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人wA腔叭∣○↓k8 EM4∣L久了ZJi∣ki叭

5ki/ZJ叭∣iII乞


VenerabIeWuIingisanAmericanBuddhistnunofthePureLand schoolofMahayanaBuddhism.Moreofherwritingcanbefoundat www.amitab}]a-pubIications.org

AmitabhaPubIications’Chicago,60532

•2006byAmitabhaPubIications

NopartofthisbookmaybeaIteredwithoutpermissionfromt}]e pubIisher.ReprintingisaIIowed『Ornon-profituse. PortheIatestedition’contactwww.amitabba-publications.org PrintedinTaiwan

l5l4l3l289l0lll2

ISBN:978-l-59975-355-3

TbeCorporationRepubIico『HwaDzanSociety 2P.’No333-l)Sec.4.HsinYiRoad’Taipei,Taiwan Tel:(886)-2-2754-7l78Fax:(886)-2-2754-7262 E﹣MaiI:hwadzan@h﹨﹨『adzan.tw


CoNTENTs

AcknowIedgmentVi BuddhismTodayl

HeWhoHasAccomplishedHisGoaI

TheGreatAwakeningl8 TurningtheD}]armaWbeeI28 ThePathtoLiberation38 KarmaandRebirth49

TheThreeDharmaSeals60

ThePourlmmeasurableMinds65

ThePivePrecepts72 TheSixParamitas80

TakingtheThreeRefugesll6 PureLandBuddhisml2l

8


躋 AcKNowLEDGEMENTs

Withdeepappreciation)IthankaIItbosewbohave contributedtothisbook:famiIy,friends,feIow students,andteacI]ers.Withouttheirsupportand patience,thisbookcouIdneverhavecomeintobeing lthankmyteacher,MasterChinKung’whoover thepastdecadehaswiseIytaug}]tmetheprinciples thatarewoventhroughoutthisbookIthankmyfel|ow studentsand廿iendswhobavesokindlytakenthetime toserveasconsuItantsandeditors.Anyerrorsthat remalnaremyown.

lamdeeplygratefU}tomyparents,MiItonand Eve>ynBoIender’whoprovidedtheopportunityfOrme tofOlIowmypathinthisIifetime.Withouttbem,this

book’mylife,wou>dneverhavebappenedMy gratitudetothemcanneverberepaid ShiWuIing


BuDDHlsMToDAγ

雛 BuDDHIsMToDAY

Oneday,afamousgovernmentofficiaI,wbowasaIso apoet’waspassingalongaroad.Hesawano>d

monkteachingBuddhism.ThiswashardIyunusua> exceptthattl]emonkwasseatedonatreebranch Theofficia>askedtheeIderlvmonkwbathewasdo-

ing.AfteraIl)themonkwasinaveryprecariousposition.OnewrongmoveandhecouIdfaIItohisdeath|

T}]emonkrepliedthattheofficial,spositionwas evenmoreprecarious』fthemonkmadeacareIess

move’bealonemightbekiIedButiftheofficiaI madeamistake’itcouIdcosttheIivesoftbousands. Theofficialconsideredtbisanddecidedthatit

wasaverygoodrepIy.HetoIdtbemonkt}Iatifhe couldexplaintheessenceofBuddhisminonesentence’tbenbewouldbecometbemonk>sstudent.

“EasyI”saidt}]emonk“TheessenceofBuddhismis

toavoidallthatiseviI)toembraceaIthatisgood, l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

andtopurifyonesmind�TheofficiaIscoffedWIs thata>I?Evenachildoftbreeknowsthat!IThe

monkrepIiedthatwhiIeitwastruethatacIdof threemayrealizeit,tI]erewasnocertaintytbata manofeightycouIdpracticeit. TbemasterinourstorywasabsoluteIyright.ltis

onethingtoknowwhatwearesupposedtodo;doing soisanentirelydifferentmatter.Butwithoutdoing wbatisgood,wewilIbeunabletobenefitotbersor ourseIves:WewiI>beunabIetohe}paIlbeingsfind

theirwaytogenuinehappinessandsecuretheirIiberationfromsuffering.

Howdowebegintorealizethetruth?Andthen howdowethinkandbehavewhenwehavedoneso>

WecanbeginbylookingathowBuddhismisviewed anddefinedtoday.ManypeoplerespectBuddhism foritsstrongetI]icalbeliefsystem,whicbfocuseson trainingonesownmindandbodyratherthanon controIingot}]ers.Buddhismisvaluedforitsteachings,wI]icbstressthedailyobservanceofcompassionforaIbeings,andforitsemphasisonunderstandingtheeternalprinciplesoflife’wbichwiIead ustoawakenourinnatewisdom.

Anyonecanpracticet}]evariousmeditationmeth2


BuDD!-{lsMToDAY

ods,asweIastbechantingofmantrasorofaBuddha’sname.AIoftbesewiIIheIptoincreaseones awarenessandconcentration,whichcanheIpIead onetoawakening’orsimplyenabIeonetoattaina caImerandc>earermind

BuddbismhasaIongbistoryofthepracticeof equanimityandpeace.AwarhasneverbeendecIaredinitsname.Andinawor}dwhichhasseen

untoldsufferingfromwar)abeIiefsystemthatfocusesonlookingwithintoovercomeonesown

shortcomings,notonconqueringotherpeople,is highIyrespected

UnderstandingandpracticingtheteachingswilI enabIeustofindtheanswerstoourquestionsandto 】earnhowto】eadmoremeaningfuIIives.LikeaⅡ goodteachings,whattheBuddbataughtcanbenefit alIpeopIe,BuddI]istsandnon-BuddhistsaIike.

Today,manypeopIeregardBuddhismasareIigion川emam-l/l/ebs〔erbCo//eg伽eDictiona!yde﹣ finesreIigionas“theserviceandworshipofGod” ButBuddhasarenotgods.Thepersonwhomwe knowastheBuddha,overmanyIifetimes,uncovered

thegoodness,compassion,andwisdomthat}ay withinhistruenature.Heachievedsupreme 3


AWAK厄NTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

enIigbtenmentandindoingsobecameanexampleof whatwe,too,canachieve:Wehavewithineachof usourtruenature’ourownBuddha-nature,tbatis

waitingtobefUIlyawakened. Once,theBuddhawasaskedifbewasagod.The BuddI]arepIiedthat,no’hewasnotagodThenwas heanangelPNo.Aspirit>No.Thenwhatwashe? TheBuddharepIiedthathewasawakened.Sincethe Buddba,byhisownexp>anation,isnotagod,wedo notworshipbim.Werespectandaregratefultobim forteachingustbeWaytobeliberatedfromtbecycleofbirt}],deathandrebirth,andtobecomeper-

fectIyenIightenedjustashewas. Religionisalsoconsideredabeliefinasupernatu-

ralpowerorpowersregardedasthecreatorandruler oftheuniverse.ButtbeBuddbaisneitber.

TheBuddhadidnotcreatetheuniverse.HaVng

observedtherealityofbasiceternaIprinciples’he expIainedthateveryt}]ingarisesfromourminds.ln effect,theuniverseisthecreationofallourthoughts andbehavior’notthecreationofanyonebeing. NeitberdoestbeBuddbagoverntheuniverse. ThenaturallawofcausaIitydetermineswhatwill

bappen.Simplyput,wereapwhatwesow>fwe 4


BuDDHlsMToDAY

planttheseedsforwbeat,wewillharvestwheat. Likewise,ifwepIanttheseedsforkindness,forexample,bycaringforotbers)wewiIreceivekindness

inturn.WehaveaIreadysowntheseeds,somegood andsomebadSomeIiedormantwithinus,justas others}]avealreadymatured

Webeartbeconsequencesofourtbougbts, speecb,andactionstbatweinitiatedinthepast.No otberbeing,nomatterhowwiseorcompassionate, canbeartheconsequencesonourbebaIf.WeaIone areresponsibIeforourindividua}>ives}ustasour }ivestodayarethedirectresuItsofw}]atwedidintbe

past,whatwedotodaywiI’simiIarIyandunequivocaIIy’createourfUture.

ltistbebeliefofmanyre】igionsthat}〕eavenandheⅡ arepermanentandeverIastingAsBuddbists,webeIievethatwhiIeourlivesint}]e}]eavenandl]ellrealms

areeonsIongandmaytberefOreseemeternaI,theyare not.Weriseandfa>ItbroughthereaImsofexistenceas ourgoodactionshelpustorisetobetterIifetimeswhiIe

ourbadbehaviorIiteraIIybringsusdown.Werise again,onIytofa}Iyetagain.Webavedonethis)over andoveragain’innumerabletimes.SomeIifetimesIast

justamatterofdays.OthersIastIongerthanwecan 5


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

possibIyimagine.ButwithinthereaImsofexistence,of wbichheavenandheIIareapart,nolifeispermanent. AndnolifetimeiseternalBecauseoftbisaimlessre-

cycling’Buddhistsseektotranscendthiscyc}ethroug}] awakening,throughenIightenment. WhatabouttheconceptofBuddhismasaphiloso-

pby?BystudyingBuddhisminthiscontext’people wiIikelyfaiItoacbieveIastingbenefitsbecausetbey willnotpracticetheteachings.Andwithoutpractice, noonecanachieveenlightenment.Also,phiIosophyis justonefieldstudiedinschool,whereasBuddbismac-

tualIyencompassesandtranscendseveIysinglefieId lnregardstotime,Buddbismencompassestbepast, present,andfUture.lnregardstospace’itencompasses everything:fromourdaiIylivestotheinfiniteuniverse. SoifBuddbismisneitherareligionnoraphi-

Iosophy,whatisitPBuddhismisawayofunderstandinglifeandtheuniverse,andofpracticingtbat understandingtoendunbappiness.Itisawayoflife andastateofmind.Buddhismisateaching:asys-

tematicIearningofeternaltruths. Inthesutras,whicharerecordedteachingsoftbe Buddha,andoccasionallyofbodhisattvas,wereadtbat

hewasspokenofasouroriginaIteacher.Thosewho 6


BuDDHlsMToDAγ

IistenedtoI]imwerecaIIedstudents.Whenthe

studentsaskedquestionso{tbeBuddha>hewouId oftenreplywithanotherquestion.Thiswastohelptbe studentsrealizetbeanswerfOrthemseIves.lftI]e

studentsdidnotthoroughIyunderstand,orifthey thoughttI]attheBuddha)s{UturestudentswouIdnot thoroughIyunderstand,theywouIdseekfUrtI]er clarificationbyaskingmorequestions.Tbesesesssions wereessentiaIIycIassroomdiscussionstbatfOIowed thepatternwecaIItheSocraticmethod,ametbod exemplifiedbytheGreekphi>osopherSocrates,wbo IivedinGreeceweIIaftertheBuddhaIivedinIndia. TheBudd}]adidnotconductceremonies.He

simpIytaughtandpracticedwhathetaugbt.Asa teacber,hesteppedoutoftheconfinesofthetimein

wbichbeIivedthroughbisconceptofequality.lnstead ofad}]eringtotbecastesystem,hetreateduntoucbab}eswitl]equalityandrespect.Heacceptedwomen asnuns’atatimewbenwomenwereregardedasanotberformofproperty.Hewasagainstanima}sacrifice

andappeaIedtopeopletorespectandnotharmany }ivingcreature.ThesewereveryprogressiveVewsfrom someonewhoIivedalmostthreemillenniumagα

7


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

摹 HEWHoHAs

AccoMPLIsHEDHlsCoAL

WhowastheBuddhaandhowhadsuchabeing cometoexist>Overtwenty-sixhundredyearsago,a

clannamedSakyaruIedoneoftbemanysmaIkingdomsinanareathatisnowinthefoothilIsofNepal Theking’sgivennamewasSuddhodanaandbisfamilynamewasGautama.Onenigbt’}]iswifeQueen Maya}]adadreamwhichshereIatedto}]erhusband Whendreaminterpreterswerebroughttotbepalace, theysaidthedreamforetoldthequeenbearingason whowouldeitherbeagreatkingorauniversal teacber.

Aftertbeprincewasborn,hewasnamedSiddhartha,whichmeans“hewhohasaccomplishedhis

goal’>Areveredascetic,MasterAsita,cametothe paIacetoseethecbiIdPirst’asmilebrightenedhis facewhenhesawthenewprince.Butthen,atear 8


HEWIoHAsAccoMPLlsHEDHlsGoAL

fellfromhiseyeandrolIedsIowIydownbisface.He begantoweep’witbmoretearsstreamingdown. Greatlyconcerned,thekingaskedifsometerrib>e misfortunewastobefaIhisson.MasterAsitarep}ied no.Onthecontrary,thechiIdwou>dgrowuptoone dayfindtheWaytoenIightenment.Butbe,Asita’ wouldnolongerbeaIive,andsohewept. >ustafewdaysafterSiddhartha)sbirth’thequeen diedandtheprincewasraisedbybisaunt,theking’s secondwifeSheloVngIycaredforSiddharthaasif bewereherownson.

WhenSiddhartbawasnineyearsoldhewentto theannualpIowingceremony.Hesawthepanting oxenbeing>ashedbytheirsweatinghandIerswhilethe sunb>azedoverheadAndasthepIowstoreintothe earth’hesawthewormsbeingcutupbytheplowing. SmaIbirdsswoopeddowntodevourthewrithing creatures.AIargerbirdHewdownandcaughta smalIerone.Siddbarthacontemplatedwbat}]ehad justseen.Evenasacbild,hewasbecomingawareof theharshreaIitiesofIife-aIivingbeingski>Ioneanothertosurviveandinthisthereissuffering. AsSiddbarthagrewup’hewasprovidedwitheverytbingayoungprincecduldhave:thefinestposses9


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

sions,themostlearnedteacbers,andabeautifUlpalaceinwbichtolive.But,insteadofbecomingspoiled,

hishumbledemeanorinspiredtrustinothers. ThroughitaIl,beremainedrespectfuIandgentIetowardsaII.Andastimepassed,hisconcernfort}]ewelfareofotberstookrootandbegantogrowstronger. lnanefforttobringhispensiveson!sthoughts backtoamoreworldlyexistenceasweIastohis princelyresponsibi>itiesastbefutureruIer,theking decidedtbatSiddharthaneededtogetmarried. VariousgatheringsofyoungpeopIewerearranged andoneyoungwomaninparticuIar,Siddhartha’s cousin,theprincessYasodhara,stoodoutfromthe others.Shewasnotonlybeautifulinappearance,but badinnerstrengthaswellLikeSiddhartha,shewas

tboughtfulandcareddeepIyforthosewbosuffered frompovertyandiIness. TheprinceandprincessweremarriedTheyIived

inthreepa}aces:TheyenjoyedthesummerinapalacemadeofcooImarble.lnthewinter>theystayed

warminapalacemadeoffragrantwood.Themonsoonseasonwaspassedcomfortablyinabrickpalace withahighgreentileroof. SiddbarthaandYasodharawereprovidedwit}I l0


HEWHoHAsAccoMPL>sHEDHlsGoAL

everythingtheycouIdhavewantedTheywereprivilegedwiththefinestpossessions.Musiciansand dancerswerehousedinthepaIacestoentertainthe royaIcouple. T}lencametheeventsthatareknownastheFour

Sights.ThisaccountteIlsofhowtheshelteredprince issaidtohaveencountered,forthefirsttime,tbe

realityoftheuniversa}hardsbipsofoIdage’sickness’ anddeath,inspiteofhisfat}]er’sattemptstoshieId }]imfromtbem.HeaIsosawamonk,areligious seekeroftruth,whoradiatedpeaceandserenity. SiddbarthaIearnedthatnotonIyanimaIssuffer’ butthataIofbumanityissubjecttoaging’sickness’ deatb,andseparationfromIovedones.Siddbartba fe>ttbepainandlossundergonebyaIIbeings.Buthe coulddonothingtosavehispeopIefromtheinevitablepainthat}ayintheirfuture.Moreandmore’t}Iis gent}eandcontemplativeyoungmanfoundhimself beingdrawnintothisuniversa>probIem.Hewanted withallhishearttofindtbewaytoendt}]epainfor al>beings.

SiddharthawasdeeplytroubIedAIthoughhewas askilIedwarrior,heknewhecou>dnotsoIvehuman-

ity’sprob}emsbywarfare.Althoug}]bewast}]efuture ll


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

king,beknewhecouldnotheIpendtbedistressof othersthroughpoliticaIdecisionsaIone.TheIearned princebecameincreasinglyawaret}]athecouldnot resoIvesufferingthroughworIdIyknowIedge. MorethaneverSiddharthafeltquestionsarise withinbim:Howdoesonefindlastingpeace>How

doesonemovebeyondt}]ereachofiI}nessand deathPHowdoesonefindtheWayforaIIbeings?It wasthefourtbencounteI-thememoryofthatserenemonk╴tbatgaveSiddharthahopethatt﹜﹞ere wasanansweroutthere,somewhere.

Onemorning,Siddharthawenttobisfatberand requestedpermissiontoleavehometobecomea monkKingSuddhodanamusthaveknownt}]attbis daymigbtcome,butsosoonPCou>dSiddharthanot wait?Hisfathersincerelyrespectedthetraditionof renouncingonesworIdIyIifetoseekamorespirituaI one.Butt}liswasusuaIydonewhenonewasoIder, notwbenonehasayoungfamilyandsomanyresponsibi>itiesasthefutureking|Siddbarthapersisted forhisfathercouldnotendSiddhartha’ssuffering

anymoretbanSiddbarthacou>dendhisfather’s. Siddharthaassuredbisfatberthathewouldreturn

wbenhehadfoundtheWay. l2


HEWHoHAsAccoMPLIsHEDHlsGoAL

ThatnightSiddhart}]awenttobisquarters.He gazedintenseIyathissIeepingnewbornson.YasodharaaIsoseemedtobeasIeep.HequietIyleftthe room.HeIovedtI]emintenseIysohe}]adtodowI]ateverbecouIdtofindtheWaytofreetI]emfrompain anddistress.KnowingthattbeywouIdbelovingIy takencareof)Siddl]arthaquietIyslippedoutofthe palacetofindthewaytoendsufferingforthem,for

tbosehewasresponsibIefor,andforaIbeings. Siddharthawasamanwitheverytl]ing:yout}]’ wealthandposition.HewasadmiredforbisclevernessandbraveryaswelIashiswisdom.Hehad provenhimseIftobetbegreatestwarriorintbe InatcbesthatwereI]eIdintbekingdom>butbewas aIsoknownfOrhiskindheart.Siddharthal]adabeau-

tifulwifewhoIovedbimandw}]0mheIovedS}]ebad

givenbirthtot﹜﹞eirson.But﹚berealizedthatwitI﹞aⅡ thathepossessedandwitha>Itl]atheknew,hecouId

notprotectthem廿omaging’sickness,anddeath. Siddhartbarenouncedhisexistenceasaprince whobyhisroyalbirth,unmatchedcapabilities,and

greatstrengthofcharacterwouIdhavebeenagreat king,andinstead,becameGautama,awandering seekeroftheWay.Hegaveupmaterialsecurityand l3


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

futurepowertoIiveunderthetrees,andtoforage andbegforhisfoodHere>ectedfineclothesand >eweIstowearcast-offrags.HereIinquisbedf>eeting worldIylovetosearchfortheWaytopermanentIove andliberation,whichnomanhadfound. WhenGautamalearnedthatMasterAlaraKa-

lama,ahighlyrespectedteacberwasnearby,he madebiswaytothemaster’scenter.Gautamawas acceptedasastudentandquicklymasteredtbepracticehewasgiven.Hewentbacktothemasterwho thentaughthimhowtoattainthenextmeditative state.Buteventheattainmentofthisstatedidnot

proVdetheanswerstoGautamasquestionsofhow toendthecycIeofbirth’deatb,andrebirth>andhow toIiberatehumanityfrompainanddistress.GautamagratefuIIythankedthemasterforbisteachings anddeclinedaninvitationtoteachalongsidehim. HerespectfullytookhisIeaveandcontinuedtopracticeandsearchfortheanswers.

