Innovative Stadium Design

Page 1

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN

P5-report

CONCEPT FORMATION & FINAL DESIGN REPORT ADAPTABILITY A S S E M B LY

&

&

FLOATING

D I S A S S E M B LY

Student

Number

Mentor

Discipline

Robert Fransen

4030958

Ir. M.W. Kamerling Ir. A. Borgart Ir. S.M. Mulders

Floating Structure / Process Manager Computational Design

Kevin Vermeulen

4030494

Ir. P. de Ruiter Ir. A. Borgart Ir. M.H. Meijs

Assembly & Disassembly Structure / Process Manager Disassembly / Cladding


Innovative Stadium Design •  Analysis & Research – Adaptability _ Floating •  Analysis & Research – Assembly & Disassembly •  Concept Formation & Final Design Report Adaptability & Floating •  Concept Formation & Final Design Report Assembly & Disassembly


COLOPHON Name

Robert Fransen

Student number

4030958

Email

R.Fransen-1@student.tudelft.nl

Website

www.robertfransen.nl

Name

Kevin Vermeulen

Student number

4030494

Email

K.D.Vermeulen@student.tudelft.nl

Website

www.kevinvermeulen.nl

University

TU Delft

Specification

Building Technology

Address

Julianalaan 134

Postal Code

2628 BL

Place

Delft

Date

23-01-2012

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

3


4

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FOREWORD FOREWORD “Football stadium design around the world has evolved greatly over the past decade. Stadiums have undergone a transformation from being mere venues for football matches to multifunctional event facilities, bringing advantages for all target groups. Improved transport connections, greater security and contemporary infrastructure also attracted many families to the stadiums during FIFA World CupTM in 2010, heralding a new era of stadium construction.” Joseph S. Blatter (FIFA President)

“Football stadiums are the life and soul of professional football – it is where football fans congregate to watch, week in and week out, the achievements and struggles of their teams.” Jérôme Valcke (FIFA Secretary General)

The step from football stadium to multifunctional stadium is already made, in our view the next step is turning a multifunctional stadium into a “multilocational” stadium. This means that the location of the stadium can vary. A variable location results in a transportable stadium, there has been chosen for transport over water. Transport over water has several requirements in which the dimensions and weight are normative. A stadium can not be transported over the water in its totality, which results in a disassembly and floating stadium. In this report the concept formation will be explained using several figures, sketches and comparisons with the knowledge which is gained during the analysis & research phase (reports Analysis & Research). The concept is technical developed till the final design which consists of impressions of the configurations, technical drawings and the technical solutions which are made, based on Adaptability and Floating.

Robert Fransen 4030958 January, 2012

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

Kevin Vermeulen 4030494 January, 2012

5


00. TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword

05

00. Table of contents

06

THE CRITERIA

09

01. The criteria

09

1.1 The criteria

10

1.2 Decisions

11

CONCEPT – COMPACTNESS

13

02. Compactness

14

2.1 Compactness concepts

14

2.2 Summary

28

2.3 Matrix

28

2.4 Preliminary selection

30

DETERMINE DIMENSIONS

31

03. Determine dimensions

32

3.1 Grandstand configuration

32

3.2 Pontoon segments

36

3.3 Pontoon distribution

38

3.4 Pontoon segmentation

41

3.5 Pontoon types

45

3.6 Functions

46

3.7 Flow of people

47

3.8 Thesis – Configuration 1

48

CONCEPT – PONTOON TECHNIQUES

49

04. Pontoon types

50

4.1 Concrete

50

4.2 Steel pontoons

52

4.3 Hybrid pontoons

54

4.4 New materials

56

4.5 Comparing material properties

57

05. Pontoon connections

58

5.1 Existing connections

58

06. Ballast tanks

66

6.1 Submarine ballast tanks

66

6.2 Units

68

6.3 Pontoon as ballast tank

68

6

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


07. Fenders

70

7.1 Type of berthing

70

7.2 Fender distribution

71

7.3 Fender development

72

08. Horizontal displacement

74

8.1 Mooring systems

74

FEASIBILITY CALCULATION

77

09. Feasibility calculation

78

9.1 Calculation clarifications

78

9.2 Calculation consequences

80

PONTOON DISTRIBUTION

81

10. Pontoon segmentation

82

10.1Improvement 1 – Building services

82

10.2 Improvement 2 – Façade development

84

10.3 Final pontoon configuration

86

FINAL DESIGN

87

11. Final design

88

11.1 Features innovative stadium design

89

11.2 Segment modules

92

11.3 Configuration 1

96

11.4 Configuration 2

97

11.5 Artist impressions

98

CALCULATIONS

103

12. Calculations

104

12.1 Regulations

104

12.2 Schematic design

104

12.3 Weight determination

105

12.4 Representative forces

107

12.5 Determine metacenter

108

12.6 Rotation

109

12.7 Improvements

110

12.8 Improved pontoon calculation

111

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

7


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

113

13. Pontoon structure

114

13.1 Connecting to the stadium structure

114

13.2 Using trusses

115

13.3 Truss calculation

116

13.4 Concrete reinforcement calculation

119

13.5 Concrete deflection calculation

121

13.6 Impressions of the pontoon structure

123

14. Pontoon connection

126

14.1 Review the connection assumption

126

14.2 Underwater connection

126

14.3 Top connection

130

14.4 Combining the connection with berthing

132

15. Mainland connection

134

15.1 Berthing to mainland

134

15.2 Creating an universal pier

134

15.3. Adaptable bridges

136

16. Computational performance

138

16.1 Used software

138

16.2 Pontoon development

141

16.3 Façade and roof development

143

16.4 Contribution of computational performance

147

REFLECTION

149

17. Reflection

150

17.1 Reflection

150

SOURCES

151

18. Sources

152

18.1 General literature

152

18.2 Structure

152

18.3 Adaptability and Floating

153

APPENDIX

155

19. FIFA Requirements

156

20. Calculations

172

8

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


THE CRITERIA


01. THE CRITERIA 1.1 THE CRITERIA During this project it is important to test the various choices that must be made to certain predetermined criteria. The criteria is based on the starting points and the two main focus points; Adaptability & Floating and Assembly & Disassembly. The choices will be based on the following criteria: Several configurations The project is based on the adaptability of a stadium to several locations. Because of the several locations and needed demands there is decided to design a “multifunctional” stadium with a possible use of several configurations. Stability Because of the floating part of the design, it is important to ensure stability. The less stability, the more specific solutions are needed for the stability of each pontoon and linked pontoons. The draft and distribution of the pontoons will be the most important aspects of stability. Transport The stadium will be transported over water. This results in transportable pontoons with maximum dimensions and drafts. The starting point for transport is the Panama Canal. This starting point results in a maximum width of the pontoon of 32 x 294m with a draft of maximum 12m. Flexibility The stadium needs to be flexible in several ways. The capacity of the stadium needs to be flexible to adapt to the needs of an event and different location. Another capacity results in functional flexibility, each capacity have their own requirements (number of facilities). To adapt to the different requirements, the functions needs to be flexible. Building time To design a realistic and feasible project it is important to minimize the building time of the stadium. The stadium should be build much faster then a “contemporary” stadium to gain the efficiency of the stadium. The attractiveness of using this stadium will depend on the feasibility and efficiency of the design. Functionality Besides the adaptability & floating and assembly & disassembly of the stadium, it is important to design a well functioning stadium. Without the functioning aspect, the design is not feasible. The functional aspect should be comparable to “contemporary” stadiums. Weight / Materials The weight and materials will influence the most of the mentioned criteria above. The floating aspect is depending of the center of gravity, which is mostly based on the weight, size and shape of the materials. Also the needed equipment to build the stadium is depending of the materials. The less weight, the less equipment is needed. Innovative “Innovative” stadium design is based on the transportable and assembly & disassembly aspect of the design. The design of the stadium is a temporary option of hosting an event. The solutions which will be used to achieve the transportation and assembly & disassembly should be innovative (with the mentioned criteria above).

Several configurations

Stability

Floating

Transport

Flexibility

Functionality

Innovative Stadium Design

Assembly & Disassembly

01 _ Scheme criteria

10

Weight / Materials

Building Time

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


THE CRITERIA 1.2 DECISIONS During this project several decisions needs to be made which are based on both focus points; Adaptability & Floating and Assembly & Disassembly. The important choices which have large consequences for the design will be noted with the following scheme (figure 02). This scheme shows a clear overview of the thesis and arguments of the different focus points.

Thesis The thesis will be defined

Review Adaptability & Floating

Review Assembly & Disassembly

The opinion focused on adaptability & floating

The opinion focused on assembly & disassembly

Conclusion The final conclusion and decision will be made

02 _ Scheme decisions

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

11


01. THE CRITERIA

12

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


COMPACTNESS

CONCEPT


02. COMPACTNESS 2.1 COMPACTNESS The transportation of the stadium over seas results in several requirements / “problems”. One of these requirement is the vulnerability of the stadium. Because of the dimensions of a stadium, is the transportation of a total stadium not realistic and feasible. Besides this, the criteria of transport results in the maximum dimensions to go through the Panama Canal. A possible solution to minimize the vulnerability is to transport the stadium as compact as possible. There are several solutions to transport the stadium compact. The focus of this research is the grandstand, because this is the main member of a stadium. The following possible solutions will be declared by force flows, references and pros & cons: 1.

Telescopic structure

2.

Kinetic structure

3.

Jack-up structure

4.

Frame structure & Units

5.

“Pop-up” structure

6.

“Toolbox” structure

7.

“Bakugan” structure (Transformer)

8.

Big segments on small pontoons

9.

Pontoon as module

10.  “Open run” structure 11.  Transport in big parts 12.  Inflatable structure 13.  Slide over structure

These possible solutions will be assessed on the following criteria: •

Functionality (x2)

Flexibility (x2)

Stability (x2)

Compact (x2)

Number of parts (x2)

Needed space of structure

Vulnerability

Force-flow

Simplicity of mechanisms

Number of additional mechanisms

Well known principle

The criteria will be assessed with the following “grades”: ++ =

very good

+

good

=

+- =

good & bad

-

bad

=

-- =

14

very bad

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 1 – TELESCOPIC STRUCTURE The “telescope structure” is based on lifting the tiers and floors with a telescopic structure. This can be done like the “telescopic cranes” (figure 06) or like a chair (figure 07). Lifting the tiers and floors can be done by “pushing the button”. The telescopes will lift and stop at the final configuration. This structure can be done by a hydraulic system. “A hydraulic jack uses a fluid, which is incompressible, that is forced into a cylinder by a pump plunger. Oil is used since it is self lubricating and stable. When the plunger pulls back, it draws oil out of the reservoir through a suction check valve into the pump chamber. When the plunger moves forward, it pushes the oil through a discharge check valve into the cylinder. The suction valve ball is within the chamber and opens with each draw of the plunger. The discharge valve ball is outside the chamber and opens when the oil is pushed into the cylinder. At this point the suction ball within the chamber is forced shut and oil pressure builds in the cylinder.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_(device)

03 _ Force-flow

On the figures below the principle is shown.

04 _ Section

05 _ Isometric

06 _ Telescopic crane

07 _ Telescopic chair (variety in height)

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Compact

Heavy mechanism

Functionality

Failure of 1 telescope results in big consequences for lifting the grandstand

Several functions simultaneously lifting

Unstable when unfolded (on top)

“Push the button” principle Possibility of several (grandstand) configurations T.01 _ Pros & Cons Telescopic structure 06 _ http://www.kransite.de/borders/titelbilder/LTM11200-9.1.jpg 07 _ http://www.exalto.com/img/cat/sun_zuil_ld_kruisvoet_bew3.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

15


02. COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 2 – KINETIC STRUCTURE The “kinetic structure” principle is based on open the structure / façade like a “flower”. An example of a kinetic structure like this is the Kuwait Pavilion (figure 11). “Kinetic architecture is a concept where buildings are designed so that significant portions can move while retaining structural integrity. A building's capability for motion can be used just to enhance it aesthetic qualities - but can also allow it to respond to environmental conditions and to perform functions that would be impossible for a static structure. Practical implementations of kinetic architecture increased sharply in the late 20th century with developments in mechanics, electronics and robotics opening up new architectural possibilities.” Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinetic_architecture

During the transport the structure / façade can be folded down, when the stadium is on the site the structure / façade can arise. The structure will rise using hinges at the bottom of the structure / façade and using a hydraulic system.

08 _ Force-flow

On the figures below the principle is shown.

09 _ Section

10 _ Isometric

11 _ Kuwait Pavilion

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Aesthetical value of stadium

Heavy mechanism

Simple principle

Structure needs a lot of space (between grandstands)

Compact during transport

Can only build up the grandstand after lifting the structure

Combining the façade and roof with structure

How deal with several (grandstand) configurations Failure of the hydraulic system results in big consequences of total stadium

T.02 _ Pros & Cons Kinetic structure

11 _ http://www.calatrava.com/content/images/biography/1991-92_Kuwait%20Pavilion.jpg

16

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 3 – JACK UP THE STRUCTURE INCLUDING FLOORS & UNITS The “jack up” principle is a well known principle to lift structures and floors nowadays in the building industry (figure 15 and 16). It is a typical way to lift a lot of weight. There are several ways to “jack up” the structure; by using a scissor-structure or using a “climbing structure”. The climbing structure is based on the well known crane which construct high rise buildings. “A mechanical jack is a device which lifts heavy equipment. The most common form is a car jack, floor jack or garage jack which lifts vehicles so that maintenance can be performed. Car jacks usually use mechanical advantage to allow a human to lift a vehicle by manual force alone. Mechanical jacks are usually rated for a maximum lifting capacity. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_(device)

On the figures below the principle is shown.

13 _ Section

12 _ Force-flow

14 _ Isometric

15 _ Jack up the floor

16 _ “Scissor” structure

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Simple

Structure occupies space under the grandstands

Functionality

Depending on way of lifting (several structure parts)

Compact

Unstable when unfolded (on top)

Possibility of several (grandstand) configurations T.03 _ Pros & Cons Jack up structure

15 _ http://ebm.diggy.com/ebm3-image/175263/Vijzelen_brugdek.jpeg 16 _ http://img.tweede-hands.net/pics/00/04/49/59/59/1c.jpg?5d4b30fdd0

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

17


02. COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 4 – FRAME STRUCTURE FILLED WITH UNITS The principle is based on a permanently skeleton structure which can be filled with the needed functions. First the structure will be build up and then the functions can be placed. The structure should be as compact as possible during transport. The functions will be classified as units, which will be placed in the structure. The dimensions of the units will be determined by the grid of the structure. Several units can be connected to each other to create larger open spaces then one unit / grid. By adding or removing different units the stadium can adapt to its different configurations and can offer the facilities needed at that time. Normative for this concept is the size and measurements of the frame / grid. On the figures below the principle is shown. 17 _ Force-flow

18 _ Section

20 _ “3D - 4 in a row” (cubiq)

19 _ Isometric

21 _ Structure frame

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Functionality

Use of grid (determine maximum dimensions of units)

Possibility of several (grandstand) configurations

Grandstand vulnerable during transport Needs extern infrastructure to build up on location Unstable (on top)

T.04 _ Pros & Cons Skeleton filled with units 20 _ http://knifstrom.files.wordpress.com/2006/06/lincon2006cubiq.jpg?w=480 21 _ http://www.concreteparking.org/images/parkingstructureframe.jpg

18

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 5 – “POP-UP” PRINCIPLE The “pop up” principle is based on opening a box which simultaneously the drills will be lifted (figure 25). These principle is also used in the known “pop-up” cards (figure 26). The application of these principle should be used in opening the pontoons, which simultaneously lift the structure of the grandstand for example. The only operation to do is open the pontoon and the grandstand will be ‘build’. This can be done in the way of a drill-set where the deck will function after opening as façade, but could also be used as “pop-up” card where the opening section contains two pontoons. Unlike the pop up card mechanism, the thickness of the material is not negligible. The size and weight of the stadium will cause large forces on the hinges which in the reference principle are negligible. On the figures below the principles are shown.

22 _ Force-flow

23 _ Principle like a “drill-set”

24 _ Principle like a “pop-up” card

25 _ Drill box

26 _ Pop up Card

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

“Push the button” principle

How deal with several (grandstand) configurations

Multifunctional use of pontoons

Heavy mechanism

“Protected” during transport

Failure of mechanism results in “no stadium”

Compact

Complicated system (folding vs. unfolding)

T.05 _ Pros & Cons Pop-up principle

25 _ http://www.tramex.nl/products/image/cache/data/Usag/USAG-borenset-988_MA_S19-640x480.jpg 26 _ http://www.papercraftcentral.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Kirigami-Stairs-300x226.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

19


02. COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 6 – “TOOLBOX” PRINCIPLE The “toolbox” principle is based on the way of opening a toolbox and jewel box. When this will be opened it creates several boxes which are fixed obliquely above each other (figure 30 and 31). By using multiple boxes which can be stacked on top of each other, the stadium can be transported as compact as possible. By opening the several boxes sideways the stadium can be transformed in its final configuration. This principle could be used for the grandstand. When the box will be opened the grandstand appears. The boxes should be transfer the forces down to the pontoon, this results in self-supporting boxes in combination with a structure to move the boxes. This idea is focused on a large segment of the stadium, with boxes (the grandstand) on the pitch which can be moved sideways. On the figures below the principle is shown.

28 _ Section

27 _ Force-flow

29 _ Isometric

30 _ Toolbox

31 _ Jewel box

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Compact

Large dimensions (scale of a stadium vs. toolbox)

Functionality

How deal with several (grandstand) configurations

“Protected” during transport

Failure of system results in “no stadium”

T.06 _ Pros & Cons Toolbox principle 30 _ http://www.spitsbouw.nl/images/gereedschapskist2.gif 31 _ http://juwelenkistje-davidts.atspace.com/406083.jpg

20

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 7 – “BAKUGAN” PRINCIPLE (TRANFORMERS) The “Bakugan” principle is based on the transformers and bakugan-toys. A compact object can be transformed to a big and outstanding object (figures 35 and 36). The principle of transforming an object can be used for the stadium design. During transportation the stadium is a “compact” object, which will transform when it is on the building site. Because of the compact-mode the stadium is well protected during transport. The transformation of the stadium can be a spectacular view for the spectators. Using this principle of building the stadium will be really innovative. On the figures below the principle is shown.

32 _ Force-flow

33 _ Section

34 _ Isometric

35 _ Transformer

36 _ Bumblebee (Transformers)

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Spectacular

Complicated

Innovative

Not flexible

Compact during transport

Complicated “force-flow”

“Push the button” principle

Several (grandstand) configurations aren’t possible (1 solution)

“Protected” during transport

Failure of system results in “no stadium” Heavy mechanism

T.07 _ Pros & Cons Transformers 35 _ http://media.techeblog.com/images/transformer____1.jpg 36 _ http://www.seibertron.com/images/products/large/rotf-ultimate-bumblebee-battle-charged.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

21


02. COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 8 – BIG SEGMENTS ON SMALL PONTOONS This principle is based on reducing the amount of pontoons that has to be shipped. By folding the pontoons on each other, eventually one pontoon can be shipped, carrying the others. The segments are connected with hinges, these hinges allows the unfolding principle. The idea of unfolding one floor is mainly focused on the pitch, but probably this is also possible for other parts of the stadium. The dimensions of this concept are still undefined. The possibility of unfolding this “surface” depends on the dimensions and the weight of it. On the figures below the principle is shown.

37 _ Force-flow

38 _ Section

39 _ Isometric

40 _ Folding mat

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Compact

Stability

Less pontoons to be transported

Hinges in stead of linking

“Push the button” principle

Not usable on every part of the stadium Large forces on hinges during unfolding (dimensions)

T.08 _ Pros & Cons Big segments on small pontoons

40 _ http://www.braceadvies.nl/contents/media/t_oefenmat%20vouwbaar%20180x50x1%20cm.jpg

22

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 9 – PONTOON AS MODULE This principle is based on the way of pontoon use nowadays. The pontoon will be build out of several modules, which will create one big surface. Each module is the same, this allows creating a flexible surface. On top of the modules / pontoons will the stadium be build. By using pontoons which composes a grid, the stadium could be build out of the same basic segments which can connected to the modules. Each module / pontoon will have the same connection points to achieve a systematic building method. On the figures below the principle is shown.

41 _ Force-flow

42 _ Rectangular

43 _ Hexagon

44 _ Puzzle module

45 _ Module of Judo-sports floor

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Flexibility

A lot of spare parts

Module

Different forces on the same modules

Possibilities of linking the pontoons Modules (pontoons) usable as cargo T.09 _ Pros & Cons Pontoon as module

44 _ http://web02.city-map.de/service-center/img/module.jpg 45 _ http://www.supplierlist.com/photo_images/176392/eva_judo_mat.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

23


02. COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 10 – “OPEN RUN” IN STEPS This principle is based on one movement which opens the total configuration. The building time to unfold the stadium will be decreased by one operation. There is one system, which will “bring” the several segments on the right place. The principle is comparable to a “range” (figure 49) or a water wheel (figure 50). On the figures below the principle is shown.

46 _ Force-flow

47 _ Section

49 _ Range

48 _ Isometric

50 _ Water wheel

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

1 system, which lifting several parts of the stadium (grandstand and roof)

Not flexible

“Push the button” principle

Vulnerable transport Large forces on rotating parts of structure Several (grandstand) configurations aren’t possible (1 solution)

T.10 _ Pros & Cons “Open run” in steps

49 _ http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_bDMlveaINm8/TSyoKT9J_uI/AAAAAAAAAIc/jIqdsfrgSuc/s1600/Waaier+gekleurd+203910b.jpg 50 _ http://embowered.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/1302933010-42.png

24

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 11 – TRANSPORT IN BIG PARTS This concept is based on transporting the total stadium. By moving the stadium as one big element building time does not exist. Several tugboats will drag the stadium to it’s new location where it directly can be used. Other option is to divide the stadium in big parts without disassembling the structure. At the new location, these parts are connected which allows the stadium to function directly. On the figures below the principle is shown.

51 _Transport as 1 stadium with several “pull boats”

52 _ “cut” the stadium in several parts and transport them

53 _ Tugboat vs. Cruise ship

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Transport and ready!

Maximum dimensions (transport)

“Building time”

Total = Vulnerable (Needs protection during transport)

No linking systems needed (Pontoons)

How deal with several (grandstand) configurations Weight of total stadium (transport)

T.11 _ Pros & Cons Transport big parts

53 _ http://www.opreisgids.nl/i/2009/11/11305158294af335078f802.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

25


02. COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 12 – INFLATABLE STRUCTURE This concept is based on an inflatable shell over the stadium by creating pressure in a fabric by air. The figures 57, 58 and 59 shows some examples of inflatable structures. This system will be used for the roof and the façade of the stadium. Creating structural elements with this principle is not feasible. An inflatable structure is easy to fold and unfold, by only “push the button”. The inflatable structure should be used like the Tensairity system. Beside the inflatable structure there is a cable-structure needed to resist the forces on the stadium. On the figures below the principle is shown.

54 _ Force-flow

55 _ Section

57 _ Blow-up “people”

56 _ Isometric

58 _ Tensairity beams

59 _ EFTE-façade Allianz Arena Munich

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Light structure

Vulnerable (Vandalism)

Flexibility (Roof)

Solution for only a part of the stadium (roof)

Building time (“Push the button”)

Not possible to link other structure principles because of the “force-flow”

Self-supporting structure

How deal with several (grandstand) configurations

T.12 _ Pros & Cons Inflatable structures

57 _ http://www.freewebs.com/alcohol-is-no-drink/TooheysEventmenInflatable.jpg 58 _ http://www.canobbio.com/KnoS_Catalog/0/0000001487_0002)%20montreux_2_picc.jpg 59 _ http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3406/3585027171_c02d736bb7.jpg

26

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


COMPACTNESS CONCEPT 13 – SLIDE OVER This principle is based on a slide-over structure. This principle is comparable with a ladder (figure 63) or a mobile phone (figure 64). With this principle it is possible to transport the grandstand on a compact way. At the site the tiers will slide over each other and create the grandstand. This can be done with a rail-system. Besides the sliding grandstand segments there is a second structure needed to suffer the grandstand when it is unfolded. A structure like this will offer much resistance resulting in a well designed rail- / track-system. On the figures below the principle is shown. 60 _ Force-flow

61 _ Section

63 _ Ladder

62 _ Isometric

64 _ Blackberry slide

Pros and cons Pros

Cons

Compact

How deal with several (grandstand) configurations (Rail system) is vulnerable Needs extern structure for unfolded configuration

T.13 _ Pros & Cons Slide-over

63 _ http://www.dekeuringspecialist.nl/Images/ladder%20alu.jpg 64 _ http://c2499022.cdn.cloudfiles.rackspacecloud.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/blackberry-angled-slider-9100.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

27


02. COMPACTNESS 2.2 SUMMARY It is difficult to compare the previous concepts because all the concepts are based on several parts of the stadium. The stadium is divided in three parts: pontoon / pitch, grandstand & floors and façade & roof. For each of these subjects there is made a list which concept is usable (table T.14). The principle of using standardized units (concept 4) for the functions of the stadium is an option which is used anyway, this concept is not included in this table. Pontoons / Pitch

Grandstand & Floors

Facade / Roof

“Toolbox” structure

Telescopic structure

Kinetic structure

Big segments on small pontoon

Kinetic structure

“Bakugan” structure (Transformer)

Pontoon as module

“Jack up” structure

“Open run” in steps

Transport in big parts

“Pop up” structure

Transport in big parts

“Toolbox” structure

Inflatable structure

“Bakugan” structure (Transformer) “Open run” in steps Transport in big parts “Slide over” structure T.14 _ Concept use

2.3 MATRIX To compare the several structures, there are made several matrixes which results in a comparison between the applicable concepts. The criteria is listed from most important to less important, based on the main criteria which is mentioned before. The first 5 criteria counts double in the score; functionality, flexibility, stability, compact and number of parts.

Criteria

Concept 6

Concept 8

Concept 9

Concept 11

Conclusion

Functionality (x2)

++

++

++

++

-

+

++

-

Stability(x2)

+-

-

+

+-

Compact (x2)

++

++

++

--

Number of parts (x2)

+

+

--

+

Needed space of structure

-

++

++

++

Vulnerability

+

+

++

-

Force-flow

+

--

++

+

Simplicity of mechanisms

-

+-

+

+

Number of additional mechanisms

+

++

-

+-

Well known principle

--

+

++

++

Total

+7

+14

+18

+5

Pontoons / Pitch

Flexibility (x2)

This matrix shows the different “scores” of the applicable concepts for pontoons / pitches. The possibility of moveable structures is in this aspect not important. The pontoons of the pitch are not provided of any structure on top of it. This makes these pontoons suitable for stacking several pontoons on top of each other. As seen in the matrix, concept 8 and 9 has the highest score. These concepts are based on big segments on small pontoons and modules. These concepts are the best options to use for the pontoons of the pitch.

T.15 _ Matrix pontoons / pitch

28

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


Criteria

Concept 1

Concept 2

Concept 3

Concept 5

Concept 6

Concept 7

Concept 10

Concept 11

Concept 13

COMPACTNESS

Functionality (x2)

++

++

++

++

++

+

+

++

++

Flexibility (x2)

+

--

+

--

-

+

--

-

-

Stability(x2)

-

-

+

+-

+-

+-

-

+-

+

Compact (x2)

+

+

+

++

++

++

+

--

++

Number of parts (x2)

+

+

+-

+

+

-

+-

+

+-

++

--

+-

+

-

--

-

++

+

Vulnerability

+

-

+

+

+

--

-

-

+-

Force-flow

+

--

+

-

+

--

-

+

-

Simplicity of mechanisms

++

++

++

-

-

--

-

+

+

Number of additional mechanisms

++

++

++

+

+

--

+

+-

-

Well known principle

++

++

++

--

--

--

-

++

++

Total

+18

+3

+18

+5

+7

-6

-6

+5

+10

Grandstand & Floors

Needed space of structure

T.16 _ Matrix grandstand & floors

Conclusion

Criteria

Concept 2

Concept 7

Concept 10

Concept 11

Concept 12

This matrix shows the different “scores” of the applicable concepts for lifting the grandstand & floors of the stadium. The structures which are “graded” as simple has the highest scores; concept 1 and 3. The use of a telescopic structure or jack-up structure is a well known principle to lift these elements, it is a proven functional system in stead of other complicated solutions.

Functionality (x2)

++

+

+

++

++

Flexibility (x2)

--

+

--

-

-

Stability(x2)

-

+-

-

+-

-

Compact (x2)

+

++

+

--

++

Number of parts (x2)

+

-

+-

+

-

Needed space of structure

--

--

-

++

+

-

--

-

-

-

Force-flow

--

--

-

+

--

Simplicity of mechanisms

++

--

-

+

++

Number of additional mechanisms

++

--

+

+-

-

Well known principle

++

--

-

++

+-

Total

+3

-6

-6

+5

+1

Façade & Roof

Vulnerability

Conclusion This matrix shows the different “scores” of the applicable concepts for façade & roof. One of the most important aspects of the façade and roof is the flexibility because of several configurations without using lots of several parts. The matrix shows the highest score for concept 11 (the transport of big segments). This could be a solution between the dimensions of the Panama Canal. But this concept is not flexible enough focused on the several configurations. Concept 2 and 12 are in this aspect more flexible. These concepts are realistic options to use for the façade and roof. Mainly the inflatable structure is attractive focused on the weight and building time of the structure.

T.17 _ Matrix façade & roof

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

29


02. COMPACTNESS 2.4 PRELIMINARY SELECTION Based on the previous analysis, shortlist & matrixes the following structure systems will be further analyzed and used for the innovative stadium design: Pontoons / Pitch

Several segments on small pontoon The pontoons of the pitch are not provided of any structure on top of it. This makes these pontoon suitable for stacking several pontoons on top of each other.

Grandstand & Floors

Telescopic structure & Jack up structure (variant) Because of the compact transportation it is needed to lift the grandstand and floors. The use of a telescopic structure or jack-up structure is a well known principle to lift these elements, it is a proven functional system in stead of the other very complicated solutions.

