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DISSERTATION Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

(In context of Bhutanese architecture)


Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would also like to thank my research guide Ar. Rahul Ganguly for his expert guidance throughout my study. Even when he was totally stuck with his office works, he always took out a few moments to reply back to my queries and provide his suggestions. Without his direction and suggestions for framing the appropriate methodology, this study would have been incomplete. I would also like to deeply acknowledge our thesis coordinator Ar. Naina Malhotra for providing us with appropriate guidelines, schedule of submissions and conducting the internal reviews. I would also like to thank Ar. Christopher Charles Benninger, without which I must have not got the inspiration to look the problems and to solve it. I also like to take an opportunity to thank Ar. Dilli Ram Bhandari and Ar. Kinzang for their updated information of the current situation in the country. Lastly, but not the least, I would like to thank Kumar Chhetri (father) for editing and directing me to prepare the final report.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

CONTENTS Abstracts ............................................................................................................................. 6 1

Chapter 1: about the research ...................................................................................... 7

1.1

Background .......................................................................................................... 7

1.2

Aim ....................................................................................................................... 7

1.3

Objectives ............................................................................................................. 7

1.4

Scope .................................................................................................................... 8

1.5

Limits ................................................................................................................... 8

1.6

Literature review .................................................................................................. 8

1.7

Methodology ........................................................................................................ 9 1.7.1

Documentation and survey ........................................................................... 9

1.7.2

Case study ..................................................................................................... 9

1.7.3

Interviews ...................................................................................................... 9

1.8

Research questions ............................................................................................... 9

1.9

Significance of the study .................................................................................... 10

1.10

Rationale and justification .................................................................................. 10

2

Chapter 2 :Literature review. .................................................................................... 12

2.1

Introduction ........................................................................................................ 12

2.2

Bhutanese architecture; vernacular and sustainable by Sonam Tobgay. ........... 12

2.3

The evolution of style in modern architecture by Hasting. ................................ 13

2.4

Happiness and architecture by Jānis Dombrovskis. ........................................... 13

2.5

From living to propelling monument: the monastery-fortress (dzong) as vehicle of cultural transfer in contemporary bhutan by Marc Dujardin. ........................ 14

2.6

“Role & responsibility of architects in nation building of nepal” by Dr. Bijaya k. Shrestha. ......................................................................................................... 15

2.7

Architecture of replication and imitation by Pahar Nepal.................................. 16

2.8

An attempt to retain traditional architectural design article in BBS. ................. 16

2.9

Review Analysis. ................................................................................................ 17 2.9.1

The architect's views ................................................................................... 17

2.9.2

Non-architect's views. ................................................................................. 18

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

2.10

My point of view. .............................................................................................. 19

2.11

Theoretical framework. ...................................................................................... 19

3

Chapter Three: data collection. ................................................................................. 21

3.1

Introduction ........................................................................................................ 21

3.2

Bhutanese architecture ....................................................................................... 21 3.2.1

3.3

3.4

Case study .......................................................................................................... 30 3.3.1

Architecture of Himachal Pradesh. ............................................................. 30

3.3.2

Japanese Architecture ................................................................................. 37

Interview questionnaire Data analysis............................................................... 45 3.4.1

3.5 4

Observation ................................................................................................. 21

The architects views .................................................................................... 45

The non-architects views .................................................................................... 46 Chapter Four: Findings of Research. ........................................................................ 48

4.1

Introduction ........................................................................................................ 48

4.2

Study/Research analysis ..................................................................................... 48

4.3

5

4.2.1

Literal Duplication ...................................................................................... 48

4.2.2

Liberal Contextualism................................................................................. 51

Recommendation/ Amendment .......................................................................... 52 4.3.1

Formulation of building rules for Traditional construction. ...................... 52

4.3.2

Blending of traditional and contemporary by Innovative approach. ......... 59

Chapter Five: Conclusion ......................................................................................... 63

References ......................................................................................................................... 65 Appendix 1 ........................................................................................................................ 66

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1Bhutan outline map, division in terms of Difference in Architecture. ................ 21 Figure 2 Traditional Thimphu House. .............................................................................. 23 Figure 3Contemporary Building in Thimphu ................................................................... 24 Figure 4 Thimphu street in 1960 -1970. ........................................................................... 25 Figure 5 Thatch roof construction. ................................................................................... 26 Figure 6 Samtse traditional House ................................................................................... 26 Figure 7 Contemporary building in Samtse...................................................................... 27 Figure 8 Eastern Bhutan traditional house ...................................................................... 28 Figure 9 present Tashigang building................................................................................ 28 Figure 10Map of Himachal Pradesh showing classification of zones. ............................ 31 Figure 11 Rammed earth construction ............................................................................. 33 Figure 12Traditional house in Dharamsala ..................................................................... 34 Figure 13Space beam construction .................................................................................. 34 Figure 14 Wooden construction........................................................................................ 35 Figure 15 Mud construction ............................................................................................. 35 Figure 16 Rammed earth construction. ............................................................................ 36 Figure 17 Taut’s sketch (1935) showing the refinement process of Japanese architecture. ........................................................................................................................................... 38 Figure 18Regional differences of the Japanese house ..................................................... 39 Figure 19 Hōryū Temple ................................................................................................... 40 Figure 21 Blend of Japanese and western architecture ................................................... 43 Figure 20interior views..................................................................................................... 43 Figure 22 interior of the house showing wooden elements. ............................................. 43

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1comparision between three different zones in Bhutan. ......................................... 23 Table 2. Comparison between three different zones of Himachal Pradesh. ..................... 33 Table 3 Literature review analysis. .................................................................................. 66

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

ABSTRACTS Bhutan has been known for its unique architecture. Bhutanese architecture like Dzongs1, monasteries, temples and houses have a distinct character from those of other Himalayan countries. In effort of maintaining this features, the country is still the same. The designuse of material, form, context, plans and elevation are duplicated stretching from east to west or in between. This duplication has created imbalance between the architects and the policy in the country. Architectural scenario in the country is restricted by the political and traditional beliefs. The design practiced in the country is philosophic design in which the contextualism is used to provide the meanings that are embedded in the context of the historical architecture. "However, the technical aspect of building, arguably, is not as important as the symbolic value that is carried out by each particular building."2 It clearly says that the practice of symbolic context is prevailing in the country. It is much more clear in towns and the cities of Bhutan that the contextualism is taken in much more abstract or in symbolic way. The young professional architects in Bhutan claim that only when the old is physically preserved and the new physically inherits traditional characteristics and the cultural meanings embodied in the physical entities be better preserved.

1 2

local name for Fortress Happiness and architecture by JÄ nis Dombrovskis, page 3 of 4.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

1 CHAPTER 1: ABOUT THE RESEARCH 1.1

BACKGROUND

In olden days, there was no planning and sketching done in black and white. The chief carpenters used to have the design in their mind and the structure use to be constructed, due to which repetitions of ideas used to be common. But now the time has changed, we have all the modern technologies, techniques and highly qualified Architects, even then why duplication? In the practice of preserving a unique Bhutanese Architecture, it has created a restriction to the architects in letting out their creativity in the country. Such policies in the country has brought a duplication of ideas, whereby leading to duplication of design, conceptually and technically with minimum context. This duplication of ideas in terms of material, techniques and the context has created a gap between the Bhutanese traditional architecture and the architecture prevailing now. Such gap has to be covered with proper study of the place and by encouraging modern technologies and techniques, preserving the old ones.

1.2

AIM 

1.3

To avoid the repetition of ideas and philosophic context.

OBJECTIVES 

To understand the existing context of traditional Bhutanese Architecture.

To understand the various national policies and restrictions in retaining the traditional architecture.

To find out how traditional Bhutanese architecture is changed due to change in design and its relevant context with change in time.

To find out the reason of imbalance of ideas between the policy and Architects.

To find out what steps and methods are being carried out by the current architects and planners in response to the political restrictions and national policies.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

To check the suitability of blending new ideas in context and construction of modern traditional buildings in Bhutan.

1.4

SCOPE 

This research can create an awareness among the policy makers and the public about the importance of the Architecture now and then.

How the context and its surrounding is important while designing a building?

Better understanding of the present scenario of country and the changes that architects can bring for comfortable living.

 

1.5

Use of proper material, construction techniques and designs in the proper place at the proper time. The research will also help the people to come up with better solution to protect our environment from concrete jungle (buildings) and create a friendly environment. LIMITS

This research will not focused on bringing changes in Bhutanese tradition architectural features which is existing from ages.

The research would not deal with the soil types, soil analysis, land types and land uses.

It will not deal with technical details and calculations.

It will not try to bring changes in the policy or the norms made by government but will focus on creating awareness among the people and the policy makers.

The research will not be conclude with general analysis, rather , the conclusion would be derived out of the critical analysis coming up with a solution which would better support the requirement of maintaining the country's unique identity as well as meeting the demand for the changing social lifestyle due to globalization.

1.6

LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature review would be based on the following;

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

Bhutanese Architecture; Vernacular And Sustainable by Sonam Tobgay. The Evolution Of Style In Modern Architecture By Hasting. Happiness And Architecture By Jānis Dombrovskis. From Living To Propelling Monument: The Monastery-Fortress (Dzong) As Vehicle Of Cultural Transfer In Contemporary Bhutan By Marc Dujardin. “Role & Responsibility Of Architects In Nation Building Of Nepal” By Dr. Bijaya K. Shrestha. Architecture Of Replication And Imitation By Pahar Nepal.

1.7

METHODOLOGY

1.7.1 DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEY Carrying out documentation and survey analysis on some of the traditional as well as latest/ modern buildings to compare and analyze the changes that have taken place over a period of time by consulting with localities 1.7.2 CASE STUDY Study of the location and the context in maintaining the traditional architecture, its construction and its implication to the surrounding would be discussed with relevant case study. 1. Himachal Architecture, India. 2. Japanese Architecture 1.7.3 INTERVIEWS Interviews would be conducted with some of the architects and engineers of Bhutan regarding the present architectural scenario, emphasizing on the design and it context. Collected data and information would be critically analyzed and put into appropriate order so as to have the evidences for deriving the final inferences or conclusion. 1.8

RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the cause of repetition of ideas? Can it be a philosophical concept or it is a policy to create a uniqueness?

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

2. What is the Cause of Superficiality and Falsification of Architectural concept in the country? 3. What are the political restriction for designing a building in the country? 4. What are the people's idea about the Bhutanese Architecture today? 5. What is the role of Bhutanese economy in the conserving Bhutanese Architecture?

