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Vicky Antoniou Sain Nichols ALWAYS LEA RN IN G



v >cky Antoniou Sam Nichols


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Unit 1 Present simple, Present continuous, stative verbs

Unit 2


Past simple, Past continuous, used to/would

Grammar Review 1


Unit 3


The Future

Unit 4


Conditionals: zero, first, second

Grammar Review 2


Unit 5


Present perfect simple and continuous, Past simple; comparatives, superlatives and (not) as ... as

Unit 6


Past perfect simple and continuous, Past simple; (a) few, (a) little, much, many

Grammar Review 3

S i

Unit 7


Reported speech


105 108

Unit 12 Modal perfect; too, enough, so, such

Grammar Review 6 Vocabulary Extension 1 Vocabulary Extension 2 Vocabulary Extension 3 Vocabulary Lists Irregular Verb List

123 126 130 134 138 140


Present simple, present continuous, statjye verbs

Choose the correct form. Where's Joe? I hope he does/is doing his homework.

I hope la m hoping not! I think he watches/is watching too much TV! ------------

No. He watches / is watching TV. -------------------


Present simple Affirmative



I/You/We/ like it. They

I/You/We/ don't like it. They


Short answer Yes,

I/you/we/ they like it?


likes it.


doesn't like it.



No, Yes, No,



• permanent situations • facts • regular actions • timetables (future sense) • with stative verbs

1come from the UK. It rains more in the UK than it does in Greece. They visit their grandma every Sunday. The train arrives at 8p.m. 1know the answer to the first question.

l/you/we/ they he/she/it

do. don't. does. doesn't.

1Adverbs of frequency and adverbial phrases We often use adverbs of frequency and adverbial phrases like always, normally, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never, once/twice a week, most of the time, all the time, every day, on Saturdays, at the weekend, etc. with the present simple form.

1usually walk to school. Dad rarely gets home before seven. 1see my cousin twice a week. Do you use your MP3 player every day? We have training on Saturdays. 1meet my friends at the weekend.

Note: Adverbs of frequency usually come after the verb be and before other verbs. They can also come at the beginning or end of a sentence or clause. Adverbial phrases usually come at the beginning or end of a sentence or clause. . .. —.- _ ._ —--—-—...................................... .. -.-—----J


^resent continuous Mtfri— =: ve



Ito i


working You/We/ now. They

I is/'s


He/She/ It

Short answer


Negative am/'m not




are not/ working Are now. aren't

you/ we/ they

is not/ isn't

he/she/ it


No, working now?

Yes, No, Yes, No,

ii you/ we/ they

am. 'm not. are. aren't.

he/she/ is. it isn't.

Example : : :e~:ng now : . s tuations v~_ e arrangements 3—cyng habits

We are swimming in the seo. He is studying for his exams this week. Are you going to the cinema on Friday? She is always biting her nails!

: f frequency and adverbial phrases I -r jse adverbs of frequency and adverbial phrases i f r* " f moment, right now, these days, today, this evening, IprTcrT'A next summer, on Saturday, etc. with the present

z rtr.c - s .

Amy's drying her hair at the moment Tom's working in a restaurant these days. I'm meeting Jack for coffee tomorrow. My pen friend is arriving on Saturday.

Stative verbs


Itese are verbs that describe a state (e.g. think) and not an action (e.g. run). We don't normally use them in the [ca rcr Rjous form. Example *erbs often describe: - p e ngs, e.g. dislike, hate, like, love, trust - m m rc believing, e.g. agree, believe, find (= think, feel), guess, 1* ’: a realise, remember, suppose, think, understand - 3-ts e.g. hope, need, prefer, want, wish ■: e.g. feel, hear, see, smell, taste a e rc v 2\ring, e.g. appear, belong to, have, look (= seem), own, seem Jh : -

/love going to parties! 1believe that she is telling the truth. These days 1prefer football to basketball. Your coat feels very wet! He looks a bit unhappy to me.

: ve uses of stative verbs

■ r Z3m use- some stative verbs in the continuous form, but the ■ iJW :fe ~ave,look

1think she is pretty, (have an opinion) I'm thinking about the party tonight, (consider) Can you see that man? (observe, look at) I'm seeing Jane tonight, (visit) Do you have any money? (own, possess) I'm having a shower at the moment, (do, experience) It looks like it's raining, (seem, appear) What are you looking at? (see, direct your eyes at)

5c2c #~ y'erbs with can

1 -f mmszt

use can before stative verbs used for senses, e.g. feel, see, smell, taste.

Can you feel the wind on your face? 1can't hear the music. 1can see the book on that shelf. 1can smell something burning. Can you taste chilli in this soup?

Practice 1 Choose the correct answer. Use the words in italics to help you. 1 I normally meet / am meeting my best friend after school. 2 Lina does / is doing her homework at the

moment. 3 I rarely stay / am staying at home at the weekends. 4 Are you going /Do you go sailing next summer? 5 Joshua applies / is applying for a new job

today. 6 I quite often read / am reading the newspaper. 7 Does Dad cook / Is Dad cooking dinner right now? 8 I sometimes play / am playing games on the Internet. 9 My parents take/are taking us to the cinema tomorrow. 10 Once a week, we eat / are eating at our favourite restaurant.

2 Complete the sentences with the present simple or continuous form of the verbs in brackets. 1 We usually. . (listen) to rock music, but at the moment we _________________(listen) to jazz. I ________________ (do) my homework in the dining room right now, but I normally ________________ (do) it in my bedroom. My dad is painting my bedroom at the moment. It often________________ (snow) here in winter, but it________________ (not snow) today. I _________________(go) to chess club once a week, but I _________________(not go) this week because I'm ill. 5 She. . (fly) to the USA with her cousin tomorrow because she never ________________ (fly) alone. He_________________(play) football on Friday, though he usually only _________________(play) on Tuesdays.

Read the note and choose the correct answer. ih i *



I ' % ' i â– 0

Hi, Vicky, Thanks for agreeing to babysit for little Callum Callum's brother M ax1_______________ out with his friends this evening, and M r -Jones and 11_______________ my sister. Our daughter Lucy usuallyi_______________ after him, but she4_______________ at her friend's house for the night. You can watch TV, but the PVP player 5_______________ at the moment. Someone 8_______________ to fix it tomorrow, if you get bored with the TV, you can use my laptop to go online. And if you get hungry, w e7_______________ the pizza menus in the kitchen drawer. The baby usually *_______________ all evening, but he9_______________ a cold at the moment, so he might wake up. -Just give him a little milk and hell go back to sleep. I always10_______________ my mobile with me, so call if you have any questions. Thanks, Jennifer

A go

C is going

B goes

D are going

A visit

C is visiting

B visits

D are visiting

A look

C is looking

B looks

D are looking

A stay

C is staying

B stays

D are staying

A don't work

C isn't working

B doesn't work

D aren't working

A come

C is coming

B comes

D are coming

A keep

C is keeping

B keeps

D are keeping

A sleep

C is sleeping

B sleeps

D are sleeping

A get

C is getting

B gets

D are getting

10 A carry B carries

C is carrying D are carrying

: ut the adverb or adverbial phrase in brackets in the correct gap in each sentence. My brother_________________is_________________ home from work at this time, (usually) : Call me back later, please, because I ________________ am having my dinner_________________ right now) ________________ cook_________________ dinner for the whole family, (sometimes) 4 We are________________ having a party_________________ , and you're invited! (this evening) 5

wonder where Kelly is, because she________________ arrives_________________ late for work, (rarely)

6 Phil is taking________________ his driving test_________________ (on Saturday)

I Cc -nplete the dialogue with the present simple or continuous form of the verbs in brackets.


Hi, Natalie. How are you?


Fine, thanks.




Umm, 12 3

(go) shopping now. Do you want to come with me? (watch) a film at the moment. Don't you normally (go) shopping on Saturdays? (do), but 1have to buy a present for my brother. It's his (have) a party on Friday night. Do you want to come?


Yes, 1normally 4 birthday and he5


Ah, 1can't on Friday night. 16


Oh, well. Hey, I'm meeting Jack at the weekend. W e 7 to play basketball. You can come if you want to.


Yes, OK. 18


Great, see you then. Bye.



(babysit) for my auntie, sorry.

(not do) anything on Sunday.

(meet) every Sunday

• O .Ž

6 Write questions using the prompts. EXAMPLE: you/usually/stay/at home/Monday evenings

Do you usually s/ay at hiUM QH Monday evenings

1 you/know/if Olivia/come/to the meeting/tomorrow


2 Max and his brother/meet/us/in the cafe/this evening


3 where/you/go on holiday/next summer


4 he/visit friends/on Saturdays


5 who/you/work with/at the moment


6 what/time/the train for Berlin/leave/tomorrow morning _____________________________________________

7 Choose the correct form of the stative verbs below. 1 Lucy! You didn't hear what I said! What about? A do you think


B are you thinking

2 You look very nice tonight. ______________________ Liam later? A Do you see 3 Oliver_______ what the matter is. A looks


B Are you seeing

B is looking

B Are you having

A don't have

. any

B aren't having

7 Have a look through this telescope. What ? A do you see

________________ , Indian or Italian?

4 I ________________ now that he was only trying to help me. 5 No, I don't________________ her, but we'll never be best friends. 6 What_________________you_________________

with you when you go on holiday next week? .you. difficult to make new friends?

B are you thinking

6 I'm sorry, but w e__________________ shoes in your size.


8 I _________________plans to move abroad next year, maybe to Australia.

9 Complete the sentences with can or can't and a stative verb.

B are you seeing

1 8 You seem very interested in what's outside. What______________________ at? A do you look

.you. Sean when he says he didn't break the window?

3 I'm sure that lady________________ perfume. It's very strong!

5 What_________ _______about the new dress that Ruby bought? A do you think

find hate make prefer realise wear take

2 What type of restaurant_________________you

_______ upset. I wonder

4 I hope you're enjoying yourself at university. ______________________ a good time? A Do you have

8 Complete the sentences with verbs from the box in the present simple or continuous form.

B are you looking

.you. woman over there? She's my sister.


2 I think I've got a cold. I _________________the

flowers! 3 I _________________the heat from the oven. It's so hot! 4 I ________________ anything except the baby crying. He's so loud! 5 Is there any sugar in this tea? I any.


Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. EXAMPLE:

know she won't tell anyone my secrets, trust ______/ trust her got to till anyone my secrets.______ Something in here is making a terrible smell!

smells Something_____________________________________________ ! 2 My mum really dislikes horror films,

like My mum________________________

at all.

2 Sue often forgets her sister's birthday,

remember Sue often_________________________ I don't think Simon is happy,

look Simon____________________ 5 The car outside the house belongs to her.

owns She__________________________________

.the house.

Complete the text with the present simple or continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

_______________(watch) TV. Maybe they Right now, many young people just like you (try) to find a good programme to watch. Others 3______________ . (chat) to (search) the Internet for music videos or perhaps they 4_ their friends. ______________ (think) that screen addiction can be a real problem for some Experts ! people. Many young people today6_________________ (spend) hours every weekend in front . (seem) to be bored. of the screen, but still they 7_ . (think) as you read this:‘I usuallys Now, perhaps you 8_____________ (watch) TV a lot, but I’m not addicted.’ Perhaps you are right. But the next time someone asks you,‘W h at10_________________ (you do) this weekend?’, think about the answer. If it’s ‘just watching TV’,then you just might have a problem.



9 0E0 .. ".... 12 Complete the postcard with the present simple or continuous form of words from the box. drink enjoy go

Dear Luq,

snow stay think visit want wish work

____ ________myself so much here- in

Canada, It isver^ cM, but beautiful! We %____________ _ in \ogcabins near a beautiful wood. Most da'js we . swing and rr^

brother snowboards. It's great fun. Cm v|ou sKi? It 4 at the moment and we 5 hot chocolate inside. | It's verv| cos| Tomorrow w e u.

. the town __ to buN| souvenirs! Hie

I nearfrj. I 1_ ----------

. on the s^'r slopes

I man who

sass that there is \ots to do in the town. I'm reaVVj wcitel! _ of 'jou and!

_'jOUwot here. Love, 5&n

13 Choose the correct answer. to the cinema on Saturday if you 1 We want to come. C is going A go D are going B goes 2 I TV most evenings. A am watching C watches B is watching D watch 3 My friends most of their time indoors. A spend C is spending B are spending D spends 4 She a holiday for July. C plan A plans B are planning D is planning 5 Susan and Kathy every weekend. A are eating B is eating

out in a restaurant

6 Tom usually A is finishing B finishes 7 Karl and 1 A visit B visits

his homework before he watches TV. C are finishing D finish Jack tomorrow. C is visiting D are visiting

8 Janet can't come to the phone right now. She her mobile. A talks C are talking B is talking D talk 9 David's brother Sunday. A plays B plays

in the football competition on C is playing D are playing

10 Johnny can't go to the concert. His train A doesn't arrive C isn't arriving D aren't arriving B don't arrive

C eat D eats


until 9.30!

14 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. 1 John is travelling to Spain tomorrow. His flight is at 6 p.m. leaves John's____________________________ tomorrow.

4 I usually go to the cinema every Sunday, but today I have to work, not Although it's Sunday,___________________________ because I have to work.

2 I prefer going online to watching TV. going I like_____________________________ .than watching TV.

5 I'm having Sally and Jane around for dinner tonight, coming Sally and Jane_______________________________my house for dinner tonight.

I play football four times a week, often

6 This chocolate ice cream is good!



tastes _______________________________delicious!

Present simple, Present continuous, stativeverbs

Get it right! 1 O ne verb in each sentence is in the wrong form. Underline it and rewrite it correctly. am thinking that Richard goes to volleyball practice every Saturday because he wants to see Alison. It seems that he is liking her and wants to ask her to go out with him.. :

am meeting Mrs Wilson this evening when her train is arriving at the station.. Do you have a photo of her because I don't know what she is looking like?___ ~he astronomy club usually is going on a trip every summer and everyone always enjoys it. ! his year, we travel to London and we are planning to visit a lot of interesting places.

- My brother and sister are always fighting and they never are agreeing about anything


am not knowing what to do sometimes when they start arguing with each other.

Six verbs in the blog are in the wrong form. Underline them and rewrite them correctly.

Monday, 17 October | I can't believe it! We 1go on holiday to Scotland | next summer! My dad says we can go for two weeks! : «e 2learn about Scotland at school at the moment, =r_d it 3is seeming to be a really interesting clace. It 4is having beautiful countryside, and “he people are really friendly. I 5am wanting to -*isit Edinburgh Castle and lots of other places. I think the weather can be a bit cold, but I don't care! I 6save all my pocket money so I have enough to spend when I get there. I can't wait!

More soon ...Watch this space.

fL e t ’s '1

Work with a partner. Say if you agree or disagree with each statement. Explain why. 1 1 pre-fev playing sp o r+ s to

_____ ,


wa+clrvi^g +kem.

2 I am doing less homework now than in the past. 3 I belCeve'y o u / c a w t r u s t m o st people* 4

cU&li&e people

5 1 Sf&tA too

taC& ut elate,.

+iw\e Wd+cWwg TV o r ov\ +lr\e ln+erwef.

6 1don't have enough free time to do the things 1like. 7 I iM w p liM M ln g ' to -d o -so m e th in #


8 *) a m y a io f aomecvAene. utteneaUaa tfab yean.


Choose the correct answer.

When I was young, I w ould/ use d to believe in the tooth fairy.

Past simple Affirmative




I/You/We/ They

talked about I/You/We/ it. They

didn't talk about it.


talked about He/She/It it.

didn't talk about it.


I/you/ we/they


he/she/ it

talk about it?



• finished actions or events in the past • repeated actions • past habits • past situations or states

We went to the cinema last night. We played basketball three times a week when 1was at school. They visited their grandma every Sunday. Did you have a pet when you were younger?

We often use time phrases like at that moment, then, suddenly, and when with the past simple, as well as more specific time phrases like yesterday, last night/week/ month, etc., two days/weeks, etc. ago, and dates like in 2008, in 1996, etc.

When it started to rainf she put up her umbrella. Exams finished two weeks ago. 1went to Scotland last month. In 2003, 1went to Paris for the first time. j

Past simple, Past continuous, used to/wou

Past continuous Affirmative te She/It Ye/


Negative was talking about it.


were talking You/We/ about it. They

Question wasn't talking about it.

I/he/ she/it


weren't talking Were about it.

you/we/ they

talking about it?

Example actions in progress in the past nackground descriptions an event that was in progress when another event happened two or more actions in progress at the same time in the oast

At eight o'clock yesterday, I was eating dinner. The sun was shining and the birds were singing when Julie went for a walk. I was watching TV when suddenly someone knocked on the door. She was talking on her mobile phone while she was driving.

\:tes: The past continuous is not usually used with stative verbs, e.g., X was need-h^beip: ✓ Sne needed help. ~~e phrases usually used with the past continuous are rfw/e, as, when, meanwhile, at that time and all morningl ~ernoon/day, etc.

It started to rain as she was walking to work. While I was painting the bedroom, my sister was hanging out with her friends. I was looking after my brother ail afternoon.

Votes: As and while usually come before the past continuous, and when usually comes before the past simple, e.g., I was working when Lili called. While I was working; Lili called. tVe can use both the past simple and past continuous in the same sentence to show that one event was in progress when another event happened. We usually use as, when and while to connect the two actions.

used to/would Jsed to — rmative


1/You/We/ They

used to play


used to play



I/You/We/ They

didn't use to play


didn't use to play

Use past habits that don't happen any more past states that are no longer true



I/you/ we/they he/she/ it

use to play


Example I used to go to gym three times a week; but now I don't have time. Thirty years ago, people didn't use to have mobile phones.

Would He/She/lt/You/We/They

would go

skiing every winter.

Notes: 1 Would, like used to, is used to talk about past habits that don't happen any more. However, would is not used for past states, e.g., They used to live in Germany, not ^he^w@ti4d-U¥e4Pr^sma^ 2 Would with a past meaning is not usually used in the question or negative form.


Practice 1 Write the words in the correct order. 1

I / the bus / caught / yesterday / to work /.

2 it was raining / because / didn't / 1/ for a walk / go /. 3 I got/TV / when / watching / my / sister / was / home/. 4 break/your arm /you/how/did/? 5 last summer / in a French village / spent / we /. 6 last night / Jenny / what / was / wearing / at the party / ? 7 a loud party / while / my neighbours / 1/ were having / to study, / was trying /. 8 you / to the cinema / last night / did / go / ?

2 Choose the correct answer. 1 She ... to the park when it began to rain. A walked B was walking 2 Can you say that again? I .... A didn't listen B wasn't listening. 3 the supermarket last night? A Were you going B Did you go 4 While she ..., I was looking after the baby. A was cooking B cooked 5 I was working at my computer when suddenly all the lights.... A were going off B went off 6 Which towns... when you were travelling in Spain? A were you visiting B did you visit 7 Why ... to the beach yesterday? It was really relaxing! A didn't you come B weren't you coming 8 My grandparents'generation ... mobile phones. A weren't having B didn't have


3 Complete the sentences with the past simple or continuous form of the verb in brackets. . (hear) what you said. Can 1 I. you repeat it, please? Sally_______________ (go) to the museum yesterday; she______ ________ (go) to the zoo instead. 3 Ted was having a shower when the phone (ring). 4 While she________________ (walk) through the woods, a fox suddenly ran in front of her. 5 When you called, I _________________(watch) the news on TV. 6 When we went shopping yesterday, my sister _________________(buy) lots of clothes, but I _________________(get) anything.

- Choose the correct answer.

' The new student told me that he would / used to live in Spain when he was younger. 1 Fiona didn't used to / use to get on well with Sarah. She got on her nerves.

When I was a child, I used to / would believe in ghosts. - When my parents were kids, people wouldn't / didn't use to have computers. 5 When you were young, did you use / would you to play hide and seek?

f in the old days, everyone would / didn't used to help pick the olives.

: Match the sentences (1-8) with their functions (a-h). 1 I was talking on the phone when the doorbell rang.

a past states that are no longer true

2 Tom wrote three letters before he had lunch.

b an event that happened at a specific time in the past


While Jane was watering the plants, I was

cooking lunch. 4 On holiday, we would go for a walk every evening after supper. 5 At five o'clock yesterday, I was having a shower. 6 I used to think rap music was boring, but now I like it.

Shakespeare died in 1616. 3 The wind was blowing and the waves were crashing on the beach.


Read the letter and choose the best answers. -, Lucy, I bet you’re surprised to get a letter from me! I can’t use my oc-rputer at the moment because we haven’t got a telephone -e yet. We1moved / were moving into our new house two weeks ago. It was still in a terrible mess and we needed to do a lot of work on it. It 'Has exhausting! It 2 used to / would be an old f.srmhouse and - can you believe it! - it 3didn’t have / hadn’t central heating or hot water, or even electricity. For more zran a week we 4 were cleaning / cleaned and painting all day, every day. I 5took / was taking time off school to help, which was great! Mum and I did the cleaning, while Dad and Simon did the painting, but it was fun and 6 didn’t feel / wasn’t feeling like work a t all. The other day we all 7went / were going shopping and 8 bought / were buying new curtains and carpets. Simon 9didn’t enjoy / wasn’t enjoying that; he says shopping for curtains is for girls. He’s so annoying! Anyway, the place is looking really nice now. I’m sending you a photo of what it 10wou\d / used to look like before all our work! I hope you can come and visit soon. Love, Vicky

c two or more actions in progress at the same time in the past d an action in progress in the past e an action that was in progress when another action happened f

past habits that don't happen any more

g background description h finished action in the past

0\. o


Read and choose the correct answer.

ÂŤoŠ Hi, Jamie, Thanks for your email. I was pleased to hear your news. Well done! You 1 ______________all your exams! That's great! Here's my news. Do you remember John? He 2 be in our science class. Do you remember how he 3 ______________ always make us laugh? Well, he 4 ______________ me an email the other day, saying that he lives in my neighbourhood. (I don't know where he 5 ______________ my email address from!) Anyway, I 6 ______________ immediately and said that we must meet sometime soon. The day before yesterday, I 7 ______________ him and his family at their new house and I 8 a great time there. We chatted about old times, of course, and while we 9 his mum 10 ______________ a fabulous meal. Next weekend he's coming to visit us. Why don't you join us? All the best, Simon ..--â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ............ ........... ................

8 Rewrite the sentences in the negative and question form.

A pass

C was passing

6 passed

D were passing

A was

C used to

B were

D would

A didn't used to

C would

B was

D did

A send

C was sending

B sent

D were sending

A get

C was getting

B got

D were getting

A reply

C replied

B used to reply

D was replying

A visit

C was visiting

B visited

D were visiting

A have

C was having

B had

D were having

A talk

C was talking

B would talk

D were talking

10 A cook

B would cook

C was cooking D were cooking

Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

1 Dennis used to play football every Saturday.

1 People were very hard-working in the past, used People____________________________ in the past.

2 I bought a new computer last week.

2 Dad told us stories when we were young,

3 My sister got her driving licence last week.

would Dad____________________________ when we were young. 3 There was a big movement of Cypriots to the UK in the 1970s.

4 Peter sent me three emails yesterday.

5 Mum was cooking dinner when you called.

moved A lot____________________________ the UK in the 1970s. 4 Greece had the most goals at half time,

winning ____________________________ at half time. 6 Kate and Sally were shopping at this time yesterday.

5 I hurt my knee during a football match,

while ____________________________ , I hurt my knee. 6 There weren't any buildings here ten years ago. use ____________________________ any buildings here ten years ago.


! Complete the conversation with the correct form of words from the box. come




play realise

sit speak






Are these your holiday photos?


Yes. Do you want to see them?


Sure. Hmm. These are good. Who's that man with you in this photo?


Oh, that's Gino.


How1_________________you_________________ him?


Well, w e 2_________________to go to the same cafe every morning for breakfast. One morning we 3 there deciding what to do that day when this fascinating man 4 along. He5_________________ the violin.


So then what6_________________?


When he7_________________we were English, he8_________________ to us and asked us if there were any songs we wanted him to play. After that he9________________ come to the cafe every day and have a coffee with us. He got on very well with my sister.


Mm. Oh, here's the Leaning Tower of Pisa.


Yes. We 10________________ there, too. It was very interesting. It was one of my best holidays ever.


__ _â&#x20AC;&#x201D;


12 Complete the sentences with the correct form of words from the box.

Write questions about the past using the prompts. 1 you / used to / have / a bike / when / be young

break climb fail go leave tell used to visit wash will . my mobile phone.

1 I can't remember where I

her History test.

2 She cried when she____ 2 what /he /do /when /you /visit /him

3 who /you /talkto/ when / 1/call

3 W e_____________ strange noise.

up the mountain when we heard a

4 She told me she. weekend.

___________ her grandparents last

5 He____________ ___his arm when he fell off his bike. . you________________ climb trees when 4 you / get/to the concert/on time

? 5 you/break up/with Tony/yesterday

you were young? 7 While Sam was watching TV, Jill.

. her hair.

8 Where________________ yo u _

.on holiday

last year? 5 how long/it take/you/get/to Rome 7

9 I thought I _____________ computer!

. you not to play with my

10 Although we didn't often share meals in the week, we always have Sunday lunch together.

13 Choose the correct answer. they drove away. They got into the car and__ A when C meanwhile B then D while

I was walking in the park_____ suddenly a tennis ball hit me. A while C as B when D meanwhile

_____ the ship sailed away, people waved goodbye. A Then C At that time B Suddenly D As

Why_____ you at the meeting yesterday? A aren't C weren't B didn't D don't Two years _ time. A ago B since

., I went to India for the first C then D before

I was playing video games_____ my brother was listening to music. A when C since B then D while .an irritating noise I was fast asleep when _ woke me up. A meanwhile C since B suddenly D as

8 When I was on holiday, I _ ____up very late in the morning every day. A would get C use to get B was getting D wasn't getting 9

tennis a minute ago? You were, I saw you. A Would you play C Weren't you playing B Did you use to D Didn't you play

10 I was reading quietly_____ a bird flew in the window. C since A suddenly D while B when

14 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap. 1 I was watching TV________ suddenly someone shouted my name. 2 You________ not at the party last night. Why not? Three weeks lesson.

I had my first driving

_____my brother I was doing my homework_____ was practising the piano.

6 A: You stayed out until three o'clock! What were you________ ? B: I was________ video games at Simon's house. ____ you do at the weekend? A: What. . to the cinema. I ________ that B: I ____ new horror film. It's terrifying!

While I ________ walking home, I lost my phone.

15 Read and complete the text with the correct form of verbs from the box. climb

drive find get



park read



What I did on my holidays What did I do on rri'f holidays? Well, for a start, I had a terrible time. We ' __ _____________ _ tamping in Scotland as a family One August morning we 1_________________ Up rea[^ ear^ -------- ------our rucksacks, loaded the car and set off. It wasn't long before we were arguing. It was hot, and we were tired. Dad 4___________ ______ while Mum - tt* map. Then Pad 1--- ----------- _ttie wrong road and told Mum •bo*, a terrible map reader Ho really t a his temper! So the, toot it in turns to drivs It* wholejourney was like that. fin *, * arrived at tt* campsite. We ’--------------- at fc bottom „f a M, ^ s t0 —


uf>the hl"' ^ m<™ber, we were carrying all our camping equipment, too. We ^or '10Urs seemed to me. At last we got to the campsite. It was dark so

----- :--- f° r the t0rCh' but Wh6n he ,0_______________ ^ didn't have ariN[ batteries. So we waited until the morning to put up our tents. In the morning we saw what the place was like. Its true, the scenery and the view were beautiful, but there was nothing to do except go for walks. That s what ( did on my holidays.

............. ....................

Past simple, Past continuous, used to/woujd

G et it right! 5


â&#x20AC;˘:he sentence is correct, put a tick. If it isn't, rewrite the ;=rstence using the correct form of used to or would. Did you used to be a teacher? The family that used to live next door was very sociable. He wouldn't like science when he was at school. hey used to made biscuits at this factory. Grandma would read stories to me when I was a child. ,Vere they used to have a fishing boat?

; ne verb in each sentence is in the wrong form. _ nderline it and rewrite it correctly. '

Dad was forgetting to lock the door when he left. ,Ve lived in that house for five years before we were decorating it. The teacher thought Joe was cheating in the test, but he weren't. ,vas thinking that you were on holiday, opened the door and was stepping outside. She talked on the phone when her boss came in.

tVork with a partner. Answer the questions. '

How do you think people used to live without computers? What was your last holiday like?

3 What hobby did you use to do, but you don't do now? - What famous places did you visit last year? ÂŁ What do you think life was like 50 years ago?


Grammar Review 1 Choose the correct answer.

1 Sam and Paul A play

3 Read the article and choose the correct answer.

. tennis every weekend. B are playing

2 The train_____ at 11.15 tomorrow morning. A is leaving

B leaves

3 Jan e_____ lunch right now, so she will call you back. A has

B is having

4 Barry__ ___ to Corfu in June. A goes

B is going

5 I _____ before I go to sleep every night. A read

B am reading

6 Alan_____ night shifts at the moment. A works


The school1________________ its yearly 'cultural week' this week in Kingsbury. Students 2 about different cultures, from Spanish to American. Each day of the school week has a different cultural theme and students have the chance to explore the wider world. W ith cooking, art and music workshops, this special week will be exciting and colourful. The African dance group, Vivizo, 3 early on Monday morning to prepare a special performance for the students and teach them about life and music in Africa. On Tuesday, the school4________________ Natasha Bisout, a French chef, who will be showing students the basics of French cooking. The week w ill continue with American football player, Brad Hicks, who 5________________ for a different kind of PE lesson, and retired Spanish artist, Lucius G ab illo ,6________________ to the students about Spanish art styles on Friday. The school7________________ this special week every year with interesting guests, exciting activities and a break from regular lessons. W e 8________________ it will be a fantastic experience for both students and teachers of Kingsbury School.

B is working

Complete the sentences with the correct present form of the verb in brackets. 1 Sandra rarely_______________ the house before eight o'clock.

. (leave)

2 Penny and Sarah----------(not/talk) to each other these days. 3 Craig usually_______________________ (drink) juice in the morning. 4 I. the moment.

. (not/eat) meat at

5 Do you mind not talking so loudly? I _______________________ (try) to listen to the radio! 6 We sometimes__________ our aunt on Sundays.

. (visit)

1 A have B has

C is having

2 A learn B is learning

C learning

3 A arrives B is arriving

C are arriving

4 A welcome B is welcoming

C are welcoming

5 A visits B is visiting

C are visiting

6 A talk B is talking



7 A celebrates B is celebrating


are celebrating

8 A hope B is hoping


are hoping

........... ........ ..

. ...... in........... i..... .. ii mm i i iii 11 urn ii mum m i

in n




Grammar Review 1 4 Complete the sentences with the correct present form of words *rom the box. buy hear

like look own




1 Doesn't he_________________going out at the weekends? 2 I________________ that I upset him the other day. 3 Turn the TV up, please. I can't________________ it! - She______________

. in the concert on Friday night.

5 What _

_ a t?

f Nick_

. that magazine every week.

7 Kelly _

. the red car outside. She's very lucky!

B Oliver.

_ right now, so be quiet.

5 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. _se the word in bold. Amy is considering buying a new bike, thinking Amy______________________________

.a new bike.

2 Christopher knows why he got a low mark in the test, understands Christopher_______________________________________ didn't do well in the test. 3 I'm visiting Carl at the weekend, seeing At the weekend,______________


4 She really doesn't like people going into her bedroom, dislikes She_______________________________________ her bedroom. 5 Remember to bring the beach towels this time! forget This time,___________________________________

.the beach towels!

: Complete the sentences with the correct past form of words â&#x2013; rom the box. cook finish


play practise


shop walk

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; At that moment, she________________ into the classroom. 2 W e________________ for summer clothes when we saw Alice. I Meanwhile, Tim___

. with the dog in the garden.

4 Isabelle________________ when she saw the spider. 5 Then w e________________ our bags and left. 6 I went to the shop when I _________________my homework. 7 I _________________the violin at that time, so I couldn't talk on the phone. 8 Sue_____________

. dinner as I was washing up.



Complete the sentences with the correct past simple or continuous form of the words in brackets. Betty________________ (clean) the whole house yesterday. When the phone rang, I _________________(get) ready for work. She_________________(not/do) anything when James called. Was the town pretty when you_________________(live) here? The family______________

. (walk) the dog through the fields when they visited the countryside last year.

The doorbell rang just as I .

______________(go) to sleep.

. (not/eat) the last slice of bread.

8 Choose the correct answer. 1 I _____ flowers every day from the field near my house when I was younger. A was collecting

C collected

B am collecting

D wouldn't collect

5 At nine o'clock yesterday morning, they_____ around the zoo.

2 Paul and Jenny_____ be best friends when they

were children. A would

C were

B was

D used to

3 When I lived in Liverpool, w e_____ down to the sea every Sunday. A would go

C are going

B were going

D use to go

I can't come out at the moment; I _____ my bedroom.

