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ROMA NUMISMATICS LIMITED

Auction XV 5 April 2018 Roma Numismatics Limited 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London W1T 6EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 7121 6518 www.romanumismatics.com email: info@romanumismatics.com

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Auction XV

5th April

10:00

Greek and Roman Republican Coins

13:30 Roman Imperatorial & Imperial Coins, Migrationary, Byzantine, Islamic and World Coins

Location The Alto Room The Cavendish Hotel London 81 Jermyn Street London SW1Y 6JF United Kingdom

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Viewing At the office of Roma Numismatics: 20 Fitzroy Square Fitzrovia London W1T 6EJ United Kingdom From March 1st - April 4th Monday – Friday, 09:30 – 17:30

lots will not be available for viewing during the sale

Lot pickup will be available from 1:00pm on Friday 6th April

Roma Numismatics Limited Richard Beale – Director Alexander Morley-Smith Leslee Arlington Garfield Simon Parkin Clementine Bowring

Special Thanks to Italo Vecchi Salem Alshdaifat deniz grotjohann UNUS PRO OMNIBUS, OMNES PRO UNO

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ABSENTEE BIDDING If you are unable to attend the auction in person, you may submit an absentee bid that will be executed on your behalf by Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics will attempt to obtain the lot for you at the lowest possible price, and will not purchase the lot for you at a price higher than the maximum you specify. This service is free and confidential. Absentee bids must be sent and received in good time. To place absentee bids please submit your list of lots, together with your maximum bids, either by email or post using the form provided, or online at www.RomaNumismatics.com. You may also participate live online during the sale at www. RomaNumismatics.com/live-bidding

email or postal bids The customer is responsible for submitting these in good time and confirming that the bids have been received. Please note we no longer accept bids by fax.

Telephone bids Bids may be placed by telephone as the auction is in progress, but are accepted only at the discretion of Roma Numismatics and at the risk of the customer. Roma Numismatics will not be held responsible for any failure to execute bids by telephone during the auction resulting from technical issues, miscommunication or any other reason. Any client wishing to bid by telephone should inform Roma Numismatics no later than 72 hours before the auction, and should have a prepared list of all the lots they wish to bid on.

Internet Bidding

BID ONLINE PRIOR TO THE AUCTION, SEE BIDS UPDATED IN REAL-TIME ON THE ROMA SITE. Internet bids may be submitted prior to the auction at www.RomaNumismatics.com - these bids will be automatically executed on the website. These bids will then be carried over into the live auction and executed by the auctioneer on the day. BID ONLINE DURING THE AUCTION, HEAR THE AUCTION LIVE ON YOUR COMPUTER. Real-time bids may be placed at www.the-saleroom.com on the day of the sale. These bids will be executed live on the floor. A 3% surcharge will apply to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. This charge is made through the-saleroom. com and is not connected with Roma Numismatics. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. It is advisable to register as early as possible for this service, since all internet bidders must be manually approved by the auctioneer.

Successful Bids Successful bidders will be notified and invoiced within a few days of the auction. Prices realised will be published around the same time.

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ROMA NUMISMATICS AUCTION XV MAIL BID FORM First Name:

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COMING SOON A Curated Presentation of High Quality Greek and Roman Coins

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Conditions of Sale The following terms and conditions will apply to this auction: I.

All estimates are in POUNDS STERLING. The opening bids will be 80% of the estimate unless there are existing higher bids. A 23.5% Buyer’s Fee will be added to the hammer price. The buyer’s fee on invoices paid by bank transfer, UK cheque or cash will be discounted to 20%. II. VAT at 20% (applicable to customers within the UK and EU) is due on the Buyer’s Fee only, not the hammer price. III. The auctioneer guarantees the absolute authenticity of any and all coins sold. There is no expiration to this guarantee. Any coins subsequently found to be not authentic will be exchanged for a full refund of the purchase price. IV. Absentee bids must be submitted and received by 20:00 on the day before the auction at the latest. It is the bidder’s responsibility to ensure that bids have been received by Roma Numismatics. V. All grades and descriptions are the opinion of the cataloguer. Conditions of all lots are as per the photographs displayed on the Roma Numismatics website; condition reports are available upon request. It is not possible to note all marks or defects, and thus customers are encouraged to carefully examine in person all lots that they are interested in bidding on. Bids, once placed, are final and will not be rescinded. If, however, the description is found to be incorrect, the item is returnable within 21 days after the sale. No other returns will be accepted except on the grounds of non-authenticity. All prospective bidders who exercise the opportunity to examine lots in hand shall assume all responsibility for any damage they cause in so doing. The auctioneer shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by the prospective bidder. VI. The auctioneer will have absolute discretion to accept or decline any bid, withdraw lots from sale at any time until such point as the purchaser takes physical possession, re-open any lot, even after the hammer has fallen, in which a bidding error has occurred, and to determine in the event of a dispute, the final winner of a lot or to rescind the sale and put the lot up for sale again. VII. For the protection of mail or absentee bidders, no ‘unlimited’ or ‘buy’ bids will be accepted. When identical bids are received for the same lot, preference will be given to the bid received first. A mail bid will take preference over a floor bid. VIII. Some lots may carry a reserve. The auctioneer reserves the right not to sell an item below the confidential price, or will repurchase the item on behalf of the consignor or for the account of Roma Numismatics Ltd. If a reserve exists the auctioneer reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of the consignor up to the amount of the reserve against any floor or mail bidders. The auctioneer also reserves the right to bid on any lot on behalf of Roma Numismatics Ltd. IX. Title remains with the owner until such time as the customer has paid in full. X. Invoices are due immediately upon receipt. Roma Numismatics Ltd. reserves the right to charge interest on unpaid invoices at the rate of 2% per calendar month, except where prior agreement has been made with regards to payment arrangements. XI. A £10 surcharge will be applied to payments made by bank transfer from outside of the UK. The customer is responsible for paying all bank charges and shipping and insurance costs. XII. A 3% surcharge will be applied to lots won through www.the-saleroom.com. Roma Numismatics is not responsible for any missed lots or bids due to network speed or down-time. XIII. By making a bid the customer agrees to the above terms and conditions and accepts to be bound by them. These conditions shall take effect and be construed in accordance with the provisions of English Law.

Restrictions on import to the United States and Germany All coins in this sale that are subject to US or German import restrictions may be legally imported into the US or Germany (unless otherwise explicitly stated in the lot description), and are accompanied by documentation proving that they were outside of the source country prior to the effective date, or a valid export certificate issued by the country of origin. Any coins subject to US or German import restrictions that may not lawfully be imported into these countries will be clearly indicated as such with the note: ‘not suitable for US/German market’. Our commitment to ethical and responsible provenance ensures that the consignor affirms each auction lot is their lawful property to sell, and where cultural property restrictions may exist, that it meets the requirements to be legally imported into the United States and/or Germany. Roma Numismatics will make every effort to ensure that import restrictions affect our clients as little as possible, and will carry out all necessary importations and procedures as required on behalf of the client.

PAYMENT METHODS: Invoices to be settled in POUNDS STERLING immediately upon receipt unless previously agreed otherwise. Bank Transfer: Barclays Bank, 22 The Borough, Farnham, GU9 7NH, UK | Account Name: Roma Numismatics IBAN: GB81 BARC 2031 0663 0101 39 | BIC: BARC GB22 | SORT CODE: 20-31-06 | ACC #: 63010139 Cheque (GBP only): Please make payable to Roma Numismatics Limited PayPal: sales@romanumismatics.com Credit/Debit Card: contact us directly on +44 (0)20 7121 6518

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COINS OF THE CELTS BRITANNIA

1. Britannia, Corieltauvi AV Stater. Volisios Dumnocoveros, circa AD 30-60. Schematic wreath crossed by linear frames; VO-LI SI-OS in two lines across field / DVM-NOCO-VER (VE ligate), curvilinear horse standing left; three pellets to left. ABC 1980; BMC 3330-36; VA 978-1; SCBC 416. 5.08g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

750

Purchased from Chris Rudd.

The Finest Known Example

2x

2x

2. Britannia, Trinovantes AR Unit. Circa 50-40 BC. Late Whaddon Chase type (Lister’s Celtic Head). Male head right, large locks of hair falling down to the back of neck in twisted strands, small horse before / Stylised Celtic horse with large ear and cabled mane prancing to right, winged object and pellets above, star above tail, ringed-pellet below. ABC 2478; VA 1540; BMC-; S-. 1.13g, 14mm, 4h. Mint State, struck on sound silver. Lustrous. Extremely Rare; only 14 others recorded, and the finest known specimen.

4,000

Purchased from Chris Rudd; Found at Meldreth, Cambridgeshire, 31 March 2014. Possibly issued by Cassivellaunos, commander of the British coalition against Caesar in 54 BC, it has been suggested by Chris Rudd that this coin bears the portrait of Cassivellaunos himself, though he admits this is by no means certain, and that it could just as likely represent a Catuvellaunian war-god. He further notes that “this is one of the most imposing male heads to be seen on any late iron age coin or Romano-British figurine.” The type was named ‘Lister’s Celtic Head’ in honour of Major Clement Wynter Lister (1920-2010), who served on the council of the British Numismatic Society for twelve years, from 1963-66, and 1969-76. The type had been unknown until 1958 when Major Lister published the first discovered specimen (see BNJ XXIX, 1958/9, pp 5-7 and plate XV), saying: “Julius Caesar, in his Gallic Wars, Book I, chap. xiv, records that the inhabitants of Britain ‘wear their hair long and have every part of their body shaved except the head and upper lip’’, This coin, almost alone among British coins, bears out this description…The head is likely to be that of some British or Belgic deity following the Roman pattern, though it might be argued that it could be of a tribal king’. The moustache, which although appearing smooth on this example, is serrated on the Lister example.

COINS OF THE GREEKS ETRURIA

3. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem; [X X below] / Etruscan legend: [PVPL]VNA and crescent around six pointed sun-burst. EC I, 38 (O3/R3); HN Italy 143; Sambon 59. 6.96g, 21mm. Very Fine. Very Rare. Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 31.

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800


4. Etruria, Populonia AR 20 Asses. 3rd century BC. Facing head of Metus, tongue protruding, hair bound with diadem; X X below / Blank. EC I, 58.7 (O31, this coin); HN Italy 152; Sambon 42. 5.33g, 22mm. Good Very Fine.

2,000

Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 42.

2x 5. Etruria, Populonia AR 2.5 Asses. 3rd century BC. Male head right; CII behind / Blank. EC I, 96.18 (O16, this coin); HN Italy 175. 0.67g, 10mm. Very Fine. Very Rare.

500

Ex VCV Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 70.

CAMPANIA

6. Campania, Neapolis AR Didrachm. Circa 320-300 BC. Head of nymph right, wearing diadem, earring and necklace; ΛE behind / Man-faced bull advancing right, crowned by Nike flying to right; ΔI below, NEOΠOΛITHΣ in exergue. Sambon 452; HN Italy 571; SNG ANS 327; SNG France 710. 7.47g, 20mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; a couple of minor marks on obv., but nonetheless one of the finest didrachms of Neapolis seen in recent years. Very Rare. 7,500 From the collection of T.M., Germany; Ex BFA 15, 27 April 2015, lot 9. Originally founded as Parthenope in the seventh or sixth century BC by Euboians from the nearby settlement of Kyme (Cumae), the city was named after the siren said to have washed ashore at Megaride after throwing herself into the sea when she failed to bewitch Odysseus with her song. Etruscan aggression in the centuries following the founding of Parthenope stymied its economic development to the extent that by the mid 5th century, the settlement had virtually ceased to exist. As Etruscan influence waned however, the area was occupied by settlers from Kyme who refounded the city somewhat further inland as Neapolis (new city). The original Parthenope came to be known as Palaipolis (old city), though the two quickly merged into a single entity.

7. Campania, Teanum Sidicinum Æ20. Circa 265-240 BC. Helmeted head of Minerva left / Cockerel standing to right; TIANO before, star to upper left. Sambon 1004; HN Italy 453. 7.88g, 20mm, 4h. Very Fine. Very Rare. From the V.D.T. Collection.

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250


LUCANIA

8. Lucania, Herakleia AR Stater. Circa 330 BC. Eu- and Apol-, magistrates. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla throwing a rock; EY before / Herakles standing facing, half-turned to right, wrestling the Nemean lion; oinochoe below, club and [APOL] to left, [|-HPAKΛEIΩN] above. Work 47 (same dies); Van Keuren 51 (same obv. die); HN Italy 1378; SNG ANS 66; SNG Lloyd -; Basel -; Bement 138 (same obv. die); Gulbenkian -; Hunterian 7 (same dies); McClean 825 (same obv. die); Weber 706 (same dies). 7.54g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991. The flourishing of an artistic culture in Herakleia is attested by the beauty and variety of its coinage, and that they survive in relative profusion is demonstrative of the wealth and commercial importance of the city. Despite this, it is not often that one encounters them in as good a state of preservation as is the case with the present coin. The depiction of Herakles on the reverse of this coin places the hero in a typical fighting stance of the Greek martial discipline Pankration, or Pammachon (total combat) as it was earlier known. Indeed, this fighting style was said to have been the invention of Herakles and Theseus as a result of their using both wresting and boxing in their encounters with opponents. The stance portrayed on this coin is paralleled on an Attic black-figure vase in the BM depicting two competitors, one in a choke hold similar to that of the lion here. The composition of this design is very deliberate - as the lion leaps forwards, Herakles, who had been facing the lion turns his body sideways. The myths tell us that Herakles had first stunned the beast with his club, and now he dodges the lion’s bite and reaches his right arm around its head to place it in a choke hold. Impressively careful attention has been paid to the detail on this die, including realistic rendering of the hero’s musculature, which has been engraved in fine style.

9. Lucania, Herakleia AR Stater. Circa 281-278 BC. Aris-, magistrate. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone; |-HPAKΛHIΩN above, E behind neck / Herakles standing facing, holding club, lion skin and bow; APIΣ upwards to left, owl in upper left field. Van Keuren 87; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG ANS 77; HN Italy 1385. 7.86g, 22mm, 4h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

10. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC. Ly-, magistrate. Head of Demeter to left, wearing grain wreath, triple pendant earring and necklace / Ear of barley with leaf to right; ΜΕΤΑ to right, kerykeion above ΛΥ to left. Johnston Class A, 1.1/1.3; Gulbenkian 79; HN Italy 1556. 7.83g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

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500


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11. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 330-290 BC. Atha-, magistrate. Head of Demeter, wearing grain wreath, facing slightly right / Ear of barley ear with leaf to right; bukranion above leaf, AΘA below, META upwards in left field. Johnston Class C, 2.2 (same dies); HN Italy 1584; SNG ANS 463-4; SNG Fitzwilliam 503; SNG München 992; Dewing 388 (all from the same dies). 7.67g, 22mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

1,500

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991. Metapontion was among the first cities of Magna Graecia to issue coinage, and indeed long preceded its later rival Tarentum in this respect. The choice of the barley ear as the civic emblem is unusual in that the other cities all struck coinage displaying types relating to their foundation myths or principal cults. Metapontion’s choice may well reflect a significant economic reliance on its major export, a hypothesis supported by the preponderance of Demeter portraits on its later coinage, a convention seemingly broken only in exceptional circumstances, such as the occasional Hygeia issue that was probably elicited by concern over pestilence, flooding or drought. The city’s reliance on its agricultural exports made it particularly vulnerable to the increasing barbarian attacks in the fourth century that eventually caused Tarentum to request the assistance of the Epeirote king Alexander in driving the aggressive Lucani and other tribes back into the interior. It was this period of strife that caused the only significant variation in the coinage of Metapontion - the new demands placed on the city by the war against the Lucani and its support for Alexander of Epeiros’ campaign are undoubtedly the cause of the sudden rise in output of the mint, as well as the hasty overstriking of Pegasi. It was at this time that militaristic types were introduced, engraved in double relief, depicting the helmeted portraits of the city’s founder Leukippos, along with the deities Zeus, Athena ‘Tharragoras’, Apollo and Herakles - a fitting series of coinage for a Hellenic city threatened by barbaric aggressors. The present type dates to the period after the defeat and death of Alexander at the Battle of Pandosia, which marked the beginning of the end of Greek colonisation in southern Italy.

12. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 330-290 BC. Atha-, magistrate. Head of Demeter to left, wearing grain wreath, triple pendant earring and necklace / Ear of barley with leaf to left; tongs above leaf, AΘA below, META upwards in right field. Johnston Class C, 4.28 (this obverse die); HN Italy 1583; SNG ANS 459-61; SNG Lloyd 392; SNG Ashmolean 752-3; Jameson 320. 7.86g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

13. Lucania, Metapontion AR Stater. Circa 330-290 BC. Da-, magistrate. Head of Demeter to left, wearing grain wreath, triple pendant earring and pearl necklace / Ear of barley with leaf to left; fork or rake above leaf, ΔΑ below, ΜΕΤΑ upwards to right. HN Italy 1582; Johnston C5.12; SNG Lloyd 591 (this obverse die). 7.69g, 23mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

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1,000


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One of the Finest Known Poseidonia Staters

14.

Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠOΣ behind / Incuse of obverse, but with ΠOΣ in relief. HN Italy 1107; SNG ANS 609 (same obv. die). 7.59g, 32mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; usual striking weakness on obv. Very Rare. In outstanding state of preservation, displaying incredible metal quality and a superb level of detail. One of the very finest specimens known. 15,000 Ex Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 26; Ex B.R.H. Collection, privately purchased c.1980s in Munich. Little is known of Poseidonia from its foundation at around the end of the seventh century BC by colonists from Sybaris other than that information which can be gleaned from archaeological study of the city and its remaining artefacts. The literary tradition offers only a terminus ante quem for the foundation, circa 530, provided by Herodotos who refers to the city as in existence when Hyele was founded c.540-535. The archaeological evidence suggests a foundation date of c.600 (E. Greco; Poseidonia ii. 73 n. 7). Evidence from votive figurines and the city’s architecture suggest close trade relations with Metapontion during the sixth and fifth centuries, but the relationship with its mother city appears not to be have been particularly strong, since its coins are struck on the Campanian-Phokaian standard rather than the Italic-Achaian standard in use at Sybaris. Nonetheless, Poseidonia accepted refugees from Sybaris after their city was destroyed by Kroton in 510, evidenced by the fact that in the early fifth century Poseidonia’s coins adopted the Achaian weight standard and the bull seen on Sybarite coins. A. J. Graham (Colony and Mother City in Ancient Greece, 1999) thinks it was plausible that the number of refugees was large enough for some kind of synoecism to have occurred between the Poseidonians and the Sybarites, possibly in the form of a sympolity. Poseidonia’s relationship to the Sybarites then remained strong enough that in 453 Sybaris was refounded with the apparent blessing and sponsorship of Poseidonia. The city does not make further appearance in the classical sources until the late fifth century, when according to Strabo it was conquered by the Lucani. Although Aristoxenos would have us believe that the Greek identity of the city was effaced and that the Poseidoniatai were completely barbarianised, a sizeable Greek population must have remained despite the conquest, as the archaeological record shows both Greek and Oscan culture continuing to thrive alongside one another. Despite no single temple having been definitively identified as pertaining to Poseidon, the cult of this god must have played an important role in the city, as evidenced both by its name and by the principle type of its coinage, of which the present piece is a magnificent example. The outstanding quality of the engraving is noteworthy; we are presented with two well-proportioned and finely detailed images of what must surely have been a statue, which many scholars have with good reason assumed that this figure was inspired by, such is the consistency with which it is depicted (though minor variations of detail, including the beard, do occur) and the monumental quality it possesses. Indeed, the figure bears much similarity to the Artemision Bronze in compositional style; proponents of the argument that the Artemision Bronze is Poseidon (rather than Zeus) cite the coinage of Poseidonia in their favour.

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15. Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Bearded Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠΟΣ behind / Incuse of obverse, but with no trident, ΠΟΣ in relief. SNG ANS 612 (same obv. die); HN Italy 1107. 7.53g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Excellent metal quality, and lightly toned.

7,500

Ex Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 28; Ex private German collection.

16. Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠOΣ behind / Incuse of obverse. SNG ANS 605; HN Italy 1107. 7.33g, 29mm, 1h. About Extremely Fine. Dark tone.

3,000

Ex Molard Collection, Switzerland.

17. Lucania, Poseidonia AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Poseidon, diademed and wearing chlamys over shoulders, advancing right, wielding trident in upraised right hand and extending left hand before him; ΠOΣ behind / Incuse of obverse, but with ΠOΣ in relief. SNG ANS 604-6; HN Italy 1107. 7.69g, 30mm, 12h. About Extremely Fine. Ex BFA 24, 22 June 2016, lot 58.

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1,000


18. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.84g, 2mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; old cabinet tone. 2,500 From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Hess-Divo 317, 27 October 2010, lot 23; Ex Spink & Son (Zurich) 8, 04 November 1982, lot 7.

19. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.01g, 29mm, 12h. Near Mint State. 1,250 From the property of A.R., United States.

20. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 7.88g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 From a European collection.

21. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.06g, 29mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 1,000 From a European collection.

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22. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.07g, 30mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 1,000 From the property of A.R., United States.

23. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44. 8.04g, 28mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. 750 From the property of A.R., United States.

24. Lucania, Sybaris AR Stater. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM above / Incuse bull standing right, head left. SNG ANS 819-820; SNG Copenhagen 1390; HN Italy 1729; Fabricius 3; Gorini 3. 7.72g, 31mm, 12h. Very Fine. 750 From a European collection.

25. Lucania, Sybaris AR Drachm. Circa 530-510 BC. Bull standing left, head right; VM in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. SNG ANS 847-53; HN Italy 1736. 2.50g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 500 From the property of A.R., United States.

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26. Lucania, Thourioi AR Distater. Circa 400-350 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla scanning / Bull charging right; ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ above, fish below exergual line. Noe F38 (same dies); HN Italy 1805; SNG ANS 970-1 (same rev. die). 15.81g, 26mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

750

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

27. Lucania, Velia AR Nomos. Circa 440/35-400 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin and laurel wreath; Φ to right / Lion attacking stag right; YEΛHTΩN around. Williams 169; HN Italy 1270. 7.60g, 21mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

500

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

CALABRIA

28. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Arethon, Sa-, and Cas-, magistrates. Circa 281-270 BC. Nude youth on horseback right, crowning horse; ΣΑ in upper left field, ΑΡΕ-ΘΟΝ in two lines below horse / Taras astride dolphin left, holding tripod in outstretched right hand; ΤAPAΣ downwards behind, CAΣ below. Vlasto 666; HN Italy 957; SNG ANS 1046-50. 7.87g, 23mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

Artistic Dies

29. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Eu-, magistrate. Circa 281-270 BC. Nude warrior, holding reins and shield, preparing to dismount from horseback to left; YƎ behind / Taras astride dolphin to right, holding trident over shoulder and preparing to strike with spear; TAPAΣ above, hippocamp below to right. Vlasto 698 (same dies); cf. HN Italy 968. 7.82g, 21mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; only one other example on CoinArchives. From the V.D.T. Collection.

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750


30. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Nikodamos, Eu-, and Zor-, magistrates. Circa 281-270 BC. Horseman galloping right, holding reins with both hands; ΣY in left field, NIKOΔAMOΣ below horse / Taras astride dolphin left, holding kantharos and distaff; TAPAΣ before, IOP and gazelle below. Vlasto 704 (these dies); SNG ANS 1079; SNG France 1886. 7.87g, 24mm, 2h. Good Extremely Fine; pleasant light tone.

1,000

From the collection of T.M., Germany; Ex Goldberg 87, 15 September 2015, lot 2000; Ex ACR 12, 29 October 2014, lot 22; Ex Gorny & Mosch Stuttgart 1, 22 November 2010, lot 21.

31. Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos. Nikodamos, Eu-, and Aga-, magistrates. Circa 281-276 BC. Nude warrior on horseback left, wearing helmet and carrying shield, EY (retrograde) before, NIKOΔΑΜΟΣ below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding bunch of grapes and distaff; ΤΑΡΑΣ before, cockerel behind, ΑΓΑ below. Vlasto 707; HN Italy 970; Jameson 168 (this obverse die); Boston 80 (this obverse die). 7.97g, 22mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

BRUTTIUM

32. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl. SNG Ashmolean 1463; SNG ANS 230; HN Italy 2075. 8.04g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous.

1,250

From the property of A.R., United States. The importance of the Delphic oracle to the founding of Kroton was celebrated on its coinage from the earliest days. Despite later myths ascribing the founding of Kroton to Herakles, the city’s historical oikist is recorded as Myskellos of Rhypai who, on consulting the Delphic oracle about his lack of children was given the response that Apollo would grant children, but that first Myskellos should found the city of Kroton ‘among fair fields’. After being given directions on how to locate the site, Myskellos travelled to southern Italy to explore the land that he had been assigned, but seeing the territory of the Sybarites and thinking it superior, he returned once more to the oracle to ask whether he would be allowed to change. The answer came back that he should accept the gifts that the god gave him. A further element of the story is that Myskellos was accompanied on his expedition by Archias of Corinth; the Delphic oracle gave the pair the choice between health and wealth. Archias elected wealth, and was assigned the site of Syracuse, while Myskellos chose health: the favourable climate of Kroton, the eminent skill of its physicians and the prowess of its athletes later earned its citizens this reputation for good health.

12


33. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s feet, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl. SNG Ashmolean 1463; SNG ANS 230; HN Italy 2075. 8.06g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the property of A.R., United States.

34. Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, ornaments and serpents in relief. SNG ANS 227-234; SNG Lockett 597; HN Italy 2075. 8.07g, 27mm, 12h. Near Mint State; struck from worn dies.

750

From the property of A.R., United States.

Extremely Rare Hemiobol of Kroton

3x

3x

35. Bruttium, Kroton AR Hemiobol. Circa 530-500 BC. Tripod, legs terminating in lion’s paws, with ornaments on and serpents rising from the bowl; QPO to left / Incuse tripod. Unpublished in the standard references, cf. Heidelberger 64, 2014, 37 (0.16g) and Gorny & Mosch 204, 2012, 1071 (0.14g). 0.24g, 10mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. Ex Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 50; Ex private German collection.

13

300


Coverpiece of Giessener Münzhandlung 1994

36.

Bruttium, Kroton AR Stater. Circa 400-325 BC. Head of Hera Lakinia facing slightly right, wearing necklace and polos decorated with palmettes; B to right / Young Herakles, nude, holding cup in extended right hand and club in left, reclining left on lion skin draped over rock; KPOTΩNIATAΣ around, bow below. Attianese 138; HN Italy 2169; SNG ANS 375 (same dies); SNG Lloyd –; Gulbenkian 131 (same dies); Kraay & Hirmer 270 = de Luynes 728 (same dies). 7.73g, 23mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. Rare in this grade.

12,500

Ex Giessener Münzhandlung 69, 18 November 1994, lot 85 (and coverpiece). The depiction of Hera on the obverse is that of a local aspect of the deity, whose sanctuary the Heraion Lakinion was situated 10 kilometres away from Kroton at Lakinion, now Cape Colonna. The site takes its name from the sole surviving column of the temple built upon that spot in around 470 BC, which was largely intact until the sixteenth century when it was extensively quarried. Theokritos’ Korydon sings the praises of the ‘Lakinian shrine that faces the dawn’, and Livy (XXIV.3.3-7) tells us that it was ‘a building more famous even than the city itself and held in reverence by all the peoples there around’ and that within were countless masterpieces and treasures including a column of solid gold dedicated to the goddess. By the time of Livy’s writings however, the temple had long been plundered. This facing portrait of Hera can be considered to be directly inspired by Kimon’s famous facing Arethusa tetradrachm that was widely admired and imitated throughout the ancient world; the difficulty of creating an attractive facing portrait apparently led to engravers considering the undertaking of such a die as a challenge and proof of their skill. Hera’s headdress, a low crown known as a polos, was no longer worn in classical times but was common in Mycenaean art. Many of the terracotta figurines from late Helladic IIIA Mycenaean period circa 1400–1300 BC seem to wear poloi, and its use can thus be seen as a deliberate archaism for representing a Mother Goddess. Herakles appears on the reverse of this coin in his role as ‘founder’ of Kroton. Later Krotoniate tradition conveniently bypassed Myskellos in favour of associating the city with a past more ancient even than the Trojan War; according to myth Herakles landed at the nearby promontory with the oxen of Gerion and was hospitably received by one Kroton and his wife Laureta. Her father Lakinio however, was discovered trying to steal an ox from Herakles’ sacred herd, resulting in Herakles fighting and killing him. In the confusion, it transpired that Herakles had also mortally wounded his host Kroton. Saddened, Herakles gave Kroton an honourable burial, and predicted the founding of a great city there that would bear his name. We see also on the reverse of this coin the fabled bow of Herakles, that Philoktetes (a Greek hero of the Trojan War) was said to have taken with him to the land between Sybaris and Kroton, where he founded the non-Greek cities Petelia, Chrone, Krimisa and Makalla. A prophecy arose as in the Trojan War, that victory would be Kroton’s if the bow and arrows of Herakles would be theirs. Thus, these sacred relics of Philoktetes were removed from his tomb and deposited in the Krotoniate sanctuary of Apollo Aleos. This coin is therefore rare among Greek coins in that it may be considered to have a threefold significance - referring directly to the sanctuary of Hera, to Herakles as ‘founder’ of the city, and to the sanctuary of Apollo.

14


37. Bruttium, Terina AR Tetrobol. Circa 300 BC. Head of the nymph Terina left; TEPINAIΩN in front, triskeles behind / Nike seated to left on a cippus, the base shown in perspective, a small bird resting on outstretched right hand, monogram before. Holloway-Jenkins, Terina 112; SNG Copenhagen 2028; SNG ANS 861. 2.42g, 17mm, 3h. Good Very Fine, attractive golden toning. Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. 410, 3 November 2010, lot 35; Ex Triton II, 1 December 1998, lot 144.

1,500

MAURETANIA

38. Kings of Mauretania, Juba II with Cleopatra Selene AR Denarius. Caesarea, circa 20 BC - AD 24. REX IVBA, diademed head of Juba right / Headdress of Isis and sistrum, BA-CI•ΛICCA KΛЄΟΠΑΤΡ[A] below. Mazard 222; MAA 89; SNG Copenhagen 573. 3.30g, 20mm, 10h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone.

1,200

Ex Heritage CICF 3040, 9 April 2015, lot 29127; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 257, 10 October 2014, lot 8357; Ex UBS 59, 29 January 2004, lot 4201.

NORTH AFRICA

39. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace / Horse standing right on single ground line, on which two pellets. Jenkins & Lewis, Group VI, 325/326; MAA 13; SNG Copenhagen 977. 7.59g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,200

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

40. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; four pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis Group V, 298-306; MAA 10; SNG Copenhagen 975. 7.43g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine. From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

15

1,200


41. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; three pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis Group V, 280-97; MAA 10; SNG Copenhagen 975. 7.48g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,200

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

42. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; two pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis Group V, 259–79; MAA 10; SNG Copenhagen 975. 7.50g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,200

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

43. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; two pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis Group V, 259–79; MAA 10; SNG Copenhagen 975. 7.54g, 18mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,200

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

44. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; two pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis Group V, 259–79; MAA 10; SNG Copenhagen 975. 7.18g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,200

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

45. North Africa, Carthage EL Stater. Circa 310-270 BC. Wreathed head of Tanit left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; pellet in field before neck / Horse standing right on single ground line; two pellets below. Jenkins & Lewis Group V, 259–79; MAA 10; SNG Copenhagen 975. 7.26g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

16

1,200


SICILY Extremely Rare ‘Swastika’ Issue

46. Sicily, Panormos (as Ziz) AR Tetradrachm. Circa 340 BC. Charioteer, wearing long chiton and holding kentron in right hand and reins in left, driving galloping quadriga to left; above, Nike flying to right holding wreath, star of eight rays before, ZIZ in Punic script in exergue / Head of Kore-Persephone to left, wearing wreath of wheat leaves, triple-pendant earring and pearl necklace; four dolphins around; swastika below chin. Basel 394 (same obverse die); Jenkins, Punic 70 (same obverse die); Rizzo pl. LXVI, 1 (same obverse die); Jameson 691 (same obverse die); SNG Lloyd 1587 (same obverse die). 17.02g, 26mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

15,000

From the collection of C.S., Germany, purchased before 1991. This type is one of the most fêted examples of Siculo-Punic coinage, having been engraved by a master die-cutter in a style of great artistic merit. The issue, along with certain other contemporaries, was inspired by the famous Syracusan dekadrachms of Euainetos, the principle details of which have been faithfully reproduced here in slightly miniaturised fashion; indeed, Jenkins notes that this reverse die is one of four Siculo-Punic dies inspired directly by Euainetos’ masterful Arethusa portraits. Apart from the replacement of the exergual details by the ethnik ‘ZIZ’, two principal details have been added to the composition. Firstly, the star before the chariot is, as noted again by Jenkins, not a derivation from any type at Syracuse or indeed elsewhere, and appears to be an artistic flourish on the part of the engraver. Secondly, the swastika motif on the obverse is also arguably without parallel in the dekadrachm series; this appears to be a detail added in order to further identify this as a coin of Panormos, which was known to have made quite extensive use of this symbol on both its fractional and tetradrachm coinage.

47. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. ‘Cape of Melkart’ mint, circa 360-330 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving galloping quadriga right, Nike flying above left to crown charioteer; Punic legend [RSMLQRT] in exergue / Head of Arethusa right, wearing wreath of grain-ears, triple-pendant earring and necklace; three dolphins around. Jenkins, Coins of Punic Sicily, 37 (O14/R28); Jameson 597 (same dies); de Luynes 920 (same dies). 17.56g, 25mm, 1h. Very Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Rare. Ex Hess-Divo 332, 31 May 2017, lot 20; Ex private Swiss collection.

17

4,000


48. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. ‘People of the Camp’ mint, circa 320-305 BC. Head of Tanit-Arethusa to left, crowned with reeds and wearing pearl necklace and triple-pendant earring; four dolphins around / Horse’s head left; date palm behind, [‘MMHNT] in Punic script below. Jenkins series 2d, 150 (O47/R135). 17.12g, 27mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Italy since before December 1992.

4,000

49. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. ‘People of the Camp’ mint, circa 320-305 BC. Head of Tanit-Arethusa to left, crowned with reeds and wearing pearl necklace and triple-pendant earring; scallop shell below chin, four dolphins around / Horse’s head left; date palm behind, ‘MMHNT in Punic script below. Jenkins series 3a, 160 (O49/R144). 17.17g, 27mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; rev. left field slightly polished.

5,500

From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Italy since before December 1992.

50. Sicily, Siculo-Punic AR Tetradrachm. ‘People of the Camp’ mint, circa 320-305 BC. Head of Tanit-Arethusa to left, crowned with reeds and wearing pearl necklace and triple-pendant earring; scallop shell below chin, four dolphins around / Horse’s head left; date palm behind, ‘MMHNT in Punic script below. Jenkins series 3a, 164 (O49/R147). 16.99g, 27mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Italy since before December 1992.

18

5,500


An Enigmatic Issue

51. Sicily, uncertain mint Æ18. Circa 450-350 BC. Horned and bearded head of a river-god to right; XANA... before / Ear of barley with leaf to either side. Unpublished in the standard references. 6.34g, 18mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

500

From the collection of S.G., United Kingdom.

Extremely Rare Obol of Aitna

2x 52. Sicily, Aitna AR Obol. 5th century BC. Crayfish / A-I-T-N within four spoked wheel. Unpublished in the standard references, cf. C. Boehringer, ‘Hiero’s Aitna und das Hieroneion’, JNG 1968, pp. 67-98, pl. 7, 3. 0.60g, 10mm, 5h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

Ex Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 68; Ex private English collection. From the early 5th century BC Katane was under Syracusan control. In 476 BC Hieron I transferred the populations of Katane and Naxos to Leontinoi, renamed Katane as Aitna, and settled a new foundation of 10,000 oiketores from the Peloponnesos and Syracuse. This new polis was responsible for some of the most impressive coins in antiquity.

53. Sicily, Akragas AR Tetradrachm. Circa 470-450 BC. Sea eagle standing left with wings closed; AKRACANTOΣ around / Crab; below, fish (?) to right, prey protruding from mouth (?). Pozzi 381; Lockett 694. 17.58g, 24mm, 8h. Near Mint State, minor marks. Extremely Rare.

10,000

Ex Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 69. The Pozzi collection records this very rare symbol as being a fish with prey protruding from its mouth, in the act of devouring whatever hapless creature it has caught. The Lockett collection more conservatively describes it as a fish, ending in a die break. The truth could be either, or neither when viewed upside down it looks rather like a straightened-out seahorse. Akragas was founded by colonists from Gela in around 582-580 BC in a highly favourable location on a plateau overlooking the sea, and was supplied with water by two nearby rivers. The city’s position benefited it greatly, and it quickly became one of the wealthiest Greek colonies in Sicily. Under the tyrant Phalaris, who seized power in the city after having been entrusted with the building of the temple of Zeus on the citadel, the city attained considerable prosperity. Phalaris also supplied the city with water, adorned it with grand public buildings, and strengthened it with defensive walls. Yet for all this, he was renowned for his cruelty and sadistic tendencies, which supposedly included cannibalism. His notorious reputation is etched in legend, as it was he who commissioned the Brazen Bull, a hollow bronze statue invented by the sculptor Perillos as a novel way to execute criminals, in which the victim would be placed, before a fire was set below the statue. A complex system of tubes converted the victim’s screams into the sounds of a bellowing bull. Perillos, expecting a reward for his service, was instead thrown into the bull to test it. Phalaris himself was said to have been killed in his brazen bull after being overthrown by Telemachos, the ancestor of Theron.

19


54. Sicily, Gela AR Didrachm. Circa 490-480 BC. Nude horseman on horse galloping to right, thrusting spear with his raised right hand / Forepart of bearded, man-headed bull to right; CΕΛΑΣ around. Jenkins, Gela 192, 72 (these dies); SNG ANS 15 (these dies). 8.65g, 21mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old collection tone.

4,000

Ex Hess-Divo 332, 31 May 2017, lot 11; Ex private Swiss collection.

55. Sicily, Gela AR Tetradrachm. Circa 415-405 BC. Charioteer holding kentron and reins, driving fast quadriga to left; eagle flying to left above, corn ear in exergue, [ΓEΛAIΩN] to left / Forepart of man-headed bull (river-god Gelas) to right, barley grain above, ΓEΛAΣ (retrograde) below. Jenkins, Gela 486; SNG München 304; SNG ANS -. 16.83g, 25mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

5,000

Ex Hess-Divo 317, 27 October 2010, lot 48.

56. Sicily, Himera AR Didrachm. Circa 483/2-472/1 BC. Cockerel standing to left; HIMERA before / Crab within shallow incuse circle. Westermark, Himera 38.1; SNG ANS 155-63; HGC 2, 438. 8.72g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine. From the collection of T.M., Germany; Ex Numismatik Naumann 43, 1 May 2016, lot 117.

20

1,000


Ex Leu 1975 and Santamaria 1961

57. Sicily, Katane AR Tetradrachm. Circa 450-445 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving slow quadriga to right / Head of Apollo right, hair elaborately tied up with laurel wreath; KATANAION around. Mirone 34; HGC 2, 566; SNG München 428; SNG ANS -; Rizzo, pl. 10, 7; Weber 1267 (same dies); C. Boehringer, Dokumentation Des Schatzfund von Pachino 1960, SNR 64 (1985), pl. 5, 18 (this coin). 17.39g, 26mm, 11h. Very Fine. Rare.

5,000

Ex Sternberg XXXII, 28 October 1996, lot 7; Ex Sternberg XII, 18 November 1982, lot 67; Ex Leu 13, 29 April 1975, lot 47 (CHF 22,000 hammer); Ex Santamaria, 4 May 1961, lot 41; Ex Pachino hoard, IGCH 2090.

58. Sicily, Messana AR Tetradrachm. Circa 425-421 BC. The nymph Messana, wearing a long chiton and holding the reins in both hands, driving a biga of mules walking to right; above, Nike hovering to right above the reins and holding a wreath to crown the mules; in exergue, olive leaf and two berries / Hare springing to right; below, dolphin swimming to right, ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΟΝ around. Caltabiano 488 (D223/R231); Dewing 652; SNG Hunterian 10; SNG Munich 650. 17.20g, 24mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone.

2,000

From the collection of V.B., United Kingdom; Ex private Belgian collection.

Extremely Rare Hemidrachm of Stiela

2x

2x

59. Sicily, Stiela AR Hemidrachm. Circa 415-400 BC. Laureate, young male head left, branch before / Forepart of man-headed bull left; ΣTIA above. SNG ANS 748; Jameson 733; BMC 2; Rizzo 16, pl. LX, 16; A. Campana, Sicilia: Stiela (440/430 e 413/405 a.C), CNAI, MA 57, 2011, p. 12, 4 (D5/ R4, same dies). 2.03g, 15mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

21

3,000


22


Pedigreed to 1907

60. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of the Gamoroi or the First Democracy, circa 510-491 BC. Charioteer, holding reins in both hands, driving slow quadriga to right; ΣVRA above / Head of Arethusa to left within incuse circle in centre of quadripartite incuse square. Boehringer Series I, 31.3 (V22/R15 – this coin); HGC 2, 1302; SNG ANS 5 (same obv. die); Hunterian 1 (same dies); Pozzi 547 (same dies); Rizzo pl. XXXIV, 1–2; de Sartiges 120 (same obv. die). 17.19g, 25mm, 3h. Good Very Fine; excellent metal quality for the issue with attractive old cabinet tone. Very Rare.

20,000

From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Friend of a Scholar (J.P.) Collection, Classical Numismatic Group Inventory 405836, July 2015 ($37,500); Ex Vinchon, 13 April 1985, lot 112; Ex Giuseppe De Ciccio Collection, Sambon & Canessa, 19 December 1907, lot 285. The first issue of coinage at Syracuse features an obverse nearly identical to that of the present piece, but with a plain quadripartite incuse square reverse. This design had been inspired by the first issue of Olynthos (see Roma V, 23 March 2013, 222), whose coinage had come to Sicily along with that of many other cities in Greece and Macedon as payment for the grain and other produce exported by Syracuse and the other major trading cities of Eastern Sicily. Indeed, it was the silver from these exports that provided Syracuse with the requisite bullion to strike their own coins. The very first issue of Syracuse (Boehringer 1) featured the same quadriga and typically Thraco-Macedonian quadripartite incuse square types, but significantly also included the city’s ethnic on the obverse. Later issues (such as the present specimen) then sported a small head of Arethusa within an incuse punch in the centre of the square on the reverse (Boehringer 2-31), in much the same manner as the second issue of coinage at Olynthos, which featured an eagle within the incuse – perhaps suggestive of parallel decisions by both cities to differentiate their coinage from the other’s. As the Deinomenids came to power however, the coinage of Syracuse diverged much more decisively from that of Olynthos, by making the head of Arethusa the principal element of the reverse design.

2x 61. Sicily, Syracuse AR Obol. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 478/5–475/0 BC. Head of Arethusa to right, wearing pearl tainia / Wheel with four spokes. Boehringer Series XI, 279-85 or Series XII, 362-70; HGC 2, 1371. 0.71g, 9mm. Good Very Fine. 300 From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Camerata Romeu Collection, Classical Numismatic Group e357, 12 August 2015, lot 26.

23


24


The Dekadrachms of Syracuse

62. Sicily, Syracuse AR Dekadrachm. Time of Dionysios I, circa 405-370 BC. Charioteer driving galloping quadriga to left, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; above, Nike flies to right, a wreath in her outstretched arms to crown the charioteer; in the exergue, a panoply of arms is set on two steps: a cuirass, two greaves, and a Phrygian helmet / Head of the nymph Arethusa to left, wearing a reed wreath, triple-pendant earring, and a pearl necklace; ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ behind, four dolphins playing around her, a star below the rearmost. Gallatin XXIII-KII. 43.27g, 35mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

35,000

Ex Roma Numismatics V, 23 March 2013, lot 133; Privately acquired from the B.R.H. Collection, purchased c. 1980s in Munich. This type with a star behind Arethusa’s head and below the rearmost dolphin is one of the most infrequently encountered in the dekadrachm series. Struck from a remarkable reverse die, not only on account of the excellent style of the Arethusa portrait, but also because of the astonishing high relief in which it was engraved. Standing proud from the fields 33% more than the majority of its counterparts, this nymph commands reverence and admiration. The fortuitously superb metal quality and lustre of the fields further complement the appearance of this sculptural marvel. The dekadrachms of Syracuse have been called ‘the admiration of the ancient and modern world’, and ‘perhaps the most famous of all ancient coins’; rightly so, for by virtue of not only their impressive size and weight, but more importantly the incredibly detailed artistry of exquisite style which they bear, they represent the zenith of cultural and numismatic technological achievement at ancient Syracuse, and are among the most beautiful coins ever struck for circulation. Produced at the apex of Syracuse’s power and glory, the dekadrachm issue began circa 405 BC, following the election of Dionysios as supreme military commander of Syracuse for his achievements in the war against Carthage, and his subsequent seizure of total power. Syracuse had only recently defeated an Athenian invasion of Sicily that resulted in the utter destruction of Athens’ expeditionary force and ultimately contributed significantly to their defeat at the hands of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War. Then under Dionysios in 405, despite the ruin of great cities such as Akragas and Gela, Syracuse repulsed a Carthaginian invasion that might have resulted in a complete conquest of the island. Such glory was short-lived however, as the rule of Dionysios’ son and successor was to bring only civil strife that would weaken the power of Syracuse. Never again would the city issue coinage on such a grand scale, and with the cessation of tetradrachm production in c. 400 BC, the dekadrachms represent the last great flourishing of classical numismatic art at Syracuse before two centuries of steady decline and eventual conquest at the hands of the Romans.

63. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Second Democracy, circa 430-420 BC. Charioteer, wearing a long chiton and holding reins in both hands, driving walking quadriga right, Nike flying to right above, crowning the horses / Head of Arethusa right, her hair tied with a tainia, wearing earring and necklace; ΣYPAKOΣION and four dolphins around. Boehringer 631; SNG ANS 201 (these dies). 17.31g, 26mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 3,000 From the collection of T.M., Germany; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 226, 11 March 2013, lot 239.

25


Ex Egger XLV, 1913

64. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Dionysios I, 405-400 BC. In the style of Eukleidas. Charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in both, driving fast quadriga to left; above, Nike flying to right, crowning charioteer with wreath held in both hands, dolphin to right in exergue / Head of Arethusa left, hair in bands, wearing double-loop earring and plain necklace with frontal pendant; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN and four dolphins around. W. Fischer-Bossert, Coins, Artists, and Tyrants, ANSNS 33, 2017, 92a-r = Tudeer 92 (33/64); HGC 2, 1345; SNG ANS 297 (same dies); Dewing 857–8 (same dies); Jameson 808 (same dies); Gulbenkian 297. 17.20g, 27mm, 2h. Good Very Fine; worn obverse die as usual. Highly artistic reverse die. 10,000 From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Triton XVII, 7 January 2014, lot 70; Ex Münzen und Medaillen 24, 17 November 1962, lot 423; Ex Hollschek Collection, Dorotheum 112, 22 April 1961, lot 1073; Ex Egger XLV, 12 November 1913, lot 396.

Very Rare Syracusan Hemidrachm

2x 2x 65. Sicily, Syracuse AR Hemidrachm. Time of Timoleon and the Third Democracy, circa 344-317 BC. Head of Athena facing slightly left, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet and necklace; ΣΥΡΑΚOΣI and three dolphins around / Female rider on horseback to right; star and grain ear behind, N below. SNG ANS 522; SNG Lloyd 1450; SNG München 1125; Pozzi 636 = Pozzi (Boutin) 1301. 2.01g, 15mm, 2h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

3,000

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

66. Sicily, Syracuse Æ Hemidrachm. Time of Timoleon and the Third Democracy, circa 344-339/8 BC. Laureate head of Zeus Eleutherios right, ZEΥΣ ΕΛΕΘΥΕPΙΟΣ around / Upright thunderbolt, to right, eagle standing right; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN around. CNS 72; HGC 2, 1440. 12.81g, 24mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

67. Sicily, Syracuse AR Stater. Time of Agathokles, circa 341-317 BC. Pegasos flying left / Helmeted head of Athena right; AI behind, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN before. Pegasi II, p. 600, 7; SNG ANS 506. 8.50g, 22mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; minor area of soft strike. Rare. From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Italy since before December 1992.

26

750


68. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-305 BC. Wreathed head of Arethusa left, wearing triple-pendent earring and necklace, three dolphins around; monogram below neck / Charioteer driving quadriga left; triskeles above; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN and monogram in exergue. SNG ANS 637; HGC 2, 1348. 17.14g, 25mm, 4h. Mint State; area of soft strike.

3,000

From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Italy since before December 1992.

69. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-305 BC. Wreathed head of Arethusa left, wearing triple-pendent earring and necklace, three dolphins around; NI below neck / Charioteer driving quadriga left; triskeles above; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN and monogram in exergue. SNG ANS 638; HGC 2, 1348. 16.96g, 25mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Italy since before December 1992.

70. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-305 BC. Wreathed head of Arethusa left, wearing triple-pendent earring and necklace, three dolphins around; NI below neck / Charioteer driving quadriga left; triskeles above; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN and monogram in exergue. SNG ANS 638; HGC 2, 1348. 16.78g, 24mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

2,250

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

71. Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Time of Agathokles, circa 310-305 BC. Wreathed head of Arethusa left, wearing triple-pendent earring and necklace, three dolphins around; NI below neck / Charioteer driving quadriga left; triskeles above; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN and monogram in exergue. SNG ANS 638; HGC 2, 1348. 17.10g, 24mm, 11h. Near Mint State. From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Italy since before December 1992.

27

2,000


The Revolts of Thoinon and Sosistratos

2x

2x

72. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm. Thoinon or Sosistratos, 278 BC. Head of Persephone to left, wearing wreath of grain leaves, pendant earring and pearl necklace; ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ before, bee behind / Nike driving galloping quadriga to right, holding reins and kentron; crescent moon above, Θ below, ΕΠΙ ΙΚΕΤΑ erased from the die in exergue. Buttrey, Morgantina, 5-R (same dies); SNG Munich 1292; Nomos 8, 22 October 2013, 58 (same dies). 4.27g, 16mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine (previously slabbed by NGC #4161133-001, graded AU Strike 4/5, Surface 4/5). Very Rare.

7,500

From the collection of T.M., Germany; Ex Stack´s, Bowers & Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 122; Ex Giessener Münzhandlung 96, 07 June 1999, lot 61; Ex Leu 59, 17 May 1994, lot 74; Ex Hess-Leu 12, 12 April 1962, lot 117. After Agathokles’ assassination by Maenon, the latter put the former tyrant’s grandson to death and seized command of his army that was then besieging Aetna, directing it instead against Syracuse. Hiketas was entrusted with the command of a sizeable force by the Syracusans to defend the city. Despite later seizing supreme power, Hiketas apparently never styled himself as king. During his nine year reign he defeated Phintias of Akragas and took that city, then turned his attention to the Carthaginians. He was however dealt a severe defeat in battle against their forces at the river Terias and as a result was expelled from Syracuse by Thoinon, one of his officers. Thoinon however faced opposition from both Sosistratos, a fellow officer, and from the Carthaginian forces that had defeated Hiketas. In this desperate time of civil war and foreign invasion before Pyrrhos would arrive and be hailed saviour by the Syracusans, there was apparently no time to produce new dies at the mint, and thus the old dies of Hiketas were reused - with his name hastily obliterated.

73. Sicily, Syracuse AV Dekadrachm. Hieron II, circa 220-217 BC. Head of Kore-Persephone left, crowned with grain ears, wearing pendant earring and necklace; star of eight rays behind / Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving fast biga to left; IEPΩNOΣ below. SNG München 1346 (same dies); Carroccio, Monetazione aurea 78 (D40/R57); HGC 2, 1541. 4.27g, 16mm, 5h. Mint State.

2,000

From the collection of P.G; Ex Gorny & Mosch 249, 11 October 2017, lot 124.

EPEIROS Ex de Sartiges Collection

74. Epeiros, Ambrakia AR Stater. Circa 360-338 BC. Pegasos standing to right; A below / Helmeted head of Athena left, A above; to left, serpent coiled around tortoise; to right, nude male, wearing pilos and seated half-left, holding short staff. Ravel, Colts 135j (this coin); Pegasi II, p. 462, 86; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 35-6 (same dies); de Sartiges 301 (this coin). 8.26g, 22mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. 380, 3 November 2004, lot 352; Ex Vicomte Louis Edmond Paul de Sartiges Collection, Paris 1910, pl. XVII, 301.

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500


Very Rare Epirote Republic Didrachm

75. Epeiros, Epirote Republic AR Didrachm. Circa 234-168 BC. Jugate heads right of Zeus Dodonaeus, wearing a wreath of oak leaves, and Dione, diademed and draped; monogram ΑΥΤΚ to left, monogram of ΑΥΡΚ below / Bull charging to right, ΑΠΕΙ above, ΡΩΤΑΝ below; all within oak wreath. Franke 21; SNG Copenhagen 107; Weber 3024. 9.88g, 26mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

5,000

From a private German collection. While the coinage of the Epirote Republic is quite frequently encountered, the issues of didrachms are very rare. The obverse type of the jugate heads of Zeus and Dione is a civic emblem representative of the great shrine at Dodona in Epeiros, that was regarded as the oldest Hellenic oracle and second only in prestige to the great oracle of Delphi. In 233 BC the murder of Deidamia, last surviving member of the Aeacid royal house that claimed its descent from Achilles, brought the Epirote monarchy to an abrupt extinction and a federal republic was set up, though with diminished territory. Western Akarnania had asserted its independence, and the Aitolians had seized Ambrakia, Amphilochia, and the remaining land north of the Ambrakian Gulf. The new Epirote capital was therefore established at Phoenike, the political centre of the Chaonians. Epeiros did however remain a powerful entity, unified under the auspices of the Epirote League as a federal state with its own synedrion, or parliament. In the following years, Epeiros faced the growing threat of the expansionist Roman Republic, which fought a series of wars with Macedon. The League remained neutral in the first two Macedonian Wars but split in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC), with the Molossians siding with the Macedonians and the Chaonians and Thesprotians siding with Rome. The outcome was disastrous for Epeiros; Molossia fell to Rome in 167 BC and 150,000 of its inhabitants were enslaved.

AKARNANIA Extremely Rare with Long Ethnic

76. Akarnania, Leukas AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC. Pegasos flying right; ΛEY below / Helmeted head of Athena right; to left, grape bunch hanging from vine above amphora; Λ behind neck guard. Imhoof-Blumer, Akarnaniens 28; Pegasi II, pp. 426-7, 128 var. (only Λ below Pegasos); BCD Akarnania 275 var. (same); CNG E-265, lot 112 (same obv. die); Lanz 102, 223; CNG 97, 123. 8.49g, 23mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely rare with longer ethnic on obverse.

500

From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Greece since before December 1992.

77. Akarnania, Leukas AR Stater. Circa 167-100 BC. Damylos, magistrate. Statue of Aphrodite Aineias standing right, holding aphlaston in extended right hand, forepart of stag in background, behind, long sceptre surmounted by dove; all within laurel wreath / Prow right, decorated with laurel wreath; ΛEYKAΔIΩN ΔAMYΛOΣ in two lines above, monogram to right. BCD 315.4; SNG Copenhagen 381. 7.88g, 24mm, 2h. Very Fine; areas of weak strike. Very Rare. From a private German collection.

29

300


78. Akarnania, Thyrrheion AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC. Pegasos flying left; Θ below / Helmeted head of Athena left; Θ before, earring behind, ΛY below neck. Pegasi II, p. 515, 13; Imhoof-Blumer, Akarnaniens 11; BCD Akarnania 373.3; HGC 4, 919. 8.41g, 22mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Greece since before December 1992.

THESSALY

79. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 479-460 BC. Horse left, grazing with head lowered; above, cicada left / Sandal of Jason left, double axe above, ΛARISAION around from lower left; all within incuse square. BCD Thessaly I 1095 (same dies). 4.63g, 17mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex BCD Collection, Classical Numismatic Group e337, 22 October 2014, lot 35.

80. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 400-350 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing three-quarters right, wearing double band necklace with central medallion and circular earring decorated with pellets, scroll-like element dangling from it; border of dots / Horse with straight legs, grazing right on ground line on which grows plant; ΛΑΡΙΣAI above. Lorber, Early, 36.1. 5.97g, 18mm, 11h. Very Fine. Lightly toned.

1,000

Ex BCD Collection, Triton XV, 3 January 2012, lot 225.

81. Thessaly, Larissa AR Drachm. Circa 365-356 BC. Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly left, hair in ampyx / Horse standing right, preparing to lie down; ΛΑΡΙΣ above, AIΩN below. Lorber, Hoard, Phase L-II, 27–37; BCD Thessaly II 316. 5.89g, 18mm, 11h. Good Very Fine; light mark on obverse.

300

From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Group SGF, Classical Numismatic Group e342, 14 January 2015, lot 151.

82. Thessaly, Peirasia AR Obol. Circa 350-300 BC. Young male head right, hair in small curls and bound by tainia / Naked, helmeted warrior, seen from behind facing three-quarters left, in fighting stance, holding shield and spear. Pendleton O 1 (O1/R1 - these dies). 0.88g, 12mm, 4h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare - one of only five known.

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400


LOKRIS

83. Lokris, Lokris Opuntii AR Stater. Circa 369 BC. Head of Demeter left, wearing barley-wreath, pearl necklace and elaborate ‘boat’ earring with crescent and five pendants / Ajax the Lokrian, nude but for crested Corinthian helmet, advancing to right on rocky ground, holding short sword in his right hand, round shield decorated on its interior with griffin, transverse spear behind hero’s legs; ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ around. J. Morineau Humphrirs & D. Delbridge, The Coinage of the Opountian Lokrians, RNS SP 50, London 2014, pl. 8, 150b (57/47); BCD 70; BMC Plate I, 9; SNG Berry 570; Gulbenkian 495–496; SNG Lockett 1693. 12.23g, 25mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,500

Ex private Swiss collection.

LAKONIA

Sparta

84. Lakonia, Lakedaimon (Sparta) AR Hemidrachm. Circa 125-75 BC. Laureate head of Herakles right / Amphora between the pilei of the Dioskouroi, monograms above and below; all within olive wreath. SNG Copenhagen 557; BCD Collection 853ff. 2.34g, 15mm, 9h. Fleur De Coin. Rare.

1,750

Ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachf. 195, 5-7 May 1997, lot 208.

ARKADIA

2x

2x

85. Arkadia, Pheneos AR Obol. Circa 370-340 BC. Bust of youthful Hermes to right, his cloak tied around his neck and with his petasos hanging behind, suspended by a cord / ΦΕ, ram standing to right; above, kerykeion to right. BCD 1608; BMC 5; Traité II, 3, 891; Weber 4317. 0.85g, 13mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

1,250

Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 8, 31 May 2014, lot 110.

CORINTHIA

Attractive Archaic Corinthian Stater

86. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Pegasos with curled wing, bridled, flying to right; [Q] below / Head of Athena right, wearing necklace, elaborate pendant earring and Corinthian helmet pushed back on head; all within incuse square. Pegasi 79/3ff. 8.49g, 20mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Rare archaic issue. From a private German collection.

31

1,500


Pedigreed to 1909

87. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 400-357 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Head of Athena to left, wearing Corinthian helmet; dolphin above to left, behind, a cockerel feeding to right. Pegasi 327; Ravel 857 (P351/T496); cf. BMC 149/153. 8.55g, 24mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; worn obv. die.

750

Ex Prospero Collection, The New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012; Ex J. Vinchon, Nouveau Drouot, 9-10 December 1983, lot 117; Ex Ars Classica XV, 2 July 1930, lot 775; Ex Naville V, 18 June 1923, lot 2074; Ex Jacob Hirsch XXV, 29 November 1909, lot 1075.

88. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Helmeted head of Athena right, I below chin; behind, Nike flying left holding fillet. Pegasi 420; Ravel 1030; BCD Corinth 111. 8.50g, 22mm, 2h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Greece since before December 1992.

89. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below, eagle standing left behind. Pegasi 426; Ravel 1008; BCD Corinth 101; SNG Copenhagen 73-4. 8.63g, 21mm, 2h. Good Very Fine. Pleasing tone.

750

Ex John Hayes Collection; Ex Roma Numismatics III, 31 March 2012, lot 119 (ÂŁ1,100).

90. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below, eagle standing left behind. Pegasi 426; Ravel 1008; BCD Corinth 101; SNG Copenhagen 73-4. 8.57g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Greece since before December 1992.

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500


91. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below, aegis behind. Pegasi 427; Ravel 1009; SNG Copenhagen 71. 8.56g, 24mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex D.V. Collection, Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 159.

92. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 345-307 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Laureate, helmeted head of Athena left; A-P below, Chimaera to left behind. Pegasi 428; Ravel 1010. 8.53g, 21mm, 3h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Greece since before December 1992.

93. Corinthia, Corinth AR Stater. Circa 375-300 BC. Pegasos flying left; Q below / Helmeted head of Athena left; Δ-I flanking neck truncation; behind, Artemis running right, holding torch. Ravel 1081; Pegasi 457; BCD Corinth 133; HGC 4, 1848. 8.56g, 21mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Greece since before December 1992.

SIKYONIA

2x

2x

94. Sikyonia, Sikyon AR Triobol. Circa 450-425 BC. Chimaera prowling to left; san below / Dove flying to right, inverted san above, inverted Τ (= triobolon) below; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 163; CNG 81 (2009), 2048 (ex BCD, same dies); SNG Copenhagen 21 = Traité 739, pl. CCXIX, 16. 3.05g, 14mm, 8h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and the finest known. Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 273.

33

1,250


95. Sikyonia, Sikyon AR Stater. Circa 350-330 BC. Chimaera advancing left, right paw raised; ΣE below, [wreath above] / Dove flying left, N below beak; all within laurel wreath. BMC 57; SNG Copenhagen 48; BCD 218. 12.20g, 24mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; light metal porosity. 1,000 From a private German collection.

96. Sikyonia, Sikyon AR Stater. Circa 335-330 BC. Chimaera advancing left, right paw raised; ΣE below, wreath above / Dove flying left, A before; all within laurel wreath. BCD Peloponnesos 220 (this coin); HGC 5, 201; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; Pozzi 1793 (same obv. die); Traité III 775, pl. CCXX, 11. 12.22g, 23mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone with iridescent highlights. From the last issue of staters struck by Sikyon. 3,500 From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Goldberg 63, 31 May 2011, lot 2454; Ex BCD Collection, LHS 96, 8 May 2006, lot 220; Ex Sotheby’s, 27 March 1987, lot 407.

ATTICA

97. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 500-490 BC. Archaic head of Athena right, wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Seltman group Gi, cf. 175-178; Asyut, group IV; cf. Svoronos pl. 4, 15. 17.31g, 21mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine.

10,000

From the collection of C.S., Germany; purchased before 1991.

98. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 500-490 BC. Archaic head of Athena right, wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Svoronos pl. 3, 5; Seltman Group G; SNG Copenhagen 16; SNG München 35. 16.22g, 22mm, 7h. Very Fine. 5,000 From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Gorny & Mosch 216, 15 October 2013, lot 2400.

34


Stunning Early Athenian Drachm

99. Attica, Athens AR Drachm. Circa 500-490 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing earring and crested Attic helmet ornamented with beaded decorations on crest holder and spiral on bowl / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive branch behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Svoronos pl. 7, 23; cf. Seltman pl. XXII, υ; Gorny & Mosch 232, 207 (same dies). 4.27g, 16mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Very Rare; a marvellous example of this extremely desirable type.

25,000

Privately purchased from Gorny & Mosch. Athens was one of the few Greek cities with significant silver deposits in their immediate territory, a remarkable stroke of fortune upon which Xenophon reflected: ‘The Divine Bounty has bestowed upon us inexhaustible mines of silver, and advantages which we enjoy above all our neighbouring cities, who never yet could discover one vein of silver ore in all their dominions.’ The mines at Laurion had been worked since the bronze age, but it would be only later in 483 that a massive new vein of ore would be discovered that enabled Athens to finance grand new schemes such as the construction of a fleet of 200 triremes, a fleet that would later prove decisive in defending Greece at the Battle of Salamis. This coin was produced in the period before the discovery of the new deposits at Laurion, around the time of the Ionian Revolt and the subsequent first Persian invasion of Greece. Athens aided the Ionian Greeks in their rebellion against Persian tyranny with both coin and soldiers, participating in the 498 BC march on Sardes which resulted in the capture and sack of that city – the only significant offensive action taken by the Ionians, who were pushed back onto the defensive and eventually subjugated once more. Vowing to punish Athens for their support of the doomed rebellion, the Persian king Darius launched an invasion of Greece, landing at Marathon in 490 BC. Just twenty five miles from Athens, a vastly outnumbered Athenian hoplite army inflicted a crushing defeat on the Persians, who after suffering horrendous casualties turned to their ships and fled.

100. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 490-482 BC. Archaic head of Athena right, wearing crested helmet decorated with chevron and dot pattern / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Cf. Svoronos pl. 5, 38; cf. Asyut 268. 17.74g, 24mm, 8h. Very Fine. In unusually good condition for the issue, with a full crest. Very Rare. Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 321.

35

4,000


36


The Dekadrachms of Athens

101. Attica, Athens AR Dekadrachm. Circa 469/5-460 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing single-pendant earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over the visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing facing with wings spread, olive sprig to upper left, A-Θ-E around; all within incuse square. Cf. Fischer-Bossert, Athenian 9a (O5 [corr.]) and 11-13 (O7/R- [unlisted rev. die]), and cf. also R9, R11-14, R20 for other reverse dies clearly by the same engraver; Starr Group II.C, 59-60 (same obv. die [erroneously noted as different dies]); Seltman 450a, pl. 21 (same obv. die); BMC 40 = ACGC 188; Kraay & Hirmer 357; Morgan 178 = Consul Weber 1645 (same obv. die); Seltman 450a, pl. 21 (same obv. die); Rhousopoulos 1965 (same obv. die). 42.78g, 34mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of remarkably few incontrovertibly authentic examples offered at auction in recent years.

150,000

Ex Triton XX, 10 January 2017, lot 151; Ex collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-90s; Ex private German collection, acquired c. 1960s. This coin, provenant from the same old collection (whence it was consigned to Triton XX) as the example sold in Roma Numismatics XIII (lot 127), shares the same obverse die as the latter example. Fischer-Bossert linked this obverse die (O7) with three reverse dies (R11-13), however it is also the same obverse die as that of F-B 9 (erroneously given as O5, but clearly the same as F-B 11-13) as evidenced by the location and shape of the prominent die break running from the brow through the eye, and the die break that runs through the ear. Moreover, in considering the stylistic properties of F-B 9, it is readily apparent that the reverse die (R9) is entirely different in character to F-B 10, but most similar to F-B 11-13 (R11-13); apart from the owls themselves, which are nearly indistinguishable from one another but for minor variances in the feet and plumage, the Theta is similarly mis-shapen across all of these reverse dies, and the uppermost bar of the Epsilon is upturned on R9 and R13, whereas this is not a characteristic of the neighbouring few dies preceding or subsequent (though R20, almost certainly also by the same engraver, bears these characteristics as well). The present coin, while struck from a previously unlisted die, shares precisely the same stylistic features as R9, R11, R12 and R13, and bears the distinctively mis-shapen Theta and upturned Epsilon bar common to R9, R13, and R20. The state of the obverse die meanwhile allows us to establish a basic chronology; the break across the brow and eye is already present, though in a very early stage, while the break in the ear, even allowing for the slight die shift seen on this coin, is demonstrably absent. We may safely conclude that this coin was struck prior to F-B 11-13, and F-B 9 (which is clearly the latest state of the die). The dekadrachms of Athens have always been regarded as one of the greatest masterpieces in all of ancient coinage, and have ever been amongst the most highly prized possessions of private and institutional numismatic collections. The occasion for the striking of these imposing coins has been a subject of scholarly debate for many years, and several different theories have been advanced concerning the motivation for the striking of such a prestigious issue, and the source of the bullion used. Babelon (Traité II, col. 769-770) and Head (HN, pp. 370-371) both perpetuated a misinterpretation of a passage in Herodotos who said that Athens paid ten drachms to each of its citizens for surpluses from the Laurion mines (7.144.1). They both therefore dated the dekadrachm issue to c. 490 BC, shortly after the Battle of Marathon, a date which has been subsequently shown to be far too early. Robinson (NC [1924], pp. 338-340) proposed the victory at Salamis as the reason for issue, while Regling (Die antiken Münzen), advanced a similar view, suggesting the combined victories of Salamis and Plataea. Only Starr and Kraay (NC [1956], p. 55; ACGC, pp. 66-68) understood the dating to be later than the prevailing views, having themselves reviewed the hoard evidence. It was Starr (Athenian coinage 480-449 BC) who suggested the victory at the battle at the Eurymedon river in c. 469/5 as the reason for the issue. The subsequent discovery of the Asyut hoard in 1968 or 1969, and the Elmali hoard in 1984 confirmed the dating around the mid 460s BC. Certainly the Eurymedon victory provided both the celebratory occasion and the means to finance such a grand issue of coinage. In either 469 or 466 BC, the Persians had begun assembling a large army and navy for a major offensive against the Greeks. Assembling near the Eurymedon, it appears that the expedition’s objective was to move up the coast of Asia Minor, capturing each city in turn, thus bringing the Asiatic Greek states back under Persian domination, and furthermore giving the Persians strategically important naval bases from which to launch further expeditions into the Aegean. Led by the Athenian general Kimon, a combined force of Delian League triremes moved to intercept the Persian force, and taking them by complete surprise, the Persian forces were utterly routed, 200 triremes were captured or destroyed, and their camp was taken along with many prisoners. The spoils were reportedly vast, and such a stunning triumph would have provided ample reason for Athens to strike coins displaying its emblematic owl now standing fully facing, its outspread wings a clear statement of Athenian military power.

37


102. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 455 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, round earring with central boss and pearl necklace / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Starr Group V.A. 17.15g, 26mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,250

Ex German collection, circa 1960s.

103. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-430 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.25g, 25mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Ex Nomos FPL 2, 2009, no. 53.

1,500

104. Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm. Circa 454-430 BC. Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss / Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31. 17.21g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; nearly complete helmet crest and well centred reverse.

1,000

From the V.D.T. Collection.

MACEDON

2x 105. Macedon, Neapolis AR Stater. Circa 500-480 BC. Facing gorgoneion with protruding tongue / Quadripartite incuse square. AMNG III/2, 1; HGC 3.1, 582 corr. (incuse). 9.99g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Beautiful style. Purchased from Classical Numismatic Group.

38

2,500


Ex L. Hamburger 1930

106.

Macedon, Mende AR Tetradrachm. Circa 425 BC. Dionysos, bearded, wearing himation and holding kantharos, reclining to left on the back of a donkey standing to right; before, a crow standing on branches to right / Vine with four bunches of grapes in a linear square; ΜΕΝΔΑΙΟΝ in a shallow incuse square around. Noe, Mende 62 (same dies); SNG Lockett 1345 (same reverse die); SNG ANS 337 (same obverse die). 16.86g, 26mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

15,000

Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. 384, 2 November 2005, lot 189; Ex Münzen und Medaillen 88, 17 May 1999, lot 133; Ex E. Bourgey, 13 June 1952, lot 81; Ex L. Hamburger, 11 June 1930, lot 12. This, the most decadent depiction of Dionysos on ancient coinage, shows us a scene wherein the god reclines luxuriously upon the back of a donkey that carries him along. As Dionysos is borne forwards in procession by the donkey, the viewer is invited to imagine his thiasos, the ecstatic retinue of Dionysos made up of maenads, satyrs and Silenoi as it plays and dances around him. Dionysos props himself up, perhaps giddy with inebriation, with his left elbow which he digs into the back of the unfortunate donkey, while with his other he holds his wine cup aloft in encouragement to his followers. Dionysos himself appears oblivious to the effort of the animal beneath him, whose posture implies a quiet and composed nobility of spirit as it bears its godly burden without complaint; this is juxtaposed with the somewhat undignified pose of Dionysos himself who, though his face is set with an apparently serene and typically static archaic dignitas, seems decidedly unbalanced and at risk of losing his precariously fastened modesty. One could hardly conceive of a more appropriate type for this city’s coinage: Mende was a leading exporter of wine, rivalling such other cities as Naxos and Maroneia, and the quality and fame of its wine is well attested in the ancient sources. Thus it is only natural that Mende should have adopted Dionysos as a patron deity; notorious for his wild indulgences and frequent state of inebriation on account of his love of wine, this tantalising scene is at once wholly apt for a city exporting merriment and inebriety, and also a proud statement of the quality of their produce. The implication inherent in the link between the wine Dionysos holds and the vines laden with grapes on the reverse is clear: Mende’s wine is good enough for a god. The execution of the scene itself could not be more intriguing: juxtaposed we have the epicurean figure of Dionysos given over to indulgence and excess, and that of the humble donkey whose labour makes the god’s comfort possible. The image is a sobering reminder to the viewer of the effort involved in viticulture and wine production, and that for one man’s enjoyment others must work.

39


Very Rare and Exceptional Philip II Hemistater

107.

Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Hemistater. Lifetime issue. Amphipolis, circa 340-328 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Forepart of lion to right; crescent below, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above. Le Rider 2 (D1/ R2); SNG ANS 280 var. (same obverse die; scallop shell on reverse). 4.30g, 14mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and exceptional condition for the issue, being both well preserved and perfectly centred on a very large flan. 12,500 Ex Roma Numismatics VI, 29 September 2013, lot 544 (£16,000); Ex Gorny & Mosch 211, 4 March 2013, lot 179. Philip II inherited a poor kingdom on the verge of collapse. His brother Perdikkas III had died in battle against the Illyrians along with a great part of the Macedonian army. As A. B. Bosworth (1988, 6) puts it, “Philip came to power... when Macedon was threatened by dissolution, debilitated by a decade of dynastic feuding and crippled by military defeat at the hands of the Illyrians”, and he is joined by J. R. Ellis (1976, 44, cf. 1980, 36f) who writes “seldom can any state have so nearly approached total dismemberment without utterly disintegrating”. Philip’s predecessors had paid large tribute to the Illyrians since the 390s, and it was really only through bribery and a complex and changing system of alliances that Macedon was able to stave off invasion and conquest. Despite his precarious position, within two years and with little money to do it, Philip had reformed the shattered Macedonian peasant-army, introducing the innovative, professional and highly effective Phalanx corps armed with 18 foot long sarissas. Putting to good use all he had learned from Epaminondas, from whom he had received a military and diplomatic education, Philip pushed back the Thracians and Paeonians with promise of tribute and crushed the Athenian force that had come against him in 359. He conquered Amphipolis in 357, followed by Krenides in 356, and thus gained command of the Mount Pangeion region and the 1000 talents a year in gold that its mines provided. Following hot on the heels of his military reforms, Philip revolutionised the coinage of the kingdom of Macedon, which would eventually also supersede that of all Greece. Philip’s brother Perdikkas, though he had initially struck a silver coinage, was later like his elder brother Alexander II before him, only able to coin in bronze. Philip now had prodigious quantities of not only silver, but gold too in measure beyond what his brothers could have dreamed. Before Philip, gold coins issued by the Greeks had been extremely infrequent, and struck usually only in times of great emergency. Philip’s control of the Pangeion mines now enabled him to make Macedon the first state in the Greek world to issue gold uninterruptedly year on year, which he did with a new standardised Macedonian gold currency denominated in staters, hemistaters (such as the present example) and quarter staters, as well as 1/8 and 1/12 fractions. This wealth would provide the driving force behind his successive conquests, expansion and diplomatic manoeuvres that enabled him to unify all Greece under Macedonian hegemony, and set the stage for his planned invasion of Persia.

40


108. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Struck under Philip III. Kolophon, circa 323-319 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, with the features of Alexander III / Charioteer driving biga to right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; tripod beneath horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ below. Thompson, Philip 12 = Jameson 978 (same obv. die); cf. Le Rider pl. 93, 26; SNG ANS 309. 8.58g, 17mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

5,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

109. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Struck under Philip III. Magnesia ad Maeandrum, circa 323-319 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, with the features of Alexander III / Charioteer driving biga to right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; filleted thyrsos beneath horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ below. Thompson, Philip 4; Le Rider -. 8.58g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

110. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Struck under Philip III. Amphipolis, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer driving biga to right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; facing bust of Sol and monogram beneath horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider 250. 8.58g, 19mm, 9h. Near Mint State.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

111. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Struck under Philip III. Lampsakos, circa 323-315 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer driving biga to right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; facing bust of Sol and monogram beneath horses, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in exergue. Le Rider pl. 93, 54. 8.56g, 19mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful lustrous surfaces. Slight die-shift on reverse. Ex Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 164, 6 January 2012, lot 134.

41

3,000


112. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Struck under Philip III. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right/ Charioteer driving biga to right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; thunderbolt beneath horses, ΦIΛIΠΠOY in exergue. Le Rider 425ff. 8.61g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

113. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II AV Stater. Struck under Philip III. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Charioteer driving biga to right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; thunderbolt beneath horses, ΦIΛIΠΠOY in exergue. Le Rider pl. 55, 60ff; SNG ANS 130-7. 8.62g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

3,000

From a private English collection; Privately purchased from Spink (ticket included).

114. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Head of Herakles left, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne, holding sceptre; Θ below seat, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right. Price 213; Moore 10–17; Demanhur 1601-3. 17.24g, 26mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. A superb example of a left facing Alexander tetradrachm.

4,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VIII, 28 September 2014, lot 412; Ex private European collection formed c.1990s.

115. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Uncertain Macedonian mint, circa 325-310 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, kerykeion to lower left, Argead star to lower right. Price 802 var.; New York Sale XXV, 31 (same dies). 8.57g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Apparently the second known example of this variety. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

42

3,000


116. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Amphipolis, circa 311-305 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, ant to left, star below left wing. Price 831. 8.61g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractive lustre and toning.

4,000

Ex Gorny & Mosch 203, 5 March 2012, lot 132.

117. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, K in left field, Φ below left wing. Price 902. 8.51g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

3,000

From a private English collection; Privately purchased from Spink (ticket included); Ex Spink & Son Circular 108, August 2000, no. 2836.

118. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Abydos, circa 310-301 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monogram to left, cornucopiae below wing. Price 1556; Müller 372. 8.58g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

119. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain eastern mint, circa 220-180 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, no control marks. Cf. Price 2982. 15.36g, 30mm, 11h. Near Mint State. Very Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

43

500


44


The Dekadrachms of Alexander

120.

Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Dekadrachm. Babylon, circa 325-323 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre, on throne with eagle-tipped finials; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, monogram and M below throne. Price 3600 = Mitchiner, The Early Indo-Greeks and their Antecedents p.11, illustration 4 = NAC 72, 344 = Price, Mnemata, 6 = Coin Hoard 1975 fig. 6, 2 (same dies); ACR 8, 198 (same dies). 39.09g, 33mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. One of exceedingly few surviving dekadrachms of Alexander.

50,000

From a private Canadian collection. In all of human history, there have been but very few individuals whose accomplishments are recounted again and again undimmed by time, whose legends have grown only brighter with the passing of the years, and whose names can stir fierce emotion and wonder at a distance of millennia. Alexander is perhaps the greatest of all such paragons of humanity, whose life and exploits are the near-incredible stuff of myth and fable. Silver dekadrachms, be they of Athens, Syracuse, Akragas or Carthage, have ever been amongst the most desired and sought-after of ancient coins by virtue of their impressive size and weight, and the large canvas they presented for the showcasing of the engraver’s art. Though considered ‘rare’, the surviving dekadrachms of Syracuse number in the high hundreds or low thousands, and those of Athens in the dozens. Fewer than twenty dekadrachms of Alexander are known to exist today - figurative grains of sand on a beach amidst the hundreds of thousands of surviving tetradrachms, drachms, staters and other fractions. The extreme rarity of Alexander’s dekadrachms has therefore contributed an aura of unobtainability to the mystery of this most iconic coinage. Missing from most of the world’s major institutional collections, the majority of the examples known today originated from the 1973 ‘Babylon’ Hoard (sometimes also referred to as the Mesopotamia Hoard), and a smaller 1989 find that Martin Price believed to be a part of the original 1973 deposit. The eight coins that are known to have come from these two groups form the backbone of the Dekadrachm corpus. Struck in three emissions from a mint generally considered to be at Babylon, but possibly Susa or Ekbatana, the dekadrachms formed part of a massive conversion of bullion seized from the Persian Royal treasuries at Susa and Persepolis - some 180,000 Attic talents (4,680 metric tons) were liberated from those vaults, converted by decree of the King into ready coinage to meet the expenses of his vast empire and to pay his beloved soldiers. That so few examples of this large denomination survive today is potentially indicative of a special significance or purpose for these coins. It is certainly tempting to think - as many often have - that they represent presentation pieces intended for certain men of rank, and that Alexander, who was well known for his love of giving gifts, may have distributed them personally. In reality though, their low survival rate is probably due to the impracticality of the denomination, since the ubiquitous tetradrachm was the more common and more convenient medium of payment. Regardless of its intended purpose, and though it represents only a small splinter that survives of Alexander’s great vision, today his dekadrachms are one of the most tangible artefacts of his reign, and amongst the greatest prizes of ancient Greek numismatics.

45


The Dekadrachms of Alexander

121. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Dekadrachm. Babylon, circa 325-323 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, monogram and M below throne. Price 3598 and pl. CLIX, 3598 = Künker 280, 163 (same obverse die); Müller 669; Heritage 3044, 31020 (same rev. die). 41.90g, 32mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. From a private Canadian collection.

25,000

122. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AR Tetradrachm. Babylon, circa 324/3 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; AΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, kylix above M in left field, monogram below throne. Price 3652. 17.09g, 29mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare issue from the dekadrachm series. From the collection of A.S., Canada.

46

750


123. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Susa, circa 322-320 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, BAΣΙΛEΩS to left, ΛA below left wing, monogram below right wing. Price 3845 corr. (location of control letters); SNG München -; SNG Alpha Bank -; SNG Saroglos 171; SNG Ashmolean 3106. 8.59g, 19mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

124. Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great’ AV Stater. Susa, circa 322-320 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, BAΣΙΛEΩS to left, ΛA below left wing, monogram below right wing. Price 3845 corr. (location of control letters); SNG München -; SNG Alpha Bank -; SNG Saroglos 171; SNG Ashmolean 3106. 8.60g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

125. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Lampsakos, 323-317 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, buckle in left field and crescent-over-A beneath wing-tip to left. Price P13; Müller P77; ADM II Series IX, 182b = Bement 772 (same obv. die); SNG Alpha Bank -; SNG München -; SNG Saroglos -. 8.62g, 19mm, 11h. Near Mint State; highly lustrous.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

126. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Arados, circa 323-316 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, Z below right wing, prow of war galley inscribed LY below left wing. Price P157. 8.58g, 18mm, 4h. Mint State. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

47

3,000


127. Kingdom of Macedon, Philip III Arrhidaios AV Stater. Babylon, circa 323-318/7 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY to right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, wheel in outer left field, monogram below left wing. Price P193. 8.59g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

THRACE

128. Thrace, Abdera AR Tetradrachm. Circa 450-425 BC. Magistrate Pythinnes. Griffin seated to left, right foreleg raised; open hand downwards before / EΠI Π/E-YΘINNEΩ (sic) around a linear quadripartite square; all within shallow incuse square. Gemini IV, 2008, 100 (same dies). May - (but cf. 139 for a coin from the same magistrate, struck from the same reverse die). 14.37g, 26mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare, perhaps the second example known.

7,500

From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex ‘a collection in the USA’, Nomos 11, 9 October 2015, lot 44; Privately purchased in 2007.

129. Thrace, Apollonia Pontika AR Tetradrachm. Circa 375-325 BC. Satyros, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo left / ΣΑΤYΡΟΣ, upright anchor; A and crayfish flanking, all within shallow incuse square. Roma IX, 245 (same dies); otherwise unpublished in the standard references, for general type cf. Topalov, Apollonia 50; SNG BM Black Sea 165; Traité IV 1622. 16.88g, 25mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; attractive light tone. Extremely Rare - the second known example for this magistrate. From the collection of D.G., United Kingdom; Ex Gorny & Mosch 232, 5 October 2015, lot 96.

48

5,000


Exceptional Quality Didrachm of Maroneia

130. Thrace, Maroneia AR Didrachm. Circa 495/90-449/48 BC. Horse protome to left, truncation delineated with pearled band; ΕΠ ΑΡΧ ΕΜΒΟΤΟ around / Quadripartite incuse square. Schönert-Geiss, Maroneia 29 (these dies); Gorny & Mosch 219, 85 (same dies). 7.44g, 20mm. Near Mint State; probably the finest known example of the type.

4,000

From a private European collection. Maroneia was founded by Chian colonists on the southwestern slopes of Ismaros, in the mid-7th century BC, and soon developed into a prosperous and densely inhabited city-state. According to tradition, the mythical oikistes (founder) of the city was Maron, a priest of Apollo. The city was especially noted for its strong wine, like that which was given by Maron to Odysseus, who used it to intoxicate Polyphemos. Said to be capable of mixture with twenty or more times its quantity with water and possessing the odour of nectar, the wine was esteemed everywhere. During the Classical period the city had a strong fortification wall, 10km long, enclosing an area of 4 square kilometres, which extended from the coast up to the top of Ismaros. The people of Maroneia’s veneration of Dionysus is evident from its famous Dionysian Sanctuary, the foundations of which can still be seen today.

131. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lampsakos, circa 297/6-282/1 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on shield, transverse spear in background; BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛYΣIMAXOY and monogram to left, crescent in exergue. Thompson 49; Müller 399; HGC 3.2, 1750b. 17.07g, 31mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Attractive style.

1,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

2x

2x

132. Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Drachm. Ephesos, circa 294-287 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on shield, transverse spear in background; BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛYΣIMAXOY and bee between E and Φ to left. Thompson 168; Müller 421. 4.30g, 17mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent style. Ex The New York Sale XXXIV, 6 January 2015, lot 56.

49

1,250


CRETE

Unique Stater of Axos

133. Crete, Axos AR Stater. Circa 4th century BC. Young beardless head of Apollo right with short cropped hair / Tripod with handles and animal feet. Unpublished variant, for general type cf. Le Rider 238-43 pl. 8, 16-20; Svoronos p. 10, 3, pl. 1 (Apollonia); BMFA Suppl. 107 (Apollonia or Axos). 11.70g, 25mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

6,000

Ex Eckenheimer Collection, Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 262. The ancient city of Axos occupied the hill above the modern village of the same name. The protecting deity of Axos was probably Apollo, perhaps called Axios, whose son Oaxos was according to tradition the eponymous founder of the city. Two archaic temples have been excavated at Axos, one on the acropolis and a second below it to the east. Temple I is attributed to Apollo and Temple II has been attributed to Aphrodite on the basis of votive figurines. The young and beardless male head on the obverse of this coin, used in conjunction with the tripod-lebes, must then surely be intended to represent Apollo. The nature of the coin itself seems archaic, primitive even, considering the date to which its production is assigned. In this it somewhat resembles and recalls the highly stylized efforts of some Celtic engravers, yet its stylistic simplicity is not so surprising when we consider the relatively backward nature of Crete in the Archaic and Classical periods: though Crete was a pioneer of art and culture in the 10th-7th centuries, a major change occurred circa 630 BC, which seems to have led to a petrification of Cretan institutions, and Cretan art and culture lost all their innovative power. The cities of Crete became inward-looking, and internecine war became the norm among the island’s city-states, many of which sought to challenge the power of Knossos and gain superiority over the others. Interestingly, the only attestation of a post-Minoan king on Crete occurs at Axos, which according to Herodotos was ruled by the basileos Etearchos, who reigned sometime in the 8th or 7th centuries and was the maternal grandfather of Battos, the oikistes (founder) of Kyrene.

King Minos and the Labyrinth

2x

2x

134. Crete, Knossos AR Drachm. Circa 350-220 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Diademed youthful male figure (King Minos?), wearing drapery over his lower limbs, seated to left on a square labyrinth, holding Nike in extended right hand and sceptre with left; monogram to left, AΓEI (= gifts?) in the exergue. Le Rider, Crete, plate 35, 6 (this coin); Svoronos 88, pl. VI, 15; BMC 28, pl. V, 14 (same reverse die); Jameson 2519 (same reverse die). 4.88g, 2mm, 12h. Very Fine; old repair below eye. Very Rare, only one other example on CoinArchives.

4,000

Ex Northern California Collection; Privately purchased from Freeman & Sear, 2003; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 18, 29 March 2000, lot 189. The possible identification of the ambiguous reverse as the legendary king Minos rests largely on the youthfulness of the figure together with his being seated upon the labyrinth of Daedalos, built to house the Minotaur. Though we are all familiar with the myth of king Minos, Theseus and the Minotaur, the extent of historical fact behind this story is uncertain, and excavations of the Minoan palace complex at Knossos has revealed no such structure. The explorer Arthur Evans, during his investigations of the site in 1900-1903, prompted by the enormity of the scale and intricateness of the architecture postulated that the palace itself was the origin of the mythological labyrinth. This theory is supported by the close association of the word ‘labyrinth’, which is a pre-Greek word of Minoan origin, with the Lydian word ‘labrys’ (double-axe); the labrys motif appears frequently at the Knossos palace complex, and excavations have unearthed many ancient ceremonial double-axes among grave-goods there. Whether there is a kernel of truth to the myth we may never know, but in the critically acclaimed bildungsroman ‘The King Must Die’ (published 1958) by Mary Renault, the author constructs an archaeologically and anthropologically plausible story that might have developed into the myth, presenting the palace at Knossos of the kings who are always called Minos as the Labyrinth, the king’s son Asterion - the swarthy product of an adulterous union between his unfaithful wife Pasiphae and an Assyrian bull-dancer - as the ceremonial bull-mask wearing Minotauros (signifying heir to the throne), and the winding passages of vaults and store-rooms beneath the palace, through which Theseus must escape with the assistance of Ariadne, as the maze which he negotiates with the help of Ariadne’s thread.

50


One of the Finest Known

135.

Crete, Polyrhenion AR Stater. 4th century BC. Charisthe, magistrate. Laureate head of Zeus to right / Head of sacrificial bull facing, with pendant fillets hanging from horns; [ΧΑΡΙΣΘΕ above], ΠΟΛΥΡΗΝΙΟΝ around. Le Rider p. 38, 305, pl. 10, 11; Svoronos p. 276, 4 pl. 25, 23-24 (same dies). 11.69g, 25mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known examples.

6,000

Ex Eckenheimer Collection, Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 268. Polyrhenion was one the oldest Dorian settlement of Crete, whose etymology is ‘rich in lambs’, and according to Strabo was settled in archaic times by Achaian and Lakonian immigrants who settled into one city the existing population, which had lived in villages, some 7 km inland from the Bay of Kissamos. Excavations from 1938 have exposed several building foundations which defy identity, but it may safely be presumed that one of these was a temple dedicated to Zeus. The bull sacrifice was a universal and key element of Greek religion, and it held particular significance in Crete which was rich in mythological traditions relating to the bull as a divine animal, being either divinely directed or indeed itself a theriomorphic god in bull form. Indeed, the central importance of the bull in Cretan culture was an ancient one predating even the arrival of the Mycenaean Greeks in the 14th century BC; twentieth century archaeological excavations begun by Arthur Evans in 1900 dramatically ‘resurrected’ the lost Minoan civilisation and uncovered a wealth of artefacts which, among other things, portray the bull as a major religious symbol. The mythical origin of the idea of bull or ox sacrifice was believed to be from the story of Prometheos in Hesiod’s Theogamy (521-616). At Mekone, in a a sacrificial meal marking the ‘settling of accounts’ between mortals and immortals, Prometheos purposely deceives Zeus by assigning to him a good-looking portion ‘wrapped in glistening fat’ that consists of nothing but bones, thus ensuring humans would keep the meat for themselves and burn the bones wrapped in fat as an offering to the gods.

51


TROAS

2x 2x 136. Troas, Assos AR Drachm. Circa 450-400 BC. Helmeted head of Athena left, bowl of helmet decorated with laurel wreath / Head of lion left; AΣΣOON around; all within incuse square. SNG Ashmolean -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG München -; BMC p. 36, β = Weber 5320; Traité II -; CNG e369, 114 (same dies). 3.61g, 15mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

750

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

2x 2x 137. Troas, Dardanos AR Drachm. Circa 550-500 BC. Cockerel standing to right; four pellets in stellate pattern behind, two pellets before / Two incuse punches of unequal size. Cf. BMC Troas p. XLII for type; otherwise unpublished in the standard references. 5.38g, 16mm. Good Very Fine. Apparently unpublished and possibly unique. A fascinating piece that undoubtedly represents the earliest known coinage of Dardanos.

1,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

2x 2x 138. Troas, Gergis AR Hemidrachm(?). Circa 420-400 BC. Laureate head of Apollo facing slightly right / Griffin seated to right, ΓEPΓIΣIOИ around; all within incuse square. CNG 102, lot 398 (same dies), otherwise unpublished. 1.94g, 12mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; the second and finest known.

750

Ex Triton XX, 10 January 2017, lot 249.

An Unpublished Tetradrachm of Troy

139. Troas, Ilion (Troy) AR Tetradrachm. Circa 188-133 BC. Demetrios, patron. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested and laureate Attic helmet / AΘHNA IΛIAΔOΣ, the Palladion: Athena Ilias standing to right, holding distaff and filleted spear; radiate head of Helios to right, monogram to left, ΔHMHTPIOY in exergue. Bellinger -; A. Bellinger, The First Civic Tetradrachms of Ilium, MN VIII 1958, -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -. 16.55g, 33mm, 12h. Very Fine. An apparently unrecorded issue from this rare series. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

52

1,500


UNCERTAIN ASIA MINOR Excessively Rare Chimaera Stater

140. Northwest Asia Minor, uncertain EL Stater. Circa 600-560 BC. Phokaic standard. Chimaera, with the body of a lion, the head of a goat rising from its back, and its tail ending in the head of a serpent, standing to left / Two irregularly divided incuse squares, one larger than the other. BMC 41, pl. II, 2 = B.V. Head, ‘Metrological Notes on the Ancient Electrum Coins struck between the Lelantian Wars and the Accession of Darius’, NC 1875, pp. 285-8, pl. X, 9 = Head, A Guide to the Principal Coins of the Greeks, Period I. A, 18, pl. 1; New York Sale XXX, 142 (same dies). 16.56g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Of the greatest rarity; one of three specimens known, with only two in private hands, the present example being the finest known of the type. 25,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. The earliest surviving literary reference to the Chimaera is found in Homer’s Iliad, where the monster is described as “a thing of immortal make, lion-fronted and snake behind, a goat in the middle, and snorting out the breath of the terrible flame of bright fire”. In his Theogeny, Hesiod elaborates further on the mythology of the creature, casting it as an offspring of Echidna - half woman, half snake - who along with her mate Typhon was the mother of many of the most famous monsters of Greek myth, such as Orthrus, Cerberus, the Lernaean Hydra, the Sphinx, Skylla, and the Nemean lion. Appearing at an early stage in the repertory of the proto-Corinthian vase painters, the Chimaera provides us with some of the earliest identifiable mythological scenes in Greek art. Initially the depiction of the Chimaera varies from artist to artist, but became fixed around the 670s with the proliferation and distribution of its image on painted pottery. These variations have suggested to some, including Marilyn Low Schmitt (‘Bellerophon and the Chimaera in Archaic Greek Art’ American Journal of Archaeology 1966), the possibility of multiple autonomous traditions. The depiction of the Chimaera on this extraordinary rarity has no relation to the type’s later appearances on the coinage of Corinth or Sikyon, which were given as early suggestions by scholars for the possible origin of this coin. Other suggestions, including the possibility that the coin could have been struck at Zeleia, on account of this city having had a Lycian population, cannot be proven. Like so many early electrum coins, all that can be ascertained with a reasonable degree of certainty is that the type was produced somewhere in northwestern Asia Minor, and that it is probably related to the ‘shield series’ staters which feature a similar reverse double-punch.

141. Asia Minor, uncertain mint AR Drachm. Circa 600-560 BC. Wolf, standing to left on base composed of a horizontal row of pearls between two linear borders, eating bunch of grapes from right paw / Quadripartite incuse square. Nomos 2, 112 (same dies), otherwise unpublished. 3.85g, 15mm. Good Very Fine. Unpublished and apparently only the second known example of the type. A most fascinating type. Ex Molard Collection, Switzerland.

53

2,000


IONIA

2x 2x 142. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Phokaic standard. Lion standing to right, head turned backwards, tail curved upwards over body / Quadripartite incuse square. Rosen -; Weidauer -; cf. SNG von Aulock 1797 (hemihekte); Gemini VI, 10 January 2010 157. 2.71g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, undoubtedly the finest of very few specimens known.

5,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom; Ex Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 273.

2x

2x

143. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Phokaic standard. Lion seated right / Quadripartite incuse square. Weidauer -; Elektron -; Rosen -; Traité -; SNG Kayhan -; SNG von Aulock 1776; SNG Lockett 2784 = Pozzi 2468 (same dies); Gulbenkian 724; Nomos 3, lot 123 = Heritage, 8 August 2014, lot 23036 (same dies). 2.62g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

3,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom; Ex Triton XVIII, 6 January 2015, lot 644.

2x

2x

144. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Phokaic standard. Lion seated right / Quadripartite incuse square. Weidauer -; Elektron -; Rosen -; Traité -; SNG Kayhan -; SNG von Aulock 1776; SNG Lockett 2784 = Pozzi 2468 (same dies); Gulbenkian 724; Nomos 3, lot 123 = Heritage, 8 August 2014, lot 23036 (same dies). 2.61g, 12mm. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

1,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

Intriguing Tortoise Hekte

2x

2x

145. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Tortoise with segmented shell, seen from above / Irregular incuse punch. Unpublished in the standard references. 2.36g, 10mm. About Extremely Fine. Apparently unpublished in the standard references; possibly unique.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. Evidently struck somewhere in Ionia, on account of the similarity of the reverse incuse punch with those of other Ionian cities, this coin features an obverse that bears some similarity to the (later) staters of Aegina, albeit with some significant stylistic differences.

2x 2x 146. Ionia, uncertain mint EL Hekte. Circa 600-550 BC. Phokaic standard. Head of lion right, mouth open / Incuse square. Cf. Weidauer 184 (stater); Traité -; SNG Kayhan -; cf. CNG 103, 284 (lion left); Roma XIII, 224 (this coin). 2.63g, 12mm. Good Very Fine. Apparently unpublished in the standard references; one of only two known examples. From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom. Ex Roma Numismatics XIII, 23 March 2017, lot 224.

54

1,000


Extraordinary Tetradrachm of Chios

147.

Islands off Ionia, Chios AR Tetradrachm. Circa 375-350 BC. Pherekles, magistrate. Sphinx seated left before standing amphora surmounted by grape-bunch; all on raised circular disc / Quadripartite incuse square with vertical striations within each quarter; ΦEPEKΛHΣ across horizontal band. Baldwin, Chios -; cf. 62-78 (different magistrates); Mavrogordato Class β, 49 var. (this magistrate not listed); Pixodarus 32 = NFA 16, 214. 15.08g, 22mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine; excellent metal quality for the issue, and engraved in extraordinarily fine style. Extremely Rare, only the second known example bearing this magistrate’s name, and among the finest known specimens of the entire series. 20,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. Chios was one of the original twelve member states of the Ionian League and was, at the end of the 7th century BC, one of the first cities to strike coinage, quickly establishing the Sphinx as its civic emblem. Chios’s ability to play a pivotal role in the League was made possible by the fact that it was one of the wealthiest cities in the world during the Archaic and Classical periods, prospering through maritime trade and the production and export of local wine. The Chians were very active in the establishment of overseas trading posts, most famous of which was Naukratis in Egypt, which has been shown by archaeological evidence to have had a prominent Chian presence. It appears that in the early Archaic period Chian traders were invested in the transit of goods between Asia Minor and mainland Greece, a trade that was centred on luxury items manufactured in the Near East which became popular in mainland Greece around this time, this being facilitated both by Chios’ favourable geographical position, and by possession of one of the largest merchant fleets in the region. Large-scale export of wine appears to have begun in the early 6th century, and the quality of this wine was particularly excellent, such that it quickly became renowned throughout the Greek world. By virtue of their existing trade connections, the Chians were able to easily promote this wine abroad and trade it on a comparatively large scale. Both of these pillars of the Chian economy are represented on the present coin type along with the principal device of the city. As the civic badge of the city, the sphinx is known to have been used on pottery stamps, coin weights, headings of official decrees and gravestones of Chians abroad, and as the principal device of their coinage it was employed for a period of approximately eight hundred years - a great span of devotion to their emblem that no other Greek city can match. Constantinos Lagos (A Study of the Coinage of Chios in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, Durham PhD Thesis 1998) suggests that what may have begun as mere custom, might eventually have been enshrined in local law, such is the adherence to the design. Its significance is more difficult to discern. J. Mavrogordato (A Chronological Arrangement of the Coins of Chios, 1918) reasserted an old association of the Sphinx with the rites of Dionysos, which “with its hieratic attitude... as an attribute of Dionysus enjoining silence in respect of his mysteries, or as a guardian of the temple’s treasures, there is nothing of the commercial element about it.” Yet he acknowledges that with the addition of the amphora and the grapes, the “business interests of an essentially mercantile community were clearly brought into notice”, which suggests that if indeed the Sphinx ever held any religious significance, this was soon replaced with a notion of the sphinx acting as a guardian of Chian commercial interests, an association that later becomes clearer still with the permanent depiction of the sphinx with one paw raised protectively over a bunch of grapes, or an amphora, or the prow of a ship. This protective aspect of the sphinx is not well attested in mainland Greek mythology, but owing to the Chians close links with Egypt, it is likely that the Egyptian aspects of the sphinx as a protector were more recognised on Chios; the appearance of what has been called the ‘lock of immortality’ with Egyptian roots, rendered as a tendril or plume on very early Chian sphinxes lends weight to this theory.

55


56


2x

2x

148. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 625/0-522 BC. Head of lion to left; above, seal to right / Incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 25; BMC 22; SNG Copenhagen 1024. 2.62g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only three other examples on CoinArchives.

1,000

A Magnificent Archaic Portrait

3x

3x

149. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Archaic head of female deity to left, wearing diadem and rosette earring; behind, seal downward / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 33; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; SNG von Aulock 7942; Boston MFA 1907; SNG Kayhan 519; McClean 8250; de Luynes 2644. 2.57g, 11mm. Extremely Fine, and among the finest and most complete known of the type. Very Rare; only eight examples listed by Bodenstedt (of which five are in museums). 5,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

2x

2x

150. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 480 BC. Horned head of river god left; seal behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 35; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG MĂźnchen -; BMC 4; TraitĂŠ I 146; Kraay & Hirmer 597 (same dies). 2.55g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

2x

1,000

2x

151. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of lion left, devouring prey; above, small seal left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 36; SNG von Aulock -; Boston MFA -; BMC 21; de Luynes 2646. 2.57g, 11mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

The obverse type of the forepart of a lion tearing at its prey was used extensively by the Phokaian refugees who had settled at Velia in Bruttium after their native city had been conquered by the Persians in the 540s BC. The appearance of the same motif here can thus be easily explained as symbolising the link between Phokaia and their kin at Velia.

2x

2x

152. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of lion left, devouring prey; above, small seal left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 36; SNG von Aulock -; Boston MFA -; BMC 21; de Luynes 2646. 2.55g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

57

1,000


153

154

153. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of a lion facing, mane standing proud behind; seal to left, swimming downwards / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 53; Traité II, 2 pl. CLVIII, 8. 2.54g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Rare. 1,500 The design of this type has been borrowed from the city of Rhegion in Bruttium, which used this facing lion’s head seen from above as their civic type. The manner of its depiction is however stylistically distinct from that of Rhegion, and shows the lion as a much leaner animal, with a less pronounced head of hair, but a very prominent mane that is seen standing up behind the lion’s head. 154. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Young female head left, hair bound with band; below, inverted seal to left / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 90; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 2126-7; Jameson 1513. 2.56g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. 500

155

156

155. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Young female head left, hair bound with band; below, inverted seal to left / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 90; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 2126-7; Jameson 1513. 2.56g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. 300 156. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Young female head left, hair bound with band; below, inverted seal to left / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 90; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 2126-7; Jameson 1513. 2.54g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. 300

157

158

157. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 478-387 BC. Young female head left, hair bound with band; below, inverted seal to left / Irregular quadripartite incuse square punch. Bodenstedt 90; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 2126-7; Jameson 1513. 2.55g, 10mm. Very Fine. 200 158. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Head of Pan left, wreathed in ivy / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 97; SNG Copenhagen 1026, McClean 8255; Boston MFA 1924. 2.56g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. An excellent example of the type, which is rarely found in anything but very worn condition. 1,000

159

160

159. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Head of Pan left, wreathed in ivy / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 97; SNG Copenhagen 1026, McClean 8255; Boston MFA 1924. 2.54g, 10mm. Near Extremely Fine. 750 160. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 387-326 BC. Head of Aphrodite left, hair in veil; below, seal left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 98; Boston MFA 1926; SNG von Aulock 7954. 2.55g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Rare, only seven coins recorded by Bodenstedt, six of which are in museums.

161

750

162

161. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Head of female to left, wearing pendant earring, hair arranged in waves; [small seal below] / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 103; SNG von Aulock 2134. 2.54g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; Bodenstedt noted only two examples, with one other present on CoinArchives.

750

162. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Female head to left, hair tied up in the manner of Nike, wearing pendant earring / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 105; Boston MFA 1923. 2.56g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; Bodenstedt notes only the one example, with no others present on CoinArchives. 3,000 Bodenstedt credits the obverse die of this issue to the ‘Master of the Angular Noses’ (cf. Istanbuler Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, 27/28, p. 164 and pl. 13).

58


2x

2x

163

164

163. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 387-326 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; below, seal to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Bodenstedt 111; SNG von Aulock –; SNG Copenhagen 1030; Boston MFA 1913. 2.53g, 10mm. Extremely Fine. Ex Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 426.

750

164. Ionia, Phokaia EL Hekte. Circa 387-326 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with seal / Quadripartite incuse square. Roma XI, 328; Roma X, 425; Triton XVIII, 627; CNG 93, lot 391; otherwise unpublished (but cf. Bodenstedt 111 for a similar type with serpent on helmet and seal below). 2.55g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of very few specimens known. 2,000

165. Ionia, Teos AR Stater. Circa 510-490 BC. Griffin seated to right, with left paw raised, vines and bunch of grapes in lower right field; THIOÎŁ around / Quadripartite incuse square. Balcer 15; BMC 55 var. 12.09g, 26mm. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

1,250

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 288; Privately purchased from Tom Cederlind, April 2011.

LESBOS 2x

2x

166

167

166. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Forepart of winged boar left / Incuse head of lion left; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 6; HGC 6, 930. 2.59g, 10mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, Bodenstedt lists only three examples, two of which are in museums (BM and Hunterian). 1,500 From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 88, 8 October 2015, lot 411. 167. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf left. Bodenstedt 12; HGC 6, 938; SNG von Aulock 1685; Boston MFA 1679-81; BMC 18-22. 2.56g, 11mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. 750 2x

2x

168

169

168. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 13; SNG Copenhagen 301. 2.49g, 10mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. 500 169. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of roaring lion right / Incuse head of calf right; rectangular punch behind. Bodenstedt 13; SNG Copenhagen 301. 2.57g, 10mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine. 750

59


3x 170. Lesbos, Mytilene EL 1/24 Stater. Circa 521-478 BC. Head of calf to left / Incuse head of lion left; rectangular punch behind. Unpublished in the standard references; Roma XIV, 169; Gorny & Mosch 195, 222 (12,000 EUR). 0.62g, 7mm, 1h. Near Mint State. An excessively rare denomination; one of just three known examples of this type.

1,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

2x

2x

171. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Gorgoneion facing, surrounded by snakes and with a protruding tongue / Incuse bearded head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress; neck truncation formed by two rows of small squares, four above and six below; behind head, incuse rectangle with irregular field. Bodenstedt 19.1; BMC 14; SNG von Aulock 1691. 2.56g, 10mm, 2h. Mint State.

2x

1,000

2x

172. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Gorgoneion facing, surrounded by snakes and with a protruding tongue / Incuse bearded head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress; small incuse square behind, neck truncation formed by two rows of small squares. Bodenstedt 19.1; BMC 14; SNG von Aulock 1691. 2.49g, 10mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

500

One of Only Four Known Examples

2x

2x

173. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 521-478 BC. Facing gorgoneion with protruding tongue / Incuse bearded head of Herakles to left, wearing lion skin headdress; small incuse square behind, neck truncation formed by two rows of small squares. Bodenstedt 19.2; BMC -; Boston MFA -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. 2.52g, 10mm, 6h. Mint State. Extremely Rare, only one example recorded by Bodenstedt in the National Museum, Athens, and two others in commerce.

3,000

Ex Kleines Meisterwerk Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 435. This exceptionally rare variety with the incuse head of Herakles facing left also displays an intricately detailed gorgon. Aside from the careful attention the engraver has lavished on such details as the gorgon’s teeth and serpent heads, we also see the scaly skin the gorgon has been given between her hair and eyebrows. Even on a larger coin this would be impressive - that this fine work has been accomplished on such a small flan is nothing short of astounding.

174. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 478-455 BC. Bearded head of Silenos facing slightly to right / Incuse head of roaring lion to left. Bodenstedt 34; SNG von Aulock -; Boston MFA -; de Luynes 2552 (same dies); HGC 6, 960. 2.44g, 11mm, 1h. Very Fine. Rare.

60

300


2x

2x

175

176

175. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Head of an aged satyr facing right, wearing a taenia / Two confronted heads of rams, palmette above, all within incuse square. Bodenstedt 37. 2.52g, 10mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine.