AfterawhiIe,heIearnedthatanotberteacher,

MasterUdakkaRamaputta’wascloseby.Gautama wenttohimandrequestedtobecomeastudent. ThistimeasweIl,hequicklyIearnedfromhis teacher.HetranscendedaIordinarypIanesofconl4


HEW}-IoHAsAccoMPLlsHEDHIsGoAL

sciousnessandremainedinastateofgreattranquiIity.Butwhenhecameoutofmeditation>tbeprobIemsoflifeanddeathwerestiIthere.Hethanked

t}]emasterforbisteachingsandpoIitelydecIinedtbe offertoremainandbecomethenewmasterupon MasterUdakIKaRamaputta’sdeath. Atthispoint,Gautamahadpracticedunderthe guidanceoftwooft}]emostrespectedteachersof meditation.HehadmasteredeverytbingtheycouId teacbBut,bestiIIhadnotIearnedbowtopermanentIyendsufferingHereaIizedthathehadreacbed thepointwberehemustdiscovertbeWayhimseIf AfteraperiodofsoIitarypractice’hewasjoined byfiveasceticswhobecamehiscompanions.Over theensuingmontbstheyIivedinagroupofcaves andinnearbyforests.AsGautamaintensifiedbis practiceheateonIyahandfuIoffoodaday.Tben, Gautamareducedbisfoodintaketo}essthana

mouthfuIaday. Hesatinmeditationandignoredtbeb>azingbeat

andfreezingcoldHisbodybecameemaciated.His boneswereasbrittIeasdrysticks,hisribswereIike exposedrafters,andhisvertebraewereIikebeadson astring.HiseyessankdeepintohisskullHishair l5


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

felloutathistouchWhenhetouchedt}Ieskinon

hisstomach,becouIdfeeIhisbackbone.Thefive

asceticswbowerewithhimcou>dnotmatchhisrigorouspractlce·

Then,oneday,whiIemeditatinginacemetery, GautamasuddenIyreaIizedthatthetraditionalreli-

giousteachings’hisattainmentofe>evatedstatesof meditation,andhispracticeofextremeausterities hadaIIfaiIedtodisclosetbesoIutiontoendpainand distressforthebenefitofa>lbeings|Ifhediedfrom alI]isexertions,whatwouIdI]ehaveaccomplished forothers?

Hetboughtofthepeacethathehadknownin ear}iermeditations.Mindandbodybot}]neededto beheaIthytobeabIetofindthewaytoen>ightenment.One)smindneededtobepeacefuIandfocused.One’sbodyneededtobestrongandhea}thy. Tbenextmorning,Gautamawenttotheriverto bathe.Whenhefinishedbemanagedtodraghimself uptheriverbank,buthehadonIygoneaIittleway when}]ecolIapsedfromsheerweakness.Hemight havediedhaditnotbeenforapassingviIlagegirl,on herwaytomakeofferingstotheforestgods,who gavehimsomerice-miIkAshedrankmoreofthe l6


HEWHoHAsAccoMPLlsHEDH<sGoAL

milk,someofhisstrengtbgradualIyreturned,andhe begantoseetheunityamongaI>t}]ings.Mindand bodyareinterconnectedThewisdomoftheuniverse wastobefoundineac}]andeveryceII.Self-inflicted deprivationwasnottbeanswer.Therewasalready enougbpainintheworId Gautamadecidedtogiveuphisausterepractices andtoliveintheforestneartheriver;HehadreaI-

izedâ&#x20AC;&#x153;theMidd>eWay/>whichbridgesasceticdenial andsensua>attachmentinabaIancedmiddIe

groundHiscompanionssawhimeatingmorefood, talkingwitbthegir}whosometimesbroughtitto him,andnoIongerfoIIowingtbetraditiona>waysof austerepractice.Theybe}ievedthathehadabandonedhisseekingoftheWayandreturnedto worldlypIeasures.Sothefiveleftbim,deeplydisappointedathisseemingweaknessandlackofresoIve. Gautamacontinuedtomeditatealone.HereaI-

izedthateverythingwhichcameintoexistence,>iving andnon-living,wasinterconnectedtoeverything eIse.Nothingexistedonitsown.Hea>sounderstood tbatnotbingwaspermanentandtbateverythingwas changingcontinuously.

l7


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

締 THEGREATAwAKENlNG

Gautama,sthougbtskeptreturningtohisquestions: Howdoesoneendunhappinessandpain?Howdoes oneprotectlovedones廿omsicknessanddeath?ln﹣ dulgingoneselfinsensualpleasureswascertainlynot thesolution.

Thetraditiona>be}iefshadIikewisefailedtoproVdetbewaytoendsuffering.Manypriestsdistanced themselvesfromthepainaroundtI]em.Theysacrificedanimalswhileignoringthecriesofpainand terrorastheanimalsdesperateIystruggledtoIive.AII life,}]umanandanimaI,wastobeprotectedand cberished.Thus,tbetraditionaIbeliefswerenotthe answereither.

Gautamaalsounderstoodtbathissittinginmeditationasinstructedbvtbetwomastershadnotenα

abledhimtoeIevatehimselfaboveworldlypain.As

soonasheIeftbiscontemplativestate’bereturned l8


THEGREATAwAKENlNG

toaworIdofbirth’aging,sickness,anddeath.He badnotyetfoundthewaytoendthem. Extremedisciplinesandintensedeprivationwere a>sonottheanswers.ltwasthougbttbatifonepracticedsevereausterities,onecouIdachieverebirthin heaven.ButevenaIifetimeinheavenwouIdendone

daybecausetbeheavenIyrealmsarestiIIwithinthe cycleofrebirthAndbesides>tbeunhappinessand painofthosewhoremainedonearthwouldstiIlcontinueunabated

Torturingone>sbodyresuItsinthemindbeingafHictedasweIl>notinitsfindingpeace.SowhiIetbe bodyisnottobeindu>ged,itshouIdnotbeabused either.Itismuchwisertoproperlycareforones bodysothatitisabletocarryonea}ongtbepatbto enligbtenment. Gautamasasceticpractice,whichsougbttoremove desire,hadresolvednothingMindandbodyarenot separate.TheyareintrinsicaIIylinkedtoeacbother. No’abusingone>sbodywouIdnotbelponetofindtbe answereither.Aftersixyears>Gautamarea}ized,justat thepointofdeath,thatwhatbehadacbievedinhis practicewouIdonIybenefitbimse}f,temporarily.All aroundhim’humanitywasstiIsuffering. l9


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

GautamawouldhavetofindtheWayhimseIf.It seemedtolieinamorebalancedapproacbtomeditation.Hewouldlaterusetheexampleofalute:lf thestringsoftheluteweretootight,thesound wouldbeunpleasantandthestringswouIdmost IikelybreakIftheyweretooloose,tbesoundwould notbeharmonious.TbestringsneededtobeproperIytunedtoproduceapleasingsound>ustasthe beautyofalutecanonlyrevea>itselfwhenthe stringsareproperIytunedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t}]eattainmentofserenity canonlybefoundwhenoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sIifeiswellbalanced. OneneededserenityasweIascompassionand wisdomtoendbumanity>spainandunhappiness. Understandingwhatheneededtodo,theoncefuture kingsatdownonapi>eofgrassbeneaththetreehe hadoftensatunderandslowlyassumedameditation position.Hevowedthatevenifonlybisskin,sinews, andbonesremained,andhisbIooddriedupandflesh witheredaway,hewouldnotstirfromhisseatuntiI behadattainedsupreme,perfectenIigbtenment. HebeardthegentIesoundsofbirdsandinsects andtbemurmuroftheriver.Hefeltasoftbreeze

againstbisskinTheairsmelIedfreshHeIigbtly closedhiseyes.SIowIythebreezediedandthe 20


THEGREATAwAKENlNG

soundsaroundhimbecamemerewhispers. Perfectlycalmontheoutside,alertanddeterminedwithin,bewasready.Ashemovedwitbease deeperinto}]ismeditation,Maracame.MaraisaII thatisnegativewithinusandariseswhenwewishto awakenfromourseeminglyendlesssleep.Mara broughtforthmanydemonsincludingthoseofegotism,doubt,passion,pride’andignorancetodestroy GautamasresoIveandattainment.GautamasubduedthemaIl

HemoveddeeperstiI}intomeditation’intoastate unfathomab}etoordinarybeings.Asifbewasona highmountainIookingdownateveryriverhebad evercrossedandeveryrockhehadscaledontheway toreachingthesuInmit)hecIearIysawa>}hispast Iives.Theywerejoinedbyaseeming}yunbreakable karmicchainthatboundbimtocountIessbirtbsand

rebirths’witboutrewardorrespite. HemoveddeeperstiIintohismeditativestate

andsawformationandcessation.HeIookedbeyond thisworldtoothergaIaxiesthroughouttbeuniverse andsawworldstakeform,exist’andthenendHe

sawinnumerabIebeingspassingthrougbcountIess

lifetimes,stiIost,stiIwandering.Hesawtheeter2l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

nallawofcauseandeffectthatgovernedallworlds, incIudingours,workinginaIaspectsofourlives:He understoodhowcurrentactions,speech,thougbtseverytbing-determinedthefuture.Goodproduces

goodEvilincursevilCausesmatureintoresu>ts that,inturn,becomenewcauses.

Thundercracked,}ightningtorethesky’andrain poureddown,soakingGautama,whoremainedmotionlessthroughout.Hecontinuedbisinwardquest. Hesawtbattbepoisonsofgreed,anger,arrogance’ anddoubtareaIlrootedinourignorance.Withgiving,wecanletgoofgreedWithpatience,wecan dissolveanger.Withwisdom,wecansweepaway ignorance,arrogance’anddoubt.

Peoplebebaveastheydobecauseofpast thougbts,words,andactions,buttbeydonotknow this.OnepersonwilIactoutofignorancewhi>eanotberwillreactfromthesameignorance,andsothey

becomemoretightlyboundtoeachotber.Allbumanity-aIlbeings-areboundbythatslim,inVsibIe cbainthatstranglesallwhodonotsee.Thischainis ignorance.Andonlytheswordofwisdom,which ariseswbenoneisseIfless,canseverit.Whenone

letsgoofego,oneseesthatweareaIone,thatwe 22


THEGREATAwAKENlNG

areallinterrelated

Gautamatranscendedtheordinary>eve>sofconsciousness.Pinal>y,befoundtheanswersbehad beenseeking.Theywouldbecomethecoreofhis

teachings-thePourNobleTruths.Lifeissuffering. Sufferingiscaused.SufferingcanendThewaytoits endliesalongthepathofdiscipIine,concentrationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; andwisdom.

ThebIackcloudsclearedThethunderandIigbtningceasedAshe>ookedupandgazedattheskyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; heknewhehadfoundtheWaytosupremeenlightenment.lgnoranceleadstocraving,cravingtorebirth,rebirthtosuffering.Sufferinghasacauseand anend

NoIongerwouldhehavetobereborn.Porhim, thechainnolongerexisted.Hebadsevereditwith

theswordofwisdom.Hewasfu>>yIiberatedThis washislastbirth

Hesmiledashegazeduponthenewdawn.There wasnomorepain,nomoresorrow,onIyinfinite peaceandaprofound,unconditionaIloveforaI>be-

ings.Now,afterhisinnumerabIeIifetimeswandering throughthevaIey,hisgrowingdiscontentasthe princenamedSiddbartha,hissixyearsofstrivingas 23


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

thewanderingseekerGautama,andhisnigbtof awakening,hehadfinaIyreachedthesummitand foundtheWaytoteacha>Ibeingshowtoendtheir painandunhappiness.Hewasnow((Buddba,â&#x20AC;?fuI}y awakened.

Gautamaremainedintheforestforforty-nine

daysandtboughtofbowtoteachotherswbatbehad justexperiencedHehadfinallyperceivedeveryt}ling andindoingsoeIiminatedtbeignorancethatbound bim.ButtherestofbumanitywasstiIItrappedin

ignorance.Beingabletoseeonlyaminuteportionof reaIity,theywereeasilymisledbymisperceptions andpersonalviews.Theycou>dnotyettruIysee. Theydidnotyetrealizethateveryonehaswithin themseIvesthesamenaturethathe,theBudd}Ia,

bas.Today,westilldonottruIysee.lndeed,every liVngbeingbastbistruenature.Thus,aI}beingsare, bynature,equalBynatureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;nohumanissuperiorto anyanimaIoranylivingbeing.LikeGautama,humanityhastheabiIitytodiscovertheundistorted trutboftheuniverse.lfpeoplecandiscoverthis truth,theytoocanliberatetbemselves. Andsoitwastimetoteacbwbathehadlearned.

Heuseddifferentmethodstoteacbdifferentpeople. 24


THEGREATAwAKENlNG

Toteachthosewhowere}earned,heusedlogicand bisunderstandingofthereIigiousteachings.Por tbosewbowereintuitive,heusedimagesandactions,notspeechPortI]osewhoweresimp}e,he spokeonIyafewnecessarywords.Andforthosewho weresuffering,heshowedthataIIbeingsunderwent painandunhappiness. ItwastimetoIeavetI]epeaceoftheforest.Pirst’ heIookedforMasterAIaraKa}amaandMaster

UdakkaRamaputta,andthen’hisfiveformercompanions,forI]eknewtheywerereadytounderstand whathecouldteacbtheln.WearingtherobeprovidedbythegirIwhoI]adgivenhimtherice-miIk’he setout.

Ont}]eway,tbeBudd}]ametamonkwbohad beenastudentoft}]etwomastershewasseeking. HeIearnedfromthemonkthatbotbofbisformer

teachershaddiedRegretfUIy,itwastoolateto sharewhathehadIearnedwitbthetwoaccom-

plishedmasterswbosogenerouslytaughthimeverythingtheyknew.Hethenenquiredaboutthefive asceticsandlearnedwheretheywerepracticing.The BuddhaheadednorthtofindtheIn

AftermanydaysofwalkinghereachedDeerPark, 25


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

wherethefivewerestayingWhentbeysawhimapproachingtheydiscussedwhattodo.Theyrememberedhowhehadstoppedhisausterepractice,begun toeatmore,andinteractedwiththelocaIpeopIe. TbeyhadrejectedandIefthim.Nowherehewas again|TheydecidedthattheywouIdpaynoattention tohimandnotevenstandtoproperlygreethim. ButastbeBuddhaapproacbed,tbeywereunable toignorehim.Hisappearancewasradiant,hisbearingdignifiedyetgent}e.Thefiveasceticshad achievedmuchunderstanding.Perhapstbeyrealized thatthiswasnoIongeranordinaryman.Tbey quickIytookhisbeggingbowlandgavebimastooIto sitonandsomefreshwatertodrinkOnlytbendid tbeysitdownonthegroundaroundbim. TheBuddhatoIdthemthathehadfoundwhat

theywereseeking.Atfirst,noonespoke.Thenthey questionedhowcouldonewhohadabandonedhis asceticwaysandbeguneatingmorefoodhavepossib}yfoundtheWay? TheBuddhaaskediftheybadeverheardbiInlie orpreviousIyclaimthatbehadachievedtheWay. TbeyrepIiedthattheyhadnot.Thenwouldthefive IistentohimsohecouIdtelIthemwbathehad 26


THEGREATAwAKENlNc

Iearned?TheyrequestedtheBuddbatoteachthem. TheBuddhatoIdthemtbatw}]athebadIearned

wasnottheresu}tofanyanalyticaItbinking,butof havingseenreality.TbosewI]oseektheWaysI]ouId neitherimmersethemseIvesinsensualpIeasuresnor deprivetI]eirbodiesofessentiaIneeds,butfolIowtI]e patbofmoderation.HeexpIainedtl]ataI}beingsw}]o liveinthisworldaresub>ecttofourbasictruths.The firstthreearethatsufferingexists,itiscaused,andit hasanend

Thefourthtruthexplainshowtoendsuffering throughtheproperpracticeofdiscipIine,concentration’andwisdom.Thiscourseofconductneither

deniesnoravoidssuffering.ltfacessufferingand transformsit.Thepracticeofdiscipline,concentration’andwisdomwiIuItimateIyleadonetoIiberation,peace’andjoy.

27


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

辮 TuRNlNGTHEDHARMAWHEEL:

THEFouRNoBLETRuTHs

lnlife,thereissufferingSufferingiscaused.SufferingcanendThewaytoitsendistbrougbthepracticeofdiscip>ine’concentration,andwisdom. ItmightseempessimisticfortheBuddhatosay thatinIifethereismucbunbappiness.Butbedidnot leaveitatthat,forIikeagooddoctor,hediagnosed tbefundamentaIprobIemofIifeanddecIaredit:Life involvessuffering.Likeagooddoctor,hewantedto heIpallbeingssothattheywouIdattaintbeunderstandingtbatwouldleadtoawakeningand,thus’obtainpermanentreleasefromthisdistress.Hewasnot concernedwithwor>dIyorspirituaIspeculationbut withl]owtobeIpaIIbeingsachieveIiberation. AndIikeacaringdoctor’heoptimisticaIydeterminedthatacureexists,andprescribedtherequisite treatmentasembodiedintbePourNobIeTruths: 28


TuRN<NGTHEDHARMAWHEEL

rightunderstandingandproperpractice.TI]ePour NobIeTruthsproVdetbesolutiontoourunhappiness. Weneedtounderstandandabandonsufferingandits cause,andembracetheproperwayofliving.This statementissureIyoneofoptimism,notpessimism. UponhearingtbatinIifethereismuchsuffering,

peopIeoftensaythattl]eydonotMsuffer.”Welnight understandbettertbemeaningofsufferingifwe thinkofitasdescribingIifeasneverbeingcomplete|ysatisfactory.WeveryoftenfeeIsomedegree ofphysicaIormentaIdiscomfort.Atothertimesin

ourlives,weaIIundergogenuinepain.InitiaIIy)we experiencetbetraumaofbirth;Iater,weencounter

diseaseandi>Iness.ManyofuswiIgothroughaging, andnoneofuswiIescapedeathWeareaIlsubject tot}]eemotionaIhardshipsofpainandgriefaswe undergothementaldistressoffai>ingtoattainwhat wewish.AI>toooften’wefindourseIvesbavingto toIeratethepresenceoftI]osewedisIil(eor’perhaps, evenbate.AndeventualIywewiIlbeseparatedfrom aIlthosewelove.TbeseareaIlformsofsuffering.As Siddharthahad>earned,evenakingisheIp>essinthe faceofaginganddeath

RegardIessofwbetberwesayIifeentailspainorit 29


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

isnevercompIetelysatisfactory’aIbeingsaresubject todistress.Simplyput,tbingsusuaIydonotgoaswe wishPorexampIe,wemayfindourse}veshavingto moveawayfromthoseweIove.Oftenatwork,we needtointeractwithorreporttopeop}ewbodonot thinkthesamewaywedo,and,thus’ourworkpIace becomesapIaceofantagonismandstress.Orwe mayhavetowatchheIplessIyast}]oseweIovemust endureaniInessforwhichthereisnocure.

Oursufferingisthedisappointment,bitterness, andheIpIessnesswefeelWhentbingsdonotgoas wewish,IifeisveryoftenunfuIfilling’andevenifit isnotpainful,itiscertainIyunsatisfactory.Whenwe dogetwhatwewish,wefindthatgoodthingsand goodtimesdonotlast. ForexampIe,forthosewhohavenotbeenabIeto eattheirfavoritefoodforalongtime’thesuddenappearanceofitcanbringgreathappiness.Uponseeingthefoodanddetectingitsaroma,wewil>smiIein anticipation.TheconsumptionofitbringspIeasure aswesavortbetaste.Memoriesofthepastenjoy-

mentofitcomefIoodingbackRememberingthe

peopleweusedtosbareitwithbringsafeelingof contentn]ent.

30


TuRN{NGTHEDHARMAWHEEL

ButwhatifweovereatPWithinourenjoymentIies tbeseedofdistressaswegiveintooursensesand eattoomuchNoIongerhappyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;wenowfeeIuncomfortableandmayevenbecomeiII.Happinessturns intodispIeasurebecausehappinesscontainswithinit futurediscontent.Andevenifwedonotovereat, evenreasonabIeeatingonlytemporarilystopsour discomfort.Verysoonwearehungryagainanddistressedagain.Andthelossofourrecenthappiness becomesanothersourceofdistress.