1.9

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study of "literal Duplication and liberal Contextualism" will provide a brief description on the various significant of the study divided into three categories: 1. Educational - This study will try to create an awareness among the policy makers and the people about the Bhutanese architecture and the importance of the preserving it. And it will also focus on the developing people’s notion about difference between traditional Bhutanese architecture and architecture prevailing now. 2. Technological and Technique: The study will recommend, the traditional technologies and techniques, which are suitable as per the climatic and geographic importance of the country. It will mainly focus on the importance of the vernacular materials and the construction techniques to avoid importing of materials and its machines. 3. Economic: The use of traditional vernacular materials and the techniques with consideration of climate and the geography of the country, the importing of materials can be minimized. Hence the economy of the country can be stable and can conserve the tradition Bhutanese Architecture.

1.10 RATIONALE AND JUSTIFICATION The practice of duplication of design, construction techniques and the use of imported material in the country has become a trend. These practices has become common that it has

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

stretches from east to west and even in between unconditional of its location or the climate. This has brought following problems: 

By leaving the traditional vernacular architecture, the country is practicing imported techniques unknown of climatic and geographical factors.

Misconception among the people and the policy makers about Bhutanese architecture now.

Importing of the materials and the equipments from the neighboring country the country's revenue is going down.

Hence, to avoid this problems the research will try to create awareness to the people about the Bhutanese architecture and its importance.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

2 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW. 2.1

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, literature review will help me to get a different perspectives of the people through their research papers and the written articles. More focus is given to the articles written by the local architects of the countries, so that the current situation of the country can be updated and relate with the topic. From this review I can conclude the different views and the ideas of the Architects and Non-architects. The literature review will involve the ideas and the different perspective of various author, regarding the Bhutanese Architecture and its duplication without proper surrounding context.

2.2

BHUTANESE ARCHITECTURE; VERNACULAR AND SUSTAINABLE BY SONAM TOBGAY3.

In this article, Ar. Sonam Tobgay clearly mentioned that the era of practicing vernacular architecture, the usages of locally available material and the sustainability in the design is decreasing in the urban and rural areas of Bhutan. "Now the era of concrete and steel has majorly dominated the market. The new techniques have conquered over the traditional due to easy and fast construction." The use of concrete and the imported material in the country has such an extreme that, the traditional houses in the olden days used to have a wonderful wooden frames and the bamboo pieces fixed over with mud, and a supporting member for the trusses above. But now we can see concrete facades which is a false representation of the traditional elements and don't have any architectural reason. He discuss about the use of the same material and the techniques like other in the world is creating a replica and disturbing the age old philosophy of sustainability.

3

Freelance Architect in Bhutan.

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2.3

THE EVOLUTION OF STYLE IN MODERN ARCHITECTURE BY HASTING4.

"Compare a workman of to-day building a Gothic church, slavishly following his detail drawings, with a workman of the fourteenth century doing such detail work as was directed by the architect, but with as much interest, freedom and devotion in making a small capital as the architect had in the entire structure; perhaps doing penance for his sins, he praises God with every chisel strok1e; his life interest is in that small capital; for him work is worship; and his life is one continuous psalm of praise. The details of the capital, while beautiful, may be grotesque5, but there is honest life in them. To imitate such a capital today, without that life, would be affectation. Now a Gothic church is built by men whose one interest is to increase their wages and diminish their working-hours. The best Gothic work has been done and cannot be repeated. When attempted it will always lack that kind of mediaeval spirit of devotion which is the life of mediaeval architecture." It is clear from above abstract that the traditional designs, ideas, construction and the techniques cannot be repeated. The level of architecture and the surrounding context of the buildings are totally different now and then. The difference in the use of the material, context, techniques, technology and the devotion in the field of architecture has created a huge difference as the time pass by. one can bring change in the design or his works by knowing the historic style, rather than copying it.

2.4

HAPPINESS AND ARCHITECTURE BY JÄ€NIS DOMBROVSKIS.

The author talks about the introduction of non-native materials into Bhutanese architecture, by giving an example of introducing new styles of clothing, television, mobile phones, and all other influences, which will have a certain impact on the lifestyles of Bhutanese people and the larger direction of development of the country.

4

Source: The North American Review, Vol. 191, No. 651 (Feb., 1910), pp. 195-205

5

Comically or repulsively ugly or distorted.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

He questioned himself, whether this change is for better or worse? But rather what is important is the exact impact on the changing of the environment and how to improve on these impacts. He also mention the reason for the philosophical context in Bhutanese structures. The buildings in Bhutan, no matter how old or new it is, more than the contextual design the buildings have its symbolic value and traditional abstract philosophy. Which is more significant than just their structure or look. The meaning is rooted in the society and centuries of traditions that have been passed down from generation to generation.

2.5

FROM LIVING TO PROPELLING MONUMENT: THE MONASTERYFORTRESS (DZONG) AS VEHICLE OF CULTURAL TRANSFER IN CONTEMPORARY BHUTAN BY MARC DUJARDIN.

In this journal by Marc Dujardin, he mainly focus on the three potential factors that may facilitate processes of architectural transformation were identified: 1. The role of the most senior master builder as a source of inspiration to every village carpenter; 2. Bhutan’s nail less architecture based on proportional building; and 3. The role of the dzong as cultural centre. He says that Dzongs (fortresses) in the country plays an important role in Bhutanese architecture. The dzongs were the first structure built in the country for the administration, religious and the place to reside during the time of wars from internal and external threats. In the past, the dzongs were built with the help of vernacular materials, which are easily available. The use of timbers as a supportive members and the rammed earth with stone blocks in the foundation and the walls, typical paintings in the facades and the courtyard planning for rituals and dance are the traditional architecture. From this, people in the country got an example of the construction techniques and the material used for the construction of dwellings in the country. Then the people who has

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

little knowledge of Bhutanese construction and techniques became the master carpenter in the country. As the country was not develop in terms of technologies there were no plans and the details in Black and White. So the houses in the country looks the same with similar philosophy. After the break from isolation in early 1970, the technology has reached Bhutan. The use of modern technology attract immediate attention of new building materials such as cement concrete and the application of new techniques such as the concrete casting method in function of a traditional architectural . The most interesting aspect of this building experience, however, is the assessment of the flexibility and easiness and unexpected ‘last-minute’ alterations. Where he also says that the change in the imported techniques and technology has brought lots of change in the country in terms of economy and fast development.

2.6

“ROLE & RESPONSIBILITY OF ARCHITECTS IN NATION BUILDING OF NEPAL” BY DR. BIJAYA K. SHRESTHA6.

"Task of duplicating anything and used for any purpose indicates the cynical attitude to history and degrades the values of those traditional elements. As these elements in most cases are merely used for decorative purposes rather than having structural and functional meanings, local traditions and historical settings are fabricated to use architecture as commodity or entertainment element." "Second, architecture should ‘fit’ in the surrounding environment and local context. It should be based on images that are rooted in the common memory, that is, the phenomenologically authentic ground of architecture. Authenticity of architectural works supports a confidence in time and human nature; it provides the ground for individual identity."

6

Nepalese Architect and founder of Society of Nepalese Architects (SONA)

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

In this article Architect clearly states that, the present scenario of Nepal is totally different, (after end of Rana7 autocracy in 1951) that has not only ignored the past but has also failed to fulfill the present days’ needs.

2.7

ARCHITECTURE OF REPLICATION AND IMITATION BY PAHAR NEPAL8.

In this article, Architect explains that Architecture has always been based on learning from examples. It is the heredity steps, which means that traditional forms of buildings, crafts were preserved and passed down from generations with all the wisdom of how best to use available resources and materials. "Today architects are taught conceptual designs which replicate and imitate elements without understanding their original function or logic. We see replication of monuments and even entire villages on the opposite side of the world." He also explains the importance of the context, when the building is moved from the origin the building lose it context. The Architecture design cannot be repeated and cannot be placed anywhere as our wish.

2.8

AN ATTEMPT TO RETAIN TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ARTICLE IN BBS.9

In Bhutan many people feel the traditional architectural design have become a mere imitation. They say, it has all got to do with Bhutanese using imported construction materials to construct houses. In an attempt to preserve and promote the traditional architectural design, architects and engineers from government and private organizations takes initiatives, by conducting workshops and meetings to create awareness to the public about the importance of our age old tradition. 7

Hindu Rajput dynasty which ruled the Kingdom of Nepal from 1846 until 1951. Nepalese Architect in Nepal. 9 Bhutan Broadcasting service, News. 8

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

Dasho10 said people are putting water in their houses, they are also constructing toilets with cement and imported materials. “This is a mix which is not appropriate. Therefore we have to see that whenever we have this kind of housing topologies that is being undertaken in the villages, we have to see this is being controlled, regulated and supervised properly by the respective dzongkhag11 administration.�

2.9

REVIEW ANALYSIS.

It includes the Literature data analysis, divided into two different section. According to Architects point of view and Non-Architects Point of view.

2.9.1 THE ARCHITECT'S VIEWS The analysis of data illustrated the views of architects regarding the imitation of traditional Architecture and its context. Architects who use traditional elements employed several strategies as an attempt to express a traditional Bhutanese architecture in their works. There are commonalities and differences between the views of the architects regarding the sources of imitation of architectural features in the country. There are general agreements that the imported materials in the country has a major influence in the culture of the people and the fading of architecture identity. Some young architects in Bhutan even thinks that the restriction in design due to restricted policies is creating a gap between what they learned in their profession and what they want to implicate. This gap is not letting to go for innovative ideas which we can see in the countries like Japan, China, etc. where traditional architecture is preserved and modern architecture is embraced. The young professional architects in Bhutan also claim that only when the old is physically preserved and the new physically inherits traditional characteristics and the cultural meanings embodied in the physical entities be better preserved. Architects feels that the use of concrete and the steel has dominated the market and falsification of facades and paintings is an ongoing trend in the country.

10 11

District administrative officer. Local name for districts.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

Some architects even feels that more importance is given to the symbolic values than actual site context and other believes that the symbolic values in traditional houses will not only bring good luck but also goes with the Vastu Shasta12. -see Appendix 1.

