established, was founded in 706 BC by the Partheniae - Spartan children born to unmarried women as a product of Spartan desperation to ensure the survival and continuation of their demographic during the bloody Messenian wars, who were later disowned and expelled by the state - and Perioeci (subjects, but not citizens of Sparta), under the leadership of the Parthenian Phalanthos. According to legend, Phalanthos consulted the oracle at Delphi, and was told that he should found his new city ‘where rain fell from a clear sky’. After much searching, and despairing of finding a suitable location for a city, Phalanthos was consoled by his wife Aethra who laid his head in her lap, and as her tears splashed upon his forehead he understood the oracle’s words for his wife’s name itself meant ‘clear sky’, and thus he determined to make the nearby harbour the site of their new home, which they named after Taras, the son of Poseidon and the nymph Satyrion.

122. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 332-302 BC. Warrior on horseback right, preparing to cast spear downward with right hand, holding shield and two spears in left hand, HPAKL below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding shield and spears in left hand and extending right hand upon which Nike flies right to crown him; ΦΙ below, ΤΑΡΑΣ behind. HN Italy 936; Vlasto 599 (these dies); SNG ANS 994 (these dies). 7.87g, 22mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

1,250

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 490 (then noted as sold with official documentation from the United Kingdom proving that it was outside Italy prior to 19th January 2011).

30


123. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 280-272 BC. Nude youth on horse standing to left, looking up at figure standing right as he unbridles horse with both hands; ΓY to right, API-ΣTI-Π in three lines below / Taras, holding bow and arrow, astride dolphin right, elephant to right below, ΤΑΡΑΣ behind. Vlasto 736; HN Italy 1000. 6.47g, 22mm, 9h. Good Very Fine.

124

1,250

125

124. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 275-235 BC. Lykinos, magistrate. Nude rider crowning horse left, ΣΥ to right, ΛΥKΙ-ΝΟΣ in two lines below / Taras astride dolphin left, brandishing trident, wearing chlamys around shoulders and left arm, owl standing left, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 836; HN Italy 1025; SNG ANS 1165. 6.53g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful old toning. 1,500 Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot10; Ex Norman Davis Collection; Gemini VII, 9 January 2011, lot 27. 125. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 275-235 BC. Aristokrates, magistrate. Youth on horseback right, crowning horse; behind, Nike flying right, crowning youth; APIΣTO-KPATHΣ in two lines below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding cornucopiae and trident; PI to left, herm to right, TARAS below. Vlasto 908; HN Italy 1041. 6.59g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned. 1,250 Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 14.

126. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC. Olympis, magistrate. Horseman riding right, brandishing spear; wreath to left, OΛYMΠIΣ below / Taras, holding kantharos and cornucopiae, astride dolphin left; tripod to right. Vlasto 942; HN Italy 1055. 6.28g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

500

127. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC. Kallikrates, magistrate. Warrior, holding Nike, who crowns him, in extended right hand, on horse rearing right; monogram behind, KAΛΛIKPA-THΣ in two lines below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding Nike, who crowns him, in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; ligate NE behind, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 963; HN Italy 1059; SNG ANS 1260; SNG Lloyd 230; SNG France 2059-60; Dewing 316. 6.44g, 19mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,000

128. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Circa 280-272 BC. Apollo..., magistrate. Nude youth on horseback right, crowning horse that raises left foreleg; EY above, ΑΠΟΛΛΩ and two amphorae below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding kantharos and cradling long trident; ΘI behind, TAPAΣ below. HN Italy 1010; Vlasto 763; SNG ANS 1119. 6.51g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

31

1,500


Exceptional Campano-Tarentine Issue

129. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Campano-Tarentine issue. Circa 281-228 BC. Diademed head of the nymph Satyra left wearing triple-drop earring / Nude youth on horseback right, crowning horse with raised left foreleg; TA and dolphin below, cornucopiae behind. Vlasto 1038ff; SNG ANS 1288; HN Italy 1098; Volcano hoard IGCH 2210. 7.00g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine, and the best example offered for sale in many years. Rare.

1,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 199, 10 October 2011, lot 27. The Campano-Tarentine series dates to around the middle of the 3rd century BC, and are usually said to have been struck somewhere in Campania or Lucania. The type displays not the usual horseman and dolphin rider combination, but instead the obverse is occupied by a nymph resembling those on the coinage of Neapolis. Furthermore, the coins are struck on the standard not of Tarentum, being 0.8 grams lighter on average, but of those cities on the west coast of Magna Graecia, hence the credence given to this theory. However, the question of where these coins were struck and which region they were intended for, was addressed by J.G. Milne (An Exchange-Currency of Magna Graecia), who convincingly argues that it was more likely they were produced in Tarentum for circulation in or trade with the Greek cities of Bruttium, and that they should therefore be properly referred to as Bruttio-Tarentine coinage.

130. Calabria, Tarentum AR Drachm. Circa 302-280 BC. Zor..., magistrate. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with Skylla hurling a stone / TAP, owl with folded wings standing right, head facing; in right field, ZOP downwards and olive branch. Vlasto 1047; SNG ANS 1303. 3.30g, 16mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned and excellent condition for the type.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 9; Ex BVH Collection; Heritage 3012, 2 January 2011, lot 24377.

131. Calabria, Tarentum AR Diobol. Circa 380-325. Helmeted head of Athena right / Herakles kneeling right, strangling Nemean lion with left hand and holding club with right. Vlasto 1294; HN Italy 911. 1.26, 11mm, 3h. Good Very Fine.

32

150


BRUTTIUM Ex Leu 54

2x 132. Calabria, Tarentum AV 1/12 Stater. Struck under Alexander I ‘the Molossian’, King of Epeiros, circa 334-331 BC. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly left / Thunderbolt, ΑΛ-ΕΞ around. Vlasto, Alexander, type 6; cf. Fischer-Bossert G3; Vlasto 1864–5; cf. HN Italy 906. 0.66g, 9mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine.

3,000

Ex Leu 54, 28 April 1992, lot 3. As the son of Neoptolemus I and brother of Olympias, Alexander I was uncle to Alexander the Great and Pyrrhos of Epeiros. He was brought at an early age to the court of Philip II of Macedon, and at the age of about 20, Philip made him king of Epeiros, after dethroning his uncle Arymbas. When Philip repudiated his wife Olympias, she came to her brother’s court and endeavoured to induce him to make war on Philip. Alexander and Philip however instead cemented their alliance with the marriage of Alexander to Philip’s daughter Cleopatra. It was at their wedding that Philip was assassinated by his one of his somatophylakes (personal bodyguard), Pausanias of Orestis. In 334 Alexander was induced by the Greek city of Tarentum to aid them in battle against the agressive native tribes of Southern Italy. Crossing over to Italy, he won a victory over the Samnites and Lucanians near Paestum in 332 BC, and took Heraklea from the Lucanians, and Terina and Sipontum from the Bruttii. At the Battle of Pandosia in 331 however, the Greek phalanx was separated, surrounded and destroyed, with Alexander himself killed on the field. This defeat at Pandosia marked the end of Greek colonisation and expansion in Italy; the Greek cities would increasingly find themselves under pressure from the Oscan tribes.

133. Bruttium, Kroton AR Triobol. Circa 400-350 BC. Tripod, KPO to left, leaf to right / Thunderbolt; star to left; to right, eagle standing right, head left, on Ionic column. Attianese 172; HN Italy 2185. 1.03g, 13mm, 10h. Very Fine.

200

134. Bruttium, Lokroi Epizephyrioi Æ27. Circa 287-278 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right; EY above / Persephone seated right, holding phiale and poppy-head sceptre; two stars flanking her head. HN Italy 2383; SNG ANS 570-1. 11.90g, 27mm, 10h. Good Very Fine.

500

From a private German collection.

135. Bruttium, Rhegion AR Drachm. Circa 450-445 BC. Lion’s head facing / Iokastos seated left on stool, himation over lower limbs, holding sceptre in right hand and resting left on hip; RECINON around, all within laurel wreath. SNG ANS 643-650; Herzfelder 12 = McClean 1868 (same dies: D6/ R11) 6 examples with these dies cited by Herzfelder. 4.24g, 18mm, 9h. Usual die flaw to obv., but reverse lustrous and attractive.

33

250


Highly Attractive Tetradrachm of Rhegion

136. Bruttium, Rhegion AR Tetradrachm. Circa 435 BC. Facing lion’s head / Iocastus seated left on diphros, holding staff in right hand and resting left on back of seat, RECINON (retrograde) around, all within olive wreath border. HN Italy 2483; Herzfelder 42A. 17.32g, 30mm, 12h. Very Rare. Good Very Fine.

15,000

Well centred obverse of good style, attractively highlighted with gold iridescent toning. From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Peter Guber Collection, Manhattan Sale II, 4 January 2011, lot 7; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 33, 6 April 2006, lot 52. The lion on the obverse of Rhegion’s coinage is the sacred animal of Apollo, patron god of colonisation. The seated figure on the reverse has no distinctive attributes that aid identification, however current interpretations attribute him as being Iocastos, son of Aiolos, and who was king over much of the toe of Italy. That he died from the effects of a snake-bite we learn from Heraklides, a pupil of Plato: “Rhegion was founded by Chalkidians who had left Euripas on account of a pestilence; they were aided by Messenians, who settled down first near the grave of Iocastos, one of the sons of Aiolos, whom they say died from the bite of a snake.” The fact that his brothers Pheraimon and Agathurnos were commemorated on coins of Messana and Tyndaris renders it likely that Iocastos should likewise be made the subject of a type.

137. Bruttium, Terina AR Stater. Circa 445-425 BC. Head of the nymph Terina left, wearing ampyx and earring, her hair tied up; all within olive wreath / Nike seated to left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand and resting left on stool, [TEPI]NAIΩN above. McClean pl. 62, 3 (same dies); Holloway-Jenkins 18; HN Italy 2576; Regling 18. 7.74g, 22mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica Auction Q, 6 April 2006, lot 1149. Little is known of the history of Terina. The city was probably founded by Kroton around the time of the Krotoniate defeat of Sybaris circa 510 BC. A war with Thourioi is attested a few years after 444/3 BC. In 356 the city was besieged and taken by the Brettians, and it became a Brettian community, despite being briefly liberated by Alexander the Molossian in 333. Ultimately, Terina was razed by Hannibal in 203 and never rebuilt.

34


138. Bruttium, Terina AR Stater. Circa 420-400 BC. Head of the nymph Terina to right, ΤΕΡΙΝΑΙΟΝ behind / Winged Nike seated to left, resting left hand on cippus, holding olive branch in right hand over crane which stands before her. HN Italy 2619; SNG Lloyd 756 (same dies); Holloway and Jenkins 66 (same dies). 7.82g, 20mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Beautiful style. Very Rare.

5,000

Ex Stack’s, Stack and Kroisos Collections, 14 January 2008, lot 2279.

139. Bruttium, Terina AR 1/3 Stater. Circa 325-300 BC. Head of the nymph Terina to right, TEPI behind / Nike seated to left on a cippus, the base shown in perspective, a small bird resting on outstretched right hand. Holloway & Jenkins 96; HN Italy 2634; SNG München 1741; cf. SNG ANS 858. 2.33g, 15mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful old tone. Very Rare.

1,000

Privately purchased from Tom Cederlind, 26 April 2012.

Ex Berlin Museum Collection; Hirsch 1910

140. Bruttium, Terina AR Drachm. Circa 300 BC. Head of nymph Terina left, wearing triple-drop earring and pearl necklace; TEPINAIΩN to left, triskeles behind / Nike, wearing chiton and himation, seated left on square cippus, dove alighting on her extended right hand; star to left. SNG Lockett 680 (this reverse die); Holloway & Jenkins 114. 2.46g, 17mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Rare. Beautiful old tone over good metal, with appealing iridescent highlights around the devices.

5,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Dove Collection, Morton & Eden, 9 June 2011, lot 201; Ex Leu 54, 28 April 1992, lot 19; Ex Ars Classica 15, 2 July 1930, lot 262; Ex Berlin Museum Collection, Hirsch 26 (Berlin Duplicates), 1910, lot 358.

141. Bruttium, Carthaginian Occupation AR Half-Shekel. Punic mint in Bruttium, circa 215-211 BC. Struck during the Second Punic War. Wreathed head of Tanit left / Horse standing right; palm-tree behind. SNG Copenhagen 367-68; HN Italy 2019. 3.57g, 18mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

35

1,500


NORTH AFRICA

142. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 350-310 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace / Horse standing right on single ground line, on which two pellets. Jenkins & Lewis, Group IV D, 328-329. 7.52g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Attractive red tone around the devices.

143

1,500

144

143. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; two pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis, Group V, 273. 7.55g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine. 1,200 144. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; two pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis, Group V, 273. 7.61g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. 1,000

SICILY

145. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. Circa 310-300 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Horse’s head left, palm tree with date clusters behind; ‘MHSBM’ (Paymaster, or Quaestor) in Punic characters below. Dewing 983; Jenkins, Punic 394. 16.92g, 24mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

2,500

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 48; Ex Goldberg 59, 30 May 2010, lot 2056.

A Very Rare Panormos Tetradrachm

146. Sicily, Panormos (as Ziz) AR Tetradrachm. Circa 340-310 BC. Charioteer holding kentron and reins, driving galloping quadriga to left; Nike flying above to crown charioteer; Punic script ‘ṢYṢ’ (Ziz) below exergual line / Head of Arethusa left, wearing grain wreath, pendant earring and necklace; scallop shell below chin, four dolphins around. Jenkins 78; SNG Copenhagen 502; SNG ANS 540; SNG Lloyd 1586. 17.08g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Beautiful style. Very Rare.

36

7,500


Very Rare Bronze of Entella

147. Sicily, Entella Æ Tetras. Circa 410 BC. Head of nymph to left, hair in sphendone and ampyx, olive sprig behind / Diademed, bearded male head to right, ENTEΛ before. SNG ANS, Addenda 1324; Calciati I, 317, 1. 3.47g, 18mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

300

Beautiful Litra of Abakainon

2x

2x

148. Sicily, Abakainon AR Litra. Circa 430-420 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Boar standing right, acorn before; ABAKA-INI around. Bertino 13-14; Campana CNAI PN 95, 10b; HGC 2, 10. 0.71g, 12mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very well preserved for the type.

500

Abakainon was a city of the native Siculi, and it does not appear to have ever received a Greek colony, though it did adopt the customs and influences of Greek civilization and art. Its territory originally included the site of Tyndaris, which was separated from it by the Syracusan tyrant Dionysios when he founded that city in 396 BC. In that time, Abakainon appears to have been a settlement of some considerable size, but it was quickly eclipsed by Tyndaris and declined in size and prosperity. The boar and acorn must refer to the great oak forests that still cover the neighbouring mountains. Such forests would have provided pasture to large herds of swine, which it is logical to assume was one of the main sources of Abakainon’s wealth.

High Grade Akragas Tetradrachm

149. Sicily, Akragas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-420 BC. Sea eagle standing left with folded wings, AKRACANTOΣ around / Crab within shallow incuse circle. SNG ANS 979; SNG Lloyd 810 (this obverse die). 17.09g, 24mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. Well struck for the type; beautifully toned. From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Tkalec Auction, 7 May 2009, lot 10.

37

12,500


38


A Spectacular Tetradrachm of Akragas

150. Sicily, Akragas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 460-446 BC. Sea eagle standing left on Ionic capital, AKRACANTOΣ around / Crab; spiralled tendril ornament with floral terminals below; all within shallow incuse circle. SNG ANS 982 var.; Lee Group II; cf. SNG Lockett 695 for same obverse die, 696 for reverse type but different die. 17.54g, 25mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

30,000

Ex James Howard Collection, Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 56 (sold for £42,000 but not paid). Published in Roma Numismatics VII was the first of the Howard collection’s two truly spectacular Akragas tetradrachms (lot 85), which bore an inverted dolphin as the reverse adjunct symbol. A comparison between these two exemplars of Akragantine coinage is extremely difficult, for both are of a quality that collectors have seldom, if ever, been offered the chance to acquire. Although this coin’s reverse symbol may be considered somewhat less exotic than that of its above mentioned brother, the eagle’s head is undeniably more detailed, and its plumage sharper - indicative of an overall slightly greater state of preservation. Indeed, the freshness of the metal and the lightly toned, satin finish are quite remarkable; this coin should certainly be considered to be amongst the very finest of its type.

151. Sicily, Akragas Æ Tetras. Circa 420-406 BC. AKPA, eagle, with head lowered, standing right on hare; crab behind / Crab, shrimp to left below; three pellets below crab. SNG ANS 1037; Calciati I p. 178, 50; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Morcom -; Laffaille -; Virzi 603. 9.40g, 23mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Excellent condition for the type, and for Akragantine bronze in general.

39

750


152. Sicily, Akragas Æ Hemilitron. Circa 400-380 BC. Diademed head of river-god left, ΑΚΡΑΓΑΣ before / Sea eagle standing left on Ionic column, head right; crab to left, six pellets (mark of value) to right. CNS I 89; SNG ANS 1097-1101. 17.84g, 26mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. A very attractive example of the type. Rare.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 65.

153. Sicily, Akragas AR Drachm or 1/2 Shekel. Circa 213-211 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Sea eagle standing right with spread wings; ΔΓ monogram to right. SNG ANS 1135. 3.33g, 20mm, 11h. Pleasantly toned. Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 74. Akragas suffered badly during the Second Punic War, during which both Rome and Carthage fought to control it. This coin dates from the time of the Punic occupation. The Romans eventually captured Akragas in 210 BC and renamed it Agrigentum.

154. Sicily, Gela AR Didrachm. Circa 490-475 BC. Horseman with spear galloping left / Forepart of man-headed bull right, ΓEΛAΣ below. Jenkins, Gela, 50; HGC 2, 364; BMC 18. 8.36g, 21mm, 5h. Very Fine. Lightly toned.

300

Ex Frank James Collection.

Attractive Tetradrachm of Gela

155. Sicily, Gela AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-475 BC. Bearded charioteer, holding reins with both hands, driving walking quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with wreath / Forepart of man-headed bull right, CEΛAΣ around. Jenkins, Gela 104, 15; SNG ANS 22; Randazzo 19; SNG Oxford 1727 (all same dies). 17.21g, 25mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

3,750

Ex Roma Numismatics VI, 29 September 2013, lot 369. The city of Gela was jointly founded by colonists from Crete and Lindos, Rhodes, 45 years after the foundation of Syracuse, around 688 BC. The city took its name from the nearby river, which itself was given the appellation Gela on account of the icy coldness of its waters, the word gela meaning ‘ice’ in the languages of the Opici and Siculi, as it does in Latin.

40


156. Sicily, Gela AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-475 BC. Bearded charioteer, holding reins with both hands, driving walking quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with wreath / Forepart of man-headed bull right, CEΛAΣ around. Jenkins, Gela 104 (O32/R59); SNG ANS 22; Randazzo 19; SNG Oxford 1727 (all same dies). 17.30g, 24mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

3,000

Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 3, 30 November 2013, lot 49.

157

158

157. Sicily, Gela AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-475 BC. Bearded charioteer, holding reins with both hands, driving walking quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with wreath / Forepart of man-headed bull right, CEΛAΣ around. Jenkins, Gela 104 (O32/R59); SNG ANS 22; Randazzo 19; SNG Oxford 1727 (all same dies). 17.10g, 23mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 600 158. Sicily, Gela AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-470 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with wreath / Forepart of man-headed bull right, CEΛAΣ around. Jenkins, Gela 110 (O33/R65); SNG ANS 24 (same obv. die). 17.01g, 24mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Lightly toned and lustrous. 700

159. Sicily, Gela AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-470 BC. Bearded charioteer, holding reins with both hands, driving walking quadriga to right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with wreath / Forepart of man-headed bull right, CEΛAΣ around. Jenkins, Gela 167 (O46/R102); SNG ANS 36. 16.90g, 25mm, 11h. Near Good Very Fine.

750

160. Sicily, Gela AR Litra. Circa 465-450 BC. Horse standing right with bridle; wreath above / Forepart of man-headed bull right. Jenkins, Gela 278. 0.63g, 12mm, 8h. Mint State.

500

161. Sicily, Gela AR Litra. Circa 430-425 BC. Warrior on horseback to left, holding shield and spear / ΓΕΛΑΣ above forepart of man-headed bull to right. Jenkins 401ff. 0.82g, 13mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine.

41

500


2x 162. Sicily, Herbessos AR Litra. Circa 340 BC. Diademed, bearded male head right / Wreathed head of Sikelia right. SNG ANS -; SNG München -; Campana, Erbessos, CNAI PN 116, 1997, 1. 0.70g, 10mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare, and certainly one of the finest known specimens.

1,000

163. Sicily, Himera AR Chalkidian Drachm. Circa 520-482 BC. Cockerel standing left / Mill sail pattern incuse design. SNG Lockett 779; Kraay, The archaic Coinage of Himera, 103 (D74/R61). 5.46g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned and superb for the type. Very Rare. Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 48.

5,000

The Chalkidian colony of Himera, one of the first cities to begin coining in Sicily, followed the monetary standard of its mother city Chalkis, in Euboia. There the basic denomination was the stater of approximately 17.4 grams; the heaviest fractions being third staters. While neither Himera nor the other Chalkidian colonies Naxos or Zankle minted Euboian standard staters, they did strike smaller fractions, including the third, which are referred to as Chalkidian drachms.

164. Sicily, Himera AR Chalkidian Drachm. Circa 500 BC. Cockerel standing right / Hen standing right within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen -; Kraay 152; de Luynes 970; de Nanteuil 287 (same dies). 4.97g, 20mm, 7h. Very Fine. Rare.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 100.

165. Sicily, Himera Æ Hemilitron. Circa 430-420 BC. Gorgoneion with protruding tongue and furrowed cheeks / Six pellets. Calciati I, 24. 26.31g, 18mm. Good Very Fine. Attractive emerald green patina.

1,500

2x 166. Sicily, Himera AR Litra. Circa 420-410 BC. Head of Herakles to right wearing lion skin headdress, IMEPAIΩN before / Archaistic Palladion: statue of Pallas Athena standing facing, holding spear aloft in right hand, preparing to strike, on left arm, a shield. SNG Copenhagen -; SNG ANS -; Lanz 151, lot 251. 0.64g, 10mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

42

500


Beautifully Toned Himera Tetradrachm

167. Sicily, Himera AR Tetradrachm. Circa 409-408 BC. Signed by the artist MAI(...). The nymph Himera driving a galloping quadriga right, Nike flying left above, holding wreath and tablet inscribed MAI; hippocamp left in exergue / The nymph Himera, wearing a long chiton and peplos, standing left, holding a phiale in her right hand and raising her left; to left, horned altar; to right, satyr standing right, showering in a fountain with a lion’s head spout. Basel 306; Guttmann & Schwabacher 20; Kraay-Hirmer 71; Arnold-Biucchi 22. 17.51g, 27mm, 11h. Mint State. Bold iridescent toning.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Nomos 5, 25 October 2011, lot 114; Ex European Collection, purchased circa 1980. The reverse of this coin shows the nymph Himera at the city’s principle altar, which was likely to have been that of Asklepios. The satyr to right bathes in the warm waters of the spring at Himera. The tablet on the obverse of this coin is the only known die signed by the artist ‘MAI...’; it is very possible that the career of this evidently talented artist was cut short by the complete destruction of Himera at the hands of the Carthaginian general Hannibal Mago.

168. Sicily, Kamarina Æ Tetras. Circa 425-400 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet with wing-shaped cheek guards folded up / Owl standing to left, head facing; lizard to left, KAMA to right, three pellets in exergue. Westermark-Jenkins 202; Calciati III, 39; SNG München 421. 3.05g, 15mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

169. Sicily, Kamarina Æ Tetras. Circa 420-405 BC. Facing gorgoneion / Owl standing right, head facing; lizard to left, KAMA to right, ••• (mark of value) in exergue. CNS III, 21; Westermark-Jenkins 195. 3.09g, 15mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful green patina.

43

750


Extremely Rare Type

170. Sicily, Katane AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-450 BC. The river god Amenanos as a bearded, man-headed bull kneeling to right, fish below; above, a heron standing upon his back and walking left / Nike, wearing long chiton, advancing left, holding taenia in her outstretched right hand; KATANE around. Rizzo pl. IX, 2 (same dies); Randazzo pl. 3, 48-53 (same rev. die); Kraay-Hirmer 31 (same obv. die); Randazzo -; SNG ANS -; Boehringer Ognina 74 (same obv. die); Ognina Hoard AttiMem pl. 1, 3 (same obv. die). 17.31g, 29mm, 3h. Obverse die heavily used; Extremely Fine, light grey tone. Extremely Rare.

20,000

From a private American collection. The city of Katane, founded around 729 BC by Chalkidic colonists from Naxos, was established on the site of the archaic village of the same name that was then peopled by the indigenous Sikels, who had named their village after the rugged black lava landscape (katane, meaning sharp stones). The native Sikels were rapidly hellenized, but the Naxian founders kept the autochthonal name for their new home on the banks of the river Amenanos. This outstanding coin, and those others present in this catalogue, were all struck within a few years of the refoundation of the city, issued in celebration of the return of the Chalkidic inhabitants of Katane to their homeland following the Aitna episode. Hieron, tyrant of Syracuse, had forcibly transferred the populations of Katane and Naxos, Katane’s parent city, to Leontinoi, renamed Katane as Aitna and settled it with 5000 colonists from Syracuse and 5000 Dorians from the Peloponnese. However, after the death of Hieron in 466 and the overthrow of his brother Thrasybulos less than a year later, relations between the newly democratic Syracuse and its former colony soured, leading to war in 461. Allied with the Sikels under Douketios, Syracuse through several battles compelled the newly settled inhabitants to retire to the fortress of Inessa (to which they gave the name of Aitna), while the old Chalkidic citizens were reinstated in the possession of the city. The obverse depicts clear civic types referencing both the life-giving river by which Katane was sited, and other types (see following lot) reference the wine-grapes that must have been key to the city’s prosperity through use of the type of Silenos. The taenia borne by Nike on the reverse here almost certainly alludes to the fall of the Deinomenid tyranny that, with the aid of Syracuse and the native Sikels, allowed the displaced people to return to their ancestral home.

171. Sicily, Katane AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-450 BC. The river god Amenanos as a bearded, man-headed bull kneeling to right, fish below; above, a heron standing upon his back and walking left / Nike, wearing long chiton, in flight upwards to right, holding open wreath in hands, upturned murex shell below; KATANE before. Rizzo pl. IX, 1 (same dies); Kraay-Hirmer 31 (same dies); Randazzo -; SNG ANS -; Boehringer Ognina 74 (same dies); Ognina Hoard AttiMem pl. 1, 3 (same dies). 16.71g, 28mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine, obverse surface slightly rough. Extremely Rare. One of very few known examples. From a private English collection.

3,000

The reverse of this coin has been hailed as a masterpiece of numismatic art for its portrayal of Nike in flight as she holds an open wreath. The presence of the murex shell beneath Nike is its only appearance on the coinage of Katane, and is important evidence for at least one source of the city’s wealth, for this mollusc was the source of the luxury ‘Tyrian’ purple dye, which product was worth more than its own weight in gold.

44


Ex Moretti Collection

172. Sicily, Katane AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-450 BC. The river god Amenanos as a bearded, man-headed bull swimming to right; above, a nude horse-tailed Silenos kneeling to right on left knee, stretching left hand over the god’s head; ketos to right in exergue / Nike, wearing long chiton, advancing left, holding taenia in her outstretched right hand; KATANAION around. Rizzo pl. 9, 14 (these dies); Giesecke, Sicilia pl. 4, 1 (these dies); Mirone 31 no. 19 (these dies). 16.89g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Excellent quality for the issue. An extremely rare variety of an already very rare and spectacular series of coinage. 25,000 From the Ambrose Collection; Ex A. Moretti Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica 13, 8 October 1998, lot 382. The tetradrachms of Katane are today nearly without exception seen in poor condition, being corroded, poorly struck, off centre, double struck and over struck, from dies that were used to destruction. While displaying some limited evidence of corrosion, this example is remarkable for the precision of its striking and preservation that make it one of the finest examples not in a public collection. The prominence of Amenanos, the personification of the river that flowed through the territory of Katane (whose name itself can be translated as ‘harsh land’ or ‘rough soil’), on the early coinage of Katane suggests the vital importance of the river to the sustenance of the city, and the fertility of the surrounding lands. The Silenos most likely alludes to the fruit of the vine as an important part of the Katanaian economy, and the ketos similarly makes reference to the fruits of the sea.

173. Sicily, Katane AR Litra. Circa 410-405 BC. Head of Silenos left / KATANAIΩN, upright winged thunderbolt flanked by shields at both sides. C. Boehringer, ‘Katanishe Probleme: Silberne Kleinstmünzen’, in T. Hackens and W. Raymond (ed.), Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of numismatics, Luxembourg 1979, Bern 1982, pp. 71-83, 6; SNG Copenhagen 182. 0.77g, 12mm 11h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

45

500


174. Sicily, Kentoripai Æ Tetrachalkon. Circa 344-336 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right; [eagle] behind / KENTOPIΠINΩN, Thunderbolt; Δ below. CNS 3; SNG ANS 1311. 12.67g, 26mm, 2h. Good Very Fine.

300

Ex J. Swithenbank collection.

175. Sicily, Kephaloidion AR Litra. Circa 307-305 BC. EK ΚΕΦΑΛΟΙΔΙON, head of young Herakles to right wearing lion skin headdress / HEΡΑΚΛΕΙΩTAN, bull butting to right, AK monogram above. Campana CNAI, PN131 1999, 3b = Jenkins, AIIN 20 suppl. 1975, p. 98, 3b = de Luynes 915. 0.75g, 12mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; only 4 examples of this variant cited by Campana.

750

2x 176. Sicily, Zankle-Messana AR Litra. Circa 500-493 BC. Dolphin swimming to left within crescent harbour, ΔΑΝΚΛΕ below; dotted border within plain double border around / Nine-part incuse square with cockle shell at centre. Gielow 72-78; SNG Lloyd 1078; SNG Ashmolean 1819. 0.73g, 13mm. Near Mint State. Struck on a very broad flan encompassing full borders, and in exceptional state of preservation.

177

1,500

178

177. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-470 BC. Seated charioteer, holding reins with both hands, driving mule biga right; bay leaf in exergue / Hare springing to right, MESSENION around. Caltabiano 173; SNG ANS 318 (same dies); Randazzo 105–6 (same dies). 17.04g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Lightly toned. 600 178. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480-461 BC. Seated charioteer, holding reins with both hands, driving mule biga right; bay leaf in exergue / Hare springing to right, MESSENION around. Caltalbiano 137; SNG ANS 318; Randazzo 125 (same dies). 17.14g, 25mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. 600

179

180

179. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. Circa 420-413 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving mule biga to right, MEΣΣANA around; two dolphins, confronted, in exergue / Hare springing to right, dolphin to left below; MEΣΣANION around. Caltabiano 531 (D209/R225) = SNG ANS 363; SNG Copenhagen 401 (same dies). 17.14g, 24mm, 12h. Very Fine. 1,000 Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 125. 180. Sicily, The Mamertinoi Æ Quadruple. Messana, circa 288-278 BC. Laureate head of Ares right; symbol behind / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt. Cf. SNG ANS 402; cf. Särström Series II-III. 17.92g, 29mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. 300

46


181. Sicily, The Mamertinoi Æ Hexas. Messana, circa 270-220 BC. Laureate head of youthful Ares to right; two pellets behind head, ΑΡΕΟΣ before / Athena Promachos advancing to right, holding transverse spear in her right hand and resting her left on shield set on the ground before her; MAMEPTINΩN behind. CNS I 21; SNG ANS 420-422; Särström Series X, 155; SNG Morcom 631. 8.60g, 23mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. A superb specimen of this rare type with a wonderful, intact patina.

3,000

From a private German collection.

182. Sicily, Morgantina AR Litra. Circa 339-317 BC. Head of Athena three quarters facing, wearing triple crested helmet / Nike seated left on rock, holding wreath in her right hand. SNG Lloyd 1125 (these dies); Morgantina studies group III, 2 (these dies); Campana 3 A/b; BMC 4. 1.05g, 12mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Attractive old collection tone with hints of iridescence.

250

Ex Frank James Collection.

183. Sicily, Naxos AR Drachm. Circa 460-430 BC. Bearded head of Dionysos right, wearing tainia decorated with an ivy branch / Nude and bearded Silenos squatting half-left, holding kantharos in right hand and resting his left hand on his knee, tail behind; NAXION around; all within shallow concave circular incuse. Cahn 56 (V41/R47); HGC 2, 990; SNG Lloyd 1152; BMC 9; Jameson 676; de Luynes 1064; Pozzi 507 (all from the same dies). 4.26g, 18mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

5,000

Though not as rare as its earlier counterpart, this wonderful type is however notoriously difficult to obtain in high grade. In contrast to the earlier archaic drachm, the god Dionysos has on this type become increasingly humanised, with a less severe appearance not too dissimilar we may imagine from noblemen of that time. The reverse appears to continue the development away from static, romanticised scenes, instead portraying Silenos in a rather less than reverential pose, clearly inebriated and with an apparent carefree disregard for himself or his surroundings - instead preoccupied solely with his drinking cup.

184. Sicily, Selinos AR Didrachm. Circa 540-515 BC. Selinon leaf; two pellets below / Dekapartite incuse punch. Arnold-Biucchi Group I, 4 var. (four pellets on obverse); Selinus Hoard 19 (same dies); SNG ANS 667 (same obverse die); SNG Copenhagen 592. 9.07g, 22mm. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal, lightly toned. Ex Tony Hardy Collection; Triton VIII, 11 January 2005, lot 74.

47

4,000


A Remarkable, Statuesque Reverse

185. Sicily, Selinos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 455-415 BC. Artemis driving slow quadriga right, holding reins in both hands, Apollo standing on her right, discharging an arrow; barley grain in exergue / River-god Selinos standing left, sacrificing with phiale over flaming altar, holding laurel branch in left hand, cock before altar, bull behind to left, standing on pedestal decorated with laurel garland, surmounted by selinon leaf; ΣΕΛΙΝΟΝΤΙΟΝ around. W. Schwabacher, Die Tetradrachmenprägung von Selinunt, MBNG 43, 1925, 18 (Q8/S23); SNG ANS 698; Rizzo 3, pl. XXXIII. 16.88g, 27mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful old tone with gold highlights around the devices.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 199, 10 October 2011, lot 81; Ex UBS 67, 5 September 2006, lot 5438. Selinos was one of the first Sicilian cities to issue coins, commencing c. 540-530, striking staters probably initially on the Corinthian standard, but later on the Attic. The early staters, which depicted a large selinon (celery) leaf as the obverse type, were eventually superseded by Syracusaninspired chariot designs such as the present type, which retain the early emblem of the city on the reverse as an adjunct symbol. Two other subordinate elements of the design are present which have attracted considerable attention - the cockerel before an altar, and the bull set upon a platform. Since the bull and its platform vary considerably in form and style from one die to the next, a local statue is ruled out as a possibility. A. H. Lloyd (N.C. 1935) considered these two symbols to represent the long-standing friendship of Selinos with Himera, since the cockerel was the principal type of Himera (see lot 163), and he identified the bull as the infamous brazen bull of the tyrant Phalaris of Akragas, in which he is said to have roasted his enemies alive, on the basis that Himera was one of the important acquisitions of Phalaris in his quest to become master of Sicily. Both symbols are rendered in exquisite detail, the miniature bull easily the equal of any Thourians. The principal element of the reverse however is a real tour de force. The figure is the river-god Selinos, portrayed as an idealised nude youth holding a phiale and carefully detailed laurel branch, set with a wreath of laurels about his brow. The level of anatomical detail lavished on this depiction of the river-god is nothing less than sublime; from the toned calves and well-built thighs and torso, to the rippled skin above the knee and the hollow in front of the elbow, no effort has been spared on the part of the engraver. We should not be in any doubt that the individual responsible for this masterpiece was certainly in the first rank of die engravers active in mid-late fifth century Sicily.

186. Sicily, Selinos AR Hemidrachm. Circa 410 BC. Head of Herakles facing slightly left, wearing lion-skin / Charioteer, holding kentron in extended right hand and reins in left, driving galloping quadriga left; selinon leaf above, ΣEΛINONTION in exergue. HGC 2, 1228; SNG ANS 713; SNG Lloyd 1268; Pozzi (Boutin) 1195; Rizzo pl. XXXIII, 7. 1.74g, 16mm, 1h. Very Fine. Rare. Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 139.

48

1,000


Very Attractive Archaic Didrachm

187. Sicily, Syracuse AR Didrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Gelon I, circa 490-485 BC. Nude rider on horseback right, leading a second horse on far side / Head of Arethusa right within thin linear circle, wearing hair-tie, earring and necklace, hair falling simply behind; ΣVRAQOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 51 (V28/R34); SNG ANS 11 (these dies); Antikenmuseum Basel 429 (these dies); Rizzo pl. XXXIV, 16 (these dies); Jameson 745 (these dies); SNG Lloyd 1282 (these dies). 8.64g, 20mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal, lightly toned with vivid iridescent flashes. Very Rare.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Giessener Münzhandlung 46, 30 October 1989, lot 36. This beautiful archaic didrachm dates to the time of Gelon, Tyrant of Syracuse, under whom Syracuse expanded and prospered greatly both in economic and military terms. By forcing wealthy families of conquered cities to move to Syracuse, and by initiating grand civil building programmes, Syracuse soon became extraordinarily prosperous and the greatest Greek city in the west. Gelon’s fortifications and formation of a powerful mercenary army ensure the safety of the city and indeed very probably all of Sicily. Upon the Carthaginian invasion of the island that coincided with the Persian assault on mainland Greece, Gelon led an army of 55,000 to Himera and the aid of his ally Theron, winning a decisive victory and keeping Sicily safe from Carthaginian invasion for the next seventy years. While the didrachm denomination had been introduced at Syracuse shortly after 510 BC, with the denomination indicated by the number of horses on the obverse (2= didrachm; 4 = tetradrachm), it was not until the reign of Gelon that the Syracusan monetary system was expanded to include a comprehensive series of silver fractional denominations - the drachm, obol, pentonkion, and hexas.

Rare Left-facing Quadriga

188. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Gelon I, circa 485-480 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga left; above, Nike flying to left, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 78 (V36/R44). 16.61g, 25mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Toned and attractive. Rare left facing quadriga on obverse.

49

600


189. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Gelon I, circa 485-480 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Randazzo 257; Naville Numismatics, 3 July 1933, lot 659; Noble Numismatics 103, 13 August 2013, lot 3455; cf. Boehringer 95 (O45/R-). 17.34g, 25mm, 8h. Very Fine.

750

190. Sicily, Syracuse AR Didrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Gelon I, circa 485-480 BC. Nude rider on horseback to right / Head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl diadem and necklace; ΣVRAKOΣΙΟN and three dolphins around. Jameson 748 (these dies); Pozzi 566; SNG Copenhagen 619; Dewing 700 (these dies); SNG ANS 26 (this obverse die); Kraay-Hirmer 77; Boehringer 99.6. 8.33g, 21mm, 5h. Very Fine. Rare.

191

2,500

192

191. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 480/78-475 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 149 (V66/R103); SNG ANS 42; Randazzo 316 (same dies). 17.21g, 24mm, 2h. Toned, Extremely Fine. 750 192. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 480/78-475 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga right, Nike flying above right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl diadem and necklace, ΣVRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 180 (V80/R124); Weber 1560 (same dies); Randazzo 348 (same dies). 17.24g, 25mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous. 750

193. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 480/78-475 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 221 (V97/R150); SNG ANS 76 (same reverse die). 17.17g, 24mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Lustrous and well centred. 750

50


194. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 480/78-475 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 221 (V97/R150); HGC 2, 1306; Cosimo 237 (same dies); Randazzo 380–1 (same dies); SNG ANS 76 (same reverse die). 17.17g, 24mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Lustrous and well centred.

195

750

196

195. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 480/78-475 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 228 (V102/R154); SNG ANS 78 (same obverse die). 17.22g, 26mm, 3h. Near Very Fine. 500 196. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 475-470 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 300 (V143/R208). 17.22g, 25mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine, surface smoothed in parts. Toned. 750

197. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 475-470 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 303 (V144/R210); Randazzo 467-468 (same dies); SNG ANS 99 (same dies). 17.04g, 26mm, 3h. Very Fine.

500

198. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 475-470 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑKΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 314 (V152/R220); Randazzo 482 (same dies); SNG ANS -. 17.10g, 25mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

51

750


Two Superb Tetradrachms of Syracuse

199. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 470-466 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in left, driving slow quadriga right; above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses with open wreath held in both hands; ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, hair in pearl band, wearing loop earring with single pendant and pearl necklace; ΣVRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 408 (V211/R288); SNG ANS 128; Hunterian 20; Bement 1050 (all from the same dies). 17.36g, 27mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Superbly lustrous metal with gold and purple toning. Rare.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1069.

200. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 470-466 BC. Charioteer, wearing long chiton and holding the reins in both hands, driving slow quadriga right; above, Nike flying left to crown the charioteer; ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl diadem, pearl necklace, and drop earring, hair tied in a krobylos; ΣVRΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins swimming clockwise around. Boehringer 442; Jameson 758. 17.19g, 26mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. A superb example of this simple but elegant type. Beautifully toned. Rare. Ex Leu 48, 10 May 1989, lot 60.

52

15,000


201. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 470-466 BC. Charioteer driving walking quadriga right, holding reins with both hands; Nike above, flying left to crown charioteer, ketos to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied at back with pearl headband; ΣVRAKOΣION and four dolphins swimming clockwise around. Boehringer 448 (V234/R319). 17.17g, 26mm, 9h. Evidence of old corrosion and smoothing on rev., otherwise Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

3,000

202. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 466-460 BC. Charioteer driving walking quadriga right, holding kentron and reins; Nike flying right above, crowning horses, ketos to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied with pearl headband; ΣVRΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 471; Dewing 788; Gulbenkian 261; SNG ANS 145 (all from same dies). 17.47g, 27mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous and exceptionally sharp.

6,000

From the Eckenheimer collection.

203. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 460-450 BC. Charioteer, wearing long chiton and holding the reins in both hands, driving slow quadriga right; above, Nike flying right to crown the charioteer; ketos swimming to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing pearl diadem, earring and necklace, her hair rolled in a bun at the back, ΣYRAKOΣION and four dolphins swimming clockwise around. Boehringer 509 (V268/R365); SNG ANS 162 (same dies). 17.28g, 25mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Pleasing old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

6,000

Privately purchased from Numismatica Ars Classica, January 2011.

204. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy. Circa 440-430 BC. Charioteer driving fast quadriga left; Nike above, flying right and crowning charioteer; ketos left in exergue / Diademed head of Arethusa right; ΣYRAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 604 (V296/ R410); SNG ANS 198-9; Jameson 775 (these dies). 17.02g, 25mm, 5h. Extremely Fine and attractively toned. Rare. Ex David Freedman Collection.

53

7,500


Signed by Parmenides

205. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 415-405 BC. Reverse die signed by Parmenides. Galloping quadriga driven left by charioteer who looks sideways, holding reins and kentron in left hand and raising right arm; Nike above, flying right to crown him, ear of grain in exergue / Head of Arethusa left, hair in ornate ampyx, wearing triple-pendant earring and pearl necklace; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN above, ΠAPME below; four dolphins around, one emanating from below her neck. Kreutzer Parme I b; Tudeer 77 (V27/R49); SNG ANS 287; Basel 472; BMC 212-3; Boston MFA 416 = Warren 378; SNG Lockett 976; Jameson 836; Ward 297 (all from the same dies). 17.30g, 25mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. An Arethusa portrait of great beauty with a clear signature. Very Rare.

10,000

Ex Peus 396, 5 November 2008, lot 158; Ex Peus 380, 3 November 2004, lot 254; Ex Peus 357, 28 October 1998, lot 241.

Signed by Phrygillos

206. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Hemilitron. Dionysios I, circa 415-405 BC. Obverse die signed by Phrygillos. Head of Arethusa left, hair in sphendone inscribed ΦPI; dolphin behind / Wheel of four spokes; ΣY-PA in upper quarters, dolphins in lower quarters. CNS 19; SNG ANS 412. 3.64g, 17mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Rare. A very pleasing example of a signed Syracusan bronze.

2,500

207. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Drachm. Time of Dionysios I, circa 405-367 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet decorated with wreath; ΣYPA before / Sea-star between two dolphins. CNS II 62; HGC 2, 1436. 33.22g, 30mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

500

Unpublished Bronze of Syracuse

2x 208. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Onkia. Time of Dionysios I, circa 405-400. Octopus / Two dolphins around scallop shell, pellet between their tail fins. Unpublished in the standard references. 0.86g, 10mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Unpublished in the standard references, one of three known examples.

500

Although unpublished in the standard references, two other examples are noted in the D’Arpa archive, attributed there as the smallest denomination of the 357-354 BC Zeus Eleutherios series on the grounds of similarity to the Zeus Eleutherios / Three dolphins around scallop shell series (CNS II, 76; HGC 2, 1484). However, another unpublished coin from the former Moretti collection with exactly the same reverse two dolphins and scallop shell type, but with a characteristic Kimon style head of Arethusa on the obverse, dates the issue to the late 5th century period of master engraver signed issues.

54


Ex Isadore Snyderman Collection

2x

2x

209. Sicily, Syracuse AV 100 Litrai – Double Dekadrachm. Dionysios I, circa 400-370 BC. Head of Arethusa left, hair in sakkos adorned with a star, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; ΣYPAKOΣION and pellet before, star behind / Herakles kneeling to right, strangling the Nemean Lion. Bérend 17, 4 (same dies); SNG ANS 330 (same dies). 5.81g, 14mm, 10h. Extremely Fine; light traces of double striking. Rare.

15,000

Ex Isadore Snyderman Collection; Privately purchased from J. Hirsch, early 1950s. The reverse type of Herakles strangling the Nemean lion may be a reference to Dionysios’ conflict with Carthage, who employed the African lion as one of their sigils, and featured it as the principal type on several of their coin issues.

210. Sicily, Syracuse Æ16. Timoleon and the Third Democracy. Circa 345-317 BC. ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, head of Persephone left / Pegasos flying left, [Σ] below. CNS II 79; SNG ANS 530-532. 4.69g, 16mm, 9h. Good Very Fine.

150

211. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 317-310 BC. Head of Arethusa left, wearing grain wreath, pearl necklace and triple pendant earring; ΦI below neck truncation, three dolphins around / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping quadriga left; triskeles above, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in exergue, AN monogram below. Ierardi 68; SNG ANS 640; De Hirsch 662; McClean 2817. 17.17g, 25mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. From the Eckenheimer Collection.

55

2,000


212. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Agathokles, circa 317-311 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Charioteer driving fast biga right, triskeles below, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Bérend, ‘De l’or d’Agothocle’ in Studies Price, pl. 9, 1; BAR issue 1; SNG ANS 552. 4.31g, 15mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal. Rare.

6,000

From the Ambrose Collection.

213. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Agathokles, circa 317-311 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Charioteer driving fast biga right, triskeles below, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Bérend, ‘De l’or d’Agothocle’ in Studies Price, pl. 9, 1; BAR issue 1; SNG ANS 552. 4.29g, 15mm, 10h. Traces of lustre, well centred, Near Extremely Fine.

6,000

214. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Agathokles, circa 317-310 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Charioteer driving galloping biga to right, holding reins in his left hand and kentron in his right; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around, triskeles below. SNG ANS 549. 4.28g, 15mm, 4h. Very Fine.

1,500

215. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Agathokles, circa 317-310 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Charioteer driving galloping biga to right, holding kentron and reins; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around, triskeles below. SNG ANS 549ff. 4.25g, 15mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

216. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm - 50 Litrai. Agathokles, circa 317-310 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left; kantharos behind / Charioteer driving galloping biga right, holding kentron and reins; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around, triskeles below. Cf. Bérend, l’or pl. 9, 1; cf. SNG ANS 552; SNG Copenhagen 747 var. (no obverse symbol); BMC 339; Triton VIII, 11 January 2005, 91. 4.30g, 16mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Marks on obv.

56

1,500


217. Sicily, Syracuse EL 50 Litrai. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-304 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left, altar behind / Tripod lebes, phiale above, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. Jenkins O6-R5; SNG Ashmolean 2059. 3.62g, 15mm, 4h. About Extremely Fine.

1,500

218. Sicily, Syracuse AR 4 Litrai. Gelon II, son of Hieron II, circa 240 BC. Diademed head of Gelon to left / ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣIOI ΓΕΛΩΝΟΣ, eagle with closed wings standing to right on a thunderbolt; E to left; BA to right. ANS 898-9; SNG Lloyd 1550; SNG München 1363; Weber 1704 (all same dies). 3.18g, 16mm, 5h. Extremely Fine, flaw on obv. Rare.

750

Polybius records of Gelon that he ‘made it his highest object in life to obey his father and not to consider wealth or royal power or anything else as more valuable than affection and loyalty to his parents’. His father Hieron certainly saw fit to associate him with his government, as evidenced by the coinage in his name, and appears even to have bestowed the title of king upon him. He married a daughter of Pyrrhos, and had a daughter as well as a son - the future king Hieronymos. Yet in contrast to Polybius’ account, Livy asserts that following the Roman defeat at Cannae, Gelon contravened his father’s wishes by attempting to subvert the Syracusan alliance with Rome. He also notes that Gelon’s conveniently timed death cast suspicion even on his father Hieron. Livy’s remarks should however be taken with a generous pinch of salt.

219. Sicily, Syracuse AR 10 Litrai. Hieronymos, circa 215-214 BC. Diademed head of Hieronymos left / BAΣIΛEOΣ IEPΩNYMOY, winged thunderbolt; ΞΑ above. Holloway 55 (same dies); SNG ANS 1032. 8.53g, 24mm, 1h. Fleur De Coin.

5,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 183.

220. Sicily, Syracuse AR 10 Litrai. Hieronymos. 215-214 BC. Diademed head left / BAΣIΛEΩΣ IEPΩNYMOY, winged thunderbolt; ΦI above. Holloway 33 (O17/R26); BAR issue 80; HGC 2, 1567; BMC 643 (same obv. die); de Luynes 1386 (same dies). 8.48g, 23mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful even grey tone with iridescent highlights. Ex Numismatica Genevensis VII, 27 November 2012, lot 157.