500

176. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Forepart of boar right / Head of lion right within linear square. Bodenstedt 41; Traité pl. CLIX, 30; Boston MFA 1684; BMC Lesbos p. 159, 31; SNG Copenhagen 309; SNG von Aulock 1694. 2.56g, 10mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. 1,500 2x

2x

177

178

177. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Diademed female head facing slightly right / Bull’s head left within incuse square. Bodenstedt 44; BMC 49; SNG Fitzwilliam 4342; Weber 5611. 2.42g, 10mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare without M on reverse. 500 178. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 454-427 BC. Bearded head of Silenos right / Head of wolf (or lion) facing within incuse square. Bodenstedt 47; HGC 6, 973. 2.51g, 11mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. 500 2x

2x

179

180

179. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Laureate head of Apollo with long hair right / Female head with long hair right within linear square frame within incuse square. Bodenstedt 70; HGC 6, 996; SNG von Aulock 1713. 2.56g, 10mm, 3h. Good Very Fine. 300 180. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Wreathed and bearded head of Dionysos right, of archaizing style / Head of Kalathiskos-dance performer within linear square frame within incuse square. Bodenstedt 76 (dies a/α); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 7729 (same dies); BMC 59 (same dies). 2.54g, 16mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare. 1,000 From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom. 2x

2x

181

182

181. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Head of Io right, wearing tainia, triple-drop earring and necklace / Wreathed head of Dionysos right within linear square frame within incuse square. Bodenstedt 77f; HGC 6, 1003. 2.54g, 10mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; scrape and polished area on obv. 300 182. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 412-378 BC. Head of female right, hair in sakkos / Kithara within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 79; HGC 6, 1005; SNG von Aulock 1731. 2.52g, 11mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. A beautiful and well centred example of the type. 1,000 2x

2x

183

184

183. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Head of Athena three-quarters facing, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet, earring, and pearl necklace / Head of Hermes right, chlamys around shoulders and petasos behind neck, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 86; HGC 6, 1012; SNG von Aulock 1709 and 7738; SNG Copenhagen 319; Boston MFA 1733-4. 2.56g, 10mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. 750 184. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Head of Athena three-quarters facing, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet, earring, and pearl necklace / Head of Hermes right, chlamys around shoulders and petasos behind neck, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 86; HGC 6, 1012; SNG von Aulock 1709 and 7738; SNG Copenhagen 319; Boston MFA 1733-4. 2.52g, 11mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 750

61


2x

2x

185

186

185. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Head of Persephone right, wearing barley-wreath / Bull charging left, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 88; SNG Lockett 2765; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen 321; HGC 6, 1014. 2.56g, 10mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. 1,000 186. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Head of Persephone right, wearing barley-wreath / Bull charging left, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 88; SNG Lockett 2765; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen 321; HGC 6, 1014. 2.57g, 11mm, 6h. Mint State. 1,000 2x 2x

187

188

187. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Wreathed head of Dionysos right / Facing satyr’s head within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 90; SNG Copenhagen 323; HGC 6, 1016. 2.55g, 10mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 750 188. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 340 BC. Bust of dancing maenad to right, with head thrown back, hair bound with sphendone, and drapery covering left shoulder, right breast exposed / Race torch within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 92; Traité II 2, 2219, pl. 161, 34; Jameson 1478. 2.53g, 12mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Rare. 1,000 2x

2x

189

190

189. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Lyre with four strings within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 94; HGC 6, 1020; Boston MFA 1741. 2.56g, 13mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. 300 190. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Wreathed head of young Dionysos right / Facing satyr’s head; grape bunch to lower left; all in linear square frame. Bodenstedt 90; HGC 6, 1016 var. (grapes not noted); Boston MFA 1725. 2.57g, 10mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; two minor metal flaws. Extremely rare with grapes, Bodenstedt notes only four examples. 500 2x

2x

191

192

191. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-326 BC. Veiled head of Demeter right, wearing barley wreath / Tripod decorated with two fillets hanging at sides; all within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 91; Gulbenkian 885; SNG Von Aulock 1726; Boston MFA 1743. 2.55g, 11mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. 750 192. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-326 BC. Wreathed head of Poseidon right / Trident within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 98; HGC 6, 1024. 2.54g, 10mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 500 2x

2x

193

194

193. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of Artemis right, hair bound in sphendone, serpent behind; all within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 100A; SNG Copenhagen 317; SNG von Aulock 1715. 2.56g, 10mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 300 194. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of Artemis right, hair bound in sphendone, serpent behind; all within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 100A; SNG Copenhagen 317; SNG von Aulock 1715. 2.56g, 10mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 300

62


2x

2x

195

196

195. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of Artemis right, hair bound in sphendone, serpent behind; all within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 100A; SNG Copenhagen 317; SNG von Aulock 1715. 2.57g, 9mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 300 196. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, serpent behind / Head of Artemis right, hair bound in sphendone, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 100B; SNG Copenhagen 317; SNG von Aulock 1715. 2.54g, 10mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 300 2x

2x

197

198

197. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, serpent behind / Head of Artemis right, hair bound in sphendone, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 100B; SNG Copenhagen 317; SNG von Aulock 1715. 2.56g, 10mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 300 198. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, serpent behind / Head of Artemis right, hair bound in sphendone, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 100B; SNG Copenhagen 317; SNG von Aulock 1715. 2.57g, 11mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 300 2x

2x

199

200

199. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-325 BC. Laureate head of Zeus Meilichios right, [forepart of small serpent before chin] / Draped bust of Nike right, two stars flanking above, all within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 101; HGC 6, 1027; SNG von Aulock 7741; Boston MFA 1728; BMC 113. 2.56g, 11mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 200. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Laureate head of Zeus Meilichios right, small serpent before chin / Head of Herakles right wearing lion skin headdress within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 103; HGC 6, 1029. 2.55g, 11mm, 12h. Mint State. Extremely Rare. 1,000 2x

2x

201

202

201. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 377-326 BC. Laureate head of Zeus Meilichios right, small serpent before chin / Head of Herakles right wearing lion skin headdress within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 103; HGC 6, 1029. 2.56g, 11mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. 750 202. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 377-325 BC. Head of Apollo Karneios right / Eagle standing right, head left, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 104; HGC 6, 1030; SNG Copenhagen 316; BMC 110; SNG von Aulock 1727; Boston MFA 1738; de Luynes 2560; Jameson 1480. 2.54g, 11mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. 1,000 2x 2x

203

204

203. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-326 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Owl standing right, head facing, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 105; HGC 6, 1031; SNG Copenhagen 315. 2.54g, 10mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

204. Lesbos, Mytilene EL Hekte. Circa 375-326 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Owl standing right, head facing, within linear square frame. Bodenstedt 105; HGC 6, 1031; SNG Copenhagen 315. 2.54g, 11mm, 2h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

63


64


MYSIA

The Finest of Only Three Known Examples

205. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 600-550 BC. Tunny fish to left above tunny fish to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Künker 280, lot 201; Triton XX, 188; otherwise unpublished, but cf. Hurter & Liewald III 36 = Von Fritze 15 for similar fractions with subsidiary symbols. 16.06g, 20mm. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; the finest of only three known examples. 7,500 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

206. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of roaring lioness left, tunny fish upward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 39; Greenwell 115; Boston MFA 1414 = Warren 1537; SNG France 178. 16.11g, 19mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 4,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

Only Three Others on CoinArchives

207. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Roaring lion standing to left; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 42; Greenwell 104; Boston MFA –; SNG France 182. 16.07g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only three other examples on CoinArchives. 7,500 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

208. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Female boar (sow) standing to left; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 45, pl. I, 46; Greenwell 136, pl. V, 30. 16.17g, 20mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 4,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

65


209. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of a goat with long beard to left; tunny fish upward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 48, pl. I, 49; Rosen pl. XI 184; SNG France 186; Boston MFA 1421 = Warren 1560. 16.15g, 22mm. Near Extremely Fine. Rare, and among the finest known examples of the type. 7,500 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

2x

2x

210. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte - 1/12 Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Dolphin to left; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 53; Greenwell 157; Boston MFA 1409 = Warren 1581; SNG France -; BMC 11-2; Jameson -. 1.30g, 8mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

211. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Heads of lion and ram, conjoined, back-to-back; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 54; cf. SNG France 190 (hekte); Boston MFA 1422 = Warren 1543. 16.08g, 18mm. Very Fine. Very Rare. 3,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

212. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Forepart of winged bull to left; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 60; Greenwell 125; Boston MFA 1439 = Warren 1546; cf. SNG France 191 (hemihekte); BMC 51; Jameson 1409; Weber 5015. 16.09g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

5,000

The Finest Known of Very Few Examples

213. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Laureate male head left, hair cropped short (in curls?) and rendered as dots; tunny fish downward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 62, pl. II, 13; SNG France -; TraitĂŠ II 2587 = Boston MFA 1430. 15.98g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; the finest known specimen of the type - only one other example is present in CoinArchives, and this is in exceedingly poor condition. Both the von Fritze plate coin and the Boston example are similarly poorly preserved. 6,000 From the collection of D.G., United Kingdom; Ex Gorny & Mosch 215, 13 October 2013, lot 866.

66


2x 214. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet; tunny fish downward behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 63; Boston 1432; Greenwell 26; SNG France -; Boston MFA 1432 = Warren 1445; Gillet 1058; Jameson 2168; Gulbenkian II, 608. 16.14g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare; in excellent condition for the type.

10,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

Perseus, son of Zeus and Danaë

215. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of youthful Perseus left, wearing the helm of Hades; tunny fish downwards behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 65; SNG France 193. 16.12g, 22mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of very few known examples.

15,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. The Kyzikene choice to include Perseus among the types for their coinage, as seen on the present lot and on the type that shows the hero kneeling to the right, holding the severed head of the slain gorgon Medusa (cf. von Fritze 162), could be seen as a respectful acknowledgement of the mythological ancestry of the Persian king, Cyrus the Great. Under Persian overlordship at the time this coin was struck, Plato tells us in his Alcibiades I (120e) that the Achaemenid Persians were descended from Achaemenes, who himself was from the line of Perseus, though this is likely a conflation of Achaemenes with Perses, son of Perseus by Andromeda. In any event, that the Greeks believed the Persians descended from the same line as Herakles made the demi-god and greatest hero from before the days of Herakles the perfect honorific to please the recent conqueror. The child of Zeus and the mortal Danaë, the daughter of the king of Argos, the worship of Perseus was widespread among the Hellenes. In this depiction he wears here the Ἄϊδος κυνέην - the so-called Helm of Hades, which rendered its user invisible to other supernatural entities. This was given to him by Athena to help him evade the gorgons Sthenno and Euryale after he had slain and decapitated their sister Medusa. His status as a divine entity is reinforced and signalled to the viewer by the addition of wings to the cap that he wears, an archaic mythological convention instantly understandable in its time.

67


Influenced by Archaic Athenian Coinage

216. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet, base of crest decorated with zig-zag and pellet pattern; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 67, pl. I 20; Greenwell 25; SNG France -; SNG von Aulock -; Boston MFA 1446; Dewing -; Gillet 1053 = Kunstfreund 3 = Jameson 2171 = Weber 4971; Gulbenkian 609 (all from the same obv. die). 16.09g, 20mm. Extremely Fine; preserved in exceptional quality for the issue. Very Rare.

15,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. A lack of ancient sources has left the early history of Kyzikos largely unexplained; it is most likely that it was founded by Miletos in the seventh century BC, although a mythological alternative has survived that the city was named after an early king, Kyzikos, who was accidentally killed by the Argonauts on their journey to Colchis (Apollonius of Rhodes 1.949). After 547 BC, Kyzikos came under Persian domination following the defeat of Kroisos, the king of Lydia who ruled the Greek cities of Asia Minor. Later in the fifth century the writer Herodotus includes Aristagoras of Kyzikos as one of the tyrants high in favour with Darius I in circa 514/3 BC (The Histories, 4.138.1). Kyzikos rebelled against Persian rule and is recorded as a member of the Delian League in c. 478 BC, evidenced by inscriptions detailing its tribute to the League (IG I³ 265.1.95 dated to 447/6 BC informs us Kyzikos paid a phoros of 4,320 drachms). Worship of Athena in Kyzikos is attested in the Palatine Anthology which states that Kyzikos had “the first sanctuary in Asia” to Athena (6.342.5-6). Although little more is said regarding any strong connections between the city and this goddess, her appearance on this coin clearly highlights her presence in the religious life of the city. Here the goddess is represented in the formulaic archaic portrait style for which Kyzikos is so well-known. Brett (in the Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 1955) marks the similarity between the zigzag pattern on the base of the helmet’s crest on this coin type with that of sixth century Athenian coins (see plates 2-4 in Svoronos, Corpus of the Ancient Coins of Athens). It is therefore possible that the depiction of Athena on this issue was directly influenced by her appearance on Athenian coins circulating in the sixth century.

The Sirens

2x 2x 217. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Winged siren standing to left, holding tunny fish by the tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 74, pl. II 29 (these dies); cf. SNG France 203 (Hekte); Boston 1441 (these dies). 16.08g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare, and among the finest known specimens. Only a half dozen examples auctioned in the past 15 years.

15,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. The mythical Sirens are best known to us from two ancient epics: the ‘Argonautica’ by Apollonios in which Jason and the Argonauts have to travel past them on their quest for the Golden Fleece, and Homer’s ‘Odyssey’, where they are portrayed as a pair of dangerous creatures that lure passing sailors to their deaths with their sweet music (Odyssey XII 40). They are supposed to have inhabited an island with a particularly rocky shoreline onto which sailors would be drawn by their desire to hear the Sirens sing, leading to shipwreck. Speaking to Odysseus and warning him of the dangers he would encounter further into his journey, Queen Circe describes the Sirens as sitting in a meadow, with around them ‘a great heap of bones of mouldering men’ (XII, 45).

68


Stunning Stater Depicting Kore-Persephone

218. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Half-length bust of Kore-Persephone to left, wearing kekryphalos headdress, round earring and longsleeved chiton, in her right hand holding a tunny fish by the tail, and raising a flower to her chin; bust truncation indicated by dotted line between parallel lines / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 75, pl. II, 30; SNG France 205; Boston MFA 1448 = Warren 1519. 16.15g, 19mm. About Extremely Fine, struck on a very broad flan. Very Rare, among the finest known specimens of the type.

17,500

Ex James Howard Collection, Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 642. The winged figure on this coin of Kyzikos is most frequently simply described as a ‘winged female’, though on occasion numismatists have ventured to suggest that the depiction is that of a harpy, one of the mythical ‘snatchers’ who were sent by the gods to torment Phineos, the blind seer-king of Thrace, for his transgressions. Though in the Homeric poems the harpies are nothing more than the personifications of storm winds, Hesiod (c. 750-650 BC) described them as the daughters of Thaumas by the Oceanid Electra; fair-haired and winged maidens, who surpassed the winds and birds in the rapidity of their flight. Archaic pottery depicts them thus, in a manner that closely resembles the winged figures on the coins of Kaunos in Karia - see in particular Wagner Museum L164 – black figure clay vase. It was only later tradition that portrayed the harpies as hideous half-woman, half-bird creatures, a development resulting from a confusion of harpies with sirens. By the time of Aeschylus (c. 525-455 BC), this transformation was largely complete, though the harpy’s ‘beautiful’ image is still occasionally seen as late as 480 BC - see the J. Paul Getty Museum hydria/kalpis by Kleophrades, on which the harpies are rendered as young winged girls. The identification of the winged figure on this stater as a harpy is therefore possible, though other identifications are equally plausible. Iris, goddess of the rainbow, was depicted as a winged woman with a herald’s staff, as likewise was Nike, though the latter usually carried a wreath or palm. However, none of these beings was associated with flowers, which above all were an attribute of Aphrodite and Kore-Persephone. Only one parallel for the present type exists in surviving Greek art: the 5th century BC funerary stele now known as ‘The Exaltation of the Flower’, held in the Louvre. Carved in a similarly severe archaic style, the stele depicts two female figures holding up flowers; the left figure in a pose very similar to that shown on this coin. Those figures have been identified either as unknown mortals, or as Demeter and her daughter Persephone - the view favoured by its discoverer Léon Heuzey. The wings on our figure clearly identify her as a goddess though, and the flower is most likely the key to understanding her identity. Kore-Persephone, daughter of Demeter, therefore seems to be a logical choice: she was gathering flowers when Hades came to abduct her, and her return to earth each year was heralded by the blossoming of the meadows. Her overwhelming prominence on the later coinage of Kyzikos further strengthens the case for her depiction here. Regardless of her identity, the winged deity on this coin is rendered in exquisite detail, from her ornamented cap to her expressive face and crinkly chiton. The same treatment of the chiton can be observed in major art of the archaic period, for example in the east frieze of the Siphnian treasury at Delphi.

219. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 550-500 BC. Half-length bust of Kore-Persephone to left, wearing kekryphalos headdress, round earring and longsleeved chiton, in her right hand holding a tunny fish by the tail, and raising a flower to her chin; bust truncation indicated by dotted line between parallel lines / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 75, pl. II, 30; SNG France 205; Boston MFA 1448 = Warren 1519. 16.00g, 21mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

69

7,500


The Finest of All Silenos Staters

220.

Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Head of Silenos facing; tunny fish upward to either side / Quadripartite incuse square. CNG 75, 23 May 2007, lot 336; cf. Von Fritze 77 (fractions); SNG France -; Hurter & Liewald I, 77. 15.96g, 19mm. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare; one of only a dozen known examples, and certainly the finest of all.

20,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. This spectacular coin features a bold facing portrait of Silenos engraved in excellent archaic style. The teacher and faithful companion of the wine-god Dionysos, Silenos was described as the oldest, wisest and most drunken of the followers of Dionysos, and was said in Orphic hymns to be the young god’s tutor. Originally a folkloric man of the forest with the ears of a horse (and sometimes also the tail and legs of a horse), Silenos was often depicted with thick lips and a squat nose, as is the case here, fat, and most often bald – though our Silenos may consider himself fortunate in that he sports a full head of hair. Unusual consideration has been given to symmetry in the composition of this type: though symmetrical designs do occur, as in the case of two eagles perched on an omphalos (v. Fritze 220) or the double bodied sphinx (v. Fritze 138) to name but two, this is one of a tiny minority of designs that incorporates two tunny fish for balance. Interestingly, it has been suggested that the head of Silenos on this coin very possibly served as the model for a silver issue of the slightly later Lykian dynast Teththiveibi (see BMC 88 and SNG Berry 1164). One of the principal myths concerning Silenos has him lost and wandering in Phrygia, rescued by peasants and taken to the Phrygian King Midas, who treated him kindly. In return for Midas’ hospitality Silenos regaled him with tales and Midas, enchanted by Silenos’ fictions, entertained him for five days and nights. When the god Dionysos found his wayward friend, he offered Midas a reward for his kindness towards Silenos, a blessing which the avaricious Midas squandered by choosing the power of turning everything he touched into gold. How fitting then, that we should see in this beautiful coin a faint reflection of that classic myth of the drunken but sage Silenos looking out at us across the millennia through this window of golden metal.

70


221. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Dog standing to left, fore-paw raised; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 93, pl. III, 12; Boston 1469; SNG von Aulock 1192; SNG France 230. 16.27g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Rare.

4,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

2x

2x

222. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Dog standing to left, fore-paw raised; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 93; SNG France 231. 2.65g, 10mm. Good Extremely Fine.

300

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

223. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged lioness to left; tunny fish behind / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 96; SNG France 237; Boston MFA -. 16.02g, 18mm. Extremely Fine. Rare.

5,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

Excessively Rare Griffin Stater

2x

2x

224. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of griffin to left, with curved wing and long upright ears; tunny fish downward before / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 98; SNG von Aulock 1181 (hekte); Rosen 474 (hekte); SNG France -; Boston MFA -. 16.05g, 20mm. Good Very Fine. Of the greatest rarity, and far superior to the von Fritze plate coin which is heavily double-struck. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

71

10,000


225. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Roaring griffin standing to left on tunny fish, right foreleg raised and tongue protruding / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 101; Greenwell 144; Boston MFA 1437 = Warren 1573; SNG France -; BMC -; Gillet -; Gulbenkian -; Jameson -; Weber -. 16.10g, 21mm. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

5,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. A mythical creature of great antiquity, griffins are represented in Egyptian and Persian art from as early as the fourth millennium BC; from the middle bronze age (c.1950-1550 BC) they begin appearing in Syria, the Levant and Anatolia, and they can be found in 15th century BC frescoes in the throne room of the bronze age palace at Knossos. Closely associated with guarding precious possessions and treasure, and so frequently utilised as a motif in such capacities, the griffin came also to be a symbol of divine power and so a guardian of the divine. Half lion and half eagle, and so possessing the power and dignity of both of these majestic animals, these fearsome creatures in time came to be associated with the vast quantities of gold that flowed south out of the vast northern wildernesses into Greek and Persian lands. This seemingly endless source of gold caused a great deal of speculation among the Greeks as to its origin; the myths and fables eventually found form in the idea of a land they called Hyperborea (‘beyond the north wind’). Homer, Pindar, Hesiod and Strabo all make reference to this legendary place, and Herodotus writes of it: “But in the north of Europe there is by far the most gold. In this matter again I cannot say with assurance how the gold is produced, but it is said that one-eyed men called Arimaspians steal it from griffins. But I do not believe this, that there are one-eyed men who have a nature otherwise the same as other men. The most outlying lands, though, as they enclose and wholly surround all the rest of the world, are likely to have those things which we think the finest and the rarest.” (The Histories, 3.116) Though it is generally agreed that Hyperborea never actually existed as any single place, but was rather an amalgam of various fragments of truth and flights of fancy, one possible source for the northern gold may be found in the Altai Mountains of Skythia (straddling modern day Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and Russia), whose name ‘Altai’ in Mongolian literally means ‘Gold Mountain’. It has been further suggested (Mayor, 1991) that this region, rich in gold run-off from the mountains, and which is also holds a great many Protoceratops fossils, may have been the ultimate source of the Greek myth of griffin-guarded gold. The sandstone rock formations skirting the gold deposits continually reveal through erosion bleached white, fully articulated skeletons of these prominently beaked quadruped dinosaurs, and being conspicuous against the red sediment would have been noticed by early inhabitants and travellers. Indeed, 5th century BC human remains in the Altai Mountains have been found bearing griffin tattoos, occasionally accompanied by gold griffin artefacts. That this symbol of power should be adopted by Kyzikos for its coinage again and again is hardly surprising then, given that the city possessed a virtual monopoly on gold coinage in the area from Troy to Ionia, in the Propontis, in Bithynia and in the Black Sea regions, and the animal’s fabled reputation as a guardian of the precious metal.

226. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Roaring griffin standing to left on tunny fish, right foreleg raised and tongue protruding / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 101; Greenwell 144; Boston MFA 1437 = Warren 1573; SNG France -; BMC -; Gillet -; Gulbenkian -; Jameson -; Weber -. 16.04g, 20mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

3,500

From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Gorny & Mosch 244, 6 March 2017, lot 285.

227. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Forepart of winged stag left; tunny fish below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 102, pl. III, 21; Rosen Plate XII, 222; SNG von Aulock 7281; Greenwell -; SNG France -; BMC -. 16.12g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

72

5,000


One of the Very Finest Known Examples

228. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Winged dog seated to left, head reverted to right; tunny fish below to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 104; BMFA 1433; SNG France 245. 16.26g, 20mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and undoubtedly the finest of very few specimens known.

15,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. Kyzikos, purportedly the first Milesian colony, was located on the southwest shore of the Propontis in ancient Mysia next to the river Aisepos. Its prosperity was due principally to its two fine harbours, which made the city a convenient stopping point for merchant ships trading between the Aegean and Black Seas. Its principal export was the tunny, of which its waters had abundant stock. The prevalence of winged beings in Kyzikene coinage is a reflection of archaic mythological convention that assigned wings to most divine or sacred entities as an immediately visible and understandable symbol of their nature, and in the case of gods, of their power to move at will across great distances. In the case of the winged animals, we should probably understand these to be attributes of or animals sacred to a particular Olympian god.

One of Only Four Known

2x

2x

229. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Female head left, wearing circular earring and necklace, hair bound in kekryphalos or sphendone; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -; SNG France -; BMFA -; Hurter & Liewald -; unpublished in the standard references for this denomination, for type cf. Von Fritze 106 (hekte); CNG 93, 348; Roma IX, 329 = Roma XIII, 276; Roma E-38, 220. 16.24g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of only four known examples. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

73

7,500


230. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Nude youth kneeling left, holding tunny fish / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 112, pl. III, 31; Boston 1487; SNG France 253. 15.89g, 20mm. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

4,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

231. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Hoplite, nude but for Corinthian helmet, with shield on left arm and right arm extended forward, standing in a semi-crouched stance to right on ground line; tunny downward to right / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 119; Greenwell 91; Boston MFA 1497; SNG France 265 = de Luynes 2452; BMC 78; Gillet -; Gulbenkian 620; Jameson 1404. 15.89g, 18mm. Very Fine. An appealing and attractive type. Very Rare.

4,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

232. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Satyr in kneeling-running stance to left, holding in his extended right hand a tunny fish by the tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 122; Boston 1461; SNG France -. 16.08g, 19mm. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

5,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

2x

2x

233. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Satyr in kneeling-running stance to left, holding in his extended right hand a tunny fish by the tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 122; cf. Boston MFA 1461 (stater); SNG von Aulock 7289; SNG France 270. 2.65g, 11mm. Extremely Fine; banker’s mark on obv.

500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

2x

2x

234. Mysia, Kyzikos Fourrée Hekte. Circa 500-450 BC. Winged monster in kneeling-running position to left, head reverted, holding tunny fish by tail / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 123; Traité II pl. 175, 38; cf. BMFA 1457 (Stater); SNG France 272. 2.09g, 10mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

74

500


235. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Facing gorgoneion with mouth open and tongue protruding, six serpents on top of head, another below each ear; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 129, pl. IV, 15; Boston 1445 = Warren 1492; cf. SNG von Aulock 7295 (hemihekte); SNG France -. 16.11g, 20mm. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

10,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. While the origin or inspiration for many of the types used at Kyzikos is obscure or uncertain, the apotropaic design used on this type is very similar in style to those found on the silver coinage of Apollonia Pontika on the Black Sea coast of Thrace (Topalov 37-38ff), and certain issues from both Mytilene (Bodenstedt 19) and Phokaia (Triton XIX, 217). All were important trading hubs within a relatively short distance of Kyzikos; the latter’s strategic location on the main trade route would inevitably have meant close economic ties. Given that Apollonia Pontika utilised the gorgoneion as their principal reverse type, it seems likely that this would have been the primary source of inspiration for the present coin. Regardless of the stylistic origin of this beautiful stater, the use of the gorgoneion as an apotropaic (for averting evil influences or bad luck) symbol is well attested in Greek art from the Orientalising period in the eighth and seventh centuries BC, and it remained a popular protective convention until the advent of widespread Christianity, though even then its use persisted in the Byzantine empire. Widely employed on the coinage of Greek city states (no fewer than 37, as per A. Potts, ‘The World’s Eye’, 1982), the gorgoneion ranked in numismatic ubiquity only below several principal Olympian gods and Herakles. Its origin cannot be directly traced; though there is a similar monstrous image from the Knossos palace, datable to the fifteenth century BC, and and it has been argued (Marija Gimbutas, ‘The Living Goddesses’, 2001) that “the Gorgon extends back to at least 6000 BC, as a ceramic mask from the Sesklo culture illustrates”, this identification of a monstrous image as the traditional gorgoneion of myth cannot be supported. Gimbutas also identified the prototype of the gorgoneion in Neolithic art motifs, especially in anthropomorphic vases and terracotta masks inlaid with gold, however this approach fails to take into account a very widespread use of monstrous or otherwise frightening visages at a primitive human level, some of which inevitably accrue more complex mythologies around them. In the near east, the myth of the Mesopotamian monster Humbaba ‘the Terrible’ and its death at the hands of the hero Gilgamesh has some striking parallels with that of Medusa and Perseus, and both monsters are certainly depicted in very similar manners. However, while any attempt to imply a direct connection between the two is ultimately futile, we may certainly consider that the autonomous and indigenous European gorgoneion could have assimilated some aspects of its near-eastern parallel. Possibly our only clue to the evolution of the Greek myth lies in the work of Homer, who refers to the Gorgon on four occasions, each time alluding to only one gorgon, and just the head alone, as if it had no body. The implication is that the myth of the gorgon Medusa was not yet fully developed, and indeed it appears to have been left to Hesiod (Theogeny, c.700 BC) to imagine the Gorgons as sea daemons and increase their number to three.

Unique as a Stater

236. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 500-450 BC. Bearded head of Poseidon to left, wearing a helmet in the form of the head of a sea monster; tunny fish to right below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -; cf. Hurter & Liewald, SNR 81, 2002, p. 28, no. 17a-b (hekte and hemihekte); SNG Aulock 7291 (hekte). 16.10g, 21mm. Good Very Fine. Unique and unpublished as a stater.

10,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. The male head on this coin has been variously identified as a nameless hero, Perseus wearing a griffin skin helmet, or Herakles wearing a lion skin. Other specimens of the type such as the present piece have revealed that the helmet in fact bears a fin-like crest and pointed ears. It therefore seems that the headdress is actually in the form of a ketos, one of the familiar sea monsters of Greek myth which is most frequently seen on Sicilian coinage, in particular that of Katane and Syracuse. Given that the bearded head is less likely to represent Perseus (who appears beardless, as on von Fritze 65) it could well be Herakles, who killed a ketos in the course of rescuing the Trojan princess Hesione, daughter of Laomedon and sister of Priam. According to some versions of the myth, Herakles was swallowed whole by the monster, and slew it by hacking at its innards for three days until it died, by which time he had lost all his hair. Perhaps during the course of this contest, Herakles temporarily misplaced his trademark lion skin headdress, and resorted to covering his baldness with a nice ketos skin hat. We must bear in mind however that Kyzikene electrum is more frequently influenced by religion (and, it has been supposed, by cult images in particular) than by myth, and so we must look elsewhere for a positive identification - given the marine monster, Poseidon is a prime candidate. Although the god is more frequently encountered with a trident attribute to facilitate identification, a ketos headdress attribute is also appropriate. F. Catalli (Monete Etrusche, Roma 1990, p. 90) included in his work an image of the remarkable Volterra kelebe which depicts a very similar god head wearing a ketos, which though formally identified as Hades, must in fact be Poseidon due to the presence on the one side of a marine monster, and on the other of a bridled horse – both symbols of the God of the Sea. This identification is confirmed by the Etruscan coinage – see Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage I, part 1 pp. 319-321, nos. 2-4 – on these coins we find an identical head identified as Nethuns (Neptune-Poseidon), paired with a reverse showing a hippocamp and border of waves.

75


2x

2x

237. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 550-500 BC. Bearded head of Poseidon to left, wearing a helmet in the form of the head of a sea monster; tunny fish to right below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze -; cf. Hurter & Liewald, SNR 81 (2002), p. 28, no. 17; SNG Aulock 7291. 2.63g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. 4,000 Ex Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 471; Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, lot 73; Ex Gorny & Mosch 199, 10 October 2011, lot 348.

Exceptional Attis Hemihekte

2x

2x

238. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 450-400 BC. Head of Attis facing right, wearing ornamented Phrygian cap; [tunny fish to right below] / Quadripartite incuse square. Boston 1523; W. Greenwell, ‘The Electrum Coinage of Kyzikos’, NC 1887, 56, pl. III, 5; cf. Von Fritze 142 (stater and hekte); SNG France 291 (stater and hekte). 1.31g, 9mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; one of probably fewer than ten known examples, and certainly one of the finest. 2,500 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. Attis was of Phrygian origin and thus he is always represented in a Phrygian costume such as he wears here. He was the Phrygian god of vegetation and consort of the mother-goddess Cybele.

2x

2x

239. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hemihekte. Circa 450-400 BC. Head of Attis facing right, wearing ornamented Phrygian cap; [tunny fish to right below] / Quadripartite incuse square. Boston 1523; W. Greenwell, ‘The Electrum Coinage of Kyzikos’, NC 1887, 56, pl. III, 5; cf. Von Fritze 142 (stater and hekte); SNG France 291 (stater and hekte). 1.35g, 9mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, and among the finest known examples.

2,500

A Previously Elusive and Unpublished Sphinx Hekte

2x 2x 240. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 400-350 BC. Sphinx seated to left; [tunny fish to left below] / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. Hurter & Liewald I, 27 (not recorded as a hekte); cf. Jameson III, 2205 (stater); cf. CNG e348, 262 (fourrée hekte); otherwise unpublished. 2.60g, 11mm. Very Fine. Unique - a previously unpublished denomination of this extremely rare issue. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. The type of a sphinx seated (rather than standing or recumbent), was unknown to von Fritze, and was first encountered as a stater in the 1921 Pozzi sale. A further three staters have since been recorded, along with the 1/12 and 1/24 fractional denominations. A fourrée hekte in a 2015 CNG e-auction strongly suggested the existence of the hekte denomination, but it remained unknown until now. 2x

2x

241

242

241. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 400-330 BC. Poseidon, nude but for cloak hanging over his left shoulder, kneeling to right, holding dolphin in extended right hand, left hand holding trident downward; tunny fish to right below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 146; Boston MFA 1516 = Warren 1428; SNG France -. 2.68g, 11mm. Good Very Fine. Very Rare. 1,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. 242. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Hekte. Circa 400-330 BC. Kekrops to left, holding branch; tunny fish to left below / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 158; Boston MFA -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG France 306; Jameson -. 2.64g, 10mm. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 1,500 From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

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Highly Impressive Zeus Ammon Stater

243. Mysia, Kyzikos EL Stater. Circa 400-330 BC. Laureate head of Zeus Ammon left, with ram’s horn and ear, hair braided in long locks hanging down back of neck; below, tunny fish to left / Quadripartite incuse square. Von Fritze 184, pl. V, 32; Boston MFA 1560; SNG France 326 = De Luynes 2441. 16.07g, 20mm. Extremely Fine; exceptional metal quality. Extremely Rare; one of very few specimens known.

25,000

From the property of A.I., United Kingdom. The worship of Zeus in Asia Minor was expressed through cultic associations with various similar local deities; in Kyzikos we know he existed in forms highlighting his role as the sky-god through the use of the name Zeus Brontaios (‘thunderer’) which has survived on monuments. This coin demonstrates how wide-spread knowledge was of the existence of the god Zeus Ammon whose oracle in the Oasis of Siwa in the Libyan desert is thought to have been renowned. The syncretic god Zeus Ammon combines the Greek Zeus with the Egyptian king of gods, Amun-Ra, who was often shown in Egyptian art with a ram’s head. Zeus Ammon was worshipped especially in Sparta and Thebes, both of which are recorded by Pausanias as having temples to the god (see his Description of Greece 3.18.3 and 9.16.1). The oracle was famed in ancient times for being visited by Alexander the Great in 331 BC and later Hannibal. Herodotus tells two stories of its foundation: “I heard from the Theban priests; and what follows, the prophetesses of Dodona say: that two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona... The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus.” (2.55.1-3). This tale he later refutes, suggesting instead that the oracle was founded by a priestess stolen by the Phoenicians.

244. Mysia, Kyzikos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 300 BC. Head left of Kore-Soteira, wearing pendant earring, necklace, sphendone and wreath of grain ears, with hair wrapped in broad band / Apollo, nude but for chlamys draped from his waist, seated to left on omphalos, playing kithara, feet resting on tunny fish; KY-ZI across upper fields; monogram to right. Von Fritze I, Group V, 27, pl. VI, 3 var. (different monogram); SNG France 412 var. (same); BMC -; Boston MFA -. 10.70g, 26mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Flan crack at about 12h. Extremely Rare. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

77

7,500


LYDIA An Unpublished Trite of Alyattes

245.

Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 610 BC. Head of roaring lion right, solar-disk on forehead, confronting open jaws of lion’s head left; upwards Lydian legend ALYA between; granular field / Two incuse square punches. For similar issues with Lydian legends cf. Weidauer groups XVII (‘VALVEL’) and XVIII (‘..KALIL..’); ATEC pp. 215-216, groups a and b; Kraay ACGC p. 24, 63 (WELVES) or (WELVET). 4.71g, 13mm. Extremely Fine. Unpublished, and of the highest rarity and importance.

30,000

Ex private German Collection; Roma Numismatics III, 31 Mar 2012, lot 277. The Lydians were commercial people, who, according to Herodotus, had customs like the Greeks and were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins, and the first to establish retail shops in permanent locations (Herodotus I, 94). The kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Alyattes, the fourth Lydian king of the house of Gyges, son of Sadyattes and father of Kroisos. He is seen as the founder of the Lydian Empire and continued the war begun by his father against powerful Miletos, though he was soon obliged to turn his attention towards the Medes and Babylonians. On 28 May 585 BC, during the Battle of Halys fought against Kyaxares, king of Media, a solar eclipse took place; hostilities were suspended, peace concluded, and the Halys fixed as the boundary between the two kingdoms. He proceeded to drive the Kimmerians out of Phrygia, thus securing the trade route with the east. In the west he was able to subdue the Karians, and took several important Ionian cities including Smyrna and Kolophon, enabling him to consolidate a Mediterranean trading outlet. The earliest electrum coinage of Lydia has been the subject of much scholarly debate and variously attributed to the reigns of Gyges, Sadyattes and Alyattes. In a well thought out article ‘KUKALIṂ, WALWET, and the Artemision deposit’, in Agoranomia, Studies in Money and Exchange Presented to John H. Kroll, ANS New York 2006, R.W. Wallace not only corrects the reading of the two previously known legends, ‘VALVEL’ and ‘..KALIL..’, but convincingly demonstrates that the two series, with their several die links, belong to the same period during the reign of Alyattes, datable to about 600 BC. However, Wallace’s interpretation of WALWET as the Lydian name of Alyattes is put seriously in doubt by the appearance of the above ALYA issue, a legend much closer to the Hellenized form of Alyattes. WALWET may be connected to the Luwian word ‘walwi’ (lion) and ‘KUKALIṂ’ may be translated as ‘I am of Kukas’. These legends are probably the names of moneyers, mint-officials or regal titles appertaining to Alyattes. The ALYA issue was struck at 1/3 of a stater on the so-called Lydo-Milesian weight standard of 14.1 grams in alluvial electrum, a naturally occurring gold-silver alloy found in abundance in the washings of the Pactolos river which runs from the slopes of Mount Tmolos, through Sardis and empties into the Hermos. According to legend, King Midas divested himself of the golden touch by washing himself in the river (Ovid, Met. 11.140-144). The variable composition of electrum rendered it a difficult commodity to trade without a seal of guarantee of value, unlike pure gold or silver which had been merely weighed throughout the middle east for millennia. The seal of guarantee initially chosen was the image of a lion’s head, the personification of royal authority, strength, courage, wisdom, justice, protection, fire and gold (‘subterranean sun’), all attributes that the ambitious kings of Lydia would have been keen to emphasise. The lion, with its golden-brown coat and radiate mane was principally the personification of the sun itself, and hence it is found as a symbol of eastern sun-gods such as Mithras. The zodiac sign Leo was occupied by the Sun in the hottest part of the year, July 22 to August 22, and it was probably on account of this that it was believed that the lion was able to gaze directly at the sun without blinking. In Egypt the male lions were the guardians of the eastern and western horizons, and hence sun-rise and sun-set. It is not by chance that the head of the lion of this coin has a disk on the forehead, which can only be the solar disk, later replaced by a radiate setting or rising sun on the anonymous 1/3-staters (trites), usually attributed to Alyattes, hardly a wart ‘Warz’ as suggested by Weidauer for group XV. Indeed the very name of Anatolia (from the Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ) means the ‘east’ or [land of] ‘sunrise’.

78


Unusually Complete

2x

2x

246. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes or Walwet (Valvel) EL Hekte - 1/6 Stater. Sardes, circa 610 BC. Head of roaring lion left, solar-disk on forehead, confronting open jaws of lion’s head right; WALWET (in Lydian retrograde script) between / Two incuse square punches. Weidauer 99; SNG Kayhan 1012. 2.33g, 10mm. Good Very Fine.

3,000

From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. As with the trites of this series, the hektes bear two lions’ heads, though like their larger counterparts they normally suffer from being struck on flans too small for the dies, and consequently it is usual to only find one lion and a partial legend. On this example however, we see a significant portion of the second lion’s head, and five out of six letters of the legend.

2x

2x

247. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.72g, 12mm. Good Extremely Fine.

2,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

2x

2x

248. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.72g, 12mm. Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

2x

2x

249. Kingdom of Lydia, Alyattes EL Trite - 1/3 Stater. Sardes, circa 610-546 BC. Head of roaring lion right, sunburst with multiple rays on forehead / Two incuse square punches. Traité II/1, 44, pl. II, 6; BMC Lydia 2, 7, pl. I, 6; SNG von Aulock 2869; SNG Copenhagen 449–451; SNG Lockett 2977; Weidauer 86; Boston MFA 1764. 4.71g, 12mm. Very Fine.

79

1,000


Heavy Standard Stater

250. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Stater. Heavy standard. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two incuse squares of unequal size. Berk 2; Le Rider, Naissance, pl. V, 2; Traité I 396; BMC 30; Boston MFA 2068–9; Gulbenkian 756. 10.75g, 17mm. Good Very Fine. Rare.

15,000

Kroisos is credited with issuing the first true gold coins with a standardised purity for general circulation. The series began on a ‘heavy’ standard, with gold and silver staters of equal weight, around 10.6-10.7 grams, which was later reduced to about 8.17 grams for the gold. Studies have shown that coins of both standards circulated together, but that the heavy standard was only used for a relatively short time compared to the light standard, which continued to be used into the Persian period. All of the coins of Kroisos feature without variation his heraldic badge, the confronted heads of a lion and a bull, both ancient symbols of power. The badge itself doubtless stems from the ubiquitous and persistent theme of the lion-bull combat scene, which may be interpreted as a metaphor for divinely inspired heroic triumph. Indeed, divinely inspired heroic triumph was exactly what Kroisos expected when, encouraged by a prediction by the Delphic Oracle that if he attacked Persia he would destroy a great empire, Kroisos made his preparations for war with Cyrus the Great. The war resulted in defeat for Kroisos; his numerically superior army was smashed, and the capital Sardes was captured along with Kroisos and his family, who were immolated on the orders of Cyrus. Lydia became a satrapy of the Persian Empire, though it continued to mint coins in the traditional types, and indeed the legendary wealth of Kroisos was used by Cyrus to form the basis of a new Persian gold standard currency.

Interesting Style Heavy Stater

251. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Stater. Heavy standard. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two incuse squares punches. Berk 2; Le Rider, Naissance, pl. V, 2; Traité I 396; BMC 30; Boston MFA 2068–9. 10.61g, 20mm. Good Very Fine. Highly unusual and interesting style, the rendering of the bull bearing closer resemblance to certain Samian issues than the majority of other Kroiseid staters. From the collection of A.S., Canada.

80

7,500


252. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Stater. Light standard. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two incuse squares punches. Berk 3; Traité I 401–3; SNG von Aulock 2875; SNG Lockett 2983 = Pozzi 2726; Athena Fund I 60; BMC 31; Boston MFA 2073; Gulbenkian 757; Zhuyuetang 11. 8.08g, 15mm. Good Very Fine.

10,000

253. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AV Stater. Light standard. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two incuse squares punches. Berk 3; Traité I 401–3; SNG von Aulock 2875; SNG Lockett 2983 = Pozzi 2726; Athena Fund I 60; BMC 31; Boston MFA 2073; Gulbenkian 757; Zhuyuetang 11. 8.07g, 16mm. Good Extremely Fine.

7,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

Superb Silver Stater of Kroisos

254. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Stater - Double Siglos. Sardes, circa 564/53-550/39 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two square punches of unequal size. Berk 20; Traité I 407; SNG Kayhan 1018; SNG von Aulock 2874; SNG Copenhagen 455; SNG Ashmolean 760; CNG e300, lot 66 (same dies). 10.66g, 20mm. Near Mint State. In an excellent state of preservation, displaying uncommonly sound and lustrous metal. An incredibly beautiful example of this iconic type. 10,000 Ex Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 512.

255. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Siglos. Sardes, circa 545-520 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two incuse square punches. SNG Copenhagen 456; SNG von Aulock 2877-79; SNG Kayhan 1025; Rosen Coll. 663. 5.33g, 15mm. Near Extremely Fine. Attractive style.

1,000

Ex Roma Numismatics XI, 7 April 2016, lot 435.

256. Kingdom of Lydia, Kroisos AR Siglos. Sardes, circa 545-520 BC. Confronted foreparts of roaring lion to right and bull to left, each with extended foreleg / Two incuse square punches. SNG Copenhagen 456; SNG von Aulock 2877-79; SNG Kayhan 1025; Rosen Coll. 663. 5.30g, 11mm. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous. Ex Roma Numismatics XI, 7 April 2016, lot 436.

81

1,000


KARIA

257. Karia, uncertain mint AR Stater. ‘Mint B’, circa 480-460 BC. Winged male figure, nude, with winged heels, in kneeling stance to right; Karian monogram over right wing / Lion standing left, head right; Carian letters and monogram above; all within incuse square. Troxell, Winged 41; E.S.G. Robinson, “A Find of Archaic Coins from South-west Asia Minor,” NC 1936, 11 (same dies). 11.71g, 21mm, 10h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

Pedigreed Hekatomnos Tetradrachm

258. Satraps of Karia, Hekatomnos AR Tetradrachm. Mylasa, circa 380 BC. Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding labrys in right hand, left hand on staff set on ground to right / Lion at bay right; [EKAT]O[MNΩ] above; all within incuse square. Hecatomnus 16 (A3/P8) = Sunrise 76 (this coin); Konuk, Identities 15; Karl 3; Traité II 82. 14.78g, 24mm, 8h. About Extremely Fine. An exceptional example of this type, of which this is the finest example offered at auction in the past fifteen years. Rare. 3,000 Ex Christie’s New York, 2 May 1989, lot 702; Ex Kovacs XI, 21 November 1988, lot 102; Ex Empire Coins FPL 42 (undated), no. 27; Ex Sternberg VIII, 16 November 1978, lot 126; From the Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387).

259. Karia, Halikarnassos AR Half Stater. Aeginetic standard. Circa 510-480 BC. Ketos with scaled body, forked tail and dorsal sail to right / Geometric pattern in star format, grain ear to right and uncertain legend (AΠ...NOΣ?) around; all within shallow incuse circle. Cf. Kritt, Kindya, pl. 47, 4 = Troxell, Greek Accessions, ANSMN 22, pp. 17-21; Roma XIV, 251. 5.94g, 19mm, 3h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

Numismatists have long suspected the attribution of this issue and the companion fractions to Kindya to be incorrect. Indeed, this attribution was made on the misreading of just one partial legend. The discovery of a coin (Roma E-35, 279) bearing the reverse legend ‘AΛIKAP’ allows for a certain reattribution of the series to Halikarnassos. The other reverse legend seen on this issue, ‘AΠ..A..ΩNOΣ’, may be connected to a cult or site dedicated to Apollo.

82


260. Karia, Halikarnassos AR Half Stater. Aeginetic standard. Circa 510-480 BC. Ketos with scaled body, forked tail and dorsal sail to right / Geometric pattern in star format, grain ear to right and uncertain legend (AΠ...NOΣ?) around; all within shallow incuse circle. Cf. Kritt, Kindya, pl. 47, 4 = Troxell, Greek Accessions, ANSMN 22, pp. 17-21; Roma XIV, 251. 5.89g, 19mm, 9h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

One of Three Known

261. Karia, Halikarnassos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 400-387 BC. Head of Apollo facing slightly right / AΛIKAPNAΣΣEΩN, eagle standing to right, with wings spread, star to right; all within shallow incuse square. Cf. S. Hurter, ‘42 Tetradrachmen von Klazomenai’, SNR 45, 1966, p. 45, pl. VI, F = Lorber, Amphipolis, the Civic Coinage in Silver and Gold, 1990, pl. IV, fig 21 = The New York Sale XXVII, 533; Gemini XIII, 80 (same dies); Roma XIII, 328 (same dies). 15.24g, 21.5mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Of the highest rarity; one of only five known tetradrachms of Halikarnassos, and one of just three of this type.

10,000

Ex Triton XX, 10 January 2017, lot 303. A single example of this important tetradrachm type was published in 1966 by S. Hurter (‘42 Tetradrachmen von Klazomenai’, SNR 45, 1966, p. 45, pl. VI, F) which for over half a century remained the only known example to have survived. Four further examples, including this coin, recently came to light, which though clearly from the same issue, bear different control marks (sunburst or serpent, not bow). Numismatists have however been aware of the coinage series as a whole for quite some time; approximately 34 drachms are known to exist, along with 3 hemidrachms (see the preceding lot), yet it is remarkable that so few of the larger denomination survived. Originally thought to have been struck after the satrap Maussolos moved the capital of the satrapy of Karia from the Hekatomnid ancestral seat of Mylasa to Halikarnassos, the dating of the Hecatomnus hoard disproves this notion. This coinage therefore most likely represents a civil issue of Halikarnassos struck prior to the King’s Peace of 387 BC, when virtually all civil coinages of the Greek states in Asia Minor ceased. Certainly, despite the city having been firmly aligned with Persia in the days of Artemisia in the early fifth century, her grandson Lygdamis II brought the city into the Delian League and the city was, for an uncertain period of time, independent of Persian rule. It is tempting therefore to view this type as a product of the turbulent early years of the fourth century, when the Athenian general Thrasyboulos, in response to renewed conflict with Sparta, began re-establishing Athenian alliances with the cities in Asia Minor that had previously been allies. If this issue, evidently intended to be a reasonably substantial one considering that at least two die pairs existed, was begun in circa 389-387 and cut short by the reassertion of Persian influence in 387, this would explain the relative rarity of this series today. That the obverse of this coinage was heavily influenced by the Rhodian facing-head coinage that had been recently introduced is clear. That it was retained by the Hekatomnid satraps as the obverse type of their coinage once the move from Mylasa to Halikarnassos was complete is also evident, but more difficult to explain. Relegating his father’s obverse of Zeus Labraundos to the reverse while doing away entirely with the lion motif may have been nothing more than political expedient aimed at cultivating goodwill, but perhaps it may also reflect the distinct thread of philhellenism that ran through the Hekatomnid family.

83


262. Karia, Kaunos AR Stater. Circa 430-410 BC. Iris running to left, head turned back to right, holding a kerykeion in right hand and a wreath in left / Triangular baetyl with handle on either side of the apex, granulated patterns in the form of stylized birds to left and right; all within incuse square. Konuk 93 (same dies); SNG Keckman 823. 11.65g, 20mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

263. Karia, Myndos AR Drachm. Circa mid-2nd century BC. Theodoros, magistrate. Laureate head of Serapis right / Headdress of Isis set on two grain ears, thunderbolt below; MYNΔIΩN to left, ΘEOΔΩΠOY to right. Myndos 78 (A28/P60); SNG Keckman 236. 4.62g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone.

750

Ex Coin Galleries, 22 July 1992, lot 129.

LYCIA

Second Known

2x

2x

264. Dynasts of Lycia, Dynast Oka...(?) AR Tetrobol. Circa 460-450 BC. Cow standing right, scratching head with hoof, VKA below / Forepart of boar left. Traité II, 236, pl. 95. 2.87g, 13mm, 2h. Extremely Fine, only the second example recorded. Fine style. Ex Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 525.

84

2,000


265. Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei AR Stater. Telmessos, circa 410-390 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with spiral palmette and three olive leaves; KH (in Lycian script) between neck guard and crest / Bearded head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin; KHERÊI (in Lycian script) before, TELEBEHIHE (in Lycian script) behind; all within incuse square. Mørkholm & Zahle II 52 = SNG Copenhagen Supp. 451 (same dies); Falghera -; Reuter -; SNG von Aulock 4198 (same dies). 8.45g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Light cabinet tone.

2,000

From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex collection of the MoneyMuseum Zurich, Triton XVIII, 6 January 2015, lot 682; Ex Leu 77, 11 May 2000, lot 353; Ex Auctiones 6, 30 September 1976, lot 241.

PAMPHYLIA

266. Pamphylia, Aspendos AR Stater. Circa 380/75-330/25 BC. Two wrestlers, nude, beginning to grapple with each other / Slinger standing to right, preparing to launch sling-bolt; ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙΥΣ to left, triskeles and ΒΑ:FE to right. SNG France 57; SNG von Aulock 4525. 10.80g, 27mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Attractive light tone.

500

Ex UBS 64, 24 January 2006, lot 82.

CILICIA

267 268 267. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 430-420 BC. Nude youth, holding whip, dismounting from horse rearing left; A below horse’s stomach / Goat kneeling left, head right; ivy-branch and ΚΕΛΕΝ above. Casabonne Type 2; SNG BN 53; SNG Levante -. 10.84g, 21mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Scuff to rev. 500 268. Cilicia, Kelenderis AR Stater. Circa 430-420 BC. Nude youth, holding whip, dismounting from horse rearing left; A below horse’s stomach / Goat kneeling left, head right; ivy-branch and ΚΕΛΕΝ above. Casabonne Type 2; SNG BN 53; SNG Levante -. 10.84g, 22mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. 500

Unpublished Drachm of Mallos

269. Cilicia, Mallos AR Drachm. Circa 425-385 BC. Nude hero standing right, restraining bull with turned head, by the horns / MAPΩTAN (P retrograde), swan walking to right, with beak over crayfish in upright position in right field, all within square border of dots and shallow incuse. Unpublished in the standard references; for general reverse type cf. SNG France 382 (altar in right field). 3.45g, 16mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Unique and unpublished. From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. The obverse of this remarkable coin depicts a totally new addition to the known repertoire of Mallian issues and might be connected to a unique stater depicting Hermes riding a ram to left - cf. SNG von Aulock 3705.

85

750


270. Cilicia, Nagidos AR Stater. Circa 375-365 BC. Aphrodite enthroned to left, holding a phiale; Eros stands at her side, with wings displayed / Dionysos standing to half-left, wearing a himation, holding a vine-branch with grapes in his right hand and a thyrsos in his left; NAΓIΔEΩN around, Π in exergue. SNG France 25 (these dies); P. Lederer, ‘Die Staterprägung der Stadt Nagidos’, ZfN XLI, 1931, 23; BMC 11, pl. XIX, 10; SNG von Aulock 5754 var. 10.61g, 22mm, 8h. Mint State. Sound, beautiful metal and superb for the type.

3,000

Ex Prospero Collection, The New York Sale XXVII, 4 January 2012, lot 591; Purchased from Spink & Son Ltd., London, 1990.

271. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. 425-400 BC. Amazon, nude to the waist and seen from behind, kneeling to left and stringing her bow, wearing bonnet and with her gorytos at her hip; to right, facing head of satyr / ΣΟΛΕΩΝ, large bunch of grapes; below right, fly; all within incuse square with linear border of dots. BMC 3; SNG France 128; SNG Levante 40; SNG von Aulock 5858. 10.74g, 22mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the collection of J.T.B., United States; Ex Gorny & Mosch 232, 5 October 2015, lot 288.

272. Cilicia, Soloi AR Stater. Circa 350-300 BC. Dam-, magistrate. Head of Athena facing to right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet / Large bunch of grapes with tendrils and a leaf; ΣOΛEΩN above, rose and ΔAM to left, owl to right. SNG Paris 180 var. (ΔA and no rose); SNG von Aulock -. 9.94g, 22mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,000

From the collection of A.S., Canada.

Bellerophon and Pegasos Slay the Chimaera

273. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 440-420 BC. Bellerophon riding Pegasos to left, preparing to hurl spear at chimaera, lunging upward at him from below / Nergal standing left, holding axe in right hand, left hand raised with open palm facing upward; NRGL TRZ (in Aramaic script = “Nergal of Tarsos”) across upper field, grain ear to left, small tree to right; all in dotted square within incuse square. Casabonne Group A, Type A2; Mildenberg, Nergal, pl. 28, 5 = NAC 25, lot 201 = NAC 10, lot 253 (same obv. die); Baldwin’s 37, lot 724 = Brindley Collection 213 = Lanz 48, lot 363 (same obv. die); Triton XXI, 513. 10.70g, 21mm, 5h. Very Fine; rev. die worn as usual. From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

86

1,000


274

275

274. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Circa 425-400 BC. Persian Satrap on horseback right, holding lotus-flower; ankh-symbol to right / Aramaic TRZ above naked hoplite, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, kneeling to right, holding lance and shield; ankh-symbol to right, all within square border of dots and shallow incuse. Cf. SNG France 219-220 (Ankh to left). 10.56g, 21mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and exceedingly well preserved for the type. 1,000 From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. 275. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Datames, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, circa 378-372 BC. Baaltars seated to right on throne, head facing, holding bunch of grapes and grain ear in left hand, with eagle-tipped sceptre cradled in right arm; B’LTRZ in Aramaic to left, thymiaterion to right, all within crenellated wall / Ana, nude, facing Datames, both with right arms raised; thymiaterion and ‘TRDMW’ in Aramaic between, all within square dotted border within linear border. SNG Levante 83; SNG France 292; BMC Lycaonia pg. 168, 35; SNG Copenhagen 300; SNG von Aulock 5943. 10.78g, 23mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; test cut to rev. 1,000 From the collection of A.S., Canada.