2.9.2 NON-ARCHITECT'S VIEWS. The results indicated that there were important differences between the views of architects and non-architects regarding the meaning and importance of expressing a preservation of Bhutanese architecture with its own identity from place to place. There was a significant difference between architects and non-architects views regarding the expression of cultural identity in contemporary architecture and environment. While non-architects considered that architecture is always an expression of contemporary culture and life style, architects believe that cultural identity is only expressed in traditional buildings and environments. Another important difference was found between the views of the architects and the nonarchitects regarding the role of the client in positively contributing to the establishment of a cultural identity. While architects considered the client as an important contributor in encouraging the architect to design buildings that reflect a local cultural identity, nonarchitects considered the architect as the sole responsible entity for the promotion of cultural identity in architecture

12

means science of architecture and construction

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

2.10 MY POINT OF VIEW. In literature study, the authors also bring the same point of concerns about the falsification of the ideas and the techniques in the country. The reason may be due to the lack of knowledge about the history of architecture of the country or the ignorance. To overcome this challenges of political restriction and the imported material without context, has other alternatives if one learn the history and bringing one's own innovation and ideas. Some people even think that the imported materials in the country is bringing fast and easy development, but I think it is wrong, in the long run the country will look the same like the other countries in the world by losing our rich

traditional architecture. And the

sustainability factors, where most of the countries are realizing now. In the country the imitation has become a trend, as in the past the ideas of construction of houses was from the Dzongs, with the help of stones, rammed earth, wooden windows and doors and facade paintings. Now the ideas of constructing buildings with the help of imported materials like cement, steel, glass and aluminum, which we will see all over the country.

2.11 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK. After the break through from isolation and increase in Globalization there were constant threat to local traditional identity. The trend has started after the influence of international style, and as a result it was the start of new era in Bhutanese Architecture called Contemporary Bhutanese Architecture. Contemporary Bhutanese Architecture not only brought the change in the cultural identity but also transform the people notion and the lifestyle forcing to adapt the new era. For example, in neighboring country Nepal, the contemporary Nepalese Architecture has brought much difference that has not only ignored the past trend but has also failed to fulfill the present days’ needs.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

"It seems that architectural profession at large has turned into a paper profession that thinks and communicates through lines on paper rather than through a bodily and physical participation." (Dr. Bijaya K. Shrestha, 2014) So, to conserve the unique identity of the Bhutanese Architecture it is the responsibility of present Architects and the Government initiatives. This will not only create awareness to the public but also conserve our age old traditional Architecture

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

3 CHAPTER THREE: DATA COLLECTION. 3.1

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, case studies are done to see the present condition of the different countries in terms of the Traditional architecture and the steps taken by the government to preserve it. It will help me to compare the situation and come up with the concrete solution. In addition, Interviews and questionnaires were develop to get the views of different people on "Literal Duplication and Liberal Contextualism"

3.2

BHUTANESE ARCHITECTURE

3.2.1 OBSERVATION Architecturally, the country is divided into three zones, north, south and east .Starting from the climatic condition to peoples living standard, it has much differences. I have choose three main cities for comparison from each zone. The cities are: 1. Thimphu (Northern Bhutan). 2. Samtse (Southern Bhutan). 3. Tashigang (Eastern Bhutan). 1. Thimphu, is the capital and the largest city in the country. It is located at the north-west part of Bhutan. The city became the capital

Figure 1Bhutan outline map, division in terms of Difference in Architecture.

city in 1961. The city is spread out longitudinally in a north-south direction on the west bank of the valley formed by the Wang Chuu13, also known as the "Thimphu Chuu River." 2. Samtse, is one of the four districts in southern Bhutan. A majority of the places in Samtse are located in the foothills bordering the Indian States of West Bengal and Sikkim. Close

13

Is a tributary of the Brahmaputra through Bhutan, India and Bangladesh.

River,

and

a trans-boundary

river?

It

flows

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proximity to markets in India offer excellent opportunity for commercial income. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood. The challenging task of this zone is that, still in some of the places there is no access to the motorable roads. Due to this, the product are transported on horses and mule to depot in Samtse. 3. Tashigang, is a town in eastern Bhutan and the district capital of the Trashigang district. The town lies on the east side of the valley above the Drangme Chhu14 River just south of where it is joined by the Gamri River. Trashigang is the largest district in Bhutan. It has two sub-districts and fifteen gewogs15. Trashigang is served by Yongphulla Airport.

3.2.1.1 COMPARISION Thimphu

Samtse

Tashigang

1. Location

Northern part of Bhutan.

Southern Bhutan

Eastern Bhutan

2. Climate

warm, temperate climate

hot and humid climate

3.Temperature

Min. -3.8 °C, Max. 24 °C

Min. 17°C, Max. 36°C

Min. 12 °C, Max. 22 °C

4. Rainfall

Varies 500 mm and 1,000 mm per year.

4290 mm( highest in the country)

1,353 mm

4. Vegetation

Subalpine conifer forests.

Tropical &Subtropical reg ions

Cool broadleaf forest.

5. Ethnic Diversity

Drukpa of Kagyu

Lhop (Doya) people, Lhotshampa 16

Sharchops and seminomadic people of Merak and Sakteng

Buddhism.

Community.

warm, temperate climate

14

It is the largest river system of Bhutan refers to a group of villages in Bhutan 16 Nepali community people 15

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6. Elevation

7,656 ft (2,320 m)

850 ft (260 m)

600 m to over 4000m

7. Population

98,676

60,100

2,383

(2005 census) Table 1comparision between three different zones in Bhutan.

3.2.1.2 ARCHITECTURE FEATURES. 1. Thimphu. a) "Then" In the past the houses in the capital city of Bhutan were almost constructed of local vernacular design adapting the surrounding and the natural environments. The houses had Stone foundation with Thick rammed earth or stone masonry walls making the exterior of the structure. In the interior of the house, timber is

Figure 2 Traditional Thimphu House. Photo courtesy: pinakie_slg

used lavishly for flooring, windows, doors, stairs, balconies, columns, beams, ceilings and other structural elements. In some of the houses the inside walls are made of bamboo matting covered with plaster to keep the rooms warm in the winter, acts as thermal insulation. The most of the houses were constructed without nails, instead tongue-and-groove joints in construction. The plan of the houses used to be simple regular form with open or semi-covered courtyard in front of the building. The interior spaces were normally laid out in squares and rectangles in straight lines. The roofing had wooden shingle called as Shinglep which have three to four layers, are held in place with small stones and have large open breezy spaces under them. The typical construction materials used in traditional Bhutanese houses are timber, stone, clay bricks. The House were build in the lower part of the mountains or in the plains, with proper sun direction and adjacent to steam.

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b) "Now" The trend of using concrete, RCC and other imported material has created a lasting effect on the city. It is a major threats to the Bhutanese Architecture identity. When one walk by the city and the nearby places in Thimphu, one will see the intense use of RCC

Figure 3Contemporary Building in Thimphu Photo courtesy: Rudolph Furtado.

(Reinforce cement concrete) for columns, slabs and foundation. Bricks and cement plaster in the walls, use of stainless steel in the railings, Aluminum windows frames, Steel framed doors. The capital city, is turning totally into concrete jungle. However, with certain innovation, the use of such materials is also considered sustainable though. Even the facades, which used to have a wonderfully crafted elements made out of wooden frames with beaten bamboo pieces fixed over it with mud, are now concrete ones faking such details with falsifying paintings or with an elevated line of cement plasters. Also, traditional wood and packed earth construction is giving way to reinforced concrete and even prefabricated technologies that try to mimic the traditional features. And the majority of houses in the towns are just constructed without any relation with the site surrounding and the context.

24


Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

Thimphu Street in 1960- 1970

Figure 4 Thimphu street in 1960 -1970.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

2. Samtse. a) "Then" Samtse is one of the hottest place in Bhutan, which lies in the southern foothills. In the past the traditional practice or techniques to resist the extreme heat and rain in summer were totally different from the other parts of Bhutan. In the roof, people used thatched roofing. A tall grass, locally known as Sheru, is used to make the thatch roof. People cultivate the grass in the fields, which are locally available and cheap. It acts as a waterproof

Figure 5 Thatch roof construction. Photo courtesy: Kuensel

surface and heat insulator. “We have to press the grass with a bamboo post and tie it with bamboo. Then the wind will not blow off the roof. If we tie the grass properly, then the roof will last for four to five years,�17 says, Sar Man Rai (practicing traditional construction) To support the house structurally, use of timber and bamboo columns were common, which are well treated using local chemicals to avoid any damage to the material by termites and rain. The Houses used to rest on stone foundation and the plinth. The stone foundation with mud filling were sustainable practice, in which the stones and earth available during the

Figure 6 Samtse traditional House Photo courtesy: Kuensel

construction were reused to construct foundation. Then on top of the mud flooring paste of lime water and cow dunk were apply on the flooring to avoid termites and unwanted growth of grasses. In traditional adobe walling, people used wooden or bamboo battened framed windows and doors. The houses were plastered with mud, keeping the room cool in the interior and Lime whitewash.

17

Reference from Kuensel (newspaper in Bhutan).

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

The rafters, tie beams and purlins were tied up or fixed with the help of tongue and groove joints to support the trusses, hence it is tied with columns. The house were ecofriendly and the past experiences proves that it is much resistance to earthquakes. b) "Now" Samtse has experienced a drastic change in architecture since the imported material first introduce in the region. Samtse is located near the Bhutan-India border, hence the transporting a material are not that expensive. The traditional southern Architecture is fading,

Figure 7 Contemporary building in Samtse. Photo courtesy: Kuensel

whereby it is transforming into the towns like nearby borders. Now the thatch roof are replaced with Corrugated Galvanized Iron (CGI) sheets. "Almost all the houses in the region have CGI roofs. Even houses that are located more than a day’s walk from Samtse also have CGI roofs. As a result people who know the craft of thatching are becoming rare."18 Says Sar Man Rai, who is practicing traditional construction in Samtse. Similar like in Thimphu, When one walk by the town in Samtse and the nearby places in, one will also see same features repeating, the intense use of RCC (Reinforce cement concrete) for columns, slabs and foundation. Bricks and cement plaster in the walls, use of stainless steel in the railings, Aluminum windows frames, Steel framed doors. Even the facades, which used to have simple wooden crafting in columns and walls are now concrete ones faking such details with falsifying paintings. Now there is no more mud plasterings, instead use of cement plaster which absorb heat at the day time and release at the night creating a suffocating environment and the walls are painted which are toxic in nature, harming the surrounding. In place of wooden and bamboo structure all the houses are having steel trusses structural members.