Façade / Roof

Inflatable structure & Kinetic structure Focused on the weight and building time are the inflatable & kinetic structure the most efficient to use for the façade and roof. Because of the inflatable possibilities in combination with a kinetic structure, the structure could be adaptable to several configurations.

Functions

Containers / Units Concept 4; a skeleton filled with units is based on the flexible classification of the several functions in the stadium. The functions could be added in units, which makes the classification very flexible. Focused on the several configurations is this a big benefit.

30

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494


03. DETERMINE DIMENSIONS As mentioned before the grandstand is the main member of the stadium. The functionality of the stadium depends on the dimensions of the grandstand. Because of this aspect the grandstand is determined using the FIFA requirements (appendix chapter 19. FIFA requirements). With the dimensions of the grandstand the different configurations can be determined which results in a pontoon distribution. 3.1 GRANDSTAND CONFIGURATION The configuration of the grandstand is based on the ideal view of the spectators (figure 65). The grandstand consists of three tiers; the basis is a stadium with two tiers, with a possibility to extend the stadium with the third tier. In this way the stadium is adaptable to different configurations. Ring 1 rows: c-value: angle:

29 120 13,0o – 20,4o

Business rows: c-value: angle:

3 120 24,5o – 24,7o

Ring 2 rows: c-value: angle:

19 90 27,6o – 29,2o

Ring 3 rows: c-value: angle:

29 90 31,4o – 33,0o

Total rows:

80

2nd tier 19 rows C = 90 27,6o - 29,2o

Business 3 rows C = 120 24,5o - 24,7o

1th tier 29 rows C = 120 13,0o - 20,4o

Pontoon 1 (Configuration - 2 tiers)

16.500 3.075 11.500 9.000

27.125 42.500

65 _ Grandstand configuration – ideal view

32

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


DETERMINE DIMENSIONS

camera

+41.283

+38.683

3rd tier 29 rows C = 90 31,4o - 33,0o

+28.977

camera

+23.978

41.283

+21.478

+15.371 link

+11.484 link

link

link

Âą0

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

Pontoon 2 (Configuration - 3 tiers)

Pontoon 3 (Extra surface for accessibility)

30.000

20.000

4030958 4030494

33


03. DETERMINE DIMENSIONS The result of the grandstand configuration of the previous page is figure 68. On this figure is shown the floor plan with the maximum dimensions of an ideal view. A part of the grandstand is beyond this maximum limit, to prevent this there is chosen for a stadium with an ellipse shape (figure 69 and 70).

66 _ Ideal view

67 _ Ellipse shape

68 _ Shape of grandstand

34

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


DETERMINE DIMENSIONS

69 _ Grandstand Configuration 1

70 _ Grandstand Configuration 2

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

35


03. DETERMINE DIMENSIONS With the dimensions of the grandstand it is possible to determine the dimensions of the pontoons with in account the different configurations. First the possible segmentation is analyzed with its pros and cons. Using the FIFA requirements in combination with the analysis of the possible segmentation, the final pontoon distribution is made. 3.2 PONTOON SEGMENTS Parallel segmentation Segmentation parallel to the pitch seems like the optimal option for different tiers around the field. Each configuration will has its own float, which makes it possible to give every float its own needed draft.

71 _ Parallel segmentation

Right angled segmentation When the segments are placed in a 90 degree angle around the pitch a division as seen on figure 72 will be made. The segments are based on the section of the grandstand and will be as long as needed. This division makes the stadium optimal expandable for bigger and smaller pitches, but can have only one grandstand configuration.

72 _ Right angled segmentation

Universal units An other option is to create universal units which can be located where needed. Disadvantage of using one single pontoon type is that this pontoon must be designed by the maximum forces which can occur. This leads to a lot of pontoons which are oversized and have to be regulated by ballast tanks.

73 _ Universal units

36

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


DETERMINE DIMENSIONS

PROS AND CONS

CONCLUSION

Pros -  The least pontoons -  Multiple configurations possible -  Corner joints can be ‘easily’ made

Making a combination between different segmentations should provide the ideal distribution of pontoons. The maximum dimensions are a problem in all the configurations so the best way to choose the ideal division is to combine this with the grandstand design.

Cons -  Not expandable for different pitch size -  Maximum dimensions based on the Panama Canal instead of the needed dimensions -  Oblique ends of the pontoons are not ideal in case of shipment

The possibility to expand the stadium will be considered as ‘very useful’ even if there will be decided that this will not be a part of the design. Making a universal element has a lot of benefits, even if its not based on expanding the stadium. _______________________________

PROS AND CONS Pros -  Expandable for different pitches -  Pontoons based on the grandstand section Cons -  Only 1 grandstand configuration possible -  Complicated corner solutions -  Oblique or free form pontoons are not ideal case of shipment

For instance; The first pontoon will probably be longer than 30 meters, automatically exclude configuration 1 from the options. Choosing for configuration 2 would have the most benefits in this case. The second pontoon might not have this problem and to minimize the amount of pontoons, configuration 1 has the advantage. As seen in configuration 2, the corners of the stadium will cause problems in terms of complicated pontoons. There can be chosen for either configuration 1 or 3 to avoid this problems. _______________________________ Most important aspect of this pontoon configuration is the integral solution that has to be chosen. Combining the grandstand with the pontoon segmentation.

PROS AND CONS Pros -  1 universal pontoon -  Expandable where needed -  Multiple grandstand configurations possible -  Connecting the universal pontoons into one vessel during shipment without having problems with the maximum dimensions Cons -  Most pontoons needed -  Pontoons will be based on the maximum force -  By adding the grandstand on the pontoon its not a universal system -  Self regulating system needed

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

37


03. DETERMINE DIMENSIONS 3.3 PONTOON DISTRIBUTION The width of pontoons of the first configuration pontoons which are right angled placed on the pitch can be based on several demands of the pontoons or grandstand. These different options will be compared and a decision will be based on several criteria. The functionality of the pontoons, the flexibility and transport of the pontoon size will be the main criteria. The red marked area shows the lost space around the required pitch dimensions. Option 1 – transport based 30 m

Based on the transport of the pontoons, the maximum width of the pontoons can be 30 meter, to be still able to cross the Panama Canal. This will lead to a pontoon division of 5 pontoons along the long side of the pitch and 3 along the short side. The flexibility of the stadium is not optimal in this configuration because the expansion of the stadium can not be orientated from the center of the grandstands. This will lead to a minimum of 2 pontoons for each of the 4 sides of the stadium to expand it to, for instance, an Olympic stadium. Width: Lost space:

30 meter 2875 m2

74 _ Pontoon width – Option 1

Option 2 – Grandstand safety based 24 m

The maximum width between the entrances of the grandstand of a gangway between the seats is 24 meter. With a division based on this dimension, pontoons of 24 meter wide can have a centered entrance each and meet the safety requirements as based by the FIFA. Unfortunately using this width leads to the biggest lost of space around the pitch. This means the grandstand will be the furthest away from its focus point. This distance causes a lower grandstand, but detracts from the experience. Width: Lost space:

24 meter 3199 m2

75 _ Pontoon width – Option 2

Option 3 – Pitch based 21,5 m

The third option of dividing the pontoons is based on the measurements of the pitch. The width of 21,5 meters is based on a minimal loss of space around the pitch. Besides this, the width of the grandstand sections still meets the safety requirements unlike the first option, based on transport. Besides the least lost square meters around the pitch, this option will also result in the smallest total stadium. This will save material, weight and costs. Width: Lost space:

21,5 meter 469 m2

76 _ Pontoon width – Option 3

38

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


DETERMINE DIMENSIONS WIDTH DETERMINATION Comparing the different widths of the pontoons with the set criteria results in a clear view of the advantages and disadvantages for each pontoon width. These results are shown in table 18. Option 1 Transport based

Option 2 Safety based

Option 3 Pitch based

Width of the pontoons

30 meter

24 meter

21,5 meter

Lost space around the pitch

2875 m2

3199 m2

469 m2

Needed pontoons (grandstands)

16

20

20

Needed pontoons (pitch)

3

4

3

Transportable through Panama Canal

Yes

Yes

Yes

Grandstand safety One entrance on each pontoon (24 m)

No

Yes

Yes

Possibility to easily expand Transformation to Olympic stadium

No

Yes

Yes

L = 22,5 m S = 11,5 m

L = 19,5 m S = 14 m

L = 12 m S=9m

Specific criteria

Distance to focus point L = Long side of the pitch S = Short side of the pitch T.18 _ Pontoon width comparison – specific criteria

Besides comparing the widths of the pontoons on its influence on the stadium, there is also made a comparison on the main criteria as set up at the start of the project. These results are shown in table 19. Option 1 Transport based

Option 2 Safety based

Option 3 Pitch based

Functionality (grandstand)

+

++

+

Functionality (used surface)

-

-

++

Flexibility

-

++

++

Stability

++

+

+

Transport

+

+

++

Weight and materials

-

+

+

Building time

++

+

+

Total

+3

+7

+10

Main criteria

T.19 _ Pontoon width comparison – main criteria

Based on the set criteria, the tables show the most advantages for option 3 – Pitch based pontoons. The least loss of space and the shortest distance to the focus point are benefits for the stadium experience. These criteria were decisive because the difference between a pontoon width of 24 and 21,5 meter doesn’t differ in case of safety regulations or amount of pontoons. Both widths have the possibility to expand to a larger (or smaller) stadium which makes them quite similar. Besides this, a width of 21,5 meets all safety requirements for the grandstand and will even have ‘too much’ grandstand entrances. This abundance of grandstand entrances decreases the amount of seats. Compared to a width of 24 meters (safety based) the capacity of the total stadium decreases with 4.800 seats. To create a functional stadium, the ideal sight is more important then the number of seats. The decision for pontoons of 21,5 m wide is therefore based on the efficiency of the used surface and the best stadium experience. The pontoon / module can function on itself. This results in three final configurations which are possible to use; 1 segment, a stadium with 2 tiers or a stadium with 3 tiers.

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

39


03. DETERMINE DIMENSIONS OLYMPIC TRACK There is a possibility to extend the stadium to an Olympic stadium. By adding several modules in both directions the pitch-surface will be larger which results in the Olympic track around the “soccer pitch”. The added modules can be connected during transport. The dimensions of the pontoons will be 12,5m or 24,5m width by the same length of the other modules. In the corners of the pitch will areas arise which needs to be classified. This can be used for media but also for extra spectators.

ADAPTABLE

77 _ Universal pontoons configuration 1

78 _ Adding pontoons for Olympic Games

40

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


DETERMINE DIMENSIONS 3.4 PONTOON SEGMENTATION Main criteria of the pontoon division is the maximum dimensions to cross the Panama Canal. As mentioned before the width of the pontoons in the first configuration is determined. Then the pontoon distribution of the different configurations is analyzed and determined. The dimensions of the pontoons are based on the possible and estimated needs to function properly. PONTOON SEGMENTATION – CONCEPT 1 This pontoon segmentation is based on an offset of the pitch, the first configuration of pontoons is placed right angled around the pitch with the second and third ring of pontoons parallel to the pitch. This causes angles of 45 degrees in the corners, which based the maximum length of the pontoons for the first configuration. With a maximum length of 42,5 m. the corner elements will not be wider then 30 m. which allows them to cross the Panama Canal. The most convenient pontoon distribution, is the one with the least pontoons out of use in the smallest configuration. As mentioned before, the use of the entrance pontoon (which will function as square too), will be applied in both configurations (figure 79 and 80).

79 _ Pontoon segmentation – Concept 1 – Configuration 1

Because of the change in circumference between the configurations, additional entrance pontoons are needed. This “ring” around the stadium will not host any other functions then entrance and therefore they can be added everywhere.

80 _ Pontoon segmentation – Concept 1 – Configuration 2

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

41


03. DETERMINE DIMENSIONS PONTOON SEGMENTATION – CONCEPT 2 The ellipse shape of the stadium combining with the square shape of the first pontoon concept cause more problems then it solves. Especially the corners, which are not directly located below the second grandstand configuration. By chamfering the corners of the first configuration, and continue this in the second and third row pontoons a more ‘stadium following shape’. This results in more inconvenient shapes, but fits the stadium shape better. Disadvantage of this improvement is the oblique sides of the pontoons during transport which makes them hard to control during shipment.

81 _ Pontoon segmentation – Concept 2 – Configuration 1

Especially in the second configuration the chamfered corners cause a lot of problems. Due to the maximum width of 30 meters more smaller pontoons are needed and the amount of a-symmetrical shape of the pontoons is a big disadvantage during the transport.

82 _ Pontoon segmentation – Concept 2 – Configuration 2

42

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


DETERMINE DIMENSIONS PONTOON SEGMENTATION – CONCEPT 3 The main disadvantages of the first two concepts had to be improved in order to design proper functional pontoons. Every pontoon needs to be symmetrical in case of shipment. In combination with the chamfered corners this will lead to ‘ship-like’ shapes for the pontoons. As shown on figure 83 and 84 the pontoons in the corners will be narrower then the pontoons parallel to the pitch. Due to the ellipse shape of the stadium this will not be a problem.

83 _ Pontoon segmentation – Concept 3 – Configuration 1

A disadvantage in this case is the amount of small pontoons in the corners which are needed to use the entrance pontoons in both configurations. During transport these pontoons can be coupled or stacked to decrease the amount of pontoons that have to be shipped.

84 _ Pontoon segmentation – Concept 3 – Configuration 2

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

43


03. DETERMINE DIMENSIONS COMPARISON During the process, the pontoon concepts were developed and optimized compared to the previous concept. This will also be shown in the comparison in table 20. Criteria

Concept 1

Concept 2

Concept 3

Each pontoon able to cross the Panama Canal

++

++

++

Symmetrical shapes (transport direction)

--

-

++

Pontoons based on the shape of the stadium

--

+

++

Amount of pontoons (not including pitch) Used surface Total

-

(64)

-

-

+

(64)

(60)

+

++

(85094 m2)

(83858 m2)

(73890 m2)

-4

+2

+9

T.20 _ Pontoon configuration – Concepts comparison

OPTIMIZATION

Comparing the different concepts clearly shows the improvements and optimization of the pontoon configuration. This development will not end at this stage of the process. By using the criteria for transport, stability and flexibility the pontoons will be improved and optimized during the project. CONCLUSION As the comparison shows, the third (and most developed) option is the best configuration for the pontoons. It is important that every pontoon has a symmetrical shape in the transport direction. This will minimize extra costs and installation during transport to prevent the pontoons from giving way. Besides this, the amount of pontoons is the least of all the concepts and during the process this might even decrease. This might also happen with the shape of the pontoons. In this first phase, the development of the ellipse shaped grandstand had big influences on the pontoon configuration. This will not be the only modifications of the pontoon configuration during the project. At this point the third concept will be the start of the further development based on the elaboration of the project. This leads to the next conclusion: The development of the pontoons will continue during the project and concept 3 is the preliminary version.

Important In further project development the pontoon configuration can change due to problems or solutions caused by the possibility to assemble and disassemble or the floating aspect of the project. These changes will be explained in a later stadium of the process at the moment and subject that they occur.

44

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


DETERMINE DIMENSIONS 3.5 PONTOON TYPES The first configuration contains of the first and second tier including the business seats. Connected to this first pontoon is the entrance which will be used in both configurations. This entrance pontoon will function as square around the stadium. All spectators should be able to fit on these pontoons. These pontoons will be used in both configurations and will be designed on the maximum capacity. The first pontoon contains all the needed functions for a complete functional stadium. The second pontoon can be added to increase the capacity of the stadium and contains all the extra functions which are needed for this extra amount of spectators. On figures 85 and 86 are the different configurations shown.

1st and 2nd tier incl. business seats

Entrance

85 _ Grandstand distribution Stadium configuration 1

1st and 2nd tier incl. business seats

3rd tier (and partly entrance)

Entrance

86 _ Grandstand distribution Stadium configuration 2

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

45


03. DETERMINE DIMENSIONS 3.6 FUNCTIONS Until now, the section of the stadium is based on the grandstand configuration. The other functions inside the stadium will be mentioned by developing the section. As shown on figures 87 and 88 the functions that are placed are based on the flow of spectators (entrances, elevation cores and promenades). As seen in the sections, the space below the first tier is used for player facilities. These facilities will only be located on one side of the stadium, which means on the other sides of the stadium this space can be used for technical facilities and other needed functions. This is also the case for the entrances and the elevation cores. The space between the different elevation cores will be used as promenade so there is enough space for the spectators. This might give an incorrect vision of the sections, but its based on its primary and most important functions. For example, the elevation core is an object which is situated every few meters and not a total continued function. Striking The private functions are provided of the most critical functions, thinking on dressing rooms, press rooms & meeting rooms.

87 _ Functions and locations configuration 1

88 _ Functions and locations configuration 2

46

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


DETERMINE DIMENSIONS 3.7 FLOW OF PEOPLE Inside the stadium its important that the different type of flows of people don’t cross each other. There are 3 types of people which should be taken into account. -  -  -

Spectators VIP and business guests Players

In both configurations these different flows should be controlled and be unable to cross. On figures 89 and 90 the flow of people is shown. The green line displays the flow of the private spectators of the stadium, thinking on players, staff and press. The ground floor will be the main private part of the stadium. The blue line displays the semi-private flow of people, thinking on VIP’s and business people. Also the disabled spectators will enter the stadium at the ground floor and from that point they can go to the private parts (the tier of business seats and disabled seats). The red line displays the other spectators, they will enter the stadium at the first floor. In this way the private and public flow of people will be separated. The first floor will function mostly as promenade, from this level the other floors are accessible with stairs.

89 _ Flow of people in configuration 1

90 _ Flow of people in configuration 2

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

47


03. DETERMINE DIMENSIONS 3.8 THESIS – CONFIGURATION 1 Thesis Seen the concept section is clear that the critical functions are located in the first configuration, on the ground floor. To prevent problems with the critical functions it is wise to make these functions permanent in the stadium without make this assemble and disassemble. The height of the first configuration (without façade and roof) is around 25m, which is a height which is acceptable to transport. Another benefit are the logistics, which are very important in a stadium. These can be made permanent when the segment will be transported with the total height. The first configuration will be transported as total build segment, this decreases the building time and preserves problems of connections with the critical functions and the logistics.

Review Adaptability & Floating

Review Assembly & Disassembly

With a permanent first configuration, these pontoons will suffer a permanent load. This has several implications on these pontoons.

Seen the assembly and disassembly part of the project, it is wise to ensure the critical parts of the stadium as permanent functions.

Based on a rough estimation of the weight of this pontoon, there can be concluded that the draft is not to big to cross the Panama Canal. The stability of the pontoon will have to be achieved in the pontoon itself by using ballast tanks or comparable options.

The private functions, thinking on dressing rooms, conference rooms etc, are critical functions. Because of the size of these functions, it is difficult to separate these functions to boxes and connect these boxes afterwards.

The weight distribution of the grandstand and its functions is not the ideal distribution for the pontoon. The needed ballast tanks will add extra weight and draft. By using lightweight materials and smart design, the additional draft can be minimized. Based on the rough estimation of draft and possibilities to guarantee the stability, it is possible to make a permanent first configuration.

Besides this, the building time will decrease a lot when configuration 1 will transported as total segment. The flexibility of the stadium will be preserved with the interpretation of the other functions with units which can be placed flexible in the stadium.

Based on Assembly & Disassembly part it is wise to transport the first configuration as total segments without making it more compact.

Conclusion

Criteria

The first configuration will be transported as total build segment, this decreases the building time and preserves problems of connections with the critical functions and the logistics.

Several configurations

"

Stability

"

Transport

Flexibility

Building time

Functionality

Weight / Materials

Innovative

According the two focus points; adaptability & floating and assembly & disassembly, the choice to transport the first configuration as total build segment is a realistic solution. Seen the criteria which are determined before, only the weight / materials have possible negative influence of this choice. The influence of the weight of the segment is depending on the materialization which will be determined in a later phase in this project.

T.21 _ Transport configuration as total

48

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON TECHNIQUES

CONCEPT


04. PONTOON TYPES 4.1 CONCRETE PONTOONS Comparing the pontoons with, for instance, a houseboat shows that concrete is a common choose for the pontoon design. Concrete pontoons have proven themselves in several cases and are mostly preferred in combination with Styrofoam to make an unsinkable pontoon. As closed pontoon it is often used for houseboats with the possibility to make use of the open space inside the pontoon. The weight of the concrete pontoons can be very high because of the needed dimensions of the structure. This can be reduced by strengthening the concrete with steel reinforcement or concrete with extra stiffness. There can be said that concrete pontoons are mostly used for buildings and structures that doesn’t have to move. In this case, for an innovative stadium which is transportable, a concrete pontoon can be a disadvantage.

91 _ Typical concrete pontoon

Pros

Cons

Fundamentally stable

Dry dock and slipway required

Lowest direct costs

Unconventional design

No problems with environmental regulations

Designs based on permanent location

T.22 _ Pros & Cons concrete pontoons

50

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON TECHNIQUES References

92 _ WSDOT SR 250 Pontoon

93 _ Interior wall setting for SR 250 Pontoon

94 _ Keel slap pour for SR 250 Pontoon

92 _ http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4061/4546350412_7c2668f22a_b.jpg 93 _ http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4054/4291426596_2c80354e0b_b.jpg 94 _ http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4039/4311174735_eeaf6e1a2f_b.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

51


04. PONTOON TYPES 4.2 STEEL PONTOONS Comparing pontoons with boats can clarify decision for a steel pontoon. The traditional way of making pontoons is to create them out of steel. This material is watertight, has a slimmer design then concrete and is easier to fabricate. Using steel for the pontoon design has also some disadvantages. The maintenance of the steel is very intensive (painting and keeping it waterproof) and besides that, corrosion forms a big problem. Not only will it affect the steel and decreases the strength and water tightness, but is also an environmental issue. Most steel pontoons are for temporary use such as temporary bridges or to transport repair services over the water. As soon as a steel pontoon gets a permanent function or becomes to big, we can speak of a ship. The shape will be adjusted to the function for transport or an other function.

95 _ Typical steel pontoon

Pros

Cons

Traditional pontoon design

High direct costs

Fundamentally waterproof

Intensive maintenance Restricted freedom for layout of the basement Difficult to achieve fast pontoon construction Environmental regulations

T.23 _ Pros & Cons steel pontoons

52

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


PONTOON TECHNIQUES References

96 _ Sarens steel barge pontoon

97 _ Modular steel connection pontoons 96 _ http://www.sarens.com/media/116512/pontoon1.jpg 97 _ http://www.perebo.de/wp-content/gallery/stahlkoppelpontons/stahlponton.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

53


04. PONTOON TYPES 4.3 HYBRID PONTOONS Hybrid pontoons are based on the advantages of both pontoons combined to a new type of pontoon. A distinction can be made between two different hybrid pontoons. A concrete based and a steel based hybrid pontoon. Concrete based hybrid pontoon The concrete based hybrid pontoon is a typical concrete pontoon with extra reinforcement with steel. The structural advantages of the steel can make the concrete pontoon slimmer and will save weight. The steel will be used inside the pontoon so the main disadvantages of steel usage, the environmental regulations, will be circumvented. Besides this, the steel structure can be connected to the buildings structure to make an integrated structure.

98 _ Hybrid pontoon, concrete with steel reinforcement

Pros

Cons

Fundamentally stable

Dry dock and slipway required

The concrete can be designed more slender because of the steel reinforcement

Unconventional design

No problems with environmental regulations T.24 _ Pros & Cons concrete based hybrid pontoons

Steel based hybrid pontoon A big disadvantage of a total steel pontoon is the steel deck. For transport and temporary functions this is not a problem but as surface to build on its not ideal. For this reason steel pontoons with a concrete deck were developed. Besides the deck, the concrete can also reinforce the steel hull. Instead of using steel as pontoon reinforcement, a concrete box can be placed inside as structure.

99 _ Hybrid pontoon, steel hull with concrete box inside

Pros

Cons

Fundamentally waterproof

High direct costs

When the hull is finished, the building time is not depending on the dry dock or wharves

Intensive maintenance Fast building time of the hull is insecure Unconventional design Environmental regulations

T.25 _ Pros & Cons steel hybrid pontoons

54

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


PONTOON TECHNIQUES References

100 _ Concrete hull combining with spaceframe

101 _ Steel reinforcement inside a concrete pontoon

100 _ Lisen Hable, Drijvend bouwen op de Maas 101 _ Onvrijwillig drijven op beton, Cement 7-2005

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

55


04. PONTOON TYPES 4.4 NEW MATERIALS Besides the traditional and hybrid pontoons, there can be also searched for a solution in untraditional materials for pontoon design. The most important criteria for the pontoons are its strength, stability and the draft of the pontoon. Composites are light weight materials which can be build up, based on the requirements. There are composites with the same structural properties of steel, but can reduce the weight up to 60%. The development of composites has not been unnoticed in the naval industry. The Visby Class Corvette (figure 102) is one of the first ‘stealth ships’ build by the Swedish Marine and Kockums AB. To minimize the water displacement and maximize the speed of this vessel, there has been chosen to build this ship from composites. “The hull is constructed with a sandwich design consisting of a PVC core with a carbon fibre and vinyl. There are multiple advantages to using composite materials in ship hulls. Good conductivity and surface flatness means a low radar signature, while good heat insulation lowers the infrared signature and increases survivability in case of fire. The composite sandwich used is also non-magnetic, which lowers the magnetic signature. Composites are also very strong for their relative weight, and less weight means a higher top speed and better maneuverability. The composite weighs roughly 50% less than the equivalent strength steel.” Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visby_class_corvette

Besides this benefits focused on naval specifications, composites have a lot of advantages over traditional materials. For the Visby Class Corvette a sandwich element was designed based on composites (figure 103). In this sandwich element all needed properties for naval performance were integrated in this sandwich element. •

•  •  •  •  •

Low structural weight, which gives (either): •  Fuel savings •  Higher payload •  Increased service speed •  Longer range Non-corroding structure (low maintenance cost) Built in thermal insulation (also rust proofing) Built in acoustic insulation Engineered materials for optimized design solutions Composites less sensitive to fatigue

Source: Kockums AB – Presentation by Robert Petersson, Naval Architect Msc.

Disadvantages of the material can be solved by adding material or substances. By using Phenolic woven fabric in the composite, the combustibility of the composite can be improved.

Fiber lay-up

Core

Sandwich panel

102 _ Visby Class Corvette

103 _ CFRP panel layers

102 _ http://www.alfgam.se/cases/ys2000_files/VisbyFoto.jpg 103 _ http://www.alfgam.se/cases/ys2000_files/sandwich.gif

56

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON TECHNIQUES 4.5 COMPARING MATERIAL PROPERTIES The choice for a pontoon type will be based on the following criteria: strength, stability, draft and functionality (maintenance and life cycle). Comparing the material properties can give a clear view during this process. For this comparing the following materials will be used: Light weight concrete The concrete that will be used, will be light weight concrete to minimize the total weight. The strength of this concrete type is slightly weaker, but the density can decrease up to 40%. Coated, galvanized steel There are a lot of different steel types, in this first comparison the ‘common used’ galvanized and coated steel will be used. Phenolic woven fabric (composite base material) The phenolic addition in the composite makes it non-flammable.

Properties

Concrete (Light Weight)

Steel (Coated, galvanized)

Composite (Phenolic Woven fabric)

Density

14 – 23 kN/m3

78 – 79 kN/m3

17 – 20 kN/m3

Young’s modulus

11 – 21 GPa

200 – 215 GPa

27,2 – 39,4 GPa

Yield strength

1,1 – 2,8 MPa

250 – 395 MPa

217 – 520 MPa

Tensile strength

1,1 – 2,8 MPa

420 – 600 MPa

217 – 520 MPa

Compressive strength

11,3 – 28 MPa

250 – 395 MPa

276 – 460 MPa

Flammability

Non-flammable

Non-flammable

Non-flammable

Water (fresh)

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Water (salt)

Acceptable

Acceptable

Excellent

0,0304 – 0,0456 EUR/kg

0,545 – 0,6 EUR/kg

19,8 – 21,8 EUR/kg

Durability

Costs Price T.26 _ Comparing material specifications

Source: CES Edupack 2011

CONCLUSION The pontoon type that has been chosen is the concrete based hybrid pontoon. By using the additional steel structure to reinforce the concrete pontoon, the concrete can be minimized. This has a positive influence on the draft and the steel structure can be connected to the stadiums structure. Building the pontoons from composites shows a benefit in weight reduce and, compared to concrete, a strength improvement. Disadvantages of the composite material is that it needs a lot of additional materials to gain its needed strength and flammability requirements. This makes the use of composites very expensive. The maintenance needed for the composite and the contemporary developments in this technique makes it a difficult to use material. Unlike concrete, which has proven itself to be a well known and practical pontoon material. The maintenance and life cycle of the concrete based hybrids makes this the ideal material for this project. The possibility to use the steel inside the concrete hull uses the best properties of both materials optimally. 104 _ Concrete hull combining with spaceframe 104 _ Lisen Hable, Drijvend bouwen op de Maas

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

57


05. PONTOON CONNECTIONS 5.1 EXISTING CONNECTIONS The pontoons will have to be connected to form a complete grandstand and eventually a complete stadium. Because of the size and weight of the stadium, and of course the possibility to disassemble and assemble it needs to be a temporary connection which is strong enough and can be easily and quickly used. Research to existing connections the functionality and efficiency of the systems can be used in a larger scale solution. Plate pontoon connection – Van Schie The connection which is made between the typical plate pontoons (used by for instance Van Schie) is based on a connector in vertical direction. By lowering a component between two pontoons which clamps itself in the pontoon. Besides this coupling at the bottom of the pontoon, an extra component is used for top coupling. This is also a component which can only be added when the pontoons are at the same level and already connected by the lower connection. This system is easy to use, just lowering multiple components between the pontoons and connecting the pontoons on the deck surface. The principle of this pontoon connector is good to use, but the scale between these plate pontoons and a stadium segment is too big. When the connectors will also be scaled to the size of the stadium segments these elements will probably be unmanageable and will lose their biggest advantage: easy to use.