276

277

276. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Datames, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, circa 378-372 BC. Baaltars seated to right on throne, holding bunch of grapes and grain ear in left hand, with eagle-tipped sceptre cradled in right arm; B’LTRZ in Aramaic to left, thymiaterion to right, bull’s head below throne, all within crenellated wall / Tarkumuwa seated to right, in full Persian garb, inspecting arrow held in his left hand; TRDMW in Aramaic to left, bow to right, winged solar disk in upper right field. SNG France 286-288; SNG Levante 88; SNG von Aulock 5952. 10.47g, 24mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine. 750 From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. 277. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Mazaios, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, circa 361/0-334 BC. Baaltars seated left on throne, holding eagle-tipped sceptre in right hand, left hand holding chlamys at his waist; grain ear and grape bunch above Aramaic N to left, B’LTRZ in Aramaic to right, Aramaic M below throne / Lion to left, attacking bull to right above crenelated city walls of Tarsos; ‘MZDI ZI’L’BRNH RAWHLK’ (Mazaios Governor of Transeuphrates and Cilicia) in Aramaic above. Casabonne Series 4, Group B; SNG France 359. 10.67g, 23mm, 8h. About Extremely Fine. Rare. 1,000 From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

278. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Mazaios, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, circa 361/0-334 BC. Baaltars seated left on throne, his torso facing, holding lotus-tipped sceptre in right hand, left hand holding chlamys at his waist; thymiaterion to left, B’LTRZ in Aramaic to right / Lion walking to left on ground; MZDY in Aramaic above. Casabonne Series 5, Group B; SNG France 431 (Myriandros); SNG Levante 188 (Myriandros); Sunrise 56 corr. (mint). 10.68g, 23mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Exceptional quality for the issue. 1,000 From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

279. Cilicia, Tarsos AR Stater. Mazaios, satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, circa 361/0-334 BC. Baaltars seated left on throne, his torso facing, holding lotus-tipped sceptre in extended right hand, left hand holding chlamys at his waist; thymiaterion surmounted by eagle to left, barley grain below throne, B’LTRZ in Aramaic to right / Lion walking left; Z (in Phoenician[?]) above. Casabonne Series 5, Group E; SNG France -; SNG Levante Supp. 28 (Myriandros); Sunrise 60 corr. (mint). 10.46g, 22mm, 4h. Near Mint State. 500 From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

87


BITHYNIA

88


Extremely Rare Gold Stater of Kios

280.

Bithynia, Kios AV Stater. Circa 340-330. Hierokles, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo to right / Prow of war galley to left, ornamented with a star on fighting platform; club above, eagle standing to left before, IEPOΚΛΗΣ above. Waddington, Recueil Général des Monnaies Grecques d’Asie Mineure, pl. XLIX, 3 (same dies). 8.52g, 17mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare; one of fewer than a dozen known examples of which almost all are in museums. 50,000 From the A.F. Collection, Germany. According to myth, Kios was founded on the Propontic coast by the Argonaut Polyphemos, with Herakles’ approval. In practice, the site appears to have been first a Mysian, then a Karian colony, which was refounded by Milesians in circa 626/5 (Euseb. Chron. 97b). Nothing is known about the city’s early history, but it was under Persian domination from as early as 547/6 onwards. The Kians made several attempts to shake off the Persian yoke, first taking part in the Ionian Revolt in 497, then twice joining the Delian League, but though a Greek settlement, it is described as both small and barbarised, and in the Athenian tribute-list it is one of the many insignificant places assessed at 1,000 drachmai. Each time therefore, it is unsurprising that it was quickly brought back under Persian rule, and from 404 Kios made no further bids for independence. Kios’ civic coinage is confined to a narrow period in the mid 4th century BC, struck either shortly before or immediately after Alexander’s invasion of Asia Minor. Though it has been suggested that the coinage may have been intended to pay Mercenaries, this seems unlikely since the circulation of all the Kian coin series seems to have been limited. Throughout Alexander’s reign Kios was in the hands of a Persian dynast, Mithridates, uncle of the founder of the kingdom of Pontus, who ruled there from 337 to 302. While he lived, the city was never in the Hellespontine satrapy, demonstrated by the fact that when Antigonos drove out the Hellespontine satrap in 318, he fled to Kios (Diod. XVIII, 72, 2). Given that the Kian coins feature the names of civic magistrates rather than those of a local dynast, it seems possible that a short-lived uprising, unknown to history, may have occurred in the early part of the second half of the fourth century which occasioned the striking of a small number of gold staters, silver drachms and hemidrachms.

89


High Relief Prusias I Tetradrachm

281. Kingdom of Bithynia, Prusias I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 238-183 BC. Diademed head right / Zeus standing left, holding wreath in right hand, lotus tipped sceptre in left; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΠΡΟΥΣΙΟΥ to left; thunderbolt above two monograms to inner left. BMC Pontus p. 209, 1-2 var. (monograms); Waddington pl. XXIX. 16.80g, 32mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent style, struck in high relief.

5,000

Ex Roma Numismatics VII, 22 March 2014, lot 728 (£7,000).

PHRYGIA Second Known Coin of Gordion

2x

2x

282. Phrygia, Gordion AR Obol. Autonomous issue, circa 2nd-1st centuries BC. Jugate busts of Artemis and Apollo, both laureate, quiver over the shoulder of Artemis / Bow and quiver, ΓOΡΔI-ANΩN vertically across fields. Paris AA.GR.10254 = Borrell, Unedited Greek Coins, p. 27 in NC 1845-1846; otherwise unpublished. 0.70g, 9mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Of the highest rarity, only the second specimen known and the only one in private hands.

1,000

From a private English collection. The only other example of this excessively rare coinage, the only known issue of Gordion, was published in the Numismatic Chronicle in 1846 by H. P. Borrell. Not a single other specimen has come to light in the intervening 172 years. It must not be confused with Gordus, or GordusJulia, under which entry it is incorrectly listed by the Bibliothèque nationale, who hold the Borrell specimen. Gordion was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Phrygia, of which the quasi-legendary Midas was the most famous king. The city was destroyed c. 800-700 BC, but according to ancient tradition the knot with which Midas had tied a wagon (associated with the prophetic rise to power of Midas’ father, Gordias) to a pole in dedication to the Phrygian god Sabazios still stood on the acropolis of the city when Alexander came upon the place in 333 BC, from which comes the legendary story of Alexander and the Gordion Knot. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Gordion was controlled by Antigonos, the Seleukids, Celts, Attalids and finally by the Romans from 189 BC. The timing of this coin’s issue is uncertain, but we may presume that it was struck during a brief period of autonomy, perhaps under Roman suzerainty.

PAPHLAGONIA

283. Paphlagonia, Sinope AR Drachm. Circa 330-300 BC. Astyo..., magistrate. Head of nymph left, with hair in sakkos, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; aphlaston before / Sea eagle on dolphin to left; AΣTYO to right, ΣΙΝΩ below. SNG BM Black Sea 1465; HGC 7, 391. 6.16g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

90

300


PONTUS One of the Last Mithradates VI Gold Staters

284.

Kings of Pontos, Mithradates VI Eupator AV Stater. Pergamon, dated month 12, year 223 BE = September 74 BC. Diademed head right / Pegasos grazing left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, MIΘPAΔATOY EYΠATOPOΣ in two lines below; to left, star-in-crescent above ΓKΣ (year); two monograms to right, IB (month) in exergue; all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit. Roma XII, lot 356 = Roma VII, lot 757; CNG 93, lot 339; CNG 94, lot 399; NAC 92, lot 184. otherwise unpublished, but cf. Callataÿ dies D52-55 for tetradrachms from the same date, certainly by the same engraver. 8.42g, 20mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of six known specimens, and one of the very latest known staters from Mithradates’ reign. 12,500 Although some sources cite the initial battles of the Third Mithradatic War taking place in 74 BC, more recently the Battle of Chalkedon and the siege of Kyzikos have been dated to 73 BC. Cicero supports this dating, as he places Lucullus in Rome in November of 74 BC – Lucullus was only dispatched after reports of Mithradates invasion into Bithynia had reached Rome. Appian also supports the dating of hostilities to early in 73, stating that Mithradates spent ‘the remainder of the summer and the whole of the winter’ before the outbreak of war in building ships and augmenting his army. In this light, the present stater should be seen as part of Mithradates financial preparations for the war to come, struck on the eve of his invasion of the new Roman province of Bithynia and the start of the Third Mithradatic War (73-63 BC). This conflict, sparked when Nikomedes IV of Bithynia died without heirs in 75 and left his kingdom to Rome, was carefully timed to coincide with the outbreak of the Sertorian rebellion in Spain, thus causing the threat to become greater than its parts, and have serious potential of overturning Roman power. Despite early success, Mithradates was outclassed by the successive Roman generals Cotta, Lucullus and Pompey. Over the course of ten years, great devastation was wrought on Pontos, which eventually in 65 BC was declared by Pompey to be a Roman province. The kingdom of Armenia, which had been allied to Mithradates and fought alongside him, was subjugated and made a client state. Defeated, Mithradates fled to Colchis and from there to the Cimmerian Bosporos. Mithradates’ sad end came as he sought the assistance of his son Machares, King of the Cimmerian Bosporus, in raising a new army. Machares, who had allied himself with Rome, refused to assist his father, who according to Cassius Dio, had him put to death, and took the throne of the Bosporan kingdom for himself. His younger son, Pharnakes, backed by a disgruntled and war weary populace, led a rebellion against his father. Mithradates, either despairing now for the loss of his authority or because he was forced to do so by Pharnakes, attempted to commit suicide by taking poison. However, because he had taken tiny doses of all available poisons throughout his life to guard against assassination, the attempt failed and he was forced to ask his Gallic friend and bodyguard Bituitus to kill him by sword. His body was sent to Pompey, by whose instruction it was buried with all decorum alongside those of his ancestors.

91


ARMENIA Aristoboulos, descended from Herod the Great

285.

Kings of Armenia Minor, Aristoboulos Æ27. Nicopolis-ad-Lycum, or Chalkis, dated year 17 = AD 70/1. BACIΛEΩC APICTOBOYΛOY ET IZ, diademed head left; c/m: monogram within square incuse / TITΩ OΥECΠACIANΩ AYTOKPATΩP CEBACTΩ in six lines within wreath. Kovacs 301; Meshorer 367a; Hendin 1258; Sofaer 172; RG 3; RPC II 1692; for c/m: Kovacs 24; Howgego pl. 33, 722.1. 14.88g, 27mm, 11h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom. Son of Herod of Chalkis and great-grandson of Herod I the Great, Aristoboulos hailed from the Herodian Dynasty of Roman vassal kings and in turn was granted the kingdom of Armenia Minor in AD 54 by the emperor Nero (Josephus ‘Antiquities’, XX.158). Though uncertain, his wife Salome is often identified as the young woman whom the New Testament relates danced for Herod the Great and, at the encouragement of her mother, received the severed head of John the Baptist in return (Matthew 14:1–12; Mark 6:14–29). The martyrdom by beheading of John the Baptist is a holy day observed by various Christian churches, and a theme often seen in art, sculpture, music and poetry. A loyal client king of Rome, Aristoboulos supported the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo in the Roman-Parthian War of AD 58-63, receiving a portion of Greater Armenia as reward, and in AD 73 supplied troops to the governor of Syria, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, who had persuaded the new emperor Vespasian that Antiochos IV of Commagene was planning to revolt and side with Vologases I of Parthia. Aristoboulos’ decision to strike coins in only two years of his reign, years 13 (AD 66/7) and 17 (AD 70/1), as asserted by Kovacs, noted by Hendin (pg. 275), and proven by the clear date on a coin from the only other known issue of Aristoboulos, that which features dual portraits of himself and Salome (cf. Triton XIX, 277 and RPC I, 3839) is significant. The years AD 66 and AD 70 mark the beginning and end of the First Jewish-Roman War, as commemorated in the reverse of the present type which refers to Titus, whom Vespasian had left to suppress the revolt while he himself made his bid for imperial power. The two issues, struck at the beginning and end of the war, honouring first Nero and now Titus, probably therefore represent a public reaffirmation of Aristoboulos’ loyalty to his Roman patrons. Also king of Chalkis from AD 57 until his death in 92, whereupon the region was absorbed into the Roman provincial territories, a mint location in Chalkis has been cited as a possibility for the production of Aristoboulos’ coinage, though traditionally it has been noted as ‘presumably’ being from Nicopolis-ad-Lycum, where a specimen was acquired by F. Cumont c. 1900. Given the close proximity of Chalkis to the war in Judaea and the notable similarity in appearance and fabric of this coin to those of Chalkis, a mint location in Chalkis cannot be discounted.

92


PHOENICIA

286. Phoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Dated CY 35 = 92/1 BC. Laureate head of Herakles-Melkart right, lion’s skin tied around neck / ΤΥPΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, eagle standing left on prow, palm branch at shoulder; EΛ (date) above club to left, Δ to right, Phoenician B between legs. DCA-Tyre 85; Rouvier 2021 var. (right field control); HGC 10, 358; DCA 919; BMC 126–7. 14.43g, 29mm, 11h. About Extremely Fine.

1,500

From the collection of A.C., United Kingdom.

287. Phoenicia, Tyre Ӕ21. Pseudo-autonomous issue struck during the reign of Antoninus Pius, dated CY 265 = AD 139/40. Turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right; palm behind, murex shell before / EΞΣ (date) TYP(ligate)IEPAΣ MHTPOΠO-ΛEѠΣ in four lines above galley; ‘of Tyre’ (in Phoenician) below. SNG Copenhagen 344; Rouvier 2196. 6.61g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. A wonderful example of the type, which is very difficult to find in good condition.

300

From the V.D.T. Collection.

CYPRUS

Excessively Rare Coin of Marion, Cyprus

288. Cyprus, Marion AR Third-Stater. Timocharis, circa 450-400 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Aphrodite or Europa, wearing long chiton, seated right upon the back of a bull running to right, holding its horns; fish to right below. McClean 9152; Tziambazis 54. 3.45g, 14mm, 1h. Good Fine. Excessively Rare.

500

From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

Very Rare Stater of Paphos

289. Cyprus, Paphos AR Stater. Stasandros, circa 425 BC or later. Bull standing left; winged solar disk above, ankh to left, palmette ornament in exergue / Eagle standing left; one-handled vase to left, ‘pa-si sa-ta-sa’ in Cypriot script around; all within dotted square in incuse square. DestrooperGeorgiades 15; Tziambazis 7; Traité II 1291 = BMC 17; SNG Copenhagen 26; ACGC 1089. 11.07g, 22mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare, and among the finest known examples. From the collection of an antiquarian, Bavaria c. 1960s-1990s.

93

7,500


Exceptional Stater of Evagoras I

290.

Cyprus, Salamis AR Stater. Evagoras I, circa 411-374 BC. Head of bearded Herakles wearing lion skin headdress to right, Cypriot script before / Goat with long horns and beard lying to right on dotted ground line; combined Greek and Cypriot letters around; letter to right. BMC 55 var.; Boston 2144 var.; Tziambazis 113 var. 10.87g, 24mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Remarkably well struck and preserved for this type. Very Rare.

10,000

Ex Roma Numismatics V, 23 March 2013, lot 438. Coinage commenced in Cyprus around 525 BC, with the city of Salamis minting a primitive currency which from its earliest days featured the type of a ram lying down on its obverse. This design would remain common on the coinage of Salamis, no doubt implying that the region’s economy was heavily reliant on goat herding. Interestingly, in these early days the reverse was blank and flat, without even a punch mark. In this respect the coins of Salamis differ significantly from those of Greece or Asia Minor. Evagoras I, the greatest king of Salamis, claimed descent from Teukros son of Telamon and half-brother of Ajax. Having failed to avenge his brother’s death, Teukros was thus prevented from returning home from the Trojan war and supposedly settled in Salamis, becoming the mythical founder of the city. But Evagoras was born under the rule of the Phoenician usurpers, and according to Isokrates, was so possessed of “beauty... strength... manly courage, wisdom and justice” that “one of the princes, starting a conspiracy, slew the tyrant and attempted to arrest Evagoras, believing that he would not be able to retain the rule himself unless he should get him out of the way.” First escaping to Soloi in Cilicia, then returning with a picked band of fifty men, Evagoras attacked the palace by night and established himself as ruler of the city. The king produced a substantial issue of coinage in support of Athens and to further his ambitions for the domination of Cyprus. Indeed, with Athenian aid Evagoras succeeded in extending his rule over the greater part of the island, and even conquered several cities in Phoenicia, including Tyre. Yet when Athenian support was withdrawn under the terms of the Peace of Antalkidas, Evagoras continued to fight alone against the Persian Empire, which resulted in an invasion of the island that effectively reduced him to the status of a vassal king. In 374 he was assassinated by a eunuch for motives of private revenge, and was succeeded by his son, Nikokles. The inscription on the reverse of this coin is written in a combination of Cypriot syllabic and Greek characters. Although Cypriots were Greeks and their language a dialect of Greek, their written language was recorded in an older and more difficult system, the Cypriot syllabary, which was ultimately derived from the Linear A script of the Minoans. Evagoras has been called a pioneer of the adoption of the Greek alphabet in Cyprus in place of the older Cypriot syllabary.

94


95


PHILISTIA

291. Philistia, Gaza Fourrée Drachm - Quarter-Shekel. Circa 450-333 BC. Bearded head right / Forepart of horse to right, AZ in Aramaic script above, dotted square around; all within in incuse square. Gitler & Tal VI.1D; Hendin 1012; BMC Palestine pl. XIX, 14; HGC 10, 547. 2.66g, 15mm, 12h. Very Fine. Very Rare. 300 From the collection of A.S., Canada.

KYRENAIKA

Unpublished Tetradrachm of Kyrene

292. Kyrenaika, Kyrene AR Tetradrachm. Circa 535 BC. Two silphium fruits attached by tendrils / Rectangular rough incuse square with striations, divided into two segments. Unpublished in the standard references including: T.V. Buttery, ‘The Coins from the Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone’ in The Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene, Libya. Final Reports, University Museum of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 1997, p. 10, 1-7; cf. ACGC 1065 = BMC 28, p. 1, 1. 16.68g, 23mm. Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished - an important addition to the corpus of Kyrenaikan coinage. 1,000 From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

EGYPT

293. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I AV Half Mnaieion - Tetradrachm. Alexandria, circa 272-261/0 BC. Conjoined busts of Ptolemy II and Arsinöe II right; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Arsinöe is diademed and veiled; AΔEΛΦΩN above, shield to left / Conjoined busts of Ptolemy I and Berenike I; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Berenike is diademed and veiled; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 604; SNG Copenhagen 133; Noeske 38; Boston MFA 2275; Dewing 2753-4. 13.88g, 22mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

4,000

From a private Swedish collection, outside of Egypt prior to December 2016.

294. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I AV Half Mnaieion - Tetradrachm. Alexandria, circa 272-261/0 BC. Conjoined busts of Ptolemy II and Arsinöe II right; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Arsinöe is diademed and veiled; AΔEΛΦΩN above, shield to left / Conjoined busts of Ptolemy I and Berenike I; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Berenike is diademed and veiled; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 604; SNG Copenhagen 133; Noeske 38; Boston MFA 2275; Dewing 2753-4. 13.88g, 21mm, 1h. About Extremely Fine. From a private Swedish collection, outside of Egypt prior to December 2016.

96

3,500


295. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I AV Half Mnaieion - Tetradrachm. Alexandria, circa 272-261/0 BC. Conjoined busts of Ptolemy II and Arsinöe II right; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Arsinöe is diademed and veiled; AΔEΛΦΩN above, shield to left / Conjoined busts of Ptolemy I and Berenike I; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Berenike is diademed and veiled; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 604; SNG Copenhagen 133; Noeske 38; Boston MFA 2275; Dewing 2753-4. 13.95g, 20mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine; lustrous. 3,000 From the collection of Z.P., Austria, outside of Egypt prior to December 2016.

296. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, with Arsinöe II, Ptolemy I, and Berenike I AV Half Mnaieion - Tetradrachm. Alexandria, circa 272-261/0 BC. Conjoined busts of Ptolemy II and Arsinöe II right; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Arsinöe is diademed and veiled; AΔEΛΦΩN above, shield to left / Conjoined busts of Ptolemy I and Berenike I; Ptolemy is diademed and draped, Berenike is diademed and veiled; ΘEΩN above. Svoronos 604; SNG Copenhagen 133; Noeske 38; Boston MFA 2275; Dewing 2753-4. 13.82g, 20mm, 1h. Very Fine. 2,500 From the collection of H.A., United Kingdom, outside of Egypt prior to December 2016.

297. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Arsinoe II AV Mnaieon - Oktadrachm. Alexandria, circa 253-246 BC. Head right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped sceptre in background; K to left / Double cornucopiae, grape bunches hanging at sides, bound with fillet; APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY around. Svoronos 1498-9; Troxell p. 67, 8; SNG Copenhagen 321-2. 27.65g, 28mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 7,500 From the A.F. Collection, Germany, outside of Egypt prior to December 2016.

298. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Arsinoe II AV Mnaieon - Oktadrachm. Alexandria, circa 253-246 BC. Head right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped sceptre in background; K to left / Double cornucopiae, grape bunches hanging at sides, bound with fillet; APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY around. Svoronos 1498-9; Troxell p. 67, 8; SNG Copenhagen 321-2. 27.67g, 28mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. 7,500 From the A.F. Collection, Germany, outside of Egypt prior to December 2016.

97


299. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy VIII AR Tetradrachm. Paphus Cypri, circa 144-143 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I right / ΠΤΟΛEΜΑΙOΥ BAΣΙΛEΩΣ, eagle with closed wings standing to left on thunderbolt; LKI to left, ΠA to right. Svoronos 1502. 14.34g, 26mm, 10h. Extremely Fine.

750

Ex Roma Numismatics II, 2 October 2011, lot 349.

PERSIA

300. Achaemenid Kings of Persia AV Daric. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Persian Great King or hero, wearing kidaris and kandys, in kneeling-running attitude right, holding apple-tipped spear and strung bow; quiver over shoulder / Rectangular incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B. 8.38g, 17mm. Extremely Fine; very refined style.

2,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

MESOPOTAMIA

301. Alexandrine Empire, Mazakes AR Tetradrachm. Satrap of Mesopotamia, circa 331-323/2 BC. Imitating Athens. Helmeted head of Athena right / Owl standing right, head facing; olive spray and crescent to left, MZDK (in Aramaic) to right. Le Rider, Alexander, pp. 214-9; Van Alfen, Owls, Group V, 99 (same obv. die[?]). 17.08g, 24mm, 8h. Very Fine. Very Rare Group V issue.

500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

SELEUKID EMPIRE

302. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, MI at feet to left, monogram in wreath to right. SC 81.2; Price 3748; Müller 731. 8.56g, 18mm, 4h. Mint State. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

98

3,000


303. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, MI at feet to left, monogram in wreath to right. SC 81.2; Price 3748; Müller 731. 8.60g, 18mm, 11h. Mint State.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

304. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, MI at feet to left, monogram in wreath to right. SC 81.2; Price 3748; Müller 731. 8.56g, 18mm, 10h. Near Mint State.

3,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

305. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AV Stater. In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon. Babylon, circa 311-300 BC. Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with coiled serpent / Nike standing left, holding wreath and stylis; BAΣIΛEΩΣ to left, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right, MI at feet to left, monogram in wreath to right. SC 81.2; Price 3748; Müller 731. 8.56g, 18mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine. From the A.F. Collection, Germany.

99

3,000


100


Superb Tetradrachm of Seleukos I

306.

Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 300-294 BC. Head of Seleukos I right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around; AP below left wing, facing bust of Helios in lower middle field, monogram to lower right. SC 173.16; ESM 301; ESMS Tr. 108; HGC 9, 20; SNG Spaer -; Houghton -. 17.23g, 26mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare variety.

20,000

From the collection of J. R. Williams; Privately purchased from Roma Numismatics Ltd., February 2011. The trophy series of Seleukos was issued over an extended period, and used 67 obverse dies and at least 93 reverses that we are aware of. The type is generally assumed to commemorate the victories of Seleukos as he pushed eastwards into India, occupying territory as far as the Indus, and eventually waging war against the Mauryan Empire. This campaign against Chandragupta Maurya was however a failure. While there is no record of what transpired to prevent Seleukos achieving his aims, the two leaders eventually reached an accord whereby Seleukos ceded some of his easternmost territory in exchange for a gift of 500 war elephants. The massive beasts were to play a significant role in the coming wars of the Diadochi, in particular at the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC. The assertion that the trophy reverse commemorates a victory by Seleukos in the east or in the Upper Satrapies, and his subsequent assumption of a the royal title in 305/4 BC is problematic. The dating of the issue was proposed by Kritt (The Early Seleukid Mint of Susa, 1997) and subsequently accepted by the numismatic community seemingly without question. Moreover, the important detail of the trophy’s composition is ignored. The trophy is unquestionably built from Macedonian arms, as evidenced by the Vergina Sun (or Argead Star) clearly emblazoned on the shield. That this should therefore represent an eastern victory is impossible, particularly given the inconclusive nature of Seleukos’ campaign against Chandragupta, and its stale conclusion. The issue bears far more significance when viewed in the context of a victory over other Macedonians - for which we should look to the battle of Ipsos, in which Seleukos’ elephants played a decisive role in the victory over Antigonos.

101


307. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 300-294 BC. Head of Seleukos I right, wearing helmet covered with panther skin and adorned with bull’s ears and horns, panther skin tied around neck / Nike standing right, wearing peplos, crowning trophy of Macedonian arms set on sapling tree, from which branch sprouts near base; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ around; AP below left wing, monogram in lower middle field. SC 173.15; ESMS 106; HGC 9, 20; SNG Spaer -; Houghton -. 17.21g, 27mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare variety.

17,500

308. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 295-281 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ, Athena, brandishing spear and shield, in biga of elephants to right; spearhead above, A to lower right. SC 177.3. ESMS El.28; HGC 9, 18c. 17.06g, 27mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,500

From the collection of A.S., Canada.

Extremely Rare Seleukos I Tetradrachm

309. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. Susa, circa 295-281 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ, Athena, brandishing spear and shield, in biga of elephants to right; spearhead above, K to lower right. SC 177 var. (control mark unlisted); ESMS - (but obv. die A3); CNG 94, 723; HGC 9, 18c. 17.13g, 25mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Apparently one of only two known examples with this control mark. From the collection of A.S., Canada.

102

1,500


Unique Silver Stater of Seleukos I

310. Seleukid Empire, Seleukos I Nikator AR Stater. Attic standard. Susa, circa 288/7 BC. Head of Zeus right, wearing laurel wreath / Elephant advancing to right; spearhead above to right, ΠA monogram and AP below. SC 187.1 var. (controls not listed), cf. 179 (controls in ex. on elephant chariot type); ESM -; HGC 9, -. 16.86g, 22mm, 9h. Very Fine; weight adjustment gouge on obv. Of the greatest rarity; a unique variety of a series for which only 10 specimens are known.

5,000

From the collection of A.S., Canada. Recalling the conclusion of Seleukos’ Indian campaign in 303 BC, at which time he exchanged his eastern satrapies in the Indus River Valley for a considerable force of 500 war elephants, and first introduced around the time of the tenth anniversary in c. 295 at Susa (cf. elephant chariot type, SC 177), the related motif seen on the present piece dispenses with the military aspects of the earlier types for a distinctly eastern theme. A unique variety of an extremely rare series, this stater bears the spearhead symbol used at Susa before the introduction of the Seleukid anchor, and control marks in exergue known from the earlier elephant chariot types (cf. SC 179). The specific reason for their production remains unknown however, overshadowed as they are by the more commonly found Baal/Lion staters (cf. SC 88ff), with the suggestion from Newell that they might be a localised trade or temple currency remaining the most likely reasoning posited for both series.

Extremely Rare Joint Reign Drachm

311. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter with Seleukos I (Joint reign) AR Drachm. Ekbatana, 294-281 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to right, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ below, monogram above lion forepart to left; monogram below throne. SC 211.2 var. (secondary control not listed), cf. 210.2 (secondary control for Seleukos I); ESM -. 4.04g, 17mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. An apparently unique and unrecorded variety of an extremely rare Alexandrine type in the name of Antiochos I.

500

From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. Bearing a secondary control known from the Alexandrine type tetradrachms and drachms of Seleukos I struck at Ekbatana, coupled with a primary control and field symbol attested on issues of Antiochos I, this apparently unique and unrecorded drachm would appear to confirm the assertion first made by Waggoner and followed by Houghton and Lorber in SC that the Alexandrine coinage in the name of Antiochos from Ekbatana was struck during the period of co-regency between father and son, rather than at the beginning of his sole reign. The sprawling nature of the Seleukid Empire by AD 295, which had experienced rapid growth in only seventeen years, led to the province of Persis being the first to break away through a nationalist revolt, and it was likely this crisis that led to the elevation of Antiochos. With responsibility for the eastern provinces and thus the mints within their bounds, the many control links seen among the mints attest to a degree of administrative coordination that is perhaps reflective of the young co-regent asserting his rule.

312

313

312. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Tigris, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head right / Apollo Delphios seated left on omphalos, testing arrow and resting left hand on grounded bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, AP monogram to outer left, HP monogram to outer right. SC 379.3a; HGC 9; ESM 149; Houghton 950; SNG Spaer 289. 17.18g, 29mm, 8h. Near Extremely Fine. 1,000 From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. 313. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Ekbatana, circa 281-261 BC. Diademed head right / Apollo Delphios seated left on omphalos, testing arrow and resting left hand on grounded bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, two monograms to inner left, forepart of horse grazing left at feet. SC 409.2g; HGC 9, 128h. 16.97g, 28mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 300 From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

103


314. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos II Theos AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Tigris, 261-246 BC. Diademed head of Antiochos I right / Apollo Delphios seated left on omphalos, testing arrow and resting left hand on grounded bow; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ to left, monograms to outer left and right. SC 587.1c; ESM 180; SNG Spaer 385. 17.11g, 30mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. 750 From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

Extremely Rare Alexander Balas Tetradrachm

315. Seleukid Empire, Alexander I Balas AR Tetradrachm. Seleucia Pieria, dated SE 166 = 147/6 BC. Laureate head of Zeus to right, with full beard and with his hair arranged in long curls of archaizing form / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, thunderbolt, ϚΞΡ (= 166) and monogram above, two monograms below; all within elaborate laurel wreath with ties to right. CSE 409; Gulbenkian 1044; A. Houghton, ‘A Tetradrachm of Seleucia Pieria at the Getty Museum,’ J. Getty Museum Journal 10 (1982), A2/P4 and fig. F = SC 1798 = Wealth of the Ancient World 112. 16.70g, 23mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, one of as few as fifteen known specimens, of which at least seven are in museum collections. 6,000 From a European collection; Ex Gemini VII, 9 January 2011, lot 575. This rare and remarkable tetradrachm represents a very interesting episode in the history of the Seleukid empire. Of humble origins, Alexander Balas pretended that he was the son of Antiochos IV Epiphanes and Laodike IV, and thus heir to the imperial throne. He was ‘discovered’ by Herakleides, a former minister of Antiochos IV and brother of Timarchos, an usurper in Media who had been executed by the reigning king Demetrios I Soter. Alexander’s claims were recognised by the Roman Senate and Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt; he was even granted the hand in marriage of Cleopatra Thea, a daughter of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Though his revolt was initially unsuccessful, in 150 BC Alexander was able to defeat Demetrios, and claim overlordship of the empire. Despite his victory however, Alexander remained heavily dependent on Ptolemaic support. Antioch refused to acknowledge him, and struck its own series of posthumous coinage in the name of Antiochos IV. Alexander was therefore forced to strike his own coinage at Seleukeia, previously only a peripheral mint, but which at the beginning of his reign was the only city in northern Syria completely under his control.

Unique Tetradrachm of Antiochos VII

316. Seleukid Empire, Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes) AR Tetradrachm. Soloi(?), circa 138-129 BC. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ, diademed head right / Athena seated to left on throne, grounded shield at side, transverse spear in background, holding Nike who crowns royal epithet; monograms in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references; for similar seated Athena type cf. SC 2050 (Soli) and 2052 (Cilician issue imitating Soli). 15.54g, 29mm, 11h. Very Fine. Unique and apparently unpublished. 2,000 From the collection of A.S., Canada. The present coin bears one of the same monograms as SC 2052, which Houghton (ANSMN 33, 1988, pp. 65-6) concluded was produced at an auxiliary mint of Tarsos, supervised by Tarsian magistrates and located in the western part of Cilicia Pedias between Tarsos and Soloi. That coin however bears an obverse of considerably different style to the present specimen, which is stylistically much more similar to SC 2050, attributed to Soloi.

104


Cleopatra Thea

317.

Seleukid Empire, Cleopatra Thea Eueteria AR Tetradrachm. Sole reign. Ake-Ptolemais, dated SE 126/125 BC. Diademed and veiled bust of Cleopatra Thea right, wearing stephane / BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ KΛEOΠATΡAΣ ΘEAΣ EΥETHPIAΣ, doublecornucopiae tied with fillet, monogram to right, [date IΠP (= year 187) in exergue]. SC 2258.2; BMC 1 = LSM, NNM 84, 7; Houghton, CSE 803; Seyrig, Tresors II, 30.242; Spink 3014, 87. 15.76g, 32mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Excessively Rare; the sixth known example.

15,000

From the collection of A.S., Canada. The life of Kleopatra Thea Eueteria (“Kleopatra the Goddess of Plenty”) would have been worthy of immortalisation in Shakespearean tragedy as few but the lives of the Ptolemies are; such was the complexity of her life and the constant intrigue that surrounded her, it is most surprising that she has never been the subject of major artistic work or representation in historical fiction. Born into the Ptolemaic royal family of Egypt in circa 164 BC, Cleopatra was the daughter of Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II, who were brother and sister. It seems that early in her life she had been betrothed to her uncle Ptolemy VIII Physcon, who was the rival King of Egypt in an uneasy triumvirate. However in 150 BC she was married to the usurper king of the Seleukid Empire, Alexander Balas, at a sumptuous ceremony in Ake Ptolemaïs; this marriage would produce a son, Antiochos VI Dionysos. In 145 though, her father invaded Syria, defeated Balas in battle and remarried her to Demetrios II, the son of the former king deposed by Balas, only to die himself a few days later in uncertain circumstances. With the death then of her father Ptolemy VII Philometor, Cleopatra Thea’s erstwhile fiancé Ptolemy Physcon married her mother Cleopatra II, and six years later replaced her with her daughter Cleopatra III, Cleopatra Thea’s sister. Cleopatra bore her new husband Demetrios II two sons who would later grow up to be kings themselves: Seleukos V Philometor, and Antiochos VII Grypos. In 139, Demetrios II was captured while fighting the Parthians, and held hostage. With the loss of the king, Demetrios’ younger brother Antiochos VII Sidetes assumed the throne, taking Cleopatra Thea as his wife the following year. She bore him too at least one son, Antiochos IX Kyzikenos. In 129, in a bid to destabilise the Seleukid Empire, the Parthians released Demetrios II to reclaim his throne and wife from his brother. Conveniently, that same year Sidetes was killed in battle against the Parthians, and thus Demetrios regained his throne, taking Cleopatra as his wife once more. By now though the empire was a shadow of its former self, and Demetrios faced difficulties maintaining his control over his reduced territories. Recollections of his old cruelties and vices, along with his humiliating defeat and apparent good treatment in Parthia, caused him to be detested. Ptolemy Physcon, now at odds with his former wife Cleopatra II, who had fled Egypt to the court of her daughter and son-in-law, set up the usurper Alexander II Zabinas in opposition to Demetrios. Alexander defeated Demetrios in battle at Damascus in 126, and fled to Ptolemaïs whereupon Cleopatra closed the gates against him. After this final desertion by his wife, he was captured, possibly tortured, and died a miserable death on a ship near Tyre. This coin was struck in the brief period after the death of Demetrios and before his eldest son Seleukos V became king in 125. During that time Cleopatra held the reins of empire and ruled as Queen in her own right, issuing this very brief (and today extremely rare) coinage. Seleukos V was murdered on his mother’s orders soon after his accession, and then from 125 to 121 BC Cleopatra Thea ruled jointly with Demetrios’ younger son Antiochos VIII Grypos, who was still a teenager at his crowning. Defeating Alexander II Zabinas in 123, the victorious returning king was offered a poisoned cup of wine by his mother, who apparently feared losing her control over him, but the suspicious Antiochos instead forced her to drink it herself. So perished Cleopatra Thea, though her influence was yet felt for many years: while Antiochos Grypos proved a competent king, reorganising the state and providing stability and financial recovery, all this would end in 114 when Cleopatra’s son by Antiochos Sidetes, Antiochos Kyzikenos, returned to Syria to claim the throne, sparking renewed civil war.

105


PARTHIA Andragoras of Parthia

318. Parthia, Andragoras AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos, circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Turreted head of Tyche right, wearing pendant earring and necklace; monogram of Andragoras behind / Athena standing left, wearing helmet, long chiton and himation, holding owl on extended right hand and resting left hand on grounded shield, transverse spear in background; ANΔPAΓOPOY to right. Roma XIV, 326; Mitchiner 20; BMC 3-4, pl. xxviii, 2-3. 16.71g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. One of exceedingly few known examples.

7,500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. Coming from the same group of coins of the Oxus region, selections of which were presented in Roma XIV, it is now certain that the Andragoras for whom this type was struck is the same Andragoras attested as having been satrap of Parthia under Seleukos I. It is therefore clear that past scholarship often tended to date the coinage of Andragoras much too early, occasionally to the period immediately following the death of Alexander the Great, and that Justin (xii. 4) simply had his dating confused. During what appeared to be the imminent collapse of the Seleukid Empire in the Third Syrian War, when Ptolemy III of Egypt seized control of the Seleukid capital at Antioch from Seleukos II in retaliation for the death of his sister Berenike, Andragoras seceded from the empire and made his satrapy of Parthia into an independent kingdom. However, Andragoras had difficulty in maintaining his borders without the military support provided by the Seleukid Empire, and in about 238 BC the Parni invaded under the command of Arsakes and his brother Tiridates and seized control of the northern region of the Parthian territory. Andragoras appears to have been killed either attempting to retake this territory, or while resisting the Parni conquest of the remainder of Parthia.

Second Known Example

319. Parthia, Andragoras AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos, circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Turreted head of Tyche right, wearing pendant earring and necklace; [monogram of Andragoras] behind / Athena standing left, wearing helmet, long chiton and himation, holding owl on extended right hand and resting left hand on grounded shield, transverse spear in background; ANΔPAΓOPOY to right, kerykeion to left. Roma XIV, 327; Mitchiner -; BMC -. 17.00g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. The second known example of this unpublished variety with a kerykeion field symbol. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

106

3,000


107


320. Parthia, Andragoras AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos, circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Turreted head of Tyche right, wearing pendant earring and necklace, rosettes on turrets; monogram of Andragoras behind / Athena standing right, wearing helmet, long chiton and peplos, holding owl on extended left hand and with right hand holding transverse spear behind her, shield at side; ANΔPAΓOPOY to left. Roma XIV, 328; Mitchiner -; BMC -. 16.90g, 27mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Unpublished, only the second known example of this numismatically important type.

5,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. If we accept that the silver coinage of Andragoras was struck by the same individual responsible for the gold staters (BMC Arabia, North East Persia 1), and that this individual was the Andragoras recorded as being the satrap who rebelled against Seleukid rule in the early part of the second half of the third century BC, the types employed on this ruler’s coinage now make perfect sense given their context. Andragoras faced a belligerent tribe the Parni - on his border, and with Seleukos II preoccupied with fighting an increasingly desperate war against Ptolemy III, no assistance would be forthcoming. Thus we find the types of Tyche, wearing her mural crown, who on the obverse is invoked as the goddess governing the fortune and prosperity of the city, and Athena as military protectress on the reverse. The gold staters depicting Zeus, the supreme Greek deity, and a war-chariot guided by Nike the goddess of Victory, likewise hint at production in a war-time setting.

321. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; prow behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 329; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS -; H. NicoletPierre / M. Amandry, “Un nouveau trésor de monnaies d’argent pseudo-Athéniennes venu d’Afghanistan”, RN 1994, 36-39; Mitchiner 13a = G.F. Hill, Greek coins acquired by the British Museum in 1920,” in NC 1921, 17. 16.87g, 26mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. The presence of this particular monogram on these issues of the ‘Athenian Series’ coinage is confounding. It is (with the occasional inclusion or omission of a central vertical line) precisely the same monogram that appears on all of the silver tetradrachms of Andragoras, as well as the gold staters (BMC Arabia, North East Persia 1) which have been variously attributed to either a Satrap appointed by Alexander in c.331 BC, or the Seleukid satrap who declared independence in 246/5 BC. The monogram has three possible explanations: firstly, the monogram could be an engraver’s signature; secondly, it could be a magistral mark, the monogram of a mint or treasury official; thirdly, it could be the monogram of the issuing authority, i.e. the satrap. If indeed as we have proposed above there was only the one Andragoras, and that his silver and gold coinage is related, it is equally possible that the monogram could belong to engraver, official or satrap. However, examining the monogram itself, one can easily read ‘ANΔPAΓOPAΣ’, whether the central vertical line is present or not. The implications, if this is indeed correct, are significant. It may require the reconsideration of the attribution of at least part of the ‘Athenian Series’ and ‘Eagle Series’ coinage from Sophytes to Andragoras and therefore the Ekbatana mint. The matter is not so simple though, since the ‘MNA’ mark that appears on some other ‘Athenian Series’ coins also appears on the bust truncation of the helmeted coins of Sophytes. Additionally, there are other monograms and marks which cannot be tied to either Andragoras or Sophytes. One possible answer to this puzzle is that the ‘Athenian Series’ was not all struck at a single ‘uncertain mint in the Oxus region’, and that Athenian imitations were being produced at various satrapal minting facilities in the region for the purpose of local commerce, each utilising a different control mark or set of controls. Nicolet-Pierre and Amandry also reached the same tentative conclusion (see N&A p.40). We will not presume to attempt to solve a century old mystery in the few hours available to us - this must be left to others with more time - however in this cataloguer’s opinion the links between the ‘Athenian Series’ and the coinage of both Andragoras and Sophytes cannot be ignored, and for the time being we have elected to re-attribute part of the ‘Athenian Series’ and ‘Eagle Series’ to the mint under Andragoras’ control, since the same monogram can be found across those series.”

108


322. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; prow behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 329; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS -; H. NicoletPierre / M. Amandry, “Un nouveau trésor de monnaies d’argent pseudo-Athéniennes venu d’Afghanistan”, RN 1994, 36-39; Mitchiner 13a = G.F. Hill, Greek coins acquired by the British Museum in 1920,” in NC 1921, 17. 17.05g, 26mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

323. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 330; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 3; N&A 40-42; Mitchiner -. 17.07g, 23mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine; flan defect on obv. Extremely Rare.

2,500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

324. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45; cf. Mitchiner 24, third illustrated specimen (appears to have appropriate reverse symbols, but is not described in text and listed, probably erroneously, as local weight standard). 8.09g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,250

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

325. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45; cf. Mitchiner 24, third illustrated specimen (appears to have appropriate reverse symbols, but is not described in text and listed, probably erroneously, as local weight standard). 7.96g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

109

1,000


326. Parthia(?), ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45; cf. Mitchiner 24, third illustrated specimen (appears to have appropriate reverse symbols, but is not described in text and listed, probably erroneously, as local weight standard). 8.04g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

Unique Eagle Series Drachm

327. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; uncertain symbol behind / Eagle standing left, head right. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner -; N&A -; Roma XVI -; cf. CNG e304, 185 (hemidrachm). 3.47g, 14mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

328. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram of Andragoras(?) behind / Eagle standing left, head right; grape cluster on vine with leaf. Roma XIV, 332; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner -; N&A -; CNG 63, 920. 3.66g, 15mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

329. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Ekbatana(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing left, head right; grape cluster on vine with leaf above. Roma XIV, 334; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS 14-16; Mitchiner 26c; N&A 52-57. 3.57g, 15mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

110

1,000


Extremely Rare Hemidrachm

2x

2x

330. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Hemidrachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing left, head right; grape cluster on vine with leaf above. Roma XIV, 337; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS 17-18; cf. Mitchiner 26c (drachm). 1.74g, 12mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

Second Known with Eagle Right

331. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Drachm. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Eagle standing right, head left; grape cluster on vine with leaf and kerykeion above. Roma XIV, 338; SNG ANS -; Mitchiner -; N&A -; for type with eagle to left, cf. Mitchiner 26d and Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A. 3.69g, 15mm, 6h. Mint State. Apparently the second known with eagle to right.

1,500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

Third Known

2x

2x

332. Parthia(?), ‘Eagle series’ AR Diobol. Hekatompylos(?), circa 246/5-239/8 BC. Local standard. Laureate head of Zeus right / Eagle standing left, head right; grape cluster on vine with leaf and kerykeion above. Roma XIV, 339; Bopearachchi, Sophytes -; N&A 65; SNG ANS -; cf. Mitchiner -. 1.21g, 11mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Exceedingly Rare; apparently the third known example.

750

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

UNCERTAIN EASTERN SATRAPY

333. Uncertain Eastern Satrapy, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Uncertain mint, circa 323-240 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; small grape bunch behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 342; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner -; SNG ANS 5; N&A 24-29; NAC 77, 102; Triton VIII, 608. 8.07g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

111

500


334. Uncertain Eastern Satrapy, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint (Mesopotamia or Babylonia), circa 323-240 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right, with profile eye / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent to left, AIΓ to right. Van Alfen, Mechanisms, Group III.E.2, fig. 24; BMC Attica 271; Mitchiner 13c. 17.14g, 23mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Unusually complete and very well preserved for the issue. Extremely Rare; one of only a dozen or so known specimens, of which six are in museums. 1,500 From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

Wreath or Solar Symbol?

335. Uncertain Eastern Satrapy, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint (Mesopotamia or Babylonia?), circa 323-240 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig, crescent and wreath or solar symbol(?) behind, AΘE before; all within irregular incuse. Unpublished in the standard references. 16.71g, 23mm, 7h. Very Fine. Apparently unpublished in the standard references, and probably unique. 1,000 From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

336. Uncertain Eastern Satrapy, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint, circa 323-240 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before; all within incuse square. Roma XIV, 345; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner 13a; SNG ANS 1. 16.96g, 25mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. 1,500 From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

337. Uncertain Eastern Satrapy, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint, circa 323-240 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette and grape bunch on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before; all within incuse square. Cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; cf. Roma XIV, 341 corr. (grape bunch on rev.). 16.86g, 23mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Seemingly unpublished. 1,250 From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. Sharing the obverse grape bunch of lot 344, but struck with an incuse square reverse, the present piece, attributed in Roma XIV to ‘uncertain eastern satrapy’ is more appropriately attributed to the Baktrian ‘Athenian series’, but its chronological relationship is uncertain.

112


BAKTRIA

Stasanor as Satrap?

338. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Stasanor, satrap(?). Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 321-245 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; ΣTA behind, MNA below / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig, crescent and grape bunch behind, AΘE before. Roma XVI, 346; Bopearachchi, Sophytes -; Mitchiner -; SNG ANS -; N&A 1-3; Spink 3014, 124 = G&M 48, 604. 16.96g, 23mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of fewer than ten known examples.

3,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. The ΣTA MNA mark which appears on a small number of extremely rare tetradrachms is nearly identical to a mark on a double daric (BMC Arabia p. 178, 12) attributed to Babylon. F. Imhoof-Blumer read the two clearly separate marks as one, arriving at the name ‘Stamenes’, who was briefly satrap of Babylonia under Alexander after the death of Mazaios, before being replaced by a Macedonian, Archon, son of Kleinias, who governed until after Alexander’s death. There is however no evidence to support this attribution, and in fact the reverse punch of the double daric is considerably different in style to others of the series. Moreover, in considering the origin of that coin, which came from the Oxus hoard and entered the BM in 1881, it seems more logical to suppose, as proposed by Head (NC, 1906), that it was minted further east, perhaps under the then satrap Stasanor. The letters MNA remained unexplained to Head, but the appearance of these letters on their own, not preceded by ΣTA on ‘Athenian Series’ tetradrachms and the helmeted portrait issues of Sophytes, which also appear in abbreviated form as MN and M, further discredit the Stamenes theory, and strengthen the case for ΣTA being viewed independently of the second mark, MNA. For further discussion on the ΣTA-MNA marks, see N&A p. 50-54. Stasanor was a native of Soli in Cyprus who held a distinguished position among the officers of Alexander the Great. He probably entered the service after the siege of Tyre in 332 BC, but the first occasion on which his name is mentioned is during the campaign in Baktria, when he was despatched by Alexander with a strong force to reduce Arsames, then satrap of Aria, who was in revolt. As reward, Stasanor was confirmed in the now vacant position of satrap, whence he was soon promoted to Drangiana. In the Partition of Triparadisus in 321 BC, Stasanor was appointed the more important government of Baktria and Sogdiana. He is attested as having been still at his post in 316, and may possibly have remained there until his death before or in 305, when Seleukos is believed to have attacked and conquered the province. However, while an attribution of this type to Stasanor may seem attractive and even tempting, its context within this group and the rather moderate wear it has suffered suggest that it may have been produced somewhat later than the time of Stasanor, even if we accept that he may have still been at his post in 305. Moreover, in considering the redating of the coins of Sophytes (see lots 325, 364 and 365) we must admit the possibility that if MNA is an engraver or mint-master’s initials, then it seems unlikely that the same engraver or mint-master would have been active for so lengthy a span of time. It then follows that ΣTA might refer to neither Stamenes nor Stasanor.

339. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; MNA behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig, crescent and grape bunch behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 347; Bopearachchi, Sophytes -; Mitchiner -; SNG ANS -; N&A 18-19; Leu 83, 264. 17.02g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Only four other specimens previously recorded.

2,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. The appearance of the letters MNA on their own, not preceded by ΣTA, which also appear in abbreviated form as MN and M, both on this ‘Athenian Series’ coinage and on the helmeted portrait issues of Sophytes, is suggestive of MNA being either a magistral mark, or an engraver’s signature. While the prominent placement of MNA on both the double daric and the tetradrachm would seem to be counter-indicative of its being a signature because of its brazen size and obtrusiveness, on the helmeted portrait coins of Sophytes it is very discreetly placed on the bust truncation. The fact that it is so well hidden (and on the tetradrachms, abbreviated simply to ‘M’) very strongly argues against it being a magistrate or subordinate official’s name. The Baktrian ‘Athenian series’ coinage, judging from its lack of wear, must have been issued immediately prior to or concurrent to Sophytes’ named coinage.

113


340. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; MNA behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 349; Bopearachchi, Sophytes -; Mitchiner -; SNG ANS -; N&A -, cf. 18-19 (tetradrachms); CNG E-115, 180 (misdescribed). 7.70g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only four other didrachms of the MNA issue in CoinArchives.

1,250

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

341. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; ΦA over prow behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig, crescent and grape bunch behind, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 352; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner -; N&A 20-22; SNG ANS -. 16.66g, 24mm, 7h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

2,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

342. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; monogram behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, grape bunch over tail, AΘE before. Roma XIV, 354; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner 13e; N&A 13-15; SNG ANS -; Svoronos pl. 109, 8; Leu 83, 263. 16.98g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

114

1,500


343. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl; small grape bunch behind / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, grape bunch over tail, AΘE to right. Roma XIV, 360; cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner -; N&A -; SNG ANS -. 16.72g, 23mm, 8h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare, apparently the third known example.

1,500

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

344. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette and grape bunch on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE to right. Cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; cf. Roma XIV, 341 corr. (grape bunch on rev.). 16.97g, 21mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

1,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

2x

2x

345. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Hemidrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette and grape bunch on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, grape bunch over tail, AΘE before. Roma XIV 341 corr.; cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A. 1.92g, 10mm, 9h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

300

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

Second Known Example

346. Baktria, ‘Athenian Series’ AR Didrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 261-239/8 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Owl standing right, head facing; behind, prow and grape bunch on vine with leaf, AΘE before. Cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner -; SNG ANS -; N&A -; Roma XIV 361 = Heritage 3061, 32075. 8.00g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State. The second known example. From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

115

3,000


116


Third Known Example

347.

Baktria, Sophytes AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl / Cockerel standing right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Bopearachchi, Sophytes -; Mitchiner -; Whitehead, NC 1943, pp. 60ff (drachm); O. Bopearachchi, Royaumes grecs en Afghanistan. Nouvelles données”, in L’art d’Afghanistan de la préhistoire à nos jours, CERDAF, Actes d’une Journée d’étude, UNESCO, 11th March 2005, Paris, 2005, p. 60-2 = NAC 59, 655; Roma XIV, 364 (same dies). 17.10g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Of the greatest rarity, the third known example, and one of only 2 examples of this type in the Andragoras-Sophytes Group. 25,000 From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. The question of who Sophytes was and when he lived is one that has confounded numismatists for a hundred and fifty one years. It should be quite clear to anyone reading this that the Sophytes of this coinage was not the Sopeithes described in classical sources as the ruler in the Punjab region between the Hydraotes and the Hyphasis who so impressed Alexander. We can say with certainty only that he was evidently Indo-Iranian by ethnicity, for Sophytes is the Hellenisation of a non-Greek name, and that he must have commanded an important region or city, most likely within Baktria, in the vicinity of the Oxus river. Though little (if any) attention has been paid to the choice of the cockerel as the reverse type, it is when considered properly, thoroughly Baktrian in character. The cockerel was a most sacred animal in Zoroastrian religion; besides its common name ‘Halka’ and its onomatopoeic name ‘Kahrkatas’, it was also referred to by a religious name, ‘Parodarsh’ - literally, ‘foreseer’ (of the dawn). It was the bird of light and hence of righteousness, scattering the darkness and the evil that dwells within. This remarkable tetradrachm provides direct evidence for a transitional phase coinage struck by Sophytes, on the obverse of which we can observe the continuation of the ‘Athenian Series’ using the helmeted head of Athena type, while the reverse replaces the Athenian owl for the cockerel that will remain the principal type of Sophytes on his helmeted portrait issues. The cockerel is joined by a kerykeion adjunct symbol already familiar to us from the preceding series, and the legend ΣΟΦYΤΟΥ. We have already established that the coinage of Andragoras and Sophytes should be considered roughly contemporary, with the former’s probably preceding that of the latter, judging by the patterns of wear that we have encountered. It seems fair to propose therefore, that emboldened by Andragoras’ placement of his own name upon the reverse of his coins, Sophytes decided to follow suit. Certainly, the hold of the Seleukid central government over its farthest eastern satrapies had been weakening since the death of Antiochos I; Houghton and Lorber (SC, p. 167) observe that “mint operations in the rich province of Baktria gradually escaped Seleukid control” throughout Antiochos II’s reign, and while it was previously accepted that there was only one Baktrian mint, recent scholarship and archaeology has shown this not to be the case. “

117


118


A Portrait of Seleukos I?

348.

Baktria, Sophytes AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard, tied under chin; M on bust truncation / Cockerel standing right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Cf. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 1; for type cf. SNG ANS 21-23 (drachm); Mitchiner 29 (drachm); Whitehead NC 1943, pp. 64, 1 and pl. III, 7-8 (drachm); Roma XIV, 365 var. (no M under truncation). 16.87g, 26mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. The third known example of an issue of considerable numismatic interest. A bold and expressive portrait engraved in the finest Hellenistic style. 35,000 From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA. This portrait, which has all too often been simply assumed to be that of Sophytes himself, is eminently worthy of further scrutiny. It is the work of a highly talented individual, and depicts what should by any account be a great general, helmeted in Attic style and wearing the laurel wreath of a conqueror. Unfortunately the actions of Sophytes, whatever they might have been, were either not recorded or have long since been lost. We cannot therefore determine whether this individual may indeed have performed such deeds as to be worthy of commemoration in such a fashion. In examining the features of the individual depicted on this coin however, it becomes immediately apparent that there are distinct similarities with certain idealised portraits of Seleukos I. It is conceivable that we should see in this portrait not an image of the unknown ruler Sophytes, but an idealised image of the deified Seleukos, as can be found on the somewhat earlier coinage of Philetairos. Those images (cf. in particular Gulbenkian 966) have nearly identical features - in particular the heavy brow, aquiline nose, down-turned mouth and prominent chin. The historical sources offer us few clues as to the dating of Sophytes’ rule. They tell us that Stasanor was satrap of Baktria until at least 316 BC, and that Seleukos reintegrated Baktria into his empire on his eastern anabasis in c. 305. An early date therefore seems highly unlikely. Turning to the evidence of the coin itself, numismatists have correctly observed that the obverse portrait is derived from the similar type of Seleukos on his trophy tetradrachms (SC 174), which should be dated to after c. 301 BC; the presence of the somewhat worn elephant-quadriga tetradrachm in the present group pushes the date even further to the right, and into the third century. Now, the presence of this type in this group along with coins of Andragoras indicates a considerably later date than previously supposed. We have already proposed with good reason that the coinage of Andragoras should be dated to c.246/5-239/8 BC and that given the patterns of wear that may be observed upon them, there is sufficient justification to argue for the dating of Sophytes’ named coinage to c. 246/5-235, after Andragoras had begun coining but before Diodotos II would have been free to dispose of any lesser regional powers. This turbulent time period has already afforded us a plausible reason for the striking of Andragoras’ coinage. It is possible that Sophytes too was prompted to look to the security of his own territory following the effective withdrawal of the central government’s influence in that area. Diodotos I too struck his own coinage in Baktria, which while bearing his own portrait on the obverse nevertheless maintained the name ‘Antiochos’ on the reverse as a token symbol of loyalty. Does Sophytes coinage, with a distinctly ‘local’ reverse type, seek to achieve the same veneer of loyalty as that of Philetairos and Diodotos by placing the image of Seleukos I, the founder of the Seleukid empire, on his obverse?