A would walk

C were walking

B walk

D used to walk

6 Sorry, Bob isn't here. He _ _

A was leaving

C would leave

B left

D didn't leave

7 Mark_____ to school early yesterday to see the teacher before the other children arrived.


A went

C didn't go

B was going

D would go

near you when you were younger?

A tidied

C used to tidy

A Would he not live

C Did he use to live

B would tidy

D am tidying

B Would he live

D Is he living

Get it right! If the sentence is correct, put a tick. If it isn't, rewrite the sentence using the correct form of used to or would. 1 There would be lots of green parks here. 2 I didn't used to like vegetables. 3 We would often go for walks in the park. 4 Did you would know Linda? 5 They would play until the sun went down! 6 I wouldn't use to play football when I was younger.


five minutes ago.

Ch oose the correct words. No, you w on't / don't see it next week! You can see it now! Look!

When are we going seeing/ to see the photograph, Libby?

Future simple yyou/ will/fll send

an email.

I/You/ He/She/ It/We/ They





Affirmative -e She/ tW e/


will not/ won't send

an email.


I/you/ he/she/ it/we/ they

send an email?



c redictions future facts decisions made at the moment of speaking * offers â&#x20AC;˘ requests suggestions promises refusals

/think it will rain later.

.Ye often use these time words and phrases with the future I simple: today, later, tomorrow, on Monday/Tuesday, etc., soon, at/before six o'clock, in half an hour/five days/a week/month, etc., in the future/2050, next week/month/year, this week/summer, etc., Iwhen I'm older/thirty-five, etc.

The new mobile phone shop will open tomorrow. I'll have the chocolate cake and a coffee, please. Shall 1show you how to use the camera? W ill you help me with my homeworkf please? Shall we go to the library now? 1won't be late;/promise. I'll be home at halfpast nine. No>/won't eat that! I'll see you later. Shall we go swimming next week? More people will have computers in 2050. The weather will get worse next week. I'll have my own robot when I'm older.

Notes: 1 We usually use shall with offers and suggestions, for/and we, e.g., Shall 1show you howto use this camera? 2 We can also use the future simple after phrases like 1hope..., /think..., 1expect..., I'm sure..., /guess..., I'm afraid..., or words like probably and perhaps, e.g., /expect I'll see you later; Perhaps it will rain this afternoon.


Future perfect Affirmative

I/You/He/ She/It/We/ They


will/11 have finished

by tonight.


I/You/He/ She/It/We/ They

won't have finished

by tonight.

\ you he she it we they


have finished by tonight?



• actions that will be completed by a specific time in the future

Tom will have fixed the bike by seven this evening. 1won't have recorded the film before you get here. W ill they have arrived in half an hour?

We often use these time words and phrases with the future perfect: | by six o'clock!tonight!then1the weekend/the time..., in two weeks'! months'/years' time, in time, until!till, before the end of the day/seven o'clock!Dad gets home, etc.

Will they have bought the new computer by the weekend? Joe will have finished his computer project in two weeks'time.

[ Notes: We only use until or till in negative future perfect sentences, e.g., /won't have finished thisjob until eleven tonight.

Future continuous Affirmative

Negative will/11 be working

I/You/He/ She/It/ We/They

I/You/He/ later. She/It/We/ They

Question will not/ won't be working

l/you/he/she it we they

later. Will

be working




• actions or events in progress at a specific time in the future • a future action that has already been arranged

They'll be playing their favourite online game all afternoon. He'll be waiting for us at seven outside the Internet cafe.

We often use these time words and phrases with the future continuous: tomorrow, a week!month/year from now, soon, this time tomorrow!next week/monthlyear, at halfpast five, etc., all afternoon!evening!night, etc., when..., in 2050/two hours!days, etc.

People will be using space cars a hundred years from now. 1will be taking my exams this time tomorrow. Will Mum be making lunch when we get home?

Affirmative 1

am/'m going to

You/We/ They

are/'re going to

He/She/ It

is/'s going to






am/'m not going to

You/We/ They

are not/aren't going to

He/She/ It

is not / isn't going to

Am work. Are Is

1 you/we/ they

going to work?




• future plans and intentions • predictions based on present circumstances

She's going to text her friend later. Are you going to turn off the computer before you go to bed? Jane's playing well. She isn't going to lose this game!

ifie often use these time words and phrases with going to: soon, cz*r, this afternoon, tonight, tomorrow, on Monday/Tuesday, etc., at -re weekend, next week/month, etc., in a few minutes, one day, when.

It's going to rain this afternoon. Are they going to watch a DVD at the weekend? Alice isn't going to go to school next week. I'm going to have lunch when I go home. Everything's going to be different in the future.

ictes: I We usually use going to for plans when we talk about plans that are already made at the time of speaking. 1 »Ve can use expressions like Look out! with going to when we are making a prediction based on present evidence, e.g., Look out! That tree's going to fall on your car!

Present continuous --*inmative

Negative am/'m

Yiil We/They


~a She/It






am/'m not


are not/aren't talking. Are



is not/isn't




1 talking?


~-ture arrangements made before the : ne of speaking

I'm meeting Sandy and Luke at the weekend. They aren't playing football this afternoon. Is Jon calling this evening?

jfoeoften use these time words and phrases with I'm not going out this evening. r e oresent continuous for the future: today, Are you coming to the cinema tomorrow? ccerrat eight o'clock, etc., this evening, tomorrow, ~ ihe weekend, next summer, on Saturday, etc.

We aren't having a computer lesson at the weekend. They're going to Africa next summer.

Present simple Affirmative


I You/

leave at eleven.

I/You/ We/They

don't leave at eleven.

leaves at eleven.

He/She/ It

doesn't leave at eleven.




Use timetables or events that are programmed to happen at a time or date in the future *Veoften use these time words and phrases with the present £ nple for the future: at eight o'clock, etc., on 12thMay, etc., refore, after, until/till, What time... ?, When...?, in ten minutes, as soon as, when, once.


I/you/ we/they


he/she/ it

leave at eleven?

Example The plane arrives at halfpast ten. The concert doesn't start until nine o'clock. Does school end on 25thJune this year? The coach leaves before nine. What time does the shop open tomorrow? Once the film starts, all mobile phones must be off.

Notes: We only use until or till in negative present simple sentences about the future, e.g., The bus doesn't arrive till midnight. We do not use will after e.g., before, after, until/till, when, as soon as, once. I'll call you as soon as I get home.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ;___ ÂŁ

Practice 1 Read the sentences and choose the correct answer.

Choose the correct answer.

1 I'll help you with your homework. This is a request / an offer.

1 Will / Have you come to the party with me? It's going to be fun!

2 We're going to stay in a log cabin this summer! This is a plan / a prediction.

2 Will they have spent / spend all their money by

3 At eight o'clock this evening, my family and I will be watching TV. This is talking about a decision made at the

3 Life will be very different in the future / before.

the end of the weekend?

time of speaking / an action in progress at a specific time in the future.

5 The teacher won't / shall not be angry about us being a little bit late.

4 I will have read this book by the end of the week. This is talking about an action that will / won't be completed by a specific time in the future. 5 The 2016 Olympics take place in Rio de Janeiro. This is a fixed event in the future /

a suggestion. 6 Shall I take the dog for a walk?

4 My sister doesn't / won't take part in the concert. She's too embarrassed.

6 Paul won't have / won't finished his project in time. He's really lazy! 7 I promise I will / will have be home in time for dinner. 8 Will you have finish / finished dinner by the time I get home?

This is a future event that has been arranged / has not been arranged. 3 Match to make sentences. 1 Your lunch will

a wash your hair?

2 Will Pete be

b working on Friday evening?

3 Mum won't have

c starts in five minutes.

4 Davina won't pass

d her English exam.

5 Are you going to

e you a cheese sandwich?

6 Let's run! My favourite programme

f cleaned my jeans in time for me to wear them tonight.

7 The boys aren't

g be ready in ten minutes. h going swimming at the weekend.

8 Shall 1make

4 Rewrite the sentences in the negative and question form. 1 Owen will be working on his project tomorrow.

4 Robots will have replaced teachers by 2025.

2 We're going to learn about online businesses in the next lesson.

5 The film starts at half past seven.

6 Simon's taking his pet cat to school tomorrow!

3 Mum will like my new ringtone!


\ .

- * W


Complete the sentences about what Mary will be doing. Use the future continuous form. At seven o'clock, Mary. 2 At half past eight,__ 3 At ten o'clock,_____ 4 At twelve o'clock,_________ 5 At three o'clock, Mary and Ria. 6 At quarter past five, Mary and Rob. 7 At half past six,________________ _

The Future

u v w u w lfT T T Mary'slistforFriday 07.00 have a shower 08.30 eat breakfast to the Internet cafe 1Z00 meet 4dam for I 3.00 watch a on TV with 5.15 take Riley for a walk with Rob 6.30 make food for the party with 9-00 dance at the party!

8 At nine o'clock,_________________

5 Write the words in the correct order. 1 sports centre / the / half past eight / at / opens /. 2 for / studying / Ben's / this weekend / his exams /. 3 music lessons / her / is / going to stop / Clare / ? 4 will / what / fifty years from now / be / wearing / people / ? 5 to America / Anna and I / in August / are going /. 6 will have learned / before / the English lesson /Trudi / the new vocabulary /. 7 a birthday party / the girls / will / have / next year / ? 8 at the villa / for us / will / be / Uncle Norman / waiting /.

' Complete the email with words and phrases from the box.


Rose, Guess what! My Mum 1 __________ buy me a new mobile phone at last! I’m really excited. We s _________ _ shopping together on Saturday. I want to go early because the shops 3__________ . at half past eight, but Mum says she 4____________ ______ to come with us? leave home before half past nine. Anyway, do yo u 5. I need some help choosing my phone! We6______ . meet you outside Phones 4 Pun! at ten o’clock. I hope th a t7____________ be too early for you. I’m sure it won’t 8__________ __ me long to choose my phone. After that, you and I can go to the Internet cafe and meet Joe and the other kids. What do you think? Text me this evening to tell me if you’re coming. Talk soon, Faith 27

8 Make questions from the prompts. Use the answers to help you choose the correct future form. 1 you / type / this email / for me / please A:______________________________________________________ B: Yes, of course. I'll do it right now! 2 it/be/a nice day/tomorrow A:______________________________________________________ B: Yes, I think it is! 3 you/chat/to Julie/online/later A:______________________________________________________ B: Yes, I am. I'm calling her first to make sure she's at her computer. 4 Jim / finish / his new painting / by the end of the summer A:_____________________________________________________ B: No, he might not have finished it by then. 5 the technology class / start / at midday A:______________________________________________________ : B: No, it doesn't. 6 you / use / your new computer / tonight A:______________________________________________________ 1 B: Yes, but I won't be doing it until after I get back from the cinema. 7 we/listen to / some new CDs / later A:______________________________________________________ .] B: Yes, and we're going to order some pizza, too! 8 Dad / arrive / in London / by nine tonight A:______________________________________________________ 1 B: No, the plane won't have landed by then.

9 Choose the correct answer.

0 Read and choose the correct answer. W hat will the mobile phones of the future 1_____ like? W ill th e y 2_____ a lot by, say, the year 2030? Well, in the future, your mobile phone 3_____ yo u rlife .lt 4_____ working before you wake up. It will know your timetable and it will wake you up at the right time every day. Your mobile phone is also 5_____ your home, by turning on the heating when you need to get up early to study for a test, for example. I t 6_____ your music and video centre, too, when you are away from home. W hile you're sleeping, it'll find programmes that it knows7_____ you and record them for you to watch in your free time. It 8_____ you plan what to have for dinner by sending you ideas based on what it knows you like! Yes, the mobile phone of the future 9 very different from the ones we use today. In fact, the only thing i t 10_____ do for you is your homework! 1 A be B have been

1 Oscar and Nick_____ together next Saturday afternoon. A are going skateboarding B skateboard

2 A change B have changed

2 Hey, Jess. What_____ to the school party? A will you have worn B are you going to wear

3 A will control B will have controlled

3 Do you promise you_____ your temper when I tell you what happened? A won't have lost B won't lose

4 A will start B is starting

4 I'm sorry. The report_____ ready on time. A won't have been B isn't going to be 5 By July, w e_____ in this house for ten years. A are going to live B will have lived 6 This time next week, Lisa_____ with her cousins in Italy. A will be hanging out B is hanging out 7 Mum and Dad_____ each other for 20 years next month. A will be knowing B will have known 8 When we visit Egypt, I _____ lots of photos of the pyramids. A will have taken B am going to take

5 A controlling B going to control 6 A is B 'II be 7 A are going to interest B are interesting 8 A will help B is helping 9 A is going to be B is 10 A will B won't

Complete the dialogue with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Lee:

Walter, what do you think you 1________________ (do) this time next year?


Well, actually, 12________________ (go) to college in England. The course3 _________________(start) on the 20th September and it4_________________ (finish) at the end of July.


So you 5________________ (not be) here this time next year, for sure.


No, I won't. In fact, by this time next year 16_________________(be) in England for six months.


Where7-------------- you_________________ (live) when you're in England?


18_________________(stay) with my aunt until I find somewhere better. We've already planned that.


That's great! 19________________ (miss) you when you go. 110_________________ (send) lots of emails, I promise!


Me, too!

12 Complete the sentences with the correct future form of the words in brackets. Mum, I promise I .

___(not/be) back late. You know I'm responsible!

Look out! You___

. (fall)! .you.

________ (make) lunch by the time Dad gets home?

I m sure you.

________ (enjoy) this CD.

The rock concert.

----------- (end) at eleven, so we can catch the last bus home.

-------------- 1_________________ (carry) those books for you? This time next week, George and Lily________________ (lie) on the beach in Spain! They need a holiday because they're so hard-working. 8 I ________________ (not/leave) by the time you get here, so I'll see you later. 9 I________________ (go) to the supermarket. What do we need? 10 A: Would you like cola or juice? B: I .

(have) juice, please.

3 Complete the text with one word in each gap. I believe our lives will

________________ veq different in the year 2050. One thing

________watch TV or read boofcs in the future. Mo, people is that we1_______ . __________________their iPhones for music and TV programmes, and we'll all read e-boofcs on small computers that we can carry everywhere with us. Houses and cars 4 _________________ changed a lot, too, by 2.050. People will , i7smart houses with computers that control everything. 6ars

art ‘ ________________ >» ' «

“ 1

control the cars, too, so we wont

they lllvN loot IUUN now IIUVN. Computers1. i ----- ------have to do a driving test. Mso in to5o, a lot of people will be travelling in the sfcy using

spacars. TViere will be a lot of robots in 2-0<30. In fact, I thmfc robots -------- going to do most of thejobs. Teachers, doctors and police officers will all be robots. to when my children have an english lesson in 2060, a robot will be

. them! tA/er^ family is 9°'n9 ° robot in the house to do all the worlc. I'm looting forward to that

--- ave 3

, won't tidy my room

ever again!




. .. ■..■ ...

14 Choose the correct answers. Hi Danny, _ a brilliant time here! I arrived in "Paris last night and I KNOW I 1. pad an<Ji 11______to the top of the 6iffel Tower tomorrow. I thinfc it'll be really good and I'm looting forward to it! I'm going to tate lots of photos from the toP^ On Tuesday, we? _____ Uncle Tean and Auntie Marie-Claude and we « boat on the river. I hope 15______ill! Then all Wednesday morning wo II Paris on one of those tour buses. That's going to be very interesting because all the important places. £y the end of Wednesday, well8-----all of ?ans. We travel home on Thursday. The train <----- ?aris at eleven, and we'll be ,n London in time for lunch! f>o, 110-----lou on Thursday evening at football, as usual. Have a good weet. enjoy playing on the computer with Toe - I'm sure you will! “5ee you soon, 6arl i

A will be having


____ _ ___...—».—

............ —■— —

B have

C am going to have

D am having

2 A walk

B are going to walk

C will walk

D will have walked

3 A 're meeting

B meet

C will have met

D will meet

4 A go

B will have gone

C will go

D 're going

5 A am not feeling

B won't be feeling

c won't have felt

D won't feel

6 A have been riding

B be riding


D be going to ride

7 A we will have

B we'll

c we're going

D we

8 A see

B be seeing

c have seen

D going to see

9 A will have left

B is leaving

c c

is going to leave

D leaves

'II see

D will have seen

10 A 'm seeing

B see

15 Write sentences using the prompts. Use the most


16 Complete the second sentence so it means the

appropriate future form each time.

same as the first. Use the word in bold.

1 what / your brother /do/ when he leaves / school? he / have got / any / plans?

2 in my opinion/ people/use/fewer cars/in the future.

1 Cheryl is doing her homework between five and six o'clock. have By half past six____________________________ her homework.

3 Blair / eat / all the chocolate cake / before we get home / so / 1/ buy / some more!

2 The sky is blue. It'll be sunny all afternoon, to The sky is blue. It___________________________ rain this afternoon.

4 their / next Maths test / be / on Tuesday morning. 5 we / write / fifty emails / by the end of today!

3 Harry's going to cook dinner now. It will take him two hours. be In an hour, Harry____________________________ dinner. 4 What time is the school concert on Friday?

6 Mum / meet / my teacher / at seven tonight - I'm afraid / she / not be / pleased with my report!


start What time____________________________ on Friday?

— .».m -i*... ....-..------------------------ ----------- --------- * -------------i--- —

I Get it right! \

_ _ _ _ _ _ _

Read the dialogue. Underline the mistake in each of the sentences in italics. fVrite the correct word on the lines.



Hi Kenny. What are you do at the weekend? 1______


Well, I'm going to go to Sam's birthday party on Saturday evening.


What time is it start?2______


I think it starts at seven o'clock.


Oh, well, I'll come, too. I'll have do all my homework by that time.3____


Will you going to do your homework on Saturday afternoon, then?4____


Yes, I usually do. I like to have Sundays free so I can see my friends. Anyway, are you be able to come to my house on Sunday? 5_____


I'm not sure. I will be played football for the team at twelve. 6______ The match starts at 11.30. Why?


I'm getting a new computer game at the weekend. I'll have buy it by Sunday and I'd like you to come and play. 7______


Great idea! OK, well, I'll change my plans. I know ... I do my homework on Saturday afternoon, the same as you.8______Then I'll come straight to your house after football on Sunday.


Cool! See you Sunday!

*'the sentence is correct, put a tick. If it isn't, rewrite the sentence correctly. V iss Timms will have told us about the test later. Gossip Girl will have finished by half past nine. Gina's seeing the doctor at ten tomorrow morning. Shall we watch a DVD this evening? - jrry! We will be missing the school bus! t's going to get hotter in the future! think the music shop is closing by the time we get there. The kids will have met at the cinema at seven tomorrow.


.Vork with a partner. Answer the questions below. What do you believe will happen in the future? What are you going to do when you leave school? What will you be doing at this time next week? What do you think you will be doing in ten years'time? What will you have done by the end of next weekend? z What do you think people will use mobile phones and computers for in 2020?

Circle the correct answers.

Well, if I could choose again, I will / would go kayaking!

But ifyou prefer something mor relaxing, you can / would go kayak,, ,y.

Conditionals Conditionals are formed by two clauses; an /^clause and a main clause. Zero conditional Form



If + present simple // present simple

• to talk about general truths

If it rains, the ground gets wet. if water heats up, it turns to steam.

If + present simple // imperative

• to give directions or tell someone what to do

if your tent door is open, close it. if you need some help, ask!




If + present simple // will/can/may/ might/could

• to talk about possible future situations

if 1listen to the radio long enough, 1might hear my favourite song. If 1run out ofpizza, 1will buy some more.




If + past simple // would/could/might

• to talk about imaginary or unlikely present or future situations

ifl made a lot of money 1could buy an aeroplane. Ifl got to the final in the competition, 1would celebrate with my friends.

• to give advice

Ifl were you; 1would do your homework.

1First conditional

1Second conditional

Use of the if-clause in conditionals


We can often use the if-clause after the main clause. When we use the if-clause second, we don't use a comma.

1will ring Sarah back if 1get cut off. if 1get cut off, 1will ring Sarah back.

Use of unless in conditionals


We often use unless at the start of conditionals to mean if not. Unless is also often used with negative forms in the second clause.

Unless 1have to help Matt with his bike; 1will go to the party. If I don't have to help Matt with his bike, 1will go to the party. Unless 1go shopping, 1won't have anything for dinner. Ifl don't go shopping, 1won't have anything for dinner.



--------------------- I

Conditionals: zero, first, second i A1


Complete the first conditional sentences with words from the box. can’t


leave take part will


If I go horse riding on Saturday, I _________________call you, so you can join me. If you don't finish your swimming lesson too late, we could________________ for a bike ride. Unless I install the new software tonight, I ___

_ use it at the weekend.

If the doctor says my knee is better, I can____

. in the nature walk on Saturday.

Unless I find someone to go on holiday with, I .

____ be going anywhere!

If the weather is bad, I might not____________

. until Monday.

2 Choose the correct answer to make zero conditional sentences.


Safety Tips for Campers Follow our safety tips to have a safe and problem-free camping experience.

■ If you get water from a close-by stream or river,1boil / you boil it before you drink it. ■ 1Tie / Ties your bags of food high in the trees if there are bears near your campsite. Bears w ill eat any food they can reach!

■ If you have lights or torches on in your ten t,3switch / you switch them off! Light attracts insects like mosquitoes. ■ If 4you light / light a campfire, make sure that it is completely out before you leave the area. * EShare / You share the cooking and washing up if you are camping as a group, so that you all have time to do fun things, too! * Most campsites have a warden or someone to contact in an emergency. Check who on the campsite is available to help. If you6have / had any problems while you’re camping, contact someone immediately.

Happy Camping! 3 Use the prompts to write sentences giving advice in the second conditional. 1 A: I need to book the transport for the weekend trip. B: organise the hotel rooms first / be you I____________________________ if_____________________________ A: My laptop is broken, but I'm going to try to fix it. B: buy a new one / be you ____________________________ if_________________ A: I'm thinking about organising a group holiday on a houseboat! B: be you / check who can come first If____________________________ _____________________________ A: I'm worried about taking part in the performance. B: not worry / be you. ____________________________ if_________________________

.You have been practising for months.

5 A: I'm going to ask Wendy to come and watch the new horror film at the cinema. B: not ask Wendy / be you ____________________________ if_____________________________ Wendy thinks horror films are terrifying! 6 A: The school fair is tomorrow, but it's going to rain. B: be you / not go If_____________________________________________________

, It will be too wet.

33 »> ]

..2 .2 2 L , --------

4 Label each conditional situation real, possible future or imaginary. If you are scared of heights, the'Tallest Buildings'tour isn't for you!. If I made a fortune, I could relax on a beach every day-------If I ran a hotel, I would have a health centre for the guests----If I get really good at writing stories, I could enter a writing competition.. If you see a bug, don't scream!________________ 6 If I were you, I would ask how much the desktop computer costs---------7 If Gary comes back from holiday in time, he can come to the cinema with us.. 8 If we don't have to take the exam on Monday, we can go shopping instead. _ 9 If snow melts, it becomes water.________________ 10 If Paul and Jenny have theatre tickets for tomorrow, I might join them to watch the play..

5 Match to make conditional sentences. 1 If you make a mistake,

a don't worry too much,

2 If I could climb the highest mountain,

b we can travel together,

3 If he already owned the CD,

c he wouldn't buy it.

4 If Sarah has her party on Saturday,

d I would!

5 If I knew the teacher,

e he could help me with the project,

6 If I take the train,

f I may go.

6 Choose the correct answer. If Jack loses the chess game, he_____ out of the competition. A will be

C would be

B can be

D won't be

If you leave medicine in a safe place, children _____ reach it. A mightn't

C don't

B can't

D wouldn't

If caterpillars live long enough, they_____ into butterflies. A could turn

C would turn

B are turning

D turn

If Dad goes away for the weekend, I _____ make an effort to do something fun with Mum. A would

C wouldn't

B will

D won't

If he deleted my files, I _____ be very annoyed. A will

C would

B may

D can

If I were you, I _____ pick a quarrel with Lucy.


A couldn't

C wouldn't

B won't

D mightn't

C- oose the correct answer. Unless you're exhausted, w e_____ up the tower. A can climb B couldn't climb If team sports are too competitive for you,_ A you will try B you can try

. individual sports like golf.

If an avalanche happens, it_____ . A can be very dangerous B would be very dangerous ff I could live anywhere I wanted, I _____ ! A would live in a lighthouse B will live in a lighthouse If I go to the shops on Saturday, I ______ A would buy a new laptop B might buy a new laptop Unless you enjoy long walks,_____ ! A don't go hiking B you can't go hiking


Read the text and circle true (T) or false (F). A l p i n e F o r e s t S k i C e n ts ? © zi dlities and services T«Ve have a large selection of skis and skiing equipment at our Alpine Forest Ski Centre and our enthusiastic assistants can help to find the best choice for you. If you plan to go skiing or snowboarding, you need A the necessary safety equipment. You can rent helmets, knee pads and arm pads from us. If you prefer snowboarding, you are in luck! Our new selection of snowboards has just arrived and is available for hire. If you don't norm ally ski, don't worry! Take advantage of our trained skiing and snowboarding ::::essionals. They are available to give you group or private lessons from the very first day! Unless you're an experienced skier or snowboarder, you can take part in the 'slope-starter' lessons ■rich help you to become fam iliar with our slopes and popular tracks. If you love excitement, fun and the crunch of snow beneath your skis, you w ill have an unforgettable experience! For more information or queries, please contact the manager. The centre has helpful staff and all the equipment if you want to go skiing.

9 Choose the correct answer. T /F

Unless you plan to ski or snowboard, you don't need the safety equipment. T /F If you want to go snowboarding, the centre can offer you new equipment. T /F Unless you already ski, you will have problems at the centre. T/F Unless you are part of a group, the professionals won't help you.


If you have the starter lessons, you will be introduced to the different routes. T/F If you want to learn more, you can speak to someone. T /F

1 If he needs a ride to the bowling alley, he could /would send me a text message. 2 If she wants to learn how to dance, she would / might have to think about having lessons. 3 If I were / am him, I would take the opportunity to go to Africa. 4 If you're not busy on Friday, we can / can't surf the Internet at my flat. 5 He can't go running unless he got / gets some new trainers. 6 If the football is on TV tonight, I will / would definitely watch it!

« o o

10 Complete the conditionals in the text with words from the box. didn’t







Hi Tom, how are you?


I'm fine, but very busy!


Oh. Well, there's a party at Sarah's house tonight. Do you want to come?


I f l 1_____________ . have so much work to do, 12. . love to come along. But never mind. Maybe we can go and see that new adventure film on Saturday at the cinema.


Yeah, that sounds great. We can go if you 3________________ all your work done.


Don't worry, 14_________________finish it by Saturday if 15_________________ really hard tonight and tomorrow. It's my fault - 1started it late.


Yeah, I always start my homework late, too.


Unless I just6________________ down and do it, like tonight, I will never finish it!


Yeah. Well call me about Saturday.


I will. Oh,7_________________Bill to the cinema if you want to.


I will, thanks. Speak to you soon.


OK, bye!

11 Write the words in the correct order to make conditional sentences. 1 lots of photos of her, / be embarrassed / she might / we take / if If_____________________________ 2 hang up/unless/get through to them soon,/you Unless________________________ 3 open/it's too hot/the window/if / during the night, If_____________________________ 4 over there / your battery, / to charge / if / you need / you can do it If_____________________________ 5 if/ of food/ you're still hungry/there is plenty There_________________________ 6 go for a walk/we can / it's raining hard, / after lunch / unless Unless



12 Read and choose the correct answer.

A d v e n t u r e r s u n i t e for a w ild w e e k e n d o u td o o rs ! People from all ages and backgrounds are coming together for an unforgettable action-packed adventure weekend in South West England. The camping and outdoor sports event was organised to promote outdoor activities. ‘If more people knew about the wide range of outdoor sports and activities, we 1_____ arrange many more events like this one to bring people together,’ commented organiser Simon Byrne. Statistics show that being outdoors is good for your health, and doctors claim that if people spent more time outside, they2_____ be more relaxed and have a more positive attitude in their daily lives. ‘Last year we had 200 people. If more that 300 people attend this year, w e3_____ win a prize for the biggest outdoor event in the UK,’ Natalie Henderson, a camp leader, claims. ‘If we 4_____ show that being away from the TV and computer games can improve health and happiness, we 5 work on making the UK a healthier country.’ The organisers are very optimistic about the event, which will include kayaking, mountain biking, rock climbing and camping over the two-day adventure weekend. We wish them good luck, and if the weather continues to be warm, it 6 be an enj oyable weekend for all! 1 A will

B may

C can

D could

2 A can

B may

C will

D would

3 A will

B would

C can

D won't

4 A may

B would

C might

D can

5 A might

B may

C can

D would

6 A might

B will

C may

D could

I : ~ plete the text with the conditionals below.

d it take a long tim e to com plete the training and get to where you are now ?

>es but 1_____ For me, sky diving was my big dream. Even at the age of eight I wore a backpack and pretended to jump out of a plane. W you are enthusiastic about your chosen sport, you can make your : -earn a reality. Were there any moments when you thought about giving up?

â&#x20AC;&#x153; 'here was a time, after my accident, when the first parachute cidn't open, when I thought, 'Should I carry on?' But I still loved shy diving, so I made the decision to continue. I just thought 1_____ and I really need that excitement. 3______Do you give up or do >ou carry on? There's no right or wrong answer. It depends whether you feel comfortable carrying on. You should always do what's right xx you and follow how you feel. What advice would you give young people reading this?

_____ But they have to remember that before they start anything they need to have lessons and get 3<r\ice about the best way to start. B u t5_____ -

A 'If I stop this now, I won't have anything exciting in my life.' B It can be difficult, though, if something happens which makes you think about what you're doing. C if you think extreme sports are for you, I can definitely recommend them! I if you work hard, you can succeed at anything! E if you want any more advice from a top sky-diver, Steven can answer your questions online. : If young people are interested in extreme sports, I would tell them to go for it!

* - Complete the sentences using the correct form of :~e words in brackets. '

You can have our tickets if w e________________ (not/be) back in time for the festival.

15 Complete each sentence with one word in each gap. 1

I charge my phone, I can't ring Josie back.

2 I would goto Berlin if I _________________(know) how to speak German.

2 I won't have any time outdoors___________ I work all summer.

â&#x20AC;˘ If l________________ (not/have) plans, I could come horse riding with you.

3 If I can't find the book I want in the library, I'll it from the shop.

- Unless you organise a sports event well, it may ________________ (not/be) as good as you expect.

4 I ___________ ask her to join us for the pizza and film night if she didn't drive me crazy all the time!

5 If I ________________ (ask) to go sailing with them, they would probably say'yes'.

5 He___________ get lost unless he finds out where to go.

6 Unless he tries harder to talk to new people, he (not/make) any friends.


Poppy tells me if she can come or not, I'll ask someone else!

........... H # G ® 9

16 Complete the sentences with the correct form of words from the box.


17 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

become listen will/know will/enter get have will/not/be able take

1 If I drove a fast car, I . .driving competitions at the race track. 2 Unless you book a table at the restaurant, we to eat there. 3 Unless she learns how to swim, she can't a surfer. 4 Unless the dentist___________ a look at his teeth, he will continue to be in pain.

1 If you don't buy a helmet, you can't ride your bike.

unless you can't ride your bike. 2 If he doesn't pass his exams, he will have more lessons. passes If_________________________________________ have more lessons.

5 If I ___________ trapped in an avalanche while skiing, I would think about trying a new sport.

3 Unless an adult goes with you, you can't go! be able to Unless____________________________________

6 If Harry___________ to the teacher, he won't have any problems with his homework.

4 Flying a kite isn't fun unless it's windy,

7 If l___________ children, I would let them goon holiday with their friends.


8 If you look at the safety instructions carefully, you___________ what to do in an emergency.

isn't fun. 5 I would visit my grandma, but it's raining, wasn't


18 Complete the text using the correct form of the words in brackets.

t^ m M p e £ £ t€ m & I f l won a million pounds... We all talk about what we could do if we 1____________ (have) a lot of money. We might buy a big house for all our friends to live in, or we might give money to charity and save the rest. We all have different ideas about what w e’d do if our dream 2____________ (come) true and we won a fortune! Well, this week’s competition is about big money! We want you, our readers, to tell us exactly what you would do if you 3____________ (win) a million pounds. We are looking for the best and most creative answers. So if you 4 ____________ (think) o f a new, original idea for how you’d use the money, let us know! Unfortunately the prize for this writing competition isn’t a million pounds, but if you 5____________ (write) the winning answer, you can enjoy a weekend trip to Paris for you and a lucky friend. If you 6 ____________ (be) ready for the challenge and you want that weekend away, send your answers on a postcard to: Bits and Bobs Weekly Million Pound Competition PO Box 45921 UK


.... .