18

Reference from Kuensel (newspaper in Bhutan).

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3. Tashigang a) "Then" The distinct difference of traditional architecture in Eastern Bhutan from the other zones is, the use of woven bamboo mats for building and often served as roofing for small houses on stilts and stone is preferred

Figure 8 Eastern Bhutan traditional house Photo courtesy: Wolfgang

in the walls with mud mortar. Wood is used especially for windows, balconies of buildings. In some part of this region people also construct wall of dry rubble stone. Similar to the northern zone the roof has wooden singles and stone on top to prevent the singles from high wind taking apart. The space between the gable roof and the ceiling provides the proper circlation of wind and also serves as the storage place. The king post trusses provides the stable roofing system to the house. The horizontal and vertical wooden members in the wall acts as a load bearing walls with bamboo mat and plaster on the exterior and interior wall.(see Fig.7) The large opening windows with no permanent protective screening; sometimes bamboo screens were put up to shut out bad weather without excluding light. The common stone foundation were used in the foundation,which are available in the site and reuse it. b) "Now" This region is least effected region among all but slowly it is influenced by the modern trends. One will see the transformation if one walk the street but change is in slow pace. Influence of similar contemporary detailing, using cement, RCC bars and imported materials to construct a house in the towns as well as far beyond motor able road access.

Figure 9 present Tashigang building

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

Megraj Adhikari19 said that the beauty of Trashigang town was the traditional architecture of the houses and any attempt to change it would spoil its beauty. He also said. "It is also a general observation that traditional houses withstood earthquakes better than concrete buildings." says Megraj Adhikari Since 2006 the Tashigang district had encouraged private builders to construct concrete buildings. "We have no other options," said Dzongda20. This imitation of architecture has reached from North, south and even in the east. The similar construction techniques and the materials like RCC (Reinforce cement concrete) for columns, slabs and foundation. Bricks and cement plaster in the walls, use of stainless steel in the railings, Aluminum windows frames, Steel framed doors and falsification of facade. The houses are built without the consideration of context, the small chunk of land can erect a high rise structure, or even more if it was not limited.

3.2.1.3 CONCLUSION The practice and techniques of construction at present is totally different from what we saw in the past, now it is just imitating and trying to fulfilling the government policies on Building Byelaws. The above problems of imitation of Architecture features stretching from north, south and in-between has put everyone (public, government, architects, etc) in dilemma. Can this be an alternative Reasons? 1. Could it be due to the political restriction for designing a building in the country? 2. Could it be due to Bhutanese Economy? 3. Could it be due to Negligence of the people in conserving the traditional Bhutanese Architecture? 4. Could it be due to Fast growth in the Country?

19 20

Chief urban planner in Tashigang. Means District Administrator.

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5. Could it be due to break though from the isolation, and connecting to near border roads? 6. Could it be due to typical mindset of the people in terms of Architecture and the construction? 7. Could it be due to less of skilled21 labors in the country?

3.3

CASE STUDY

3.3.1 ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH. 3.3.1.1 INTRODUCTION Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over 21,495 sq mi (55,670 km2), and is bordered by Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and southwest, Haryana and Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet autonomous region on the east. (Source: Wikipedia) Himachal Pradesh is famous for its abundant natural beauty. The traditional architecture of Himachal has its own uniqueness due to it difference in climate from place to place, extreme hot in south to extreme cold in north and its topography. This indigenous architectural solutions have responded well to these natural calamities and the threat of globalization. This traditional architecture reflects the unique culture and the identity of Himachal, hence it is important to retain its integrity with pride. To preserve this architectural identity of Himachal, government is playing a big role to conserving it and in educating the people about its importance. This traditional architecture has stood till today. The traditional architecture of Himachal, buildings were designed to achieve human comfort by using locally available building materials and construction technology which were more responsive to their climatic and geographic conditions. Himachal Pradesh is divided into twelve districts. Broadly state of Himachal can be classified into three zones in terms of it climatic condition and the elevation. For this case

21

In terms of traditional construction techniques.

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study I have taken three zones for comparison and to know its prevailing architecture in the regions. The three different zones are:

1. Dharamsala, foothills or lower Himalayan region. 2. Kulu, Mid hills or middle Himalayan region. 3. Keylong, Higher Mountains or High Himalayan region. 1. Dharamsala, foothills or lower Himalayan region. Dharamshala is a city in the upper reaches of the Kangra Valley and is surrounded by dense coniferous

forest

consisting

mainly

of

stately Deodar cedar trees. Dharamshala covering an area of almost 8.51 km². It is located in the Kangra

valley,

in

the

shadow

of

Figure 10Map of Himachal Pradesh showing classification of zones. Source:www.indianetzone.com/3/himachal_pradesh.htm

the Dhauladhar Mountains. The city is divided into two distinct sections. Kotwali Bazaar and the surrounding markets are referred to as "Lower Dharamshala" or just "Dharamshala." Further up the mountain is McLeodGanj separated in between by the village of Ganchen Kyishong. (Source: Wikipedia) 2. Kulu, Mid hills or middle Himalayan region. Kulu, is the capital town of the Kullu district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It is located on the banks of the Beas River in the Kullu valley about ten kilometers north of the airport at Bhuntar. Kullu is a broad open valley formed by the Beas River between Manali and Largi. This valley is

famous

for

its

temples,

beauty

and

its

majestic

hills

covered

with Pine and Deodar forest and sprawling apple orchards. (Source: Wikipedia)

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The hills are steeper. Northern slopes of the mountains are thickly forested. While habitation is confined to Southern slopes. The climate throughout the year is mild to chilly in comparison to planes. i.e. Cool in summer and rainy season with heavy rain fall. During winter there is always snow fall and temperature goes clown below zero. 3. Keylong, Higher Mountains or High Himalayan region. The administrative centre of the Lahaul and Spiti district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, 126 km (78 mi) north of Manali and 120 km (75 mi) from the Indo-Tibetan border.(source :Wikipedia) Habitants of this area who had never experienced rains in their living memory are now witnessing rain fall which is a new phenomena in the area. This is due to emission of hydrocarbons from fossil fuel driven vehicles layer of atmosphere, altering the temperature.

3.3.1.2 COMPARISION The comparison of three zones will give a clear idea of the following places and its features.

Dharamsala

Kulu

Keylong

1. Location

Western part of Himachal Pradesh.

Central part of Himachal Pradesh.

Northern part of Himachal Pradesh.

2. Climate

Humid Subtropical Climate.

Temperate climate.

3.Temperature

Min. 5°C Max. 30.1 °C

Min. 4°C Max. 27°C

Min. -20 °C Max. 24 °C

4. Rainfall

3000 mm

300 mm

100 mm

4. Vegetation

Dense coniferous forest (Deodar cedar trees).

Temperate forest.

Short shrubs and trees.

5. Ethnic Diversity

Tibetan, Hindu, Gurkha people

Hindu

Hindu and Tibetan.

dry temperate climate

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6. Elevation

4000 ft(1200 m)

9000 ft, (2700 m app.)

9000 ft -11000 ft(2700 m – 3300m)

7.Population (2005census)

19,124

18,306

14,182

Table 2. Comparison between three different zones of Himachal Pradesh.

3.3.1.3 3.3.1.4 PRESENT SCENARIO. 1. Dharamsala, foothills or lower Himalayan region. The traditional architecture in Dharamsala is still prevailing in major parts of the places, the native people knows the values of the age old traditional Architecture and its importance. When one walk by the street in Dharamsala one will feel the difference when coming from 20 km down from Kangra district. There is total difference in the houses that we see in Dharamsala and any other districts in Himachal. In the region the houses are oriented east and south, to receive maximum south sun light during winter keeping the house warm and in east side, the house will gain early morning sun. The slope of the lands in Dharamsala is from 0 to 30 dgr. approximately, were people constructing houses in the slope practices cut and fill method, which is a sustainable way to use the land. Materials available for construction are stone slabs for flooring and roofing which is locally available from the Khaniyara and Bhagsunag slate mining under Kangra districts. And stone and earth for walls and wooden plank for intermediate floors. The most of the houses in this places are built using two different typical innovative technique for construction of earthen walls. a) The first one is by use wooden box (0.60X0.90 m) with a height of 0.23 m in which earth is filled and rammed thus creating 0.23 m layer of rammed earth at every stage for the construction

Figure 11 Rammed earth construction Photo courtesy: Ar. Sandeep Sharma

of a wall which is 0.60 in thick.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

b) The another innovative techniques is the use of locally available slate stone which are used in the lower plains of Dharamsala where rain is more and extreme weather. In extreme weather like in winter the slates stone cracks due to the expansion and contraction sloping roof and are placed on heavy wooden supports with overlapping each other. These slates are not fixed to wooden supports but remain in place by weight only or sometimes they nailed to the wooden joists rafters. In this foothills, monsoon is long, hence commonly we will see sloping roof to drain off

Figure 12Traditional house in Dharamsala Source: author

the water and small windows to reduce the solar gain in summer. The houses are also having deep balconies to allow open-air living during rainy season and protection of walls. 2. Kulu, Mid hills or middle Himalayan region. As this region is colder than the plains, it is cool in summer with little rain and has extreme winter with snowfall, according to this the buildings are in this zone. Most parts of this region is covered with pine trees, Deodar, etc and mountains the building materials available areas are stone and wood. Most betterclass houses and even poor ones are built with stone and wood, without mortar. Even still in this region people practice the age old system of keeping cattles in the ground floor, grains in the middle floor and dwelling in upper floor surrounded by a deep over hanging verandah, which has already vanished in some part of the world. In this region, present houses are build mainly of two different construction techniques practices

Figure 13Space beam construction Source: Ar. Sandeep Sharma

abundantly. Those are:

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

a) The traditional Himalayan method of construction, the wooden beams extend to the whole length of the wall. One beam on the outside and another on the inside, the space in between filled up with stone. The wall at right angles has its beams laid on the two just mentioned and the alternate placing of these beams continue in this way. To create a proper bond of the timber and the stones the joints at the corners has dove-tailed or lap jointed by the cross-joists. Suitably placed along the length of the wall. It is clear from the above detail that the construction is capable of holding itself together without the stones which are filled in to form a solid wall. On top of this mingling of wood and stone stands the real dwelling, which is entirely of wood. Even the flooring in some houses are made up of wood, acting as thermal insulation in winters. it is earthquake resistance as the wood makes a strong bonds . b) Wooden construction is the other construction techniques which are very common in this region for easy availability of construction wood and its thermal properties provide relief from the cool winters. The vertical wooden posts are meant to carry the load. Horizontal members are placed at different levels with an in-fill of wooden battens. The upper flowers

Figure 14 Wooden construction.

are cantilevered thus providing living space all around. The base of the ground floor is built in stone masonry with the upper floor of wood to create a strong base. 3) Keylong, Higher Mountains or High Himalayan region. In this region the people experiences harsh climatic in winder and cold and rainy summer. The region is surrounded with mountains and hardly have we seen plains. According to that the materials available are stone and mud.