57

3,000


221. Sicily, Syracuse AR 10 Litrai. Hieronymos, 215-214 BC. Diademed head left; retrograde K behind / BAΣIΛEΩΣ IEPΩNYMOY, winged thunderbolt; KI above. Holloway 40 (O21/R32); BAR Issue 79; SNG ANS 1028 (same dies). 8.26g, 23mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

222. Sicily, Syracuse AR 10 Litrai. Hieronymos, 215-214 BC. Diademed head left / BAΣIΛEΩΣ IEPΩNYMOY, winged thunderbolt; ΦI above. Holloway 33; BAR issue 80; HGC 2, 1567; BMC 643; de Luynes 1386. 8.50g, 22mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

The Fall of Syracuse

223. Sicily, Syracuse AR 8 Litrai. Fifth Democracy, circa 214-212 BC. Signed by the engraver Ly(sid...). Head of Demeter to left, wearing wreath of grain leaves, triple pendant earring and pearl necklace; behind, owl standing left / Nike, holding goad in her right hand and reins in her left, driving quadriga galloping to right; above, monogram of ΑΡΚ; on ground line, in tiny letters, ΛΥ; [ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ in exergue]. Burnett D 53 = De Luynes 1395; Jameson 894 (this obverse die). 6.76g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica N, 26 June 2003, lot 1176. This issue belongs to the series of silver coins that continued to be minted while Syracuse was under siege by the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus. Syracuse had been ably and wisely ruled by Hieron II, who steadfastly maintained the city’s alliance with Rome. However, upon his death the throne passed to his grandson Hieronymos, who at the age of only fifteen allowed himself to be influenced by the pro-Carthaginian faction in Syracuse into renouncing the alliance his grandfather had so carefully preserved. This course of action resulted in revolution within the city; Hieronymos and his family were slain and democratic government was restored, but the following year a Roman army arrived to lay siege to the city. Though the defenders held out for three years, in part thanks to the engineering genius of Archimedes, the Romans finally stormed the city under cover of darkness. Much of the population fell back to the citadel, but this too fell after an eight month siege. As retribution for the city having changed its allegiance to Carthage at the height of the Second Punic War, and for having forced the Romans into a lengthy and costly siege while Italy and Rome herself remained in peril, the city was thoroughly sacked and the inhabitants put to the sword or enslaved. Though Marcellus gave instruction that Archimedes was to be spared, he too was slain in the sack. This extensive series of siege coinage reflects the last flourishing of Syracusan numismatic art; the diversity of the coinage is all the more impressive given that the city was being subjected to protracted warfare during this period. The series is special too for its depiction of so many deities, for whose divine assistance the people clamoured to deliver them from disaster.

58


ILLYRIA

224. Illyria, Dyrrhachion AR Stater. Circa 350-300 BC. Pegasos flying to right, Δ below / Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; club and E behind, dolphin above. Pegasi 41. 8.63g, 22mm, 9h. Good Very Fine.

300

Ex Roma Numismatics VI, 29 September 2013, lot 462.

AKARNANIA

225. Akarnania, Leukas AR Stater. Circa 435-380 BC. Pegasos flying right, Λ below / Helmeted head of Athena right; caduceus and Λ behind. Pegasi 95; BCD Akarnania 221. 8.18g, 23mm, 3h. Very Fine.

250

From the John Hayes Collection.

THESSALY

226

227

226. Thessaly, Larissa AR Obol. Circa 479-460 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa right, her hair bound and tied at the back / Jason’s sandal to right, ΛΑ above. BCD Thessaly II 350. 0.67g, 10mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. 150 227. Thessaly, Larissa AR Obol. Circa 475-450 BC. Head and neck of bull left / Head of bridled horse right, AΛ to right; all within incuse square. BCD Thessaly I 1105; BCD Thessaly II 147. 0.75g, 10mm, 3h. Very Fine. 250

228. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 450/40-420 BC. Thessalos, petasos and cloak tied at neck, holding band across head of bull leaping right / Horse running right, ΛAP above, IΣA below; all within incuse square. Lorber, Thessalian pl. 43, 53 var. (same obv. die, different legend arrangement on rev.); BCD Thessaly II 372.4 (same dies). 5.95g, 19mm, 3h. Good Very Fine.

500

229. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 450-420 BC. Thessalos, nude but for petasos and cloak tied at neck, holding band across horns of bull leaping left; branch to left, TO in exergue / Bridled horse leaping right, ΛAP IΣA around, all within incuse square. Lorber, Thessalian 41 (same dies); BCD Thessaly II 366.1 (same dies). 6.00g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

59

500


Stunning Profile Head of Larissa

230. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 400-350 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa left, wearing pearl necklace and triple-drop earring, her hair raised and bound / Bridled horse trotting right, tail curling upwards; ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ around. Obolos 7, p. 22 (pl. 3), 23 (these dies). 6.09g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; probably one of only two coins struck from this obverse die.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex BCD Collection, Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 184. Given not only the extraordinary beauty of the portrait we see here, but also the fact that it appears to be only one of two known coins struck from this obverse die, it is easy to forgive the light double striking on the reverse and the tiny metal flaw on the cheek of Larissa. The latter, far from detracting from the beauty of the piece, lends a certain charm to the artist’s fine vision of serene, noble beauty.

231. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 420-400. Head of the nymph Larissa right wearing pearl earring, her hair raised and bound in a sakkos; border of dots / ΛΑΡΙ (left to right) - ΣΑΙΑ (right to left), free horse cantering left. F. Herrmann. “Die Silbermünzen von Larissa in Thessalien” in ZfN 35, 1925, pl. 4, 5 (same dies); C. Lorber. “Thessalian Hoards and the Coinage of Larissa” in AJN 20 (2008), pl. 43, 62 (same dies); BCD collection, Triton 15, 2012, 376.4 (same obverse die); Cf. BCD collection, Nomos 4, 2011, 1130 (same obverse die). 6.04g, 19mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,500

A note by BCD in Nomos 4, 2011, 1130: “Many years ago, Herbert Cahn, speaking to a circle of collector friends, described this obverse die as his favorite die in the entire Larissa series. He went on to prove that he really meant it by bidding and buying for himself the de Sartiges coin of these dies, lot 113 at M+M auction 64 of 30 January 1984. The hammer price was CHF 5000, double the already high estimate. It was not often that the professor wanted a coin fr-om one of his own sales but when he did it always was for a good reason (I will never forget the speed with which he knocked to his name lot 150 at the Kunstfreund auction during a moment’s hesitation in the bidding and after the coin had climbed up to CHF 11,500 from an estimate of just 4500)”.

232. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 350-300 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa three-quarters facing, turned slightly to left, wearing pendant earring and plain necklace, her hair combed back behind the ampyx / Horse right, preparing to lie down; ΛΑΡΙΣ above, ΑΙΩΝ in exergue. Cf. J. Schulman 231, 6 March 1958, lot 3656 (same dies); cf. Auctiones 15, 18 September 1985, lot 88 (same obv. die). 6.13g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,500

Well struck on a large flan, this beautiful obverse die engraved in fine style diverges from the other late heads on account of the unusual combing of the nymph’s hair. Ex BCD Collection, Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 318.

60


233. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 350-300 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa three-quarters facing, turned slightly to left, wearing ampyx and necklace / Horse standing right, preparing to lie down; ΛAPIΣ above, AIΩN below. Lorber, Hoard 43 (same obv. die); BCD Thessaly 1155-7; SNG Copenhagen 120. 6.12g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1155.

Unusually Complete Stater of Larissa

234. Thessaly, Larissa AR Stater. Circa 350 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa three-quarters facing, turned slightly to left, wearing ampyx, earring and necklace / ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ, bridled horse advancing right, right foreleg raised. SNG Copenhagen 119; Jameson 1092; Hermann pl. V, 2. 11.98g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 48, 21 October 2008, lot 74; Ex LHS Sale 100, 23 April 2007, lot 223.

235. Thessaly, Magnetes Æ22. 2nd century BC. Head of Zeus right / Centaur Chiron right, holding branch over shoulder. Rogers 341a; BCD -. 8.41g, 22mm, 11h. Dark green patina, Good Very Fine.

500

236. Thessaly, Pharsalos AR Drachm. Circa 424-404 BC. Head of Athena right wearing Athenian Helmet with cheek-guards, TH behind / Horseman wearing petasos, on horseback trotting right, mace over shoulder, ΦΑΡΣ around, ΤΗ below. Lavva, Pharsalos 101. 5.91g, 21mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

61

1,500


237. Thessaly, Pherai AR Obol. Alexander, Tyrant. Circa 369-359 BC. Wheel with four spokes / Double-axe, AΛE across fields. BCD Thessaly II 702. 0.81g, 11mm. Very Fine. Rare.

400

LOKRIS

238. Lokris, Lokris Opuntii AR Stater. Circa 360-50 BC. Head of Persephone left, wearing grain wreath, triple-pendant earring, and necklace / Ajax advancing right over two spears, nude but for crested Corinthian helmet, holding short sword and shield adorned with palmette and griffin; star below, ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ to left. Gulbenkian 491 (this reverse die); BCD 58 (this reverse die); cf. Dewing 1477; BMC 27. 12.29g, 24mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 55, 8 October 2010, lot 58. Ajax of Lokris (or Ajax ‘the Lesser’), who is depicted on the reverse of this attractive type, led a fleet of forty ships from Lokris Opuntii against Troy in the Greeks’ great war on that city. At Troy’s fall, he was alleged by Odysseus to have violated a sanctuary of Athena by ravishing Cassandra, who had sought refuge there. He thus brought down the wrath of Athena upon himself and his countrymen: Ajax himself was wrecked and killed in a storm as he made his way home from the war, and the rest of the Opuntians reached home only with great difficulty. Nevertheless, they annually honoured their former leader by launching a ship fitted with black sails and laden with gifts, which they then set alight, and whenever the Lokrian army drew up for battle, one place was always left open for Ajax, whose spirit they believed would stand and fight with them.

PHOKIS

239. Phokis, Federal Coinage AR Triobol. Time of the Third Sacred War, circa 354-352 BC. Struck under Onymarchos. Bull’s head facing / Laureate head of Apollo right, lyre behind, Φ-Ω below. Williams 351 (O.245/R.213); BCD Phokis, lot 294; BMC 81, pl. III, 19. 2.54g, 14mm, 12h. Very Fine.

200

ELIS

240. Elis, Olympia AR Stater. 93rd Olympiad, 408 BC. Unsigned by the artist Da.... Eagle’s head left; below, large white poplar leaf / Thunderbolt with wings above and volutes below; all within olive-wreath. Seltman 154 (same dies), countermark XI on obverse. 11.45g, 23mm, 7h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

62

1,000


Well Preserved Olympian ‘Hera’ Mint Stater

241. Elis, Olympia AR Stater. ‘Hera’ mint, 105th Olympiad, 360 BC. Head of Hera left, wearing pendant earring and low stephane ornamented with F-A between palmettes / Eagle with closed wings standing to left, thunderbolt behind, olive wreath around. Seltman 334 (FE/ιρ). 12.05g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

6,000

Ex P. Gérard Collection, Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 246. In 476 the Greeks convened an arbitration court in Olympia to act as a mediator between the cities of the Greeks in cases of disputes to try to end the inter-city warfare that kept the Greeks divided and fractious. In commemoration of this newly found place at the heart of Greek politics the Eleans erected a massive new temple to Zeus built of marble (which would later house the gold and ivory statue by Phideas). The humble old temple was rededicated to Hera, who had no important cult at Olympia until then. It was in this rededicated temple that the ‘Hera mint’ coins were supposedly struck. A substantial coinage was struck for the 105th Olympiad in celebration of the sanctuary of Olympia having been liberated from Arkadian occupation in 363 BC. Master engravers were employed to create dies for both workshops, one of which had been closed since 380 BC. An extremely rare stater struck at the Zeus workshop (see Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 141) formalises the celebratory nature of the coinage by depicting the nymph Olympia for the first time along with the legend FAΛEIΩN OΛYMΠIA - ‘Olympia belongs to the Eleians’.

LAKONIA Superb Spartan Hemidrachm

2x 242. Lakonia, Lakedaimon (Sparta) AR Hemidrachm. Circa 125-75 BC. Laureate head of Herakles right / Amphora between the pilei of the Dioskouroi, monograms above and below; all within olive wreath. SNG Copenhagen 557; BCD Collection 853ff. 2.34g, 15mm, 9h. Fleur De Coin. Rare.

3,000

Ex Hirsch 195, 5-7 May 1997, lot 208.

ARKADIA Perfect Pheneos Obol

2x

2x

243. Arkadia, Pheneos AR Obol. Circa 370-340 BC. Bust of youthful Hermes to right, his cloak tied around his neck and with his petasos hanging behind, suspended by a cord / ΦΕ, Ram standing to right; above, kerykeion to right. BCD 1608; BMC 5; Traité II, 3, 891; Weber 4317. 0.89g, 12mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Rare. Wonderfully sound, lustrous metal. A very beautiful coin. From the Gutekunst Collection; Acquired privately before 2009.

63

5,000


244. Arkadia, Pheneos AR Obol. Circa 370-340 BC. Bust of youthful Hermes to right, his cloak tied around his neck and with his petasos hanging behind, suspended by a cord / ΦΕ, Ram standing to right; above, kerykeion to right. BCD 1608; BMC 5; Traité II, 3, 891; Weber 4317. 0.85g, 13mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

A Miniature Masterpiece

2x

2x

245. Arkadia, Stymphalos AR Obol. Circa 350 BC. Head of Herakles to right wearing lion skin headdress / Head of water bird to right, ΣΤΥΜΦΑΛΙΟΝ (retrograde) around. BCD 1703 (but from different dies); SNG Copenhagen 286; Nomos 2, 18 May 2010, 100 (same dies). 0.95g, 12mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare. Superb metal quality; this coin is among the very finest known obols of Stymphalos. From the Gutekunst Collection; Acquired privately before 2009.

5,000

246. Arkadia, Arkadian League AR Hemidrachm. Tegea, circa 460-450 BC. Zeus seated right with extended right hand on which eagle alights / Head of Kallisto three-quarters right. Williams 198; HGC 5, 1037; BCD Peloponnesos 1713-1715. 2.90g, 13mm, 2h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

400

247. Arkadia, Arkadian League AR Hemidrachm. Mantinea, circa 460-450 BC. Zeus Lykaios seated left, holding sceptre; to left, eagle flying left / Head of Kallisto left, wearing tainia; all within incuse square. Williams, Confederate, period III, 238 (O159/R146); BCD Peloponnesos (Mantinea) 1457 (same dies); BCD Peloponnesos II 2581; HGC 5, 913. 2.92g, 14mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very pleasant style.

750

CORINTHIA

248. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 400-375 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; palmette behind. Pegasi 111; Ravel 343. 7.76g, 23mm, 1h. Very Fine. Rare. Ex John Hayes Collection; Ex Gemini VII, 9 January 2011, lot 417.

64

750


249. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC. Pegasos flying left / Helmeted head of Athena right, small Corinthian helmet without crest to left. Ravel 605 (P292/T401); Pegasi 151. 8.57g, 23mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Usual die rust in area of Athena’s face.

750

250. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 400-375 BC. Pegasos flying left / Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet; dolphin above, thymiaterion behind, ivy branch with five leaves below. Pegasi 324 (these dies); Ravel 835. 8.64g, 23mm, 4h. Good Very Fine, spectacular toning. Very Rare.

2,500

Ex John Hayes Collection.

251. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 400-375 BC. Pegasos flying left; koppa below / Helmeted head of Athena left, dolphin above; behind, cockerel standing right. Pegasi 331 (this coin); Ravel 867; BCD Corinth –; SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 153. 8.32g, 23mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

Ex John Hayes Collection; Ex Triton XVI, 8 January 2013, lot 393; Ex Auctiones 11, 30 September 1980, lot 120; Ex Auctiones 8, 27 June 1978, lot 204.

252. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 375-345 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Helmeted head of Athena right; behind, N and head of cockerel to right. Pegasi 377; Ravel 1057; BCD Corinth 122; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 379; Pozzi -. 8.59g, 20mm, 4h. Light cleaning marks, otherwise virtually Mint State. Ex John Hayes Collection; Privately purchased from Roma Numismatics, 7 May 2011.

65

1,000


253. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Helmeted head of Athena right, kantharos and N behind. Pegasi 379; Ravel 1061; BMC 374. 8.48g, 21mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

Ex John Hayes Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics V, 23 March 2013, lot 196.

254. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; Δ and krater behind. Ravel 1001; Pegasi 388/1 corr.; BCD Corinth 98. 8.55g, 21mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; very pleasant old, dark grey tone. By far the best example offered in the past decade. Very Rare.

2,000

Ex John Hayes Collection; Ex D.V. Collection, Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 151 (£3,200).

255. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; A-Λ flanking neck truncation, wheel behind. Pegasi 413; Ravel 1052; BCD Corinth -; SNG Copenhagen -. 8.59g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

750

Ex John Hayes Collection.

256. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below, eagle standing left behind. Pegasi 426; Ravel 1008; BCD Corinth 101; SNG Copenhagen 73-4. 8.63g, 21mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Pleasing tone. Ex John Hayes Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 119 (£1,100).

66

1,000


257. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below neck, aegis behind. BCD -; Pegasi 427; Ravel 1009. 8.55g, 21mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

2,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 29, 11 May 2005, lot 190.

258. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 375-300 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; Δ-I flanking; behind, Artemis Phosphoros advancing left. Pegasi 453; BCD Corinth -; Ravel 1077; cf. SNG Copenhagen 98. 8.67g, 22mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned with golden iridescent flashes.

1,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Privately purchased from Numismatica Ars Classica, 2012.

Fine Style Corinthian Drachm

2x

2x

259. Corinthia, Corinth AR Drachm. Circa 308-307 BC. Pegasos flying left, Q below / Head of Aphrodite left, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied with ribbon and bound at top, falling loose behind; Δ-O across fields. Ravel, Chiliomodi Hoard, pl. X, 15; BCD 150. 2.80g, 15mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive old toning.

3,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Genevensis 7, 27 November 2012, lot 199. There was no other city in mainland Greece where the cult of Aphrodite flourished such as it did at Corinth. The goddess had her temple atop the monolithic rock known as the Acrocorinth, widely regarded as the most impressive acropolis in all of Greece. This mountain peak which towered over the city was assigned to Helios by Briareos when he acted as adjudicator between that god and Poseidon in their contest for the city, and was handed over, the Corinthians said, by Helios to Aphrodite. The temple of Aphrodite here was particularly wealthy, and according to Strabo it at one time possessed over a thousand temple slaves. A certain number of these appear to have performed a ritual courtesan function, such that Corinth became famed for its pleasures of the flesh, and rich because of it. As early as the fifth century BC we find reference to this in Pindar’s Eulogies (fragment 122): ‘Guest-loving girls! Servants of Peitho in wealthy Korinthos! Ye that burn the golden tears of fresh frankincense, full often soaring upward in your souls unto Aphrodite.’ It is fitting therefore that upon the drachms of Corinth we find a multitude of beautifully engraved images of the goddess Aphrodite. The present portrait certainly ranks among the most attractive of these.

67


A Charming Aphrodite Portrait

2x

2x

260. Corinthia, Corinth AR Drachm. Circa 350-300 BC. Pegasus flying to left, Q below / Head of Aphrodite to left, wearing pendant earring and pearl necklace; Δ before, omphalos phiale behind. BCD -; BMC 304. 2.72g, 17mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. An exceptionally beautiful coin.

2,000

Ex Höher Collection.

SIKYONIA

The Finest Known

2x

2x

261. Sikyonia, Sikyon AR Triobol. Circa 450-425 BC. Chimaera prowling to left, san below / Dove flying to right, inverted san above, inverted Τ (= triobolon) below; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 163; CNG 81 (2009), 2048 (ex BCD, same dies); SNG Copenhagen 21 = Traité 739, pl. CCXIX, 16. 3.05g, 14mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and the finest known.

3,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 273.

ARGOLIS

262. Argolis, Argos AR Obol. Circa 480-460 BC. Head of wolf left / Large A; two small incuse squares above, pellet above crossbar and at corners; all within shallow square incuse. Cf. BCD Peloponnesos 1010-1011; cf. HGC 5, 675. 0.79g, 9mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

150

263. Argolis, Argos AR Triobol. Circa 270-260/50 BC. Forepart of wolf at bay left; Θ above / Large A; monogram to upper right; below, eagle standing right on harpa right; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1113 (same rev. die). 2.63g, 14mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

68

500


264. Argolis, Argos AR Triobol. Circa 260-250 BC. Forepart of wolf to left, Θ above / Large A, Δ−Ε across field above, eagle on harpa below. BMC 61; BCD Peloponnesos 1109. 2.52g, 26mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

500

The Social War

265. Argolis, Argos AR Tetradrachm. Social War issue, circa 225-215 BC. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, bukranion with fillets tied from horns in left field, APΓ below throne. Price 727; Müller -. 16.99g, 31mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

By the end of the 220s Greece was effectively split between two great alliances - the Aitolian League on the one hand formed by the Aitolian states, Athens, Elis and Sparta, and the Hellenic Symmachy on the other, which was principally controlled by Philip V of Macedon, and Epeiros, though it also included the Achaian League and Boiotia. The Social War (or the War of the Allies, as it was also known), was fought from 220 BC to 217 BC between these two opposing powers. This issue was struck at Argos under the auspices of the Achaian League as part of that alliance’s war effort to counter the multiple invasions that were at that time bringing it near to collapse. Concerned about the prospect of Achaia forming an alliance with the territory of Messenia and thus leaving the Aitolian League surrounded by its enemies, the Aitolian strategos Ariston sent a force through Achaia to the city of Phigaleia, in Messenia. A declaration of war by Macedon and the Hellenic Symmachy followed; Achaia was then assailed from the south by Sparta under Lykurgos, from the west by Elis, and from the north by the Aitolians – attacks which Achaia was unable to face alone, and which brought it to its knees. Sikyon fared very badly – it was besieged by the Spartan Kleomenes for three months, and its territory was severely ravaged. In the winter of 219 however, Philip launched a counter-offensive, devastating Elis and central Aitolia, as well as launching a series of successful raids on Sparta. The war came to an end only when in the summer of 217, Philip received word of Rome’s crushing defeat at Lake Trasimene, and called for peace in order to focus his attentions on Rome. Despite this inconclusive end to the war, Philip was left the undisputed military power in central Greece.

266. Argolis, Epidauros AR Hemidrachm. Circa 295/80-250 BC. Laureate head of Asklepios left / Retrograde EΠ monogram within wreath. BCD 1230; Requier, SNR 72 (1993) 85 (D3/R3); SNG Copenhagen 114. 2.65g, 16mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare. Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. 400, 22 April 2010, lot 112.

PHLIASIA

750

Extremely Rare Obol of Phlious

2x 2x 267. Phliasia, Phlious AR Obol. Late 6th - Early 5th Century BC. Human leg bent to right, with prominent kneecap / Incuse square divided into six irregular compartments. BCD Peloponnesos 79; Cf. Nomos Auction 6, lot 68. 10.03g, 18mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare. Ex Gutekunst Collection.

69

1,500


ATTICA Spectacular Archaic Athens Tetradrachm

268.

Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 510-490 BC. Archaic head of Athena to right, wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron pattern and spiral / Owl standing to right, head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Seltman group L; Cf. Asyut pl. 14, 261-265; cf. Svoronos pl. 6, 8-10. 16.80g, 24mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Engraved in very fine style, well struck and lustrous. An exceptionally beautiful example of one of Athens’ earliest owl tetradrachms. 35,000 Privately purchased from Gorny & Mosch. The famous Athenian ‘owl’ tetradrachm, unquestionably one of the most influential coins of all time, was introduced by the tyrant Hippias sometime between c.525 and c.510 BC, with van Alfen offering a date of about 515 as the most current view. The basic design would remain unchanged for nearly five hundred years, be extensively copied throughout the Mediterranean, and is today, as it was then, emblematic of Greek culture. The quality of the engraving on the early owl tetradrachms varies greatly, from the sublime to some which are very crude indeed. This disparity led Seltman to propose that those tetradrachms of fine style, such as the present piece, were issues from a ‘civic’ mint in Athens, while those exhibiting little talent on the part of the engravers emanated from an ‘imperial’ mint in the Attic or Thracian hinterlands. The dies of this particular specimen are exceptionally charming, and the engraving of the owl is especially noteworthy for its elegance. This coin is certainly one of the very best early archaic Athenian owl tetradrachms to have come to the market in the past fifteen years.

70


Time of the Ionian Revolt

269.

Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 500-490 BC. Archaic head of Athena to right, wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before. Cf. Svoronos Pl. 4, 15. 17.05g, 24mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. In particularly good condition for the issue, with a full crest; struck and preserved on sound and lustrous metal. 15,000 Athens was one of the few Greek cities with significant silver deposits in their immediate territory, a remarkable stroke of fortune upon which Xenophon reflected: ‘The Divine Bounty has bestowed upon us inexhaustible mines of silver, and advantages which we enjoy above all our neighbouring cities, who never yet could discover one vein of silver ore in all their dominions.’ The mines at Laurion had been worked since the bronze age, but it would be only later in 483 that a massive new vein of ore would be discovered that enabled Athens to finance grand new schemes such as the construction of a fleet of 200 triremes, a fleet that would later prove decisive in defending Greece at the Battle of Salamis. This coin was produced in the period before the discovery of the new deposits at Laurion, around the time of the Ionian Revolt and the subsequent first Persian invasion of Greece. Athens aided the Ionian Greeks in their rebellion against Persian tyranny with both coin and soldiers, participating in the 498 BC march on Sardes which resulted in the capture and sack of that city – the only significant offensive action taken by the Ionians, who were pushed back onto the defensive and eventually subjugated once more. Vowing to punish Athens for their support of the doomed rebellion, the Persian king Darius launched an invasion of Greece, landing at Marathon in 490 BC. Just twenty five miles from Athens, a vastly outnumbered Athenian hoplite army inflicted a crushing defeat on the Persians, who after suffering horrendous casualties turned to their ships and fled.

71


270. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 490-482 BC. Archaic head of Athena right wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before. Cf. Svoronos pl. 5, 38; cf. Asyut 268. 17.74g, 24mm, 8h. Very Fine. In unusually good condition for the issue, with a full crest. Very Rare.

8,000

271. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 465-454 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / ΑΘΕ, owl standing right with head facing; to left, crescent and olive sprig; all within incuse square. Starr Group V.B. 16.96g, 26mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine. Obverse die a little worn, reverse struck in exceptional depth, well framed in a high-bordered flan.

7,500

272. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Late 450s-440s BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with three olive leaves and palmette, round earring and pearl necklace / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Cf. Starr pl. 22; Svoronos pl. 12, 1-11 var. 16.87g, 23mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,000

273. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.02g, 26mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned. Struck on a broad flan, and with a well centred reverse displaying a full incuse square.

72

2,000


274. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.16g, 27mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

3,000

275. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.21g, 25mm, 3h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

276. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.16g, 25mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,500

277. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.21g, 28mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

73

1,500


278. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.13g, 25mm, 4h. Flan crack, Good Very Fine.

750

279. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.12g, 24mm, 8h. Good Very Fine.

750

280. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-404 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and berry in upper left field, AΘE to right; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31; Dewing 1591-8. 17.19g, 24mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Test cut.

750

281. Attica, Athens AR New Style Tetradrachm. Circa 150/49 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / ΑΘΕ, Owl standing right on amphora; two monograms flanking, term of Hermes to left, uncertain letter on amphora; all within wreath. Cf. Thompson 88 (same obv. die); Svoronos, Monnaies pl. 36, 1-5; BMC Attica p. 28, 285 (same obv. die). 16.91g, 33mm, 12h. Beautiful portrait of Athena, Extremely Fine.

74

1,250


282. Attica, Athens AR New Style Tetradrachm. Circa 135/4 BC. Mened(emos), Epigen(es), and Ophelos, magistrates. Head of Athena Parthenos right, wearing necklace, pendant earring, and triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with the protomes of four horses above the visor, a Pegasos in flight to right above the raised earpiece, and a curvilinear ornament on the shell / Owl standing right, head facing, on amphora; A-ӨE above ME-NEΔ/EΠI/ ΓENO/OΦEΛOY (magistrates’ names) in five lines across field; to left, Asklepios standing left, holding serpent-entwined staff; Δ on amphora, HP below; all within wreath. Thompson 348m. 16.87g, 33mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare – a variety of which only two examples have appeared at auction in the last decade.

2,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 168. Ex Reeve Collection.

283. Attica, Athens AR New Style Tetradrachm. Circa 132/1 BC. Dorothe..., Dioph..., and Demeoul..., magistrates. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with vine tendril and Pegasos / AΘE, owl standing right on overturned amphora, head facing, forepart of lion in right field, Z on amphora, ME below; magistrates ΔOP-OΘE, ΔIOΦ, and ΔHMH-OYΛ; all within laurel wreath. Cf. Thompson 387b. 16.92g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

Ex Spink America, 3 May 1995, lot 441.

AEGINA

284. Islands off Attica, Aegina AR Stater. Circa 456-431 BC. Tortoise / Incuse square divided into five compartments (‘large skew’). ACGC 127; Dewing 1683; Milbank Pl. II, 12-13; SNG Copenhagen 516. 12.45g, 20mm. Extremely Fine.

75

2,000


BOIOTIA

285. Boiotia, Orchomenos AR Hemiobol. Late 5th century-364 BC. Half wheat grain, sprouting end upward; ivy leaf downward to upper left and right / Wheat ear; E-R across lower field. BCD Boiotia 211. 0.28g, 9mm, 1h. Near Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

250

CYCLADES

286. Cyclades, Paros AR Drachm. Circa 520-500 BC. Goat kneeling right, within border of dots / Incuse square. K. Sheedy, The Archaic and Early Classical Coinages of the Cyclades, RNS SP 40, London 2006, 9a; SNG Lockett 2619. 6.00g, 16mm. Very Fine. Rare.

1,750

Ex Frank James Collection; Ex Baldwin’s 44, 2 May 2006, lot 73.

MACEDON

287. Macedon, Akanthos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 480 BC. AKA-N above bull collapsing to left, head lowered, attacked and mauled by lion upon his back to right; floral motif below exergual line of pellets between two lines / Quartered incuse square with raised fields. J. Desneux. “Les tétradrachmes d’Akanthos” in RBN 95, 1949, 91 (D88/R81) = München Münzkabinet. 17.39g, 28mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,500

288. Macedon, Neapolis AR Stater. Circa 500-480 BC. Facing gorgoneion with protruding tongue / Quadripartite incuse square. AMNG III/2, 6; SNG ANS 406–19; Dewing 1604; Traité I 1740. 9.25g, 20mm. Good Very Fine.

2,000

Fine Style Chalkidian League Stater

289. Macedon, Chalkidian League AR Tetradrachm. Olynthos, circa 390 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Kithara of seven strings, XAΛKIΔEΩN around; all within incuse square. Cf. Robinson & Clement Group F, 9 (A8/P-; unpublished reverse die); SNG ANS 470 (same obverse die). 14.45g, 24mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractively toned. From the Ambrose Collection.

76

7,500


War With Sparta

290.

Macedon, Chalkidian League AR Tetradrachm. Olynthos, circa 382-379 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Kithara of seven strings, XAΛKIΔEΩN around; all within incuse square. Robinson & Clement Group H, A13/P13. 14.50g, 25mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection. The extensive ‘Group H’ coinage appears to have been produced in order to finance the Olynthian war effort against a Spartan campaign to subdue the city and dissolve the Chalkidian League in 382-379 BC. Amid continuous Illyrian invasions along the northern border of Macedon, in around 385 BC Amyntas III once more mortgaged certain territories, this time formally to the Chalkidian League. By 382 the League had absorbed most of the Greek cities west of the river Strymon, and unlike in 392, it was reluctant to return control of the Macedonian territories that Amyntas had transferred to its control, which included the capital at Pella. Amyntas now sought the aid of Sparta against the growing threat of the Chalkidian League; his disposition was shared by the cities of Akanthos and Apollonia, who anticipated imminent conquest by the League. Sparta, keen to reassert its presence in northern Greece, consented and a force of 10,000 was mobilised and dispatched against the League. An advance force of 2,000 under Eudamidas succeeded in separating Potidaea from the League; meanwhile the main force under Teleutias, brother of the Spartan king Agesilaos II, proceeded slowly, being augmented by allied contingents as it went. Teleutias thus arrived in Olynthian territory at the head of a substantial army and won an initial victory outside the city walls of Olynthos. In the spring of 381 however, Teleutias allowed himself to be drawn in too close to the walls, whereupon his forces came under missile fire and were routed with heavy losses by an Olynthian sortie, Teleutias himself being killed in the engagement. With the death of Teleutias, command passed to king Agesipolis I, who in 380 recommenced operations against the League, taking the city of Toroni in an assault. Agesipolis’ success was short-lived however, as he was seized with fever and died within seven days. After three years of protracted but indecisive warfare, Olynthos consented to dissolve the Chalkidian League, though this dissolution appears to have been little more than a token formality, since in the following year the League appears among the members of the Athenian naval confederacy, and twenty years later Demosthenes reported the power of the League as being much greater than before the Spartan expedition. Olynthos itself is at this time spoken of as a city of the first rank, and the Chalkidian League then comprised thirtytwo cities.

77


Refined Style Left-Facing Portrait

291. Macedon, Chalkidian League AR Tetradrachm. Olynthos, circa 364-361 BC. Archidamos, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo to left / Kithara with seven strings, ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ around; above bridge of Kithara, ΕΠΙ ΑΡΧΙΔΑΜΟΥ. Robinson & Clement Group S, 111; SNG ANS 492-3 var. 14.48g, 23mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. An Apollo head of great beauty and refined style.

15,000

Ex Jean Elsen 91, 24 March 2007, lot 91. Olynthos, son of Herakles, was according to mythological tradition the founder of this city which rose to prominence as head of the Chalkidian League during the Peloponnesian War. In practice, Olynthos most likely took its name from the Greek olunthos: a fig which matures too early, for the area abounded with this fruit. Philip II of Macedon deprived the city of its League by both diplomacy and force, then undertook to besiege the city itself in 348 BC. Through the treachery of the city’s two leading citizens Euthykrates and Lasthenes the city was betrayed to Philip who sacked it, razed it to the ground and sold all those within into slavery, including an Athenian garrison.

292. Macedon, Orthagoreia AR Hemidrachm. Circa 350 BC. Head of Artemis facing slightly left, with quiver over shoulder / Macedonian helmet, star above; OPΘAΓΟΡΕΩΝ around. AMNG III/2, 3; SNG ANS 563-5. 2.47g, 14mm, 4h. Good Fine - Near Very Fine. Rare.

300

Ex Frank James Collection.

293. Macedon, Skione AR Tetrobol. Circa 480-450 BC. Male head to right / Eye within incuse square, ΣKI around. SNG ANS 708. 2.27g, 11mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine, and beautifully toned. Very Rare.

78

300


Superb Early Philip II Tetradrachm

294. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Lifetime issue. Pella, circa 356–348 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right / The king, wearing kausia and chlamys, raising his right hand in salute and riding a horse walking to the left; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around, Δ under horse’s raised foreleg, star under belly. Le Rider 125 (D73/R99). 14.43g, 25mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. An exceptional example of the early coinage of Philip.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex W.B. and R.E. Montgomery Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group 66, 19 May 2004, lot 176; Ex Numismatik Lanz 54, 12 November 1990, lot 121. Philip, despite Athenian opposition to his participation in the Olympics on the grounds that he was a non-Greek, went on to become an Olympic victor three times in 356, 352 and 348 BC. On the first occasion, Plutarch reports that upon having conquered Potidaia Philip was informed that his horse had won its race, and that this day he also learned of the victory of his general Parmenion against the Illyrians, and that his wife Myrtale had given birth to a son, Alexander. In commemoration of his Olympic victory, Philip decreed that his wife should henceforth be known as Olympias, and he caused these coins to be struck, proudly displaying both he and his horse in victorious stance upon the reverse.

295

296

295. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Lifetime issue. Amphipolis, circa 355-348 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / The king, wearing kausia and chlamys, raising his right hand in salute and riding a horse walking to the left; ΦIΛIΠΠOY above; a bow below the horse´s foreleg. Le Rider 167a (076/R137); SNG ANS 487. 14.24g, 24mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; crystal-like metal. Beautifully toned; a splendid example of fine style. Struck in high relief. Rare. 2,000 Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 384. This is an exceptional example of classical Greek art, where the skill of the die cutter is obviously superior to that of other coins of the same series. The overall image of the reverse side of the coin is characterised by a harmony which is derived from the proportionality of the rider and the horse. Even the small letters of the inscription indicate the skill of the artist. The head of Zeus renders this skill even more visible and its proportionality and expression make it delightful to look at. The style of the horse was adopted from the previous coins of the Bisaltai and of Alexander I, whilst the style of the king was adopted later on by the Romans mainly in ADVENTVS reverse types. 296. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 342/1-337/6 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; thunderbolt below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around, N in exergue. Le Rider 199 (D116/R163); SNG ANS 380. 14.46g, 24mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. 3,000 Ex Goldberg 75, 24 September 2013, lot 2421.

297

298

297. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 336-328 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth on horseback right, nude, holding palm; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above, bee below, janiform-head vase to right. Le Rider 263-325; SNG ANS 510-20. 14.43g, 25mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Golden toning around the devices. 1,000 Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 136. 298. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 336-328 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; crescent below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around. Le Rider (O214/R –). 14.43g, 24mm, 6h. Very Fine - Good Very Fine. 1,500 Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 64, 17 May 2012, lot 2178.

79


Beautiful and Very Rare Head Left Tetradrachm

299. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to left / Nude rider on horseback to right, holding long palm branch in his right hand, ΦΙΛΙΠΠOΥ above, bee to right below horse’s foreleg. Le Rider 435; SNG ABC 275 var.; SNG ANS 429. 14.39g, 23mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive, lustrous metal with a light tone. Very Rare, and the finest left facing tetradrachm of Philip that has appeared at auction in many years. 15,000 The left-facing Zeus head tetradrachms struck in the name of Philip II are very rare, particularly so in good condition. They were struck from just two obverse dies, only at Pella, and belong to the beginning of the late group III. The head of Zeus on both dies is of wonderful and striking style. It has been suggested that they were intended to be part a larger series for Philip III, which would be thus differentiated from the coins of his father Philip II by the left-facing Zeus portrait.

300. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to left / Nude youth on horseback to right, holding palm branch, Θ below horse’s foreleg; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around. Le Rider 438; SNG ANS 430. 14.39g, 24mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare. Boldly struck on both sides; a superb example of this rare and desirable type.

80

5,000


301

302

301. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, youth on horseback right, holding palm, wreath below, Λ to right. Le Rider pl. 45, 22. 14.28g, 26mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine. Superb style. Pleasant toning around the devices. 2,500 302. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nude youth on horseback right, holding palm in right hand and reins in left; ΦIΛIΠΠOY around, aphlaston and Π below. Le Rider pl. 46, 18. 14.27g, 24mm, 9h. Virtually Mint State. Attractive light golden toning. 1,500

303. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Lampsakos, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving biga right; ΦIΛIΠΠOY below. Le Rider pl. 93, 54. 8.56g, 19mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful lustrous surfaces. Slight double-striking on reverse.

3,000

Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 134.

304. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; coiled serpent below, Boiotian shield to right, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around. Le Rider pl. 22, 529 (D281/R433). 14.38g, 25mm, 3h. Mint State.

1,500

Ex Numismatik Lanz 150, 13 December 2010, lot 109.

305

306

305. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; ΦIΛIΠΠOY around, thunderbolt over I below, dolphin before. Le Rider pl. 48, 4; SNG ANS 812. 14.47g, 26mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Small repair at forehead. 1,000 306. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 323-317 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; grain ear below, Π below raised foreleg. Le Rider pl. 46, 3; Troxell, Studies, group 8, 314; SNG ANS 667-73. 14.30g, 25mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned. 750

81


307. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 307-297 BC. Head of Zeus right, wearing laurel wreath / ΦIΛIΠΠOY, nude youth, holding palm in right hand and reins in left, on horseback right; below, Λ above torch; monogram below raised foreleg. Le Rider pl. 47, 23; SNG ANS 794; SNG München 137. 14.20g, 27mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned and struck on a broad flan.

3,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 54, 2 March 2010, lot 74.

308. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 307-297 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nude youth on horseback right, holding palm in right hand and reins in left; ΦIΛIΠΠOY around, Λ, torch and monogram below. Le Rider pl. 47, 23; SNG ANS 794; SNG München 137. 14.16g, 27mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Stunning golden toning.

3,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1134.

309. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 320-317 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; monogram in left field, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ around. Price 120. 17.15g, 25mm, 3h. Extremely Fine.

750

310. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 320-317 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, holding sceptre, laurel branch before, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ around; Π below throne. Price 124. 17.23g, 25mm, 8h. Extremely Fine.

82

500


311

312

311. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 320-317 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; club with fillets in left field, Π with pellet below throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 128. 17.17g, 25mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

312. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 316-315 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, aphlaston in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Π with pellet below throne. Price 129; Troxell, Studies, Group L3. 17.33g, 26mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 500

313. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 316-315 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, aphlaston in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Π with pellet below throne. Price 129; Troxell, Studies, Group L3. 17.29g, 26mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Wonderfully lustrous metal.

750

314. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 316-315 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, aphlaston in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Π with pellet below throne. Price 129; Troxell, Studies, Group L3. 17.34g, 25mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Well centred, and lustrous.

750

315. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 316-315 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, aphlaston in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Π with pellet below throne. Price 129; Troxell, Studies, Group L3. 17.37g, 25mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

83

500


316. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 316-315 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, aphlaston in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Π with pellet below throne. Price 129; Troxell, Studies, Group L3. 17.17g, 26mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. Stunning mint lustre.

1,000

317. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 320-317 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; wreath in left field, Π with pellet below throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 132. 17.40g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant lustre and toning around the devices.

1,000

318. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 316-311 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, shield in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Π with pellet below throne. Price 132. 17.23g, 25mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

500

319. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 320-317 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, dolphin in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Π with pellet below throne. Price 133. 17.27g, 25mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous.

320

750

321

320. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 320-317 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, dolphin in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Π with pellet below throne. Price 133. 17.31g, 24mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. 500 321. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 320-317 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, dolphin in left field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right; Π with pellet below throne. Price 133. 17.21g, 26mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 500

84


322. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Amphipolis, circa 307-300 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; in left field, trident head horizontally to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 175. 8.58g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Scratch on rev.

1,500

Rare Left Facing Portrait

323. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne, holding sceptre; Θ below seat, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 213; Moore 10–17; Demanhur 1601-3. 17.24g, 26mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. A superb example of a left facing Alexander tetradrachm.

324

7,500

325

324. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, holding sceptre; grasshopper in left field, A below throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 230; Moore 211-4. 17.29g, 25mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare issue with grasshopper. 750 325. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 325-315 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, horizontal axe in left field, coiled snake beneath throne. Price 246var. (position of axe). 17.28g, 25mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. 500

326

327

326. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 315-310 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, holding sceptre; Boiotian shield in left field, coiled serpent under throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 249; SNG Copenhagen 728; Muller 754. 17.25g, 27mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Light mark on obv. Lustrous. 750 327. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 315-310 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, holding sceptre; Boiotian shield in left field, coiled serpent under throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 249; SNG Copenhagen 728; Muller 754. 17.18g, 25mm, 10h. Well centred, Extremely Fine. 750

85


328. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Amphipolis, circa 311-305 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, ant to left, star below left wing. Price 831. 8.61g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive lustre and toning.

4,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 203, 5 March 2012, lot 132.

329. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Abydos, circa 328-323 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, corn ear to left, monogram under left wing. Price 1518; Müller 573. 8.55g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

5,000

330. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Kolophon, circa 319-310 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, kithara and EΛI in left field. Price 1772. 8.49g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. Rare.

2,000

331. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Magnesia ad Maeandrum, circa 200-196 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monogram above horse-head left in left field; maeander pattern in exergue. Price 2049 var. (control marks); Mektepini 382 var. (same); Roma V, 23 March 2013, 262 (same dies). 16.98g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 425.

86

3,000


Medallic Tetradrachm of Alexander

332. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Civic issue of Kaunos, circa 300-280 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, drapery about legs and waist, holding sceptre and eagle; double headed axe before, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ behind. Price 2074; Müller 1128. For the reattribution to Kaunos, see R.H.J. Ashton, “Kaunos, not Miletos or Mylasa,” NC 2004, pp. 33–46. 17.05g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive iridescent tone.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Prospero Collection, New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 311; Purchased from Spink & Son Ltd., London, February 1989. When one compares these dies to the contemporary issues of the type from this mint, which are uniformly of poor style and execution, it is not perhaps implausible to conceive of this having been a special issue intended for some specific purpose or occasion, such is its medallic quality.

333. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Miletos, circa 323-319 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monogram to left, double-headed axe below right wing. Price 2114. 8.55g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal; well centred and struck on a broad flan.

4,000

334. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Miletos, circa 295-270 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; MI (civic) monogram in left field. Price 2150; Marcellesi 28. 17.11g, 29mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

87

300


335. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Civic issue of Miletos, circa 295-270 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, holding eagle in right hand and sceptre in left; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, MI monogram in left field. Price 2150. 17.19g, 31mm, 1h. Fleur De Coin.

5,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 155.

336. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘The Great’ AV Stater. Sardes, circa 322-318 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike alighting left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ to left, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, torch below left wing, pellet-in-A below right wing. Price 2633; ADM I Series XV 300 (this obverse die). 8.57g, 18mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Handsome, lustrous metal. From the Ambrose Collection.

3,000

An exceptionally graceful and elegant rendering of Nike, who we see at the moment of her alighting, wings still spread in their final beat to complete her descent, the delicate folds of her chiton billowing out behind her.

337. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint of Pamphylia, circa 220-180 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion’s skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding eagle and sceptre, no symbols. Price 2982; Maktepini 719-722. 17.12g, 31mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

3,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 437.

338. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Tarsos, circa 323-319 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent; Θ behind / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, monogram above Θ to left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 3045. 8.58g, 17mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare bearing the Θ initial on the obverse. Fine Style.

88

4,000


Exceptionally Artistic Dies Signed by Balakros

339. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Tarsos, circa 333-327 BC. Struck under Balakros, governor of Cilicia. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress, B below / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre, ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY around; in left field, Nike flying to right above B and kerykeion, monogram below throne. Price 3051. 17.22g, 28mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 438. Prior to Alexander’s arrival at Tarsos there was already a well established Persian coinage produced from that city by the satrapal governors of Cilicia, whose silver staters displayed the figure of Baal, seated and holding his lotus-tipped sceptre. Indeed, the depiction of this deity is in some cases so similar to the Zeus of Alexander’s imperial coinage that O. Zervos and F. de Callataÿ suggested that Alexander’s tetradrachms could not have been issued until after his arrival at Tarsos – that the Baal of Tarsos was the model for his enthroned Zeus. Though shown to be an improbable notion by Price, what is certain is that the engravers working at Tarsos were immediately re-tasked to producing Alexandrine coinage without any great break in production. Price demonstrates conclusively that the dies produced at Tarsos bearing BA as well as simply B refer to Balakros, son of Nikanor, who was one of Alexander’s somatophylakes (bodyguards) and was appointed satrap of Cilicia after the Battle of Issos in 333 BC. His initial appears on a great many issues from Tarsos, and his name appears in full on one very rare issue of staters (Price pl. CLVIII.k). He enacted many new fiscal measures in Alexander’s name, and served Alexander loyally until his death in circa 324 BC while leading an expedition against a revolt in Pisidia. In adulthood his three sons all served Antigonos Monophthalmos and his son Demetrios afterwards, and were honoured with dedications at the Sanctuary of Delos.

340. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Myriandros, circa 330-325 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, BAI monogram in left field; MI monogram below throne; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 3229; Müller 1302. 17.25g, 26mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

341. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Ake, circa 310/309 BC. Head right of Herakles right wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned to left, holding sceptre; AΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, date in Phoenician script (year 36 = 310/309 BC) in left field under arm. Price 3292; Newell (Ake) 41. 17.12g, 30mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

89

1,500


342. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Arados, circa 323-320 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left holding sceptre, kerykeion in left field, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ in exergue; AP monogram below throne. Price 3332; Duyrat 550-862. 17.18g, 25mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine, lustrous and highly attractive surfaces.

2,500

343. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Lifetime issue. Tarsos, circa 332-327 BC. Struck under Balakros or Menes. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin, and necklace / Nike standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand and cradling stylis in left arm; AΛEΞANΔPOY to left, kerykeion below right wing. Newell, Sidon 2; Price 3458. 8.53g, 17mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

344. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Struck under Ptolemy I Soter, as Satrap. Sidon, circa 315-4 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with sphinx / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to left, filleted palm branch below right wing. Price 3505. 8.60g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

2,000

345. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Babylon, circa 315-311 BC. Struck under Peithon. Head of Athena right, wearing triple crested Corinthian helmet decorated with serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, monogram below left wing, monogram inside wreath under right wing, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ in right field, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in left field. Price 3724. 8.54g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

3,000

346. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Babylon, circa 311-305 BC. Struck under Seleukos. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet decorated with serpent, pendant earring and pearl necklace / BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY, Nike standing left, wings spread, holding laurel-wreath in her right hand and stylis in her left, MI in left field, monogram within wreath in right field. Price 3748. 8.63g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

90

4,500


Exceedingly Rare and Stunning Alexander Stater

347. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Susa, circa 325-320 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing pendant earring, necklace and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with eagle / Nike standing to left, holding wreath in right hand and cradling stylis with left, monograms below left and right wings; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ to right. Price 3826A; SNG Berry 184. 8.59g, 19mm, 4h. Mint State. Exceedingly Rare.

10,000

The gold staters in the name of Alexander struck at Susa are today comparatively rare, but even among this scarce series this issue stands out prominently both in rarity and on account of the symbol found on the helmet of Athena. Rather than the commonly seen griffin, coiled serpent or sphinx, instead here we are presented with an eagle (or dove) in flight. The reason for this departure from normal form may hold some significance, or be nothing more than the whim of the engraver - we shall never know. The highly artistic engraving of Nike deserves special mention also, as it is rich with intricate and delicate features - Nike’s face is exceptionally well detailed, her wings likewise, and she clasps the laurel wreath delicately between thumb and index finger as she gazes reverentially at it.

348. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain Eastern mint, circa 325-300 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; torch in left field, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ below, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right. Price 4001. 17.27g, 25mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

349. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Sardes, circa 334-323 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦIΛIΠΠOY to right, TI above torch in left field. Price -, cf. 2618. 8.56g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

91

1,500


92


350. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Lampsakos, 323-317 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, buckle above crescent-over-A in left field. Price P13; ADM II Series IX, 182. 8.62g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

5,000

351. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Arados, circa 323-316 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦIΛIΠΠOY to right, monogram to left, I below right wing. Price P146. 8.49g, 19mm, 9h. Very Fine.

2,000

352. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Lampsakos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, buckle above crescent-over-A in left field. Price P13A. 8.61g, 19mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. Superb, sharp strike and brilliant mint lustre.

6,000

353. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right, monogram above serpent in right field. Price P31. 8.64g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

93

3,500


354. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right, monogram in left field, serpent below left wing. Price P33; Müller P67. 8.65g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Engraved in fine style and stuck on a broad flan. An exceptionally bold reverse.

5,000

355. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing right, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right, monogram in left field, coiled serpent at feet to left. Price P34; Müller P66. 8.61g, 17mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

5,000

356. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-316 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike alighting left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right, monogram, pentagram and cornucopiae to left. Price P36; Thompson, Abydos 171a. 8.59g, 19mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful, lustrous metal.

4,500

From the Ambrose Collection.

357. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Abydos, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with a coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding stylis and wreath, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ to right; monogram over pentagram to left, serpent under left wing. Price 1523; Müller 383. 8.62g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

94

5,000


358. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III AV Stater. Babylon, circa 323-31 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin, single-pendant earring and necklace / Nike standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand and cradling stylis in left arm, ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right; below left wing, facing head of Helios, KY below right wing. Price P203; Müller P116. 8.62g, 19mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

6,000

359. Kingdom of Macedon, Antigonos II Gonatas AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 277/6-239 BC. Horned head of Pan left, lagobolon behind, in the centre of a Macedonian shield / Athena Alkidemos advancing left, shield decorated with aegis on left arm, preparing to cast thunderbolt held aloft in right hand; crested Macedonian helmet to inner left, TI monogram to inner right. SNG Copenhagen 1199; Dewing 1203; Mathisen ANSMN 21, p. 111; SNG Alpha Bank 986; SNG Ashmolean 3258. 16.82g, 31mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal, lightly toned. A very handsome example.

2,000

360. Kingdom of Macedon, Antigonos II Gonatas Æ18. Amphipolis, circa 271-239 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / B-A, Pan erecting trophy right, monogram below, Φ in left field. SNG Alpha Bank 1016. 4.85g, 18mm, 8h. Good Very Fine.

75

361. Macedon under Roman Rule, First Meris AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, Circa 167-149 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder, in the centre of a Macedonian shield / Club; AP monogram and MAKEΔONΩN above, ΠPΩTHΣ below; all within oak wreath, thunderbolt to left. Prokopov, Silver 208–11 var. (O54/R– [unlisted rev. die]); SNG Copenhagen 1310–1. 16.82g, 30mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

95

5,000


THRACE Second Known

362. Thrace, Apollonia Pontika AR Tetradrachm. Circa 400-350 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Anchor, crayfish to right, A and ΠOΛYANAΞ (magistral name) to right. Traité -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG BM -; SNG Stancomb -; SNG Berry -; Helios 8, lot 3 (this coin); Winterthur I. 1159 (same obverse die); Bunbury collection part II, Sotheby, Wilkison & Hodge 7 October 1896, lot 119. 16.97g, 23mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. An extremely rare variety, apparently only the second known.

12,500

Ex Helios 8, 13 October 2012, lot 3. This coin is struck from an obverse die which is arguably the most sensitively and delicately engraved of the whole series. The artist has paid particularly close attention to the hair and laurel wreath of Apollo, and has created a composition of rare beauty among what are all too often functional portraits of parochial style. Founded in the 7th century BC by colonists from Miletos, from its earliest days Apollonia possessed an important extra-urban sanctuary of Apollo from which the city took its name. The temple contained a famous colossal statue of Apollo by Calamis which stood forty five feet high, though this would in 72 BC be captured and transported to Rome by the general Lucullus, and placed in the Capitol. The earliest coinage of Apollonia seems to have been cast bronze arrow-head ‘proto-money’, which soon gave way to the familiar Apollo and anchor with crayfish types. The presence of the crayfish (astakos) on its coinage may be a punning reference to the name of the region, Astike.

363. Islands off Thrace, Thasos AR Stater. Circa 520-510 BC. Naked and bearded ithyphallic satyr with goat’s ear and hoofs, hair arranged in long plaits over back, carrying off maenad, wearing sleeved chiton, large circular ear-ring, hair also in plaits, ring and plain necklace, left arm lowered, right raised in air / Quadripartite incuse square partly filled. Cf. Svoronos, HPM, pl. 10, 7-11; Le Rider, Guide de Thasos 1967, pl. 1, 2; idem, Guide de Thasos 2000, fig. 268. 9.95g, 22mm. About Extremely Fine. Lovely style.

3,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 480. Ritual abduction as a form of exogamy was frequent in tribal societies. The reference here is probably to the cult of Dionysos and is perhaps modelled on one of the stone reliefs for which it was famous for, as later with the Herakles archer type, Guide de Thasos, 2000, fig. 85. For a very similar archaic treatment of the same satyr abducting a maenad theme see J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: The Archaic Period, fig. 210, a sculpture from Delphi dated to about 525 BC.

96


Excellent High Classical Style

364. Islands off Thrace, Thasos AR Stater. Circa 412-404 BC. Bald headed and nude Satyr in kneeling-running stance to right, carrying off a protesting nymph; Α in right field / Quadripartite incuse square. Kraay-Hirmer 437; Gulbenkian 464; Le Rider, Thasiennes, 6; SNG Copenhagen Suppl. 103. 8.50g, 21mm. Good Extremely Fine, excellent high classical style.

15,000

Ex A. Tkalec, 7 May 2009, lot 29. Thasos, a large island off the western coastal region of Thrace, gained its enormous wealth by virtue of its local silver mines as well as mines it controlled on the Thracian mainland opposite the island city-state. According to Herodotos (VI, 46), the city derived 200-300 talents annually from her exploitation of this mineral wealth. Additionally, Thasos gained much material wealth as a producer and exporter of high quality wines, which was tightly regulated by the government, and it was perhaps due to this trade in wine that her coinage spread throughout the Aegean making it a widely recognized and accepted coinage in distant lands. The artistry of this coin is exceptional, and belongs to the very end of the 5th century BC before the end of the Peloponnesian War. Earlier didrachm staters struck to a local Thracian standard originally of 9.8g and subsequently to 8.7g are quite crude in style, portraying a vigorous and beastly satyr forcibly abducting a very unwilling nymph. By contrast the nymph on this coin seems to barely protest the abduction, and the satyr is imbued with almost wholly human qualities. The engraving is by a superior artist and is in a very lovely style, the head of the satyr reminding us of the miniature masterpieces from Katane in Sicily depicting a satyr’s head facing, while the head of the nymph here is strongly reminiscent of the head of the nymph found on the coins of nearby Neapolis in Macedon. There is no explanation in the relevant literature of the letters A, Σ, or Φ which sometimes appear in the obverse field of these later staters (they never appear on the earlier staters). They cannot be the signatures of the artists as the staters with the same letter often show a markedly different hand at work, so they most probably simply identify the magistrate responsible for the issue, a commonplace feature on other coinages from a number of mints during this and subsequent times.

2x

2x

365. Islands off Thrace, Thasos AR Phocaic Trihemitartemorion. Circa 400 BC. Head of nymph left / ΘΑ, Dolphin left, all in incuse square. BMC p. 222, 63. SNG Lockett 1239; Guide de Thasos, pl. I, 13. 0.22g, 8mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

97

150


366. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint (Pella?), circa 305-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on shield, spear behind; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙMΑXOY to left, no control marks. Thompson -; Müller -; Mektepini 232 (same dies). 17.04g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very attractive style.

2,500

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 87, 18 May 2011, lot 276.

367. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AV Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 305-281 BC. Head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing diadem and horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros enthroned left, shield resting against base of throne; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙMΑXOY to left, Θ below right hand. SNG Copenhagen 2082-5 var; Müller ; SNG Fitzwilliam -; Thompson -. 8.47g, 18mm, 1h. Near Mint State, a few light marks. Unpublished in the standard references. A beautiful gold stater of Lysimachos, with a portrait of Alexander engraved in excellent style. 7,500 Ex A. Tkalec, 27 October 2011, lot 46.

Wonderfully Toned Tetradrachm of Lysimachos

368. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lysimacheia, circa 305-281 BC. Head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing diadem and horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros enthroned left, shield decorated with Medusa’s head resting against base of throne, on which monogram, spear resting behind; lion’s head below right hand, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙMΑXOY to left. Thompson 16. 17.15g, 30mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine. Old cabinet toning with iridescent highlights over incredibly lustrous metal.

5,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 118.

369. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos Æ22. Thrace, 305-281 BC. Male head in peaked Phrygian helmet right / Trophy. SNG Copenhagen 1164. 5.81g, 22mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

98

200


370. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lampsakos, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander with horn of Ammon right / Athena enthroned left, holding Nike, resting left elbow on shield, spear behind; torch to inner left, star on throne. Thompson 43; Müller 381; SNG France 2538-9. 17.00g, 28mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

371. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing horn of Ammon / Athena enthroned left, holding Nike in right hand and resting left elbow on shield. SNG Copenhagen 1136. 17.00g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Light iridescent tone.

1,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 72, 16 May 2013, lot 889.

372. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Drachm. Ephesos, circa 294-287 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, wearing horn of Ammon / Athena enthroned left, holding Nike and resting on a shield at her side, behind her rests a spear, a bee to right between E and Φ on left. Thompson 168; Müller 421. 4.30g, 17mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent style.

2,000

373. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Drachm. Ephesos, circa 294-287 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on rim of shield, transverse spear in background, E-Φ with bee between to inner left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, ΛYΣIMAXOY to left. Thompson 168; Müller 421. 4.33g, 19mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. A specimen of remarkable quality and style possessing radiant golden tones around the obverse portrait, and deep violet hues on the reverse. This high relief coin easily ranks among the finest known drachms of Lysimachos.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection.

374. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Amphipolis, circa 288-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena seated left, holding Nike and resting elbow on shield; in background, spear; behind, shield decorated with head of gorgon; in inner left field, monogram; monogram below. Cf. Thompson 213 (different left monogram); Tkalec Auction May 2010, lot 32. 16.99g, 28mm, 12h. Very Fine. Attractively toned.

99

1,500


375. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Abydos(?), after 281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, wearing horn of Ammon / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike in her outstretched right hand and resting her left elbow on a shield at her side, behind her rests a spear, an eagle standing right in inner left field. Thompson -; Muller 342; Boston 839 (this obverse die. 16.98g, 28mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,500

Ex McHugh Collection, Noble Numismatics 95, 23 November 2010, lot 5242.

376. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AV Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 250 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, wearing horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros enthroned left, shield ornamented with aegis resting against base of throne, spear over her far shoulder; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙMΑXOY and ΣΙ to left. Müller -; Thompson -; apparently unpublished in the standard references. Good Extremely Fine; light edge bruise at 7 o’clock rev. Apparently unique and unpublished.

3,000

377. Thracian Dynasts, Koson AV Stater. Circa 44-42 BC. Roman consul (L. Junius Brutus?) walking left, accompanied by two lictors, monogram before, KOΣΩN in exergue / Eagle with spread wings standing left on sceptre, clutching laurel wreath in right talon. RPC 1701; BMC Thrace p. 208, 2. 8.43g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

1,250

BLACK SEA REGION

378. Black Sea Area, Kolchis AR Hemidrachm. Circa 5th-4th century BC. Female head right of archaic style / Bull’s head to right within linear circle. SNG BM Black Sea 1013; SNG Copenhagen 98. 1.81g, 11mm, 6h. Very Fine. Ex Frank James Collection.

100

200


CRETE OF Exceptional Style and Quality

379.

Crete, Aptera AR Stater. Signed by Pythodoros. Circa 4th century BC. Α[ΠΤAΡΑΙΩΝ] around head of Artemis Aptera to right, with hair elaborately curled upwards around a stephane ornamented with palmettes; she wears an elaborate crescent and solar-disk pendant earring with three drops and a pearl necklace; to right in smaller letters the artist’s signature: ΠΥΘΟΔΟΡΟΥ / Warrior hero Apteros, called Ptolioikos, standing facing, his bearded head left, wearing crested helmet and cuirass, holding in his left hand a spear and shield decorated with a sunburst, his right is raised towards a sacred fir tree in left field; ΠΤΟΛΙΟΙΚΟΣ around. Le Rider, Monnaies crétoises, p. 36, 269-70, pl. 9, 11-12; Svoronos, Crète, p. 15, pl. 1, 10 (same dies); BMC 1, pl. 2, 3 (same dies); BMFA Suppl. 108 (same dies); LIMC VII/1, p. 588, VII/2, sv. Ptolioikos 2 (same rev. die); for the engraver’s signature see L. Forrer, Notes sur les signatures de graveurs sur les monnaies grecques, Bruxelles 1906, pp. 277-284. 11.41g, 14mm, 12. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare. Of exceptionally fine style and quality, and very well preserved for the type, which is mostly found in lamentably poor condition. 10,000 From a private American collection. The beautiful obverse female portrait is that of Artemis Aptera (or Aptara as inscribed on the coins, a local form of the Cretan Artemis Diktynna), the patron goddess of the city. Before her image in small characters proudly appears the name of the artist Pythodoros, a master die-engraver who also worked at Polyrherion on the equally beautifully styled female head which has been defined as that of Britomartis, ‘sweet maiden’ in the Cretan dialect. Also identified as Artemis Diktynna, Britomartis in Cretan myth was caught in a fisherman’s net (diktyon) while trying to escape the advances of Poseidon, and was the subject of several Cretan coin types inspired by a statue then attributed to Daedalos, who was reputed to be the father of Cretan art (cf. Le Rider pp. 114-6, 3-6 pl. 28, 19-38; Svoronos 15-16, pl. 26, 4-5; Traité pl. 261, 25; BMC 1-2). Both images are very much influenced by the Sicilian school of die engraving as epitomised by the celebrated artists such as Kimon, Phrygillos, Eukleidas, Euainetos and Eumenes. The reverse type is of no less mythological and historic interest; the warrior in question is Apteros, called Ptolioikos, a title literally meaning ‘dweller in the city’. He is shown saluting a tree, a scene which can be interpreted as a rendering of what must surely be a now lost myth concerning the oiktistes or founder of the city. The fine remains of the ancient polis of Aptera or Aptara (IACP 947), the modern Palaiokastro, are situated near the Minoan site of Megala Chorapia on the south side of Suda Bay, the safest anchorage in Crete throughout Greek, Venetian and Ottoman times, and which is today an important NATO naval base. Eusebius informs us that the city was founded by an eponymous hero, Apteros in the year 1503 BC (Chronicon 44c). The first historical mention of Aptera dates from the 7th century BC when a contingent of archers is reported to have fought along with Spartans in the war against Messene (Pausanius, Description of Greece IV 20, 8). Various attemps in antiquity were made to explain the city’s name: notably, that it was the site of the song contest of the Muses and Sirens. In this story the latter lost their wings in a fight that ensued after their defeat (Stephen of Byzantium sv. Aptera; ‘aptera’ = ‘wingless’). The city’s name most likely derives from one of the epithets of Artemis, Aπτερα (cf. Inscriptionis Cretae 2), similar to that of the statue in the temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis at Athens, which later took on the name of Nike Apteros, meaning ‘wingless’ Nike. From the fourth century BC Aptera produced coins on the Aiginetan weight standard, but by later Hellenistic times it gradually declined in favour of its powerful neighbour Kydonia and was finally absorbed by Rome in 67 BC.

101


102


Herakles Slays the Lernean Hydra

380.

Crete, Phaistos AR Stater. Mid 4th century BC. Herakles standing in fighting attitude to right, wearing Nemean lion skin, seizing with his left hand one of the heads of the Lernean Hydra, and with his right hand preparing to strike with; bow and bowcase in left field / Bull standing to left. Svoronos 66, pl. XXIV, 23 (these dies); Le Rider pl. XXIII, 11 (same dies); BMFA Suppl. 125 (same dies). 11.60g, 26mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only two examples recorded by Le Rider.

20,000

From a private American Collection. The obverse of this coin depicts the second of Herakles’ Twelve Labours set by Eurystheos, the agent of Hera. He was tasked with slaying the ancient serpent-like monster that resided in the lake of Lerna in the Argolid, which guarded an underwater entrance to the underworld. Upon cutting off each of the Hydra’s heads however, Herakles found that two more would grow back in its place, an expression of the hopelessness of such a struggle for any but the hero. Realizing that he could not defeat the Hydra in this way, Herakles called on his nephew Iolaos for help. Iolaos then came upon the idea (possibly inspired by Athena) of using a firebrand to cauterize the stumps after each decapitation. When Hera saw that Herakles was gaining the upper hand she sent a large crab to distract the hero, but Herakles crushed it underfoot. He cut off the last and strongest of the Hydra’s heads with a golden sword given to him by Athena, and so completed his task. Hera, upset that Herakles had slain the beast she raised to kill him, placed it in the vault of the heavens as the constellation Hydra, and she turned the crab into the constellation Cancer. The encounter with the Lernean Hydra is not only well attested in epic, but is also the subject of some of the earliest securely identifiable Herakles scenes in Greek art. On two Boiotian fibulae of c. 750-700 BC (BM 3025, Philadelphia 75-35-1), the hydra is attacked by Herakles, at whose feet is the crab sent by Hera. This particular form of the scene would later be replicated on the coins of Phaistos (cf. Svoronos 60, pl. XXIV, 20), even including the crab. The present example is the earliest in the Herakles-Hydra series at Phaistos, and consequently is more archaistic in style. It has been extensively argued that the later designs of Phaistos copy a now lost masterpiece of sculpture or painting, perhaps even a statue group by the great sculptor Lysippos (see Lehmann, ‘Statues on Coins’, New York 1946; see also Lacroix, ‘Les Reproductions de Statues sur les Monnaies Grecques’, Liege 1949; see also Lattimore, ‘Lysippian Sculpture on Greek Coins’, California Studies in Classical Antiquity Vol. 5 1972). The present type however most likely draws its inspiration from a locally significant vase or wall painting, given that the composition is pictorial in nature, showing Herakles’ bow and quiver behind him in the field. Though the particular source of inspiration for this type is not known, clear parallels can be seen in surviving Greek art of the late Archaic and early Classical periods, notably on an Attic black figure Lekythos now in the Louvre (CA598) which depicts Herakles and the Hydra in a similar combat pose.

103


Unique Die Combination

381. Crete, Phaistos AR Stater. Mid-Late 4th century BC. Herakles standing in fighting attitude to left, wearing Nemean lion skin, seizing with his left hand one of the heads of the Lernean Hydra, and with his right hand preparing to strike with club; between legs, crab on exegual line / ΦΑΙΣΤΙΩΝ, Bull butting to right on wavy exergual line. Cf. for obverse Svoronos 61, pl. 24, 21, and for reverse 21, p. 24, 22 (same die); cf. Le Rider 61, pl. 23, 24 (bull butting left). 11.81g, 26mm, 11h. About Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; apparently also a unique die combination.

15,000

It has been repeatedly suggested that the later designs of Phaistos copy a now lost masterpiece of sculpture or painting, perhaps even a statue group by the great sculptor Lysippos (see Lehmann, ‘Statues on Coins’, New York 1946; see also Lacroix, ‘Les Reproductions de Statues sur les Monnaies Grecques’, Liege 1949; see also Lattimore, ‘Lysippian Sculpture on Greek Coins’, California Studies in Classical Antiquity Vol. 5 1972). Lattimore makes a plausible and convincing argument for the Herakles-Hydra confrontation as depicted here being copied from a sculpture; in particular he notes that a sculptural prototype is strongly suggested by ‘a feature that is rare, possibly unique, in Greek numismatic design: the group of combatants is shown from both sides, not in mirror reversal, but as two profile views of a three-dimensional group’ (cf. Svoronos pl. XXIV, 17 and 22, and Wroth pl. XV, 6). Lattimore notes two discrepancies: that the head of the lion skin is sometimes depicted whether we are shown the fron or back view of Herakles, and the lion’s paw always passes behind the body of Herakles, but he explains these as a minor and illustrative artistic licence on the part of the die engraver, and a practical necessity to avoid overlapping planes, respectively.

Ex Numismatic Fine Arts 1984

382. Crete, Phalasarna AR Stater. Circa 300-270 BC. Head of Artemis-Britomartis right, wearing single-pendant earring and necklace / Ornate trident head; Φ-A between prongs. Svoronos 2; SNG Copenhagen 522; BMC 1-2; Le Rider pl. X, 12-13; SNG Lockett 2596. 11.23g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

4,000

Ex Numismatic Fine Arts XXXIII, 1984, lot 205. Britomartis was the Minoan goddess of mountains and hunting, who was later assimilated into classical Greek mythology through her equation to Artemis. She was worshipped as an aspect of Potnia, the Cretan Mother of Mountains, who in Minoan art appears as a demonic gorgon, accompanied by double-axes of power, and gripping divine serpents. Her name Britomartis, which means ‘sweet maid’, appears to have been an apotropaic euphemism to allay the dangerous, terrifying side to the goddess.

104


Among the Finest Known

383. Crete, Polyrhenion AR Stater. 4th century BC. Magistrate Charisthe. Laureate head of Zeus to right / Head of sacrificial bull facing, with pendant fillets hanging from horns; ΧΑΡΙΣΘΕ above, ΠΟΛΥΡΗΝΙΟΝ around. Svoronos (1972) 6, pl. XXV, 29 (same dies); Le Rider (1966) pl. XXXIII, 19 (same dies). 11.43g, 25mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known examples.

10,000

From a private American Collection. Polyrhenion was one the oldest Dorian settlements of Crete, whose etymology is ‘rich in lambs’. According to Strabo it was settled in archaic times by Achaian and Lakonian immigrants who gathered into one city the existing population, who had lived in villages, some 7 km inland from the Bay of Kissamos. Excavations from 1938 have exposed several building foundations which defy identification, but it may safely be presumed that one of these was a temple dedicated to Zeus. The bull sacrifice was a universal and key element of Greek religion, and it held particular significance in Crete which was rich in mythological traditions relating to the bull as a divine animal, being either divinely directed or indeed itself a theriomorphic god in bull form. Indeed, the central importance of the bull in Cretan culture was an ancient one predating even the arrival of the Mycenean Greeks in the 14th century BC; twentieth century archaeological excavations begun by Arthur Evans in 1900 dramatically ‘resurrected’ the lost Minoan civilisation and uncovered a wealth of artifacts which, among other things, portray the bull as a major religious symbol. The mythical origin of the idea of bull or ox sacrifice was believed to be from the story of Prometheos in Hesiod’s Theogamy (521-616). At Mekone, in a a sacrificial meal marking the ‘settling of accounts’ between mortals and immortals, Prometheos purposely deceives Zeus by assigning to him a good-looking portion ‘wrapped in glistening fat’ that consists of nothing but bones, thus ensuring humans would keep the meat for themselves and burn the bones wrapped in fat as an offering to the gods.

AEOLIS

384. Aeolis, Kyme AR Tetradrachm. Circa 165/55-145/0 BC. Stephanophoric type. Seuthes, magistrate. Head of the Amazon Kyme right, wearing tainia / Horse prancing right; one-handled cup below, raised foreleg, ΣEYΘHΣ below; all within laurel wreath. Oakley obv. die 61; SNG von Aulock 1640 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 79 (same obv. die). 16.70g, 34mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 511.

105

4,000


385. Aeolis, Myrina AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Head of Apollo right, wearing laurel wreath / Apollo standing right, holding phiale in right hand, filleted laurel branch in left; monogram and MYPINAIΩN to left, omphalos and amphora at feet; all within laurel wreath. Sacks Issue 27; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 15. 16.68g, 32mm, 12h. Very Fine.

IONIA

500

The Finest of Very Few Specimens Known

2x

2x

386. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Phokaic standard. Lion standing to right, head turned backwards, tail curved upwards over body / Quadripartite incuse square. Rosen -; Weidauer -; cf. SNG von Aulock 1797 (hemihekte); Gemini VI, 10 January 2010 157. 2.71g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, undoubtedly the finest of very few specimens known.

7,500

‘Shining Sun’

387. Ionia, Ephesos (?) EL Stater. Circa 575-560 BC. Forepart of bridled horse left, sunburst before; lotus flower on its back / Rectangular incuse punch between two square incuse punches, all with roughly patterned surfaces. Weidauer 138 (these dies); Mitchiner 135; ACGC 56. 14.30g, 21mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

The lotus flower that appears upon the horse’s back is an element common to several electrum staters from uncertain mints attributed to Lydia or Ionia, all struck on the Milesian standard: the recumbent lion type (Rosen 245; NAC 72, 16 May 2013, 369), bull kneeling with its head reverted (Rosen 148), and two rampant lions upright on their hind legs with heads reverted and paws extended (Rosen 149). On all of these coins the lotus flower may initially appear incidental, though its commonality to all types indicates otherwise – it is evidently to be seen as the key element of the obverse type that links the different animal designs together. The lotus flower appears only sporadically in Greek mythology, though it had a deep rooted use in Egyptian art and legend, where it was taken as a symbolic representation of the sun on account of its physical behaviour: it closes at night time and descends into the water, rising and flowering again at dawn. In Egyptian creation myth, the lotus was the first thing to spontaneously form from chaos, and it was from the lotus that the sun itself was born on the first day. The eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean in the sixth century BC had been for a long time familiar with Egyptian religious beliefs that spread as a consequence of trade and population dispersal; the lotus’ insinuation in its Egyptian meaning into Greek culture is evident in the lotus-tipped sceptre carried by Zeus on the coinages of Karia, Mysia and Kilikia (among others), being a legacy of the assimilation of an attribute of the major Egyptian solar deity Ra with the principal god of the Greek pantheon Zeus. The lotus’ appearance here as a polyvalent symbol can best be understood then in the context of assimilated Egyptian beliefs, representing at once both a solar and divine aspect, as well as a clear allusion to the minting city’s location. Interestingly however, the lotus is not the only solar element present on this coin – immediately before the horse’s chest we can discern the presence of a sunburst similar in depiction to those found on the contemporary coinage of Alyattes. This element may have been included on account of its being more universally familiar, being well understood to signify what we now refer to as Anatolia, which comes from the Greek Aνατολή (Anatolē) meaning the ‘East’ or more literally ‘sunrise’, used to refer to the Ionian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. Moreover the horse was itself considered a solar symbol, not only throughout the East, but also among Celtic and Germanic tribes, suggesting a common ancient root to this association. Such preponderance of solar symbology is indeed only fitting for this metal, and is in fact an overt statement of the coin’s composition: ἤλεκτρον, the Greek word for electrum, is derived from the word ἠλέκτωρ (ēlektōr) - ‘shining sun’.

106


388. Stag kneeling left, head reverted, E- Φ across fields, CΚωΠΙ below / ΚΗΡΙΛΙC ωΔΕ ΠΡΟC ΠΑΛVPΙΝ, bee. BMC Ionia p, 70, 186; Barclay Head, “Ephesian Tesserae,” in NC 1908, pp. 281-286; SNG Copenhagen 355; SNG von Aulock 1875; SNG München 98. 3.46g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine.

300

A plausible theory put foreword by H.M. Ransome gives a possible interpretation suggesting that these tesserae were druggists’ for the purpose of advertising the sale of beeswax, connected to the secret rites of Artemis. Another theory links the obverse legend to the “evil eye” against which many amulets were intended to protect, with a possible interpretation of the reverse being “This, as a coating toward the disease,” with ΠΑΛVΡΙΝ being a corruption of palurion, some type of disease.

389. Ionia, Herakleia ad Latmon AR Tetradrachm. Circa 190 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with volute, Pegasos and five foreparts of horse / Club of Herakles right, HPAKΔEΩTΩN above, Nike below between two monograms, all within oak wreath. SNG Copenhagen 781; SNG Lockett 2823. 17.24g, 32mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful style.

2,500

390. Ionia, Lebedos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 160-140 BC. Stephanophoric type. Apollodotos, magistrate. Head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet with laurel branch above visor / Owl standing right, head facing, on club between two filleted cornucopiae; ΛEBEΔIΩN above, AΠOΛΛ-OΔOTOΣ below; all within wreath. Amandry, Tétradrachmes, Group IV, 17f (D2/R13); Kinns 30; SNG von Aulock –; SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 1; Boston MFA Sup. 170. 33mm, 16.31 g, 1h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Coin Galleries, 19 August 1987, lot 71.

Themistokles - Statesman, General, Outcast and Hero

2x

2x

391. Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum AR Hemiobol. Themistokles, governor. Circa 465-459 BC. Barley grain; ΘE monogram to left, E to right / Head of Apollo to right, wearing diadem; M-A-[Γ?]-N-E around; all within incuse square. Cf. Nollé & Wenninger Th5c. 0.43g, 7mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,000

Themistokles was one of the greatest statesmen and generals of the early Athenian democracy. It was his influence that led Athens to considerably increase its naval power, which would prove decisive in its conflicts with the Achaemenid Persian empire. He fought at the Battle of Marathon, and commanded the Greek allied navy at the battles of Artemision and Salamis. It was due in part to Themistokles’ cunning that the allies were able to lure the Persian fleet into the straights of Salamis, and in the cramped conditions the superior numbers of the Persians became a hindrance. Disorganised and unable to manoeuvre, the Greeks formed in line and won a decisive victory. The following year, the Persian army was soundly defeated at the Battle of Plataea, ending the Persian attempts to conquer the Greek mainland. These battles of Salamis and Plataea thus mark a turning point in the course of the Greco-Persian wars as a whole; from then on, the Greek citystates would take the offensive. A number of historians believe that a Persian victory would have hamstrung the development of Ancient Greece, and by extension western civilization, and this has led them to claim that Salamis is one of the most significant battles in human history. Despite this and other accomplishments, the perceived arrogance of Themistokles alienated him from his fellow citizens and in 472/1 he was ostracised, and went into exile. Having before aroused the hostility of Sparta by ordering the re-fortification of Athens, the Spartans now implicated him in the treason of Pausanias, forcing Themistokles to flee from Greece to Asia Minor. There, he offered his service to his former enemies, and entered the service of the Persian Great King Artaxerxes. In recognition of his reputation and former glories, the Persian king made him governor of Magnesia, where he lived out the remainder of his life. His reputation was posthumously rehabilitated, and he was re-established as a hero of the Athenian (and indeed Greek) cause.

107


Very Rare Rhodian Standard Tetradrachm

392. Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum AR Tetradrachm. Circa 350-325 BC. Rhodian standard. Lykomedes, magistrate. Helmeted and cuirassed cavalryman on horseback, galloping right, holding lance in right hand, cloak flowing behind / Bull charging left; ΜΑΓΝ above, ΛΥΚΟΜΗΔ below; all within circular maeander pattern. Imhoof-Blumer (1901) p. 76, 3; SNG Kayhan 409 (but magistrate’s name differently arranged). 15.10g, 25mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautifully vivid iridescent toning. Very Rare.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex A. Tkalec, 18 February 2002, lot 62. A city of ancient founding, Magnesia was originally settled sometime in the second milennium BC by Magnetes from Thessaly, from whom the city took its name, along with some Cretans. According to myth, the settlers were soldiers from Agamemnon’s army, disbanded after the Trojan War. It occupied a commercially and strategically important position in the triangle of Priene, Ephesus and Tralleis. The city evidently grew in wealth and power relatively quickly, as in the 7th century it was already strong enough to challenge Ephesus and go to war with that city. According to Strabo, citing Archilochos, at some point around 650 BC the city was taken and destroyed by Kimmerians. Strabo also relates that the site was annexed by Miletos, who may have been responsible for its reconstruction (though Athenaeus gives a conflicting account, attributing the reconstruction to Ephesos). Regardless, the city was evidently rebuilt by 547/6, when it was plundered by Mazares and subjected to Persian dominion. The earliest coinage currently attributed to Magnesia appears to have been that issued by the exiled Athenian statesman and general Themistokles, who, having been cast out of his homeland, offered his services to his former enemy Artaxerxes. The Persian king was so elated at the offer of service from such a dangerous and illustrious foe, that he made Themistokles the governor of the district of Magnesia, and assigned him the revenue of not only that city, but also Myos and Lampksakos. Following the death of Themistokles, no further coinage appears to have been issued by Magnesia for possibly as much as a century, before the present issue of tetradrachms, didrachms and drachms. In 398 BC the city was moved from its original location at the confluence of the Meander and the Lethaeus, one of its tributaries, to its present location by Thibron who, at Pergamon, had succeeded Xenophon as commander of the Ten Thousand.

393. Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Stephanophoric type. Erasippos, son of Aristeos, magistrate. Diademed and draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder / Apollo Delphios standing left, left elbow resting on tall tripod behind, holding in right hand a branch tied with fillet; EPAΣIΠΠOΣ APIΣTEOY to left, MAΓNHTΩN to right, meander pattern below; all within laurel wreath. Jones obv. die 32; SNG von Aulock 2042; SNG Copenhagen –. 16.62g, 35mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

108

1,250


394. Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Stephanophoric type. Erasippos, son of Aristeos, magistrate. Diademed and draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder / Apollo Delphios standing left, left elbow resting on tall tripod behind, holding in right hand a branch tied with fillet; EPAΣIΠΠOΣ APIΣTEOY to left, MAΓNHTΩN to right, meander pattern below; all within laurel wreath. Jones obv. die 32; SNG von Aulock 2042; SNG Copenhagen –. 16.89g, 32mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

395. Ionia, Miletos EL Stater. Circa 600-550 BC. Lion reclining left, head right, within rectangular frame / Central oblong punch containing a running fox and three pellets, two of which are connected by bar; flanked by square punches containing stellate pattern and stag’s head right, respectively. Weidauer 126; SNG Kayhan 440. 13.97g, 20mm. Very Fine. Rare.

2,500

396. Ionia, Phokaia EL 1/24 Stater. Circa 625-600 BC. Head of seal right / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 2.2; SNG von Aulock 1774; Rosen Collection 328. 0.68g, 7mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2x 397. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 625-600 BC. Helmeted head to left, seal upwards behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 6 (unlisted dies) = Münzen und Medaillen FPL 201, no. 240; Tkalec (29 February 2000), lot 126. 2.59g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare – Bodenstedt recorded only one example.

3,000

Ex Gutekunst Collection; Ex Sternberg 18, 20 Novemeber 1986, lot 149. 2x

2x

2x

398

399

400

398. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 625-600 BC. Head of boar left; below, small seal left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 14; BMC 30; Jameson 1509 (same die and punch); Tkalec, 29 February 2000, lot 129; Traité I 153. 2.57g, 10mm. Very Rare, apparently only the eighth known specimen.

2,000

399. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 625-522 BC. Head of androcephalic bull (river god Acheloüs) to left, seal downwards behind / Rough quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 16 (a/α). 2.58g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, Bodenstedt noted only one example. 2,000 400. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 625-522 BC. Head of androcephalic bull (river god Acheloüs) to left, seal downwards behind / Rough quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 16 (a/α). 2.56g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, Bodenstedt noted only one example. 2,000

109


Only Example in Private Hands

2x

2x

401. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 625-522 BC. Goat half-kneeling to left; above, seal swimming to right / Rough incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 19; SNG von Aulock 7945. 2.59g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. Three examples listed by Bodenstedt, all in public collections.

5,000

2x 402. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 625-522 BC. Head of African left; behind, seal downward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 24; Roma Numismatics VI, lot 629; Triton XII, lot 296; CNG 99, lot 226; otherwise unpublished. 2.53g, 10mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently the fifth known; only one example cited by Bodenstedt (in Karlsruhe), and only three in CoinArchives.

2,000

2x 403. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Infant Herakles seated left, seal above / Quadripartite incuse square. Roma Numismatics V, lot 322; otherwise unpublished. 2.53g, 10mm. Mint State. Unpublished in the standard references, and only the second known example.

1,500

2x 404. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 520-500 BC. Three seals swimming in a circle to left around a central pellet within a ring; all within a border of pellets / Quadripartite incuse square. BMFA 1895; Bodenstedt 29. 2.58g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only 6 examples recorded by Bodenstedt.

5,000

2x 405. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Panther’s head facing, small seal to right above / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt -; Rosen collection, Münzen und Medaillen 72, 1987, 75 = Rosen 312 = ATEC 339 (these dies). 2.59g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - the second recorded example.

3,000

The small seal above the head was off the flan in Copenhagen, missed by Münzen und Medaillen and the type was not known to Bodenstedt.

2x 406. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of lion left, devouring prey; above, small seal to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 36; SNG von Aulock –; SNG Copenhagen –; Boston MFA –; BMC 21; de Luynes 2646; Traité II 2095. 2.53g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only one other example offered at auction in the past fifteen years.

2,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. The obverse type of the forepart of a lion tearing at its prey was used extensively by the Phokaian refugees who had settled at Velia in Bruttium after their native city had been conquered by the Persians in the 540s BC. The appearance of the same motif here can thus be easily explained as symbolising the link between Phokaia and their kin at Velia.

110


2x 407. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of ram left; below, small seal right / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 37; SNG von Aulock –; SNG Copenhagen –; Boston MFA 1896; BMC 28. 2.56g, 10mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare - the seal to right variant is much scarcer than the seal to left.

750

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x 408. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Two seals, belly-to-belly, swimming in opposite directions; all within all within dotted border / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. Bodenstedt 46 for similar type with larger seals and without dotted border. 2.53g, 10mm. Near Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

2,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

409. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Helmeted male head to left, with frontal eye and tendril ornament on bowl of helmet; below, seal swimming to left / Rough quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 50. 2.60g, 10mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

This militaristic type appears to depict an anonymous warrior or hero, the latter appearing more likely considering the ornamentation of the helmet he wears. His individual features being completely obscured, leaving only his eye and nose visible, imparts a stern, solemn tone to the composition. The type may have held some special significance to Phokaia, as it is a restoration of a much earlier type (Bodenstedt 6).

2x 410. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of a lion facing, mane standing proud behind; seal to left, swimming downwards / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 53; Traité II, 2 pl. CLVIII, 8. 2.57g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Rare. A sharp, well centred and very attractive specimen.

3,000

The design of this type has been borrowed from the city of Rhegion in Bruttium, which used this facing lion’s head seen from above as their civic type. The manner of its depiction is however stylistically distinct from that of Rhegion, and shows the lion as a much leaner animal, with a less pronounced head of hair, but a very prominent mane that is seen standing up behind the lion’s head. This is probably the finest and most complete example offered at auction in over a decade.

2x 411. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Forepart of bull to left; above, small seal to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 58; SNG von Aulock 7949; SNG Lockett 2543 = Pozzi 2504. 2.53g, 10mm. Near Extremely Fine. Rare. From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

111

1,000


112


All images on this page are 2x enlargements.

412

413

412. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Ram standing right, scratching nose with right hind hoof; below, small seal to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 59; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; Boston MFA 1901. 2.54g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only three examples are noted by Bodenstedt, all in public collections (Boston, Karlsruhe, 2,000 and s’Gravenhage). A most charming pastoral motif, finely rendered in high relief. From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 413. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-450 BC. Facing bearded head of Silenos, wearing ivy wreath; to left, small seal upward / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 67 (dies a/α); Gemini VI, lot 187 (same die and punch); Kastner 4, lot 125 (same die and punch). 2.57g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently only the eighth known. 3,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

414

415

414. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of Hephaistos left; seal behind / Quadripartite incuse punch. Bodenstedt 69; SNG Copenhagen –; Boston MFA 1910. 2.56g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, only four examples on CoinArchives. 1,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 415. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of young male left, wearing Silenos mask on top of his head; behind, seal swimming downward to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 70; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA –; BMC 43. 2.57g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only three specimens cited by Bodenstedt, with a further four recorded in CoinArchives. 3,000 Apparently the finest of only eight known. From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

416

417

416. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of Pan left / Incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 73; SNG von Aulock 7950 = Nomos 8, lot 177; BMC –; Boston MFA –. 2.52g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only three cited by Bodenstedt, and a further two new specimens recorded in CoinArchives. 2,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. The obverse of this coin depicts a particularly pleasant head of Pan, the god of the wild, of shepherds and flocks, and of rustic music. 417. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-437 BC. Laureate head of Zeus left / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt -; cf. 76; Boston MFA 1916; Traité 2124, pl. 158, 41. 2.55g, 11mm. Extremely Rare, apparently only the fourth known. 3,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

418

419

418. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Bearded head of Herakles to left, wearing lion skin headdress / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 80; Boston MFA 1911; SNG von Aulock –. 2.54g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; only four coins cited by Bodenstedt, two of which are in museums (Boston and Karlsruhe), 1,500 eight in CoinArchives. From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 419. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-437 BC. Bearded head of Zeus Ammon wearing ram’s horn to left; behind, seal swimming downwards to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 81; Boston MFA -; BMC -; Leu 13, 1975, 239; J. Hirsch 25, 1909, 2186. 2.55g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Apparently only the fourth example known. 3,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

113


Tissaphernes, Villain of Xenophon’s Anabasis

420.

Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Bearded head of Tissaphernes to left, wearing satrapal headdress / Quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 86; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA –; BMC –; Pozzi –; Traité –; Winzer 6.6; CNG e342, lot 287; CNG e210, lot 43; Gemini VI, lot 192; Peus 361, lot 184. 2.55g, 11mm. Mint State. Extremely Rare, only one example recorded by Bodenstedt, and apparently only the fifth known. 15,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. Since it is known that satraps issued coins in their own name with their own portraits, both Bodenstedt and Winzer named the satrap depicted on this coin as Tissaphernes on the basis of parallels between the portrait as seen here and those on other coinages. Indeed there are distinct physical similarities (the shape of the nose, brow and eye sockets) between the present type and the portrait of Tissaphernes on the Kyzikene-issued tetradrachms of Athenian owl reverse type struck c.420-395. Tissaphernes was born in 445 into an important Persian family; his grandfather was Hydarnes, who was a general under Xerxes, and commander of the Immortals during the invasion of Greece in 480. He rose to the position of commander in chief of the Persian armies in Asia Minor, and was appointed satrap of Lydia and Karia. Yet because Tissaphernes preferred duplicitous negotiation to open warfare, in 408 he was replaced in his position as general by the King’s second son, Cyrus the Younger. When King Darius II died in 404, his eldest son Artaxerxes II was crowned. Cyrus, seeking the throne for himself, attempted to have his brother assassinated, though Tissaphernes learned of the plot and informed Artaxerxes. Imprisoned, but soon pardoned through the intercession of their mother, Cyrus was sent back to his command, where he now gathered an army which included Xenophon’s ‘Ten Thousand’ Greek mercenaries. Tissaphernes was instrumental in warning Artaxerxes of his perfidious brother’s intentions, and in gathering an army to oppose Cyrus. Cyrus was undone at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401, through the disobedience of the Greek commander Klearchos of Sparta, who refused to move his troops to the centre of the line (wary of his undefended right flank) in order to directly attack Artaxerxes. The Greeks instead charged and scatted the loyal Persian left wing, but meanwhile Cyrus died in his assault on the centre while attempting to kill or capture his brother. Tissaphernes was then able to rout all of Cyrus’ leaderless and demoralised forces, except the Greek mercenaries who steadfastly maintained their discipline, and were unassailable by frontal assault. Tissaphernes therefore dealt with the Greeks by supplying them with food and leading them northwards for home. He invited the senior Greek commanders to attend a feast, whereupon he took them prisoner, led them before Artaxerxes, and had them decapitated. As a reward for his loyalty, Artaxerxes gave Tissaphernes one of his own daughters in marriage and restored him as governor of Lydia and commander in chief of the Persian armies in Asia Minor. Xenophon, until then a middle ranking officer, was hereupon elected one of the leaders of the Ten Thousand. In his Anabasis, he describes Tissaphernes as lacking in all honour, the supreme example of faithlessness and oathbreaking, for he used his hospitality to delude and decoy his victims before having them executed - a treachery of the most heinous kind.

114


2x

2x

421. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Female head, her hair bound with a sphendone / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 90 (c/β). 2.57g, 10mm. Extremely Fine.

2x

600

2x

422. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing earring, her crested Attic helmet adorned with a Pegasos on the bowl / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 91 (d/δ). 2.54g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Highly lustrous. 750

2x

2x

423. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 400 BC. Head of nymph left, her curly hair bound in an ampyx with a net behind, wearing pendant earring / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 94; Boston MFA Suppl. 176; SNG von Aulock 2130. 2.54g, 11mm. Extremely Fine.

2x

750

2x

424. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Crested Attic helmet to left, with seal decoration on bowl / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt -; Boston MFA -; BMC -. 2.56g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

3,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

425. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 387-326 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with seal / Quadripartite incuse square. CNG 93, lot 391; Triton XVIII, lot 627; otherwise unpublished (but cf. Bodenstedt 111 for a similar type with serpent on helmet and seal below). 2.55g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently only the second known.

2,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

426. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 387-326 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; below, seal to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 111; SNG von Aulock –; SNG Copenhagen 1030; Boston MFA 1913. 2.53g, 10mm. Extremely Fine.

115

750


116


Of the Greatest Numismatic Importance

427. Ionia, ‘Samos’ EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. ‘Light Samian’ Standard. Kynegetikos (hunt) scene, composed of bearded male rider on horseback to right, holding reins, hunting dog below chasing hare to left; uncertain legend (or symbols?) before rider / Two oblong incuse punches. Weidauer -, cf. 195-198 for similar reverse punches, and 204-206 for hemistaters of the same weight standard; cf. Rosen 248-249 for similar reverse punches, fabric and weight standard; cf. Barron pl. 30, 1-12; cf. LHS 95, 2005, lot 665 for similar stater of same weight standard attributed to Samos. 13.45g, 20mm. Almost as struck. Unique, unpublished, and of the greatest numismatic importance.

50,000

This coin appears to belong to an extremely rare series of electrum staters of which three examples were contained in the Rosen collection. These staters are based on a weight standard somewhat lighter than the 14 gram Milesian stater, being all approximately 13.4 grams in weight. L. Weidauer, p. 41, 204-206 published some corresponding hemistaters of the same standard which she designated as ‘light Samian’. The method of manufacture of this coin - striking of the obverse followed by two punch strikes on the reverse against a flat surface - has in this case resulted in a loss of detail on the left side of the obverse, due to the second reverse punch strike being applied at an oblique angle with excessive force. This is unfortunate since it has, in combination with a natural flan defect, rendered what may be an important detail - the legend or symbols before the rider - completely indiscernible. Despite the flattening on the left side of the coin, we may nonetheless still distinguish the rough outline of the horse’s head and the front part of its body (outlined for clarity); the hare meanwhile has not fared so badly, remaining distinct. The significance of this coin and its type cannot be understated - it is of the greatest interest and importance to the study of early coinage. Not only is it a novum, being unpublished and certainly unique, it is also entirely without parallel in the numismatic record and represents an important milestone in numismatic art. The complex design of the obverse type which integrates multiple elements into a dynamic scene, also possibly with a legend, is completely unexpected and unprecedented at such an early period. Though coins bearing a legend appeared much earlier - notably the staters of Phanes, which bear the legend “I am the badge of Phanes” - these, and indeed all other coins in the period of 620-550 BC bear either static emblematic designs usually consisting of a single design element (occasionally with adjunct symbols), or an animal or figure in a pose implying movement. To find a complete tableau vivant of so animated a scene is nothing short of astounding, and precedes other such ‘action’ scenes from other mints by several decades at least. The triple-siglos of Kos for example, famous for its depiction of a diskobolos in mid-throw, is dated to c. 480-475. The image itself is also unusual for being the only known hunting scene on an ancient coin. Hunting was for the Greeks not only a commonplace sport, as it was in Western Europe until relatively recently, it was considered an essential part of one’s upbringing, and in a treatise entitled Kynegetikos (‘On Hunting’, or ‘Hunting with Dogs’) by the ancient Greek philosopher and military leader Xenophon, he advises to ‘not despise hunting or the other training of your boyhood, if you desire to grow up to be good men, good not only in war but in all else of which the issue is perfection in thought, word, and deed’. Kynegetikos is one of the four works by Xenophon on arts or skills, and in it he devotes eight out of thirteen chapters to hunting the hare. It is very tempting to hypothesize that if indeed the attribution to Samos is correct, and given the period in which this coin must have been produced, then this coin could very well have been issued by Polykrates. Both a fierce warrior and an enlightened tyrant, Polykrates is credited with the construction of the great fortifications of the city, a technically advanced aqueduct, and a great temple to Hera, among other projects, which three feats of engineering were ranked by contemporaries among the great wonders of the world; the philosopher Aristotle of Stagira even went so far as to compare them to the pyramids. A beneficent (and hugely wealthy) tyrant such as Polykrates would seem to represent an ideal candidate for patron of such a revolutionary design, in a similar manner to how Dionysios I was responsible for encouraging the flourishing of numismatic art in late fifth century Syracuse.

117


428. Ionia, Smyrna AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Head of Tyche right, wearing turreted crown / Ethnic and magistrate’s monogram within laurel wreath. SNG von Aulock 2161; Milne, Numismatic Chronicle 1927, 145; SNG Deutschland 2161. 16.44g, 35mm, 12h. Mint State. A superb example, well struck on a very broad flan, with none of the usual flatness.

4,000

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 66, 19 May 2004, lot 457.

429. Ionia, Smyrna AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-145 BC. Stephanophoric type. Menekrates, magistrate. Turreted head of Tyche right / Ethnic and magistrate’s monogram within laurel wreath. Milne, Silver 3, obv. die C (unlisted for magistrate); Milne, Autonomous 141; SNG von Aulock –; SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 4. 16.56g, 32mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful style.

2,500

430. Ionia, Teos AR Stater. Circa 510-490 BC. Griffin seated to right, with left paw raised, vines and bunch of grapes in lower right field; THIOΣ around / Quadripartite incuse square. Balcer 15; BMC 55 var. 12.09g, 26mm. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

2,000

LESBOS

2x

2x

431. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of ram to right; below, cockerel standing left / Incuse head of lion left; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 11; SNG von Aulock 7718; SNG Copenhagen 300. 2.58g, 10mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

432. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 500-480 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf left. Bodenstedt 12; HGC 6, 938; SNG von Aulock 1685; Boston MFA 1679-81; BMC 18-22. 2.58g, 10mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. From the Ambrose Collection.

118

1,500


2x

2x

433

434

433. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 13; SNG Copenhagen 301. 2.58g, 10mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 434. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 13; HGC 6, 938; SNG von Aulock 1685; Boston MFA 1679-81; BMC 18-22. 2.46g, 11mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

435. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Facing gorgoneion with protruding tongue / Incuse head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin headdress; small incuse square behind, incuse club below. Bodenstedt 19.2; BMC -; Boston MFA -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. 2.52g, 10mm, 6h. Mint State. Extremely Rare, apparently only the second known after one example recorded by Bodenstedt in the National Museum, Athens.

4,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. This exceptionally rare variety with the incuse head of Herakles facing left also displays an intricately detailed gorgon. Aside from the careful attention the engraver has lavished on such details as the gorgon’s teeth and serpent heads, we also see the scaly skin the gorgon has been given between her hair and eyebrows. Even on a larger coin this would be impressive - that this fine work has been accomplished on such a small flan is nothing short of astounding.

2x

2x

436. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of a bridled horse right, ΛΕ below / Incuse head of roaring lion right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 20; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -; Traité II 2148; Weber 5602. 2.53g, 11mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only three examples recorded by Bodenstedt.

2,500

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. The present obverse is one of the very few produced at Mytilene that actually names the island (Lesbos) on which it was produced. 2x

2x

437

438

437. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right; ΛE behind neck / Confronted bull’s heads within incuse square. Bodenstedt 35; Boston MFA 1683 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 1695 (same dies). 2.54g, 10mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Very well preserved for the issue, and easily the finest of only seven examples on CoinArchives. 1,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 438. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 450/440 BC. Diademed head of Silenos to right, wearing a diadem / Two opposed ram’s heads with a palmette between them; all within a shallow incuse square. BMC 40; Bodenstedt 37; SNG von Aulock 1700. 2.55g, 10mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

119


2x

2x

439

440

439. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Youthful male head right / Head of calf right in linear square. Bodenstedt 39; HGC 6, 965; SNG Copenhagen 310. 2.53g, 11mm, 7h. Extremely Fine, very well preserved for the issue. 750 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 440. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Diademed head of youthful male to right / Crested Corinthian helmet to right; M before; all within linear frame. Bodenstedt 40; Boston MFA 1699; SNG Copenhagen -; De Luynes 2558; Weber 5612. 2.52g, 11mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and exceptionally well preserved for the issue. 1,500 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 2x

2x

441

442

441. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Forepart of boar right / Head of lion right within linear square. Bodenstedt 41; Traité pl. CLIX, 30; Boston MFA 1684; BMC Lesbos p. 159, 31; SNG Copenhagen 309; SNG von Aulock 1694. 2.53g, 11mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare, and very well preserved for the type. 2,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 442. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Forepart of goat right, head reverted / Owl standing facing, wings spread, within incuse square. Bodenstedt 42; HGC 6, 968; SNG von Aulock 1693; SNG Lockett 2757 = Pozzi 2320; Boston MFA 1682; BMC 29–30; Weber 5606. 2.53g, 11mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 1,500 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. The reverse design of this coin is thought to have been copied from the Athenian dekadrachms, coins famous and impressive even in their own day.