Get it right! s

. : : k at the underlined word in each sentence.

- :~e sentence is correct, put a tick. * : isn't, rewrite the underlined word correctly. f 1pass my driving test, I would drive us to the cottage.. : Jnless I finish my homework, I can't go out.__________ can watch the tennis competition if it was still on______________ If I chose playing the violin as my hobby, I can be very good by now___________ Jnless she speaks to her dad about the party on Friday, she won't be able to go.. t would be hard for beginners if they take the advanced classes______________ 2C " -ere is one mistake in the first clause of each sentence.

-5write each sentence correctly. '

If Natalie rang me back today, I will meet her for a game of tennis. If Brad books the room now, the hotel will be full! If I am you, I would call the sports club to check if they have basketballs for you to use. If he buys all the shirts in the shop, he would still want more! Unless he doesn't try apple pie, he won't know if he likes it or riot! Unless Sarah really doesn't need new school shoes, I won't buy them for her!

/[Let’s (SMB Work with a partner. Say if you agree or disagree with each statement.

Explain why. Unless you have the right attitude, you won't be successful. : There is nothing entertaining to do if the weather conditions are bad. 3 You can only start learning a musical instrument if you have lots of free time. Unless you like the cinema, you won't enjoy going to the theatre. 5 If you were famous, you wouldn't have time to hang out with your friends. Shopping is fun if you have lots of friends with you. If you did things that you enjoyed, you would be happier. 8 Unless you put time and effort into your hobby, you will always do it badly.


1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of

the verb in brackets. Use the future continuous or future perfect simple.

2 Choose the correct answer. 1 I promise I will pay / have paid you as soon as I can. 2 Don't call me after midnight. I will be sleeping / have slept. 3 It's late and I need to get home. Will / Shall we ask for the bill? 4 Book now with Cosmo Tours - you won't be regretting / regret it! 5 So you leave for Florida on Monday. Will you be / Are you being away for long? 6 Our plans have changed. We spend/ are going to spend the weekend at home. 7 Are you really going to / will marry him? 8 The show will have started / starts at 8.30. Let's meet outside the theatre at 8.15.

3 Complete the sentences with the future perfect form of verbs from the box. arrive be decide fix leave make not/answer not/read open spend 1 Mr Jackson________________ the printer by the time Dad arrives.

1 Shakira________________ (perform) live at the stadium next month.

2 The new computer shop_________________by the weekend. 3

2 She's on holiday, so she_________________ (not/get) your email. 3 I _________________(have) a party on Saturday. Would you like to come? 4 Between 10.00 and 12.00 we ________________ (visit) the wonderful Louvre Museum. 5 I can't help you tomorrow. I _________________ (see) my relatives all day. 6 By next year, I ________________ (live) in Italy for half my life. 7 When they finish their trip to Europe, they (be) to twenty countries. 8 I wonder what I ________________ (do) this time next year. 9

you_________________ (finish) your project by the end of June?

Lara_________________ all her money on magazines before the end of the week?

4 Grandma Jones________________ hospital by this afternoon. 5 They________________ friends for ten years in June. 6 William________________ all the questions by the time the exam ends. 7

Mum_________________ the birthday cake by teatime?


my postcard ________________ by the time I get home from the holiday?

9 Tom________________ which college to go to by the end of this school year. 10 Jade________________ all her library books before it's time to take them back.

Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Jse the word in bold. I'll have everything ready, so you can pick me up at 8.00. packed I'll____________________________ 8.00, so you can pick me up then. Would you like to dance? shall ____________________________dance? I expect to be late, be I _______________

.on time.

- Let's meet up after the film, finishes Why don't we meet up when. 5 Al and Alice are celebrating their 29thwedding anniversary on June 30th. married By the end of June, Al and Alice____________________________ for 29 years. 6 I'm positive about the future, will I don't think____________________________ so bad.

Choose the correct answer. Unless Ken goes on holiday in June, he comes / can some with us. 2 If we studied all night, we will / would be too tired to study the next day. 3 Unless you're a skilled climber, hire / hired a professional guide. 4 I use a map unless I know / knew the way to a place. 3 If I got on well with Mary, I will / would invite her. 5 If I started a new hobby, it would / may be surfing.

Choose the correct answer. If you_____ fish, don't eat it! A will hate

C have hated

Add a little salt if you. sauce.

3 hate

D are hating

A will want

C are wanting

B would want

D want

We won't _ ___if you don't want to. going B have gone

.to make a nice pasta

C go

I'll see you later if l__ __time.

D going to go

A have

C would have

B will have

D am having

If you want to speak English,_____ button B.

You can only travel__ __ you have a valid ticket.

A press

C you will press

A if

C as soon as

B you are pressing

D you would press

B unless

D before

If I _____ you, I'd take that offer immediately. A would be am

C were D being

8 She'll call you when she_____ at the station. A will arrive

C will have been arriving

B is arriving

D arrives


8 0 0

Complete the sentences with words from the box in the correct form. ... V r tidy can/go make can/meet speak stop will/buy 1 If I liked horse riding, I ________________ on horse riding trips with Becky. 2 If I were a famous singer, I ________________ all the pop stars. 3 Unless they_________________being immature, they won't get any ice cream later! 4 I ________________ the new Black Eyed Peas CD if I had some money. 5

to Jenny if you need some help.

6 If I ________________ a pizza, I will share it with you. 7 Unless I ________________ my room, I won't be able to watch the new TV programme.

8 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap. 1 What________________ your dad do if you didn't clean your room? 2 If I ________________ good at English, I would help you with your homework. 3

I go to see the new Pixar film, will you come with me?

4 I would come on the camping trip with you if I a tent. 5

______________ I get good marks on the test, my mum says I can't go swimming this weekend.

6 If I get cut off, I ________________ ring her back.

Get it right! 9 Look at the underlined words in each sentence. If the sentence is correct, put a tick next to it. If it is incorrect, rewrite the underlined words correctly. 1 Ted will have tidied his room by lunchtime. 2 Do vou use the computer all afternoon? I need to use it later.________________ 3 I think I will be having the strawberry ice cream, please. 4 If I win lots of money, I would buy some new computer games._________________ 5 Unless I finish soon, I can't go out with my friends. 6 If vou were hot, open the window.


Present perfect simple and continuous, Past simple; comparatives, superlatives and (not) as... as Du g se the correct answers.

It's difficult to choose. Number three is the most handsome/ more handsome, but he's not as tall / taller as I would like.

esent perfect simple tive





have/Ve worked

has/'s worked

in London.

I/You/ We/They

He/She/ It

haven't worked

Have in London.

hasn't worked


you we they


in London?

he she it

Example - ic~ons completed at an unspecified time in the past - ~:ently completed actions with a result in the present â&#x20AC;˘ stations that started in the past and have continued until now - bzz ons at a specified time (this morning/afternoon, etc.) which drs not complete at the time of speaking

Jane has worked in a nature reserve. Look! Mark has dyed his hair green. The Smiths have had that dog for three years. I have made four phone calls so far this morning.

~ 3ften use time phrases like already, yet, just, ever, never, for, srce, how long, today, this morning/afternoon, etc., this week/ ith, etc., so far, recently, etc., with the present perfect form.

I've already switched the computer off. Haven't you taken the photo yet? She's never been to Paris. Have you ever been to Brazil? How long have you worked here? I've had three exams this week.

\otes: "-ember the difference between been and gone when using the present perfect simple. They are both used as past Da'ticiples of go, but with this difference in meaning: Sre s been shopping. = she has done the shopping and returned home She s gone shopping. = she is shopping now

Present perfect continuous Affirmative I/You/We/ They


Negative have/'ve been working in London. has/'s been working

I/You/We/ They


Question haven't been working hasn't been working

Have in London. Has


I you we they he she it

been working

in London?


actions which started in the past and continue until now (to It has been raining all day. emphasise duration) actions which started in the past that have ended recently, but are They have been shopping all morning and now still relevant in the present they're exhausted. We often use time phrases like how long, for, since, all morning/ afternoon,/day/week, etc., recently, lately, etc. with the present perfect continuous.

How long have you been working for this company? He has been teaching at this school since 1999. Have you been studying recently?

Notes: The present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous can both be used to talk about actions that started in the past and continue to the present, e.g., Mr Jones has taught/has been teaching Maths here for twenty years. The main difference is that the present perfect continuous is used to emphasise duration.

Present perfect simple/present perfect continuous vs. past simple Use


â&#x20AC;˘ to show the difference between an unspecified time and a known time in the past â&#x20AC;˘ to introduce (e.g. a news report) using the present perfect simple and give more details using the past simple

John Jones has made many CDs in his career. He made his first CD in 1967. Fire fighters have finally put out the fire at the oil refinery. The fire started yesterday morning and raged until...

Comparatives, superlatives and (not)as... as Adjective



fast big wise easy happy beautiful amazing

faster than bigger than wiser than easier than happier than more beautiful than more amazing than

the fastest the biggest the wisest the easiest the happiest the most beautiful the most amazing



We use the comparative form to compare two or more people or things to show that one is of a higher degree than the other.

My sister is stronger than me. = she can lift 30 kilos; 1can only lift 20 Cinderella was more beautiful than her sisters. = Cinderella was beautiful; her sisters were not.

We use the superlative form to compare one person or thing with two or more people or things to show that it is of the highest degree compared to the others.

He's the fastest runner in the school. = no one can beat him in a race That's the most expensive shop in town. = there is no other shop where the prices are so high

Notes: I The comparatives and superlatives of two-syllable words ending in -y are formed by adding -ier and -iest. : However, some two-syllable adjectives (e.g., easy, clever, stupid, friendly, narrow, simple, common, polite, etc.) can take either -(i)er/-(i)est or more/most (e.g., cleverer/cleverest, more clever/most clever, etc.). 5 "he comparatives and superlatives of adjectives ending in -ing, -ed, -ful, and -less are formed with more and most. - Adjectives of three or more syllables (e.g., generous, practical and intelligent) are formed with more and most.

Irregular comparatives and superlatives *c;ective




better than worse than less than further/farther than more than

the best the worst the least the furthest/farthest the most



t : as... as Example

ÂťVe use as + adjective + as to compare two similar things. use not as + adjective + as to compare one thing that is x>t the same as the other

John is as clever as Timothy. My new suit wasn't as expensive as my old one.


We can also use less + adjective + than and the least +adjective to compare things, e.g., This book is less interesting than re t one. / It was the least interesting book I've read.

Practice Match the tenses in the sentences (1-8) with their functions (a-h).

a a completed action with a result in the present

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; Tim has been painting his bedroom all day.

b an action that started in the past which has continued up to the present

2 Sally has been to Germany five times. The last time she went was in 2007.

c to emphasise the duration of an action that started in the past and continues up to the present

3 I have had a passion for films for twenty years.

d an action completed at an unspecified time in the past

4 Peter's dad has bought a new yacht.

e an action in the past which has ended recently but is still relevant in the present

5 Linda's broken her leg and isn't coming to school today. 6 I've written two essays this morning and I still have one to do. Look! Adam's cut all his hair off. Man first walked on the moon in 1969.


an action that happened at a definite time in the past

g an action in a specified time which is not complete at

the time of speaking h to show the difference between an unspecified time and a known time in the past




2 Choose the correct answer. 1 Jo has looked / been looking after her brother this morning, so she's exhausted now. 2 Have you ever been / gone to Argentina? 3 We've been playing / played card games for three hours now. Let's stop because I'm getting bored. 4 I haven't been doing / done a crossword puzzle in ages. 5 Jill's not at school today because she's been catching / caught a cold.

3 Choose the correct answer. Use the words in italics to help you. 1 He has been / was top of the class for the last three years. 2 Did you think / Have you thought about your

project yef? 3 I saw / have seen that volcano a year ago. 4 Since 19961lived / have been living in Italy. 5 Before she left the company, Mrs Grimble has been working / worked here for 20 years. 6 She was / has been here a minute ago, but she left.

6 I haven't made / been making a phone call to Tim for several weeks.

7 I have met / met him last week.

7 She still hasn't been reading / read the book I lent her!

8 You're late! I waited / have been waiting here for over an hour\

8 I have worked / been working on this project for a week now and I still haven't finished.

9 Technology advanced / has advanced incredibly quickly in the 20th century.

9 We've been having / had two thunderstorms so far this week.

10 In the last two years he wrote / has written four books.

10 I haven't had / been having a minute to myself all day. 4 Match to make sentences. 1 He's been working really hard,

a for the last few weeks?

2 Have you spoken to John

b so we don't have much in the fridge,

3 We didn't have much time

c since Tuesday,

4 I haven't been shopping yet,

d about him wasting water yet?

5 Where did you

e but the project is still not ready,

6 Nobody has seen Sam

f put my mobile phone?

7 The last time I surfed the Internet

g was a week ago.

8 What have you been doing

h yesterday.

5 Choose the correct time expression. 1 That was the best meal I have_____ had! A already

B ever

2 Of course I've met him! We've known each other_____ five years. A since

B for

6 I have been living in the cottage_____ last year. A before

7 Don't tell me how the film ends; I haven't seen it_____ ! A yet

3 I've_____ fallen out with Chris, nor with Tim. A never 4

B already B How long

5 I've been working every weekend for six months now, but I _____ haven't saved enough money for the holiday. A still

B never

B still

8 I first came here a week______ A before

has she been doing her homework? A All day

B since

B ago

9 Janet has_____ finished her science project! A yet 10

B already

a few months my dad has been thinking about building a well in our back garden! A For

B Since

Write the words

in the correct order.

before / never / Chris / has / a games console / had /. 2 Mary / a mobile phone / didn't / for two years / have /. 3 always / has / been / difficult / it /Tim / to talk to / ? 4 didn't / 1/ sleep / last night / well /. 5 in the sun /sitting / this morning / since / you've / been / early /. 6 for / have / on / getting / nerves / days / been / they / each other's /.

' Choose the correct answer. ' A: Mr Blake is a very good teacher, isn't he? B: Well, he_____ here for twenty-five years.

5 A: Have you passed your driving test yet? B: Yes. I _____ my driving licence last week.

A taught

C has been teaching

A have already got

C have been getting

B was teaching

D teaches

B got

D get

: A: Are you raising money for charity again this year? B: Yes, but we haven't chosen the charity_____ A since

C ever

B yet

D already

3 He_____ a mistake in an English exam before. A has never made

C hasn't never made

B has ever made

D did never make

- A: I went to a rap concert for the first time ever last week. B: Really? I _____ to several this year! A went

C have just been

B haven't gone

D have already been

6 I _____ as strongly about saving water as I do now! A have never felt

C have already feel

B always haven't felt

D have yet felt

7 I met him a little while ago, so I _____ him for long. A didn't know

C don't know

B haven't known

D haven't already known

8 A: Have you been to the Natural History Museum? B: Not. _. The last time I went was about two years ago. A recently

C already

B yet

D since

■ Complete the email with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

#06 Hi BUI, ____________(be) very busy practising . (not/write) for such a long time, but I J .1 . . (tell) you before about how I got in the fcr the concert next weekend.3____________ "band? 7fsll, one afternoon, about a month ago, 14________________(go) as usual to the school music rooms to practise. After a while, a guy with long h air5________________(come) into the room and said he liked the way I played guitar and asked if I wanted to join his band. As you know, 16________________(always/be) interested in r laying in a band, so this was fantastic. Of course I said ‘yes’. Now my dream 7________________(come) true 1 But it means I have to spend a lot of my time rehearsing for the concert, which is why 18________________ (not/ be) in touch for a while. Since they asked me to join the band 19________________ (practise) all day, every day. In fact, I spend so much time on it that 110________________(not/study) for the end of term exams at all! Anyway, that’s my news. I’m sending you some free tickets. A ll the best, Alan — ^ ............ n,.ii,'.SSSS5^ ................... . — ..~ r Sorry 11.


9 Write questions using the prompts. Use the present perfect simple or continuous form. 1 how long / he / surf/the Internet 2 Martha /fix /the caravan /yet 3 how many/books/he/write 4 you / ever / get involved in / protecting the environment 5 Harry / grow / taller / since / 1/ last see / him 6 the dogs / bark / at the birds / all morning

10 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. 4 She started hanging out with Daniel when she was six years old.

1 They moved in next door two years ago. been


They_________________________________ next door for two years.

She_________________________________ she was six years old.

2 This is my third exam this week.

5 This is Ted's first visit to China.


.exams this

I ___ week.


Ted__ before.

3 I met him for the first time ten years ago.


6 It's been three years since we got our dog.


.ten years.

I _____


W e_________________________________ .

11 Complete the sentences with verbs from the box using the present perfect simple, present perfect continuous or the past simple forms. come


do fly go



ring try


1 I ________________ never_________________ the chance to travel as much as I want to. 2 Sarah_________________her bedroom since seven o'clock this morning. 3 This is his third novel. He________________ his first book in 2003. 4

you_________________ to contact John yet?

5 I ________________ to finish this project since this morning, but my brother keeps playing loud music. 6 Ludovic first________________ to England in 1998 and he's been here ever since. 7 I haven't seen you for weeks! What________________ you_________________ lately? 8 The phone________________ for almost a minute. Why doesn't somebody answer it? 9 He's only been at this school for one year. Before that he________________ to a school in America. 10 I have used many means of transport, but I ________________ never_________________ in a helicopter.

I -oose the correct comparative or superlative form. That was the less / least exciting film I've ever seen. It was really boring! . Jerry has got the bigger / the biggest CD collection of anybody I know. can't make a decision about which I want the most / more, the pink, the black or the red skirt. - Taking part in any sport is more fun / the most fun than watching it on TV. Jenny's computer has a faster / more fast Internet connection than Anna's. 6 Tom isn't as better as / as good as Jake at playing the guitar.

Zhoose the correct answer. That exam was.

_than I thought it would be.


C more difficult


D most difficult

Rob's the youngest, but he's_____ than his brothers. A as tall

C taller

3 more tall

D the tallest

Since Peter has been taking lessons, his violin playing has become_____ .


A more good

C much more good

5 more better

D much better

4 Katie is. with David.

. me about Tracy picking a quarrel

A as angry as

C as angry than

B angry as

D angry than

5 Rachel is_____ player on our basketball team. She never runs! A laziest

C the lazier

B the laziest

D the most lazier

6 That's the_____ block of flats I've ever seen! It's so badly designed. A worst

C baddest

B worse

D badder

Complete the biog entry with words from the box. as



best done

had just

more told was


day, 17 October guys i got back from the _____________ you I was fa n t a s t ic I

adventure camp I 2 rcing on. I t 3____ don't thin k I 'v e ever :ch a good tim e . I 5__ rungee jumping and r a ft in g , but the ______________________ thing of a l l was k it e s u r f in g . Have you ever 7___________ e x c itin g zhat? I t ' s much 8___________________ zhan wind su rfin g , but i t ' s not as easy i t lo o k s . doing? Get in touch soon.

.... More soon ...Watch this space.

.................. ;....... .


«G© 15 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. 1 Jonathan is the worst guitar player I've ever heard. worse _______________ guitar player than I have. Jonathan. 2 This computer is more expensive than I thought, as This computer___________________ I thought. 3 John is the tallest boy in the class, not Peter ___________________ John.

4 The History test was much easier than I expected. difficult The History test ____________________I expected. 5 I don't know anyone who's more intelligent than Sally. the Sally___________________ person I know.

16 Complete the letter with the correct form of words from the box. be

big decide






take up work

a letter to an agony au n t before, probably because I - ---------------------^ real problems ln in my life. I know my problem isn ’t the 3______ the world, but I *--------------------- anyone I can talk to about it. I t’s my dad. Last week lie 6_____ _____ to give up work and 6-------------------- - recently _______the saxophone. He says he has always 7_________ keen on being a jazz musician. He’s nearly 50! Mum 8 __always full time, so she s rare ly in the house and doesn’t have to listen to him practising all day. With all the noise, I can’t think I can’t study and I don’t know w hat to do. I’m tired of it! tilis now for a m onth and his playing isn ’t much --------- -- -------- th a n it was a t the beginning. He’ll never succeed in being' a jazz musician. How can I tell him ? Please give me some advice g Yours, ~


17 Complete the text with one word in each gap. A year1_________________ some friends of mine and I decided to open a restaurant in France. None of us2________________ any experience of running a restaurant. I have never3________________ able to cook well, and 14_________________ since found out that I'm a terrible waiter, too. When I told friends and family that I was going to give up my job and spend all my money on a restaurant, they told me it was the 5_______________ _ ridiculous thing I had 6_________________done. At first things didn't go well, and we thought we might have to give up and sell the restaurant. But suddenly, probably because there are not very many places to eat near here and they are all very expensive, while our restaurant is the7-------------- in town, things started to get better and8________________ people started coming than before.9________________ then, people have been telling others about the place, and recently we 10________________ had to hire more staff because we are so busy!


i f Get it right! if the sentence is correct, put a tick. If it isn't, rewrite the sentence using the correct form of the present perfect simple, present perfect continuous or past simple.

Change the time expression if necessary. I lived in a friend's house since I came here a month before. He's still playing games on the computer. He has played games for almost two hours. Hello, Sam! I haven't been seeing you since ages. When have you last lost your temper with your little brother? I have always wanted to build my own website. Timothy has just failed his driving test six months ago. Jackie's just gone swimming. She'll be back in about half an hour. Have you heard the news? There's been another flood in Japan. The comparative and superlative forms in bold are incorrect. iVrite the correct forms in the gap. We're the better___________________ team in Greece. Shrek 4 wasn't sŠ good ___________________ as the other Shrek films. Kastelorizo is the most fa r___________________ island from mainland Greece. 1did more bad ___________________ than I expected in the exams. Do you feel happyer___________________ now? I'm the ŠSder___________________ child in my family. There is always most___________________ time than you think. My sister is happiest with the most simplest___________________ things in life.


Work with a partner. Answer the questions. What are the most important changes that have happened in your life in t What interesting places have you visited? What hobbies do you have now? How long have you been doing them? What ambitions and dreams do you have? What have you done to achieve them so far? What have you always wanted to do, but haven't done yet? What did you do last week? What things in the world have changed since you were a young child?

Complete the sentences with words from the box. much

had fallen asleep


had been cooking


ready few

Let's make a pizza as a surprise! Is there cheese? Are there

No cheese or tomatoes! But we've got a ________________ potatoes and a _________________chicken.

t o m a t o e s ?

Jack and Angie______ By the time supper was

.for hours!

Past perfect simple Affirmative


I/You/ He/She/ It/We/ They

I/You/ He/She/ It/We/ They

had/'d eaten

the chocolate.

Question had not/ the hadn't chocolate. eaten


I/you/he/ she/it/we/ they


the chocolate?



â&#x20AC;˘ actions that happened before something else in the past â&#x20AC;˘ actions that happened in the past when the important thing is the result in the past â&#x20AC;˘ actions that happened in the past and were completed before a specific time in the past

The restaurant had closed by the time we got there. Simon didn't want to come for a meal with us because he had just eaten. Had all your friends gone home by eight o'clock?

We often use time words and phrases like by the time/six o'clock/the end of the week, etc., after, already, as soon as, just, ju st... when, already, never, {not) ... {before), until, it was the first/second time ever, never with the past perfect simple.

The food had gone cold by the time the waiter brought it. 1ate breakfast after 1had had my shower. Dan left the house as soon as he'd eaten. Was it the first time your dad had lost his temper with you? The boy had never skied before.

Notes: 1 It is quite unusual to use the past perfect simple tense in a sentence without another tense, unless it is in the context of a conversation. 2 We can sometimes use EITHER the past perfect simple or the past simple in a sentence, with the same meaning, e.g., They'd been for lunch at the Italian cafe several times before it closed. They went for lunch at the Italian cafe several times before it closed.


Past perfect continuous Mfirmative


/You/ 4e/She/ ft/We/ They

I/You/ He/She/ It/We/ They

had / 'd been sleeping

in the tent.

Question had not/ hadn't been sleeping

in the tent.

I/you/he/ she/it/we/ they


been sleeping

in the tent?


; Use - actions that were continuing in the past when another past action happened • for completed actions in the past, where the results could still be seen in the past

Had you been studying for long when 1phoned?

We often use these time words and phrases with the past perfect continuous: before, for, since, when, until, after, for a long time/ages/ weeks, etc., all morning!afternoon!week, etc.

The software had been downloading for ten minutes when John unplugged the laptop. 1had been reading all day so my eyes felt tired.

Harry couldn't answer the teacher's question because he hadn't been listening.

Notes: We can use because with the past perfect continuous when the completed past action caused the past result, e.g., Millie was red because she had been running for an hour. r

Past perfect simple and continuous vs. past simple Use


When the past perfect tense and the past simple :ense are in the same sentence, we use the past oerfect tense for the event that happened first in the past, e.g., A little while after the storm had ended, ±ekids went out for a walk. (The storm ended first, snd then the kids went out for a walk.)

1hadn't finished my popcorn by the time the film ended! My phone had been charging for five minutes when you called. I'd been trying on shoes for ages before 1found a pair 1liked. Had you been working at the cafe for long before you lost yourjob?

Notes: When one action happened immediately after another, we use past simple for both actions, e.g., When Gail got home, she took off her shoes.

(a) few, (a) little, much, m any R>rm



zfew + countable nouns

• to talk about small numbers of sth

Ingrid tried a few snacks, but she didn't like them.

3 little

• to talk about small amounts of sth

Is it polite to leave a little food on your plate?

+ uncountable

■nouns • to talk about small numbers of sth with a negative meaning; to mean not many

Few of my friends are as passionate as 1am about fashion!

• to talk about small amounts of sth with a negative meaning; to mean not much

There's little space in my bag, so 1can't carry your things!

not) much + uncountable nouns

• to talk about amounts, often in negative sentences or questions

Was there much food at the party? There isn't much meat on a grasshopper!

not) many + countable nouns

• to talk about numbers, often in negative sentences and questions

A: Andy, have you got many recipe books? B: No, not many, but you can borrow the ones I've got.

*ew + countable nouns ffft/e + uncountable nouns

Notes: 1 We can add very in front of few or little when we want to emphasise how small the number/amount is, e.g., There's very little water left. Very few students can speak six different languages. 2 We can use a lot of and lots of with countable or uncountable nouns to talk about large numbers/amounts of something, e.g., There are a lot of kids at my school who play the drums. Lots of these books are in English.


Practice 1 Choose the correct answer. 1 By the time we found the restaurant, I had / have stopped feeling hungry. 2 Had Jenny ridden / rode an elephant before she went to India? 3 I was thirsty because the chips was / had been very salty. 4 The school trip to the technology museum had been / being very informative. 5 Had / Did all the shops closed by the time you got there? 6 Sue had never heard / hear of the Black Eyed Peas until I gave her their new CD. 7 The service hadn't / wasn't been good, so we didn't go back to the new pizzeria. 8 Had / Has Joe made all the sandwiches before he ran out of bread? 9 Derek hadn't / wasn't had anything to eat all day, so he was very hungry. 10 The customer was angry because the waitress had / was been rude.

2 Match to make sentences. 1 I hadn't been sleeping

a time together in the garden when the rain started.

2 Had Jessica lived

b for long when we stopped for a break.

3 My family had been spending

c before the teacher arrived?

4 We hadn't been riding our bikes

d a good time on holiday before you fell ill?

5 Patrick hadn't been looking

e well for weeks before they arrived.

6 Had you been having


7 Helen had been getting

g forward to the trip to the mountains. h in London for many years?

8 How long had you been waiting

on Sarah's nerves for a long time.

3 Write the words in the correct order to make questions. 1 met / you / had / before today / Sylvester / ? Had 2 by the time / the weather / had / you reached Scotland / improved / ? Had 3 had / a mouse / was / that the first time / your cat / caught / ? Was 4 rung / Celine / you / had / before she found you / many times / ? Had 5 his desk / Mick / already / when / his mum came / had / tidied / into his room / ? Had 6 by the time / sold / all those nice pinkT-shirts / they / you / got / had / to the shop / ? Had 7 already / before / she took part / she / broken / a world record / had / in the last Olympic Games / ? Had 8 before / you / you / got / had / your parents' opinion / made your decision / ? Had


Complete the text with the past perfect simple of the verbs in brackets. Karen 1________________ (not/work) in a restaurant before she started her Saturday job at Italiano's, the pizza place in town. The manager2_________________(ask) the other waiters to help Karen for the first few days, but they weren't interested in doing that and they were too busy anyway. So by the end of her second day, Karen 5________________ (break) five plates and she4_________________ (drop) two meals on the floor and one on a man's knee! Karen 5_________________also ________________ (ask) the cook so many questions that he6_________________ (forget) about his cakes and they were all burnt when he took them out of the oven. You won't be surprised to hear that Karen7________________ only ________________ (work) at Italiano's for three days when the manager asked her to leave. She was the worst waiter he8________________ ever ________________ (have). Write questions in the past perfect continuous form, using the prompts given. Then complete the answers. it/rain/all morning A:_______________________________________

6 Complete the dialogue with words from the box. ate been did eaten had hadnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t never read seen thought Ashton:

Hmm how was the food in France, Joe?


Well, it was good. I ate some things I had 1___________ eaten before.


Did you? What sort of things? I mean, hadn't you2___________ French cheese before?

you / walk / in the forest / for long A:_______________________________________ ________________________________________?


Oh, yes, I 3___________ ! Of course! No, I mean 14___________ eaten things like snails, you know!

B: No,_________________.


Rosie's cat / miss / since the morning A:____________________ ___________________ ________________________________________?

Snails! Yuck! I'm not sure I'd like to eat snails - they're from the garden.


I don't think the snails 15___________

B: Yes,________________ . she / swim / before the lesson A:_______________________________________ B: Yes,________________ .

had ever6___________ a garden! I think they're special snails!

B: Yes,________________ . you / wait / a long time / for the concert to begin A:_______________________________________ ?


OK, OK. Let's stop talking about food. What else did you do in France?


Well, I went to a famous museum - the Louvre. I had 7___________ about it in some magazines before, but I'd never 8___________ there.


Oh, yes, I've heard of the Louvre. Was it interesting?


It was fantastic! But, do you know what?




Well, I'd always9___________ that the Mona Lisa was a huge painting - but it's really quite small!


Oh, well, sometimes the best things are small! Now ... what10___________ you buy m e...?

B: No,_______________ Mum/sleep/for long A:__________________ B: No,________________ . they/surf/the Internet/all evening A:_______________________________________ ________________________________________? B: Yes,_________________. Tim / hang out / with his friends / before dinner A:_______________________________________ ? B: Yes,.

o o o

Complete the sentences with the past perfect continuous form of the verbs in brackets. 1 How long______________________ April_______________________ (work) at the Internet cafe when you met her? 2 My eyes were red because I ______________________ (cry) all morning. 3 Did you ever buy the CDs you______________________ (save) money for? 4 I ______________________ (not/think) clearly all day. 5 By nine o'clock, Andrew______________________ (study) for six hours. 6 The floor was dirty because Dad______________________ (cook). 7 Jessica______________________ (not/exercise) for long when she hurt her leg. 8 A: Why were Jeff's clothes wet? B: Because he______________________ (wash) the car. 9

the kids_______________________(take) exams all week?