Figure 15 Mud construction Source: Ar. Sandeep Sharma

Due to this climate the vernacular architecture is entirely different from the other region in the state. Houses in this region follows two different types of construction as follows:

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

a) Mud construction, is one of the form of rammed earth construction. It is common in the places where construction materials like stone and wood is not available. The 0.6 m thick wall is constructed by pouring wet mud mortar and ramming it to make it compact before pouring another layer. This technique is best in this region to keep the interiors warm, but stability of the building depends upon it

Figure 16 Rammed earth construction. Source: Ar. Sandeep Sharma

form and the load of the wall. The roof is built over wooden frame resting on the mud walls, flat roofs are formed of wooden beams with birch—bark (bhojpatral), which is perfectly waterproof, laid in one or two layers over wooden planks and covered with beaten earth: this is smoothed into a flat roof on which fruits and grains are laid out to dry. b) Dry stone construction, is also common in the lower hills where stones are easily available from the quarries. The Different sized stones are placed over each other and compacted without the mortar. Through stones are used at regular intervals. A stronger bond is achieved by interlocking the stone rather than adding smaller stones in gaps. Interior surface may be mud plastered. The stone masonry structural walls take main lateral and gravity load. The walls uniformly distribute the load in both orthogonal directions.

3.3.1.5 CONCLUSION In this three zones traditional vernacular construction practices is still prevailing. The identity of their culture and people's way of living attracts the maximum tourists in the states, which is other way of generating income. This type of constructions are ecological sensitive, climate responsive designs. Any change in these designs should aim for human comfort and aesthetical needs and these sustainable designs help to save culture at the lowest possible ecological cost. The traditional construction method and process provides thermally comfortable shelter to the occupants by giving due considerations to local climatic conditions.

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The most common building materials used is wood. Stone and mud bricks. Due to this the local people never felt the need of modern materials like cement, steel, aluminum, RCC bars, etc. The people in this zones people with traditional houses are happier than the people with modern houses. Latter, can feel more comfortable of health and hygiene than the former.

3.3.2 JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE 3.3.2.1 INTRODUCTION Japan has an area of 3, 77,944 km sq., in which 75% approx. of which is covered with mountains and hilly areas, covered with extensive forest resources. With these geographical conditions, wood is used extensively in Japanese architecture, and it is practiced generation to generation. "The Japanese tradition, compared to those of Western societies, tends to place more value on the invisible tradition. which means that religion, philosophy, aesthetics, lifestyles, customs, psychological environment and conditioning, emotional sensitivity, and sense of order, all clearly combine to make up the character of a people and their culture, but they remain an invisible, intangible inheritance or tradition." by Kisho Kurokawa in his book New Wave Japanese architecture. When one walk in Tokyo for the first time, it seems like an international city which is similar to other megacity like Los Angeles, but foreigners who have lived in Tokyo for many years would agree that it is an extremely Japanese city. Tokyo is built with modern materials and technologies, it is one of the fastest developing nation. So it is impossible to explain that it has inherited the Japanese tradition from its external appearance. Nonetheless, the Japanese tradition is alive in Tokyo, in the lifestyles of its inhabitants, in their keen emotional sensitivity to natural changes, in their sense of order. To put it another way, the Japanese are perfectly willing to incorporate new cultural elements, new technologies, new forms, and the symbols of foreign cultures if they are certain that they will be able to preserve their invisible tradition.

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3.3.2.2 TRADITIONAL JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE Japanese architecture is one of the oldest architecture, dates back to the 6th Century when Buddhism was first introduced into Japan from the continent of Asia. Buddhism, undertook the construction of temples based on Chinese-style wooden architectural techniques. The people that time were good in wooden work, like crafting, handicrafts, etc, timberwork forms the basic structure, since then the wooden architecture developed with the passage of time. When we trace back the history, traditionally, Japanese architecture arose as a direct result of Chinese influences, but was more strongly focused around Buddhism and the role of ritual, meditation and tradition. The Architecture followed the simple and peace method, without over-complicating & over-embellishing, buildings were impressively spatial, minimalistic and atmospheric. "Japanese designers really knew how to harness the power of light and transform one interesting room into an amazing one. The changing of the seasons, the passing of time‌all played key roles in enhancing the building, so that even if the building was a simple Japanese pagoda form, the shadows that fell over the gardens and into the tea houses, were what really enhanced the design." Tanazaki22 talks about in his article. And as the time pass by, the traditional techniques elaborate precision and the formal aesthetics

of

Japanese

architecture

Figure 17 Taut’s sketch (1935) showing the refinement process of Japanese architecture.

showcasing the culture and way of living with nature, continued to mature. Eventually, such Japanese architectural styles also became widely used for the construction of ordinary residences and houses.

22

Japanese author, one of the major writers of modern Japanese literature.

38


Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

Origins of the most well-known architectural features of traditional Japanese house, which were highly praised by the leading figures of the 20th century modern movement, such as recessed alcove (tokonoma), built-in desk and shelves, wall-to-wall tatami mats23, sliding screens to divide interior space (fusuma), wooden-lattice exterior sliding doors covered with translucent rice paper (Shoji) are the basic characteristics of Japanese tradition in the houses.

Figure 18Regional differences of the Japanese house (Source: Nishiyama, 1989: 118)

Bruno Taut, wrote many articles, architecture and social life, described refinement process of Japanese Architecture from the age, in one of his sketches (Taut, 1935), in which the

23

Used as a flooring material in traditional Japanese-style rooms made of rice straw to form the core.

39


Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

main route begins with the Shrines of Ise, then via Tea-culture reaches to “modern quality’ in the Katsura Detached Palace. (See fig.16) Traditional Japanese houses represents a wide range of buildings in different form from different period and region to region. It still covers common features such as the wooden construction method with a post and beam structure, multifunctional usage of the rooms and spatial organization. The regional differences of the Japanese house can clearly be seen in fig.17, describing the variation in the plan types, style, the form of the village and the structure. “Dwelling house of old Japan proceeds from an entirely different set of premises— technical, economic, social and mental—from those obtaining in the West.” (Schmidt, 1958). Each region in Japan has its own Architecture style and unique features. The materials used in the country, used the locally available, satisfying the people's needs.

3.3.2.3 EXAMPLE a) Hōryū Temple

Figure 19 Hōryū Temple Source : Impressions Of Japanese Architecture And The Allied Arts by Ralph Adams Cram.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

The Hōryū Temple was built between 601 and 607. This Era marks the age when Buddhism was first introduced in Japan. The temple had Several structures like a five-story pagoda, the chū-mon (“middle gate”) part of the enclosing rectangular corridor, and the kondō (“main hall”)—have survived from that rebuilding and are among the oldest extant wooden structures in the world. (Source: Encyclopedia Britannica) As the temple marks one of the oldest temple in Japan many of Hōryū Temple’s buildings are now listed as National Treasures of Japan. Temple has following features like, the plan of the Kondo is of the simplest type: a central space open to the cornice and covered by a ceiling of wooden beams, flat, except for a delicate coving at the sides. The clearstory, since it is without windows is supported by cylindrical columns of wood; the whole is surrounded by an aisle with a sloping roof. The columns have a delicate entasis and the spacing is most refined; the bracketing is straightforward and constructional; the distribution of wood and plaster carefully studied, the vertical and lateral proportions, and the curves of the roofs and ridges are consummate in their delicacy; the colour is of the simplest, — dull but luminous red for all the woodwork, the plaster being white, the roofs of green-gray tiles.

3.3.2.4 PRESENT SCENARIO Japan was also involved, during the World War II, which was in shambles and had to basically rebuild key cities from the ground up. As the materials used in the buildings were of wood, it was not that tough to dispose the destroyed pieces, rather it was all burnt down. In effort of reforming Japan back to it originality the development began with new innovative ideas and techniques. In an effort to make the buildings more durable & resistant to fires/earthquakes/attacks, traditional wood usage was replaced with concrete and steel. Also, because of the booming economy around that time, Japan focused on producing more of the ‘box-houses, as these were easier to mass produce. However, even though the building envelope was becoming more generic, architects had to find innovative ways to make the interiors still reflect back to traditional Japanese forms. So modern buildings sort of represent a fusion of Eastern &

41


Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

Western design and culture, because even though many of the buildings fit in with the generic ‘modern building’ form, the spatial arrangement and internal atmosphere still echoes the Japanese tradition. The contemporary houses has reached far from it traditional look but the quality of light, the atmospheric conditions and the materials used still reflect that condition reflecting the Japanese features. Now, Japan focuses on aesthetic and historic identity. Japanese architecture was influenced by western cultures and living style but even than try to restrict their architecture. Japanese Traditional architect, Tange Kenzo24 becomes a central figure in Japanese architecture between a traditional Japanese architecture and the international style arriving from the west. In 1955 he publishes an essay “how to understand modern architecture in Japan today- for creation of tradition". He opposes the prevalent use of modernist style as a mere patinaplacing white tiles over a simple box, which he calls "sanitary ware"- and the fudging of modernism with traditional touches like a pitched roof. Instead he insists on exploiting tradition as a means of innovation. While building prolifically in a modern mode and strategizing the high-tech avant-garde of metabolism, Tang is still nourished by Japanese traditional. Tang thinks that one strong current in western hemisphere something which he calls "aesthetism" I see the rise of aesthetism, which mainly focus in the beauty of the structure or the stylist feature than the preservation of culture and the stability of the structures. Typical examples can be found in "decorativism" now popular in United States. In my thinking, traditional can be developed through challenging its own shortcoming and pursing the meaning of variety within the structure implementing all the above like "aesthetism" and "decorativism" in one.

24

One of the foremost Japanese architects in the decades following World War II.

42


Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

3.3.2.5 EXAMPLE a) Sukiya House (Contemporary Western Forms and Eastern Traditions Merge in an Okayama Compound) Located in the west Japanese prefecture of Okayama, it pays homage to an architectural legacy and to the founder of one of Japan’s most innovative companies.