P>easurefromanyworIdIyactivityineVtablyturns intodistresswbeneveritgoesbeyondtbeboundsof moderation,whetheritiswaIIKing,reading,eating thatfavoritefood,oranyot}]erinterestthatween>oy. WhenwebeginwaIldng>initialIyitisveryenjoyable, butafteracertainamountoftimeitcanbecomeex-

haustingandpainfulAftermany}]oursofreading ourfavoriteautI]or}sIatestbook,oureyesbecome tiredWefeelstifffromIackofmovement,andwe

feeltbeneedtomovearound.Thus,pIeasurecanin itseIfbecomediscontent.Butapainfulexperience doesnotnaturaIybecomepIeasant.Tocounteract thepain,oneneedstochangewbatoneisdoing. Sufferingisinherentineverythingwithinourexis3I


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

tence.Tbus,thisisthefirsttruth:lnIifethereissuf-

fering.Whatisitscause?lgnoranceandgreed.lgnoranceistbelackofunderstandingtbataIcondi-

tionedtbingsareimpermanentandarevoidofan everlastingindividuaIidentity·GreedisthecraVng andattachmentformaterialthingsorpleasantexperiencesoranythingelse.WeprobabIytbinkthat wearenotgreedy;itisotherswhohavegreed:We onIyhavereasonablewishes.

lfyoufeelthatalIyourneedsarereasonabIe, pIeasereconsider·Thinkofoneofyourmosttreasuredpossessions.Pictureitinyourmind.Now,think ofgivingitaway.Whatdoyoufee>?Ifyouare}ike mostofus’youwilIfindthatitisverydiscomforting toconsidergivingawayatreasuredpossession.This isattacbment.Attac}]mentsareouremotionaIde-

siresforpeople’pIeasures,ideas,andsoon.Ourattachmentsand,therefore,ourcraVngsIeadusto

thinkthatcontrollingothersorhavingthingswiIl makeushappy. Butsoveryoften,everytimeweacquiresome-

thing,itsappealsoonfades.Wethenwouldlikea newerversionoradifferentcoIororafanciersty>e·

Thisisgreed. 32


TuRMNGTHEDHARMAWHEEL

ltisIiketakingachiIdtoatoystore.ThechiId

doeseverythingpossibIetogethisparentstopurchaseaparticuIartoy.Outofgenerosity>ormore likeIyfrustration’theparentbuystbetoyfortbenow happychi}d.ButafteronIyafewdays’thetoyvery oftenwiIlbegintoIoseitsappeaI’andsoon’thecbi>d }osesa}>interestinitandwantsanotl]ernewtoy.As adults,webehaveinexactIythesamemannerexcept ourtoysaremoreexpensive.Buttheprincipleisthe same:WearerareIysatisfied.Whenwetrytofind

happinessthroughideas,possessions,orotherpeople,wewillneverattainhappinessbecausewbatwe wanttoaccumuIateare’bytheirverynature’transitoryandimpermanentldeaschangeorgooutoffavor;possessionsbreak’get}ost,oraretakenfromus. PeopIedieorsimplyIeaveus. AIIofushavegreed,desires>andattacbmentsfor

things,peopIe,life’andmore.Why?Wearedeluded) andinourunawarenesswedonotseethingsasthey realIyare.Itis>ike}ookingatthereflectionoft}]e mooninthewaterandthinkingitistbereaImoon. WedonotseethereaIity.Wedonotunderstandthat weareonewithtbeuniverseWedonottrulyunderstandcausaIityandwhythingshappen.Wedonot 33


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

understandthatwearedrowninginourseIfisbness andignorance,orthateverythingisimpermanent

andconstantIychanging·Wedonotunderstandthat IifeentaiIssuffering’tbatitiscausedbycraVng,tbat sufferingcanend,andthatthewaytoitsendisthe pathofproperpractice. OurIackofunderstandingisanunderlyingcause ofwhywearestilIunhappy,stiIdiscontent.Our lackofawarenessbIindsustothetruthItis}ikebe-

ingawakenedbyastrangesoundinthenight:Inour ignorance,wethinktbatitisanintruderandwe panic.UponrealizingitisonIyabranchtapping againstawindow,werelax.lnourignorance)wedo notknowwhatisrealWethoughttheintruderwas reaIandpanicked,butwewerewrong’ AndifwetbinkthatweareindividuaIsandthat

wehavease}f,weareagainwrong.lfwehavea “self’”whereisit?Isitinourheart?Inourmind? SomewhereeIseinourbody>AsBuddhists,webeIievetbatthereisnoindependentseIf.Weareinterrelatedtoeverythingintheuniverse.UntiIwerealize thistbroughourownexperience,wewilldoevery-

thingwecantoprotectour<<self’”tomakeour“self” morecomfortable>tokeepour“seIf’a>ivelongeI-aIl 34


TuRNlNGTHED<-<ARMAWHEEL

becausewedonotyetreaIizethatweareal>one.We

arestilIdeIuded’stiIlignorantAndignorancegives risetoattachments,cravings,jealousy,bitterness,and more.Whenourgreedisnotsatiated,wegiveriseto theheartofangerofwhichtherearemanyfOrms. Whenwedonotgetwhatwewant,webecome annoyedWhenwelosewhatwehave,webecome

resentfulWhenweareunabletobewithpeop}ewe like,webecomeirritatedThesearealIformsofan-

ger.Angerhasitsrootsintbediscriminatoryand mistakenideaof“lamanindividual.>’Asaconse-

quence,wefeeltheneedtoprotectourideasand possessions’theneedtoprotectwhoweareindiVduaIIy.lgnoranceIeadsustothinkintermsofgain or>oss,ofpIusesandminuses,andsowefeelthe needtoprotectwhatisours,whetheritisathing,an idea,oraperson. T}]isconceptof“mine”IeadstoseIfishness’which inturnresultsinourwanting>eitherofwhatwedo notbaveormoreofwbatweaIreadyhave.Thisis greedandwhenourgreedisnotsatiated’wefeeIresentmentandanger.Whenangerremainsun-

cbecked’itwilIintensi吋intohatredthatinevitabIy growsstrongeruntilkilIingbecomesunavoidable35


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

aI>becauseofaHawedconcept,aIbecauseof“l” Greedthatisnotsatiatedresu>tsinanger.Greed andangerarisebecauseweareignorantanddonot knowthatcravingleadstomorecraVng.This,the Buddbasaidisthesecondtruth:Sufferingiscaused TheBuddhadidnotjustteIIuswhattheproblem was-thatlifeentailsdistress,thatourlivesarefiIed

withdissatisfaction,thatweareunbappymuchofthe time-andthenIeaveitatthat.Hewentonandex-

pIainedthattbisiscausedbyourowngreedThis greedcomesfromourignorance.Andt}]enhetoIdus unequivocaIlythattbereisawaytoendthissuffering WecandothisbyeIiminatingourselfishness. Whenourgreedandattachmentsnolongerexist, sufferingceases’andthestateofNirvanaisattained NirvanaisthestateinwhichwearepermanentlyliberatedfromourunI]appiness.lntbisstate,tbereis notboughtof“me”orMmine,}’andtbereisnomore greed,anger’andignorance.lnstead’thereispeace’ Iove,wisdom,andaleveIofcompIetehappinesstbat wecannotimagineorbegintodescribe. TbeBuddhadidnotteIIusaboutsufferingtotake tbejoyoutofourIives.Hedidnotintendtbatwe shouldfeeltbatlifewasdepressingorunbearableor 36


TuRNINGTHEDHARMAWHEEL

hope}ess.Hejustwantedtos}]akeusoutofour comp>acencv.HebopedthatwewouIdawakenand

rep>aceourcurrentstateofignorancewithoneof understandingTodenythatsufferingexistsispointless.ButtobecomeimmersedinfeeIingsofhopeIessnessisequaIyfutiIeWeneedtofoIIowtI]e MiddIePatbandfindaninnerba>anceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;toneither

drowninnorignoredistress,buttostrivetoovercomeourunsatisfactoryexistence.Thus,wenowreaIizetbethirdtruth:Sufferingcanend. Thewaytoitsendisthefourtbtruth:Practice.

Differenttraditionsandteacbersmayexplainthe practiceinsIigbtIydifferentways,buttheessenceof practiceisdiscipline,concentration,andwisdom.

37


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

çś´ THEPATHToLlBERATIoN:

DIsclPLINE,CoNcENTRATIoN,ANDWlsDoM

ByacknowIedgingtheexistenceandsourceofsuffering,wecanceasetocreatefurtberunhappinessby practicingmoralseIf-discipline.ThisenabIesusto attainthemeditativeconcentrationthatgivesriseto intuitivewisdom.

AswitheverytbingtheBuddhataught,moraldiscipline,meditativeconcentration,andintuitivewisdomarenottberesuItofbispersonaIopinionsor

arbitraryjudgments.Theyarederivedfromtbestandardofwhatiscorrect,bonest,andbeneficialFor

example>tosaythatIyingiswrongisnotapersonaI opinionltismoraI>ywrongbecauseitisdeceitfulIf wesaysomethinguntrueorwesimpIyexaggerate something,theotberpersonwi}lreactimproperly becausewehadgiven}]iminaccurateinformation. Lyingismora}Iywrongbecausewhatwesaidwasnot 38


THEPATHToL!BERATloN

correctandwewerenotI]onest.AIso)lyingisnot beneficialtoeitherthespeaIKerortbelistener.The seedsforbeinghurtinthefuturehavebeenreinforcedintl]espeal<er’andtheseedsforsadnessor bitternesshavebeensownintheIistener.These

standardsofwhethersomethingiscorrect,bonest, andbeneficiaIcanenabIeustodevelopdiscipIine, meditativeconcentration,andwisdom.

TobeginourpracticewecanstartwitbsomebasicunderstandingFirst)wecantesttoseeifsuffer-

ingexists,andifitiscausedbycravingandbyexpectations.Whenweexperienceeventsnotgoingthe wayweanticipate’wbengoodtimesdonotlast’

wbenthoseweIovearenotalwayswithus,andwe fee}tbat,yes>IifeisIarge>yunsatisfactory>weareexperiencingthereaIityofdiscontentment.Butwe cannotstopthere. Pormany,itbecomesIogicaIforonetowantto embarkonthepatbtogenuinehappiness.ThePour NobIeTruthsareintbemseIvesstatementsofcausaI-

ity.Wehavecravingandexpectations,whichweanticipatewiIImakeushappy.lfweweretojustIand thisnew>ob’orifonlythiswonderfulpersonwereto faIlinIovewithus,>ifewouIdbewonderfuI.But, 39


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

whenthesedesiresarenotfuIIed>distressarises.

Whenweremainstuckinanoldjob,orthereisno onetomeetuswbenwegobomeatnight>weun-

dergodisappointmentandIonelinessbecauseour expectationsremainunfulfilled. Butwhatifweobtainedwhatwewanted>Inevi-

tabIy,thingswiIIbecomeunsatisfactoryw}]enour otberexpectations’ofwhichtherearemany’arenot met.Thenewjobrequiresustowork>onghoursand thereareconstantdeadIineswebavenohopeof

making.ThewonderfuIpersonfaIsinIovewithus, butafterawhiIewedisc0verthatheisnotreaIythat

wonderfulPerhapshishabitsareannoyingorhe doesnotreaIIyIistentous. Tbus,whenourwishesandexpectationsarenot

met,unhappinessiscreated.Andevenw}]enour hopesarefuIfiIed’thehappinesswiIatsomepoint begintofadewhenourexpectationschange.Consequently,discontentmentiscreatedyetagain.Inevitably’weendupunhappyandunsatisfied,ifnot fromonething,thenfromanother,al>becauseof expectationstbatarisewhenwehaveattachments andcraving.

ToreduceourcraVngandeIiminateourattach40


THEPATHToLlBERAT<oN

ments,wecanpracticenonattachment.Thinkofit asIettinggo.ltdoesnotmeanwithdrawingfromsocietytoleadareclusiveIife.AnditmostcertainIy doesnotmeanneglectingourresponsibiIitieseitber. WestiIlneedtodothebestwecaninwbateverwe

aredoing,whetherwearemeetingt}]atdeadIineat workorwashingthedishesathome.Thetruespirit oflettinggoisthedetacbmentfromdesiresandexpectations.ltisourgreedthatcreatessuffering. Whengreedisreduced,discontentwilIikewise Iessen

IfwekeepteIIingourseIvestI]atwewantsomethingbecauseitwiImakeushappy,wearereinfOrcingthatdesireandincreasingourunrealisticexpectations.Onceweunderstandcausa}ity,wewillrealize tbatwhatwehavenowandwiI]aveinthefutureis

whatwehavedestinedourselvestoreceive,from

whatwedidinthepast.Thishappenswhetberor notwedesireit.Butwitbnodesire,weavoidpotentialdisappointments.

Whenwenolongerl]avecraVngandexpectations,wewilInotundergodisappointmentsdueto ourunfulfi}Ieddesires.Notbeingdisappointedhelps ustobebappier.lfsomethingenjoyablehappens>of 4l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

courseweappreciateit,forunexpectedhappinessis tbebestofaIkindsofhappiness.ButmoreimportantIy,witboutexpectation,thereisnodisappointment.Howcanwemisswbatweneverthoughtof havinginthefirstplace? InitialIy,inourpracticeofnonattachment,wewiⅡ focusonrelievingourowndissatisfactionbytraining ourseIvestoIetgoofattachmentsandexpectations. Gradually,wewiIdeveIopthewishtohelpthose aroundustoaIsoendtheirsufferingAswekeepexpandingthiscaringtoothers’wewilIbeincreasing ourloving-kindness.NolongerthinkingsoIeIyofourseIves,wewiIlseekbappinessforaI’andthereby practicecompassionandnotharmotbers.Eventually,ourheartofloⅥng﹣kindnessandcompassionwiⅡ encompassalIotberbeings. Lettinggotransformsgreedandattachment.Loving-kindnesstransformsanimosityandbitterness’ andharmIessnesstransformsinconsiderationand

crue}ty.Greed,iIlwiI,andthougbtlessnessarise fromignoranceandourfaiIuretounderstandcausality.Wecaneliminateourignorancewithwisdom. Butwheredowebegin>

WebeginwithmoraIseIf-discipline,withtraining. 42


THEPATHToL>BERAT<oN

OnabasicleveI’weabstainfrom(l)killing;(2) stealing;(3)sexua>’orsensuaI’misconduct;(4)Iying; and(5)takingintoxicantsOnabroaderbasis’we behaveinamoralandethicalwayineverythingwe do.ThesefivetrainingswiIlbecoveredinmoredetaiIintbesectionontbeprecepts;butIwouldliketo touchontbembrieHyhereinshort. BynotkiIIing,werevereaIife,andhavecompassionandrespectnotjustforotherpeopIebutaIsofor animaIs’insects’pIants)andtbeearthwhichsupportsus.Byourveryexistence)wearetakinglives. AswewaIk,westeponinsects.ToproducetbefOod weeatandthewaterwedrink,miIlionsofother

animaIandmicrobio>ogicaI}ivesaredestroyedWe cannotstopeatingordrinkingwater,butwecan makecertainwedonotwasteanything.Understandingourimpactonothers,wecanusewbatweneed, butnomorethanthat.

NotkiIingaIsohasaInoresubtleaspect:We shou>dnotkiItbeseedsofgoodnessinothersor harmanotheremotionaIy.WhiIeourthougbtsand actionscanbedamagingtoothers’itisourspeech thataItooeasilycommitsthisoffense.Ourcareless, sarcastic,orangrywordscandeepIywoundachild,a 43


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

Iovedone’orafriend.Weneedtouseourspeecb

wiseIyandspeakfromtheheartthatwisbestohelp others.

BynotsteaIing,werespectthepropertyofothers. Wedonottakeoruseanytbingwithoutpermission oftheowner.ThisseemssimpIeenough,butthis trainingaIsomeanstl]atwedonottakethatbook whichis>yingunclaimedinarestaurant.Neitherdo wekeeptbeextradollarthattheclerkmistakenIy gavetousnordowetakethingsfromwherewework forpersonaIuse· Bynotcommittingsexual,orsensual,misconduct, wedonotinduIgeinsensuaIpIeasures,understandingthattodosonotonIyincreasesourattacbments andcraving,butourdiscontentasweIl BynotIying’wespeaktruthfuIIy’understanding thepowertbatourwordscanbave.Wecbooseour wordswiselyrealizingthatgreatharmcanresultfrom ilI-considered,untrutbfulspeech

Bynottakingintox1cants’wedonottakesubstances tbataffectourabiIitytothinkandbehavecIearlyataII times,andthatbarmourbodies.Remainingclear}]eadedbelpsustonotbarmot}]ersorourseIves. Thesecondcomponentofproperpracticeis 44


THEPAT}-lToL<BERATIoN

meditativeconcentration>nmeditativeconcentra-

tion,wefocusourattentiononwI]ateverwearedo-

ingatthemoment:worI(ing’pIayingagamewithour children,IisteningtoafriendorIovedone>orchantingaBudd}]a!sname.T}]erearenodistractionsor worries,nodoubtsordrowsiness’nodiscriminations

orattachments:Weremainunaffectedbyourenvironmentandmaintainacalm,undisturbedmind

InitiaIly,thisstatewiIIbringjoyandasenseofease EventualIy,itwiIenabIeustoseethingsasthey truIyare. Wecantbinkofourmindasamirror,whichre-

flectseverytI]ingperfectIy.Butthismirrordoesnot judge,norisitattachedtotbeob>ectthatisseenref>ectedinit.Wbateverisinthemirrorisreflected

clearlyandpureIy.WetrytodotbesameinourpracticeofmeditativeconcentrationTheobjectiveisto seew}]atappearsinthemind’buttonottryto}]oId ontowhatarises.Wbenweaccomplishthis)wewiII no>ongerbepuIIedinonedirectiononemomentand tbeninanotberdirectionthenext.WbentI]e

t﹜﹞oughtpasses,wewiⅡnotmissit.OurmindwiⅡ returntoacaImandclearstate.

lneverydaylife,wecanconcentrateonwbatever 45


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

wearedoingWewiI|beawareofwhatisbappening aroundusbutwewiIlnotbedistractedordisturbed

byit.lndaiIyIife,wecanpracticemeditativeconcentrationineverythingwedo’whetberweareworking,wateringthegarden’ordriVngourcar.We cboosetbeobjectoractiVtyofourattentionand tbenremainfocusedonit.

ThemoreweareabIetoconcentrate,thebetter ourliveswilIbecome.Asourawarenessincreases, wewiIImakefewermistakes.OurfrustrationwiⅡ

diminishandwewilIbecomehappier.Ourobjective inthiskindofconcentrationistoreacha>eve>where

wenoIongerworryaboutwhathappenedyesterday orfearwhatmayhappentomorrow.WewiIltbusfeel moresecure.Also’whenwenoIongerfindourse>ves beingswayedbywhatevertboughtsorfeeIingsthat happentoarise,wewilIremaincalm. Wealsostrivetoattainmeditativeconcentration

inourBuddhistpractice.Somemethodsrequirethe guidanceofateacber,whileotherscanbepracticed onourown.Onourown)wecanconcentrateonim-

permanence.ThiswiIIenabIeustounderstandthat nothingremainstbesame,andthatcravingandignorancekeeppuI>ingusbackintounhappiness. 46


THEPATHToLlBERATloN

InthepracticeofconcentratingonnoseIf’wewiⅡ realizethateverythingisinterrelated.Thereisno you,nol;tbereis>ustoneThispracticewilIheIpus toreduceconflictswithothersandtonoIongerexperienceIoneIinessandaIienation.lnstead,wewiII knowtheunityofaIlbeings. ThepracticeofconcentratingonNirvanawiⅡ helpustofindthisultimatereality.NolongerwiII wefeelthattbereismoretoIifethanwhatweare

experiencingatanymomentandthatwearemissing outonsomethingmoremeaningfulouttbere. ThepracticeofconcentratingonaBuddha’sname wi}IheIpustobecomeonewiththeperfectcompassion,perfecthappiness,andperfectpeacetbatistbe Buddba.AswerealizethatweareaIreadyonewith theonewhoisperfect,wenoIongerfeeItbatweare goingtotaketbejourneybyourseIves>nitiaIy,tbe goalsofunderstandingu}timatereaIityandattaining perfectionmayseemfarbeyondourreacbButthe pathtoreacht}]emIiesatourfeet.Proceedingonit requiresmoraIdiscipline,meditativeconcentration, andintuitivewisdom.