10 It______________________ (not/snow) for long, but the courtyard was white.

8 Choose the correct answer. It was a special day in our house yesterday - we 1_____ potatoes for dinner. That doesn't sound very special, but the thing is, the potatoes2_____ from our garden! My brother Nathan3_____ to grow vegetables lots of times before, but he hadn't succeeded in growing anything until yesterday when he4_____ his first potatoes out of the ground! Nathan had been out in the garden all afternoon. He didn't tell us what he5_____ - he simply6_____ into the kitchen at half past four carrying a bag of potatoes7______ from the garden. We were all proud of him because we knew how hard 8_____ in the vegetable garden to grow those potatoes. By the time we sat down for dinner, Mum had cleaned and cooked the potatoes and they9_____ in a bowl on the table. We all10______a bit sorry to eat Nathan's first potatoes, but as he said, that's what potatoes are for! 1 A ate

B have eaten

6 A walked

B had walked

2 A had been coming

B had come

7 A he'd just got

B he'd just been getting

3 A had been trying

B had tried

8 A he'd worked

B he worked

4 A pulled

B had been pulling

9 A had been

B were

5 A did

B 'd been doing

10 A felt

B had been feeling

9 Choose the correct answer. 1 How much money_____ before you lost your purse? A had you been spending B had you spent

5 Is it true Bruce's dad had already_____ his fortune by the time he was twenty? A been making B made

2 Helen_____ her computer class when I last saw her. A gave up B had given up

6 I hope the rain had stopped before Mum and Dad the boat out. A took B had been taking

3 Ben hadn't done any of his homework when Josie at his house. A arrived B had been arriving

7 It_____ the nicest thing anyone had ever said to me. A was B had been being

4 Alex_____ his laptop off before he went to bed. A hadn't been switching B hadn't switched

8 When he was a young boy, my grandpa_____ a passion for fast cars. A had had B had been having

past nerfect simple and continuous. Past simple; (a) few, (a) little, much, many Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the past perfect simple or continuous, or the past simple. By the time Jamie Oliver first1________________ (appear) on television, he :________________ already_________________ (work) as a chef for a few years. When he was a teenager, he helped in his parents' restaurant and that was when he3________________ (learn) that not only was he passionate about cooking, but he was also good at it. After he4_________________(finish) studying at Westminster Catering College, h e5_________________(go) to work as a chef at some famous places in London, including River Cafe. By the time he appeared on television in a programme called The Naked Chef, he6________________ (become) a top-quality chef. Jamie has done some important things in his job. A few years ago, he made a commitment to help unemployed teenagers by teaching them to become chefs. The idea7_________________(be) a big success, which was lucky as Jamie8________________ (use) a lot of his own money to help the kids. Now the teenagers work in a special London restaurant called Fifteen. Before they9________________ (meet) Jamie, they10_________________ (try) to get work for a long time, but now they've got good jobs doing something they are passionate about. 11 Complete the dialogues with one word in each gap. Use the past perfect simple or continuous and time words/phrases.

12 Complete the text using the past perfect simple or continuous form of verbs from the box. disappear go happen leave not/want take test try use visit

1 A :___________ your dad installed the

new printer by the___________ your sister needed it? B: Yes, he___________ .

.thinking about buying a houseboat for a ___________ time before they did it?

2 A: Had they.

B: Yes, they___________ .

A: I'm sorry I woke you. Had you been ___________ for long? B: Yes, I___________ . A: Had you been worried about your

marks___________ you got the school report? B: Yes, I ___________

. too much to 5 A: Had Dad. eat before he went to the theatre? B: No, he___________ .

A: Had the boys been fighting ___________ long before the teacher stopped them? B: Yes, they___________ !

7 A: Had Nina and Harry. fallen out when you met them last week?

(â&#x2013; t

-i b 1 1


i %i

c* ÂŁ i

As soonas Georgewalked into the kitchen at the restaurant, he knew somethingterrible 1_______ ______ When he1_______________ the placethe night before, everything had beenfine. The other chef, Carlotta,3______________ to leave at the same time as George because she4______________ some of her new recipes. She5______________ to make a new kind of ice cream. Put Carlotta wasn't there when George arrived - she6______________ home hours before. Carlotta wasn't the only thing that wasn't in the kitchen - the fridge7______________ and so had all the tables, the chairs and the cupboards. In fact, it was clear that people*______________ the kitchen during the night and stolen everything. Georgewas surethat they 9______________ things out ofthe kitchen all night long and heguessedthat they10______________ a very big lorry to take everything away. George made a call to the policethen hewrote on a large piece of paper 'No food today - someone has stolen the kitchen!'

B: Yes, they___________ .


13 Choose the correct answer. 1 Melissa had tried on ten dresses before she chose / had chosen one.

14 Complete the sentences with the past perfect simple or continuous of the verbs in brackets.

2 By the time my friends arrived, I waited / had been waiting for forty minutes.

1 The dogs were exhausted because they ________________ (run) in the park for over an hour.

3 After I had read / been reading the letter, I threw it away.

2 They all thought it was amazing that he (pass) all his exams!

4 I phoned Ewan as soon as I had finished / been finishing my homework.


5 How long had they been travelling before they had reached / reached their hotel? 6 Sarah hadn't finished her homework when her favourite TV show had been starting /

started. 7 Our friends played / had been playing volleyball on the beach since ten o'clock, but we didn't get there until twelve. 8 Had most of the students been finishing / finished writing their essays when the bell rang? 9 Ricky and Anna hadn't been getting / didn't get on well for a while, so they broke up at the weekend. 10 They had been sailing for an hour when the weather changed / had been changing.

the boys_________________ (surf) the Internet for a long time before their music lesson?

4 I ________________ (not/taste) octopus before I visited Spain. 5 The children_____________ new CD since the morning.

(listen) to their

6 By the time the manager arrived, the unhappy customers________________ (shout) for an hour. 7 I'm not sure why they________________ (not/ bring) their laptops that day. 8 The meal cost more than they________________ (want) to pay. 9

you already_________________ (make) other plans when Chuck invited you to his party?

10 We got cut off before w e_________ _______ (finish) our conversation.

15 Write the words in the correct order. 1 lost / his temper / had / Nick / why / ? 2 photos / they / taking / all morning / when / the camera stopped working / been / had / 3 had / singing / all morning / been / the birds / ? 4 everything on her list / done / Sophie / by / the end of the day / hadn't /. 5 for / a long time / Molly / interested in / had been / taking / a cooking course /. 6 our help / refused / it / wasn't / the first time / had / Mike /. 7 calmed down / my baby sister / she went / to bed / by / the time / had /. 8 hadn't / taken part / Eric / because he / in a race before / a bit nervous / was /.

17 Complete the text with one word in each gap

16 Choose the correct answer. Della:

Hey, Sophie! Are you OK? You were very red when my dad1_____ past you earlier. What had you2_____ ?

Sophie: Oh, I'm OK, thanks. 13_____ , that's all. Della:

Ah, I see! Yes, I'd heard that you've been doing a lot of exercise these days.

Sophie: Yes, I have!4_____ very lazy for ages and I .to do anything at all. So two weeks ago I talked to the PE teacher and she suggested running. I'd never tried it before, but 16_____ I enjoyed it. Della:

I'mthe same! I'd always7_____ running was boring, but when I tried it, I realised it can be fun. Do you feel better now you've started running?

Sophie: Yes, I really do! 18_____ exercise was so good! Della:

Well, they say exercise is important... exercise and food.

Sophie: Ah, that's another thing.9_____ a lot of fast food before, but 110_____ that wasn't good for me. Now I eat salads and vegetables and things like that. Della:

And how long have you been doing that for?

Sophie: About two weeks - the same as the running. Della:

That's great, Sophie. See what a difference two weeks can make!

If you’re looking for somewhere to go this weekend for a delicious, but cheap, meal, Carney’s in Green Dragon Lane is the place for you. Until a m onth ago, Carney’s 1 been a fast food cafe and teenagers had 2 going there for a quick burger and chips or a sandwich and milkshake. But now things have changed.3-----------------last weekend, all the old cafe furniture had gone and the football and pop posters on the walls 4___________ disappeared. I 5___________ never been to the old cafe myself, but people who had 6 food there said the food was good, but nothing special. Like the other people who had been 7 outside Carney’s before it opened, I was looking forward to finding out what the ‘new’ food was like. And I wasn’t disappointed! The owner had 8----------------- me the meals were going to be better than before, but they were amazing! Someone from Italy 9___________ replaced the old chef and he knew what he was doing. The food was delicious, the meals 10___________ unusual, and I didn’t pay too much for what I ate. So, the next time you’re hungry, go to Carney’s and ... enjoy mmmm.Mwmninii) 11,1 Ii. ——J

1 A drove B had driven

C had been driving D had be driving

2 A be doing B been done

C done D been doing

1 How much / many CDs did you buy?

3 A had been running B had run

C ran D had ran

2 There are only a few / little tickets left, so we need to hurry.

4 A I'd been felt B I'm feeling

C I'd feel D I'd been feeling

3 Not many / little people hang out here at night.

5 A hadn't been wanting B didn't wanted

C hadn't wanted D haven't wanted

6 A had been finding B found

C had found D has found

7 A think B been thinking

C thought D been thought

8 A hadn't realised B realised

C hadn't been realising D had realised

9 A I'd be eating B I'd been eating

C I'd ate D I'd being eat

9 My baby brother can't eat meat - he's got very

C decided D had decide

10 There aren't few / many places here for young

10 A had been deciding B have decided

18 Choose the correct answer.

4 We need some milk-there isn't many / much in

the fridge. 5 Few / Little students passed the test as it was very

difficult. 6 They did little /few to help us achieve our

ambition. 7 There were a few / little surprising ideas in your

essay. 8 So much to do, so few / little time!

few/many teeth. people to go in the evening.



19 Complete the dialogue with much or many. Jude: Aled, shall we have something to eat? Aled: Yes, good idea! But we haven't got \ food left.

Jude: Well, we could have cheese and tomato sandwiches.

Aled: Let me see ... no, sorry, we haven't got 2

horrible! I kjnOvo z.

tomatoes. There are only two very

small ones in the fridge. And there isn't 3

AraveXled a lot andl who_ hay-e_-_eaijfc]a_

sirange ihings-Qn iheir jouna.eLjS.-Mij f r ien^L


Jude: Oh, and there isn't4_________ bread, so forget

______ ill af i ervoOrdls andl... spenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;L t [\e re st of

that idea!

i he .dl.aij in be<j! Andl.LkfiQvo a bou) who tried

Aled: Are there5_________ eggs left?

_____ weirdi foods when he toas in China)___ _

Jude: Just a minute ... no, sorry, there aren't 6

at all.

-.mcludLing snakes_headls andl dlucks_feet I_____

Aled: Well, I know we haven't got7_________

W e said t\\ere voere

ot\\er unusual

vegetables, so this is getting a bit difficult!

Jude: We haven't got8_________ time, either - so let's go and have lunch at the cafe on the corner!

Aled: Yes, let's do that... then I'll go to the

dion t â&#x20AC;˘Lining I d voani ^........ .from.. t hat wenu a t all. In. |.ac i.)_I adlmit I m usual

nervous aboui tr y ing new -foodil

supermarket this afternoon and buy ...

Jude: ... let me guess... some food!

1 A much

B many

C little

D a little

2 A little

B much

C a few

D a little

3 A many

B a little

c much

D a lot

4 A much

B a few

c many

D a little

5 A a little

B little

c much

D a few

1_________ animals, which they kept for milk. They

6 A many

B much

c few

D little

certainly didn't eat2_________ fast food, and there

7 A few

B a few

8 A a little

B a few

c much c many

D many

weren't3_________ people who ate food from other

20 Complete the text with the words in the box. a little


many a few




The food that we eat has changed a lot over the years. Our grandparents'grandparents ate fresh food, often food from their own garden. Some of them also had

countries like we do today. Slowly, over the years, it became possible to find food in the shops that was 4

different. At first,


people tried the food, but it slowly became

more popular. These days6_________ people are extremely busy and have7_________ time to prepare meals, so they eat fast food and ready meals a lot more than in the old days.


D much

12 Complete the dialogue with one word in each gap.

23 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. 1 First Joanne corrected her mistakes. Then she gave her essay to the teacher. had Joanne_________________________________ before she gave her essay to the teacher. 2 I switched my mobile phone off before Mum tried to ring. after Mum tried to ring my mobile phone _________________________________ it off. 3 We can't make a pizza - there isn't much cheese

in the fridge! very We can't make a pizza because there's _________________________________ in the fridge! 4 Billy started typing at ten o'clock,

Cedric: What are you going to have?



By two o'clock, Billy _________________________________ four hours.

Well, there isn't1________ food on the menu that i like, I'm afraid.

Cedric: Oh, dear! There aren't2________ vegetarian meals. I'm sorry. Niki:

There are a 3________ things with eggs. I can't find4________ things with rice, though.

Cedric: How about the cheese pie? I had one here

once, but there was very5________ cheese in it. However, we can ask the waiter to tell the chef to put lots of cheese in this time! Niki:

OK, I'll try that!

5 Arlene arrived at the restaurant twenty minutes before us. waiting Arlene_________________________________ twenty minutes at the restaurant before we got there. 6 The computer was fine for an hour. Then it stopped working. been

Cedric: So, how's the cheese pie? Niki:

Well, I'm a 6________ unhappy with my meal.

Cedric: Why? Does the pie need more cheese?


No, there's7________ lot of cheese in the pie.

The computer _________________________________ for an hour before it stopped. 7 We sat down and the waiter came to our table,

Cedric: So, what's wrong?



As soon as _________________________________ ,the waiter came to our table.

The pie's nice, but there isn't8________ of it, there aren't9________ tomatoes and 10________ of the vegetables are cold.

Cedric: Oh, no! WAITER!

8 The teachers had a meeting at nine o'clock. The lesson started at ten o'clock. before The teachers had _________________________________ the lesson started.


1Get it right! 24 The words in bold are incorrect. Write the correct word on each line.

Are yo u interested in cooking? Westdale College has a variety of different food and cookery courses. We can teach you little different and exciting dishes.1________ If you don’t have few money, we can teach you how to shop well and buy exciting food for wonderful meals.2________ Busy mothers with a few time for cooking can learn how

to make fast food that’s healthy and delicious.3________

a little of our students say about the courses.5________

Give us much of your time and w e’ll give you new cooking skills! 4______

Many courses are better than the

Check out our website and read what

one at Westdale; and none are as much fun! 6________

25 Underline the mistakes. Then rewrite the sentences correctly. 1 Luigi hadn't been working as a cook for long when Maria had been meeting him. 2 I had been surfing the Internet for one hour before I had found what I was looking for. 3 It was the second time Sarah had being so irresponsible. 4 Wesley didn't use a digital camera before, so I showed him what to do. 5 When my parents had been arriving at the station, they realised they had left their tickets at home. 6 Dad had paint on his clothes because he painted all day. 7 How long had you been knowing Cassie before you broke up with her? 8 The teams not been practising for long when it started to rain.

ffl o t ’ c 26 Work with a partner. Answer the questions.

r d lim n D l 1



1 What had or hadn't you learned to do before you were six? 2 What had you done this morning before you left home? 3 What had been happening in your house yesterday before you got home (use your imagination!)? 4 What don't you enjoy eating much or many of? 5 What do you enjoy eating a little or a lot of?

Grammar 1 Choose the correct answer. My sister has read / had read lots of cookery books this month. Last week she has been reading / read one full of delicious vegetarian recipes.

Review 3 Choose the correct answers to complete the dialogue. Ron:


. really tired all week, so why don't

we do something useful and cook the dinner?


Good idea! 12______ a great recipe for a starter

2 Has Guy ever flown / been flying in a plane before?

in one of Mum's magazines the other day. It's a

3 Elsa hasn't been booking / hasn't booked a table for us at the new cafe yet.

like it, but it looks easy to make.

4 This is the first time I ever was / have ever been in such a posh restaurant.

sort of spicy seafood dish - 13______ anything


the main course?

Jack: Ron:

6 Glenda wrote / has been writing emails all morning. She's already been writing / written ten! 7 A: How long has Andrew been having / had a dog? B: He got / has got his dog two months ago. 8 Nick is dirty because he has been working / has worked in the garden all morning.

9 Oh, no! We have missed / have been missing the early train again. 10 Where did you buy / had you bought that new mobile phone?

W e 4______ a lot of fish lately, so I don't want fish again tonight.

5 Sam's thought / been thinking of buying a

new bike.

OK, that sounds interesting. Now, what about

Agreed! Let's have chicken. OK?

Two hours later: Jack:

Hmm ... this starter doesn't look too good.


Are you sure you 5______ the recipe properly?


Well, I thought 16______ , but maybe not!


The chicken7

in the oven for two hours,

but it looks the same.


Ron! You didn't turn the oven on! You're a worse cook than I thought!

Half an hour later: Jack:

Err, hi, Mum! About dinner...

Mum: Oh, yes, dinner - here you are boys - 18___ us all fish and chips for this evening!

2 Complete the sentences with the correct past form of the verbs in brackets. 1 By the time we _ the cinema, Phil.

(arrive) at _ already (buy) our tickets.

____ (be) really angry 2 Bella. ___________ (wait) for us for because she_____________ over an hour. When I ________________ (see) Matthew yesterday, his eyes were red. I think he ________________ (cry). W e______________ __ (get) cut off before I ________________ (have) the opportunity to tell Sonia about the concert. . (chat) online all 5 Douglas. evening, but when his parents came home he ________________ (switch) the computer off. 6 Liam_____________ _ _ (feel) sick because he ________________ (have) too much to eat.

1 A felt B 's been feeling

C had felt D had been feeling

2 A have seen C saw B have been seeing D had seen 3 A 've never had B didn't have

C 've never been having D 'd never had

4 A 've been eating B ate

C 'd been eating D 'd eaten

5 A 've been reading C 'd read B 'd been reading D read 6 A did B had been

C have D had

7 A cooked B 's cooked

C 's been cooking D had cooked

8 A 've been buying B 've bought

C 'd bought D 'd been buying

< G

4 Choose the sentence that has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

5 Choose the correct answer. 1 We thought Manuel was less / the least

experienced waiter in the restaurant maybe in the whole world!

1 This is the most tasteless food I've ever eaten. A All the food I've ever eaten tasted better than this.

2 Neil doesn't like his new computer. He says it's worse / bad than his previous one.

B I've never eaten any food that tastes better than

this. 2 Jermaine isn't as passionate about music as his brother Calvin.

3 They planned to leave for the airport as early / earlier than usual, but they weren't as organised as / more organised than they'd hoped.

A Calvin's as passionate about music as Jermaine is. B Calvin's more passionate about music than

Jermaine is.

4 Laura wants to buy the more / the most

3 The Hot Pan is the most expensive restaurant in town.

expensive laptop in the shop, but she hasn't got as much as / as much money as she needs.

A A few other restaurants in town are as expensive

as The Hot Pan.

5 I'd always thought Mr Jenson was the best / better teacher we'd ever had, but

B All the other restaurants in town are cheaper than

The Hot Pan.

now I think Miss Sylvester is.

4 The talk about ambition was more informative than I'd expected.

6 A holiday by the sea sounds most exciting / more exciting than a holiday in

the mountains, but a mountain holiday is probably healthier than / healthier.

A I had expected to find the talk very informative. B I was surprised at how informative the talk was.

7 The weather this summer isn't as good as / as better as it was this time last year. It was hottest / hotter last year and not as

5 That waiter was the most impolite man we'd ever met! A We'd met a lot of impolite people, including that



8 I don't know anyone more / as passionate about food as Gordon. Nobody makes delicious / more delicious chocolate cake than he does!

B We'd never met anyone as impolite as that waiter. 6 It was a good pool party, but not as good as Simone's birthday party last year. A Simone's birthday party was better than the pool party.


B The pool party was better than Simone's birthday party.

6 Complete the text with words from the box.

a few

a little many few



Logged in

Monday, 17 October 1 1_______ young people set their hearts on becoming famous. But in reality there jare only 2_______ teenagers who achieve worldwide success - like celebrities Miley ;Cyrus or Justin Bieber, for example. So what does it take to become a teen star? Well, you need more than 3_______ ability, for one thing. And you need to have set your heart on achieving your ambition. 4_______ people succeed unless they're passionate about what they do, whether it's acting or singing. Finally, you should :also be realistic - if you have 5_______ singing ability, don't focus on becoming a famous singer! No matter how 6_______ you dream of singing with a band, it probably won't happen. The secret is to focus on what you can do well.

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Complete the second sentence so it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the word in bold. 1 They didn't enjoy the Italian meal as much as the Chinese meal they'd had the week before. enjoyable The Italian meal wasn't ________________________ the Chinese meal they'd had the week before. 2 After studying fashion for ten years, Jasper finally built his own business. had Jasper________________________ for ten years before he built his own business. 3 They worked for two hours. Then Mum

made lunch. been By the time Mum made lunch, ________________________ for two hours. 4 I'm sorry, but there's only a little milk left for our coffee. much I'm sorry, but there ________________________ left for our coffee. 5 Both the main course and the starter at the

Indian restaurant were very spicy. was The main course at the Indian restaurant ________________________ the starter. 6 John was surprised that not many people at the party shared his taste in music. very John was surprised that ________________________ at the party shared his taste in music. This is the first time Joan has ever broken a record, so she's delighted. never Joan________________________ before, so she's delighted. 8 The kids arrived at the station two hours ago and they're still waiting, waiting The kids________________________ at the station for two hours.

8 Complete the text with one word in each gap. Last Friday, Carla 1________ the doors to her restaurant for the very first time. She'd2________ working hard for months to get everything ready and last week it finally happened. It 3________ always been her ambition to own a restaurant. Ever4________ she was a child, Carla had enjoyed playing in her toy kitchen and pretending to make meals for her family. She studied cooking at college and then went to London. She spent six years working in different restaurants there.Then last year, after a lot of looking, Carla5________ a restaurant to buy in her home town. Since then, she6________ been getting everything organised and building her business. It was much 7 difficult than she'd imagined and it's been the 8 expensive thing she's ever done. But since last Friday, more9________ 100 people10_________eaten at Carla's restaurant, so for the last few days, Carla's been feeling exhausted, but very happy! 9 Choose the correct answer. 1 Dad's making something unusual - _____ in the kitchen for the last three hours! A he worked B he's been working

C he'd worked D he'd been working

2 A: Have you been watching the football? B: No_______ A I didn't B I wasn't C I haven't D I hadn't 3 What's the trendiest shop_____ something from?

A you'd ever bought B you bought

C you've ever bought D you've ever been buying

4 The kids_____ to the skateboard park for the

afternoon yesterday. A have gone B have been going

C had gone D went

5 A: Is Arthur older than you? Bs No, I'm the oldest. He isn't_____ I am. A as old as B more than

C the oldest D as old than

6 There are only___ _ people who could survive in those extreme conditions. A few

B little

C a few

D a little

7 Greg_____ at his desk before the teacher walked in! A has fallen asleep C falls asleep B has been falling asleep D had fallen asleep 8 The teacher didn't have_____ time to explain everything. A many

B much

C a little

D few

B IB "


E L 1!!

" 'â&#x2013; B f l.......... 1111111111111111....

i p

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Reported speech

Choose the correct form. Well, maybe she was shopping for a new computer!

Reported speech We use reported speech to retell or report what someone said. Direct speech

Reported speech

Present simple

Past simple

He said, 7like playing tennis!

He said (that) he liked playing tennis.

Present continuous

Past continuous

She said, 7m making a cake'

She said (that) she was making a cake.

Past simple

Past perfect

He said, 7saw an unforgettable film at the cinema'

He said (that) he had seen an unforgettable film at the cinema.

Past continuous

Past perfect continuous

She said, 7 was listening to music.'

She said (that) she had been listening to music.

Present perfect

Past perfect

He said, 7have finished my homework.'

He said (that) he had finished his homework.

Past perfect

Past perfect

She said, 7had washed the dishes.'

She said (that) she had washed the dishes.

Future forms





She said, 'He won't leave me alone.'

She said (that) he wouldn't leave her alone.

is going to

was going to

He said, 7am going to go swimming.'

He said (that) he was going to go swimming.


had to

She said, 7must ring Sally back.'

She said (that) she had to ring Sally back.



He said, 7can meet them at the park.'

He said (that) he could meet them at the park.

it e t e s :

” he pronoun and verb, e.g. she said, always come first in reported speech, even if they come after what someone says n direct speech, e.g., 7rode my bike', she said. -» She said (that) she had ridden her bike. After present, future and present perfect reporting verbs, e.g., says, will say, has asked, etc., the verb form is normally :he same as in direct speech, e.g., Luke: I've passed the exam. -> Luke says (that) he's passed the exam. 7play football.' —>Peter will say that he plays football. 7don't like coffee.' —>Polly has said (that) she doesn't like coffee. When we use reported speech, sometimes the subject pronoun has to change, e.g., f saw them walking in the park,'she said. -» She said (that) she'd seen them walking in the park. We went to the cinema on Monday,' Tom said. —>Tom said (that) they'd gone to the cinema on Monday. Sometimes the object pronoun also has to change, e.g., 1don't like my school bag,'Jenny said. —»Jenny said (that) she didn't like her school bag. let them play on our new computer,' Bill said. -» Bill said (that) he had let them play on their new computer. We can use say and tell for reported speech. When we use say we don't use an object but when we use tell, we do, e.g., said (that) it was a nice car. -> I told him (that) it was a nice car. Some place and time words change in reported speech, e.g., yesterday -> the day before/the previous day tomorrow - »the following day/the next day now —>then/at that time today —» that day :his -> that these -> those lere —>there next —» the following ago -» before/previously last —>the previous come —» go 1saw John yesterday' Bill said. -» Bill said that he had seen John the day before. Do you want to come?' Laura asked. —>Laura asked ifl wanted to go. r


Reported questions 11 h- questions I -ect speech

Reported speech

'What are you doing?' 1asked. ouestion word + auxiliary verb + subject + verb

1asked what he was doing. question word + subject + verb

Ifs No questions ■D^ect speech s the bank nearby?' 1asked. •e±) +subject

Reported speech 1asked if/whether the bank was nearby. if/whether + subject + verb

shall questions I 'ect speech

Reported speech

Shall 1close the door?'she asked. ^cr questions or offers that use shall, we change shall to should.

She asked if/whether she should close the door.

Reported commands and requests Direct speech

Reported speech

Vpen the window!'he said. Could you carry my bag, please?'he said

He told me t©open the window. He asked me to carry his bag. reporting verb + object + to + infinitive

m om

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ........ ..............Âť..

Reporting verbs Form


admit that / admit + -ing

He admitted that he broke her vase. He admitted breaking her vase.

explain that

She explained that she couldn't find her way home.

suggest that / suggest + -ing

He suggested that we (should) go for a bike ride. He suggested going for a bike ride.

deny that / deny + -ing

She denied that she had played a trick on Sue. She denied playing a trick on Sue.

Practice 1 Choose the correct answer. Joe:

Hi Natalie. How are you?

Natalie: Fine, thanks Joe, but my mum's a bit annoyed with me at the moment. I was shopping online at the weekend and she came into my room.


Oh, yeah. What did she say?

Natalie: She said that 11can / could only use the laptop if 12have / had finished my school project.


What did you say?

Natalie: I said that 13must/had to use the Internet because 14am / was buying some books online that 15need / needed for the project. But Mum saw the fashion website and she wasn't very happy. She said that I couldn't use the computer again until I'd done my project AND6spend / spent time tidying my room!


Oh no!

Natalie: Anyway, my dad came home and he said that h e7is / was going to cancel the Internet altogether! So I said that 18won't/wouldn't use the Internet until they 9saw / had seen that my project was finished. Joe:

So, what now?

Natalie: Well, I still haven't finished it and I told them it 10will / would be done by Sunday ... so no more Internet shopping for me!

2 Match to make sentences. 1 Craig asked me ifl

a he was going for a walk then.

2 Jessica asked if

b they had been on holiday a week before.

3 Peter and Kay told me that

c she could come to the beach with me.

4 Donald asked me if

d could pass him that magazine.

5 Mike said that

e would meet me there the next day.

6 Jen said that she


he could borrow my CDs.

3 Complete the sentences with words from the box. was going to



could was

had to

1 He told me that he___________ been having a break all afternoon. 2 She said that John________ _

going to be OK as it had just been a minor car accident.

3 They said that they___________ give you the recipe for the cake, as they promised. 4 You said that it was late and you___________ go to bed, because you had to get up early. 5 Her mum said that she___________ only use the computer for school work. 6 Jake said that he___________ find out about renting a car.


Reported speech - Choose the correct answer. The teacher said that he online.

6 Read and choose the correct answer. .the new film

A bought

C had bought

B has bought

D had been buying

The mechanic said that the car_____ be fixed. A can

C couldn't

B can't

D could have

Her parents said that they_____ pay for her to keep on having horse riding lessons. A would be

C will

B would

D won't

Simon said that there_____ lots of films about people surviving in extreme conditions. A was

B will be C are

D were

Oscar said that he_____ going to play tennis when he saw Jane. A is

C has been

B had been

D went

Claire said that she. __ an informative programme about road safety the day before. A saw

C has seen

B had seen

D was seeing

7 Luke couldn't come to the cinema because he said he_____ having a family meal. A am

B is

C was


D were

5 Choose the correct answer. ‘ Richard asked me if I am going / was going to try the new recipe. 2 My mum asks if there was / is going to be a school trip next year. 3 Sally asked when she can / could come to visit me in France. 4 The lady asked me if I she should / shali wait with me until my dad came. 5 The website asked me if I had / have an email address. 6 They say that the clothes will / would be delivered to my house. 7 My sister asked if I am / was doing anything

then. 8 Luke tells me that he had to / has to make an effort to do some cleaning.

Tell us how technology has changed how you live your life... Here’s this month’s winner, Lucy from Manchester, explaining how TV holiday programmes have changed her life. Td been flicking through the TV channels all morning when suddenly I came across a holiday deal like no other! Now, I don’t normally book holidays that I’ve seen advertised on TV, but my friend 1_____that most of the time it was good value, and she was right! There were lots of deals to choose from and it was so much more convenient than sitting in a travel agent’s! Finally, I found it! The Spanish Hotel was right on the beach and the sea looked crystal clear - no pollution at all. The presenters on the programme showed lots of reviews from people who had stayed at the hotel. Most of them said how tasty the food 2_____, and one woman said that she3_____herself so much that she’d been back to the hotel three years in a row! And she said that the staff there 4_____very attentive and welcoming. I jumped up and rang Abigail, my best friend. She said that she 5_____two hours looking through magazines for a cheap holiday. Well, when I told her about the deal she was so excited! She said that if I book it straight away, she go on holiday with someone else! So, I booked it. We had a good time on holiday, and we both said that i t 8_____the best holiday we’d ever had! I’ll definitely be taking advantage of the TV to find holiday deals in the future!’ ... :.... ...........

1 A says

B said

C has said D had said

2 A is B wasn't

C had been D hadn't been

3 A enjoyed B 's enjoyed

C 'd enjoyed D was enjoying

4 A were


5 A 's spent B 'd spent

C are

D is

C spends D 's spending

6 A don't

B didn't

C haven't D hadn't

7 A can

B could

C will

8 A is B was

D would

C have been D had been


7 Choose the correct answer. 1 You told/ said him to help Dad with the car.

9 Complete the sentences about the dialogue with words and phrases from the box.

2 I explained / said I needed a new school bag. 3 The man in the shop explained / suggested that it was the best TV there was. 4 Tracey told / said them that she had to do her homework before she could go out to play. 5 Mr Wilkins told / asked me if I wanted to get involved in the theatre group at school. 6 Rachel denied / explained being involved in the car accident. 7 Jackie and Paul told/said their children that they could get a new dog. 8 We admitted / suggested that we didn't like cooking. 8 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets. 1 He asked me if I ___________ (see) his new bike yet. 2 Mum said that she___________ (can) not come because she ___________ (be) making dinner at that time. 3 Jess said that, before Lucy called, she___________ (finish) her homework. 4 Henry said that he___________ (love) surfing the Internet.





the previous

the following

Diane: Hi, Fiona. How was your weekend? Fiona: It was OK. I spent all day yesterday in town, so I'm going to

the park today for some fresh air. Do you want to come? Diane: Yes! What were you doing in town? Fiona: Shopping! I was buying summer clothes because I'm going

on holiday next week. Diane: Oh, where are you going? Fiona: To Italy with my mum. We only booked it last week. Diane: I haven't been to Italy, but I'd love to go! Fiona: I went two years ago with my aunt and uncle. It was really

beautiful. Diane: How long are you going for? Fiona: A week. My brother will come and pick us up from here and

take us to the airport next Saturday. Diane: Well, have a great time.

5 Lindsey said that she___________ (will) let me borrow the game.

Fiona: Thanks!

6 He asked me if he___________ (shall) close the door.

1 Fiona said that she was going to the park___________ day.

7 They said that they___________ (not/see) the new kitchen before that day. 8 She said that she___________ (must) have a break every 20 minutes.

2 Fiona said that she was going on holiday___________ week.

3 Fiona said that they had booked the holiday___________ week. 4 Fiona said that she had been to Italy two years 5 Fiona said that her brother would___________ and pick them up. 6 Fiona said that her brother would pick them up from



Read the article and choose the correct answer.

Middleton Crime Rise A group of boys broke into a local eectronics shop on Thursday -ight, starting rumours that crime s rising. It is the third time this â&#x20AC;&#x201D;onth that shops have been namaged. The group of boys broke two ;â&#x2013; the large windows. The police arrived soon after. Police Officer I.n ca n Pacey said that the group _____ only managed to take two ~o3 players, some batteries and : _one accessories. He went on to sa i that the damage 2_____ as bad as it could have been. However, people in the area of

Middleton are becoming concerned about the recent events. Two of the shop owners on the same street said that they 3_____ considering putting up iron safety bars on their shop windows, and a female shop owner said that she 4_____ about

moving out of the main shopping area. The Chief of Police said that there 6_____ be more policemen out working on the streets during the hours of 6 p.m. to 12 p.m. to try to reduce this growing problem. The police said that they would be doing all they 6_____ to make sure that the shopping area of Middleton was safe. The police are still looking for the boys from Thursday night's break-in and have given descriptions of those thought to be responsible.