119


349. Baktria, Sophytes AR Didrachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard; MNA on bust truncation / Cockerel standing right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 2 = Alpha Bank 7461; for type cf. SNG ANS 21-23 (drachm); Mitchiner 29 (drachm); Whitehead NC 1943, pp. 64, 1 and pl. III, 7-8 (drachm); Roma XIV, 366. 8.00g, 21mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. The third known specimen, the second Attic standard example, and of considerable numismatic interest.

10,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

2x

2x

350. Baktria, Sophytes AR Drachm. Uncertain mint in the Oxus region, circa 246/5-235 BC. Attic standard. Head of Seleukos(?) right, wearing laurel wreathed Attic helmet decorated with spiral pattern on crest and eagle wings on cheek-guard; M on bust truncation / Cockerel standing right; kerykeion behind, ΣΩΦYΤΟΥ to right. Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 3A, pl. I, 3; SNG ANS 21-23; Mitchiner 29b; cf. Whitehead NC 1943, pp. 64, 1 and pl. III, 7-8; cf. G&M 169, 149 (MNA on bust truncation). 3.86g, 16mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

5,000

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.

Sasanian Empire

351. Sasanian Kings, Shapur I AV Dinar. Ctesiphon, AD 260-272. Draped bust right, wearing diadem and mural crown surmounted by a korymbos; one pellet above and two below diadem ties / Fire-altar flanked by two regal attendants wearing mural crowns, symbol to left of flames. SNS type IIc/1b, style P, group d/1 (pl. 31, 143); Göbl type I/1; Saeedi AV5; Sunrise 740. 7.44g, 21mm, 3h. Mint State. Rare.

4,000

In AD 253 Shapur met and annihilated a Roman army of 60,000 at the Battle of Barbalissos, and proceeded then to burn and ravage the Roman province of Syria. Armenia was conquered, and Georgia submitted to Sasanian control. With his northern borders secure, Shapur then led an army which penetrated deep into Syria, plundering all the way to Antioch which quickly fell to his forces. The Roman counter-offensive under emperor Valerian was slow, but by 257 Antioch had been recovered and the province of Syria returned to Roman control. Shapur’s speedy retreat caused the Romans to launch a hasty pursuit of the Sasanians all the way to Edessa, where they were severely defeated, and Valerian along with the survivors of his army were led away into captivity. The defeat and capture of Valerian surely marks the greatest achievement in the reign of Shapur, who is also called ‘the Great’, and the submission of Valerian is commemorated in a mural at Naqsh-e Rustam, which shows the emperor bending the knee before Shapur on horseback. Valerian’s army was sent to Bishapur, and the soldiers were used in engineering and development works, such as the Band-e Kaisar (Caesar’s dam) near the ancient city of Susa.

120


COINS OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

352. Anonymous Æ ‘Aes Grave’ Cast Triens. Rome, circa 270 BC. Head of horse right; four pellets (mark of value) below / Head of horse left; four pellets (mark of value) below. Crawford 18/3 (Uncertain mint); ICC 35; HN Italy 281; RBW -. 103.71g, 51mm, 12h. Very Fine.

1,800

From the collection of S.G., United Kingdom.

353. Anonymous Æ ‘Aes Grave’ Cast Triens. Rome, circa 270 BC. Head of horse right; four pellets (mark of value) below / Head of horse left; four pellets (mark of value) below. Crawford 18/3 (Uncertain mint); ICC 35; HN Italy 281; RBW -. 103.61g, 47mm, 12h. Very Fine; attractive emerald green patina.

800

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Spink & Son 17006, 25 September 2017, lot 38; from the same central European collection as the aes grave collection sold at Spink 16004 (all with provenances from 1990s and 2000s Swiss, German and San Marino auctions); attested by the vendor as being outside Italy prior to 2011.

First Punic War Issue

354. Anonymous Æ ‘Aes Grave’ Cast Semis. First Punic War. Rome, circa 260-240 BC. Head of bull to right / Prow to right, S before. Crawford -; ICC 276 (uncertain central Italy); HN Italy 359; AG 103; TV 44; Haeberlin p. 157-8, 1-24, pl. 66, 5-9. 124g, 55mm, 12h. Very Fine; insufficient metal to completely fill mould. Extremely Rare. Ex Artemide Aste XXXVII (Vienna), 8 December 2012, lot 69; then attested by the vendor as having been outside Italy prior to 2011.

121

1,750


122


355. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome, or ‘Mint D’, 234-231 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Horse prancing left; ROMA above. Crawford 26/1; RSC 37; HN Italy 306. 6.53g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

From the collection of P.G., Germany, outside of Italy prior to December 1992. After the victory over the Samnites, the Senate instated a new, standardised monetary system. For the first two decades, bronze bars were the predominant issues, after which point silver coinage began to appear. This type is from what H. Mattingly describes as ‘Mint D’ which he locates either at Apulia or Beneventum. The legend on the older design (struck from 269 BC onwards) was ROMANO which had been shortened to ROMA by the time this type was struck, however the significance of this is unclear. Showing distinct Greek influence, this is a fine example of early Roman silver coinage. Cf. Mattingly, H, The First Age of Roman Coinage, The Journal of Roman Studies 35, Parts 1 and 2 (1945), pp. 65-77.

356. Anonymous AR Didrachm. Rome, or ‘Mint D’, 234-231 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Horse prancing left; ROMA above. Crawford 26/1; RSC 37; HN Italy 306. 6.64g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine.

750

From the V.D.T. Collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

357. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding sceptre and hurling thunderbolt, in galloping quadriga driven right by Victory; ROMA incuse on tablet below. Crawford 28/3; RSC 23. 6.65g, 24mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine; attractive old tone.

1,000

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Varesi 63, 26 November 2013, lot 37 (€1250). Lot sold with Italian export permit no. 12762 issued at Rome, 13 November 2017.

358. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Rome, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding sceptre and hurling thunderbolt, in galloping quadriga driven right by Victory; ROMA incuse on tablet below. Crawford 28/3; RSC 23. 6.66g, 24mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Ex Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 496; Privately purchased from Numismatica Fiorentina, March 2014.

123

750


359. Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus). Uncertain mint, circa 225-214 BC. Laureate head of Janus / Jupiter, holding sceptre and hurling thunderbolt, in galloping quadriga driven right by Victory; ROMA incuse on tablet below. Crawford 31/1; RSC 23a. 6.19g, 23mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the V.D.T. Collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

360. Anonymous (Semilibral) Æ Sextans. Rome, 217-215 BC. She-wolf sucking twins; two pellets in exergue / Eagle standing to right, holding flower in beak; two pellets behind, ROMA before. Crawford 39/3; BMCRR 120. 25.99g, 29mm, 4h. Very Fine. Attractive dark ‘Tiber’ tone.

1,000

From a private European collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

361. Spearhead series AR Denarius. South East Italian mint, 209 BC. Head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet ornamented with griffin’s head; X behind / The Dioscuri on horseback to right, each holding couched spear; ROMA in exergue. Crawford 88/2b; RSC 20aa; RBW 371. 3.88g, 21mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; lustrous metal. Struck on a broad flan.

300

From the V.D.T. Collection, outside of Italy prior to December 1992.

362. L series AR Victoriatus. Luceria, 211-208 BC. Laureate bust of Jupiter right within bead and reel border / Victory standing right, crowning trophy; L between, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 97/1a; RSC 36e*. 3.34g, 17mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Ex RBW Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica 61, 5 October 2011, lot 401 (hammered for 2750 CHF); Privately purchased from Harlan J. Berk in May 1994.

124

1,500


363. Q series AR Victoriatus. Apulia, circa 211-210. Laureate head of Jupiter right / Victory standing right crowning trophy; Q in field between; ROMA in exergue. Crawford 102/1; RSC 36k; BMCRR Italy 219; RBW 458. 2.80g, 17mm, 2h. Fleur De Coin.

1,000

Privately purchased from CNG.

364. Cn. Baebius Tampilus AR Denarius. Rome, 194-190 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind / The Dioscuri riding right; TAMP monogram above, ROMA in linear frame below. Crawford 133/2b; RSC Baebia 1. 3.65g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Rare; excellent quality for the issue.

500

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 5, 25 February 1992, lot 271.

365. Cn. Gellius AR Denarius. Rome, 138 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma right, X behind; all within laurel wreath / Mars and Nerio in quadriga right; CN•GEL below, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 232/1; RSC Gellia 1. 3.98g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; old cabinet tone. A most pleasing example.

300

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex Münzen & Medaillen 7, 12 October 2000, lot 366.

366. C. Aburius Geminus AR Denarius. Rome, 134 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; GEM behind, XVI monogram below chin / Mars in quadriga right; C•ABVRI below horses, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 244/1; RSC Aburia 1. 3.93g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

250

From the V.D.T. Collection.

367. M. Marcius M. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 134 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; XVI monogram below chin, modius behind / Victory in biga right, M MARC ROMA in two lines below horses, divided by two ears of corn. Crawford 245/1; RSC Marcia 8. 3.96g, 19mm, 3h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Roma Numismatics IV, 30 September 2012, lot 455; Ex Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 366; Ex LHS 100, 23 April 2007, lot 381.

125

300


368. M. Furius L. f. Philus AR Denarius. Rome, 120 BC. Laureate head of Janus; M•FOVRI•L•F around / Roma standing left, holding wreath and sceptre; to left, trophy of Gallic arms flanked by a carnyx and shield on each side; star above, ROMA to right, PHI(ligate)•L•I in exergue. Crawford 281/1; RSC Furia 18. 3.96g, 19mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine; minor deposits. Struck on a broad flan.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

369. L. Julius AR Denarius. Rome, 101 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; corn ear behind / Victory driving galloping biga right; L•IVLI below. Crawford 323/1; RSC Julia 3. 3.90g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

200

From the V.D.T. Collection.

370. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 90 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; CXIII behind / Horseman galloping to right, with palm over shoulder; LXXXT above, L•PISO•FRVGI and ROMA in two lines below. Crawford 340/1; RSC Calpurnia 12. 3.90g, 19mm, 11h. Near Mint State.

150

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

371. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi AR Denarius. Rome, 90 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; F below chin / Horseman galloping to right, with palm over shoulder; anchor above, L•PISO•FRVGI and ROMA in two lines below. Crawford 340/1; RSC Calpurnia 12. 3.69g, 20mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; attractive old tone. From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 743; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 29, 11 May 2005, lot 329.

126

300


372. The Social War, Marsic Confederation AR Denarius. Campania, 88-87 BC. Draped bust of one of the Dioscuri, wearing laureate pileus, surmounted by star / Italia (or Minerva), holding shield in left hand, spear and reins in right, driving galloping biga right; two pellets and bucranium. Campana 153; Sydenham 633a; HN Italy 417. 3.97g, 20mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,800

Ex SC Collection, Heritage ANA 3033, 8 August 2014, lot 23059.

373. Mn. Fonteius C. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 85 BC. Laureate head of Veiovis (or Apollo) right; MN•FONTEI behind, C•F below chin, thunderbolt below neck / Infant winged Genius (or Cupid) seated on goat, standing right; pilei of the Dioscuri to either side; thyrsus with fillet in exergue; all within laurel wreath. Crawford 353/1d; RSC Fonteia 9. 3.89g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

374. C. Mamilius Limetanus AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 82 BC. Bust of Mercury right, draped and wearing winged petasos; caduceus and A behind / Ulysses standing right, holding staff in left hand and extending right hand to Argus; C•MAMIL to left, LIMETAN to right. Crawford 362/1; RSC Mamilia 6. 3.95g, 20mm, 8h. Good Extremely Fine.

400

From the collection of Z.P., Austria; Ex Credit Suisse 30, 1 December 1979, lot 111.

Fleur De Coin

375. C. Annius T. f. T. n. and L. Fabius Hispaniensis AR Denarius. North Italy and Spain, 82-81 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Anna Perenna right; C•ANNI•T•F•T•N•V•PRO•COS•EX•S•C• around, scales before, winged caduceus behind, T• below / Victory driving quadriga right, holding reins and palm-branch; Q• above, L•FABI•L•F•HISP in exergue. Crawford 366/1b; RSC Annia 2b. 3.93g, 20mm, 10h. Fleur De Coin. From the V.D.T. Collection.

127

750


376. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius AR Denarius. North Italy, 81 BC. Diademed head of Pietas right; stork before / Elephant walking left; Q•C•M•P•I in exergue. Crawford 374/1; RSC Caecilia 43. 3.73g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

400

From a private European collection.

377. L. Procilius AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; S•C behind / Juno Sospita, hurling spear and holding shield decorated with thunderbolt, in biga right; serpent below, L•PROCILI•F in exergue. Crawford 379/2; RSC Procilia 2. 4.02g, 19mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

378. C. Poblicius Q. f. AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 80 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of Roma right; P above, ROMA behind / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; club at his feet, bow and arrows in bowcase to lower left, P to upper left, C•POBLICI•Q•F upwards to right. Crawford 380/1; RSC Poblicia 9. 3.89g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Struck on a broad flan with very well centred obverse; attractive iridescent tone.

750

Privately purchased from Baldwins.

379. Ti. Claudius Ti. f. Ap. n. Nero AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 79 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; S•C before / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins, palm frond and wreath; A•CXXV below, T•CLAVD•TI•F AP•N in exergue. Crawford 383/1; RSC Claudia 6. 3.98g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

200

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

380. L. Papius AR Serrate Denarius. Rome, 79 BC. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat’s skin; symbol behind / Griffin springing right; symbol below; L• PAPI in exergue. Crawford 384/1; RSC Papia 1 (symbols 44). 3.93g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful iridescent toning. Ex Roma Numismatics VI, 29 September 2013, lot 765.

128

1,000


381. L. Rustius AR Denarius. Rome, 76 BC. Helmeted head of Mars right; S•C behind, XVI monogram below chin / Ram standing right; L•RVSTI below. Crawford 389/1; RSC Rustia 1. 3.90g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

Ex Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 534.

382. L. Lucretius Trio AR Denarius. Rome, 74 BC. Laureate head of Neptune right, trident at shoulder and control number behind / Infant Genius riding dolphin right; L•LVCRETI TRIO in two lines below. Crawford 390/2; RSC Lucretia 3. 3.93g, 19mm, 2g. Extremely Fine.

500

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch Stuttgart Auction 1, 22 November 2010, lot 361.

Ex Leo Benz Collection

383. L. Lucretius Trio AR Denarius. Rome, 74 BC. Laureate head of Neptune right, trident at shoulder and control number behind / Infant Genius riding dolphin right; L•LVCRETI TRIO in two lines below. Crawford 390/2; RSC Lucretia 3. 3.76g, 17mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Very well detailed reverse.

400

Ex Collection of an Aesthete, Fritz Rudolf Künker 257, 10 October 2014, lot 8415; Ex Leo Benz Collection, Numismatik Lanz 88, 23 November 1998, lot 445.

384. L. Cossutius C. f. Sabula AR Denarius. Rome, 72 BC. Head of Medusa left, winged and entwined with serpents; SABVLA upwards behind / Bellerophon riding pegasos right, hurling spear; control mark IIII behind, L•COSSVTI•C•F below. Crawford 395/1; RSC Cossutia 1. 4.15g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; beautiful old cabinet tone. Very rare in such excellent condition. Previously sold with export licence issued by the Republic of Italy.

129

1,000


385. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 69 BC. Male head right, with flowing hair; control mark (shears?) behind / Winged caduceus; M•PLAETORI to left, CEST•EX•S•C to right. Crawford 405/5; RSC Plaetoria 5. 3.96g, 18mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; lustrous.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

386. M. Plaetorius M. f. Cestianus AR Denarius. Rome, 67 BC. Bust of ‘Vacuna’ right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder; cornucopiae below chin, CESTIANVS behind, S•C before / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left; M• PLAETORIVS M•F•AED•CVR around. Crawford 409/1; RSC Plaetoria 4. 3.99g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

387. Q. Pomponius Musa AR Denarius. Rome, 66 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right, star behind / Urania standing left, holding rod and pointing to globe resting on tripod, Q•POMPONI downwards to right, MVSA downwards to left. Crawford 410/8; RSC Pomponia 22. 3.74g, 20mm, 7h. Good Very Fine; lustrous.

200

The Basilica Aemilia

388. M. Aemilius Lepidus AR Denarius. Rome, 61 BC. Veiled and laureate head of the Vestal Virgin Aemilia right / View of the Basilica Aemilia with circular shields attached to the columns; AIMILIA above, REF to left; SC to right, M LEPIDVS below. Crawford 419/3a; RSC Aemilia 26. 3.98g, 20mm, 4h. Extremely Fine; two hairline marks on obv. Very Rare, and in excellent condition for the issue.

2,500

The obverse of this type commemorates the Vestal Virgin Aemilia, who on an occasion when the Sacred Fire was extinguished, miraculously rekindled it by throwing one of her most exquisite garments upon the extinct embers. The reverse records the restoration of the Basilica Aemilia by the moneyer’s father during his consulship in 78 BC, at which time he embellished it by adding clipei (shields). This moneyer would later become one of the Triumvirs along with Marc Antony and Octavian.

130


389. C. Servilius C. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 57 BC. Head of Flora right, wearing flower-wreath; FLORA•PRIMVS before, lituus behind / Two soldiers standing confronted, each holding a shield and upright short sword, C•F in lower right field; C•SERVEIL in exergue. Crawford 423/1; RSC Servilia 15. 4.28g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

300

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

Wonderful C. Memmius Denarius

390. C. Memmius C. f. AR Denarius. Rome, 56 BC. Laureate head of Quirinus right; QVRINVS behind, C•MEMMI•C•F before / Ceres seated right, holding torch and corn-ears, serpent before; MEMMIVS•AED•CERIALIA•PREIMVS•FECIT around. Crawford 427/2; RSC Memmia 9. 4.00g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

1,000

391. Q. Cassius AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Head of Genius Populi Romani right, sceptre behind / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt; lituus to left; capis to right, Q•CASSIVS in exergue. Crawford 428/3; RSC Cassia 7. 3.97g, 19mm, 3h. Near Mint State; attractive old tone.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

392. Q. Cassius Longinus AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Veiled head of Vesta right; Q•CASSIVS downwards to left, VEST upwards to right / Curule chair within circular temple of Vesta; urn to left, vota tablet inscribed AC to right. Crawford 428/1; RSC Cassia 9. 4.02g, 19mm, 9h. Extremely Fine; lustrous. Almost invisible grafitto in rev. field.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

393. Cn. Plancius AR Denarius. Rome, 55 BC. Head of Diana Planciana right, wearing petasus; CN•PLANCIVS AED•CVR•S•C around / Cretan ibex standing right, bow and quiver behind. Plancia 1; Crawford 432/1; RSC Plancia 1. 3.93g, 18mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 59, 4 April 2011, lot 805. The depiction on the reverse type makes reference to when the moneyer served in Crete under the proconsul Q. Metellus.

131

400


394. L. Hostilius Saserna AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Head of Gallic captive right; Gallic shield behind / Two warriors in galloping biga right: one driving, holding whip and reins, and the other, facing backward, holding shield and brandishing spear; L•HOSTILIVS above, SASERN below. Crawford 448/2a; RSC Hostilia 2. 3.89g, 18mm, 4h. Good Very Fine.

500

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

395. Albinus Bruti f. AR Denarius. Rome, 48 BC. Bare head of the consul Aulus Postumius Albinus right; A•POSTVMIVS•COS around / ALBINV • BRVTI•F in two lines within wreath of grain ears. Crawford 450/3b; RSC Postumia 14. 3.84g, 18mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine.

400

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

396. L. Plautius Plancus AR Denarius. Rome, 47 BC. Mask of Medusa facing, with coiled serpent on either side; L•PLAVTIVS below / Aurora flying right, head slightly left, holding reins and leading four rearing horses of the sun; PLANCVS below. Crawford 453/1a; RSC Plautia 11. 3.75g, 18mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

500

From the V.D.T. Collection.

397. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Scipio in Africa, 47 - Spring 46 BC. Eppius, legate. Small head of Africa right, wearing elephant skin headdress; grain ear before, plough below, SCIPIO•IMP upwards to left, Q•METELL downwards to right / Hercules standing facing, right hand on hip, leaning on club draped with lion skin and set on rock; LEG•F•C upwards to left, EPPIVS downwards to right. Crawford 461/1; RSC Caecilia 50 and Eppia 1. 3.87g, 18mm, 8h. Extremely Fine; beautifully toned and a most charming example of the type. From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex collection of an English amateur scholar, Numismatica Ars Classica 92, 24 May 2016, lot 1703.

132

750


398. Mn. Cordius Rufus AR Denarius. Rome, 46 BC. Corinthian helmet right, with crest on which owl stands; RVFVS upwards to left / The aegis of Minerva with head of Medusa in the centre; MN•CORDIVS around. Crawford 463/2; RSC Cordia 4. 3.85g, 20mm, 10h. Good Extremely Fine. Unusual with a detailed Medusa head.

300

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

399. C. Considius Paetus AR Denarius. Rome, 46 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; A behind / Curule chair on which lies wreath; C•CONSIDI above, PAETI in exergue. Crawford 465/2a; RSC Considia 2. 3.44g, 21mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful iridescent tone. Superb condition for the type.

500

400. Petillius Capitolinus AR Denarius. Rome, 43 BC. Eagle, with wings spread, standing facing, head right, on thunderbolt; PETILLIVS CAPITOLINVS around / Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus: richly decorated hexastyle temple with three garlands hanging between columns; the pediment ornamented with armed figures; in the tympanum is a seated figure of Jupiter between two other figures. Crawford 487/2a; RSC Petillia 2. 3.96g, 20mm, 3h. Extremely Fine.

300

From the property of A.R., United States.

401. P. Clodius M. f. Turrinus AR Denarius. Rome, 42 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; lyre behind / Diana standing facing, head right, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lighted torch in each hand; P•CLODIVS M•F• across fields. Crawford 494/23; RSC Claudia 15. 3.87g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Attractively toned. From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

133

300


COINS OF THE IMPERATORS

402. Cnaeus Pompey Magnus AR Denarius. Mint in Greece, 49-48 BC. Cn. Calpurnius Piso, proquaestor. Head of Numa Pompilius right, wearing diadem inscribed NVMA; CN•PISO PRO•Q• around / Prow of galley right; MAGN above, PRO•COS below. Crawford 446/1; CRI 7; RSC 4 (Pompey the Great). 4.02g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria. The second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, appears on the obverse of this coin as an allusion to the nomen (family name) of the issuing proquaestor for, according to tradition, Pompilius had a son by the name of Calpus, from whom the gens Calpurnia was descended and derived its name. Striking for Pompey Magnus, the prow on the reverse was intended to recall and glorify Pompey’s famous victories over the Cilician pirates in 67/6 BC.

403. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49. 3.86g, 21mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine.

1,000

Ex European private collection.

404. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49. 3.98g, 20mm, 3h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous.

500

From the property of A.R., United States.

405. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent; CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf’s head), and apex. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49. 3.57g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine.

134

500


135


Ex Leu 1982

406. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Caesar, 48-47 BC. Diademed female head right, wearing oak-wreath, cruciform earring, and pearl necklace; LII behind / Trophy of Gallic arms; axe surmounted by an animal’s head to right; CAESAR below. Crawford 452/2; CRI 11; RSC 18. 3.83g, 19mm, 7h. Virtually as struck.

1,250

Ex Auctiones 17, 7 June 1988, lot 493; Ex Leu 30, 28 April 1982, lot 265. Since the numerals behind the obverse head have long been recognized to represent Caesar’s age at the time, this denarius was struck shortly after the battle of Pharsalus, where Pompey met his ultimate defeat, and Caesar became master of Rome. The reverse deliberately references Caesar’s Gallic victories, rather than his recent victory over fellow Romans, the celebration of which would have been distasteful; Caesar’s conduct after the battle was similarly conciliatory - he forgave the large part of Pompey’s officers and army. The depiction of this female portrait wearing the corona civica, or oak wreath, however, may be a subtle allusion to his Pompeian victory. This award was granted to any citizen who had personally saved the life of another citizen; in this case, Caesar had saved the citizen-body of Rome and the Republic from further civil war.

407. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Scipio in Africa, 47-46 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right, in archaic style with beard and hair in ringlets; Q•METEL PIVS around / Elephant standing right; SCIPIO above, IMP below. Crawford 459/1; CRI 45; RSC Caecilia 47. 4.09g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria. After L. Caecilius Metellus’ victory over the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal at the Battle of Panormus in 251 BC and the capture of many of the war elephants that had so terrorised the Roman soldiers, that beast became a heraldic symbol to the gens Caecilia and was a frequent motif on their consular coinage. It is ironic then, that displayed on this coin it should be so reminiscent of Julius Caesar’s own earlier issue bearing an elephant where, in a position that overshadows this later coinage, it was placed prominently on the obverse.

408. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. African mint, 47-46 BC. Diademed head of Venus right / Aeneas advancing left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder; CAESAR downwards to right. Crawford 458/1; RSC 12; CRI 55; . 3.84g, 19mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

750

From the property of A.R., United States.

409. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 46 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing grain ear wreath; COS•TERT downwards behind, DICT•ITER upwards before / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, capis, and lituus; M to right, AVGVR above, PONT•MAX below. Crawford 467/1b; RSC 4; CRI 57a. 3.98g, 19mm, 10h. Mint State; highly lustrous metal.

136

750


410. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 46 BC. Head of Ceres right, wearing grain ear wreath; COS•TERT downwards behind, DICT•ITER upwards before / Emblems of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, capis, and lituus; D to right, AVGVR above, PONT•MAX below. Crawford 467/1a; CRI 57; RSC 4a. 3.93g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Beautifully toned.

750

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

411. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Head of Venus right, wearing stephane; Cupid behind shoulder / Trophy of Gallic arms between two seated captives: female resting head in right hand to left, and bearded male with hands tied behind back on right; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/1; CRI 58; RSC 13; BMCRR Spain 86. 3.85g, 19mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal, with light golden toning.

1,500

From a central European collection.

412. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Draped bust of Venus left, wearing stephane; small Cupid at point of bust; lituus to left, sceptre to right / Trophy of Gallic arms, holding a shield and carnyx in each hand; on left, kneeling bearded male captive left, looking right; on right, seated female captive right, resting head in hand; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/2; CRI 59; RSC 14. 3.73g, 18mm, 10h. Near Mint State. An exceptionally sharply struck and well preserved example.

2,000

From a central European collection.

413. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Draped bust of Venus left, wearing stephane; small Cupid at point of bust; lituus to left, sceptre to right / Trophy of Gallic arms, holding a shield and carnyx in each hand; on left, kneeling bearded male captive left, looking right; on right, seated female captive right, resting head in hand; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/2; CRI 59; RSC 14. 4.07g, 20mm, 10h. About Extremely Fine.

750

Ex A. Tkalec, 17 May 2010, lot 141.

414. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain, 46-45 BC. Draped bust of Venus left, wearing stephane; small Cupid at point of bust; lituus to left, sceptre to right / Trophy of Gallic arms, holding a shield and carnyx in each hand; on left, kneeling bearded male captive left, looking right; on right, seated female captive right, resting head in hand; CAESAR in exergue. Crawford 468/2; CRI 59; RSC 14. 3.61g, 19mm, 2h. Very Fine.

137

500


An Extraordinary Caesar Portrait Denarius

415.

Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, January-February 44 BC. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Wreathed head of Caesar to right; star of eight rays behind, CAESAR•IMP downwards before / Venus Victrix standing left, holding Victory in outstretched right hand and with left, resting on vertical sceptre set on star; P•SEPVLLIVS downwards to right, MACER upwards to left. Crawford 480/5b; CRI 106a; Sydenham 1071; BMCRR Rome 4165-6; RSC 41. 3.99g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine. An exceptional portrait of Caesar, engraved in the finest style; centrally struck on a very broad flan. 25,000 From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. In the years of his supremacy, Caesar had amassed unprecedented power by corrupting the institutions of the old Republic to his own requirements. First appointed Dictator in 49 BC by the Praetor (and future Triumvir) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, possibly in order to preside over elections, Caesar resigned his Dictatorship within eleven days but in 48 BC he was appointed Dictator again, only this time for an indefinite period, and was also given permanent tribunician powers making his person sacrosanct and allowing him to veto the Senate. In 46 BC he was appointed Dictator for ten years, and he gave himself quasi-censorial powers under the mantle of ‘Prefect of the Morals’, enabling him to fill the Senate with his partisans who duly voted him the titles of Pater Patriae and Imperator. He increased the number of magistrates who were elected each year, thus allowing him to reward his supporters, and in October 45 BC, having served in the unconstitutional role of Sole Consul for that year, Caesar resigned his consulship and facilitated the election of two successors for the remainder of the year - theoretically restoring the ordinary consulship, but in practice submitting the Consuls to the Dictatorial executive - a practice that later become common under the Empire. In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, Caesar was appointed Dictator for life. More followed; he was given the unprecedented honour of having his own likeness placed upon the Roman coinage, his statue was placed next to those of the kings, he was granted a golden chair in the Senate, and was permitted to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose. Then, at the festival of the Lupercal, Marc Antony presented Caesar with a royal diadem, and attempted to place it on his head. Yet for all these hideous affronts to the ancient institutions of the Republic and the sensibilities of the Roman people, perhaps his most egregious reform was the law he passed in preparation for his planned campaign against the Parthian Empire. Realising that his absence from Rome would impede his ability to install his own men in positions of power and that therefore his back would be exposed while away from the city, Caesar decreed that he would have the right to appoint all magistrates in 43 BC, and all consuls and tribunes in 42 BC, thus at a stroke transforming the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator. The obverse of this coin presents a bold portrait of the dictator in the final months of his life, wearing the corona civica Caesar had won while serving in the army of M. Minucius Thermus at the Siege of Mytilene in 81 BC. The portrait is bold and engraved in fine style, and made all the more impressive for its being centrally struck on an exceptionally broad flan that features a complete border on both obverse and reverse.

138


139


416. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, April 44 BC. C. Cossutius Maridianus, moneyer. CAESAR PARENS•PATRIAE, laureate and veiled head right; apex behind, lituus before / C•COSSVTIVS and MARIDIANVS arranged in form of cross; A A A F F in angles. Crawford 480/19; CRI 112; RSC 8; BMCRR Rome 4187. 3.82g, 22mm. Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

417. Marc Antony AR Quinarius. Late summer-autumn 43 BC. Military mint travelling with Antony and Lepidus in Transalpine Gaul. Lituus, capis, and raven standing left on ground line; M A(N)T IMP above / Victory standing right, holding palm frond, crowning trophy with wreath. Crawford 489/4; CRI 121; RSC 82; BMCRR Gaul 36; CNR II 133. 1.86g, 14mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

250

Ex Chapdelaine Collection, Roma Numismatics XII, 29 September 2016, lot 576.

418

419

418. Octavian Fourrée Denarius. Uncertain mint, after autumn 42 BC. Helmeted and draped bust of young Mars right, spear over left shoulder; CAESAR III VIR•R•P•C around / Aquila between two signa, all set on ground line; above, trophy, holding oval shields; S-C flanking aquila. Cf. Crawford 497/3; CRI 138; RSC 248. 2.61g, 18mm, 8h. Good Very Fine; intact plating. Rare. 500 419. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint, probably at Smyrna, early 42 BC. P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, legate. BRVTVS, securis, simpulum, and secespita / LENTVLVS SPINT, capis and lituus. Crawford 500/7; CRI 198; RSC 6. 3.76g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; minor porosity. From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

500

An Exceptionally Well Preserved Example

420. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Mint moving with Brutus, 43-42 BC. Head of Libertas right; LEIBERTAS before / CAEPIO•BRVTVS•PRO•COS, plectrum, lyre and laurel branch tied with fillet. Crawford 501/1; CRI 199; RSC Junia 34. 3.95g, 19mm, 9h. Good Extremely Fine; an exceptionally well preserved example of the type. Attractive old cabinet tone.

1,500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria. Ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachf. 174, 13 May 1992, lot 511; Ex Numismatic Fine Arts 27, 4 December 1991, lot 635.

421. Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in Western Asia Minor or Northern Greece, 43-42 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; COSTA LEG around / Trophy of arms; IMP BRVTVS around. Crawford 506/2; CRI 209; Sydenham 1296; RSC 4. 3.71g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

140

750


141


EID MAR

422.

Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Brutus and Cassius in western Asia Minor or northern Greece, late summer-autumn 42 BC. L. Plaetorius Cestianus, moneyer. Bare head of Brutus right; BRVT above, IMP to right, L•PLAET•CEST around to left / Pileus between two daggers pointing downward; EID•MAR below. Crawford 508/3; Cahn 20c; CRI 216; Sydenham 1301; BMCRR East 68-70; RSC 15; Campana, Eidibus Martiis, 64, (O4/ R9 [this coin]). 3.76g, 18mm, 12h. About Very Fine; some very minor spots of corrosion on obv. Rare.

25,000

From the Eucharius Collection; Privately purchased from a Swiss collection in the 1960s. Formed, we are told, mostly in the 1950s and 60s, the Eucharius Collection comprised over 400 silver coins of the Roman Republic, including numerous rarities. Unfortunately the collector responsible for amassing this group is no longer with us, and the present owner wishes it to remain anonymous, so this beautiful collection was named for the day on which it was consigned: December 8th, the feast day of Saint Eucharius. Presented in our Auction XI were 127 of the highest quality specimens; the remainder of the collection was dispersed through Roma Numismatics’ E-Sales. This coin, undoubtedly the most valuable piece present in the collection and certainly the most iconic, was kept back until last by the present owner. Nothing resonates so deeply with those knowledgeable in ancient Roman coinage as the dramatic EID MAR type struck by Brutus in 42 BC, nor indeed is any type more sought after by connoisseurs. Herbert A. Cahn’s 1989 study entitled Eidibus Martiis noted 56 examples in silver and two in gold. Though anecdotal comments suggest the extent of the surviving population of EID MAR denarii may approximate as many as one hundred specimens - a reasonably high figure for what is considered to be an extreme rarity - no other ancient coin type has inspired such admiration, fascination, disbelief and desire in the hearts of historians, numismatists and collectors. Foremost of the reasons for the exalted position of the type in the collective consciousness is its naked and shameless celebration of the murder of Julius Caesar two years earlier in 44 BC. This brutal and bloody assassination had been prompted by the well-founded belief among the Senate that Caesar intended to make himself king, which in truth he was already in all but name. By special decree of the Senate Caesar had been made dictator perpetuo - dictator in perpetuity - and granted the extraordinary and unprecedented honour of striking coins bearing his own likeness, thus breaking the ancient taboo of placing the image of a living Roman upon a coin. By these and other affronts to the traditional values and institutions of the Republic did Caesar seal his fate. On 15 March, 44 BC, in a room adjoining the east portico of the Theatre of Pompey, Caesar was stabbed twenty three times by the gang of Senators numbering over thirty and perhaps as many as sixty, men that Caesar called his friends, and of whom many had been pardoned by him on the battlefield and now owed their ranks and offices to him. The simple but bold reverse design employed by Brutus contains the three principal elements of this ‘patriotic’ act of regicide committed to liberate the Republic from monarchical tyranny. Most striking are the two daggers of differing design, the one symbolising that wielded by Brutus himself, the other that of Cassius his co-consipirator. These flank the pileus, the cap of Liberty as worn by the divine twins and patrons of Roman armies Castor and Pollux, and which was conferred upon all freed slaves as a mark of their emancipation. The legend EID MAR is the abbreviation of EIDIBVS MARTIIS – the Ides of March. Thus, in an act of unparalleled braggadocio, we are at once presented with the murder weapons used to slay Caesar, the precise date of the deed, and the motive. While the leaders of the Second Triumvirate Antony, Octavian and Lepidus embraced the practice of striking coins bearing their own images, the hypocrisy of Brutus placing his own portrait on the obverse of the EID MAR type cannot have been lost on the Liberator. Both a betrayal of his personal devotion to the ancient traditions of the Republic, and an emulation of the tyrant he had slain, it may well be that he was convinced into allowing his image to be co-opted by the Republican party as a rallying symbol for the swiftly approaching engagement between their legions and those of the Antony and Octavian. As a descendent of Lucius Junius Brutus, the founder and first consul of the Roman Republic, who in 509 BC had sworn on a bloody dagger to overthrow the unjust rule of the Tarquin kings, the clearly drawn parallels must have been heady propaganda to the Republican cause.

142


143


423. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; RSC 8a. 3.75g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

5,000

From the property of A.R., United States.

424. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; RSC 8a. 3.82g, 21mm, 11h. About Extremely Fine. Light iridescent toning.

1,000

Ex Sincona 4, 25 October 2011, lot 4059.

425. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony (Ephesus?), 41 BC. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Bare head of Antony right; M•ANT•IMP•AVG•III•VIR•R•P•C•M•BARBAT•Q•P around / Bare head of Octavian right, with slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•PONT•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; RSC 8a. 3.99g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State. From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

144

1,000


Antony Reconciles with Ahenobarbus

426.

Marc Antony AR Denarius. Uncertain (Corcyra?) mint, Summer 40 BC. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, imperator. Bare head right; lituus to left; ANT•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C around / Prow right; star above; CN•DOMIT•AHENOBARBVS IMP around. Crawford 521/2; CRI 258; RSC 10a; Sydenham 1179; BMCRR East 112. 3.82g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State. Very Rare, and among the finest known examples of the type.

5,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. This rare issue commemorates the reconciliation of Antony with Ahenobarbus in 40 BC. Although he had probably played no part in the assassination of Caesar, Ahenobarbus followed Brutus into Macedonia when the latter was forced to leave Rome, and was consequently condemned by the Lex Pedia in 43 BC as one of the murderers. In 42 BC, with command of a powerful fleet of fifty ships, Ahenobarbus won a considerable victory for the liberators on the first day of the Battle of Philippi, defeating Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus in the Ionian Sea as he was sailing with reinforcements from Brundisium. The triumvirate fleet was destroyed, and Ahenobarbus was saluted as Imperator. Following the Liberator defeat at Philippi, Ahenobarbus conducted operations against the triumvirate independently of Sextus Pompey, and with a fleet of seventy ships and two legions, he devastated the regions under the triumvirs, attacking Brundisium again, where he captured some of Octavian’s ships, and burnt others. In 40 BC, upon learning of the defeat of his brother Lucius and wife Fulvia in the Perusine War, Antony set sail for Italy with a small army and two hundred ships which he had built in Asia. Arriving at Athens, Antony was met by his wife Fulvia and his mother Julia, who had taken refuge with Sextus and been sent by him with warships from Sicily. She was accompanied by some leading Pompeians whose aim was to bring Antony and Sextus into alliance against Octavian. Antony’s response to the embassy was to offer alliance in case of war and reconciliation in case of peace, suggesting that Antony believed that a lasting partnership with Octavian was still possible. These new lines of communication with Sextus provided an avenue by which former supporters of the liberators could find their way back from exile; the most prominent of these was Ahenobarbus, who met Antony at sea with his whole army and his fleet rowing at a high rate of striking. Both fleets approached the other with standards flying; Antony’s lictor requested Ahenobarbus to dip his standard, as was custom when a commander met another of superior rank, and Ahenobarbus complied, with the combined fleet now moving together to Brundisium, which unsurprisingly closed its gates against Ahenobarbus and Antony.

145


427. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Uncertain (Corcyra?) mint, Summer 40 BC. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, imperator. Bare head right; lituus to left; ANT•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C around / Prow right; star above; CN•DOMIT•AHENOBARBVS IMP around. Crawford 521/2; CRI 258; RSC 10a; Sydenham 1179; BMCRR East 112. 3.62g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

750

Ex Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 574; Ex Dix Noonan Webb 126, 22 September 2014, lot 3497.

Rare Issue with Star in Superb Condition

428. Marc Antony and Octavian AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Antony, 41 BC. Bare head of Antony right; star below, M•ANTON•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C around / Bare head of Octavian right, wearing slight beard; CAESAR•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C• around. Crawford 528/2a; CRI 261; RSC 1; Sydenham 1193; BMCRR East 121. 3.80g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare; in excellent condition for the issue, being by far the best example present on CoinArchives.

2,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

429. Marc Antony and Octavia AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Ephesus, 39 BC. M•ANTONIVS•IMP•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath, lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers / III•VIR• R•P•C, head of Octavia atop cista mystica, between twisting snakes. RPC 2201; RSC 2; CRI 262. 11.90g, 29mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Ex Sternberg XXVI, 21 February 1990, lot 263.

146

3,000


430. Marc Antony AR Denarius. Athens, 38-37 BC. III•VIR•R•P•C•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TERT, radiate bust of Sol right / M•ANTONIVS•M•F•M•N •AVGVR•IMP•TER, Antony standing right, dressed as priest, veiled, wearing toga and holding lituus. Crawford 533/2; CRI 267; Sydenham 1199; RSC 13a. 3.75gg, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; very well preserved for the type, without the usual reverse weakness normally present.

1,500

431. Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, moneyer. Laureate head of Caesar right, S-C across fields / Signum, aquila, plow, and decempeda; TI•SEMPRONIVS above, GRACCVS below, Q•DES downwards to left. Crawford 525/4c; Sydenham 1128a; CRI 327. 4.15g, 19mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From a private European collection.

432. Sextus Pompey AR Denarius. Sicily, 42-40 BC. The Pharos of Messana surmounted by a statue of Neptune; in foreground, galley left adorned with legionary eagle, sceptre and trident, MAG•PIVS•IMP•ITER around / Scylla left, wielding a rudder in both hands; PRÆF•CLAS•ET•ORÆ•[MAR IT•EX•S•C] around. Crawford 511/4a; CRI 335; Sydenham 1348; RSC 2. 3.07g, 18mm, 3h. Extremely Fine; attractive old cabinet tone. Rare.

1,500

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 100, 29 May 2017, lot 1663.

433. Cn. Domitius Calvinus AR Denarius. Osca, 39 BC. Head of Hercules right; OSCA downwards behind / Simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex; DOM•COS•ITER•IMP around. Crawford 532/1; CRI 342; Sydenham 1358. 4.22g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

From a private European collection.

147

500


Cleopatra and Antony

434.

Cleopatra and Marc Antony AR Denarius. Uncertain Eastern mint, autumn 34 BC. CLEOPATRAE•REGINAE •REGVM•FILIORVM•REGVM, diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right; at point of bust, prow right / ANTONI•ARMENIA•DEVICTA, bare head of Marc Antony right; Armenian tiara to left. Crawford 543/1; RSC 1; CRI 345. 3.54g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; dies somewhat worn. Very Rare.

10,000

From a private European collection. Issued in the wake of the successful campaign against Armenia in early-mid 34 BC, this type proudly commemorates the victory with the legend ‘Armenia Devicta’ (Armenia vanquished). In the execution of his war on Parthia in early 36 BC, Antony had followed the advice of the Armenian king Artavasdes to invade Parthia not from the West (which would have been the shortest route) but from the North, subduing the Parthian allied kingdom of Media Atropatene along the way, whose king was (conveniently) an enemy of Artavasdes. At the fortified town of Phraaspa however, the attack foundered and Artavasdes abandoned Antony in the face of the enemy, allowing his logistics train and two legions to be massacred in an ambush. Following a failed two-month siege of Phraaspa, Antony was forced to call off the campaign and effect a fighting retreat back to friendly territory, in the course of which no fewer than eighteen battles were fought. Antony arrived back in Syria by late 36 BC, having lost about 40% (some 80,000 men) of his original force. In early 34 BC, after variously attempting to lure Artavasdes out to meet with him to discuss marriage proposals and renewed war on Parthia, pleasant inducements and entreaties through the king’s companions, and then a forced march to the capital Artaxata and what Cassius Dio describes as ‘aggressive use of his soldiers’, eventually Antony convinced Artavasdes to come to his camp, where the king was promptly arrested. Antony proceeded to plunder the country as best he could, and returned to Alexandria with his captives: King Artavasdes, his wife, and his family. There he celebrated a mock Roman triumph – an eastern pastiche of Rome’s most important military ceremony – wherein Antony paraded through the streets in a chariot with his captives walking behind him. Cleopatra watched, seated high above with Caesarion at her side. As a grand finale, the whole city was summoned to the gymnasium to bear witness to a political statement which became known as the Donations of Alexandria. Antony and Cleopatra, dressed as Dionysus-Osiris and Isis-Aphrodite, sat on golden thrones while Antony distributed kingdoms among his children by Cleopatra: Alexander Helios was named king of Armenia, Media and Parthia, his twin Selene was awarded Cyrenaica and Libya, and the young Ptolemy Philadelphus was given Syria and Cilicia. Cleopatra was proclaimed Queen of Kings, a title evidenced on the obverse of this coin type, which also names ‘her Children, who are kings’. Most damaging of all was the naming of Caesarion as a legitimate son and heir of Julius Caesar. This caused a fatal rupture of Antony’s relations with Octavian, and Rome. When the triumvirate officially expired on the last day of 33 BC it was not renewed, and the Roman world again found itself at war.

148


435. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG II across fields. Crawford 544/14; CRI 349; RSC 27. 3.32g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From a private European collection.

436. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG II across fields. Crawford 544/14; CRI 349; RSC 27. 3.72g, 18mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

437. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG III across fields. Crawford 544/15; CRI 350; RSC 28. 3.74g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

300

438. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG III across fields. Crawford 544/15; CRI 350; RSC 28. 3.78g, 16mm, 6h. Very Fine.

200

439. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG IV across fields. Crawford 544/17; CRI 352; RSC 30. 3.88g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Well struck on a good sized flan, and with lustrous and lightly toned surfaces.

500

440. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG V across fields. Crawford 544/18; CRI 354; RSC 32. 3.88g, 17mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

149

400


441. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VI across fields. Crawford 544/19; CRI 356; RSC 33. 3.59g, 18mm, 10h. Good Very Fine.

300

442. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VII across fields. Crawford 544/20; CRI 357; RSC 34. 3.66g, 17mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

400

443. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG X across fields. Crawford 544/24; CRI 361; RSC 38. 3.67g, 21mm, 11h. Good Very Fine.

300

444. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XII ANTIQVAE above. Crawford 544/9; CRI 363; RSC 40. 3.78g, 19m, 6h. Good Very Fine.

200

445. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XII across fields. Crawford 544/26; CRI 365; RSC 41. 3.66g, 20m, 1h. Good Very Fine.

150

250


446. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XVII across fields. Crawford 544/32; CRI 374; RSC 49. 3.83g, 19mm, 10h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

300

447. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 - spring 31 BC. ANT•AVG III•VIR•R•P•C, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG XXI across fields. Crawford 544/37; CRI 381; RSC 58; Sydenham 1244; BMCRR East 216. 3.50g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

750

448. Octavian AR Denarius. Italian mint (Rome?), autumn 30 - summer 29 BC. Laureate head of Apollo Actius right / Octavian, veiled and in priestly robes, ploughing right with team of oxen; IMP•CAESAR in exergue. RIC 272; CRI 424; RSC 117. 3.89g, 19mm, 1h. Good Very Fine.

300

ROMAN IMPERIAL COINS

449. Augustus Æ Dupondius. Uncertain mint in northwestern(?) Spain, circa 27-23 BC. IMP AVG DIVI F, bare head left; palm to left, winged caduceus to right / Celt-Iberian shield. RPC I 3; SNG Copenhagen 413. 10.91g, 26mm. Extremely Fine; beautiful light green patina. Very Rare; one of the finest known examples of this issue.

500

Ex European private collection. It is possible that the coinage listed in RPC under the title of ‘uncertain mint’ in northwestern Spain was actually a Roman Imperial coinage similar to that of the legate Publius Carisius struck in Emerita during the Cantabrian War (29-19 BC), with which this coin shares similarities in style and obverse titulature. The lack of identification with a city or dynast (besides Augustus) strengthens the case that this coin is a military issue commemorating the war and displaying a shield of the enemy on the reverse. The Cantabri fought off the Romans with guerrilla tactics and skill with light armour, requiring the strength of eight legions and auxiliary troops to finally be defeated. Augustus himself began the campaign from Segisama in 26 BC but was forced to retire due to ill-health, leaving his legates Caius Antistius Vetus and Publius Carisius to finish the job.

151


450. Augustus Ӕ Sestertius. Uncertain Asian mint, circa 25 BC. AVGVSTVS, bare head right / CA within rostral wreath. C.J. Howgego, Coinage and Military Finance: the Imperial Bronze Coinage of the Augustan East, in NC 1983, p. 7, 2a, pl. 1, 9; RIC 501 (Pergamum); BMCRE 713 (Pergamum); CBN 956 (Pergamum); RPC 2233 (Asia). 25.80g, 39mm, 1h. Very Fine; obv. field gently smoothed.

1,000

The mint identity and reverse legend of the Augustan CA issues has long been discussed (for a survey of theories see RPC I, pp. 380-381), but the reverse ‘CA’ may refer to the stabilised Communitas Asiae. Following the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, Augustus returned to Italy via Asia, most likely personally sanctioning at Pergamum the temple dedicated to himself and Rome. At the end of the civil war, Augustus sought to restore peace to the empire and to reinforce her frontiers. This was achieved by establishing diplomatic relations with the surrounding rulers, and the placement of Agrippa as proconsul of Asia Minor once Augustus had returned to Rome in 19 BC.

451. Augustus AR Cistophorus. Ephesus, circa 25-20 BC. IMP•CAESAR, bare head right / AVGV-STVS across field, six stalks of grain tied in a bundle. RIC 481; RSC 32b; RPC I 2214; BMCRE 697 = BMCRR East 264. 11.78g, 25mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

452. Augustus AR Denarius. 27 BC-AD 14. Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Victory flying right, holding in both hands a round shield inscribed CL•V, and laurel branch in right; S•P•Q•R to left. RIC 47a; RSC 289e; BMCRE 342 = BMCRR Gaul 153; BN 1325. 3.80g, 21mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

2,000

453. Augustus AR Denarius. Emerita, 25-23 BC. P. Carisius, legatus pro praetore. IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / P CARISIVS LEG PRO PR, circular city wall with EMERITA inscribed above gate. RIC 9a; RSC 397. 3.88g, 18mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Lightly toned surfaces with underlying lustre.

152

500


454. Augustus AR Denarius. North Peloponnesian mint, circa 21 BC. AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Laurel wreath intertwined with prows, the wreath ties arranged centrally. RIC 473; BMCRE 669. 3.70g, 18mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Scarce.

500

Ex Arden Collection, Goldberg 74, 4 June 2013, lot 3556.

455. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Round shield inscribed CL•V, aquila and signum flanking; SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS below, S P Q R around. RIC 86a; RSC 265; BMCRE 417. 3.88g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,500

Ex Private Swiss Collection.

456. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 19 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / Round shield inscribed CL•V, aquila and signum flanking; SIGNIS above, RECEPTIS below, S P Q R around. RIC 86a; RSC 265; BMCRE 418. 3.87g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State.

1,500

457. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain Spanish mint, 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, oak-wreathed head right / Eight-rayed comet with tail upwards, DIVVS - IVLIVS across fields. RIC 37a; RSC 98; BMCRE 323-5 = BMCRR Gaul 135-7. 3.89g, 21mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,500

From a private European collection; Ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. 419, 27 April 2017, lot 443.

458. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19-18 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / S•P•Q•R CL•V in two lines on shield. RIC 42a; RSC 294; BMCRE 333-4 = BMCRR Gaul 128-9; BN 1311-5. 3.79g, 19m, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Highly lustrous, with light golden toning.

153

1,250


459. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19/18 BC. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. TVRPILIANVS III•VIR FERON, draped bust of Feronia right, wearing stephane and pearl necklace / CAESAR AVGVSTVS•SIGN•RECE•, bare-headed Parthian kneeling right, extending in right hand a standard, to which is attached a vexillum marked X, and holding out left hand. RIC 288; RSC 484; BMCRE 14; BN 127-37. 3.73g, 21mm, 2h. Extremely Fine. Fine light golden tone.

750

From a central European collection; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 72, 16-17 May 2013, lot 1387.

460. Augustus AR Denarius. Rome, 19/18 BC. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / P PETRON•TVRPILIAN•III•VIR, winged Siren standing left, holding a flute in raised right hand and another flute in left hand at her side. RIC 296; RSC 490; BMCRE 27-8. 3.62g, 20mm, 9h. Very Fine; banker’s mark on obv. Extremely Rare.

1,000

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

461. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 18 BC. S•P•Q•R•PARENT, toga picta over tunica palmata between aquila to left and wreath to right; CONS•SVO below / Slow quadriga to right, with ornamented panels surmounted by four miniature galloping horses; CAESARI AVGVSTO in exergue. RIC 100; RSC 80; BMCRE 401. 3.58g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From a private European collection.

462. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), circa 18 BC. CAESARI AVGVSTO, laureate head right / The Temple of Mars Ultor: round-domed, hexastyle temple with acroteria set on podium of three steps, an aquila between two signa within; MAR-VLT across fields. RIC 105a; RSC 190; BMCRE 373. 3.83g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State.

1,500

Ex European private collection. After his defeat of Marc Antony at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC Octavian, as he was still styled at that time, vowed that he would build a fine temple to honour Mars, the god of war. Forty years later and after Octavian had become Princeps of Rome, the civic complex that had been created at his behest that included the Temple of Mars Ultor was dedicated, though unfinished, as the Forum of Augustus.

154


463. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-17/16 BC. Bare head right / Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder, cornucopiae over its shoulder; AVGVSTVS below. RIC 126; RSC 21; BMCRE 346. 3.90g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Centrally struck on a broad flan; highly lustrous.

2,000

464. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-17/16 BC. Bare head right / Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder, cornucopiae over its shoulder; AVGVSTVS below. RIC 126; RSC 21; BMCRE 346. 3.85g, 19mm, 5h. Extremely Fine; lightly toned with mint lustre around details.

1,500

465. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-17/16 BC. S•P•Q•R•CAESARI AVGVSTO, bare head right / VOT•P•SVSC•P RO•SAL•ET•RED•I•OM•SACR•, Mars, nude but for helmet and sagum from shoulders over left arm, standing to left on ground line with head reverted, holding vexillum in right hand and cradling parazonium in left. RIC 148 corr. (obv. legend); RSC 321; BMCRE 441. 3.31g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Very rare variety.

500

From a private European collection.

Ex Numismatic Fine Arts 1989

466. Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), July 18-17/16 BC. S•P•Q•R•CAESARI AVGVSTO, bare head right / VOT•P•SVSC•PRO •SAL•ET•RED•I•OM•SACR•, Mars, nude but for helmet and sagum from shoulders over left arm, standing to left on ground line, holding vexillum in right hand and cradling parazonium in left. RIC 150a; RSC 325; BMCRE 438-9 = BMCRR Rome 4459-60; BN 1242-5. 3.79g, 19mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old tone. Rare. Ex D. Fagan Collection; Privately purchased from Numismatic Fine Arts, 16 March 1989.

155

2,000


467. Augustus AR Denarius. Uncertain mint, 17 BC. CAESAR, youthful head right (possibly Gaius Caesar), within oak-wreath / AVG-VST, to left and right of candelabrum ornamented with rams’ heads; all within wreath entwined with bucrania and paterae. RIC 540; BMCRE 684. 3.86g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; lustrous surfaces and very well centred reverse. Rare.

2,000

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 526; Ex Gorny & Mosch 176, 10 March 2009, lot 2074.

468. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Augustus, bareheaded and togate, seated left on curule chair set on dais, extending his right hand toward two soldiers, each carrying parazonia and presenting laurel branches in their right hands; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 165a; Lyon 13; RSC 133; BMCRE 445-6 = BMCRR Gaul 157-8; BN 1366-9. 3.87g, 19mm, 4h. Extremely Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone.

2,500

Ex UBS 56, 28 January 2003, lot 212.

469. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, circa 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head right / Augustus, bareheaded and togate, seated left on curule chair set on dais, extending right hand toward two soldiers, each carrying parazonium and presenting laurel branches in their right hands; IMP X in exergue. RIC 165a; Lyon 13; RSC 133; BMCRE 445-6 = BMCRR Gaul 157-8; BN 1366-9. 3.54g, 19mm, 4h. Near Mint State; die break on obv.

1,000

From a private European collection.

470. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 167a; RSC 137; BMCRE 451. 3.61g, 20mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. From a private German collection.

156

2,500


471. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 167a; RSC 137; BMCRE 451. 3.60g, 19mm, 4h. Near Mint State.

2,500

472. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 167a; RSC 137; BMCRE 451. 3.66g, 19mm, 5h. Mint State.

1,500

Ex European private collection.

473. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 167a; RSC 137; BMCRE 451. 3.76g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State; light golden tone.

1,500

Ex European private collection.

474. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 167a; RSC 137; BMCRE 451. 3.80g, 19mm, 5h. Near Mint State; some areas of flat strike.

1,250

475. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to right; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 167a; RSC 137; BMCRE 451. 3.69g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State. Ex European private collection.

157

1,000


476. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Bull butting to left; IMP•X in exergue. RIC 169; RSC 141; BMCRE 458. 3.85g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State; light golden tone. Very Rare.

1,750

Ex European private collection.

477. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Apollo Citharoedus of Actium, standing left, holding plectrum and lyre; IMP •X across fields, ACT in exergue. RIC 171a; RSC 144; BMCRE 461. 3.86g, 19mm, 6h. Mint State. Highly lustrous metal.

2,000

Ex Numismatic Fine Arts I, 1975

478. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 15-13 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, bare head right / Apollo Citharoedus of Actium, standing left, holding plectrum and lyre; IMP• X across fields, ACT in exergue. RIC 171a; RSC 144; BMCRE 461. 3.75g, 18mm, 6h. Mint State; minor areas of weak strike.

1,500

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex Numismatic Fine Arts I, 20 March 1975, lot 274.

479. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 8 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI•F, laureate head right / C•CAES• above, Caius Caesar on horseback, galloping right, holding sword in left hand and reins in right; behind him, an aquila between two signa, AVGVS•F in exergue. RIC 199; Lyon 69; RSC 40; BMCRE 500-502 = BMCRR Gaul 223-225; BN 1461, 1463-1465, 1469. 3.90g, 19mm, 10h. Near Mint State; highly lustrous metal. Very rare in such excellent condition.

2,000

480. Augustus AR Denarius. Lugdunum, 7-6 BC. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Gaius and Lucius Caesar standing facing, each togate and resting hand on shield; spear behind each shield, lituus and simpulum above, C L CAESARES in exergue. RIC 210. 3.90g, 19mm, 7h. Mint State. Highly lustrous surfaces. In exceptional condition for the issue.

158

400


Stunning Antonia Denarius

481. Antonia Minor (mother of Claudius) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 41-45. ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing crown of corn-ears, hair in long plait behind / SACERDOS DIVI [AVGVSTI], two vertical long torches, lighted and linked by ribbon. RIC 68; BMCRE 114. 3.82g, 18mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal with deep old cabinet tone and iridescent highlights. Very Rare.

7,500

Ex private Swiss collection. This coin bears the posthumous representation of Antonia Minor, and was struck in her memory by her son Claudius upon his ascension to the throne. This well liked and respected Roman woman who was celebrated for her virtue and beauty was the younger of the two daughters of Marc Antony and Octavia, who after Antony’s death was allowed by Augustus to benefit from her father’s estate. She thus became wealthy and influential, and married Nero Claudius Drusus, general and consul, bearing him several children. Three survived into adulthood: the popular Germanicus, the future emperor Claudius, and a daughter Livilla. Following the death of her husband in AD 9 whilst on campaign in Germania, the rest of Antonia’s life was plagued by ill fortune as she outlived her eldest son, her daughter and several of her grandchildren. After first the death of her husband, her eldest son Germanicus died in AD 19 in mysterious circumstances in Asia, where he incorporated the kingdoms of Commagene and Cappadocia into Roman provinces. While feuding with the governor of Syria Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, Germanicus was thought to have been poisoned, either by Piso or by Tiberius’ scheming advisor Sejanus. Her younger son Claudius, who was born with severe disabilities, was ostracised by his family and excluded from public office until his consulship in AD 37 which he shared with his nephew Caligula. Ironically, this action by his family may have actually saved his life as he was not perceived as a threat to power and therefore survived the purges of Tiberius’ and Caligula’s reigns, going on to prove himself a worthy emperor. Antonia’s woes did not stop with her sons, as her daughter Livilla is supposed to have poisoned her husband Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. According to Cassius Dio, Tiberius handed Livilla over to her mother, who locked her up in a room and starved her to death. After the death of Tiberius, her grandson Caligula became emperor, and though Antonia would often offer him advice, he once told her, ‘I can treat anyone exactly as I please!’ Caligula was rumoured to have had his young cousin Gemellus beheaded, to remove him as a rival to the throne. This act was said to have outraged Antonia, who was grandmother to Gemellus as well as to Caligula. Able to stand no more of Caligula’s tyranny, Antonia committed suicide, though Suetonius (Lives of the Caesars IV.23) , suggests she might also have been poisoned by her grandson. Despite what must have been a painful childhood, rejected by his own mother, Claudius clearly idolised her and after his accession gave her the posthumous title of Augusta, and her birthday became a public holiday which was marked with yearly games and public sacrifices, and her image was paraded in a carriage.

First Aureus Struck under Tiberius

482. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-15. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / TR POT XVI, Tiberius, laureate and cloaked, in slow quadriga right, holding laurel branch and eagle-tipped sceptre; IMP VII in exergue. RIC 1; Calicó 307. 7.65g, 20mm, 3h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

7,500

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection, Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 174, 11 January 2013, lot 5424. This type recalls the aureus issued under Augustus in commemoration of Tiberius’ triumphal procession upon his return to Rome, awarded on account of his successful campaigns in Germany and Pannonia. It was on this occasion that Tiberius’ rank and powers were made equal to those of Augustus himself, an act which ensured that upon the passing of Augustus there would be no interregnum, and that Tiberius would continue to rule without possible upheaval.

159


483. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 15-16. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / TR POT XVII, Tiberius, laureate and cloaked, standing in slow quadriga right, holding laurel branch and eagle-tipped sceptre; the first and third horses’ heads turned to left, IMP VII in exergue. RIC 4 var. (direction of horses’ heads); C. 48 var. (same); BMCRE 8 var. (same); Giard, Lyon 124. 3.62g, 18mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. The scarcer of the two varieties, with the horses looking backwards.

750

484. Tiberius AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 14-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on throne with plain legs, holding branch and sceptre; double exergual line. RIC 25; BMCRE 30; Calicó 305d. 7.84g, 20mm, 5h. Very Fine.

2,000

From the collection of A.S., Canada.

485. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 36-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on chair with ornamented legs above a single exergual line, holding long vertical sceptre in right hand and branch in left. RIC 30; RSC 16a; BMCRE 48. 3.75g, 18mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; highly lustrous.

200

486. Tiberius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 36-37. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax seated right on chair with ornamented legs above a single exergual line, holding long vertical sceptre in right hand and branch in left. RIC 30; RSC 16a; BMCRE 48. 3.92g, 18mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

160

500


487. Drusus (son of Tiberius) Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 22-23. Confronted heads of Drusus’ twin sons Tiberius Gemellus and Germanicus on crossed cornucopiae; winged caduceus between / DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II around large SC. RIC 42 (Tiberius); BMCRE 95 (Tiberius). 26.04g, 27mm, 12h. Very Fine. Fields gently smoothed.

2,000

From a central European collection.

488. Germanicus (brother of Claudius) Æ As. Rome, AD 50-54. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC. RIC 106; BMCRE 241. 11.52g, 29mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From a central European collection; Ex Hess-Divo 332, 31 May 2017, lot 90.

489. Agrippina I (mother of Caligula) Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 37-41. AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, draped bust right / SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINA, carpentum to left, drawn by two mules, the domed cover supported by two figures. RIC 55 (Gaius); C. 1; BMCRE 81. 27.01g, 34mm, 6h. Very Fine.

From a central European collection.

161

2,500


490. Nero Claudius Drusus (father of Claudius) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 41-45. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, laureate head left / DE above and GERM on architrave of triumphal arch surmounted by equestrian statue to right, between two trophies, each with seated and bound captive at foot; spear in rider’s hand. RIC 70; C. 2; BMCRE 97. 3.51g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

2,000

491. Nero Claudius Drusus (father of Claudius) Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 42-43. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head left / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P P, Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch and resting hand on lap; weapons and armour on either side of globe beneath; SC in exergue. RIC 109 (Claudius); von Kaenel Type 72. 25.17g, 35mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; softly struck on rev., but obv. displays a bold and finely detailed portrait.

500

From a central European collection; Ex Roma Numismatics E-22, 28 November 2015, lot 502.

492. Nero and Drusus (brothers of Caligula), as Caesars, Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 40-41. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right, cloaks flying / C•CAESAR•DIVI•AVG•PRON•AVG•P•M•TR•P•IIII•P•P around large S•C. RIC 49 corr. (rev. legend). 13.22g, 29mm, 6h. Good Very Fine From a central European collection.

750

Wonderful Denarius of Caligula with Divus Augustus

493. Caligula, with Divus Augustus, AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 37. C•CAESAR•AVG•GERM•P•M•TR•POT COS, bare head of Gaius (Caligula) right / Radiate head of Divus Augustus right, flanked by two stars. RIC 2; Lyon 157; RSC 11; BMCRE 4-5; BN 3-8. 3.70g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine, highly lustrous metal. Rare. From a private German collection.

162

5,000


Caligula Honours the Memory of his Mother

494. Caligula, with Agrippina I, AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 37-8. C•CAESAR AVG•GERM•P•M•TR•POT•, laureate head of Caligula right / AGRIPPINA•MAT•C•CAES•AVG•GERM•, draped bust of Agrippina right, wearing hair in waves from brow downwards and knotted in a long plait at the back, one lock falls loose down the neck. RIC 13; BMCRE 14; Calicó 326. 7.63g, 19mm, 10h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

20,000

Much attention has been given over the years to the seemingly base character of Gaius, known to history as Caligula (meaning ‘little soldier’s boot) after the nickname he acquired as a child from his father Germanicus’ soldiers during their campaign in Germania. Though there are few surviving sources concerning his reign, he is generally described as noble and moderate in the first six months of his rule, after which time the sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism, extravagance and sexual perversion. All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, characterise Caligula as insane, but given his extreme unpopularity it is difficult to separate fact from fiction in the historical record. Recent studies have attempted to ascribe a medical reason for his unusual behaviour, citing encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis as possibilities, however the question remains unanswered. Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and Seneca state that Caligula was insane, but describe this madness as a personality trait that came through experience. Certainly the experiences in the early years of his life would have been sufficient to leave an individual severely traumatised at the very least; born in AD 12 into the perilously dysfunctional Julio-Claudian family, his father Germanicus was allegedly poisoned by an agent of Tiberius (Germanicus’ uncle) when Caligula was only seven, and his mother Agrippina and eldest brother Nero were banished by the emperor on charges of treason in 29. His other older brother Drusus was imprisoned on similar charges in AD 30, and in the same year Nero was killed or committed suicide. His mother was mistreated in exile, losing an eye during a beating from a centurion, and died in AD 33. Tacitus (Annals, 6.25) speculates that she was starved to death as was Drusus, who died after having been reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed. Meanwhile, Caligula and his sisters were “nothing more than prisoners of Tiberius, under the close watch of soldiers” according to Suetonius (Lives of the Caesars, III.64). All the while, Caligula was forced to act as though he bore Tiberius no ill-will, whom Caligula claimed to have planned to kill with a dagger in order to avenge his mother and brother (Lives of the Caesars, IV.12). The grief felt by Caligula at the loss of his murdered parents, Germanicus and Agrippina, and his murdered brothers, Nero Caesar and Drusus Caesar, is evident in his efforts to commemorate their memories, of which his coinage provides numerous examples including the present aureus.

495. Caligula, with Agrippina I, AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 37-38. C•CAESAR•AVG•GERM•P•M•TR•POT, laureate head of Caligula right / AGRIPPINA•MAT•C•CAES•AVG•GERM, draped bust of Agrippina right, wearing hair in waves from brow downwards and knotted in a long plait at the back, one lock falls loose down the neck. RIC 14 (Rome mint); Lyon 169; RSC 2; BMCRE 15; BN 24-6. 3.77g, 18mm, 10h. Extremely Fine; area of soft strike on rev. Rare. From a private European collection.

163

5,000


Exceptionally High Quality Denarius of Caligula with Germanicus

496. Caligula, with Germanicus, AR Denarius. Rome or Lugdunum, AD 37-38. C CAESAR•AVG•GERM•P•M•TR•POT, laureate head of Caligula right / GERMANICVS•CAES•P•C•CAES•AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus right. RIC 18; BMCRE 19; RSC 4. 3.73g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; attractive light cabinet tone. Well centred on a very broad flan; among the finest known examples of the type.

15,000

Struck at the beginning of Caligula’s reign, as part of a series honouring his dead father, mother and brothers, this particular coin pays homage to his father Germanicus. A talented military commander, Germanicus famously led eight legions in three campaigns against the Germanic tribes (AD 14-16), in the course of which he avenged the humiliating defeat suffered by Varus in the Teutoberg Forest and reclaimed two of the lost legionary eagles. He was awarded a Triumph upon his return to Rome in AD 17, and was subsequently dispatched to Asia to restructure the provinces and kingdoms of Asia, which were in such disarray that the direct attention of a senior member of the imperial family was considered necessary. In AD 19, in the midst of a feud with the governor of Syria Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, Germanicus was suddenly taken ill with suspected poisoning, and soon died. Piso was implicated in his death, with suspicions falling on the emperor’s chief advisor Sejanus, and even on Tiberius himself. Several historians of the time including Tacitus and Suetonius discuss how beloved Germanicus was by the people and how they regarded him as a model Roman. They took it upon themselves to commemorate Germanicus by honouring him with a Justitium (a suspension of public and private business) and the mourning was felt throughout the empire; “When the news of his death finally broke, neither edicts nor official expressions of sympathy could console the commons...” (Suetonius, The Tweleve Caesars, p. 153). Caligula’s decision to include his fathers portrait on this coinage would no doubt have gone over well with the people of the Rome who remembered his father, and would certainly have helped endear him to them as he began his reign as emperor.

497. Caligula Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate bust left / AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing facing: Agrippina, as Securitas, holds cornucopiae in right hand resting on column, with left hand on shoulder of Drusilla, as Concordia, who holds patera and cornucopiae; Julia, as Fortuna, holds rudder and cornucopiae. RIC 33; C. 4; BN 47. 28.06g, 35mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; lightly smoothed. Rare. From a central European collection; Ex Hess-Divo 332, 31 May 2017, lot 92.

164

5,000


498. Caligula Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate head left / S•P•Q•R P•P OB•CIVES SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath. RIC 37; BN 50; C. 24; BMCRE 38. 29.57g, 35mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rev. fields gently smoothed in parts.

7,500

From a central European collection.

499. Claudius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 41-42. TI•CLAVD•CAESAR•AVG•P•M•TR•P•, laureate head right / CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, Antonia seated left on curule chair, her right hand raised before her face. RIC 2; Biaggi 197; BMCRE 1; BN 19 (Lyon); Calicó 339; C. 4; Von Kaenel 90. 7.68g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

5,000

The reverse of this coin bears the posthumous representation of Antonia Minor, and was struck in memory of her by Claudius her son upon his ascension to the throne. The legend of this pleasing reverse type refers to perseverance in the face of adversity, which indeed Antonia displayed continually throughout her life, not to a goddess ‘Constantia’ to whom no other references may be found besides three coin types issued under Claudius.

500. Claudius AR Denarius. Lugdunum, AD 41-42. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P, laureate head right / EX•S•C OB•CIVES SERVATOS in three lines within oak wreath. RIC 16; C. 35; BMCRE 18; RSC 35. 3.80g, 20mm, 11h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

165

750


The Arch of Claudius

501.

Claudius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 46-47. TI CLAVD CAESAR•AVG•P•M•TR•P•VI IMP•XI, laureate head right / DE BRITANN on architrave of triumphal arch surmounted by equestrian statue to left between two trophies. RIC 34; C. 18; BMCRE 35; RSC 18. 3.85g, 19mm, 4h. Good Extremely Fine. Sound, lustrous metal. Very Rare; an outstanding example of the type, arguably the finest present on CoinArchives. 5,000 In AD 43, Claudius sent the distinguished senator Aulus Plautius with four legions to Britannia after an appeal from the Roman ally Verica, ousted king of the Atrebates. The Roman invasion was contested by an alliance of tribes led by Togodumnus and Caratacus, sons of the late king of the Catuvellauni, Cunobelinus. The legions met stiff resistance at a river crossing thought to be near Rochester on the river Medway; in the course of this two-day engagement the Legio II Augusta commanded by the future emperor Vespasian forded the crossing and engaged the Britons while an auxiliary unit of Batavians swam the river and made a surprise attack on the Britons’ armed chariots. The first day ended without a decisive result, and on the second the contest was again indecisive until Gnaeus Hosidius Geta personally led his legion (probably the IX Hispana) into the fray; the legate was himself nearly surrounded, but turned the battle and defeated the enemy so resoundingly that he was awarded triumphal ornaments even though he had not yet held the consulship (Cassius Dio, LX.20). Plautius halted the advance after a further engagement at the Thames, to which the Britons had withdrawn as their next line of defence, and sent for the emperor as he had been instructed to do. Claudius brought with him reinforcements, doubtless including a sizeable part of the Praetorian Guard, heavy armaments, and a contingent of war elephants to overawe the natives. Cassius Dio relates that Claudius, taking command of the Roman forces, “crossed the stream, and engaging the barbarians, who had gathered at his approach... defeated them and captured Camulodunum, the capital of Cunobelinus. Thereupon he won over numerous tribes, in some cases by capitulation, in others by force, and was saluted as imperator several times, contrary to precedent”. For the victories won in Britannia, the Senate voted Claudius the title of ‘Britannicus’, a triumph, and that there should be two triumphal arches erected – one in the city, and the other in Gaul, whence Claudius had sailed when he crossed over to Britain. This rare denarius depicts the anticipated triumphal Arch of Claudius, commissioned in AD 43, but which would not be dedicated until AD 51. It was a conversion of one of the arches of the Aqua Virgo aqueduct where it crossed the Via Flaminia, the main road to the north of Rome, but is now lost and a fragment of the inscription is all that remains, housed in the Capitoline Museum. The full inscription has been reconstructed however from the sister-arch that was built at Gesoriacum (Boulogne-sur-Mer).

166


502. Claudius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 46-47. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P VI IMP XI, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis, winged and draped, advancing right, with right hand holding out fold of drapery below chin, with left hand holding winged caduceus, pointing down at snake, gliding right. RIC 39; von Kaenel Type 24; RSC 58; BMCRE 40-1; BN 51. 3.68g, 19mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine.

1,500

Ex European private collection.

503. Claudius Æ As. Rome, AD 41-50. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, draped figure of Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus in right hand and with left outstretched; S-C across fields. RIC 97; BMCRE 145; C. 47. 11.36g, 29mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

300

From a central European collection.

Splendid Portrait of Agrippina II

504. Claudius, with Agrippina II, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 50-51. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM [P M TRIB POT P P], laureate head of Claudius right / AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust of Agrippina II right, wearing crown of corn ears, her hair in long plait behind. RIC 81; RSC 4; BMCRE 75. 3.66g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; highly lustrous metal. Rare.

7,500

505. Claudius, with Agrippina II, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 50-51. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TRIB POT P P, laureate head of Claudius right / AGRIPPINAE [AVGVST]AE, draped bust of Agrippina II right, wearing crown of corn ears, her hair in long plait behind. RIC 81; RSC 4; BMCRE 75. 3.65g, 19mm, 9h. Near Mint State; light grey cabinet tone. Rare.

167

5,000


506. Claudius, with Agrippina II, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 50-51. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TRIB POT P P, laureate head of Claudius right / AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust of Agrippina II right, wearing crown of corn ears, her hair in long plait behind. RIC 81; RSC 4; BMCRE 75. 3.61g, 18mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine. Lightly toned. Rare.

1,500

From a private European collection; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 257, 10 October 2014, lot 8470.

507. Nero, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 51-54. NERONI CLAVDIO DRVSO GERM COS DESIGN, bare-headed and draped bust right / EQVESTER OR-DO PRINCIPI IVVENT inscribed on shield in four lines, vertical spear behind. RIC 78; C. 96; BMCRE 92; Calicó 407. 7.58g, 19mm, 4h. Very Fine.

3,000

From the V.D.T. Collection.

508. Nero, with Agrippina II, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 54. AGRIPP AVG DIVI CLAVD NERONIS CAES MATER, bare-headed bust of Nero right and draped bust of Agrippina II left / NERONI CLAVD DIVI F CAES AVG GERM IMP TR P, oak-wreath enclosing EX SC. RIC 2; C. 7; BMCRE 3. 3.54g, 18mm, 9h. Good Very Fine. Two attractive portraits. Rare.

2,500

Ex Triton V, 15 January 2002, lot 1894.

509. Nero Æ Semis. Rome, circa AD 64. NERO CAES AVG IMP, laureate head right / CER QVINQ ROM CO, table seen from three-quarter angle, bearing urn and wreath, round shield resting against table leg; S (mark of value) above, SC in exergue. RIC 233; WCN 325; BMCRE 261. 3.45g, 17mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. From a central European collection.

168

600


510. Nero Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 64. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right / CONG I DAT [POP], Nero seated to right on curule chair on raised dais, to left of an official seated to right, drawing tessera from container and handing it to figure climbing steps, extending hand to receive it, child standing behind figure; Minerva helmeted, holding spear and owl, and Liberalitas holding coin counter standing facing on dais in background; SC in exergue. RIC 153; C. 69; BN 275. 26.70g, 34mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare; only one example (this coin) in CoinArchives.

5,000

From a central European collection; Ex Hess-Divo 332, 31 May 2017, lot 99.

511. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 64-65. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / AVGVSTVS AVGVSTA, Nero, radiate and togate, holding long sceptre and patera, standing to left beside empress Poppaea, veiled and draped, holding patera and cornucopiae. RIC 44; C. 42; BMCRE 52; CBN 200; Calicó 201. 7.25g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine; polished.

3,000

From a central European collection.

512. Nero Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, circa AD 65. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right, globe at point of bust / DECVRSIO, Nero riding right, holding spear in right hand, soldier riding behind, holding vexillum over his right shoulder; S-C across fields. RIC 436; WCN 418; BMCRE 311; BN 71; C. 86. 25.28g, 37mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; a wonderfully detailed reverse.

7,500

From a private European collection; Ex Numismatik Lanz 114, 26 May 2003, lot 285.

513. Nero AV Aureus. Rome, AD 65-66. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / VESTA, statue of Vesta within domed hexastyle temple, holding patera and long sceptre. RIC 61; BMCRE 101; Calicó 448. 7.27g, 19mm, 5h. Near Very Fine. From a central European collection.

169

1,500


514. Nero Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 66. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate bust left, globe at point / PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, left-corner view of front and side of the temple of Janus, with garland hung across closed double door, side wall with long latticed window; S-C across fields. RIC 584; BMCRE -; C. -; WCN 481; BN -. 24.38g, 36mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; light smoothing behind bust and above temple. Very Rare, only four examples on CoinArchives.

5,000

From a central European collection.

515. Nero Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 66. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT P P, laureate bust left, globe at point / ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES, Annona standing right, holding cornucopiae with her left hand, resting right hand on her hip, facing Ceres seated left, holding grain ears with her extended right hand and torch with her left; modius on garlanded altar between them, ship’s stern in background, SC in exergue. RIC 495; C. 22; BMCRE p. 260 note; Lyon 184; WCN 445. 29.90g, 34mm, 7h. Good Very Fine.

2,500

From a central European collection.

516. Nero Æ Sestertius. Lugdunum, AD 67. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate bust left, globe at point / DECVRSIO, Nero on horse prancing to right, wearing short tunica and holding spear in right hand; behind him, mounted soldier prancing right with vexillum held over right shoulder; S-C across fields. RIC 580; WCN 480; C. 87 var. 29.25g, 37mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; slightly smoothed on rev.; fine style portrait. Very Rare. From a central European collection; Ex Hess-Divo 332, 31 May 2017, lot 100.

170

4,000


Unique Vindex Denarius Featuring Juno Moneta

517. Civil War, Vindex AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Gaul, AD 68. MONETA, head of Juno Moneta to right / PACI•P•R, clasped hands holding winged caduceus. Martin -, cf. 55 for obverse type and 41-43 for reverse type; BMCRE -; RIC -; C. -; Nicolas -. 3.83g, 17mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished. Of great numismatic interest.

5,000

Vindex was a descendant of a family of chieftains granted Roman citizenship during the time of Julius Caesar and who were admitted to the Senate by Claudius. On account of this it is tempting to view his revolt as a campaign for Gallic independence. The numismatic evidence, however, suggests the contrary and demonstrates that rather than having an anti-Roman agenda, Vindex was specifically anti-Neronian and anti-tyrannical. Indeed, allegedly in one of his speeches he condemned Nero on all fronts, only complimenting him when he stated he had done the right thing putting his own mother to death, as she had borne such a monster. His coinage employs consistently Augustan propaganda, recalling the great Pax inaugurated by Augustus following his defeat of Marc Antony, as seen on the reverse of this coin. The coins of Vindex are notoriously rare and difficult to obtain. Until relatively recently they had largely been ignored by scholars, though in the 1970s Peter-Hugo Martin, Colin Kraay and Etienne-Paul Nicolas all published studies on this obscure series. Despite the revolt being brief, a matter of just a few months, the coinage is exceptionally diverse. This is due in great part certainly to the large number of men Vindex was able to call to his standards - by his account, over 100,000 though more probably about 20,000 as reported by Plutarch - and the need to pay them. This remarkable and unique coin pairs Juno Moneta (Juno ‘who warns’) with a reverse type that is only otherwise known with an obverse type featuring a female head and the legend BONI EVENT (Martin 41-43). The Juno obverse was previously known only with a reverse that reproduced the types of T. Carisius (Crawford 464/2), which had been struck a little over a century before. In that context the head of Juno Moneta must be connected to the coinage implements depicted on the reverse (namely the dies and tongs), and her depiction should be understood to be in the guise of the protectress of the money. Juno Moneta’s appearance here cannot be a mere error of mixed die sets, since the portrait is of a significantly superior style to that used to strike Martin 55, which is crude and shrewish. It is worth noting that the obverse type of Juno Moneta is also used on the denarii of L. Plaetorius Cestianus (Crawford 396/1), where it is paired with a reverse type of no connection to monetary matters. The massive 10th Century encyclopedic work known as the Souda draws on old oral traditions that Juno had counselled the Romans to undertake none but just wars. Roman tradition also revered Juno as a protectress who warned of impending disaster and of how to avert it; Cicero suggests that the name Moneta derived from the verb ‘monere’, because during an earthquake, a voice from her temple had demanded the expiatory sacrifice of a pregnant sow to stay the tremors. He also connects her epithet to the old legend wherein Juno’s sacred geese had warned the Roman commander Marcus Manlius Capitolinus of the surprise attack made by the Gauls during the siege of the city in 390 BC. We may therefore interpret her presence in this instance as being that of a protectress of the Roman people, and patroness of a just effort to remove the cancer at the heart of the empire.

Ex Guermantes, Ryan and Mazzini Collections

518. Civil War AR Denarius. Uncertain mint in Spain or southern Gaul, AD 68-69. FIDES PRAETORIANORVM, clasped right hands / FIDES EXERCITVVM, clasped right hands. RIC 21; BMCRE 65; C. 363 (Galba); Martin 7 (this coin). 3.55g, 19mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

1,500

Ex Guermantes Collection, Leu 86, 5 May 2003, lot 781; Ex V. J. E. Ryan Collection, Glendining & Co., 2 April 1952, lot 2121; Ex G. Mazzini Collection (Galba 363 and pl. LXIII); Ex Bourgey, 20 December 1921, lot 112.

Ex Niggeler and Cornaggia-Medici-Castiglioni (1914) Collections

519. Galba Æ Sestertius. Rome, June - August AD 68. IMP SER GALBA AVG TR P, draped bust right, wearing oak wreath / SPQR OB CIV SER in three lines within oak wreath. RIC 263; C. 303; BMCRE 115. 25.50g, 37mm, 5h. Good Very Fine; very attractive rich green patina. Rare. Ex Numismatik Lanz 94, 22 November 1999, lot 282; Ex W. Niggeler Collection; Ex Naville - Ars Classica 13, 27-29 June 1928, lot 1183; Ex G. L. Cornaggia-Medici-Castiglioni Collection, R. Ratto, Milan 20 April 1914, lot 60.

171

2,000


Ex British Museum Collection

520. Galba Æ Sestertius. Rome, June - August AD 68. SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG TR P, laureate and draped bust right / SPQR OB CIV SER in three lines within oak wreath. RIC 271; BMCRE 113 (this coin); C. 295. 26.92g, 35mm, 7h. Good Very Fine. Rare. Ex Sternberg XXXV, 29 October 2000, lot 471; Ex V. C. Vecchi & Sons 10, 10 October 1983, lot 309; Ex Credit Suisse 1, 22 April 1983, lot 297; Ex Leu 28, 5 May 1981, lot 398; Ex Sternberg X, 25-26 November 1980, lot 303; Ex Collection of the British Museum (duplicates).

1,500

Ex Leu 1978

521. Galba Æ Sestertius. Rome, August - September AD 68. IMP SER SVLP GALBA CAES AVG TR P, laureate and draped bust right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas, wearing long dress, standing to left, holding sceptre and pileus; S-C across fields. RIC 309; C. 130; BMCRE 71. 27.30g, 36mm, 7h. Very Fine - Good Very Fine.

2,000

Ex Leu 20, 25 April 1978, lot 252.

522. Galba Æ Sestertius. Rome, October AD 68. SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG TR P, laureate and draped bust right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas, wearing long dress, standing left, holding sceptre and pileus; S-C across fields. RIC 388; C. 112; BMCRE 70. 28.16g, 36mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare. Ex Credit Suisse 61, 1 March 1994, lot 116; Ex Credit Suisse 59, 1 March 1993, lot 116; Ex Credit Suisse 57, 1 May 1992, lot 7; Ex Credit Suisse List 54, September 1990, no. 134.

172

1,500


523. Otho AV Aureus. Rome, January - April AD 69. IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head of Otho right / SECVRITAS P R, Securitas standing left, holding wreath in right hand and cradling sceptre in left arm. RIC 7; C. 16; BMCRE 13; Calicรณ 531. 7.17g, 18mm, 7h. Near Very Fine.

5,000

From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

524. Otho AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right / VICTORIA OTHONIS, Victory, draped, flying right, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left. RIC 14; BMCRE 22; RSC 27. 3.43g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Attractive old cabinet tone.

750

From the V.D.T. Collection.

525. Otho AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right / PONT MAX, Aequitas, draped, standing left, holding scales in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC 19; C. 9; BMCRE 6. 3.39g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine; sharp and fine style portrait. Very Rare.

1,500

526. Vitellius AR Denarius. Rome, AD 69. A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right / XV VIR SACR FAC, tripod, raven below, dolphin above. RIC 109; BMCRE 39; C. 111. 3.03g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; scratch on obv.

500

From the V.D.T. Collection.

527. Vespasian AV Aureus. Rome, July - December AD 71. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head right / VIC AVG, Victory standing right on a globe, holding wreath and palm branch. RIC 47; C. 583; BMCRE 63; BN 47; Calicรณ 698. 7.31g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine. Part of the series of victory issues struck after the successful conclusion of the Jewish War. From a central European collection; Ex Aureo & Calicรณ 258, 20 March 2014, lot 1154.

173

4,000


528. Vespasian AV Aureus. Lugdunum, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG TR P, laureate head right / COS III FORT RED, Fortuna standing left, holding cornucopiae, resting hand on prow to left. RIC 1110; Calicรณ 612; BMCRE 381. 7.30g, 29mm, 7h. Near Very Fine.

1,500

529. Titus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 80. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head left / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, curule chair with wreath above. RIC 109; RSC 319; BMCRE 70. 3.40g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare with left facing portrait: only one specimen in Reka Devnia hoard, compared to 26 specimens with portrait right.

1,250

Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection, Gemini IX, 9 January 2012, lot 344; Ex Ponterio 129, 16 January 2004, lot 466. The curule chair and oak wreath is symbolic of an honour first given to Julius Caesar (Dio 44.6.3) whose chair and diadem were carried into the theatres in a manner previously reserved for the gods. From then, the Senate could vote to honour current and deified emperors and members of the imperial family in this way. This coin could depict the curule chair of the emperor Titus or his father the deified Vespasian.

530. Titus ร† Sestertius. Eastern mint (Thrace?), AD 80-81. IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII, laureate head right / PAX AVGVST, Pax standing left, with olive branch and cornucopiae; S-C across fields. RIC 498; C. 141; RPC II 501; BMCRE 309 (Lugdunum). 26.32g, 34mm, 8h. Good Very Fine. Very well detailed reverse.

1,000

Ex Numismatik Lanz 154, 11 June 2012, lot 322.

531. Domitian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 77-78. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right / Captive kneeling to right, offering up standard with vexillum; COS V in exergue. RIC 959 (Vespasian); C. 48; BMCRE 231 (Vespasian); BN 205 (Vespasian); Calicรณ 819. 7.29g, 19mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine.

174

5,000


532. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 82-83. IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M, laureate head right / SALVS AVGVST, Salus seated to left, holding corn ears and poppy. RIC 145; C. 412; BMCRE 54; BN 54. 3.52g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Wonderful cabinet tone with iridescent highlights.

500

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex H.D. Rauch 85, 26 November 2009, lot 462.

533. Domitian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 85. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT P P, laureate bust right, aegis on far shoulder / ANNONA AVGVST, Annona standing right, holding cornucopiae, facing Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and torch; modius on altar and stern of ship between, SC in exergue. RIC 349; C. 17 var. 26.75g, 36mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine; somewhat smoothed. Very Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives.

2,000

From a private European collection; Ex ACR Auctions 12, 29 October 2014, lot 714; Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 72, 16 May 2013, lot 1558.

534. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 90. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIIII, laureate head right / IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, holding shield and spear; owl to her right. RIC 690; C. 262; BMCRE 166. 3.41g, 18mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

500

535. Domitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 92-93. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XII, laureate head right / IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, holding spear with right hand, left hand resting on hip. RIC 742; C. 278; BMCRE 207. 3.51g, 18mm, 6h. Near Mint State; attractive iridescent tone. Beautifully detailed reverse. From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

175

300


536. Domitian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 92-94. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P, laureate head right / IOVI VICTORI, Jupiter seated left, holding Victory in extended right hand, sceptre in left; SC in exergue. RIC 388; C. 314; BMCRE 439. 27.50g, 36mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. 750 From a central European collection.

Ex Feirstein, Fox and Bunker Hunt Collections

537. Domitia (wife of Domitian) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 81-84. DOMITIA AVGVSTA IMP DOMIT, draped bust right, hair falling in long plait behind neck / CONCORDIA AVGVST, peacock standing to right on ground line. RIC 151 (Domitian); C. 2; BMCRE 61 (Domitian); BN 65. 3.57g, 19mm, 5h. About Extremely Fine. Very Rare. 4,000 Ex Barry Feirstein Collection, Numismatica Ars Classica 39, 16 May 2007, lot 115; Ex James Fox Collection, Classical Numismatic Group 40, 4 December 1996, lot 1465; Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection, Sotheby’s, 21 June 1990, lot 713; Ex Leu 28, 5 May 1981, lot 422. Together with Jupiter and Minerva, the goddess Juno was worshipped in Rome as part of the Capitoline Triad of supreme deities. Goddess of marriage and childbirth, she was the protector and special counsellor of the state, and took a further role safeguarding the women of Rome. It is therefore fitting that this bird above all should feature on the reverse of this rare and attractive denarius, for the peacock was an attribute of Juno and the goddess was often depicted with a peacock at her feet, signifying her watchful and warlike countenance. That the peacock was specifically linked to Juno is affirmed in myth by Ovid in his Metamorphoses, Book 1, where he relates the story of Jupiter, his lover Io, and his jilted wife Juno. Ovid tells us that after Jupiter was caught with his lover, she was turned into a pure white heifer by his enraged wife and set under the guard of Argus, the hundred-eyed watchman. Sent by Jupiter to free Io, Mercury distracted Argus by playing the pan-pipes and telling stories, eventually slaying the giant and freeing Io. To honour her faithful watchman, Ovid tells us that Juno transferred Argus’ eyes to the tail feathers of the peacock so as to preserve them forever. Further meaning can be found in the use of the peacock for this reverse type however, that also arises from the beliefs of the ancient Greeks, for the bird was seen as a symbol of immortality and is therefore an appropriate motif to highlight the desired concord and harmony that the legend references, between not only the emperor and empress but across the empire.

538. Julia Titi (daughter of Titus) AR Denarius. Struck under Domitian. Rome, AD 80-81. IVLIA AVGVSTA T AVG F, diademed and draped bust right / VENVS AVG, nude Venus standing to right, left elbow leaning on column, holding helmet and spear. RIC 387 (Titus); C. 12; BMCRE 140 (Titus); BN 104 (Titus). 3.40g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine; light iridescent tone. Considerably rarer than the type with the longer VENVS AVGVST reverse legend. 2,000 Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 67, 9 October 2001, lot 712; Ex A. Tkalec, 29 February 2000, lot 255.

539. Julia Titi (daughter of Titus) Æ Dupondius. Struck under Domitian. Rome, AD 80-81. IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair in a chignon at the back / Vesta, wearing long dress, seated left, holding sceptre and palladium; S-C across fields, VESTA in exergue. RIC 398; C. 18; BN 271. 11.38g, 28mm, 6h. Very Fine. 1,000 From a central European collection.

176


540. Nerva AV Aureus. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas, draped and standing left, holding pileus and sceptre. RIC 19; Calicรณ 976; BMCRE -, cf. 46 (note). 7.56g, 18mm, 12h. Good Very Fine.

10,000

From a private French collection.

541. Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR POT, laureate head right / COS III PATER PATRIAE, priestly implements: simpulum, aspergillum, guttus, and lituus. RIC 24; RSC 48; BMCRE 31. 3.53g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

542. Trajan ร† Dupondius. Rome, AD 100. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M, radiate head right / TR POT COS III P P, Abundantia seated left on chair formed of two cornucopiae, holding sceptre; SC in exergue. RIC 411; Strack 328; C. 629; BMCRE 734. 13.58g, 27mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex The New York Sale XXII, 11 January 2006, lot 290.

543. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 103-107. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate and draped bust right, seen from behind / COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Ceres standing left, holding two grain ears in left hand and long torch in right. RIC 109; BMCRE 259; Woytek 291f; Calicรณ 996b. 7.32g, 20mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

177

7,500


178


Extremely Rare Aureus of the Optimus Princeps

544. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 103-111. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC in four lines within oak wreath. RIC 148; Calicó 1013; Biaggi 481; C. 101; BMCRE 371. 7.20g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare, only four other examples on CoinArchives (all in very poor condition), and far superior to both the Calicó and Biaggi examples. Arguably one of if not in fact the finest known example of the type, not to be confused with the more common reverse with a shorter legend in three lines within wreath. 20,000 From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. Barely five years into his reign around AD 103, Trajan was accorded the title of ‘Optimus’ by the Senate. This singular honour, which had never before been bestowed and never would be again, was a result of Trajan’s enormous popularity among his peers, and in recognition of his role as a benefactor to the people of Rome. Pliny the younger, in his Panegyricus, considered Trajan an “optimum principem” because he himself approved or disapproved of that which the Senate would, and because though in reality Trajan was an autocrat, his deferential and humble behaviour towards his peers qualified him to be seen as virtuous, wielding power through moderation rather than insolence, leading by example rather than ruling through fear. The reverse of this coin proudly bears the title of ‘Optimus Princeps’, wreathed in a simple device, a corona civic (civic crown), which was a standard type often used by various emperors, but which deliberately links Trajan with the first emperor, Augustus, on whose coinage the corona civica was first displayed as the principle type. The obvious comparison between the two emperors long survived Trajan’s reign, as every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the wish “felicior Augusto, melior Traiano” (may he be “luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan”).

Very Rare and Ex Glendining 1967

545. Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 114-116. IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, genius standing left, holding patera and ears of corn. RIC 347 var. (not cuirassed); BMCRE 545; C. 275 var. (not cuirassed); BN 809; Calicó 1067; Biaggi 516. 7.24g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; perfectly centred, with a superbly detailed and well-preserved portrait. Very Rare. Ex Glendining & Co, 3 May 1967, lot 71.

179

10,000


Magnificent Aureus Depicting Trajan’s Forum

546.

Trajan AV Aureus. Rome, AD 112-113. IMP TRAIANVS AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Frontal view of the hexastyle façade of Trajan’s Forum, with central entrance and two alcoves containing statues to either side, an elaborate statue group comprised of facing quadriga between three statues on each side atop the roof; FORVM TRAIAN in exergue. RIC 257; C 168 var. (not cuirassed); Calicó 1031; BMCRE 509; Biaggi 494; Woytek 409f. 7.30g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. The finest example of this desirable type to have been offered in many years.

25,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. Trajan became consul for the sixth and final time on January 1, AD 112; on the same day he dedicated his new Forum complex. It is thought to have been designed by the architect Apollodorus who accompanied Trajan on his campaigns in Dacia and is famous for building a bridge across the Danube river recorded by ancient authors and artists. When complete, the vast complex consisted of the area fori (main square), the Basilica Ulpia, the column of Trajan, and two libraries, all situated adjacent to the Markets of Trajan on one side and the Forum Augustum on another. The project sought to exceed previous imperial fora in plan, scale and ornamentation while focusing directly on Trajan’s military achievements in Dacia. Each imperial forum had specific architectural and decorative schemes which created specific ambiences; thus, Trajan’s military theme is vastly different from the Forum of Vespasian (also known as the Temple of Peace and not officially called a forum since there is no evidence of it serving a political function) which instead contains gardens, fountains and promenades. One ancient account tells us that “all along the roof of the colonnades of Trajan’s forum there are placed gilded statues of horses and representations of military standards, and underneath is written Ex manubiis [from money obtained through spoils]” (Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 13.25.1). Perhaps the message the emperor wished to send was that his rule saw such great military achievement that his successes alone were capable of creating the greatest public architectural space in Rome. Following Trajan’s death, Hadrian is reported to have added a colossal temple to the deified Trajan and his wife Plotina (of which very little survives) so that the completed Forum focused not only on Trajan’s military victories, but also on his apotheosis. The magnificence of this complex in comparison to previous imperial fora is emphasised by ancient witnesses, one of whom, when describing the emperor Constantius II’s reaction when he first visited Rome in AD 357, says it was “a construction unique under the heavens, as we believe, and admirable even in the unanimous opinion of the gods…” (Ammianus Marcellinus 16.10.15). It was later a space where various important events occurred; Hadrian and Aurelian ordered the burning of notes of debt to the state here (Historia Augusta, Hadrian 7.6, Aurelian 39.3), Marcus Aurelius held a sale of imperial treasures here following a period of war as an alternative to taxing the provinces (Historia Augusta, Marcus Aurelius 17.4) and here laws were frequently fastened up on bronze tablets to be read by the public. This coin was produced following the dedication of the forum and depicts the magnificent arch commemorating Trajan’s victories in Dacia which acted as its entrance. Martin Beckmann (see The Early Gold Coinage of Trajan’s Sixth Consulship in The American Journal of Numismatics Vol. 12 (2000), pp. 119-156) argues that it was part of the first production of AD 112 which contained a group of types focusing on commemorating the forum such as depictions of the Basilica Ulpia, and Equus Traiana (the following year saw the production of coins showing the newly built Trajan’s Column). His study reveals that there were ten dies for this reverse type and that “from the die links it appears that the forum type carried on strongly, perhaps to the end of the entire series…” implying that significant importance was attached to the promulgation of this great architectural work, the grandest of all imperial fora to date, made possible by the emperor’s military victories.

180


181


An Extraordinary Rarity of Trajan’s Restored Coinage

547. Divus Claudius AV Aureus. Rome, restitution issue by Trajan circa AD 112-113. DIVVS CLAVDIVS, laureate bust of the deified Claudius to right / IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GER DAC•P•REST•, Concordia seated to left, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC 823; BMCRE -; C.110; Calicó 387. 7.21g, 20mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Of the greatest rarity.

30,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. Though ‘restored’ coinage was nothing new to the Romans in Trajan’s time – they had made their first appearance under the Flavians, and been continued under Nerva – previous restorations had confined themselves only to the bronzes of certain well-remembered emperors. Trajan’s great restoration however consisted entirely of aurei and denarii, and went much further, by restoring Republican types, and effectively inventing wholly new ones. The occasion for this ‘restitution’ series issued under Trajan may have been the melting down of old coinage as mentioned in Cassius Dio (67.15), for Mattingly and Sydenham (RIC II, pg. 303) proposed that “since the Romans regarded their coins with a certain amount of reverence as products of the Sacra Moneta it is not unnatural to conclude that they valued them also as historical monuments. The dominating trait in the character of Trajan was a desire to emphasise and expand the glory of Rome. It seems reasonable, therefore, to suggest that this was his motive for issuing the Restored Coins; and, by thus placing together a series of types illustrative of the development of Rome, Trajan may not ineptly be regarded as one of the first to recognize Numismatics as an aid to History.” The present type had no original prototype issued under Claudius during his lifetime, or indeed after his deification in the reign of Nero. The reverse type was used in the same form by Nero however, and bears a passing resemblance to the ‘CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI’ aureus type of Claudius.

548. Diva Marciana AR Denarius. Rome, AD 112. DIVA AVGVSTA MARCIANA, draped bust right, wearing stephane / CONSECRATIO, eagle standing to right with wings spread, head to left. RIC 745 (Trajan); C. 8; BMCRE -; RSC 8. 3.01g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Considerably rarer than the eagle left variety. From a private European collection.

182

7,500


183


The Capitoline Wolf

549.

Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 124-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS III, Capitoline wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. RIC 193d; Strack 195θ; Calicó 1233a; BMCRE 449; Biaggi 598. 7.33g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State. A superb aureus of Hadrian with this ever-popular motif of the foundation myth.

20,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. The only shared component in the foundation legends recorded since the third century BC is that Romulus and Remus were the twin sons of a Vestal Virgin called Rhea Silvia. For the rest of the myth, there are many variances, but one of the most commonly attested narratives is the one told by Livy in his History of Rome. According to Livy, Rhea Silvia was the daughter of Numitor, the rightful king of Alba Longa (the city founded by Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, at the foot of the Alban hills) who was usurped by his brother Amulius and his progeny killed or, in his daughter’s case, deprived of hope of having children through being forced to be a Vestal Virgin. Rhea Silvia became pregnant through an encounter with the god Mars and the twins were set afloat on the flooded Tiber in the hope they would drown as ordered by the king of Alba Longa. Their crying attracted the attention of a she-wolf who nursed them and was so gentle that the shepherd Faustulus who found them, saw the wolf licking the human babies. The twins were then taken in by Faustulus and his wife and raised in the area around the Palatine hill until, as adults, they overthrew the usurper king and decided to found their own community where they had grown up. This type can be traced back to the earliest coinage of the Republic; a silver didrachm (Crawford 20/1) dated to circa 264-255 BC depicts on the obverse a youthful Hercules wearing a lion skin around his neck, and upon the reverse are the twins being suckled by the she-wolf. The type, either alone or as an adjunct motif, was sporadically reused into imperial times and was prominently featured on aurei and denarii of Domitian. Perhaps it was useful for Hadrian, who spent more than half his reign outside Italy, to draw upon a traditional Roman image as a reminder of his connection to home while away on his travels across the empire. Later examples of the type include coins produced under Constantine I, who, from AD 330, issued a vast number of small coins celebrating Rome by pairing a helmeted head of Roma with the twins and she-wolf motif following his foundation of Constantinople as a new capital in the East. The coin type was probably inspired by ancient statues of the wolf and twins which unfortunately do not survive, but their existence is verified by several ancient accounts; Livy’s History of Rome (10.23) states that in 295 BC a statue was placed near the Ficus Ruminalis (the fig tree at the foot of the Palatine hill which the legend says is the spot where the twins landed having floated along the Tiber) and Cicero reports how a statue of Romulus being suckled by the she-wolf was struck by lightning in 65 BC (Against Catiline, 3.19).

184


185


550. Hadrian Æ Dupondius. Rome, AD 120-122. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS AVGVSTI, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae; S-C across fields. RIC 598b; C. 642. 13.15g, 28mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare; only three other examples on CoinArchives.

750

551. Hadrian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / COS III, Hadrian on horseback right, raising right hand. RIC 186; Strack 146; Calicó 1215a; BMCRE 430-2. 7.24g, 21mm, 6h. About Extremely Fine.

7,500

Ex Triton XVI, 9 January 2013, lot 1085; Ex H. D. Rauch 89, 5 December 2011, lot 1474.

552. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, with drapery on far shoulder / COS III, Hercules seated right on cuirass, holding club resting on shield, and distaff. RIC 149. 3.13g, 17mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Pleasant underlying lustre.

500

Ex Roma Numismatics IX, 22 March 2015, lot 680.

553. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 125-128. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, with drapery on far shoulder / COS III, Roma seated left on cuirass, with her right foot on a helmet, holding Victory and cornucopiae; shields behind, SC in exergue. RIC 636. 25.23g, 32mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection, Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio 174, 11 January 2013, lot 5192.

186

1,000


554. Hadrian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 128-132. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate head right / HILARITAS • P • R, Hilaritas standing left, holding palm branch and cornucopiae; small boy to left, girl to right, COS III in exergue. RIC 970b; C. 817; BMCRE 1370. 25.99g, 33mm, 6h. Good Very Fine.

750

From a private European collection; Ex Hess-Divo 311, 22 October 2008, lot 542; Ex Leu 91, 10 May 2004, lot 954.

555. Hadrian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 134-138. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate and draped bust right / TELLVS STABIL, Tellus standing left, holding plough-handle and rake, two corn ears behind. RIC 276; BMCRE 740; C. 1425 var. 3.40g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very rare with this bust type.

200

From the V.D.T. Collection.

556. Antinous Æ Medallion of Bithynium Claudiopolis, Bithynia. After AD 134. ANTINOON ΘEON H ΠATPIC, bare-headed and draped bust of Antinous to right / BEIΘYNIEΩN AΔPIANΩN, Antinous, as Hermes Nomios, wearing short chiton and chlamys, standing left in winged shoes, raising right hand to face and holding pedum in left; beside him, an ox, star above. Blum p. 45, 5, pl. 2, 13; RPC III, 1111; H.-C. von Mosch, ‘Die Antinoos-Medallions von Bithynia-Klaudiopolis’, SNR 80, 2001, pp. 109-26, 2 (same dies); Pudill p. 56, M49. 43.13g, 37mm, 12h. Good Fine; rev. surface tinned in antiquity. Very Rare.

5,000

From the A.F. Collection, Germany. The obverse of this numismatic talisman blatantly advertises the apotheosis of Antinous as a theos, while the reverse celebrates his assimilation to Hermes Nomios, an epithet meaning ‘the protector of pastures and shepherds’. These concepts are just the sort of exotic extravagance that attracted the infatuated Hadrian to all things Eastern, in contrast to the decidedly much more austere religious and cultural mores of Roman Italy, which would have considered it an outrageous blasphemy to deify the beautiful young lad.

557. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 139. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, bare head right / TR POT COS II, Pietas standing left, sprinkling incense over lighted altar with right hand, holding fold of her dress with left arm. RIC 53; C. 862; BMCRE 108; Calicó 1643. 7.19g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; scattered marks. Fine style. From a central European collection.

187

3,000


558. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 139. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right / TR POT COS II, Pietas standing left, sprinkling incense over lighted altar with right hand, holding fold of her dress with left arm. RIC 53b; C. 862 var. (head bare); BMCRE 111; Calicó 1644. 6.65g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

2,500

559. Antoninus Pius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 140. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / TIBERIS, Tiber reclining left, leaning on urn which pours out water, resting right hand on prow and holding reed; SC in exergue. RIC III 642a; BMCRE 1313; C. 819. 29.95g, 30mm, 1h. About Extremely Fine; light ‘Tiber’ tone.

1,250

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 240, 10 October 2016, lot 513.

560. Antoninus Pius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 143-144. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right / IMP II TR POT COS III, Victory standing to right, holding trophy in both hands; S-C across fields. RIC 715; C. 417. 23.81g, 30mm, 12h. Good Very Fine. Lovely olive-green patina.

500

Ex Chapdelaine Collection.

561. Antoninus Pius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 147-148. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XI, laureate head right / COS IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter in right hand and cornucopiae cradled in left arm; LIB - V across field. RIC 169a; C. 504; BMCRE 628; Calicó 1577. 7.11g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State. Rare - one of only 7 examples on CoinArchives - and in exceptional condition for the issue.

188

7,500


562. Diva Faustina I (wife of Antoninus Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 150. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right, wearing hair bound in pearls on top of her head / AVGVSTA, Ceres or Aeternitas standing left, holding torch in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC 356a (Pius); Calicó 1763a. 7.03g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine.

2,000

From the V.D.T. Collection.

563. Diva Faustina I (wife of Antoninus Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 150. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right, wearing hair bound in pearls on top of her head / AVGVSTA, Ceres or Aeternitas standing left, holding two torches. RIC 357a (Pius); Biaggi 808; BMCRE 403 (Pius); Calicó 1758. 7.26g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

2,500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

564. Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 148-149. AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG P II F, bare head right / TR POT III COS II, Minerva standing right, resting hand on shield and holding spear. RIC 444 (Pius); RSC 618. 3.44g, 19mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin; beautiful light iridescent tone.

1,000

Superb Marcus Aurelius Sestertius

565. Marcus Aurelius Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 163. IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG P M, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII, Salus standing facing, head left, feeding out of patera in right hand a snake coiled around and rising from an altar, cradling sceptre in left arm, S-C across fields; COS III in exergue. RIC 844; MIR 18, 54-6/32; Banti 287; BMCRE 1042. 24.94g, 32mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 216, 8 October 2012, lot 1037; Ex Triton XII, 6 January 2009, lot 633. This coin displays a beautiful ‘Tiber’ patina and excellent preservation of detail. Beautiful, untouched fields.

189

5,000


566. Faustina II (daughter of A. Pius) AV Aureus. Rome, circa AD 145. FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL, draped bust right, hair coiled on top of head / CONCORDIA, dove standing to right. RIC 503 (Pius); C. 61; BMCRE 1089 (Pius); Calicรณ 2045b. 7.19g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare.

4,000

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

567. Faustina II (wife of M. Aurelius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 161-164. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair waved and fastened in bun on back of head / HILARITAS, Hilaritas, draped, standing left, holding long palm branch in right hand and cornucopiae in left. RIC 684 (Aurelius); MIR 18, 15-2(b); Calicรณ 2057; BMCRE 98 (Aurelius and Verus); Biaggi 929. 6.89g, 19mm, 11h. Near Mint State; small deposit on rev. Rare; arguably the best preserved example of fewer than a dozen specimens on CoinArchives.

12,500

From a private Canadian collection.

568. Faustina II (wife of M. Aurelius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 161-164. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair waved and fastened in bun on back of head / HILARITAS, Hilaritas, draped, standing left, holding long palm branch in right hand and cornucopiae in left. RIC 684 (Aurelius); Calicรณ 2057; BMCRE 98 (Aurelius and Verus); Biaggi 929. 7.26g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Very Rare. From the V.D.T. Collection.

190

10,000


569. Faustina II (wife of M. Aurelius) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 161-176. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair waved and fastened in bun on back of head / SALVTI AVGVSTAE, Salus seated left, feeding out of patera in right hand a snake coiled around and rising from an altar. RIC 716 (Aurelius); C. 198; BMCRE 153 (Aurelius); Calicó 2075. 7.21g, 20mm, 6h. Good Very Fine; an attractive portrait.