ThefinaIcomponentofproperpractlcelslntultlve wisdomlntuitivewisdomisnotaninteIectuaIpur47


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

suitnorisitameasureofacademicintelIigence.ltis insightfu>knowingandunderstanding’anditarises fromwithinuswhenourmindsareclearandcaIm.

InitialIy,whenwestartthepracticeofmoraldiscipline,meditativeconcentration,andintuitivewisdom,ourmotiveswiIbemoreseIf-centeredTbisis

perfectIynorma>andareasonabIepIacetostartfrom asweseektoimproveourse>ves’withtheaimofimproVngour>ivesand,then’offreeingourselvesfrom suffering.GraduaIywewiIbegintogeneratethe wishtohelpothers.WbiIewefocusonreducingour ownfeelingsofdissatisfaction,wewiImakeprogress-whichisobVous}ygood.ButwewiI>really begintostrengthenourpracticewhenwegenerate tbeaspirationtobelpaI>othersalongthepathas weI.

48


KARMAANDREB>RTH

芒蠻﹤ KARMAANDREBlRTH

WhentheBuddhaspokeofvariousuniversaIphenomenaandeternaIprincipIes’hewasteachingwbat hehimseIfhadIearnedtl]rougbobservationanddirectexperience.Hetaugbtthateverythingisimpermanent,theexistenceofsuffering,howitiscaused’ andhowtoendit.ThewaytoendaIthatisunsatisfactoryandpainfulinourIivesistofoIowthepatb ofdiscipline,concentration’andwisdom.Practicing witbdiligenceonthispathonecanattainliberation fromdistressandunhappiness. TheBuddhaaIsospokeofthelawofcausa>ity: Wereapwhatwesow.Goodresultsingood,andbad incursbadWebavecreatedourIivesandarethus

responsib>efortbem.Sincewearetheoneswho

havecreatedour>ives’weaIonecanchangethem. UnderstandingthatunhappinessiscausedbycraVng andexpectations,wecanbegintochangeourIives 49


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

byeIiminatingthesenegativeemotionalhabitslfwe havenoexpectationsofsomeoneorofcertaincircumstances’wewiInotbesubjecttodisappointmentandwilInotreactwithannoyanceoranger. Andifwearenotimmersedinfrustrationandre-

sentment,wecanremainca>m.

TbeIawofcausalityisnotaman-madelawora judgmentbyanexternalforcethatimpingesupon ourIives:Causalityisanatural>aw’asnaturalasa ba}lbouncingbacktomeafterIhadthrownit againstawalI.AstbephysicistSirIsaacNewton said,everyactionmusthaveanequaIandopposite reaction.SimpIyput,wereapwbatwesow.Since causalityisanaturaI}aw,thereisnojudge’jury,or rulingbodythatdeterminesourconsequences:Our pasttboughts,speech,andactionsdetermineour Iivestoday.Andjustasourlivestodayaretheresult ofourpast,whatwesay’think’anddotodaywiIl shapeourfuture. TheBuddhaexplainedthatpbenomenaarecreatedbythebeartlfwespeakoractwithanimpure beart,thensufferingwiIlfoIIowus’assure>yasacart folIowstheoxenthatpuIIitlfwespeakoractwitha serenebeart’thenhappinesswi}Ifo>>owusjustIike 50


KARMAANDREBlRTl-l

ourshadowdoes.

Forme,personally,thekarmicexpIanationofwhy thingshappenhasalwaysmadesenseltwaswbat firstdrewmetoBuddbism.ItmaynotyetproVdetbe answersyouseekâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;butformeitdidWhydosome peopIehavesucbdifficuItliveswhiIeothersseemto haveeverythingt}]eycou}deverwant?Wbyisthere somuchunbappinessintheworId?Dothingshappen randomIyoristhereapatterntoexistence> PromaBuddhistperspective,theIawofcausaIity exp>ainstbatthingshappentousbecauseofwhatwe havedoneinthepast.WeareresponsibIeforourseIves.Hence,wecannotbIameanotberforthecircumstancesinwhichwefindourseIves.Understand-

ingthis,wewiIlgraduaIIyIearntostopblamingothers,ourenVronmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;evenourparentsforwhathappenstous.TheinequalitiesinIifeareduetoour ownpastthoughts,speech,andactions.Theseresult int}]efamilythatweareborninto)thepersonwe marry,thechiIdrenwehave,andeventheenVronmentinwbichweIive. Karmaisanactionoracombinationofactions

performedbyusandwhichinvariablyproducesresults.Theseactionsmaybegood,bad,orpure.Good 5l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

karma>eadstofavorab}eresu>tsandrebirthint}]e

bigherreaImsofrebirth.BadkarmaleadstobadresultsandrebirtbintheIowerreaImsofrebirth.Pure

karmaleadstoenIightenmentandenablesoneto transcendthecycIeofrebirth. KarmicactionscanbecreatedbyanindividuaIor jointlybyagroupTheconsequentresultscanbe goodorbadandhelptodeterminethefutureofthe individuaIorindiVdualswhocreatedt}]em.WhiIe

thecausewiIalwaysproducearesult’wbentbatresuItwilloccurcannotbepredicted.IftherightconditionsdonotmanifestforawhiIe,theresuItwiIie

dormantforaslongasittakesthoseconditionsto n]ature.

RegardIessofthetimeframeinvolved,thecausaI linkisclear.Thoughtsofgreed,animosity,cIosedmindedness’andofpIeasingourseIvesattbeexpense ofotherswilIresuItinadverseconsequences. ThougbtsofseIessness)considerationforothers, andunderstandingwiIeadtogoodresuIts.Ourgoal istoeliminatetheselfishandnegativeactions’and toincreasethepositiveones.Ateveryinstantinour lives,wecandecidewhatwewiIlthink,say,ordoin thenextmoment.ButunfortunateIy’mostoftbe 52


KARMAANDREB>RTH

timewedonotconscious>ymakesuc}]decisions,eitherbecauseweremainunawaret}]atwecanorare

notusedtodoingso,or,alltoooften,wearesimply too}azy. Oureveryactionisprecededbyathought>butwe aresopreoccupiedwithourseIvesandsodistracted bytheceaseIessbombardmentofourthoughtsthatit wouldseemthatweactwithoutthinking.Toolate werea>izethat,onceagain,wehaveactedautomaticalIyoutofnegativehabitsand,consequentIy, plantedanot}]erharmfulseed EverythingwedopIantsaseedinourn]ostsubtIe consciousness.A}ltheseedsIiedormant,waitingfor theproperconditionstomatureJfwe’asgardeners’ plantaseedinrichsoilwhereitwillreceiveIotsof sunIight,wateritproperIy’andtakecareofit,that

seedwillgrow.lfwepIacetheseedinabagand storeitinaceIlar,nothingwiIbappen.Likewise,a>l oftheseedsinourconsciousnessarewaitingfortbe rigbtconditions-karmicversionsofthesoil’ sunlight,andwater-tomature.Whentbeseedmatures,thecausebringsfortbaresult.Butitdoesnot endthere.

Causeandeffectisacontinuouscycle.Acause 53


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

triggersaresult.TbatresuItthenbecomesanew cause,wbichwiIItriggeranotberresult,andonand onitgoes.ThischainnotonIyaffectsusbutothers aswelI.Wedosomethinganditaffectssomeone aroundus·Intheirresponsetoouraction’theyaffect someoneelse.Thiscreatesawave-Iikeresponseof causeandeffecttbatmovesoutwardsinanever-

wideningcircIe)justIikewI]atresuItswhenasingle dropofwatersplashesintheocean:Therippleeffect resuItsinaIItbeotherdropsofwaterintbeocean moVng

Eacbofushasplantedacombinationofgood seedsandbadseeds.Thus,withineachofusliesthe

seedsforbothIoVng-kindnessandtreacbery,forbotb goodnessandunwbo>esomeness,andforbothtoleranceandanimosity.WbichonesmaturetodaywiI> dependonourindividualconditions.ltwouIdbe helpfuItorememberwhenwearetemptedtocriticize anotherforherdisIoyaltythatitcouldhavejustas easiIybeenusinherpIace.WehaveaIIplantedthe seedsfordeceptionandaggression.lfwebadencounteredsimilarconditions,weprobablywouldbave actedIikethosewewereabouttocriticize.Sowbile

wedonotcondoneordismisstheirbehavior,wemust 54


KARMAANDREBlRTH

reaIizetheneedtohavewisdom’topracticecompassion,andtokeepeverythinginaproperperspective. Thiscana}sobeIpustovaIueour‘<goodkarma, thatwhicbmakesusinteIIigent,skiIfUl’andwhoIesome’andtonotdepIeteit.lfwekeepenjoyingthe wholesomenesswecreatedwithoutaccumulatingany more,wewiIleventuaIlyuseitalIup.Sincegoodness bringsgoodness,itbecomesevenmoreIogicaIto practicewbatweIearnedofdiscipIine,concentration, ))

andwisdom.Thisiswherewecanusethestandard

ofwhatiscorrect,honest’andbeneficial

Thisresponsibilityoftakingtheinitiativetosow goodseedsforourselvesdoesnotappIyonlytoBuddhists.The}awofcausalityisanaturaIlaw,liketbat ofgravity.Somemaysayt}]attheydonotbeIievein gravity,butifapersonwhobeIievesingravityanda personwhodoesnotbeIieveinitboth>umpoffadivingboard’donotexpecttbatonIyonewiIIfal>wbiIe theotherhappiIynoatsaroundintheair.ThenaturaI lawofgravitytakesover,anditappliestoaII.Tbey wiIIbothspIashintothewater.AndjustIikethelaw

ofgravity’weareaIIsubjecttothe>awofcausality. ThisshouIdnotbedepressingbutIiberating,forit meanswearenot}]opeIessIystuckwithourkarma. 55


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

Wecanchoosetonurtureonegroupofseedsover another.

SometimeswecanseecausaIityfunctioning aroundus.Intheexampleofjumpingoffthatdiving board>thecauseisthejumpingandtheresuItisfa|-

Iingintothewater.Atothertimestbelinkbetweena causeanditsresultisnotasapparent.Tbisbringsus

toanotherimportantconcepttbattheBuddhaspoke of:rebirthThissbouIdnottobeconfusedwithrein-

carnation.RebirthistbecausaIinkfromonelife-

timetothenext’asthemostsubtleIevelofcon-

sciousnesspassesfromoneIifetothenext,Iikea river日owing廿omoneplacetoanotber.Ontbeotber hand,reincarnationisgeneraIlydefinedastbe movementoftbesouIfromone}ifetot}]enext.

ReincarnationisnotsoIeIyanEasternconcept.

PythagorasrememberedhispreVousbirthPlatorememberedanumberofbisformerIives.Otherwest-

ernphiIosophers,suchasEmmanueIKant,bave spokenofreincarnation.ltbasbeenreportedthatin tbeUnitedStates,thirtymiIionpeoplebeIievein reincarnationandalittIeoveronehaIfofitspopu>ace tbinkitisadistinctpossibility.

TheBuddbaexperiencedtherealityofcausality 56


KARMAANDREBlRTH

andrebirthonbisnightofen}ightenment.Henot onIysawhisownIivesbuttbelivesofcountlessothersasweIlHe>aterexpIainedtbatonourlongjourneyofIife,aswewanderaimlesslyfrombirthto birth,therebavebeenmoretearsshedforusthan thereiswaterintheoceans.

Youmaynotbelieveincausalityandrebirth,but regardless,}ikegravity,theywiIlstiIIbethereandcan provideanswersastowhygoodpeopIemayundergo endlessdifficuIties,wbileotherswhoareselfisband

uncaringen>oygreatweaItI]andpower.Causa>ity andrebirthcana>soexpIaintbeexistenceofgeniuses;forexamp>e’MozartandRembrandt,orwhy onechildisloVngandfiIiaI,whilehissiblingisde-

ceitfuIandungratefuI·MozartandRembrandtmay bavebeencreativegeniuseswho}Iadstrongpassions fortheirartandwbofoundtl]emseIvesagainbeing puIedbytbatkarmaintoalaterIifetimewheretbat talentresurfacedAndsib}ingsaremoreaproductof theirownindiVdualpastkarmathanoftheircurrent envlronn]ent.

Tbosewhoareundergoingdifficulties,despite theircurrentgoodness,hadcreatedthecausesfor thosedifficultiesintheirpastIivesand’onrareocca57


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

sions,ear}ieroninthisIifetime.Now’theconditions

forthatpersontoundergodifficuItconsequences havematuredTheyarereapingwhattheysowedin tbepast. ThosewhoseIfishlyenjoygreatwealthwithout practicinggenerosityintbiscurrentIifetimeare coastinga}ongont}]eirpositivekarmatbattheyhad createdinthepast.ButtbeircurrentseIf-centered be}]aVorwiIlcausethemtoquickIyrunthrougbthat karma,Iikeapersonwhokeepswritingcbeckswitboutdepositingmoremoneyintothebank.Atsome point,becausetberearenotadditionaIcausesthat createwealthandgoodfortune,theircurrentstoreof positivekarmawiIIbedepIeted,andsuddenIythey wiIIbegintoexperiencemanyprob}ems. Wedonotneedtoknowwhattheexactcircum-

stancesareorwhattheprecisecauseandeffectislt istbeproperunderstandingofthegeneralconceptof thelawofcausalitythatcanhelpustobecomebetterpeopIe,andthisiswhatweneedtofocuson· UponseeingthosewhoareexperiencingdifficuIties, wearewrongtosimpIydismissthembythinkingthat theircurrentadversitiesaretheresultoftheirown

pastactions,andthusthehardshipsareessentialIy 58


KARMAANDREB>RTH

theirownfauIt.Withrigbtunderstanding’wewiIIdo theopposite.WewiIIfeeIcompassionforthemand }]avethewisdomtoknowhowtobetterheIpthem. WhattheydidinanotI]erIifetimeorevenearIier inthislifetimehasIongpassedfromtheirconscious mind’orhasbeenforgotten,justasourformeractionsarelikewise>ongforgottenbyus.TbisshouId hardlybesurprisingconsideringhowIittIewerememberofwbatwedidon}yyesterdaylHereand now’inthislifetime,peopIewhoareundergoing greatdifficuItiesfeeIthattbeyarehe>plessvictims> puIedtbiswayandtbatbycircumstancestbeyseem unabIetochangeorcontroI. Wecannotjustsaythatthisistbeirkarmaanduse t}]isasanexcusetodonothingPorustobIameand dismissthemistoactoutofignoranceandarrogance. lnstead,knowingabouttheexistenceofsufferingand causality’wecanchoosetobenonjudgmentaland usecompassionaswetrytounderstandandhelp them.Wecanthinkaboutwbattheyareundergoing andremindourselvesthatifwedonotwis}]tofind

ourselvesinsimilarcircumstances,weneedtopracticegenerosity)}oVng-kindness,andcompassion.

59


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

ć&#x2021;¸ THETHREEDHARMASEALs

EveryBuddhistteachingbearstheThreeUniversal DharmaSeals.WithoutaIlthreeseaIstbeteachingis notaBuddbistteaching.lntheMahayanatradition, thetbreeseaIsareimpermanence)noseIf,andno wishImpermanenceandnoseIfbelongtoourworId ofexistence>toourlimitedVewofreaIity.T}]estate ofwishlessness-Nirvana-istheultimatereality. TbefirstD}]armasealstressesthatalIfabricated

thingsareimpermanent.TheseincIudeourthougbts andfeelingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ourselves,ourworId,andeverytbing aroundus.Ourthougbtsandfeelingsareinaconstantstateofflux.Onemomentwemaybehappily Iaughingandinthenextmiserableassometbingthat issaiddeeplyhurtsus.

WeareconstantIychanging:OurbodyceIlsare continuouslyregeneratingthemselves.Wecansee thisinageneraIsensewhenweIookinamirror. 60


THETHREEDHARMASEALs

Whatweseeint}]emirrorisnotwhatwesawayear ago.Itissimilar,butnotexactIythesame. KnowingtbatafIowerwiIInotbearoundforever, orthatthepersonweIovewillnoIongerbewithus onedaywiIlremindustocberishourtimewitht}]em

andnottaketbemforgranted.ReaIizingtbatawonderfulmomentwiIIsoonbegonewiIImotivateusto appreciateitnow.WedonotwanttoregretIaterthat wemissedanopportunitybecausewethougbtthat

therewouIdbeanotherchancetoenjoyitIater. UnderstandingthatnothingispermanentwiIheIp ustoacceptthefactthatpeopIeandthethingswe Iovewillnotbewithusforever.WewilItbusvalue

themevenmore.Also,knowIngt}]ateverything cbanges,incIudingunhappiness,givesusthebopethat unpIeasantcircumstancesmayimprovefOrthebetter, thatnegativeconditionsmayIaterturnpositive. ThesecondD}]armaseaIexplainsthatnothing thatexistshasanindiVduaIseIf.Whenwelookin

tbatmirror,weperceivewbatwethinkofas“self.’’

WeIookaIitt>edifferentthanwedidayearago,but weperceiveourseIvesasbeingthesameperson.But oncewetbinkof“me,”itbecomesnaturaItot}]inkof

(<you”and“others.”Thatishowdiscrimination,witb 6l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

aIitsinberentiIs,starts.EventuaIy,wediscrimi-

nateagainsteveryoneandeverything.But『﹜iscom﹣ posedofmineralsandelementstbatusedtobe someoneorsometbingeIse.One}]undredyearsago, ‘T’didnotexist.Onehundredyearsfromnow)‘T> willnolongerbehere>atleastnotinthisform.Part ofthepbysicaI『maybeinacloud,anotherpartin afIower’oranotherpartinanewbook╴nomore“l.” Atsometime,eacbofuswiIdie.Ifweunder-

standtbatthroughouttheuniversethereisonlyone beingandthatwearethereforeaIIpartofoneanotber)thatwearenotindividuaIs,thatourcompo-

nentpartswiIlseparateandre-form,andthatour lovedonesareaIreadyonewithus,tbenwewiIInot beoverwbelmedwithsadnesswhenthepbysical separatlonoccurs.

HearingthatnothingbasanindividuaIseIfmight beverydifficuIttoaccept.Perhapswecanappreciatethisconceptmoreifwelookatanexamplethat demonstratesinterconnectivity’suchaspoIlutionTo

poIutetheenVronmentortopoIIuteonepartofour bodyistopoIuteandharmthewholeofourselves. Whenoneorganinourbodyisnourisbed,polluted, orhurt,ourwholebodywilIbeaffectedsimilarIy. 62


THETl-lREEDHARMASEALs

Likewise,beingpartofasingIe,biggerentity,to nourishourseIvesistonourishaIIbeings. UnderstandingtbatthereisnoindependentseIf andthatweareaIIinterreIatedandpartofoneanotherwiIIbringusasenseoftogetbernessandpeace, whiIeviewingourse>vesasindividuaIscanIeadto feeIingsofisoIationorsuperiority.lfwefeeIweare separatefromeverythingandeveryone’wemightbe unabIetoconnectwitbothersandwi>Ibecome

caughtupinself-pity.Ontheotherextreme,feeling tbatweareseparatefromothers’wemightbeginto tl]inktl]atweImowtbebestwaytodothingsand thatothersarenotasbrightaswearePeeIingsuperiorcanIeadtotbe>ustificationthatitisrighttoimposeourviewsonothersandthatcontroIingothers isjustifiabIe. TheThirdDharmaSeaIisNirvana,t}]estateof

wishIessness.NotapIaceorastateofnothingness’ Nirvanaisastatethatisbeyondsuffering’beyond cravingforworldIyexistenceorsensuaIinduIgence ltistheextinctionoftheideasofseIfandother,

birthanddeatb’gainandIossltisthecessationof

thinkingthatlcanattainI]appinesseventhoug}] othershavenotorthatthedistressofothersistbeir 63


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

concern,notInlne.

UnderstandingthatthewaytoultimateIiberation isNirvana,wewillunderstandtbatgenuinehappinessisnottobefoundinamaterialisticâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;self-

centeredexistence.Itisachievedtbroughcompassion,moraIself-discipIine,meditativeconcentration, andinnatewisdom.OnIybypassingtoastatebe-

yondanythingwecannowimagineorattempttodescribewiIlwetruIybeĺťżeeandbeabIetobelpotbers tobefreeasweII.