2x

2x

443. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Bearded head of Priapos right, wearing tainia / Head of female (nymph Chione or Dione?) right, hair in sphendone, within shallow incuse square. Bodenstedt 43; HGC 6, 969; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA –; BMC 47–8; de Luynes 2556. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare, only four examples noted by Bodenstedt, and just three in CoinArchives. In exceptional state of preservation, and very finely detailed. 3,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

444. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Young female head to right, hair tied up with ribbon / Facing head of wolf (or lion) within incuse square. Bodenstedt 48; SNG von Aulock 7728; cf. Traité II, 2172, pl. CLX, 6 (same rev. die). 2.59g, 11mm, 5h. Mint State. Extremely Rare, only three examples listed by Bodenstedt, and just one on CoinArchives. From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

120

2,000


Attractive Portrait of Persephone

2x

2x

445. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-428/7 BC. Head of Persephone right, hair in bunch behind / Head of roaring lion to right within incuse square. Bodenstedt 49; Boston MFA -; SNG Copenhagen -. 2.53g, 11mm, 8h. Near Mint State. Very Rare, and probably the finest known.

5,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

446. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 440 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Head of a bearded satyr with horse’s ears to right within incuse square. Bodenstedt 51; Traité II 2, 2173, pl. 160, 7; SNG Copenhagen 307. 2.58g, 10mm, 4h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare, only five examples recorded by Bodenstedt, of which three are in museum collections.

3,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

447. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Diademed head of youthful river-god right, small horn over forehead / Bearded head of old rivergod to right in archaic style, wearing wreath of reeds. Bodenstedt 52; HGC 6, 978. 2.59g, 11mm, 12h. Slightly flat-struck on rev., otherwise Mint State.

2,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

448. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 370 BC. Facing gorgoneion / Incuse head of lynx facing. Bodenstedt 53.2 (dies a/a); Traité II 2, no. 2146; pl. 159, 23 (same dies). 2.57g, 10mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently only the fourth known specimen, and one of just two in private hands.

3,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x

2x

449. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-428 BC. Head of Aktaion right / Facing gorgoneion within incuse square. Bodenstedt 54; Boston MFA 1701. 2.57g, 11mm, 6h. Near Mint State. One of the finest known specimens. From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

121

2,500


An Ancient Visual Paradox

450.

Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Head of Athena wearing crested Corinthian helmet to right / Two confronted female heads, their faces overlapping; all within incuse square. Bodenstedt 55; HGC 6, 981; Boston MFA 1693; de Luynes 2555. 2.53g, 11mm, 1h. Near Mint State. Very Rare, Bodenstedt lists only 8 examples; CoinArchives records six, of which this is the finest by far. 7,500 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. This coin seems like a perfectly ordinary hekte when the obverse is first viewed; it is only when the coin is flipped to reveal its highly unusual reverse does the importance and novelty of the type become apparent. Employing a simple but effective form of optical illusion, the reverse appears to show the same female portrait both to the left and to the right. The design is deliberately intended to confound the eye and engage the viewer’s attention in attempting to resolve both portraits independently of the other, which is of course impossible, thus presenting the viewer with a visual paradox. The image works by confusing the brain’s figure-ground perceptual grouping process by giving it contradictory cues, thus preventing it from assigning definitive edges to the observed shapes. As a result, the human visual system will settle on one of the portraits, facing either left or right, and alternate between them. The importance of this type, both in terms of numismatic art and in the wider context of Greek art in general, cannot be understated. It is a thoroughly novel, and never to be repeated experiment in paradoxical illusion on the coinage of a Greek city-state. The Greeks were certainly familiar with the concept of a visual paradox - Plato describes the ourobouros ‘taildevouring snake’ as the first living thing; a self-eating, circular being: the universe as an immortal, mythologically constructed entity. They were also aware of the power of illusions - Greek architects would apply a technique known as entasis in the construction of their temple columns. Columns formed with straight sides would appear to the observer to have an attenuated appearance, and their outlines would seem concave rather than straight. Therefore a slight convex curve would be built into the shaft of the column, resulting in a swelling in the middle parts, in order to correct this disagreeable trick of the eye. Why then, when they were clearly aware of the power of illusion and paradox, did Greek artists not employ such techniques? The answer most likely lies in the cultural shift away from the static representational art of the archaic period driven by new realistic and idealistic paradigms; artists now sought to demonstrate their skill through attempting to attain aesthetic perfection based on both observational study, and occasionally improvement of nature through idealisation of the subject’s features. Thus non-practical forms of optical illusion were most likely dismissed as curious, but unlikely to earn an artist everlasting fame. It was therefore left to relatively modern artists such as Oscar Reutersvärd, who created the Penrose Stairs (also dubbed the impossible staircase), and psychologists such as Edgar Rubin, who developed the familiar Rubin’s vase (sometimes known as the Rubin face or the figure–ground vase), to explore the visual and psychological implications of these images which trick the brain. The significance of this coin therefore is that it predates the work of both of the aforementioned celebrated ‘illusionists’ by well over two milennia, and demonstrates an appreciation and understanding of optical illusions as an artform, not just a necessary practical expedience.

122


2x

2x

451 452 451. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of calf to right within incuse square. Bodenstedt 56; Traité II 2 pl. 159, 40; SNG von Aulock 7727. 2.51g, 11mm, 3h. Near Mint State. Far superior to all of the examples recorded on CoinArchives. 1,500 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 452. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Confronted rams’ heads; floral symbol above and below; all within incuse square. Bodenstedt 57; HGC 6, 983 corr. (floral symbols not noted). 2.54g, 10mm, 6h. Mint State. 2,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 2x

2x

453

454

453. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Rock partridge walking to right, linear frame around; all within incuse square. Bodenstedt 58; Traité II 2199; SNG von Aulock 1699. 2.56g, 11mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only five examples noted by Bodenstedt, and just two on CoinArchives. The finest known example. 1,500 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 454. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Goat head to right within square liear frame. Bodenstedt 59; HGC 6, 985. 2.56g, 11mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, only four other examples on CoinArchives, of which this is the finest. 2,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 2x

2x

455

456

455. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 430-410 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of griffin to right, with stylized eagle head and reptile crest, within a dotted frame; all within incuse square. Bodenstedt 60.1; Boston MFA 1704. 2.58g, 10mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Bodenstedt records five examples, all in museum collections; CoinArchives records two. 2,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. 456. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Head of Io facing slightly to right / Forepart of bull to right. Bodenstedt 61; Traité II, 2168, pl. 160, 2. 2.54g, 11mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; Bodenstedt records four examples, and CoinArchives shows only a further two. 1,000 From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

Inspired by the ‘Parthenon Group’ Tetradrachms of Amphipolis

3x 3x 457. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 357-326 BC. Laureate head of youthful Apollo three-quarters facing / Head of an Amazon to right wearing ornamented helmet with cheek guards up. Bodenstedt 64.3; Traité II, pl. 160, 38; BMC 94, pl. 34, 8. 2.55g, 10mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently the sixth known, and in exceptional state of preservation.

5,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection. The obverse of this beautiful coin was inspired by the remarkable and widely praised ‘Parthenon Group’ tetradrachms of Amphipolis issued during that city’s short-lived war with Philip II of Macedon (see Kurt Regling, ZfN 33 (1922), p. 48, Anm. 2 and p. 60). It is a direct stylistic copy of this brief issue, which has been described as ‘the most beautiful of all the facing-head tetradrachms of Amphipolis and one of the prettiest of all ancient Greek coins’.

123


2x 2x 458. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Head of Ares right, wearing crested helmet decorated with forepart of griffin / Head of Amazon right, wearing ornate helmet, in linear border within incuse square. Bodenstedt 65; HGC 6, 991; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA 1711; BMC 95–7; Gulbenkian 888; Pozzi 2330. 2.56g, 11mm, 5h. Near Mint State. A type that is notoriously difficult to find in anything more than heavily worn condition, this example is truly exceptional.

3,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x 2x 459. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Head of Ares right, wearing crested helmet decorated with a griffin on bowl / Facing Corinthian helmet, linear frame around; all within incuse square. Bodenstedt 66 = SNG von Aulock 1728 = Jameson 2245; BMC -; SNG Copenhagen -; Boston MFA -. 2.53g, 10mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare, apparently the third known.

2,500

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x 2x 460. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Head of Ares right, wearing crested helmet decorated with forepart of griffin / Calf’s head to right within incuse square. Bodenstedt -, cf. 65 for obv., cf. 56 for rev.; apparently unpublished in the standard references. 2.58g, 10mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished, possibly unique.

1,000

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x 2x 461. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Head of Artemis-Kybele right, hair in sakkos / Head of Telchine left, hair in sakkos, lamp at forehead; all in linear square within shallow incuse square. Bodenstedt 68; HGC 5, 994; Boston MFA 1696; Triton XI, lot 228. 2.56g, 10mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, only 6 examples known to Bodenstedt. Among the finest known examples.

1,500

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x 2x 462. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 360-340 BC. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet / Facing lion-scalp facing, square linear frame around; all within incuse square. Bodenstedt 72; SNG von Aulock 1705. 2.56g, 10mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and possibly the finest known.

1,500

From the Kleines Meisterwerk Collection.

2x 2x 463. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Head of Kybele right, wearing turreted crown and single-pendant earring / Head of Hermes right, wearing petasos, in linear square within shallow incuse square. Bodenstedt 75; HGC 6, 1001; SNG von Aulock 1725; Boston MFA 1714. 2.55g, 10mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

124

1,000


2x 2x 464. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Head of Athena three-quarters facing, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet, earring, and pearl necklace / Head of Hermes right, chlamys around shoulders and petasos behind neck, within linear frame. Bodenstedt 86 (g/Κ). 2.55g, 11mm, 6h. Extremely Fine, exceptional for the issue. Highly lustrous metal.

3,000

2x 2x 465. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Wreathed head of Dionysos right / Wreathed head of Persephone right, wearing pendant earring, within linear square border. Bodenstedt 89. 2.55g, 10mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

400

MYSIA

2x 466. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Sphinx, with ornamental tendril on her head and with her right fore-paw raised, standing left on tunny fish / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 26; SNG France 5, 201-202. 2.68g, 9mm. Good Very Fine.

750

2x 467. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Sphinx, with ornamental tendril on her head and with her right fore-paw raised, standing left on tunny fish / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 26; SNG France 5, 201-202. 2.67g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Very well preserved for the type.

2,000

2x 468. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Head of griffin to left, eating head of tunny fish / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -; Hurter & Liewald I 28a; SNG France -; SNG von Aulock -; Boston MFA -; Tkalec & Rauch 1987, lot 100 (same dies). 2.71g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of just five known, and certainly the finest.

2,000

2x 469. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Winged tunny fish flying left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 33 (stater and hemihekte only); cf. Boston 1405 (stater); Gemini V, 6 January 2009, 598. 2.68g, 10mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

2x 470. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte - 1/12 Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Winged tunny fish flying left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 33; cf. Boston 1405 (stater); Greenwell 160. 1.36g, 8mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

125

500


An Unconventional, Marvellous Archaic Portrait of Poseidon

2x

2x

471. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Bearded head of Poseidon to left, wearing a helmet in the form of the head of a sea monster; below, tunny fish to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -; cf. Hurter & Liewald, SNR 81 (2002), p. 28, no. 17; SNG Aulock 7291. 2.63g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

The male head on this coin has been variously identified as a nameless hero, Perseus wearing a griffin skin helmet, or Herakles wearing a lion skin. Other specimens of the type have revealed that the helmet in fact bears a fin-like crest and pointed ears (which on the present coin are off the flan). It has therefore seems that the headdress is actually in the form of a ketos, one of the familiar sea monsters of Greek myth which is most frequently seen on Sicilian coinage, in particular that of Katane and Syracuse. Given that the bearded head is less likely to represent Perseus (who appears beardless, as on von Fritze 65) it could well be Herakles, who killed a ketos in the course of rescuing the Trojan princess Hesione, daughter of Laomedon and sister of Priam. According to some versions of the myth, Herakles was swallowed whole by the monster, and slew it by hacking at its innards for three days until it died, by which time he had lost all his hair. Perhaps during the course of this contest, Herakles temporarily misplaced his trademark lion skin headdress, and resorted to covering his baldness with a nice ketos skin hat. We must bear in mind however that Kyzikene electrum is more frequently influenced by religion (and, it has been supposed, by cult images in particular) than by myth, and so we must look elsewhere for a positive identification - given the marine monster, Poseidon is a prime candidate. Although the god is more frequently encountered with a trident attribute to facilitate identification, a ketos headdress attribute is also appropriate. F. Catalli (Monete Etrusche, Roma 1990, p. 90) included in his work an image of the remarkable Volterra kelebe which depicts a very similar god head wearing a ketos, which though formally identified as Hades, must in fact be Poseidon due to the presence on the one side of a marine monster, and on the other of a bridled horse – both symbols of the God of the Sea. This identification is confirmed by the Etruscan coinage – see Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage I, part 1 pp. 319-321, nos. 2-4 – on these coins we find an identical head identified as Nethuns (Neptune-Poseidon), paired with a reverse showing a hippocamp and border of waves.

2x

2x

472. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Bearded head of Poseidon to left, wearing a helmet in the form of the head of a sea monster; below, tunny fish to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -; Hurter-Liewald (SNR 2002), 17b; SNG von Aulock 7291 (hekte). 1.42g, 9mm. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

4,000

2x

2x

473. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Forepart of lioness left, with collar of pearls, tunny fish swimming upward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 39; SNG France 178. 2.68g, 11mm. Near Extremely Fine.

750

474. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of roaring lioness left, tunny fish behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 39; Boston 1414; SNG France 178. 16.01g, 19mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

126

5,000


475. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Forepart of a lion to left, devouring prey; tunny fish upwards behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 41, pl. I, 42; Boston MFA 1416; cf. SNG France 181 (hemihekte). 15.96g, 20mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

476. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Female boar (sow) standing left; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 45, pl I, 46; Greenwell 136, pl. V, 30. 16.08g, 20mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

477. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Heads of lion and ram, conjoined, back-to-back; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 54; cf. SNG France 190 (hekte); Boston MFA 1422 = Warren 1543. 16.06g, 22mm. Very Fine. Very Rare, only three other examples have been offered at auction in the past fifteen years.

7,500

478. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet; tunny fish behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 63; Boston 1432. Gulbenkian II, 608. 16.12g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

127

5,000


The Flower Girl of Kyzikos

479. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Half-length bust of a winged female deity to left, wearing kekryphalos headdress, round earring and long-sleeved chiton, in her right hand holding a tunny fish by the tail, and raising a flower to her chin; bust truncation indicated by dotted line between parallel lines / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 75; SNG France 205; Boston MFA 1448 = Warren 1519. 16.15g, 19mm. Near Extremely Fine, struck on a vast, elongated flan. Very Rare, and in excellent condition for the type.

15,000

The winged figure on this coin of Kyzikos is most frequently simply described as a ‘winged female’, though on occasion numismatists have ventured to suggest that the depiction is that of a harpy, one of the mythical ‘snatchers’ who were sent by the gods to torment Phineos, the blind seer-king of Thrace, for his transgressions. Though in the Homeric poems the harpies are nothing more than the personifications of storm winds, Hesiod (c. 750-650 BC) described them as the daughters of Thaumas by the Oceanid Electra; fair-haired and winged maidens, who surpassed the winds and birds in the rapidity of their flight. Archaic pottery depicts them thus, in a manner that closely resembles the winged figures on the coins of Kaunos in Karia - see in particular Wagner Museum L164 – black figure clay vase. It was only a later tradition that portrayed the harpies as hideous half-woman, half-bird creatures - a development resulting from a confusion of harpies with sirens. By the time of Aeschylus (c. 525-455 BC), this transformation was largely complete, though the harpy’s ‘beautiful’ image is still occasionally seen as late as 480 BC - see the J. Paul Getty Museum hydria/kalpis by Kleophrades, on which the harpies are rendered as young winged girls. The identification of the winged figure on this stater as a harpy is therefore possible, though other identifications are equally plausible. Iris, goddess of the rainbow, was depicted as a winged woman with a herald’s staff, as likewise was Nike, though the latter usually carried a wreath or palm. However, none of these beings was associated with flowers, which above all were an attribute of Aphrodite and Kore-Persephone. Only one parallel for the present type exists in surviving Greek art: the 5th century BC funerary stele now known as ‘The Exaltation of the Flower’, held in the Louvre. Carved in a similarly severe archaic style, the stele depicts two female figures holding up flowers; the left figure in a pose very similar to that shown on this coin. Those figures have been identified either as unknown mortals, or as Demeter and her daughter Persephone - the view favoured by its discoverer Léon Heuzey. The wings on our figure clearly identify her as a goddess though, and the flower is most likely the key to understanding her identity. Kore-Persephone, daughter of Demeter, therefore seems to be a logical choice: she was gathering flowers when Hades came to abduct her, and her return to earth each year was heralded by the blossoming of the meadows. Her overwhelming prominence on the later coinage of Kyzikos further strengthens the case for her depiction here. Regardless of her identity, the winged deity on this coin is rendered in exquisite detail, from her ornamented cap to her expressive face and crinkly chiton. The same treatment of the chiton can be observed in major art of the archaic period, for example in the east frieze of the Siphnian treasury at Delphi.

Fine Style Athena with Crested Helmet

480. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-450 BC. Head of Athena to left, wearing crested Attic helmet, base of crest decorated with zig-zag and pellet pattern; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 76; Greenwell 25; SNG France –; SNG von Aulock –; Boston MFA 1446; Dewing –; Gillet 1053 = Kunstfreund 3 = Jameson 2171 = Weber 4971; Gulbenkian 609 (all from the same obv. die). 16.04g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

128

10,000


2x

2x

481. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Bearded facing head of Silenos, tunny fish swimming upwards on either side / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 77; SNG France 208; SNG von Aulock 7269; Rosen Coll. 455. 2.67g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine; exceptionally complete for the type, well centred and among the finest known examples. Very Rare.

4,000

2x 2x 482. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Bearded facing head of Silenos, tunny fish swimming upwards on either side / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 77; SNG France 208; SNG von Aulock 7269; Rosen Coll. 455. 2.26g, 11mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

483. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of Silenos facing; two tunny fish upward to either side / Quadripartite incuse square. CNG 75, 23 May 2007, lot 336; cf. Von Fritze 77 (fractions); SNG France -; Hurter & Liewald I, 77. 15.96g, 19mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, the fifth known.

5,000

Of the other four examples, one was sold by CNG in 2007, and two were noted by Hurter & Liewald as being in the von Aulock Collection (but unpublished) and the Velkov Collection (Vinchon, 24 Nov. 94), lot 61 = CH II, p. 7, 2. The other was sold by Roma Numismatics in 2013: Auction V, lot 364.

484. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Dog standing left, fore-paw raised; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 93, pl. III, 12; Boston 1469; SNG von Aulock 1192; SNG France 230. 16.30g, 21mm. Extremely Fine, lustrous metal. Rare.

7,500

Very Attractive Winged Lioness

485. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged lioness to left; tunny fish behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 96; SNG France 237; Boston MFA -. 16.22g, 22mm. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

129

12,500


130


The Griffins oF Hyperborea

486.

Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Roaring griffin standing to left on tunny fish, right foreleg raised and tongue protruding / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 99; Boston MFA 1455; Gulbenkian 623. 16.12g, 20mm. Near Mint State. Very Rare. An electrum stater of superlative quality, certainly the finest known of the type, and by quality one of the very best of all known Kyzikene staters. An extremely impressive coin. 25,000 A mythical creature of great antiquity, griffins are represented in Egyptian and Persian art from as early as the fourth milennium BC; from the middle bronze age (c.1950-1550 BC) they begin appearing in Syria, the Levant and Anatolia, and thye can be found in 15th century BC frescoes in the throne room of the bronze age palace at Knossos. Closely associated with guarding precious possessions and treasure, and so frequently utilised as a motif in such capacities, the griffin came also to be a symbol of divine power and so a guardian of the divine. Half lion and half eagle, and so possessing the power and dignity of both of these majestic animals, these fearsome creatures in time came to be associated with the vast quantities of gold that flowed south out of the vast northern wildernesses into Greek and Persian lands. This seemingly endless source of gold caused a great deal of speculation among the Greeks as to its origin; the myths and fables eventually found form in the idea of a land they called Hyperborea (‘beyond the north wind’). Homer, Pindar, Hesiod and Strabo all make reference to this legendary place, and Herodotus writes of it: “But in the north of Europe there is by far the most gold. In this matter again I cannot say with assurance how the gold is produced, but it is said that one-eyed men called Arimaspians steal it from griffins. But I do not believe this, that there are one-eyed men who have a nature otherwise the same as other men. The most outlying lands, though, as they enclose and wholly surround all the rest of the world, are likely to have those things which we think the finest and the rarest. (The Histories, 3.116) Though it is generally agreed that Hyperborea never actually existed as any single place, but was rather an amalgam of various fragments of truth and flights of fancy, one possible source for the northern gold may be found in the Altai Mountains of Skythia (straddling modern day Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and Russia), whose name ‘Altai’ in Mongolian literally means ‘Gold Mountain’. It has been further suggested (Mayor, 1991) that this region, rich in gold run-off from the mountains, and which is also holds a great many Protoceratops fossils, may have been the ultimate source of the Greek myth of griffin-guarded gold. The sandstone rock formations skirting the gold deposits continually reveal through erosion bleached white, fully articulated skeletons of these prominently beaked quadruped dinosaurs, and being conspicuous against the red sediment would have been noticed by early inhabitants and travellers. Indeed, 5th century BC human remains in the Altai Mountains have been found bearing griffin tattoos, occasionally accompanied by gold griffin artefacts. That this symbol of power should be adopted by Kyzikos for its coinage again and again is hardly surprising then, given that the city possessed a virtual monopoly on gold coinage in the area from Troy to Ionia, in the Propontis, in Bithynia and in the Black Sea regions, and the animal’s fabled reputation as a guardian of the precious metal.

131


Very Rare and High Grade Stag Stater

487. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged stag left; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 102; Boston 1434; Jameson 2181; SNG von Aulock 7281; Greenwell -; SNG France -; BMC -. 16.21g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Lustrous surfaces, extremely well preserved for the issue. Very Rare.

7,500

488. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Winged dog to left, head reverted; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 104; cf. Boston MFA 1433 (stater); SNG France 246–7. 2.66g, 11mm. Good Very Fine.

Fleur De Coin

489. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Archaic female head left, her hair bound in a sakkos and ampyx, wearing large circular earring and necklace consisting of two outer bands and between, pearls or globules around; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 106. 2.68g, 11mm. Fleur De Coin. Extremely Rare.

20,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 263. This exquisite depiction of an unidentified female goddess or personage is remarkable for possessing relative simplicity of design, yet intricate execution of the detail; this, combined with a charming archaic style, has produced a coin of outstanding beauty. What is furthermore most impressive is the incredible state of preservation of the coin. There are truly very few Kyzikene coins of any denomination which can be rightly and justifiably called ‘fleur de coin’, but the present piece is certainly one of that scant number whose bright, lustrous surfaces and lack of wear can afford it such a lofty grade.

132


Europa’s Abduction by Zeus

490. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Europa, hair tied up in bun and wearing short-sleeved garment, seated on the back of Zeus in the form of a white bull who charges to left, her right hand holding on to a horn, the left resting on his rump; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 108, pl. III, 27; Boston MFA 1477; SNG France 250. 16.07g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

12,500

This issue appears to have been fairly uniformly struck on flans that were just a little too short - both the von Fritze and Boston specimens are missing the top part of Europa’s head. The design is nevertheless charming and well executed, at least insofar as the die engraving is concerned. The reverse design of this coin is almost identical to one featured on a unique tetradrachm of Abdera (Roma IV, lot 242), which shows Europa in the same pose on the back of the bull. Both follow a well established artistic and literary tradition that can be traced back as far as the 8th century BC, according to Herodotus’ dating of Homer, though the myth itself is certainly much older than its earliest known literary appearance (in the Iliad), and its earliest securely dateable visual appearance, which is not seen until the mid-7th century BC. We find the same treatment of the scene in Ovid’s Metamorphoses many centuries later: “And gradually she lost her fear, and he offered his breast for her virgin caresses, his horns for her to wind with chains of flowers until the princess dared to mount his back, her pet bull’s back, unwitting whom she rode. Then - slowly, slowly down the broad, dry beach - first in the shallow waves the great god set his spurious hooves, then sauntered further out ‘til in the open sea he bore his prize. Fear filled her heart as, gazing back, she saw the fast receding sands. Her right hand grasped a horn, the other lent upon his back; her fluttering tunic floated in the breeze.”

2x 491. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, holding tunny by its tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112; cf. SNG France 253 (stater); cf. SNG von Aulock 1202 (hemihekte). 2.69g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

492. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, holding tunny by its tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112; cf. SNG France 253 (stater); cf. SNG von Aulock 1202 (hemihekte). 2.64g, 10mm. Near Extremely Fine. Pleasant archaic style.

133

1,500


134


Third Known Example

493.

Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Double-bodied winged sphinx standing with head facing atop tunny fish to right, wearing ouraios, hair falling in plaited locks behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -, cf. 128 (hekte); Greenwell -, cf. 101 (hekte); SNG France -, cf. 280 (hekte); CNG inventory 925160; Roma VIII, lot 631. 16.16g, 20mm. Near Extremely Fine. Of the highest rarity, only the third known specimen.

20,000

The sphinx as a type recurs frequently on the coinage of Kyzikos and new types are still being discovered today, yet the double-bodied sphinx is certainly the most curious depiction of this mythological monster, and the reason for it being so is not easy to divine. Greenwell (p. 102), who was citing Cousinéry, proposed that it was simply an artistic device for showing the sphinx as seated facing, ‘arising from the difficulty of depicting a figure in that position’. This proposition appears plausible, until one considers that double-bodied owls are also engraved on coins at various cities including Athens, where they certainly had no problem with engraving a front-facing owl. More damning still for this simplistic view, the double-bodied sphinx appears also in statuary where again there is no logical reason to sculpt it so unless it possesses some significance - see in particular the limestone Tarentine column capital of the Corinthian order at the Metropolitan Museum, New York, and also the marble gravestone decorated with a loutrophoros supported by a double-bodied sphinx at the British Museum (both 4th century). The concept of double-bodied monsters was an ancient one, and probably originated in ancient Sumeria, as they are seen on cylinder seals from this culture, and are repeated later on ancient Iranian goldwork. Here, the doublebodied monsters probably signified a dualistic nature that is easily adaptable and can be one thing or another, or a span between two distinct yet connected elements such as sunrise and sunset. Tom Rasmussen (Corinth and the Orientalising Phenomenon) proposes that the artistic portrayal of the sphinx as a double-bodied monster was first devised at Corinth, where it can be found on a Protocorinthian olpe vase, circa 640 BC, known as the Chigi olpe which is now in the Villa Giulia in Rome. This was likely the product of a blending of Greek and Eastern imagery, yet the result is wholly original; indeed Rasmussen points out that ‘Greek Orientalising is rarely straight copying of Oriental’. It has often been suggested that the electrum staters of Kyzikos take their types from a wide range of artistic sources across a broad geographical range, as might be expected for a city-state that relied almost entirely for its prosperity on being a commerce hub where east and west would meet and exchange wares and ideas. Whether or not Corinth was the origin of the double-bodied Sphinx, it is not surprising that such an intriguing motif should be adopted at Kyzikos.

135


136


2x

2x

494. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Facing gorgoneion; tunny fish below [tooth-shaped countermark with pellet] / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 129; SNG France –; Boston MFA –; SNG von Aulock –; Rosen –. 2.68g, 11mm. Good Very Fine.

500

495. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Facing gorgoneion with mouth open and tongue protruding, six serpents on top of head, another below each ear; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 129, pl. IV, 15; Boston 1445 = Warren 1492; cf. SNG von Aulock 7295 (hemihekte); SNG France -. 16.09g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

12,500

While the origin or inspiration for many of the types used at Kyzikos is obscure or uncertain, the apotropaic design used on this type may be reasonably considered to have been taken from the drachms of Apollonia Pontika on the Black Sea coast of Thrace. Both on account of its relative proximity to Kyzikos and the latter’s strategic location on the main trade route, Apollonia would inevitably have had close trade economic ties with this city. 2x

2x

2x

496

497

498

496. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Head of Attis facing right, wearing ornamented Phrygian cap, [tunny fish below] / Quadripartite incuse square. Boston 1523; Von Fritze 142; SNG France 291. 2.66g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 4,000 497. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 450-400 BC. Head of Attis facing right, wearing ornamented Phrygian cap, [tunny fish below] / Quadripartite incuse square. Boston 1523; W. Greenwell, ‘The Electrum Coinage of Kyzikos’, NC 1887, 56, pl. III, 5; cf. Von Fritze 142 (stater and hekte); SNG France 291 (stater and hekte). 1.32g, 9mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - one of possibly only four known specimens. 5,000 From the Ambrose Collection. 498. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. The infant Herakles, nude and muscular, seated facing, head turned right, supporting himself with his left hand while holding tunny by the tail with his right / Quadripartite incuse square. Hurter & Liewald II 169; cf. Von Fritze I 169 (denomination not listed); cf. Boston MFA 1151 (stater); cf. SNG von Aulock 7314–5 (stater); cf. SNG France 316 (stater); Jameson 2201; Vinchon, 7 October 2003, lot 33; Numismatic Fine Arts XXVII, lot 58. 2.65g, 11mm. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare denomination. 5,000

499 500 499. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 450 BC. Naked boy (Taras?), seated astride a dolphin to left, holding a tunny by the tail in his extended right hand, a tunny below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -; Rosen Coll. 487. 2.67g, 12mm. Very Rare. Very Fine. 5,000 From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 270. 500. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 450-400 BC. Kithara; tunny fish to right below / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. Von Fritze 181 (stater); cf. SNG France 325 (1/12 Stater); Hurter & Liewald II 181. 2.65g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 1,000

137


138


Philip II of Macedon

501.

Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Mid 4th century BC. Large race horse rearing up to right, ridden by Phillip II of Macedon, bearded, wearing kausia, diadem and chlamys; tunny fish to right below / Speckled quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 168, pl. 5, 16; Greenwell -; SNG France 315; Boston MFA Supp. 151; Lanz 157, lot 137. 16.00g, 19mm. Near Mint State. A splendid coin, bright and sharply struck. Extremely Rare, and by far the finest known of very few examples. 30,000 The early Milesian foundation of Kyzikos on the isthmus of the Arktouros peninsula, protruding from the south-west coast of the Propontis, was ideally sited for its role as commercial intermediary par excellence at the centre of eastwest trade. The earliest electrum coinage of Kyzikos with its characteristic ‘tunny fish’ emblem dates from about 550, and was based on the Phokaic weight standard of about 16.1g, the equivalent value to a Persian gold daric of 8.4g. They were contemporarily called Kyzikenes and the distribution of hoard finds makes it clear that it was the acceptable currency for trade between Thrace and the northern coasts of the Black Sea, and from Athens to Ionia, so much so that Kyzikenes are mentioned in Athenian inventories (cf. ACGC p. 261-2). This electrum coinage bears a wide variety of types, many of which are mythological or historical and types copied from contemporary Greek poleis from Magna Graecia to the Levant. Before one can identify the obverse type of this splendid Kyzikene, it is important to first secure a date for the issue. The celebrated Prinkipo Hoard of over 200 Kyzikenes, 16 Pantikapaion and 4 Lampsakos gold staters (IGCH 1239; Regling ZfN 1931, pp. 1-46) places the burial date to about 335-4 BC, a chronology followed by most modern studies (see Hurter and Liewald SNR 81, 83 and 85). Even if in 1974 the Philip II gold staters were discovered to be a separate hoard (AJA 1974, 308; CH 2, 1976, 41), this low chronology is confirmed by the presence of three specific copied types: the Alexander the Great young Herakles head type derived from his imperial tetradrachms (von Fritze 194; ACGC 964); a young jockey with raised hand on horse derived from Philip II’s later tetradrachms (von Fritze 214; SNG France 344); the present type with a bearded figure wearing kausia and chlamys riding a horse derived from Philip II’s early tetradrachms which celebrate his victory at the Olympic Games in 356 (cf. Le Rider p. 5, 1; Kraay-Hirmer 562), the same year that Alexander was born. Added to these examples are the Philip II bearded portraits types identified by M. R. Kaiser-Raiss (SNR 63, 1983, Philip II. Und Kyzikos, pp. 27-53; von Fritze 197 and 199). Together these types paint a picture of the last issues of Kyzikene electrum, deriving their types directly from the coinage of the liberating Greek forces led by Alexander. The suggestion that the reverse figure should be identified as Kyzikos, the eponymous founder of the city who was accidentally killed by the Argonauts, lacks any credible supporting arguments, and falls down when the dating of the issue is taken into consideration. With no identifying features besides a kausia, it would be highly illogical to suppose that such an issue, struck at this late period, would represent the mythical founder of the city. Given the evidence presented by the Prinkipo Hoard, and the clear stylistic similarities, an identification of the rider as Philip II of Macedon seems secure.

139


502. Mysia, Parion AR Hemidrachm. 4th century BC. Bull standing left, head right; wreath below / Facing gorgoneion. SNG France -; BMC 38-9. 2.38g, 14mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

503. Mysia, Parion AR Hemidrachm. 4th century BC. Bull standing left, head right; grain ear below / Facing gorgoneion. SNG France 1373; BMC 23. 2.38g, 14mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

504. Mysia, Parion AR Hemidrachm. Circa 4th century BC. Bull standing left, head right; bukranion below / Facing gorgoneion. SNG France 1380; SNG von Aulock 7423. 2.24g, 16mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

250

505. Mysia, Parion AR Hemidrachm. 4th century BC. Bull standing left, head right; wreath below / Facing gorgoneion. SNG France -; BMC 38-9. 2.36g, 15mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine.

250

506. Mysia, Pergamon Ă&#x2020;17. Circa 133-27 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Trophy consisting of helmet and cuirass. SNG France 1875-9; SNG Copenhagen 393-5. 5.27g, 17mm, 12h. Dark green patina, Good Very Fine.

140

100


Bold Pergamene Portrait of Seleukos I

507.

Kingdom of Pergamon, Philetairos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 270-265 BC. Diademed head of the deified Seleukos I to right / Athena, helmeted and wearing long robes, seated to left on low throne with lion’s feet, resting her left elbow on support in the form of a sphinx, holding a transverse downward pointing spear in her left hand and resting her right on the edge of a round shield adorned with a gorgoneion standing before her; above, ivy leaf; to right, bow; AΘ monogram on throne. SC 309.5b; SNG France 1601 (same obv. die); Hunt 104 = Hunt Sale I 105; Leu 81, lot 256 (same obv. die). 17.03g, 29mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Attractively toned, light scratch on reverse.

20,000

Philetairos began his career serving under Antigonos Monophthalmos, but after the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC where Antigonos was killed, he shifted his allegiance to Lysimachos, who entrusted him with command of the fortress of Pergamon, and a treasury of nine thousand talents of silver (234 metric tonnes). Philetairos served Lysimachos until 282 BC, when perhaps because of conflicts involving the court intrigues of Arsinoe, Lysimachos’ third wife, Philetairos deserted Lysimachos, offering himself and the important fortress of Pergamon, along with its treasury to Seleukos, who subsequently defeated and killed Lysimachos at the Battle of Korupedion in 281 BC. Seleukos himself was murdered by Ptolemy Keraunos, a brother of Arsinoe, a few months later at Lysimacheia. After the death of Seleukos, though he and Pergamon remained nominally under Seleukid dominion, Philetairos had considerable autonomy and with the help of his considerable wealth was able to increase his power and influence beyond Pergamon. His first coinage was struck under the reign of Antiochos I, the son of Seleukos, and though it proclaims his loyalty to Seleukos, the presence of his name upon the reverse must have inevitably raised suspicions about his ambitions. Nevertheless, Philetairos never went so far as to proclaim himself king, and remained loyal to the Seleukids until his death in 263. Having no children of his own, Philetairos passed the rule of Pergamon to his nephew Eumenes, who almost immediately revolted against Antiochos, defeating the Seleukid king near Sardes in 261. Euemenes was thus able to free Pergamon, and greatly increased the territory under his control. In his new possessions, he established garrison posts in the north at the foot of Mount Ida called Philetaireia after his adoptive father, and in the east, northeast of Thyatira near the sources of the river Lykos, called Attaleia after his grandfather, and he extended his control south of the river Caïcus to the Gulf of Kyme as well. Demonstrating his independence, he began to strike coins as his predecessor had done, only now the obverse portrait was that of his uncle and adoptive father Philetairos.

141


LYDIA

508. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion to right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches of unequal size. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.73g, 13mm. Extremely Fine. In excellent high state of preservation for the type. 2x

2x

509

510

3,000

509. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Hemihekte - 1/12 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-560 BC. Head of lion right, with sun disk on forehead / Plain incuse square. Weidauer Group XV, 79-85 (hemihekten); BMC Lydia 17-20; ATEC 22. 1.01g, 8mm. Very Fine. 500 510. Kingdom of Lydia EL Hemihekte – 1/12 Stater. Time of Alyattes – Kroisos. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion right, sun on forehead (later style) / Incuse square punch. Weidauer group XVI, 90; Traité I 47; SNG Kayhan 101; Rosen 654; Elektron I 72. 1.18g, 8mm. Extremely Fine. An excellent example of the type. 500

Exceptional Quality

511. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Stater. Sardes, circa 564-539 BC. Light standard. Confronted foreparts of lion and bull / Two incuse squares. Berk 3; Traité I 401–3; SNG von Aulock 2875; SNG Lockett 2983 = Pozzi 2726; Athena Fund I 60; BMC 31; Boston MFA 2073; Gulbenkian 757; Zhuyuetang 11. 8.08g, 16mm. Fleur De Coin. Superbly lustrous, exceptionally rare in such quality.

20,000

Kroisos is credited with issuing the first true gold coins with a standardised purity for general circulation. His kingdom represented the last bastion against Persian expansion westwards into Greek lands; encouraged by a prediction of the Delphic Oracle that if he attacked Persia he would destroy a great empire, Kroisos made his preparations for war with Cyrus the Great. The war resulted in defeat for Kroisos; his numerically superior army was smashed, and the capital Sardes was captured along with Kroisos and his family, who were immolated on the orders of Cyrus. Lydia became a satrapy of the Persian Empire, though it continued to mint coins in the traditional types, and indeed the legendary wealth of Kroisos was used by Cyrus to form the basis of a new Persian gold standard currency.

142


Stunning Kroisos Double Siglos

512. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Stater - Double Siglos. Sardes, circa 550-546 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two square punches of unequal size. Berk 20; SNG Kayhan 1018; SNG von Aulock 2874; SNG Copenhagen 455; CNG e300, lot 66 (same dies). 10.66g, 20mm. Near Mint State. In excellent state of preservation, displaying uncommonly sound and lustrous metal. An incredibly beautiful example of this iconic type.

20,000

KARIA

513. Satraps of Karia, Hekatomnos AR Tetradrachm. Mylasa, circa 380 BC. Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding labrys in right hand, left hand on staff set on ground to right / Lion at bay right; [EKAT]O[MNΩ] above; all within incuse square. Hecatomnus 16 (A3/P8) = Sunrise 76 (this coin); Konuk, Identities 15; Karl 3; Traité II 82. 14.78g, 24mm, 8h. About Extremely Fine. An exceptional example of this type, of which this is the finest example offered at auction in the past fifteen years. Rare. 5,000 Ex Christie’s New York, 2 May 1989, lot 702; Ex Kovacs XI, 21 November 1988, lot 102; Ex Empire Coins FPL 42 (undated), no. 27; Ex Sternberg VIII, 16 November 1978, lot 126; From the Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387).

143


Rare Kaunos Stater

514. Karia, Kaunos AR Stater. Circa 430-410 BC. Winged female goddess moving to left, her head turned back to right, holding a wreath in left hand and a kerykeion in her right / Triangular baetyl flanked by two bunches of grapes hanging from tendrils; above to left, inverted delta. Konuk, in Price FS, 98 (O40/R39); SNG Kayhan 792; Troxell 27; DeLuynes 2776. 11.38g, 23mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

7,500

2x 2x 515. Islands off Karia, Kos AR Hemiobol. Circa 500-480 BC. Crab / Rough incuse square. SNG Kayhan 903; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Keckman -. 0.49g, 9mm. Extremely Fine. Exceptional Quality. Very Rare.

500

516. Islands off Karia, Kos AR Didrachm. Biton, magistrate, circa 345-340 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Veiled head of Demeter left, BITΩN to right, KΩIO[N] below. Pixodaros 27a; SNG Keckman 289; SNG von Aulock 2751-2; SNG Copenhagen 621; Jameson 1545 (this obv. die). 6.98gm 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Superbly toned, with golden iridescence over highly lustrous metal around the devices; even grey tone in fields.

3,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 314.

517. Karia, Myndos AR Hemidrachm. Filon magistrate, 2nd – 1st centuries BC. Head of Dionysos right, wearing ivy-wreath / ΦΙΛΟΝ – ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ, winged thunderbolt, thyrsos above. Cf SNG Keckman 242-3 (no thyrsos). 2.27g, 11mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Attractive iridescent toning.

500

Ex Bolaffi sale 24, 2014, 69.

2x

2x

518. Islands off Karia, Rhodos, Kamiros AR Trihemiobol. Circa 500-460 BC. Fig leaf / Square incuse punch. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 714-5 (hemiobol); SNG Keckman 320-1. 1.48g, 12mm. Extremely Fine. Struck on a very broad flan for the type and unusually well preserved. Extremely Rare.

144

500


519. Islands off Karia, Rhodos, Rhodes AR Didrachm. Circa 250-229 BC. Mnasimachos, magistrate. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly to right / Rose with bud to right; MNAΣIMAXOΣ above, P-O flanking stem; to left, Athena Nikephoros standing left. Ashton 208; SNG Keckman 537 (this obv. die); Karl 471 (this coin); SNG von Aulock 2807; SNG Copenhagen 765. 6.70g, 22mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Well centred and attractively toned.

1,000

Ex Erich Karl Collection; Ex Lanz 131, 27 November 2006, lot 471.

520. Islands off Karia, Rhodos, Rhodes AR Tetradrachm. Circa 205-190 BC. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Obverse die signed by ‘Dan...’ Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress signed ΔΑΝ on the lip / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, holding eagle on extended right hand and sceptre in left; PO beneath throne, monogram above rose in left field. Price 2513 var.; F.S. Kleiner, ANSMN 17, 1971, 106 (H-21) = SNG Berry 320 (same obverse die). 17.21g, 34mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 169, 13 October 2008, lot 554; Ex Künker 67, 9 October 2001, lot 409. The ΔΑΝ on the lip of the lion’s mouth appears to be the signature of a Rhodian die engraver, who was sufficiently proud of his accomplishment that he felt it was appropriate to sign his name on the die. ΔΑΝ might stand for Danaos, a Rhodian name that is well evidenced in the numismatic record, and which was borne by mythical founder of Rhodos. For the monogram see R.H.J. Ashton, The Coinage of Rhodes 408 - c. 190 BC, in: A. Meadows - K. Shipton (Ed.), Money and its Uses in the Ancient World, Oxford 2001, 107, where it is interpreted as “Ainetor”.

LYCIA

Extremely Rare Dynast - Ekuvemi

521. Dynasts of Lycia, Ekuvemi AR Tetrobol. Circa 480-460 BC. Boar walking left / EKU-VE-[MI] (Lycian), triskeles within incuse square. Traité II, 157 pl. 92, 18; Cf. BMC 45 (Stater). 2.93g, 13mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; CoinArchives records only three coins of this Dynast, all staters.

500

522. Dynasts of Lycia, Esbehi (?) AR Stater. Circa 480-460 BC. Uncertain mint in eastern Lycia. Pegasos flying left / Head of bull left within incuse square. Peus 407, 2012, 696 (same dies); Müseler/Nollé III, 44; cf. Traité II, 215 and SNG von Aulock 4088 (forepart of bull). 9.18g, 19mm, 3h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare. A most unusual engraving of Pegasos, who has here taken on a most vicious appearance.

145

750


Unique and Unpublished Kuprilli Tetrobol

523. Dynasts of Lycia, Kuprilli AR Tetrobol. Circa 470-440 BC. Forepart of bull right, ending in beaded truncation / Triskeles, K in field within round incuse. Unpublished in the standard references, for published Kuprilli bull types cf. Mørkholm-Zahle, ‘The coinage of Kuprlli’ in AA 43, 162168 and Vismara II, 106-7. 2.63g, 2.59g, 16mm. Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

500

Extremely Rare Tetrobol of Kheriga of Antiphellos

524. Dynasts of Lycia, Kheriga of Antiphellos AR Tetrobol. Circa 440-430 BC. Female head left, wearing hairband, wearing necklace / KHE-RIG-A-VEHNT (Lycian), tetraskeles within which, owl standing left, all within incuse square. Mørkholm-Zahle, AA 47, 5; BMC 105 pl. 6, 6; Traité II, 369 p. 99, 26. 2.66g, 17mm, 7h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,500

Second Known

525. Dynasts of Lycia, Dynast Oka...(?) AR Tetrobol. Circa 460-450 BC. Cow standing right, scratching head with hoof, VKA below / Forepart of boar left. Traité II, 236, pl. 95. 2.87g, 13mm, 2h. Extremely Fine, only the second example recorded, Fine classical style.

2,500

526. Dynasts of Lycia, Sppntaza AR Tetrobol. Uncertain mint (Phellos?), circa 440-430 BC. Head of Aphrodite to left / Tetraskeles, ‘mbba’ around; all within incuse square. Babelon, Traité II/2, 338; Müseler-Nollé V, 43; SNG Copenhagen Suppl. -. 3.03g, 14mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

200

527. Dynasts of Lycia, Teththiveibi AR Tetrobol. Circa 440-430 BC. Facing head of Silenos / Tetraskeles, TETHTHIVEIBI in Lycian script around; all within beaded square frame and incuse square. BMC 88, pl. 5, 6; SNG Berry 1164. 2.67g, 16mm. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, one of very few known specimens.

146

500


Unique Obol of Vekhssere I

2x

2x

528. Dynasts of Lycia, Vekhssere I AR Obol. Circa 440-430 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / VEKH (Lycian), triskeles within incuse square. Cf. Vismara II, 44-47 and Traité II, 433 (all trihemiobols). 0.64g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

200

529. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei AR Stater. Circa 430-410 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / / KHERËI (Lycian), forepart of bull right, three pellets in right field, all within incuse square. S. Hurter, ‘A New Lycian Coin Type: Kherêi, Not Kuperlis’, in INJ 14 (2000-2), p. 18, 8 pl. 2 = Peus sale 360, 1999, 73; The New York Sale 30, 2013, 166 (same dies). 8.27g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

530. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei AR Drachm. Circa 430-410 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing necklace / KHERËI (Lycian), bearded head of dynast left, wearing Persian kyrbasia, barley-grain in left field, Kh (Lycian) below, all within incuse square. Cf. Künker sale 143, lot 228 (same dies), otherwise unpublished. 4.14g, 16mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Apparently only the second known example.

2x

300

2x

531. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei AR Triobol. Tlos (?), circa 430-410 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing necklace / KHERË (Lycian), bearded head of dynast right, wearing Persian kyrbasia, barley, Λ T in right field, all within incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references, for types cf. Vismara II, 168-174. 1.95g. 14mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

2x

500

2x

532. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei AR Trihemiobol. Circa 430-410 BC. Two confronted cockerels on circular shield / KHER retrograde (Lycian), owl standing left within incuse square. Vismara II, 175 = Winseman-Falghera 38; cf. Mørkholm-Zahle, AA 47, 15-16. 1.09g, 11mm, 9h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

200

2x 2x 533. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei (?) AR Obol. Circa 430-410 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Head of Kherei right, wearing kyrbasia, symbol in right field, all within incuse circle. CNG e-sale 338, 2014, 100; for type and symbol cf. SNG von Aulock 4175 and Traité 346 (stater); 0.59g, 9mm, 2h. Very Fine. Rare.

147

100


2x

2x

534

535

534. Dynasts of Lycia, Ddenevele AR Triobol. Circa 410-400 BC. Head of satrap right, wearing kyrbasia / DDENEVE (Lycian), helmeted head of Athena right. wearing necklace, Kh behind, Λ below, all within round incuse. Winzer 24.4 (same dies); cf. Traité 410, pl. 101, 7. 1.86g, 14mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 300 535. Dynasts of Lycia, Ddenevele (?) AR Triobol. Circa 410-400. Head of satrap right, wearing kyrbasia / DDENE (Lycian), helmeted head of Athena right, diskeles behind, within round incuse. SNG von Aulock 4182 (same dies). 2.29g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare. 200

2x 2x 535. Dynasts of Lycia, Ddenewele AR Obol. Circa 420/10-400 BC. Head of Satrap right, wearing Persian tiara / Helemeted head of Athena right, within incuse circle. Cf. Falghera 177 (for a similar stater); cf. SNG von Aulock 4182 (for a similar triobol); Traité pl. ci, 9. 0.65g, 9mm, 1h. About Extremely Fine.

300

Unpublished Lycian Stater

537. Dynasts of Lycia, Ddenevele (?) AR Stater. Circa 410-400. Bearded head of Herakles right, wearing lion’s skin headdress / Helmeted head of Athena right, diskeles behind, all within round incuse. Unpublished in the standard references, for types cf. Traité 406 pl. 101, 2. 7.91g, 21mm, 10h. About Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished. A Herakles portrait of arrestingly fine style.

4,000

538. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei AR Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 410-390 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves and spiral / Forepart of Lamassu to right; ẼERẼI (sic, in Lycian) before; all within incuse square. Mørkholm & Zahle II -; Falghera -; Traité -; BMC Lycia -; SNG Copenhagen Suppl. 453 (same dies); SNG von Aulock -. 8.46g, 19mm, 11h. Struck from a worn obv. die, but otherwise Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

This coin bears a very attractive depiction of the forepart of a lamassu, an ancient Assyrian protective deity with the head of a man, the body of an ox (sometimes a lion), and the wings of a bird. First appearing in Assyria during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser I (circa 1114–1076 BC) as a symbol of power, the lamassu motif was used extensively by the Assyrians; typically, lamassu were prominently placed as guardians at the entrances of cities and palaces.

539. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei AR Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 410-390 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Forepart of bull to right, ẼERẼI (sic, in Lycian) above; all within incuse square. Cf. Mørkholm & Zahle II 33 (quarter stater); S. Hurter, “A New Lycian Coin Type: Kherêi, Not Kuperlis,” INJ 14 (2000-2), pl. 2, 8; Triton XVI, lot 508 = Triton VII, lot 283. 8.56g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

148

1,000


540. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei AR Stater. Uncertain mint, circa 410-390 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves and spiral / Forepart of Lamassu to right; ẼERẼI (sic, in Lycian) before; all within incuse square. Mørkholm & Zahle II -; Falghera -; Traité -; BMC Lycia -; SNG Copenhagen Suppl. 453 (same dies); SNG von Aulock -. 8.50g, 20mm, 7h. Struck from a worn obv. die, otherwise Very Fine.

500

Unique and Unpublished

2x

2x

541. Dynasts of Lycia, Mithrapata AR Diobol. Tlos (?), circa 380 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / [MEX]RRTHE retrograde (Lycian), facing draped bust of Hera, wearing radiate crown, inverted conical earrings and pendant necklace, all within round incuse. Unpublished in the standard references, for Mithrapata cf. Traité and BMC 136-140 1.18g, 13mm, 6h. Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

300

542. Dynasts of Lycia, Zagaba AR 1/3 Stater. Circa 400-380 BC. Lion’s scalp facing / Head of Athena, facing three-quarter to left, wearing elaborate necklace and crested and plumed helmet; Lycian script around. Podalia 14. 2.85g, 18mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

543. Dynasts of Lycia, Zagaba AR 1/3 Stater. Circa 400-380 BC. Lion’s scalp facing / Head of Athena, facing three-quarter to left, wearing elaborate necklace and crested and plumed helmet; Lycian script around. Podalia 14. 3.01g, 17mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

544. Lycia, Kadyanda AR Stater. Time of dynast Kheriga, circa 410-400 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing plain Attic crested helmet with raised cheek guard / KHADAVAVTUNE (Lycian), head of Hermes left, wearing lion’ skin, kerykeion behind, all within incuse square. Traité 415 pl. 101; Peus sale 407, 765. 11. 7.97g, 21mm, 7h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

149

250


Unpublished Diobol of Telmessos

2x

2x

545. Lycia, Telmessos AR Diobol. Circa 410-390 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / TE (Lycian), head of bearded Herakles left, wearing lion’s skin headdress all within incuse square. Unpublished in the standard references, for types cf. Vismara II, 179-184. 1.01g, 11mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

750

Extremely Rare Diobol of Tlos

2x

2x

546. Lycia, Tlos AR Diobol. Circa 390-380 BC. Facing lion’s scalp / TLR-FI (Lycian), facing male bust with frizzy hair and chlamys fastened at throat, all within round incuse. Traité 446 pl. 102, 18; BMC 134 pl. 8, 2. 1.09g, 13mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2x

500

2x

547. Lycia, Xanthos AR Hemiobol. Time of Vekhssere II, circa 400-390 BC. Helmeted head of Athena left / Helmeted head of Athena right within round incuse. Unpublished in the standard references, for a similar example cf, Peus sale 413, 2014, 100 (same dies). 0.27g, 8mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

200

548. Lycia, Xanthos AR Stater. Circa 400-370 BC. Head and forepaw of roaring lion right with protruding tongue / Head of Athena right, wearing plain Attic crested helmet with raised cheek guard, diskeles above, all within round incuse. Traité 501 pl. 104, 21; Fellows pl. 18, 4. 8.24g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine.

500

PAPHLAGONIA

549

550

549. Paphlagonia, Sinope AR Drachm. Circa 330-300 BC. Head of Sinope left, wearing sphendone and triple pendent earring / ΣΙΝΩ, Eagle on dolphin left, below wing: ΦΑΓΕT... SNG Stancomb777; SNG BM 1490; HGC 7, 392. 5.06g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine, slight porosity. 300 550. Kings of Paphlagonia, Pylaemenes II or III Æ18. 133-103 BC. Facing bull head / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΥΛΑΙΜΕΝΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ, winged kerykeion. RG 3; SNG BM Black Sea 1555; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 150. 2.98g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 350

150


CILICIA

551 552 551. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Datames, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. Circa 378-372 BC. Facing head of Arethusa turned slightly left (in imitation of the famous facing head of Arethusa on Kimon’s Syracusan Tetradrachm) / Bearded male head (Ares?) right, wearing crested helmet, Aramaic ‘Datames’ before. SNG Levante 79; SNG France 260. 10.75g, 23mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone. 1,500 552. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Pharnabazos, satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia. Circa 380-379 BC. Baaltars seated left, holding lotus tipped sceptre; astragalos below throne / Bearded male head (Ares?) left, wearing crested Attic helmet. Casabonne series 4; Moysey Issue 2; SNG France 256; SNG Levante -. 10.56g, 24mm, 10h. Well struck on a broad flan, minor porosity. Extremely Fine. 1,500

553. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Mazaios, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. Circa 361-334 BC. Baaltars seated left, his torso facing, holding lotustipped sceptre in extended right hand, left hand holding chlamys at his waist; thymiaterion surmounted by eagle to left, barley grain below throne, B’LTRZ (in Aramaic) to right / Lion walking left; Z (in Phoenician[?]) above. Casabonne Series 5, Group E; SNG France –; SNG Levante Supp. 28 (Myriandros); Sunrise 60 corr. (mint; this coin). 10.85g, 23mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. An exceptional example of this sought-after type. Rare.

7,500

Privately purchased from Kirk Davis, December 2000. The attribution of the walking-lion series of Mazaios had originally been given to the mint of Tarsos, but Newell argued that they more likely were struck at Myriandros in his study of that mint in AJN 53 (1919). Later, J.D. Bing, in AJN 1 (1989), argued for an alternative attribution of the Myriandros coinage to the mint of Issos. While most numismatic works continue to follow Newell, Casabonne’s significant study of Cilicia during the Persian period convincingly returns these coins of Mazaios to the mint of Tarsos (cf. Casabonne, pp. 215–7).

554. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Mazaios, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. Circa 361-334 BC. Baaltars seated left, holding eagle, ear of corn and bunch of grapes in right hand, lotus-headed sceptre in left, Aramaic legend ‘BLTRZ’ = Baaltars, to right, Aramaic letters on left and below seat / Lion attacking a bull to left, Aramaic legend above ‘MZDI’ = Mazaios; monogram below. SNG Levante 106 (these dies). 10.65g, 23mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Well detailed and struck on a broad flan.

1,500

555. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Balakros, satrap of Cilicia under Alexander III. Circa 333-323 BC. Facing bust of Athena, draped, wearing triple-crested helmet and necklace / Baaltars seated left, holding lotus-tipped sceptre, grain ear and grape bunch to left, B above ivy leaf to right, T under throne. SNG Levante Suppl. 21; SNG France 368; SNG von Aulock 5964. 10.63g, 25mm, 11h. About Extremely Fine.

151

1,500


556. Cilicia, Nagidos AR Stater. Circa 375-365 BC. Aphrodite enthroned to left, holding a phiale; Eros stands at her side, with wings displayed / Dionysos standing to half-left, wearing a himation, holding a vine-branch with grapes in his right hand and a thyrsos in his left, NAΓIΔEΩN around, Π in exergue. SNG France 25 (these dies); P. Lederer, ‘Die Staterprägung der Stadt Nagidos’, ZfN XLI, 1931, 23; BMC 11, pl. XIX, 10; SNG von Aulock 5754 var. 10.61g, 22mm, 8h. Mint State. Sound, beautiful metal and superb for the type.

4,000

Ex Prospero Collection, The New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 591; Purchased from Spink & Son Ltd., London, 1990.

557. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. Circa 410-375 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin / Grape bunch within incuse square; ivy leaf on vine and ΣO-ΛE-ΩN in margins; all within shallow incuse circle. Casabonne type 4; SNG France 171 (same rev. die); SNG Levante –; SNG von Aulock –; Jameson 1607. 10.14g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

3,000

BITHYNIA High Relief Prusias I Tetradrachm

558. Kingdom of Bithynia, Prusias I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 238-183 BC. Diademed head right / Zeus standing left, holding wreath in right hand, lotus tipped sceptre in left; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΠΡΟΥΣΙΟΥ to left; thunderbolt above two monograms to inner left. BMC Pontus p. 209, 1-2 var. (monograms); Waddington pl. XXIX. 16.80g, 32mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent style, struck in high relief.

152

7,500


559. Kings of Bithynia, Nikomedes IV Philopator AR Tetradrachm. Bithyno-Pontic era EΣ (205 = 94/3 BC). Diademed head of king right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKOMHΔOY, Zeus stephanophoros standing left, holding sceptre and crowning the kings name with wreath; eagle standing left on thunderbolt above monogram and EΣ in inner left field. De Callataÿ 1997, p. 61 D151-2/R3-6; Rec. gén. p. 232; HGC 7, 645. 16.86g, 33mm, 12h. Mint State. Highly lustrous metal.

2,000

560. Kings of Bithynia, Nikomedes IV Philopator AR Tetradrachm. Bithyno-Pontic era CΣ (206 = 93/2 BC). Diademed head of king right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKOMHΔOY, Zeus stephanophoros standing left, holding sceptre and crowning the kings name with wreath; eagle standing left on thunderbolt above monogram and CΣ in inner left field. De Callataÿ 1997, p. 61 D165-7-2/R2-3; Rec. gén. p. 232; HGC 7, 645. 16.62g, 35mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

PONTOS Mithradates Prepares for War against Rome

561. Kingdom of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. 90/89 BC. Diademed head right / Pegasos on ground line to left, preparing to lie down, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; star within crescent to left, date and monogram to right, month below; all within ivy wreath. De Callataÿ D47/R5; SNG von Aulock 6678 (same dies). 16.77g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Privately purchased from Tradart; From a European collection, bought in 1977. Struck in the year prior to Mithradates’ first war against Rome, this coin was part of an extensive issue struck to finance his preparations.

153

7,500


154


The Tide Turns Against Mithradates

562. Kingdom of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AV Stater. Pergamene year Γ (3 = 86 BC). Diademed head right / Stag grazing left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ in two lines below; to left, star-in-crescent and to right: Γ above monogram; monogram in exergue; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. Callataÿ 1997, D8-9. 8.40g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

12,500

Struck at the height of the First Mithradatic War, the year 86 saw a complete reversal of Mithradates’ fortunes, as Sulla first reduced Athens by a lengthy siege and then proceeded to annihilate Mithradates’ armies in two pitched battles. Sulla’s army took Athens on February 12 after a brutal year-long siege. Athens had chosen the wrong side in this struggle, and his battle hardened legions, veterans of the Social War, thoroughly sacked the city. Soon afterwards he captured the harbour of Piraios, which he thoroughly looted and ravaged by fire. The Persian commander Archelaos’ naval blockage of Attica eventually forced Sulla to march into Boiotia seeking sustenance for his army, despite his concerns about exposing himself to the superior Pontic cavalry forces. At Chaeroneia in Boiotia Sulla’s army of 40,000 was confronted by Archelaos’ force, which numbered some 120,000 infantry and cavalry. The result of the engagement was a crushing defeat for the Pontic army. Appian and Plutarch claim that only 10,000 survived and escaped to the nearby town. They add that 14 Romans were not accounted for at the end of the battle, two of which returned at nightfall, making the Roman casualty count an unbelievable 12 soldiers. This defeat would be closely followed by another equally disastrous encounter at Orchomenos, leading to the total collapse of the Pontic forces in Greece. This gold stater fully embodies the grand ambitions and megalomaniacal notions of Mithradates VI. Portraying himself on his coinage with an uplifted gaze and Dionysiac free flowing hair (an association strengthened on the reverse with the Dionysiac wreath of ivy), we are undoubtedly expected to see in Mithradates a divinely-inspired heroic king who fights for Greek freedom against the ruthless and expansionist Romans.

563. Kingdom of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. Pergamon, dated month 11, year 212 BE (August 85 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ, stag grazing left; to left, star-in-crescent above monogram, BIΣ (year) above monogram; IA (month) below; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. Callataÿ D3/R1, b; M.J. Price, ‘Mithradates VI Eupator, Dionysus, and the Coinages of the Black Sea’ in NC 1968, pl. I, 6 = RG 16, pl. suppl. B, 12 = Mionnet II 10; HGC 7, 338; DCA 688. 16.70g, 34mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Attractive iridescent tone.

4,000

Only 2 Known to De Callataÿ

564. Kingdom of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AR Tetradrachm. 67/66 BC. Diademed head right / Pegasos on ground line to left, preparing to lie down, BAΣΙΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ below; star within crescent to left, monogram to right, date (year 231) below. De Callataÿ D77/R1a; Paris, BN, Pont 50 = Waddington 131; Burgan, 30 June 1984, 309. 16.59g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - De Callataÿ recorded only two specimens.

155

7,500


156


‘Veni, Vidi, Vici’

565.

Kingdom of Pontos and Cimmerian Bosporos, Pharnakes II AV Stater. Pantikapaion, 53/52 BC. Diademed bust of Pharnakes right, with luxuriant hair falling behind neck / Apollo, semi-draped, seated to left on lion-footed throne, holding laurel branch over tripod, left elbow resting on kithara at his side; BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN above, MEΓAΛOY ΦAPNAKOY below, date ΣMΣ to right, three pellets to left. K.V. Golenko and J.P. Karyszkowski, ‘The Gold Coinage of King Pharnaces of the Bosporus,’ in Numismatic Chronicle 1972, p. 38, fig. 3 (same dies); MacDonald 185/3; HGC 7, 198. 8.25g, 20mm, 12h. Minor die break on reverse, otherwise Mint State. Extremely Rare – the second known specimen.

30,000

The three pellets symbol depicted on the reverse of this rare coin is known on Sasanian coins where it held great significance as an old Iranian sacral symbol of power (cf. Ardashir I, SNS I Type IV/3a). Such pellets apparently with the same meaning, and are also found on the debased late staters of the Sarmatian king Thothorses of the Bosporos (cf. MacDonald 647/1). Born the youngest son of Mithradates VI, he nonetheless became the sole heir after the deaths of his brothers Arkathios and Machares – the former died while on campaign in Macedonia in 86, the latter committed suicide after rebelling against Mithradates. After his father’s final defeat and escape to Pantikapaion, Pharnakes had no desire to support his father’s continued wish to wage war with the Romans. He therefore began a plot to remove Mithradates from power. Though his plans were discovered, the army supported him, not wishing to engage Pompey and the Roman armies again. So in 63 BC, surrounded, Mithradates VI was forced to take his own life. Pharnakes II quickly sent an embassy to Pompey with the body of his father, to be at the disposal of Pompey. Pompey granted Pharnakes the Bosporan Kingdom, and named him friend and ally of Rome. Like his father, he could not resist taking advantage of the war between Caesar and Pompey, thinking Rome to be too distracted to prevent his conquests of Colchis and Lesser Armenia. He defeated Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus and a Roman army, and proceeded to overrun Pontos. Caesar however made haste to give battle himself, and at Zela in 47 BC Pharnakes was routed, escaping with only a small detachment of cavalry. Thus, this parricide would-be ‘Great King of Kings’ was soundly defeated by the might of Rome in the person of Julius Caesar, who reported this victory to the Senate with the famous phrase: ‘veni, vidi, vici’ (Plutarch, Caesar. 50; Suetonius, Iulius Caesar, 37).

157


KYRENAIKA

Ex L. Naville Collection, Hess 1929

566. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AV Stater. Circa 322-313 BC. Polianthes, magistrate. Quadriga trotting to right, driven by a three-quarter facing charioteer; KYPANAION behind / Zeus Ammon standing left, holding phiale over thymiaterion with his right hand and long sceptre with his left; ΠOΛIANΘEYΣ to right. BMC 117. Naville 85k (this coin). 8.66g, 20mm, 11h. A few minor marks, otherwise, about Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

Ex LHS 95, 25 October 2005, lot 757; Ex L. Naville and H. Vogel collections, Hess 194, 25 March 1929, 482.

EGYPT

567. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy I, as satrap, AR Tetradrachm. In the name of Alexander III. Alexandria, circa 310-305 BC. Head of Alexander right, wearing horn of Zeus Ammon and elephant’s skin headdress / AΛEΞANΔPOY, Athena Alkidemos advancing right, ΔI, helmet and eagle to right. Svoronos 33; Zervos Issue XIII; SNG Copenhagen 30. 15.65g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. A superbly detailed example with a particularly fine style Athena Alkidemos, ‘defender of the people’.

3,000

568. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy VIII AR Tetradrachm. Paphus Cypri, circa 144-143 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I right / ΠΤΟΛEΜΑΙΥ BAΣΙΛEΩΣ, eagle with closed wings standing to left on thunderbolt. Svoronos 1502. 14.34g, 26mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 349.

PHILISTIA Only Two Examples Cited by Gitler-Tal

569. Philistia, uncertain mint AR Drachm. 5th-4th centuries BC. Hybrid janiforn head composed of bearded male to right and youngster facing / Horned lion-like animal seated right, with wing ending in a bovine head, all within dotted border within incuse square. Gilter-Tal series XXVII, IDa-b (different dies). 3.27g, 16mm, 6h. About Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, only 2 examples cited by Gitler-Tal.

158

7,500


ARABIA

570

571

570. Southern Arabia, Qataban AR Hemidrachm. Unknown ruler(s). Timna, circa 350-320/00 BC. Imitating Athens. Head of Athena right, Γ on cheek, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor / Owl standing right, head facing; [olive sprig] and crescent behind, Royal Qatabanian monogram, composed of South Arabian letters h and l, and ÅQE to right. Munro-Hay p. 71, 1.0aii, pl. 48, 30-32; HGC 10, 711. 1.98g, 11mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. 500 571. Southern Arabia, Qataban AR Hemidrachm. Unknown ruler(s). Timna, circa 350-320/00 BC. Imitating Athens. Head of Athena right, Γ on cheek, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor / Owl standing right, head facing; [olive sprig] and crescent behind, Royal Qatabanian monogram, composed of South Arabian letters h and l, and ÅQE to right. Munro-Hay p. 71, 1.0aii, pl. 48, 30-32; HGC 10, 711. 2.00g, 11mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. 500

572. Southern Arabia, Qataban AR Hemidrachm. Unknown ruler(s). Late 2nd–1st centuries BC. Bare male head right / Bearded head right; Royal Qatabanian monogram behind neck, control monograms below and before. Munro-Hay p. 73, 1.8biic, pl. 48, 35; HGC 10, 714. 1.92g, 13mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

250

PERSIA

573. Persia, Achaemenid Kings AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Great King with kidaris and kandys in kneeling-running attitude on exergual line to right, holding strung bow, and apple-tipped spear over right shoulder with point downwards, quiver at left shoulder / Incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb, Group A/B (pl. XIII, 27); Meadows, Administration 321; BMC Arabia pl. XXIV, 26; Sunrise 24. 8.32g, 15mm. Extremely Fine.

3,000

574. Persia, Achaemenid Kings AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Great King with kidaris and kandys in kneeling-running attitude on exergual line to right, holding strung bow, and apple-tipped spear over right shoulder with point downwards, quiver at left shoulder / Incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb, Group A/B (pl. XIII, 27); Meadows, Administration 321; BMC Arabia pl. XXIV, 26; Sunrise 24. 8.39g, 17mm. Extremely Fine.

2,000

SYRIA

575. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, MI at feet to left, monogram in wreath to right; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 3748; Müller 731. 8.55g, 18mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

159

4,000


576. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, MI at feet to left, monogram in wreath to right; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 3748; Müller 731. 8.56g, 17mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

3,500

577. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis, MI at feet to left, monogram in wreath to right; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 3748; Müller 731. 8.58g, 18mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Brilliant mint lustre.

2,500

578. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. Babylon, circa 311-308 BC. In the name and types of Alexander. Head of Athena right wearing Corinthian helmet ornamented with griffin / Nike standing left, holding stylis and wreath, BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY, to right; MHP monogram in wreath at feet to left. SC 81.3; Price 3749. 8.56g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous; well centred on a broad flan.

3,000

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 354.

579. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 305-295 BC. Head of Seleukos I right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around, monogram in lower middle field. SC 173.4; HGC 9, 20. 16.91g, 27mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

160

5,000


580. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 300-295 BC. Head of Seleukos I right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base, AX between, M to left; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around. SC 173.14; HGC 9, 20. 15.88g, 26mm, 2h. Good Very Fine.

4,000

581. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia, circa 300-281 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / ΣEΛEYKOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; monograms in left field and below throne. SC 117.1c; ESM 4; HGC 9, 12i. 7.14g, 26mm, 5h. Beautiful style, Near Extremely Fine.

750

Excellent Style Antiochos I Tetradrachm

582. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, Apollo seated to left on omphalos, holding arrow and resting left hand on bow which is set on ground; monogram in each outer field. Newell, ESM 177; SC 379.6; HGC 9, 128g. 17.14g, 30mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Well struck and centred; engraved in very fine style and very well preserved for the type.

7,500

Ex Numismatik Lanz 112, 25 November 2002, lot 229; Ex Münzen und Medaillen Basel list 530, 1990, no. 4. Antiochos I was the son of Seleukos I and Apama, Seleukos’ Persian wife. His date of birth is unknown, but was probably circa 320 BC as he was old enough to lead the Seleukid cavalry at the battle of Ipsos in 301. When Seleukos was assassinated in 281, Antiochos was probably in Ekbatana, where he had maintained court ruling the eastern satrapies on behalf of his father since 294. With his accession, Antiochos faced immediate attacks by Ptolemy II in Asia Minor and revolts of the cities of Syria. He left his eldest son, Seleukos, as governor of the eastern satrapies and marched west to meet the threats, which he soon overcame. However, it was not long before his attention was once again drawn to disturbances, this time from a menacing force of warlike Celtic tribes that had crossed over the Hellespont in the winter of 278/7 and invaded Asia Minor, and also shortly thereafter, renewed hostilities with Ptolemy II (First Syrian War, 274-271 BC). After defeating the Celts and receiving the title of Saviour (Soter) by the Greek cities of Asia Minor, Antiochos concluded an uneasy truce with Ptolemy which allowed him to focus on public relations and administrative work in Asia Minor. His subsequent reign was relatively peaceful, with the exceptions of sedition by his son and co-regent, Seleukos, whom he was forced to execute and replace with his younger son, the future Antiochos II, and the loss of northwest Asia Minor to Eumenes I of Pergamon. The figure of Apollo seated on the omphalos gained prominence under Antiochos, publicizing his supposed descent from the god, and became the characteristic reverse type for most Seleukid precious metal coinage down through the reign of Antiochos IV.

161


583. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos II Theos Æ20. Tarsos, circa 261-246 BC. Dioskouroi on horseback rearing right / Athena Promachos standing right; below, Seleukid anchor right. SC 566.1; HGC 9, 254. 9.18g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

750

Extremely Rare and Among the Finest Known

584. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos IV Epiphanes AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, circa 166/5 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, his hair long, draping his shoulders / Apollo, wearing a long peplos, standing facing right, holding a patera and a kithara; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY ΘEOY to right, EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKHΦOPOY to left. Houghton & Lorber, SC 1401; Newell, SMA 64; Houghton 110; Gulbenkian 1040. 16.79g, 33mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

10,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 823. Issued for the Panhellenic festival celebrated in the sanctuary of Apollo at Daphne, near Antioch, only around 15 examples of this exceptionally beautiful issue are known to have survived antiquity; of these, this specimen is certainly among the finest. The Panhellenic festival had been celebrated before the reign of Antiochos IV, but it was he that caused the importance and size of the festival at Daphne to be greatly increased, such that after this time Daphne became a central cult location and oracle of the dynasty’s patron deity Apollo. Antiochos had sent ambassadors and envoys to the Greek cities, and many were eager to send delegations. The festival was preceded by a grand military parade of forty thousand infantry, ten thousand cavalry and sixty four war elephants. More than half of the infantry were elite Seleukid shock troops, including the bronze and silver shield battalions, and a ten-thousand strong formation of soldiers equipped in the Roman legionary fashion (for a full description of the parade, see Polybios 31.16.1). There followed a great number of sacrificial animals and offerings to the gods, and lastly came a great parade of gilded images of “every god or demigod or hero known or worshipped by mankind”. At least part of Antiochos’ motivation in transforming the festival into such an imposing and lavish monarchical spectacle was to enhance his own reputation and the status of Daphne. Since Didyma had been lost to the Seleukids since the treaty of Apameia in 188, it is likely that he also sought to supplant Didyma with a cult centre within Seleukid territory. More importantly, the Treaty of Apameia had explicitly forbidden Seleukid possession of war elephants, and therefore the primary purpose of the grand military parade was to announce his power to all the world and make a clear statement that he would not be cowed by Rome, nor abide by the treaty imposed upon his father.

585. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Demetrios I AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, 162-155/154 BC. Diademed head right / Tyche seated left on backless throne with winged tritoness support, holding sceptre and cornucopia; monogram to outer left. SC 1638.1f; HGC 9, 795f. 16.17g, 30mm, 2h. Very Fine.

300

586. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Demetrios I AR Drachm. Antioch, Year 161 = 152-151 BC. Diademed head of Demetrios right / Cornucopiae. SC 1642.3; HGC 6, 806. 4.07g, 17mm, 1h. Very Fine.

162

100


587. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VII Euergetes AR Tetradrachm. Tyre, circa 135-134 BC. Diademed, draped bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, eagle standing left on prow, TYP monogram on club to left, APE monogram above club, monogram in right field above HOP, control mark between legs. SC 2109.6. 14.11g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Pleasantly toned. Rare.

750

588. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Alexander II Zabinas AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, circa 128-122 BC. Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, AΛEΞANΔPOV to left; Zeus enthroned left, resting left hand on sceptre, extending right hand beyond legend and holding Nike facing left, extending wreath left; monogram in outer left field, Δ below throne. SC 2220.2c; HGC 9, 1149d. 16.49g, 31mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Scarce.

1,000

589 590 589. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, circa 121-114 BC. Diademed head of Antiochos right within fillet border / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding star in outstretched hand and long sceptre, crescent above, IE over A in left field, Φ to right and on wreath tie; all within laurel wreath border. SC 2298.3; SMA 377; SNG Spaer 2497-2500 var. (letter on wreath). 16.74g, 30mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. 400 590. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Tetradrachm. Ake-Ptolemaïs, circa 121-113 BC. Diademed head of Antiochos right within fillet border / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ ΑNTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding star in outstretched hand and long sceptre, crescent above, monogram in field; all within laurel wreath border. SC 2336.2. 16.59g, 31mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 300

591. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes Grypos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch on the Orontes, circa 112-110 BC. Diademed head right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ in two lines to right, ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟVΣ to left; Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding star in outstretched hand and long sceptre, crescent above; monograms in left field, K in inner right field; all within laurel border. SC 2302.1h. 16.55g, 29mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

Very Rare Seleukid Kings of Syria Tetradrachm

592. Seleukid Kings of Syria, Demetrios III Eukairos AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, Circa 96-87 BC. Diademed head right / Zeus enthroned left, holding Nike and sceptre; [N/A in outer left field], monogram below throne. SNG Spaer 2823; SMA 435. 15.36g, 27mm, 1h. Very Fine. Very Rare; some porosity.

163

3,000


ELYMAIS

593. Kings of Elymais, Kamnaskires III with Anzaze AR Tetradrachm. Circa 82-75 BC. Conjoined busts left of Kamnaskires and Queen Anzaze; monogram above anchor symbol behind; countermark: Nike standing left / Zeus seated left, holding sceptre and Nike, who crowns him, MAKEΔΩN before; IΛCIΛEΩC KΛMNΛIKIPOY KΛI IΛIIΛIICHC ANZAZH (BAΣIΛEΩΣ KAMNΣKIROY KAI BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ ANZAZHΣ) around, date in exergue. BMC 245/1; Alram 454. 15.91g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine, struck on sound metal and exceptionally well preserved and detailed for the issue. Very Rare.

4,000

The Kingdom of Elymais may be simply described as the land between Babylonia and Persis, though very little is known today of it or its kings. For approximately a century after the disintegration of Alexander’s empire, the principle city of this region, Susa, and the surrounding lands were ruled by the Seleukids. After Seleukia itself, Susa was the second largest city in Seleukid control. Even after the Parthian conquest of the region, Susa retained a considerable degree of autonomy, maintaining its Greek city-state organisation and eventually gaining apparent independence in 147 BC under Kamnaskires I Megas Soter, whose coins depict him as a Greek prince in Seleukid style, with Greek legends. Over time however, the Greek influence in Elymais appears to have significantly diminished, with both Greek legends and portraiture becoming increasingly blundered, until finally we see the sixth king of this dynasty, Kamnaskires III and his wife and co-regent Anzazes, in distinctly Parthian style.

594. Kings of Elymais, Kamnaskires III with Anzaze AR Tetradrachm. Circa 82-75 BC. Conjoined busts left of Kamnaskires and Queen Anzaze; monogram above anchor symbol behind; countermark: Nike standing left / Zeus seated left, holding sceptre and Nike, who crowns him, MAKEΔΩN before; IΛCIΛEΩC KΛMNΛIKIPOY KΛI IΛIIΛIICHC ANZAZH (BAΣIΛEΩΣ KAMNΣKIROY KAI BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ ANZAZHΣ) around, date in exergue. BMC 245/1; Alram 454. 15.86g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

PERSIS

595. Kings of Persis, Bagadat (Bayadad) AR Tetradrachm. Early-mid 3rd century BC. Head right, with short beard and moustache, with large earring, and wearing satrapal cap (kyrbasia) with flaps tied up / Fire temple of Ahura-Mazda with Bagadat on the left and standard to the right; Aramaic legend around. Alram 519. 15.76g, 29mm, 2h. Good Very Fine.

4,000

596. Kings of Persis, Vahbarz (Orbozos) AR Tetradrachm. Persepolis, circa 200-150 BC. Diademed head of Vahbarz to right, with luxuriant mustache and jutting beard; wearing kyrbasia or satrapal hat, with flap down to form a visor, and pendant earring / Fire Temple; to left, Vahbarz standing right in attitude of prayer; to right, standard. Alram 526; Boston MFA 2343. 16.21g, 29mm, 5h. Very Fine. Rare.

164

4,000


BAKTRIA

Artistic Dies for Euthydemos

597. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I Theos Megas AR Tetradrachm. Mint B (‘Baktra’), circa 210-206 BC. Diademed head right / Herakles seated left on lion skin draped over rocks, holding club set on rock behind knee; monogram below to right; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to right, EYΘYΔHMOY to left. Mitchiner 94; Kritt B14; Bopearachchi 9A; Bopearachchi & Rahman 110-2; SNG ANS 136. 16.62g, 29mm, 12h. Struck from dies of artistic merit, Good Extremely Fine.

5,000

Extremely Rare Tetradrachm of Eukratides I

598. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Circa 171-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY EYKPATIΔOY, the Dioskouroi on horseback to right, holding palms and lances; monogram to lower left. Mitchiner 177aa; cf. Bopearachchi 6I (curved legend); Bopearachchi & Rahman 239; SNG ANS -. 15.67g, 34mm, 11h. Fleur De Coin. Extremely Rare.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 373. Only two examples of this extremely rare variety with a horizontal legend have been seen on the market in the last decade, and the present specimen is remarkably preserved, whereas the other was in relatively poor condition. The type is known from perhaps as few as half a dozen examples, if that. Struck from dies of a fine and elegant style on a remarkably large flan, this coin has a truly medallic appearance, and is preserved in excellent condition. This is one of the great rarities of Eukratides’ coinage. Eukratides The Great was one of the last but most important Greco-Baktrian kings, responsible for the overthrow of the Euthydemid dynasty and for waging numerous campaigns against the Indo-Greek kings, temporarily holding territory as far east as the Indus. By the range, quantity and quality of his coinage, which included the above mentioned medallion, we can surmise that his was a reign of considerable significance and prestige. Eukratides was murdered on his way home from India, apparently by his son, who hated his father so much that he ‘ran with his chariot over the blood of his father, and ordered the corpse to be left without a sepulture’ (Justin XLI,6). The subsequent civil war between rival members of the dynasty, combined with external pressures from the Indo-Greeks, Sogdians and Parthians led to the ultimate collapse of the Greko-Baktrian Kingdom a mere fifteen years later, when it was conquered by the Parthians under Mithradates.

599. Greco-Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Circa 170-145 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing helmet adorned with bull’s horn and ear / ΒAΣΙΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY EYKPATIΔOY, the Dioskouroi on horseback to right, holding palms and lances; monogram to right. 599. Mitchiner 177ee; Bopearachchi 203 ser. 6E. 16.99g, 36mm, 12h. Mint State. Struck on a massive flan of medallic proportions; well centred with full borders.

165

1,500


600. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Menander I Soter AR Drachm. Circa 155-130 BC. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing crested helmet with bull’s horn and ear, BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENANΔPOY / Athena Alkidemos advancing left, shield decorated with aegis over arm, hurling thunderbolt; monogram to right; Karosthi inscription around. Mitchiner 218b; Bopearachchi 16I; SNG ANS 879-92. 2.48g, 17mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

200

601. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Antialkidas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 130-120 BC. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΑΛΚΙΔΟΥ, diademed heroic bust left, seen from behind, aegis on shoulder and brandishing spear with right hand / ‘Maharajasa jayadharasa Amtialikidasa’ in Kharosthi, Zeus standing facing, with elephant prancing to left behind him, holding a transverse, lotus-tipped sceptre in his left hand and, in his right, Nike standing right on a globe and crowning the elephant with a wreath held in her right hand; monogram to left. Mitchiner 274a; HGC 12, 254. 9.72g, 26mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

602. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Heliokles II Dikaiois AR Tetradrachm. Circa 90-75 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔIKAIOY HΛIOKΛEOYΣ, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust right / ‘Maharajasa dhramikasa Hiliyakresasa’ in Kharosthi, Zeus standing, holding thunderbolt and long sceptre; monogram in left field. Mitchiner 2, 290a (Heliokles I): BN pl. 42, E; BMC I; SNG ANS – 9.49g, 27mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

4,000

603. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Heliokles II Dikaios AR Tetradrachm. Circa 90-75 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔIKAIOY HΛIOKΛEOYΣ, diademed and draped bust right / ‘Maharajasa dhramikasa Hiliyakresasa’ in Kharosthi, Zeus standing left, brandishing thunderbolt in right hand and holding long sceptre in left; monogram to inner left. Mitchiner 2904 (Heliokles I); SNG ANS -, cf. 1139-1141 for obv, 1149 for same rev. monogram. 9.65g, 27mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Apparently unique variety of a very rare type.

166

3,000


604. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Philoxenos Aniketos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 125-110 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANIKHTOY ΦΙΛOΞENOY, diademed heroic bust left, seen from behind, wearing crested helmet, aegis on shoulder and brandishing spear with right hand / ‘Maharajasa apadihatasa Philasinasa’ in Kharosthi, Philoxenos, in military attire, on horse rearing right; Σ and monogram to upper left. Mitchiner 343c; Bopearachchi 9C; SNG ANS 1198. 9.75g, 27mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Lustrous; superb metal quality for the issue. Extremely Rare.

5,000

605. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Philoxenos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 125-110 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANIKHTOY ΦΙΛOΞENOY, diademed heroic bust left, seen from behind, wearing crested helmet helmet covered with pelt of scales and adorned with head of Gorgon and wing, aegis on shoulder and brandishing spear with right hand / ‘Maharajasa apadihatasa Philasinasa’ in Kharosthi, Philoxenos, in military attire, on horse rearing right; Σ and monogram to upper left. Mitchiner 343c; Bopearachchi 9C; SNG ANS 1198. 9.81g, 25mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and of exceptional metal quality for the type.

4,000

The present type is something of an exciting anomaly within the Indo-Greek series. Although the use of an aegis as part of the king’s raiments is a well known element on the Indo-Greek series, it is most unusual to find the helmet itself similarly decorated with the elements of an aegis. It is shown covered with a pelt of scales, set with the head of the Gorgon, with a wing to the side. This is a notable departure from the usual bull’s horn decoration, a custom that went back to Eukratides I (circa 171-145 BC). For the use of these elements in denoting the aegis in Classical and Hellenistic art, see the late fifth century BC Athena Lemnia of Pheidias, the first century BC Alexander Mosaic, and the first century AD Blacas Cameo.

606. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Philoxenos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 100-95 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANIKHTOY ΦIΛOΞENOY, diademed and draped bust right / ‘Maharajasa apadihatasa Philasinasa’ in Kharosthi, Philoxenos, in military attire, on horse rearing right; monogram below. Mitchiner 338d; SNG ANS 1162-3; Bopearachchi Série 3J. 9.77g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Excellent metal quality.

2,000

607. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Diomedes Soter AR Tetradrachm. Circa 115-105 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΔIOMHΔOY, diademed and draped bust right / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa Diyamitasa’ in Kharosthi, the Dioskouroi on rearing horses right, holding palm fronds and spears; monogram to lower right. Mitchiner 338d; Bopearachchi 3A; Bopearachchi & Rahman –; SNG ANS 1215. 9.77g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Exceptional metal quality for issue. Very Rare.

167

3,000


608. Indo-Greek Kingdom, Hermaios Soter, with Kalliope AR Tetradrachm. Circa 105-90 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ EPMAIOY KAI KAΛΛIOΠHΣ, conjoined busts of Hermaios, diademed and draped, and Kalliope, draped and wearing stephane, right / ‘Maharajasa tratarasa Hiramayasa Kaliyapaya’ in Kharosthi, Hermaios, in military attire, on horse rearing right, bow in bow case and spear attached to saddle; monogram to lower right. Mitchiner 407a; Bopearachchi 1B; Bopearachchi & Rahman 518; SNG ANS 1317-1318. 9.74g, 26mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Superb metal quality for the issue. Very Rare.

INDO-SKYTHIANS

2,500

Exceptional Tetradrachm of Maues

609. Indo-Skythians, Maues AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain northwestern mint, circa 95-57 BC. BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓΛΛOY MAYOY, radiate deity, holding sceptre, and driver, holding wand and reins, in biga right / Zeus enthroned facing slightly left, holding torque and sceptre; monogram to left. Senior 2.5T. 9.23g, 27mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine, nearly as struck. Some light deposits. Extremely Rare, and exceptional for the type.

4,000

Maues is considered to be the first Indo-Skythian king in India to strike coins bearing his own name. He styles himself a grandiose sounding title which may be on account of the clan nature of Skythian society, Maues being the supreme ruler over his fellow clan chiefs. His rise to power seems to have been sudden, judging by the quality of his coinage and the lack of any issues predating his assumption of a royal title. Maues established Skythian power in Gandhara (modern day Pakistan and Afghanistan region) by seizing Taxila and Sirkap from the Indo-Greek kingdom, and gradually he extended his rule over swathes of north-western India. His coins clearly show an adoption of the Greek language, as well as many Greek deities and types. This seems to suggest a policy of assimilation towards the Greeks conquered by Maues, a hypothesis supported by the existence of a coin naming ‘Artemidoros, son of the King of Kings, Maues’.

SASANIAN KINGS

610. Sasanian Kings, Shapur I AV Dinar. Ctesiphon, AD 260-272. Draped bust right, wearing diadem and mural crown surmounted by a korymbos; one pellet above and two below diadem ties / Fire-altar flanked by two regal attendants wearing mural crowns, symbol to left of flames. SNS type IIc/1b, style P, group d/1 (pl. 31, 143); Göbl type I/1; Saeedi AV5; Sunrise 740. 7.42g, 21mm, 2h. Fleur De Coin. Extremely Rare.

8,000

Shapur was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian empire, apparently joining his father Ardashir I as king in joint rule in AD 240, and then succeeding in around 242 as sole ruler. Shapur had accompanied his father on campaign against the Parthians, who then still controlled much of the Iranian plateau, and already before his accession was praised for his intelligence and learning as well as for boldness and kindheartedness. Continuing his father’s war with the Roman empire, Shapur conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses of Nisibis and Carrhae, advancing into Syria, which required the young emperor Gordian III to set out with a vast army to counter the Sasanian threat. Gordian’s army won battle after battle, at last routing the Sasanian army at Resaena, forcing Shapur to hand back all of his gains. Gordian’s death and the succession of Philip ‘the Arab’ ended the Roman campaign against Shapur, who was able to extract considerable advantages from Philip including an enormous indemnity in gold. Shapur soon resumed his attacks on Rome, and in 253 met and annihilated a Roman army of 60,000 at the Battle of Barbalissos. Armenia was conquered, and Georgia submitted to Sasanian control. With his northern borders secure, Shapur then led an army which penetrated deep into Syria, plundering all the way to Antioch, which quickly fell. The Roman counter-offensive under emperor Valerian was slow, but by 257 Antioch had been recovered and the province of Syria returned to Roman control. Shapur’s speedy retreat caused the Romans to launch a hasty pursuit of the Sasanians all the way to Edessa where they were severely defeated, and Valerian along with the survivors of his army were led away into captivity. The defeat and capture of Valerian surely marks the greatest achievement in the reign of Shapur, who is also called ‘the Great’, and the submission of Valerian is commemorated in a mural at Naqsh-e Rustam, which shows the emperor bending the knee before Shapur on horseback. Valerian’s army was sent to Bishapur, and the soldiers were used in engineering and development works, such as the Band-e Kaisar (Caesar’s dam) near the ancient city of Susa.

168


Apparently Unpublished Variety

611. Sasanian Kings, Shapur I AV Dinar. Uncertain mint. AD 260-272. Draped bust right, wearing diadem and mural crown surmounted by a korymbos / Fire-altar flanked by two regal attendants wearing mural crowns, each surmounted by a korymbos. SNS -, cf. Type IIc/2b Style P, pl. 38, A66 (Drachm); Göbl -; Saeedi -; Sunrise -. 7.33g, 23mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished variety, probably unique in displaying both reverse attendants with korymboi.

7,500

612. Sasanian Kings, Vahrām (Bahram) II AV Dinar. AD 276-293. Draped bust right, wearing curved winged crown surmounted by a korymbos / Firealtar flanked by two regal attendants, the one to left wearing winged crown with korymbos, the one to right wearing mural crown. SNS type I/1; Göbl type I/1; Saeedi -; Sunrise 765 (listed as unpublished with curved wing). 7.47g, 22mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of very few known examples.

8,000

ROMAN PROVINCIAL COINS

613. Augustus AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. Year 28 = 4/3 BC. KAIΣAPOΣ ΣEBAΣTOY, laureate head right / ETOYΣ HK NIKHS, Tyche, holding palm branch in right hand, seated right, river-god Orontes at her feet swimming right , YΠA monogram and IB above ‘ANT’ monogram in right field Prieur 52; RPC 4153. 15.02g, 26mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

614. Nero Æ Drachm of Rhodos, Islands off Karia. AD 64-68. AYTOKPATΩP NEPΩN KAICAP, laureate and radiate head right / Victory standing left on prow, holding wreath and palm; POΔI-ΩN and rose in left field. RPC I 2772; SNG Keckman 769; SNG Copenhagen -. 23.23g, 37mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Beautiful emerald-green patina with earthen highlights.

169

1,000


615. Nero AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. AD 59-66. ΝΕΡΩΝ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ, laureate bust right, wearing aegis / ΕΤΟΥΣ ΒΙΡ.Ι, eagle standing facing on thunderbolt, head right, wings spread, palm in right field. Prieur 89; RPC 4188; McAlee 265. 13.88g, 27mm, 12h. Mint State. An obverse die of excellent style.

3,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 526.

616. Nero, with Divus Claudius, AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. AD 63-68. Laureate head of Nero right / Laureate head of Divus Claudius right. RPC -; McAlee 269; Prieur 47. 14.48g, 25mm, 1h. Toned, Very Fine.

400

617. Galba Æ30 of Antioch, Seleukis & Pieria. AD 68-69. IM SER SVL GAL CAE, laureate head right / SC within laurel wreath. RPC I 4314; BMC Galatia pg. 176, 203; Wruck 61. 17.76g, 30mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rarely this well preserved.

1,000

618. Domitian Æ Diassarion of Philippopolis, Thrace. AD 88-89. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P, radiate head of Domitian to right / ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ, Mars, helmeted and wearing armour, standing to left, resting his right hand on his shield and holding long spear with his left. RPC 353; Varbanov 618. 7.24g, 24mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Surfaces smoothed.

170

400


619. Nerva AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria. Dated ‘New Holy Year’ 1 (AD 96/7). AVT NEPOYAΣ KAIΣ ΣEB, laureate bust right, wearing aegis around neck / ETOYΣ NEOY IEPOY, eagle standing facing on thunderbolt, head right, with wings spread; to right, barred A (date) above palm frond. McAlee 419; Prieur 149. 15.27g, 27mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Good metal, an excellent example of the type.

2,500

Exceptional Tetradrachm of Sabina

620. Sabina BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Year 15, AD 130/131. CABEINA CEBACTH, diademed, draped bust right / CABEINA CEBACTH, Sabina seated left, holding corn-ears and sceptre; LIE (date) above. Milne 1306; Emmett 1334; Curtis 558-559, 561; BMC 917 var. 13.68g, 25mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine, attractive and still partially lustrous metal. Extremely Rare, and likely the finest known example.

5,000

Sabina is here depicted wearing an intricately detailed headdress and diadem, but underlying this proud representation was a dark secret: the empress is known to have had an affair with Suetonius, her husband Hadrian’s personal secretary, an affair recorded in the Historia Augusta, Life of Hadrian (1.11.3). However, it is also known that Hadrian was not left in the position of the cuckold, as he had a famously passionate relationship of his own with his favourite, Antinous. This interesting coin is a good exemplar of the power of propaganda and the representation of the Imperial family as a united front. It highlights the importance given to the portrayal of the emperor and his family, ensuring that they be seen, from the outside at least, as models of dignity and virtue. The charming portrayal of Sabina on this issue, which was struck in the same year Suetonius died, may have coincided with a renewal and strengthening of the ties between the emperor and his empress.

621

622

621. Septimius Severus BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Year 2, AD 193/4. AYT K Λ CЄΠT CЄOYHPOC ΠЄPT CЄB, laureate head right / Zeus enthroned left on ground line, holding thunderbolt in right hand and sceptre in left; L-B across fields. Köln 2268 (same rev. die); cf. Dattari 4000; K&G 49.6. 12.19g, 24mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. Retaining original silver appearance; exceptional for an Alexandrian tetradrachm of this period. 500 622. Septimius Severus BI Tetradrachm Alexandria, Egypt. Year 6, AD 198/199. ΑVΤ Κ Λ CΕΠ CΕYH EVCΕ ΠΕΡΤ CΕΒ ΑΡΑ ΑΔ ΠΑΡ ΜΕΓ, laureate head right / IOΥΛΙΑ ΔΟΜΝΑ CΕΒΑCΤH, Julia standing left with raised right hand and holding long sceptre with left; Z/L in low left field. Unpublished in the standard references. 12.80g, 25mm, 12h. Very Fine. Retaining original silver appearance; exceptional for an Alexandrian tetradrachm of this period. 500

623. Julia Domna BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Year 4, AD 195/196. IOΥΛΙΑ ΔΟΜΝΑ CΕΒΑCΤH, draped bust right / Dikaiosene standing left holding scales and cornucopiae; Δ/L in high left field. Köln 2278; Emmett 2728. 12.83g, 23mm, 12h. Very Fine. Retaining original silver appearance; exceptional for an Alexandrian tetradrachm of this period.

171

500


624. Caracalla Æ26 of Isaura, Cilicia. Circa AD 198-217. Laureate and cuirassed bust right, drapery on shoulder, aegis on cuirass / Tetrastyle temple with arched pediment, bust of Hercules on column within. SNG Levante 263. 8.41g, 26mm, 6h. Extremely Fine, beautiful emerald green patina. Rare.

3,000

Levante describes the reverse bust as Septimius Severus, but the prominence of Hercules in the city’s pantheon makes him the more likely object of a cult temple.

625. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Aradus, Phoenicia. AD 215-217. AYT KAI M A ANTWNINOC C, laureate bust of Caracalla right, supported by eagle standing to right / DHMAPX EX YPATOC TO D, radiate and draped bust of deity (Aglibol or Malakbel?) right; large crescent below. Bellinger -; Prieur 1229. 11.02g, 26mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only two examples known to Prieur.

2,000

626. Caracalla AR Tetradrachm of Ascalon, Judaea. 215-217 AD. AΥT K M ANTONEINOC, laureate bust right / ΔH EΞ ΥΠΑΤΟC TO Δ (Tribunician power, Consul fourth time), eagle standing facing on palm branch with spread wings, head turned to left; below, small dove holding olive spray in beak; (power of Tribune, Consul fourth time). Prieur 1654; Bellinger 376; Sofaer pl. 97,177. 12.00g, 25mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare, only six recorded by Prieur, and three other examples in CoinArchives.

2,000

627. Geta, as Caesar, BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Year 10 = AD 201/2. Π CΕΠΤΙΜΙΟC ΓΕΤΑΣ KAICAP, draped bust right / Eagle standing right, head turned left with wreath in beak, I/L in left field. Unrecorded for this date, cf. Emmett 2795. 13.40g, 25mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare. Retaining original silver appearance; exceptional for an Alexandrian tetradrachm of this period.

172

1,000


Very Rare and Sharp Macrinus Tetradrachm

628. Macrinus AR Tetradrachm of Edessa, Mesopotamia. AD 217-218. AYK M OΠEΛ CE MAKPEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ΔHMAP X EΞ YΠATOC, eagle standing facing, head to right, holding wreath in beak; shrine between legs. Prieur 852. 12.70g, 28mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Superb style and metal quality. Very Rare.

1,750

629. Macrinus AR Tetradrachm of Beroea, Cyrrhestica. AD 217-218. AY KAI M OΠ CE MAKRPINOC CE, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤΟC Π Π, eagle standing facing, head and tail left, with wings displayed, holding wreath in beak; below, B Є flanking bird facing. Prieur 896. 15.03g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

500

Extremely Rare Ascalon Mint Tetradrachm

630. Diadumenian AR Tetradrachm of Ascalon, Judaea. AD 217-218. M OΠ ANTWNI KAI, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / ΛHMAPX EΞO, eagle standing facing, head left, wreath in beak, on palm branch; below, dove to right, olive branch in its beak. Prieur 1656 var. (same obverse die, different reverse legend); CNG 67, lot 1158 (same dies). 11.56g, 23m, 12h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, only one coin of Diadumenian cited by Prieur from this mint.

2,000

631. Annia Faustina BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. AD 221/222. ANNIA ΦAVCTINA CEBA, draped bust right / Nike in biga rearing right, LE above. Dattari 4195; Emmett 3037. 11.56g, 23mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. Retaining original silver appearance; exceptional for an Alexandrian tetradrachm of this period.

1,000

632. Julia Mamaea BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Year 14, AD 234/235. IOV MAMAIA CЄB MHTЄ CЄB K CTPA, draped bust right, wearing stephane / Severus Alexander left on horseback, raising hand and holding sceptre; palm frond to left; LIΔ date to right. Dattari 4455. 14.13g, 23mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Retaining original silver appearance; exceptional for an Alexandrian tetradrachm of this period.

173

500


633. Gordian I BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated Year 1, AD 238. AK M AN ΓOPΔIANOC CЄM AΦP ЄV CЄB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Nilus reclining left, crowned with lotus, holding cornucopiae and reed which spreads over his head; LA date to left. Cf. Köln 2603; cf. Dattari 4668 (Gordian II; same reverse die); cf. Milne 3301; Emmett 3347 var. (Nilus reclining on hippo). 13.71g, 24mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Retaining original silver appearance; exceptional for an Alexandrian tetradrachm of this period.

