Evaluating projects and designs through essential dimensions of SUSTAINABILITY and SPATIAL JUSTICE Prepared by Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning and Strategy
SpatialPlanning &Strategy Challenge(the(future
URBANISM Challenge the future
at TU Delft. According to your previous education and aspirations for the future, where would you be? Mark a cross inside the triangle and write your name and country of origin near that cross. Would you add another element to this geometrical form? Is it a polygon? A square? What other categories would you add, if any?
t s e A
/ s c heti
s s e c o r P
e u q i n h c e T
Consolidation of objectives of Urbanism around the notion of sustainability Image source: Sarah Cass at sarahcass.blogspot.com
‘Enhanced’ Sustainability environmental
sustainability social •
“For sustainability to occur, it must occur simultaneously in each of its three dimensions” (economic, social and environmental) Larsen, 2012
CALCUTTA HAS BANNED BIKES IN THE CENTRE OF THE CITY BECAUSE THEY HINDER TRAFFIC
MEDELLIN HAS INSTALLED CABLE CARS IN SLUMS
NIGERIA IS BUILDING A NEW CITY OUTSIDE OF LAGOS
IF YOU HAVE SPARE ROOMS IN SOCIAL HOUSING IN ENGLAND, YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO HAVE SOME BENEFITS
MUMBAI IS BUILDING SOCIAL HOUSING IN EXCHANGE FOR LAND FOR DEVELOPMENT
RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH ALLOWS CHINESE FAMILIES TO OWN CARS
The municipality of Sao Paulo supports the occupation of empty buildings in the centre of the city by homeless people
CURITIBA REDESIGNS AVENUES FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND TAKES AWAY SPACE FOR PRIVATE CARS
WE NEED TO TALK ABOUT THE ETHICAL DIMENSION •Related to questions of right and wrong, just and unjust actions
•Consequences for others than the agent •Related to ethical norms, values and rules
LET’S GO BACK TO THE DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL
TRIANGLE OF SUSTAINABILITY PLANET
We are replacing ‘profit’ by ‘prosperity’. Prosperity is a much more inclusive term than ‘profit’
the elaboration of visions and directions for sustainable and fair futures
Burnham Place at Union Station Master Plan; Washington, D.C. (Image: Akridge & SBA)
Increased public goods
Aerial view of the winning design for the European Spallation Source (ESS) by Henning Larsen Architects, COBE and SLA (Image: Henning Larsen Architects)
Redistribution of gains
Increased life chances and prosperity
URBAN PLANNERS AND DESIGNERS ARE NO LONGER THE ALL POWERFUL FIGURES THEY ONCE THOUGHT THEY WERE. WE HAVE MOVED AWAY FROM IDEAS LIKE THE IDEAL CITY
THE MAIN TASK FOR URBAN PLANNERS AND DESIGNERS IS TO ACT AS ARTICULATORS OF SPATIAL VISIONS AND SOLUTIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE AND FAIR FUTURE
Foster + Partners, Duisburg City Masterplan, Duisburg, Germany, 2007. The new masterplan for the inner city of Duisburg builds on the success of Foster + Partners’ Inner Harbour redevelopment and will strengthen Duisburg’s transformation into a vibrant, green and sustainable city. Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/1443/Default.aspx
THEY DO THAT BY UNDERSTANDING HUMAN ACTIVITY ON SPACE AND BY PROPOSING INTERVENTIONS THAT MIGHT IMPROVE EXISTING CONDITIONS
James Bell: Visualising Social Space, All rights reserved by jamvlog. Available at Flickr
Urbanists (or architects) don’t ‘make’ cities. They are part of a network of actors who build cities.
But how do we get there? How do we know we are in the right direction?
What are possible evaluation criteria derived from the 3 essential dimensions of sustainability?
Spatial Justice This has been guided by ideas like ‘The right to the city’ (Lefebvre, 1998, Harvey, 2008),
‘Spatial justice’ (Harvey, 2009, Soja, 2010) the ‘Just city’ (Fainstein, 2000)
We have some directions
(Spatial) Justice+ (Social, Economic and Environmental) Sustainability + (Intervention/Design of) Governance
Spatial Justice is a framework that enables ACTION to improve our cities and make them more livable and socially sustainable.
Spatial Justice refers to the promotion of access to public goods, basic services, culture, economic opportunity and healthy environments through fair and inclusive spatial planning, design and management of urban and rural spaces and resources.
but what is justice?
WHAT IS JUSTICE? It is all about the achievement of the principles of equity , fraternity and solidarity, understanding human rights, and recognizing the dignity of every human being. Source: http://www.buildingequality.leprosyblog.ca/2011/01/world-day-of-socialjustice.html
JUSTICE Social Justice stems from the democratic principle that all are born equal and deserve EQUAL ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITY
JUSTICE KEY CONCEPTS •Human rights •Equality •Greater degree of economic egalitarianism through progressive taxation, income redistribution, and other democratic tools of redistribution.
AIMS OF SOCIAL JUSTICE •more equality of opportunity than may currently exist in some societies
•equality of outcome in democratic societies
WHAT IS SPATIAL JUSTICE IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT?
“To take no part in the running of the community's affairs is to be either a beast or a god!” Aristotle
WHAT IS SPATIAL JUSTICE IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT?
“Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody only because, and only when, they are created by everybody” Jane Jacobs
WHERE DOES JUSTICE COME FROM? Ethics (moral philosophy) Law Natural law Religion
OPPORTUNITY AND SPACE • Because opportunity (‘life chances’) is specifically
bound to space (location, accessibility, mobility) and • Because ‘who owns what’/ ‘who finances what’ is a big
part of urban development, we need to democratically deal with redistribution of resources and spatial advantages in creative ways.
Is it fair/just? Does it promote redistribution? Is it environmentally friendly? Is it economically feasible? Does it promote prosperity? Does it enhance culture/ identity? Is it aesthetically pleasing? Does it promote democracy/participation?
Does it promote redistribution and spatial justice? kiddingthecity.org by Paolo Cardullo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Is it environmentally friendly? Does it promote effective and durable use of resources? Image source: http://techandscience.com/techblog/ShowArticle.aspx?ID=108
Image source: http://www.dallaschamber.org/index.aspx?id=strategicplan
Does it promote economic prosperity?
Does it create public goods?
Does it avoid or reduce negative externalities?
Some examples 1/2 Lynchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performance dimensions in Good City Form: vitality, sense, fit, access, control, efficiency, justice Criteria in the Netzstadt-model: identification, diversity, flexibility, degree of self-sufficiency, resource efficiency New Urbanism: walkability, connectivity, mixed-use & diversity, mixed housing, quality architecture & urban design, traditional neighbourhood structure, increased density, green transportation, sustainability, quality of life (www.newurbanism.org)
Lynch, K. 1981. A theory of good city form, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press. Oswald, F., Baccini, P. & Michaeli, M. 2003. Netzstadt : designing the urban, Basel ; Boston, BirkhĂ¤user
Some examples 2/2
Carmona, M., Heath, T., Taner, O. & Tiesdell, S. 2010. Public Places - Urban Spaces: the dimensions of Urban Design - 2nd Edition, Amsterdam, Architectural Press.
Thanks for watching & listening! Should you have any doubts, please contact Roberto Rocco, Department of Urbanism, TU Delft firstname.lastname@example.org Challenge(the(future