105 _ Connector standard pontoons – Van Schie

106 _ Required components for connecting the pontoons

Pros

Cons

Principle is easy in usage

Based on smaller scale pontoons Large amount of components

T.27 _ Pros & Cons plate pontoon connection

105 _ http://www.vanschie.com/sites/default/files/images/Plaatponton%20detail%20koppeling.jpg 106 _ http://www.vanschie.com/sites/default/files/images/Koppelpen%20en%20ring.jpg

58

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON TECHNIQUES Unifloat pontoon connection – Van Schie Unifloat pontoons are based on a complete pontoon which already consists its connection for coupling several pontoons. The pontoons are equipped with their own connectors consisting of hooks on the bottom side of the pontoon which interlock. At the top of the pontoon coupling elements will merge and secured by a pin and cotter pin. Disadvantage of this principle is that there will always be a notch between the several pontoons. This is necessary for the required space during coupling. When connected, this notch will always have to be covered or disguised. This will cause a huge amount of cover elements and spare parts. Besides this problem, this pontoon type will also lose its benefits of a simple connection. The scale of the stadium segments and pontoons will be to big for this principle to work properly. This will lead to a massive amount of small connections or enormous pins and hooks.

107 _ Unifloat pontoons – Van Schie

108 _ Connector Unifloat pontoons – Van Schie

Pros

Cons

Principle is easy in usage

Covering elements needed for the notch between the pontoons This system will not easily function on a bigger scale

T.28 _ Pros & Cons unifloat pontoon connection

107 _ http://www.vanschie.com/sites/default/files/images/Uniflote%20wit.jpg 108 _ http://www.vanschie.com/sites/default/files/images/Uniflote%20detail%20koppeling.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

59


05. PONTOON CONNECTIONS Container pontoon connection – Van Schie The container pontoons manufactured by Van Schie are pontoons which are designed for a big carrying capacity. The container shaped pontoons are made for ‘heavy duty’ and can carry a lot of weight. Coupling these container pontoons asks for a strong and stiff connection. By using so-called coupling blocks, mounted with pins to the pontoons its possible to carry a load of 35,000 kg each. The advantage of these coupling blocks is that they are placed ‘inside’ the pontoons. Each corner has spare space for the blocks and can connect to these blocks with several pins. The blocks are available in different sizes for connecting a maximum of four pontoons as well as side elements for connecting two. Big advantage of this principle is that there won’t be open space on top of the pontoons, apart from the pin holes. The ‘connectors’ will be located between and ‘inside’ the pontoons and won’t take extra space, causing notches between the pontoons. The fact that they are designed for large pontoons and bigger loads then for example the plate pontoons or unifloats gives them a big advantage. The fact that there are a lot spare parts needed is a although a disadvantage. Besides this, there also will be a problem with a draft of, for example 8 meter, which will result in large pins and big coupling blocks. The advantage of this system is that it connects the pontoon on top as well as below. With a draft of 8 meter, the coupling blocks and the pins also will be around 8 meter. This is the only option because it is impossible to use these system on top and below. The pins below should then be mounted from the bottom of, which will cause problems.

109 _ Container pontoons – Van Schie

110 _ Required connector components

Pros

Cons

Principle is easy in usage

A lot of required elements needed

Designed for big loads and bigger pontoons

Translation to bigger scale can be difficult with large pins, or double couplings (on top and below)

Connectors are ‘inside’ the pontoons

Problems with larger drafts

T.29 _ Pros & Cons container pontoon connection

109 _ http://www.vanschie.com/sites/default/files/imce/00106%20-%20containerponton%20zwart%2011%2C98m%20x%202%2C48m%20wit.jpg 110 _ http://www.vanschie.com/sites/default/files/images/Containerponton%20detail%20koppeling.jpg

60

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON TECHNIQUES Confloat coupling system The Confloat coupling system is a system based on the ‘nut and bolt’ principle. The separate components can be placed inside the pontoons and when the pontoons are localized next to each other they can be bolted. “During coupling, as soon as a bolt is located opposite the corresponding nut, the bolt is inserted into the nut and immediately tightened using an impact spanner. After the configuration of the pontoon has been assembled in this manner, each bolt is pre-tensioned using a torque wrench to a pre-tension of 280 kN. This creates a shock-proof and virtually seamless assembly that can absorb high dynamic loads.” Source: http://www.baarsbv.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5&Itemid=5&lang=en

A big advantage of this system is its opportunity to function on a bigger scale by using bigger coupling systems or bigger pre-tensions, bolts and nuts. Other benefit of this system is that the coupling process of the pontoons will be arranged from inside the pontoon. This may cause facilities inside the pontoon, but it will also improve the working circumstances. Disadvantage of this bolt and nut system is the amount of connections there have to be made before its fully operational. At least a top and bottom connection on each side of a corner should be made, what results in a minimum of 16 connections for each pontoon.

111 _ Confloat coupling system

112 _ Confloat coupling system

Pros

Cons

Pontoon connection from inside out

Amount of connections

Can scale up with the size of the segments

Importance of total equalized pontoons

Seamless connection Good absorption of dynamic forces T.30 _ Pros & Cons Confloat coupling system

111 & 112 _ http://www.baarsbv.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5&Itemid=5&lang=en

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

61


05. PONTOON CONNECTIONS Ponton Made connection system This system is a combination of earlier mentioned principles. By using a coupling plate and pin the pontoons can be coupled. The plates can be placed in several pontoons and will be connected to each other and the pontoon by using couple pins. This fast and easy way of coupling pontoons but can unfortunately only be connected when every element is accessible during the coupling process. With a draft of probably 8 meter and a system based on plates that need to be added on the outside of the pontoon, this principle has a big disadvantage. It could function, when the plates are permanently, and the system is based on adding pins. The system is then based on a minimum of two connections (top and bottom). This will lead to pins with a length of 8 meter. The strength of this system can not be used as is should be which makes this principle not the ideal solution for the coupling of the pontoons.

113 _ Ponton made connection system

114 _ Ponton made connection system

Pros

Cons

Principle is easy in usage

This system will not easily function on a bigger scale Pins will be to big for easy usage Not every component is accessible when the coupling process is on water

T.31 _ Pros & Cons Ponton Made connection system

113 _ http://www.pontonmade.com/upload/090422-006.jpg 114 _ http://www.pontonmade.com/upload/090422-011.jpg

62

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


PONTOON TECHNIQUES Self aligning system To decrease the amount of operations needed to connect the several pontoons, a self aligning system could be a solution. This makes it unnecessary to connect the ‘connector’ to one side of the pontoon. By minimizing the amount of operations a ‘quick link’ can be achieved. Square shaped By creating a box attached to the pontoon and an opening in the connecting pontoon the only operation remaining is to connect the pontoons by lowering a pin in the holes, present in as well the pontoon as the box. The square shape op the aligning system ensures that the pontoon can only be connected on one way. The shape is also its biggest disadvantage. When the boxes are not perfectly aligned they can’t be interlocked. Besides the safety margin, the pontoons must be almost perfectly equalized to connect. 115 _ Square shaped aligning system

Truncated pyramid shaped Using a truncated pyramid shaped connecting, the aligning process can be optimized. The tapered shape of the pyramid creates a bigger margin during connection. Benefit op this system is that the pontoons don’t have to be perfectly equalized to connect. The truncated pyramid can correct this equalization during the connection process. Interlocking the boxes can be a rather difficult operation. The tapered sides of the box as well as the opening in the other pontoon need to be in a straight line during the plugging in of the pin. Optional is to use this system in combination with for instance the ‘confloat coupling system’. The main disadvantage of this system is the need of perfectly equalized pontoons. Combining this with a self aligning system makes sure the bolt and nut connection are exactly opposite of each other.

116 _ Truncated pyramid aligning system

Pros

Cons

Self aligning reduces operations

Importance of equalizing the pontoons

Decreases the building time by making the connection process easier

Function on large scale is possible, size of the boxes is considerable Interlocking by using pins only possible at the top connection

T.32 _ Pros & Cons self aligning system

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

63


05. PONTOON CONNECTIONS CONCLUSION Several connection systems use pins or top connections to couple the pontoons. This is not an option with pontoons which can become several meters high. The size and weight of the pins will be too big for easy usage, as its used in the references. The coupling system using plates or pins can be used, but only at the top surface of the pontoon and certainly not as ‘only connection’. Combining several connection systems can be the ideal solution to connect the pontoons. The top connection can be made using pins or plates but the lower connections has to be connected from the inside of the pontoon.

A

On figure 117 is shown the different type of connections there has to be made, based on the possibility of connecting the pontoons considering their height. A.  Top connection - pontoon surface connection B.  Below water surface connection

B

For the top connection, coupling plates and pins can be used to connect the pontoons in its first stage of connection. These connections can quickly made when the pontoons are located next to each other. The exact equalizing of the pontoons can be completed during the fixing of the plates or pins. After this operation, the connections below the water surface are equal localized opposite of each other and can be connected. Using the self aligning system can minimize the amount of operations and ease the connection.

B 117 _ Combining the connection systems

Important The amount of connections that need to be made will become clear after weight calculations of the pontoons and the applied forces. When this is calculated and decided, the connections may change. In this stadium of the project this decisions can not be made. The principle of the connections can be assumed, but calculations have to show if more or less connections are needed and if the connections are strong enough. When needed, different types of connections can be used.

64

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON TECHNIQUES 06. BALLAST TANKS As mentioned in earlier analysis, the stability of the pontoons will have to be guaranteed. During the usage of the stadium, the spectators will function as a ‘mobile load’. Besides this the shape of the stadium will also provide an unequal load division. The shape of the pontoon will not be based on its load, and will have to adapt on the ‘mobile loads’ and unequal division with ballast tanks. The decision to design the pontoons not based on its load has been made based on the transport criteria. The ideal transport shape is symmetrical and using a ‘flat bottom’ is useful for crossing the Panama Canal, where a maximum draft of 12 meters is used. Ballast tanks are a common technique in the shipping industry. The stability of cargo ships can be guaranteed by using ballast tanks. On figure 118 is shown how ballast tanks can keep a ship stable during cargo loading and unloading.

118 _ Ballast tanks used in cargo shipment

There can be made a difference between permanent ballast and reactive ballast. Permanent ballast, executed as constantly filled ballast tanks, are designed to create an equilibrium to the weight of the stadium and its unequal weight division. Continuously filled ballast tanks can be replaced for permanent weight, but this lacks the ability of using the permanent ballast during the connection of the pontoons and equalizing the pontoons mutually. The adaptable ballast, executed as temporary water storage in the ballast tanks, provide equilibrium to the ‘mobile load’. The flow of people entering and leaving the stadium creates a huge mobile load. To adapt to this load before and after the ‘match’, ballast tanks can react to this displacement of forces without making the pontoons skew. Besides during this ‘loading and unloading’ of the stadium the ballast tanks can also adapt to the movement inside the stadium during the event. These ballast tanks can be executed in several ways. Most famous ballast tanks are submarines who own their submerging abilities to the usage of ballast tanks. The hull of the submarine is used for water storage so the diving process takes place in an evenly process. Figure 119 shows the submarine ballast tank principle. Unless using the hull as ballast tank, there can be added units to the pontoon which function as ballast tank. The pontoon itself can also function as big ballast tank. These options will be discussed on the following pages.

119 _ Submarine diving and rising principle

118 _ http://www.netpeckers.co.in/images/gallery/ballast/2.gif 119 _ http://www.heiszwolf.com/subs/tech/tech01.html

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

65


06. BALLAST TANKS 6.1 SUBMARINE BALLAST TANKS To control the water level inside the ballast tanks, there can be used several techniques. Following ballast tanks are based on submarines and model submarines. Compressed air ballast tank The ballast tank system that uses compressed air is identical the one used in real submarines. This system is similar to the gas operated ballast tank but in this case the gas bottle is replaced by a cylinder that is filled with a compressor. The pressure is however relatively low pressure if you consider the amount of gas that can be stored. If we would assume that the compressed air cylinder is half the size of the MBT, we can only blow the MBT two to three times. This is not much compared to CO2 or liquid gas systems. In general, boats with on board air compressors refill the air supply each time they run on the surface after a dive. Special care should be taken to prevent water being sucked into the compressor. To prevent this, the air intake should be fitted with a valve that closes if the boat is submerged. Vented ballast tank The vented tank (figure 121) can be used to decrease the buoyancy of the boat from positive to slightly positive (decks awash). If the flood valve is opened, the air can escape through the vent and water fills the tank. The tank can be emptied by pumping water out of the tank while air is sucked back into the tank through the vent. Note that in order for this system to work, the top of the vent line must be above the water level. That is why the vented tank cannot be used to give the boat neutral or negative buoyancy. With a filled tank the boat can dive using the hydroplanes. Note that if a bi-directional pump is used, the flood valve is not needed. To prevent water getting in to the ballast tank when running submerged, the diameter of the vent line should be kept small. Please note that the vented ballast tank is not very convenient as a ballast system. Flexible ballast tank The flexible tank (figure 122) consists of a rubber balloon placed inside a rigid tank. To flood the tank, the valve is opened and water is pumped into the tank. The valve is closed to prevent water getting out once the tank is flooded. The air originally present in the rigid tank is vented into the pressure hull of the boat. This will lead to an increase of the pressure inside the hull. If the volume of the ballast tank is not to large compared to the air volume inside the pressure hull this is not a problem. Note that the inside of the submarine is usually packed with equipment so the air volume is certainly not equal to the hull volume.

120 _ Compressed air ballast tank

121 _ Vented ballast tank

122 _ Flexible ballast tank

Pressure ballast tank The pressure ballast tank (figure 123) consists of a sealed ballast tank capable of with standing a significant pressure increase. To flood the tank water is pumped into the tank with a high pressure water pump. Because the air in the ballast tank cannot escape the air is compressed. To empty the tank, the water pump pumps the water out of the tanks again. Note that because the pressure build-up inside the ballast tank it can never be completely filled. Assuming a maximum pressure of 5 bar inside the tank, about 80 percent of the volume of the ballast tank can be used. 124 _ Pressure ballast tank

66

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


PONTOON TECHNIQUES Piston ballast tank The piston ballast tank (figure 125) consists cylinder and a movable piston, just like a giant syringe. The piston can be moved with a thread, a cogwheel and a motor. The outer end of the cylinder is directly connected to the surrounding water. In the piston ballast tank no air is present. Just like the flexible tank the pressure inside the boat increased if the piston tank is filled with water. If the position of the cylinder is measured, for example with a linear potentiometer connected to the thread, the buoyancy of the boat can very accurately be adjusted. Due to the large stroke of the piston, these types of ballast tanks are mostly fitted horizontally. This means that during filling of the tank with water the axial center of gravity of the boat is affected. For example if the boat is balanced to run horizontally with a full ballast tank, the angle of the boat is no longer zero with an empty tank. This drawback can be overcome by using two piston tanks in the aft and bow section of the boat. Membrane ballast tank The membrane ballast tank (figure 126) is a simplified version of the piston tank. It consists of a rigid disk that can be moved up and down with a thread connected to a motor, just like the piston tank. The disk is connected to the cylinder via a flexible rubber membrane. When the disk is retraced, water is allowed into the boat. A nice aspect of the membrane ballast tank is that the water tight sealing is very easy. As long as the rubber membrane is properly attached to both disk and tank, leaking is not possible. In a piston tanks the sealing between the piston and the cylinder is quite critical. Drawback of the membrane tank is that the stroke of the piston is not very large so the change in buoyancy of the submarine is not very large. To make optimal use of the membrane tank, the diameter of the cylinder should be rather large compared to its height. Bellow ballast tank The bellow ballast tank (figure 127) is a variation on the membrane ballast tank. Instead of a flat membrane a rubber bellow is used. This has the advantage that the stroke of the disk is increased so that more water can be taken into the boat. Under pressure, the zig-zag wall of the membrane may pop out, resulting in a sudden increase of the ballast volume (and sinking of the sub). To prevent this, it is recommended to fit the bellow inside a cylinder.

125 _ Piston ballast tank

126 _ Membrane ballast tank

127 _ Bellow ballast tank

Source: http://www.heiszwolf.com/subs/tech/tech01.html

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

67


06. BALLAST TANKS 6.2 UNITS Like the stadium itself, the functions in the pontoon can also be executed as units. By placing the ballast tanks in units that can be added in the pontoon, the ballast tanks can be located where needed and be chosen based on the specifications needed for the exact location. Connecting the units inside the pontoon on undefined locations requires several connections and valves in the bottom or sides of the pontoon. Using units seems like a beneficial solution, but there are a lot of requirements to make these units function in the way the should. Every unit needs its own energy supply and water connections (intake and exhaust). Using units makes it possible to use them on several locations, which requires multiple intakes and exhausts. These openings does not benefit the structure of the pontoon. The units will need maintenance and when a unit should be replaced the pontoon has to be opened up. This requires a hatch in the pontoon or disassemble the unit into small parts inside the pontoon. Using units is an ideal solution for functions that are open and accessible. Reaction on changing demands can be done by adding or enlarging units, but is impossible in a closed pontoon.

126 _ Ballast tanks as units inside the pontoon

6.3 PONTOON AS BALLAST TANK In stead of adding extra installations inside (units) or in the hull (submarine technology) of the pontoon, there can also be chosen to use the pontoon itself as a ballast tank. The pontoon is already a watertight element and can ideal be used as ballast tank itself. The used material inside of the pontoon will have to be protected against corrosion due to the water storage. By making several compartments inside the pontoon, probably also needed to reinforce the structure of the pontoon, the location and size of the ballast tanks can be determined according to the calculations. Using the pontoon as ballast tanks does not require extra installations as it would when the ballast tanks will be executed as units. Besides this, adaption is impossible and the tanks should be designed properly. As shown on figure 127 the pontoon itself will be filled with water. As mentioned before, this can be done on specific locations, where compartments has been made to control the location of the water. Besides controlling the water, some parts of the pontoon has to be accessible for maintenance and coupling the several pontoons. This means using the pontoon as a ballast tank only counts for several compartment parts of the pontoon. Difference between the pontoon as ballast tank or the usage of units is the hull of the ballast tank. In case of the pontoon as ballast tank, an extra hull is not needed, by using units it is.

127_ Use the pontoon as ballast tank

68

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


PONTOON TECHNIQUES CONCLUSION The ballast tanks will provide a part of the stability, by creating an equilibrium with the unequal loads of the stadium and reacting to the ‘live load’ entering and leaving the stadium. This can be compared with a cargo vessel that need to be kept stable during loading and unloading. Main criteria of the ballast tanks are the stability, functionality and flexibility of the pontoon.

Criteria

Hull ballast tanks

Units

Using pontoon as ballast tank

Stability

++

+

+

Functionality

-

+

++

Flexibility

-

++

+

Maintenance

-

+

++

Added installations

+

-

+

Added material / weight

+

-

+

Total

+1

+3

+8

T.33 _ Comparing material specifications

Big disadvantage of the pontoons are the connections that has to be made, mostly from inside. This limits the possibilities for a ballast tank around the pontoon. Creating a double hull, which can function as ballast tank, is nearly impossible because of the connections between the several pontoons. There can be concluded that the submarine technology can be used for controlling the tanks and vaults, but the location of the ballast tanks, as a second hull around the pontoon, is not the ideal solution. The decision between using ballast units or using the pontoon as tank can be made using the functionality criteria. Using the pontoon itself as ballast tank is a realistic option, but the compartments and segmentations in the pontoon will automatically create units. The benefit of using the pontoon is saving material, and therefore weight, of the extra hull needed to create the tanks. Besides an extra hull double valves and water connections need to be made, what results in a increase of maintenance and, if necessary, repair. There has been chosen to create ballast tanks by using the pontoon compartments. The concrete hull and compartments of the pontoon can store the water at the needed location without extra envelope.

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

69


07. FENDERS To protect the several pontoons against damaging each other during connection or even possible collisions fenders will be attached to the sides of the pontoon. These fenders will function as a bumper for minimizing the direct forces which can appear by impact. 7.1 TYPE OF BERTHING Connecting the pontoons can be compared with berthing vessels. In stead of berthing in a harbor or dock, the pontoons will be berthed against each other. This makes it necessary that every pontoon can resist a ‘bump’ during the connection of the pontoons. This makes it comparable with ship to ship berthing (figure 128), which makes a big difference with berthing to a fixed dock. The virtual mass of the berthing elements, in this case the different pontoons, which makes the impact less ‘rough’. Virtual mass factor - As a vessel makes contact with the berth and its movement is suddenly stopped by the fenders, the mass of water moving with the vessel adds to the energy possessed by the vessel. This is called "Mass Factor" or "Added Mass Coefficient" and the weight of the water is generally called "Additional Weight". The added mass coefficient makes up for the body of water carried along with the ship as it moves sideways through the water. As the vessel is berthing a body of water is carried along with the ship as it moves sideways through the water. As the ship is stopped by the fenders, the momentum of the entrained water continues to push against the ship and this effectively increases its overall mass. Source: http://www.portfenders.com/fenderdesign.htm

This berthing scenario results in a decrease of forces applied to the fenders and a weaker impact during the ‘collision’ of the pontoons. The pontoons have the ability to sway during the connection process which gives them the opportunity to redirect the forces. Its not only the applied force that decreases, but the size of the fenders can also be minimized.

128 _ Ship to ship berthing

To determine the size of the fenders, references will be used. Ship to ship berthing can be compared with connecting a tugboat to the pontoons. The fenders are dimensioned that they can transport a vessel without any fenders without damaging the other vessel or pontoon. Like a tugboat, the purpose of the fenders is that the multiple pontoons can safely connect to each other and thereafter function as one element. Because this process of connecting, and the ‘bumping’ of the pontoons, is very precise and careful the forces on the fenders will not be disproportionately. Referring to a tugboat size fender is therefore realistic and can be used as guideline. Figure 129 and 130 show several tugboat fenders. As shown on the images, the fender surface is more important then the thickness of the fender. Both figures show that the total front of the tugboat can be used and is fully protected.

129 _ Tugboat fenders

130 _ Tugboat fenders

128 _ http://www.portfenders.com/Ship%20to%20Ship_Berthing.jpg 129 _ http://img.nauticexpo.com/images_ne/photo-g/tugboat-fender-w-shape-200638.jpg 130 _ http://www.evergreen-maritime.com.cn/_pics/pro_en/95_d_2.gif

70

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON TECHNIQUES 7.2 FENDER DISTRIBUTION As seen on the previous figures, fenders are needed to prevent the pontoons from damaging each other during connection. There are several ways to execute these fenders around the pontoon or in elements around the pontoon. Several variants will be explained and compared: continuous fenders, fenders on one side of the pontoon and alternately fenders. Comparing the fenders will be done by the main criteria: functionality, vulnerability of the pontoons, flexibility and usage of material. Continuous fenders Creating a continuous ‘bumper’ around each pontoon makes sure that every contact can be absorbed. In case of safety, protecting each pontoon totally around is the best method. The vulnerability of these variant is therefor optimal. The material use is however maximal, which leads to extra cost and extra weight. The size of the fenders can be minimized and based on a ‘double fender’ but the gap between the pontoons will be probably the largest. During the connection, the pontoons are very flexible, every pontoon can be connected everywhere (based on the fenders) because of its total protection. 131 _ Continuous fenders

Fender on one side of the pontoon In stead of using fenders on all sides of the pontoon it is also possible to use only one side of the pontoon as a fender. This results in a bigger fender, but can save almost half of the needed meters. Big disadvantage of using only one side of the pontoon as fender is that the other side is vulnerable. The savings in material goes at the expense of the flexibility of the pontoons. With this method there will be only one way of connecting the pontoons which makes them less flexible.

132 _ Fender on one side of the pontoon

Alternately fenders By combining the earlier mentioned systems the benefits of both methods can be used. Creating fenders on all sides of the pontoon, alternately placed opposite of each other compared to the pontoon that has to be connected, the material use can be minimized and both pontoons can be protected. In this way, the vulnerability of the pontoons is minimized as well as the material use. The flexibility of the pontoons will not decrease in this variant because every side of the pontoon is protected and by dividing the fenders wisely, every pontoon can connect in an easy way. 133 _ Alternately fenders

Criteria

Continuous fenders

Fenders on one side

Alternately fenders

+

-

++

Vulnerability of the pontoons (x2)

++

--

+

Flexibility

++

-

+

Needed material

--

+

++

Total

+6

-6

+9

Functionality (x2)

T.34 _ Comparing material specifications

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

71


07. FENDERS 7.3 FENDER DEVELOPMENT As shown in the comparison, alternately distributed fenders have the most benefits. The decrease in material and the smallest gap between the pontoons, combined with enough protection makes this the ideal solution for protecting the pontoon against collision and damage during the connection process. However, each pontoon corner should be protected which will lead to ‘double fenders’. Combining systems The solution can be found in combining systems for optimal functionality of the pontoons. For each connection, a smooth surface is required for optimal connectivity and transfer of forces. The use of concrete for the pontoon hull does not contribute in creating a smooth surface. An additional material is needed to create a smooth interface between the connections. A compressive material can be used to ensure optimal coupling and the ability of, besides horizontal force distribution, also absorbing the friction forces between the pontoons in case of skew. Several materials can be used for this ‘smooth compressive layer’ between the pontoons. To combine the function of fender and part of the connection, different criteria are set. The compressive abilities of the material, the flexibility of the material based on multiple usage, surface properties and the possibility to use it as fender and connection. Concrete Great benefit of the concrete is the compressive ability which strengthens the mixture. Creating a homogeneous connection between the concrete pontoons by using a concrete ‘connector’ is based on the forces an optimal solution. Disadvantage is the permanent connection. The stiff connection will have to be demolished after each event which leads to extra operations and building time. The concrete can not be used as fender, because the compressive ability only works during the connection process. A process which has to be done on the water, not the ideal environment for concreting between the pontoons. 134 _ Concrete mixture

Asphalt An other material which gets its strength after compression is asphalt. Its waterproofing ability makes it more suitable then concrete, but the main disadvantages remain. After each event the asphalt layer will have to be demolished or removed and can’t be used again. This means the pontoons will need extra fenders during transport. Applying the asphalt during the connection is a difficult job, because the connections will be made vertically. This results, just like the concrete, in extra operations and building time. 135 _ Asphalt mixture

Rubber Using rubber strips around the pontoon is an earlier mentioned solution for the fenders. Combining this with the connections can make them waterproof and the rubber has compressive abilities. During the connection the rubber strips will compress and simultaneously create a smooth interface between the several pontoon connections. The rubber strips can be mounted on the pontoon during the build of the pontoon and doesn’t need any operation during assembly and disassembly. 136 _ Rubber strip

Plastic/composite Smooth materials as composites or plastics can be used to ensure a sleek surface for optimal force transfer between the pontoons. Similarly to the rubber strips a composite or plastic profile can be mounted during the build of the pontoon itself and save time during the assembly and disassembly of the stadium.

137 _ Teflon profiles

Compared to the rubber strips, the plastic or composite strips have less compressive abilities but an even higher impact strength. This makes the plastics less suitable for fenders, but a good material to combine with others due to its waterproof and strength properties.

134 _ http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete-mix-design/img/page-28-chute300.jpg 135 _ http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Joy_K37ZovY/TQ9o5XVIqGI/AAAAAAAAAAQ/TqzxVwyr98s/s1600/DSC01102.JPG 136 _ http://www.aed.lv/eng/production/expansion_joints/profiles_acme/images/text/Acme.jpg 137 _ http://174.123.135.195/uploads05/58/N/teflon102116776.jpg

72

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON TECHNIQUES Criteria

Concrete

Asphalt

Rubber

Plastic/composite

-

+

++

-

Flexibility

--

--

++

++

Smooth surface

+

++

+

++

Fender abilities

--

--

++

-

-

-

+

+

-5

-2

+8

+3

Compressive

Connection abilities Total

T.35 _ Comparing materials to combine the fender and connection

The different materials all show their own benefits, but as can be seen in table 35 rubber has the most benefits and the least weaknesses. Because of the compressive abilities of rubber, the used strip does not have to be very big once the connection has been made. CONCLUSION The previous comparison with a tugboat still remains, which allows relatively small fenders because of the ‘ship to ship berthing’. Combining the fenders with the coupling process of the pontoons, protection is not their only function. By combining these functions the functionality and flexibility of the pontoons can be optimized. Rubber is a widely used material for fenders as well as compressive material in connections which can be tensioned. The compressive abilities provides an impact strength and creates a large interface during connection to absorb friction forces. There has been chosen to use combined protection of the connections and the pontoon by using rubber as fender and part of the connection. The dimensions and amount of these fenders/connections will be a result of calculations and determined in a later stadium.

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

73


08. HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT To prevent the stadium from ‘floating away’ once its located, it have to be moored. To interfere with this horizontal displacement, the stadium can be connected to the mainland on several ways. Besides holding the stadium on its place, the accessibility of the stadium must also be made possible. Based on several criteria a decision can be made. These criteria; functionality, flexibility, practicability and the occurring forces can give a clear view for the ideal mooring technique. 8.1 MOORING SYSTYEMS Piles Using piles is one of the most used mooring methods to berth vessels. Piles can be used on several ways with for instance with ropes or chains. In stead of using the piles to connect the float to, the piles can also go through the float. This allows the float to move in vertical direction without shifting in horizontal direction. This method can make the float adapt to the tidal water or waves, but keeps it on its place. Disadvantage of these mooring method is the space needed for the piles and the restriction in possibilities for building on top of the float. When the piles go through the float itself, the piles will be a part of the transportable stadium. The piles can be lowered when the stadium is on location. It is impossible to place this piles before the arrival of the stadium. This would result in lifting the stadium over the piles. The location of the stadium can not be prepared, before the stadium is located and is moored.

138 _ Piles through the float

Anchoring The pontoons can also be moored as a ship on open water. Using multiple anchors with chains can keep the stadium on its location. The horizontal margin of this method is obviously larger then mooring with piles. A concrete element will be placed on the bottom of a water surface with chains connected to them. Buoys make sure the chains will not sink and can be reached during connection. Disadvantage of this system is the need of multiple connections and several chains. Mooring with this principle will only function properly with several connections otherwise the cable will behave as a maximum length, and the floats will still be able to move horizontal. Benefit of this principle is that all the cables and anchors can be placed before arrival of the stadium and the location can be prepared for the event.