4,000

From a private European collection.

570. Lucius Verus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 161-162. IMP L AVREL VERVS AVG, bare head right / PROV DEOR TR P II COS II, Providentia standing left, holding globe and cornucopiae. RIC 482 (Aurelius); C. 153; BMCRE 207 (Aurelius). 3.33g, 18mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

400

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex H.D. Rauch 86, 12 May 2010, lot 880.

571. Lucius Verus Æ As. Rome, AD 163-164. L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right / TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Verus on horseback galloping to right, thrusting with spear at a fallen Armenian; SC in exergue. RIC (Aurelius) 1406 var. (obv. legend and bust). 8.47g, 25mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Earthen highlights.

500

From a central European collection.

572. Lucius Verus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 165. L AVREL VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right / TR POT V IMP II COS II, Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy; S-C across fields. RIC 1420; C. 182; BMCRE 1253. 23.19g, 32mm, 5h. Very Fine.

From a central European collection.

191

750


Majestic Portrait of Lucius Verus

573. Lucius Verus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 168. L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate and draped bust right / TR P VIII•IMP V COS III, Aequitas seated to left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 593; C. -; BMCRE 480; Calicó 2203 = Triton V, 2000. 7.28g, 20mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. Far superior to the Calicó plate coin, and most likely the finest known example. Extremely Rare; only three examples on CoinArchives.

25,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. The years prior to the striking of this coinage had witnessed a successful invasion of Parthian territory under the command of Lucius Verus that ensured peace with Parthia for many years, but closer to home Germanic invasions striking into the heart of the empire required the renewed attention of the emperors to military matters. Thus in AD 168 Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius left Rome to wage war against the Marcomanni. This war would last until 180, but Verus did not see the end of it - the legionaries returning from Parthia had brought with them a terrible disease that would come to be known as the Antonine Plague, or the Plague of Galen, which may have been either smallpox or measles. The plague claimed the life of Lucius Verus in 169 as he returned to Rome from campaign, and those of some five million other Romans, it is estimated. This particular aureus bears a portrait of Lucius Verus engraved in uncommonly fine style, and unlike many of the ‘small head’ bust types, this image is a powerful and majestic depiction of an emperor at his zenith.

574. Commodus Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 180. L AVREL COMMODVS AVG TR P V, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / IOVI VICTORI IMP III COS II P P, Jupiter seated left, holding Victory in extended right hand, sceptre in left; S-C across fields. RIC 291f; MIR 18, 46716/35; BMCRE 1722 (Aurelius); C. 264. 22.32g, 30mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. An attractive sestertius from the final joint-reign issue of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Ex Chapdelaine Collection.

192

500


Commodus Commemorates the Victory in Britannia

575. Commodus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 185. M•COMM•ANT•P• FEL•AVG BRIT, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P XI•IMP VII COS V•P•P, Victory seated left, holding patera and palm branch. RIC 123; C. 496. Calicó 2301. 7.22g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Very Rare; only two other examples on CoinArchives.

20,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. Militarily, Commodus’ reign was mostly an uneventful one. Apart from some wars with the barbarians beyond Dacia, the greatest contest Roman armies faced was in Britannia, when in c. AD 181 the northern tribes breached Hadrian’s Wall and, according to Cassius Dio “proceeded to do much mischief and cut down a general together with his troops” (LXII.8). The identity of this individual is uncertain, but it may well have been the provincial governor Caerellius Priscus, indicating a serious state of affairs indeed. Alarmed, Commodus dispatched a previous governor, Ulpius Marcellus to counter the invasion. Marcellus prosecuted the campaign with punitive raids north of the border, possibly even as far as the southern highlands, before ultimately withdrawing back to Hadrian’s Wall. By 184 the situation in Britannia was stabilised and victory was declared. Commodus took the name Britannicus, and over the course of 184/5, coins such as the present example were struck in commemoration of this victory.

Very Rare Medallion of Commodus

576. Commodus Æ Medallion. Rome, AD 186-187. M COMMODVS ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG BRIT, laureate and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P XII IMP VIII, Tellus reclining left, left arm resting on basket of fruit and cradling long vine branch from which hangs grapes above, her right hand placed on star-studded globe, around which are the figures of the Four Seasons; TELLVS STABIL COS V P P in two lines in exergue. Gnecchi 129, pl. 86, 9. 53.18g, 39mm, 1h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

193

15,000


577. Commodus AR Quinarius. Rome, AD 189. M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate head right / P M TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V P P, Victory standing to left, holding wreath and palm. RIC 183 var. (bust type); C. 551 var. (same); BMCRE 260. 1.43g, 13mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare.

300

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

578. Didius Julianus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193. IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right / P M TR P COS, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in lowered right hand above globe at feet to left, and cornucopiae in left hand. RIC 2; RSC 10; BMCRE 4. 2.90g, 17mm, 6h. Near Very Fine.

750

579. Didia Clara (daughter of D. Julianus) AR Denarius. Rome, April-June AD 193. DIDIA CLARA AVG, draped bust right / HILAR TEMPOR, Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm frond and cornucopiae. RIC 10; RSC 3; BMCRE 14. 3.06g, 17mm, 12h. Extremely Fine.

1,250

Very Rare Type for Pescennius Niger

580. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESCEN NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right / IOVI PRAE ORBIS, Jupiter seated to left on stool, holding Victory in right hand and long sceptre in left. RIC 43b corr. (holding Victory not eagle); BMCRE 303; C. 41 var. (eagle on sceptre). 2.99g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the collection of A.S., Canada.

Exceptional Metal Quality

581. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / IVSTITIA AVGVS, Justitia standing facing, head left, holding scales and cornucopiae. BMCRE -; RSC -; RIC -, cf. 45-47 for type. 3.09g, 18mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Excellent metal quality, and engraved in fine style. A supremely attractive example of Pescennius’ silver coinage.

194

3,000


582. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right / IVSTITIA AVG, Justitia standing facing, head left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 45c; RSC 43a; BMCRE 305 note. 2.72g, 19mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Well centred and complete.

1,250

583. Pescennius Niger AR Denarius. Antioch, AD 193-194. IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear. RIC -; BMCRE -; RSC -; CNG 61, 1853; Rauch 11, 853. 3.69g, 18mm, 7h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; one of apparently only three known examples.

750

From the V.D.T. Collection.

Noah’s Ark

584. Septimius Severus Æ 8 Assaria of Apameia, Phrygia. AD 193-211. AVT K Λ CЄΠT CЄOVHPOC ΠЄP, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ЄΠI AΓΩNOΘE TO V APTEMAΓ APAMEΩN, representation of the story of Noah: to right, upper parts to waist, tunicate and stolate respectively, of Noah and his wife, latter also veiled, seen standing left in enclosing square chest (Lat., arca; Gr. kibotos) floating on waves, inscribed with NΩE and with raised lid, on which perches a dove(?) facing left; to left, standing figures as above but full-length, of Noah and spouse raising right hands in salutation and gazing upwards at dove flying right above them, grasping olive-branch in claws. Head, Historian Numorum, p. 667, 313; Lanz sale 150, 2010, 330 (same obverse die). 16.97g, 35mm, 12h. Very Fine; light bend in flan at 8 o’clock obv. Extremely Rare.

7,500

From the collection of V.B., United Kingdom. This reverse depiction of the Noah and the Ark saga is the only event recorded in the Old Testament to be commemorated on an ancient coin and is unique to Apameia, Phrygia. Founded by Antiochus I in 270 BC, the city was well located at the source of the Maeander and the central point from which many trade routes were accessed. Goods arriving from the caravan routes in the east were purchased in bulk by the city’s merchants and repackaged into kibotoi (chests) to be forwarded to other ports. The distinctive wooden shipping crates became the symbol of the city’s economic activity and eventually the city was known by the nickname ‘ή Kίβωtός’ (the chest). A local myth claimed, perhaps by the large Jewish community living within the city, that the mountain situated behind the city was Ararat, the place where Noah’s ark (ή Kίβωtός) rested after the deluge. The depiction of Noah and his wife standing within an Apamean kibotos floating above water and inscribed ‘NΩE’ (Noah) is a visual representation of the connection between the Old Testament parable and the city itself. This reverse type provides visual evidence for the double meaning of the city nickname ‘ή Kίβωtός’ as both chest and ark. The acceptance of this Jewish tradition by the city of Apameia and its portrayal on the coins can be seen within the context of the city’s relatively recent foundation. Paul R. Trebilco has argued that the association between Apameia’s nickname and the Noah’s ark saga gave the city a foundation story with ancient significance, something it had previously lacked (Jewish Communities in Asia Minor, 2006), endowing it with famous ancestors and evoking commercial importance.

195


196


The Divine Heralds of Peace and Prosperity

585.

Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 194. L•SEPT•SEV•PERT•AVG•IMP II, laureate head right / DIS•AVSPICIB•TR P II, Hercules standing to left, holding club and with lion’s skin draped over arm, with Bacchus at his right, also standing to left, holding oinochoe over panther; COS II P P in exergue. RIC 25; C. 113; BMCRE 58; Calicó 2445a. 7.35g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State; beautifully lustrous. A most charming reverse composition.

30,000

Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 94, 27 September 2004, lot 1974; Ex Leu 91, 10 May 2004, lot 590; Ex M. Aubery Collection, Sotheby’s, 19 February 1969, lot 33. The tutelary deities of Septimius Severus’ home city of Lepcis Magna (also spelt Leptis) were the Phoenician gods Shadaphra and Melqart, who were equated with Liber Pater or Bacchus, and Hercules respectively. Their importance to the city is attested by several inscriptions there, their prominence in Lepcitanian sculpture, the fact that their temples occupied central locations within the old forum, and the joint appearance of both Liber Pater and Hercules (or their attributes) on the coinage of Lepcis Magna from the first century BC to the first century AD. That these gods were important to Severus on a personal level is also evident, as they clearly served as the tutelary deities of his regime, appearing on several other coin issues during his reign, and on the provincial coinage in his sons’ names. On an extremely rare series issued in 204, the two gods are specifically referred to as the ‘Di Patrii’; A. Peck (University of Warwick, 1 March 2015) cohesively argues that since “in literature also, the phrase di patrii appears to have been used almost exclusively in relation to the gods of Rome, particularly with regards to the penates that were according to legend brought to Italy from Troy by Aeneas”, the issue is intended to demonstrate the “equal importance that was placed upon local and imperial identities, proudly displaying the emperor’s attachment to his local patria, whilst also honouring the religious elements that were at the heart of Rome’s conceptualisation of patria”. However, J. Rantala (The Ludi Saeculares of Septimius Severus: The Ideologies of a New Roman Empire, 2017) suggests that the appearance of these gods is closely connected to Septimius’ sons Caracalla and Geta, with whom the imperial propaganda closely linked them in order that they were seen as patron deities for the young princes. Indeed, on the provincial coinage in the name of Caracalla reverse types of Hercules dominate, while on those of Geta, Liber or Bacchus appear with great frequency. Similarly, on a parallel issue of aurei of extreme rarity the reverse type for Caracalla portrays Hercules feasting (Leu 93, 68), whereas Bacchus and Ariadne, thronged by the god’s company of maenads and satyrs, were chosen for Geta (Leu 87, 66). Thus to Rantala the reverse of the present aureus is associated with the young princes: “the deities represented the future of the dynasty and the continuation of the empire”. More likely than not, the reverse meaning is multi-faceted like the gods themselves and serves the combined role of honouring the gods of Septimius’ home and hearth, promoting their standing throughout the empire, and helping to build the foundations of the formal association between these gods and his sons by calling upon Hercules and Liber Pater in their role as divine heralds of peace and prosperity to mark the beginning of a new golden age.

197


Two Aurei of Fine Style

586. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Possibly struck in India, circa AD 193-211. IMPER AEL SEPTI SEVER PERT III, laureate head of Septimius Severus to right / CONCORDI AVGVSRVM RTP III, two bareheaded and togate figures (possibly representing Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus) standing vis-à-vis, clasping hands; COS IIIII in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references, but cf. NAC 102, 531 (same dies). 6.64g, 20mm, 4h. Fleur De Coin. Apparently the second known example.

15,000

From a central European collection. The cataloguer of the specimen which appeared in NAC 102 argued for an interpretation of this type as a hybrid imitative utilising an obverse clearly depicting Septimius Severus but a reverse type derived from the earlier CONCORDIA AVGVSTOR aurei of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, rather than the similar CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM aurei of Septimius himself, which presents a Victory on globe between the two standing figures. The mint facility from which this and the following lot are derived is also clearly the mint which produced a further type (Triton XXI, 772) in the name of Marcus Aurelius using the Castor reverse of Commodus, with the similarly nonsensical legends II M ANTONINVS I AV COS T GERM I / TR P III IMP II COS P P III. The engraving style produced by this mint closely mimics the regular Imperial issues, but the blundered legends suggest either an illiterate individual, or a deliberate ploy to avoid charges of counterfeiting by reason of the imitations not being direct copies of Roman currency.

587. Septimius Severus AV Aureus. Possibly struck in India, circa AD 193-211. IMPER AEL SEPTI SEVER PERT III, laureate head of Septimius Severus to right / P M I PT II P VIII COS NI AV II, Victory advancing to left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand, trophy over left shoulder. Unpublished in the standard references, but cf. preceding lot and NAC 102, 531 (same obverse die). 7.18g, 20mm, 5h. Fleur De Coin. Unique and unpublished.

15,000

From a central European collection.

588. Julia Domna (wife of S. Severus) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 196-211. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, veiled, holding patera in right hand and long sceptre in left; at feet to left, peacock standing left. RIC 560; BMCRE 42 note; Calicó 2618a; Biaggi 1142. 7.27g, 21mm, 11h. Near Mint State. Rare. From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

198

15,000


Mother of Rome

589. Julia Domna (wife of S. Severus) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 196-211. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / MATER DEVM, Cybele seated left on throne, towered, holding branch in right hand and resting left elbow on drum; on either side of throne, a lion crouching left. RIC 565; C. 126; BMCRE 50; Calicรณ 2629 (same dies). 7.28g, 21mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

15,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. Of the many titles conferred on his wife by the emperor Septimius Severus, included are Mater Senatus et Patriae (mother of the Senate and Rome), the unique title of Mater Augustorum (mother of the Augusti) and, on account of her companionship in the field, Mater Castrorum (mother of the camp). The emphasis is on Julia Domna as imperial mother not only to the two heirs Caracalla and Geta but also to segments of Roman society. This coin associates the empress with Cybele, the MATER DEVM (mother of gods), perhaps extending the reach of the imperial mother by association with the mother of the gods; as Cybele is the supreme divine mother, so Julia Domna is the supreme mother to mortals.

590. Julia Domna (wife of S. Severus) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 196-211. IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, veiled, holding palladium in right hand and sceptre in left. RIC 582; BMCRE 69; C. 156; Calicรณ 2648 (same rev. die). 7.13g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare; only two example on CoinArchives. From a central European collection.

199

12,500


200


Victory Over Parthia

591.

Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 198. IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P •, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MINER VICTRIX, Minerva standing left, holding Victory and inverted spear; shield at her side, trophy to right. RIC 25b; Calicó 2696 = Biaggi 1183 (same rev. die). 7.36g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State; superbly lustrous and undoubtedly one of the finest known examples of the type. Very Rare. 30,000 From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom. The reverse type of this coin had ancient roots; the evolution of the type can be traced back as far as the denarii of C. Vibius C. f. Pansa in 90 BC, which featured the figure of Minerva, holding a trophy over her shoulder, in a galloping quadriga (Crawford 342/5). Julius Caesar further popularised the Minerva Victrix type with his use of a standing design upon his bronze issue of 45 BC (Crawford 476/1), and in this standing form the type would be popularised under Domitian, who adopted Minerva as his patron deity; Domitian’s provincial coinage also features the first appearance of Minerva standing with a trophy behind her (RPC II 2304). Yet the type in its present form was instituted comparatively late on, in the reign of Commodus c. AD 188/9, when it was used on very rare aurei (Calicó 2290a) and bimetallic medallions (Gnecchi II, p. 57, 48), sestertii and denarii. It may seem strange that the Severans should wish to prominently re-use a type commissioned for Commodus, particularly given how fresh the excesses and outrages committed by that former emperor would still have been in the minds of Roman citizens everywhere. However, Caracalla’s father Septimius Severus was himself a usurper, albeit to an emperor who had shamefully bought the imperial throne at auction. Thus Septimius, in order to shore up his ambitions to forge an imperial dynasty, was required for appearances’ sake to legitimise his rule in the eyes of mob. This inevitably manifested itself, as with the Flavians a century before, in the form of piety towards the earlier ‘good’ emperors. In Septimius’ case, he owed his rank and position to advances gained under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, the latter of whom had himself appointed Septimius as governor of Pannonia Superior in AD 191. He therefore sought to apply a veneer of validity to his assumption of the helm of empire by force, which he did by styling himself the ‘son of Marcus’, and renaming his eldest son (who would be known to history by his nickname Caracalla) Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. In so doing, Septimius effectively adopted himself and his heir into the Antonine family. He furthermore made efforts to rehabilitate the memory of Commodus, and forced an unwilling Senate to deify the late emperor in 195. In 197, the year before this aureus was struck, Septimius was faced with a large-scale Parthian incursion into Roman Mesopotamia, only recently pacified after a campaign in 195 against rebellious local vassal states. Septimius’ military response began with the rapid subjugation of the Parthian-allied kingdom of Armenia, from where he marched to the relief of the strategically important city of Nisibis. Septimius then divided his army into three; the main force he led along the Euphrates to attack the dual metropolis of Seleucia-on-the-Tigris and Ctesiphon, while the second force would ravage eastern Mesopotamia, and the third would recross the Tigris into Adiabene. Babylon and Seleucia-on-the-Tigris were taken without resistance, and in January 198 the Parthian king Vologases chose to meet the Roman army in the field before the walls of the capital Ctesiphon. The battle resulted in a resounding defeat for the Parthians; the city itself was breached and thoroughly sacked - the male population was exterminated and ancient sources attest to 100,000 being enslaved. On January 28, the exact centenary of Trajan’s accession, Septimius proclaimed that he had conquered Parthia, and took the title that Trajan had first held, ‘Parthicus Maximus’. On the same day he conferred the rank of Augustus and status of co-emperor on his nine year old son Caracalla. This aureus, like many Severan issues struck in 198, makes reference to this victory over Rome’s old nemesis.

201


592. Caracalla AV Aureus. Rome, AD 203-204. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / INDVLGENTIAโ€ขAVGG, CybeleDea Caelestis riding lion running to right over waves gushing from rock, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; IN CARTH in exergue. RIC 130b; C. 96 corr.; BMCRE 280 note; Biaggi 1175; Calicรณ 2678. 6.98g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine; obv. field smoothed before portrait. Very Rare.

10,000

593. Plautilla (wife of Caracalla) AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, AD 202-205. PLAVTILLA AVG, draped bust right / CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC 372 (Caracalla); RSC 8; BMCRE 739. 3.08g, 19mm, 5h. Near Mint State.

200

594. Geta, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Laodicea ad Mare, circa AD 200-202. P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICT AETERN, Victory flying left, holding open wreath over shield on low base. RIC 101; BMCRE 723; RSC 206. 3.12g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

250

595. Macrinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / PONTIF MAX TR P COS P P, Fides standing front, holding two standards. RIC 22a; RSC 60; BMCRE 38. 3.62g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

596. Diadumenian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 217-218. M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bareheaded and draped bust right, seen from behind / SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising her skirt. RIC 116; RSC 21; BMCRE 94. 2.83g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Ex Nomos FPL 2015, 101 ($2750); Ex Solidus Numismatik 22, 21 September 2014, lot 193.

202

1,250


203


597. Julia Paula (wife of Elagabalus) AR Denarius. Rome, AD 219-220. IVLIA PAVLA AVG, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, holding patera; star in left field. RIC 211; RSC 6a; BMCRE 172. 3.67g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State.

500

Ex Nomos FPL 2015, 102 ($850); Ex A. Tkalec, 24 October 2003, lot 344.

Extremely Rare Bronze of Annia Faustina

598. Annia Faustina (wife of Elagabalus) ร†17 of Antioch, Pisidia. AD 221. ANNIA FAVSTINA A[VG], draped bust right / The Capitoline Wolf suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. SNG France 1184. 1.87g, 17mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only one other example on CoinArchives, pierced and in poor condition.

300

599. Severus Alexander AV Aureus. Rome, AD 226. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right / AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing facing, head left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left. RIC 126; Calicรณ 3052a; BMCRE 329. 6.25g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Highly lustrous and lightly toned.

7,500

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

600. Gordian I AR Denarius. Rome, March-April AD 238. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR COS P P, togate emperor standing left, holding branch and short sceptre. RIC 1; C. 2; BMCRE 1; RSC 2. 2.84g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

204

1,000


601. Gordian II AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVIDENTIA AVGG, Providentia standing facing, head to left, leaning on column to right and holding a wand and cornucopiae, globe at her feet. RIC 1; C. 5; BMCRE 19. 2.66g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine.

2,000

602. Balbinus AR Denarius. Rome, AD 238. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, Providentia standing left, holding a wand in lowered right hand over a globe at feet to left, and cornucopiae in left hand. RIC 7; RSC 23; BMCRE 33. 2.78g, 19mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine; mint lustre.

1,250

Ex Nomos FPL 2015, 105 ($2250); Ex Solidus Numismatik 22, 21 September 2014, lot 207.

603. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, late AD 240 - early 243. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVTI AVGVSTI, the ‘Farnese’ Hercules standing facing, head right, resting right hand on hip and placing left on club set on rock; lion skin beside club. RIC 108; Calicó 3242. 4.69g, 20mm, 12h. Mint State.

5,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

604. Gordian III AV Aureus. Rome, AD 241. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PIETAS AVGVSTI, Pietas, veiled, standing facing, head left, raising both hands. RIC 122; Calicó 3210. 4.82g, 21mm, 11h. Near Mint State; area of soft strike in centre of obverse. Rare. Ex Dr. Patrick Tan Collection; Ex Classical Numismatic Group e355, 24 September 2014, lot 541.

205

3,500


Stunning Ancient Necklace with Otacilia Severa Aureus

605.

Otacilia Severa (wife of Philip I) AV Aureus. Rome, AD 245-247, in a contemporary gold pendant with an openwork border of leaf-pattern with a ribbed suspension loop, on an ancient necklace. M•OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped bust of Otacilia right, wearing stephane, hair in six tight waves with turned up plait / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae. R. Bland, ‘The gold coinage of Philip I and family’, in RN 171, 2014, pp. 93-149, 30 (OS10/O3); RIC 125 (Philip I); Calicó 3264. For a similar openwork gold setting with loop see: F.H. Marshall, Catalogue of the Jewellery, Greek, Etruscan and Roman, in the Department of Antiquities, British Museum, London 1969, pl. 68, 2937 (Philip I). 25.17g (including mount and chain), 28mm (coin in mount), 1h (coin). Good Extremely Fine. Lustrous metal and unmarked surfaces with light reddish tone. Rare.

20,000

Ex Roma Numismatics XI, 7 April 2016, lot 849; Ex private German collection. Little is known about Otacilia, the wife of Philip I, and the coinage struck in her name is rather typical of a third century empress. Honorary and milestone inscriptions tell us that Otacilia received the title ‘Mater Castrorum’ (mother of the camps) and may indicate that she accompanied Philip on his military campaigns, although the title does not appear on any of her surviving coinage. The reverse types of Otacilia emphasise her piety and role within the imperial family, as the personification of Concordia on this rare aureus. Concordia embodied harmony and her attributes, the patera and cornucopia, allude to the act of sacrifice and material abundance that arise from stable conditions. The concept of concord was often used to describe imperial marital harmony and represented the political relations which underpinned the empire as a whole. Sixteen men would be given or claim the title of Augustus during the years 244 to 260, and many were met with an untimely death. Otacilia’s husband Philip I was the first of this series of short-lived emperors, who reigned for just five years between 244 and 249. Philip was a praetorian commander serving under Gordian III on a campaign against Persia, when the army stationed in camp at Circesium on the Euphrates declared Philip emperor and murdered the young Gordian. Philip quickly agreed to pay 500,000 denarii, in addition to an annual indemnity, in order to secure peace terms with the Sasanian king Shapur so that he could return to Rome and consolidate his power. Upon Philip’s accession, Otacilia was given the title Augusta and their son, Philip the younger, was raised to the rank of Caesar and later promoted to Augustus in 247. The events of the following three years are unclear however; Philip seems to have spent much of his time on the Danube frontier fighting the Carpi for which he celebrated a triumph in Rome. The most significant event of his reign was the commemoration of the 1000th anniversary of the founding of the city, marked by a series of games in 248. In the same year, the legions of Moesia and Pannonia declared their commander Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus emperor. The uprising on the Danube frontier was short lived for Pacatian was killed by his own men, but a second would soon break out in the east when Jotapian was proclaimed emperor. The rebellion was not crushed until the following year, and two other abortive rebellions are known from the coins struck by Silbannacus on the Rhine, and Sponsianus on the Danube. Philip appointed a respected senator Quintus Decius Valerinus to be governor of the provinces of Moesia and Pannonia in an attempt to secure the loyalty of the legions in the Danube and repel an incursion by the Goths. This placed several legions under the control of Decius who were known to wish for a change of emperor. After Decius defeated the Goths in 249, he was proclaimed Augustus by his legions and marched on Rome. Philip was defeated near Verona and killed in the battle, and it is thought that once the news reached Rome, his son was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. It is unknown whether Otacilia suffered the same fate as her son or was allowed to live in retirement.

206


605

The Usurper Jotapian

606. Jotapian AR Antoninianus. Nicopolis Seleuciae, AD 248-249. IMP M F RV IOTAPIA[NVS], radiate and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGV, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch. RIC 2c; C. 2; Bland, Essays Carson, - , cf. 1. 3.06g, 20mm, 12h. Very Fine. Usual rough surfaces. Very Rare. From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. Jotapian, a member of the near-eastern indigenous aristocracy who claimed descent from an Alexander (possibly either Alexander Severus, or Antiochos I of Commagene, who himself claimed Alexander the Great as an ancestor), led a rebellion against Philip centred around Syria in response to an increase in taxation ordered by the rector orientis Priscus, Philip’s brother. Jotapian made Antioch his capital, but the rebellion quickly came to an end when Jotapian was killed by his own soldiers.

207

4,000


607. Trajan Decius AV Aureus. Rome, AD 249-250. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / PANNONIAE, the two Pannoniae, veiled and draped, standing facing, their heads turned left and right, each holding standard pointed outwards. RIC 21a; C. 85; Calicó 3295. 4.00g, 19mm, 12h. Very Fine.

3,000

From a central European collection.

608. Herennius Etruscus, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 250-251. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, youthful bareheaded and draped bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Herennius in military attire standing left, holding transverse spear in left hand and baton in right. RIC 147a; Calicó 3311. 3.75g, 19mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; centrally struck on a broad flan. Unusually well-preserved for the issue, with a charming, detailed portrait. Extremely Rare. 10,000

609. Hostilian, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Rome, AD 251. C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C, bareheaded and draped bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Hostilian standing left, holding standard in right hand and vertical spear reversed in left. RIC 181b (Decius); Calicó 3316; Biaggi 1405 var. (break in rev. legend). 3.73g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Light wave in flan. Rare.

12,500

610. Cornelia Supera (wife of Aemilian) Æ20 of Parium, Mysia. AD 253. C CORN SVPERA AVG, draped bust right / Triumphal arch consisting of large central bay with attic, flanked by two secondary bays, central bay surmounted by triumphal quadriga, each secondary bay surmounted by figure set on low base; C G I H P in exergue. SNG France -; Imhoof-Blumer, KM 4-5; RPC Online IX, 385 = Münz Zentrum 61, 937. 4.15g, 21mm, 7h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; the second known example. From the collection of A.S., Canada.

208

500


Unique Gallienus Reduced Aureus

611. Gallienus AV Reduced Aureus or Quinarius. Rome, AD 259. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right / P M TR P [VII] COS P P, Minerva standing to right, wearing helmet, and brandishing spear in right hand, holding shield in left. RIC -; C. -; Göbl -; Calicó -. 1.99g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State. Apparently unique and unpublished.

7,500

From a private Portuguese collection.

612. Gallienus AV Aureus. Rome, AD 266-267. GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath in outstretched right hand and palm branch in left. RIC 79; Calicó 3609; MIR -. 3.09g, 20mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine; light wave in flan. Very Rare.

5,000

Ex Portuguese private collection; Ex Gitbud & Naumann 36, 4 October 2015, lot 744.

613. Gallienus AV Reduced Aureus or Quinarius. Rome, AD 266-267. GALLIENVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / AETERNITAS AVG, Sol standing facing, head left, holding globe and raising hand. RIC -, cf. 99 (this bust type not listed); Göbl 661g(1); Calicó -, cf 3465-66. 1.93g, 19mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; rev. die worn. Extremely Rare.

614

2,500

615

614. Salonina (wife of Gallienus) Æ 10 Assaria of Side, Pamphylia. AD 254-268. KOPNHΛIA CAΛΩ-NINA CЄB, draped bust right, wearing stephane, set on crescent; I (mark of value) before / CIΔHTΩN A NЄΩKOPΩN NAVAPXIC, large galley under oar to left with standard at stern; below, two smaller galleys under sail and oar to right. SNG von Aulock 8551 (same dies); SNG France 941; SNG Pfälzer 878 (same dies). 18.25g, 30mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. A superb example of the type. 750 From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. 615. Postumus BI Antoninianus. Treveri or Colonia Agrippinensis, AD 260-268. POSTVMVS AVG, radiate heroic bust of Postumus left, holding club over right shoulder, lion head on left shoulder, strap across bare chest / PAX AVG, Pax standing left holding branch and transverse sceptre. RIC 319; C. 218; Elmer 564. 3.44g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Rare. 1,000 Ex H.J. Lücker Collection; According to collector’s notes, found in Trier.

209


210


Spectacular Aurelian Aureus

616.

Aurelian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 272. AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, with slight drapery on left shoulder / P M TR P COS P P, radiate lion leaping to left, holding thunderbolt in its jaws. RIC 159 (Siscia); Göbl Aurelian, 129An20 (these dies, given as Rome mint), pl. 75 = Vienna 40.413; BN p. 416 and pl. 85, 259; Calicó 4022 (this reverse die); NAC 99, 32 = NGSA 4, 236 (this reverse die). 5.89g, 21mm, 11h. Near Mint State; well centred and struck on a broad flan. Almost certainly the finest known example of the type, and definitely superior to the only other specimen offered in recent years. 20,000 From a private European collection. Featuring a radiate lion carrying a thunderbolt in its jaws - by AD 272 a familiar design on the Roman imperial coinage, first instituted on the coinage of Caracalla over half a century earlier - this aureus of Aurelian bears the same religio-propagandistic message as the coinages of those other emperors who made use of the type. Caracalla, Philip I, Philip II, and Gallienus all campaigned or conducted war in the East; the lion has ever been from the earliest days a solar symbol and hence representative of the East on account of this being the ‘land of the rising sun’. The radiate nature of the lion confirms this through an implied amalgamation with Sol (equated with the Greek deity Helios), the initially minor Roman solar god who came to increasing prominence in third century Roman religion, particularly as a patron of soldiers (Sol Invictus). The thunderbolt meanwhile is a clear reference to Jupiter; this composite image therefore has been interpreted as Roman dominance over the east, and as a sign of the high esteem in which Aurelian held solar worship due to the conflated depiction of these divine attributes of Jupiter and Sol. This aureus was issued in late 271 or 272 for the purpose of Aurelian’s war to reclaim the Eastern provinces of Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor from the separatist Palmyrene Empire ruled by Queen Zenobia and her son Vabalathus. In early 272 Aurelian crossed the Bosphorus and his expeditious prosecution of the war, the defeat of the Palmyrene field army at Immae and Emesa, and a general policy of amnesty towards cities that opened their gates resulted in the swift recovery of the breakaway provinces, such that by the Summer of 272 Zenobia and Vabalathus were besieged at Palmyra, which soon capitulated. Zenobia and the Palmyrene council were put on trial in Emesa; most of the high officials were executed, while the queen and her son were taken to Rome to be marched through the city in Aurelian’s triumph, Zenobia bound with golden chains to enhance the spectacle. Palmyra itself, though initially spared by the Aurelian, spurned the emperor’s clemency and rebelled again in 273; this time no quarter was shown – the citizens were massacred and the city was razed to the ground. Following the successful conclusion of the campaign, Aurelian further strengthened the position of Sol Invictus as one of the premier deities in the Romano-Greek pantheon by constructing a new temple in the Campus Agrippae at Rome which was dedicated on 25 December AD 274 with lavish decorations, many of which were spoils taken from the sack of Palmyra. Meanwhile the priests of Sol were elevated from simple sacerdotes drawn from the lower ranks of Roman society to pontifices and members of the new college of pontifices instituted by the emperor, of which every pontifex of Sol was a member of the elite senatorial class. This apparent usurpation of Jupiter’s pre-eminence within the Romano-Greek pantheon may have been eased by the ancient primacy of solar worship in the Eastern parts of the empire and the pre-existing association between the two deities: Helios had occasionally been conflated in classical literature with Zeus, being either directly referred to as Zeus’ eye, or clearly implied to be (see for example Hesiod WD 267).

211


617. Probus BI Quinarius. Ticinum, AD 276-282. PROBVS P F AVG, bust left, wearing lion skin headdress / FELICIA TEMPORA, four children representing the four seasons. RIC -; C. -, cf. 208-9; cf. Gnecchi 86-7; for a unique example with head in lion’s skin to right cf. C.E. King. Roman Quinarii from the Republic to Diocletian and the Tetrarchy. Oxford, 2007, cf. p. 391, 3 = RIC 264 =Wien KM inv. 22231. 1.80g, 15mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare, possibly unique.

2,000

Extremely Rare Numerian Aureus

618. Numerian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 284. IMP NVMERIANVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVGG, Hercules standing to right, leaning on club with his left hand and resting his left on his hip. RIC 407; C. -; Calicó 4334. 4.66g, 20mm, 5h. Extremely Fine - Good Extremely Fine; pierced in antiquity. Extremely Rare, no other examples on CoinArchives.

5,000

From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992. The great rarity of this coin is in large part due to the brevity of Numerian’s reign. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube in Raetia and Noricum rebelled and proclaimed the praetorian prefect Marcus Aurelius Carus emperor in opposition to Probus. Probus’ army, stationed in Sirmium, decided they did not wish to fight Carus and assassinated Probus instead. Carus, already sixty, immediately elevated his sons Carinus and Numerian to the rank of Caesar. In 283 Carus determined to take advantage of a succession crisis within the Sassanid empire, and marched east at the head of an army along with Numerian, while Carinus was left in charge in the West. The invasion met with great success, and the army was able to make huge incursions into Persian lands, and even capture the capital Ctesiphon. The campaign came to a premature end when Carus died suddenly (according to some sources, from a lightning strike). Numerian made an orderly retreat from Persia, and subsequently died in mysterious circumstances during the journey west. Amid rumours of murder, the prefect Aper was executed by the man who went on to become emperor. Diocletian, previously an officer under Carus, was acclaimed by the army and proceeded to continue the march west, meeting Carinus’ army in battle in Moesia and emerging as victor and emperor. The reverse of this stunning aureus typifies the propagandist nature of Roman coinage, and bestows on Numerian the quality of ‘virtus’, which encompassed valour, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth - the necessary attributes of a Roman and especially of an emperor. Coupled with the standing figure of Hercules, with his usual attributes of club and lion’s skin, this reverse references the military victories that Numerian and Carus achieved in the east and likens them to the completion of Hercules’ labours.

619. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 294. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIA SARMAT, four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets. RIC 12a; C. 488; RSC 488d. 2.82g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex BFA 19, 11 November 2015, lot 764.

212

750


620. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Antioch, AD 294-295. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with four turrets; RIC 32a; C. 491. 3.28g, 19mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

From a central European collection.

621. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Nicomedia, AD 295-296. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, camp gate with four turrets, doors thrown open; star above arch; SMNΓ in exergue. RIC 25a; RSC 492b. 3.28g, 18mm, 1h. Extremely Fine.

500

From a central European collection.

622. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Alexandria, AD 295-296. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, camp gate with three turrets and no doors; B to right, ALE in exergue. RIC 9b. 3.38g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Rare.

500

From a central European collection.

623. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Alexandria, AD 295-296. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, camp gate with three turrets and no doors; A to right, ALE in exergue. RIC 10a. 3.32g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

500

From a central European collection.

624. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Rome, AD 295-297. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, the four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets; Δ in exergue. RIC 40a; Jelocnik 49; RSC 516g. 3.40g, 20mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. From the V.D.T. Collection.

213

400


625. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Ticinum, AD 300. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / XCVI - T in two lines across field within wreath. RIC 20a; RSC 548a. 3.04g, 18mm, 7h. Fleur de Coin. Minor flan crack at 7h obv., 10h rev. Lustrous surfaces. Very Rare.

2,000

Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 19, 28 June 2014, lot 619. The Roman number 96 (XCVI) denotes that 96 argentei were minted from a Roman pound of silver.

626. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; star above arch, TS•A• in exergue. RIC 11a; RSC 521b. 3.32g, 20mm, 11h. Near Mint State. Very Rare; only two examples on CoinArchives.

500

From a central European collection.

Unique

627. Diocletian AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. DIOCLETIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; •TS•B• in exergue. RIC -, cf. 10. 3.42g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Unique.

750

From a central European collection. RIC cites a single coin (Ratto 19 January 1956, 290) struck at Thessalonica with the VICTORIAE SARMATICAE reverse legend, which is otherwise unknown at this mint. That example differs from the present piece however in the legend arrangement and mintmark.

628. Maximian AR Argenteus. Nicomedia, AD 295-296. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; star above arch, SMNΓ in exergue. RIC 25b; RSC 553c. 3.39g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine; scrape on obv. From a central European collection.

214

500


Ex Hess-Leu 41, April 1969

629.

Maximian AV Aureus. Rome, AD 293-294. MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / HERCVLI VICTORI, Hercules seated facing on rock, head to right, lion’s skin on lap, holding club with left hand; bow and quiver resting to right; PR in exergue. RIC -; Depeyrot 5B/5 (these dies); Calicó 4682 (this obverse die); C. 306 var.; A. Baldwin Brett, The Aurei and Solidi of the Arras Hoard, NC 1933, p. 297, 41. 6.02g, 20mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

20,000

Ex Hess-Leu 41, April 24 1969, lot 540. Given the title ‘Herculius’ by Diocletian, Maximianus’ role was always that of the military might to Diocletian’s strategic planning. Whilst the title reflected the adoption of Hercules as the heavenly father of Maximianus and thus, his familial ties to divinity, it was also representative of his role as junior emperor. Taking the cognomen of ‘Jovius’, Diocletian assumed familial ties to the more authoritative deity of Jupiter, as the father of Hercules, and so indicated his superiority over Maximianus as the director of imperial policy. The reverse depiction of Hercules on this stunning aureus displays this imperial theology with the inscription HERCVLI VICTORI (“Hercules the Victor”). Hercules is depicted seated in repose with his attributes: the club, the lion’s skin, as well as the bow and quiver set beside him. The representation and accompanying legend evokes the famous victories of the Twelve Labours and serves as an allegorical celebration of Maximianus’ own military success. The top-heavy musculature of the seated figure, with head turned and crossed resting arms closely resembles that of the Hellenistic Greek sculpture ‘Terme Boxer’ excavated in Rome in 1885 and now in the collection of the National Museum of the same city. The colossal masculinity of this sculptural figure of Hercules alludes to the strength of the emperor as ‘Herculius’. Despite the suggestion of superior strength and victory, Maximianus was beginning to falter in his role as a military instrument of the empire. His failed invasion of Britain in 289, against the ever-increasing threat of Carausius, led Diocletian to conclude that their divinely sanctioned diarchy was insufficient to manage the Empire. Constantius was appointed to the office of Caesar in the West and Galerius was granted the same position in the East, establishing a Tetrarchy that would relieve Maximianus of his military responsibilities. This coin was most probably produced in response to the increase in bureaucracy that the appointment of two new Caesars in 293 will have occasioned, as well as the ever present needs of the army protecting the eastern frontier of the Empire.

215


630. Maximian AR Argenteus. Nicomedia, AD 295-296. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; SMNΓ in exergue. RIC 25b var. (no star); RSC 553c. 3.38g, 18mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

400

From a central European collection.

631. Maximian AR Argenteus. Rome, AD 295-297. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIA SARMAT, the four tetrarchs sacrificing before city enclosure with six turrets; E in exergue. RIC 37b; RSC 548g. 3.20g, 18mm, 11h. Near Mint State; lightly toned.

750

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex BFA 24, 22 June 2016, lot 923.

632. Maximian AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; star above arch, TS•B• in exergue. RIC 11b; 11b var. (officina unrecorded, R5); RSC 631†a. 3.46g, 20mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

From a central European collection.

Second Known Example

633. Maximian AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / CONCORDIA MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; TS•Γ• in exergue. RIC -, cf. 8 for Galerius as Caesar; C. -; RSC -; Helios 3, 242 (same dies). 3.38g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State; tiny mark above doors on rev. Extremely Rare, apparently only the second known example.

500

From a central European collection.

634. Maximian AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; star above arch, TS•A• in exergue. RIC -, cf. 10 for Galerius as Caesar; RSC 553b. 3.44g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. From a central European collection.

216

500


635. Constantius I AR Argenteus. Thessalonica, AD 302. CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate bust right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; star above arch, TS•Γ• in exergue. RIC 12a, RSC 321c. 3.21g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State. Extremely Rare.

500

From a central European collection.

636. Constantius I AR Argenteus. Serdica, AD 305-306. CONSTANTIVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, camp gate with three turrets with open arch and no doors; •SM•SDΔ• in exergue. RIC -; Gautier 25; RSC -. 3.32g, 20mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Rare.

750

From a central European collection.

637. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Siscia, AD 295. MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVGG, four tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets; *SIS in exergue. RIC 57b; RSC 203a. 2.50g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

300

From a central European collection.

638. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Siscia, AD 295. MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVGG, camp gate with three turrets with open arch and no doors; *SIS in exergue. RIC 65b var. (rev. legend break); C. 203 var. (same). 3.18g, 18mm, 11h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

500

From a central European collection.

639. Galerius, as Caesar, AR Argenteus. Nicomedia, AD 295-296. MAXIMIANVS CAESAR, laureate head right / VIRTVTI MILITVM, four-turreted camp gate with doors thrown open; SMNΓ in exergue. RIC 26 var. (no star); RSC -; CNG e325, 648. 3.31g, 18mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From a central European collection.

217

500


640. Galerius AR Argenteus. Serdica, AD 305. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right / VIRTVS MILITVM, camp gate with three turrets with open arch and no doors; •SM•SDЄ• in exergue. RIC 11b; Gautier 26 var. (unlisted officina); RSC 228†a. 3.25g, 20mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

500

From a central European collection.

Calicó Plate Coin

641. Galerius AV Aureus. Serdica, AD 305-306. IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right / CONSVL AVGG NN, Galerius, togate, standing to left, holding globe, sceptre at side; retrograde Σ in right field, •SM•SD• in exergue. RIC 5b; Calicó 4894 (this coin); Depeyrot 2/2. 5.33g, 19mm, 6h. Very Fine. Extremely Rare; only two examples on CoinArchives.

4,000

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

Calicó Plate Coin and Ex Santamaria 1956

642. Maximinus II, as Caesar, AV Aureus. Serdica, AD 305. MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Maximinus in military dress, standing left, holding globe and reversed spear in left, two signa behind; retrograde Σ in left field, •SM•ST• (sic) in exergue. RIC 8b; Calicó 5028a (this coin). 5.16g, 19mm, 6h. About Very Fine. Probably ex-jewellery, reverse mintmark incorrectly repaired to read ST instead of SD.

2,000

From the collection of Z.P., Austria; Ex Santamaria, 6 June 1956, lot 81.

643. Licinius I AV Aureus. Nicomedia, AD 317, celebrating the Decennalia of November 11. LICINIVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / IOVI CONS LICINI AVG, laureate and bearded Jupiter, nude to waist, enthroned to left, holding sceptre in left hand and Victoriola with palm and wreath in right; at his feet, eagle to left with head reverted and wreath in beak; all on high podium inscribed on frontispiece SIC X SIC XX in two lines; SMNΔ in exergue. RIC 20 (wrong obverse legend by error); Calicó 5105 var.; Cohen 130 var.; Depeyrot 26/1. 5.44g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare. From a central European collection.

218

5,000


Unique Solidus of Constantine I

644. Constantine I ‘the Great’ AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 325. D N CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory seated to right on cuirass, inscribing VOT XX in two lines on shield supported by winged Genius; SMNC in exergue. RIC -; C. -; Depeyrot -. 4.27g, 20mm, 11h. Good Very Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished.

2,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

Very Rare Solidus of Constantine the Great

645. Constantine I ‘the Great’ AV solidus. Thessalonica, AD 332-333. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front / VICTORIA COONSTANTINI AVG, Victory advancing left, holding trophy set on jewelled staff in right hand and palm frond over left shoulder with left, MTS in exergue. RIC 174; Depeyrot 14/1. 4.48g, 20mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

10,000

From the collection of A.S., Canada.

646. Constantine I ‘the Great’ AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 335. Rosette-diademed head right, with uplifted gaze / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory, wearing long dress, seated to right on cuirass inscribing VOT XXX on shield held by Genius; SMNC in exergue. RIC 175; Depeyrot 44/1; Bastien, Donativa, pg. 81, g. 4.37g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine; some earthen adhesions. Rare. From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

219

15,000


647. Crispus, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 325-326. Diademed head, right with uplifted gaze / CRISPVS CAESAR, Victory, draped, advancing left, holding up wreath in right hand and palm frond in left; SIRM in exergue. RIC 63; Depeyrot 10/2; Biaggi 2054. 4.34g, 19mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

12,500

From a private European collection.

Constantine II as Caesar and ‘Prince of Youth’

648. Constantine II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 326-327. FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C, laureate head right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantine II standing right, in military attire and with cloak spread, holding transverse spear in right hand and globe in left; TR in exergue. RIC 500; Alföldi 347; Depeyrot 31/1. 4.58g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

10,000

Ex Ambrose Collection; Ex Andre Constantine Dimitriadis Collection, Heritage 3032, 10 April 2014, lot 23658; Ex Dreesmann Collection, Spink London, 13 April 2000, lot 150. With his defeat of Licinius in 324, Constantine I finally secured sole rule over the empire, thus conferring greater responsibilities onto the capable shoulders of his son and heir Crispus. The young Caesar had been appointed Commander of Gaul after his accession in 317, and had shown himself to be a highly capable military commander on both land and sea. His successful command at the naval engagement of the Hellespont and of part of the army at Chrysopolis contributed significantly to Constantine’s victory over Licinius. Crispus was honoured with statues, mosaics and cameos. Yet in 326 Constantine mysteriously ordered the execution of his beloved son, apparently at the instigation of his wife Fausta, motivated by jealousy and ambition, who falsely claimed Crispus had attempted to rape her. This led to the elevation of Constantine II as commander of Gaul in the same year, despite his being only ten at the time. Depicted here possessing the clear likeness of his father, the young Caesar is also portrayed on the reverse in his role as Prince of Youth, armed and garbed in military dress. An important part of the imperial propaganda, this coinage was intended to inspire public confidence in Constantine Caesar and to reassure the population of the empire that the line of succession remained secure.

Unique Siliqua, Ex Mazzini (1883-1961) Collection

649. Constantine II, as Caesar, AR Siliqua. Nicomedia, AD 334-337. Diademed head of Constantine II to right, gaze uplifted / CONSTANTINVS CAESAR, three branches standing; N in exergue. Unpublished, but cf. RIC 379 (Rome), RIC 184 (Ticinum), RIC 195 (Thessalonica) for type; cf. Gitbud & Naumann 10, 736 and Lanz 120, 580 for similar from Nicomedia, but with star. 3.28g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Apparently unique and unpublished. From a private Swiss collection; Ex Hess-Leu 41, 24 April 1969, lot 572; Ex Giuseppe Mazzini (1883–1961) Collection.

220

2,000


650. Constantine II, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 335. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, plain-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantine II, in military dress, standing to left, holding vexillum in his right hand and sceptre with his left; two standards behind; TSЄ in exergue. RIC 209; Depeyrot 16/3; Biaggi 2082. 4.49g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; only one other example on CoinArchives.

5,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

651. Constans AV Solidus. Aquileia, AD 337-340. FL IVL CONSTANS PF AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIAE D N AVG, two Victories standing facing, holding between them a wreath inscribed VOT V MVLT X in four lines; SMAQ in exergue. RIC 7; C. 161 var. 4.46g, 22mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

2,000

From the property of B.R.S., United Kingdom.

652. Constans AV Solidus. Thessalonica, AD 337-340. FL IVL CONSTANS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA DD NN AVGG, Victory walking left, holding palm branch and trophy on spear; TES in exergue. RIC 28; Depeyrot 4/3. 4.51g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

2,000

653. Constans AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 338-339. FL IVL CONSTANS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory seated right on cuirass, inscribing VOT V MVLT X on a round shield supported on her knee and by a winged genius standing left before her; SMANS in exergue. RIC 29; Bastien, Donativa, 83b and 84, note 3; C. 140; Depeyrot 5/7. 4.47g, 22mm, 12h. Extremely Fine, some earthen adhesions. Ex Dr. Patrick Tan Collection; Ex Hess-Divo 328, 22 May 2015, lot 290; Ex Monnaies et Médailles 68, 15 April 1986, lot 404.

221

2,000


654. Constantius II AV Solidus. Siscia, AD 337-340. Decennalia issue. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA DD NN AVG, Victory seated right on cuirass, holding shield inscribed VOT X MVLT XX in four lines and supported by winged Genius standing left; SIS* in exergue. RIC 30; Depeyrot 5/2; Biaggi 2176. 4.46g, 21mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine. Beautiful style.

3,500

Ex private Swiss collection.

655. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 337-347. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory seated to right on cuirass, with Cupid supporting shield inscribed VOT XV MVLT XX in four lines; SMANZ in exergue. RIC 25; C. 243; Depeyrot 5/3. 4.51g, 22mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Rare.

1,500

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 240, 10 October 2016, lot 580.

656. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 337-347. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS ROMANORVM, VOTIS XV MVLTIS XX in four lines within wreath with jewel at apex; SMANS in exergue. RIC 31; C. 76; Depeyrot 5/9. 4.16g, 22mm, 6h. Very Fine.

750

657. Constantius II AV Solidus. Trier, AD 347-348. CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG, two Victories standing facing holding between them a wreath inscribed VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines; TR in exergue. RIC 132; Depeyrot 6/1. 4.58g, 22mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. From a central European collection.

222

2,000


Very Rare Arelate Solidus

658. Constantius II AV Solidus. Arelate, AD 355-360. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust three-quarters right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman and enemy motif / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis enthroned facing, supporting between them a shield inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX, Constantinopolis holding sceptre in left hand and resting right foot on prow, Roma holding spear in left hand; KONSTA/ in exergue. RIC 234; C. 112; Depeyrot 5/1. 4.50g, 20mm, 11h. Good Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

7,500

The solidi from the Arelate mint are difficult to obtain indeed; only nine examples including the present coin are listed in CoinArchives among the more than 1500 solidi in the name of Constantius II. The present type celebrates the emperor’s tricennalia, on which occasion, while in residence at Arles in winter quarters, he honoured the city by regranting a dynastic name, Constantia, which appears as the mintmark of coins of this period.

659. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 355-361. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman motif / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis,with foot on prow, enthroned facing, each holding sceptre and supporting shield between them inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; SMANΔ• in exergue. RIC 162; Depeyrot 9/1. 4.49g, 20mm, 5h. Near Mint State; exceptional quality for the type.

2,000

From a private Canadian collection.

660. Constantius II AV Solidus. Antioch, AD 355-361. CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed head right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis seated facing, holding between them a shield inscribed VOT XXXX in two lines; ANTΓ in exergue. RIC 173; Depeyrot 12/1. 4.47g, 21mm, 5h. Near Mint State. Bold portrait with mirror-like surfaces. From a private Canadian collection.

223

2,000


Constantius II Celebrates his Quinque-Tricennalia

661.

Constantius II AR Heavy Miliarense. Sirmium, AD 359-61. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GAVDIVM POPVLI ROMANI around wreath, within which VOTIS XXXV MVLTIS XXXX in four lines; SIRM in ex. RSC -; Gnecchi -; RIC -; cf. Lanz 106, November 2001, lot 764. 5.22g, 26mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine; metal stabilised at 12h. Extremely Rare, unpublished in the standard references, and apparently only the second known example.

10,000

Ex Ambrose Collection, Roma Numismatics X, 27 September 2015, lot 887; Ex A. Tkalec AG, 29 February 2012, lot 255. The miliarense denomination was introduced by Constantine as part of his monetary reforms. Struck on two standards, light and heavy, eighteen light miliarensia or fourteen heavy miliarensia equalled one gold solidus. That they were as highly desirable in antiquity as they are today is evidenced by their extensive mounting and use as pendants. The heavy miliarense was struck at a theoretical 60 to the pound, roughly corresponding to the old weight of the now defunct aureus. The origin of the name is uncertain; Mattingly once suggested that its name commemorated the millenary of the foundation of Rome. Epiphanius of Salamis thought it was derived from ‘miles’, being intended for military pay, but the Nomis Glosses imply a silver unit worth 1/1,000th of a gold pound. Neither of these theories hold up to scrutiny however, and the most likely explanation is that put forward by the fifth century metrologist Dardanius, who suggests that the word implied a coin originally worth 1,000 bronze Nummi. Calculations of relative values seem to indicate this is correct. The striking of this extraordinary issue was possibly occasioned by Constantius’ visit to Sirmium in March 359 as part of the ongoing discussion within the Church over the Arian controversy questioning the nature of the divinity of Christ. Though Constantius’ quinque-tricennalia (thirty five year anniversary) was not until November (he was made Caesar on 8 November 324), he had already begun distributing coinage celebrating his anniversary well in advance: upon his visit to Rome in the Spring of 357, a considerable issue of gold and silver was made celebrating his thirty fifth year in power – a full eighteen months early. Constantius’ thirty fifth year of rule was marked by renewed hostilities with the Sassanid Persian empire, as Shapur II launched a new invasion of Roman territory, destroying Singara and its two defending legions, and taking the cities of Kiphas, Amidas, and Ad Tigris. A campaign was launched to recapture the lost territories, though this would prove unsuccessful, and it would be left to the future emperor Julian to defeat Shapur in 363.

224


Extremely Rare Roman Silver Ingot

662. Constantius II AR Ingot of 1 Roman Pound. Circa AD 337-361. Shaped like a double axe-head with flaring blades, thicker in the middle and thinner at the edges; stamped with an obverse die of Constantius II (D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right); IVLI chiselled above / Blank; large silver plug, adding metal to raise the weight. Manhattan Sale III, 225 (also of Constantius II, and also with IVLI inscribed); for similar double-axe shaped ingots, cf. Collingwood and Wright, The Roman Inscriptions of Britain (1965), 2402.4, p. 30; cf. Guide to the Antiquities of Roman Britain (1964), p. 46, fig. 21.b.4 = BM OA.247; cf. Painter, Two Roman Silver Ingots from Kent, Archaeologia Cantiana Vol. 97 (1981), pp. 201-207. 343.45g, 117mm x 63mm (at widest point). As made. Extremely Rare, one of approximately 50 known such ingots, of which only a very few are in private hands.

15,000

From a private European collection. Silver ingots like this one were used to pay soldiers and civil servants from around AD 305. The accession donative, at least between AD 361 and 518, is known to have been five gold solidi and one pound of silver per man for the rank and file (Ammianus Marcellinus, XX, 4.18). Officially, stamped ingots therefore occur fairly frequently in the fourth century, however ingots stamped at an imperial mint and bearing the emperor’s portrait and titles are extremely rare; only six others are known - the Manhattan Sale example, and five all in the name of Magnentius (two found at Emona and three found at Kaiseraugst), all now in museum collections: see H.A. Cahn, Der spatromische Silberschatz von Kaiseraugst, 1984, pp. 324-329. The government department responsible for the collecting of taxes and levies was the Sacrae Largitiones, to which naturally fell the responsibility of also redistributing the gold and silver to the soldiers and officials. The Comes sacrarum largitionum “Count in charge of the sacred distributions” is possibly the IVLI named on this ingot, and the Manhattan Sale example.