64


THEFouRIMMEAsuRABLEMlNDs

蠻 THEPouRIMMEAsuRABLEMlNDs

Howcanwehelpotberstofindhappiness>Oneway istbroughtbepracticeofthePourImmeasurabIe Minds.TbefirstmindisthatofIoving-kindness, whichisofferinghappinesstoothers.Thesecondis themindofcompassion’whichistheintentionand wishtore>ievethesufferingofothers.Tbirdisjoy, wbichisfeltwhenbeingsexperiencebappiness.And fourthisequanimity:beingneitheraversetonorattachedtoanythingWeshouIdunderstandthatwe cannotcauseotherstotranscendsufferingortofeeI happinessorjoy’butwecanstiI]avethewishthat aIlbeingswiIIbeab﹜etoaccompIishsuch廿eedom andjoyfulness. ldealIy’oneday)wewilInaturaIywanttopractice aIfourbecauseofourIoveforaIbeings>butrealisticaIy,untilthatday’weneedtostartfromwherewe areandfromwbatwecanreIateto.Thus,ourprac65


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

ticeofthePourlmmeasurabIescanbeginwithwantingotherstobeI]appy.GraduaIIythiscanprogressto wantingthemtoattainjoy.HappinessisaphysicaI state;joyamentaIone.Theattainmentofjoy,asweⅡ ast}]ewisbforotherstoattaintbestateof]oy’isa higber-Ievelac}]ievement,bighert}]antl]econdition ofp}IysicaIyfeeIinggood WecanstartthispracticewithtbosewhoarecIosesttous:ourfamilyand廿iends.Wecantbenextend ittothoseweknowandIike)andgradual}ykeepon expandingtbispracticeoutwardsuntiIwefeelIovingkindness,compassion,>oy,andequanimityforalIbeingsinourworId,andeventuaIyforaIbeings

throughouttheuniverse.Ultimately,thecapacityof ourmindtocareforaIlbeingsbecomesimmeasurabIe.Thenourmindembracestheexpanseofspace andencompassesthevastnessoftbeuniverse. Thesefourstagesareakintobowafiregrows

fromstrengthtostrengthPirst’tostartthefire,we needpaperandthorough}ydrykindIingwoodTbere mustbenodraftandwemustcarefuIIytendourfire> focusingonitcompIetely.Asitbeginstoburnmore strong}y,wecanadd}argerpiecesofwood,whichin turnincreasesthefire.Eventually,whenourfireis 66


THEFouRlMMEAsuRABLEMlNDs

blazingintenseIy’evenaddinglargelogsthatarenot yetdrycanstiIlfueIthefire.

Thefirstmindisloving-kindness.ThisistbepracticeofseIessness,whereweconstantlyseektobenefitothersandtoheIpotherstofindhappiness.When wewishtohurtanother,weareexperiencinganger. WaitingforanopportunitytoinfIictI]armonthatperson,wearee)叩eriencinganimosity.Whenanimosity continuesforaIongtimeitbecomeshostility.When weactuponthesethoughtsthroughspeechoractions,theI]ostilitybecomescrueIty.Tocounterthese destructiveemotions,weneedloving﹣kindness︿ Toofferhappinesstoothers,weneedtoknow whattheywant,andforthisweneedtoIistenand understand.lfsomeonetelIsusthattheydonot needorwantsomethingbutweinsistongivingitto tbem,weareonlyofferingfrustrationandirritation, nothappinesslftheywisbfornothing,thengiving themnothingistheofferingofhappiness·Weshould trytogiveotherswbattheywishforasIongasitis notharmfuI,evenifwhattbeylikeissomet}]ingwe donot.OurpersonaldesiresoropinionssimpIydo nota}waysrefIectwhatotherpeopIewant. Soofteninourwishtomakeothershappy,we 67


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

prOjectwbatwelikeontothem.Ourintentionsmay begood,butwithoutwisdomthebestofintentions canbackfire’exasperatingothersanddisappointing ourselves.Toofferhappiness,weneedtosetaside tbethinkingthatotberswisbforwhatwewishand, instead,provideotberpeopIewithwhattheytruIy wishfor.

Thesecondmindiscompassion,orthewishand intentiontoaIIeVatethesufferingofothersltcounterssorrowandanxietyltistheunconditionaIcare andconcernforaIIIivingbeings,theabiIitytorealize thataIIbeingsexperiencedistress’notjustourselves orthosewecarefor.AIItoooftenwefindourseIves

trylngtoeasethepainofthoseweloveandcarefor’ butcompIeteIydisregardingtbepainofotherpeople whomwedonotcarefororevendislike.IdeaIIy,our

compassionshouIdbefeItequa}Iytoall ThispracticecanbeverypowerfulManyofus havesomeoneinourliveswboseemsdeterminedto

causeusprob}ems.Forinstance,thispersonmight beasupervlsorwhoasksushowwewoulddoacertaintaskWewouldspendtimesearchingforthe bestwaytoaccomp>ishtbetaskandthenpresentour recommendation.ButineVtably’tbesupervIsor 68


THEFouRlMMEAsuRABLEM>NDs

woulddisregardoursuggestionanddoashewishes. Thiscanbeextremelyfrustrating. ButifwetakethetimetoIookcarefuIy,wemight weIseethatoursupervisoris,inturn,underagreat deaIofpressurefromhissuperVsorwhoconstant>y Iosesbertemper.UndertheconstantthreatofverbaI abusewbenanythinggoeswrong’oursuperVsorwiII naturaIIydowbathefee}smostsafewitbHeis someonewbotrulyneedsourcompassion,forheis constantlyworriedaboutbeingcriticizedorembarrassed,especiaIyinfrontofothers.Byunderstandingbistruesituation,wecanbegintofeeIsome compassionforhisconstantdistress. Inthisandothersituations,wecantrytohave compassionbyunderstandinghowtheot}]erperson isfeeling·ltisnotnecessarytohaveexperiencedexact}ywhattheyaregoingtbroughortobecomeimmersedintbesituationwiththem.WewiIIaccom-

pIis}]nothingifweempatbizesocompIetelyt}]atwe areunabIetoeffective>yhe>pthemlnstead,weneed toremainclearinourthinkingandreactions. lfsomeoneisdrowning,jumpinginnotknowing howtoswimwiIInotheIpWhatweneedtodoisto saveberfromdrowningTodothis>itisnotneces69


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

sarytoexperiencethesamesituationastheoneshe isexperiencing.Weneedtocalmlyfindawaytofix thesituation,usingourownexperienceandwisdom toguideus. T}]ethirdmindisthatofjoy’whichiswantingalI beingstobefreefromunhappinessandbeingsincereIyhappy’withoutanytraceofjea>ousy’when theyaccomplisbtbisjoycounterssadnessltist}]e stateofgreatcontentmentandease. AI>toooften)wewishtocontroIothers.Webe-

comeirritatedwhent}]eyfaiItobehaveaswewish.If otherstbenpraisethemfortheirbehaVor’webecomeevenmorefrustrated.ButweshouldIearnto

feelhappyforthemlfthepersonisgenuineIyhappy inwhattheyhavechosentodoandtheiractions havenotharmedanyone,then,yes,weoughttofeel joyfortbem. Thefourthmindisequanimity’whichis}ettinggo. Itcountersattachmentandaversion.ltistostop

cIingingandtonolongerjudgeordiscriminateltdoes notmeanthatwedonotlove.ltmeansthatwelove

equaIlyandimpartially,Iikeamotherwholovesallher children.LoVngeveryoneof}]erchiIdren,amotheris loveforonechi}disnotIessenedLoVngallberc}]il70


THEPouRlMMEAsuRABLEMlNDs

drenwitbequanimitydoesnotmeansbeisindifferent towhathercI]iIdrenfeeIordo.ShesimpIylovesthem aIunconditionaIIyandwithoutexpectations. EquanimityinIoveisnon-possessive.ltisIiketI]e sunsbiningonaIIbeingsequaIIy.Tbesundoesnot

differentiate’decidingtoshinemoreonthisperson andIessonthatpersonNeitI]erdoestI]esuncIing tothoseitsbineson>tshinesonaIitseeswitI]

warmthandbrigI]tness-equaIIy. Whenwecanvieweveryonewithequanimity,we wiIunderstandthatpeopIearewhotbeyare.Ifwe expectthemtoconformtoourideaIs)wewiII smothert}]emanddestrovtbem.ltwouIdbemucb

betterto>ustacceptpeopleastheyare’withoutany ofourpre-conceivedviewsandpersonaljudgments. OuronIywishshouIdbefort}]emtobefreefroln suffering’andtobehappyandfilIedwith>oy. DeveIopingthePourlmmeasurabIeMindsrequiresmuchtime’entbusiasm,anddedication.AI-

thoughourPourMindstodaymayseemtobevery smaIandnarrowIyfocused’tbeirgraduaIexpansion toencompassthewhoIeuniversewillbringusimmeasurablejoy.

7l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

ćż° THEPIEPREcEPTs

MostpeoplewanttoIiveasafe,healthy,andhappy Iife.HowdoweproceedtowardtbisideaI?TheBuddhaprovideduswithfivepreceptstoguideusonour waytoindividuaIIiberation.NotjustforBuddhists, thesepreceptsarebasictotheworId!smajorspirituaI traditionsandethicaIteachings. ThefirstpreceptistorefrainfromkiIing.ltisnot theprincipIeitse>fthatpeopIedisagreeonbutrather itsinterpretation.SomebeIievethatabstentionfrom

kilIingonlyreferstonottakingtheIifeofanother bumanbeing.OthersfeelthatitiswrongtokilIboth peopIeandcertainanimaIs,butallrighttokillinsects.StiIothersbeIievethattointentionaIlytake tbeIifeofanyIiVngbeingiswrong.AIItheseareinterpretationsofnotkiIling. lnBuddhism,notkiIIingisthereverenceforal} lifeandisfoundedoncompassion.AlIanimalsfear 72


THEFIEPREcEPTs

deatbandexperiencepainwhenhurt.Understanding this,wecantrytobemindfulofeverythingthatwe aredoing:WedonotwanttoinadvertentlykilIor burtanotber>ivingbeingPorexamp>e,wecantryto beawareofwherewearewalkingsowedonotcareIessIysteponIiVngcreatures.Bykeepingourhomes cleanweattractfewerinsectsandmice’whichre-

ducestheIikeIihoodofhaVngtodeaIwitbremoving tbem.Ifwedohavemice’wecanusetrapsthatcapturethemaliveandthenffeetheminasafearea.

Whygotoallthistroub}e?Whynot]ustkiIt}]em andbedonewithit>lsn)titnaturaltokilllowerIife

formsIikeanimalsandinsects?lnourignoranceand arrogance,weincorrectIybelievethatwearesuperior toanimals.Butwitbineverybeingisatruenature identicaItothatofaIIBuddhas.TheseenIigbtened beingshaveuncoveredtheirtruenature.Oursremainburieddeepwithinus.WhenwefinaIyawaken anduncoverourtruenature,we,too,wiIattain enlightenmentandbecomeBuddbas.

Sinceallbeingsbavethisnature’weare,bynature,equaltooneanother.OurIivesaredifferent

duetothedifferentcausbswepIantedinourinnumerableIifetimes.AIIthesecausesarestoredinour 73


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

mostsubtIeconsciousness.Whencertainconditions

areright,certaincauseswiIlmature,bringingfOrth correspondingconsequenceswbiIeaIItheotherswiⅡ remaindormant.lnthislifetime,thecauseswe

plantedtobetbepersonweare}]avematuredThe causesananimaIplantedtobebornastI]atparticularanimaIhave>ikewisematured.NexttimeourroIes couIdbereversed|

Asweprogressinourpracticeofcompassionand nokilIing’theobjectiveisnottogiverisetoasingIe thoughtofirritation,muchIesstoanger.Compassion mustbeexperiencedandfe>t’notjustunderstoodon aninteIectuaIevelOnIywhencompassionand gentlenessareanactivepartofourbeingwiIIwe stopreactingoutofangerandbatred.Leftunchecked,angerandbatredwiIIeventuaIIyresuItin kiIling.Onlywhenloving-kindnessisafunctioning partofuswiIlweendtbewarswithinandbetween eachofusandattainpeaceforaIl OftenwbendiscussingtbepreceptofnokiIing, peopleaskifaIIBuddhistsarevegetarian.No,notall Buddhistarevegetarians.SomeBuddhistsfoIlow whatarereferredtoasthethreepuremeatrules. Tbeseru>essaythatpeopIearenottoeatmeatif 74


THEFIEPREcEPTs

t}]eysawtheanimaIbeingkiIIedforthem,ifthey heardtbeanimaIbeingkiIIedfortI]em,orifthey suspectthattheanimaIwaskilledforthemtoeat. Thedecisiontoeatmeat,tofoIowthethreepure meatrules,ortodecidetobecomeavegetarianora veganoftenisinHuencedbymanyfactors. Butnomatterwhatthereasonisfordecidingto becomevegetarianorvegan-compassionfOrthe sufferingofothers,respectforaIbeings’enVronmentaIconcerns,personalhealthconcerns╴many studieshaveconcIudedthatvegetariansgeneraIy enjoybetterheaIthandliveIonger. Thesecondpreceptistorefrain仕omtakingwhat isnotgiven.Bynottakinganythingwitboutpermission,wewiIbefreeofnaggingthoughtsofhaving donesomethingwrongEvenifanob>ectappearsnot tobeIongtoanyone,takingitwillbreaktbisprecept. NotsteaIihgaIsoincIudesthingsIikepayingothersa reasonabIeandfairwageforworkthatisdone,treatingothersfairIyinabusiness’andreturningborroweditemsinatimeIyfashionJustasthedeeper meaningofabstainingffomkiIingiscompassion’the deepermeaningofnotstealingisgiving.

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AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

TbethirdpreceptisusuaIyinterpretedasrefrainingfromsexuaImisconduct.ButthispreceptisactuaIyaddressinganysensuaIindulgence:cravingfor food,sensations,andmuchmore-notjustsexuaI

misconduct.SensuaIindulgencedistractsusfrom ourinwardsearchtofindlastinghappinessandfreedom.ItwastesourenergyandleavesuswithescaIatingwishes.WeshouIdnotaIlowourseIvestobe controIledbyoursenses;instead,weneedtore廿ain fromindu>gingoursenses.ThiswilIheIpustofeel moreincontrolofourlives’tobemoreselfconfident.

ThefourthpreceptistorefrainfromteIIinglies. Weshouldnotdeceiveotbersforourbenefitorfor

tbebenefitofthosecIosetous.lnsteadofseparating

peoplewithcarelessspeech,wecanusespeec}Ito bringotberstogether’creatingunderstandingand barmony.

NotlyingaIsomeansthatwespeakattberigbt timeandinaccordancewitbthefacts.WeareIogical

andsaywbatisusefulWeshouldnotgossipor boast.ByfoIowingthisprecept,wewillfindourse}vesusingwordsthatarecorrect,honest’and beneficialThiswi}Istopusfromcreatingnegative 76


TI-{EFlvEPREcEPTs

consequencesforourselves.Becausewearebonest

andthougbtful,wewiI]avethetrustandrespectof otbers.Andbynotoffendingothersorcausingdissension’wewiIgeta>ongweIIwithpeopIe. lnourpracticeofalwaysspeakingtruthful>y,we needtoaIsousewisdomandcompassion.What shouIdwedowhenafriendasksushowweIikeher

newhaircutPOrw}]enyouaredrivingtomeet 廿iendsfordinnerandyourhusbandasksifwbatbe iswearingisokay.ltistooIatetodoanything,and compIetehonestywiIlnotbehelpfuIatthispoint.lt wouldbekindertonotsaythatthehaircutistoo shortort}latthesbirtisanunbecomingcoIor· lfourgenuineintentionistoavoidhurtingthe otherpersonandnottoflatter,thenwemightrespondtbatthehaircutandtheshirtarefine.Afterwards,wecantrytofindawaytosaytbatt}]eformer

haircutwasmorefIatteringand’perhaps,theshirtis notverybecoming.Porthis,weneedtofindtherigl]t time·

PreceptsarenottobeadheredtomereIyonaIiteraIbasis.WeneedtounderstandtheirIogic,soasto betterjudgebowtowiseIyfoIIowthemJfweunderstandtbeintentionbehindaprecept,wewiIIbebet77


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

terabIetoadheretoitsinherentmeaningwhenencounteringchaIIengingsituations.

Onegoodexampleofapreceptthatiseasierto folIowifoneisawareofitsunderlyingpurposeistbe fiftbpreceptofrefraining廿omintoxicants.Thispre﹣ ceptisnotuniversaIIyhe>d,buttheBuddbagaveitto usintbebopethatwewou>dnottakeanythingthat wouIdimpairourjudgmentorthatwou>dIeadusto harmothersorourseIves.

Itisalreadydifficultforustoabstaincompletely fromkiIing’stealing,sexuaImisconduct,and}ying. AIofthemencompassourthoughts,andverbaland physicaIbehaVorinsomecombination.Altboughwe canusuaIymanagetocontroIourbehaviortosome degree,restrainingourtboughtsismoredifficult. Wbenimpairedjudgmentandreflexesreduceour mentaIrestraint,whichiswhathappenswhenwe indu>geinintox1cants,thentakingthemcanresuItin ourbeedlesslybreakingotherprecepts. SomepeopIemayask,{‘Whatiswrongwit}]drinkingoneglassofwineorhavingabeerwithfriends?’) Theymayfee}thatitisokayandbeIievethatone drinkdoesnotimpairtbeirjudgment.Butothers

migbtrespondthattbisissettingabadexampIefOr 78


THEPIEPREcEPTs

ourchildrenandthosewit}]usandtI]at,uItimately, itimpactsourabilitytoawaken. NotsmokingisalsoincIudedunderthisprecept. StudiesarenowindicatingthatsmokingtobaccoaIterst}]ebraininasimiIarmannertocertaindrugs,so smokingcanactuaI}yimpairour】udgment』naddi﹣ tion’smokingisanaddictivesensoryindulgence,and addictionskeepusfromawakeningandourgoaIofa puremind WeaIsoneedtobewaryoftheconsumptionoftoxinsinwhatweseeandhear.ThetoxlnsofVoIence,

hatred,andfearinteIeVsionprograms,moVes’books, andthelnternetarejustasinfIuentiaIanddamaging WeneedtobecarefUIinwbatweconsuInethrough eacbofoursenses,andtomakewisechoicesinwhat wereadandview.

Preceptsarenotdesignedtopreventusfrombav-

ingagoodtime.TheyheIpustofindanddeveIopthe innerstrengtbtothinkandconductourseIvescorrectly.BylmowinghowtobemoremindfuIinour thoughts’speech’andconduct’wewiIeeIfreerand

IessworriedaboutbebavingimproperlyorinadvertentIyhurtingothers.

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神 THESlxPARAMITAs

HowcanwegetalongbetterwithothersPWhatcan wedotostopbeingsoseIf-absorbed?Andhowdo we,instead,developthemindofcompassionand joyPWecanfoIIowtheexamplesofbodhisattvas’be-

ingswhoareawakened,whonoIongerfeeljeaIousy orsadness,andwhoarededicatedtoalleVatingtbe sufferingofallbeingsbyshowingthemthewayto liberation.Tbesebeingspracticethesixparamitas,or

perfections’of(l)giving)(2)moraldiscipIine’(3) patience’(4)diIigence’(5)meditativeconcentration’ and(6)wisdom.

ThefirstoftheparamitasisgiVng.Givingcount-

ersgreed,andensuresthatinthefuturewewiIhave ampleresourcestocontinuebeIpingot}]ers.TheunderlyingmeaningofgivingisIettinggo. Therearethreebasickindsofgiving.Pirst,wecan givemateriaIresourcessucbasfood’money,cIoth80


THESIPARAMIT>\s

ing’andsoon>ustasimportantistogiveofourseIves:ourtime,energy,orskilIs.Second)wecan teachotberswhatweknow,sbouIdtbeywisI]to Iearn.Tbird,wecaninspirefearlessnessinothers, whicboccurswhenwerelievethemoftheirworries

andapprehensions ThegivingofweaIthcanbeofmateriaIresources orourtimeandenergy.Whatwehavetbatotbersdo not’wecanfreelygivetotbem·Wbenweseeothers withanurgentneed,wecantaketheinitiativeand providetbemwitbwbattbeyneed,beitamateriaI objectorassistanceinwhattheyaredoinglfwesee someonewhoiswit}]outfood,wecaninitiaIyprovidethemwitbfood,andthentrytofindwaysto beIpthembecomeself-sufficient. Asourgivingbecomesincreasinglyunconditiona>, wewiIlbegintofeelmorespirituaIIyliberatedTbe morewegiveaway,thefewerpossessionswebaveto worryabout.Soon,wewiIIreaIizethatweneedvery litt>etobetrulycontent.Porexample,thosewitb abundantweaIthworryagreatdeaIaboutprotecting theirpossessionsfromtheftandloss.Aftergiving,we wiIIfindourworriesreducedandourmindscalmer.

