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Evaluating projects and designs through essential dimensions of SUSTAINABILITY and SPATIAL JUSTICE Prepared by Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning and Strategy

SpatialPlanning &Strategy Challenge(the(future


URBANISM Challenge the future


Urbanism? Design

at TU Delft. According to your previous education and aspirations for the future, where would you be? Mark a cross inside the triangle and write your name and country of origin near that cross. Would you add another element to this geometrical form? Is it a polygon? A square? What other categories would you add, if any?

t s e A

?

Human Sciences

/ s c heti

s s e c o r P

e u q i n h c e T

Physical Sciences


Consolidation of objectives of Urbanism around the notion of sustainability Image source: Sarah Cass at sarahcass.blogspot.com


‘Enhanced’ Sustainability environmental

sustainability social •

economic

“For sustainability to occur, it must occur simultaneously in each of its three dimensions” (economic, social and environmental) Larsen, 2012


CALCUTTA HAS BANNED BIKES IN THE CENTRE OF THE CITY BECAUSE THEY HINDER TRAFFIC


MEDELLIN HAS INSTALLED CABLE CARS IN SLUMS


NIGERIA IS BUILDING A NEW CITY OUTSIDE OF LAGOS


IF YOU HAVE SPARE ROOMS IN SOCIAL HOUSING IN ENGLAND, YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO HAVE SOME BENEFITS


MUMBAI IS BUILDING SOCIAL HOUSING IN EXCHANGE FOR LAND FOR DEVELOPMENT


RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH ALLOWS CHINESE FAMILIES TO OWN CARS


The municipality of Sao Paulo supports the occupation of empty buildings in the centre of the city by homeless people


CURITIBA REDESIGNS AVENUES FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND TAKES AWAY SPACE FOR PRIVATE CARS


aesthetic /function

?

technique


WE NEED TO TALK ABOUT THE ETHICAL DIMENSION •Related to questions of right and wrong, just and unjust actions

•Consequences for others than the agent •Related to ethical norms, values and rules


LET’S GO BACK TO THE DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL

SOCIAL

ECONOMIC


TRIANGLE OF SUSTAINABILITY PLANET

PEOPLE

PROFIT* PROSPERITY

We are replacing ‘profit’ by ‘prosperity’. Prosperity is a much more inclusive term than ‘profit’


the elaboration of visions and directions for sustainable and fair futures

Burnham Place at Union Station Master Plan; Washington, D.C. (Image: Akridge & SBA)


Increased public goods

Aerial view of the winning design for the European Spallation Source (ESS) by Henning Larsen Architects, COBE and SLA (Image: Henning Larsen Architects)


Redistribution of gains

http://roarmag.org/2011/11/what-the-99-want-all-power-to-the-peoples-assemblies/


Increased life chances and prosperity


URBAN PLANNERS AND DESIGNERS ARE NO LONGER THE ALL POWERFUL FIGURES THEY ONCE THOUGHT THEY WERE. WE HAVE MOVED AWAY FROM IDEAS LIKE THE IDEAL CITY


THE MAIN TASK FOR URBAN PLANNERS AND DESIGNERS IS TO ACT AS ARTICULATORS OF SPATIAL VISIONS AND SOLUTIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE AND FAIR FUTURE

Foster + Partners, Duisburg City Masterplan, Duisburg, Germany, 2007. The new masterplan for the inner city of Duisburg builds on the success of Foster + Partners’ Inner Harbour redevelopment and will strengthen Duisburg’s transformation into a vibrant, green and sustainable city. Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/1443/Default.aspx


THEY DO THAT BY UNDERSTANDING HUMAN ACTIVITY ON SPACE AND BY PROPOSING INTERVENTIONS THAT MIGHT IMPROVE EXISTING CONDITIONS

James Bell: Visualising Social Space, All rights reserved by jamvlog. Available at Flickr


Urbanists (or architects) don’t ‘make’ cities. They are part of a network of actors who build cities.

http://www.beyondsims.com/44663/new-simcity-screenshot-2/


But how do we get there? How do we know we are in the right direction?