1 A has

B have

C had

D hadn't

2 A isn't

B are

C was

D wasn't

3 A am

B are

C was

D were

4 A thought

B didn't think

C was thinking

D thinks

5 A would

B will

C won't

D wouldn't

6 A will

B would

C could

D can

1 Write the words in the correct order to make reported questions. tell / him / he asked / the time / whether / 1/ could /. 2 call Fred / whether / she asked / should /she /. 3 to the computer screen / Bob asked / he / what / was / doing /. 4 to fix the cooker / who / could / call / they / Hilary asked /.

12 Complete the sentences with the correct answer. 1 Tom asked Helen if he could borrow_____ CD player. A your

B his

C her

2 Susan asked Matt if he could stay in and wait for the delivery man to bring_____ shopping. A her

B my

C our

3 The girls asked if John could

5 could / he asked / pass him / 1/ the remote control / if / .

remind them when_____ party was.

6 unplugged / the TV cable / why / had / he asked / my brother /.

A your

B his

C our

4 Julie asked Nancy if_____

could have a chat later. A they

B you

C she

5 Karl asked if Betty had fixed games console. A my

B his

C our

6 Nick's friends asked him if he'd seen_____ new dog. A their

B our

C his


14 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap.

13 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets.

1 'I wrote a really good story at school today,' Harry said.

. (admit) 1 Georgia. that she had had too much to eat. 2 Ian________________ (deny/eat) his brother's dessert. 3 The girls_________________ (explain) that they'd been away on holiday for the last two weeks. 4 My brothers________________ (suggest/go) bowling on Thursday night.

Harry said that___________ had written a really good story at school. 2 Paul and Lucy said, 'We're going to go on holiday in May.' Paul and Lucy said that___________ were going to go on holiday in May.

3 James asked, 'Can I go out to play?' James asked___________ he could go out to play. 4 Martha and I said, 'We won an online competition!'

Martha and I said that___________ had won an online competition.

5 Tom's little sister ________________ (admit) that she had made a mistake.

5 'I saw my friend at the computer shop,' Sally said.

6 Mary_________________(explain) why she was late for her art class.

6 Eva asked,'Shall I turn off the lights?'

7 Sarah_________________(suggest/ invite) Gemma to the party.

7 Karl said, 'The computer isn't mine, it's theirs.'

Sally said that she had___________ her friend at the computer shop.

8 Joanne________________ (deny/ ruin) the carpet.

Eva asked i f ___________ should turn off the lights. Karl said that the computer wasn't___________ , it was theirs. 8 Nick asked, 'Can we go and see our cousins at the weekend?' Nick asked if they___________ go and see their cousins at the weekend.

15 Read the story and complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets.

©[7 OGGJ0 K 3 QQ( 3 S 0 gG@K3 Our readers tell us some funny stories about their funny families! fyecky's story:

lI Was listening to my brother play the guitar when we heard the crash. I t Was


loud th a t the tea in our

cups moved! I ran upstairs to see w h at Was happening. There Was a stool by the Wardrobe and clothes all over the -floor. Suddenly the clothes moved and from underneath cam e ... Jenny, my little sister! She said th a t she had been looking for the new shoes th a t I ’d bought so th a t she could try them on. I f Was actu ally really funny to see her With clothes hanging off her, and We still laugh about it to d ay!’

Becky said that... 1 she___________________ (listen) to her brother play the guitar. 2 they___________________ (hear) the crash. 3 the tea in their cups (move). 4 she___________________ (run) upstairs to see what ___________________ (happen). 5 i t ___________________ (be) really funny to see her sister with clothes all over her.

Rewrite the questions using reported speech. EXAMPLE: Shall I switch off the music?'he asked. ____________ He asked if/whether he should.

the music.

'Can I use the shower after you, Tom?' she asked. 'What time is the man coming to fix the door bell?' Kate asked. 'Can we go and buy a new computer game?'the children asked. 'Where is my cutlery?'I asked. 'Shall I go and play in the park?'the little girl asked.

Complete the text with a word from the box in the correct form. admit ask deny explain

suggest tell

At first, she had 1___________ deleting Robert's essay. When he found out that it was gone, he was furious and demanded to know who had deleted it. Sarah knew that she must have closed the essay without saving it. Robert2___________ who had used the computer and she3___________ that she'd bought a new computer game and had used the computer for half an hour the previous night. She couldn't believe what she had done. After a big argument, she knew that she had to 4___________ him the truth and she5___________ that she'd closed the file without thinking. Sarah did everything she could to calm Robert down and she even6________ __ writing the whole essay again for him, but nothing worked.Three days later, he still wasn't speaking to her, and she couldn't even look at ner new game.

S Rewrite the statements using reported speech. 1 'I'm going to Nick's house,' he said. 2 'I walked for hours,'she said. 3 1 won't go into that shop,' Kate said. 4 'We want to do something fun in the holidays,'the children said. 5 'I have been to see Susie,' I said. 6 'He had taken a long time to do the shopping,' she said.



#G< 19 Read the story and write the underlined reported questions in direct speech. Catherine looked up from her book and asked 1if she should open the window. I nodded yes and continued with my work. Suddenly, there was the sound of the front door opening and Graham ran into the library. His face was red and he was sweating. I asked him2what was happening. He told me that he'd been walking his dog in the park when he'd heard police sirens. A man with a large bag had run past him and had asked him 3 if he knew the wav to the train station. Graham had just stood there with his mouth open. He asked again 4which wav it was and Graham had pointed. The man had run off and a girl had walked up to Graham and had asked 5whether she should call the police. Graham told her that they were already coming. The police arrived a moment later and had asked Graham6if he could go to the police station with them and 7whether he could give them a description of the man. Graham said that he had just returned from the police station and had come straight to the library to tell us the exciting news.

21 Rewrite the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. 1 'Is he meeting Paul today?'Sarah asked.




Sarah___________________ . Paul that day.

3 4 5 6 7

20 Write the words in the correct order to make direct speech. Then report what each person said. 1 at seven o'clock/'I went/to school / he said./today,'

2 on the phone,'/ he said. / talking to Jane /'I was

'Will the dress be ready to pick up tomorrow?' she asked, collect She asked if the dress _________________________ the following day. 'Can you carry on working until five o'clock?'Jill asked. continue Jill asked if he________________ until five o'clock. 'Does Kelly enjoy going to parties?'he asked, liked

3 a new computer,'/ is looking for/'Mandy / Mandy's mum said.

4 John said. / a new girl /'I met / at school,'

5 about Internet viruses,'/'! read / an article / Naomi said.

He_________________________ going to parties. 'I smashed the plates,'he admitted. breaking He_________________________ the plates. 'Shall we ride our bikes today?' Tom suggested.

6 a hotel /'I can book / online,'/ said Brian.

going Tom________________ _______ a bike ride that day.


.. ....... Âť * ".... , .,l,^ n , , - ^ , - . . ^


Get it rightl Underline two mistakes in each sentence and write the correct words on the lines. 1 She said that she will be going to the museum tomorrow. 2 They said that I can use our new printer. 3 He told me that Rebecca has visited last week. 4 You told that you are too busy with work to ring her back. 5 I told you that I am playing on my computer last night. 6 She said that she must look for a new desk next week. Underline two mistakes in each reported sentence. Then rewrite the sentence. 'Did you go to see him yesterday?'Isabelle asked. Isabelle asked if I had been to see her yesterday. 2 'Why did she buy the same shoes as me?' Lily asked. Lily asks why she has bought the same shoes as her. 3 'Can the children leave me alone for five minutes because I have a headache?' Peter asked. Peter asked that the children could leave me alone for five minutes because he had a headache. 4 'Shall I throw the ball?' Katie asked. Katie asked if I shall throw the ball. 5 'Has he been awake all night?' Roger said. Roger said if he was awake all night. 6 'Can he come to the dentist with me?'Jackie asked. Jackie asked if I can go to the dentist with her.

Work with a partner. Report what each person said. Do you agree or disagree with each statement? Explain why. 1 'People spend too much time indoors.' 2 'If you shop online, you will miss the "experience" of shopping.' 3 'Most theft happens because people aren't careful.' 4 'People with busy lives don't have time to do things that they enjoy.' 5 'Technology has changed the way everyone lives.' 6 'Long periods of time spent watching TV is not good for your health.'

Third conditional; wishes

Choose the correct answer.

Third conditional Form



if+ past perfect + would/ could have + past participle

â&#x20AC;˘ unreal situations in the past

!fl hadn't had to work late, 1wouldn't have missed my favourite TV programme. If the dress hadn't looked cool[ 1could have taken it back.

Notes: 1 The /T-clause can come after the wot/W-clause, e.g., He wouldn't have been late for work if he had got up earlier. If it comes second, you don't need to use a comma. 2 It is possible to use might have instead of could have or would have in a third conditional sentence, e.g., If 1had worked harder,; 1might have passed the Geography exam. 3 It is also possible to use continuous forms in a third conditional sentence, e.g., 1wouldn't have been late ifl hadn't been chatting with my friends.

Wishes Form



Iwish/lfonly + past simple

• a wish about a present situation

/wish our house had a garden. If only 1were taller.

1wish/if only + could

• a wish about a present or future ability

1wish 1could speak Russian. If only 1could play the guitar.

1wish/lfonly + would

• a complaint about a present habit or situation

1wish she wouldn't copy my style.

• a regret about the past

1wish 1had gone to the beach.

1wish/lfonly + past perfect

If only it would stop raining. If only 1hadn't left my mobile phone at home.

Notes: 1 Don't confuse wish and hope, e.g., / 1wish you happiness!

/ hhepeye^heppmess! / 1hope you will be happy! X I wish you will be happy! 2 You don't need to use main verbs when responding to a statement/question or when expanding on what you've said. You can just use a short form, e.g., A: Did you go to college? B: No, but I wish I had. He's not a millionaire. If only he was! She never tells me what she's feeling. I wish she would. 3 With wishes, don't use would in the first person singular and plural, e.g., / 1wish I could sing like you. _________________ __________________________ _______ X /wish I would ting likc you.

Practice Choose the correct answer. 1 I wish I charged / had charged my mobile phone before I left the house. 2 If I had had / have had my umbrella with me, I wouldn't have got wet.

3 I'd have been a better trumpet player if only I wouid take / had taken lessons. 4 We would have been / had been in London by now if we'd gone by plane. 5 If he really would live / had lived in France for twenty years, he would have been able to speak French. 6 They wouldn't / would have been on time if they hadn't taken a taxi. 7 I would have shopped around if I would be / had been you. 8 If she hadn't been out, she would have answered / would answer the door. 9 If he had spoken to you, what would you say / have said ? 10 If he hadn't helped me, I wouldn't have / wouldn't had finished in time.

2 Match to make sentences. 1 If 1hadn't made that mistake,

a if I'd known the match had been cancelled.

2 She wouldn't have been able to afford the games console

b I would have broken the world record. c how would you have spent it?

3 If you had won 10,000 Euros,

d if she hadn't saved up for it.

4 I wouldn't have bought tickets

e if the referee had allowed the goal.

5 Would you have kept on playing the guitar


6 England would have won the match

if you had been good at it?

3 Complete the sentences with the correct third conditional form of the verbs in brackets. . (not/go) to that party, I .

1 Ifl.

. (not/meet) Joanna.

. (call) me if he had decided not to come.

2 John.

. (know) the clothes

3 I wouldn't have gone to the fashion show if I would be so over the top!

. (not/be) late for school.

4 If my alarm clock had gone off, I __________

5 If you___________________ (not/leave) your purse on the cafe table, it wouldn't have been stolen. . (achieve) a lifelong ambition if he. 6 Pete________________ to the top of the mountain.

. (get)

4 Read the headlines and write third conditional sentences for each one, using the prompts given. exa m ple:

Teenager a c ts fa st to sto p b an k robbery

if / the teenager / not act fast / the criminals / get away If______

the teenager hadn't acted jast the criminals would ha\


Snow closes school for two weeks the school / not close / if / not be / snow The


Footballer banned for losing temper with referee the referee/not send off/the footballer/if/he/not lose his temper The_____________________________________________________________

f f iis

It e iM M t ;

the wildlife habitat / not destroy / if / forest fire / not happen The_____________________________________________________________

Concert in park cancelled because band break up they / not cancel / the concert / if / band / not break up They.

Politician goes to prison for not paying taxes if the politician / pay taxes / he / not go / prison If.

5 Match the sentences (1-6) with their functions (a-f). 1 If only I had enough money to pay for that designer dress.

a a wish about a present or future ability

2 They might have won the match if the goalkeeper hadn't been sent off.

c an unreal situation in the past

3 1wish I could cook as well as my mum.

4 If only I had taken more photos on holiday. 5 I wish Dad would let me go to the concert. 6 I wish my brother would stop talking about football all the time.


b a regret about the past d a complaint about a present habit e a wish about a present situation f a wish about a future action

6 Choose the correct answer. 1 I wish it could / would stop raining. I want to go out. 2 If only he had / would got involved with organising the school fashion show earlier. 3 I wish I were/would be older. 4 I wish we would / could afford a foreign holiday this year. 5 If only he hadn't / didn't already have a girlfriend! 6 Do you ever wish you had / did kept on learning Russian? 7 If only they had /wouid stop arguing about silly things. 8 I wish/hope you'll pass your exams!

7 Match to make sentences. 1 I wish I could

a tell me what the problem is.

2 If only she

b had taken my advice.

3 I wish I had

c could last forever.

4 If only David would

d play tennis like Roger Federer.

5 I wish

e they would keep quiet!

6 If only the holidays


enough money to buy a bike.

8 Complete the sentences with words from the box. could

had werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t

had were



1 I didn't visit the Dali museum, but I wish I ___________ . 2 We're not very good friends any more. I wish w e___________ 3 I can't speak Spanish, but I wish I ___________ . 4 She didn't get his phone number, but she wishes she-----5 I won't become a basketball champion, but my parents wish I

6 I never had the opportunity to hang out with her. If only I ___ 7 We can't always do the right thing. If only w e___________ .

8 You're scared of spiders, too! I wish w e ___________ .


9 Choose the correct answer. 1 A: Why did you invite Pete to your party? He's really irritating. B: I don't know. I wish I _____ now. A didn't

B hadn't

C wouldn't D wouldn't have

2 A: I had a great time at the water park yesterday. B: I _____ with you if you'd told me about it.

A might come B had come

C might have come D could come

3 If only I _____ too much to eat! A hadn't had B had been having

C would have D would have had

4 A: Sean has lost his passport. B: Well, if he_____ , he wouldn't have.


was more careful would have been more careful was being more careful had been more careful

5 A: They say your schooldays are the best days of your life. B: What! Do you wish you_____ back at

school, then? A were B would be

B: I know. I wish I _____ there.

C would have been D have been

7 I _____ shopping in town today if I'd known it was going to be so crowded. I hate crowds! A B C D

shouldn't have gone would have gone wouldn't go wouldn't have gone

C had helped us D were helping us C could speak D were speaking

B: Yes. I wish he______ I've got a headache.


4 Even though he's now a successful chef, he wishes he_________________(study) at school. 5 It's the first time she's been to the seaside and she wishes she________________ (swim), but she can't. 6 I wish I ________________ (go) to school today. It was so boring! . (not/get cut off) 7 I wish w e _____________ the other day. I had something to ask you.

11 Complete the sentences about the situations below with one or two words in each gap. 1 You didn't have enough time to do your homework. I wish I ___________ more time. 2 You went to buy tickets for a concert, but you were too late, and the tickets were sold out. 3 You can't study because your neighbour's dog is

always barking. If only that dog___________ stop barking. 4 The baby's been crying all night, but you don't know why. I wish I ___________ what was wrong with her. 5 Tom won't let you see his holiday photos. I wish Tom___________ me see his holiday photos.

7 The football team Jim supports hasn't won a

10 A: Mark's practising the drums again. A didn't B couldn't

3 Janet wishes she_________________(have) something that suits her to wear to the party.

If only I ___________ Spanish.

9 If only I _____ to her in her own language. A would speak B did speak

2 The people next door are so noisy! I wish they (not/play) their music so loud.

6 You regret not learning Spanish at school.

8 If Daniel_____ , we would have finished painting the living room in time for the party. A might help us B was helping us

. (not/get dressed) in 1 If only I. shorts today - it's so cold!

If only I ___________ there earlier. C was D had been

6 A: It's a pity you missed Helen's birthday party. A could have been B were

10 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

C wouldn't D hadn't

game all season. Jim wishes his team___________ at least one game. 8 You can't afford to buy the latest fashion. I wish I ___________ the money to buy the latest fashion.

12 Complete the email with the correct form of verbs from the box.

13 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

be not/be do play do not/get study not/waste not/work can/speak

1 Sue didn't go to the cinema because she had too much work to do.

had If Sue_________________________ to do, she would have gone to the cinema.

Hi Pam, How are things? Sorry I haven’t emailed you for such a long time! I was looking at some old photos of us at school the other day and they brought back great memories of some of the things we did together Do you remember the fun we used to have in Drama class? But there are also a lot of things I wish I 1_______ :________ that I never did. I often think how my life3________________different if I 3 languages instead of social sciences at school. I wish I 4 _ Spanish now. I also wish I 5 _ more sports back then; if only 16________________so lazy!

2 I regret going to the fashion show now. It was so expensive.

only If_________________________ to the fashion show. It was so expensive. 3 I would really like to travel in Africa,

able I _________________________ to travel in Africa. 4 The reason you ran out of money was because you paid a fortune for that skirt.

have If you hadn't paid a fortune for that skirt, you _________________________ of money.

I also wish 17________________a whole year going out with that stupid boy, Tom. Do you remember him? Well, we’re still young and there’s plenty of time to do things. Some dreams have come true, though! If 18________________so hard, I 9________________a place at a good university. That was one of my ambitions. What about you? Is there anything that you wish y o u 10 ________________differently? Anyway, let’s get together soon. Send me a text message! Love,

5 Please turn down that music! I'm trying to work, wish I _________________________ that music; I'm trying to work. 6 I regret not learning a musical instrument when I was young.

had I _________________________ a musical instrument when I was young. 7 It was because I was so tired that I had the accident.



if I wouldn't have had the accident so tired. 8 I didn't know your phone number - that's why I didn't ring you back.

would If I had known your phone number, _________________________ you back. 9 I had to ask for directions because I didn't have a map. have If I had had a map,_________________________ to ask for directions.

Get it right!% 14 If the sentence is correct, put a tick. If it isn't, rewrite the sentence using the correct form of the third conditional.

1 If you had read the instructions more carefully, you wouldn't have had any problems. 2 If she had been at school, I would have seen her. 3 I would have gone with you if you would have told me you were going. 4 If I hadn't arrived on time, she would have been really angry. 5 We wouldn't have run out of food if you listened to me and stopped at the shop. 6 If they would have been there on Saturday, they would see the carnival parade.

15 Look at the underlined words in each sentence. If the sentence is correct, put a tick. If it isn't, rewrite theunderlined word correctly. 1 I wish I would have gone to the cinema with Jenny.___________ 2 I wish I were playing on a beach in the Bahamas right now.________ __ 3 If only people mightn't waste so much water.___________ 4 Do you wish you had a dog? ___________ 5 Linda wishes she would buy a new mobile phone, but she hasn't saved enough money---------6 If only you didn't tell him. Now everyone knows the secret!___________

16 Work with a partner. Answer the questions. 1 Tell your partner about something you wish you hadn't done in the past. Why do you regret doing it? 2 Tell your partner about something you wish you had done in the past. Why didn't you do it? 3 Tell your partner about something you wish you could do, but can't do at the moment. Why do you wish you could do it? 4 Tell your partner about something you wish was different about you now. Why would you like to change it?



1 Choose the correct answer. He said that he.

.writing the story.

A had finished B finishes

C finished D have finish __playing rugby every weekend.

Luke says that he. A enjoyed B enjoys

C enjoy D had enjoyed

Ken's parents told him that he_____ go to summer camp. A is going to B must

C will D was going to

Irene told Paul that_____ was to blame for the accident. A they


B you

D he

_ice cream to cake.

5 Joanna says that she A preferred B has preferred

C prefers D had preferred

6 Lorna said that she _

__ a story at the moment.

A is writing B was writing

C writes D shall write

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in brackets. _ (watch) TV when I came in.

She said that she

(can/make) him a cup of coffee.

Julian asked ifl


My mum says that she .

(visit) my uncle as often as she can.

Cindy told me that she

______ (have) bad dreams every night.

Kevin asked Susie if he .

______ (can/borrow) her bike.

6 The girls said that they

______ already_________________ (eat). . (finish) in the bathroom.

7 Paul asked if M att____

8 She said that she________________ (will/come) to see me the following day. 9 The policemen asked if the children ________________ (clean up) their mess. 10 Harry says that h e _____________

(like) Sandra.

3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of words from the box. hate

hear join


plant see

She said that she.

.thatfilm before.

Oscar said that he.

_ Natalie sing before.

Lucy asks if she can_

__ the basketball team.

Wendy asked if Matt.

___ dinner when she'd called.

David said that he__

_ spiders.

John said that he___

. roses in the garden last week.



'sM---- hâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

4 Read the dialogue and rewrite the sentences in italics to report what each person said.

5 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. 1 'Shall I book a table for three?' Sonia asked,

suggested Sonia_______________________________for three. 2 'I didn't read her letter,' Ben said,

denied Ben_______________________________her letter. 'I must go,' John said to her.

told John____________________ Hilary: Hi Ryan.1Where have you been? I haven't seen you for a long time! Ryan: school.

Yeah, I know. I broke my leg so21can't come to

Hilary: Oh dear! Is it OK now? Ryan:

It's much better.3I have to go to the hospital on Tuesday so the doctor can check it.

Hilary: Oh, OK.4What about the work you've missed? Ryan:

5I'm doing work from home. 6Sally brings work

. to go.

4 'If you have connected it properly, it will work,' the man said.

explained The man_______________________________ connected it properly, it would work. 5 'I called Tracy,' Kelly said,

admitted Kelly_______________________________ called Tracy.

6 Choose the correct answer.

for me from school.

Hilary: That's good. Well,71can bring you books from the library if you want something to read. Ryan:

Thanks, Hilary.

Hilary: No problem.8I'll see you soon.

1 I wish I had / had had my own laptop now. 2 I wish I didn't like / hadn't liked Matt so much. It's embarrassing! 3 If only I am/was good at sports. 4 I wish you wouldn't / won't copy my homework!

1 Hilary asked Ryan

5 If only I could / would walk to school. 6 If only I hadn't toSd / didn't teSI him!

2 Ryan said that 3 Ryan explained that 4 Hilary asked Ryan about 5 Ryan says that 6 Ryan explained that 7 Hilary said that 8 Hilary said that


7 Complete the sentences with the third conditional form of the words in brackets. 1 Ifl.

. (study) hard, I would . (pass) the exams.

2 Ifl.

__ (be) there, I could .(help).

Tina could. you______ 4 If she _ would. Tom wouldn't, he__________ 6 I wouldn't.

______(make) the cake if . (ask) her. _ (go) to America, she __ (miss) the concert. _________ (cook) dinner if . (know) we were going out. ______ (get) angry if he . (not annoy) me!

Grammar Review 4 8 Choose the correct answer. 1 I wish I _____ that piece of cake. A didn't eat

B couldn't eat

C hadn't eaten

D haven't eaten

B understand

C would understand

D will understand

C has worked

D is working

C went

D could go

C would open

D has opened

C will call

D had called

C didn't have to

D wouldn't have to

C couldn't

D hadn't

2 If only I _____ French! A could understand

3 I wish Brian_____ during the daytime like me. A works

B worked

4 If only I _____ on holiday with Sarah. A would go

B have gone

5 I wish someone_____ the window! It's very hot. A can open 6 If only Sam.

B opened __me first!

A has called

B called

7 I wish I _____ go to basketball practice today! A don't have to

B haven't had to

8 I wish you_____ eat so loudly. A wouldn't

B didn't

9 Use the prompts to write third conditional sentences. 1 If Sheila / drive / to the restaurant, / she would / be / here by now 2 Peter / can / fix it / if he / finish / the computer course 3 If someone / tell me / about the cinema, / 1would / come / with you 4 Steven / can / say / what was wrong / with the computer / if he / look / at it 5 If I / enter / the competition, / 1/ will / win 6 Sally/can / buy/the new dress/if she/have/enough money 10 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. 4 That music is too loud!

1 I really want a cat!


wish I _______________

I wish someone____________________________ down.

. a cat.

2 I regret visiting London,

5 I really want to go to a good secondary school!

gone If only________________


If only____________________________ at a good secondary school!

3 I really hate it when it rains,

wouldn't I wish___________________ time.


.all the

6 I really regret forgetting to bring my bag. remembered I wish I ____________________________ bag.


Relative clauses; gerund and infinitive;

allow, let, make Choose the correct form. Look! That's the boy what/who went to breakdancing classes!

Oh dear! To breakdance/Breakdancing is dangerous! Now I'm pleased that Mum didn't let/allo w me go to those classes!

Relative clauses Relative pronouns Use


• who (or that) refers to people and sometimes to animals, especially pets • which (or that) refers to things and animals • whose refers to possession • where refers to places; used after nouns • when refers to time; used after nouns • whom refers to the person who is the object of the relative clause

There's the boy who does skateboarding around our town! It was the dog that warned us something was wrong! Can you remember which towel you used? Whose mobile phone is this? Is this the place where they're going to build the new skateboard park? Do you remember a time when we didn't use computers every day? I'm sure that's the girl to whom we paid the money!

Notes: 1 We can use whom instead of who in some sentences that talk about people, when the people are the object of the relative clause, e.g., Is she the woman whom we met in town yesterday?This is more formal than using who. 2 We usually use whom after a preposition, e.g., He's the man to whom 1gave the money. Defining relative clauses Form



• defining relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun and are not separated from the rest of the sentence by commas • the sentence does not make sense if we remove the defining relative clause

• to give more essential information about a noun • to identify the person/thing the sentence is about

That's the hotel which Martha stayed in last summer. Do you have any friends who know about surfing? / Do you know the year when she moved here? X B&yethlmew't'h&yeGf?-

Notes: 1 We can use that instead of who or which in defining relative clauses, e.g., I'm sure it wasn't Pete who/that took your bag. Mum can't find the book which/that Dad bought her. 2 We can often omit the relative pronoun when it is the object of the relative clause, e.g., The book which you lent me was great!/The bookyou lent me was great! 3 Don't confuse whose (the relative pronoun for possession) and who's (the short form of who is/who has). 4 We can sometimes use in which instead of whereto talk about specific places, e.g., the hotel where we stayed/the hotel in which we stayed/the hotel which we stayed in.


Non-defining relative clauses Form



• non-defining relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun and are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas • the sentence still makes sense if we remove the non­ defining relative clause

• to give extra, nonessential information about a noun in the sentence

The CD, which Blistened to last night, wasn't as good as 1had hoped. Gerry, whose father is a great footballer, has invited me to his house. Flippers shoe shop, where my mum worked, has closed forever. / Flippers shoe shop has closed forever. /

Notes: We can't use that at the beginning of a non-defining relative clause, e.g., / Jeremy Pippin, who works at the sports centre; has bought a new bike. X Jeremy Pippinrfhat works at the sports centre, has bought a new bike.



Gerund and infinitive Gerund Form



• verb +-ing

• as a noun • as the subject of a sentence • after certain verbs and expressions • after certain prepositions • after go when we refer to a hobby or an activity

Sadie loves swimming. Walking to school is good exercise! 1finished writing my blog last night. 1can't help liking Adam! Are you interested in learning how to breakdance? Let's go shopping after school.

• after certain verbs and

Fred offered to teach us how to play the drums. 1would like to go swimming later. 1would be happy to help you. It was too hot to sit in the sun. You aren't old enough to drive a car.


• base form of the verb with to


• after certain adjectives • after the words too and enough

Notes: 1 Some common verbs and expressions followed by an infinitive with to are: afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, choose, decide, encourage, expect, fail, have a chance, help, hope, invite, learn, manage, offer, plan, pretend' promise, refuse, seem, want, would like. 2 Some common verbs and expressions followed by a gerund are: admit, avoid, be used to, can't help, delay, deny, discuss, dislike; enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, give up, have difficulty, imagine, keep {on), look forward to, mention, mind, miss, practise, prevent, regret, report, risk, suggest, spend time, understand. 3 Some verbs can be followed by the gerund or the infinitive with no change in meaning: begin, can't bearlstand, continue, hate, love, prefer, start, e.g., We started t© watch TV./We started watching TV. 4 Some verbs can be followed by the gerund or the infinitive, but with a change in meaning: forget, learn, like, mean, regret, remember, stop, try, e.g., 1tried to explain what had happened (but 1couldn't do it). 1tried explaining what had happened (but it made no difference). He remembered t© feed the dog. (not forget to do something) He remembered feeding the dog. (have a memory of a past action) 1regret to tell you that you failed the exam, (sorry about something you have to do) 1regret telling Tina about my problem, (sorry about something you did in the past)

allow, let, m ake Use



• (not) allow + -ing (without an object) • (not) allow + object +to + infinitive

for permission

They don't allow parking in the town centre. Harry's parents don't allow him to stay out late.

• let + object +infinitive (without fo)

for permission

Mum won't let me go camping withJolene.

• make + object + infinitive (without to)

• for obligation

1made Jack say he was sorry!

Notes: 1 We can use allow in the passive form with to + infinitive, but we don't use an object in the passive form as we do with the active form, e.g., Mum allowed me to go out. 1was allowed to go out. 2 We can also use make in the passive form, but we must use the infinitive with to rather than without to, e.g.. The teacher made us do our essays again. 14/ewere made to do our essays again. 3 We cannot use let in the passive form.

Practice 1 Choose the correct answer. 1 The student who/what we met yesterday does gymnastics. 2 Celia has a dog that/when always barks at the postman. 3 Have you worked out who /that is coming on the school trip? 4 Do you know which / whose uniform this is? Is it Ben's? 5 Soraya will always remember the day when / where she met Carlos. 6 Is that the private school what /where you went last year? 7 We took a photo of a woman which /who wore a ridiculous hat. 8 The library where / when we went

last week has closed.

9 My sister likes people whose/who hobbies are creative.

2 Read and choose the correct answer. There are a lot of teenagers1_____ think that collecting things is a boring hobby. But I've got some friends2_____ collections are really brilliant! My best friend Miriam collects small things. It doesn't matter what they are or3___ __ they come from, as long as they fit into the big jar she keeps her collection in. She's got things in the jar that she put in4_____ she was six! And there are other things in there5_____ she added last week. Then there's Luke,6_____ has collected lots of different things since he was about ten. At the moment, he collects old bottles. He's got so many now that he can't remember7_____ he got them all from. The good thing about collecting is that you can collect what you want and you can do your hobby8_____ you like! I think I'm going to start a new trend at my school collecting! 1 A who

B which

C what

2 A which

B that

C whose

3 A when

B which


4 A where



5 A who


6 A that


7 A where


8 A when


c when c c what who c which c whose c

which where when which

3 Match to make sentences.


1 The Chinese restaurant

a who wants to be a fashion designer?

2 Is he the boy

b which I would love to take photographs of.

3 Do you remember the year

c who speaks more than four languages,

4 I don't know anybody

d where Li works on Saturdays is very affordable,

5 They own a beautiful cottage

e whose sports equipment is still in the car.

6 Where's the university

f that I left on the table?

7 Have you seen the brochure

g where you want to study History?

8 Those are the athletes

h when the forest fire destroyed my mum's village?

4 Complete the dialogue with words from the box. which where whose that which when who whom that who Corey:

I was talking to Veronica yesterday. You know, the girl1________ started at our school two weeks ago.

Sabrina: Oh, yes, I know. She's the girl2________ parents are American. Corey:

Yes, that's right. Well, she wanted to know what summer classes there are around here for kids.

Sabrina: Does she mean classes like the ones3________ we do at school? Corey:

No, she means classes4________ she can learn a new hobby in. Last summer, 5________ she was in America, she learned hip-hop dancing.

Sabrina: Hmm ... did you tell her about the college in Hunter Street6________ they do

evening classes for teenagers? Corey:

She already knew about it. She met someone the other day7________ gave her some information about it. But the person to8________ she spoke didn't know what classes they do there.

Sabrina: I've got an idea. Why don't we ask Veronica to come with us on the number 31 bus, 9________ goes right past Hunter Street? We can all go to the college and find out what they do there. If there are any classes 10________ I like the sound of, I might start something, too!