663. Constantius Gallus, as Caesar, AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 351-354. D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis, enthroned facing, supporting between them a wreath inscribed VO-TIS V in three lines, Roma holding spear and Constantinopolis holding sceptre while resting foot on prow; SMNS in exergue. RIC 75; C. 24; Depeyrot 5/3. 4.41g, 22mm, 7h. Extremely Fine; flan crack at 7h obv., 11h rev. Very Rare. From the collection of A.S., Canada.

225

3,000


664. Julian II ‘the Apostate’ AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 361-363. FL CL IVLIANVS P P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS ROMANORVM, soldier standing to right, head left, holding trophy and dragging captive; *SIRM(wreath) in exergue. RIC 96; C. 78; Depeyrot 21/1. 4.21g, 21mm, 12h. Good Very Fine; traces of ancient jewellery mounting at 6 o’clock. Rare.

2,000

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

665. Valentinian I AR Siliqua. Sirmium, AD 364. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS V MVLTIS X in four lines within wreath with jewel at apex; SIRM in exergue. RIC 2; RSC 79a. 1.81g, 19mm, 12h. Near Mint State. Dark old cabinet tone.

200

From the V.D.T. Collection.

666. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Arelate, AD 364-367. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTIVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum inscribed with a Christogram and Victory on globe; KONSTAN in exergue. RIC 1b; Depeyrot 13/1. 4.44g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin. Exceptionally well detailed reverse.

1,500

667. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 373-375. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Valentinian and Valens enthroned facing, holding globe between them; above, Victory facing with wings spread, palm frond between; TROBT in exergue. RIC 17b.6; Depeyrot 43/1. 4.46g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the V.D.T. Collection.

668. Valentinian I AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 373-375. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Valentinian and Valens enthroned facing, holding globe between them; above, Victory facing with wings spread, palm frond between; TROBT in exergue. RIC 17b.6; Depeyrot 43/1. 4.51g, 20mm, 1h. Extremely Fine; slight bend in flan. From a central European collection.

226

1,000


669. Valens AV Solidus. Nicomedia, AD 364-367. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding Victory on globe and labarum; SMNI in exergue. RIC 2d. 4.44g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Well struck on a large flan with full borders; superbly lustrous surfaces.

2,500

From the Ambrose Collection; Ex Fritz Rudolf Künker 204, 12 March 2012, lot 860.

670. Valens AR Heavy Miliarense. Constantinople, circa AD 367-375. D N VALENS P F AVG, peal-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA D N AVG, Victory standing right, head left, holding wreath in left hand and staff surmounted by shield inscribed VOT X MVLT XX; Chi-Rho in left field, captives crouched at feet to left and right, (branch)CONSA(wreath) in exergue. Cf. RIC 31, pl. XII, 1 for similar miliarense in the name of Valentinian; otherwise unpublished. 5.22g, 25mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Unique and unpublished.

5,000

From a private German collection.

671. Valens AR Siliqua. Constantinople, AD 367-375. D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath with jewel at apex; (palm)C(Christogram)S(wreath) in exergue. RIC 37b; RSC 96†d. 2.31g, 18mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Scarce.

300

Ex Chapdelaine Collection.

672. Gratian AV Solidus. Treveri, AD 367-375. D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, two emperors seated facing, jointly holding globe; Victory above, wings spread; palm branch below; TROBT in exergue. RIC 17g; Depeyrot 43/3. 4.46g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State. From the V.D.T. Collection.

227

1,500


673. Valentinian II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 375-378. D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG Є, Constantinopolis seated facing on throne, head right, holding sceptre and globe; right foot on prow, CONOB in exergue. RIC 69b1; Depeyrot 47/5; Biaggi 2288. 4.50g, 21mm, 12h. Fleur De Coin.

1,000

674. Valentinian II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 380-381. D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing on throne, head right, holding sceptre and globe; right foot on prow, CONOB in exergue. RIC 44b; C. 1; Depeyrot 32/2. 4.44g, 21mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Very Rare.

1,000

Privately purchased from Divus Numismatik, Germany.

675. Theodosius II AV Tremissis. Constantinople, AD 408-420. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory walking right, her head turned left, holding wreath in her right hand and globus cruciger in her left; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. RIC 213; Depeyrot 70/1. 1.49g, 15mm, 5h. Good Extremely Fine; beautiful tone.

500

676. Theodosius I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 382-383. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, head right, foot on prow, holding sceptre and globe, CONOB in exergue. RIC 44c; Depeyrot 32/3. 4.46g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine.

1,000

From the collection of A.S., Canada.

677. Theodosius I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 383-388. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG B, Constantinopolis, helmeted and with head right, seated facing on high backed throne with ornamented with lion’s heads, right foot on prow, holding sceptre and shield inscribed VOT V MVL X in four lines; CONOB in exergue. RIC 70b; Depeyrot 45/1. 4.25g, 20mm, 12h. Near Mint State.

228

750


678. Theodosius II AR Miliarense. Constantinople, AD 408-423. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left / GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius, nimbate, standing facing, head left, raising hand and holding globe; star in left field, CON in exergue. RIC 370; RSC 20a. 4.43g, 22mm, 5h. Mint State. Well-struck on a generous flan from dies of unusually fine style. Lightly toned and lustrous.

2,500

679. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 441-450. D N THEODOSIVS•P•F•AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust right, holding spear over his right shoulder and shield decorated with horseman spearing a fallen enemy / IMP•XXXXII•COS•XVII•P•P•, Constantinopolis enthroned to left, foot on prow, holding globus cruciger in her right hand and long sceptre with her left; shield at her side, star in left field, COMOB in exergue. RIC 293; Depeyrot 84/1. 4.41g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State.

750

680. Theodosius II AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 441-450. D N THEODOSIVS•P•F•AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust right, holding spear over his right shoulder and shield decorated with horseman spearing a fallen enemy / IMP•XXXXII•COS XVII P•P•, Constantinopolis seated left on throne, holding globus cruciger and sceptre; right foot on prow, shield at her side, star in left field, COMOB in exergue. RIC 310; Depeyrot 84/1. 4.46g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

750

681. Arcadius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 388-392. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG H, Constantinopolis, turreted, seated facing, head right, holding sceptre and shield inscribed VOT V MVL X; CONOB in exergue. RIC 70c.4; Depeyrot 46/3. 4.49g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State.

229

1,000


682. Arcadius AV Solidus. Sirmium, AD 393-395. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG H, emperor standing right, holding Victory on globe and standard; at his feet, captive; S-M across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC IX 14b; Depeyrot 34/1-2. 4.43g, 21mm, 11h. Extremely Fine; flan flaw on obv. portrait.

500

683. Arcadius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 395-402. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and crowned by Victory on globe, with foot on captive to lower right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC IX 35b = RIC X 1205; Depeyrot 16/1. 4.37g, 21mm, 12h. Good Extremely Fine.

750

From the V.D.T. Collection; Ex Spink & Son (Zurich) 26, 25 April 1988, lot 28.

684. Arcadius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 395-402. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and crowned by Victory on globe, with foot on captive to lower right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC IX 35b = RIC X 1205; Depeyrot 16/1. 4.46g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

750

685. Honorius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 394-395. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, treading on captive to right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC IX 35c = RIC X 1206a; Depeyrot 16/2. 4.48g, 21mm, 6h. Mint State.

1,000

686. Honorius AV Solidus. Mediolanum, AD 394-395. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, treading on captive to right; M-D across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC IX 35c = RIC X 1206a; Depeyrot 16/2. 4.49g, 21mm, 1h. Good Extremely Fine.

230

750


687. Honorius AV Solidus. Rome, AD 404-416. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGGG, Emperor standing right, holding standard and Victory on globe, treading on captive seated left; R-M across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC 1252; Depeyrot 34/2. 4.46g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine.

750

688. Honorius AV Solidus. Ravenna, AD 421. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, draped, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear and round shield decorated with Chi-Rho symbol / Roma and Constantinopolis, each seated facing one another on cuirass, holding wreath between inscribed VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines; below, palm branch set on ground, R-V across fields, COMOB in exergue. RIC 1332; Ranieri 19; Depeyrot 4/2. 4.46g, 22mm, 1h. Extremely Fine. Very Rare.

4,500

From a central European collection.

689. Aelia Eudocia (wife of Theodosius II) AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 441-450. AEL EVDOCIA AVG, draped, diademed bust right, above, manus dei holding wreath / IMP XXXXII COS XVII P P, Constantinopolis enthroned to left, foot set on prow of ship, holding sceptre with her left hand, globe cruciger on her outstretched right hand, at side, shield; star to left, COMOB in exergue. RIC 289; DOC 459; Depeyrot 84/4var. (CONOB). 4.47g, 21mm, 6h. Extremely Fine; area of weak strike.

2,000

From a central European collection.

Very Rare Solidus of Anthemius

690. Anthemius AV Solidus. Rome, AD 468. D N ANTHEMIVS P F AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust facing, holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman and enemy motif / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Anthemius and Leo I, in military attire, standing facing, holding spears and supporting a globus cruciger between them; Christogram in centre field, CORMOB in exergue. RIC 2822; C. 4; Lacam 71-3; Depeyrot 63/1; LRC 917. 4.34g, 20mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare. From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

231

1,000


Unpublished Tremissis of Julius Nepos

691.

Julius Nepos AV Tremissis. First reign. Ravenna, AD 474-475. D N IVL NEPOS P F AVG, draped and cuirassed bust right wearing plain single banded diadem / Elaborate cross potent terminating in pellets at points; around, wreath with crossed ties, jewel in bezel at apex, COMOB below. Cf. Lacam 70 (plain diadem, plain cross); RIC -, cf. 3214 (pearl-diadem, not plain diadem, plain cross); C. -, cf. 16 (same); cf. DOC 940 (same); Depeyrot -, cf. 40/1 (same). 1.51g, 13mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Apparently unique and unpublished type for Nepos, with a plain diadem, and highly elaborate cross within an exceptionally well engraved wreath for this period, evidencing a high level of competency on the part of the engraver which indicates production in the first reign of Nepos at the Imperial court of Ravenna. 7,500 From the collection of Z.P., Austria; Privately purchased from old Swiss collection (includes collector’s ticket). While many historians consider Romulus Augustus to have been the last Roman emperor in the West (see next lot), Julius Nepos’ claim to this dubious honour is no less strong. Elevated to the position of Augustus by the Eastern emperor Leo I in AD 474 in order to replace the usurper Glycerius, who had been raised to the vacant throne by the Burgundian Magister militum Gundobad, Julius Nepos was married to the niece of Leo I and was also the nephew of the sovereign governor of Dalmatia, Marcellinus, hence his agnomen of nepos - “nephew”. In January, before Nepos could move against Glycerius, Leo I died, and was succeeded by his grandson, the young Leo II, who chose his own father Zeno as co-emperor. While little is known of Glycerius, according to Ennodius, the emperor “made many measures for the public good”, and seems to have tried his best to remain on good terms with the East Roman Empire, making overtures for reconciliation and abstaining from choosing a second Consul in order to allow Leo II to be sole Consul for the year 474. Nonetheless, under Roman Law Glycerius’ elevation was illegal, as the Eastern emperor had the right to choose his co-emperor, and Zeno maintained the official position of Constantinople to deny recognition to Glycerius. Therefore, in the Spring of 474, when the ports which had been closed for the winter reopened, Nepos made to cross the Adriatic Sea to depose Glycerius, who may have temporarily left the Imperial Court at Ravenna and relocated to Rome to resist the invasion, where he minted an extremely rare silver issue claiming himself as Augustus along with Leo II and Zeno. However, by June Nepos had entered Ravenna and deposed Glycerius without bloodshed, perhaps because he had failed to receive the support of the Roman Senate and Gallo-Roman aristocracy, or because his Magister militum Gundobad was absent from Italy either to raise more troops in Gaul, or to receive the legacy of his father Gundioc as King of the Burgundians. In any case, Nepos spared Glycerius’ life, an act of clemency possibly prompted by Glycerius’ apparently benevolent rule and the respect he had shown to the Eastern emperors throughout his short reign, and he was sent to lead a life of religious service as Bishop of Salona. Nepos’ own reign was hardly longer than that that of his predecessor; in August of 475 his Magister militum Orestes took control of the government at Ravenna, forcing Nepos to flee by ship back to Dalmatia. Orestes then proceeded to enthrone his teenage son as the new emperor in the West, under the regnal name Romulus Augustus. Though deposed, Nepos continued to be recognised as the de jure Emperor of the West until his death in 480, whereupon Zeno formally abolished the division of the Empire, ending the last legal claim to the throne of the West Roman Empire.

232


Last Roman Emperor in the West

692.

Romulus Augustus AV Tremissis. Ravenna, AD 475-476. D N ROMVLVS AGVSTVS P F A, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Cross within wreath; COMOB below. Lacam 27 corr. (obv. legend, this coin); RIC 3410 var. (obv. legend, recorded under Rome but see note under Ravenna); Depeyrot -. 1.44g, 11mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; a highly attractive example of this most desirable type, featuring a bold portrait and complete legend. 25,000 From the collection of Z.P., Austria; Ex Münzen & Medaillen Basel XVII, 2-4 December 1957, lot 655. On 31st October AD 475, the usurper Romulus Augustus was crowned Western Roman emperor. Placed on the throne as a proxy by his father, Romulus’ rule was short lived and unremarkable for he made no notable achievements. Despite this, the end of Romulus Augustus’ ten-month reign was popularised by famed historiographer Edward Gibbon as “the extinction of the Roman empire in the West”, meaning following his reign, Western emperors were no more than ineffectual puppets (The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1776–88). Romulus Augustus was the son of the Western Empire’s Magister Militum, Orestes. While serving the emperor Julius Nepos, Orestes staged a military coup forcing Nepos to flee into exile in Dalmatia. Having deposed Julius Nepos, Orestes proclaimed his son as emperor, a strange candidate since he was thought to be around fourteen years old at the time. Although not officially in charge, Orestes ruled with his son fulfilling the symbolic requirements of imperial tradition and his armies supplying military support. However, legitimacy to rule could only be achieved with the consent of the Eastern emperor who throughout Romulus Augustus’ reign still considered Julius Nepos (living in exile in Salonae near Split) the constitutional emperor. Historiographers have disagreed whether Julius Nepos was in fact the final Western emperor since following his death in AD 480, the Eastern emperor Zeno declared himself sole Roman Emperor. However, Julius Nepos never returned from his exile to rule as emperor in the West and following his usurpation by Orestes and Romulus Augustus, he was in fact completely powerless, thus, Romulus Augustus was undeniably the last de facto ruler of the West. Another more poetic reason for choosing Romulus Augustus as the final Western emperor over Nepos is that the names Romulus and Augustus tie the final emperor with both the mythical founder of Rome, and its first emperor. In AD 476 Orestes’ troops mutinied and he was executed at the hands of their new leader Odovacar. Odovacar advanced on Ravenna and captured the city and the young ruler. Romulus Augustus was compelled to abdicate and a signed letter was taken along with his imperial regalia to the Eastern emperor, Zeno, in Constantinople. Odovacar’s message to the East was that there was no longer need for the Empire to be split between Byzantium and Ravenna and that one ruler based in Byzantium would suffice. Romulus Augustus’ life was spared and he was sent by Odovacar to Campania to live with his relatives apparently with a pension. A letter by Cassiodorus in the name of Theodoric the Great in AD 507 seems to be written to the ex-emperor suggesting he was still alive in the sixth century. He is also mentioned by Count Marcellinus, a writer under Justinian, where he is called Augustulus, a diminutive often given to Romulus Augustus highlighting his youth. The coinage struck in the name of Romulus Augustus survives as part of very limited evidence of his reign. The standardised portraits are the only surviving images of Romulus Augustus and yet they tell us nothing about the person behind the imperial façade. Unfortunately, scholars thought the boy of little importance compared with the political crisis his reign concluded in and no information regarding his character survives.

233


COINS OF THE MIGRATION PERIOD

693. Odoacer (Odovacar), King of Italy, AV Tremissis. Mediolanum, AD 476-491. In the name of Zeno. D N ZENO PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Cross within wrath; COMOB in exergue. RIC 3608, Depeyrot 43/11. 1.40g, 13mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare.

1,500

From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

694. Ostrogoths, Theoderic Æ 5 Nummi. Ravenna, AD 493. FELIX RAVENNA, mural-crowned and draped bust right / Victory walking left, holding wreath and palm branch; R-V across fields. Metlich 81; Ranieri 252-3. 2.61g, 13mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

600

Unique

695. Merovingians, AV Solidus. In the name of Anastasius. Time of Clovis I - Chlothar II, circa AD 500-587. PHΛNΛCTA[...] SIV - YUAVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust of Anastasius facing, holding spear and shield; Θ to right / VICTORI ΛUYGG, Victory standing left, holding long voided cross; star over monogram (FET?) in right field, CONOB in exergue. Unpublished in the standard references, for type cf. Belfort 5045-68; MEC 343-348; Collection NK 1013-23; for monogram cf. Prou p. cxvi. 4.43g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Unique.

4,000

There is still no modern comprehensive study on the Frankish coinage of the early Merovingian period, namely the pseudo-imperial gold solidi and tremisses issued in the names of the eastern emperors Anastasius, Justin I and Justinian I, with Victory as a reverse type. The largest collection of material is published in A. De Belfort, Description générale des monnaies mérovingiennes, tome IV (Paris, 1894, reprinted in 1996), nos. 50225356. Under the Roman Empire the minting of gold coins was a jealously guarded imperial monopoly, a privilege respected by the early Frankish kings who had little idea of the state as a public institution and could not conceive of any other form of government or economic system beyond that of their primitive Frankish tribal groupings. These pseudo-imperial issues were initially struck in the name of the eastern emperor Anastasius (491-518), who realised the military qualities of Clovis I and in 508 bestowed on him the titles of consul and patrician. Gold solidi continued to be struck until the late 580s in various styles and engraving quality and exhibit a large variety of mint initials and symbols for an ever expanding kingdom which had once been Roman civilised Gaul. This pseudo-imperial gold appears to have been withdrawn in about 587 in favour of a new national coinage with clearer mint marks, moneyers names and royal titles, so characteristic of later Merovingian coinage. Throughout this period the Frankish kings had usually deferentially respected the imperial convention of issuing pseudo-imperial gold coins in the emperor’s name, but there was a striking exception: Theodebert I (534-548) had the audacity to break imperial custom by minting gold coins containing his own name and image (cf. Belfort 5467-5472and MEC 389). Not surprisingly, the Byzantine chronicler Agathias recorded the rumour in Constantinople that Theodebert was suspected of planning an invasion of Thrace. During the migration period of the 4th and 5th centuries AD the Franks were one of the principal elements in the West Germanic peoples, which included the Suevi, Burgundians, Ostrogoths and Visigoths. They settled in two principal groups; the Salians to the north-west of the river Rhine frontier covering modern Brabant and Flanders up to the Somme, and the kingdom of the Riparians around Cologne in the area between the rivers Moselle and Rhine. As Roman federate allies for much on the 5th century, the Franks achieved political mastery of much of Gaul under the leadership of the Salian Childeric (c. 457-481) and his son Clovis I (Chlodovech, 481-511), who became king as a boy of 15 at Tournai and whose talents can only be inferred from his legendary achievements. Culturally the Franks owed nearly everything to their contact with Gallic Rome, and they spoke a Latin dialect, the basis of modern French. The very name Clovis (in reconstructed Frankish ‘Hlodoweg’ meaning ‘renowned fighter’) was to morph into Latin as Ludovicus and the modern names Louis and Ludwig. During his reign Clovis increased Frankish power by brute force, putting to an end the old divisions between Ripuarian and Salic Franks and defeating the independent Roman governor Syagrius at Soissons in 476. According to the late 6th century History of Gregory of Tours, Clovis’ conversion to Catholicism was largely due to the influence of his second wife, the Burgundian Princess Clothilda who he married in 493. This was a brilliant diplomatic move, followed by a long series of royal baptisms started in Rheims by St Remi in 496. Clovis now forged a new Frankish identity allied to the Roman population of Gaul which was of great help in the struggle with the Arian Visigoths whom he defeated at Vouillé in 507 when he took over Aquitaine. Eventually he gained control over most of ancient Gaul, now called the Kingdom of the Franks (Francia). From his chosen capital at Paris, Clovis coordinated the political and economic organization of his kingdom with a council of bishops. There he also instituted the Salic Law, which codified the traditions of the Salian Franks with Roman law, still in force in Provence in southern France. Part of the Salic Law stipulated that a kingdom be equally divided among the immediate heirs of a ruler. On the death of Clovis in 511, Francia was divided into four nearly equal shares. His immediate successors, styling themselves ‘Merovingian’ after their semi-mythical ancestor named Merovech, were: Thierry I, Chlodomir, Childebert and Chlotar I, who inherited Metz, Orleans, Paris and Soissons respectively. Their greed and discord made them bitter and faithless enemies. When Chlodomir died in 524, Childebert and Chlotar murdered his sons and took his share. Yet Francia survived as one kingdom: Childebert I died in 558, and the extinction of his debauched grandson Theodebald I in 555 left the remaining Merovingian Chlotar I sole king. By this time Francia was even larger than it had been under Clovis: Thuringia was conquered by Thierry I in the early 530s; Burgundia occupied in 534 and Provence taken from the Ostrogoths in 537; much of northern Italy was occupied by Theodebert I in the early 540s, though not retained and recovered by Justinian’s reconquest of Italy in the 560s.

234


696. Visigoths, Pseudo-Imperial AV Tremissis. In the name of Justinian I. Barcelona(?), circa AD 527-578. CII ISTINIANVS PV, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right with cross on chest / VICTORI AGVA, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm branch; CONO in exergue. Tomasini group JAN 2, 247-63; cf. MEC 1, 194-202. 1.40g, 18mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Flan flaw to rev. 2h. Lustrous.

1,250

697. Visigoths, Spain. Swinthila AV Tremissis. Cordoba, AD 621-631. + SVINTHIIIΛ RE, facing bust / + CORDOBΛ PIVS ( S in retrograde), facing bust. MEC I, -; cf. MEC I, 236; cf. Miles 226(c) var. 1.40g, 19mm, 7h. Near Extremely Fine. Minor flatness. Lustrous metal.

500

698. Visigoths, Tulga AV Tremissis. Cordoba, AD 639-642. + TVLGΛN RE, facing bust / + CORDOBA PIVS, facing head set on cruciform torso. Miles 306 (a) 7; MEC 1, -. 1.43g, 18mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

1,250

699. Visigoths, Wittiza AV Tremissis. Emerita, AD 700-710. +IN•HMVVITTIZΛI+, crowned bust of Wittiza right / +EMERITA PIVS, cross potent on three steps, flanked by two pellets on either side. CNV 617; MEC 1, -. 1.19g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine. Rare.

2,000

700. Lombards, Desiderius AV Tremissis. Ticinum, AD 756-774. + : D’ND : ISIDRIVS RX’, cross potent / + FL’AVIA : TI’CINVO’, star within circle. Arslan 76; Sambon 352. 1.21g, 18mm, 10h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. From the collection of Z.P., Austria.

235

1,500


COINS OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE

701. Anastasius I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 498-518. D N ANASTASIVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear and shield decorated with cavalryman motif / VICTORIA AVGGG S, Victory standing left, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram; star in left field, CONOB in exergue. DOC 7f; MIBE 7; Sear 5. 4.45g, 20mm, 7h. Fleur De Coin.

1,000

Extremely Rare Solidus of Justin & Justinian

702. Justin I & Justinian I AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 527. D N IVSTIN ЄT IVSTINIAN P P AVG, Justin and Justinian enthroned facing, each holding globe; cross above, CONOB in exergue / VICTORIA AVGGG Z, angel standing facing, holding jewelled cross in right hand and globus cruciger in left; star to right, CONOB in exergue. SB 117 var. (officina not listed); DOC -; MIBE 1d var. (same). 4.48g, 20mm, 7h. Mint State; very slight bend in flan. Extremely Rare.

5,000

703. Justinian I Æ 10 Nummi. Ravenna, AD 540-547. D N IVSTINIANVS P F AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Large monogram; K below, S above, all within wreath. MIBE 235; Ranieri 312 (Matasuntha); Sear 328c (Uncertain Italian mint). 5.08g, 21mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare.

400

Extremely Rare Rome Mint Solidus

704. Justinian I AV Solidus. Rome, circa AD 542-546. D N IVSTINIANVS P F AG, helmeted and cuirassed facing bust, holding globe cruciger in right hand, shield over left shoulder / VICTORIA AVGG A (with bar in the form of a pellet), angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram in right hand and and globe cruciger in left; star in right field, CONOB in exergue. MIBE 343; BCI 62; cf. Monte Judica hoard 63. 4.36g, 21mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. Extremely Rare. From a private English collection.

236

2,500


705

706

705. Maurice Tiberius Æ 20 Nummi. Ravenna, AD 586-602. D N MAVRC TIЬ PP AVC, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger / Large K, cross above; R-A across fields, VENN below. MIBE 146; DOC 292a; Ranieri 492; Sear 598. 4.67g, 19mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Rare. 300 706. Maurice Tiberius Æ 10 Nummi. Ravenna, AD 582/3. [D N MAVR TIЬ P AV], pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Large X, cross above; R-S across fields, A below. MIBE 147B; Ranieri 495; Sear 599a. 1.59g, 13mm, 6h. Very Fine. Very Rare. 400

707. Phocas Æ 40 Nummi. Ravenna, year 7 (= AD 608/9). D N FOCAS PERP AV, crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust facing, holding mappa and globe cruciger / ANN GI above large X/X-X/X across field, interspersed by pellets and central star; RAV in exergue. MIBE 111; DOC 134.1; Ranieri 520; Sear 705. 7.99g, 25mm, 5h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

1,200

708. Phocas Æ 10 Nummi. Ravenna, AD 608/9. D N FOCAS PЄRP AV, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Large X, star above, R-A across fields; VEN in exergue. MIBE 114; DOC 133; Ranieri 529; Sear 705. 2.42g, 15mm, 6h. Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

400

709. Heraclius, with Heraclius Constantine, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 613-618. ∂∂ NN ҺЄRACLIVS ЄT ҺЄRA CONST P P AV, crowned and draped busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine facing; cross above / VICTORIA AVςЧ I, cross potent on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 8j; MIB 8a; SB 734. 4.33g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State; struck on a large flan with full borders.

300

From a private Swiss collection.

710. Heraclius Æ 40 Nummi. Ravenna, year 23 (= AD 632/3). Figures of Heraclonas, Heraclius, and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger; cross to upper left / Large M, monogram above, A/N/N/O to left, X/X/II/I to right, A below; RAV in exergue. MIB 254; DOC 302; Ranieri 612; Sear 915. 7.27g, 27mm, 6h. Very Fine/Good Very Fine. Very Rare.

237

350


711. Justinian II AV Solidus. First reign. Constantinople, AD 692-695. IҺS CRISTOS RЄX RЄςNANTIЧM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / D IЧSTINIANЧS SЄRЧ CҺRISTI H, Justinian standing facing, holding cross potent on steps in right hand, akakia in left; CONOP in exergue. Sear 1248; DOC 7f. 4.35g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Very rare officina, engraved over a previous control (Δ).

1,000

From a private Swiss collection.

Highly Important Byzantine Medal

712. Byzantine Æ Medallic Icon of the Epiphany. Ravenna, 6-7th century AD. EMMA-NVHL, bust of Christ facing, with cross nimbus behind head with flowing hair and beard and wearing pallium over colobium / Scene of the Adoration of the Magi: the three magi dressed in Persian style robes, cloaks and Phrygian caps, bearing gifts and standing reverently to right before the nimbate infant Jesus whose right hand is raised in benediction, sitting upright on the lap of Mary seated on a high back chair to left; star of Bethlehem above, two doves below. Exhibited at the 3rd Congress of Christian Archaeology, cf. Atti del III Congresso Internazionale di Archeologia Cristiana, Ravenna 25-29 September 1932, Studi di antichità Cristiana 8, Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana, Città del Vaticano 1934; for a similar 6-7th century medallion in gold also with adoration scene, see BM 1983,0704.1. 9.50g, 24mm, 11h. As Struck. Unique, and of great historical and theological interest.

2,500

Exhibited at the 3rd Congress of Christian Archaeology, 1932 (sold with contemporary congress envelope dated “25 - 29 Sett. 1932 X”. This remarkable medal depicts on the obverse a very early lifelike image of Christ as seen on several mosaic scenes in the church of St. Apollinare in Classis, Ravenna, dated to the reign of Justinian I (527-565) and a fresco on a wall of the Catacomb of Commodilla on the Via Ostiense in the periphery of Rome, dated to the reign of Constantine IV (668-685). The Romanised title Emmanuel derives from the Hebrew Immanu’El (‘God with us’), and appears in the Book of Isaiah as a sign that God will protect the House of David. The Gospel of St Matthew (1:22-3) quotes part of this: ‘a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel’, as a prophecy of the birth of the Messiah and the fulfilment of Scripture in the person of Jesus. With the possible exception of the Good Shepherd, the scene of the magi in worshipful adoration before the Holy Child is the earliest and most frequent artistic representation of Jesus’ life and ministry. The iconography is in the style of the celebrated mosaic of the Epiphany scene in the church of St. Apollinare.

713. Philippicus Bardanes AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 711-713. ∂ N FILЄPICЧS MЧL TЧS AN, crowned facing bust, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger and eagle-tipped sceptre / VICTORIA AVςЧ I, cross potent set upon three steps; CONOB in exergue. Sear 1447; DOC 1j; MIB 1. 4.44g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State; a couple of minor hairlines. From a private Swiss collection.

238

1,250


714. Anastasius II Artemius AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 713-715. ∂ N ARTЄMIЧS ANASTASIЧS MЧL, crowned and draped bust facing, holding globus cruciger in right hand, akakia in left / VICTORIA AVςЧ Θ, cross potent set on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 2h.1; MIB 2; Sear 1463. 4.47g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Rare.

3,000

From a private Swiss collection.

715. Theodosius III of Adramytium AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 715-717. ∂ N TҺЄO∂OSIЧS MЧL A, crowned facing bust, wearing slight beard and loros, and holding akakia and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross / VICTORIA AVςЧ Є, cross potent set on three steps; CONOB in exergue. DOC 1b; MIB 1; Sear 1487. 4.46g, 19mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Very Rare.

3,000

From a private Swiss collection.

716. Leo III the Isaurian, with Constantine V, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 717-741. ∂ NO LЄON P A MЧL•, crowned and draped bust of Leo facing, holding globus cruciger and akakia / ∂ N CONSTANTINЧ M, crowned and draped bust of Constantine facing, holding globus cruciger and akakia. DOC 6; Sear 1504. 4.47g, 21mm, 5h. Mint State.

1,000

From a private Swiss collection.

717. Constantine V Copronymus, with Leo IV, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 741-755. A CONSTANTINЧ NC, crowned and draped bust of Constantine facing, holding cross potent and akakia / C LЄON P A MЧL, crowned and draped bust of Leo facing, holding cross potent and akakia. DOC 1; Sear 1550. 4.44g, 21mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin. From a private Swiss collection.

239

1,500


718. Constantine V Copronymus, with Leo IV and Leo III, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 741-755. COҺSTAҺTIҺOS S LЄOҺ O ҺЄOS, crowned facing busts of Constantine V and Leo IV, each wearing chlamys; cross above, pellet between / C LЄON P A MЧL, crowned facing bust of Leo III wearing loros, holding cross potent in right hand. DOC 2; Sear 1551. 4.45g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

750

From a private Swiss collection.

719. Leo IV the Khazar, with Constantine VI, Leo III, and Constantine V AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 778-780. LЄOҺ VS S ЄςςOҺ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS O ҺЄOS Ө, crowned facing busts of Leo IV and Constantine VI, each wearing chlamys; cross above, • between / LЄOҺ PAP’ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS PATHR, crowned facing busts of Leo III and Constantine V, each wearing loros; cross above, • between. DOC 1b; Sear 1583. 4.46g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State.

1,250

From a private Swiss collection.

720. Constantine VI, with Leo III, Constantine V, and Leo IV AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 780-787. LЄOҺ VS S ЄςςOҺ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS O ҺЄOS, Leo IV and Constantine VI enthroned facing, each wearing crown and chlamys; cross above / LЄOҺ PAP’ COҺSTAҺTIҺOS PATHR, crowned facing busts of Leo III and Constantine V, each wearing loros; cross above, pellet between. DOC 2 (Leo IV); Sear 1584 (Leo IV). 4.49g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

750

From a private Swiss collection.

721. Constantine VI and Irene, with Leo III, Constantine V, and Leo IV AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 792-793. SIRIҺI AVΓ’ AV MITRA’, Constantine V, Leo III, and Leo IV seated facing, each crowned and draped / COҺSTAҺTIҺOS CΛ’ b’ A’, crowned facing busts of Constantine IV, draped and holding globus cruciger, and Irene, wearing loros and holding cruciform sceptre; cross above, • between. DOC 2; Sear 1591. 4.43g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State. From a private Swiss collection.

240

2,000


Beautiful Irene Solidus

722.

Irene AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 797-802. ЄIPIҺH ЬASILISSH, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger in right hand, cruciform sceptre in left / •ЄIPIҺH ЬASILISSH Θ, crowned facing bust of Irene, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger and cruciform sceptre. DOC 1b; Sear 1599. 4.43g, 20mm, 6h. Mint State.

7,500

From a private Swiss collection. Struck after AD 797, when Irene had had her son Constantine VI deposed and murdered, this solidus depicts Irene on both the obverse and reverse, and marks a distinct shift from the types of her predecessors. Gone is the cross-onsteps reverse type, or figures of deceased members of the dynasty, to be replaced by two facing busts of Irene. Here we have Irene proclaiming herself Empress and sole ruler in the most public way possible. However, after just five years on the throne she herself was deposed and replaced by her Minister of Finance, Nicephorus, and thus ended the first period in the history of the empire during which the throne was occupied by a woman exercising power in her own right. Beginning during the time she ruled as regent for her son, Irene severely depleted the state treasuries with her policy of reducing taxation and making generous gifts to buy popularity, leaving the empire weak and unable to offer effective resistance to foreign aggressors. Having had to accept terms from the Arab Caliphs both in 792 and 798 in order to protect the fragile security, and being harried by the Bulgarians simultaneously, Irene was powerless to stop the formation of a new empire in the west under Charlemagne, who in AD 800 was crowned in Rome by Pope Leo III as Holy Roman Emperor due to his belief that the Imperial position was vacant, as it could not be filled by a woman.

241


723. Nicephorus I, with Stauracius, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 803-811. ҺICIFOROS ЬASILЄI, crowned facing bust of Nicephorus, wearing chlamys, holding cross potent in right hand and akakia in left / STAVRACIS ∂ЄSPOI Θ, crowned facing bust of Stauracius, wearing chlamys, holding cross potent in right hand and akakia in left. DOC 2b.3; Sear 1604. 4.43g, 21mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

1,000

From a private Swiss collection.

724. Nicephorus I, with Stauracius, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 803-811. ҺICIFOROS ЬASILЄI, crowned facing bust of Nicephorus, wearing chlamys, holding cross potent in right hand and akakia in left / STAVRACIS ∂ЄSPOI X, crowned facing bust of Stauracius, wearing chlamys, holding cross potent in right hand and akakia in left. DOC 2c.2; Sear 1604. 4.46g, 19mm, 5h. Good Very Fine.

500

From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

725. Theophilus AV Semissis. Syracuse, circa AD 831-842. ΘEOFIΛOS, crowned facing bust wearing chlamys, holding globus cruciger / ΘEOFIΛOS, crowned facing bust wearing loros, holding globus cruciger. DOC 26c; Sear 1674. 1.71g, 15mm, 5h. Mint State.

500

726. Theophilus AV Tremissis. Syracuse, circa AD 831-842. ΘEOFIΛOS, crowned facing bust wearing chlamys, holding globus cruciger / ΘEOFIΛOS, crowned facing bust wearing loros, holding cross potent. DOC 27; Sear 1678 var. (Λ not L in legends); Triton XIII, 1688 corr. (same). 1.16g, 12mm, 6h. Near Mint State. Differentiated from the semissis by virtue of the Λ in the legends instead of L (see lot 725), Sear does not note the same variant legend for the tremissis, as on the present example.

242

200


243


Theodora and Thecla

727.

Michael III, with Theodora and Thecla, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 842-850. +ΘEO∂ORA ∂ESPVn’ A, facing bust of Theodora, wearing crown with pendilia and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross / •MIXAHLS ӨЄCLA, facing busts of Thecla on left, wearing crown with pendilia and loros and holding patriarchal cross, and Michael on right, wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger. DOC 1; Füeg 1 (these dies not listed); Roma Numismatics XIV, 878 (same dies); Sear 1686. 4.32g, 22mm, 6h. Near Mint State; traces of overstriking, as expected for this issue. Uncommonly refined style for the type, which is normally characterised by crude and cartoonish engraving. 10,000 From a private European collection. Born in AD 840, Michael III assumed the throne at the age of three following the unexpected death of his father Theophilus. His mother Theodora governed as regent during his infancy, apparently along with her daughter Thecla (Michael’s oldest surviving sister), who seems to have been entitled to share in the regency since she is portrayed on the coinage and named on official government documents of the period. On this type the domination of Theodora and Thecla can be clearly seen in how the emperor himself is belittled as a lesser figure in the depiction. Theodora’s desire for power reportedly led her to restrict Michael’s education in order to make him less fit for the throne and more malleable in her grasp. However, as the boy grew up he developed a close bond with his wily uncle Bardas, and in 856, aged fourteen, Michael consented for Bardas to overthrow the regency, having murdered Theodora’s most trusted minister the year before. Theodora and her daughters, including Thecla, were banished to a nunnery by the new sole ruler. Michael went on to be a successful military leader against the Arabs and the Slavs. Under his rule many ruined cities were rebuilt, monasteries were reopened and the imperial university was rejuvenated. Michael invaded Bulgaria, and adopted its ruler Boris I, and through the said monarch’s baptism replaced Tengrism with Christianity in that area. The conversion of the Bulgarians has been evaluated as one of the greatest cultural and political achievements of the Byzantine Empire. Despite these successes Michael had failed to produce any offspring with his wife Eudocia. Their marriage was not a particularly happy one, and Michael was instead enamoured by his mistress named Ingerina. In order to avoid any scandal by wedding her, he joined Ingerina with his favourite courtesan Basil in matrimony. He continued his relationship with her, and in order to maintain positive relations with Basil, brought his sister Thecla back from the nunnery and gave her to his friend as an offering. Ingerina bore a son named Leo, much to the joy of Michael, although to this day it is uncertain who the father of the future ruler of the empire was. Basil gained increasing influence over Michael, and in April 866 he convinced the emperor that the Caesar Bardas was conspiring against him, and so was duly allowed to murder Bardas. Now without serious rivals, Basil was crowned co-emperor on 26 May 866. Basil soon became wary of an intimate relationship Michael was forging with a new courtier named Basiliskianos, and conspired to put an end to it. Accompanied by some close relatives and friends, he brutally murdered Michael as he lay insensible with drink following a banquet. The unsavoury reputation of Michael as a spineless drunk was partially created by Byzantine authors operating under Basil and his successors in order to legitimise the new emperor’s vicious act of homicide. Indeed, some Arab accounts describe him as a strong and capable military leader, and his reign was in fact beneficial in many ways, particularly in stabilising the internal state of the empire.

244


245


728. Michael III ‘the Drunkard’ AV Semissis. Syracuse, circa AD 842-856. MIXAHL Θ, crowned facing bust, wearing chlamys, holding patriarchal cross on globus in right hand / MIXAHL Θ, crowned facing bust, wearing loros, holding patriarchal cross on globus in right hand. Sear 1694; DOC 9; Spahr 436. 1.71g, 14mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

Michael III was the last emperor of the Amorian Dynasty. His orgies obtained for him the name of ‘the Drunkard’.

Extremely Rare Solidus of Constantine VII and Zoe

729. Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, with Zoe, AV Solidus. Constantinople, 6 February AD 914. + IҺS XPS RЄX RЄςNANTIЧM *, Christ Pantokrator seated facing on throne with curved back / COҺSTAҺT´C Є ZƜH ЄҺ X•Ɯ Ь´R´, crowned half-length facing busts of Constantine VII, wearing chlamys, and Zoe, wearing loros, holding patriarchal cross between them; Zoe’s crown with pendilia; pellet at base of cross. DOC 2; Füeg 2; SB 1740; Triton X, lot 856. 4.24g, 20mm, 5h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

15,000

From the collection of P.R., United Kingdom.

730. Constantine VII, with Romanus II, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 955-959. + + IҺS XPS RЄX RЄςNANTIЧM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / COҺSTAҺT CЄ ROMAҺ AVGG Ь R, crowned facing busts of Constantine VII, wearing loros, and Romanus II, wearing chlamys, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 15; Sear 1751. 4.42g, 20mm, 6h. Near Mint State.

1,200

731. Constantine VII, with Romanus II, AV Solidus. Constantinople, AD 955-959. + + IҺS XPS RЄX RЄςNANTIЧM, facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / COҺSTAҺT CЄ ROMAҺ AVGG Ь R, crowned facing busts of Constantine VII, wearing loros, and Romanus II, wearing chlamys, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 15; Sear 1751. 4.40g, 21mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

246

500


732. Constantine VIII AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1025-28. + IҺS XIS RЄX RЄςNANTIҺM, bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus crown (ornamented with two crescents in its upper quarters), pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction and holding codex in left hand, surrounded by triple border / + CƜNSTANTIN ЬASILЄЧS ROM, bust facing, with long beard, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum with pellet on shaft in right hand and akakia in left hand, surrounded by triple border. Sear 1815; DOC 1. 4.42g, 25mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

500

733. Constantine VIII AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1025-28. + IҺS XIS RЄX RЄςNANTIҺM, bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus crown (ornamented with two crescents in its upper quarters), pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction and holding codex in left hand, surrounded by triple border / + CƜNSTANTIN ЬASILЄЧS ROM, bust facing, with long beard, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum with pellet on shaft in right hand and akakia in left hand, surrounded by triple border. Sear 1815; DOC 1. 4.41g, 25mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

734. Romanus III AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1028-1034. + ΙҺS XIS REX REςNANTIҺM, Christ enthroned facing, wearing nimbus crown, pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction and holding book of Gospels in left / Θ CE ЬΟΗΘ ΡƜΜΑҺƜ, the Virgin, nimbate on right, and Romanus, bearded to left, both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears saccos and loros, and holds globus cruciger in left hand; MΘ between their heads. DOC 1; Sear 1819. 4.42g, 24mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

500

From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

735. Michael IV the Paphlagonian AV Histamenon Nomisma. Constantinople, AD 1034-1041. +IҺS XIS RЄX RЄςNANTIҺM, bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus crown, pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction and holding codex in left hand, surrounded by triple border / +MIXAHL ЬASILЄЧS RM, bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum in right hand and globus cruciger in left hand; manus Dei above, all surrounded by triple border. DOC 1d; Sear 1824. 4.41g, 26mm, 6h. Mint State. From the collection of D.I., Germany, purchased before 1992.

247

750


ISLAMIC COINS

736. Umayyad Caliphate, time of 窶連bd al-Malik ibn Marwan (AH 65-86 / AD 685-705) AV Dinar. Unnamed (Damascus?) mint. Dated AH 79 (AD 698/9). Album 125. 4.26g, 20mm, 7h. Extremely Fine.

300

737. Umayyad Caliphate, time of 窶連bd al-Malik ibn Marwan (AH 65-86 / AD 685-705) AV Dinar. Unnamed (Damascus?) mint. Dated AH 80 (AD 699/700). Album 125. 4.27g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine.

300

738. Umayyad Caliphate, time of al-Walid I ibn 窶連bd al-Malik (AH 86-96 / AD 705-715) AV Dinar. Unnamed (Damascus?) mint. Dated AH 88 (AD 706/7). Album 127. 4.25g, 20mm, 9h. Extremely Fine.

300

739. Umayyad Caliphate, time of al-Walid I ibn 窶連bd al-Malik (AH 86-96 / AD 705-715) AV Dinar. Unnamed (Damascus?) mint. Dated AH 89 (AD 707/8). Album 127. 4.25g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

248

300


Third Known Example

740. Spain, Arab-Byzantine AV Solidus. AH 92/3, indiction 9 (AD 710/11). IN SLD FRT IN SPN ANNCXI (= IN SoLiDus FeriTus IN SPaNia ANNO CXI) across field / INNDNDSNSDSLSNS (= IN Nomine, Domini Non DeuS Nisi Deus SoLus Non deuS aliuS), eight pointed star. Unpublished in the standard references, for type cf. Album 1220; Walker p. 77, P. 47 and 183 (AH 93) = Bernardi AGCC I, 28 (AH 93) = T. Goodwin. ArabByzantine Coins and History, London 2012, 92; for the same indiction date cf. Aureo & Calicó sale 293, 2017, 2123. 4.19g, 12mm. Good Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare - the third example recorded.

2,000

This is earliest Islamic issue struck in Spain, produced in the same year as the invasion of Andalucia. Encouraged by the governor Musa, who had pacified the Berbers in 708, the Moorish leader chief Tariq invaded the Spanish peninsula, landing near Gibraltar (the mount of Tariq, Gibraltar) and at the battle of Lake Janda (July) decisively defeated Roderick the last Visigothic king of Spain.

741. Umayyad Caliphate, time of al-Walid I ibn ‘Abd al-Malik (AH 86-96 / AD 705-715) AV Dinar. Unnamed (Damascus?) mint. Dated AH 94 (AD 712/3). Album 127. 4.25g, 20mm, 7h. Good Extremely Fine.

300

742. Umayyad Caliphate, time of al-Walid I ibn ‘Abd al-Malik (AH 86-96 / AD 705-715) AV Dinar. Unnamed (Damascus?) mint. Dated AH 94 (AD 712/3). Album 127. 4.28g, 20mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

249

300


Extremely Rare AH 127 Dinar

743. Umayyad Caliphate, time of Ibrahim ibn al-Walid (AH 126-127 / AD 744) AV Dinar. Unnamed (Damascus?) mint. Dated AH 127 (AD 744). First portion of the kalimat at-tawḥīd: lā ilāha illā-llāhu waḥdahu lā sharīka lahu (there is no god except Allah, and one [is] he; (there is) no partner to him) in three lines; in outer margin, the “Umayyad Second Symbol” (Sura 9 [al-tauba]:33): muḥammadur rasūlu-llāh arsalahu bi-’lhudā wa dīn al-haqq lī-yuzhirahu ‘ala al-dīn kolli (Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; him He sent with guidance and true faith to make it prevail over all other faiths even) / The “Umayyad Symbol” (Sura 112 [al-ikhlas]) Āllah ahad Āllah āl-samad lam yalīd wa lam yalūd (Allah [is] One; Allah [is] the Eternal, the Absolute; not begetting and not begotten) in three lines; in outer margin, b-ismi-llāh zarb hazā āl-dinār fī sanat iseb’ wa ‘ishrīn wa mi’at (in the name of Allah struck this dinar in the year seven and twenty and one hundred (after the Hijra)). AGC I 43; Album T140; ICV 221. 4.27g, 19mm, 6h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare; after AH 77 this is the rarest date of the Umayyad dinar series.

10,000

From the collection of A.S., Canada.

Earliest Abbasid Dinar Bearing Caliph’s Name

744. Abbasid Caliphate, Harun al-Rashid (AH 170-193 / AD 768-809) AV Dinar. Unnamed (Madinat al-Salam?) mint, dated AH 170 = AD 786. Kalima in three lines across field; Qur’an IX, 33 in outer margin / “Muhammad is the messenger of God, by the command of Abd Allah, Harun amir almu’minin”, in three lines across field; date formula in outer margin. Album 218.1; Bernardi 58b; Baldwins 71, 1663. 4.01g, 19mm, 9h. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

7,500

The reverse legends bear the name for the caliph Harun al-Rashid, and is the first example of an Abbasid dinar bearing the caliphal name. Al-Rashid seized power in 170h, clinching the caliphate from his brother al-Hadi, and asserted his new position by issuing both Dirhams and Dinars bearing his name.

250


745. Abbasid, time of al-Amin (AH 193-198 / AD 809-813) AV Dinar. Unnamed (Madinat al-Salam?) mint, AH 195 = AD 811. Kalima in three lines across field; Qur’an IX, 33 in outer margin / Legend citing rabbi Allah and al’Abbas and continuation of kalima in three lines across field; date formula in outer margin. Album 220.5; Bernardi 79. 4.25g, 18mm, 11h. Near Extremely Fine.

350

746. Abbasid, time of al-Mamun (AH 196-218 / AD 812-833) AV Dinar. Al-Iraq mint (Wasit?), AH 201 = AD 828. Kalima in three lines across field; mint name below, Qur’an IX, 33 in outer margin / Continuation of kalima in three lines across field; legend citing dhu’l-Riysatayn below, date formula in outer margin, pellet below. Album 222.12; Bernardi 103. 4.24g, 20mm, 6h. Near Extremely Fine.

300

747. Abbasid, time of al-Mamun (AH 196-218 / AD 812-833) AV Dinar. Unnamed mint, AH 207 = AD 834. Reformed type. Kalima in three lines across field; Qur’an XXX, 4/-5 in outer margin, date formula in inner margin / Continuation of kalima in three lines across field; Qur’an IX, 33 in outer margin; “lillah” in upper field. Album 222.15; Bernardi 116. 4.25g, 19mm, 2h. Good Very Fine, minor scratch in obverse field. Rare.

200

Unpublished Double Dirham

748. Abbasid Caliphate, al-Muqtadir (AH 295-320 / AD 908-932) AR Donative Double Dirham or Medallion. Madinat al-Salam, AH 299 (AD 912). Kalima, “Abu l-Abbas bin, Amir al-mu’minin” in five lines across field; mint and date formula in inner margin; Qur’an XXX, 4-5 in outer margin / Continuation of Kalima, “al-Muqtadir billah” in four lines across field. Cf. Album 246A for donative dirham type (double dirham not recorded); cf. Ilisch group D1 (also unrecorded denomination). 5.92g, 31mm, 1h. Good Very Fine; light wave in flan. Apparently unique and unpublished.

251

1,000


MEDIEVAL AND MODERN COINS GREAT BRITAIN

Extremely Rare Offa Penny

749. Great Britain. Kings of Mercia, Offa (757-796) AR Penny. Heavy Coinage. Ciolhard, moneyer. OFFA between two pelleted lines; M above, REX below / +CIOLHARD partially inverted in two lunettes with fleurs in the junctions divided by beaded border. S. 908; Chick 203. 1.25g, 19mm, 12h. Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare.

4,000

ITALY Vincenzo I Gonzaga

750. Italy. Mantova, Vincenzo I Gonzaga (1587-1612) AR Tallero. ‘β’ VIN:D:G:DVX:MAN:IIII:ET:MON:FER:II:, armoured half-length bust, holding sword at hip and sceptre over shoulder / +MONETA+NOVA+ARG+CIVIT+MAN, eagle with wings spread and head to left, coat of arms on breast. Ravegnani 25; MIR 547. 29.09g, 42mm, 12h. Near Mint State. As issue of extreme rarity. From a private German collection.

252

30,000


751. Italy. Papal State, Innocent XII (1615-1691-1700), Antonio Pignatelli Æ Medal. Year 5, 1694, by Giovanni Hamerani. INNOC XII PONT MAX AN V, bust right wearing cap and cope / QVÆSTVS MAGNVS PIETAS CVM SVFFICIENTIA, the façade of the Dogana. Lincoln 1554; Bartolotti 696; Börner 1266. 18.47g, 36mm, 12h. Brilliant Mint State; beautiful iridescent toning.

250

The Dogana di Terra [central Customs Office] in the Piazza di Pietra was built by Carlo Fontana and incorporated the columns and surviving part of the temple of Hadrian built in AD 144 by Antoninus Pius.

752. Italy. Papal State, Pius IX, Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti di Senigallia, (1846-1878) AV 10 Lire. Rome, 1867 R, year XXI. PIVS IX PON MAX A XXI, bust left / STATO PONTIFICIO around wreath containing 10 LIRE 1867 in three lines; small R below. CNI XVII, 307, 224; Muntoni IV, 109, 43a; Pagani 541; Montenegro 356; Berman 3335; Friedberg 281. 3.23g, 19mm, 6h. Fleur De Coin.

1,000

753. Italy. Sardinia, Carlo Alberto I (1831-1849) AV 20 Lire. Genova, 1849. CAR ALBERTVS D G REX SARD CYP ET HIER, bare head left; 1849 below bust / DVX SAB GENVAE ET MONTISF PRINC PED &, crowned coat of arms within wreath; mint-marks and denomination below. KM 131.2; Friedberg 1143. 6.46g, 21mm, 6h. Near Mint State; lustrous and toned fields.

500

754. Italy. Vittorio Emanuele, II Re d’Italia (1861-1878) AV 100 Lire. Torino, 1864. VITTORIO EMANUELE II, head left, 1863 below / REGNO D’ITALIA around crowned coat of arms, mint-marks and denomination below. Friedberg 15; Paganini 477. 3.23g, 19mm, 6h. Good Extremely Fine.

253

150


PORTUGAL The First Royal Gold Coin of Portugal

755. Portugal. Sancho I (1185-1211) AV Morabitino (180 Dinheiros). Coimbra mint. SANCIVS REX PORTVGAIIS, stylized figure of King charging to right on warhorse, holding sword and cross-tipped sceptre / + IN NE PTRIS I FILII SPS SCIA, cross of five shields with a star in each angle. Friedberg 1; Almeida, Basto & Piombino 1; Gomes S1 04/09. 4.04g, 28mm, 6h. Mint State. Extremely Rare.

15,000

From a private German collection. Sanchos I, Portugal’s second monarch, was born in Coimbra in 1154, son and successor of King Alfonso I and his wife Maud of Savoy. In 1170 Sanchos was knighted by his father and became second in command in both administrative and military matters. The independence of Portugal declared in 1139 was still contested by the kings of León and Castile. A marriage alliance between Sanchos and Dulce of Aragon, the sister of King Alfonso II, in 1774 secured military assistance from the Crown of Aragon to contain the expansionism of León and Castile. Following the death of his father, Sanchos became king in 1185. Sanchos dedicated much of his reign to political and administrative organisation of the new kingdom. Efforts to populate the remote northern Christian regions of Portugal earned Sanchos the nickname ‘the Populator’. The one notable military campaign of the reign was the conquering of the southern town of Silves in 1189 from the Almohads with the aid of Northern European crusaders, for which Sanchos added ‘King of Silves’ to his titles. The victory was short lived however, as the territory was soon regained by the Almohads in 1191. This exceptional morabitino is a remarkably rare example of the first gold coin of the kingdom of Portugal introduced by Sanchos during his reign. The new denomination was equal to the value of 180 silver dinheiros. The name morabitino was the nickname used by Christians in the Iberian Peninsula to describe the golden dinars struck by the Almoravids, which were similar in both metric and weight.

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

Second Recorded Example

x2 756. Holy Roman Empire. Charles VI (1711-1740) Uniface AV 1/4 Ducat. Struck from the dies of a silver 1/2 Kreuzer from the Graz mint. Plain with central pellet / Crowned imperial eagle; value below (1/2 kreuzer); date across lower fields. Unpublished in the standard references: for the standard silver 1/2 Kreuzer issue, cf. KM 1533; For another gold strike, cf. Rauch, Auction 101, 2016, 2223 (same reverse die, realised € 2,600). 0.85g, 13mm. Near Extremely Fine. Extremely Rare. The second recorded example.

254

500


END OF SALE

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Roma Numismatics Auction XV  

Roma Numismatics Auction XV - 5 April 2018

Roma Numismatics Auction XV  

Roma Numismatics Auction XV - 5 April 2018