139 _ Anchoring using chains

Ropes and bollards This is probably the most used and known principle of mooring. The bollards are placed on a pier or bay and can be used by several sized ships or pontoons. Ropes can be used in several connections, as mentioned the piles can also function as bollard. Disadvantage of these bollards is the need of a structure where they can be placed on. This structure must be strong enough to absorb the forces on these bollards. The amount of bollards determine the flexibility of this system. Ships and pontoons of any size can moor to these bollards.

140 _ Ropes and bollards

138 _ http://www.workonwater.co.uk/images/applications9.jpg 139 _ http://thedogpaddler.com/EmailNewsletters/080916_Repairing_theMooring/05_MooringDrawing_749x500_opt8ADV.jpg 140 _ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/HK_TST_Star_Ferry_Victoria_Harbour_Mooring_Rope.JPG

74

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON TECHNIQUES Creating a dock Based on dry dock technology, the location can be provided with an underwater structure where the stadium can more on. By lowering the stadium when it is on location the horizontal as well as the vertical displacement can be prevented. The dock can be build before the event to prepare the location, but afterwards, the dock is useless as normal dry dock. This dock is a immense underwater structure which should be able to carry the entire stadium weight and transport this loads to the foundation. This bottom is an varying surface due to the ocean currents which makes this a doubtful structure. As used in dry docks, the ideal situation for a dock in on land, where the transmission of forces can be guaranteed. Using a pier As can be seen on figure 142 a pier can be used as a cradle for the stadium. As an U-shaped pier the stadium can be ‘inserted’ in this cradle. The U-shape prevent the stadium for horizontal displacement and can simultaneously function as an entrance for the spectators.

141 _ (Dry) dock

Disadvantage of mooring in a pier is that is can not be the only solution. To prevent the stadium of floating out of this pier, it will have to be connected with a other technique as well. Benefit of this system it that it, unlike a dock, can function as a pier after the event. Based on the measurements of the stadium, the pier can be build before the event and the stadium can ‘plug in’ to this cradle.

142 _ Using the pier as ‘dock’

Piles

Anchoring

Ropes and bollards

(Dry) dock

Using a pier

++

+

++

++

+

Flexibility

+

++

++

--

+

Practicability

--

-

+

-

++

Occurred forces

+

-

+

-

-

Preparation

--

++

++

++

++

Total

0

+3

+8

0

+5

Criteria Functionality

T.36 _ Comparing several mooring techniques

CONCLUSION Comparing the several techniques (table 36) shows all the principles have their own benefits. The practicability is in most cases a problem used on a large floating surface. Combining multiple techniques can be the ideal solution to prevent the stadium from ‘floating away’. Using a pier is a big advantage for combining entrance to the stadium and preventing it from displacements in three directions. When a pier will be used, the most logical combination would be using ropes and bollards considering this principle needs a external structure on which the bollards needs to be placed. There has been chosen to combine the pier with the rope and bollard principle. The ropes will prevent the stadium from the horizontal displacement and the pier provides the entrance and structure for the bollards.

141 _ http://farm1.static.flickr.com/7/11255355_2d48414f22.jpg 142 _ http://www.lakeplace.com/img/developments/pages/GP-glen-park-piers.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

75


76

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FEASIBILITY CALCULATION

CONCEPT


09. FEASIBILITY CALCULATION 9.1 CALCULATION CLARIFICATION As mentioned in chapter 3.7 Thesis – Configuration 1, a raw estimation has been a big part of the decision to make the first configuration pontoons permanent. Based on the dimensions of the pontoon and the known values and weights of the stadium parts and the pontoon itself, an approximation was made to decide if it is feasible to make this first pontoon permanently build to save building time. A safety factor of 2,5 is used to respond to the increase of weight during the process. It is impossible to make a realistic calculation in this stadium of the process.

78

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FEASIBILITY CALCULATION

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

79


09. FEASIBILITY CALCULATION 9.2 CALCULATION CONSEQUENCES The result of the calculation shows a draft of 8,21 meter. Based on this value, there is decided that it is feasible to execute the first configuration as a permanent floating element. The calculation shows the draft of the first configuration meets the requirements that were determined in the first phase of the process. A maximum draft of 12 meter is allowed to cross the Panama Canal and this result meets these demands. This does not automatically means the pontoon meets all the requirements. The stability and skew of this element is not calculated, because in this phase the normative value is the draft. Based on this result there it is considered likely that it is possible to design a pontoon with a permanent stadium segment which meets all the requirements based on draft, stability and skew.

Important From this point, the development of the pontoons continuous during the design process. With the gathered information from this first calculation, the design of the stadium and the pontoon distribution can be continued to an optimal segmentation.

80

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


PONTOON DISTRIBUTION

DEVELOPMENT


10. PONTOON SEGMENTATION In chapter 03. Determine dimensions, the pontoon segmentation has been made and improved based on the functionality of the pontoons. Most important criteria were the shape of the pontoons in transport direction, to secure the symmetrical shape for optimal transport and the most intensive use of the pontoons, to avoid surface, draft and weight without added value. During the design process changes has been made in the pontoon segmentations and dimensions to improve the total design without neglecting the pontoons. These changes, and the motives behind will be explained and the quality preservation of the pontoons will be justified. 10.1 IMPROVEMENT 1 – BUILDING SERVICES Due to the lack of space on the top floor of the first configuration, it is impossible to post enough shafts there without interfering the logistics for the spectators. This problem led to an expansion of the pontoons of the first configuration. In the report of Assembly and Disassembly, 7.6 Main supply, a more extensive description of this problem. The length of the first pontoons increase from 42,5 to 47,5 meter and this creates some ´bottlenecks´ in the corners of the first ring. The length of the pontoons in the first configuration was based on the maximum diagonal of 30 meters in the corner elements to be able to transport them through the Panama Canal. Increasing the length makes it impossible to create two corner pontoons without exceeding the maximum of 30 meter width in transport direction.

1.

1.

The main criteria is for the pontoon distribution is the maximum dimension. As shown on the top highlight image, the maximum width does not exceed the maximum of 30 meters. After extending the length of the pontoons, it is impossible to divide the corners in 2 parts, as can be seen on the highlight below. A division of 3 pontoons in the corner is needed. 2. 2.

Pontoons configuration 1 142 _ Configuration 1 – Adjustment 1

82

Entrance pontoons

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON DISTRIBUTION

1.

30 m 1. ↑ Before adjustment

After adjustment ↓

2.

25 m

Pontoons configuration 1 Pontoons configuration 2 Entrance pontoons

2. < 30 m

TRANSPORT DIRECTION

144 _ Configuration 2 – Adjustment 1

At first sight, the corner solution does not meets the requirements of a symmetrical shape pontoon for minimum sideway resistance during transport. As mentioned before the maximum dimension of 30 meter was exceeded when the corners would be split in two identical parts. Dividing it in three segments, the dimensions are far removed from the maximum dimensions. This makes it possible to combine the a-symmetrical pontoons to one symmetrical shape during the transportation of the stadium. In this way, the pontoon configuration still meets all the set criteria and requirements. As result of the extension of the first configuration pontoons, the pontoons of the second configuration can be more slender executed. The 5 meter extension of the first pontoon will be taken of the second configuration pontoons. This reduces the pontoons of the second configuration from 30 to 25 meter wide.

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

83


10. PONTOON SEGMENTATION 10.2 IMPROVEMENT 2 – FAÇADE DEVELOPMENT During the design of the façade which is based on a system which can be expanded for both configurations, the size and seams between the pontoons were adapted. This adaption is based on the location of the footings on which the façade and its structure is placed. A more detailed description of the shape of the façade and the location of these footings can be found in the report of Assembly and Disassembly, 08. Façade and roof. Summarized, the distance between the structure footing and the footing of the tension cables had to be enlarged to provide a better angle of the cables to improve the force flow. This adaption led to widening the entrance pontoons, on which the façade and roof construction is located. The location of the footings which carry the structure of the façade were based on a proportional distribution around the stadium, which can function in both configurations. The footings for the tension cables, which all have the same ‘offset’ from the façade columns, resulted in problematic locations. It is impossible to place a footing on top of a seam between the pontoons. To divide the façade evenly around the stadium, the seam between the pontoons had to be relocated in case of functionality of the façade.

Pontoons configuration 1 Entrance pontoons

1. 20 m

1.

Location of the structural footing The seam between the pontoons had to be relocated because the footings of the façade are permanent elements. These load bearing elements can not be placed on a seam or on only one side of the pontoon without avoiding the evenly distribution around the stadium. By adapting the pontoon size, this problem could be solved. 2. 30 m

2. 11,5 m

145 _ Configuration 1 – Adjustment 2

84

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON DISTRIBUTION The problematic seams does also occur in the corners of the stadium. These pontoons can not be easily adapted in size because one of these pontoons should function in both configurations. It is necessary to keep this width, while the pontoons around can fluctuate in dimensions. Requirement of this adaption is that the size of at least one pontoon per corner can function in both configurations and the location of the footing is in both configurations correctly. In stead of 2 small pontoons aside the ‘normative’ pontoon, there has been chosen to shift this pontoon and create a resultant pontoon next to it. This retains the functionality of the pontoons and decreases the amount of pontoons as well. This solution also benefits the flexibility of the pontoons and in minimizes the equipment needed during transport by decreasing the amount of pontoons.

Pontoons configuration 1 Pontoons configuration 2 Entrance pontoons

1. 1.

Location of the structural footing

2.

The same problem of the footings carrying the columns appeared with the columns on which the tension cables are mounted. This resulted in a change in dimensions and a decrease of pontoons. 2.

146 _ Configuration 2 – Adjustment 2

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

85


10. PONTOON SEGMENTATION 10.3 FINAL PONTOON CONFIGURATION After several improvements and changes in the design and pontoon segmentation figure 147 shows the final pontoon segmentation. Other then the figure might suggest, the amount of pontoons is based on its shape and size. The stadium part that will be build on top of it can have a different shape. This will appear mostly in the pontoons of configuration 2. The stadium can be mirrored in x and y direction. This does not affect the shape of the pontoons, but mirrors the load on top of it. A total of 63 pontoons will have to be shipped, from which several combinations can be made to reduce the amount of tugboats, equipment, and tolls during transport.

147 _ Definitive pontoon segmentation

86

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


FINAL DESIGN


11. FINAL DESIGN With all the analysis and research which is done, there is made a final design. To understand the size of the innovative stadium design, the 2 configurations are compared to existing stadiums. It is compared to the number of seats which are shown in “features Innovative Stadium Design”. The final design will be represented with impressions of the several configurations: •  Segments •  Configuration 1 •  Configuration 2

The drawings are attached in the appendix: Configuration 1 * •  Floor plans

ISD.C1-01

1 : 1000

•  Sections

ISD.C1-02

1 : 500

•  Elevations

ISD.C1-03

1 : 500

•  Floor plans

ISD.C2-01

1 : 1000

•  Sections

ISD.C2-02

1 : 500

•  Elevations

ISD.C2-03

1 : 500

ISD.PON-01

1 : 200 / 1 : 20

Configuration 2 *

Pontoon * •  Overall drawings

* The technical solutions will be explained in chapter 13-16 Technical Solutions.

88

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FINAL DESIGN 11.1 FEATURES INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN The Innovative Stadium Design results in the following features: 1. Module 1 (business) - C1

1.802 seats

11x

2. Module 1 (disabled) - C1

1.829 seats

8x

3. Module 1 (tunnel) - C1

1.706 seats

1x

4. Module 2 - C1

853 seats

8x

5. Module 3 - C1

817 seats

4x

Business

792 seats

Disabled

864 seats

6. Module 1 - C2

3.240 seats

4x

7. Module 2 - C2

2.160 seats

4x

Configuration 1

46.252 seats

Configuration 2

67.852 seats

148 _ Distribution configuration 1

149 _ Distribution configuration 2

Figures on pages 90 & 91 150 _ http://fcbusiness.co.uk/cms/thesite/public/uploads/news_large/1268407145_375.jpg 151_ http://www.worldstadiumdatabase.com/images/stadiums/europe/germany/nuremberg/frankenstadion.jpg 153 _ http://www.houbrechtsmarien.be/anfield-road.jpg 154 _ http://www.stadiumguide.com/ramon2.jpg 155_ http://www.stadia.gr/oaka/oakaworks35.jpg 156 _ http://www.allianz-arena.de/media/images/wallpaper/luft/luft02_1024.jpg 158 _ http://www.stadiumguide.com/dellealpi3.jpg 159 _ http://www.lifeinkorea.com/Images/Seoul/S-seoul.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

89


11. FINAL DESIGN STADIUM COMPARISON – CONFIGURATION 1 The capacity of the stadium in its smallest configuration is 46.252 seats. To visualize this capacity a comparison is made with existing stadiums. CITY OF MANCHESTER STADIUM Capacity:

48.000

Country:

England

Location:

Manchester

Home team(s):

Manchester City F.C.

150 _ City of Manchester Stadium

FRANKENSTADION Capacity:

47.559

Country:

Germany

Location:

Nuremberg

Home team(s):

1. FC Nürnberg

151_ Frankenstadion

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN – CONFIGURATION 1 Capacity:

46.252

Country:

Various

Location:

Various

Home team(s):

Various

152 _ Innovative Stadium Design – Configuration 1

ANFIELD Capacity:

45.522

Country:

England

Location:

Liverpool

Home team(s):

Liverpool F.C.

153 _ Anfield

ESTADIO RAMÓN SÁNCHEZ PIZJUÁN

154 _ Estadio Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán

90

Capacity:

45.500

Country:

Spain

Location:

Seville

Home team(s):

Sevilla F.C.

Source: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_football_(soccer)_stadiums_by_capacity

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FINAL DESIGN STADIUM COMPARISON – CONFIGURATION 2 The capacity of the stadium in its biggest configuration is 67.852 seats. To visualize this capacity a comparison is made with existing stadiums. ATHENS OLYMPIC STADIUM Capacity:

71.030

Country:

Greece

Location:

Athene

Home team(s):

Greece National Football team

155 _ Athens Olympic Stadium

ALLIANZ ARENA Capacity:

69.901

Country:

Germany

Location:

Munich

Home team(s):

Bayern Munich / 1860 Munich

156 _ Allianz Arena

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN – CONFIGURATION 2 Capacity:

67.852

Country:

Various

Location:

Various

Home team(s):

Various

157 _ Innovative Stadium Design – Configuration 2

STADIO DELLE ALPI Capacity:

67.299

Country:

Italy

Location:

Turin

Home team(s):

Juventus F.C. / Torino F.C.

158 _ Stadio Delle Alpi

SEOUL WORLD CUP STADIUM

159 _ Seoul World Cup Stadium

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

Capacity:

66.080

Country:

South Korea

Location:

Seoul

Home team(s):

F.C. Seoul

Source: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_football_(soccer)_stadiums_by_capacity

4030958 4030494

91


11. FINAL DESIGN 11.2 SEGMENT MODULES The Innovative Stadium Design is based on the use of modules. The final modules are shown on the figures below.

160 _ Module with staircase – front view

161 _ Module with staircase – back view

MODULE WITH STAIRCASE (configuration 1)

162 _ Position of module

163 _ Module with elevator – front view

164 _ Module with elevator – back view

MODULE WITH ELEVATOR (configuration 1)

165 _ Position of module

92

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FINAL DESIGN

166 _ Module corner 1 – front view

167 _ Module corner 1 – back view

MODULE CORNER 1 (configuration 1)

168 _ Position of module

169 _ Module corner 2 – front view

170 _ Module corner 2 – back view

MODULE CORNER 2 (configuration 1)

171 _ Position of module

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

93


11. FINAL DESIGN

172 _ Module long side C2 – compact – front view

173 _ Module long side C2 – compact – back view

MODULE LONG SIDE – COMPACT (configuration 2)

174 _ Position of module

175 _ Module long side C2 – unfolded – front view

176 _ Module long side C2 – unfolded – back view

MODULE LONG SIDE – UNFOLDED (configuration 2)

177 _ Position of module

94

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FINAL DESIGN

178 _ Module short side – unfolded – front view

179 _ Module short side – unfolded – back view

MODULE SHORT SIDE – UNFOLDED (configuration 2)

180 _ Position of module

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

95


11. FINAL DESIGN 11.3 CONFIGURATION 1 The figures below shows impressions of the first configuration.

181 _ Configuration 1 – front view

182 _ Configuration 1 – top view

96

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FINAL DESIGN 11.4 CONFIGURATION 2 The figures below shows impressions of the second configuration.

183 _ Configuration 2 – front view

184 _ Configuration 2 – top view

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

97


11. FINAL DESIGN 11.5 ARTIST IMPRESSIONS Figures 185 – 191 shows artist impressions of the innovative stadium design.

185 _ Configuration 1 – during daytime

186 _ Configuration 1 – at night

98

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FINAL DESIGN

187 _ Configuration 1 – entrance

188 _ Configuration 1 – from grandstand

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

99


11. FINAL DESIGN

189 _ Open perspective configuration 1

100

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FINAL DESIGN

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

101


11. FINAL DESIGN

190 _ Configuration 1 – promenade

191 _ Configuration 2 – promenade

102

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


CALCULATIONS


12. PONTOON CALCULATION After the feasibility calculation in earlier stadium, the pontoons can be completely calculated now the final design is made. In previous analysis the principle of floating is explained and according to the regulations, calculations can be made to determine the float. The calculations are made in an Excel sheet, and will be explained and justified according to the progressive scheme as described in the reader ´Het ontwerpen van pontons voor drijvende gebouwen´ by ir. M.W. Kamerling. During the calculations, the pontoon will develop according to the results. During this progressive scheme, these adaptions will be integrated in the calculations and will show or explain the improvements of these modifications of the pontoon. 12.1 REGULATIONS Freeboard In order to transport the stadium segments over the sea and open water, the minimum dimensions for freeboard as used for houseboats and permanent floats can not be used. The minimum difference between the water level and the top of the floating structure should be 0,3 meter. Due to the transport possibilities, the freeboard is determined on 4 meter. Skew Building on water can cause a skewed ´foundation´ which can have enormous consequences for the stadium. According to NEN 6740 the maximum skew can be based on 1/300 of the building height. Based on the function and the coupling of the pontoons the maximum divergence has been determined on 1/500 of the total building height. The skew will be calculated for the pontoons during transport (without spectators) and in use including the weight of the spectators. According to the regulations, a maximum skew of 5O degrees is permissible in the ultimate limit state, and 1O degrees in the usefulness limit state. In this calculation, the safety factor of 1,2 is integrated from the beginning of the calculations, so as well the pontoon during transport and during the event should meet the requirement of maximum 1O degrees rotation. Stability The stability is based on the height of the metacenter. The minimum height of the metacenter is set on 0,15 meter according to the Naval Industry. In case of pontoon constructions this height will be increased to 0,5 meter. Any other stability and strength requirements for the stadium on top of the pontoons are based on the ‘normal’ requirements for buildings on the mainland.

12.2 SCHEMATIC DESIGN The calculations are based on a schematic design of the pontoon and the stadium segment on top of it. In this case, there will be calculated with a first configuration pontoon, as shown on figure 192 in a schematic view. This is the base of the calculations. 21500 mm

4000 mm

14000 mm

24200 mm

47500 mm

192 _ Schematic design of the calculated segment

104

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


CALCULATIONS 12.3 WEIGHT DETERMINATION As shown on figure 192 the segments of the stadium can be compared with a triangular load. This load division is not beneficial for the stability of the pontoons but can be countered by using (permanent) ballast. This will be discussed in 12.7 Improvement. First of all it is important to determine the weight of the stadium and the pontoon itself. The stadium has been divided in its preliminary functions, based on the section. Figure 193 shows the division of the several elements which are the base of the calculation.

E5 E4

Element 1 – Pontoon The pontoon contains the floating body, its needed structure and the needed ballast will be located in here. For the calculation, the ballast will be approached as a separate element but practically its situated in the pontoon itself. Element 2 – Tier 1 The first tier element contains the complete first tier grandstand. The functions below the grandstand and entrances of the grandstand are also included.

E2

E6

E3

E1

193 _ Dividing the section in several elements

Element 3 – Promenade The promenade includes the floor space for the entrance, horizontal transport through the whole stadium and is the location where the elevator shafts can be placed. Element 4 – VIP and disabled The VIP and disables element contains the VIP boxes, lounges, connectivity between these boxes on the ´long side´ of the stadium. The ´short sides´ are reserved for disabled seating and will also contain elevator shafts and units for the needed toilets and SUP´s. Element 5 – Tier 2 Like element 2, element 5 contains the complete grandstand of the second tier and the entrance of the grandstand. Because of the small ´useable´ floor space, there are no other functions in this element. Element 6 – Vertical transport All the vertical transport is located in this segment. The staircase, building services and floor space of the promenade are located in this area. Two loadcases For the calculation, there is made a differentiate between two loadcases. These can be compared to the BGT and UGT. The BGT (Bruikbare Grens Toestand) is based on a empty stadium in transport status. In this situation the live load is determined on 1,5 kN/m2 floor surface. The UGT (Uiterste Grens Toestand) is based on a ‘sold out’ event with a live load of 5 kN for each square meter floor surface. Theoretical this is way too much, because the promenade, as well as the promenade are exposed to this force. This situation will never occur, because the amount of people is based on the capacity of the stadium. When the grandstands are filled, the force on the promenade will not be as high as calculated with. This is a safety margin because both floors should carry the load, and for the stability of the stadium, this could make a different. T.37_ Weight of the elements

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

Element

Transport

Safety factor

Event

Safety factor

Element 1

50910,40 kN

691092,48 kN

54484,78 kN

65381,73 kN

Element 2

4771,91 kN

5726,29 kN

7523,56 kN

9028,28 kN

Element 3

1289,87 kN

1547,84 kN

2169 kN

2603,72 kN

Element 4

2032,85 kN

2439,42 kN

3219,39 kN

3863,27 kN

Element 5

2229,86 kN

2675,83 kN

4148,38 kN

4978,06 kN

Element 6

5003,12 kN

6003,74 kN

5780,97 kN

6937,16 kN

Total

66238,00 kN

79485,61 kN

77326,85 kN

92792,23 kN

105


12. PONTOON CALCULATION Gravity center To make an as realistic possible calculation model, Rhinoceros software has been used to determine the exact centers of gravity. Using the Grasshopper plugin, an extensive model (with detailed grandstand for optimal performance) were used to determine the exact coordinates of the centers of each element. Because of the rectangular floor plan and transverse section, the gravity points only differ in x and y-direction compared to each other. In z-direction, the gravity centers are located in one line, which contributes to the stability of the pontoon. Figure 195 shows each gravity center for all elements and the total segment and in table 38 the coordinates can be found. The coordinates are measured from the ‘low side’ of the pontoon in x-direction and from the bottom in y-direction. 194 _ Rhinoceros model

195 _ Gravity centers for each element and the total segment

Element

X – direction

Y – direction

Z - direction

Element 1

23,75 m1

7,00 m1

10,75 m1

Element 2

20,97 m1

16,74 m1

10,75 m1

Element 3

35,71 m1

19,56 m1

10,75 m1

Element 4

35,42 m1

26,67 m1

10,75 m1

Element 5

37,04 m1

30,75 m1

10,75 m1

Element 6

44,65 m1

24,85 m1

10,75 m1

Center of gravity

27,39 m1

11,48 m1

10,75 m1

T.38 _ Gravity centers coordinates

Initial draft and freeboard As result of the weight calculations, the initial draft and freeboard can be determined. From previous calculation 10 meter draft was assumed and based on oversea transport a freeboard of 4 meter was chosen. During transport

During event

ΣF

79485,61 kN

92792,23 kN

Draft

7,78 m1

9,09 m1

Freeboard

6,22 m1

4,91 m1

T.39 _ Initial draft and freeboard

106

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


CALCULATIONS 12.4 REPRESENTATIVE FORCES Based on the size of the pontoon and the estimated freeboard, the representative forces can be calculated. These forces are based on the wind load on the surfaces. The wind load only applies on the longitudinal surface during transport and the skew which it can produce will only be a movement which has to be taken into account during transport. The wind load in transverse direction will apply on the surfaces in as well a separate pontoon as the total stadium. In case of the complete stadium, only a quarter of the outer pontoons will be exposed to this force. C

This wind load produces the following forces; Friction on roof Friction on façade Pressure and suction due to the wind load

•  •  •

The surfaces of the segment were used to calculate these representative forces. In longitudinal and transverse direction this surface could be measured but for the roof surface, the force depends on the façade and roof construction. Because the façade does not depend on the size of the pontoons, the surface for one element can not be determined. For the calculation, the surface of the floor plan is used as simplified roof. Surface A:

574,62 m2

Surface B:

589,49 m2

Surface C:

1021,25m2

A

B

196 _ Used surfaces for calculation the representative forces

Following formulas are used to calculate the representative forces:

In which: Cdim

0,96

Based on NEN 6702

Cindex pressure

0,80

Cindex suction

0,40

Ceq

1,00

ɸ1

1,00

pw

1,88 kN/m2

Based on NEN 6702

Which gives the following results: Prepresentative pressure+suction

2,166 kN/m2

Prepresentative friction

0,036 kN/m2

The total representative forces can be calculated with the following formula, applied on the surfaces.

Element

Perpendicular to surface A

Perpendicular to surface B

Friction on roof

36,86 kN

36,86 kN

Friction facades

25 kN

23,17 kN

Pressure and suction

1392,25 kN

1495,26 kN

Total reaction

1454,11 kN

1555,29 kN

m1

e (eccentricity)

10,69

Mrep

15539 kNm

14,52 m1 22584,30 kNm

T.40 _ Representative forces

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

107


12. PONTOON CALCULATION 12.5 DETERMINE METACENTER Combining the weight of the different elements, with the forces that affect based on their gravity point, the metacenter of the pontoon can be calculated. This metacenter will differ based on the load on the pontoon. The difference in live load during transport and the event will be compared. During transport

During event

Element

Fpermanently

Element

Fpermanently

E1 – Pontoon

61092,48 kN

E1 – Pontoon

65381,73 kN

E2 – Tier 1

5726,29 kN

E2 – Tier 1

9028,28 kN

E3 – Promenade

1547,84 kN

E3 – Promenade

2603,72 kN

E4 – VIP / Disabled

2439,42 kN

E4 – VIP / Disabled

3863,27 kN

E5 – Tier 2

2675,83 kN

E5 – Tier 2

4978,06 kN

E6 – Vertical transport

6003,74 kN

E6 – Vertical transport

6937,16 kN

ΣF

79485,61 kN

ΣF

92792,23 kN

T.41 _ Permanent forces included instantaneous forces

Element

X -direction

Y - direction

Element

X -direction

Y - direction

E1 – Pontoon

23,75 m1

7,00 m1

E1 – Pontoon

23,75 m1

7,00 m1

E2 – Tier 1

20,97 m1

16,74 m1

E2 – Tier 1

20,97 m1

16,74 m1

E3 – Promenade

35,71 m1

19,56 m1

E3 – Promenade

35,71 m1

19,56 m1

E4 – VIP / Disabled

35,42 m1

26,67 m1

E4 – VIP / Disabled

35,42 m1

26,67 m1

E5 – Tier 2

37,04 m1

30,75 m1

E5 – Tier 2

37,04 m1

30,75 m1

E6 – Vertical transport

44,65 m1

24,85 m1

E6 – Vertical transport

44,65 m1

24,85 m1

X -direction

Y - direction

26,58 m1

11,73 m1

T.42 _ Gravity grip points

Using following formula, the exact location of the metacenter can be calculated;

Metacenter

X -direction

Y - direction

26,17 m1

10,70 m1

Metacenter

T.43 _ Coordinates metacenter

197 _ Location meta center

108

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


CALCULATIONS 12.6 ROTATION With all the reactions known, the rotation of the pontoon can be calculated. On figure 198 the rotation axis are shown to assist table 44, 45 and 46. The following formulas were used to calculate the rotation of the pontoons;

Rotation over x-axis

Rotation over z-axis 198 _ Rotation system

During transport

During event

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

Mrep

17142,86 kN

25646,63 kN

Mrep

15485,06 kN

22584,30 kN

Frep

79485,61 kN

79485,61 kN

Frep

92792,23 kN

92792,23 kN

a

26,17 m1

10,70 m1

a

26,58 m1

11,73 m1

d

7,78 m1

26,67 m1

d

9,09 m1

9,09 m1

b

21,50 m1

30,75 m1

b

21,50 m1

47,50 m1

mc

8,84 m1

24,85 m1

mc

8,78 m1

25,24 m1

C

702718,93 kNm

2229487,68 kNm

C

814955,68 kNm

2341724,43 kNm

n = mc/a

0,34

2,62

n = mc/a

0,33

2,15

α (rad)

-0,01

0,2

α (rad)

-0,01

0,2

T.44 _ Rotation calculation

The result in radians can be translated to degrees and meters. The degrees can be verified by the regulations and there can be concluded if the pontoon meets the requirements.