Figure 20 Blend of Japanese and western architecture

Figure 22 interior of the house showing wooden elements.

Figure 21interior views

Looking over the walled compound, it is easy to spot the tribute to Buckminster Fuller’s geodesic dome on the roof of small room connected to a hall. The architect Kazuhiro Ishii

43


Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

got inspiration from many other contemporary architects like Mies, whose work has strong affinities to Japanese architecture, but he felt that his geometry was too sharp-edged. However, he did look back to several Japanese modernists, including Isamu Noguchi, Togo Murano and Isoya Yoshida, who reinvigorated the Sukiya tradition. Kazuhiro Shii named the residence Sukiya. “The word suki can mean rare, transparent or well-loved,” he says, “and I’ve tried to invest this house with all those qualities through fine carpentry, abundant natural light and tactile surfaces. Sukiya is also the style of the traditional teahouse,” he continues, “and, as in jazz, I’ve played variations on a theme, putting a modern spin on an old tune.” The teahouse occupies a central courtyard surrounded by living areas and by an enclosed walkway that leads away from the raised entrance platform, mirroring the curve of the garden wall. The celadon tone of the sand-plaster walls is almost the only departure from the traditional inventory of materials. Ishii notes that Buddhist shrines are customarily veiled in darkness, but the family wanted this one to be light and cheerful. The cylindrical space is topped by a geodesic dome, and the sun casts moving shadows of bamboo on the white Teflon covering. A guesthouse takes the form of a Kura, a rice storehouse, with massive white stucco walls, but the sitting area is decorated in Western style, with Danish modern furniture. Ishii is a master of wood construction, drawing on medieval temples for the intricate ceiling vaults of his Bunraku Puppet Theatre in Kyushu and using stripped cypress logs to support a tensile structure near Hiroshima 3.3.2.6 3.3.2.7 CONCLUSION In present scenario, a fusion between traditional Japanese architecture and modem architecture has been taking place, where the new innovative techniques looks into the prevention from natural calamities like earthquakes, tsunami, floods etc. This resulted in highly reliable disaster and fire prevention systems, have installed the latest facilities

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

including air-conditioning, and have steadily been making refurbistiments25 to create a more baffler-free environment. Very few innovations have been pursuing a new form of Japanese architecture of high perfection, having both functional and aesthetically pleasing. In CAD recently, they talked how people are slowly realizing that though sustainable design is becoming increasingly important, the combination of smart technology and sustainable design is the future. For example. Using of meta-technology26 system on the roof is appropriate, designing slanted roofs to allow hot air to rise up and out, light shelves, green roofs, photovoltaic cells...etc which allow for the passage of heat/humidity/air/light it’s obvious that advancing the role of the roof is the way to go. Innovation in design and the techniques is the latest way to tackle Japanese environment, where engineers and Architects has come up with latest technology to prove their design and challenges in present scenario. For example, as Japan lies in high earthquake zone region they have come up with the earthquake resistant high rise buildings. Use of Nano technology in the glass reduce and gain heat automatically. Modular structure, the structure are prefabricated in the factories with all the fixing and assembling done in the factory, are bought in the site and fixed.

3.4

INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE DATA ANALYSIS

3.4.1 THE ARCHITECTS VIEWS This analysis includes the views of some of the Architects from Bhutan and the Architecture students pursuing Bachelor in Architecture in India. Each Architects has its own views about the Bhutanese Architecture. “Traditional architecture is a part of our unique culture. It defines the sovereignty of our country and should be conserved. I do believe that architecture and design must evolve through time. We cannot be narrow minded and focus only on conserving the traditional

25

Servicing and or renovation of older or damaged equipment to bring it to a workable or better looking condition. 26

Meta-technology is a technology whose field of action is the determination of reality.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

architecture but also find ideas to incorporate traditional architecture features in contemporary design." -Sonam Tshering Architecture student. whereas some architects argues that country must have more strict guidelines, and building byelaws, which makes it compulsory for all the architects who designs a building in Bhutan to incorporate traditional elements of Bhutanese architecture. "Hay to feed the cattle was on the roof for winter fodder for the cattle. As the season wore on and the warmer spring approached this hay, providing winter insulation above was eaten by the cattle and the insulation decreased." -Christopher Charles Benninger27 In terms of using imported materials in the country, most of the architects are happy with it. They thinks that Contemporary designs are more complex and requires better structural in which vernacular and traditional materials cannot always satisfy. The imported material has flexibility to satisfy any designs, forms or structural complications. But in other side, architects think that imported material do give the exo-skeleton of traditional look but doesn't give the feeling of it. In the case of replication and imitation practice in Bhutanese architecture, almost all the architects agrees that the building in the country stretching from north, south or in between has similar type of building in terms of facades, windows, doors and construction techniques. For example, Hospitals is no different to schools, which is similar to some industry buildings. Architects thinks that because of byelaws and the restricted policies set by the government of Bhutan replication is a trend. Hence Architects need to think of that and come up with innovative ideas and solutions.

3.5

THE NON-ARCHITECTS VIEWS

There is not much difference in the view of Architects and non-architects in terms of Bhutanese architecture. Non-Architects feels that the imported materials brought in Bhutan cannot replace the traditional materials and other think that now the innovation and fusion

27

One of India’s most highly decorated architects. Online interview on Oct 22nd, 2014.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

of traditional and modern architecture has arrived in the country so we have to adjust with it. "In the modern era, we need to be more innovative and use modern material for ease of construction rather than stick to the tedious system of construction and also to make the structures stronger considering that Bhutan falls under the seismic zone."- B.B Chhetri, Civil Engineer. Non- architects feels that Lack of construction materials, Very few experts in traditional Architecture Constructions projects usually done by foreign Companies and financial deficit are some of the cause of falsification and repetition of ideas in the country. Hence it is clear that that country is going in the process of repetition and falsification of materials and ideas, so it is the time for Architects and concern people in the country to create awareness to the people and stop the usual practices.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

4 CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS OF RESEARCH. 4.1

INTRODUCTION

After the isolation and connection with other countries in the world, the country has witnessed a drastic transformation in every aspects of life. This was primarily due to rapid economic growth and globalization which has resulted in a deterioration of traditional values of life which one day may lead to the disappearance of Bhutan's unique architecture. In this chapter, with the help of data analysis in previous chapter, the findings are done and recommendation are provided, which may ignite the thoughts of each individual in building a better future tomorrow.

4.2

STUDY/RESEARCH ANALYSIS

4.2.1 LITERAL DUPLICATION It is clear from the previous chapter, how the building design is getting repeated in the country. The set rules and regulation has created a restriction to the young architects to create something new, by preserving the traditional architecture without compromising the future needs. Some of the construction professionals, architects and the media in the country expresses their concern about the imitation of building from one place to the other and the extensive use of imported materials resulting in "sameness". This norms and guidelines is just leading architects and engineers to copy the features and the construction techniques of a design and paste in the other. However, to move forward with the modern techniques and materials of construction, architects could find no other options than to set off with what they referred “literal duplication�. In the country National Environment Commission (NEC) has strictly forbidden the quarrying of land for stones and cutting of trees for timber usage to maintain the maximum forest cover (70 % and above) and its sustainability. This has resulted in a alternative

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

approach where construction materials are mostly imported from India, increasing high transportation costs and taxes, they are also less appropriate to the climate and cannot replace the traditional construction material in terms of creating the thermal mass in hot sunny days and cold winter nights, like the rammed earth to act to its utmost advantage. Hence, the traditional features and the design of buildings which were constructed with traditional materials and techniques are replaced by cement and steel which is just a false imitation and it has spread in the entire country, without any consideration of climatic conditions. Some of the examples where the practice of imitation has reach its extreme in Bhutanese traditional architecture features and spread in the country. Starting from the top of the house, the pitched roofs, according to climatic and material availability the roofing used to be light weight made up of wood singles(colder regions), with slates, thatched roof and bamboos (hotter regions). For example, in hotter regions, the practice of thatch roof used to be common, the dry grass is pressed with a bamboo post and tie it with bamboo thread. Then the wind will not blow off the roof and can last for four to five years and likewise the wooden singles used to be placed on top of the wooden trusses and place stones on top to prevent from strong wind. But now the most of the houses in urban towns are replaced with CGI (corrugated galvanized iron) sheets which are fixed with the truss members with the help of nails and hooks, whereby nails were yet to come in the past. The traditional wooden trusses and the tapered columns (Kachhen)

28

has carved and

curved capitals which is used to be seen in Dzongs and royal buildings, but rarely found in residential buildings in the past. The importance of those carvings and the curves in the columns and trusses use to give a typical Bhutanese design, which is losing it significance after the use of steel and cements. Nowadays, carvings are done by the non-skilled labors (non-national), who has a least knowledge of the construction of traditional features, has made the detailing easier and missing lots of elements. This bow shaped capitals and carvings were not only for aesthetic purpose, also it was a structural members which is missing today.

28

Local name of tapered columns.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

Now in the urban and rural areas of Bhutan the walls and the floorings are dominated by bricks and the RCC (Reinforced cement concrete). The construction techniques, detailing and workmanship are considered to follow building provisions (i.e. Indian design codes). This materials are not only expensive, it also consume lots of energy and labors. Where as in the past walls and floorings were constructed of rammed earth which were 60 to 80 cm thick walls which were stable and highly thermal insulated. It used a locally available mud and local people to construct, which where cost effective and environment friendly. When one who knows the traditional Bhutanese architecture, walks by the cities and the towns of Bhutan one will notice the change. The falsification of the facade just for aesthetic purposes. For example, the traditional feature, the cornices (Bhog, Phag-na, Norbu Bagam, etc) used to be made up of wooden members in the front facade which were structural members and for aesthetic purpose. The painting used for colouring this members were made up of organic colours from plants and earth. But as the technology has reached in the country, the company which manufacture GRC (Glass reinforce concrete) prefabricated cornices, has created total replica of traditional cornices and painted with toxic paints which is available nowadays the market. GRC cornices are fixed in the facades with the help of bolts, after the construction of walls. This practices clearing indicates the falsification of facades and it is the ongoing trend in the country. What we see today is modern materials and it impact in our surrounding. This materials has its precise specification and codes starting from a small nail to a long RCC bars. We normally follows the Indian Standard codes (IS code) which are revised according to our condition. Whereas Building rules, codes and guidelines for traditional construction materials are still awaited. There is a need of a proper specification of traditional materials and it usage guidelines. The conversation with architects and the construction professionals in the country has resulted with the needs of specific codes for the timber and rammed earth construction. This professionals wants to build the houses according to the people needs, environment friendly and traditional touch but they are bounded with no precise rules which they can apply and make a stable structures. They can’t construct mud rammed structures to clients since there is no code.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

If the country's masonry, earthworks and timber construction are replaced with reinforced cement concrete construction, thinking it as more stable construction. This notion will create the nation's earthquake hazard more, rather than reduce. In addition, the learning of skills and indigenous which are imbedded in tradition of the country will be gradually lost, as the large projects in the country that makes and reaches cements and steels has become a business who have little knowledge or respect for the traditional crafts.