LackingmateriaIob>ectstogive’wecangiveofour 8l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

abilitiesandenergy.Whenweseeotherswhoneed assistance,wecanpitchinandheIptbem.Wedonot needpossessionsorweaItbtopracticethiskindof giVngWecanjustseIfIess>yheIpotberstbroughour actions.Butforsomepeople,giVngofthemselvesis moredifficultthangivingmaterialo坷ects.Tobeab】e togiveofourtimerequiresustostopthinkingofourselvesandto>instead,focusonsomeoneelse.Por

exampIe,insteadofwatchingagameonteIeVsion, wemightgooutsideandplayagamewitbourcbiIdrenorheIpaneIderIyneighborwithsomeyardwork Inaddition,wbenwecommittodoingsomething,we needtofOIowthroug}]onourpromises.Whenwe bavedifficultygivingofourselves,wearefaIlingback intoselfis}]nesslnitiaIIy,giVngmightseemdaunting> butwitbpracticeitwiIbecomemorespontaneous, andconsequently’moreIiberating Teachingisanotherformofgiving.Byteaching others,wearebelpingtbemtoIearnhowtorely moreonthemseIves.WegivemateriaIresourcesto trytosolveimmediateneeds.But,ifwewanttosoIve needsthataremorefar-reaching’weteach.Itisnot necessarytohaveexceptionalskiIs.WecansimpIy teacbwbateverwearegoodat. 82


THES<xPARAMIAs

Butwhenweteach,weshouldnotho}danything backConsiderthesituationwbereoursupervisor teIsustoteachanewempIoyeeour>obHowmany ofuswilIhesitatePWemightthink,“lfIteachthis personeverytbing,hewiIlreplaceme.AndwbatifI donotgetpromoted〉lmayIosemyjoblltl﹞inkIwiⅡ boldbacksomeimportantinformation.Thiswayl wiIstayindispensableandmyjobwilIbesecure. Or>wemaybeaskedforourrecipetothatwonderfulIasagnaweaIoneknowhowtobake.Alongtbe sameselfishlines>wemightthink)“lflteachthis personhowtomakemylasagna,peoplewon>trave aboutmineasmucbl>Ieaveoutanimportantingredient.Thenl’Ikeepmyreputationasawonderful cookI”Thisisnotgiving.ThisisseIfis}mess.When otberswishto}earn,weshouIdteacbthemeverythingwecan.OnIytbenisitgenuineteaching. lnthegivingofteaching,thebighestformofsuch giving廿omtheBuddhistperspectiveisteachingoth﹣ ersaboutcausality’aboutthetruthoftheexistence ofsufferingandthewaytoendit’andthewayto>ib,•

erateoneselffromthecycIeofrebirthTeachingotberseverydayskiIIswilIbringhappiness,butitwillbe short-IivedTeachingotbershowtobecomeself83


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

sufficient’tberebymakingitpossibleforthemto provideforthemseIvesandtheirfamilies,wil>enable themtohaveself-respectandtocarefortI]osethey IoveaswellasthosewhoneedheIpButteaching otherstobepermanentlyfreefromsufferingwiIl bringthemgenuineandlasting]oy. The>astkindofgivingisthatoffearlessness.Tbis formofgivingremovestheinsecurities,worries,and fearsofotbers,whethertbe‘<other”ishumanornon-

buman.Ashumans,weareafraidofmanythings: IosingthoseweIove,beingaIone’becomingiI,dying.WeworrythatwewiIlnotbeabIetoproVdefor ourfamiIiesandourselves.WeworrythatwewilInot liveuptotheexpectationsofothersandtoourown se}f-image·Whenweseeotberswhoare}ikewise afraidoruneasy,wecanhelptoaIeviatetheirdiscomfort.TbegiVngofcouragecanbethesharingof akindword,tI]egivingofourstrengthandstabi>ity) orourunderstanding.EvenasimpIesmiIeisaform ofthegiVngoffearlessness,sinceitcanIessenanother’sfears.Whenwerelievetheworriesandfears

ofothers,andhelpthemtofeelmoresecure,they wi}lbeab|etofindpeaceandself-respect. Whateverwedo>wesbouIdfocusonthatperson. 84


THESIPARAMITAs

Whenweactwithabsolutesincerity>thesmallestact orafewencouragingwordscanworkwonderstoaIIeVatetheapprehensionsofothers. Wecanalsogivenon-fearbyheIpingwounded animals,bynotparticipatinginactivitiesinwhich animaIsareharmed,andbyreducingourconsumptionofmeatandfishCivingfearIessnessisenabling alIbeings,not>usthumans,tofee}saferarounduslt isthepracticeofrespectingalIformsofIife. WhetherwegivemateriaIpossessionsorourtime andabilities,wearepracticingthegivingofweaIth. AsBuddhists’webelievethatthosewhohavewea>th

nowweregenerousintbepastandthosewhogive weaItbnowwiIIhaveweaIthinthefuture.Ifwe

teachotberstoday,wewiIlbewiseinthefuture.By givingfearlessness,wewiIIhaveIong’healtIWlives. ThegivingofintangibIes-offearlessness,ofteaching,ofourabilitiesandenergy-costsusnothing, butithasthepotentiaItochangeourse>vesandto helpothers. Butifwegivewitbsomeexpectedreturninmind, thenwhatwewiIbereceiVngwiIbeIimitedWhen welearntogivewithoutthoughtsofwhatwewiIIreceive’thereturnwillbemuchgreaterbecausewe 85


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

wiIbegivingfromourtruenature. Oneofourmajorcba>lengestobecomingawakenedisgreed,whichresultsinclingingtothings, people,andideas.Thebestwaytocountergreedis throughgiving.IdeaIIy,wewouldwanttostartwitb whatismostdifficuIttogive,butsincethisisvery I]ardformostofus,wecanstartmoremodestly. W}]atisimportantishowwegivelfwefeelthatwe bavemadeasacrifice’thenwehavenottruIygiven. Neitherhavewegivenifweconstantlytbinkofwhat wegave,orevenwisbthatwestilIbadit.Wemay havegiveninthephysicaIsense,butmentaIyand emotionaIy)wearestilIc|ingingtotheob]ecLTbisis nottrueglVng

If,ontheotherhand,wespontaneousIygive somethingtosomeonejustbecauseitseemssorigbt forherandwiIImakeherhappy,andthenwedonot thinkoft}Ieobjectagain,wewiIlbepracticingtrue

giVng.InitiaIly,inourpracticeofgiving,wewillbe happythatwehaveI﹞eIpedotbers.Intime,wewiⅡ naturallygivewithoutanythoughtsofhaVnggiven, ofsomeonebaVngreceived’orofwhatwasgiven.At thatpoint,wewiIlfee}thejoyofactingfromourtrue nature,thenatureofperfectseIessness.TheBud86


Tl﹣﹛ESⅨPARAMIT八s

dhatoldusthatintheuItimatestateofgivingtoothers,wewiIInottodweIlonthoughtsofhavinggiven, onwhatwasgiven’oroftberecipient.ldeaIIy,upon giving,weletgophysicaIly,menta>Iy,andemotionaIly.Atfirst>tI]iswiIIbeextremeIydifficultforusto do;but,graduaIIy,wewiIIceasetomisswbatwehad givenandthen,atsomepoint,wewiIIevenforget tbatwehadgiven. lnthepracticeofgiving’weneedtogivewhatwilI maketheotberpersonl]appy.TogivethoughtIessIy isnottruegiVngPorexampIe’itisnottboughtfulto giveourfamousbirthdaycaketoapersonwhois watchinghisdietTeIIinghimthathesbouIdjust enjoyitbecauseoftbespecia>occasionlacksconsideration.lfjustapictureofabirtI]daycakewiIImake bimhappy,thenweshouldgivethepictureandforgetabouttherealcake.

Themannerinwhichwegiveisa>soveryimportant.Weshou{dnotgiveinawaythatembarrasses therecipientorincreasesoursenseofimportance.It shouIdnotmatterwbetberwelikeordisliket}]ere-

cipient.WearetogivenonjudgmentaI>yandwithout differentiatingbetweenthoseweIikeandtbosewe

donot.WhenwesaythatwewiIlgivesomething,we 87


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

shoulddosoassoonaspossibIeandnotpurpose>y maketbeotherpersonwait.Also,weshouldnotexpecttheotberpersontofeeIindebtedtous· Thereisnopointinboldingontoourextrapossessions;afteraII>p0ssessionsareoursforarelativeIy shorttime‧Give廿eeIynow,accordingtoourabili﹣ ties,andenjoythegoodnessandjoythatourgeneros-

itybringstoothers.WerealIyneedverylittIeforourselves.OncewebaveproVdedforourfamiliesand metourpersonalresponsibiIities,wecanpracticegiv-

ingtorelievethesufferingandunbappinessofotbers. Thesecondparamitaismoraldiscipline,whic}] countersworryandunhappiness,andenabIesusto continueonourwaytoawakeninglnamoreliteraI sense,itmeansabidingbytheprecepts,wbich,for Buddhists,canrefertothefiveprecepts,thebodhisattvaprecepts,orthemonasticprecepts.Ina broadersense,tbesecondperfectionmeansethicaI bel]avior,suchasfoIowingtbecustomsandlawsof wbereverweare.InitiaIly>aswebeginourpracticeof discipline,wecanfocusonrefrainingfromharming others.Gradually,wewiIbegintodevelopandincreaseourVrtue.Theultimateformoftbispractice istobenefitothers﹄ 88


THESIPARAMITAs

ProperIypracticingmoraIdiscipIinerequiresusto usegoodjudgmentandwisdomtodeterminewhatis appropriateorinappropriateByallowingourseIvesto beledbyourdesiresandactingimpu>siveIy,wecan easilybarmothersandourseIves.Actionsthatbenefitothersnowandinthefutureareappropriate;actionsthatbringonIyshort-termbenefitbutwbich harmothersintbefutureareinappropriate. ExploitingournaturaIresources,suchasbycarryingoutwidespreaddeforestationwitI]outmaking provisionsfOrtheplantingofnewtrees’isonesuch harmfuIaction.A}soinappropriateareactionsthat aredonetobenefitsoleIyourseIves,especiallytbose attheexpenseofothers. ToguideusinourcuItivationofnon-barmfulbehavior,wecanobservetheTenVirtuousConducts.

ThesearediVdedintothreema>orcategories:pbysical,verba},andmentaI.PhysicaIIy,weareprohibited fromkiIIing,stealing)andengaginginsexuaImisconduct.Thesehavebeendiscussedintheprevious chapteronthefiveprecepts.VerbaIy,weareprohibitedfromlying,usingharshspeech’divisivespeech, orenticingspeechMentaIy’weareprohibitedfrom givingrisetothoughtsofgreed’anger’andignorance. 89


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

Lyingisdeceptiveanddishonest.Weneedto speakon}ytruthfulandthoughtfUlwords.TheBuddhasaid:

IfyouknowanythingthatjshurtfuI anduntrue,donotsayit. IfyouknowanythingtbatisheIpfu> butuntrue,donotsayit. Ifyouknowanythingthatishurtful buttrue,donotsayit. lfyouknowanytbingthatisbothbeIpfulandtrue, findtherighttime· WeIiebecauseweareattachedtoourideas,pos-

sessions’andotherpeopIeWe“modify”thetruthto protectourself-image.We“embroider”thetruthand maketbingssoundbetterorworsethantheyarebecausewewanttobepraisedbyothers’orperhaps becauseweareafraidofappearingincompeten仁We donotvaIuethetruthinourspeechbecauseweare ignorantanddonotyetunderstandtheconsequencesofouruntruthfuIwords. IfwewishtopracticethoughtfuIandcaring

speech,wedonotuseabusivespeecIikeshouting, 90


THESIPARAMlTAs

nordoweusebadlanguage.TospeaI(harsbIytootherscandestroytheirpeaceofmindandthatofalI thosewhoarearoundus.Wea}sodonotwasteour

timegossipingaboutothersordiscussingtrivialmattersltwouIdbemucbwisertousetI]attimeengaginginactivitiesthatincreaseourpeaceofmind」ike

goingforawaIk,watchingthecloudsfIoatby>sitting quiet}yinmeditation,orc}]antingaBuddha’sname. WeaIsoneedtorefrainfromdivisivespeecbThis iswhen,forexampIe,whiIewearespeaI(ingwithone person,weteIII]imtbatsomeonee>sesaidsometbing untrueaboutbim.TI]en)wbiletaIkingtotheother person,wesaytbefirstonecriticizedher.Wehave

spokendivisiveIyandwitboutreaIizingitsownthe seedsforconfIict.

lnsteadofusingwordstodeceiveothers’wecan askourseIvesifwhatweareabouttosayiscorrect, honest,andbeneficiaItotheotherpersonToaccomp>ishthis,weneedtobeawareofwbatweare saying』fwearemindfu】ofourspeech’wewilInot careless}ysaysometbingincorrect>untrue,orharm-

fulIfwearepayingattentiontowhatwearesaying andtohowtheIistenerisreacting,wewiIIbeableto seeifweupsetorirritatedtheperson.WewiIthen 9l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

beabletostopbeforewemakethesituationworse. Insteadofcreatingmoreconflictandpaininthis worId,wewiIbeabletofosterharmonyandpromote mutualcooperationaswedevelopthepatienceto knowwhentospeakwiseIyorwhentosimpIyremain siIent.

lnaIIofourspeech’wecanstopourselvesfrom harmingotbersbyrefrainingfromusingseIf-servlng, careless,orinappropriateIanguage.UsuaIy,we speakwithoutfirstthinkingaboutwbatweareabout tosayorhowitwiIlaffectotbers·WeshouIdtryto remembertousethestandardofwhatiscorrect,}]on-

est,andbeneficialto]udgewhatweareabouttosay. TheBuddhatoIdusthatspeechkarmaisoneof ourmostcommonlycommittedoffenses;andtbus ourspeechkarmacreatesmoreproblemsforus. WhiIeourthoughtsdOaffectotbers,theyaresubtler, andthustbekarmicconsequencesarelighter.And whilewemaytbinkofdoingsomething,tbeopportunitytopbysicallyactonthethoughtmaynever presentitself.So’wehavenaturalroadbIocksinthe creationofphysicaIkarma.Butspeec}]karmaisso easytocommit.WesimplyopenourmouthsandaII theunkind’thoughtless>andangrywordscometum92


~

THESIPARAMI)\s

blingout.Speakingissoeasy’butaIsosopotentialIy harmful.

OurphysicaIandverbalbebavior,tbefirstand secondcomponentsoftheTenVirtuousConducts,

canbegoodorbaddependingonourthoughts’ whichisthethirdcomponent.ltisourthoughts, whichusualIyarisefromvaryingdegreesofgreed, anger,andignorancethataretl]eprecursorsofour bebaVor.

Greed-ourcravingformaterialthingsandpleasantexperiences’andmuchmore-comesfromour

preoccupationwithself.WhatbeginsasseIfpreservation,ourneedtomeetbasicrequirementsof sheIter,food,andclotbing,quick>yexpandstoour desiringthatwbichwedonotneedandmoreofwhat wea}readyhave.WeequatetheaccumuIationof thingswithhappinessandsuccess,andsofaIintoa

cycIeofwanting,obtaining,andmorewanting. Anger,IikeaIInegativeemotions’seemstohappensonaturaIIyandspontaneousIy.InitiaIIy>wedo notevennoticeit.ItfeeIssonormaItous-t}]eemo-

tionsofbeingangry’beingirritated,andbeingdispleased.IthappenssoquickIythatwehardlynotice therisingrage.Butbeforeeveryactionwecommit 93


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

andpriortoeverywordwespeak)tbereisaprecedingthougbt.InourIackofmindfuIness,wedonot noticethethoughtofwI]atweareabouttosayordo. lfwecancatcbthethoughtasitarises,wewiIbe abIetorefrainfromactingoutofanger.IdeaIIy,by }]avingabeartofloVng-kindness,compassion,]oy, andequanimity’wewilIstopangerfromarising. W}]yisitsoimportanttoeliminateourangerP

MightnottI]eexpressionofourangergetitoutof oursystem,sotospeakPNo,becausevoicingoractingonourangerdoesnoteradicateit.Onthecontrary,itIeadstoevenmoreanger. OurangerwithaparticuIarpersongoesbacka }ong,longtime-asBuddhists,webe>ieveitgoes backoveruncountabIelifetimes.Mostofthetime

whenwearespeakingwitbanother>wefaiItobe mindfulofwhatwearesaying.WemaycareIesslysay somethingandhurtanother’sfeelingswithoutrealizingitlnsodoing’wehavejustcontributedtopIant-

inganotherseedofangerintheconsciousnessofthe otherperson.

Therecipientoftheangryoutburstmaynotthink anyt}]ingofit,atleastnotuntiIwemeetagain,and thatseedmatures.Tbisnexttimetheotherperson 94


THESIPARAMlTAs

wiIsaysomethingtouswithjustasIig}]ttraceof aniInosity.Again,thisincidentisregisteredinbotb ourconsciousness.TI]isenmityispassedbackand fortbeac}]timeourpat}]scross,andeachtimeitincreasesandgrowsmoreserious.AtsomepointitwiII turnintohatred.EventuaIIythathatredwiIIexpIode andoneofuswiIIasboutattheotherphysicaIIy. Thisiswhyvoicingourangertoe}iminateitdoes notworkItonlyaIIowstbeangertogrow.Angeris nottobeactedupon,butfaced,acknowIedged,understood’andthenreIeasedWI]enourangerandour seIf-centerednessaregraduaIIyreduced,wewilIget aIongbetterwithothersandwewiIIbegintofindour beartsofIoving-kindness’compassion,andjoy. lfyouwanttoseetI]eproofoftI]is’IookcarefuIIy intothefaceofsomeonewhoisaIwaysangry.Then gazeuponapersonwhoisserene.Decidewhicbone

youwouIdIiketoIookIike’wI]icI]oneyouwouIdlike tobe

Asweimproveinourpracticeofdiscipline,we wiIgraduaIylessenwI]attbeBuddhacaIledthe threepoisonsofgreed,anger,andignorance,which weallhavetoson]edegree.lfleftuncbecked,this greedandangerofourswiIgrowandspread,even95


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

tual>yconsumingus.Notunderstandingwhatishappening,weallowthistohappenbecauseweareignorant.ThisignoranceisnotthelackofintelIigenceor aderogatorycommentaboutsomeoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sabilities.IgnoranceisaIackofunderstandingoftheunderlying trutbsofwhatishappeningtousandaroundus. ltisnotknowing,or,perhaps,notbeIievingin causalityorintheimpermanentnatureofeverything thatiscreated.Itisbelievingthatweexistindependentlyofeverythingaroundus,ratherthanrealizing tbateverytbingisinterdependentltisthinkingtbat happinesscomesfromoutsideofus:tbatitliesin otherpeople,possessions,orideas.Itistbebelief thatitisokaytodifferentiatebetweentbosewelike anddislike,thatitiscorrectto>ookoutforourselves

attheexpenseofothers,andthatitisreasonableto judgeothersbasedonpersonalopinionandnoton facts.

