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Why do we need Governance? Why and how we need to incorporate governance in urbanism studies Prepared by Roberto Rocco, Verena Balz with the help of Prof. Wil Ζonneveld Section Spatial Planning and Strategy/ OTB Urbanism @ TUDelft

SpatialPlanning &Strategy Challenge the future

When planning and designing for people, a few questions must be answered in order to make your plan and design relevant and realistic.

Who does what why and how?

In which capacity do actors act? Who initiates the project? Who is responsible for each phase? Who finances? Who carries out negotiations?

Most important: To which needs or wishes of stakeholders does the project cater for?

In other words:

who wants this project?

What is the role of the designer/ planner? WHAT’S YOUR ROLE?

Emergence of new kinds of design connected to the design of PROCESSES ...will have a huge impact on the physical design


Governance (normative) Civil Society

Private Sector

Public Sector Positive tension: checks and balances

Governance (descriptive) Civil Society

Private Sector

Civil Coalitions between sectors and within sectors

Public Sector Public Sector

Urban planners & Designers

You must also design the role you play and the role of other actors in the Civil Private Society process Sector How to engage with investors? Civil And with civil society? What Public role does the government have?Sector What is your relationship with them?

Public Sector

Urban planners & Designers

What does governance respond to? Different capacities from different actors.

Different kinds of knowledge (narratives).

Multiplicity of points of view and diverging objectives.

Changes in governing & planning and designing for cities Emergence of a particular style of decision-making where there must be sustained co-ordination and coherence among a wide variety of actors with different purposes and views of society, different types of knowledge and different objectives. Adapted from Papadopoulos, 2007

New roles for designers and planners are emerging

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Click on the image to access the Great Planning Game, where we discuss new roles for planners and designers based on K. SEHESTED (2010)

These roles have multiple knowledge paradigms Design

Human Sciences

Physical Sciences

Regional Design • The production and use of spatial representations. • Concerned about regional spatial development.

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Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu, 2011. Ontwerp Structuurvisie Infrastructuur en Ruimte. Nederland concurrerend, bereikbaar, leefbaar en veilig. Den Haag: Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu.

‘A plan is an arena of struggle’ ‘The product of interaction between a range of parties. The plan may become a point of reference for continuing interaction within which discourses may evolve. Each of those discourses has its own story line.

FALUDI, A. & VAN DER VALK, A. J. J. 1994. Rule and Order: Dutch Planning Doctrine in the Twentieth Century, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

‘A plan is an arena of struggle’ Plan preparation thus involves 'making story lines'. More often, however, pre-existing 'stories' and strategies are consolidated and translated into reference criteria for future decisions. A plan is also 'an arena of struggle' (Faludi & Korthals Altes, 1994, p. 405, based on Healey, 1993).’

Regional design is... • ... a technical expertise, to integrate analytical knowledge in the light of a normative agenda. • ... a political practice, a form of advocacy that increases the quality of decisions though introducing alternative political points of views. • ... a form of territorial management, employed in policy making to avoid conflict.

Multiple knowledge paradigms Design

Physical Sciences

Urbanism at TU Delft

Prepared by Roberto Rocco at

Human Sciences

The use of planning concepts • In the context of organizational reform (devolution of planning, governance, privatization, Europeanization, legal reform): +How are planning concepts used in the context of organizational change? +What ideas about spatial organization emerge in the context of regional governance and planning?


centrale agglomeratie

stedeli|ke druk op het landelijk gebied


verband Randstad

* matig verstedelijkt gebied Brabantse stedennj Arnhem/Nijmegen Twentse stedenband Zuid-Limburgse steden

weinig verstedelijkt gebied rest van Nederland

open ruimte beleid

open ruimte tussen stadsgewest

industrie gebieden centrale agglomeraties van de vier grote steden

sterk verstedelijkt gebied




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Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer, 1983. Structuurschets Stedelijke Gebieden.Regeringsbeslissing. Den Haag: SDUenuitgerverij.

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Regional design • In the context of regional governance and planning: +How does regional design assist with the construction of consensus among actors with conflicting goals? +How does the practice help the construction of guiding normative principles for planning (structural visions)? +What new kinds of design emerge in the context of regional governance?

Projects and proposals • • • • • • •

SUME Sustainable Urban Metabolism for Europe, FP 7 project; 2008-2011 ESPON TANGO Territorial Approaches for New Governance PLEEC Planning for Energy Efficient Cities, FP 7 project; 2013-2016 ITOD Implementing Transit-Oriented Development, NWO funded; 2012 – 2014 ESPON North Sea STAR, North Sea Region; 2013 Randstad Reader HORIZON 2020, The territorial dimension of North West European energy planning spaces.

Thanks for listening!


References ALBRECHTS, L., HEALEY, P. & KUNZMANN, K. R. 2003. Strategic Spatial Planning and Regional Governance in Europe. Journal of the American Planning Association, 69, 113-129. EBERLEIN, B. & KERWER, D. 2004. New Governance in the European Union: A Theoretical Perspective. Journal of Common Market Studies, 42, 128. FAINSTEIN, S. 2000. New Directions in Planning Theory. Urban Affairs Review, 35, 451-478. FAINSTEIN, S. 2010. The Just City, Ithaca, Cornell University Press. FOUCAULT, M. 1984. The Foucault Reader, New York, Pantheon. HABERMAS, J. 1976. Communication and the Evolution of Society, Boston, Beacon Press. HABERMAS, J. 1991. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Boston, MIT Press. HARVEY, D. 2008. The Right to the City. New Left Review. New Left Review. HARVEY, D. 2009. Social Justice and the City, Athens (GA), The University of Georgia Press. HEALEY, P. 1997. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, Vancouver, UBC Press. HEALEY, P. 2003. The communicative turn in planning theory and its implications for spatial strategy formation. In: CAMPBELL, S. & FAINSTEIN, S. (eds.) Readings in Planning Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. HILLIER, J. & HEALEY, P. 2008. Contemporary Movements in Planning Theory, Aldershot, Ashgate. LEFEBVRE, H. 1996. Writings on Cities, Oxford, Blackwell. MERLEAU-PONTY, M. 2012. Phenomenology of Perception, New York Routledge. MITCHELL, D. 2003. The Right to the City: Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space, New York, Guilford. PAPADOPOULOS, Y. 2007. Problems of Democratic Accountability in Network and Multilevel Governance. European Law Journal, 13, 469-486. RHODES, R. A. W. 1996. The New Governance: Governing without Government. Political Studies, XLIV, 652-667. SEHESTED, K. 2009. Urban Planners as Network Managers and Metagovernors. Planning Theory and Practice, 10, 245-263. SOJA, E. 2010. Seeking Spatial Justice, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.

Prepared by Roberto Rocco and Verena Balz Chair of Spatial Planning and Strategy, TU Delft

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