4.2.2 LIBERAL CONTEXTUALISM The architecture practice in the country is getting reverse than what we have learn and seen in other countries. The drawings (plans, elevation, sections, detailing and 3-D views) which will guide the engineers and contractor in the field for construction are prepared first and then site is been chosen, which is just a reverse what actual should be. For examples the government school buildings, Gup offices29 and so many other government structure in the country are similar from Dzongkhag30 to Dzongkhag. Which means that the same drawing is getting circulated in the country and structures are erected without any climatic knowledge. To maintain the country's historic architecture traits, the building follows the philosophic concept rather than the contextual approach. This philosophic concept provides the meaning which are embedded in the context of age old traditional architecture. If you see the cities and the towns in Bhutan, no matter how old or new the building is, more than the contextual design the buildings have its symbolic value and traditional abstract philosophy. This symbolic concept are more significant than structure and where it sits. Along with the philosophic ideas, the context also plays a big role in completion of the building. Philosophic concept has brought disagreement among the architects, contractors and the people while designing a modern structures. The philosophic concept will fulfill the purpose of tradition architecture and creating a faith in the design, where as the contextual design will give a detail, proportion and the surrounding context which is also important.

29 30

Head of Administrative units or a block in the country. Administrative and judicial district of Bhutan.

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

4.3

RECOMMENDATION/ AMENDMENT

After the analysis of the collected data and my own observation, there is a need of a code for the construction of a house with the help of rammed earth techniques and timber construction. And also, common approach of construction is not fulfilling the present requirements, where by bringing some changes in the present construction, blending of tradition with contemporary ideas can help to restore the architectural elements of the past and the present desire.

4.3.1 FORMULATION

OF

BUILDING

RULES

FOR

TRADITIONAL

CONSTRUCTION. 4.3.1.1 EXISTING BUILDING RULES. The 2009, earthquake in the country has left a major destruction on traditional stone and timber constructed houses. It has raised concern about the stability of the structure and its safety to the people. This destruction is comparatively less than the risk to the cultural and heritage of those traditional buildings if we demolish and restore with concrete and RCC construction. Now, people understood fear of traditional houses. The people including the engineers and the government officials feels it is a danger. This perception is forcing people in the country to build their houses with concrete and other imported materials but are newly look tradition facade with new materials. Department of Urban Development and Housing has developed Tradition Architecture Guidelines in 1993 , Rural Construction Rules ,2013 published by Department of Human Settlement Ministry of Works and Human Settlement and Traditional Architecture Guidelines, by Department of Urban Development and Housing, has framed rules with the objective to promote settlements that are safe, functional and accessible; to enhance the living standards and the quality of lives of rural people and to preserve the natural and cultural landscapes. Also Bhutan green building design guidelines, June 2013 published by the Engineering Adaptation & Risk Reduction Division Department of Engineering

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

Services, Ministry of Works and Human Settlement, Bhutan encourages the use of local available materials and promotion of traditional architecture in reaching the needs of the people and environment friendly. But the problem comes when the materials has to be installed and erect. None of the Building rules discuss on the how the materials has to used, the construction techniques, shapes, sizes, location, and specification. Hence the designer (architects and engineers) won't take risk of constructing a house without specific materials specification and code. This not only discourages the architects and engineers but also to the local people who has mastered in traditional construction, to construct a house on traditional methods and take a responsibility if anything goes wrong. 4.3.1.2 EXAMPLES If we see in our Neighboring Himalayan countries, they have the specific rules for the traditional construction and the governments encourages the public to build the houses which depicts the tradition of the country and the region. For example In the country like in India the codes for the concert and steel was already existing but after the development of the building codes for the traditional construction Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant Non-Engineered Construction in 1986, it brought changes mostly in the construction method of the people in the rural areas and now we can see some of the impact of traditional construction and the concept in urban areas of India. The researchers has found that the Building code for the steel concrete construction cannot replace the tradition construction. The government of India recognized the need to partition the codes between those for “engineered” buildings and those that are smaller and built of traditional materials, including “low strength” masonry and unfired clay. Recognizing that these buildings will be built regardless of applicable codes, "rules of thumb” and guidelines have been promulgated in these codes. Likewise in Nepal, The development of a Nepal Building Code within the overall framework of the Building Code Development Project in 1992, has come up with four distinct levels of good building practices considered in the code were: the current state-ofart design; professionally- engineered design, pre-engineered construction; and guidelines for non-engineered construction. It is argued that a progressive move from the prevailing

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

non-engineered construction to pre- engineered construction, and then finally to 100 % engineered buildings is the best course of action for the implementation of Code - instead of a radical move from nothing to everything. The approach for the development and implementation of a building code suggested in the paper could be applicable to other countries experiencing similar difficulties in introducing safer seismic construction practice. Also in Pakistan, Building code where not much implicated in the practical practices. At the time of the 2005 earthquake, the destruction in the cities and in the towns were massive. The government felt the requirement of the regulation to overcome the earthquake, hence develop earthquake-resistant construction. This was initially limited by the Government only to reinforced concrete frame or concrete block with concrete slabs for floors and roof. A year later, with influence from international NGO’s working in the disaster areas, the government’s Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) approved the use of Dhajji Dewari31, and, during the following year, a Bhatar (timber-laced bearing wall construction). Five years after the earthquake, UN-HABITAT has reported that over 250,000 Dhajji new houses have been constructed in the damage district.32 Outside Asia, Australia was one the earliest countries to develop a national design and construction reference document for adobe, pressed block and rammed earth building (traditional construction). The Australian Earth Building Handbook was published by Standards Australia in August 2002 (Standards Australia, 2002). The handbook sets out the principles of accepted good practice and recommended design guidelines for lightly loaded, primarily single and two storey buildings, constructed using stabilised and unstabilised unbaked earthen walls and floors. Where as in the country, government is more focus on preservation of traditional architecture by using modern material it has resulted in monotonous rhythm in the overall architecture in Bhutan irrespective of the regions opposing to the fact that Bhutan, even though a small nation, ranges from the subtropical region the high Himalayas, where we

31 32

Timber frame with stone and earth infill, typically used in the mountain regions of South Asia. ‘Earthquake Resistant Traditional Construction’ by Randolph Langenbach USA

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

are supposed to see wide range of architectural styles responding to the different climatic conditions in each regions. And should encourage the people to opt tradition construction with proper Building code, so that at the end of the day nobody is blamed. After all this I feel that, Government of Bhutan should also develop a Building rules only for Tradition construction or Non-engineering construction which will be consistent and supportive to all the people of different regions using vernacular materials to preserve the nations unique Bhutanese Architecture with the publication and dissemination of the government’s “Building Rules for Traditional Construction” 4.3.1.3 CONSTRAINTS OF TRADITIONALCONSTRUCTION (EARTH, WOOD, STONES, BAMBOOS, ETC) IN BHUTAN. The lack of standard criteria to evaluate the finished product. One may need a building code to erect an traditional structure suitable in the country.

The private sectors in urban areas has not been interested in investing in this type of ‘unconventional’ construction, except rural areas.

Constraints of traditional construction in Bhutan.

Traditional const. is considered as poor construction by the users in general. There are misconceptions in societies that, ‘traditional houses are only used by the poor people’.

Lack of political support discourages relevant government department promoting Traditional construction. Political supports, steel and concrete construction in the country

Less accepted by the professionals (contractors, building traders, architects) in the construction industry; because there is very little money and no proper standards. 55


Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

4.3.1.4 RECOMMEND CONTENT FOR THE TRADITIONAL CONSTRUCTION BUILDING CODE. Chapter 1: Introduction. 1.1 Aim and Objective 1.2 Scope and Limitation Chapter 2: General overview of traditional construction 2.1 Categories of Buildings and past construction 2.2 Prevailing building construction practice Chapter 3: Site selection and Design configuration 3.1 Considerations for site selection 3.2 Appropriate site for construction 3.3 Improvement of site 3.4 Plan of Building 3.5 Types of Building Chapter 4: Rammed Earth Construction 4.1 Different types of Rammed Earth Construction 4.2 Type of soil 4.3 Strength test 4.4 Sizes and dimension 4.5 Construction Process 4.5.1 Wall 4.5.2 Foundation 4.5.3 Roofing

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4.6 Plastering and Painting. 4.7 Advantages and Disadvantages 4.8 Case Examples Chapter 5: Stone Construction 5.1 Different types of stone Construction 5.2 Main factor for achieving seismic safety 4.2 Structure properties 4.3 Construction Aspects 4.4.1 Size and dimension 4.4.2 Wall construction 4.4.3 Foundation 4.4.4 Mortar 4.4.5 Openings in wall 4.4.6 Masonry Bonding 4.4 Construction process 4.5 Advantages and Disadvantages 4.6 Case Examples. Chapter 6: Timber Construction 6.1 Different types of Timber Construction 6.2 Characteristic of Timber and its location 6.3 Structural Properties 6.4 Construction Aspects 6.4.1 Size and dimension 6.4.2 Wall

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

6.4.3 Column 6.4.4 Beam 6.4.5 Trusses 6.4.6 Joints 6.5 Construction process 6.6 Advantages and Disadvantages 6.7 Case Examples. Chapter 7: Earth Brick and Block Masonry 7.1 Different types of Brick and Masonry Construction 7.2 Structural Properties 7.3 Construction Aspects 7.4.1 Size and dimension 7.4.2 Mortar 7.4.3 Wall enclosure 7.4.4 Openings in wall 7.4.5 Masonry bond 7.4 Construction process 7.5 Advantages and Disadvantages 7.6 Case Examples. Chapter 8: Repair, Restoration and Strengthening of Buildings 8.1 Repairs 8.2 Restoration 8.3 Strengthening of existing buildings Chapter 9: Conclusion

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9. References 4.3.1.5 FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES 1. Opportunities of achieving a Government recognised standards for traditional construction in Bhutan. 2. Opportunities of manufacturing countries own production of traditional based materials. 3. Opportunity for the establishment of a training, education and testing centre for making people aware of the traditional construction. 4. There are opportunity for innovative ideas, which will be low cost and environment friendly. 5. There is further opportunities for detail research on the materials in the scope of reduction of greenhouse gases and environment friendly. 6. Opportunity of establishing rating system of a buildings in the country, hence encouraging the user to build environment friendly buildings. 7. Enhance the mass participation of Architects, engineers and designer by keeping competition on the Government projects, keeping sustainable as a main element.