5 Underline the relative pronoun in each sentence if it isn't necessary. 1 The villa which Sammy has bought is an ecological house. 2 I met some kids whose paintings were really amazing. 3 Have you found the book that you left at the Internet cafe? 4 The family which used to live in the caravan near the lighthouse have moved. 5 His wife, whom I had never met, worked as a chef in a popular restaurant. 6 What's the name of the boy who you are always talking about? 7 Has Lily ever been to the outdoor cinema where you took me last week? 8 I know there are a lot of people who like Simon. 9 Is this the football card collection which you were telling me about? 6 Write the words in the correct order. 1 this morning / did / the letter / that / came / you see / ? 2 the race / won / whose / they're / horse / the people /. 3 a time/there was/ my grandmother/ no TV/when./ can remember/. 4 always / to have / that / that's the hobby / I've / wanted /. 5 I got / the new mobile phone / look at / which / for my birthday /! 6 don't move / please / where / the cat is sitting, / the chair /. 7 who / the waitress / your receipt / gave you / is this / ?

#.Q €

Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

8 Read the text and choose the correct answer.

1 Bella's sister is studying in Paris, and Bella wants to move to France.

whose Bella, _ Paris, wants to move to France.

. in

Dan cares about the environment and raises money for the local nature reserve.

who Dan,_______________________________, raises money for the local nature reserve. My aunt lives in a big flat. It is very comfortable.

where The big flat _______________________________is very comfortable.

Flair,_______________________________ years, is very experienced.

One of the things which Freddie likes to do in his spare time is to go to pop concerts. He enjoys concerts 1_____ are outside in parks the best and he likes to go with people2_____ know a lot about music. The nice thing is that Freddie,3_____ got plenty of money, always pays for the tickets! I was lucky enough to be one of the people for4_____ Freddie bought a ticket last month for the Rock in the Park concert. It was fantastic! I saw bands5_____ I'd never heard of before. The music, 6_____ was extremely loud, was really good, although there were one or two songs7_____ I — didn't like that much. The park,8_____ I'd seen one or two rock bands in the past, is a great place for concerts. Last year, 9_____ I went to see Green Guys, I stayed at my friend Mandy's house. Mandy, who also likes music, lives just down the road from the park, which is great! But this time Freddie,10_____ dad taught him to drive, took me there in the car. We had a lovely time, so I hope that Freddie buys me a ticket for the next concert, which is in six weeks'time.

My cousins have never eaten spicy food, so they don't know if they like it or not.

1 A where

B -

C that

D whom


2 A which

B who

C whose

D what

3 A who's

B whose

c what

D which

4 A that

B whose

c whom

D when

5 A what

B whose

c when

D which

6 A that

B which

c who's


7 A who

B what


D whose

8 A where

B when

c that

D which

9 A -

B which

c what

D when

10 A -

B who's

c which

D whose

I have learnt a very useful swimming technique.

which The swimming technique _______________________________is very useful. I went to the museum on Monday. It was closed that day.

when On Monday, museum, it was closed. Flair has been dancing for years. She is very experienced.


My cousins have never tried food , so they don't know if they like it or not. My friend talked to a doctor who said she should get some exercise. who

The doctor talked to said she should get some exercise. 90


9 Rewrite each pair of sentences as one sentence. Use the word in bold. EXAMPLE: Faye took her friend to the new swimming pool. It opened a few weeks ago.

which Faye.

took her friend to the gew swimming . a few weeks ago. pool which opened

1 The university is in Cambridge. I want to study Art there,

where The university_________________________________ .is in Cambridge. 2 There was an interesting article about the nursery school. I found it in the local paper.

that There was____________________________________ 3 Annabel lives in Australia. Her hobby is cooking,

whose Annabel,_____________________________________ in Australia. 4 Online gaming is very popular with young people. It is played through the Internet.

which Online gaming,_______________________________ ___________________________________ with young people. 5 October is the tenth month of the year. The leaves fall off the trees in England.

when October,_______________________________________ __________________________________________ of the year. 6 The people were very trendy. I spoke to them at the party.

who The people____________________________________ __________________________________________ very trendy. 7 The new boy in our class looks really friendly. His name is Jacob.


10 Complete the sentences with the gerund form of verbs from the box. eat learn listen say see start try work 1 Jade was looking forward to___________ boarding school. 2 I'm sorry! I regret___________ those things to you. 3 Olivia had never been interested in

how to ice skate. 4 Come on Stacie, don't give up! Keep on

! 5 Occasionally, I feel like___________ seafood. 6 I've missed___________ you since you moved to the city. 7 How exciting! I'd love to spend time

___________ in an Internet cafe at the weekends. 8 My aunt can't stand___________ to my music.

11 Choose the correct answers.

Monday, 17 October Most young people enjoy 1 sitting / to sit in front of a computer for hours every day. They spend their time 2 to play / playing games or â&#x2013; 3 to surf / surfing the Internet. But a few kids don't want 4 to do / doing that and 5 think / thinking it's a boring thing to do - and I'm in that group! 6 Surfing / To surf the Internet can be very interesting and there are times when I feel like 7 to play / playing a computer game with my friends, or online. But I can't 8 imagine / imagining doing that every evening of every day, week after week. In fact, I often avoid 9 to use / using the computer if I can. Apart from getting bored, I'm too energetic : 10 to sit / sitting in one place for long!

The new boy in our class,________________________ More soon ...Watch this space.



12 Match to make sentences. 1 Ellie wants

a locking the door?

2 Did you remember

b to listen to my new CD?

3 Do you enjoy

c going to the beach today.

4 Do you remember

d to lock the door?

5 Would you like

e listening to loud music in the evenings?

6 There's no point


to go to the beach this afternoon.

13 Complete the dialogue with the gerund or infinitive form of the verbs in brackets. R@xy: Are you looking forward to the ballet performance at the weekend? Sean: No, I'm not. I admit that l7mfeeling very nervous about it all! I feel like1___________ (leave) the class. To be honest, I regret2___________ (join) in the first place! But the teacher has promised3___________ (give) me some extra lessons between now and the weekend.

RŠxy: Well,4___________ (worry) about it won't help. I'm sure you'll be fine. You seemed 5___________ (dance) really well when I last watched you. Sean: There are a lot of difficult dance steps we need6_________ . (do) for the performance. I think I've done enough practising, but I'm not sure. I want7_______ __________ (try) to __________(go) where I want perform perfectly! But sometimes I feel that my feet refuse8_______ them to! Roxy: I'm sure you'll manage to perform perfectly on the night! Sean: I hope so, but I can't help9___________ (think) I'm going to make a terrible mistake. Roxy: No, you won't. Don't expect10___________ (fail), though - that will make you worse. Plan to do well and you will!



14 Complete the text with one relative pronoun in each gap. . is interested in finding out as much as possible about If you are someone computers, the Computer History Museum is the place for you! The museum, 2___________ is in Silicon Valley, America, is an amazing place full of all sorts of information about computers. The people3___________ work in the museum all know a lot about computers, of course, and you can ask questions if there's anything4___________ you don't understand or5___________ you want to know more about. And visitors to the museum,6___________ has a computer over 150 years old, always love looking round and learning about how computers have changed over the years. There is a lot in the museum about Charles Babbage,7___________ invented computers. There is also information about other people8___________ ideas have changed the world of computers over the years. If you have a few minutes9___________ you don't have anything to do, visit: http// . is the website for the museum. 10


‘\ ^

y: .


----------- ----- ^ Relative clauses; gerund and infinitive; alio

15 Complete the letter with words from the box. to have to tell

kicking to be to explain to make


to talk to swim

Dear Thomas, you that you did not get the Saturday job at I ’m sorry the Sports Centre. There were many problems when you were here for the day doing your test. I ’d like 2--------- them to you, so you understand why you can’t work here. To begin with, you pretended 3 fact you had difficulty 4---

good at all sports, but in a ball in a straight line!

Also, you mentioned 5 ______ as one of the things you were really good at. But when we asked you 6-------- 100 metres in the pool, you seemed 7_ _______ difficulty staying above the water! You also told us you were used to talking to people of all ages, but you refused 8_________ politely to any of the people at the Sports Centre. In fact, you managed 9--------- most of the people here very angry! Yours sincerely, Bob Nuttall Sports Centre Manager

m— ■— h—■— i—i

16 Write the words in the correct order.

17 Choose the correct answer.

1 me / my parents / at the weekend / don't / study / make /.

1 Delia won't make / allow her little brother to touch her laptop.

2 let / get on your nerves / him / don't /!

2 That's not fair! I always let / allow you borrow my clothes.

3 in this part of the park/aren't allowed / dogs /.

3 I wish Mum wouldn't alHow / make us tidy our desks at the weekend.

4 makes / always / Mum / with the dishes / me / help /.

4 Brian's teacher made / allowed him stay in the classroom at lunch.

5 during / doesn't / their teacher / talking / allow / the lesson /.

5 Jenny allowed/made Rita apologise for being so selfish.

6 his staff / the manager / to take / allowed / a holiday /. 7 let / anyone / won't / play with her toys / younger sister / my /.

6 Our school doesn't allow/make students to bring their mobile phones to class.

8 pay / makes / me / never / for my own cinema ticket / my dad /.

7 Amber's parents let / allowed her to be in the youth swimming team. 8 Vanessa can't come out with us because her mum is making / allowing her look after her sister. 9 My sister's the best! She's making / letting me go with her to the rock concert. 10 Sam's dad thinks he's too young and doesn't let / make him use the Internet for chatting with friends.


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■ ...... :

18 Complete the sentences with the correct form of make, let or allow.

19 Complete the dialogue with words from the box.

1 You talk too much and never___________ me say anything! 2 They___________ us open all our bags at the airport. I was really annoyed about it! 3 They never___________ the younger children to go out in the sun without their hats. 4 If only you had___________ me help you with your problems.


to make let me go let won’t allow it makes kids do don’t allow let people

Dominic: Hey, Calvin, you don't look very happy. What's up?


skateboarding with my mates.

5 The cats aren't___________ to sleep on the bed.

Dominic: Oh, yeah? I can understand

6 There aren't any tickets left, so they won't___________ anyone else go into the theatre.

why parents2_______________ their kids to go skateboarding, though. It can be a bit

7 Mum___________ me wear a horrible old-fashioned dress to the dinner. 8 Our teacher sometimes_______ during the exams.

. us to use dictionaries

9 Look at the mess! I'm sure they are going to clean it up.

I'm fed up because Dad won't

dangerous, after all.


skateboarding club in town. There's an instructor, and he



1 Jed's dad forbids him to do rock climbing,

all the kids

wear the right clothing - you

10 Guess what! My dad is___________ us go to the beach this weekend. 20 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

I wanted to join the

know, the proper shoes, a helmet, and so on.

Dominic: Well, that's good. So, your dad knows that and he still

4 Calvin:


Yes, that's right. He isn't worried


about the danger. No, he says

Jed's dad______________________ do rock climbing.

skateboarding5______________ stupid things and he says it's not

2 Mrs Morris told us to write our essays again,

nice for people walking on the -


streets. In fact, he doesn't think

Mrs Morris______________________ our essays again.

we should6_______________

3 We can't listen to loud music after midnight,

anybody skateboard in our towns and cities at all!

allow They______________________ listen to loud music after midnight.

Dominic: That's a bit silly - what about bikes? They7_______________ ride bikes in towns and cities

4 Our English teacher says we must speak English all the time in class.


on bikes, too!


Our English teacher______________________ all the time in class. 5 Fern's parents say she can't use the computer after nine o'clock,

let Fern's parents________________ nine o'clock.

and some kids do stupid things

the computer after

6 Could I take you to that posh restaurant? allow W ill_______________________ take you to that posh restaurant?

I know, but I don't want to do anything 8_______________ Dad upset. So, I'll have to think of something else to do!


G e t it right!

21 If the sentence is correct, put a tick. If it isn't, rewrite the sentence correctly. 1 The park which my brother rides his skateboard is very big. 2 Give me all the old CDs which you want to get rid of. 3 The digital camera that my mum got me for my birthday is broken. 4 The coach wants to speak to all the parents who children took part in the game. 5 Did I tell you about the new hobby what I'm going to start? 6 The hotel when my parents stayed in India is near the sea. 7 My cousins will visit us in July when their parents are on holiday.

8 National Geographic which is a magazine about people and places is very popular with older people. 22 Underline the mistakes. Then rewrite the sentences correctly. 1 Eat late at night is not a good idea if you want to sleep well. 2 Are you interested in learn more about fashion? 3 I really enjoyed to watch the dance competition this morning. 4 The teacher advised us going to bed early before the test. 5 Thanks for to help me with my school bags.

6 I arrived too late for my train because I didn't manage waking up in time. 7 Eileen never regretted to give up her job as a babysitter.

--------------- --------------------------- f(Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (SBffl)â&#x20AC;&#x201D; , 23 Work with a partner. Follow the instructions below. 1 Complete this sentence: I like people w ho... Explain why. 2 Complete this sentence: It's interesting to go to places where... Explain why. 3 Complete this sentence: I like doing hobbies which ... Explain why.

4 Complete this sentence: I can't stand... Explain why. 5 Complete this sentence: My parents don't allow me to ... Explain why. 6 Complete this sentence: My parents let me ... Explain why.



Underline the passive sentences. Circle the causative sentences. The bucket is kept in the garage, the soap can be found in the cupboard, the

Because I'm having the car washed ' and guess who's doing it?

The passive Use We use the passive to describe something that happens when we want to focus on the action and not on the person or thing responsible for the action.

Form We form the passive by deleting the subject of the sentence (the person or thing responsible for the action) and making the object of the sentence into the new subject. The passive uses the same subject + verb form, e.g., Active: Passive: He locks the door at night The door is locked at night. subject + verb + object subject + verb Active


Present simple They keep the window open during the day.

The window is kept open during the day.

Present continuous He is watering the plants at the moment.

The plants are being watered at the moment.

Past simple She ate the last piece of cake.

The last piece of cake was eaten.

Past continuous We were planning a party.

A party was being planned.

Present perfect 1have broken the record.

The record has been broken.

Past perfect They had won the top prize.

The top prize had been won.

Future simple The artist will design the card.

The card will be designed.

Notes: 1 In the passive, the object from the active sentence becomes the subject, e.g., She was watching the old man. The old man was being watched. 2 We often use the passive for news reports and historical accounts when the actions are more important than who did them, e.g., A car was damaged in the town centre yesterday. 3 We also use the passive when we don't know the subject, i.e., who or what caused the action to happen, e.g., The car was damaged. = (someone, but we don't know who, damaged the car) 4 Sometimes it is impossible to say who did the action when we use the passive, but in some cases we can use b y... at the end of the sentence to say who did it, e.g., The car was stolen by thieves. 5 When we say who did the action and use by with a pronoun, we need to change the subject pronoun into an object pronoun, e.g., I ate the cake. The cake was eaten by me. not

The causative Use We use the causative to say that we are arranging for somebody else to do something for us rather than doing it ourselves, e.g., I'm having my computer fixed. The subject of the sentence does not do the main action. Form â&#x20AC;˘ the causative is formed by using have + participle, e.g., I am having my room painted. â&#x20AC;˘ the word order changes, so that have comes immediately after the subject and the verb comes after the object of the sentence, e.g., Non-causative form: Causative form: He is fixing the chair. He is having the chair fixed. subject + verb + object subject + have + object + participle Non-causative


Present simple He washes his car every week.

He has his car washed every week.

Present continuous She is cleaning her bedroom.

She is having her bedroom cleaned.

Past simple They built a house.

They had a house built.

Past continuous We were cutting our grass when we heard the bang.

We were having our grass cut when we heard the bang.

Present perfect Luke has put new tyres on his car.

Luke has had new tyres put on his car.

Past perfect Paula had painted her nails before she styled her hair.

Paula had had her nails painted before she styled her hair.

Future simple Jenny and Bob will fix their outside light.

Jenny and Bob will have their outside light fixed.

Notes: We can normally replace have with get, e.g., He is having his car washed. = He is getting his car washed.



m oe


Practice 1 Choose the correct answer. 1 The gate has being / has been locked all week. 2 Letters are sending / are sent to the addresses written on the envelopes. 3 I am bought / buying a tracksuit next week. 4 TVs are being watched / watching all over the country.

5 The woman had / had been surprised by the cat outside the door. 6 The new library will be / will opened on Thursday. 7 The house on the corner is being / is been decorated inside.

8 Someone is following / being followed the car. 2 Write the words in the correct order to make passive sentences. 1 been / my games console / has / damaged /.

4 Complete the article with the correct form of words from the box. be begin have hold keep organise show talk

2 being / the / eaten / main course / is / now /. 3 the girl/taken/the p ark/to /w as/. 4 be / the essay / will / on Tuesday / finished /. 5 the plates / broken / last night / were /.

6 left / in the car / her face paints / were /. 3 Choose the correct answer. 1 All keys.

_ away in a safe place.

A we lock

B are locked

2 Staff_____ to know what to do in an

M y ste ry W eekend

emergency. A are trained

B trained

3 Parents______if a child doesn't come to school. A we contact

B will be contacted

4 The baby______by her sister on Mondays. A looks after

B is looked after

5 The drivers_____ by the police about the accident. A will be spoken to

B will speak to

6 The school timetable_____ to all of the parents. A has given

B has been given

7 Protective clothing_____ for your safety. A has been designed B we have designed


at an old manor house at The event was the edge of Upton. Guests arrived at 6 p.m. and were 2 to their rooms. By 8 p.m., the mystery had 3 . The mystery was about an old picture in the corridor of the house. It was the guestsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; challenge to find out who the man in the picture was and what he had done. The mystery weekend had been 4___________ by Every Event, an events company in Upton, to advertise the company, but also to give the local people something different to take part in. A good time was 5___________ by all who went, and the weekend was all that was 6___________ about in the following days. new summer event is organised later this year, but the theme is being 8___________ a close secret. Every Eventâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s website has been active since last month, and a list of their services is available online.

5 Rewrite the sentences in the passive form. EXAMPLE:

7 Read the text and rewrite the underlined

sentences in the active form.

The teacher marked the exams.

The exams were marked fry th& teacher.

1 People from the newspaper are interviewing Lady Gaga. __________.----------------------------- by

2 The scream had scared John. -------------------------------------- by

3 The manager will write the report at the weekend. ____________________________________________ by ____________________________________________ at the weekend. 4 The head teacher of the local primary school will close it for the rest of the day. ____________________________________________ by ____________________________________________ for the rest of the day. 5 TV stations filmed the breakdancing event in the park. ____________________________________________ by

6 Complete the text with the correct passive form of the words in brackets.

News flash! S A car has 1______________ (find) in a field near a ] private school in Liverpool, England. It 2______________ (discover) at 6 p.m. when a man I walking his dog stopped to see if anyone was hurt. The car had 3______________ (pack) with three black bags holding a total of three million j pounds.The police 4______________ (call) and ! arrived shortly after. People in the area are 5______________ (ask) about the car. The police ; hope that the person who left the car will 5______________ (catch) in the next few days. I Details of the car can 7______________ (see) on I the website and in newspapers. Police can 8______________ (contact) day and night with information about this incident.

Police gave a picture and description of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;three timesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; man to the newspapers yesterday. The man, who has broken into three houses in the same street this month, 1 has not been caught. The first time was on Tuesday 4thApril at 11.30 p.m .2A watch and an expensive DVD player were taken. The second incident was two weeks later on Tuesday 18th. 3The second house was entered through the window 4 A necklace, a laptop and some money were stolen from the property. It was thought that the man had been alone because only small items had been taken. O n Sunday 29th, however, owners found that their TV, computer and two large vases were missing. Police now think that there is more than one man. 5 The people of the village are being asked to keep their doors and windows locked at night and report any unusual behaviour. 6 Anyone who has seen the man in the picture is advised to contact their local police station.

1 Police the man

2 The man 3 The man 4 The man from the property. 5 Police

6 Police to contact their local police station.

® Q ©




8 Choose the correct answer. 1 Why don't you have your computer_____ ? A fixing

B fixed

2 What will Harry do if he can't______his bike repaired? A get

B has

3 Have you asked Gary if he's______the Internet connected? A have

B getting

4 Has Tania_____ her new coat delivered? A has

B had

5 Isn't Jenny going to have her face______before she goes to the festival? A paints

B painted

6 Paul and Mary______a meal cooked for them when the cooker broke. A were having

B had

9 Complete the dialogues with the verb have in the correct causative form. 1 A: Where's Tina today? B: She___________ her hair cut.

2 A: What is Nick going to do about his broken bike? B: H e___________ it fixed today.

3 A: What happened last night? B: Jackie___________ her cooker fitted when all the lights on the street went out. 4 A: There's something different about Lucy. B: Yes, she___________ her hair styled and coloured. 5 A: What happened with Sophie at the restaurant? B: Well, she___________ the waiter bring her three plates of food before she decided that she wanted to eat somewhere else!

10 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets.

Detective Kelson had nothing to do. A murder had 1___________ (happen) at the caravan park, but nobody had 2___________ (catch) yet. The story was in all the newspapers, and Kelson had 3____________ (give) three days to work out what had happened. He was having the area4___________ (study) by the science department and he was getting all the other information 5___________ (collect) by the police officers below him. Kelson sat in his chair and looked around his office. He used to love his job. Now, because he was the boss, he had everything6___________ (do) for him. He even had coffee7___________ (make) for him and mail8____________ (bring) to his office every hour! But he didn’t want to be a boss. He wanted to do things like the detectives he saw in the films. He was told that it would be like that; all excitement and action, but it wasn’t. Things needed to change. He was the detective and this was his case. Kelson stood up, got his jacket and went to the caravan park.


11 Write the words in the correct order to make sentences in the causative form.

1 I / painted / my / bedroom / having / am /. 2 to the party / brought/will / the food /Yvonne/have/.

Complete the sentences with the correct causative form of the verbs in brackets.

1 A: Have you seen Jill's new house? B: Yes, she______________ it ______________ (build), didn't she?

3 Peter / cleaned / every week / his flat / does / have / ?

2 A: Natalie's bedroom is a bit of a mess!

4 checked / the police / every report / have /. 5 having / for her birthday / Sarah /is/ designed / a new dress /.

6 sent / have / Jackie's aunt / her present / by post / did / ? 12 Write sentences in the correct causative form using the prompts.

1 A: What was Sarah doing yesterday? B: she / have / her washing / do

2 A: What is your dad doing today? B: he / have / a broken sink / replace

3 A: What have they done to their garden this summer? B: they / have / some flowers / plant

4 A: What are your parents doing next year? B: they / have / a new house / build / in Spain

5 A: What do you do every Sunday evening? B: I / have / my homework / check / every Sunday evening

6 A: What had she done before she saw the nurse? B: she / have / a doctor's appointment / make

B: Yes, but she is______________ it ______________ (decorate) before the summer. 3 A: Darren's car is so dirty! B: Really? He only______________ it______________ (wash) on Tuesday! 4 A: Did your games console break yesterday? B: Yes, but I have______________ it ______________ (fix). 5 Ai Are you going to Jamie's party? B: Yes, I am ______________ my name______________ (put) on the guest list!

6 A: Did Jane have a nice birthday party? B: No, not really. She ______________ a cake ______________ (not/make), so there were only sandwiches.

14 Read the text and rewrite the underlined sentences in the non-causative form.

1 When I was a child. I had everything done for me. I had three older brothers, so they were always looking after me and making sure I didn't have to do anything myself. 21 had my school lunch made, mv money put in mv pocket and even mv school baa packed. When I think about it now, it seems ridiculous! I never had to do anything. Life was easy. 3 1had mv days planned bv mv parents. including after-school piano and ballet lessons, and 4 mv evenings arranged bv friends and family members. I was always busy, and it seemed great at the time. But as I grew older I realised that 5 1didn't like getting everything arranged for me. I had no independence and I just did what I was told to do. I started to do things for myself, which shocked my family, and I instantly felt freer. Now I look after myself and I'm a lot happier. Though 6 sometimes I get mv grass cut and mv car washed ... well, what are brothers for?

1 When I was a child, people 2 My brothers 3 My parents 4 My friends and family members 5 I didn't like people

6 My brothers sometimes 15 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

1 Someone's coming to fix Sarah's bike tomorrow, having Sarah___________________________________ tomorrow.

2 Someone updated Fiona's computer yesterday,

16 Read and complete the sentences with phrases using the causative have. EXAMPLE: I don't know how to change the tyres on my bike, so I have them changed.

1 She wasn't sure how to build the greenhouse, so____________________ .


2 He won't know how to fix the car, so

Fiona___________________________________ yesterday.

3 We didn't have time to clean the suits, so

3 Natalie will style Kelly's hair for the wedding,

get Kelly___________________________________ for the wedding. 4 John has checked Lindsey's essay for her.

had Lindsey___________________________________ for her. 5 The gardener was cutting the tree down when he found a cat in it.

getting I ___________________________________ down when the gardener found a cat in it.

4 I can't make a dress, so____________________ for the party on Saturday.

5 She didn't like planting trees and flowers, so

6 She didn't know how to colour her hair, so 7 I won't have time next week to mend my skirt, so____________________ .

The passive: the causative 17 Complete the email with one word in each gap.

@00 a


Dear Tracy, I hope you’re ready for our big day! I have got it all planned. We are 1___________ our hair styled at 9 o’clock and our nails will be 8____ with any colour we choose straight afterwards. Our appointments have 3___________ made with different hairdressers, so we can have our hair done at the same time! After that, we will go shopping and clothes will4__________ chosen for us by a famous designer, James Gray. At 4 o’clock, we are 5___________ our photographs6___________ by a professional photographer, and a copy of the best ones will b e 7___________ to us as a souvenir of our day. We are getting picked u p 8________ _________a car at 6 o’clock and taken to the theatre, where we will see one of Shakespeare’s plays, Othello. The play will finish at 10 o’clock and we will be driven home in a posh car. I’m really excited. Hope you are, too! Love, Melissa

18 Write answers to the questions.

19 Rewrite the sentences in the causative form.


1 I'm cleaning my bedroom.

A: Is Laura making a cake for her birthday? B: No, she is having it made.

2 She's opened a bank account.

1 A: Does Timothy make his lunch himself? B: No,___________________________

3 They built a new garden shed.

2 A: Has Bob collected his new computer? B: No,___________________________

4 He will repair the broken computer.

3 A: Have you styled your hair yourself? B: No,__________________________ .

5 I've fitted a new kitchen.

4 A: Had Mike changed his hair colour himself? B: No,___________________________

6 He walks the dog every day.

5 A: Will Gail cut the grass herself? B: No,___________________________

6 A: Has Sonia cleaned the swimming pool? B: No,___________________________ 7 A: Did Josh draw the picture of his grandmother? B: No,__________________________ .


f G et it right! 1 20 One verb form in each sentence is incorrect. Underline it and write the correct verb form.

1 Dogs shouldn't be leave in cars.______________ 2 The electricity should be off when light bulbs are changing------------3 Please draw the curtains, so we can't see by people walking by-------------

4 TVs should be switch off if you leave the house------------5 If you are cooking dinner, make sure your hands are wash first_______________

6 Are you getting the inside of your car cleaning?______________ 21 There is one incorrect verb form in each sentence. Rewrite the sentences correctly. 1 Becky had her party invitations prints.

2 Paul is having his homework marked yesterday. 3 Nick has had the whole garden tidied before I arrived. 4 Tony was had his windows fitted. 5 Natalie will had the car washed.

6 Hugh has a new staircase built last month.

22 Work with a partner. Say if you agree or disagree with each statement. Explain why.

1 Most people are frightened by spiders and snakes. 2 Blogs about people's private lives are written just to entertain us. 3 Most children who get good marks for their homework have been helped by their parents. 4 Children under 10 shouldn't be given mobile phones. 5 In the future, cars will be driven by computer programmes.

Grammar Review 1 Rewrite each pair of sentences as one sentence. Use the word in bold.


2 Complete the email with the gerund or infinitive form of the verbs in brackets. I S I S I——5 1

Dear Henry, How are you? Sorry I didn’t reply sooner, but I’ve been so busy.

1 Do you like the hat? I bought it in the sales, that Do___________________________________ sales?

2 She's looking for her bag. She put her keys in that bag. which She's___________________________________ her keys in. 3 That's Pete. He's going to go running, who That's___________________________________ running.

Well, I’m pleased 1___ . (say) that I have succeeded in s_ __ (pass) my exams, so I’m really looking forward to 3________ (relax) this summer. I’m planning 4________ (help) my mum look after my little sister for a bit, but I will spend most of the time 5________ (hang out) with friends. My older brother Sam is considering6________ (work) for a year instead of studying - he needs 7 (decide) what he really wants 8 (do) with his future. He enjoys 9 (act), but he’s not sure whether to study it or not. What about you? Did you pass your exams? Write soon, Anne

4 Hydra is an island. I like to go there for weekends. where Hydra,___________________________________ an island. 5 Our neighbours get a lot of complaints. Their children are very noisy. whose Our neighbours, ___________________________________ a lot of complaints.

6 Rachel is a doctor. She operated on my mum. who Rachel is the

7 I'll never forget that day. I got my exam results then. when I'll never forget the day

3 Choose the correct answer. 1 Don't forget closing/to close the windows when you leave. 2 It's not worth bringing / to bring your laptop to the island - there's no Internet connection there. 3 If you get tired, stop to have / having a short break. 4 Will you just stop to talk / talking for a minute and listen? 5 She says she has known me for a long time, but I don't remember ever meeting / to meet her. 6 If nothing else works, try to turn / turning the computer off and starting again. 7 Would you mind to take / taking your shoes off in the house? 8 They are so hard-working. They definitely deserved to win / winning.



80 ®

4 Read the article and circle true (T), false (F) or not mentioned (NM).

T H E B A K G ll ST REET R O B B E R Y One of the most famous crimes of all time was the bank robbery on the corner of Baker Street in London in 1971. The bank was robbed by men who had rented a shop two doors away from the bank. The group spent their weekends digging under the ground and through the shop between them and into the bank. Their plan was nearly ruined when a man heard their conversation, recorded it and called the police. However, the robbers didn’t say which bank it was, so all the banks in the area were checked. The Baker Street Bank was also checked by the police, but because the security door was locked, it was considered safe. Three million pounds were stolen that night. Four men were caught and sent to prison for the robbery, but the story is still famous today, with films and TV shows about the crime being made.

5 Rewrite the sentences in the passive form.

1 We use the fire only when it is very cold outside. 2 He was writing down the recipe. 3 The postman delivered the mail at nine o'clock. 4

She has opened the important letter.

5 The team are training the police dogs.

6 Lucy has finished the essay. 7 The local community had discussed new safety ideas.

8 Oliver will buy the face paints. 9 A waiter suggested the seafood starter.

10 The boy had laughed at the girl.

6 Complete the text with words from the box. allow won't allow didn’t let let made made to were made weren’t allowed

1 The rented shop was next door to the bank. T/F/N M 2 A man nearly ruined the plan.


3 The men were heard talking about their plans. T/F/N M 4 The police didn't check that every bank in the area was safe. T / F / NM

5 The money from the bank was shared between the men before they were caught.

T / F / NM

6 Directors and TV producers are making films about the bank robbery.


Life was strict when my grandparents were young. They 1______________ to behave very correctly. Their parents 2______________ them wear formal clothes and 3______________ them leave the kitchen until they'd eaten everything on their plates.They 4______________ .tojoin in adult conversations and w ere 5______________ go to bed early. I think we should 6______________ children to be freer and 7______________ them enjoy themselves. The only things 18______________ my kids to do are things that might be dangerous.

Grammar Review 5 7 Rewrite the passive sentences in the causative have form. EXAMPLE:

8 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

1 They're going to wear protective clothing,

Jackie's hair is being cut.


Jackie is having her hair, cut

Protective clothing

1 Their new computer will be delivered.


2 Her hair's shorter, 2 Her new pictures are being put up. 3 Our garden shed has been cleared out.

had She's______________________________________ cut.


3 The skateboard needs repairing,

4 Ken's bedroom had been painted.


5 Peter's shower was fixed.

I w ill______________________________________ repaired.

4 The President will open the new exhibition

6 Sarah's money had been stolen.

tomorrow. by The new exhibition ______________________________________ tomorrow. 5 The detectives haven't found any clues,

discovered No clues______________________________________ .

% #

6 They should make a decision soon, made A decision______________________________________ soon.

G et it right! 9 Underline the mistakes. Then rewrite the sentences correctly.

1 Is that the guy who you told me about him? 2 The film Knight and Day, who stars Tom Cruise, isn't very good. 3 The top five students, who results were excellent, will win a prize. 4 Krista, that won the latest series, was the oldest winner that America's Next Top Model had had. 5 My neighbour offered looking after my cats while 1was away.

6 Is there any special equipment where you need for mountain climbing? 7 Drew spends a lot of time to chat to his friends online.

8 Do you fancy to go to that trendy new cafe later on?



Modals Modal verb



must/have to/need to

• obligation • necessity

You must do what the instructor tells you. We hawe to do six hours of homework a week. We need to buy some eggs because we've run out.