1,500

634. Gordian I BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Dated Year 1, AD 238. AK M AN ΓOPΔIANOC CЄM AΦP ЄV CЄB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Athena standing facing, head left, holding spear and shield; L-A date across fields. Geissen 2599; Milne 3302; Dattari 4654. 11.69g, 23mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Retaining original silver appearance; exceptional for an Alexandrian tetradrachm of this period.

1,000

635. Balbinus BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Year 1 = AD 238. Α Κ ΔΕΚ ΒΑΛΒΙΝΟC CΕΒ, laureate and draped bust of Balbinus right / Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm, LA in left field. Dattari a684; Emmett 3356. 13.14g, 24mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. Retaining original silver appearance; exceptional for an Alexandrian tetradrachm of this period.

1,000

636. Trebonianus Gallus Æ30 of Seleucia ad Calycadnum, Cilicia. AD 251-253. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Athena advancing right, thrusting spear at serpent-legged giant throwing stones. SNG Levante 780; SNG BN 1055. 12.04g, 31mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

750

The reverse of this coin depicts a scene from the Gigantomachy, the great battle fought between the Giants and the Olympian gods for supremacy of the cosmos. The most important divine struggle in Greek mythology, the Gigantomachy was the second major conflict of Zeus’ reign. In this scene we see Athena spearing a serpent-legged Giant, perhaps Enkelados.

637. Cornelia Supera Æ20 of Parium, Mysia. AD 253. Draped bust right, wearing stephane / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. Cf. SNG France 1518 (capricorn; same obv. die); cf. SNG von Aulock 7448 (same; same obv. die); Helios 5, 406 (same dies). 5.11g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

174

800


COINS OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

638. Roman Republic Æ Currency Bar. Rome, circa 280-250 BC. Bull walking to right / Bull walking to left. RRC 5/1; HNItaly 257; ICC 15; Haeberlin p. 143-4, 1-5, pl. 57, 1-3, pl. 59, 1, pl. 93. 862g, 156mm x 91mm, 12h. Very Fine, corner cut off. Very Rare, only six complete examples recorded, only one of which is in private hands. 15,000 From an old European collection, attested as being outside of Italy since before 19 January 2011. Amongst the first cast bronze coins issued at Rome from about 280 are the lead-rich bronze quadrilateral currency bars which cannot readily be tied into the currency of the period, but which do occasionally bear the legend ROMANOM. In form they are reminiscent of the earlier ‘ramo secco’, herringbone and associated bars, but they have never been found in the same context. These bars may be seen not as coins but as ingots probably produced for the distribution of war booty at the time of the Pyrrhic and First Punic War (275-241). The weights for complete specimens range from about 1642 to 1746 grams, which would indicate that they were intended to be 5-as pieces (quincusses), based on a Roman libra of about 324 grams. They are usually found in fragments, indicating that they circulated as bullion with cast coins throughout central Italy. The Romans of later times lacked a coherent history for their early coinage, the surviving literary tradition on the early bronze currency being composed of relentlessly modernising Roman accounts. These accounts are inclined to invent historical as well as monetary events, and characteristically make the beginning of coinage respectably antique and Roman by associating it with the reigns of the semi-mythical kings Numa Pompilius (traditional date, 715-673) and Servius Tullius (traditional date, 578-535). The famous statement of Pliny the Elder in the 1st century AD explicitly states that: ‘Servius rex primus signavit aes. Antea rudi usos Romae Timaeus tradit. Signatum est nota pecudum, unde et pecunia appellata’ (king Servius was the first to mark bronze; Timaeus relates that previously they used raw metal at Rome. It was marked with the image of animals from which pecunia also was supposed to draw its name), (HN 33.13.43). This statement was confirmed by Cassiodorus as late as the 6th century AD: ‘monetae curam habere praecipimus, quam Servius rex in aere primum impressisse perhibetur’ (we advise you to take care of money, which king Servius is held to have first marked in bronze), (Variae 7.32.4.). Pecunia: ‘money or wealth’ from pecus ‘livestock’ (Varro, Ling 5.92). Modern philologists believe that the word may be connected to the IndoEuropean word *peku ‘movable personal property’ and the Latin peculium ‘private property, savings.’

175


176


639. Anonymous Æ Obol. Neapolis or Cosa (?) circa 273-269 BC. Helmeted head of Minerva right / ROMA, bridled horse’s head right; RRC 17/1d; HN Italy 278; Balbi de Caro, RIN 1988, p. 120, 1949; RBW collection 16. 6.03g, 17mm, 11h. Very Fine. Very rare variety.

400

The entire RRC 17 series may have been struck at Cosa, whose coins share the same types and metrology. The bronze Romano coinage (RRC 17/1a-i) and its parallel issue of the Latin colony of Cosa in Etruria (Vecchi, EC 1, 1-6) have since the 19th century been termed litrai and half-litrae, which has led to confusion for it has no justification in the observed behaviour of the 3rd century central Italian economy. The ancient use of the word litra, a Greek term for a Sicilian bronze unit, in the context of a purely Romano-Etruscan coinage without any contemporary parallel in Italy, seems unlikely and certainly not of contemporary usage. It may be better to describe these interesting military issues in Italian Greek or Roman weight terms with their customary nomenclature. From the mid 4th century Metapontine bronzes of 7.5-9.5g bear the denomination OBOΛΟΣ (HN Italy 1639-40) and from c.326 the standard Æ unit of Neapolis weighs between 5 and 10 grams which probably represents a fiduciary obol, which comfortably accommodates the Romano and Cosa bronzes which range between about 5 and 8 grams. For an in depth analysis of Neapolitan bronze issues, see A. Campana, ‘A proposito dell’obol di bronzo’ in Panorama Numismatico 94, 1996, pp. 12-16.

Attractively Toned Didrachm

640. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome, 234-231 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Horse prancing left, ROMA above. Crawford 26/1; Sydenham 27. 6.51g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant old tone.

7,500

Privately purchased from Tradeart. After the victory over the Samnites, the Senate instated a new, standardised monetary system. For the first two decades, bronze bars were the predominant issues, after which point silver coinage began to appear. This type is from what H. Mattingly describes as ‘Mint D’ which he locates either at Apulia or Beneventum. The legend on the older design (struck from 269 BC onwards) was ROMANO which had been shortened to ROMA by the time this type was struck, however the significance of this is unclear. Showing distinct Greek influence, this is a fine example of early Roman silver coinage. Cf. Mattingly, H, The First Age of Roman Coinage, The Journal of Roman Studies 35, Parts 1 and 2 (1945), pp. 65-77.

641. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Uncertain mint, 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt, in quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA in relief in linear frame below. Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b. 6.71g, 23mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Pleasant style; attractive toning. Some unobtrusive deposits.

2,000

Ex Varesi 57, 12 November 2010, lot 31.

642. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-212 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt, in quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA in relief in linear frame below. Crawford 28/3; Sydenham 64; RSC 23. 6.60g, 25mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Struck on a broad flan and lightly toned. 1,000 Ex Heritage 3019, 26 April 2012, lot 23234.

177


643. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt in quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA in relief in linear frame below. Crawford 28/3; Sydenham 64; RSC 23. 6.60g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

644. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt in quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA in relief in linear frame below. Crawford 28/3; Sydenham 64; RSC 23. 6.64g, 22mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

645. Anonymous Æ Sextans. Semilibral Standard. Rome, 217-215 BC. Head of Mercury right wearing winged petasos; two pellets above / Prow of galley right; ROMA above, two pellets below. Crawford 38/5; Sydenham 85; BMCRR 59. 28.22g, 31mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Finely detailed.

300

From the Andrew McCabe Collection.

646. Anonymous Æ Semuncia. Rome, 217-215 BC. Female bust right, draped and wearing turreted crown / Horseman right, holding rein and whip, ROMA below. Crawford 39/5. 5.29g, 21mm, 6h. Good Fine.

300

Ex Andrew McCabe Collection.

647. Anonymous Æ Uncia. Rome, 217-215 BC. Helmeted head of Roma left, pellet behind / ROMA, prow right, pellet below. Sydenham 86; Crawford 38/6; BMC 88. 12.17g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

178

150


Beautiful Gold Issue of the Republic

648. Roman Republic AV 60 Asses. Circa 211-207 BC. Bearded and draped head of Mars right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; LX (mark of value) below / Eagle standing to right on thunderbolt with spread wings; ROMA below. Bahrfeldt 4; Sydenham 226; Crawford 44/2. 3.38g, 14mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection.

649

650

649. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; V (mark of value) behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right; ROMA below in linear frame. Crawford 47/1a; King 3; Sydenham -; RSC -. 2.19g, 16mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. 750 650. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; V (mark of value) behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right; ROMA below in linear frame. Crawford 47/1a; King 3; Sydenham -; RSC -. 2.57g, 18mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin. 750

651

652

651. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; V (mark of value) behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right; ROMA below in linear frame. Crawford 47/1a; King 3; Sydenham -; RSC -. 2.43g, 17mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin. 750 652. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; V (mark of value) behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right; ROMA below in linear frame. Crawford 47/1a; King 3; Sydenham -; RSC -. 2.16g, 15mm, 8h. Fleur De Coin. 500

653

654

653. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; V (mark of value) behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right; ROMA below in linear frame. Crawford 47/1a; King 3; Sydenham -; RSC -. 2.12g, 15mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. 500 654. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; V (mark of value) behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right; ROMA below in linear frame. Crawford 47/1a; King 3; Sydenham -; RSC -. 2.29g, 16mm, 8h. Fleur De Coin. 500

655

656

655. Anonymous AR Quinarius. Uncertain mint, 211-208 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; V (mark of value) behind / Dioscuri on horseback riding right; ROMA below in linear frame. Crawford 47/1a; King 3; Sydenham -; RSC -. 2.41g, 17mm, 10h. Fleur De Coin. 500 656. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, after 211 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, with peaked visor; X (mark of value) to left / The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback riding right; ROMA in exergue. Crawford 53/2; Sydenham 229; RSC -. 4.66g, 19mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful style. 750

179


Beautifully Toned Denarius

657. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, after 211 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet decorated with head of griffin; X (mark of value) behind / The Dioscuri on horseback riding to right with lances couched, stars above; ROMA in linear frame below. Crawford 53/2; Sydenham 229. 3.81g, 20mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful, delicate style; attractive old cabinet tone.

1,000

From the Ambrose Collection.

Extremely Rare Half Victoriatus

658. Anonymous AR Half Victoriatus. Uncertain mint, circa 211-208 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right / Victory crowning trophy; VB ligate in lower left field, S to right, ROMA in exergue. Sydenham 114; RBW 392; Crawford 95/2. 1.42g, 13mm, 2h. Good Fine. Extremely Rare.

300

659. Anonymous Æ As. Luceria, 211-208 BC. Laureate head of Janus; [below, L]; above, - / Prow of galley right; above, L; before L; ROMA below. Crawford 97/22a; BMC Italy 168. 27.67g, 37mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex A. Tkalec AG, 8 September 2008, lot 236. A superb example of this rare issue, in very good condition for the type, and displaying an attractive, evenly toned patina. Struck on a broad flan with nearly all fine detail surviving.

660. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, 207 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet ornamented with griffin’s head, X behind / The Dioscuri on horseback to right, each holding couched spear; crescent above, ROMA in relief in linear frame below. Crawford 57/2; Sydenham 219; RSC 20i. 3.69g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 400

661. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, 207 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet ornamented with griffin’s head, X behind / The Dioscuri on horseback to right, each holding couched spear; crescent above, ROMA in relief in linear frame below. Crawford 57/2; Sydenham 219; RSC 20i. 3.69g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 300

180


662. Q. Marcius Libo AR Denarius. Rome, 148 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, LIBO behind / The Dioscuri on horseback to right, Q. MARC below horses, ROMA in linear frame below. Marcia 1; Crawford 215/1. 3.64g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

663. C. Aburius Geminus AR Denarius. Rome, 134 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, GEM behind, XVI monogram below chin / Mars in quadriga right, C. ABVRI below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 244/1; Sydenham 490. 3.95g, 19mm, 2h. Mint State.

250

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 588.

664. M. Acilius M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 130 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, M. ACILIVS M. F around within two dotted lines / Hercules, holding trophy and club, walking right in quadriga, ROMA in exergue. Acilia 4; Crawford 255/1; Sydenham 511. 3.92g, 20mm, 9h. Near Mint State. Attractive golden toning; highly lustrous.

1,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 376.

665. Anonymous AR Denarius. Rome, 115-114 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged and crested helmet, hair falling in two locks down neck, X behind, ROMA below / Roma, helmeted, seated right on two shields, holding spear before her; wolf standing right at her feet, head turned back, suckling Romulus and Remus; in left and right fields, two birds flying towards her. Crawford 287/1; Sydenham 530; Kestner 2478-81; BMC Italy 562-5; RSC (Anonymous) 176. 3.77g, 21mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Pleasantly toned; an exceptional example.

3,000

A notoriously difficult issue to find in good condition, this iconic reverse design portrays the Roman foundation myth in a new manner â&#x20AC;&#x201C; showing the goddess Roma watching over the twins Romulus and Remus as they are suckled by the she-wolf, waiting for the day that Rome will be built. The contemporary popularity of the type is evidenced by its subsequent reproduction on the later coinage of Titus.

666. L. Pomponius Cn. f. AR Denarius. Narbo, 112-109 BC. L. POMPONI. CNF, head of Roma right, wearing winged Attic helmet; X behind / L. LIC. CN DOM in exergue, naked warrior (Bituitus) standing right, holding shield, carnyx, and reins in biga galloping right. Crawford 282/4; Sydenham 522. 3.89g, 21mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Lightly toned with underlying lustre.

181

300


667. L. Julius L.f. Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 103 BC. Helmeted head of Mars right, behind, CAESAR upwards; above, control-mark / Venus in biga of Cupids left, holding sceptre in right hand and riens in left hand; above, control-mark; below, lyre; L• IVLI•L•F in exergue. Crawford 320/1; Sydenham 583. 3.96g, 19mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

600

From the Ambrose Collection.

668. C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus Æ As. Rome, 102 BC. Laureate head of Janus; I above / Prow of galley right; C • FABI • C • F above, bird to right, ROMA below. Crawford 322/2 (citing only 5 specimens in Paris); Sydenham 591. 23.32g, 32mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Privately purchased from CNG, 2008; Ex V.C. Collection.

Very Rare Social War Denarius

669. The Social War, C. Papius AR Denarius. Mint moving Papius in Campania, circa 90 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Mars right; mark of value X• and Viteliú in Oscan characters / Oath-taking scene of four soldiers, two on each side, pointing their swords at pig held by kneeling youth; in exergue, C•PAAPI•C• (retrograde and in Oscan characters). Sydenham. 637; Campana 83; HN Italy 425; RBW 1225. 3.94g, 20mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,000

Marcus Livius Drusus, who was Tribune of the Plebeians in 91 BC, attempted to bring Roman citizenship to the Italian allies. This, along with his land reform proposals, proved unpopular with the Senate and Roman landowners and he was assassinated before his plans were actioned. With the promise of citizenship rights removed, a rebellion of the Italian allies began, known as the Social War (cf. Livy, Periochae 71). During this war, the allies struck coins which were often inspired by the types found on Roman denarii, with some, like the present example, detailing the names of the rebel generals.

670. M. Cato AR Denarius. Rome, 89 BC. Diademed and draped female head right, ROMA behind, M CATO below / Victory seated right, holding patera and palm, ST below chair, VICTRIX in exergue. Crawford 343/1c; Sydenham 596a; Porcia 6. 3.94g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive iridescent toning.

750

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex BVH Collection, Heritage 3012, 2 January 2011, lot 24589. Crawford states that the reverse type depicts Victoria Virgo, whose shrine was built by Cato Censorius (Livy XXXV, 9.6), an ancestor of the moneyer. He goes on to hypothesise that ST below the throne may be an abbreviation of the epithet ‘stabilis’, which Livy applies to Victory (Livy, XXII, 37).

182


671

672

671. L. Cornelius Sulla AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Sulla, 84-83 BC. Diademed bust of Venus right; L•SVLLA below; cupid with long palm branch before / Capis and lituus between two trophies; IMPER above; ITERVM below. Crawford 359/2; Sydenham 761; Cornelia 29. 3.64g, 18mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; attractively toned. Rare. 350 672. P. Crepusius AR Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right, control symbols before and behind / Horseman right, brandishing spear; control-numeral behind; P•CREPVSI in exergue. Sydenham 738a; Crawford 361/1c. 4.07g, 17mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. 300

673

674

673. C. Mamilius Limetanus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Bust of Mercury right, draped and wearing winged petasos; caduceus and M behind / C•MAMIL LIMETAN, Ulysses walking right, holding staff in left hand and extending right hand to Argus. Crawford 362/1; Sydenham 471; Mamilia 6. 3.97g, 20mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine.

250

674. Q. Antonius Balbus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right; C in right field; S·C behind / Victory driving quadriga right, holding reins, wreath, and palm frond; Q ANTO BALB - PR in two lines in exergue. Crawford 364/1c; Sydenham 742a; Antonia 1b. 3.94g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. 200

675

676

675. L. Cornelius Sulla Felix, as Dictator, AR Denarius. Italy, 81 BC. Diademed head of Venus right, wearing single-pendant earring and necklace / Filleted double cornucopiae; Q below. Crawford 375/2; Sydenham 755; Cornelia 33. 4.01g, 21mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. 500 While Sulla’s enemy Marius claimed Apollo as his divine patron, Sulla himself invoked the goddess Venus, and consequently she appears on the obverse of his coinage. The double cornucopiae is an attribute of Fortuna and may allude to Sulla’s cognomen, Felix, but it likely also suggests that this issue was intended to defray the expenses of some special largesse of grain - the inhabitants of Rome must have badly needed some such assistance after the recent struggle. 676. L. Procilius AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; S•C behind / L PROCILI F, Juno Sospita, holding spear and shield, in biga right; serpent below. Crawford 379/2; Sydenham 772; Procilia 2. 3.83g, 19mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. 400

677

678

677. L. Procilius AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Bust of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin; S•C behind / Juno Sospita driving biga right, holding spear and shield; serpent below; L•PROCILLI•F in exergue. Crawford 379/2; Sydenham 772; Procilia 2. 4.07g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 300 678. C. Poblicius Q. f. AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Draped bust of Roma right, helmet decorated with corn ears and control mark above head, ROMA behind / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion, club at his feet, bow and arrow on left, C. POBLICI. Q. F on right. Poblicia 9; Crawford 380/1; Sydenham 768. 3.88g, 18mm, 9h. Extremely Fine, attractively toned. 300 From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 1968.

183


679

680

679. C. Hosidius C. f. Geta AR Denarius. Rome, 68 BC. Draped bust of Diana right, wearing stephane, earring, and double necklace of pendants; bow and quiver over shoulder; III VIR downwards to left, GETA downwards to right / Calydonian Boar standing right, pierced by spear and harried by hound below; C HOSIDI C F in exergue. Crawford 407/2; Sydenham 903; Kestner 3317-3318; BMCRR Rome 3389-3391; Hosidia 1. 3.98g, 18mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 350 680. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 67 BC. Bust of ‘Vacuna’ right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder; cornucopiae below chin; CESTIANVS behind; S•C before / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left; M• PLAETORIVS M•F•AED•CVR around. Crawford 409/1; Sydenham 809; Plaetoria 4. 3.90g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned.

400

681. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. Rome, 66 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, sandal behind / Thalia standing left, holding comic mask, resting elbow on column, Q POMPONI on right, MVSA on left. Crawford 410/9b. 3.85g, 18mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

Thalia, like all the Muses, is the daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne and the eighth born of the nine. Her name means ‘the joyous’, or ‘the flourishing’, and she presides over comedy and idyllic poetry.

682

683

682. L. Furius Brocchus AR Denarius. Rome, 63 BC. III VIR BROCCHI, bust of Ceres right, between wheat-ear and barley corn / L FVRI C N F, curule chair between fasces. Sydenham 902; Crawford 414/1. 3.67g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Well centred, and struck on a full flan with attractive iridescent toning. 200 683. L. Furius Brocchus AR Denarius. Rome, 63 BC. III VIR BROCCHI, bust of Ceres right, between wheat-ear and barley corn / L FVRI C N F, curule chair between fasces. Sydenham 902; Crawford 414/1. 3.88g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 400

684. C. Piso L. f. Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 61 BC. Head of Apollo right, hair bound with taenia; S and four pellets behind / Horseman galloping right, holding reins and palm frond tied with fillet; sequence mark below. Crawford 408/1b; Calpurnia 24b. 3.82g, 18mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. 175

685. C. Considius Nonianus AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Laureate and draped bust of Venus Erycina right, wearing stephane / Temple on summit of rocky mountain surrounded by wall with towers on each side and gate in centre; ERVC above gate. Crawford 424/1; Sydenham 887; Considia 1a. 3.86g, 19mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Well centred reverse. 1,000

686. L. Cornelius Lentulus and C. Claudius Marcellus AR Denarius. Apollonia, 49 BC. Head of Apollo right; L. LENT. C. MARC. COS. around / Jupiter standing right, eagle in left hand over garlanded altar, thunderbolt in right; star and Q in left field. Crawford 445/2. 3.46g, 18mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Attractively toned. Rare. 750

184


687. L. Cornelius Lentulus and C. Claudius Marcellus AR Denarius. Asia, 49 BC. Head of Jupiter right / Cult statue of Ephesian Artemis with hands extended, ornamented with fillet hanging. Crawford 445/3b; RSC Cornelia 66. 3.52g, 21mm, 10h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

750

688. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Head of Gallic captive right; Gallic shield behind / Two warriors in galloping biga right: one driving, holding whip and reins, and the other, facing backward, holding shield and brandishing spear. Crawford 448/2a; CRI 18; Sydenham 952; Hostilia 2. 3.97g, 19mm, 7h. About Extremely Fine.

1,000

Well Detailed Head of Medusa

689. L. Plautius Plancus AR Denarius. Rome, 47 BC. Head of Medusa, facing, with coiled snake on either side, L. PLAVTIVS below / Victory facing, holding palm and leading four horses, PLANCVS below. Crawford 453/1a; Sydenham 959. 3.79g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive lustre and golden toning.

2,000

From the Ambrose Collection. This moneyer was the brother of L. Munatius but was adopted into the Plautia gens. Ovid relates that during the censorship of C. Plautius and Ap. Claudius Caecus in 312 BC, the latter quarrelled with the tibicenes, who retired to Tibur. As the people resented their loss, Plautius caused them to be placed in wagons and conveyed back to Rome early in the morning, and in order that they should not be recognised their faces were covered with masks. The chariot of Aurora is an allusion to their early arrival and the mask to the concealment of their faces. In commemoration of this event the Quinquatrus Minusculae were celebrated yearly at Rome on the 13th June, at which those who took part in them wore masks.

690

691

690. Mn. Cordius Rufus AR Denarius. Rome, 46 BC. Diademed head of Venus right, RVFVS路S路C路 behind / Cupid on dolphin to right; MN.CORDIVS below. Cordia 3; Sydenham 977; Sear Imperators 65; Crawford 463/3. 3.88g, 19mm, 7h. Mint State. 250 From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 1869; Ex Giessener M眉nzhandlung 21, 22 March 1982, lot 116. 691. T. Carisius AR Denarius. Rome, 46 BC. Head of Sibyl Herophile right, hair elaborately decorated with jewels and enclosed in a sling and tied with bands / Sphinx seated right. Crawford 464/1; CRI 69; Sydenham 983b; Carisia 11a. 3.74g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Test cut on obv. Beautifully toned, with a sharp and complete reverse. 300 From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Privately purchased from Spink, 1994.

692

693

692. C. Considius Paetus AR Denarius. Rome, 46 BC. Helmeted bust of Minerva right / Victory driving quadriga right, C. CONSIDI in exergue. Crawford 465/5; Sydenham 992. 3.81g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine. Scarce.

300

693. P. Accoleius Lariscolus AR Denarius. Rome, 43 BC. Draped bust of Diana Nemorensis right, P ACCOLEIVS LARISCOLVS around / Triple cult statue of Diana Nemorensis facing, cypress grove behind. Crawford 486/1. 3.91g, 18mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. 300

185


694. C. Vibius Varus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Bust of Minerva right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis / Hercules, nude, standing left, resting right hand on club set on ground and holding lion skin over left arm; C • VIBIVS downwards on right, VARVS downwards on left. Crawford 494/38; CRI 194; Sydenham 1140; Kestner 3748-9; BMCRR Rome 4303-5; Vibia 26. 3.74g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

300

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Private purchased from Roma Numismatics in July 2010.

COINS OF THE IMPERATORS

695. Pompey Magnus and M. Poblicius AR Denarius. Spanish mint, 46-45 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; M POBLICI LEG PRO PR around / Hispania standing right, with shield slung on back, holding two spears in left hand and presenting long palm branch to soldier standing left on prow of ship; CN MAGNVS IMP around. Pompeia 9 and Poblicia 10; Sydenham 1035; Sear 48; Crawford 469/1c. 3.89g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

800

696. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Mint moving with Sextus Pompey, probably on Sicily, under the fleet commander Q. Nasidius. 42-38 BC. NEPTVNI, bare head of Cn. Pompeius Magnus to right; below, dolphin swimming downwards; before, trident upwards / Q.NASIDIVS, Galley sailing right; in the prow to right, commander standing right with his right hand raised in salute; in the stern, helmsman holding rudder; above left, star. Babelon (Nasidia) 1, (Pompeia) 28; Crawford 483/2; CRI 235; Sydenham 1350. 4.02g, 20mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine. Rare.

3,000

Superb Sextus Pompey Denarius

697. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Sicily (Catania?), 42-40 BC. MAG PIVS IMP ITER, diademed and bearded head of Neptune right; trident over left shoulder / Naval trophy set on anchor, top of trident visible above helmet; the arms composed of the stem of a prow in right and aplustre in left; two heads of Scylla at base; PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT EX S C around. Crawford 511/2a; RSC 1a; Sydenham 1347; Sear 333. 3.60g, 18mm, 12h. Usual flatness from striking, otherwise Good Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned and superb for the issue.

3,000

It has been remarked that the coinage of Sextus Pompey was a step towards the propagandistic issues of the Roman emperors. Having decided upon an affinity with Neptune, he minted a series of coins depicting the god and continuing his theme of pietas. This virtue was highly valued in Roman society; the city’s founder Aeneas’ epithet is pius and tradition details that his piety was three-fold; to his father, his homeland and the gods. Pompey was not the only imperator to draw upon the Aeneas myth on his coinage (see Crawford 458/1), however he was unique in commandeering a theme and using it repeatedly. His earliest denarii feature a personification of the goddess Pietas (Crawford 477/1a), but references become subtler and more complex on later issues as per the present example. Here, Pompey Magnus is remembered within the obverse legend, with Pietas also explicitly referenced. Sextus Pompey does not allow us to forget that it was the Senate who declared him praefectus classis et orae maritima, tying his patriotism in neatly. This military title lends itself obviously to Neptune, whose portrait is displayed on the obverse. The naval trophy not only alludes to Pompey’s naval victories but also to his piety towards Neptune to whom he is reported to have sacrificed 100 bulls and in whose honour a live horse was flung into the sea, along with an offering of gold (Florus 2.18.3).

186


698. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Sear 9; Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; Sydenham 1006; RSC 49; Kestner 3515-20; BMCRR Gaul 27-30; RBW 1557. 3.81g, 17mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar’s military expenses, the mint travelled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. The obverse clearly depicts the triumph of good over evil, numismatic propaganda designed to encourage Caesar’s soldiers during the long, intense campaign. The reverse, depicting priestly emblems, tells of Caesar’s office as Pontifex Maximus, high priest. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar’s military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

699. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Sear 9; Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; Sydenham 1006; RSC 49; Kestner 3515-20; BMCRR Gaul 27-30; RBW 1557. 3.93g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

750

From the Andrew McCabe Collection.

700. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Caesar, 48-47 BC. Female head right, wearing oak wreath and diadem; mark of value behind / Trophy of Gallic arms; axe surmounted by an animal’s head to right, CAESAR below. Crawford 452/2; Julia 26; Sydenham 1009. 3.83g, 19mm, 7h. Virtually as struck.

2,000

Since the numerals behind the head of Pietas have long been recognized to represent Caesar’s age at the time, this denarius was struck shortly after the battle of Pharsalus, where Pompey met his ultimate defeat, and Caesar became master of Rome. The reverse deliberately references Caesar’s Gallic victories, rather than his recent victory over fellow Romans, the celebration of which would have been distasteful; Caesar’s conduct after the battle was similarly conciliatory - he forgave the large part of Pompey’s officers and army. The depiction of Pietas wearing the corona civica, or oak wreath, however, may be a subtle allusion to his Pompeian victory. This award was granted to any citizen who had personally saved the life of another citizen; in this case, Caesar had saved the citizen-body of Rome and the Empire from further civil war.

701. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Travelling military mint, 48-47 BC. Female head right, wearing oak wreath and diadem; LII behind / Trophy of Gallic arms; axe surmounted by an animal’s head to right; CAESAR below. Crawford 452/2; Sear 11; Sydenham 1009. 3.89g, 19mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 200, 10 October 2011, lot 2378. Ex H. D. Rauch 85, 26 November 2009, lot 316.

702. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Head of Venus right, wearing stephane; Cupid behind shoulder / Trophy of Gallic arms between two seated captives: female resting head in right hand to left, and bearded male with hands tied behind back on right; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/1; CRI 58; RSC 13; Sydenham 1014; Kestner 3641-3643; BMCRR Spain 86. 4.01g, 15mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

187

750


703. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Draped bust of Venus left, wearing stephane; small Cupid at point of bust; lituus to left, sceptre to right / Trophy of Gallic arms, holding a shield and carnyx in each hand; on left, kneeling bearded male captive left, looking right; on right, seated female captive right, resting head in hand; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/2; CRI 59; Sydenham 1015; Kestner 3644; BMCRR Spain 86-8; RSC 14. 4.36g, 18mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

704. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Struck under Mark Antony. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Rome, April-May 44 BC. Tetrastyle temple with globe in pediment; CLEMENTIAE • CAESARIS around / Desultor (horseman who leaps from one horse to another), wearing conical cap and holding whip, right on horseback, second horse behind; palm frond and wreath to left; P • SEPVLLIVS above, MACER below. Crawford 480/21; Alföldi Type XXII, 32-40 (A2/R2); CRI 110; Sydenham 1076; Kestner 3692; BMCRR Rome 4177; RSC 44. 3.71g, 19mm, 1h. Very Fine; test punch on rev. Very Rare.

400

From the Andrew McCabe Collection.

705. M. Junius Brutus and P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther AR Denarius. Smyrna, 43-42 BC. Sacrificial axe, simpulum and sacrificial dagger, BRVTVS below / Jug and lituus, LENTVLVS SPINT below. Sear 198; Crawford 500/7; Sydenham 1310. 3.50g, 19mm, 12h. Mint State.

2,000

706. M. Junius Brutus AR Denarius AR Quinarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in western Asia Minor or northern Greece, springearly summer 42 BC. Diademed head of Libertas right, LEIBERTAS before / Stem of prow and anchor in saltire. Crawford 506/3; CRI 210; King 79; Sydenham 1288; RSC 5a. 1.66g, 14mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

500

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 500; Ex Gorny & Mosch 130, 8 March 2004, lot 1966.

707. Marc Antony AR Quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, late summer-autumn 43 BC. Winged bust of Victory (with likeness of Fulvia) right / Lion advancing right on ground line; retrograde and inverted DVNI above; LVGV in exergue; A to left, XL to right. Crawford 489/5; CRI 122; King 75; Lyon 2; RPC 512; RSC 4 (Fulvia); Sydenham 1160; Kestner 3717; BMCRR Gaul 40. 1.55g, 14mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

The reverse XL (=40) denotes Antony’s age at the time this coin was struck.

188

750


Rare Marc Antony Denarius

708. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Mint moving with M. Antony, 41 BC. ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, bare head of Antony to right / PIETAS COS, Pietas standing left, holding rudder in her right hand and cornucopiae in her left; at her feet to left, stork. Babelon (Antonia) 44; Crawford 516/2; CRI 241; Sydenham 1174. 4.01g, 21mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

3,000

Ex Hess-Divo 324, 23 October 2013, lot 4; Ex Paul Tinchant Collection.

709. Mark Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Ephesus, 41 BC. Bare head of Mark Antony right; M • ANT • IMP • AVG • III • R • P • C • M BARBAT • Q • P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR • IMP • PONT • III • VIR • R • P • C • around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 118; Kestner 3793-5 var. (BARBAT); BMCRR East 100; RSC 8. 3.93g, 19mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction G, April 1997, lot 1440.

710. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Uncertain (Corcyra?) mint, Summer 40 BC. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, imperator. Bare head right; lituus to left; ANT • IMP • III • VIR • R • P • C around / CN • DOMIT • AHENOBARBVS IMP, Prow right; star of sixteen rays above; CN • DOMIT • AHENOBARBVS IMP around. Crawford 521/2; CRI 258; RSC 10a; Sydenham 1179; Kestner -; BMCRR East 112. 3.72g, 20mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

711

5,000

712

711. Marc Antony AR Denarius. L. Plancus, moneyer. Mint moving with M. Antony, 40 BC. M·ANTON·IMP·AVG III VIR·R·P·C, lituus and jug / L·PLANCVS·PRO·COS, thunderbolt, jug and caduceus. Antonia 58 and Munatia 5; Sydenham 1190; Sear Imperators 253; Crawford 522/2. 3.58g, 19mm, 1h. Very Fine. Very Rare. 500 From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Privately purchased from Mike Vosper, 2006. 712. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Mint moving with Marc Antony, 37 BC. ANT·AVGV·III·(V)IR·R·P(·C), head of M. Antony right / IMP TER across, trophy with curved sword attached to right. arm and figure-of-eight shield attached to left; at its base, prow and round shield. Babelon Antonia 78; C 18; Sydenham 1204; Sear Imperators 272. Crawford 536/3. 3.26g, 20mm, 7h. Very Fine. Scarce. 400 Ex Andrew McCabe Collection.

189


713. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Athens, 32 BC. M. Junius Silanus, quaestor proconsul. ANTON AVG IMP III COS DES III V R P C, bare head of Marc Antony right; in hair below ear, small P / ANTONIVS AVG IMP III in two lines. Crawford 542/2; CRI 347; Sydenham 1209; RSC 2. 3.76g, 20mm, 5h. Lightly toned. Good Very Fine.

1,000

The small P on the obverse represents the only example of an artist engraving his initials on a Roman Republican coin. This fact went unnoticed for centuries, until it was first pointed out in a Santamaria sales catalogue in 1920.

Last Issue in Antony’s Name

714. Marc Antony and L. Pinarius Scarpus AR Denarius. Cyrene, 31 BC. Head of Jupiter Ammon right, M. ANTO. COS III IMP IIII around, pellet below chin and truncation / Victory, naked to the waist, walking right, ANTONIO AVG before, SCARPVS IMP behind. Sear 390; Crawford 546/2a; Sydenham 1280. 3.73g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Vivid iridescent toning. Rare in such good condition.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 405. Ex Hess-Divo 320, 26 October 2011, lot 312. Lucius Pinarius Scarpus was the grandson of a sister of Julius Caesar, and a general for Antony in the war against Brutus and Cassius. Shortly before the battle of Actium he was placed in charge of Cyrene with the command of four legions. The obverse type refers to his new position as Jupiter was the chief deity of Cyrene and featured prominently on their old coinage. This is the last issue struck in Marc Antony’s name before his defeat at Actium and subsequent suicide.

715. Fulvia, first wife of Marc Antony, Æ20. Eumeneia (as Fulvia) in Phrygia, circa 41-40 BC. Zmertorix, the son of Philonides, magistrate. Laureate female head of Fulvia as Nike to right / Athena standing left, holding shield and spear; ZMEPTOPIΓOΣ ΦIΛΩNIΔOY in two lines to left. RPC 3139; SNG München -; Copenhagen -. 5.94g, 20mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

1,000

Fulvia was the first wife of Marc Antony, having married him in 44 BC. She appears to have been a devoted spouse, and was an outspoken defender of his interests in Rome while he was away in the East. Antony’s partisans renamed the Phrygian city of Eumeneia in her honour

COINS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

716. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Tarraco?), circa 20-16 BC. Laureate head right / Two laurel trees, CAESAR above, AVGVSTVS below. RIC 51; RSC 47. 3.87g, 20mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful toning around the devices.

2,000

Ex CGB 50, 15 Oct 2011, lot 5. On 16 January 27 BC, Octavian formally handed back all power to the Roman Senate, who in return conferred upon him the titles of Augustus and Princeps and according to Dio Cassius, “in addition to numerous honours already conferred on Augustus, it was ordained by the Senate and people that laurel trees should be planted in front of his palace, and oaken crowns suspended on them, as though he were the perpetual conqueror of the enemies, and saviour of the citizens of the Republic.”

190


717. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Round shield inscribed CL•V, aquila and signum flanking, SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS below, S P Q R around. RIC 86a; RSC 265; BMC 418. 3.77g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous.

2,000

Ex Stack’s (Saint Ludovico and Firth of Clyde Collections), 22 April 2009, lot 1370. The Parthian kingdom had been a threat to Rome’s eastern frontier for several decades before Augustus had become emperor, and in 53 BC three legionary eagles had been captured at the Battle of Carrhae, where the Romans suffered a crushing defeat under the command of Crassus. The loss of the legionary eagles was a source of great shame for Rome, but they were regained by Augustus following the success of his diplomacy with the Parthian king and this is celebrated on the reverse type. The clipeus votivus, or votive shield, was an ancient custom, and in his Aeneid Virgil relates that Aeneas dedicated a shield to Apollo Actius (V. 235). Given the Aeneid’s prevalence as a propagandistic tale of Rome’s founding, it is difficult to deny a connection between the importance of Actium to both Aeneas and Augustus and well as the reference to Augustus’ supposed line of descent from Aeneas, via his adoption by Julius Caesar.

718. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Round shield inscribed CL•V, aquila and signum flanking, SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS below, S P Q R around. RIC 86a; RSC 265; BMC 418. 3.91g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

350

Ex Numismatic Fine Arts 1989

719. Augustus AR Denarius. Colonia Patricia(?), 17-16 BC. SPQR CAESARI AVGVSTO, bare head right / VOT•P•SVSC•PRO•SAL•ET•RED•I•OM•S ACR•, Mars, nude but for sagum from shoulders over left arm, standing left on ground line, holding vexillum in right hand and cradling parazonium in left. RIC 150a; RSC 325; BMCRE 438-9 = BMCRR Rome 4459-60; BN 1242-5. 3.79g, 19mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone. Rare.

3,000

Ex D. Fagan Collection; Privately purchased from Numismatic Fine Arts, 16 March 1989.

720. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head of Augustus right / Apollo Citharoedus standing left in long drapery, holding lyre and plectrum, IMP-X across fields, ACT in exergue. RIC 171a; BMC 461. 3.94g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Privately purchased from Baldwins, 13 January 2012.

191

1,000


721. Augustus AR Denarius. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. Rome, 19/18 BC. TVRPILIANVS III VIR FERON, draped bust of Feronia right, wearing stephane, above which is a row of berries, and pearl necklace / CAESAR AVGVSTVS SIGN RECE, bare-headed Parthian kneeling right, extending in right hand a standard, to which is attached a vexillum marked X, and holding out left hand. RIC 288; RSC 484; BMC 14; BN 127-37. 3.73g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Fine light golden tone.

1,000

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 72, 16-17 May 2013, lot 1387. This coin is a historically significant proclamation of Augustus’ return in 20 BC of the captured Roman standards from the Parthians, lost by Crassus in 53 BC at the disastrous Battle of Carrhae in which 30,000 Roman soldiers were slain. Augustus celebrated the return of the standards in propaganda that emphasised the importance of this diplomatic coup. The event was celebrated in art such as the breastplate design on the statue of Augustus at the Prima Porta and in monuments such as the Temple of Mars Ultor (‘Mars the Avenger’) built to house the returned standards.

722. Augustus AR Denarius. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. Rome, 19/18 BC. TVRPILIANVS III VIR FERON, draped bust of Feronia right, wearing stephane, above which is a row of berries, and pearl necklace / CAESAR AVGVSTVS SIGN RECE, bare-headed Parthian kneeling right, extending in right hand a standard, to which is attached a vexillum marked X, and holding out left hand. RIC 288; RSC 484; BMC 14; BN 127-37. 4.00g, 18mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant toning with golden highlights.

300

723. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, M. Durmius, 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head of Augustus to right / M DVRMIVS IIIVIR, lion attacking stag to left. BMC 63; Cohen 431; RIC 318. 3.77g, 19mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

1,750

Ex Bob Levy Collection, Leu 57, 25 May 1993, lot 219; Ex Superior, 10 December 1988, lot 2276. This type is another example of Augustus’ desire to restore the semblance of Republican institutions. During this time there was a resurgence of individualistic family orientated themes on Roman coinage. This particular coin takes its reverse design from a didrachm of Velia, perhaps because the moneyer’s family originated from Velia.

724. Augustus AR Denarius. Q. Rustius, moneyer. Rome, circa 19 BC. Q RVSTIVS FORTVNAE, jugate busts of Fortuna Victrix wearing round helmet and Fortuna Felix, diademed, ANTIAT in exergue / CAESAR AVGVSTO, ornamented rectangular altar inscribed FOR RE, EX SC in exergue. RIC 322. 3.79g, 19mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

192

1,250


725. Augustus AR Denarius. L. Mescinius Rufus, moneyer. 16 BC. Laureate head right / L MESCINIVS RVFVS, Mars, helmeted and cloaked, holding spear and parazonium, standing facing on pedestal inscribed SPQR V PR RE CAES in three lines. C. 463; RIC 351. 3.80g, 18mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

726. Augustus AR Denarius. North Peloponnesian mint, circa 21 BC. AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Laurel wreath intertwined with prows, the wreath ties arranged centrally. RIC 473; BMC 669. 3.70g, 18mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Scarce.

750

727. Augustus AR Cistophorus. Ephesus, 25 BC. IMP CAESAR, bare head right / Garlanded altar sculpted with two confronted hinds, AVGVSTVS above. RIC 479. 11.87g, 28mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex Triton XIII, 5-6 January 2010, lot 306.

728. Augustus AR Cistophorus. Pergamum, 19-18 BC. IMP IX TR PO V, bare head right / Hexastyle temple inscribed ROM ET AVGVST, COM ASIAE across fields. RIC 506. 10.71g, 28mm, 12h. Very Fine.

500

Unique Augustus Denarius

729. Augustus AR Denarius. Caesaraugusta, circa 19-18 BC. AVGVSTVS below bare head of Augustus right / AEGYPT above, CAPTA below crocodile to right. Unpublished in the standard references. The obverse portrait type and legend is in the style of the first issue attributed to Colonia Caesaraugusta, cf. CBN 1279, RIC 28 and BMC 315. The reverse type and legend is that of the 27 BC issue attributed to the mint of Pergamum, cf. CBN 935, RIC 544 and BMC 655. 3.28g, 22mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Previously unknown and of the highest rarity.

3,000

The capture of Egypt by Octavian in 30 BC was celebrated throughout the nascent empire and it is no surprise that this welcomed novum should emanate from Caesaraugusta, a mint that often followed the repertoire of issues from the main Augustan mints of Italy and Asia Minor.

193


First Aureus Issued Under Tiberius

730 Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-15. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / TR POT XVI, Tiberius, laureate and cloaked, in slow quadriga right, holding laurel branch and eagle-tipped sceptre; IMP VII in exergue. RIC 1; Calicó 307. 7.65g, 20mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection, Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 173, 11 January 2013, lot 5424. This type recalls the aureus issued under Augustus in commemoration of Tiberius’ triumphal procession upon his return to Rome, awarded on account of his successful campaigns in Germany and Pannonia. It was on this occasion that Tiberius’ rank and powers were made equal to those of Augustus himself, an act which ensured that upon the passing of Augustus there would be no interregnum, and that Tiberius would continue to rule without possible upheaval.

731. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 36-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on chair with ornamented legs above a single exergual line, holding long vertical sceptre in right hand and branch in left. RIC 29; Calicó 305a; BMC 46. 7.63g, 20mm, 8h. Good Very Fine.

194

4,000


732. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 36-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on chair with ornamented legs above a single exergual line, holding long vertical sceptre in right hand and branch in left. RIC 30; RSC 16a; BMC 48. 3.90g, 18mm, 2h. 3.89g, 18mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful golden tone, sound metal.

1,250

733. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 36-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on chair with ornamented legs above a single exergual line, holding long vertical sceptre in right hand and branch in left. RIC 30; RSC 16a; BMC 48. 3.80g, 18mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,100

734. Caligula AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon), AD 40. C CAESAR • AVG • PON • M • TR • POT • III • COS • III, laureate head right / S • P • Q • R •P • P OB • C • S • in three lines within oak wreath. RIC 28 (Rome); Lyon 183; RSC 21; cf. BMC 29-30 (aureus); BN 39. 3.60g, 18mm, 2h. Attractive dark tone, Good Very Fine. Rare.

2,000

735. Claudius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 41-42. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P, laureate head right / CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, Constantia seated left on curule chair, feet on stool, raising hand. RIC 14; von Kaenel Type 9; RSC 6. 3.77g, 18mm, 8h. Excellent silver quality, attractive tone, Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

195

3,000


Magnificent Claudius Sestertius

736. Claudius Æ Sestertius. Rome, circa AD 41/42. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head right / EX SC OB CIVES SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath. Von Kaenel type 54; C. 39; BMC 115; RIC 96; CBN 152. 29.60g, 35mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. A magnificent portrait of Claudius in the finest style.

20,000

From the James Howard Collection.

737. Claudius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 41-50. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head right / SPES AVGVSTA, Spes, draped, standing left, holding flower in right hand and raising hem of skirt with left, SC in exergue. Von Kaenel type 55; RIC 99; BMC 124. 25.60g, 34mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

750

738. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 65-66. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / Salus seated left on throne, holding patera and resting arm at side; SALVS in exergue. RIC 59; Calicó 443; Biaggi 242-245. 6.50g, 19mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

196

5,000


739 Nero Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 64. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate bust right, aegis on shoulder / ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES, Ceres seated left, holding corn-ears and a torch, her feet on a stool, facing Annona, standing right, holding a cornucopiae, a modius on a garlanded altar between them, a ship’s stern behind. RIC 130; C. 24 var. 27.58g, 37mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Very finely detailed.

4,000

Ex Peus 405, 2 November 2011, lot 2555.

740. Nero Æ As. Rome, AD 65. NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right / Victory flying left, holding shield inscribed SPQR; S-C across fields. RIC 312; WCN 285. 11.13g, 28mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

350

741. Nero Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 65. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right, with globe at point of neck / ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES, Ceres, veiled and draped, seated left, holding corn-ears and torch, her feet on stool, facing Annona standing right, one hand resting on hip and other holding cornucopiae; between them, modius on garlanded altar. In the background, ship’s stern. RIC 430; Cohen 14; CBN 70; BMC -. 27.77g, 33mm, 7h. Olive-green patina, Near Extremely Fine.

2,000

Ex Paulo Morais Leitao Collection.

742. Nero Æ As. Lugdunum, circa AD 65. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP, bare head left; globe at point of bust / Victory flying left, holding round shield inscribed SPQR, S-C across fields. RIC 474; WCN 560; BMC -; CBN -. 11.95g, 29mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Ex Münz Zentrum 88, 1997, lot 613 (with incorrect attribution).

197

500


Finely Detailed Image of Victory

743. Nero Æ Dupondius. Lugdunum, AD 66. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head left / VICTORIΛ ΛVGVSTI, S - C, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; S-C across fields. RIC 523. Cohen 344. 13.13g, 29mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

5,000

Ex Luc Girard Collection; Ex Sincona AG, Auction 4 (2011), lot 4091; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction P (2005), lot 1928. This coin features a very finely detailed and beautifully rendered image of Victory, which fortunately has been preserved in excellent condition, right down to her facial details.

744. Nero Æ Dupondius. Lugdunum (Lyon), AD 67. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head right, globe at point of bust / SECVRITAS AVGVSTI, Securitas seated right, resting elbow on back of chair, hand to head, holding sceptre; garlanded and lighted altar before, against which leans lighted torch. RIC 596; Lyon 210; WCN 531. 13.29g, 28mm, 8h. Beautiful olive-green patina, splendid portrait of Nero, Extremely Fine.

198

5,000


Unique and Unpublished Civil War Denarius

745. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. DIVVS AVG, laureate head of the deified Augustus to right / SPQR within corona civica, circular jewel in bezel at apex. Martin -; Nicolas -; BMC -; C. -; RIC -, cf. 104. 3.50g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

7,500

From the Durand Collection. Kraay noted the unusual presence of SPQR within a wreath on these coins of Vindex. He states: “it will have been noticed that the earlier formula of SPQR has replaced the Neronian EX SC. In strict Augustan usage SPQR never accompanied the corona, but always the clipeus virtutis of the inscription on which it formed the opening words. However, the choice of SPQR was probably deliberate and represented something more than the mere blurring of Augustan distinction. That broad basis of public and Senatorial support which the principate had had in the days of Augustus was to be restored to it.”

746. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head of the deified Augustus left / SENAT P Q R, Victory standing to left, holding shield inscribed CL V, palm branch over shoulder. Martin A25; BMC 57; RIC 110. 3.53g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare – the third known specimen.

5,000

From the Durand Collection.

747. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head of the deified Augustus to right / Victory standing to left, holding shield inscribed CL V. Martin -, cf. 11 and 25 (same obverse die); RIC -; BMC 57; C. -; Nicolas pl. XXII, A26BR. 3.17g, 17mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare – the second known example.

5,000

From the Durand Collection.

748. Galba AR Denarius. Rome, April AD 68-January AD 69. IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right / S P Q R/ O • B/C S in three lines within oak wreath. RIC 167; RSC 287; BN 76-7. 3.49g, 18mm, 7h. Attractively toned, Very Fine. 750

749. Galba AR Denarius. Rome, July 68-January 69. IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, laureate and draped bust of Galba to right / VICTORIA P R, Victory standing on globe to left, holding a wreath in right hand and a palm branch in her left. BMC 49; CBN 97; Cohen 328; RIC 217. 3.47g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. 800

199


750. Galba Æ As. Restitution under Titus. Rome, AD 80-81. SER GALBA IMP CAES AVG TR P, laureate bust right / IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST around large SC. RIC 444; C 351. 10.45g, 28mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

751. Otho AR Denarius. Rome, 15 January-8 March AD 69. IMP M OTHO CAESΛR AVG TR P, bare head right / SECVRITAS P R, Securitas, draped, standing left, holding wreath in right hand and cradling sceptre in left. RIC 8; RSC 17; BMC 17-18; BN 10. 3.32g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

3,000

752. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head right / XV VIR SACR FAC, tripod, raven below, dolphin above. RIC 69a. 3.28g, 18mm, 6h. Good Fine.