4.3.2 BLENDING

OF

TRADITIONAL

AND

CONTEMPORARY

BY

INNOVATIVE APPROACH. In this blending process, I am not focusing on technological breakthrough or new discoveries that would change all the problems relating the use of modern materials and the ideas of repetition in the country. I will be discussing something much simpler, the combination of both, traditional materials and modern methods, step-by-step change of behavior/attitude that upgrade present need and demand of the rural and urban communities. This innovative ideas is not cheaper remedy to our society but I am sure it is 50% cost effective then the practices what we follow today. Additional, it will also look on the environment friendly and conservation of architectural heritage of the country. If invention was the beginning of wisdom in advanced countries, for us, reproductive thinking could be the milestone for the upcoming innovative beak through.

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Innovation is define in so many ways, what I have seen after interviewing some of the local architects and the professional that the upgrading the use of steel and concrete in the construction over the tradition construction, which total changed the scenario of the country(rammed earth construction to concrete steel construction), just a imitation of the old tradition. Even though which were already popular in the advance countries, is a false interpretation. Whereas, if you bring out a better solution which fulfill the need of the present requirements without compromising the future needs at the effective cost is innovation, that's how I define. I am not against the use of cement, steel and other modern materials, but I doubt the extensive use of those materials can be a danger in long run. The use of the modern materials should be minimise and encourage the use of local materials which are available almost on sites. This will not only be more vernacular but also helps the country to restore the tradition and eco-friendly. Some of the examples that can be given more attention while construction and proposing materials for construction are: 1. Cement Stabilized Rammed Earth, Soils for cement stabilized rammed earth tend to have proportionally higher sand and gravel content and correspondingly lower fines content. For example, a mixture should have sand content, at least greater than 50% and preferably closer to 75%, and at the same time low clay content, typically less that 20% and minimum amount of cement (5%-10%). It is strong, and durable. Earth is one of the most sustainable building materials on earth. There are various advantages when using cement as a stabilizer. High levels of cement stabilisation improve the surface coating and reduce erosion (Walker, 2000) while increasing the cement has a considerable influence in improving the resistance of soils vulnerable to frost attack (Bryan, 1988). 2. Fibre Stabilization in rammed earth, Fibres are used to improve the thermal performance and bending and tensile strength of soil. Natural fibres used include straw, sisal fibres and timber. According to Standards Australia (2002), the ideal soil for fibre stabilisation should have a plasticity index between 15% and 35% with the liquid limit from 30% to 50%. One

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

disadvantage of fiber stabilization is that the compressive strength of soils decreases as the straw content increases (Minke, 2000). 3. Use of laminated bamboos, as the more than one-fourth part of the countries lies in southern foothills, where the bamboo plantation are in abandon. It is better than timber in so many ways, like bamboo is a rapidly renewable material within 3-5 year re-growth rate compared to a 20-25 year renew rate for timber. But perhaps the most significant advantage Bamboo has over timber is found in its structural properties. Designed as modules stacked up to four levels in height, calculations show laminated bamboo capable of resisting simultaneous 200mph winds and a 9.0 earthquake. The modular construction allows for rapid placement of at-risk or destroyed housing. If bamboo is laminated to form structural components, the material properties become significantly better than those of laminated wood. And yet, laminated bamboo is only recently becoming a material of interest to designers. Laminated Bamboo application in high-rise structures, given that laminated bamboo columns and walls can support two to three times more weight than timber equivalents, it is logical to explore LBL (laminated bamboo lumber) as a material for high-rise structures. There has been research and development in the design of wood high-rise structures in the past few years. Given that LBL has higher allowable stresses, it makes sense to explore the possibility of LBL high-rise structures.33 Above all the material is sustainable and eco-friendly. It can also be used in the cornices by making a clump of bamboo dust and small pieces of bamboos with the help of natural adhesives(like how ply boards are made), and carving it after it is dried and gets solid. It will give the same look and can be vernacular. 4.Fly ash containing cement ,if cement has to be use in the construction, use the cement contain with the maximum of flyash content. This fly ash has been used in concrete at level ranging from 15% to 25% mass. The actual amount use varies widely depending on the application, the properties of the fly ash, specification limits and the geographic location arid climate higher levels (30% to 50%) have been used in massive structures (for example,

33

Laminated Bamboo Structures for a Changing World by academia.edu

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Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism

foundation and dams) to control temperature rise. In recent decades research has demonstrated that high dosage levels (40% to 60%) can be used in structural application producing concrete with good mechanical properties and durability (Marceau 2002). This cement can be mixed with the maximum contain of mud in Rammed earth construction. This techniques should contain 80% of earth, 15% cement and 5% others. Advantages: The use of cement in the rammed earth construction will increase the strength, more durable and highly waterproof. There are also so many other vernacular material in the country which are unknown to most of us. Just we need to explore it and make it a useful than to import materials by paying lots of cash and polluting the environment and the house were we resides.

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5 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION Now in the country the Modern materials has reached the urban areas, slowly in the rural parts of Bhutan and the entire country. This transformation is not so far until we young architects, engineers, planners and the designers come up with the solution to stop it. As Bhutan is a small nation, where, in the world we are known for our unique traditions and cultures. The age old Bhutanese tradition is clear in the Bhutanese architecture like Dzongs, monasteries, stupas, traditional farm houses, bridges etc. It is extremely important for us to sustain this monuments and preserve it. The unique tradition and the culture of the nation attracts lots of tourist each year and it is the other way to generate income in the country. When we talk about the preservation of tradition in the world, Bhutan is the outmost example cited in the research papers, newspapers, articles and the conferences. It makes a proud Bhutanese, but how many of us are really taking a initiative in conserving it? It is not only the government who will look on it, it is also a responsibility of each of us to contribute in preserving the nation's tradition and culture though architecturally. If all of think same (preservation of traditional architecture) with different perspectives then it is possible. We can't think of changing the mindset all at once, but if one houses out of five in the urban cities are built with the tradition construction it will be a great achievement. It is always better to go from small to large than to do reverse. This dissertation has come to an end with some concrete result for the practices of "Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism". The absence of proper Building code for the traditional construction in the country and strict guidelines and Building rules for concrete and steel, which has strong restriction on the new ideas. This has resulted in imitation of design in the country by not letting the professionally trained architects, engineers and designers to do something new rather than to do same thing what is already practicing in the country. Bhutanese traditional architecture cannot be repeated, our fore fathers who did the small piece of art with total devotion and patient in peace environment at that time. Even a small carving has hidden meanings on it. The use tools and the materials are the secondary elements to give a finish look. But now, what we can see is all different, neither there are

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proper tools, materials, and environment nor there are skilled people who are devoted to it. Hence the Bhutanese architecture today, is a false imitation to complete the work as early as possible and to earn money. It has become a business, where people are paid to do work for fast completion and coping has become a trend.

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REFERENCES 1. http://www.inbar.int/news-category/asia/bhutan/ 2. http://www.inbar.int/2012/01/bamboo-construction-bhutan/#more-721 3. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/64215/Bhutan 4. http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Asia/Bhutan/West/Thimphu/Thimpu/photo5456 76.htm 5. http://www.isaet.org/images/extraimages/P913008.pdf 6. https://gos3.ibcdn.com/tourism_guide_keylong.pdf 7. http://hprural.nic.in/Keylong.pdf 8. Traditional and Vernacular buildings are Ecological Sensitive, Climate Responsive Designs- Study of Himachal Pradesh by Sandeep Sharma and Puneet Sharma. 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thimphu 10. http://www.zhideybhutan.com.bt/samtse/ 11. http://www.chhundu.com.bt/about-bhutan/art-and-architecture 12. http://www.bhutanculturalatlas.org/371/culture/sites-structures/introduction-tosites-and-structures-in-bhutan/ 13. http://www.raonline.ch/pages/bt/dev/btdev_trashigang02.html

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APPENDIX 1 Name of the

Pros.

Cons.

-use

of vernacular materials. - The use of old traditional techniques in construction. - The use of context as per the need of the buildings.

- Use of concrete and the steel has dominated the market. - Concrete jungle. Falsification of facades and paintings - Importing of materials. -Political restrictions in creative architecture.

Architects just following the general lines of his own original composition, without following old style, than every building within its own walls tells the story of its long life.

- Modern architect should not be illogical, living in one age and choosing a style from another! - While building, giving the resemblance of the past buildings, has created a repetition.

Remarks

Authors/ Architects.

1. Ar. Sonam Tobgay.

2. Thomas Hastings (Author)

-need builders and architects at larger scale to play a pivotal role. -Country needs infrastructures in almost every field to usher a new era of development.

-Why should we not be modern and have one characteristic style expressing the spirit of our own life?

- The best Gothic work has been done and cannot be repeated. 3. Ar. Jānis Dombrovskis

4. Marc Dujardin. (Author)

-The policies designed to assist the development of the country based on the ideals as they are currently set forth in the development strategies. - First building in the country was Dzongs. -Making extensive use of new building materials and technologies to ‘copy’ typical features and fragments of dzongs.

Importance of symbolic values than actual site context. - Introduction of nonnative material in the country. - Impact of this change of materials?

-No work in black and white in the past. rammed earth technology and the abundant use of timber were increasingly Discouraged.

-Morphosis and Asymptote firms approaching each design problem, Philosophical aspects attempting solutions to social, spatial, and other questions.

-preserving

traditions and culture in terms of better technologies and constructional materials.

Table 3. Literature review analysis

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Dissertation: Literal Duplication, Liberal Contextualism  

It is the combined ideas of people, who thinks that Bhutanese Architecture has many different perspectives if we look into. Nation's goal...

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