• certainty

My mum must be at work because it's only three o'clock.

should/ought to/ had better

• advice

You shouldn't eat pizza every day. You ought to fill up with petrol before we leave. You'd/had better see a doctor about your leg.


• ability • permission • requests

Joe can swim 100 metres in under one minute! Can we stay up late tonight? Can you help me?

be able to

• ability • successful result

Tim was able to finish his essay on time. After a few minutes, /wm able to get the computer started.


• impossibility

You can't be at university because you're too young.


• ability in the past

When 1was younger■1could stand on my head.


• possibility

Sally could be at the gym.


• permission (formal)

May I close the window? It's a bit cold.


• possibility

We may be going to Spain for our holidays. Susan says she might leave her babysitting job.


• prohibition (not allowed/forbidden)

You mustn't ever use Dad's laptop again!

don't have to/needn't/ • not necessary don't need to

We don't hawe to go to the party. You needn't worry about the bill. I've paid it already.

Notes: 1 Most modal verbs have one form and don't change (i.e., they do not use -s, -ing, -ed endings) and they are generally followed by a bare infinitive. However, have to, need to and be able to change according to person and tense, e.g., They weren't able to reach the land before dark. 2 We use was/were able to say that somebody managed to do something on one occasion, usually something that wasn't easy. We don't use could in this case. 3 Must and have to are very similar, but we use must more often to talk about a decision we have made ourselves, e.g., / must go to the gym more often, and have to for a decision someone else has told us is necessary, e.g., The teacher told me 1had to get better grades. 4 Mustn't and don't have to, don't need to and needn't don't mean the same, e.g., You mustn't eat in the classroom. = it's not allowed You don't hawe to go to school today. = it isn't necessary

, , . i ,I . , ................ .................. ii............. .............. , , i

Practice 1 Choose the correct answer.

1 You may/should take an umbrella if you're going for a walk. I think it's going to rain. 2 Can / Must I open the window, please? I'm really hot. 3 Look at that man dressed as an alien! He should / must be going to a fancy-dress party. 4 Tomorrow is Saturday, so we mustn't / don't have to go to school. 5 If you want to be healthy, you ought not to / needn't eat so many sweets.

6 When Janice was seven, she can / couid already play both the piano and the violin. 7 Today's a public holiday, so he mustn't / can't be at school.

8 Even though she was exhausted, she could / was able to finish the race. 9 May / Have I see your bus ticket, please? 10 You're so slim you must /don't have to go on a diet.

2 Match to make sentences.

1 I've got an extra pair of skates,

a if you don't want to.

2 John can't make it to basketball

b I can pay you back tomorrow.

practice tonight because

c he couldn't read the sign in the library.

3 Even though it was very difficult,

d he's got too much work to do.

4 Even though he had his glasses on,

e he doesn't have a blue tracksuit.

5 You don't have to go for a walk

f so you needn't hire any.

6 Can Sally and Liz

g to lock the car doors in future.

7 You really mustn't forget

h have to play your music so loudly?

8 That can't be George -

i he was able to finish the crossword puzzle.

9 I don't have any money at the moment, but

j come and stay with us at the weekend?

10 Do you always 3 Put a tick next to the sentences about possibility or impossibility.

1 That can't be Sally's mobile phone on the table. Hers is red----2 He ought to get better marks in class-----


I could tell Terry about the party, if you like-----

4 You should tell her that you are a vegetarian!_____ 5 The baby must be hungry because she is drinking her milk very quickly-----

6 I love that new gadget you've bought - I should get one as well----7 I think Zara might break up with Gary. She says she doesn't like him anymore.

8 You mustn't go jogging if you've got a cold----9 You should be more careful on the road when you're cycling-----

10 I think I may go out when I've finished my homework._______


â&#x20AC;˘ G#

4 Match the modals in the sentences (1-10) to their functions (aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;j).

1 You mustn't touch the equipment in the science lab. 2 He can't be earning that much money; he's a teacher!

a something not necessary in the present

3 1was able to get to the library before it closed.

b asking permission

4 You should spend more time in the fresh air, not sitting all day at your computer.


5 You must hand in your essays by the end of the week.

e something not necessary in the past

6 You needn't buy any marmalade; 1found a jar at the


d giving advice

back of the cupboard.

something that is not allowed, a prohibition

7 They might be back by the weekend, but I'm not sure.

g ability

8 May 1borrow your snowboard?

h possibility

9 He can do the most difficult climb on the climbing wall.


obligation, necessity



10 He didn't need to buy me a present. 5 Choose the correct answer.

1 We.

. go to the aerobics class tonight, if you want to. A have to

2 I'm sorry, but I .

B could . lend you any money right


3 I really think yo u__ A ought 4

6 Choose the correct meaning for each sentence. 1 You may be right. A It's possible that you are correct.

B I'm sure what you say is true. 2 We don't have to leave for another hour or so. A We must leave now.

A couldn't

B can't to visit John in hospital. B should

I use your computer? Mine is broken. A Should

B May

5 Despite her age, she_____ to take part in the competition. A was able

B could

6 W e _____ go to the supermarket. We've got everything we need. A needn't

B shouldn't

7 That_____ be Gloria. She's on the playing field. A mustn't

B can't

8 You______go to training tomorrow or you'll lose your place in the team. A can

B must

9 Terry_____ come to the party, but he's not sure. A might


successful result

B oughtn't to

B There isn't any need to go at the moment. 3 Everyone should speak a second language. A This is an order.

B This is advice. 4 Can I go to the Beyonce concert? A Will you give me your permission?

B Is it necessary for me to go? 5 You mustn't chew gum in class. A Chewing gum is not allowed.

B You can only chew gum in class.

6 Unfortunately, I wasn't able to go. A I could go, but I didn't.

B It wasn't possible for me to go.


Write the words in the correct order.

1 you / come / on Saturday / can / to my party / ?


Choose the correct answer.

1 If you want to go to that concert, you_____ a ticket in advance.

2 silly things / mustn't / about / get / you / upset /.


3 eat / vegetables / more / ought to / they /. 4 need / you / to get / do / from the bank / any money / ?

should book had to book should be booking must to book

2 I couldn't come to your 5 by Friday / all essays / be finished / have to /.

party because I _____ study late.

6 better / you / me / let / make the lunch / had /.


8 Complete the dialogue with phrases from the box.

must had to ought to was able to

3 A: Is Jessica at home now? B :S h e ______.She's supposed to be at her piano lesson.

A mustn't be B can be C needn't be D shouldn't be 4

you get some milk on your way back?

A Can B May C Must D Shall

can come canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be serious might be joining couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t make has to lose should tell ought to do must be

5 I told him I ______to the gym with him because I had broken my big toe.

A couldn't go Anne: Hi Fred, I didn't know you were a member of the gym! I thought you


here when I saw your bike outside.

Fred: Hi Anne. Yeah, I come here three times a week now. My mum got me a membership a couple of months ago for my birthday.

Anne: You 2_______________ me when you go in the future, so we

3_______________ to the gym together. Fred: Sure. I usually come after school on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, but 14_______________ it yesterday. Oh! I forgot to tell you. Tom 5_______________ us today.

Anne: What! Really, Big Tom? You 6________________ He's never done any exercise in his life!

Fred: I know. His doctor says that he 7_______________ some weight. So now he 8_______________ some exercise for at least half an hour every day.

Anne: Oh dear. Poor Tom!

B don't have to go C can't go D must go

6 A: I had another argument with my sister today. B: You_____ watch out, or your parents will get really annoyed with you! A B C D

might could had better must to

............ s . ; ............................................, , . - , . ^ , : i ...... :...--.............................................................................................................. â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

10 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as

the first. Use the word in bold. 1 Joan is thinking of joining the local gym.

.......... .............. .....

.................. .................. ....................................................................................................

12 Look at the signs below and complete the sentences with one word in each gap to explain what they mean. Use must, can, can't, shouldn't and have.

may Jo a n ________________________________________________ .

2 It's possible that Tom will be chosen to be in the football team. might



Tom________________________________________________ . 3 Sally told Clarissa that it wasn't necessary for her to ring her back.

. not skateboard here.




Sally________________________________________________ . 4 It's important that you tell Mr Griffiths what happened,


better You________________________________________________ .

.to slow down here.


5 You're not allowed to go into the science lab without a teacher.

can't You________________________________________________ the science lab without a teacher.

6 Is it really necessary for me to go jogging?

K EEP MEDICINES OUT O F THE REACH] OF CHILDREN . be in a place Medicines. where children won't find them.

have D o________________________________________________ ?


11 Choose the correct answer.


1 A: Look at those dark clouds over there! B: Yes. I think it______rain. A should B ought to


C might D can

you open the window, please? It's very hot in here. A Can

B May

C Shall

D Let's

3 A :_____ finish your essay on time? B: No, I'm afraid not. It was late. A Could you B Were you able to

C Did you have to D Can you

4 You______bring any food to the party. We've got more than enough for everyone. A needn't

B mustn't

C oughtn't

C had better D may

6 Her name's Gomez, so she_____ be Spanish. A might B can



.leave their bags

D may not

5 Don't wait for me. I _____ not be back until late. A must B can

You. .get in to this place unless you are 18 or older.

C mustn't D doesn't have to


. get in without


13 Complete the sentences with phrases from the box. shouldn’t sit ought not to have might not go couldn’t swim ought to write ought to apologise Should I get should drink can’t let us stay might join to my breakdancing class.

1 My back hurts today, so I .

________ to her. 2 Phil was very rude to his mum; h e _____________ 3 Faye phoned me this morning and said that she 4 You _____________ _

______________ a social networking website.

more water on hot days.

5 Eileen_________________ cheated in the test.

6 My brother's flat is very small, and h e__________ 7 There isn't any food in the fridge______________

8 I can never remember song titles. I ____________ 9 Five years ago, M att____

10 You really______________

.when we are in Paris. a pizza for dinner? _ them down.

., but now he is the best in the school team. . in the sun for more than an hour when it's hot.

14 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

15 Complete the conversation with one word in each gap.

1 It isn't necessary to pay anything to use the tennis courts. have You_____________________________ anything to use the tennis courts. 2 I'm thinking of moving to a different school,

may I _____________________________ to a different school. 3 I'm sure my craft materials are in my bedroom,

must My. bedroom.

. in my

4 If I were you. I'd hand your essay in tomorrow,

ought You_____________________________ your essay in tomorrow.

Joshua: Sorry I wasn't .to goto your birthday party yesterday. I've got so much homework at the moment that my mum says I 2________ stay in and study all weekend. Ben:

5 Dora didn't take the test because she was ill that day.

able Dora_____________________________ the test because she was ill that day.

6 Perhaps we will have to shop around for a new laptop.

may W e _____________________________ for a new laptop.

Don't worry. There were so many people that w e 3_____ . not fit them all in the house -we _ to move the party to the garden! I hadn't realised I was so popular! Luckily, it wasn't raining.

Joshua: Great! You5________ be really pleased that so many people came. Look, 6________ I come to your house tomorrow? I know I have 7 study, but I really want to see you and give you your birthday present. Or 8 I wait until I see you at school? Ben:

No, tomorrow is fine. You don't9________ to wait until school. I'm looking forward to getting my present!

G e t it right! 16 Look at the underlined verbs. If the verb is correct, put a tick. If it isn't, write the correct modal verb on the line. 1 The last person to leave the library mav switch off the lights and lock the doors, so don't forget! 2 You needn't to buy any eggs, we've got plenty.____________________ 3 If you have got a European passport, you mustn't get a visa to go to France----------------4 The doctor says I need to do more exercise.____________________ 5 The weather forecast says it might rain later.____________________

6 Will I play on my games console before I go to bed, please?____________________ 17 There is one mistake with modals in each sentence. Rewrite each sentence correctly. 1 He must pass the exam, but I'm not really sure. 2 Mum says we are able to go out after we've done our homework. 3 I've been there before, so I shouldn't ask for directions. 4 The traffic is bad today, so the bus can be late. 5 Don't worry, you mustn't remind me; I'll remember what to do.

6 You can't wear a uniform, but you can if you want to.

1 What three things do you have to do by the end of the week? 2 What won't your parents let you do until you're older? 3 What should be done to improve your school? 4 What could be done to improve your town? 5 Your partner is going on a camping holiday. What should he/she take with him? What doesn't he/she need to take?

6 Your partner is waiting for an important email, but his computer is broken. What should he/she do? k


w i r ... ............

Mil l i n' ......—

I— —

mummi ............................................................................... 'in f /


Modal perfect; too, enough, so, such

Complete the sentences with words from the box. should





They're hom e-they_________have ended their holiday early. They_________have had a very good time!

It rained every day, the place was boring and there wasn't_________food. Our beds were. ____ hard that we couldn't sleep! have stayed at home!

Modal perfect Modal verb



must have

• certainty: to talk about events, actions, feelings, etc., in the past that we are sure about

Great photos! You must hawe had an amazing time in Australia! Tom's already gone to bed - he must hawe been tired. 1must hawe said the wrong thing to Sandy because she isn't speaking to me now!

can't have

• impossibility: to talk about events, actions, feelings, etc., in the past that we are sure did NOT happen

may/might have

• possibility-to talk about events, actions, feelings, etc., in the past that were possible, but we don't know for sure whether they happened or not

Don't worry that John didn't say hello - he may not hawe seen you. Jane's not here yet - the plane might hawe arrived late. It might have been the sausages that gave you stomach ache!

could have

• possibility: to talk about events, actions, feelings, etc. in the past that were possible, but did not happen • possibility: to talk about events, actions, feelings, etc., in the past that were possible, but we don't know for sure whether they happened or not • ability: to talk about events, actions, feelings, etc., in the past that were possible, but did not happen

You could hawe stayed at my house last weekend if you had wanted to. It could hawe been Victoria who phoned. The kids could hawe injured themselves playing that stupid game!

should/ shouldn't have/ ought to/ought not to have

• criticism: to criticise past actions or behaviour • expectations: to talk about things you expected to happen that didn't happen

You should hawe told me you broke my mp3 player! 1shouldn't hawe been rude to the teacher. Peter ought not to have failed the English exam. The bus ought to have come by now!

\That can't hawe been Dom in the car with Gregory - he's in hospital! You can't hawe called me - 1had my mobile phone with me the \whole time. Frank can't hawe loved Zena if he said that about her!


Notes: 1 Modal verbs only have one form and they do not change depending on the person, e.g., I must hawe taken the wrong road; He must hawe taken the wrong road. 2 We form the modal perfect by using the modal verb + have + the past participle of the main verb, e.g., You should hawe come with us; Karen can't hawe known about the test. 3 We can use had to to talk about obligation/necessity in the past, e.g., Terry had to study hard all evening to get ready for his English test. 4 We can use didn't have to to talk about no obligation/necessity in the past, e.g., We didn't hawe to take books to read because there were lots at the hotel. 5 We can use wasn't/weren't allowed to to talk about prohibition in the past, e.g., We weren't allowed to use our mobile phones on the bus trip.

Too, enough, so, such Use




• to talk about situations where there is more than the required amount of something

too + adjective (+ for + noun + to infinitive) too + adverb (+ for+ noun + to infinitive) too + many/much + noun (+ for+ noun + to infinitive)

It's too hot for me to lie in the sun. It's too cold to go swimming today. Mum says it's too early for breakfast! Colin was too late to catch the train. There are too many people on this beach for me! I've got too much work to do.


• to talk about situations where there is less than the required amount of something, or the right amount of something

(not) enough (+ adjective) + noun (+ for+ noun + to infinitive) adjective + enough (+ for + noun + to infinitive) adverb + enough (+ for+ noun + to infinitive)

There aren't enough beach towels for eweryone. Have you got enough money to lend me? Petra's old enough to driwe now. Are you hungry enough to eat that pizza? We didn't run fast enough to get the bus. That looks good enough to eat!


• to talk about the results of something

so + adjective + that so + adverb + that so + many/much (+ noun) + that

The dog was so cute that 1wanted to take it home. He talked so quickly that 1couldn't understand a word. They enjoyed the holiday so much that they wanted to stay there forever.


• to emphasise something (often something that causes or explains a specific result or consequence)

such + a/an + adjective + singular noun (+ that) such + adjective + plural noun (+ that) such + a lot of + noun + that

We had such a great time that we're going again next year. They were such lowely people at the hotel that we were sorry to say goodbye. Joe ate such a lot of cake that he felt ill.

Notes: We can also use so and such without that to mean very, e.g., Mmm - that ice cream was so nice!; The party was such fun! ----------------------------------- s V

Practice 1 Complete the sentences with should or shouldn't.

1 It's so cold here! I _________have brought a warmer jacket! 2 I think the other people in the hotel________ have spent less time complaining about their rooms. 3 Ashton looks tired - h e________ have stayed up so late.

4 They________ have taken the plane; it's cheaper by train. 5 The weather is beautiful. Liam________ have gone trekking with his friends.

6 Jasmine________ have told us she had a headache. We could have gone home sooner. 7 You________ have borrowed my mp3 player without asking me first!

8 My baby brother is crying. W e ________ have made so much noise playing CDs. 2 Choose the correct answer.

1 You must / can't have chosen the gift very carefully - it's beautiful. 2 Mike feels strongly about ecology. He may / should have chosen a course on ecology. 3 A: Where did Elliot stay in London? B: His friend Frank has a big house, so he might / can't have stayed there.

4 Why didn't you ask me? I couldn't / could have driven you to your class. 5 They should / must have got on the plane already because there's nobody in the departure lounge.

6 That man must / ought to have committed a crime - the police have just arrested him. 7 My car is too small for all of your bags; you ought to / must have taken less. 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of verbs from the box.

book cost




play take visit

1 This room is very expensive. We ought to have________ cheaper accommodation. 2 Those children ought not to have_________football in the house. 3 My sister shouldn't have________ her mobile phone on the table.

4 Do you think we ought to have_________Eddie to the party? 5 Look at that fantastic car - it must have________ a lot of money.

6 I didn't know Ingrid was in hospital last week. I could have________ her. 7 Li's not here - he may have________ the dog for a walk.

8 My sister could have________ on holiday last month, but she decided to stay at home and get a summer job. 4 Match to make sentences.


You should have

a to have studied harder for the exam.

2 Brandon must have

b to borrow Dad's car last weekend.

3 Sue could


must have stolen your sandwiches!

4 I think my dog


asked me if you needed some help.

5 Terry wasn't allowed


read about the campsite in a magazine.

6 I ought


have been hurt in the robbery!

5 Read the sentences and choose the correct answer.

1 Zoe must have been very tired after the long trip. This is a certainty / a possibility about the past.

2 Mum might not have done the shopping yet.

7 Complete the letter with phrases from the box. can’t have liked must have been must have had could have been might have left shouldn’t have sold must have moved

This is a necessity / a possibility.

3 Only three people came, so I ought not to have bought so much food. This sentence means I did / didn't buy a lot of food.

4 It can't have been Kelly you saw because she's away in Greece. This is a probability / a certainty about the past. 5 You should have booked the holiday online. This sentence means you did / didn't book the holiday online.

6 Lucy could have made a better suggestion. This is a certainty / a possibility.

7 Jan had to water our garden while we were away. This is a necessity / a possibility. k)e.or Sir,

8 They ought to have arrived by now. This sentence means they have / haven't arrived.

6 Circle the correct answer. 1 The cake's all gone.The children______have eaten it all. A ought to B should C can't

I am writing to te ll ^ou how unhappy I w as wfth the holiday c^ou sold me1 The hotel was old and the doors didn't close properlu. I'm sure ft '_________________________ built over a hundred peat's a^ol The place A_________________________ a lot

D must

nicer rf ft was clean, but it wasn't. In th e w eek we were

2 The teacher said w e ______have written two

th e re , we never cpt an^ clean tow els and nobody cleaned

essays, but we only wrote one.

our room once. I imacjine all the people who worked th ere

A should

3_________________________ and found ^ b s somewhere e ls e 1

B might

C must

D can't

3 The lights weren't on last night, so Cameron

lou told me th ere was a sea view {tom th e rooms -

have been home. A might

B must

C can't

D ought to

4 I'm not sure, but I think Ashley_____ not have known about the party. A should

B can

w ent th ere; because ^ou certainly can^t s e e ft now' The hotel is two kilom etres -from th e sea and all ^ou see •(tom the bedroom windows is other hotels. The -food in the

C might

D must

5 Tom's not here yet. H e_____ have missed the

hotel restaurant was terrib le' The other visitors who w ere sta^in^ in th e hotel 5_________________________ ft because everyone went to the restaurant next to th e hotel to eat.

bus. A could B should

C ought not to D can't

6 Brooklyn was tired when she got to the gym this morning. She______have stayed at home. A may

well; th e^ **_________________________ the sea since, ^ou

B ought to C must

D can't

lou ^_________________________ lette rs like th is {tom other people whoVe been to the same hotel. In m^ opinion, ^ou 1_________________________ me th e holiday and I want m^ mone^ back - all o f ft1 I have ta ke n a photo o f the room so ^ou can s e e how bad ft w as1 I hope to hear from ^ou vev^ soon.

7 Justin_____ have gone to work today because lours fa ith fu lly

the office is closed. A could

B must

C might

D can't

M rs Gladstone


Write sentences using the prompts and must or can't.

1 Look at the broken glass! burglars / get in / through the bathroom window

2 It's a holiday today and all the shops are closed. Nick / go / shopping 3 Jill doesn't have any money, she / pay / for these 4 Nobody's answering the door, they / leave / the house / already

5 Ella never received Guy's letter, it / get lost / on the way

6 Where's my purse? pickpocket / steal / it / when I was at the airport 7 Samuel's in France on a school trip, it / be / Samuel/ you saw / outside the library


Complete the sentences with one word in each gap.

1 Your parents must _________________ been very happy when you won the race. 2 No way! Marvin . have lost his job. He's the best employee in the place!

3 With your cold, you ought not_________________ have gone snowboarding. 4 All the passengers

_________________ have left the boat by now. I'm not sure.

first. Use the word in bold.

5 The streets are very wet. It_________________ have rained a lot in the night.

1 She realised it had been a mistake to listen to him.

6 We got to the lesson late.

9 Complete the second sentence so it has a similar meaning to the

ought She realised she__________________________ to him.

2 I'm sure the shop assistant didn't remember our phone number, forgotten The shop assistant__________________________ our phone number. 3 It's freezing here - I regret not wearing a warmer coat,

should It's freezing here - I __________________________ a warmer coat. 4 Do you think it's possible that Julian spoke to Ryan this morning?

could Do you think__________________________ to Ryan this morning? 5 They look so disappointed that I'm sure they didn't win the match,

can't They look so disappointed that they__________________________ the match.

6 I regret phoning Jade and waking her up. ought I __________________________ phoned Jade and woken her up. 7 He didn't pay attention to what the teacher was saying,

should He__________________________ attention to what the teacher was saying.

8 My laptop's not here, so maybe my sister has borrowed it. might My sister__________________________ laptop.

W e _________________ definitely have got there earlier if we'd caught the bus. 7 Sierra and her brother are late. They _________________ to have been here an hour ago.

8 You_________________ have finished your dinner already! You've only just sat down! 9 Rose_________________ not have felt so upset if you'd apologised after being rude to her!

10 I'm sure I _________________ have got a better mark in the test by working harder.

moo 11 Choose the correct answer.

12 Write a second sentence responding to the information in the first sentence. Use the prompts in the modal perfect form. EXAMPLE: I went to the park and it started to rain when I was there, should / take / umbrella

/ should have taken my umbrella.

1 Helena ran two kilometres before breakfast, must/be/tired Charlotte; That waiter isn't very good, is he? He dropped the salad on that woman!


2 Jake didn't cheat in the test, his teacher /

He1______ have worked here for very long!

ought not/punish

Anyway, do you like the food?

Charlotte: No, not really. They2______ have put many vegetables in this soup because it doesn't taste

3 My cousin Paloma doesn't speak English, can't / write / that email

of anything. Olivia:

Well, why are you eating it? You 3______ have complained as soon as you started eating.

Charlotte: I know 14______ to have but I didn't like to.


Have you had a nice day today, apart from the

4 Sonia didn't look well at the party yesterday, might / have / headache 5 Mum went to bed very early last night, can't/feel/well

food? . have stayed in the sun

Charlotte Yes, but I think 15_ longer than 16___ Olivia:

map. could / get lost

. have.

Hmm - yes, your nose is very red. You should

13 Choose the correct answer.

7______ worn your hat, you know. Charlotte: Yes, I know. I

___ have sat under the sun

umbrella as well, but I didn't. I will tomorrow, for sure! Olivia:

Did you see that nice boy by the pool again?

Charlotte: Yes! But I didn't talk to him. He might9______ have wanted to talk to me! Olivia:

6 John and Ryan went trekking without a

1 Chelsea is too / enough young to learn to drive.

2 I haven't got enough / too money to buy a new camera.

3 The waiter spoke so / such politely to the customers.

Oh, you should speak to him tomorrow. He 10______ have seen you by now - he's probably waiting for you to say something to him!

Charlotte: OK, I'll say hello to him tomorrow! Now, let's have some ice cream!

4 It was so / such an exciting film that we decided to watch it again. 5 Mum had such / too a bad headache that she went to bed early.

6 London is enough / so big that you can't see the whole city in a week.

1 A ought to B can't

D hasn't

2 A must

B can't

C should

D may

3 A ought

B must


D should

4 A should

B can't


D might

5 A might

B ought


D can't

6 A ought

B can't


D should

7 A to

B not


D be

8 A must

B ought


D could

9 A have

B to

c c c c c c c c


D and


D ought

10 A can


C must

B must

7 Those trousers are enough / too smart to wear to school.

8 There aren't too / enough eggs for us to make a cake.

14 Match to make sentences.

1 The school was so big

a that I couldn't afford to buy it.

2 It was such an expensive jacket

b for us to buy one each.

3 The neighbour's party was so


4 it was too noisy on the plane

d expensive for me to buy. that the new kids kept on getting lost!

5 The bottles of water aren't cheap enough

6 Those trainers are too

noisy that we couldn't sleep!


so I couldn't sleep.

15 Read the text and choose the correct answers. Rodney says he never wants to go on a camping holiday again. It rained 1 too much / such a Sot that Rodney's tent was never dry, for one thing. And his sleeping bag w as 2too Sight / Sight enough, which meant he was never 3 enough warm / warm enough at night and he didn't sleep properly. After a few days, he w as 4too much tired / so tired that he didn't want to do any walking or swimming. Rodney got very bored because there 5weren't enough / mot too activities at the campsite. It was 6too far / such far to go to the nearest resort, where there was more to do. And it w as 7 such a wet / so wet that a lot of the other holidaymakers went home, so there was nobody for Rodney to talk to. In fact, Rodney had 8a too terrible / such a terrible holiday that he thinks he needs another holiday to recover! 16 Choose the correct meaning for the sentence,

1 People aged 18 and over can ride those bikes, and

17 Complete the sentences with words from the box.

John is 17.


A John is too old to ride the bikes.

1 The food at the new cafe is________ salty

B John is not old enough to ride the bikes.

2 We didn't go for a walk because it was a very hot day. A It was such a hot day that we didn't go for a walk. B It was so hot that we went for a walk.



There wasn't________ time to explore the island. _____fascinating The lesson had been. that the students didn't want to leave.

4 We can't swim in the river because it is very polluted.

6 Jenny always takes________ a long time to choose her clothes in the morning. 7 He drove________ slowly to win the race.

5 Some endangered species can't be saved. A It is too late to save some endangered species. B It is not too late to save some endangered species.

6 The disco was so noisy that we only stayed there for five minutes. A We left the disco after five minutes because it was too noisy. B The disco wasn't noisy enough, so we left after five minutes. 7 It was such a wet day that we stayed in the tent until the evening.

B It was too wet for us to go out of the tent all day.


early at the airport 3 We arrived_____ that we were the first to check in.

B The book was not good enough to read again.

A We stayed in the tent all day and got wet.


2 He's________ an aggressive player.

A The book was so good that I read it again.

B The river is too polluted for us to swim in.


for me; I can't eat it.

3 The book was very good, and I read it again.

A The river isn't polluted, so we can swim in it.


G et it right! 18 If the sentence is correct, put a tick. If it isn't, rewrite the sentence using so, such, too and enough. 1 I could have helped you, but there wasn't such time. 2 My grandfather says he isn't so old to use my digital camera. 3 Why did you spend such a long time in the supermarket? 4 I'm sorry, but I'm tired enough to go to the cinema with you. 5 I know she wants to, but is Fallon really clever too to become a doctor?

6 We've never had such a great time! 7 John arrived wearing his old jeans - he hadn't had enough time to change.

8 My school report was so bad that I thought the teacher had made a mistake! 9 You're never too old to have fun!

10 It was so a tasty meal that we asked Mum to make it again the following day! 19 One word in each sentence is incorrect. Underline it and write the correct word on the line.

1 Jack can't have paid a lot for that car. It's beautiful - and fast!________________ 2 That waitress was lovely! She mustn't have been more charming.. 3 I know the children were naughty, but the teacher can't have shouted at them like that!. 4 David could has cleaned his room on his own, but his sister decided to help him------

5 I can't see my scrapbook anywhere. I can have left it in the car_________________ 6 There can't have being a storm last night. All the streets are dry.________________ 7 The boys must had practised a lot yesterday because they performed very well today.. 8 You shouldn't have cook a vegetarian meal for us. We could have eaten fish instead.__ 9 Liz shouldn't have picking a quarrel with her neighbour.________________ 10 That can have been the last bottle of juice. I bought some yesterday---------------

[Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sSb OB' 20 Work with a partner. Answer the questions. 1 What didn't you do last year that you think you should have done? 2 What have you done in the past that you think you shouldn't have done? 3 What might have happened last night? Use your imagination!

4 What three things are you too young to do at the moment? 5 What three things are you so excited about that you can't wait to do them? 6 What three things are you so nervous about that you don't want to do them?


Grammar 1Review 1 Choose the correct words.

1 Adam must / needs to be exhausted after his long flight.

2 You don't have / are able to be a genius to understand what has happened. 3 Olivia won't be able to/couldn't go cycling with us tomorrow morning. 4 Joe and Dean are going camping next weekend - it sounds fun! Must / May I go with them, Mum? 5 He must/should be guilty.The judge is sending him to prison.

6 Ruby was able to / ought pay for her new camera with the money she'd saved.


2 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold.

1 I think it would be a good idea for you to do some exercise.

ought You______________________________________ .

2 It's not good for you to eat so much chocolate, shouldn't You______________________________________ . 3 I'm sure Jerry is at basketball practice right now.

must Jerry______________________________________ . 4 Excuse me; is it possible for me to use the squash courts here?


7 Children can't / don't have to wear uniforms at my school, but they shouldn't / needn't wear outrageous clothes, either.

5 Perhaps David is waiting for us at the cafe,

8 The teacher told us that we didn't need / weren't able to hand

6 I'm sure Brad isn't as immature as you say he is.

in our projects until the end of next week. 9 A: You may / must always wear a helmet when you ride with our cycling club.

B: That's good! You should / can always wear one anyway!'

10 I've gone off fast food lately. I think I am able to / might start eating organic food for a change.

Excuse me;______________________________________ ?

could David______________________________________ .

be Brad______________________________________ . 3 Complete the dialogues with too, enough, so or such.

1 A: Mum's suggested going to a Greek island next summer. B: Nice idea! I hope it won't b e________ hot.

2 A: Have you heard that Maddy is in hospital? B: Really? I didn't realise she was________ ill!

3 A: Do you want to come trekking at the weekend? B: No way! It's not warm ________ for me to go walking through the hills!

4 A: I can't understand how George failed all his exams. B: Neither can I - he's usually________ a good student. 5 A: Are you going to watch the late film with me? B: No, I'm________ tired to stay up late; I'm going to bed now.

6 A: Where are you going? B: I'm________ tired that I'm going to bed.

123 ii &

% G

4 Choose the correct answer. 1 I've lost my train ticket. I _____ left it

1 We had such a great time in London that we

somewhere. A should have B can't have

C must have

2 Everybody looks so smart; I _____ worn these casual clothes.

2 You shouldn't have said those things to Natalie

C needn't have

4 The victim of the burglary_____ been terrified. A could have B ought to have C must have 5 Paula isn't answering her phone, so she_____ gone to her aerobics class. A can't have

B might have C needn't have

6 I think we're a bit late. The Maths lesson_____ started by now. A might have B shouldn't have C can't have 7 Jessica_____ worried about her marks. She passed all of the exams. A needn't have B must have C ought to have 8 Leo didn't talk to his best friend in the street. He seen him. A ought not to have B needn't have C can't have 9 My bedroom is very messy. I _____ put all my old books into storage boxes in the garage. A can't have B ought to have C might have put 10 Zoe_____ borrowed my digital camera without

asking me first. A should have B shouldn't have C must have

Ii .m

124 "

A London was so good that we wanted to stay longer. to stay any longer.