175

753. Vitellius AV Aureus. Rome, late April - 20 December AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus in right hand and long rod in left. C. 46; BMC 30; RIC 104; Calicó 562. 7.15g, 19mm, 6h. Near Very Fine.

200

4,000


201


Beautifully Struck Vitellius Aureus

754.

Vitellius AV Aureus. Rome, August - December AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right / XV VIR SACR FAC, tripod lebes with dolphin above and raven standing right below. BMC 38; BN 75; C. 110; RIC 108; Biaggi 288; Calicó 585. 7.26g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. Lustrous, beautifully struck and possessing a superb portrait. Easily among the finest surviving aurei of Vitellius. 30,000 Emperor for only eight months, Vitellius was the third to take the purple during the Year of the Four Emperors in AD 69. Consul in 48 and Proconsul of Africa in 60/61, Vitellius commanded the army of Germania Inferior in 68, where he made himself extremely popular with the officers and soldiery through lavish extravagance and lax discipline. It was by two of his legion commanders on the Rhine that he was acclaimed emperor by the legions in Germania, and theyecause of were soon joined by the armies of Britannia, Gaul and Raetia. With Otho’s suicide, Vitellius gained the throne without the need for excessive bloodshed. His short lived reign was characterised by excessive feasting, gambling and indolence. Suetonius records some of the greater outrages which led to his being deserted in favour of Vespasian: ‘Acting more and more in open violation of all laws, both divine and human, he assumed the office of Pontifex Maximus, upon the day of the defeat at the Allia; ordered the magistrates to be elected for ten years of office; and made himself consul for life.’ The reverse of this coin makes reference to Vitellius’s membership of one of the four priestly colleges, the Quindecimviri Sacris Faciundis (the other three being the Pontifices, Augures, and the Epulones), and so also his new self-appointed position as Pontifex Maximus. The raven refers to the college of Augures who interpreted the will of the gods through the study of the flight of birds. The tripod lebes can be linked with the college of Epulones, which arranged the religious feasts and festivals. The dolphin holds several symbolic meanings including that of messenger, protector and guide, and can be associated directly with various gods including Neptune, but when viewed as a symbol for protection and guidance, is associated with the college of Quindecimviri Sacris Faciundis. Members of this college were responsible for keeping the Sybilline Books in safety and secrecy. At the command of the Senate, they consulted the Books in order to discover not exact predictions of definite future events in the form of prophecy, but the religious observances necessary to avert extraordinary calamities and to expiate ominous prodigies (comets and earthquakes, showers of stones, plague, and suchlike).

202


203


755. Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69-70. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / Judaea seated in attitude of mourning right, to right of trophy, resting head on left hand, IVDAEA in exergue. RIC 2. 2.93g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

756. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 74. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres seated left, on ornate backed chair, with corn-ears and poppy in left hand, cornucopiae in right; ‘o’ under throne, * in exergue. RIC 336; RPC II 852; RSC 68. 3.06g, 17mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful old deep tone, expressive portrait.

750

From the Boscoréale Hoard of 1895

757. Vespasian AV Aureus. Lugdunum, circa AD 72-73. IMP CAES VESPAS AVG P M TR P IIII P P COS IIII, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTI, Nemesis advancing right, pointing caduceus at snake before her. C. 284; BMC 403; CBN 307; RIC 1180; Calicó 656. 7.19g, 20mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Archer M. Huntington Collection, HSA 22292; From the Boscoréale Hoard of 1895. The famous Boscoréale hoard, recovered in 1895, consisted of 109 pieces of gold and silver plate, along with over 1,000 gold aurei. The hoard had belonged to the owners of a wine-producing villa rustica on the south-eastern slopes of Vesuvius near the modern-day village of Boscoréale, hence its name. The hoard was placed in an empty cistern in the wine cellar of the villa when its owners fled before the eruption of AD 79, and while the villa began to be excavated in 1876 the coins remained undisturbed until 1895.

758. Vespasian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 74. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / FORTVNA AVGVST, Fortuna standing left on base, holding rudder and cornucopiae. RIC 699; CBN 246-8; BMC 275; Calicó 631. 7.29g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

7,500

759. Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 74. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / PON MAX TR P COS V, winged caduceus. RIC 703; RSC 362. 3.33g, 20mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

204

250


760. Vespasian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 75. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / PAX AVGVST, Pax seated left, holding branch and sceptre. RIC 770; CBN 251; BMC 280; Calicó 662. 7.38g, 20mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

7,500

761. Vespasian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 75. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left resting left elbow on throne and holding branch. RIC 772 (C3); BM 161; Paris 139; Cohen 366. 3.39g, 20mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Attractively toned.

300

762. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P, laureate head right / LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus and Domitian, both veiled and togate, standing facing, each holding patera, Φ in exergue. RIC 1411. 3.23g, 17mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

500

763. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres seated left, on ornate backed chair, with corn-ears and poppy in left hand, cornucopiae in right; EPHE (ligate) in exergue. RIC 1428; RPC II 830. 3.16g, 17mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

764. Vespasian AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right / PACI ORB TERR AVG, turreted and draped bust of Pax right, ΕΦΕ below. CBN 356; RPC 839; RIC 1443. 3.31g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,000

765. Vespasian AR Tetradrachm Syria, Antioch. Year 4 = AD 71/72. Laureate head left / Eagle standing left on garlanded altar, head right, with wings displayed, holding kerykeion in beak and palm branch in talon; date in legend. McAlee 359b; Prieur 137; RPC II 1973. 14.30g, 25mm, 2h. Very Fine. Light golden tone.

250

766. Divus Vespasian AR Denarius. Struck under Titus. Rome, AD 80-81. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate bust right / SC inscribed on shield supported by two capricorns, orb below. RIC 357; RSC 497; BMC 129; CBN 101. 3.46g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine.

205

200


Very Rare Titus Aureus

767. Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 72-73. T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT, laureate head right / NEP RED, Neptune standing left, resting right foot on globe, holding acrostolium and spear. Biaggi -; BMC -; RIC 365; Calic贸 743. 7.36g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and extremely well preserved for the type.

10,000

Iconic Titus Aureus

768. Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 77-78. T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, laureate bust right / Roma, helmeted, seated right on two shields, left foot on helmet, holding spear before her; wolf standing right at her feet, head turned back, suckling Romulus and Remus, in left and right fields, two eagles flying towards her; COS VI in exergue. RIC 954; BMC 223; Calic贸 738a. 7.36g, 19mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

20,000

The Flavians came to power after a year of civil war, vicious intrigue and three short lived reigns which all ended in bloodshed. Vespasian and his son Titus thus sought to restore security and confidence by establishing a clear and peaceful succession through a strong father and son line, both of whom had proven themselves capable generals and administrators. As part of their efforts to promote a sense of stability after the turmoil of the Year of the Four Emperor, Titus, along with his father Vespasian and brother Domitian, struck a series of coinage which recalled the types of the Republican and Augustan periods, evoking the memory of the golden age inaugurated by Augustus in the early years of empire. The implicit message was that the Flavian line was taking up the mantle dropped by the now defunct Julio-Claudian dynasty, and shouldering with renewed purpose the burden of governance that the latter had so often abused. This iconic reverse design portrays the Roman foundation myth in a novel manner, showing the goddess Roma watching over the twins Romulus and Remus as they are suckled by the she-wolf, patiently awaiting the day that Rome will be built.

769. Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 77-78. T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, laureate bust right / Roma, helmeted, seated right on two shields, left foot on helmet, holding spear before her; wolf standing right at her feet, head turned back, suckling Romulus and Remus, in left and right fields, two eagles flying towards her; COS VI in exergue. RIC 954; CBN 197-2000; BMC 223-4; Calic贸 738. 7.26g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

206

10,000


Boldly Struck Titus Aureus

770. Titus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 77-78. T CAESAR VESPASIANVS, laureate head right / ANNONA AVG, Annona seated to left on throne, holding cloth in lap with both hands, on which three grain ears. C. 16; BMC 316; RIC Vespasian 971; BN 278; Calicó 726. 7.21g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Boldly struck on a broad flan.

20,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 898.

771. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, 23-31 June, AD 79. IMP T CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / TR POT VIII COS VII, bearded captive, wearing trousers and cape, kneeling right at base of trophy. RIC 1; RSC 334a; BMC 1. 3.53g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Light graffito on reverse. Rare.

500

Only two specimens in the Reka Devnia Hoard, not in the Paris collection or Cohen. An attractive issue from the first week of Titus’ reign as Augustus.

772. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Ephesus, AD 71. DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F, bareheaded, draped, and cuirassed bust right, wearing aegis / PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory advancing right holding palm frond and wreath; mintmark to lower right. RIC 1447 (Vespasian); RPC 848; RSC 336. 3.41g, 17mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Bankers mark in right field, attractively toned, expressive portrait. Rare.

750

773. Domitian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 82. IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG P M, laureate head right / TR P COS VIII DES VIIII P P, Minerva advancing right, holding javelin and shield; S-C across. RIC 103; C. 586. 22.30g, 34mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

350

774. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80-81. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield. RIC 268. 3.44g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous, with iridescent toning.

207

300


775. Domitian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 73. CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II, laureate head right / Domitian on horse left, raising right hand and holding sceptre in left. RIC 679; CBN 100-4; BMC 124-7; Calic贸 812. 7.19g, 21mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

7,500

776. Domitian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 75. CAESAR DOMIT COS III, laureate bust right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVT, Spes advancing left, holding flower and hem of skirt. RIC 787; CBN 131-4; BMC 154-5; Calic贸 912. 7.34g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

7,500

Domitian Aureus

777. Domitian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 76-7. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right / COS IIII across fields, cornucopiae with ribbons hanging down each side. RIC 918; CBN 171-6; CBN 171-6; BMC 196-7; Calic贸 817. 7.30g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

778

10,000

779

778. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 79. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Salus standing right, leaning on column, holding snake which she feeds from a patera. RIC 1084; C. 384; BMC 265. 3.16g, 18mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Lightly toned with remaining lustre around the devices. 400 779. Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 79. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Vesta seated facing left, holding Palladium in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC 1087 (Vespasian); RSC 378. 3.35g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Pleasantly toned, and lustrous around the devices. 300

780. Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 96. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II PP, laureate bust right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre. RIC 7; RSC 106. 3.69g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very well preserved for the type.

208

1,250


781. Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR POT, laureate head right / COS III PATER PATRIAE, Priestly emblems: simpulum, aspergillum, guttus, and lituus. RIC 24; RSC 48. 3.44g, 17mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

200

782. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 98. IMP CΛES NERVΛ TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / PONT MAX TR POT COS II, Germania, nude to waist, seated left on pile of shields, resting left arm on hexagonal shield and holding olive branch in outstretched right hand. RIC 15; BMC 8; Woytek 23a; Calicó 1070. 7.52g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

783. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 103-111. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate head right / COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 118, C. 85. 3.30g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

200

784. Trajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 112-114. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate and draped bust right / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Mars, nude, walking right, with spear in right hand and trophy in left over shoulder. RIC 269. 2.92g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

200

Trajan’s Eastern Campaign

785. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 116-117. IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / PARTHICO P M TR P P COS VI P P SPQR, radiate and draped bust of Sol right. RIC 329; Calicó 1038; BMC 621. 7.21g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Attractive lustre around the devices.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 674. In AD 113, Trajan left Rome to embark upon his Parthian campaign. Osroes despatched an embassy from the Parthian court which finally met the emperor in Athens, by which point it was too late for him to turn back, and as R. P. Longden so eloquently writes, ‘their apprehensive humility would have no doubt only sharpened his zest for the enterprise’. (Cf. Longden, R.P., Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan, The Journal of Roman Studies 21, (1931), pp. 1-35). The following year, Trajan invaded Armenia, deposed its king, Parthamasiris, and annexed it as a Roman province. In 115, Trajan also annexed Northern Mesopotamia, and later the same year he captured the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. Following the conquest of Ctesiphon, Trajan accepted the title ‘Parthicus’ in AD 115-6, which features as the reverse legend on the types of this lot. The bust of Sol, who rises in the East, may symbolise Roman dominance over the region.

209


Beautiful Emerald Green Patina

786. Trajan Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 105-111. IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan standing left in military attire, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, crowned by Victory; SC in exergue. MIR 14, 71c; RIC 549; BMC 825. 28.50g, 35mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine, with a superb untouched emerald green patina. Scarce.

10,000

Ex Astarte XXII, 12 June 2010, lot 171. It is highly uncommon to encounter a sestertius that is both well preserved and displays a sound, untouched patina such as this. The deep green, glassy surfaces make this a coin of immense beauty. Part of a series struck following the conquest of Dacia, the obverse legend DAC refers to the title Dacicus bestowed upon Trajan by the Senate in AD 102. The Dacian campaign was also commemorated by Trajan’s Column, one of the most visible and iconic monuments of ancient Rome that survives today.

787. Trajan AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Ephesus(?), AD 98-99. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M TR P P P, laureate head right / Six grain ears upright, tied in a bundle. RSC 52a; RIC 715. 10.50g, 25mm, 7h. Attractive light golden tone, Good Very Fine. Ex Freeman & Sear, Mail Bid Sale 17, 15 December 2009, lot 266; Ex Classical Numismatic Group E-Auction 6, 3 November 2001, lot 62519; Ex A. Lynn Collection.

210

1,000


Outstanding Marciana Denarius

788.

Diva Marciana AR Denarius. Rome, AD 113-114. DIVA AVGVSTA MARCIANA, diademed and draped bust of Marciana right, wearing pearl necklace, with hair elaborately arranged and bound into tight bun high at back of head / CONSECRATIO, eagle with wings displayed, standing to left with head right. RIC 743; Woytek 719; BMC 650; RSC 4. 3.40g, 20mm, 8h. Near Mint State. Boldly struck and exceptionally sharply detailed. Pleasant light grey cabinet tone. A stunning coin and certainly one of the very finest known examples of the type. 10,000 From an old European Collection. A public expression of his devotion to his family, Trajan’s relatives were portrayed on his coinage to an extent not seen since the Julio-Claudian emperors. Both his natural father Marcus Ulpius Traianus and adoptive father Nerva are commemorated on his coinage, and Trajan also extended the honour to his living relatives, namely his sister Marciana, his wife Plotina and his niece Matidia. Trajan and his elder sister Marciana maintained a particularly close relationship, and the deep affection that existed between them is evident in Trajan’s decision to award her the title of Augusta, the first sister of an emperor ever to receive the title. Marciana thus became part of the imperial iconography, and her statue was placed together with those of Trajan and his wife Plotina over the Arches of Trajan in Ancona. Marciana would often travel with her brother and assist him in decision making. Throughout the Roman Empire, she was honoured with monuments and inscriptions, and Trajan founded two towns named after her: Colonia Marciana Ulpia Traiana Thamugadi founded in 100 and Marcianopolis founded in 106. If there had been any doubt of the esteem in which Trajan held his beloved sister, it must surely have been dispelled when upon her death, sometime between 113 and 114, she was deified by the Senate at Trajan’s behest. It is on this posthumous coinage of Marciana that the reverse legend CONSECRATIO is first utilised, and it was thereafter frequently employed for posthumous coinages of deified augusti and augustae. Following Marciana’s death, her daughter Matidia was raised to the rank of Augusta in her stead, and coinage was struck in her name also. Through Matidia, Marciana would be the great-great-great grandmother of the future emperor Marcus Aurelius.

211


Very Rare Hadrian Aureus

789. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 119-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS III, Hercules seated facing, on shield and cuirass, holding club and distaff, with lion’s skin below left arm. RIC 55; Calicó 1318; BMC 97. 7.15g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection. Succeeding Trajan as emperor in AD 117 whilst on campaign in the east, Hadrian returned to Rome in 118. However, by 119 he was already planning his next foray abroad, as we see him invoking the favour of the gods on his coinage in advance of the journey. As seen on this reverse type, Hercules the great adventurer and traveller was one of those whose blessing was sought. That Hercules is present on the coinage of Hadrian is only natural after his appearance on types of his adoptive father Trajan, and his presence is further explained by Hadrian’s familial ties with southern Spain, (he is thought to have been born in the city of Italica), where the cult of Hercules was prominent. Other reverse types struck under Hadrian explicitly mention the cult of Hercules Gaditanus, who enjoyed the highest honours in southern Spain. The present reverse shows Hercules in the style that many Roman citizens would have been familiar with, seated and resting after his toils in the manner of statues from Kroton and the south. The inclusion of the distaff in this image of Hercules is somewhat unusual. Rather than alluding to his masculinity and strength as shown through the Twelve Labours, it draws attention to the story of the period when Hercules, as penance for the murder of Iphitus, was remanded as a slave to Omphale for a year and was subjected to holding the yarn for her maids as they spun. This Greek myth, which survived through the writings of the early Roman writer Ovid among others, is not one we immediately associate with Hercules today, though it was a more common feature of his cult in antiquity.

Peace Through Strength

790. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / COS III, Hadrian on horseback galloping to right, holding couched lance, cloak billowing out behind. RIC 186; Calicó 1226. 7.34g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Well struck on a broad flan; beautiful lustre.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex H.D. Rauch 86, 12 May 2010, lot 763. Though not a warrior emperor in the same manner as his predecessor Trajan, the iconography of this coin immediately recalls the similar types issued under Trajan, and also the ancient denarii of the Republic which featured the Dioscuri in similar posture with couched lance. Despite the militaristic theme of this coin and others issued during his reign (which are almost as common as coins with peaceful themes), Hadrian’s policy was peace through strength, or threat of strength, with an emphasis on discipline. His skills as a military administrator were well applied during his reign, and aside from the consolidation of the empire’s frontiers, Hadrian also made a great many beneficial reforms to the Roman military system, including the introduction of the first regular unit of auxiliary, mailed cataphract cavalry, the ala I Gallorum et Pannoniorum cataphractata, whose primary armament was a heavy lance far more effective than a regular cavalry spear, capable of puncturing two layers of chain mail.

212


791. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 124-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery / COS III, she-wolf standing right, suckling the Twins (Romulus and Remus). RIC 192; Calicó 1231. 7.18g, 18mm, 6h. Fine style portrait, Good Very Fine.

7,500

Ex Paulo Morais Leitao Collection. This reverse type is probably associated with Hadrian’s decennalia year in 127 and the renewal of the Golden Age.

792. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / COS III, seven stars above crescent. RIC 202; C. 4656. 3.27g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

400

793. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right / PIETAS AVG, Pietas seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC 260; C. 1037. 3.44g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

794. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 136. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right / AFRICA, Africa reclining left holding scorpion and cornucopiae, basket of grain at feet. RIC 299. 3.27g, 18mm, 7h. Attractively toned, Good Very Fine.

250

795. Aelius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 137. L AELIVS CAESAR, bare head right / TR POT COS II, Pietas standing left, raising right hand, holding drapery in left, garlanded altar at feet. RIC 432; RSC 53; BMC 972. 3.70g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

400

796. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 148-149. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head of Antoninus right / COS IIII, Aequitas standing left, holding balance scales in right hand and cornucopiae cradled in left arm. RIC 177d; BMC 649; Calicò 1502a. 7.05g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

213

4,000


Extremely Rare Antoninus Pius Gold Quinarius

797. Antoninus Pius AV Quinarius. Rome, AD 150-151. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIIII, bare head right / COS IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding account board and vexillum, LIB VI across fields. RIC 198a. 3.57g, 15mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

From the Ambrose Collection. The association of traditional Roman virtues with the figure of the emperor is a prime example of how Augustus and his successors employed symbolism, along with their own portraits and architectural types, to portray their reigns to the Roman people in a positive light. Liberalitas usually appears on coins which commemorate an act of generosity on behalf of the Emperor towards the Roman people, much like how in Republican times the aediles distributed money and grain on behalf of the Senate to acquire popular support. The COS IIII series of Antoninus Pius is the first to depict Liberalitas bearing the vexillum, which we may suppose made announcement of a largess (congiarium). Very little record exists of specific congiaria during Antoninus Piusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; reign but the Historia Augusta does attest to his personal generosity (Historia Augusta, Life of Antonius Pius, IV, 9).

798. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 151-152. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XV, laureate head left / COS IIII, Antoninus Pius standing left, holding globe and volumen. RIC 206; Strack 245; CalicĂł 1518; BMC 771-2; Biaggi 713. 6.72g, 18.5mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Lustrous.

3,750

799. Divus Antoninus Pius AR Denarius. Struck under Marcus Aurelius. Rome, after AD 161. DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right / CONSECRATIO, funeral pyre of four tiers surmounted by facing quadriga. RIC 438; RSC 164. 3.17g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

200

800. Diva Faustina Senior AR Denarius. Rome, AD 141-146. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AVGVSTA, throne, on which is a wreath, with a sceptre in front. RIC 377; RSC 131. 3.18g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

214

800


One of the Rarest Reverses of Faustina

801.

Diva Faustina Senior AV Aureus. Rome, AD 141. DIVA AVG FAVSTINA, draped bust left with hair waved and coiled on top of head / CONSECRATIO, Faustina standing facing in quadriga galloping to left, holding hasta pura, and accompanied by Sol(?), who leans forward, his arm outstretched toward the horses. RIC 383; Calicó 1780; BMC 302. 7.27g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Two other examples of this reverse type are recorded on CoinArchives, both heavily worn, and neither with a left facing bust. Stevenson, in his Dictionary of Roman Coins, rightly refers to this coin as one of the rarest reverses of Faustina (p.374). 25,000 Annia Galeria Faustina was born into a distinguished and well connected family; her father Marcus Annius Verus was three times consul and prefect of Rome, and she counted Sabina and Matidia as her maternal aunts. Sometime between AD 110 and 115 she married Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus (who would later gain favour with Hadrian, be adopted and succeed to the throne, and be known to history as Antoninus Pius). During her life, Faustina Senior was an advocate for the underprivileged, as well as for girls’ education. When she died in AD 141, Antoninius Pius was said to be devastated. To honour her memory he had her deified, built a temple for her in the Forum and issued a prodigious coinage in her name as Diva Faustina. Additionally he established an institution called Puellae Faustinianae (‘The Girls of Faustina’) to assist orphaned Roman girls. The commemorative coinage of Faustina Senior is unusual in that it survives in large numbers with a wide variety of reverse types, this being explained by the fact that her coins continued to be struck until the death of Antoninus Pius in AD 161. This particularly beautiful consecration aureus is notable for the form in which the apotheosis of Faustina is displayed; a parallel issue displays the funeral pyre of the empress and thus the manner of her ascension to godhood, and here we see her being conveyed to her place among the gods and other deified emperors and empresses. Faustina now holds the hasta pura, one of the insignia of the gods, and of the augusti and augustae after their apotheoses. Two other contemporary issues display further elements of Faustina’s deification; one shows the carriage of her divine effigy in a wagon pulled by two elephants, the other illustrates its destination: the temple that Antoninus Pius built along the Via Sacra on the northeastern side of the Roman Forum for the ongoing worship of Diva Faustina. It is both a charming and moving type that must have been particularly affecting to Antoninus, and on the obverse we see Faustina still draped, in the manner of a living Augusta and beloved wife, and not yet veiled in death and divinity.

215


802. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 163. IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG P M, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII, Salus standing facing, head left, feeding out of patera in right hand a snake coiled around and rising from an altar, cradling sceptre in left arm, S C across fields; COS III in exergue. RIC 844; MIR 18, 54-6/32; Banti 287; BMC 1042. 24.94g, 32mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

6,000

Ex Triton XII, 6 January 2009, lot 633. This coin displays a beautiful ‘Tiber’ patina and very good preservation of detail. Beautiful, untouched fields.

803. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 167. M ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right / TR POT XXI IMP IIII COS III, S-C across fields, Victory advancing left, holding wreath in extended right hand, palm frond cradled in left arm. RIC 948; Banti 438; BMC 1318. 25.15g, 32mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Attractive emerald green patina.

2,000

804. Faustina Junior AR Denarius. Rome, circa AD 147-150. FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, holding flower in right hand and resting left arm on cornucopiae set on globe. RIC 502a (Pius); Strack 506; RSC 54; BMC 1086 (Pius). 3.35g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

150

Ex Leu 50, 1990

805. Lucius Verus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 164. L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Victory, naked to waist, standing right, holding writing instrument in right hand and with left hand steadying shield inscribed VIC AVG that is set atop palm tree. BMC 296; Calicó 2177; C. 247 var.; RIC 525. 7.26g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Leu 50, 25 April 1990, lot 321.

216

17,500


806. Lucius Verus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 163-164. L AVREL VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate bust right / VICT AVG TR P IIII IMP II COS II Victory standing to right, holding trophy in both hands over Armenian captive seated at foot; S-C across fields. RIC 1410 (Aurelius); C. 335; Banti 195. 22.53g, 32mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Attractive, untouched surfaces. Rare, only one example listed in Banti; two examples on CoinArchives.

807

2,000

808

807. Lucius Verus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 167. L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right / TR P VII IMP IIII COS III, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 576 (Aurelius); MIR 18, 146-14/30; RSC 297. 3.30g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 125 808. Pertinax AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS, Ops seated left, holding grain ears and resting other hand on throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33. 3.06g, 17mm, 1h. Minor flan crack, good portrait, Good Very Fine. 750

809

811

810

809. Pertinax AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / PROVID DEOR COS II, Providentia standing left, raising hands toward star. RIC 10a; RSC 40. 3.27g, 17mm, 12h. Minor flan crack, good portrait, Good Very Fine. 750 810. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST, laureate head right / CERERI FRVFER (sic), Ceres standing left, holding sceptre and corn ears. C -; RIC 7 note cf. De Quelen sale, 14 May 1888, 1272. 3.00g, 18mm, 1h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 78, 26 May 2014, lot 2318.

750

811. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGERIVS AVG COS II, laureate bust right / FELICITAS TEMPOR, two crossed cornucopiae. RIC 15. 3.08g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare. 750

Exceptional Quality

812. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IM P CAES C PESCF N NIGER IVST AVG (sic), laureate head right / MAPTI VICTORI (sic), Mars standing left, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and reversed spear in left. RIC 55 var. (legends); RSC 51 var. (same); BMC 308 var. (same). 3.73g, 18mm, 1h. Mint State. Exceptional metal quality and preservation for a denarius of Pescennius Niger.

7,500

813. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Caesarea in Cappadocia, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right / SALVTI AVG, Salus standing facing before lighted altar, head right, holding serpent in her arms and feeding it from a patera. RIC 75b; J. Van Heesch, “Les ateliers monétaires de Pescennius Niger,” RBN CXXIV (1978), pg. 62 and 11a; BMCRE 312A; RSC 66a. Good Extremely Fine.

217

4,000


Second Known Example

814.

Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Uncertain Eastern mint (Emesa or Alexandria?), AD 194. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PEPT (sic) AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / LEG VIII AVG II COS, legionary Aquila between two standards, TR P COS in exergue. RIC -; C. -; Calico -; H.-J. Kellner, Neue Fundmünzen aus Bayern, JNG 28/29, 1978/1979, 43 pl. 9, 1; BMC 336 (Emesa, denarius); cf. NAC 67, lot 180, HSA 30028 (same obverse die). 7.32g, 20mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Of the Highest Rarity, only the second known after a unique but worn specimen was found in Bavaria in 1974. A highly important and fascinating issue. 40,000 This exceedingly rare and important aureus is one of only four recorded gold types in the extensive ‘legionary’ series that Septimius issued after his accession in June of 193. Cassius Dio records that he paid an accession donative of 250 denarii (10 aurei) per soldier, and it is therefore highly likely that the Rome mint legionary issues were intended to satisfy this immediate requirement. The silver denarii were struck in vast quantities, with Legio VIII Augusta at Strasbourg being honoured with a particularly large issue, though not quite as large as that of Legio XIIII. The eastern issues are by comparison all extremely rare, having evidently been issued on a much smaller scale, and only the legions III, VIII and XIIII are honoured. Furthermore, at least some of the coins may not have been struck until after January 194, when Septimius became consul for the second time. This represents a gap of six months or more between the Rome legionary issues, and those of the eastern mints. The explanation for both the small scale of these issues and the time differential may be that they represent a belated donative payment to loyal troops stationed in the eastern provinces. It is known that Pescennius Niger’s support in the East was not universal; Septimius evidently had forces strong enough to block Legio II Traiana Fortis from sending military aid to Niger from Egypt. It is very possible therefore that locally stationed vexillationes (detachments) of the three aforementioned legions were present in the region and remained loyal to Septimius, and that they were paid their donatives with locally struck coinage after Septimius’ defeat of Niger in May 194. This hypothesis is supported by the known findspot of the only other aureus of this type, for Bavaria is only a short distance from the Legion’s home at Strasbourg, and that coin may have easily been lost there after returning home with a member of Legio VIII. The specific mint location for this aureus remains uncertain, though Emesa or Alexandria are considered the most likely options on the basis of practical, stylistic, and metrological considerations. The type mirrors a denarius issue attributed by the British Museum to ‘Emesa’, which also curiously puts both II COS and TR P COS on the reverse.

218


219


Herculi Defensor

815. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 197. L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate bust right / HERCVLI DEFENS, Hercules standing right, resting right hand on club, holding bow in left hand, lion’s skin draped over left arm. RIC 111; Cohen 213; Calicó 2460. 7.15g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 573. The obverse of this coin makes reference to Hercules who, as one of the chief gods of Severus’ home town of Leptis Magna, blessed his undertakings. Here he is characterised as ‘Defensor’ and is presented with the familiar attributes of club, bow, quiver of arrows and the lion’s skin, referencing his mythological feats and conferring similar prestige on Severus as protector of the Roman Empire. Hercules was also later adopted by Caracalla as his divine patron.

Stunning and Rare Severus Aureus

816. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 201. SEVERVS AVG PART MAX, laureate head right / FVNDATOR PACIS, Severus, veiled, standing left, holding branch and scroll. RIC 160; Calicó 2459; C. 202; BMC 189. 7.25g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare.

20,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatik Lanz 112, 25 November 2002, lot 598. Severus’ rise to power required him to remove the threats of two others who had been proclaimed emperor, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Having routed Niger and pacified the eastern provinces, and after his victory against Albinus at the Battle of Lugdunum, Severus consolidated support in the western provinces and then turned his attention back to increasing the bounds of the Roman Empire eastwards. In 197 Severus invaded Parthia and captured the Parthian capital Ctesiphon. The sack of Ctesiphon was particularly devastating. Severus gave his soldiers liberty to plunder the city at will and brutal slaughter ensued. According to Cassius Dio, as many as 100,000 women and children were sold into slavery, and an enormous amount of treasure was carried off from the city. Ctesiphon was however not garrisoned, and Severus withdrew from the city. Though he failed to reduce the city of Hatra, which had also held out against Trajan, the northern half of Mesopotamia was annexed to the empire, and for this victory Severus took the title parthicus maximus, as seen on the obverse legend of this type. While he could not claim total victory over the Parthians, he had dealt a severe blow to that kingdom, which endured no more than another twenty seven years before a revolt by the Sassadids overran the weakened empire. The reverse however reiterates Severus’ role as a bringer of peace and stability, who had successfully dealt with both the usurpers within the empire and Rome’s external enemies. Indeed, the reign of Severus can be considered to have been a prosperous and largely stable period - a last golden period before the coming of an age of iron and rust.

220


Septimius’ Hope For Unity

817. Septimius Severus, with Caracalla and Geta, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 202-210. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM, Caracalla and Geta, each laureate and togate, standing facing each other, jointly holding Victory standing left on globe with their right hands. RIC 255; Calicó 2435; BMC 312. 7.00g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection.

Unique and Unpublished Gold Quinarius

818. Septimius Severus AV Quinarius. Rome, AD 205. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right / COS III P P, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. RIC -, cf. 258 (silver quinarius); BMC -; C. -; Hill -, cf. 714 (silver quinarius). 3.56g, 14mm, 12h. Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

5,000

Found at Crondall, Hampshire in early 2015. The silver quinarii of Septimius are extremely rare; his gold quinarii exceedingly so. Hill dates the silver quinarii of this type to Septimius’ fifth largess in AD 205; the gold quinarius must have been a companion issue, of which this is the first known example.

819. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 207. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / RESTITVTOR VRBIS, Roma seated left on shield, holding palladium and sceptre. RIC 288; Calicó 2529; BMC 358; Hill 840. 6.76g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal. Rare.

20,000

Septimius Severus was credited with restoring stability to the Roman Empire after the turbulent reign of Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of his murder, and by the time this coin was struck he had enlarged the empire in the East and strengthened the southern borders through the expansion of the Limes Tripolitanus, a frontier zone of defensive forts in north Africa. The improved security of the empire enabled Severus to undertake restorative works in Rome itself, the theme of this reverse type. Roma, personification of Rome, is portrayed here as a direct reference to Severus’ having restored peace and prosperity to the city.

221


Extremely Rare Aureus of Septimius Severus

820.

Septimius Severus, with Caracalla and Geta, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 210-211. SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM, Caracalla and Geta, both laureate and togate, standing facing one another, supporting between them a globe surmounted by Victory standing left, holding wreath in right hand and palm frond in left. RIC 330A; Calicó 2436; Jameson 1913, pl. VII, 162; BMC 366, *. 7.09g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare, no examples on CoinArchives.

18,000

This reverse type neatly shows the hope Severus held for unity and amity between his two sons, and his wish for them to rule together following his death and thus continue the dynasty he had founded. Imperial propaganda presented the image of a happy family that shared the responsibilities of rule: Severus’ wife Julia Domna was his trusted counsellor, his older son Caracalla his second in command, and his younger son, appointed Augustus in 209, was entrusted with administrative and bureaucratic duties. Yet the brothers’ disdain for one another is well-attested; Cassius Dio relates that ‘the two pretended to love and commend each other, but in all that they did they were diametrically opposed, and anyone could see that something terrible was bound to result from the situation.’ Following Severus’ death whilst on campaign in Caledonia in 211, the two brothers returned to Rome from Britannia to their joint rule under the watchful eye of their mother. The brothers argued and fought over every law and every appointment, the situation becoming sufficiently unbearable that by the end of the year during the festival of Saturnalia, Caracalla attempted to have Geta murdered, without success. Later, under the pretext of meeting for a reconciliation, Caracalla had his brother slain in his mother’s arms by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to him. After a tumultuous and bloodthirsty reign of less than six years, Caracalla was assassinated by an officer of his personal bodyguard while relieving himself at a roadside near Carrhae. Although after a brief interlude the line of Septimius’ father Bassianus would continue for some time yet in the form of Elagabalus (Caracalla’s first cousin, once removed) and later Severus Alexander, Caracalla’s death firmly extinguished Septimius’ dream for his sons to continue the Severan dynasty he had laboured to establish

222


821. Julia Domna AR Denarius. Rome, AD 216. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left, extending right hand and holding sceptre in left. RIC 388. 2.97g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine.

150

Superb Aureus of Julia Domna

822. Julia Domna AV Aureus. Rome, AD 193-196. IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust of Julia Domna right, her hair in six waves and bound up at the back / VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, seen from behind, half nude with drapery hanging low beneath her posterior, holding palm branch in her left hand, a globe in her right and leaning with her left elbow on a low column to her left. BMC 47; Calicó 2641a; Cohen 193; Hill 100; RIC 536. 7.29g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Hirsch 281, 2 May 2012, lot 899. Septimius Severus, who had come to power after a civil war, aspired to restore peace and stability to the Roman Empire. His wife, Julia Domna, was to play an instrumental role in this endeavour, as a vehicle for the promotion of traditional Roman values. Inscriptions attest to the great number of titles conferred upon her, including that of Mater Senatus et Patriae. On account of her faithful companionship during her husband’s military campaigns she was named Mater Castrorum, and a statue was set up in the Forum to honour her. An association with Venus was favoured for the Empress’ coinage; the first issues struck for Julia Domna feature the goddess. Cassius Dio relates that prior to their wedding, Septimius Severus dreamt that Faustina Junior prepared their nuptial chamber within the Temple of Venus and Roma - a neat propaganda tool that at once implied Faustina’s approval of Julia Domna, and her acceptance of Severus’ legitimacy.

823. Julia Domna AV Aureus. Rome, AD 193-196. IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust of Julia Domna right, her hair in six waves and bound up at the back / VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, seen from behind, half nude with drapery hanging low beneath her posterior, holding palm branch in her left hand, a globe in her right and leaning with her left elbow on a low column to her left. BMC 47; Calicó 2641a; Cohen 193; Hill 100; RIC 536. 7.35g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

223

7,500


Caracalla’s Eastern Campaign

824. Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 216. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, radiate lion walking to left, thunderbolt in jaws. RIC 283a; C. 366; Biaggi -; Calicó 2754; BMC -; Hill 1546. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

25,000

From the Ambrose Collection. This aureus was struck at the beginning of Caracalla’s ill fated campaign against the Parthian Empire, and a year before the emperor’s assassination in AD 217. The invasion of Parthia in AD 216 was the culmination of an aggressive foreign policy in the east, and followed the invasions of adjoining kingdoms, which resulted in the annexation of Osroene. Prior to the invasion, Caracalla had agreed to marry the daughter of King Artabanus V and commit to maintaining peace in the region, only to attack the bride and guests at the wedding in order to provoke war. The reverse design alludes to Caracalla’s eastern military ambitions at this time, depicting a radiate lion with a thunderbolt in its jaws. Whilst the radiate lion is a clearly solar symbol and thus represents the East, the thunderbolt refers to Jupiter. This composite image therefore has been interpreted as Roman dominance over the east, and as a symbol of the combined divinity of Jupiter and Sol. Caracalla is thus drawing heavily on celestial imagery to propagandise his eastern campaign; the type would subsequently be revived by Philip I, Philip II, Gallienus, Aurelian and Probus, all of whom mounted campaigns in the East. The lion type may also have held some personal significance for Caracalla, who Cassius Dio tells us would surround himself with lions, one of which was a special pet called Akinakes (Persian for ‘short sword’) that was his companion at table and in bed. The type may have lost some of its shine for Caracalla after a bad omen when, after having been disturbed by a dream of his father Septimius warning him he would avenge Caracalla’s murder of his brother, his lion Akinakes seized him and tore his clothes.

825. Caracalla Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 202-210. M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / VICTORIAE BRITTANNICAE, two Victories, standing right and left facing each other, setting shield on palm; below, two captives seated back to back; SC in exergue. RIC 465b. 25.85g, 33mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

224

1,500


826. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC 72. 2.96g, 17mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

200

827. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC 73; Clay Issue 2; RSC 33b (Antioch). 2.81g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Iridescent tone.

300

828. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / LIBERALITAS AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 78. 3.69g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Scarce.

300

829. Diadumenian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare headed and draped bust right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing front, head right, holding standard in right hand and sceptre in left, with two standards to the right. RIC 102; BMC 90; C. 3. 3.41g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Scarce.

300

Privately purchased from Baldwins, October 2011.

830 Elagabalus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 218-219. IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTOR ANTONINI AVG, Victory walking right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 154; C. 288; BMC 30; Calic贸 3038. 6.77g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare. From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Noble Numismatics 99, 17 April 2012, lot 3599.

225

12,500


FDC Aureus of Severus Alexander

831. Severus Alexander AV Aureus. Rome, AD 230. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder / P M TR P VIIII COS III P P, Romulus, radiate, walking right, carrying spear and trophy. RIC 103; BMC 620; Calic贸 3121 (same dies). 6.33g, 20mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin; perfectly centred on the flan. Rare.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 633; Ex Triton X, 9 January 2007, lot 701.

832

833

832. Severus Alexander AR Denarius. Rome, AD 232. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate draped bust right / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding corn ears over modius and anchor. RIC 252. 3.28g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful golden red tone. 100

833. Orbiana AR Denarius. Rome, AD 225. SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed and draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC 319; RSC 1; BMC 287. 2.52g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Pleasant toning and fine style. 250

834

835

834. Maximus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 236-238. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare headed and draped bust right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left, holding baton and transverse spear; two standards to right. RIC 3. 3.11g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 500 835. Diva Paulina AR Denarius. Rome, AD 236. DIVA PAVLINA, veiled and draped bust right / CONSECRATIO, Diva Paulina, raising right hand and holding transverse sceptre in left, reclining left on peacock flying right. RIC 2 (Maximinus); BMC 127-8 (Maximinus); RSC 2. 2.94g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Rev. die somewhat worn. 1,000

226


Superlative Denarius of Gordian I

836. Gordian I AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS P P, emperor standing left, holding olive branch and sceptre. RIC 1; BMC 1. 2.71g, 21mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Supremely well detailed; perfect strike, lustrous metal. An incredibly attractive coin, and easily the finest denarius of Gordian I Africanus we have ever handled. 8,000 From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 640.

837. Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS II P P, togate emperor standing left, holding branch and parazonium. RIC 5; RSC 20. 3.37g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

400

838 Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, Providentia standing left, holding a wand in lowered right hand over a globe at feet to left, and cornucopiae in left hand. RIC 7; RSC 23. 3.00g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal.

500

839. Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing front with wreath and palm. RIC 8; RSC 27. 3.16g, 20mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

227

500


228


840. Pupienus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX PVBLICA, Pax seated left, holding branch and sceptre. RIC 4. 3.25g, 20mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. A remarkably detailed portrait, engraved in excellent style and high relief.

3,000

From the Gutekunst Collection; Ex A. Tkalec, 23 October 1998, lot 258.

841. Pupienus AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CARITAS MVTVA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 10b. 5.18g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

Two Beautiful Sestertii of Pupienus

842. Pupienus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 238. IMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae; SC in exergue. RIC 20; BMC 43. 24.00g, 31mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Beautiful, untouched surfaces.

5,000

843. Pupienus Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 238. IMP C M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left holding wreath and palm, S-C across fields. RIC 23a. 23.50g, 31mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

229

5,000


844. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, AD 239. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Jupiter standing facing, holding thunderbolt and sceptre over Gordian, standing facing to left. RIC 21; Calicó 3211. 4.89g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

7,500

845. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, AD 239. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P II COS P P, Providentia standing facing, holding globe and transverse sceptre. RIC 23; Calicó 3213. 5.35g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; lustrous. Rare.

5,000

846. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, AD 243-244. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left, holding long caduceus and cornucopiae. RIC 159; C. 80; Calicó 3195. 4.26g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare (rated “R” in RIC but no examples on CoinArchives).

4,000

The Usurper Pacatian

847. Pacatian AR Antoninianus. Viminacium, AD 248-249. IMP TI CL MAR PACATIANVS P F A.., radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX AETERNA, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre. C. 6; RIC 5. 2.35g, 21mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,500

Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus was raised to the purple by his troops, and then killed by them within a matter of months and before Trajan Decius, sent by the Emperor Philip I, was able to tackle him himself. Usurping power in the region of the Danube, later writers such as Zosimus relate that he was an officer of the army and perhaps of senatorial rank. Though no specific reasons for the rebellion are clear from the sources, the Danube frontier is known to have been threatened repeatedly by the Goths, and the sheer number of uprisings in this area led by the army is suggestive of serious and continuing unrest. Though at least seven reverse types are known for Pacatian, the remaining coinage is extremely rare and in the main of poor quality. One reverse type, featuring Roma seated, securely dates Pacatian’s revolt to AD 248 as it commemorates the 1000th anniversary of the founding of Rome, an event that Philip I also marked on his coinage. Viminacium is taken to be the mint for Pacatian’s coinage due to similarities in style to other issues from this mint, and also because for the period of the rebellion no coins of Philip I were produced there.

230


Impressive Trajan Decius Aureus

848. Trajan Decius AV Aureus. AD 249-251. Rome, AD 249-250. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / ADVENTVS AVG, Trajan Decius on horseback left, raising right hand in salutation, holding sceptre in left. RIC 11a var. (bust also draped); Calicó 3283; Biaggi 1392. 3.78g, 18.5mm, 12h. Extremely Fine, lustrous. Very Rare.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection. Trajan Decius was acclaimed emperor by his troops while campaigning in Moesia and Pannonia on behalf of Philip I ‘the Arab’. He had been sent to quell the revolt of the usurper Pacatian, who had been proclaimed emperor himself by his troops but was, ultimately, also killed by them before the intervention of Decius. According to Zosimus, Decius was apparently reluctant and unwilling to take power. However, having taken the purple, Philip advanced againtst Decius and the two met in battle near Verona, though he was routed and killed. Subsequently, Decius’ accession was recognised by the Senate, who conferred on him the name Traianus in reference to his predecessor Trajan, the optimus princeps (‘best ruler’) of the Roman Empire. Taking the name of Trajan was more than simple vainglory - in the first Dacian War of AD 101-102 Trajan had reduced the Danube region to the status of a client kingdom, later absorbing it into the empire after the second Dacian War in 105-106. The new emperor, who hailed from the very same region, was seen to have already quelled a revolt in the troubled frontier area, and it was hoped he would restore the strength of the State. Seen on the obverse of this very rare and attractive aureus with a furrowed brow, as may imagine from the worries of his new position, the reverse type ADVENTVS AVG proclaims the accession of the new emperor and depicts his arrival in Rome.

849. Aemilian AR Antoninianus. Rome, AD 253. IMP CAES AEMILIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IOVI CONSERVAT, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; to lower left Aemilian standing to left. RIC 4; RSC 16. 3.35g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

231

250


Spectacular Postumus Double Sestertius

850. Postumus Ӕ Double Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 261. IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right / LAETITIA AVG, galley right with four rowers. RIC 143; Bastien 87. 15.92g, 32mm, 6h. Virtually Mint State – apart from a light patina, this remarkable specimen is otherwise exactly as it was when it left the die. One of the very finest known sestertii of Postumus in existence.

20,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1223. Though Postumus relied on his army to stay in power, the safety of the provinces was not solely an army matter, for the coasts required protection also, and so it is reasonable that his navy deserved mention on the coinage. The issues which couple the reverse legends FELICITAS and LAETITIA with scenes of a galley probably show that the emperor by no means neglected his navy, and perhaps that it achieved success. The type of galley depicted on the reverse of the present coin could be a navis lusoria, which was a type of a small military vessel of the late Roman Empire that served as a troop transport. It was smaller and narrower than similar earlier vessels, and ideally suited to the rivers close to the Limes Germanicus; the presence of this type of vessel in the Classis Germanica is shown through the discovery of the Mainz Roman ships in 1981-2, thus proving that they operated on the Rhine and Danube.

851. Laelianus Æ Antoninianus. Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), early AD 269. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Victoria AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 9. 2.85g, 20mm, 2h. Extremely Fine with a broad flan, Dark tone, exceptional for this issue. Very rare. 1,750

852 853 852. Vabalathus Æ Antoninianus. Antioch, circa March-May AD 272. IM C VHABALATHVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / IVENVS AVG, Hercules standing right, with lion’s skin draped over left arm, holding club set on ground in right hand, Apples of the Hesperides in left. RIC 4; BN 1265 var. (star in right field). 2.30g, 20mm, 5h. Very Fine. 750 Ex Peus 406, 25 April 2012, lot 414. 853. Aurelian Æ Denarius. Rome, AD 275. Laureate and cuirassed bust right / Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; to left below, captive seated left, head right; B in exergue. RIC 73. 2.54g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 300

232


The Last Elected Emperor

854.

Tacitus AV Aureus. Antioch, AD 275-276. IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on a shield, holding Victory on a globe and a sceptre, S C in exergue. RIC 209; Calicó 4096; C. 116. 4.27g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Mount mark at 12 o’clock skillfully removed. Rare.

15,000

Ex New York Sale XXXIV, 6 January 2015, lot 670. Although an ageing man when he became the last emperor to be elected to the purple by the Senate on the 25th September AD 275, Tactus was a Roman by birth and a Senator, and accepted the burden that was thrust on his shoulders out of a sense of duty for his country. The reverse type that we see on this rare aureus - Romae Aeternae, the Eternal Rome, coupled with the the restoration of the old senatorial letters SC (Senatus Consulto) in the exergue - is indicative of this. Once his ascension to the purple had been ratified by the army he arrived for a short stay in Rome, before he was obliged to travel east to Asia Minor to quell troubles arising from the auxiliary troops gathered by his predecessor Aurelian, who had enlisted Scythian and Gothic troops to aid him in a campaign against Persia. With the campaign no longer expected to go ahead, the gathered men were restless and had plundered several towns in the Eastern Roman provinces. Tacitus, with the aid of his half-brother the Praetorian Prefect Florian, pacified some and defeated others, but was overcome by fatigue, old-age and the hardships of campaign and died at Tyana in Cappadocia in April 276. Following the monetary reforms introduced by Aurelian, coins produced under Tacitus are remarkable for their uniformity and careful adherence to a regular standard. Although no gold quinarii were struck for Tactus, so far as we know, there have been two separate weight standards noted for the aurei. The present example falls into the lighter category, being between four and five grammes, and was likely struck at 72 to the pound. The heavier examples, usually between six and seven grammes, were struck at 50 to the pound.

233


234


Calicó and Sear Plate Coin

855.

Carinus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Siscia, AD 282. M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory standing left on banded globe, holding laurel wreath in outstretched right hand and palm frond over left shoulder. RIC -, cf. 190E (Victory carrying trophy); cf. Cohen 139 (same); Sear 12287 (this coin); Calicó 4372 (this coin). 4.84 gm, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

25,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Andre Constantine Dimitriadis Collection; Ex McLendon Collection, Christie’s New York, 12 June 1993, lot 191. Raised to the rank of Caesar in the West in 282 under his father Carus, who had been proclaimed emperor after the assasination of the emperor Probus, Carinus immediately set out on campaign against the Germanic Quadi tribes against whom he met with some success. Returning to Rome in early 283, he celebrated a triumph and was proclaimed Augustus, and thus began his joint rule with his father. Meanwhile his brother Numerian, also Caesar, was on campaign with their father against the Sassanid Persians in the East. It was here that Carus died in July or August 283, but not before having made significant gains against the Sassanids under Bahram II: he had taken the capital Ctesiphon, crossed the River Tigris and was marching his troops further into Mesopotamia. Carus’ death is most likely attributable to natural causes (an unknown illness, though some sources claim it was a lightning strike), and Numerian succeeded him as Augustus unchallenged. The army however wished to return to the West, and Numerian was unable to do more than acquiesce. As the column proceeded slowly back toward Roman territory Numerian himself was taken ill and died under suspicious circumstances - the general Diocletian was proclaimed emperor by the troops and accepted the purple on a hill outside Nicomedia. Upon hearing the news, Carinus marched his army eastwards and the two met in Moesia at the Battle of the Margus River. Again, accounts differ as to the progress of the battle: some say that Carinus had the upper hand until he was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced, while others suggest that the battle was a complete victory for Diocletian and that Carinus’ army deserted him. Following the victory, both the eastern and western armies recognised Diocletian as sole emperor, and he marched unopposed on Rome. Struck in late 282 when Carinus still held the rank of Caesar, this aureus depicts him in military gear on the obverse, while the reverse type depicts the Victoriola, the cult statue of Victory standing on a globe. It symbolises the power and majesty conferred on an emperor by victory in battle, and is often shown on later reverse types being conferred on the emperor by Jupiter or another deity. Used in this context, it appears to attest to a recent military victory, perhaps Carinus’ own successes against the Germanic tribes. That this coin was struck shortly before Carinus was raised to the rank of Augustus might partly explain its relative rarity, however the Damnatio Memoriae which Diocletian wrought on Carinus after his death would also bear on the scarcity of gold coins in his name.