Whenwethinkandactfromignorance,itbecomesineVtabIethatwewi}Imakemistakesandnot

knowhowtofixourprobIems.Aswebegintore-

placeourignorancewithunderstanding,wewillfind thatourgreedandangerslowlydissolve.Thisisbow wecangetalongbetterwitbot}]ers,becomeIessseIf96


THESⅨPARAMlT八s

absorbed’anddeveIopthemindofjoy. T}]ethirdparamitaispatience,w}]ic}]counters angerandhatred,andhelpsustoavoidarguments andtoachieveourgoaIs.Weneedpatienceina>most everythingwedo.lnschooI’weneedpatienceto persevereinourstudies.Atwork,patienceheIpsus toproper>yaccomp!ishourtasks.Athome,patience isthefoundationforinteractingweIwithfamiIy members.Patienceenablesustogetalongmore harmoniouslywitht}]osearoundus.ItaIowsusto recognizeourbad}]abitsandtoimproveourse}vesby changingthosehabits. Practicingpatiencegivesusthecourageandinner strengthtoactwiseIyinthefaceofadversityltaIIowsustoremainunrufHed)tounderstandwhy thingshappen,andtostopblamingothersforour probIemsltistheabilitytostaywithadifficultand

chaIlengingundertakingwithoutcomplaining,being disappointed’feelingresentfu>,orgivingupprematurely.

WhatisthebiggestcbaIlengetopatience?Anger. Whendifficultiesarise>weareusualIysurprisedand withouttbinkingofwhatweareabouttodo’weoftenactoutofanger.Thisgoesagainsttbeessenceof 97


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

theBuddha!steachings,whichisnotonlytoavoid doingbarmbuttoprovideheIpasweI.lnanger,we Iashoutatotbers,harmingeveryoneandeverytbing aroundus-asweIIasourselvesdNothingisresoIved

Nooneishe}pedlnstead,wecreatemorecausesfor angerinourfuture,addtothesufferingofothers, andIosetheopportunitytobelpanotherbeing. Tbeharmfuleffectsofimpatience,intolerance,

andangercanstiIbeunderstoodevenifyouarenot yetabletofullyconsiderthesufferingofotI]ersbeforey0urown.Whenthefireofangerburnswithin, ourfaceliteraIybecomesred>ourfeaturesbecome contortedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;andourenrageddemeanorupsetsot}]ers. Wecannotsleep,findreIief,orcaImdownPriends andacquaintancesavoidus.EventhosewhoIoveus IeaveWearealone.Allbecausewegaveintoanger.

Wehaveacboicehere.WerealIydo.Wedonot havetoaIIowtbistohappen.Wbetherwearean awakenedbeingor,moreIikely,simpIyanordinary

personwhodreadsthefeelingof}osing}]ertemper again,wecanmakeacomInitmenttoourseIves,a commitmenttothepracticeofpatience.Obviously, thisisextremelydi{ficulttodoatfirst.WewiIhave tokeepremindingourseIvesbowangerfeeIsand 98


THESIxPARAMlTAs

whatitIookslike,andthencontrastitwitbhowse-

renityfeelsandappearstoothers. Pirst’weobjectiveIyconsiderarecenttimewe wereangryandthenrememberbowwefeltatthat time.Next,werememberthefeelingsofcontentmentandserenitythatweexperiencedwhenwe wereen>oyingtimewithourfamiIyorgoodfriends, orperhapsatimewhenweweretakingawalIKona sun-drencheddayintbefa}Iorlisteningtosome soothingmusic.PinaIIy,wecboosetocommittothe cultivationofpatience.TI]isisdoneconsciousIyand’ ideaIIy’continuousIy.Sooften’ourangerisautomatic.Solnetbingbappensandinourmindlessreaction,weareinstantlyangry.Theonlywaytocounter t}]isistoremaininacontinuousstateofpatience. Also,wecantelIourselvesthateverythingisimpermanent.ThisnotonlyappIiestoen>oyabIesituations

buttothosethataredifficultaswellPainful,tryIng timeswiIatsomepointendThiswiIlhappenmucb morequicklyifwedonotkeepfuelingthefirewith ouranger.

lnsteadofbecomingangryinaIt}]oseinfuriating situations)whatcanwedo?Wecanremindour-

seIvesthatourreactionsdonotneedtobeblindIy 99


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

automatic.Wecanchoosehowtorespond.Ifitis alreadytoolateandwehavelostourtemperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;wecan remindourselvesthatwecanstiIIaIterthesituation.

ExpIainingawayourerraticemotionsbyte}Iingourselvesthatwearerightandaretherefore>ustifiedin gettingupsetaccompIishesnothing.Insteadâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;calm downandtalktotbeotherperson.Thisway,wewiII baveac}]ancetoresolvetheprobIem.Tobehappy, wejustneedtoIetgoofourunhappiness. Wbatdowedowhenwearefacedwitbasitua-

tionwherecalmlogicandnotretaIiatingwithmore angerjustseemtoInakethesituationevenworse? Onewayistowithdrawandtrytofindabettertime totalkwiththeperson.Evenwhenwemanageto reachamoreadvancedstateinourcultivationofpatience,wberewecanremainca>minthefaceof

someone>sfrustrationandanger,wearenothelping t}]emifweremaint}]erefuelingtheirpainand,thus, theirsuffering.ThereisenoughmiseryintheworId already.Withdrawandtrytodeterminewhatwe havedonetocontributetothesituation.Next,sin-

cereIydeterminebownottorepeatthemistake. Tben,findtherightopportunitytotalkcaImlywith theotherperson. l00


THESIPARAMlTAs

ToactoutofangeristoactVoIentIy.Butwehave beendiscussinghowtofindhappiness.Whendoes vioIencemakeareasonabIepersonhappy>Never.

ReasonabIepeopIeonIywishforhappinessandgoodness.ThroughgivingandethicaIbehavior,wecan createmuchjoy.Butittakest}]ecuItivationofpatiencetosafeguardthisgoodness,andprotectitfrom thefiresofangerandviolence. PracticingethicaIbehaVormayresuItinourbeginningtofeeIrestrictedbyruIesandrequirements. lfweapproacbourpracticefromanincorrectperspectiveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;itmightweIIseemrigidandforbiddingSo, tohelpusavoidthisproblem,tbeBuddhawiseIy taughtdiIigenceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;thefourtI]ofthesixparamitas. Diligence,orenthusiasticeffort>isthe>oythatwe bringtoourpracticeandtoaIlthatiswortI]whilein ourIives.ItisthetruedelighttbatarisesfTomdeep withinuswhenwearedoingwI]atiswholesome.lt enablesustokeepgoingwhenwefee|tiredoroverwhelmedltisrefreshingandinspiring.Cultivating enthusiasticeffortcountersIazinessandbringsjoyto ourIivesaswefeeIasenseofaccompIisbment,of finishingwhatwestart. LazinessisoftenreveaIedasprocrastination.We l0l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

becomeinvoIvedintriviaIactivitiesandeventuaIy

endupinIowspiritswhentheresuItsdisappoint. Weknowwehavetodosomethingbutsomebowwe keeppostponingit,orweaIowourselvestobedistracted.Porexample,itsuddenlybecomesvitaIlyimportanttomovethefIowersont}]edining-roomtable toasIightlydifferentposition.AftercompIetingthis Mcriticaltask/)wesitdowntowhatwearesupposed todo.Inafewmoments,werememberthatthe

bookshelfurgent}yneedsrearranging-anotber“cruciaI”accomp}ishment.Weagainsitdownbutt}]en decidethatweshouldcaIafriendandteIIhimaII

aboutthenewemployeeatwork. Afterseveralmoresuch“essential”activities,tbe

timethatwebadaIIocatedtodoouroriginaltaskis

gone.Whenwetbinkofwhatweneededtodoand whatwasactuaIydone,ourmoodsinks.Wedonot feelanyreaIsenseofsatisfaction{romcompIeting thosead-hoctasksthatwehaddeemedtobe“cru-

ciaI,”forwbatweactuaIIywantedtodoremainsunfinished.Aswethinkaboutit)tbeoriginaItaskstilI Ioomsbeforeusandnowseemsinsurmountab>e.We

becomeupsetwithourselvesforprocrastinatingand feeldespondentbecausethetaskstiIneedstobe l02


THESIPARAM<TAs

done.Lackingenergy’wefeeIdefeatedanddisappointed.Atthispoint)wemightturnontbetelevisionandbeginHippingfromonec}]anneltoanother orengageinsomeotherpointIessactivity.Theseare aIlformsoflaziness.

SohowdowecounterIazinesspThroughacommitmenttowhatwefeeIisimportantandenough enthusiasticefforttoseeittI]rougI]tocompletion. Pictureagainthescenarioontaskavoidance.Youare lyingonthesofaandflippingchannels.TheteIephoneringsanditisyoursupervisor.Heasksifyou couldgotodinnerinthirtyminutestodiscussa promotiontobecomeheadofyourdepartmentanda doub>ingofyoursa>ary.WouIdyoustiIlfeeIazy? MorethanlikeIy)youwouIdbeoverfIowingwithent}]usiasmandeIationasyourusI]todressfordinner| WhatweteIourseIvesaboutanygivensituation wi}IdetermineourreactiontoitlfwepersuadeourseIvesthatwehavepIentyoftimetodosometbing, thatitisnottbatimportant,andthatitcanwaituntil tomorrowornextweek,thenwearefoolishIywasting time.TheBuddhaonceaskedastudenthowmuch

timeapersonbasleft.Thestudentanswered,“Afew moredays.”TbeBudd}]apromptedhimtothink l03


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

again.Tbestudentponderedthequestionfurtber andthenrepIied,“Afewhours.’’“Tbinkagain>”encouragedtheBuddha.“Abreath>’>“ExcelIent.),AIIwe cancountonisthismoment-wecannotaffordto wastetlI]e.

Thisrealizationisnotmeanttobedepressingbut encouraging.Whenwewastetime’weusuaIlyfeel uncomfortabIeaswecompareourplanstot}]ereaIity ofwhatwasaccomplishedPerhapswebadtold someonewhatwewantedtodo,andtheyweredependingonustodoso.OurIazinessandprocrastinationmayresuItinafriendbeingdisappointed,a childorspousebeingmadetowaitwhilewetryto dosometbingattheIastminute,oraco-workerbavingtoworkbardertomakeupforourmissinga deadline.

Previously,tbequestionwasposedofbowwecan attainhappiness’findlove’andreceiveothers’respect.Wecannotattainthemthroughlaziness.Neithercanweattainliberationfromsufferingbybeing lazy.Weneedentbusiasticeffort,perseverance,and dedicationinourpracticeandineverythingthatwe do.Todevelopenthusiasticeffort’wemustovercomeIazinesswithrightthoug}]tsandunderstanding l04


THESIPARAMlTAs

thatwillengenderpIoperattitudesandacorrect frameofmind.

Withourpersonalrelationsbips,trytoremember bowwewerefeeIingwhenwedisappointedour spouseorchiIdren.Orthinkofhowsupreme>yimportanttheyaretous,ormorecruciaIy,howimportantwearetothem.Withourwork,wecanfocuson

tbeseriousnessofnotbeingadependableemployee oremployer.Withourpractice,wecancometothe rea>izationofthevaIueoftheopportunitytopractice andunderstandtheconsequencesofwastingyetanotherlifetime.Theseandsimilartecbniqueswil} graduallyhelpustodiscoverhowtocounterour negativehabits. Havingreducedorevenovercomelaziness,we mayfindthatwestillindu}geourseIvesintrivialactivities.WestiIIen>oyHippingbetweenteleVsion cbanneIs,havinglongconversationswitbfriendsor co-workersaboutotberbiendsandco-workers,and

countlessothernondescriptactiVties.SuchtriviaI activities,bythemselvesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;arenotintrinsicallywrong. They}]armusonlybecauset}]eydistractusfromaccompIishinggoaIsthatwehavesetforourselves:to bemorecaringoftbosewelove;tocultivatelovingl05


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

kindness,compassion’joy,andequanimity;tobelp others;tobemorepatient;andmuchmore. EnthusiasticeffOrtbringsjoytoourIivesaswe feelasenseoffuIImentinfinishingwhatwe startedTrivialactiVtiescanfeellikewortbwhileac-

tiVtiesifwearenotcarefulTheywiIdistractus fromfinisbingwhatwestartedandrobusofthejoy t}]atcomesfromsuchaccomplisbments· Howdowedeterminewhetheranactivityis worthwhileortriVal?Wecanaskourselveswhatis

theintentionorthemotivationforwhatwearedo-

ing.lfthemotivationistoheIpotbersandtoenable themtofindtruehappiness,tbenourtimespententhusiastica>lyinperfectingourskiIsthatwilIbring themjoyiscommendable.Butifourintentionis soIelytobenefitourselves,then,inspiteofourbard work,wearenottruIypracticingenthusiasticeffOrt, nomatterboweagerandenthusiasticweare. Tobringhappinesstootbers,weneedtounderstandthecausesofsufferingandunhappiness.We ourselvesneedtobediscip}inedandpatient.Once ourheartsandmindsknowgentlenessandpeace, ourverbalandphysicalbehaviorwilIchange.Gradua>Iy,tI]epeacefuInessthatisincreasingwithinuswilI l06


THESIPARAMlTAs

berefIectedinwbatwedo.

TbeBuddhaexplainedthateverylivingbeingbas thesametruenature-tbesameabilitytoawaken andbecomeenIightenedTbeBudd}]awasoncelike us:anordinarypersonwhounderwenttbesufferings ofbirth,oIdage,sickness>anddeathButhelearned howtoliberateoneselffromsuffering.Howdidhe dotbisPHesincereIydevelopedtheaspirationto leavesufferingbehindandtoIayasideunwho>esome tboughts.HewasdeterminedtoliveaIifeofnot harmingothers.AIifeofheIpingothers.Alifeofdiscipline,understanding,andpatience. AfterhehadattainedsupremeenIightenment>he explainedthatittookhiminnumerabIeIifetimesto reacbthepointw}]erel]ewasonenigbtawayfrom enIightenment.Hearrivedatthatpointthrough manypracticesofperfection.OneoftbemwastI]e practiceofenthusiasticeffort.Howdidheprogress? Onestepatatime-ă&#x20AC;&#x2018;ustashedid,wecantoÎą Thefifthparamitaismeditativeconcentration. OurpracticeandtrainingindiscipIineandnotbarmingotherswilIenableustoIessenourharmfulverbal andphysicalbehaviorsandeventual}yendthem.Our mindswiIbecomecaImerandlessagitatedWhen l07


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

ourmindsarethussettIedwewilIbebetterableto concentrate.

Ourconcentrationwillinitiallyreduceand,tben, gradual>yeliminateournegativethoughtsandemotionalbehaVor.Wewillthengainmeditativeconcentration,whichwiI}enableustouncoverourinnate

wisdom·Thus,discipIine,meditativeconcentration, andwisdomworktogetherandarecomplementary. Developingconcentrationcountersourmyriad wanderingthoughtsandheIpsustofOcus.Webecomelesseasi}ydistractedbyothersorcircumstances.WebeginourpracticebycaImingthemind andfocusingourattentionbnonetbingforacertain Iengtboftime.Ineverydayactivities’wecanpractice concentrationinwhateverwearedoing. MostofushaveexperiencedbeingtotaIlyabsorbedinataskween>oyverymuchBeforewebegantheactivitywemightbavefelttired,butassoon aswebecameengrossedintheactivityourweariness dissolvedOrwemighthavebeenhungrybeforewe started,buttbattoopassedunnoticed.Atsomepoint someoneorsomethinginterruptedus,andwewere surprisedtoseetbatsomuchtimehadpassed Thisisconcentration,astateofsing>el08


THESⅨPARAMⅡ八s

mindednessthathasfewdistractions.Thereareno

worryingtboughtsandnotboughtsoftimeorof whereweare.Duetoourfocusedattentionandtbe

reductionofaimIesswanderingthoughts’thisisa stateinwhichwemayevenfeelmoreenergeticthan beforewebegan.Bybecomingcalmandfocused, anyonecanachievethisconcentration,andthusdevelopasereneandstablemind.WecanuseconcentrationinmanyactiVtiesatworkandathome,and

withfamiIyandfriends. Tohelpusattainamorespiritua}stateofconcentration’therearemanythingswecanfocuson:a Hower,thesoundofabird,ourbreatb,AmituofOthenameofaBuddha.Eachofthesecanhe}pus

findvaryingdegreesofpeaceandhappiness.Whatevertypeofmeditationwepractice,wewillfindtbat wewi>>benefitmuchmoreifwepracticetoattaina specificgoa>,suchasonebefittingourBuddhist practIce.

WhereisagoodpIacetodeepenourpracticeof concentration>WherewecanliveasimplebutcontentedlifewithoutbeingdistractedbyfrivolousactiVtiesorunnecessarysensestimuIi,asthesewill

justdistractusanddep>eteourenergy.WeaIsoneed l09


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

goodfriendswhowiIproperlysupportusandpatientlyhelpusdiscoverourshortcomings’friends wboarecommittedtoachievingtbesamegoaIswe are·WhataretbepersonaIcriteriaforsuchpractice? AwhoIesomeIifesty}et}]atdoesnotharmotbers,enthusiasmandjoyinwhatweundertake,bonestyin everythingwedo,andasinceredeterminationto seekliberationforotbersandourselves.

Ourpracticeofmeditativeconcentrationwi>Ilead ustotheIastofthesixparamitas,wisdom.Wisdom countersignorance)andenablesustoknowhowbest tohelpotbersandtoimproveourselves’including ourabilitytogeta}ongwel>withothers.Thiswisdom isnotthatwbichisgainedthroughintensestudyand analysisofmanydiversesubjects.ThatwouIdbe seekingwisdomfromexternaIsources.Tbewisdom thatwearespeakingofisintuitivewisdom. TbeBuddbaexperiencedthisintuitivewisdomafterhesatdownonacushionofgrass,Iigbt>yclosed hiseyes,andenteredastateofmeditation.Asbe wentdeeperanddeeperintothatmeditativestate, heleftstudy,analysis,andbispreVouspracticeof deprivationbehind}]im.Hewentdeepwithinhimselfandreachedtbestatewherebesawtberealityof ll0


THESIPARAMITAs

whatwasbappeningwithinbim,aroundbim,and

througbouttheuniverse.HefinaIIyexperiencedthe trueandcompletereaIity,arisingasitdid,fromdeep withinhim.Byattainingasereneandstab}emind’ hewasabIetoachievesingle-mindedconcentration. UndistractedbyexternaIconditionsandnolonger disturbedbyemotionsorpointlessthoughts,l]e eIiminatedthepoisonsoft}]emindanduncovered whathe,forinnumerabIeIifetimes’hadbeenseek-

ing:Perfectwisdom.Hereacheditandenteredit. ThiswisdomenabIedhimtorealizet}]atthereis

noindependentseIf,andthateverytbingispartof oneentity.CausaIityofanyeventinonebeing’sIife hasthepotentiaItoaffectthecausaIityofbeings tbroughouttheuniverse’justasthemovementof onedropofwaterinanimmenseoceanwiIlresuItin themovementofeverydropofwaterinthatocean. WeareaIone.WhenweIookacrosstheroomand

seetbatpersonwhomwearesoangrywitbandwbom weaImostwishtostrike,itisthesameasbeingvery angrywithourselvesandwantingtohitourselves. DoesourIefthandbecomeangrywithourright hand>DotheyfightoverwhowilIopenthedoorwe wishtogothrough>Dotheydebatewhichonewill lll


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

pickupacupofcoffee?Doessometbingbelongto mylefthandbutnottomyright?Wecanseeand understandtheabsurdityofsuchdualities.Butour understandingstopsthere.Wedoarguewiththe personwboisstandingnexttous.Wedofigbtover whowi}lbefirst.Wedodebatetheuseofandthe

ownershipofpossessions.Weseedualitiesbetween ourselvesandeveryonee>sebecausewearefarfrom understanding.Wehavenotyettouchedourtrue wisdom.

Lackingwisdom,weIookatrealitybutdonotsee it.ltisasifweareviewingitthroughatinyblurred window.Wethinkthatweseethewholetrutb.An-

otherpersonIooksthroughhistinyblurredwindow andisequaIIyconvincedthathehasseenthewho>e trutb.Altboughwhatweeachseeisdifferent’and tbereforeresultsindifferentVewpoints’weareeacb convincedtbatwealoneareright.Wedebate,argue,

andfigbt.ConvincedofourinfaIibi>ity’wemayeven kiIorourbeIiefs.IfonIywehadjustcommunicated betterandsharedwhatweeachhadseenthrough

ourrespectivewindows,wemigbthaveunderstooda littlemore.