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

α (rad)

-0,01

0,2

α (rad)

-0,01

0,2

α (degrees)

-0,71 O

1,07 O

α (degrees)

-0,54 O

1,03 O

Height change

-0,135 m1

0,473 m1

Height change

-0,101 m1

0,456 m1

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

α (degrees)

-0,71 O

1,07 O

α (degrees)

-0,54 O

1,03 O

T.45 _ Skew angle

α <1O

YES

NO

α <1O

YES

NO

T.46 _ Verifying rotation

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

109


12. PONTOON CALCULATION 12.7 IMPROVEMENT The result of the calculations shows that the rotation of the pontoon is too big, and this doesn’t meet the requirements. Notable is the change in rotation during an event, and in transport. During the transportation of the pontoons the rotation is bigger. This can explained by the spectators on the grandstands. This weight is evenly distributed and will cause a positive effect on the rotation of the pontoons. Although the rotation of the pontoon is smaller then expected, this can also be explained quite easily. The weight of the pontoon, which is almost 70% of the weight of the total segment. This is a realistic percentage when you keep in mind the pontoon is a thick concrete ‘box’ with steel reinforcement. In chapter 13.1 Pontoon structure the pontoon will be further explained. This makes it even harder to add enough weight in the pontoon which can decrease the rotation. As analyzed in chapter 06. Ballast tanks, adding water and use the pontoon itself as the box for this water, might not be the ideal solution. It is important that the added weight is not too big, to keep the gravity point as close as possible ‘to the pitch’. Water might be an obvious material, because it is closely available, but in this case functionality is the main criteria. This is not only limited to the functionality for the ballast itself. The usage of the pontoon itself is also an important aspect. When there is too much space needed for the water ballast, connecting the pontoons might be impossible. Permanent ballast The need for an adaptable ballast is not as necessary as was assumed in earlier analysis. Using water as ballast is then probably not the best solution. A permanent ballast can improve the rotation in such a way, the rotation angle meets the requirements for both types of usage of the pontoon, transportation and during an event. STEEL SLAG As waste product in the steel production, steel slag has not the structural properties of steel, and is half as dense as steel. The fact that it is a waste material makes it a cheap product which can be perfectly used as ballast. Figure 199 shows the production process of steel and the slag as waste material. With a weight of 40 kN/m3 it is four times heavier then water which makes it an ideal permanent ballast material. The gravity point can be located as close as possible to the edge of the pontoon and the needed space can be minimized.

199 _ Steel slag as waste material in the steel production process

200 _ The steel slag discharged as waste product

201 _ Steel slag

199 _ http://knol.google.com/k/-/-/14rryt867dgoo/matno7/p1010009666.jpg 200 _ http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ace/2011/463638.fig.003.jpg 201 _ http://www.crusher-in-china.com/project/inc/steelmaking_slag_machine.jpg

110

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


CALCULATIONS 12.8 IMPROVED PONTOON CALCULATION To calculate the needed ballast tank, several calculations are made. The size and shape of the ballast tank was found in a combination of the space that was available in the pontoon and the cubic meters that were needed to meet the rotation requirements. This is the final calculation for the improved pontoon to justify the steel slag ballast tank. During transport

During event

Element

Fpermanently

Element

Fpermanently

E1 – Pontoon

61092,48 kN

E1 – Pontoon

65381,73 kN

E2 – Tier 1

5726,29 kN

E2 – Tier 1

9028,28 kN

E3 – Promenade

1547,84 kN

E3 – Promenade

2603,72 kN

E4 – VIP / Disabled

2439,42 kN

E4 – VIP / Disabled

3863,27 kN

E5 – Tier 2

2675,83 kN

E5 – Tier 2

4978,06 kN

E6 – Vertical transport

6003,74 kN

E6 – Vertical transport

6937,16 kN

E7 – Permanent ballast

25344,00 kN

E7 – Permanent ballast

25344,00 kN

ΣF

104829,61 kN

ΣF

118136,23 kN

T.47 _ Permanent forces included instantaneous forces

Element

X -direction

Y - direction

Element

X -direction

Y - direction

E1 - Pontoon

23,75 m1

7,00 m1

E1 - Pontoon

23,75 m1

7,00 m1

E2 – Tier 1

20,97 m1

16,74 m1

E2 – Tier 1

20,97 m1

16,74 m1

E3 - Promenade

35,71 m1

19,56 m1

E3 - Promenade

35,71 m1

19,56 m1

E4 – VIP / Disabled

35,42 m1

26,67 m1

E4 – VIP / Disabled

35,42 m1

26,67 m1

E5 – Tier 2

37,04 m1

30,75 m1

E5 – Tier 2

37,04 m1

30,75 m1

E6 – Vertical transport

44,65 m1

24,85 m1

E6 – Vertical transport

44,65 m1

24,85 m1

E7 – Permanent ballast

8,34 m1

2,00 m1

E7 – Permanent ballast

8,34 m1

2,00 m1

X -direction

Y - direction

22,66 m1

9,64 m1

T.48 _ Gravity grip points

Using following formula, the exact location of the metacenter can be calculated;

Metacenter

X -direction

Y - direction

21,86 m1

8,59 m1

Metacenter

T.49 _ Coordinates metacenter

202 _ Location meta center

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

111


12. PONTOON CALCULATION Using the new values, the new rotation can be calculated. The following formulas were used to calculate the rotation of the pontoons;

During transport

During event

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

Mrep

14055,99 kN

19965,66 kN

Mrep

12554,30 kN

17238,48 kN

Frep

104829,61 kN

104829,61 kN

Frep

118136,23 kN

118136,23 kN

a

21,86 m1

8,59 m1

a

22,66 m1

9,64 m1

d

10,26 m1

10,26 m1

d

11,57 m1

11,57 m1

b

21,50 m1

47,50 m1

b

21,50 m1

47,50 m1

mc

8,89 m1

23,45 m1

mc

9,11 m1

22,04 m1

C

931423,20 kNm

2458191,95 kNm

C

1076682,51 kNm

2603451,26 kNm

n = mc/a

0,41

2,73

n = mc/a

0,40

2,29

α (rad)

-0,01

0,1

α (rad)

-0,01

0,01

T.50 _ Rotation calculation

The result in radians can be translated to degrees and meters. The degrees can be verified by the regulations and there can be concluded if the pontoon meets the requirements.

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

α (rad)

-0,01

0,1

α (rad)

-0,01

0,01

α (degrees)

-0,59 O

0,73 O

α (degrees)

-0,45 O

0,67 O

Height change

-0,112 m1

0,314 m1

Height change

-0,085 m1

0,287 m1

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

Rotation over

X -axis

Z - axis

α (degrees)

-0,59 O

0,73 O

α (degrees)

-0,45 O

0,67 O

T.51 _ Skew angle

α <1O

YES

YES

α <1O

YES

YES

T.52 _ Verifying rotation

CONCLUSION The results show the improved pontoon with permanent ballast meets all the set requirements. Decreasing the rotation is not the only effect the permanent ballast has on the pontoon. The extra weight of the steel slag causes extra draft and decreases the freeboard. During the transport the freeboard is now 3,74 m1 which is in fact 0,26 m1 too low. This difference is negligible. During transport

During event

ΣF

104829,61 kN

118136,23 kN

Draft

10,26 m1

11,57 m1

Freeboard

3,74 m1

2,43 m1

T.53 _ Final draft and freeboard

112

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS


13. PONTOON STRUCTURE The pontoon as it is calculated has a certain structure inside. This structure is already included in the calculation on draft and rotation, but will be further explained in this chapter. The development and calculation of specific parts of the pontoon structure will be explained and calculated. 13.1 CONNECTING TO THE STADIUM STRUCTURE To avoid a over dimensioned structure, it is wisely to match the stadium structure and the pontoon structure with each other. This can reduce weight and thus draft which is beneficial for the pontoon. On figure 203 and 204 are the most important structural elements of the stadium are shown. These elements will be a guideline during the structural design of the pontoon.

203 _ Stadium structure longitudinal direction

204 _ Stadium structure transverse direction

First structural element is the start of the grandstand, which is placed on several grandstand beams. These beams are based on a steel beam, and modified to attach the grandstand elements in the exact angle and slope for the optimal view. The subsequent stability wall is added for several reasons. To prevent distortion in the grandstand beams and to close up an slight angle which can not be used because of its lack on free height. Big difference between the pontoons and the stadium structure is the ‘table structure’. This is shown on figure 204, in transverse direction. For the stadium this table structure is used to prevent columns on the edges of each pontoon which results in double columns once connected. In the report Assembly & Disassembly chapter 10.1 Structure segments configuration 1 this will be further explained and calculated. For the pontoons this is impossible, seen the walls of the pontoon are always a ‘double structure’ once connected. The structure inside the pontoon itself will be based on reinforcing the concrete hull and minimizing the span of the concrete floors and walls. To avoid additional walls and floors through the pontoon to guaranty the structures stability, continuing the stadium structure and distributing the forces over the water displacement is the ideal solution. This will result in a hull reinforcement based on the table construction in longitudinal and transverse direction. On figure 205 and 206 the pontoon structure is shown and the steel construction highlighted.

205 _ Pontoon structure longitudinal direction

114

206 _ Pontoon structure transverse direction

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS 13.2 USING TRUSSES Based on the stadium structure, a grid is formed. This grid is the base for the trusses. The concrete hull, main structure and extra beams, columns and diagonals together form the truss. The water creates a permanent load on the floor and walls, based on its draft. Schematic loads The water pressure creates an evenly distributed force on each surface under water, based on the draft. Figure 207 and 208 show a schematic load and resulting moment.

207 _ Evenly distributed water pressure

208 _ Resulting moment

Schematically, the truss structure in the pontoon can be seen as an inverted roof. The truss is ‘loaded’ from beneath and from the side, due to the water pressure. This ‘flips’ the tension bars ‘up side down’ in order to be able to react on the upward force by the water. On the figures below (209 – 212) a schematic view is shown of how the floor and wall can be approached.

Qtotal water

Qtotal water 209 _ Schematic floor as executed

210 _ Schematic floor as calculated

Qtotal water

Qtotal water

211 _ Schematic wall as executed

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

212 _ Schematic wall as calculated

115


13. PONTOON STRUCTURE 13.3 TRUSS CALCULATION Transverse section The transverse section is based on a maximum span of 10,95 meter (A) with a maximum width of 5,99 meter. The height of the truss is determined on 3 meter (B). Longitudinal section This section is based on a maximum span of 5,99 meter (C) with a width of maximum 5,12 meter. The ‘height’ of the truss is just like the transverse section 3 meter (D). The calculation is based on beams, columns and diagonal beams. These were approached as if it a ‘flipped span’. The beams and diagonals are calculated on tension, due to the water pressure. The columns will be under pressure force, which requires an extra calculation

116

A B

213 _ Pontoon trusses transverse section

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

C

D

214 _ Pontoon trusses longitudinal section

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

117


13. PONTOON STRUCTURE Maintenance and inspection of the pontoon will have to be taken into account which requires free space in the pontoon for movement and free height to guarantee the accessibility of the pontoon. Besides inspection and maintenance, connecting the several pontoons will be an important factor, which requires free space and a certain freedom of movement. This explains the opening between the main column and the wall reinforcement (red highlighted in figure 215). As result of the calculations, the following types of profiles will be used: Floor Beams Columns Diagonal beams

HEB400 HEB500 HEB260

Wall Beams Columns Diagonal beams

HEB140 HEB400 HEB300

This results in a big difference of beams in the wall and floor. There has been chosen to continue the HEB400 profile in as well the floor as the wall and even continue it in the top floor reinforcement on top of the pontoon. This results in a continuous frame in the pontoon hull as highlighted in blue on figure 216. This frame contributes to the total stiffness of the pontoon. 215 _ Transverse section

216 _ Longitudinal section

118

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING�


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS 13.4 CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT CALCULATION Based on the maximum span of 5,988 x 5,305 meter the steel reinforcement can be calculated. For the calculation the load case during an event is used, representing the maximum force on the pontoons. Calculation data Upward force: Weight pontoon : Resultant force: Resultant force/m2

102125,00 kN 54484,78 kN 47640,22 kN 46,65 kN/m2

Iy max Ix max Calculation value

5,988 m1 5,305 m1 1,129

Because of the multiple reinforcement in two directions, the maximum span is 5,988 x 5,305 meter. These ‘fields’ have a maximum moment which can be calculated. This gives the following results. Field edge Mvx (0,065) Mvy (0,017) Msx (0,120) In-between field Mvx (0,042) Mvy (0,013) Msx (0,083)

Moment 85,33 kNm 22,32 kNm 157,54 kNm

Moment after redistribution 101,09 kNm 22,32 kNm 126,03 kNm

Moment 55,14 kNm 17,07 kNm 108,97 kNm

Moment after redistribution 56,59 kNm 17,01 kNm 108,97 kNm

The influence of the environment contributes in the thickness of the reinforcement. The seawater influence can be determined on two classifications XS2 XS3

Permanently under water Tidal, splash and spray zones

Using the following formulas the needed reinforcement can be calculated: Top reinforcement

Bottom reinforcement

Top reinforcement As Ø needed

727,35 mm2 10-100 mm1

Bottom reinforcement As Ø needed

906,83 mm2 11,5-100 mm1

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

119


13. PONTOON STRUCTURE For the outer walls the same calculation can be made, based on different values. Calculation data Wall height Freeboard (estimated) Calculation height Water force Moment Md

14,00 m1 4,00 m1 10,00 m1 10,00 kN/m2 417,50 kNm

Just like the walls, the influence of the environment contributes in the thickness of the reinforcement. The seawater influence can be determined on two classifications XS2 XS3

Permanently under water Tidal, splash and spray zones

Using the following formula, the needed reinforcement can be calculated:

Wall reinforcement As Ø needed

120

3003,98 mm2 14-50 mm1

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS 13.5 CONCRETE DEFLECTION CALCULATION Besides the reinforcement of the pontoon, the deflection and rupture is also calculated. The rupture of the floor can be divided in two types; the long term load and the short term extreme load. Difference between these load is the different factor which is used during calculation. Calculation data Upward water pressure Downward permanent force Prep

100 kN/m2 9,6 kN/m2 (based a floor thickness of 0,4 m1) 90,4 kN/m2

Using C90 concrete results in a Fbm of 5,1 which results in the following Fbm resultatant Fbm resultant long term load (1,2) Fbm resultant short term extreme load (1,4)

7,344 N/mm2 8,568 N/mm2

Width Length Floor thickness

5,305 m1 5,988 m1 0,4 m1

Mrep can be calculated by using

d * prep * b2

Mrep

1017,65 kNm

The tension is calculated by using

σtension = Mrep/w

σtension = 38,09 N/mm2 σtension < Fbm long term load σtension < Fbm short term extreme load

38,09 N/mm2 < 7,344 N/mm2 38,09 N/mm2 < 8,568 N/mm2

For both loads the concrete floor does not meet the set requirements. Adjustments must be made to avoid the floor from rupturing, which damages the floor and can cause collapsing or sinking of the pontoon. To decrease the moment (Mrep) the span of the floor will be decreased. By adding extra beams in the floor the maximum span decreases from 5,988 to 1,197 m1. The calculation data will be the same as previous calculation. Calculation data Upward water pressure Downward permanent force Prep

100 kN/m2 9,6 kN/m2 (based a floor thickness of 0,4 m1) 90,4 kN/m2

Width Length Floor thickness

5,305 m1 1,197 m1 0,4 m1

Mrep can be calculated by using

d * prep * b2

Mrep

1017,65 kNm

The tension is calculated by using

σtension = Mrep/w

σtension = 7,62 N/mm2 σtension < Fbm long term load σtension < Fbm short term extreme load

7,62 N/mm2 < 7,344 N/mm2 7,62 N/mm2 < 8,568 N/mm2

There can be concluded that the maximum tension meets the requirement of the short term extreme load, but the long term load will still cause to much tension. Extra adjustments have to be made to make the concrete floor meet all the set requirements.

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

121


13. PONTOON STRUCTURE Next adjustment is to increase the floor thickness from 0,4 to 0,5 m1. This will change the calculation data and gives the following results: Calculation data Upward water pressure Downward permanent force Prep

100 kN/m2 12 kN/m2 (based a floor thickness of 0,5 m1) 88 kN/m2

Width Length Floor thickness

5,305 m1 1,197 m1 0,5 m1

Mrep can be calculated by using

d * prep * b2

Mrep

1238,29 kNm

The tension is calculated by using

σtension = Mrep/w

σtension = 5,93 N/mm2 σtension < Fbm long term load σtension < Fbm short term extreme load

5,93 N/mm2 < 7,344 N/mm2 5,93 N/mm2 < 8,568 N/mm2

As result of this adjustment to the floor this will now meets all the requirements and can be executed with a thickness of 0,5 m1 and a span 1,197 m1. Based on this floorthickness, the walls will also increase from 0,4 m1 to 0,5 m1 thickness. The maximum force on the floor will be the same on the bottom of the wall. This requires the same thickness. Deflection of the floor Now the floor meets all the requirements on rupture, the deflection of the floor can be calculated. Calculation data Width Length E modulus concrete ɸ moist environment

5,305 m1 1,197 m1 40100 N/mm2 1,8

E’b

17063,83 N/mm2

Ratio

0,00435

Prep I E = E’b H (thickness)

88 kN/m2 1197,6 mm1 17063,83 N/mm2 500 mm1

W Wmax Wmax

0,0049 mm1 1/250 l 4,79 mm1

W < Wmax

0,0049 mm1 < 4,79 mm1

as found in Timoshenko S. and Woinowsky Krieger S., Theory of plates and shells)

Due to the strict requirements of the rupture calculation, the deflection of the floor is minimal. The deflection easily meets the requirements.

122

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS 13.6 IMPRESSION OF THE PONTOON STRUCTURE In several figures, the building sequence and the construction of the pontoon will be shown.

217 _ Step 1 – Bottom plate

218 _ Step 2 – Reinforcement of the bottom plate based on trusses

219 _ Step 3 – Walls and reinforcement of vertical trusses

220 _ Step 4 – Additional reinforcement of bottom plate

221 _ Step 5 – Adding trusses in transverse direction

222 _ Step 6 – Adding trusses in longitudinal direction

223 _ Step 7 – Placing permanent ballast and ballast tank

224 _ Step 8 – Adding floors

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

123


13. PONTOON STRUCTURE

225 _ Step 9 – Adding vertical transport possibilities

226 _ Step 10 – Top floor added

227 _ Step 11 – Closing the entrance hatches

228 _ Step 12 – Adding fenders around the pontoon

229 _ Step 13 – Pontoon including the stadium construction in the water

124

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS CONCLUSION The pontoon is calculated and, where needed, improved to meet all the requirements. In earlier stage the requirements for a stable and floating pontoon are met. Besides the hydrostatic calculation the pontoon is also structural calculated. As seen in previous calculations the pontoon itself is protected against the water pressure and is strong and stiff enough to function properly. Unlike structures on land, rupture in the floor is an important aspect. Bursts in the wall and floors can cause immense damage to the pontoon due to the continuous water pressure. Besides collapsing, rupture can cause exposure of the reinforcement to the water, which can create a weakness in the floor or slabs. Eventually, this can lead to collapsing as well. The calculations for the floors and walls are based on the permanent downward force as a result of their own weight. The structure that will be added to secure the maximum span will add extra weight on the floor. The fact that this weight hasn´t be used in the calculations is an extra safety factor.

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

125


14. PONTOON CONNECTION The float has been calculated as a stable pontoon, strong enough to be exposed to the permanent water pressure. Besides its capability to float, connecting several pontoons will form the total stadium. In this chapter the connection between the pontoons will be explained and illustrated. 14.1 REVIEW THE CONNECTION ASSUMPTION As mentioned in the previous analysis, different type of connections will be used. As result of the analysis, a plate connection on top of the pontoons and several bolt an nut connection over the entire height of the pontoon could be used. This assumption has several disadvantages, which are noticed during the development of the pontoons. The bolt and nut connection below the water surface could be made almost watertight, but only while connected. The force at 10 meter below water level will be too high for a simple bolt and nut connection to stay waterproof when its not connected. The type of connection can be used, but only above the water surface. Based on the calculation, the draft of the segments in transport condition are normative for the location of these connection. Once connected, the bolt and nut connection can be submerged. The freeboard of 3,74 can be used for bolt an nut connections. This leaves 10,26 meter unconnected, which is not an option. The connection below the water level will have to be made from inside, as mentioned in earlier analysis. It is very unlikely the pontoons can be connected with a system from outside. In this case, outside means 10 meter submerged which would mean divers are needed to connect the pontoons. Besides this, the stiffness of the pontoon makes it impossible to connect the gradually. It is necessary that the segments are moved this close to each other, that they can be connected. This process will not leave any space between the pontoons for any operation executed by, for instance, divers. Criteria for these connections are the absence of openings which go through the complete hull of the pontoon and the ability to connect the pontoons ´from inside´.

14.2 UNDERWATER CONNECTION The connection below the water surface will have to function without any modifications and has to be controlled from ‘inside’ without going through the hull of the pontoon. The ideal location for these connections is ‘as low as possible’. In this way the pontoon can be connected on the top and at the bottom. By using a ‘towbar’ principle, as shown on figure 230, the pontoons can concatenate to each other using prefabricated pins and holes. This connection can be attached on one side of the pontoon, and an ‘sleeve’ can be made in the pontoon that needs to be connected. This sleeve can be made in the concrete hull of the pontoon, without creating a opening in the hull. To connect the pontoons without making use of a moving system, the pontoon with the pins attached will have to be lowered before it can be shoved underneath the sleeve. Once the pontoons are located completely parallel, it can rise again and the connection will be made. To make the pontoon immerse and rise, a flexible ballast is needed. Using a ballast tank, the stadium can lower and rise itself like a submarine. Using a notch and protrusion at the bottom floor on which the pin is placed, the pontoons can be connected.

126

230 _ Towbar

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS To connect the several pontoon, multiple operations have to be made in a certain order. On figure 231 this sequence is shown. 1.

The pontoons are placed next to each other without any connection.

2.

Pontoon A will be immersed so the pontoons can slide underneath each other. Immersing the pontoon will be achieved by using a ballast tank inside the pontoon.

3.

Once the pontoons are next to each other, pontoon A will rise while the pin will connect to pontoon B.

1

2

For this connection, the pontoon has to be lowered with the height of the pin. The protrusion and the notch are both the same, so this difference does not have to be compensated with the ballast tank. The height of the pin is estimated on 250 mm. and massive Ø150 steel. The height of the pin will not determine its functionality or the strength of the connection. The function of this pin is to avoid horizontal displacement of the pontoons. The larger this pin, the larger the moment on the top of the pin when the pontoon will not be connected properly. This can cause damage to the pins and ´sleeves ´. Besides this, the pin can curve which can eventually lead to an impossibility to connect the pontoons.

3

231 _ Connection sequence

The ballast tank will be placed inside the pontoon, underneath the gravity and meta center to avoid extra rotation due to the ballast tank. When the height of the pin is 250 mm, the pontoon will have to be lowered at least 300 mm. This will cause the following water displacement: Surface pontoon: Height difference: Water displacement:

1021 m2 0,3 m1 306,3 m3

232 _ Location of the ballast tank

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

127


14. PONTOON CONNECTION BOTTOM DETAIL – PONTOON A The bottom detail of pontoon A, is based on an extruded slab which contains the ‘towbar’. The extruded slab is executed as a highly reinforced 250 mm floor. Connected to the reinforcement, a massive still pin is constructed on top. This 250 mm high Ø150 pin is made from solid steel and has a self aligning top.

233 _ Bottom detail ‘pontoon A’

128

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS BOTTOM DETAIL – PONTOON B The bottom detail of pontoon B contains the ‘sleeve’ in which the towbar will insert. The dimension of the sleeve is determined on Ø170 mm to ensure the maneuverability of the connection system. Besides the sleeve, the protection of the connection is added on this side of the connection.

234 _ Bottom detail ‘pontoon B’

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

129


14. PONTOON CONNECTION 14.3 TOP CONNECTION For the top connection there has been chosen to use a pin connection. As mentioned in the assumption review, this connection can only made above the water surface to prevent any leaks. The freeboard during transport can be used for these connections, once connected the pontoon can immerse without leakages. Once the pontoons are located in the water, the applied forces and the upward water pressure will make an equilibrium. The ‘live load’ will cause different draft of the pontoons and can, in a ‘worst case scenario’, cause a big difference in draft. In this case, pontoon A is ‘empty’ and has a draft of 10,26 m and pontoon B is still loaded and has a draft of 11,57 m. This height difference is shown in figure 235. Based on the fact that the total floating body will have to be a rigid structure, the moment caused by the difference in height will have to be absorbed by the pins. The scheme below shows the schematic approach and the calculations of the connections and the maximum force which will be applied on the pins. For the pins there has been chosen to use dywidag thread bars 47 WR which have a maximum force capacity of 1820 kN.

Empty pontoon Draft 10,26 m

Loaded pontoon Draft 11,57 m

235 _ Height difference between the pontoons

NEEDED CONNECTIONS

45 connections

45 connections

20 connections

20 connections

130

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS When the bottom connections of the pontoons is made, the opposite pin connections will be automatically be aligned. The thread bar can be ‘stabbed through’ both of the pontoons through a ‘sleeve’ which is integrated in the concrete and contains a certain demand of freedom. The caps, present in both pontoons closes the sleeves and are executed with anchor plates and octagonal nuts to tension the thread bars. Once connected, the nuts will be tightened and the pontoons will form a rigid connection. On figure 236 the connected pontoons are shown.

236 _ Connected pontoons

During transport the thread bar will be loosened in one pontoon and unscrewed into the other. This guarantees the water tightness of the ‘sleeve’. In the other pontoon the thread bar will be replaced by a bolt with the same radius to close the sleeve. This will result in several spare parts which are needed to close all the sleeves in the pontoon but will guarantee the water tightness. On figure 237 below the pontoon connections during transport are shown.

237 _ Pontoon connections during transport

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

131


14. PONTOON CONNECTION 14.4 COMBINING THE CONNECTION WITH BERTHING The used top connection creates the possibility to combine the fenders with the connections. To optimize the connection and the shear stresses appearing at the interface of the several materials, a smooth surface is required. This smooth surface can be achieved with the concrete walls of the pontoon, which are impact resistant. A slight rotation between the pontoons can damage the concrete during the tensioning of the thread bars due to the mutual skew in surfaces. A sealing and damping material can optimize the connection by creating a smooth surface between the pontoons. For this material, rubber has been chosen. As earlier mentioned, the berthing of the pontoons can be compared with ship to ship berthing which allows smaller fenders, comparable to tugboats. These fenders can be used for both functions. This function combination will determine the location of the fenders, based on the needed connections. Besides these locations, the corners of the pontoon will have to be protected. Besides the corners of the pontoons, the top of the pontoons will be provided with a continuous fender around the complete pontoon. The thickness of these rubber fenders is determined on 25 mm for both sides of the pontoon which results in a ‘gap’ of 50 mm between the several segments. This dimension is a assumption based on tugboats and the ‘ship to ship berthing method’. This results in the following fender distribution, as shown on figure 238 and 239 for both directions.

238 _ Pontoon fenders in transverse direction

239 _ Pontoon fenders in longitudinal direction

132

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

133


15. MAINLAND CONNECTION Once the pontoons are calculated and the coupling method is determined, the connection to the mainland can be designed. This connection will be provided by the event hosting country or city. Most economical is to create one universal connection to the mainland which can be used for both configurations. 15.1 BERTHING TO MAINLAND The total stadium will be berthed to the mainland by making a combination of several mooring methods. As earlier analysis has shown, not every mooring technique can be used. There has been chosen to combine the ropes and bollards method with creating a pier which can function as cradle to surround the stadium. This combination is based on a simple connection (bollards) which can be used around the stadium because of the surrounding pier. The pier has multiple functions. Besides providing the bollard connection around the stadium it can also function as entrance for the spectators. This makes the combination of these mooring techniques the ideal solution to be used for the stadium.

240 _ Ropes and bollards

15.2 CREATING AN UNIVERSAL PIER An universal pier is from economical view the most beneficial solution. This will result in a pier which can be used for both configurations. When a city or country hosts a small event, the same pier can be used for a bigger scale event in the future. To create an universal pier, both configurations should fit in this ´cradle´. As shown on figure 242, the only option to achieve an universal measurement is when the first configuration will be moored in longitudinal direction and the second configuration in transverse direction.

CONFIGURATION 1

241 _ Creating a pier

CONFIGURATION 2

242 _ Dimension and direction determination

240 _ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/HK_TST_Star_Ferry_Victoria_Harbour_Mooring_Rope.JPG 241 _ http://www.lakeplace.com/img/developments/pages/GP-glen-park-piers.jpg

134

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS Creating an universal pier as described can be done quite easily. The differences between the two configurations is not insurmountable and can be ‘bridged’ by using adaptable bridges. The design of the pier is based on two main factors. The chamfered corners of the first configuration stadium, and the length of the pier which is needed to reach at least to halfway the second configuration. The result of these influences is shown on figure 243 and 244.

243 _ Mainland connection configuration 1

244 _ Mainland connection configuration 2

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

135


15. MAINLAND CONNECTION 15.3 ADAPTABLE BRIDGES The different sizes of the stadium configurations (291 m and 284 m) cause different sizes of gaps between the pier and the stadium. These distances needs to be ‘bridged’ by universal bridges, otherwise the use of an universal pier will not be effective. The difference in distance between the pontoons and the pier will be 14 meter for configuration 1 and 10,5 meter for configuration 2. Besides this fluctuation in distance, the height of the pontoons compared to the pier will fluctuate before and after the event. To keep the angle minimal, the height of the pier is determined on 3,085 m above water surface. This is average of the freeboard in the two configurations. Due to this small height difference (0,655 m) over a distance of 10,5 or 14 meter, the steepness meets all the requirements. Because of this small angle, the length difference can be compensated by slotted holes in the connection between the bridge and pier or pontoon. An elongation of maximum 24 mm can be compensated in these holes combined with some extra free space to absorb any displacement due to the shifting of the total floating body. On figure 245 – 248 the several configurations are shown.