235


856. Magnia Urbica Æ Antoninianus. Ticinum, August AD 283. MAGNIA VRBICA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, set on crescent / VENVS CELEST, Venus standing left, holding helmet and sceptre; shield at side; SXXIT. RIC 347; Pink VI/2 p. 29. 3.14g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Traces of original silvering.

400

Julian I of Pannonia

857. Julian I of Pannonia Æ Antoninianus. Siscia, late AD 284-February 285. IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and sceptre; S – B across fields, XXI in exergue. C. 1; RIC 2. 3.84g, 23mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Some original silvering remaining. Rare.

3,000

One of the more serious of the ‘Thirty Tyranni’ described by Roman historians in the Historia Augusta, the revolt of Marcus Aurelius Julianus of Pannonia against Carinus in 284 caused the emperor to march from Britain and lead his army against the rebels near Verona, or perhaps in Illyricum (the sources are unclear), crushing them in early 285. Issued from the mint at Siscia, the coins of Julian of Pannonia are in the same good style that this mint had previously issued in the service of legitimate emperors, with a fine portrait.

858. Julian I of Pannonia Æ Antoninianus. Siscia, late AD 284-February 285. IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and sceptre; S – B across fields, XXI in exergue. C. 1; RIC 2. 3.75g, 22mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Much original silvering remaining. Rare.

2,000

859. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 300. DIOCLETIANVS, laureate head right / XCVI - T in two lines across field within wreath. RIC 20a; RSC 548a. 3.04g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Virtually as struck, tiny flan crack, lustrous surfaces on reverse, Very Rare. The Roman number 96 (XCVI) stated that 96 Argentei were minted from a Roman pound of silver.

236

3,000


860

861

860. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Siscia, AD 294-295. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets. RIC 43a; Jelocnik 3a. 3.00g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. 600 Ex Stack’s 168, 8 August 2012, lot 20510. 861. Maximianus AR Argenteus. Carthage, AD 300. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / XC VI in two lines within laurel wreath. RIC 15b; Jeločnik -; RSC 698†2. 3.38g, 17mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; beautifully toned. Scarce.

750

862. Maximianus Æ Follis. Treveri (Trier), AD 303-305. IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI S-F, Genius standing left, wearing modius, and holding patera and cornucopiae, PTR in exergue. RIC 652b. 8.43g, 29mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

150

863. Maximianus AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 295. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIA SARMAT, the four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets. RIC 16b; Sisak Hoard 39. 2.97g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; attractively toned. Very Rare.

750

864. Maximianus AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 300. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / XCVI - T in two lines across field within wreath with large central jewel. RIC 20b; Jeločnik -; RSC 698. 3.39g, 19mm, 1h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare.

1,500

865. Maximianus AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 300. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / XCVI - T in two lines across field within wreath with large central jewel. RIC 20b; Jeločnik -; RSC 698. 3.69g, 18mm, 10h. Virtually as struck; tiny flan crack, lustrous surfaces on reverse. Very Rare.

1,500

866. Maximianus AR Argenteus. Rome, AD 295-297. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets, Δ in exergue. RIC 40b; RSC 622g. 3.54g, 19mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Rare.

237

600


238


The Apples of the Hesperides

867.

Maximianus Herculius AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 294. MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right / HERCVLI VICTORI, Hercules standing facing, head right, holding club and apples, lion skin draped over left arm; SMN in exergue. RIC 3; Depeyrot p. 119, 2/1; cf. Calicó 4668 var. (no apples). 5.36g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

25,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 1154. Given the title ‘Herculius’ by Diocletian, Maximianus’ role was always that of the military might to Diocletian’s stategic planning, hence the rich and varied series of depictions of Hercules that we see on his coinage. This reverse depicts Hercules after the completion of his eleventh labour - to steal the apples of the Hesperides. The garden of the Hesperides, nymphs of the evening and golden light of sunset, is Hera’s garden in the west, where an apple tree grows which produces golden apples conferring immortality when eaten. Planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to Hera as a wedding gift when she wed Zeus, the garden and tree were tended by the Hesperides. After Hercules had completed his ten labours, Eurystheus gave him two more, claiming that neither the Hydra counted (because Iolaus helped him) nor the Augean stables either (because he received payment for the job or because the rivers did the work). Thus the first of these two additional labours was to steal the apples from the garden of the Hesperides. During this labour, Hercules had to take the vault of the heavens on his shoulders to relieve Atlas, who was the father of the Hesperides and could therefore persuade them to give up the apples. Having obtained the apples Atlas, relieved of his burden, was unwilling to take it back and offered to deliver the apples in Hercules’ stead. Hercules however tricked him by agreeing to take his place on condition that Atlas relieve him temporarily so that he could make his cloak more comfortable. Hercules was thus able to complete the task; as for the apples, as property of the gods, they had to be returned to the garden from which they had been removed, a task that Athena completed on Hercules’ behalf. In later years it was thought that the ‘golden apples’ might have actually been oranges, a fruit unknown to Europe and the Mediterranean before the Middle Ages. Under this assumption, the Greek botanical name chosen for all citrus species was Hesperidoeide (‘hesperidoids’ and even today the Greek word for the orange fruit is ‘Portokali’ after the country of Portugal in Iberia near where the Garden of the Hesperides was thought to grow. Struck in the east of the Empire at the new mint of Nicomedia, this coin was most probably produced in response to the increase in bureaucracy that the appointment of the two new Caesars in 293 will have occasioned, as well as the ever present needs of the army protecting the eastern frontier of the Empire.

239


868. Constantius I AR Argenteus. Carthage, AD 300. CONSTANTIVS CAES, laureate head right / XC VI in two lines within wreath. RIC 16a. 3.09g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive lustrous metal. Very Rare.

1,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Crédit de la Bourse, 19-21 April 1995, lot 569.

869. Constantius I, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Rome, AD 294. CONSTANTIVS CAES, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four tetrarchs standing facing one another before city enclosure with six turrets, sacrificing over tripod. RIC VI 29a. 3.19g, 19mm, 7h. Mint State.

500

870. Constantius I AR Argenteus. Siscia, AD 300. CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, three-turreted camp gate, open without doors, star SIS in exergue. RIC 67a. 3.34g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 750

Extremely Rare Severus II Argenteus

871. Severus II, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Serdica, AD 305-306. SEVERVS NOB C, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, three-turreted camp gate with no doors, •SM•SDA• in exergue. RIC -; cf. NAC 62, 6 October 2011, lot 2089 (same dies). 3.29g, 20mm, 12h. Minor bump behind portrait, otherwise Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of very few known examples.

7,500

Ex Heritage 3026, 25 September 2013, lot 23432. Most likely struck to mark the commencement of the Second Tetrarchy in AD 305, this extremely rare coin is one of only a handful known. A number of argentei of Severus II came to light in a hoard about a decade ago; prior to this, they were virtually unknown. Cohen lists no such types, and RIC lists one argenteus of Severus II (21), but as Augustus rather than Caesar. The scarcity of these types might be explained by the short period of time during which Severus held the position of Caesar before being elevated by Galerius after the death of Constantius I in summer 306 - in a matter of months he was raised from the senior ranks of the army to Augustus in the West. However, his time as Augustus came to an abrupt end when he was tasked with the suppression of the revolt of Maxentius in Rome: he marched on the city at the head of an army previously commanded by Maximianus, father of Maxentius, to whom his soldiers deserted. Severus fled to Ravenna where, in 307, he was persuaded by Maxentius to surrender. Despite Maximianus’ assurances that he would be treated with respect, Severus was nonetheless displayed as a captive and later imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. When Galerius invaded Italy to suppress Maxentius and Maximianus himself, Maxentius ordered Severus’ death. He was executed (or forced to commit suicide) on 16 September 307.

240


Unique Aureus of Maximinus II

872.

Maximinus II AV Aureus. Rome, circa AD 312-313. MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / VBIQVE VICTORES, Emperor standing facing, head right, in military dress, holding transverse spear in right hand and globe in left; seated captives on either side, PR in ex. For the type issued in Rome under Constantine and Licinius, cf. RIC VI pg. 688, Addenda to pg. 385; For a similar issue struck for Maximinus at Treveri, cf. RIC 817b. 4.24g, 17mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

20,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 667. Although the only known example of this type to have been found to date, coins of Constantine and Licinius with this reverse and the PR mintmark do exist, much as all three are represented in the gold issues of this type struck at Treveri. That this should be the only extant example may be explained by the weakening relations between Maximinus, and Constantine and Licinius. In 312 Maximinus allied himself with the usurper Maxentius, who controlled Italy, in response to the marriage of Licinius and Constantia, Constantineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s half-sister. Now bolstered by the support of Maximinus, Maxentius formally declared war on Constantine, which ended in his destruction at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October AD 312 at the hands of Constantineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s army. Maximinus himself crossed the Bosphorus in 313 and on 30 April engaged Licinius in battle at Tzirallum, where he too suffered a crushing defeat. This solidus was apparently a very small issue struck sometime between October of AD 312 and April of 313, after the defeat of Maxentius and before the declaration of war by Maximinus against Licinius.

241


242


The Decennalia of AD 317

873. Licinius I AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 317, celebrating the Decennalia of November 11. LICINIVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / IOVI CONS LICINI AVG, laureate and bearded Jupiter, nude to waist, enthroned to left, holding sceptre in left hand and Victoriola with palm and wreath in right; at his feet, eagle to left with head reverted and wreath in beak; all on high podium inscribed on frontispiece SIC X SIC XX in two lines; SMNΔ in exergue. C. 130 var. (Jupiter facing); Bastien, Donativa 126, 14 and pl. 14, 14 (same obverse die, but attributed to Licinius II, in error?); Depeyrot, 25B/1 (this coin cited); RIC 20 (wrong obverse legend by error); Calicó 5100 var. (off. Γ). 5.23g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

17,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Münzen & Medaillen Basel 92, 22 November 2002, lot 297; Ex Auctiones 22, 16 June 1992, lot 815. Struck to celebrate his decennalia in AD 317 this beautifully detailed aureus was minted during a period of peace between Licinius and his coemperor Constantine. The reverse, marked on the platform with SIC X SIC XX, gives thanks for ten years of rule and seeks the gods’ favour for a further ten such years, that they might be enjoyed in health and prosperity. Licinius may well have held such hopes, for 317 marked a high point of peace and stability, and it was in this year that he elevated his young son to the rank of Caesar, despite his being only two years old. Alas, it was not to be. After 317 the uneasy truce the two Augusti maintained after their previous conflicts quickly soured again; Licinius reneged on the jointly issued Edict of Milan in 320, beginning a new persecution of Christians in the Eastern Roman Empire - an act that further alienated him from his colleague. Then in 321 tempers rose when Constantine pursued a band of Sarmatians that had been ravaging his territory across the Danube into Licinius’ realm. When this was repeated in 323 Licinius accused Constantine of breaking the treaty between them. Given the pretext he needed for war, Constantine wasted no time in invading Licinius’ lands, defeating his fleet in 323 and routing his army at the Battle of Adrianople. By 325, having been defeated again at sea at the Battle of the Hellespont and on land at the final pitched Battle of Chrysopolis, Licinius and his son were prisoners of Constantine who despite promising clemency, soon found cause to have both father and son executed. The reverse design of this aureus featuring Jupiter atop a platform, at first standing and later seated, was an innovation in design that became a standard type at Nicomedia with little variation until the Battle of Chrysopolis in AD 324. That he should use Jupiter so prominently on his coinage is not surprising given the opposing beliefs of Licinius and Constantine. The latter had taken readily to Christianity, using the Chi-Rho symbol as his talisman, emblazoning it on the shields and standards of his army, while himself placing the worship of Sol Invictus first and foremost among the religions of his territory. Licinius on the other hand might have seen himself as being the bastion of traditional Roman religious beliefs, taking Jupiter as his patron and protector, as seen here in the legends of his coins. This religious rivalry was borne out at the Battle of Chrysopolis, where Licinius drew up his battle line with images of the Roman gods prominently displayed in the ranks; this was mirrored by a multitude of Chi-Rho symbols in the opposing army of Constantine. Apparently, Licinius had developed a superstitious dread of the symbol which he allowed to infect the morale of his soldiers. The resulting slaughter of his army was viewed by Christians throughout the empire as a triumph of their god over the old pagan deities, further hastening the decline of traditional Roman religious beliefs.

874. Licinius I, with Licinius II Caesar Æ Nummus. Antioch, AD 320-321. DD NN IOVII LICINII INVICT AVG ET CAES, confronting busts of Licinius I and Licinius II, laureate, draped, cuirassed, holding trophy between them / IO M ET VIRTVTI DD NN AVG ET CAES, Jupiter, naked apart from chlamys over shoulder, standing left, holding sceptre, to his left, two bound, seated captives at the base of a trophy; SMATS in exergue. RIC 50 (Heraclea) note; see also P. Bastien, coins with a double effigy issued by Licinius at Nicomedia, Cyzicus, and Antioch, NC 1973, 91, 5 and pl. 6, 20. 4.48g, 21mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Attractive desert patina. Very Rare.

243

750


Two Beautiful Solidi of Constantine I

875. Constantine I AV Solidus. Treveri (Trier), AD 326. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Securitas standing facing with legs crossed, head right, hand on head and leaning on column; TR in exergue. RIC 502; Alfรถldi 457; Depeyrot 32/6. 4.46g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

15,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Leu 91, 10 May 2004, lot 690.

876. Constantine I AV Solidus. Ticinum, AD 313-15. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right / PM TRIB P COS IIII P P PROCOS, Emperor seated facing left, togate, on curule chair, short sceptre in left hand and globe in right. RIC 30; Depeyrot 21/4; Alfรถldi 301. 4.32g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 1166.

244

15,000


Very Rare Gold Multiple

877. Constantine I AV Medallion of 1¼ Solidi. Nicomedia, AD 325-326. D N CONSTANTINVS AVG, diademed bust right, with uplifted gaze / EQVIS ROMANVS, Constantine, bare-headed and in military dress, mounted right, raising right hand; SMN in exergue. NAC 51, 5 March 2009, 426; C. -; RIC -, (cf. 100 for reverse); cf. Bastien pl. IV, 16 (same); cf. Gnecchi 9 (same); cf. Biaggi 1966 (same); Depeyrot p. 154. 5.29g, 21mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Exceptionally Rare.

10,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 1296 (sold for £11,000 but not paid); Ex Numismatik Lanz München 145 (with Numismatica Bernardi), 5 January 2009, lot 148. Multiples of 1½ and 2 solidi have been previously recorded, however this 1¼ is one of only two known, the other having been sold at Numismatica Ars Classica 51, 5 March 2009, lot 426. After the naval defeat inflicted on Licinius by Constantine at the Battle of the Hellespont, Licinius withdrew his forces from Byzantium across the Bosphorus to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Pursued by Constantine, it was here that the decisive Battle of Chrysopolis was fought, in which Licinius was routed and fled with his remaining troops to the eastern capital of Nicomedia. Here he threw himself on the mercy of Constantine, capitulating in order to save his own life. Struck shortly after the mint at Nicomedia had begun striking gold for Constantine as sole emperor, and to coincide with Constantine’s vicennial celebrations in 326, this unusual piece honours the traditional concept of the Roman state by hailing the equestrian rank; a similar issue was struck at the same time with the reverse legend SENATVS. Alföldi proposed that these particular reverse types might also commemorate the emperor’s experiment with reorganisation of the equites, which began in 326.

878. Constantine I AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 335-336. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory standing to left, holding trophy and palm; VOT XXX to right, SMAN in exergue. RIC 96; C. 604; Depeyrot 46/1. 4.44g, 22mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

245

9,000


Constantine II as Caesar and ‘Prince of Youth’

879. Constantine II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Treveri (Trier), AD 326-327. FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C, laureate head of Constantine II right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantine II standing right as Prince of Youth, in military attire and with cloak spread, holding transverse spear in right hand and globe in left; TR in exergue. RIC 500; Cohen 142; Alföldi 347; Depeyrot 31/1. 4.58g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

12,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Andre Constantine Dimitriadis Collection; Ex Dreesmann Collection, Spink London, 13 April 2000, lot 150.

880. Constantine II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 336-7. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left, in military dress, holding vexillum with right hand and long sceptre with left hand, two standards behind, CONS in ex. RIC 109. 4.61g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Minor surface marks on reverse. Very Rare.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection.

881. Constans AV Solidus. Treveri (Trier), AD 347-348. CONSTANS AVGVSTVS, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG, two Victories standing facing each other, holding shield inscribed VOT X MVLT XX, TR in exergue. RIC 135. 4.42g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal. From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 845.

246

3,000


Constantius II as Caesar and ‘Prince of Youth’

882. Constantius II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Constantius II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 324. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantius standing facing, head right, holding sceptre in left hand and standard (surmounted by an eagle holding wreath in beak) in right; standard surmounted by hand to right; SMTSΓ in ex. RIC 133 var. (unlisted officina letter); Depeyrot 10/3. 4.43g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare. From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group 69, 8 June 2005, lot 1759.

10,000

The propagandist note of this reverse, alluding to the military training of Constantius and the victories he would surely go on to win for the Empire, is one that is seen time and again across the coinage of the Constantinian period. However, it was struck during a period of change: in celebration for his victory in the second Civil War in 324, Constantine conferred the title of Augusta on both his mother Helena and wife Fausta, and elevated Constantius to the rank of Caesar.

883. Constantius II AV Solidus. Siscia, AD 340-350. CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG, two Victories standing facing each other, supporting wreath inscribed VOT XX MVLT XXX; (branch)SIS* in exergue. RIC 135; C. -; Depeyrot 14/1. 4.36g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine, scattered marks and scratches.

3,000

884. Constantius II AR Siliqua. Sirmium, AD 351-355. DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in four lines within wreath, SIRM in exergue. RIC 17. 2.21g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

247

250


Attractive Solidus of Constantius II

885. Constantius II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Siscia, AD 337-340. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantius in military attire standing left, holding vexillum in right hand and sceptre in left, two standards in right field; SIS in exergue. C. 260; RIC 30; Depeyrot 5/2. Good Extremely Fine, pleasant light reddish tone. Very Rare.

10,000

From the Ambrose Collection.

886. Constantius II AR Light Miliarense. Constantinople, AD 351-355. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Virtus standing left, head right, holding inverted spear and resting hand on shield; Câ&#x20AC;˘B in exergue. C. 326; RIC 100. 4.32g, 23mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

248

4,000


Constantius II Celebrates his Quinque-Tricennalia

887.

Constantius II AR Heavy Miliarense. Sirmium, AD 359-61. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GAVDIVM POPVLI ROMANI around wreath, within which VOTIS XXXV MVLTIS XXXX in four lines; SIRM in ex. RSC -; Gnecchi -; RIC -; cf. Lanz 106, November 2001, lot 764. 5.22g, 26mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, Unpublished in the standard references, and apparently only the second known example. 10,000 From the Ambrose Collection; Ex A. Tkalec AG, 29 February 2012, lot 255. The miliarense denomination was introduced by Constantine as part of his monetary reforms. Struck on two standards, light and heavy, eighteen light miliarensia or fourteen heavy miliarensia equalled one gold solidus. That they were as highly desirable in antiquity as they are today is evidenced by their extensive mounting and use as pendants. The heavy miliarense was struck at a theoretical 60 to the pound, roughly corresponding to the old weight of the now defunct aureus. The origin of the name is uncertain; Mattingly once suggested that its name commemorated the millenary of the foundation of Rome. Epiphanius of Salamis thought it was derived from ‘miles’, being intended for military pay, but the Nomis Glosses imply a silver unit worth 1/1,000th of a gold pound. Neither of these theories hold up to scrutiny however, and the most likely explanation is that put forward by the fifth century metrologist Dardanius, who suggests that the word implied a coin originally worth 1,000 bronze Nummi. Calculations of relative values seem to indicate this is correct. The striking of this extraordinary issue was possibly occasioned by Constantius’ visit to Sirmium in March 359 as part of the ongoing discussion within the Church over the Arian controversy questioning the nature of the divinity of Christ. Though Constantius’ quinque-tricennalia (thirty five year anniversary) was not until November (he was made Caesar on 8 November 324), he had already begun distributing coinage celebrating his anniversary well in advance: upon his visit to Rome in the Spring of 357, a considerable issue of gold and silver was made celebrating his thirty fifth year in power – a full eighteen months early. Constantius’ thirty fifth year of rule was marked by renewed hostilities with the Sassanid Persian empire, as Shapur II launched a new invasion of Roman territory, destroying Singara and its two defending legions, and taking the cities of Kiphas, Amidas, and Ad Tigris. A campaign was launched to recapture the lost territories, though this would prove unsuccessful, and it would be left to the future emperor Julian to defeated Shapur in 363.

249


888. Constantius II AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 351-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust three-quarters facing, holding shield and spear over shoulder / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, shield inscribed with VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines supported by Roma enthroned left, wearing helmet and holding spear, and Constantinopolis enthroned right, wearing mural crown, foot on prow and holding sceptre; SMNC in exergue. RIC 74; C.112; Depeyrot 5/2. 4.45g, 22mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine, light scratch on obv. Rare.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Andreas Sommer Collection; Ex Aretusa 4, 22 March 1996, lot 697.

889. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 347-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma seated facing and Constantinopolis seated facing slightly left, with right foot on prow, each holding sceptre and supporting shield between them inscribed VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines; SMANΓ in exergue. RIC 83; Depeyrot 6/3. 4.35g, 21mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

890. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 347-355. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma seated facing and Constantinopolis seated facing slightly left, with right foot on prow, each holding sceptre and supporting shield between them inscribed VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines; SMANH in exergue. RIC 83; Depeyrot 6/3. 4.46g, 21mm. Very Fine.

1,500

891. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 347-355. FL IVL CONSTAN TIVS PERP AVG, pearl and rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA REI PVBLICAE, Roma seated facing and Constantinopolis seated half-left, foot on prow, each holding sceptre, supporting shield between them inscribed VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines; SMANA in exergue. RIC 84; Depeyrot 6/4. 4.42g, 20mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

1,250

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker Auction 216, 2012, lot 1300.

892

893

892. Vetranio Æ Centenionalis. Siscia, AD 350. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; A behind / Vetranio standing facing, head left, holding labarum in each hand; star above, A to left; •DSIS*. RIC 281; LRBC 1176. 6.24g, 24mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

250

893. Julian II Æ 28. Constantinopolis, AD 361-363. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Bull standing right, two stars above; •CONSPB(palm)• in exergue. RIC 162; LRBC 2058. 8.36g, 28mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

250


894. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 367-75. DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory seated right on cuirass, shield behind, writing VOT X MVL XX on shield, PANOBI in exergue. RIC 22b var. (unpublished mintmark). 4.49g, 21mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Struck on a broad flan and lustrous. Extremely Rare.

4,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Aureo & Calicó 243, 26 April 2012, lot 101.

895. Valens AR Siliqua. Treveri (Trier), AD 367-375. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; TRPS• in exergue. RIC IX 27e.1; RSC 109†a. 1.35g, 15mm, 2h. Clipped, Good Very Fine.

200

Ex Gussage All Saints Hoard.

896. Valens AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 364-367. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing left, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe; SMNI in exergue. RIC 2d. 4.44g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Well struck on a large flan with full borders; superbly lustrous surfaces.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 860.

897. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri (Trier), AD 367-375. DN GRATIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, jointly holding globe; Victory above, wings spread; palm branch below; TR•OB• in exergue. RIC 17f. 4.47g, 22mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 866.

898. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri (Trier), AD 367-375. DN GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, jointly holding globe; Victory above, wings spread; palm branch below; TR•OB• in exergue. RIC 17f. 4.52g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

251

2,000


899. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri (Trier), AD 367-375. DN GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, jointly holding globe; Victory above, wings spread; palm branch below; TROBT in exergue. RIC 17g; Depeyrot 43/3. 4.50g, 21mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

3,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Gemini VIII - Heritage, 14 April 2011, lot 458; Ex H. D. Rauch 80, 1 June 2007, lot 287.

900. Gratian AV Solidus. North Italian mint (Mediolanum?), AD 380-382. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors, in consular robes, seated facing on throne with their legs draped, together holding a globe; between and behind them the upper portion of a Victory with outspread wings; between and below them, a palm branch; COM in exergue. RIC 5d; Depeyrot 1/1. 4.51g, 21mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

3,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group 72, 14 June 2006, lot 1845; Ex Leu 77, 11 May 2000, lot 710.

901. Valentinian II AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 383-388. DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two nimbate emperors with legs draped, seated facing on throne, one on right holding mappa and holding globe between the two. Victory behind, palm branch below, M-D across fields, COM in exergue. RIC 8a. 4.47g, 22mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex K端nker 216, 8 October 2012, lot 1337.

902. Theodosius I AV Solidus. Mediolanum, circa AD 383-5. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors, nimbate, in consular robes, seated facing on throne with their legs draped; the figure to right holds mappa, together they hold globe between them; above globe, facing half figure of Victory with wings spread; below globe, palm branch; COM in ex. RIC 5f; Depeyrot 9/2. 4.50g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. A spectacular specimen. Very Rare. From the Ambrose Collection; Ex K端nker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 880.

252

5,000


903. Theodosius I AV Solidus. Aquileia, circa AD 378-83. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors, nimbate, in consular robes, seated facing on throne with their left legs bare; the figure to right holds mappa, together they hold globe between them; above globe, facing half figure of Victory with wings spread; below globe, palm branch; AQOBF in ex. Paolucci/Zub 774; RIC 21c. 4.52g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Künker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 879.

904. Theodosius I, with Arcadius and Honorius, Æ Exagium Solidi Weight. Constantinople, AD 393-395. Iohannes, comes sacrarum largitionum. DDD NNN AAAVVVGGG, diademed and draped facing busts of Honorius, Theodosius, and Arcadius; cross above / EXAG SOL SVB V INL IOhANNI COm S L, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia; star to right; CONS in exergue. Bendall, Weights 10; Sabatier 9; Geneva 279. 4.33g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

The reverse legend is abbreviated from ‘exagium solidi sub Viro inlustri Johanni Comite sacrarum largitionum’, (test weight of a solidus under the illustrious John, the Minister of Finance).

Unique Exagium Solidi

905. Theodosius I, with Arcadius and Honorius, Æ Exagium Solidi Weight. Constantinople, AD 402-408. DDD NNN, diademed and draped facing busts of Honorius, Theodosius, and Arcadius respectively / Large Christogram. Unpublished in the standard references, for obverse type cf. Bendall 11. 4.24g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Apparently Unique.

2,000

Official solidus weights, based on a standard ‘imperial pound’, came into being with the law of Julian of AD 363, which established a zygostates - an official weigher of solidi in each city to restore confidence in the solidus, which had become subject to widespread clipping. Exagium derives from the Latin exigere ‘to drive out’ - in this case, the underweight solidi, thereby maintaining an acceptable weight standard necessary for the imperial gold coinage to circulate at full value. Many, if not most, such exagia display holes and/or plugs to bring the exagium to the correct weight. Unmodified exagia are thus a rarity.

253


906. Theodosius I, with Arcadius and Honorius, Æ Exagium Solidi Weight. Circa 402-408. DDD NNN GGG, three diademed and draped imperial busts facing / Star within wreath. Bendall, Byzantine Weights 9; Dürr, Genève, 280. 4.12g, 20mm, 5h. Very Fine. Pierced. Extremely Rare.

750

907. Theodosius I, with Arcadius and Honorius, Æ Exagium Solidi Weight. Circa 402-408. DDD NNN GGG, three diademed and draped imperial busts facing / EXAGIVM SOLIDI, helmeted Constantinopolis enthroned left with foot on prow, holding scales and Victory on globe; in exergue, CONS. Bendall 11; For reverse type cf. RIC X, 88-99. 3.66g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

908

750

909

908. Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua. Treveri (Trier), AD 383-388. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear, TRPS in exergue. RIC 84b1, RSC 20a. 1.99g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 200 909. Arcadius AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 397-402. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory standing facing, head left, holding wreath and globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue. RIC 19; Depeyrot 50/3. 1.29g, 15mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Rare. 300

910. Arcadius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 395-402. DN ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, the emperor standing right, foot on bound captive, holding labarum and Victory on globe, M-D across fields, COMOB in ex. RIC 1205; Depeyrot 16/1. 4.46g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Beautiful lustre.

2,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex J.G. Collection, Heritage 3019, 26 April 2012, lot 23445.

911. Honorius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 394-395. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, emperor standing right, foot on captive, holding standard and Victory on globe; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. C. 44; LRC 712; Depeyrot 16/2; RIC 1206. 4.41g, 21mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

254

750


Extremely Rare Contorniate of Valentinian III

912. Valentinian III Æ Contorniate. Rome, late 4th century AD. D N PLA VALENTINIANVS AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian right / BONIFATIVS, Large figure standing facing, wearing chlamys and holding palm branch in raised right hand and whip in left, three palm branches in basket in left field, and in right, small boy with raised hands holding uncertain objects. Cf. Alföldi, Kontorniat, 477.1 pl.191, 8. Weight 74.13g, 48mm, 12h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

4,000

The English numismatic term contorniate derives from the Italian contorno, ‘surround’, and was invented to describe a class of coin-like medallions with an average diameter of about 40mm, usually struck in orichalcum with their rims surrounded by a solco di contorno ‘surrounding furrow’. This, similar to earlier hammered up coins, gave them a rim for easy finger pick-up and may indicate that they were intended to be calculi (counters) for board games or souvenirs of a pagan nature. They must have been private productions of the late 4th and early 5th centuries, often cast and inlayed with symbols, and depict popular emperors, historical and mythical events, poets, philosophers and many sports themes connected to the circus and amphitheatre, especially victorious horses and aurigae. In The Fall of the Roman Empire II, Chandos Classics version c.1890, chap. 33, p. 409, note 1, Edward Gibbon, as other early numismatists, understandably but erroneously identified the reverse figure on the victorious auriga contorniates inscribed BONIFATIVS (cf. Alföldi, figure in quadriga type pl. 188, 3-4 and pl 191, 6-7) as the image of the near contemporary and famous Roman general Bonifatius, who was comes Africae and friend of St. Augustine. Gibbon wrote: “Ducange, Fam. Byzant. p. 67. On one side, the head of Valentinian; on the reverse, Boniface, with a scourge in one hand, and a palm in the other, standing in a triumphal car, which is drawn by four horses, or, in another medal, by four stags; an unlucky emblem! I should doubt whether another example can be found of the head of a subject on the reverse of an Imperial medal. See Science des Medailles, by the Père Jobert, tom. i. p. 132-150, edit. of 1739, by the Baron de la Bastie”.

Extremely Rare Exagium Solidi of Leo I

913. Leo I Æ Exagium Solidi. AD 457-474. Diademed and draped bust right / Leonis monogram. Roma Numismatics 9, lot 866; Cf. Bendall, Weights 16 (facing bust). 2.18g, 12mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently only the second known example of this type of exagium for Leo, which are otherwise only known with frontal facing heads. 2,000

914. Anastasius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 498-518. D N ANASTASIVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear and shield decorated with cavalryman motif / VICTORIA AVGGG Δ, Victory standing left, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram, star left in field; CONOB in exergue. MIBE 7; Sear 5. 4.51g, 21mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin.

255

1,250


MIGRATION PERIOD

915. Germanic Migration Period, Odovacar AR Half Siliqua. In the name of Zeno. Mediolanum (Milan), AD 476-491. D N ZENO PERP AVC (AV ligate), pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Eagle standing left, head right, wings extended; cross above. RIC X 3623 var. (Zeno; rev. type right); RSC 14† var. (obv. legend); cf. MEC 1, 61; cf. DOCLR 684 (Zeno; rev. type right). 0.84g, 15mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Exceptional strike and metal for issue. Very Rare.

4,000

Ex Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 1571; Ex Künker 174, 27 September 2010, lot 1112.

916. Rectangular Solidus Weight (?) or Dedicatory Plaquette. Circa AD 507-511. Æ with silver inlay legend: SALVS DOMNO NOSTRO / CAELIANVS PATRICIVS PRAEF VR. Unpublished in the standard references, for similar examples cf. S. Benadall, Byzantine Weights, 1996, 172 (in the names of Zeno, Odovacar and Symmachus, now in the BnF, Paris); J. Forien de Rochesnard, Album des poids antiques 3, Rome et Byzance, p. 51 (in the name Albinus); NAC sale 5, 1992, 621 = NAC sale 54, 2010, 1339 (in the name Paulinvs praef. vrb.), sold for CHF 4,600. 3.66g, 20 x 14mm, 6h. Very Fine. A most interesting historical document.

2,000

The office of praefecti vrbi, originally created by Augustus, acted as chief magistrates of the the city of Rome. They were always of high rank, viri clarrisimi in the late empire and in command of the police force, the vigiles urbanae and their general jurisdiction would have included the issue and of control of weights and measures. If these are solidus weights they usually suffer the drawback of being light, perhaps due the deterioration of the bronze, and weigh between 4.28g and 3.66g. H. Dressel in ‘Corpus Inscriptiones Latinorum’ (CIL) 15, listed these as ‘tesserae monumetorum’ or dedicatory plaquettes intended to mark dedications, reconstructions or repairs to buildings on the basis that some bear the formula renovavit which perhaps points to this conclusion.

917. Ostrogothic kingdom, Theoderic AV Solidus. In the name of Anastasius I. Rome, circa AD 491-518. D N ANASTASIVS P F AVC, Helmeted, cuirassed bust facing; right hand holds spear over shoulder, shield with horseman device on left shoulder / VICTORIA AVCCC Θ, Victory standing left, holding with long jewelled cross, RM monogram in left field and star in right; in exergue, COMOB. Metlich 6; Kraus 7; Arslan 2, 3. 4.49g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Slightly wavy flan. Very Rare.

2x

500

2x

918. Visigoths, Gaul AV Tremissis. Unknown king, circa AD 439-55. Struck in the name of Valentinian III. DN PLA VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Cross within wreath, with XIIX between base ties, COMOB in ex. RIC 3721. 1.46g, 13mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From the Ambrose Collection.

256

2,500


Unique Visigothic Solidus in the Name of Julius Nepos

919. Visigothic Kingdom, Euric AV Solidus. In the name of Julius Nepos. Uncertain mint, AD 474-475. DN IVLIVS NEPOS, pearl-diademed, cuirassed and helmeted bust facing, spear over shoulder / VITVRIA AVGGG (sic), Victory standing left, holding jewelled cross; COMOB in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references; for general types cf. RIC X 3245-7 (Uncertain mints); for obverse type and style cf. Lacam pl. 37, 6 = DOC, Late Roman Coins 938 = RIC X p. 428 note; for another Visigothic Gallic solidus in the name of Julius Nepos cf. Italo Vecchi Sale 14, 1999, lot 20. 4.32g, 22mm, 6h. Test punch on obv., otherwise Extremely Fine. Lustrous. Unique.

10,000

Found on the Isle of Wight. Taking advantage of the power vacuum in the strife-wracked and dying Western Empire, the Visigothic king Euric in Gaul had cemented his grasp on the former Roman territories under his control, and defeated several other Visigothic kings and chieftains to become the first ruler of a unified Visigothic nation. He extended Visigothic power in Hispania, driving the Suevi into the northwest of Iberia, and in 470 defeated an attempted invasion of Gaul by the Romano-British king Riothamus, expanding his kingdom even further north, possibly as far as the Somme River. While previous Visigothic kings had officially ruled only as legates of the Roman emperor, Euric’s power was now so great that in 475 the legitimate but ineffective emperor Julius Nepos, nominal ruler of the now much reduced rump-state of the remaining Western Empire, was forced to recognise the full independence of Euric’s kingdom which now straddled both Gaul and Hispania, thus making Euric the first king of a truly independent and united Visigothic Kingdom. The early coinage of the Visigothic kingdom emulated that of the Romans in so far as that it copied their types and legends, though this was often somewhat unfaithfully done, and so it is not entirely surprising that we see in this coin an otherwise unrecorded use of Julius Nepos’ full name. The importance of this coin therefore is that it represents one of the very first issues of coinage of the unified Visigothic Kingdom, being struck either shortly before or after the recognition of Euric’s independence by Julius Nepos.

920. Lombardic Kingdom of Italy AV Solidus. In the name of Phocas. Uncertain Italian mint, circa AD 610-774. ON FOCAS PERPAV, crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding globe globus cruciger, linear border / VICTORIA AVG, Angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by Christogram and globus cruciger; in exergue, CONOB. For prototype cf. MIBE 45 and Sear 698 (Ravenna) and for discussion see MEC I, p. 59. 4.39g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

257

800


Unique Portuguese Mint Tremissis

921.

Visigothic Kingdom, Egica and Wittiza AV Tremissis. Laure, Gallaecia, AD 694-702. + NNDNECICAP+RECS, confronted busts of Egica and Wittiza with a cross-sceptre between / + VVITTIZAR+RECE, cross monogram of L-A-V-R with E on central horizontal bar, the whole surrounded by four pellets. Cf. CNV 575 (no pellets) and CNV 580.31 (this coin, monogram misread); Miles –; MEC I, –. 1.37g, 20mm, 9h. Extremely Fine. Unique, and highly interesting.

25,000

Egica was anointed in 687 and immediately adopted a policy of consolidation of his family’s grip on the kingdom, necessary after the discovery of several plots to depose him. His reign represented one of the most turbulent eras of the Visigothic monarchy, characterised by struggles between noble factions, famine, plagues and further persecutions of Jews. As early as 694 Egica raised Wittiza, his son by his consort Cilixo (daughter of his predecessor), to the kingship as co-ruler even though he was still a minor, and gave him control of Gallaecia in the north-eastern portion of the peninsula. It was at this point that a new Visigothic coin type was introduced with the confronted profile busts of the kings either side of a cross-sceptre. The site of Laure in Gallaecia has been identified with Laubis, a parish in the Diocese of Braga in modern Portugal, see CNV p. 192.

258


COINS OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE

922. Justin II AV Solidus. Alexandria, AD 567-578. D N IVSTINVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding Victory on globe and shield / VICTORIA AVGGG I, Constantinopolis seated facing, head right, holding spear and globus cruciger; cross above pellet to left; CONOB in exergue. DOC 6 (Constantinople); MIBE 13b; Sear 347. 4.48g, 24mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Rare. Ex Numismatic Fine Arts XXXIII, 3 May 1994, lot 775.

1,000

923. Tiberius II Constantine AV Light Weight Solidus. Theoupolis (Antioch), AD 579-582. d M TIb CONSTANT PP AVI, crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield with horseman motif / VICTORIA AVGG Î&#x2DC;S, cross potent on four steps; OB +* in exergue. DOC 38; MIBE 5 (Constantinople); Sear 446. 4.06g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

300

924. Tiberius II Constantine AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 579-582. DM TIB CONSTANT PP AVG, crowned and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger and shield / VICTORIA AVGG H, cross potent set on four steps, CONOB in exergue. MIBE 15; Ranieru 437; Sear 468. 4.49g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Very well struck and centred on a broad flan.

4,000

Very Rare Byzantine Brockage

925. Maurice Tiberius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 583-602. Helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger / Negative of obverse. 4.49g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

259

1,000


926. Phocas AV Solidus. AD 602-603. D N FOCAS PERP AVG, draped and cuirassed bust facing holding globus cruciger, wearing crown with double pendilia, surmounted by cross on circlet / VICTORIA AVCC H, Angel standing facing, holding globus cruciger and long staff surmounted by Christogram; CONOB in exergue. DOC 1 (this officina unlisted); MIBE 5; Sear 616. 4.31g, 22mm, 5h. Mint State. Rare. Beautiful style.

1,000

927. Phocas AV Solidus. AD 603. DN FOCAS PERP AVG, facing bust wearing consular robes and crown, surmounted by cross on circlet and holding mappa and cross / VICTORIA AVCC Γ, Angel standing facing, holding globus cruciger and long linear staff surmounted by Christogram; CONOB in exergue. DOC 4 (this officina unlisted); MIBE 2; Sear 623. 4.06g, 22mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

928. Heraclius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 610-613. dNhЄRACLI-ЧS P P AVC, draped facing bust, wearing plumed helmet and holding cross in right hand / VICTORIA AVGЧE, cross potent set on three steps; in exergue, CONOB. MIB 5; DOC 3b; Sear 731. 4.45g, 23mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

929. Heraclius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 610-613. dNhЄRACLI-ЧS P P AVC, draped facing bust, wearing plumed helmet and holding cross in right hand / VICTORIA AVGЧE, cross potent set on three steps; in exergue, CONOB. MIB 5; DOC 3b; Sear 731. 4.26g, 22mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

930. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine AV Solidus. Constantinople, circa AD 616-625. dd NN hЄRACLIVS ЄƮ hЄRA CONSƮ PP AVG, facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross on circlet; cross above / VICTORIA AVGV Є, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in exergue. MIB 11; DOC 13d; Sear 738. 4.48g, 22mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine; struck on a broad flan.

260

250


Sixth and Finest Known

931. Constans II AR Hexagram. Constantinople, AD 666-668. VICTORIA AVGV, facing bust, with long beard and moustache, wearing crown with frontal plume and chlamys, and holding globus cruciger / Constantine IV (in centre), Heraclius (on right) and Tiberius (on left) all standing facing, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger; S in right field. DOC -; MIB -; Sear -; Cf. Nomos 9, lot 320, Rauch 96, lot 647, Gorny & Mosch 228, lot 756, and Roma Numismatics IX lot 905. 6.60g, 24mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; the sixth and finest known example of the type.

5,000

932. Justinian II, Second Reign, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 705-11. d N IhS ChS RЄX RЄGNANTIUM, bust of Christ facing, with cross behind head, with curly hair and short beard, wearing pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction and holding codex in left hand / D N IUSTINIANUS ЄT TIbЄRIUS P P A’, crowned half-length figures of Justinian, on left, and smaller figure of Tiberius, on right, both wearing divitision and chlamys, jointly holding with their right hands a cross potent on two steps. Sear 1414, 4.35g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

4,000

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex SKA Monetarium Zurich List, May 1991, no. 90.

933. Leo III the Isaurian with Constantine V AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 725-732. d N D LЄO-N PA MЧL, crowned facing bust of Leo, wearing chlamys pinned at right shoulder, holding globus cruciger in right hand and akakia in left / d N CONST-ANTINЧS M, crowned facing bust of Constantine, beardless, wearing chlamys pinned at right shoulder, holding globus cruciger in right hand and akakia in left. Sear 1504; DOC 5. 4.46g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

500

Very Rare Rome Mint EL Tremissis

2x

2x

934. Constantine V and Leo IV EL Tremissis. Rome, circa AD 751-775. [D]NCON…, bust of Constantine V facing wearing crown with trefoil and chlamys, holding globus cruciger and akakia / [DNOLE]PAMYL, bust of Leo IV facing wearing crown with trefoil and chlamys, holding globus cruciger; in field, I and a. DOC 40; Sear 1574. 1.38g, 15mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

261

1,500


Extremely Rare Solidus of Michael II

935.

Michael II the Amorian AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 820/1-822. * mIX AHL ЬASILЄЧ’, crowned facing bust, wearing slight beard and chlamys, and holding akakia and cross potent / mIXAH L ЬASILЄЧ’ Є, crowned facing bust, wearing slight beard and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre and globus cruciger. DOC 1 (same obv. die); Füeg 1.A (same dies); Sear 1639. 4.36g, 21mm,6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only two examples on CoinArchives.

12,500

Born into a humble family of professional peasant-soldiers, Michael was born in 770 in Amorium, Phrygia. As a soldier, he rose quickly to high rank, becoming a close aide to the general Bardanes Tourkos, along with his colleagues and future antagonists Leo the Armenian and Thomas the Slav. Both he and Leo married daughters of Bardanes, though both renounced the general after he rebelled against the emperor Nikephoros I in 803 and were rewarded with higher military positions. Following the death in battle of the emperor Nikephoros against Khan Krum of Bulgaria, and the abdication of his severely wounded son Staurakios, the throne was passed to Michael I Rhangabe. The new emperor was unable to counter the Bulgarian threat, and under his leadership the progress of the war went from bad to worse, with the Imperial army suffering a devastating defeat at Versinikia. Leo, with the assitance of Michael the Amorian, was able to force the emperor to abdicate in his favour. Thus Leo became emperor and Michael the Amorian and Thomas the Slav were raised still higher in standing. Yet the relationship between Leo and his colleague Michael soon soured; Michael was imprisoned on suspicion of conspiracy. Whether or not Michael was indeed conspiring to usurp the throne before his imprisonment, when faced with his impending execution he arranged Leo’s assassination from his prison cell. The deed was carried out in the chapel of St. Stephen on Christmas of 820, and Michael the Amorian was crowned Michael II with the prison irons still around his legs. Immediately forced to deal with his former colleague Thomas the Slav who had set himself up as a rival emperor, Michael was forced to call upon the aid of Omurtag of Bulgaria to defeat Thomas’s forces, whose surrender he eventually obtained in October of 823. With a severely weakened army, Michael was thus unable to prevent the conquest of Crete in 824 by a relatively small force of Arabs, and failed in a subsequent attempt to retake it in 826. The following year, the Muslim conquest of Sicily began, an assault Michael was powerless to stop. Despite these serious failures, Michael established a stable dynasty and his direct descendents would rule the empire for more than two centuries, inaugurating the Byzantine renaissance of the 9th and 10th centuries.

262


Very Rare Solidus of Michael III

936. Michael III ‘the Drunkard’ AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 856-866. IhSUS X-RISTOS*, facing bust of Christ Pantocrator wearing pallium and colobium, cross behind head, raising right hand in benediction and holding book of Gospels in left arm / +MI-XAHL bASILE’, facing bust of Michael, wearing crown and diagonal pattern loros, holding vexillum emblazoned with cross and akakia; cross to left. Sear 1688; DOC III 3. 4.30g, 20mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

15,000

Michael III became sole emperor at the age of just two, and in his infancy the empire was governed by his mother Theodora, and the minister Theoktistos. During the regency period, the use of religious icons which previous rulers had sought to ban, was reinstated. This definitive end to Iconoclasm led to a renaissance in visual arts. His later reign is difficult to evaluate due to the overtly hostile accounts written under Basil I, which characterise him as a drunkard.The impression gained from Arab sources, however, is one of Michael as an active and often successful military commander. Most importantly, during his reign Bulgaria had been transformed from a dangerous enemy into a religious and cultural satellite of Byzantium. This conversion of the Bulgarians has been evaluated as one of the greatest cultural and political achievements of the Byzantine Empire.

937. John I, Tzimisces AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinopolis, AD 969-976 AD. Facing bust of Christ, nimbate, raising hand in benediction, holding Gospels; nimbus with two pellets in arms of cross / Half-length facing busts of John, wearing crown and loros, holding patriarchal cross, and the Virgin Mary; manus Dei above John. DOC III 3; Sear 1785. 4.35g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

2,500

938. Romanus III AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1028-1034. +IhS XIS RЄX RЄGNANTINM, Christ enthroned facing, wearing nimbus crown, pallium and colobium, and holding book of Gospels / ΘCЄ bOHΘ RWMANW, the Virgin, nimbate on right, and Romanus, bearded to left, both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and mophorium, and with her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears saccos and loros, and holds globus cruciger in left hand; MΘ between their heads. DOC 1; Sear 1819. 4.43g, 25mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

263

500


One of Fewer than Ten Known

939.

Michael IV the Paphlagonian AV Histamenon Nomisma. Thessalonica, AD 1034-1041. + IhS XIS RЄX RЄGNANTI hM, Christ seated on backless throne facing, bearded, with crossed nimbus, wearing chiton and himation, raising hand to side in benediction and holding Gospels by spine / + MI XΛHL ΔЄSΠOT, Standing facing figures of archangel Michael, winged, wearing chlamys, and Michael IV, bearded, wearing loros and crown with pendilia, holding left hand on breast; between them, they hold labarum with diamond of four pellets; above crown, hand of God. DOC 2; Sear 1826 (Michael V). 4.40g, 25mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, believed to be one of fewer than ten known examples.

20,000

Michael the Paphlagonian was the chamberlain of the empress Zoe, wife of Romanos III. The pair soon became lovers, and just a day after the demise of the emperor (in suspicious circumstances), they were married, and Michael was crowned emperor. Though uneducated, Michael proved to be a good and courageous leader, but his reign was cut short by severe epilepsy and dropsy. This extremely rare coin has variously been attributed to Michael IV, Michael V, Michael VI and Michael VII. Current scholarship assigns it to Michael IV (see M. F Hendy, ‘Michael IV and Harold Hardrada’, in: NC 1970, S. 187-197), on the basis that coins of the Danish king Sveyn II Estridsson (1047-1075) mimic this extremely rare type, the proposed reason being that Harold Sigurtharson (later called Hardrada), future King of Norway and nearly of England, would have brought these coins brought back with him when he returned home from his time in the Byzantine emperor Michaels IV’s Varangian Guard. Harald served with distinction under Michael IV, winning great honour, and according to his skald (poet) Tjodolv Arnorsson, Harald participated in no fewer than eighteen greater battles during his Byzantine military career. Harald’s favour at the imperial court quickly declined after the death of Michael IV in December 1041, which was followed by conflicts between new emperor Michael V and the powerful empress Zoe. After Zoe had been restored to the throne in June 1042 together with Constantine IX, Harald requested to be allowed to return to Norway. Although Zoe refused to allow this, Harald managed to escape into the Bosphorus with two ships and some loyal followers,though the second ship was destroyed by the Byzantine cross-strait iron chains. Despite the manner of his departure, Kekaumenos lauds the ‘loyalty and love’ Harald had for the empire, which he reportedly maintained even after he returned to Norway and became king.

264


940. Constantine IX AV Tetarteron Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1042-1055. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator, wearing nimbus crown, holding book of Gospels / Crowned bust facing, wearing jewelled chlamys, holding labarum in right hand and globus cruciger in left. DOC 6; Sear 1833. 3.17g, 17mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,500

941. Michael VII AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinopolis, AD 1071-1078. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; IC XC across fields / + MIXAHΛ RACIΛ O Δ, crowned facing bust holding labarum with pellet on shaft and globus cruciger. DOC 2d; Sear 1868. 4.42g, 30mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

Ex Helios Auction 1, Munich 2008, lot 664.

MEDIEVAL AND MODERN COINS

942. Anglo-Saxon Kings of England, Aethelred II AR Penny. Canterbury Mint, AD 978-1016. Moneyer Leofric. Bare-headed bust left; around, +AEDELRED REX ANGLOX / Long cross, voided with pellet in centre, each limb terminating in three crescents. Around, +LEO FRIC (name of moneyer) MTO CENT. BMC 23, type IVa. Spink 1151. 1.72g, 20mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

943. Hungary, Ladislaus V AV Goldgulden. Nagybànya, moneyers Christophorus and Antonius de Florentia, 1455-6, + LADISLAVS• D • G • R • VnGARIЄ •, quartered arms of Hungary-Bohemia-Mähren-Austria in beaded border / • S • LADISL-AVS • RЄX, St. Ladislaus standing facing, an axe in his right hand and globus crusiger in left. Pohl, Tabelle 21, H 2-8; Huszar 636; Friedburg 16. 3.60g, 22mm, 7h. Mint State, slightly wavy flan.

End of Sale 265

1,500


Roma Numismatics Auction X  

Roma Numismatics Auction X

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