3 Look at all these children on the beach! The schools_____ broken up for the summer. B can't have

didn't want to leave.

B London wasn't good enough for us to want

A needn't have B must have C shouldn't have

A must have

Choose the sentence that means the same as the first sentence.

and upset her like that! A Natalie ought to have been upset by the things you said.

B Natalie must have been upset by the things you said. 3 The sea wasn't clean enough for us to swim in. A The sea was too dirty for us to swim in.

B It was such a clean sea for us to swim in. 4 I shouldn't have eaten that potato - it was too hot! A The potato wasn't cool enough to eat, so I didn't eat it!

B The potato was hotter than I thought, and I wish I hadn't eaten it! 5 Don't swim there - it's too dangerous. A It isn't safe enough there for you to swim.

B You should swim there even though it's a bit dangerous.

6 That can't be your phone - all the numbers in it are mine! A My numbers aren't in that phone, so it must be yours.

B All my numbers are in that phone, so it must be mine.

6 Choose the correct answer. Yesterday, Matilda had 1______a bad stomach ache and she felt 2_____ ill that she couldn't get out of bed. She 3______have gone to school at eight o'clock that morning, but she wasn't well 4______, so her mum kept her at home and called the doctor.The doctor5______ have been very busy because it took him 6_____ a long time to get to Matilda's house - it 7_____ have only taken half an hour at the most. When he got there, he asked Matilda what she'd eaten the day before. She said she'd had a seafood salad at the fast food cafe. The doctor asked her a few more questions, and then told Matilda she 8_____ definitely not have had a seafood salad on a hot day. Matilda feels a lot better today, but she 9_____ stay in bed until tomorrow morning. She says she's had 10______seafood salad to last her a lifetime!

1 A too

B enough C so

D such

2 A so

B too

D enough

C such

7 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. 1 I'm not going swimming here; there are too many rocks.

so There are_________________ that I'm not going swimming here. The waiter in the hotel restaurant was so rude that we hated going for meals,

such There w as_________________ in the hotel restaurant that we hated going for meals.

3 These jeans aren't clean enough for me to wear today,

toŠ These jeans_________________ for me to wear today.

3 A ought toB might

C needn't D can't

I'm sure Betty went to the Eiffel Tower when she visited Paris.

4 A too

B such

C enough D so


5 A can't

B must

C ought to D needn't

6 A so

B too

C enough D such

Betty_________________ to the Eiffel Tower when she visited Paris.

7 A should

B can't

C must

D could

Edith needn't have washed up.

8 A must

B ought

C should

D might


9 A can't

B must

C couldn't D is able to

It_________________ for Edith to wash up.

B such

C enough D so

The person in that car must be someone else because Nick is away in England.

10 A too

8 Complete the text with one word in each gap.

can't It was 1________ a beautiful day last Sunday that Eddie and his friends decided to go for a picnic. Eddie knew that he wasn't a good 2________ cook to prepare the picnic food himself, so he invited his sister, Jo, and her friend to go, too. He explained that he wanted them to bring food, but h e 3________ to have told the girls how many people were going on the picnic. Jo 4________ not have agreed to go if she had known how many people she had to make food for! When she found out there were fifteen people going, she told Eddie that w as 5________ many people. But Eddie 6_________ have persuaded her that it was OK, because in the end Jo and her friend made lots of delicious food for everyone. The picnic was a great success. The kids 7________ probably have taken more water to drink because it was a hot day and most of them didn't have 8________ to drink. And the hot weather meant they 9_________ have taken their waterproof jackets. But none of that mattered - they all enjoyed themselves10________ much that they're going on another picnic next week. But Jo and her friend are NOT preparing the food!

It_________________ in that car because he's away in England.

Vocabulary Extension Verbs and prepositions 1 Complete the sentences with verbs and prepositions from the box. cares for hear about looked at met at smile at

hoping for joked about leaving at look for staying at talk about waiting for worried about

Natalie really______________ the exam. But now that it's finished, she's very relaxed. Remember to ___

_______ the children at school when you meet them for the first time.

Can you help me.

__________ my mobile phone? I don't know where it is.

Sheila's parents work on Saturdays, so she______________ her younger brother and sister herself. They are______________ a hotel in London and going to watch a play in the theatre tonight.

6 Did you. The bus is.

. the pop star who died? It was on the news this morning. __six o'clock in the morning, and I'm_______________ an easy journey into London.

I was trying to ________ ______ going to summer camp with my dad, but he just_______________ me getting eaten by bears! When they finally_____ had been_____________

.the shop, John. her for an hour!

. his watch to see how late she was. He

2 Read and choose the correct answer.

Chapter 1 Penny said goodbye to her friends for the last time. She worried 1 them forgetting her when she was gone, but it was only for a few weeks. She was going to stay with her aunt, who had broken her leg, and it was Penny’s job to 2 for her. Penny didn’t really m ind staying with her aunt, especially because she lived in the countryside. W hen she was younger, she talked 3______ having a cottage in the countryside and she liked doing activities

outside. Penny’s friends 4______ about her staying there and becoming a farmer in the future! That made Penny laugh, but really she wanted to get back home as soon as her aunt was better. Penny 5______ at her watch. It was 11 o’clock, and her train 6 at 12. She was hoping 7 an easy journey because she didn’t want to be late to meet her a u n t8______ the station. Penny got into her dad’s car and waved goodbye to her friends.

1 A for

B about

C at

2 A look

B wait

C care

3 A for

B at

C about


B heard

c c c c c

A joked

5 A left

B stayed

6 A stayed

B left

7 A for

B about


B for

A at

worry looked met at about

3 Complete the sentences with the verb in brackets in the correct form and for, about or at. 1 1.

. (hope) better weather than this for our football match on Saturday/ she said.

Jenny and Ian can't, holiday!

Did you and M att________________ (meet) the Internet cafe yesterday?

Please stop_______ making me nervous!

3 I had to . .(stay) home all weekend to help my parents. It was really boring! Every time my dad watches football, he ________________ (joke) playing for the England team. He's so embarrassing!


. (wait) their . (look) me. It's

. (talk) passing the exam 7 She. every day last week!

8 I'm.

. (look) my mobile phone. Can you help me find it?


Vocabulary Extension

Phrasal verbs with in, into and down 4 Match the phrasal verbs (1-10) with their meanings (aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; j). 1 To break into is

a to rest or relax by lying on a bed or a sofa, for example,

2 To give in is

b to become something different; to change into something else,

3 To move in is

c to disappoint someone.

4 To talk into is 5 To look into is

d to place something that you are holding on to something else, for example a table.

6 To let down is

e to go into a place or building by using force, especially to steal something,

7 To fill in is


8 To put down is

g to get someone to do something, especially if they don't want to do it really,

9 To turn into is

h to accept, or agree to do something that you didn't really want to do.

10 To lie down is

to write information on something, normally a form,


to take your things into a new house that you are going to live in.


to investigate something; to find out more about something.

5 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold and the phrasal verbs above.

1 Karen finally stopped saying no and bought him an ice cream, in Karen_________________________him an ice cream.

2 Environmental groups are investigating why pollution has got worse, into Environmental groups are_________________________why pollution has got worse. 3 When are you going to live in the new house? in W hen_________________________to the new house? 4 Helen was studying all night, so she is resting now. down Helen was studying all night so she is_________________________now. 5 The misunderstanding soon became a big argument. Into The misunderstanding________________________ a big argument.

6 Police asked the man to stop holding the gun. down Police asked_________________________the gun. 7 Tommy convinced Susan to go to the see Lady Gaga, talked Tommy_________________________going to see Lady Gaga.

6 Read and write one phrasal verb from Exercise 4 in the correct form in each gap. Today was a busy day. Katie had to finish packing, 1___________________________ and sign all forms, and get the locks changed. Thieves 2___________________________ the flat the week before, so Katie was making sure that it was safe before she 3___________________________ . Her friends were going to help her move her furniture, but they 4___________________________ her___________________________ at the last minute. Katie was disappointed, but she tried to think about her new home and how excited she was about decorating it. Katie 5___________________________ paying someone to paint the flat, but after paying for the movers to bring her furniture, she decided that it was just too expensive. She would do it herself, and 6___________________________ the flat___________________________ a great place just for her to relax in. She couldn't wait!

#Q O



Word formation: adjectives 7 Read the definitions and choose the correct word to complete the sentences. 1 The man in the grey coat wasn't being______ about the car.

I loved the dancing!

2 Her parents are on holiday, so she is lonely / alone in the house.

B truthful (something or someone who says or does

3 The character on the TV programme with the

2 I'm with lots of people, but I still feel at bit_____ . A lonely (the feeling of being on your own) B alone (the state of being on your own with noone else around you) 3 Many children have_____ friends when they are young. A imaginative (the quality of having a good imagination; something that is creative and new) B imaginary (something that isn't real, but is from your imagination) foods are bad for you in many ways. A Fat (something that is big and round; someone who is overweight) B Fattening (something that can cause someone or something to become fat, usually food or drink) 5 The film I saw last week was just______ I love Brad Pitt! A amazed (to feel surprised at something that you didn't expect) B amazing (something or someone who makes you feel surprised)

6 Nick is_____ at the moment. Please be quiet! A asleep (to actually be in the state of sleep; sleeping) B sleepy (to feel like you want to sleep; to feel tired) 7 One of the stars of Brokeback Mountain, Heath Ledger, is______. He died in 2008. A dead (to not be alive anymore) B deadly (someone or something that can cause death)

8 The party wasn't very_____ . A lively (something or someone who has lots of energy and has a feeling of being alive) B live (something that is shown to other people at the same time as it happens, often radio, music or TV programmes)


1 The concert tonight was amazed / amazing.

A true (something that is real or correct) something in a way that is real or correct)


8 Choose the correct adjectives.

gun looked deadly / dead. He really scared me!

4 Our cat is really fattening / fa t I think she should go on a diet. 5 Tom, you look sleepy / asleep. I think you should go to bed.

6 I prefer lively / live music to slow music because I like dancing.

7 I'm not lying! What I said is truthful / true.

8 Rachael's got an imaginary / imaginative idea for the school newspaper article.

9 Complete the text with the correct adjective

form of the words from the box. amaze die fat imagine live lone sleep true

got out of the car and walked to my house. .that I wanted to go 1was so 1_______ straight to bed. It was a difficult day at the office, and I couldn't think of any new ideas for the magazine. Some days I have lots of ideas and I am more 2___________ than other days, but today I couldn't think of anything. A dirty, 3___________ cat ran past me with a 4___________ bird in its mouth. Poor bird! I had no energy, but at least I w as 5___________ . Suddenly I remembered that my flatmate was away for five days on holiday. It was going to be a 6___________ evening. To b e 7____________ , I don't really like spending time on my own. I work in an office with a lot of people, so when I am on my own, I'm always 8___________ at how lonely I feel.

Vocabulary Extension

Collocations with make, have and do 10 Complete the sentences with words from the box. my homework the housework a noise a bath lunch time my hair your best something clear a baby

12 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. 1 The dog smells bad, so he needs to get clean.

1 I'm going to have.


2 Your father isn't very well and he's sleeping, so don't

The dog_________________________ because he smells bad.

. because I'm really dirty after playing football all day. make______________ .

3 D o______________ in the exam. You have studied really hard, so you will be fine!

Please_________________________ enough to understand.

5 Maria is having_______________ It will be so nice for Tim to have a little brother or sister.

Paul is sleeping, so try to be quiet.

6 I have to d o ______________ tonight. I will get in

Don't_________________________ because Paul is sleeping.


7 I'm going to have______________ with my friends in a posh restaurant in town.

It's one o'clock and I'm hungry. Shall we go and eat together?

8 I need to make______________ . I don't want you to


spend all your weekend playing on the computer! 9 The flat is such a mess. I really should do

10 You can't work all the time! You have to make to relax, too!

11 Read and complete the collocations in the text, using the correct form of have, make and do.

% A


4 Kathy is doing______________ later because I'm going to a party and I want to look nice.

trouble with my teacher if I don't.


Please make sure the instructions are easy to understand.

I'm hungry. Do you want _________________________ together? If you try really hard, you can win the tennis match.

best You can win the tennis match if

6 June is pregnant and the baby will arrive

Dear Diary, Saturday ^ April I hawjKta busy day today! first, I amjo u tj to keif> my mmi to \______ the housework. Then. I ’ u ij to 2______ a, bath and 3_______ Uuvck with my ttumi. Then. I ’m.joituj toget readyjar the 'party. I kaoe to 4_______ turn* to call tryjrletui Luxy bejvre Susan comes, because sheju sts.______ a baby! Susan is coming to 6.______ my hair-for me at six. o'clock. Thett we arejouuj to the party! It k a surprise party -for ourfriend Kathy. We have to remember -nxftto 7______ a noise until she comes in. I -wills.______ my best! t can’t urnt. We are jo m j to have a reallygood time! I ’l l write tomorrow! Kelly

in two months.

baby June is_________________________ in two months. 7 Even if I'm busy, I will get a haircut,

time I w ill_________________________ a haircut, even if I'm busy.

8 The boys are helping their parents to clean up the house.

housework The boys_________________________ to help their parents.



Prepositions and nouns 1 Complete the table with words from the box. purpose

in heart

love at






the moment



a hurry

the dot

high speed

a long way

the time being



the beginning





2 Match to make sentences. 1 Can you take me to swimming practice tonight, Dad? I'm


life and he doesn't want to live anywhere else.

2 In my aunt's shop, she sell things made

b they can be very annoying if you don't want someone to call you.

3 Mobile phones are good in theory, but


4 My grandad says he's in the village for

d by hand, like necklaces and vases.

5 Jamie gave up his job and his home, all

e for love - it's such a romantic story.

6 I don't want to do any more housework


7 They take it in turns

in a hurry, so I don't want to get the bus.

to cook. My mum cooks on one day, and my dad cooks the next day.

g at the moment. I'll do some more later. 3 Choose the correct answer. 1 Jim says he drinks on average / on purpose five glasses of cola a day! 2 Don't worry. Sally will be here. She always arrives for the time being / on the dot. 3 This course was tough at the beginning / at the moment, but then it got easier. 4 The police chased the robbers in a hurry / at high speed through the city. 5 Our teacher has told us we've got to iearn the verbs by heart / by hand.

6 He is the most intelligent boy in the class at high speed / by a long way. 7 Jennifer is staying with me for the time being / for life, until she finds her own flat. 8 That wasn't an accident! He did it in a hurry / on purpose. 4 Complete the text with the correct words and phrases from the box. at high speed

by a long way

by heart for life for love for the time being

In theory

I write about restaurants for my school newspaper. I don't get paid for it - 1just do it 1_________________ because I like good food so much. I'm lucky because my parents like eating in restaurants, too, so they are happy to take me. I've been to a lot of restaurants and I can tell you that the best ones offer good food AND good service. 2_________________ , the most expensive restaurants should be the best, but that isn't really true. I'm living in a small tow n 3_________________ and the most wonderful food I've had this month 4_________________ was last night in a local restaurant, which is really cheap.The waiter knew all 35 dishes on the menu 5_________________ and remembered exactly what we'd ordered without writing it down. If I wanted something during the meal, the waiter would appear6_________________ and get me what I needed. The food was delicious and the people at the table next to us said that the restaurants in our town were the main reason that they'd decided to live here 7_________________ ! Maybe I should convince my parents to stay, too!


Vocabulary Extension

Phrasal verbs with off and on 5 Match the phrasal verbs in the sentences (1-8) with their meanings (a-h). run away with something,

To take on is to


To count on is to

b do something extra.

To call off is to

c visit someone, especially when you haven't planned the visit or it is just for a short time.

To call on is to


If something is going on,

rely on, to trust.

If you carry on, you

it is happening at that time.

To make off with is to

take something or someone to a place and leave it there,

g cancel something that you were going to do.

8 To drop off, is to

h continue doing something.

Complete the sentences with words from the box. called








I'm going to ________ on practising this piece of music until I get it right. We were going to do a play at school, but it w as________ off because the Drama teacher was ill. Police are still searching for the robbers w ho_________off with an expensive painting. I'll always be there for you - you can always________ on me. Before we go camping, we have to ________ off the dog at my neighbour's house. They are going to look after her for us. Something strange is________ on at my school. All of the teachers keep laughing for no reason! We are________ on my grandma before we go on holiday. My dad wants to make sure she has everything she needs before we go. Don't_________on the extra work if you don't have time to do it. 7 Read and complete the radio news broadcast with phrasal verbs with off or on. 'And now for the local news. Two men robbed a bank in York and 1_______ with over a million pounds in cash. The police were called and immediately started following the robbers, who were driving a black car. When they realised that they were being followed, the driver 2___________ the other man by the library in the hope that he could escape with the money. However, the police caught the man immediately. The chase is still3___________ and the police have no plans t o 4___________ it____________ until the driver is also caught. Now, let's go over to our fashion editor, Clarissa. We can always 5___________ her to 6___________ the most difficult jobs! Clarissa, how is London Fashion Week? I suppose you have t o : . going to show after show every day! What a life, listeners!'


Word formation: verbs 8 Underline the verb in each pair of words. 1 A straight

B straighten

2 A white

B whiten

3 A bright

B brighten

4 A ripen

B ripe

5 A quieten

B quiet

6 A shorten

B short

7 A long

B lengthen

8 A light

B lighten

9 Choose the correct answer.

1 I'm going to the hairdresser's today. I'm going to get my hair lightened / light. 2 I wish the dogs would quieten / quiet down a bit. I'm trying to watch the TV! 3 I think you should straight / straighten your tie before you go out. It looks messy! 4 My trainers are dirty. I'm going to get some stuff and white / whiten them. 5 Mmm! This peach is lovely. It's really ripe / ripen and juicy.

6 I was thinking about painting my bedroom. It needs to be bright / brightened up with a light colour. 7 My new dress was too long for me, so my mum shortened / short it.


10 Complete the sentences with the correct form of words from the box.

bright light long quiet ripe short straight white 1 You should get the hairdresser to ___________ your fringe. You'd look much better.

2 If the avocados are too hard, put them by the window. The sun w ill___________ them.

3 Give me some of the shopping to your bags.

4 Jackie's hair used to be curly when she was younger, but now she___________ it once a week.

5 Mum, I've grown an inch! Could you my jeans so they fit me?

6 I wish you would___________ down! I'm calling the doctor and I can't hear anything.

7 You should get some posters to ___________ your room up.

8 This amazing new powder w ill___________ your clothes like no other powder does!

Collocations with come and go 11 Match the phrases in bold in the sentences (1 -8 ) with the definitions (a-h). My parents will go crazy when they find out I failed my exams. I'm not looking forward to telling them.

a to finish, especially after a period of time

I'm really worried because my cat has gone missing. I haven't seen her since yesterday.

c to stop speaking or making a sound, often suddenly

My parents have finally come to a decision. We're going to Egypt on holiday rather than New York.

d to have no hair

I'm a bit sad that the summer holidays have come to an end, but it will be nice to see all of my friends at school again. Sue's dad has definitely gone bald. He doesn't have much hair left at all! Have you heard about the Internet cafe? It's going out of business next month. Apparently, everyone has the Internet at home now, so they don't make much money.

b to get angry/upset OR to get very excited

e to be the worst at something, for example in a race f

to make up your mind; to decide

g to end a business, especially for negative reasons h to not be found

Sarah has gone very quiet; I hope she's not feeling ill. I can't believe I came last in our class in the Maths test again! I studied so hard the night before. 12 Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first. Use the correct form of come or go and the word in bold. 1 There were four runners and I was the fourth runner to finish.

last I ___

. in the race.

2 I don't know where my CDs are. I think I've lost them, missing My CDs____________________ 3 We have to decide whether to go bowling or to the cinema,

decision We need to ___________________ about whether to go bowling or to the cinema. 4 The restaurant closed last month,

business The restaurant___________________ last month. 5 The injury destroyed my chance of playing in the school team,

end . My hopes for playing in the school team ___________________ when I broke my leg.

13 Complete the sentences with the correct form of come or go. 1 You should be nicer to Becky. You don't want your friendship to ________ to an end.

2 My mum.

. crazy when she found out we'd won the lottery. She was so excited!

3 Sally_________really quiet when I asked her to come to the concert. I don't think she likes the band. 4 Our team didn't do well in the competition. In fact, w e _________ last! 5 My dad has no h a ir-h e ________ bald when he was about forty.

6 The shop has_________out of business, so I couldn't return that jacket I bought.

only two o'clock.

7 Have you heard the news? Two children have_________missing. The police want people to help look for them.


8 I promise you we'll________ to a

6 That's strange! I can't hear any noise from the street and it's

That's strange! The_______________ o'clock.

. and it's only two

decision about whether to move house soon.


Adjectives and prepositions 1 Match to make short dialogues. 1 A: I hear you've become really enthusiastic about the gym these days!

a B: Oh, she's opposed to teenagers eating fast food. She thinks it's bad for us.

2 A: Have you heard the news? The police are

b B: That's right! I've started going four or five times a week!

looking for the waiter from the Italian restaurant. 3 A: I'm amazed at the change in Joe since he started weightlifting.

c B: Really? Well, she DID get very high marks.

4 A: Why is Gina having her party at the organic cafe and not at the fast food place?

d B: Yes, he looks amazing, doesn't he? I'm really impressed by his commitment. e B: I know. Apparently, he is wanted by the police for robbing a bank.

5 A: Did you know Alison is suspected of cheating in the exam? She's really upset about it.


6 A: I'm really worried about having my bike

g B: You can bring it into the house if you want.

stolen ifl leave it here. 7 A: I feel confident about passing the swimming test. What about you?

B: I haven't practised much, so I'm not sure.

h B: Well, Joan is known for being good with children. Why don't you ask her?

8 A: My sister needs a babysitter for Saturday night. Do you know anyone?

2 Complete the sentences with prepositions from the box. to


about at about

by of

1 Anna can't come rock climbing with us; she's frightened_________high places.

2 I'd like to eat healthily, but I get confused________ all the different advice I read. 3 Coral's amazed________ how good she feels since she started kick boxing classes. 4 You aren't hopeless________ yoga, Julie - you just need a bit more practice! 5 I'm not opposed_________eating meat; it's just that I prefer vegetables.

6 There's nothing to be nervous _________ The yoga teacher will tell you everything you need to know. 7 Kevin walks for two hours a day. He's really serious________ getting fit for his next trek.


Complete the text with phrases from the box.

were impressed by wanted by the police calling the police upset about the carrying a TV about catching the criminal known for stealing things Good news for the residents of Blackberry Road! The people of Blackberry Road are 1__________________________ number of burglaries in their area over the last few weeks. However, the police are now confident 2__________________________ . Local thief Sid Samson is 3__________________________ from people's gardens occasionally, but he's now 4______________________ for the burglaries. Miss Potts, from number 23, saw Mr Samson walking up and down the street yesterday afternoon. Then a little later she saw him running out of one of the houses5__________________________ ! She was shocked at seeing a burglar in the afternoon. At first, Miss Potts was worried about 6__________________________ , but she did it even though she was nervous. They came to the house at once to interview Miss Potts. They 7__________________________ how well she remembered everything she'd seen and how clearly she described the burglar. They knew right away it was Sid. Inspector Wallace said, 'We're sure Sid's the burglar and we'll catch him very soon!'Now everyone in Blackberry Road is very relieved!

Vocabulary Extension


Phrasal verbs with up and out 4 Read the texts and match the phrasal verbs in bold to their meanings.

FH4Ever equipment... lit for you! Have you been trying to 1think up new ways to keep fit? Well, we've got the answer!2Throw out your old fitness equipment, because Fit4Ever have just created a new, better kind of equipment. From now on you don't have to have endless hours of boring exercise classes. Just fifteen minutes, twice a week, plus five minutes each time to 3warm up ... and you'll be super fit before you know it! Don't worry about4setting up the equipment... our people will come to your home and do everything. And you'll have your own special Fit4Ever contact person to 5help you out if you have any problems. So what are you waiting for? 6Look up the address of the Fit4Ever shop nearest you, come along and try our equipment T O D A Y !____

1 think up

a to

2 throw out

b to

3 warm up

c to

4 set up

d to

5 help out

e to

6 look up


7 lock up

g to

8 breakout

h to

9 call up



10 back out



Riley Cornwell was finally sentenced to 16 years imprisonment last week for his part in robbing the bank in Kingston. But Riley hadn’t been 7 locked up for a week when he 8 broke out of his prison cell and escaped. Police had no idea where to look for Riley until he 9 called up an old friend and asked to be put up for a night or two. The friend agreed to help Riley, but then he got scared and 10 backed out of the plan. He phoned the police, and Riley’s now back behind bars!


5 Match to make sentences. 1 You should never go for a run if you haven't

up a new way of keeping fit after she had her skiing accident.

2 You shouldn't have thrown

out my old clothes without asking me first!

3 I don't know where the new bookshop is, but we can

out with the housework at the weekend?

4 Did Sam help his mum 5 I've got no idea how to

look it up on the Internet. We'll definitely find the address there.

6 It didn't take Daria long to think

warmed up first or you might hurt yourself!

set this new equipment up. Can you help me?

6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of phrasal verbs from Exercise 4. 1 Sonya is looking after her little brother this evening. She wants to ________

her mum.


much as she can while her dad is abroad on business.

2 Scrapbooking sounds like an interesting thing to do - let's___________ it _

.on the Internet and

see what else we can learn about it. 3 Carl's collection of old books is worth a lot of money, so he always_________

.to keep it safe.

4 Jude knows a lot about online gaming. Why don't you ___________ him___

.and ask him about it.

5 Paul was going to come rock climbing with us at the weekend, but he____ because he didn't have enough money.

.at the last minute

135 »>

Word formation: nouns 7 Complete the table with words from the box.

breathlessly collectable collector/collection [illegally investigation officially prefer protection protectively punishment real resident suspicious suspiciously understandable Adverb













































8 Read the text and choose the correct answer. The Kidnapped Cat Abbey Chester of Lilac Avenue adores cats. In fact, she is a 1 real / reality fan of cats and much 2 preference /prefers them to dogs. She feels it's her job to 3 protection / protect lost and lonely cats. Other people4collect / collector things like stamps, but Abbey has a collection of cats! However, the other day, her passion for cats got her into trouble. Abbey found a kitten in her garden. At first she thought it wasn't 5 breath / breathing ... but it was. The kitten looked lost, so Abbey picked it up and took it inside. But, the cat, Fluffykins, belonged to Mrs Dyer from number 17, who was looking out of her kitchen window and saw what happened. Mrs Dyer phoned the police. PC Janson arrived within minutes to 6 investigate / investigator the cat-napping! He went to speak to Abbey right away. When he told her that she was a 7 suspicious / suspect in a crime, Abbey was horrified - she'd never done anything8 illegal / legally in her life. PC Janson explained that Fluffykins belonged to Mrs Dyer, another 9residence /resident of Lilac Avenue. Abbey made the police 10officer /office a cup of tea, sat him down and explained the whole thing. After hearing Abbey's story, PC Janson agreed that it had all been 11 an understandable /a misunderstanding and he reassured Abbey that there would be no

12punishable / punishment.



9 Complete the sentences with nouns from the table in Exercise 7.

1 Can I close the window? It's so cold in here I can see m y_________________ !

2 A: Did you get a _________________ for breaking the window? B: Yes, my parents wouldn't let me see my friends for two weeks. 3 I don't mind if we go out for pizza or if we go out for a burger - 1don't have a _________________ . I like pizzas AND burgers. 4 No! I didn't say Kevin was boring! It was all a _________________ . I actually said that Kevin's brother was boring! 5 Danny's just showed me all his old Superman comics. I had no idea he was a _________________ of old comics and magazines, did you?

6 Everyone at school is going to be questioned as part of a big _________________ into the money that's gone missing. 7 Mum spends eight hours a day sitting in her _________________ , so it's important she gets plenty of exercise in her free time.

Idiomatic expressions 10 Read the dialogues. Choose the correct definition of the idioms in bold. 1 A: Hi, Joe. You don't look too happy. What's up? B: Someone stole my new bike yesterday. A What's wrong? B What did you do yesterday?

2 A: Do you really think this hat makes me look like a clown? B: No, of course not! I was just pulling your leg. A to be horrible to somebody B to joke with somebody 3 A: I've painted my old bike. What do you think? B: Great! It looks as good as new. A to be old, but looking new B to be new, but looking old 4 A: Have you joined the aerobics class yet? B: No, I've had second thoughts. Maybe I'll take up yoga instead. A to change one's mind about doing something B to decide to definitely do something 5 A: Hi, Karen. You're out of breath! What have you been doing? B: I've just been training for an hour for the marathon! A to feel exhausted after doing something energetic B to have difficulty breathing because of an illness

6 A: You're very pale, Sheena. Are you OK? B: No, not really. I feel a bit under the weather at the moment. A to be exhausted B to be unwell 7 A: I'm spending this weekend sorting out my book collection and putting things into storage boxes. B: Well, I'll come and give you a hand if you like! A to watch somebody B to help somebody

8 A: Jack had an accident when he was away rock climbing, but he's OK. B: Yes, I heard about it. You must be very glad he came back safe and sound in the end. A to be unhurt B to be injured, but alive 9 A: I'll never pass all the exams!

B: Yes, you will! Carry on revising and keep your chin up. A to not tell anyone your problems B to stay cheerful and confident

Complete the sentences with the correct form of expressions from Exercise 10. 1 Did you really witness a bank robbery or are you ______________________ ?

2 Hey, Charlie, you look sad. ?

3 Ben was really ______________________ after climbing to the top of the hill.

4 Damien, if you aren't busy at the moment, can you ______________________ on the computer? I can't work out how to use this gaming site. 5 Dad's had the same car for fifteen years, but he looks after it so well that it's______________________ !

6 Mum woke up with sore legs this morning, so she's ______________________ about going back to the gym!

7 I know things are difficult right now, Tom, but try to ______________________ - everything will get better soon!

8 Charlotte was away in Africa trekking so it's great to hear that she's back ______________________ after all her adventures! 9 I'm sorry to hear you've been _______________________ I hope you're feeling better now.

Vocabulary Extension 1 Verbs and prepositions care for hear about hope for joke about leave at look at look for meet at smile at stay at

Collocations with moke, have and do do the housework do your best do your hair do your homework have a baby have a bath have lunch make a noise make something clear make time

talk about

Vocabulary Extension 2

wait for

Prepositions and nouns

worry about

at high speed at the beginning

Phrasal verbs with in, into and down

at the moment

break into

by a long way

fill in

by hand

give in

by heart

let down

for life

lie down

for love

look into

for the time being

move in

in a hurry

put down

in theory

talk into

in turns

turn into

on average

Word formation: adjectives amazed / amazing

on purpose on the dot


Phrasal verbs with o ff and on

dead / deadly

call off


call on

imaginative / imaginary

carry on

lively / live/alive

count on

lonely/ alone

drop off


go on make off with take on


Vocabulary Lists Word formation: verbs

Phrasal verbs with up and out


back out




call up


help out


lock up




set up


think up

Collocations with come and go come last

throw out warm up

come to a decision

Word formation: nouns

come to an end


go bald

collector/ collection

go crazy

investigation / investigator

go missing


go out of business

office / officer

go quiet

preference protection

Vocabulary Extension 3


Adjectives and prepositions


amazed at

residence / resident

confident about

suspicion / suspect

confused by


enthusiastic about frightened of hopeless at impressed by known for nervous about opposed to serious about suspected of upset about

Idiomatic expressions be / look as good as new be out of breath be safe and sound feel under the weather give someone a hand have second thoughts keep your chin up pull someone's leg What's up?

wanted by worried about


Irregular verbs awake











































































































































dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt


































































































































The perfect solution for students working towards international exams at jD'Q level!

IH Z H u I jCs is a bright, lively, dynamic new course which brings the real world into the classroom, from the viewpoint of the student. d E B Q llIs Grammar includes... Full explanations of the grammar from each unit of the Students' Book All grammar from the Students' Book recycled and extended Get it right! sections in every unit to focus on correcting common grammar mistakes Let's chat! sections to help students activate grammar Review sections after every two units •Vocabulary Extension sections ■Vocabulary wordlist for reference •Irregular verb list •Photocopiable Grammar Tests for each unit in the overprinted teacher's edition IHSBtEDDG offers the perfect platform for students to investigate, solve and report... with a clear focus on one final goal -exam success!

Components - Students7Book plus EXTRA digital material -W orkbook plus EXTRA support - Grammar Book -Test Book - Interleaved Teacher's Book - Class Audio CDs - Interactive Whiteboard software


rec°mmend ongrnan Active Stt

diction ary and Pen .

tlve headers Leve accom pany the


Cosmic b1 grammar  

English Grammar

Cosmic b1 grammar  

English Grammar