245 _ Universal bridge – Configuration 1 – Empty stadium

246 _ Universal bridge – Configuration 1 – Filled stadium

136

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

247 _ Universal bridge – Configuration 2 – Empty stadium

248 _ Universal bridge – Configuration 2 – Filled stadium

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

137


16. COMPUTATIONAL PERFORMANCE During the development of the project, computational tools are used to improve the performance and realistic value of the project. The main subjects for which performance based software is used are the pontoons and the façade. Based on these subjects the use of the performance based software will be explained. 16.1 USED SOFTWARE Graphisoft ArchiCAD The core model has been ‘build’ in ArchiCAD. This drawing software, more extensive then AutoCAD is based on 3D information of every element and is able to generate the sections and elevations based on the floor plans McNeel Rhinoceros The development of the façade has been executed in Rhinoceros. The 3D possibilities of Rhinoceros software are more extensive then ArchiCAD and the cooperation with Grasshopper is not possible in ArchiCAD. Double curved surfaces and script based design has been the main task of Rhinoceros. Grasshopper Parametric design during the concept phase of the project and script based design during the development of the project. The façade is mainly based on a script which determines the behavior of the textile façade based on tension. Autodesk AutoCAD Mostly used as conversion tool between ArchiCAD and Rhinoceros to import ArchiCAD drawings. Besides this also used to improve Rhinoceros ‘make 2D’ drawings to create schematic images during the concept phase. Oasys GSA This structural calculation software is used to calculate the columns of the façade in order to determine their minimum dimensions. Other structural calculations are made manually or by using Microsoft Excel. Artlantis This render software was used to create the architectural impressions. An ArchiCAD 3D model was imported in Artlantis and rendered in this program. This gives more realistic results then the ArchiCAD render engine. Microsoft Word With the use of Powerpoint for the report, Microsoft Word is not used very much. Summaries for the presentation are written in Word and at the start of the project, the task division and argumentation has been made in Microsoft Word. Microsoft PowerPoint For the report and the presentations, Microsoft Powerpoint is used to develop these products. Benefit of this program is the capability of adding images and text in an easy way. Unlike for instance Adobe InDesign, Powerpoint is suitable as word processor. Microsoft Excel For the structural calculations for the stadium and the pontoons Microsoft Excel is used. By linking several pages and cells in Excel, small changes in the calculations could be implemented in the entire calculation. Adobe Photoshop The renders from Artlantis are embellished in Adobe Photoshop. Adding people, lighting and environment creates a more realistic impression and adds some liveliness to the images. Besides this, several conceptual schemes are made in Adobe Photoshop. Adobe Illustrator The 2D drawings and schemes are mostly colored and embellished by using Adobe Illustrator. The ‘Live Paint’ option is a frequently used function to create several schemes and clarify the details. Illustrator is always used to embellish import from AutoCAD, ArchiCAD and Rhino. CES Edupack To compare different materials and select materials based on their specifications, CES Edupack is used. During the development of the project this software is mostly used for material weights and properties to implement in the calculations and material selection. Dropbox To order, manage and exchange all the files, Dropbox is used as ‘shared folder’ and meanwhile as internet back-up.

138

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS The use and relations between the several software is shown in the following scheme.

The conversion between 3D drawings in Rhinoceros and ArchiCAD is made by using a import plug-in based on a .3DS file.

3D AND PARAMETRIC DESIGN

2D DESIGN

CORE MODEL

ALL DRAWINGS: -

FLOOR PLANS

-

ELEVATIONS

-

SECTIONS

-

DETAILS

RENDERING CALCULATIONS AND MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS EMBELLISH

EMBELLISH

REPORTS AND PRESENTATIONS

MANAGEMENT AND EXCHANGE

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

139


16. COMPUTATIONAL PERFORMANCE As shown in the previous scheme, the use of several different software leads to an exchange of files between the programs. Importing and exporting the different file types needed some conversion, before they could be fully functional imported. The most important relationships between the different software will be explained.

ArchiCAD to Rhinoceros (2D) To import a 2D drawing from ArchiCAD to Rhinoceros, in order to create for instance a 3D model out of a 2D drawing or as base points for a Grasshopper model, the 2D file needs to be edited. Main reason of this editing is the fact that ArchiCAD used ‘fills’ which will be recognized as ‘hatches’. This leads to an enormous amount of data which will not be used in Rhinoceros. To clean up the drawing AutoCAD was used before importing in .dwg in Rhinoceros. Besides this operation, in AutoCAD the file extension has to be lowered in version. The output from ArchiCAD is based on an AutoCAD 2010 file and to import the .dwg in Rhinoceros a 2007 file is needed. This operation can be quite easily be executed in AutoCAD.

Rhinoceros to ArchiCAD (3D) In order to import a 3D model from Rhinoceros to ArchiCAD the 3D model has to be saved as an object. In previous projects, the file exchange between Rhinoceros and ArchiCAD was quite difficult, but for the latest version of ArchiCAD (15) a plugin can be downloaded to import .3ds files. In previous version the importation process needed Sketch-up and Google Warehouse to import the model as .gsm file (object type in ArchiCAD). This time, a direct import was able by exporting the Rhinoceros file as .3ds file. Point of attention was the size and level of detail of this file. For the best 3D model in ArchiCAD the highest level of detail was preferred. The problem however is, when the file size is exceeded 3 MB it could be imported but ArchiCAD did not recognize the 3D information. When this problem occurred, two options were possible. First option is to decrease the level of detail of the .3ds file. This detail difference was in some cases too big, that an other solution had to be found. In those cases, exporting the 3D model as exact half or quarter was the best option to maintain the level of detail and decrease the file size.

140

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS 16.2 PONTOON DEVELOPMENT For the development of the pontoons, performance based software was used to determine several values of the import model to implement in the calculations of the pontoon. Using the phases of the project, the usage of the several software can be explained. The pontoon development can be divided in two main elements; the usage of computational performance during the calculations of the floating behavior and the calculation and location of the permanent ballast. For both of these issues, the use of computational performance will be explained based on the approach and how this could be improved. FLOATING BEHAVIOR For the calculation of the floating body, computational performance has been used to determine the center of gravity. The location of the gravity center influences the rotation of the pontoon according to its weight distribution. To make a precise calculation of the rotation of the pontoon, the exact coordinates of the center of gravity is needed. Approach The most important aspect of the project was to create a functional stadium in which the floating aspect was included. This fact resulted in an approach in which the design was made with the knowledge of the floating aspect and this information was implemented in the design. Afterwards, the design was calculated on its floating behavior and abilities. This approach uses the tools of computational performance on a design which is already determined. This is not how computational design is intended but in this case, the functionality of the stadium has a higher priority than the influence of the design on the floating body. There has been chosen for this approach to avoid a project which results in an ideal floating body with negative impact on the functionality of the stadium. Procedure The procedure which is followed can be divided in several steps. Step 1 – Module design As mentioned before, the module was designed with the knowledge of floating design. This resulted in an as much as possible ‘balanced’ design. Step 2 – Dividing the module To make an as realistic possible calculation of the module, the module was separated in several elements as can be seen on figure 249. This gives an realistic view of the weight distribution. Step 3 – Import to Rhinoceros Once the shape of the module is designed and the separations and divisions are made, the model is imported to Rhinoceros. In this software, the 2D section information is transformed to a 3D model.

E5 E4

E2

E6

E3

E1

249 _ Pontoon module divided in several elements

Step 4 – Calculation Using Grasshopper the gravity centers of each element and the total module can be calculated. This calculation is based on the volume of each element and in later stadium the weight of the element can be combined with this value, resulting in a moment infecting the rotation of the pontoon. Step 5 – Results As shown in figure 250, the results of the calculation are specific coordinates of the gravity center for each element and total module. These results are implemented in the pontoon calculation to make an as realistic possible calculation of the draft and rotation. 250 _ Calculation of the gravity center for each element and total module

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

141


16. COMPUTATIONAL PERFORMANCE Results Although the approach of the pontoon calculation using computational performance is not based on computational design, the results are achieved. The abilities of computational performance are used to generate information based on a model which is determined. The results from the gravity center calculation are implemented in the total pontoon calculation. The results did not had any influence on the design or adjustments of the module. Improvements As mentioned before, Grasshopper was used to calculate the exact coordinates of the center of gravity for each element of the pontoon module. These results were used in further calculation of the floating capacity of the pontoon. Unlike the meaning of performance based design, these results had no influence on the design itself. This approach is contrary to the possibilities of computational design but used as ‘tool’ to generate values for calculation. The chosen approach turned out to be ‘working’ in this situation because during the design of the pontoons and modules there was taken into account that the weight distribution should be made as even possible. This could only be done in one direction (the width of the pontoon) because the design of the grandstand determines the other direction. An improvement of this approach could be to adapt the floating body to the construction on top of it and to make the floating body more ‘form-following’ to the forces and weight distribution on top. This would lead to a bigger interaction between the design of the module and the results from the calculation. However, the functionality of the stadium and the box-shaped pontoon were determined in earlier stage of the process, the computational performance is only used to generate coordinates. The possibilities to gain more influence from the computational performance are probably left unused, but the approach as described functioned properly and resulted in the needed information output.

PERMANENT BALLAST After the first calculations of the pontoon the results shown an unacceptable rotation. As described in chapter 12 – Pontoon calculation, there has been chosen to use permanent ballast to avoid this rotation. The location of this permanent ballast has a big influence on the effect and the needed weight. Approach Based on the needed ‘counter rotation’ the weight and size of the ballast can be calculated. Due to the pontoon construction and the needed space to connect the several pontoons, the permanent ballast can not be located on the ideal location. This results in a permanent ballast, determined on the free space which is available and the needed size and weight. Procedure The followed procedure to determine the size of the permanent ballast is based on two fixed values; the weight of the used material (steel slag, 4,0 kN/m3) and the free space available. A ‘trial and error method’ was used to find the needed measurements. The Excel sheet was used to change the measurements based on the floor plan. For each variant the rotation was checked and the best combination between size, weight and distance to the metacenter was chosen. Results This resulted in a functional solution, based on the free space inside the pontoon. Again, the functionality of the solution was decisive. Improvements The opportunity to create a parametric model of the permanent ballast in order to minimize the size and weight and maximize the usage has been left unused due to the functional requirements of the pontoon. From computational performance point of view, the permanent ballast could be optimized. But as mentioned before, the functionality of the stadium and the pontoon has a higher priority than the performance based influence.

142

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS 16.3 FAÇADE AND ROOF DEVELOPMENT The development of the façade can be separated in several parts. Unlike the pontoon development, the façade has been more dependent on computational performance. The most important parts of the development are the determination of the column structure and its dimensions and the development of the tensile construction between the columns. COLUMN STRUCTURE One of the most decisive factors during the development of the façade are the two different configurations of the stadium. In combination with the pontoon segmentation of the stadium and the two configurations a universal column division has been made which functions in both configurations without moving the columns. This determination of the column locations is the first step of the design. Approach Based on the fixed points of the columns, the parametric model could be assembled. From these points, all other points could be determined with variable values, to remain the freedom to create an aesthetical façade and roof. On figure 251 the variable points and lengths are shown to explain the construction of the façade and roof.

E

A

F C

B

D 251 _ Measurements to determine the façade and roof construction

A. Total height of the column Based on the section of the modules a fixed value for the first and second configuration. B. Height of the secondary structure Based on aesthetical value a fixed measurement for as well the first and the second configuration to decrease the needed parts. C. Width of the secondary structure Based on aesthetical value a fixed measurement for as well the first and the second configuration to decrease the needed parts. D. Vertical displacement of the tensile connection In combination with the tensile design a fixed point located between two columns and extended outwards orientated on the center of stadium. E. Height of the ‘cone’ on top of the column The tensile structure will be connected to a ring which is mounted on the column. The height difference between the top of the column and the centerpoint of the ring is variable for adjustments on aesthetical value. F. Height of the roof-opening From the section, a minimum height of the roof opening is determined and is adjustable based on aesthetical value.

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

143


16. COMPUTATIONAL PERFORMANCE Procedure Based on an import model from ArchiCAD the locations of the columns can be indicated in Rhinoceros and Grasshopper. From these points all other points can be determined by moving and extending the indicated points. The extensions in outer direction are based on the center of the stadium to create an universal column. This makes the total model depending on the import model. Once these points change, the same file can be used to create a new division just by re-indicating the new points. This procedure saved time by avoiding redrawing the complete structure every time the column location changed. Results The orientation of all this points leads to a surface, which has to be tensioned. At this point, the difference is made between the column structure, which is determinative for the outlines of the tensioned façade, and the tensioning process of the fabric. The outlines of the surface are based on, as mentioned before, the section of the stadium and the aesthetical value of each configuration. Improvements Following the procedure as described, the total façade is depending on the import model. During the last phase of the project, this adaption has been made. A sloped column would decrease the force on the pontoon and the column itself. Due to the available space, the columns had to be moved. This movement will change the aesthetical value of the façade. A parametric model has been made to change the location of each point individual to see the changes in the façade immediately. ADDING SLOPED COLUMNS The result of the sloped columns is the needed change of the column locations. To remain universal columns the slope will be a fixed value for each column. This relocation is needed because of the amount of available space which is not equal for each point. Approach Unlike previous model, in which each indicated point followed the same path of translations, the new model will be based on individual points with unique and universal translations. This has some big advantages over the previous approach, however the parametric became more extensive and less clear. The fact that each point follows its own path makes it easier to trace imperfections which is a big advantage. Figure 252 and 253 show a schematic view of the adaption of the model. Increasing the adaptability, but decreasing the clear overview.

8 points

UNIVERSAL TRANSLATION MOVE

1 point

UNIQUE TRANSLATION MOVE

1 point

UNIQUE TRANSLATION MOVE

1 point

UNIQUE TRANSLATION MOVE

UNIQUE TRANSLATION MOVEpoints 253 _ Adapted façade model, based on individual 1 point

252 _ Universal façade model, based on 8 points

Results The more extensive model led to a higher adaptability of the individual points and a more specific façade model. A big disadvantage in this approach caused a big problem. The universal location of the columns of both configurations caused an imperfection. The solution for this problem was to determine the new column locations in ArchiCAD, import them in Rhinoceros and used in Grasshopper. This was the ‘old-fashioned way’ but in combination with the extensive Grasshopper model small imperfections could be prevented.

144

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS TENSILE FABRIC Once the location and specifications of the columns are determined, these points form the outline of the tensile fabric. Multiple techniques have been used to create an as realistic possible tensioned fabric. These approaches with their results will be explained and the development due to the several improvements will lead to the final model. As shown on the reference figures 254 – 256 the fabric is tensioned by cables between the columns causing a double curved surface.

254 – 255 – 256 _ King Fahd International stadium

Approach In order to create a double curved surface, the created point structure is connected with several curves. These ‘threepoint-arcs’ will have to curve in the direction of the two connection points which requires a plane between the points. By connecting all the points to each other, a total surface can be formed which represents the fabric in its tensioned, double curved form. Procedure The followed procedure can be divided in several steps to generate the surface. Step 1 – Connecting the determined points The several points as determined in the column structure form the basis of this execution. By connecting these points, lines form the ‘rough outline’ of the fabric. This surface is consist of multiple flat surfaces and has to be ‘tensioned’. Step 2 – Creating a ‘three-point-arc’ Each of these lines will curve, based on the tension which is applied on the fabric. By creating ‘three-point-arcs’ of these lines a curvature can be determined. This curvature will depend on an extra point on the line which has to be moved in the direction of the curvature. Step 3 – Setting the curvature in the right direction To make sure the curvature will apply in the right direction, a plane has to be created along each line. This allows the ‘curve determine point’ to move in the same direction as the line is set up. Step 4 – Creating surfaces Combining all the curves will generate a double curved surface that represents the tensioned fabric. This total surface is a combination from al the triangles and curves that are formed in previous steps. Results As step 4 of the procedure describes, the result is a combined surface of all the surfaces that are formed according the set curvatures. These curves are based on an aesthetic point of view and are in combination with the planes hard to control and far from realistic. This automatically leads to the first improvement of the model Improvements To create a more realistic curvature which can be controlled the ‘three-point-arcs’ will be replaced. Catenary lines will be used to create the surfaces for a more realistic result.

254 _ http://www.telusplanet.net/public/alittle/Saudi-Arabia/KFIS-aerial-near.jpg 255 _ http://www.wiebewoudstra.com/images/King_Fahd_stadion_1.JPG 256 _ http://www.structuremag.org/images/1107-ga-2.jpg

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

145


16. COMPUTATIONAL PERFORMANCE Catenary approach By replacing the ‘three-point-arcs’ for catenary lines the model can be controlled to determine the aesthetical view and will generate a more realistic surface and curvature. Procedure The model as it was produced can be used for this adaption. The connected points are still the same and will function as endpoints of the catenary line. In several steps this adaption will be explained; Step 1 – Connecting the determined points Like previous procedure the points as determined during the column structure will be connected to form the outlines of the fabric.

Reparameterized curve 0

0,7

1

Step 2 – Creating a catenary line The created curves from step 1 will be reparameterized. This allows us to evaluate the curve and use a factor (0 to 1) to determine where the catenary line will be applied. Figure 00 schematically shows this operation. Step 3 – Creating surfaces From the new created catenary lines new surfaces will be formed creating a more realistic double curved surface.

Catenary line 257 _ Reparameterized and evaluated curve

Results The surface based on catenary lines shows a more realistic view of the curved surface and can be adapted to in several ways for optimal aesthetical value. Disadvantage of this approach and procedure is the fact that the cable is a part that has to be designed and determined. In reality, this cable will be a result of the fabric specifications and the occurring curvature. Determinate the cable and adapt the surface to this ‘curvature’ is working the other way around and might produce a fitting fabric, it still is not the most realistic representation. Improvements To improve the façade and roof model, a more detailed and realistic representation of the fabric will have to be made. By using Grasshopper add-on Kangaroo it is possible to generate a tensioned surface which will react based on the specifications of the fabric. Kangaroo approach Using the Kangaroo add-on a surface will be transformed in a minimum surface. This contains that the surface will be segmented in small surfaces which will all try to find their smallest form based on gravity and catenary principles. Combining these surfaces, one form-finding surface will be generated. A surface will be generated based on the outlines of the surface. These lines will function as the edges of the fabric where it will be tensioned. Connecting the points as determined during the column structure will function as edge lines to create the surface. Procedure As in earlier improvements of the model, the adaptions could be made in the previous model. Step 1 – Determine the outlines of the surface In this case, the outlines of the surface will not be curved. The bottom connection is an exception, these lines were curved based on aesthetics, not functionality. Unlike previous models, the outlines of the fabric will be mostly straight lines, based on the fact that these lines will function as edges and will be tensioned. Step 2 – Insert the surface to Kangaroo The created lines will function as edges and form the surface that will be calculated by Kangaroo. Between these steps the lines will have to be baked to join the right curves and create the right sets to make surfaces. Some lines need to be flipped in order to function properly. Step 3 – Calculation by Kangaroo The imported joined curves will be lofted and form a surface which is segmented and calculated by the Kangaroo addon. This will generate a new mesh surface which represents the tensile fabric. This mesh will be baked to perform the following step. Step 4 – Generate the cables and seams Based on the created mesh the cables and seams can be extracted. This is executed by add-on WeaverBird and the commands intersect and duplicate borderlines.

146

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS Results Following the previous described procedure leads to a realistic representation of the fabric. After several adjustments, the use of the Kangaroo add-on will provide the best result. Despite the result the use of Kangaroo has some disadvantages. The calculations that are performed by Kangaroo requires a lot calculation performance from the computer. This makes it impossible to create one model in which the lines are formed and immediately calculated. This difference in models gives the ideal possibility to check the baked lines from the first step. On figure 258 – 260 the several steps of the Kangaroo approach are shown.

258 _ Surfaces of façade and roof

259 _ “Kangaroo” determined shape

260 _ Final surface

16.4 CONTRIBUTION OF COMPUTATIONAL PERFORMANCE During the project computational performance has been extensively used, but especially during the development phase. During this phase it is mostly used to generate models based on measurements that where already determined. The performance based software is used as tool to create the 3D elements which were broadly designed. The use of computational performance as a design tool to generate several models to compare and adjust the possibilities could have been more extensively used. The influence of computational design is especially noticeable in the façade and roof design. The model for this double curved surface is made in Rhinoceros in combination with Grasshopper and several add-ons because of the possibilities and design freedom this provides. In the way the performance driven software is used, it has worked out properly. As mentioned in the previous examples, the use of this software could have been used in earlier stage or more extensive but in most cases the decisive part of the process has been based on the functionality of the stadium.

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

147


16. COMPUTATIONAL PERFORMANCE

148

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


REFLECTION


17. REFLECTION 17.1 REFLECTION The start of this project and its research question was to design and develop a multilocational stadium. This challenge is based on improving the efficiency of stadiums and their usage. Looking back on the project there can be concluded that this was indeed a challenge. During the process a functional stadium has been designed and integrated with all its needed capabilities to function as an adaptable, floating and demountable stadium. Combining this all together there can be concluded an as much as complete project has been made. Based on the results from each aspect of the research, design and development there can be assumed a feasible project has been made. Nevertheless, improvements can always been made. As described in the previous parts, the main parts of the stadium and its capabilities have been developed to a certain level of feasibility, in technical and aesthetical way. The completeness of the project is due to the integration of all aspects in one design. For each subject, development could continue and can be seen as a graduation project on itself. Combining all these facets in this integrated project, the maximum result has been achieved. The completeness of the project can be seen as the fusion of all the different subjects into one uncommon building as a stadium. This results in new insights and possibilities in stadium design. Based on the process, a combined graduation had a big influence on the project. In this way, we were able to maximize the research and approach the project as wide as possible. This approach has resulted in a complete project in which all parts of the stadium and its capabilities are treated. The combined graduation has improved the project as well as the process. The possibilities to complement each other and a continuous flow of feedback had a positive effect on the design and development of the project. Reflecting the total graduation track, this has been an educational period in which a lot of progress has been made. A special thanks goes out to the tutors; ir. M.W. Kamerling, ir. P. de Ruiter, ir. A. Borgart, ir. S. M. Mulders and ir. M. H. Meijs. Also the support from family and friends has been a big advantage during the project. Finally I want to thank Kevin Vermeulen for the collaboration during this graduation track. Due to excellent cooperation this project has become what it is. A collaboration that worked out perfectly, because it was based on two motivated students and, perhaps most important, good friends. What the future will bring is uncertain, but I’m looking forward to it.

Robert Fransen 4030958 January, 2012

150

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


SOURCES


18. SOURCES 18.1 GENERAL LITERATURE •

Barnes, M. ; Widespan Roof Structures ; 2000 ; Thomas Telford Ltd ; London

Culley, P., Pascoe, J. ; Stadium Engineering ; 2005 ; Thomas Telford Ltd ; London

Davey, P. ; Engineering for a finite planet – Sustainable solutions by Buro Happold ; 2009 ; Birkhäuser ; Basel - Berlin Boston

Department for Culture, Media and Sport ; Guide to safety at sport grounds ; 2008 ; TSO ; United Kingdom

Drake, S. ; The Elements of Architecture ; 2009 ; Earthscan ; London

FIFA ; Football Stadiums, Technical recommendations and requirements ; 2011 ; Official Publication of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association ; Zurich

GMP (Gerkan, Marg und Partner) ; From cape town to Brasilia New stadiums by GMP ; 2010 ; Prestel Verlag ; Munich . Berlin . London . New York

John, G., Sheard, R., Vickery, B. ; Stadia, A design and development guide ; 2007 ; Elsevier ; Oxford

Köster, P., Schnell, A. ; Stadien 2006 – Der Fussballweltmeisterschaft ; 2005 ; Birkhäuser ; Basel – Berlin - Boston

Nixdorf, S. ; Stadium Atlas; Technical Recommendations For Grandstands In Modern Stadia ; 2008 ; Ernst & Sohn ; Germany

Shin, S.W., Lim, J., Han, B.S. ; Symbol and structure in the architecture of the Korea World Cup stadia ; 2008 ; Basheer Graphic Books ; Singapore

Thompson, P.D. ; Stadia, Arenas and Grandstands ; 1998 ; Spon Press ; London

18.2 STRUCTURE •

Charleson, A.W. ; Structure as Architecture ; 2005 ; Elsevier ; Oxford

Denny, M. ; Super Structures ; 2010 ; The Johns Hopkins University Press ; Baltimore

Engel, H. ; Tragsysteme - Structure systems ; 1999 ; Verlag Gerd Hatie ; Ostfildern –Ruit

Nijsse, R. ; Dictaat draagconstructies BK1043 ; 2011 ; Delft ; TU Delft

Oosterhoff, J. ; Kracht + Vorm – inleiding in de constructieleer van bouwwerken ; 2008 ; Bouwen met Staal ; Zoetermeer

Paul, J. ; Stadium Roof Design – Form & Structure ; 2010 ; Arup Presentation XXL Workshop 2011 ; TU Delft

Rotterdam, E.O.E. van ; Sterkteleer 1 – toegepaste mechanica ; 1994 ; Delta Press ; Overberg

Stattmann, N. ; Ultra Light – Super strong ; 2003 ; Birkhäuser ; Basel - Boston - Berlin

Websites •

Bouwen met staal – Staalprofielen ; 30-11-2011 ; http://www.bouwenmetstaal.nl/index.php?page=staalprofielen-verkrijgbaarheid

152

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


SOURCES 18.3 ADAPTABILITY _ FLOATING Literature •

Betonvereniging ; Grafieken en tabellen voor gewapend-betonconstructies – GTB – beperkte uitgave 2005 ; Betonvereniging ; 2005 ; Gouda

Eyres, D.J. ; Ship Construction ; 2007 ; Elsevier Ltd. ; Oxford

Groenendijk, N. ; Research on the feasibility of a floating football stadium ; Repository TU Delft ; 2006 ; Delft

Journée, J.M.J., Massie, W.W. ; Offshore Hydromechanics ; 2001 ; Delft University of Technology ; Delft

Kamerling, M.W. ; Het ontwerpen van pontons voor drijvende gebouwen ; 2005 ; Repository TU Delft ; Delft

Keuning, D., Olthuis, K. ; Float! Building on water ; 2010 ; Frame Publishers BV ; Amsterdam

Kuiper, M. ; De drijvende fundering ; 2006 ; Repository TU Delft ; Delft

Moan, T., Utsunomiya, T., Wang, C.M., Watanabe, E. ; Very Large Floating structures: applications analysis and design ; 2004 ; National University of Singapore ; Singapore

Timoshenko S., Wionowsky Krieger S. ; Theory of plates and shells, second edition ; 1959 ; Mac GrawHill ; Singapore

Winkelen, M. van ; How high can you float? ; 2007 ; Repository TU Delft ; Delft

Elsevier Special Issue – Very Large Floating Structures •

Fujikubo, M., Structural analysis for the design of VLFS ; 2005 ; Elsevier Ltd. ; Japan

Kawakado, S., Ochi, M., Ohta, M., Seto, H. ; Integrated hydrodynamic-structural analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS) ; 2005 ; Elsevier Ltd. ; Japan

Newman, J.N. ; Efficient hydrodynamic analysis of very large floating structures ; 2005 ; Elsevier Ltd. ; Japan

Ohmatsu, S. ; Overview: research on wave loading and responses of VLFS ; 2005 ; Elsevier Ltd. ; Japan

Palo, P. ; Mobile offshore base: Hydrodynamic advancements and remaining challenges ; 2005 ; Elsevier Ltd. ; Japan

Suzuki, H. ; Overview of Megafloat: Concept, design, criteria, analysis and design ; 2005 ; Elsevier Ltd. ; Japan

Articles •

Boo, M. de ; Living on water: a floating town on an unsinkable foundation ; 2005 ; Delft Outlook ; Delft

Kim, C.H., Mercier, J.A. ; Analysis of multiple-float-supported platforms in waves ; 1972 ; Stevens Institute of Technology ; New Jersey

Mercier, J.A. ; Hydrodynamic forces on some float forms; 1969 ; Stevens Institute of Technology ; New Jersey

Panama Canal Authority ; Regulation on navigation in panama canal waters ; 2007

Periscope JTC ; Walking on water – The very large floating structures ; 2008 ; JTC Cooperation ; Singapore

Websites •

Architectenweb - drijvende bouwsystemen ; 12-05-2011 ; http://www.architectenweb.nl/aweb/thema/Default.asp?ThemaId=17

Elsevier Maritime Structures ; 11-05-2011 ; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405903/description#description

Panama Canal ; 03-06-2011 ; http://www.pancanal.com/eng/

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

153


18. SOURCES

154

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


APPENDIX


19. FIFA REQUIREMENTS Authors: Title: Year: Publisher: Place:

FIFA Football Stadiums, Technical recommendations and requirements 2011 Official Publication of the Fédération Internationale de Footbal Assocation Zurich

Analysis / Summary The stadium should meet the requirements of the FIFA. This chapter displays the most important requirements, focused on the following points; dimensions of pitches, dimensions of grandstands, distance of spectators and safety requirements. 19.1 PITCHES “Playing field: length: 105m, width: 68m For all matches at the top professional level and where major international and domestic games are played, the playing field should have dimensions of 105m x 68m. These dimensions are obligatory for the FIFA World Cup™ and the final competitions in the confederations’ championships. The playing field should have the precise markings illustrated. Other matches can be played on a playing field with different dimensions and the Laws of the Game stipulate the maximum and minimum dimensions. However it is strongly recommended that new stadiums have a 105m x 68m playing field.”

A.01 _ Dimensions playing field

156

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FIFA REQUIREMENTS “Auxiliary area Additional flat areas are required beside the playing field, ideally behind each goal line, where players can warm up. This area should also allow for the circulation of assistant referees, ball boys and girls, medical staff, security staff and the media. It is recommended that this be a minimum of 8.5m on the sides and 10m on the ends. This results in an overall playing field and auxiliary area dimension of: length: 125m, width: 85m. Grass area In this area, the pitch surface must extend all the way to the advertising boards in the auxiliary area, which typically are erected 5m beyond the touch lines and goal lines. The areas upon which the boards sit must be level and firm to withstand the load imposed by them. The remainder of the auxiliary area can be either of the same surface material as the playing field or it can be a concrete-type surface material which facilitates the movement of service and security vehicles and ambulances. Any part of this additional auxiliary area that will be used as a warm-up area should have the same surface as the playing field. However, with grass fields, artificial turf of the highest quality could be used.�

A.02 _ Dimensions playing field + Auxiliary area

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

157


19. FIFA REQUIREMENTS 19.2 MULTI-PURPOSE STADIUM •  “Designing stadiums so that they can host other sporting and entertainment events will increase their utilization and improve their financial viability.” •  “Football stadiums can also host entertainment events including concerts, festivals, theatrical extravaganzas and trade/consumer shows.” •  “Some of the key factors to be taken into consideration when deciding if other uses can be accommodated include: ease of access to the field for the vehicles, materials and machinery required for the conversion, additional dressing rooms for athletes and performers and additional field-level storage. Adequate infrastructural services, including additional power supply and water reticulation, further enhance the possibilities of multiple use.” •  “To accommodate these different uses, it is important not to change the stadium to an extent that has a negative impact on its primary purpose for football. For example, making the pitch considerably larger for another sport or adding a running track around the field can result in football spectators being much further from the playing field and removed from the action. This reduces their sense of involvement and engagement with the game and diminishes their excitement.” •  “Pressure is often put on stadium developers to increase the field size or to include a running track. Occasionally, such requirements are unavoidable. Unfortunately, this will result in a much less successful facility than a football stadium that is specifically built around the football field’s dimensions.” •  “Various attempts to provide a running track without destroying the stadium’s football ambience have been proposed and built, including retractable seating along the sidelines.” “Most are very expensive to build and operate and/or have resulted in compromised sight lines for one or both sports, even when the rake or angle of the seating has been made as steep as possible.”