What are possible evaluation criteria derived from the 3 essential dimensions of sustainability?


Spatial Justice This has been guided by ideas like ‘The right to the city’ (Lefebvre, 1998, Harvey, 2008),

‘Spatial justice’ (Harvey, 2009, Soja, 2010) the ‘Just city’ (Fainstein, 2000)


We have some directions

(Spatial) Justice+ (Social, Economic and Environmental) Sustainability + (Intervention/Design of) Governance


Spatial Justice


Spatial Justice is a framework that enables ACTION to improve our cities and make them more livable and socially sustainable.


Spatial Justice refers to the promotion of access to public goods, basic services, culture, economic opportunity and healthy environments through fair and inclusive spatial planning, design and management of urban and rural spaces and resources.


but what is justice?


WHAT IS JUSTICE? It is all about the achievement of the principles of equity , fraternity and solidarity, understanding human rights, and recognizing the dignity of every human being. Source: http://www.buildingequality.leprosyblog.ca/2011/01/world-day-of-socialjustice.html


JUSTICE Social Justice stems from the democratic principle that all are born equal and deserve EQUAL ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITY


JUSTICE KEY CONCEPTS •Human rights •Equality •Greater degree of economic egalitarianism through progressive taxation, income redistribution, and other democratic tools of redistribution.


AIMS OF SOCIAL JUSTICE •more equality of opportunity than may currently exist in some societies

•equality of outcome in democratic societies


WHAT IS SPATIAL JUSTICE IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT?

“To take no part in the running of the community's affairs is to be either a beast or a god!” Aristotle


WHAT IS SPATIAL JUSTICE IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT?

“Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody only because, and only when, they are created by everybody” Jane Jacobs


WHERE DOES JUSTICE COME FROM? Ethics (moral philosophy) Law Natural law Religion

Rationality


OPPORTUNITY AND SPACE • Because opportunity (‘life chances’) is specifically

bound to space (location, accessibility, mobility) and • Because ‘who owns what’/ ‘who finances what’ is a big

part of urban development, we need to democratically deal with redistribution of resources and spatial advantages in creative ways.


Is it fair/just? Does it promote redistribution? Is it environmentally friendly? Is it economically feasible? Does it promote prosperity? Does it enhance culture/ identity? Is it aesthetically pleasing? Does it promote democracy/participation?


Does it promote redistribution and spatial justice? kiddingthecity.org by Paolo Cardullo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.


Is it environmentally friendly? Does it promote effective and durable use of resources? Image source: http://techandscience.com/techblog/ShowArticle.aspx?ID=108


Image source: http://www.dallaschamber.org/index.aspx?id=strategicplan

Does it promote economic prosperity?


Does it create public goods?


Does it avoid or reduce negative externalities?


Some examples 1/2 Lynch’ performance dimensions in Good City Form: vitality, sense, fit, access, control, efficiency, justice Criteria in the Netzstadt-model: identification, diversity, flexibility, degree of self-sufficiency, resource efficiency New Urbanism: walkability, connectivity, mixed-use & diversity, mixed housing, quality architecture & urban design, traditional neighbourhood structure, increased density, green transportation, sustainability, quality of life (www.newurbanism.org)

Lynch, K. 1981. A theory of good city form, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press. Oswald, F., Baccini, P. & Michaeli, M. 2003. Netzstadt : designing the urban, Basel ; Boston, Birkhäuser


Some examples 2/2

Carmona, M., Heath, T., Taner, O. & Tiesdell, S. 2010. Public Places - Urban Spaces: the dimensions of Urban Design - 2nd Edition, Amsterdam, Architectural Press.


www.spatialjustice.net


SpatialPlanning &Strategy

Thanks for watching & listening! Should you have any doubts, please contact Roberto Rocco, Department of Urbanism, TU Delft r.c.rocco@tudelft.nl Challenge(the(future


Evaluation Criteria Based on Sustainability & Spatial Justice  

What if we could evaluate projects, plans and designs using an enhanced concept of sustainability? “For sustainability to occur, it must occ...

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