The spectators’ distance from the field of play has also requirements. The optimal distance has a radius of 90m from the center point of the field. The maximal distance has a radius of 190m from the corner point of the field.

A.03 _ Spectators’ distance

158

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FIFA REQUIREMENTS 19.3 VIEW – SPECTATORS Viewing angles and sightlines •  “The spectator areas are large enough to accommodate the required number of viewers.” •  “All spectators are as close to the action as possible, and maximum viewing distances have been kept within defined limits.” •  “Most spectators (including those who are disabled) are located in their preferred viewing positions in relation to the playing field.” Sightlines “The term ‘sightline’ does not refer to the distance between spectator and pitch, though non-technical commentators may loosely use it in this way; it refers to the spectator’s ability to see the nearest point of interest on the playing field (the ‘point of focus’) comfortably over the heads of the people in front. In other words it refers to a height, not a distance.” “The angle must be calculated many times over for each individual row in a stadium. This is because the optimum viewing angle varies with both the height of the spectator’s eye above pitch level and its distance from the pitch; and every time either of these factors changes for a particular row of seats the computation described above must be repeated.” John, G., Sheard, R., Vickery, B. ; Stadia, A design and development guide ; 2007 ; Elsevier ; Oxford

The recommended C-value of the grandstand is 90, with an optimum value of 120.

A.04 _ Line of visibility

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

159


19. FIFA REQUIREMENTS 19.4 GRANDSTANDS Seating accommodation •  “All spectators should be seated. Seats must be individual, affixed to the structure and comfortably shaped, with backrests of a minimum height of 30cm to provide support.” •  “Standing viewing areas and benches of any kind are not acceptable under any circumstances for the FIFA World Cup™.” •  “Seats should be unbreakable, fireproof and capable of withstanding the rigors of the prevailing climate without undue deterioration or loss of color.” •  “Seats for VIPs should be wider and more comfortable and should be located at the centre of the field and separated from the rest of the seating areas.” •  “Building and safety standards vary from country to country, so it is inappropriate to prescribe absolute dimensions for the width of seats, the space between them, the space between the seat rows or the maximum number of seats between aisles. However, the safety and comfort of spectators must be paramount and the configuration and style of seating areas is fundamental to both issues.” •  “To achieve reasonable leg-room, a minimum distance of 80cm from backrest to backrest is recommended.” •  “The width of the seat is critical for spectator comfort.” “An absolute minimum width should be 45cm while a recommended minimum is 50cm.” •  “VIP and VVIP seats should have a minimum width of 60cm and a superior comfort level. Arm rests should be included in the seat design.” •  “There should be a clear view of the playing field from all seats. In calculating the sight lines it should be appreciated that advertising boards of 90-100cm in height may be erected around the field at a distance of five meters from the touch lines and five meters behind the centre of the goal lines.” •  “Simplified minimum criteria should be that all spectators in the stadium can see over the head of a spectator seated two rows in front in a direct line.”

A.05 _ Seating

160

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FIFA REQUIREMENTS “Note that all spectators should be within 12m of a gangway or exit, hence the spacing of gangways 24m apart. Note also that for new construction the recommended minimum width for gangways is 1.2m.” “At sports grounds where pitch perimeter barriers are positioned in front of standing areas, gates or openings should be provided to allow spectators to escape onto the pitch or area of activity in the event of an incident.”

Department for Culture, Media and Sport ; Guide to safety at sport grounds ; 2008 ; TSO ; United Kingdom

A.06 _ Maximum spacing gangways

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

161


19. FIFA REQUIREMENTS 19.5 SAFETY Exclusion of spectators from playing area “Ideally, the playing area of a stadium should be free of any barriers between spectators and the playing field. FIFA has decreed that its final competitions will only be played in fence-free stadiums. However, it is essential that players are protected against intrusion by spectators. This could be accomplished in a number of ways, including one or more of the following:” Adapted seating “A seating configuration could be employed that situates front-row spectators at a height above the arena, rendering intrusion into the playing field improbable, if not impossible. There are the obvious dangers with this method as far as the possibilities of utilizing the playing area as an emergency evacuation area.”

A.07 _ Adapted seating

Moats “Moats of a sufficient width and depth could be used to protect the playing field. Moats have the advantage of protecting the playing area without creating the negative visual impact of fences, but there is a danger that people may fall into them. To protect against this, it is essential to erect barriers of a sufficient height on both the spectators’ side and the pitch side.”

A.08 _ Moats

162

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FIFA REQUIREMENTS Screens and fences “Insurmountable transparent screens or insurmountable fences could be used which could be mounted permanently or affixed in such a way that they may be removed whenever they are not necessary for a particular match. If fences or screens are used, they must be constructed with sufficient emergency escape gates to enable spectators to reach the playing area in the event of an emergency evacuation of the seating areas. The number, size and configuration of these gates must be approved and certified by the competent safety authorities. An alternative solution to insurmountable fences and screens is the use of horizontal fences between the spectators’ seating stand and the pitch auxiliary area. The advantage of this type of barrier is that it does not pose a safety hazard for spectators and can be collapsed with ease by field stewards in case of emergency.”

A.09 _ Screens and fences

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

163


19. FIFA REQUIREMENTS Safe stadiums: the fundamental requirement •  “The stadium must be a safe and secure facility for all those who use it, whether they are spectators, match participants, officials, media personnel, staff or others.” •  “The location of a stadium contributes fundamentally to the safety and security of its users. Locations that can facilitate crowd control and reduce congestion will always provide a better option than those that cannot. Easy and smooth access reduces spectator stress and contributes to better human behavior.” Specific safety requirements •  “All parts of the stadium, including entrances, exits, stairways, doors, escape routes, roofs and all public and private areas and rooms must comply with the safety standards of the appropriate local authorities, and satisfy international best practice recommendations where these are generally accepted as being the norm.” •  “It is recognized that there are various codes and practices available in the world as guidance for the design of safe stadiums. It is suggested that if any of them are to be used, there should be an appropriate reference in the stadium records as to their use.” •  “Safety and security certification processes must be established at the beginning of the stadium development cycle, maintained throughout the project cycle and extended through the life cycle of the stadium.” •  “The stadium should be divided into at least four separate sectors, each with its own access point, refreshment and toilet facilities and other essential services, such as spectators’ medical centre, security stations and areas for stewards and marshals.”

A.10 _ Stand division

Structural safety •  “Every aspect of the stadium’s structure must be approved and certified by the local building and safety authorities. Building and safety standards and requirements vary from country to country but it is essential that, within the relevant framework, the most stringent safety standards are applied.” Fire prevention •  “The fire-fighting facilities available within the stadium and the fire precautions must be approved and certified by the local fire authorities, as must the fire safety standards of all parts of the stadium. It is important for the fire safety authorities that a fire plan incorporates the stadium, in both event and non-event mode, as well as all installations, both permanent and temporary.”

164

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FIFA REQUIREMENTS 19.6 BUILDING SERVICES Toilets and sanitary facilities “Sufficient toilet facilities for both sexes and for disabled people must be provided inside the security perimeter of the stadium. These amenities should include adequate washing facilities with clean water and a plentiful supply of towels and/or hand dryers. These areas should be bright, clean and hygienic and they should be kept in that condition throughout each event.” “To avoid overcrowding between spectators entering and leaving sanitary facilities there should be a one-way access system, or at least doors which are sufficiently wide to permit the division of the passageway into in and out channels.”

A.11 _ Drink & Food beverage

A.12 _ Male ablutions

A.15 _ Shortlist

A.13 _ Female ablutions

A.14 _ Numbers

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

165


19. FIFA REQUIREMENTS 19.7 INTERN FUNCTIONS Media centre

A.16 _ Stadium Media Centre

A.17 _ Shortlist

166

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FIFA REQUIREMENTS Conference room “The press conference room should have a minimum area of 200m2. It should provide approximately 100 seats for the media and be equipped with an appropriate sound system. It may also be used on occasions when there is no match. At one end of the room, preferably at the end nearer to the access door from the dressing rooms, a platform should be erected to accommodate coaches, players, media officers and interpreters as required. A backdrop which can be easily adapted with various designs should be installed. At the other end of the room, facing the platform, a podium should be erected, allowing at least ten television electronic news-gathering (ENG) crews to set up their cameras and tripods. A centralized split box should be installed to avoid having a huge number of microphones in front of coaches and players. A first-class sound system, with automatic feedback cancellation, should be installed.�

A.18 _ Conference room

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

A.19 _ Shortlist

4030958 4030494

167


19. FIFA REQUIREMENTS Mixed zone “In a new stadium, a mixed zone should be provided. This is a large, clear space between the players’ dressing rooms and the private exit door through which the players must pass when leaving the stadium to their team buses. It is essential to have separate access for the media and the players. There should be room for approximately 250 media personnel (including cameramen and technicians) and the area must be inaccessible to the public. The area should either be permanently under cover or there should be facilities for covering this area at major matches. The space required will vary according to the importance of the match but it should be at least 200m2. In order to ensure good working conditions, a journalist should have 2.5m2 of space. The area could be used for other purposes on non-match days.”

A.21 _ Shortlist

A.20 _ Mixed zone

168

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FIFA REQUIREMENTS Teams’ areas Position: the main stand. They should provide direct, protected access to the playing area and be inaccessible to the public and the media. Number: at least two separate team areas, but preferably four. Minimum size: 200m2 Team areas should: be well ventilated with fresh air and be air conditioned and centrally heated, have easily cleanable floors and walls of hygienic material, have non-slip floors and be brightly lit. Team areas should include the following spaces, with private internal access: Dressing rooms 80m2 Dressing rooms should have: bench seating for at least 25 people, clothes-hanging facilities or lockers for at least 25 people, a refrigerator, a tactical demonstration board, a telephone. Player dressing rooms are to include provision for a mounted TV. Massage room 40m2 The massage or treatment area should be separated from, and immediately adjacent to, the dressing space. It should include space for three massage tables, a desk, a utility table and an ice machine. The massage room should be immediately adjacent to the players’ dressing room – an internal passage or door is ideal. Toilets and sanitary facilities 50m2 These should be immediately adjacent to, and with direct private access from, the dressing room. Each room should have a minimum of: 11 showers, 5 washbasins with mirrors, 1 foot basin, 1 drying-off area with towel hooks, 1 sink for cleaning boots, 3 urinals, 3 toilets, 2 electric shaving points and 2 hair dryers. Coaches’ office 30m2 They should be adjacent to the teams’ dressing rooms. Coaches’ offices should have: 1 shower, 4 lockers plus toilet and sink, 1 desk, 5 chairs, a whiteboard and a telephone.

A.23 _ Shortlist

A.22 _ Team dressing room

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

169


19. FIFA REQUIREMENTS

A.25 _ Shortlist

A.24 _ Referees’ dressing room

A.27 _ Shortlist

A.26 _ Team area

170

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


FIFA REQUIREMENTS

ROBERT FRANSEN KEVIN VERMEULEN

4030958 4030494

171


20. CALCULATIONS CALCULATIONS The following calculations are attached as appendix: -  -

Configuration 1 – Transport Configuration 1 – Event

-  -

Configuration 1 – Transport including permanent ballast Configuration 1 – Event including permanent ballast

-  -

Weight stadium structure Weight pontoon structure

-  -

Bottom slab calculation Bottom slab deflection

172

INNOVATIVE STADIUM DESIGN “ADAPTABILITY & FLOATING”


PONTOON CALCULATION

DURING TRANSPORT

Pontoon

CONFIGURATION 1

Loadcase

Deadweight + Wind

Length Width Surface

1 47,50 m

21,50 m

1 4,00 m

Waterdisplacement Upward force

10,00 m

E6

E4

2 1021,25 m

Freeboard Draft

E5

1

E3

E2

1

3 10212,50 m

E1

102125,00 kN

Live load during transport

2 1,50 kN/m

Live load permanent functions

2 2,50 kN/m

Material properties Water density

3 10,00 kN/m

Element 1

Pontoon

Concrete

3 24,00 kN/m

Element 2

Tier 1

Steel

3 78,00 kN/m

Element 3

Promenade

Floor (ribcassette)

2 2,46 kN/m

Element 4

VIP / Disabled

Grandstand

2 1,85 kN/m

Element 5

Tier 2

Staircase (curtain wall)

2 1,00 kN/m

Element 6

Vertical transport

Element 1

Number

Height

Lenght

Width

Volume

Surface

Weight

Weight

Pontoon

[pcs]

[m ]

[m ]

[m ]

[m ]

Bottom slab

1,00

0,40

47,50

21,50

408,50

Floors

3,00

0,20

9051,26

905,13

Top floor

1,00

0,40

47,50

21,50

408,50

9804,00

980,40

Outer walls

1

1

1

3

2

[m ]

628,56

[tonnes]

980,40

2,00

13,20

47,10

0,40

248,69

11937,02

1193,70

2,00

13,20

21,10

0,40

111,41

5347,58

534,76

3434,66

343,47

1531,88

153,19

Steel reinforcement structure

1,00

Live load

1,00

Total Element 2

[kN]

9804,00

50910,40 kN Number

Height

Tier 1

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

27,13

1,00

8,68

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

[tonnes]

21,50

583,19

1075,98

107,60

21,50

203,00

499,38

49,94

Structure Columns Walls Beams Grandstand Permanent functions

1,00

Live load

1,00

Total

21,72

21,50

466,98 786,19

19,11

1,91

531,98

53,20

93,52

9,35

205,20

20,52

1167,45

116,75

1179,28

117,93

4771,91 kN


Element 3

Number

Height

Promenade

[pcs]

Floor

1,00

Lenght [m1]

Width 1

Volume 1

[m ]

Surface 3

[m ]

Weight 2

[m ]

Weight

[m ]

[kN]

[tonnes]

251,40

618,44

61,84

Columns

104,56

10,46

Beams

189,77

18,98

377,10

37,71

21,50

Structure

Live load

1,00

251,40

Total Element 4

1289,87 kN Number

Height

VIP / Disabled

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

3,08

1,00

12,69

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

[tonnes]

21,50

66,11

121,98

12,20

21,50

272,90

671,33

67,13

Structure Columns Beams Grandstand

31,86

3,19

189,77

18,98

21,89

2,19

Permanent functions

1,00

195,00

487,50

48,75

Live load

1,00

339,01

508,52

50,85

Total Element 5

2032,85 kN Number

Height

Tier 2

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

16,50

1

8,99534884

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

21,50

354,75

654,51

65,45

21,50

193,4

475,764

47,58

[tonnes]

Structure Columns

13,92

1,39

Beams

148,80

14,88

Grandstand

114,64

11,46

822,23

82,22

Live load

1,00

548,15

Total Element 6 Vertical transport Floors

2229,86 kN Number

Height [pcs]

Lenght 1

[m ]

4

Width 1

Volume 1

[m ]

[m ]

5,74

21,50

Surface 3

[m ]

Weight 2

Weight

[m ]

[kN]

[tonnes]

115,1

1132,584

113,26

Structure Columns

85,74

8,57

Walls

103,95

10,40

Beams

210,64

21,06

Stability

96,06

9,61

Grandstand

39,26

3,93

4,20

2551,248

255,12

610,98

610,9834

61,10

172,65

17,27

Building services

1

25,31

Staircase

1

25,31

Live load

1,00

Total

24,14

115,10

5003,12 kN


TOTAL LOAD Element 1 - Pontoon

SAFETY FACTOR 50910,40

1,2 61092,48

Element 2 - Tier 1

4771,91

5726,29

Element 3 - Promenade

1289,87

1547,84

Element 4 - VIP / Disabled

2032,85

2439,42

Element 5 - Tier 2

2229,86

2675,83

Element 6 - Vertical transport Total

5003,12

6003,74

66238,00 kN

79485,61 kN

3 6623,80 m

3 7948,56 m

Draft

6,49 m

1

1 7,78 m

Freeboard

1 7,51 m

1 6,22 m

Water displacement


PONTOON CALCULATION

WIND LOAD

Upward force

102125,00 kN

Weight pontoon

61092,48 kN

External force on pontoon

41032,52 kN

Surface A

2 752,30 m

Surface B

2 669,91 m

C A

2 1021,25 m

Surface C Formula

Cdim

0,96

Cindex - Cdruk

0,80

Cindex - Czuiging

0,40

Ceq

1,00

ɸ1

1,00

pw

2 1,88 kN/m

prep druk + zuiging

NEN 6702

2,166 kN/m2

Formula

Cindex - Cwrijving prep wrijving PONTOON CALCULATION Mrep = Σ

NEN 6702

F∙e

0,02 0,036 kN/m2 REPRESENTATIVE FORCES Surface A

Surface B

Wrijving dakvlak

36,86 kN

Wrijving facades

27,16 kn

24,18 kN

Druk + zuiging

1450,87 kN

1629,30 kN

Total reaction

1514,89 kN

1690,34 kN

1 11,32 m

1 15,17 m

e Mrep

17142,86 kNm

36,86 kN

25646,63 kNm

B


PONTOON CALCULATION Fpermanently E1 - Pontoon

SKEW 61092,48 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E2 - Tier 1

5726,29 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E3 - Promenade

1547,84 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E4 - VIP / Disabled

2439,42 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E5 - Tier 2

2675,83 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E6 - Vertical transport

6003,74 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

79485,61 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

ΣF Gravity grip point

x-direction

Fpermanently E1 - Pontoon

y-direction

23,75 m1

7,00 m1

20,97 m

1

16,74 m1

Fpermanently E3 - Promenade

35,71 m

1

19,56 m1

Fpermanently E4 - VIP / Disabled

35,42 m1

26,67 m1

Fpermanently E5 - Tier 2

37,04 m1

30,75 m1

1

24,85 m1

Fpermanently E2 - Tier 1

Fpermanently E6 - Vertical transport

44,65 m

Draft

7,78 m1

Freeboard

6,22 m1

Skew grip point / Meta center Formula

Σ ∙ Σ

x-direction 26,166 m

y-direction 1

10,698 m1

Skew Rotation along

x-direction

z-direction

Mrep

17142,86 kN

25646,63 kN

Frep

79485,61 kN

79485,61 kN

1 26,17 m

1 10,70 m

7,78 m

1

1 7,78 m

21,50 m

1

1

a d b mc C n = mc/a 

1 8,84 m

702718,93 kNm 0,34

47,50 m

2229487,68 kNm

1

2,62

-0,01 rad

0,02 rad

-0,71 degrees

1,07 degrees

-0,135 m1

1

12

2

1 28,05 m

Freeboard changes Height difference (y result)

0,473 m1

180


PONTOON CALCULATION Upward force

BOTTOM SLAB 102125,00 kN

Weight pontoon

50910,40 kN

Resultant force

51214,60 kN

Resultant force/m2

2 50,15 kN/m

Reinforcement by using trusses ly max

1 5,988 m

lx max

1 5,305 m

Calculation value ly/lx Randveld

1,12874647 Moment

Moment after redistribution

Mvx (0,065)

91,74 kNm

Mvy (0,017)

23,99 kNm

23,99 kNm

Msx (0,120)

169,36 kNm

135,49 kNm

Tussenveld

Moment

108,67 kNm

Moment after redistribution

Mvx (0,042)

59,28 kNm

Mvy (0,013)

18,35 kNm

18,35 kNm

Msx (0,083)

117,14 kNm

117,14 kNm

Environment

60,73 kNm

Sea water XS2

Permanently under water

XS3

Tidal, splash and spray zones

Concrete reinforcement calculation Floorheight

1 0,40 m

Concrete type

B35

Reinforcement

FeB500

Minimum reinforcement

0,18 %

Fs

2 435 N/mm

Amin

720 mm2

Floorheight

1 400 mm

c

1 30 mm

Ø needed reinforcement

1 10 mm

d

1 355 mm

Top reinforcement Mvx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement

108,67 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

781,92 mm2 10 - 100 mm1

Bottom reinforcement Msx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement

135,49 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

974,86 mm2 11,5 - 100 mm1


PONTOON CALCULATION

OUTER WALLS 1 14,00 m

Wall height

1 4,00 m

Minimum freeboard Calculation heigth

1 10,00 m

Water force

10,00 kN/m2

Moment Md Environment

417,50 kNm Sea water XS2

Permanently under water

XS3

Tidal, splash and spray zones

Concrete reinforcement calculation Thickness

1 0,40 m

Concrete type

B35

Reinforcement

FeB500

Minimum reinforcement

0,18 %

Fs

2 435 N/mm

Amin

720 mm2

Floorheight

1 400 mm

c

1 30 mm

Ø needed reinforcement

1 10 mm

d

1 355 mm

Needed reinforcement Msx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement

417,50 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

3003,98734 mm2 14 - 50 mm1



PONTOON CALCULATION

LOADED DURING EVENT

Pontoon

CONFIGURATION 1

Loadcase

Deadweight + Wind

Length

1 47,50 m

Width

1 21,50 m

Surface

1021,25 m

Waterdisplacement Upward force

10,00 m

E6

2

1 4,00 m

Freeboard Draft

E5 E4 E3

E2

1

3 10212,50 m

E1

102125,00 kN

Live load during event

2 5,00 kN/m

Live load permanent functions

2 2,50 kN/m

Material properties Water density

3 10,00 kN/m

Element 1

Pontoon

Concrete

3 24,00 kN/m

Element 2

Tier 1

Steel

3 78,00 kN/m

Element 3

Promenade

Floor (ribcassette)

2 2,46 kN/m

Element 4

VIP / Disabled

Grandstand

2 1,85 kN/m

Element 5

Tier 2

Staircase (curtain wall)

2 1,00 kN/m

Element 6

Vertical transport

Width

Volume

Units (toilets/SUPs)

Element 1

150,00 kN/pcs

Number

Height

Lenght

Surface

Weight

Weight

Pontoon

[pcs]

[m1]

[m1]

[m1]

[m3]

Bottom slab

1,00

0,40

47,50

21,50

408,50

Floors

3,00

0,20

9051,26

905,13

Top floor

1,00

0,40

47,50

21,50

408,50

9804,00

980,40

Outer walls

[m2]

628,56

[tonnes]

9804,00

980,40

2,00

13,20

47,10

0,40

248,69

11937,02

1193,70

2,00

13,20

21,10

0,40

111,41

5347,58

534,76

3434,66

343,47

5106,25

510,63

Steel reinforcement structure

1,00

Live load

1,00

Total Element 2

[kN]

54484,78 kN Number

Height

Tier 1

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

27,13

1,00

8,68

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

[tonnes]

21,50

583,19

1075,98

107,60

21,50

203,00

499,38

49,94

Structure Columns Walls

19,11

1,91

531,98

53,20

Beams Grandstand Permanent functions

1,00

Live load

1,00

21,72

21,50

466,98 786,19

Total Element 3

93,52

9,35

205,20

20,52

1167,45

116,75

3930,94

393,09

7523,56 kN Number

Height

Promenade

[pcs]

Floor

1,00

Lenght [m1]

Width [m1]

Volume [m1]

Surface

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

[tonnes]

251,40

618,44

61,84

Columns

104,56

10,46

Beams

189,77

18,98

1257,00

125,70

21,50

[m3]

Structure

Live load Total

1,00

251,40

2169,77 kN


Element 4

Number

Height

VIP / Disabled

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

3,08

1,00

12,69

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

21,50

66,11

121,98

12,20

21,50

272,90

671,33

67,13

[tonnes]

Structure Columns Beams

31,86

3,19

189,77

18,98

21,89

2,19

487,50

48,75

1695,06

169,51

Grandstand Permanent functions

1,00

195,00

Live load

1,00

339,01

Total Element 5

3219,39 kN Number

Height

Tier 2

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

16,50

1

8,99534884

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

[tonnes]

21,50

354,75

654,51

65,45

21,50

193,4

475,764

47,58

Structure Columns

13,92

1,39

Beams

148,80

14,88

Grandstand

114,64

11,46

2740,75

274,08

Live load

1,00

548,15

Total Element 6 Vertical transport Floors

4148,38 kN Number

Height

Lenght [m1]

[pcs]

4

Width 1

Volume 1

[m ]

[m ]

5,74

21,50

Surface 3

[m ]

Weight 2

Weight

[m ]

[kN]

[tonnes]

115,1

1132,584

113,26

Structure Columns

85,74

8,57

Walls

103,95

10,40

Beams

210,64

21,06

Stability

96,06

9,61

Grandstand

39,26

3,93

375,00

37,50

4,20

2551,248

255,12

610,98

610,9834

61,10

575,50

57,55

Units - Toilets and SUPs

2,5 (average over total stadium)

Building services

1

25,31

Staircase

1

25,31

Live load

1,00

24,14

115,10

Total

5780,97 kN

TOTAL LOAD Element 1 - Pontoon

SAFETY FACTOR 54484,78

1,2 65381,73

Element 2 - Tier 1

7523,56

9028,28

Element 3 - Promenade

2169,77

2603,72

Element 4 - VIP / Disabled

3219,39

3863,27

Element 5 - Tier 2

4148,38

4978,06

Element 6 - Vertical transport Total Water displacement Draft Freeboard

5780,97

6937,16

77326,85 kN

92792,23 kN

3 7732,69 m

3 9279,22 m

1 7,57 m

1 9,09 m

1

1 4,91 m

6,43 m


PONTOON CALCULATION

WIND LOAD

Upward force

102125,00 kN

Weight pontoon

65381,73 kN

External force on pontoon

36743,27 kN

C A

2

Surface A

690,41 m

Surface B

2 641,90 m 2 1021,25 m

Surface C Formula

Cdim

0,96

Cindex - Cdruk

0,80

Cindex - Czuiging

0,40

Ceq

1,00

ɸ1

1,00

pw

2 1,88 kN/m

prep druk + zuiging

NEN 6702

NEN 6702

2,166 kN/m2

Formula

Cindex - Cwrijving prep wrijving PONTOON CALCULATION Mrep = Σ

F∙e

0,02 0,036 kN/m2 REPRESENTATIVE FORCES Surface A

Surface B

Wrijving dakvlak

36,86 kN

Wrijving facades

24,92 kn

23,17 kN

Druk + zuiging

1390,20 kN

1495,26 kN

Total reaction

1451,98 kN

1555,29 kN

1 10,66 m

1 14,52 m

e Mrep

15485,06 kNm

36,86 kN

22584,30 kNm

B


PONTOON CALCULATION Fpermanently E1 - Pontoon

SKEW 65381,73 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E2 - Tier 1

9028,28 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E3 - Promenade

2603,72 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E4 - VIP / Disabled

3863,27 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E5 - Tier 2

4978,06 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E6 - Vertical transport

6937,16 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

92792,23 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

ΣF Gravity grip point

x-direction

y-direction

Fpermanently E1 - Pontoon

23,75 m1

7,00 m1

Fpermanently E2 - Tier 1

20,97 m1

16,74 m1

Fpermanently E3 - Promenade

35,71 m1

19,56 m1

Fpermanently E4 - VIP / Disabled

35,42 m1

26,67 m1

Fpermanently E5 - Tier 2

37,04 m1

30,75 m1

Fpermanently E6 - Vertical transport

44,65 m1

24,85 m1

Draft

9,09 m1

Freeboard

4,91 m1

Skew grip point / Meta center Formula

Σ ∙ Σ

x-direction

y-direction

26,576 m1

11,728 m1

Skew Rotation along Mrep Frep a d b mc C n = mc/a 

x-direction

z-direction

15485,06 kN

22584,30 kN

92792,23 kN

92792,23 kN

1 26,58 m

1 11,73 m

9,09 m

1

1 9,09 m

21,50 m

1

1 47,50 m

1 8,78 m

1 25,24 m

814955,68 kNm 0,33

2341724,43 kNm

1

2,15

-0,01 rad

0,02 rad

-0,54 degrees

1,03 degrees

Freeboard changes Height difference (y result)

-0,101 m1

0,456 m1

1

12

2

180


PONTOON CALCULATION Upward force

BOTTOM SLAB 102125,00 kN

Weight pontoon

54484,78 kN

Resultant force

47640,22 kN

Resultant force/m2

2 46,65 kN/m

Reinforcement by using trusses ly max

1 5,988 m

lx max

1 5,305 m

Calculation value ly/lx Randveld Mvx (0,065)

1,12874647 Moment

Moment after redistribution

85,33 kNm

101,09 kNm

Mvy (0,017)

22,32 kNm

22,32 kNm

Msx (0,120)

157,54 kNm

126,03 kNm

Tussenveld Mvx (0,042)

Moment

Moment after redistribution

55,14 kNm

56,59 kNm

Mvy (0,013)

17,07 kNm

17,07 kNm

Msx (0,083)

108,97 kNm

108,97 kNm

Environment

Sea water XS2

Permanently under water

XS3

Tidal, splash and spray zones

Concrete reinforcement calculation Floorheight

1 0,40 m

Concrete type

B35

Reinforcement

FeB500

Minimum reinforcement

0,18 %

Fs

2 435 N/mm

Amin

720 mm2

Floorheight

1 400 mm

c

1 30 mm

Ø needed reinforcement

1 10 mm

d Top reinforcement Mvx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement Bottom reinforcement Msx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement

1 355 mm

101,09 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

727,35 mm2

10 - 100 mm1

126,03 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

906,83 mm

2

11,5 - 100 mm1


PONTOON CALCULATION

OUTER WALLS 1 14,00 m

Wall height

1 4,00 m

Minimum freeboard

1 10,00 m

Calculation heigth

10,00 kN/m2 417,50 kNm

Water force Moment Md Environment

Sea water XS2

Permanently under water

XS3

Tidal, splash and spray zones

Concrete reinforcement calculation Thickness

1 0,40 m

Concrete type

B35

Reinforcement

FeB500

Minimum reinforcement

0,18 %

Fs

2 435 N/mm

Amin

720 mm2

Floorheight

1 400 mm

c

1 30 mm

Ø needed reinforcement

1 10 mm

d Needed reinforcement Msx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement

1 355 mm

417,50 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

3003,98734 mm2 14 - 50 mm1


PONTOON CALCULATION

DURING TRANSPORT including PERMANENT BALLAST

Pontoon

CONFIGURATION 1

Loadcase

Deadweight + Wind

Length

1 47,50 m

Width

1 21,50 m

Surface

1021,25 m

Waterdisplacement Upward force

10,00 m

E6

2

1 4,00 m

Freeboard Draft

E5 E4 E3

E2

1

3 10212,50 m

E7

102125,00 kN

Live load during transport

2 1,50 kN/m

Live load permanent functions

2 2,50 kN/m

E1

Material properties Water density

3 10,00 kN/m

Element 1

Pontoon

Concrete

3 24,00 kN/m

Element 2

Tier 1

Steel

3 78,00 kN/m

Element 3

Promenade

Floor (ribcassette)

2 2,46 kN/m

Element 4

VIP / Disabled

Grandstand

2 1,85 kN/m

Element 5

Tier 2

Staircase (curtain wall)

2 1,00 kN/m

Element 6

Vertical transport

2 40,00 kN/m

Element 7

Ballast tank (inside Element 1)

Width

Volume

Permanent ballast - Iron slag

Element 1

Number

Height

Lenght

Surface

Weight

Weight

Pontoon

[pcs]

[m1]

[m1]

[m1]

[m3]

Bottom slab

1,00

0,40

47,50

21,50

408,50

Floors

3,00

0,20

9051,26

905,13

Top floor

1,00

0,40

47,50

21,50

408,50

9804,00

980,40

Outer walls

[m2]

628,56

[tonnes]

9804,00

980,40

2,00

13,20

47,10

0,40

248,69

11937,02

1193,70

2,00

13,20

21,10

0,40

111,41

5347,58

534,76

3434,66

343,47

1531,88

153,19

Steel reinforcement structure

1,00

Live load

1,00

Total Element 2

[kN]

50910,40 kN Number

Height

Tier 1

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

27,13

1,00

8,68

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

[tonnes]

21,50

583,19

1075,98

107,60

21,50

203,00

499,38

49,94

Structure Columns Walls

19,11

1,91

531,98

53,20

Beams Grandstand Permanent functions

1,00

Live load

1,00

21,72

21,50

466,98 786,19

Total Element 3

93,52

9,35

205,20

20,52

1167,45

116,75

1179,28

117,93

4771,91 kN Number

Height

Promenade

[pcs]

Floor

1,00

Lenght [m1]

Width 1

Volume 1

Surface 3

Weight 2

Weight

[m ]

[kN]

[tonnes]

251,40

618,44

61,84

Columns

104,56

10,46

Beams

189,77

18,98

377,10

37,71

[m ]

[m ]

21,50

[m ]

Structure

Live load Total

1,00

251,40

1289,87 kN


Element 4

Number

Height

VIP / Disabled

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

3,08

1,00

12,69

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

[tonnes]

21,50

66,11

121,98

12,20

21,50

272,90

671,33

67,13

Structure Columns Beams Grandstand Permanent functions

1,00

195,00

Live load

1,00

339,01

Total Element 5

31,86

3,19

189,77

18,98

21,89

2,19

487,50

48,75

508,52

50,85

2032,85 kN Number

Height

Tier 2

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width 1

Volume 1

Surface 3

Weight 2

Weight

[m ]

[kN]

21,50

354,75

654,51

65,45

21,50

193,4

475,764

47,58

[m ]

[m ]

1,00

16,50

1

8,99534884

[m ]

[tonnes]

Structure Columns

13,92

1,39

Beams

148,80

14,88

Grandstand

114,64

11,46

822,23

82,22

Live load

1,00

548,15

Total Element 6

2229,86 kN Number

Vertical transport

Height

Floors

Lenght [m1]

[pcs]

Width 1

4

Volume 1

[m ]

[m ]

5,74

21,50

Surface 3

Weight 2

Weight

[m ]

[kN]

[tonnes]

115,1

1132,584

113,26

[m ]

Structure Columns

85,74

8,57

Walls

103,95

10,40

Beams

210,64

21,06

Stability

96,06

9,61

Grandstand

39,26

3,93

4,20

2551,248

255,12

610,98

610,9834

61,10

172,65

17,27

Building services

1

25,31

Staircase

1

25,31

Live load

1,00

24,14

115,10

Total Element 7

5003,12 kN Number

Height

Lenght

Width

Volume

Surface

Permanent ballast

[pcs]

[m1]

[m1]

[m1]

[m3]

Ballast tank

1,00

3,20

11,00

15,00

528,00

Total

SAFETY FACTOR

1,2

50910,40

61092,48

Element 2 - Tier 1

4771,91

5726,29

Element 3 - Promenade

1289,87

1547,84

Element 4 - VIP / Disabled

2032,85

2439,42

Element 5 - Tier 2

2229,86

2675,83

Element 6 - Vertical transport

5003,12

6003,74

Element 7 - Permanent ballast

21120,00

25344,00

Total

87358,00 kN

104829,61 kN

3 8735,80 m

3 10482,96 m

8,55 m

1

1 10,26 m

5,45 m

1

1 3,74 m

Water displacement Draft Freeboard

Weight [kN]

[tonnes]

21120,00

2112,00

21120,00 kN

TOTAL LOAD Element 1 - Pontoon

Weight [m2]


PONTOON CALCULATION

WIND LOAD

Upward force

102125,00 kN

Weight pontoon

61092,48 kN

External force on pontoon

41032,52 kN

C A

2

Surface A

634,42 m

Surface B

2 616,56 m 2 1021,25 m

Surface C Formula

Cdim

0,96

Cindex - Cdruk

0,80

Cindex - Czuiging

0,40

Ceq

1,00

ɸ1

1,00

pw

2 1,88 kN/m

prep druk + zuiging

NEN 6702

NEN 6702

2,166 kN/m2

Formula

Cindex - Cwrijving prep wrijving PONTOON CALCULATION Mrep = Σ

F∙e

0,02 0,036 kN/m2 REPRESENTATIVE FORCES Surface A

Surface B

Wrijving dakvlak

36,86 kN

Wrijving facades

22,90 kn

22,26 kN

Druk + zuiging

1335,31 kN

1374,00 kN

Total reaction

1395,08 kN

1433,12 kN

1 10,08 m

1 13,93 m

e Mrep

14055,99 kNm

36,86 kN

19965,66 kNm

B


PONTOON CALCULATION Fpermanently E1 - Pontoon

SKEW 61092,48 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E2 - Tier 1

5726,29 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E3 - Promenade

1547,84 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E4 - VIP / Disabled

2439,42 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E5 - Tier 2

2675,83 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E6 - Vertical transport

6003,74 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E7 - Permanent ballast

25344,00 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

104829,61 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

ΣF Gravity grip point

x-direction

y-direction

Fpermanently E1 - Pontoon

23,75 m1

7,00 m1

Fpermanently E2 - Tier 1

20,97 m1

16,74 m1

Fpermanently E3 - Promenade

35,71 m1

19,56 m1

35,42 m

1

26,67 m1

37,04 m

1

30,75 m1

44,65 m

1

24,85 m1

8,34 m

1

2,00 m1

Fpermanently E4 - VIP / Disabled Fpermanently E5 - Tier 2 Fpermanently E6 - Vertical transport Fpermanently E7 - Permanent ballast

10,26 m1

Draft

3,74 m1

Freeboard Skew grip point / Meta center Formula

Σ ∙ Σ

x-direction

y-direction

21,857 m1

8,595 m1

Skew Rotation along Mrep Frep a d b mc C n = mc/a 

x-direction

z-direction

14055,99 kN

19965,66 kN

104829,61 kN

104829,61 kN

1 21,86 m

1 8,59 m

10,26 m

1

1 10,26 m

21,50 m

1

1

1 8,89 m

931423,20 kNm 0,41

47,50 m

2458191,95 kNm

1

2,73

-0,01 rad

0,01 rad

-0,59 degrees

0,73 degrees

Freeboard changes -0,112 m1

2

1 23,45 m

Height difference (y result)

1

12

0,314 m1

180


PONTOON CALCULATION Upward force

BOTTOM SLAB 102125,00 kN

Weight pontoon

50910,40 kN

Resultant force

51214,60 kN

Resultant force/m2

2 50,15 kN/m

Reinforcement by using trusses ly max

1 5,988 m

lx max

1 5,305 m

Calculation value ly/lx Randveld Mvx (0,065)

1,12874647 Moment

Moment after redistribution

91,74 kNm

108,67 kNm

Mvy (0,017)

23,99 kNm

23,99 kNm

Msx (0,120)

169,36 kNm

135,49 kNm

Tussenveld Mvx (0,042)

Moment

Moment after redistribution

59,28 kNm

60,73 kNm

Mvy (0,013)

18,35 kNm

18,35 kNm

Msx (0,083)

117,14 kNm

117,14 kNm

Environment

Sea water XS2

Permanently under water

XS3

Tidal, splash and spray zones

Concrete reinforcement calculation Floorheight

1 0,40 m

Concrete type

B35

Reinforcement

FeB500

Minimum reinforcement

0,18 %

Fs

2 435 N/mm

Amin

720 mm2

Floorheight

1 400 mm

c

1 30 mm

Ø needed reinforcement

1 10 mm

d Top reinforcement Mvx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement Bottom reinforcement Msx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement

1 355 mm

108,67 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

781,92 mm2

10 - 100 mm1

135,49 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

974,86 mm2 11,5 - 100 mm1


PONTOON CALCULATION

OUTER WALLS 1 14,00 m

Wall height

1 4,00 m

Minimum freeboard

1 10,00 m

Calculation heigth

10,00 kN/m2 417,50 kNm

Water force Moment Md Environment

Sea water XS2

Permanently under water

XS3

Tidal, splash and spray zones

Concrete reinforcement calculation Thickness

1 0,40 m

Concrete type

B35

Reinforcement

FeB500

Minimum reinforcement

0,18 %

Fs

2 435 N/mm

Amin

720 mm2

Floorheight

1 400 mm

c

1 30 mm

Ø needed reinforcement

1 10 mm

d Needed reinforcement Msx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement

1 355 mm

417,50 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

3003,98734 mm2 14 - 50 mm1


PONTOON CALCULATION

LOADED DURING EVENT including PERMANENT BALLAST

Pontoon

CONFIGURATION 1

Loadcase

Deadweight + Wind

Length

1 47,50 m

Width

1 21,50 m

Surface

1021,25 m

Waterdisplacement Upward force

10,00 m

E6

2

1 4,00 m

Freeboard Draft

E5 E4 E3

E2

1

3 10212,50 m

E7

102125,00 kN

Live load during transport

2 5,00 kN/m

Live load permanent functions

2 2,50 kN/m

E1

Material properties Water density

3 10,00 kN/m

Element 1

Pontoon

Concrete

3 24,00 kN/m

Element 2

Tier 1

Steel

3 78,00 kN/m

Element 3

Promenade

Floor (ribcassette)

2 2,46 kN/m

Element 4

VIP / Disabled

Grandstand

2 1,85 kN/m

Element 5

Tier 2

Staircase (curtain wall)

2 1,00 kN/m

Element 6

Vertical transport

Element 7

Ballast tank (inside Element 1)

Width

Volume

Units (toilets/SUPs) Permanent ballast - Steel slag

Element 1

150,00 kN/pcs 2 40,00 kN/m

Number

Height

Lenght

Surface

Weight

Weight

Pontoon

[pcs]

[m1]

[m1]

[m1]

[m3]

Bottom slab

1,00

0,40

47,50

21,50

408,50

Floors

3,00

0,20

9051,26

905,13

Top floor

1,00

0,40

47,50

21,50

408,50

9804,00

980,40

Outer walls

[m2]

628,56

[tonnes]

9804,00

980,40

2,00

13,20

47,10

0,40

248,69

11937,02

1193,70

2,00

13,20

21,10

0,40

111,41

5347,58

534,76

3434,66

343,47

5106,25

510,63

Steel reinforcement structure

1,00

Live load

1,00

Total Element 2

[kN]

54484,78 kN Number

Height

Tier 1

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght 1

Width 1

[m ]

Volume 1

Surface 3

Weight 2

Weight

[m ]

[kN]

[tonnes]

21,50

583,19

1075,98

107,60

21,50

203,00

499,38

49,94

[m ]

[m ]

1,00

27,13

1,00

8,68

[m ]

Structure Columns Walls

19,11

1,91

531,98

53,20

Beams Grandstand Permanent functions

1,00

Live load

1,00

21,72

21,50

466,98 786,19

Total Element 3

93,52

9,35

205,20

20,52

1167,45

116,75

3930,94

393,09

7523,56 kN Number

Height

Promenade

[pcs]

Floor

1,00

Lenght [m1]

Width [m1]

Volume [m1]

Surface

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

[tonnes]

251,40

618,44

61,84

Columns

104,56

10,46

Beams

189,77

18,98

1257,00

125,70

21,50

[m3]

Structure

Live load Total

1,00

251,40

2169,77 kN


Element 4

Number

Height

VIP / Disabled

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

3,08

1,00

12,69

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

[tonnes]

21,50

66,11

121,98

12,20

21,50

272,90

671,33

67,13

Structure Columns Beams Grandstand Permanent functions

1,00

195,00

Live load

1,00

339,01

Total Element 5

31,86

3,19

189,77

18,98

21,89

2,19

487,50

48,75

1695,06

169,51

3219,39 kN Number

Height

Tier 2

[pcs]

Grandstand Floor

Lenght [m1]

Width

Volume

[m1]

[m1]

1,00

16,50

1

8,99534884

Surface [m3]

Weight

Weight

[m2]

[kN]

21,50

354,75

654,51

65,45

21,50

193,4

475,764

47,58

[tonnes]

Structure Columns

13,92

1,39

Beams

148,80

14,88

Grandstand

114,64

11,46

2740,75

274,08

Live load

1,00

548,15

Total Element 6

4148,38 kN Number

Vertical transport

Height

Floors

Lenght [m1]

[pcs]

Width 1

4

Volume 1

[m ]

[m ]

5,74

21,50

Surface 3

Weight 2

Weight

[m ]

[kN]

[tonnes]

115,1

1132,584

113,26

[m ]

Structure Columns

85,74

8,57

Walls

103,95

10,40

Beams

210,64

21,06

Stability

96,06

9,61

Grandstand

39,26

3,93

375,00

37,50

4,20

2551,248

255,12

610,98

610,9834

61,10

575,50

57,55

Units - Toilets and SUPs

2,5 (average over total stadium)

Building services

1

25,31

Staircase

1

25,31

Live load

1,00

24,14

115,10

Total Element 7

5780,97 kN Number

Height

Lenght

Width

Volume

Surface

Permanent ballast

[pcs]

[m1]

[m ]

[m ]

[m ]

Ballast tank

1,00

3,20

11,00

15,00

528,00

1

1

Total

SAFETY FACTOR

1,2

54484,78

65381,73

Element 2 - Tier 1

7523,56

9028,28

Element 3 - Promenade

2169,77

2603,72

Element 4 - VIP / Disabled

3219,39

3863,27

Element 5 - Tier 2

4148,38

4978,06

Element 6 - Vertical transport

5780,97

6937,16

Element 7 - Permanent ballast

21120,00

25344,00

Total

98446,85 kN

118136,23 kN

3 9844,69 m

3 11813,62 m

9,64 m

1

1 11,57 m

4,36 m

1

1 2,43 m

Water displacement Draft Freeboard

Weight 2

[m ]

Weight [kN]

[tonnes]

21120,00

2112,00

21120,00 kN

TOTAL LOAD Element 1 - Pontoon

3


PONTOON CALCULATION

WIND LOAD

Upward force

102125,00 kN

Weight pontoon

65381,73 kN

External force on pontoon

36743,27 kN

C A

2

Surface A

572,53 m

Surface B

2 588,54 m 2 1021,25 m

Surface C Formula

Cdim

0,96

Cindex - Cdruk

0,80

Cindex - Czuiging

0,40

Ceq

1,00

ɸ1

1,00

pw

2 1,88 kN/m

prep druk + zuiging

NEN 6702

NEN 6702

2,166 kN/m2

Formula

Cindex - Cwrijving prep wrijving PONTOON CALCULATION Mrep = Σ

F∙e

0,02 0,036 kN/m2 REPRESENTATIVE FORCES Surface A

Surface B

Wrijving dakvlak

36,86 kN

Wrijving facades

20,67 kn

21,24 kN

Druk + zuiging

1274,64 kN

1239,96 kN

Total reaction

1332,17 kN

1298,07 kN

1 9,42 m

1 13,28 m

e Mrep

12554,30 kNm

36,86 kN

17238,48 kNm

B


PONTOON CALCULATION Fpermanently E1 - Pontoon

SKEW 65381,73 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E2 - Tier 1

9028,28 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E3 - Promenade

2603,72 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E4 - VIP / Disabled

3863,27 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E5 - Tier 2

4978,06 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E6 - Vertical transport

6937,16 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

Fpermanently E7 - Permanent ballast

25344,00 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

118136,23 kN

(instantaneous forces included)

ΣF Gravity grip point

x-direction

y-direction

Fpermanently E1 - Pontoon

23,75 m1

7,00 m1

Fpermanently E2 - Tier 1

20,97 m1

16,74 m1

Fpermanently E3 - Promenade

35,71 m1

19,56 m1

35,42 m

1

26,67 m1

37,04 m

1

30,75 m1

44,65 m

1

24,85 m1

8,34 m

1

2,00 m1

Fpermanently E4 - VIP / Disabled Fpermanently E5 - Tier 2 Fpermanently E6 - Vertical transport Fpermanently E7 - Permanent ballast

11,57 m1

Draft

2,43 m1

Freeboard Skew grip point / Meta center Formula

Σ ∙ Σ

x-direction

y-direction

22,665 m1

9,641 m1

Skew Rotation along Mrep Frep a d b mc C n = mc/a 

x-direction

z-direction

12554,30 kN

17238,48 kN

118136,23 kN

118136,23 kN

1 22,66 m

1 9,64 m

11,57 m

1

1 11,57 m

21,50 m

1

1

1 9,11 m

1076682,51 kNm 0,40

47,50 m

2603451,26 kNm

1

2,29

-0,01 rad

0,01 rad

-0,45 degrees

0,67 degrees

Freeboard changes -0,085 m1

2

1 22,04 m

Height difference (y result)

1

12

0,287 m1

180


PONTOON CALCULATION Upward force

BOTTOM SLAB 102125,00 kN

Weight pontoon

54484,78 kN

Resultant force

47640,22 kN

Resultant force/m2

2 46,65 kN/m

Reinforcement by using trusses ly max

1 5,988 m

lx max

1 5,305 m

Calculation value ly/lx Randveld Mvx (0,065)

1,12874647 Moment

Moment after redistribution

85,33 kNm

101,09 kNm

Mvy (0,017)

22,32 kNm

22,32 kNm

Msx (0,120)

157,54 kNm

126,03 kNm

Tussenveld Mvx (0,042)

Moment

Moment after redistribution

55,14 kNm

56,59 kNm

Mvy (0,013)

17,07 kNm

17,07 kNm

Msx (0,083)

108,97 kNm

108,97 kNm

Environment

Sea water XS2

Permanently under water

XS3

Tidal, splash and spray zones

Concrete reinforcement calculation Floorheight

1 0,40 m

Concrete type

B35

Reinforcement

FeB500

Minimum reinforcement

0,18 %

Fs

2 435 N/mm

Amin

720 mm2

Floorheight

1 400 mm

c

1 30 mm

Ø needed reinforcement

1 10 mm

d Top reinforcement Mvx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement Bottom reinforcement Msx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement

1 355 mm

101,09 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

727,35 mm2

10 - 100 mm1

126,03 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

906,83 mm2 11,5 - 100 mm1


PONTOON CALCULATION

OUTER WALLS 1 14,00 m

Wall height

1 4,00 m

Minimum freeboard

1 10,00 m

Calculation heigth

10,00 kN/m2 417,50 kNm

Water force Moment Md Environment

Sea water XS2

Permanently under water

XS3

Tidal, splash and spray zones

Concrete reinforcement calculation Thickness

1 0,40 m

Concrete type

B35

Reinforcement

FeB500

Minimum reinforcement

0,18 %

Fs

2 435 N/mm

Amin

720 mm2

Floorheight

1 400 mm

c

1 30 mm

Ø needed reinforcement

1 10 mm

d Needed reinforcement Msx z Fs As Ø needed reinforcement

1 355 mm

417,50 kNm 0,9 2 435 N/mm

3003,98734 mm2 14 - 50 mm1


Weight Structure Element 2

Tier 1

Element

Profile

Weight

Length 1

Column

HEB700

Amount 1

Total weight

[kg/m ]

[m ]

[pcs]

245

3,9

2

[kg]

[kN]

1911,00

19,11

Total columns Wall

300 mm concrete

21,45x3,045

1

46718,10

Wall

300 mm concrete

9,00x0,50

2

6480,00 Total walls

Beam

HEB500

191

21,45

1

4096,95

Beam

HEA360

114

9,22

5

5255,40 Total beams

Grandstand

HEA360

Element 3

Promenade

Element

Profile

114

Weight

30

Length 1

6

467,18 64,80 531,98 kN 40,97 52,55 93,52 kN 205,20

Total grandstand

205,20 kN

Total structure element 2

849,81 kN

Amount 1

20520,00

19,11 kN

Total weight

[kg/m ]

[m ]

[pcs]

[kg]

[kN]

Column

HEB700

245

3,9

4

3822,00

38,22

Column

HEB700

245

6,769

4

6633,62

66,34

Total columns

104,56 kN

Beam

HEB500

191

21,45

3

12290,85

122,91

Beam

HEA360

114

8,25

5

4702,50

47,03

Beam

HEA360

114

3,48

5

1983,60

Element 4

VIP / Disabled

Element

Profile

Weight

Length

19,84

Total beams

189,77 kN

Total structure element 3

294,33 kN

Amount

Total weight

[kg/m1]

[m1]

[pcs]

[kg]

[kN]

1867,88

18,68

Column

HEB700

245

3,812

2

Column

HEB700

245

2,69

2

1318,10 Total columns

13,18 31,86 kN

Beam

HEA360

114

8,25

5

4702,50

47,03

Beam Beam

HEA360 HEB500

114 191

3,48 21,45

5 3

1983,60 12290,85

19,84 122,91

Total beams Grandstand

HEA360

114

3,2

6

2188,80

189,77 kN 21,89

Total grandstand

21,89 kN

Total structure element 4

243,52 kN


Element 5

Tier 2

Element

Profile

Column

Weight

HEB700

Length

Amount

Total weight

[kg/m1]

[m1]

[pcs]

[kg]

[kN]

245

2,84

2

1391,60

13,92

Total columns

13,92 kN

Beam

HEB500

191

21,45

2

8193,90

81,94

Beam

HEA360

114

8,25

5

4702,50

47,03

Beam

HEA360

114

3,48

5

1983,60 Total beams

Grandstand

HEA360

Element 6

Vertical transport

Element

Profile

114

Weight

16,76

Length

6

1

114,64

Total grandstand

114,64 kN

Total structure element 5

277,35 kN

Amount

1

11463,84

19,84 148,80 kN

Total weight

[kg/m ]

[m ]

[pcs]

[kg]

[kN]

Column

HEB700

245

21,16

1

5184,20

51,84

Column

HEB700

245

5

2

2450,00

24,50

Column

UNP300

47

5

4

940,00 Total columns

9,40 85,74 kN

Beam

HEB500

191

21,45

4

16387,80

163,88

Beam

HEB300

119

21,45

1

2552,55

25,53

Beam

HEA360

114

9,313

2

2123,36 Total beams

21,23 210,64 kN

Stability

Ø 163

60,8

42

1

2553,60

25,54

Stability

Ø 163

60,8

20

2

2432,00

24,32

Stability

Ø 163

60,8

76

1

4620,80 Total stability

Wall

300 mm concrete

3,5 x 4,125

2

10395,00 Total walls

Grandstand

HEA360

114

5,74

6

3926,16

46,21 96,06 kN 103,95 103,95 kN 39,26

Total grandstand

39,26 kN

Total structure element 5

535,65 kN

TOTAL STRUCTURE COMPLETE SEGMENT

2200,67 kN


PONTOON STRUCTURE WEIGHT Y-direction

Element 1

Element

Profile

Length

Weight 1

Amount 1

Total weight

[kg/m ] 158

[m ] 21,10

[pcs]

[kg]

[kN]

2

6667,60

66,68

HEB400

158

13,00

2

4108,00

41,08

HEB260

94,8

5,02

4

1903,58

Beam

HEB400

Beam Beam

Total beams

19,04 126,79 kN

Column

HEB260

94,8

13,00

2

2464,80

Column

HEB260

94,8

2,60

3

739,44

7,39

Column

HEB700

245

13,00

2

6370,00

63,70

Total columns Diagonal

HEB300

119

50,84

1

6049,96 Total diagonals Total section

Element

Profile

Weight

Length 1

Amount 1

849,10152 kN

Total weight

[kg/m ] 158

[m ] 21,10

[pcs]

[kg]

[kN]

2

6667,60

66,68

HEB400

158

13,00

2

4108,00

41,08

HEB260

94,8

5,02

4

1903,58

Beam

HEB400

Beam Beam

Total beams Column

HEB260

94,8

13,00

4

4929,60

Column

HEB260

94,8

2,60

3

739,44 Total columns

Diagonal

60,50 60,50 kN

3 pcs

Total

Element 2

95,74 kN

283,03

Amount

Y-direction

24,65

HEB300

119

50,84

1

6049,96 Total diagonals Total section

Element

Profile

Weight

Length

Amount 1

7,39 56,69 kN 60,50 60,50 kN

6 pcs

Total

Element 1

49,30

243,98

Amount

X-direction

19,04 126,79 kN

1463,89104 kN

Total weight

[kg/m1] 158

[m ] 47,05

[pcs]

[kg]

[kN]

2

14867,80

148,68

Beam

HEB400

Beam

HEB400

158

13,00

2

4108,00

41,08

Beam

HEB260

94,8

8,24

4

3123,85

31,24

Beam

HEB260

94,8

4,34

4

1643,83 Total beams

Column

HEB260

94,8

13,00

1

1232,40

Column

HEB260

94,8

2,60

8

1971,84 Total columns

Diagonal

HEB300

119

87,74

1

10441,06 Total diagonals Total section Amount Total

TOTAL PONTOON STRUCTURE

16,44 237,43 kN 12,32 19,72 32,04 kN 104,41 104,41 kN 373,89 3 pcs 1121,663448 kN 3434,656008 kN


PONTOON CALCULATION

BOTTOM SLAB CALCULATION 100 kN/m2 9,6 kN/m2

Upward water pressure Downward permanent force Prep

90,4 kN/m2

Rupture, long term load

Short term, extreme load 1

width

5,305 m

1

length

5,988 m

1

width

5,305 m

length

5,988 m

1 1 1

slab thickness

0,4 m

slab thickness

0,4 m

Fbm C90

5,1

Fbm C90

5,1

Factor Fbm resultant

1,2 7,344 N/mm2

prep Mrep

σtension

Mrep

1017,65 kNm

σtension 2

38,09 N/mm

σtension σtension < Fbm

Mrep

d * p rep * b 2

M rep / w

1,4 8,568 N/mm2

prep

90,4 kN/m2

Mrep

Factor Fbm resultant

Rupture, long term load

d * p rep * b 2 1017,65 kNm M rep / w

2

38,09 N/mm

σtension σtension < Fbm

ONWAAR

90,4 kN/m2

ONWAAR

Short term, extreme load 1

width

5,305 m

1

length

1,1976 m

1

width

5,305 m

length

1,1976 m

1 1 1

slab thickness

0,4 m

slab thickness

0,4 m

Fbm C90

5,1

Fbm C90

5,1

Factor Fbm resultant

1,2 7,344 N/mm2

prep Mrep Mrep σtension σtension σtension < Fbm

Factor Fbm resultant prep

90,4 kN/m2

Mrep

d * p rep * b 2

Mrep

1017,65 kNm

σtension

M rep / w

2

7,62 N/mm ONWAAR

1,4 8,568 N/mm2

σtension σtension < Fbm

90,4 kN/m2 d * p rep * b 2 1017,65 kNm M rep / w

2

7,62 N/mm WAAR


100 kN/m2

Upward water pressure

12 kN/m2 88 kN/m2

Downward permanent force Prep Rupture, long term load

Short term, extreme load 1

5,305 m 1 1,1976 m

width length slab thickness

0,5 m

Fbm C90

5,1

Factor Fbm resultant

1,2 6,732 N/mm2

prep Mrep Mrep σtension

88 kN/m2 d * p rep * b 2 1238,29 kNm

5,93 N/mm2 WAAR

length slab thickness

1 0,5 m

Fbm C90

5,1

Factor Fbm resultant

1,4 7,854 N/mm2

prep Mrep Mrep σtension

M rep / w

σtension σtension < Fbm

1

1 5,305 m 1 1,1976 m

width

88 kN/m2 d * p rep * b 2 1238,29 kNm M rep / w

σtension σtension < Fbm

5,93 N/mm2 WAAR


PONTOON CALCULATION width length E modulus ɸmoist environment

BOTTOM SLAB DEFLECTION

1 5,305 m 1 1,1976 m

40100 N/mm2 1,8 ′

E'b ratio prep l E = E'b h (thickness) w wmax

17063,83 N/mm2 0,00485 88 kN/m2 1 1197,6 mm 17063,83 N/mm2 1 500 mm 1 0,0049 mm 1 /250 l

4,79 mm w < wmax

WAAR

1

40100 1 0.75 ∙

0,00485 ∙ ∙ 12

250