Butwithoutwisdom’weeacbviewourtinydisll2


THESIPARAM>TAs

tortedpieceofrealityandtakeitforthetruestateof reaIity.Wethinkweperceivethewholetruth throughourfivesenses-oureyes,ears,nose, tongue,andbody-aswesee’hear,smeI,taste,and toucbourtinypieceofreality.WeautomaticalIy concIudewhatweperceivetobethecompIeteand truereaIity. Asaresult,aIofourthoughtsarebasedon blurredbitsofrea}ity,misperceptionsofwhatwe mistakeforthecompIetetrutb.OurbasicaIIy日awed conclusionsIeadustodiscriminate,therebydeveIopingasenseofegoorself.Wethinkthat‘T>refersto ourseIves,that<{you”referstoanotherperson,and tbat“they”referstoeveryoneelseWebegintojudge othersandfindmostofthemwantingThosewelike orlove,wepraiseasgood;otherswedislikeorhate, wecondemnasbadWedonottrulycareaboutthe peopIeandthingst}]atfaI}inbetween. Wehaveexpectations,andwhentheyarenot met’wesufferdisappointment.Butwhentheyare met,wedevelopnewexpectationsasthesituation

changes.WebecomeemotionaIyattacbedandcling totboseweIoveandthingsweIike.WefinddisturbingandrepeIIentthosepeopleandt}lingswehate ll3


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

anddisIike.Wearenevercomp>etelycontent.Going throughlifewitbaIIitsupsanddownsfeelsIikean emotionaIroIercoaster.Evenwhenwefindour-

se}vesthinkingthatIifeisgood,wesensetbatwe migbtbeatapeakandworryaboutpIummeting downonceagain. WeputothersandourseIvesthroughtbisemotionaIroIIercoasterbecausewehavenotyetuncoveredourwisdom.Perhapswewerefortunateenough tohavetouchedthisinsightforabriefmomentwhenourmindsweresereneandstable,w}]enour

thoughtswereonbenefitingothers,andwhenour enthusiasmandjoywerestrongwitbinuslnthatone instant,wehadaglimmerofwhatwascorrect,honest,andbeneficialBut,inaf>asb,itwasgoneagain. Everythingweneedisalreadywithinus.Webave beentalkingaboutfindinghappinessandlove.We havebeensearcbingwithoursenses-lookingfOr happinessandloveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;listeningforthem,tryIngtobreathein,savor>ortouchthem.Buttbatbasnot

worked.Uponcloserproximityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;whatwetbougbtwas bappinessandlovewasjustatemporarysenseindulgence,nottherealthing.TbeydidnotIastltwasas theBuddhasaid:adropofdew,afIashoflightning, ll4


THESIPARAMlTAs

Oneminute,theyareinourhands.Thenextinstant, theyaregone.Why> Inourignorance>inourIackofunderstandingof whatisrealIybappening,weIookforhappiness, goodness,andpeaceintbewrongpIaces.Theyare

notoutsidesomew}]erewaitingforustofindthem: TheyareinsideofourseIves.Theyareintheheartof everybeing.TI]eyarethesameineverybeing.Happiness,goodness,andpeacearewhowerea}Iyare. Theyareourtruenature,ourBuddha-nature.How dowefindourtruenature>Unconditiona}giving, moraltraining,deep-feItpatience,andenthusiastic effortwiIenableustodeveIopmeditativeconcentration.Withmeditativeconcentration)wewiI>touch

ourinnatewisdom.Ifwebegintopracticethesesix paramitasinevenjustsomesmaImeasureeverydayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; startingwithtoday,graduaIy,wewiIlbegintolookin therightdirection,andeventuaIIywewiIIawakento theperfectgoodness,perfectcontentment,andperfectjoythatarealreadywithinourtruenature,our Buddha-nature.

ll5


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

一蒼卡 TAKlNcTHETHREEREFuGEs

AtsomepointinourIearningandpractice,wewiII likelywishtoformallycommitourselvestotheBuddhistpathTodothis,wetakerefugeintheThree }eweIsoftbeBuddba’Dharma’andSangha.When wedoso,wearenottakingrefugeinsomeoneor somethingoutsideofourse>ves.TheThree>ewels representVrtuesthatareaIreadywitbineachofus; thus’takingrefugeintheThree>ewelsistoreturnto thesanctuaryofourowntruenature,toourowninnateVrtuesandgoodness. WhenwetakerefUgeintheBuddha,weareleavingblindfaithanddelusionbehindusasweseekto awakenanduncoverthetruenaturewithinus.The

Buddhawasanordinarymanwhoattainedsupreme enlightenment.Hewiselyunderstoodtbecausesof painandunhappiness,andcompassionatelysbowed usthepathbehadtakensothatwetoomightbreak ll6


TAK<NGTHETHREEREPuGEs

freefromsuffering. EacbofushasthesametruenatureastheBud-

dba.EachofushasthepotentialtoIookwithinand returntotbattruenatureTl]echoicetodosoisen-

tireIyuptous.TotakerefugeintheBuddhaisto makeacommitmenttoourse>ves,toourinnerBud-

dba-nature.TbatcommitmentsaysthatwewilIdo everythingwecantoawakenandtouncovertheinnergoodness,compassion,andwisdomtl]atIiedeep withinus.

WbenwetakerefugeintheDharma>wearereturningfromincorrectVewstorightviewsandcorrectunderstanding.Ourpresentlackofawareness andpropercomprehensionhaveobstructedusfrom seeingtbereaIityofIifeandcausedustolookateverythinginadistortedway,asifwewerelookingat thingsthroughatinyblurredwindow.Whenour mindsbecomepureandourmisconceptionsarerepIacedwithrightunderstanding,wewiIIgiveriseto wisdomandbeabletoseeeverythingclear}y.Since sutrasarerecordsoftheBuddhaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;steachingsanddescribethetruthoftheuniverse,wecanusethesutras

asguidelines.lfourthinkingcoincideswithwhatis inthesutrasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;thenourcomprehensioniscorrect. ll7


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHlN

OnlywhenwecIearIyseethewhoIecanour Vewpointsandunderstandingbewise.Theteachings ofallBuddhasfIowfromtheirtruenatures.They teachushowtoletgoofbenefitingso>e>yourselves, toattainpurityofmind’toseeIifecIearly,andtobecomeenlig}]tened.Uponhearingtheteachings,we shouIdberespectfuIandremindourselvestocuItivaterightunderstandingandproperVews. WhenwetakerefugeintheSangha,tbecommunityofthosewhopracticetbeteachings,wearereturning仕ompoIIutionanddissensiontopurityof mindandharmony.Asweassociatewiththosewbo practiceunderstandingandIoving-kindness,andwho feelandpracticeaswedo,wewiIbegintoIearn fromthem.

Currently,ourminds,spirits’andbodiesareimpure.TbeBuddhataughtustbateverythingisareflectionofthemind.Everythingthereforearisesfrom tbemind;inotherwords,fromourthoughtsand feelings.WhenourmindsbegintocIear,al>owingus toseeandunderstandwhythingshappen,wewiIl stopjudgingothersandceasewantingthemtomeet ourexpectations.Wewillgraduallyfindcontentment withwhatwehave.Asweinteractwithothersand ll8


TAKINGTHETHREEREPuGEs

bandlesituationsmore}]armoniously’wewiIlbegin tobecontentwithwhoweare.

SincereIytakingrefugeintheThree】ewe}swiⅡ helpusrestoretbeperfectwisdomandvirtuesofour truenaturesothatwecanattaincIarity,廿eedom, andgenuinehappiness. ltisbesttotaketheThreeRefugeswitbamonasticwhoyouthinkwiIIl)eagoodmentortoyou: someonewbomyoucanIearnfrom>seekassistance 廿om,andbeassociatedwith.lf,however》youhave noaccesstoamonkoranun)youcantaketberefugesyourselfasanaIternative.Whenyoutaketbe refugeswithamonkornun,rememberthat}]eorsbe issimplypassingonthevowtoyouandserVngasa witness.YouarenottakingrefugeintbatindividuaI. lamoftenaskedwhylbecameaBuddhist’whyl

tookrefugeint}]eThee}ewelsBuddhismisIogical and,forme’itfeeIsright.TheBuddbabimselfexemplifiedcompassion,joy’andequanimity;thus,be practicedwbathetaught-hewashonest.HeadvisedusnottobIindIybeIieveanyonebuttoconsider

carefulIywbatthatpersonissaying-hewasopenmindedHespokeofendingthewarswitbineacbof ustofindpeacewithout-hewasinsightfuI.He ll9


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

taugbtthatourlivesaretheresuItofwhatwehad previousIythought,said,anddone-heexperienced, espoused,andepitomizedtberealityoftbeoneness oftheuniverse.Ultimately,tbereasonthattbeBuddbaIslogica>approachfee>srightfOrmeistbatBuddhismappeaIstomyinnermostnatureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;whatInow reaIizeismyBuddha-nature.

l20


PuRELANDBuDDH<sM

髦響 PuRELANDBuDDHlsM

Tbenextquestionthatlamoftenaskediswhat schoolIpractice.MypracticeisthePureLand

schoolofMahayanaBuddhism,whichiswidelypracticedinAsia.TboughstiIlinitsformativeyearsin theWest,itsrootsextendallthewaybacktoancient lndia.

Wegeneral>ythinkintermsofonIyoneBuddha: Sakyamuni’w}﹞o}ivedabout2500yearsagαBut’ sinceanysentientbeingcanawakenandinnumerablenumbershave,thereareinnumerabIeBuddhas.

SakyamuniBuddI]a’afterhisenIightenment’explainedthathesawnotonlyhispastlifetimesbut alsohowthefuturewouIdunfo}d

SakyamunisawpeopleinourtimehaVngmore affIictions,worries,andwanderingthoughts.Our deep-seatedbadhabits,bavingbecomeevenmore entrenchedoverthousandsof>ifetimes,makeIiberatl2l


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHIN

ingourseIvessoIelybyourowneffortsa>mostimpossibIe.Heknewtbattoendone’sprob>emsandattain lastingbappinessmanypeop}ewouIdneedtbehelp ofanotherBuddha:Amitabha,tbeBuddhaoflnfinite

LightandInfiniteLife. AlmostaIloftheteachingsbySakyamuniwere theresu}tofhisbeingaskedaquestion.Inadeparture廿omthenorm’andwhenthetimewasrigbt, Sakyamuniinitiatedtheteachingtbatintroduced AmitabhaandhisPureLandThisspontaneous teachingbySakyamuniisoneofthereasonsthis teachingissospecial Inthisteaching’Sakyamunirecountedhowthe bodhisattvaDbarmakara’afterwitnessingt}]esuffer-

ingofsentientbeings’spentthousandsofmilIionsof yearsstudyingaIltheBuddhaIands.Dharmakara t}]enmadeforty-eigbtvows,thefulfiIImentofwbicb wouldcreatetheWesternPureLandofUltimate

Bliss.HedecIaredthathewouldnotattainBuddha-

hoodunIesshisvowsforaperfectPureLand,where

aI}beingswouldadvancealongtheBuddhistpath andneveragainfallbackintosamsara,wereaccom-

p}ishedOncehisvowswereaccomplis}]ed,DharmakaraBodhisattvabecameAmitabhaBuddha.Heis l22


PuRELANDBuDDHlsM

nowteachingtheDharmainbisPureLandand

he}pingalIwhoaretruIysincereintbeirpersonaI vowstoberebornthere.

WithheIpfromAmitabha,wedonothavetorely solelyonourseIvestoattainenlightenmentaswe wouIdwithothermethods.lnPureLandBuddhism,

werelyontheBuddhasandbodbisattvastohelpus’ Thus,relianceonseIfandonanotI]erarecombined

aswerequestbywayofourmindfuIchantingthat AmitabhaBuddba,throughthestrengthofhisvows, he>pustobereborninthePureLandaswebreathe ourIastbreatbinourpresentbody. Amitabhaalsovowedthatonceweattainthisre-

birth’wewiIIaIwaysprogressinourpracticeand IearningWewiIIbeabletocontinueourpracticein thePureLandor,whenwecbooseto,returntothis

andotberworldstoheIpothers.Wedosowitbout beingaffectedbyunfavorableenVronmentsorour formerbadhabitslfwewish,wewilIbeabletodo

thisevenbeforeweattainsupremeenlightenment. AmitabhaBuddha>sPureLandhasinnuInerabIe

wondersandadvantages’aIIofwhicharisefromthe greatvows,deeds,andpurityofalIthebeingsthere. Throughhisvows,Amitabhahelpsallbeingscreate l23


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

tbecausestoplanttherootsofgoodness.Withbis deeds,becreatestbeconditionsforbeingstoaccumulatemerits.Withhispurity,hehascreatedaperfectland,onet}]atisfreefrompoIlution’anger,and intolerance.ltisa>andofpeaceandserenity.Itisa worldofequality’joy’andbeautylncomparison>our wor>disoneofdelusionandsuffering,filIedwith worryandanxiety. PorcountlesspeopIe,PureLandpracticeistbe mostsuitableforseveraIreasons.Pirst,itisreIativeIy easytopracticeinaImostanyenVronment:a}one, witbotherpractitioners,orevenamidthehustIeand bustleofeverydaylife. Second,therearenodifficultentrycriteria.Even ifone)sabiIitiesandknowledgearemodest,withbe}ief,vows’andpractice,wewillbereborninthePure LandBe>iefmeansthatweneedtobelieveinthe

Buddhasandtheirteachings,andincausaIity.We needtobe>ieveinourse}vesandthatwehavethe

sametruenatureastheBuddha.Weneedtobelieve

thatbylivingamoraIIifeandbeingmindfu>ofAmitabbaBuddha,wewiIbebornintotheWestern PureLandandbecomeaBuddhainonelifetime.

Andthird’duetothevowsofAmitabha,achievel24


PuRELANDBuDDHlsM

mentthrougbt}]ismet}]odcanbeattainedmore

quicklyandmoreeasilythanwithotherpractices. Wecanunderstandthisbetterthroughananalogy. Wecometoariverthatwewisbtocross.Wecan

swimacrossbutourbaggageisveryheavyandtbe wateristreacberousIydeepAIternatively,wecanget onaboatthatwiIIquicklyandsafeIytakeusandour baggagetotheothershore.SymbolicaIIy,the“other shore”istheachievementofenlightenment.The baggagewecarryisourdeep-seatedbadhabitsand negativekarmasaccumuIatedoveruncountableIife-

times,andtheboatisAmitabhaBuddha|scompassionatewiIlThetickettoboardtheboatisbeIief’ thesincerevowtobereborninthePureLand,and

practice’whichinc}udesleadingamoral}ifeand mindfuIychanting“Amituofo.’’ T}]esimplestwaytopracticePureLandisby c}]anting“Amituofo.”AmituofoisthenameofAmitabhaBuddhainChinese.ltdoesnotmatter

whetherwechantinChineseorinanvotberlan•

guageas>ongaswedoitproperIy.Whenwechant’ thesoundofl‘Amituofo”arisesinourminds.Andas weutter“Amituofo,>,ourmindsconcentrateonand

embracethatsound.Wbilecbanting’dososincerely l25


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWlTHlN

andcontinuously.

Asonekeepschantingandtbemindfocuseson thesoundof“Amituofo’,>errantt}]oughtsarerepIaced withpurethoughts.Inthisway,wealsocreateIess negativekarma.AfterAmitabhahasbeeninourmind continuousIyforaIongtime,ourtruenature-our Buddba-nature-wiIgradua}Iybeuncovered AmitabhaBuddhaisthewiseandcompassionate teacherwhounderstandseverything,andwhoisaIways

thinkingofus,lifetimeafterlifetimeafterlifetime. WearethestudentswhoaretryIngtolearnand practiceJustasagoodteacberIistenstothecalIsfor belpfromastudentIookingfortherightanswers,if webaveunwaveringbeIief,vowtobereborninthe PureLand,andbehavemoral>yandsincereIypractice,Amitabhawillrespond.Heislikethemother whoa>waysthinksofherchiId.Ifthechilddoesnot inturnthinkofhismother,herthougbtswi}Inot

heIp.ButifheaIsothinksofher,theywiIeventually bereunited.Insuchaway)AmitabhaisaIways thinkingofus,waitingforourtboughtstoturnto him’sothatwemaycometogether. Whenwecbanttothepointofsingle-mindedness withthesolethougbtofAmituofo,wesuccessfuIly l26


PuRELANDBuDDHlsM

formaconnectionwithhim-infact,webecome onewithbim.lntI]atinstantweareinthePure

Land-fartotbewestanddeepwithinus.Aswe breatheourlastbreathint}]isworId’ifwecanfOrm thisconnection-thisonenesswithAmituofo-we wiIIattainournextrebirthintbeWesternPureLand

andIeavesufferingbehindAndoncetbere,wewill haveaIIthetimeweneedtocontinueourpractice andIearning’forwewiIbeinthecompanyofAmitabI﹞aBuddbaandaⅡthebodbisattvas.TI﹞eywiⅡ helpuslearnaIItbewaystowiselyandcompassionatelyheIpotberbeings. ThisiswhyIhavecI]osenthePureLandpathPor meitisthemostsuitabIe.ItfeeIsabsoIutelyrigbt. TheoIdmonkint}]estoryatthebeginningofthis booksummarizedtbeteacbingoftheBuddhaas “AvoidaIIthatiseviI,embraceaIIthatisgood’and

purifyourmind)|How>Pindanewway.Awakento anewapproach.AteverymomentofourIiveswe

haveacboiceEverythingwedowiIIimpactotl]ers. EverythingwilIeventuaIlycomebacktous. Wecancontinuetoactbasedonourerratic

thoughtsandbepuⅡed廿anticaIIyonewayandthen another.Or,wecancaImourmindandbroadenour l27


AWAKENTOTHEBUDDHAWITHIN

heartwithcompassion,discipline,concentration, andwisdoInWecandiscovertheinnategoodness thatisalreadywithineachoneofus. WecanawakentotbeBuddbawithin

l28


Wayst0ReachUs www.amitabha-galleIy·org www。chinkungorg 4〃s〃α〃α/UI/ AmitabhaBuddhistAssociationofNSW T:2﹣96¢3﹣7588F:2﹣9643﹣7599 AmitabhaBuddhistAssociationofPerth

T:8-9306-8l20F:8-9306-8366

AmitabhaBuddhistAssociationofOLD T:7-3273-l6g3F:7-3272-0677E:amtb@amtb-qld.org.au AmitabhaBuddhistRetreatCentre

T:7-4l7l-042lF:7-4l7l-04l3www.abrc.org·au PureLandLeamingCenteroftheNT T:8-8927-4988F:8-8947-3736E:josephine@tchia.com

PureLandLearningCenterofVictoria T:3-989l-7093F:98gl-7093E:purelandvic@yahoo.com PureLandLeamingCollege(Tbowoomba) T:7﹣4637﹣8765F:7﹣¢637﹣8764www.amtb﹣aus.org

oJ〃α咖/I/ AmitabhaBuddhistAssociationofOttawa T:6l3-723-g683F:6l3-723-63l6www.amtb-ottawa·ca

Amitabha(SixHarmony)BuddhistOrganization T:4l6-265-9838F:g05﹣9¢7﹣l870E:amtb6hcan@yahoo.ca AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofMontreal T:5l4-257-l770F:5l4-525-6846E:amtbmtl@hotpopcom

AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofTbronto T:4l6-293-0024F:4l6-292-606l


InfiniteLightAmitabhaOrganizationofCanada T:4l6-893-3366/265-9838F:905-947-l870E:infamtb@yahoo.cz

U〃加αK﹚〃g吻腕〃4/

BuddhistEducationFoundation(UK) T:l7l-586-6923F:l7l-794-8594www.buddhisteducation.co.uk

HD叫KO〃g/8夕2/

HongKongBuddhistEducationFoundation T:23l4-7099F:23l4-l92gE:amtbhkl@budaedu.org.hk ⅢtJ/t叭血/U〃

AmitabhaBuddhistSociety(Malaysia) T:03﹣404l-4l0lF:03﹣¢04l﹣2l72www.amtb﹣m.org.my/emid.shtml s加g叩O『e/bJ/

AmitabhaBuddhistSociety(S) T:6744-7444F:674¢﹣4774E:abss@amtb.orgsg SingaporeBuddhistLodge T:6737-2630F:6737-0877E:sbl@sblorgsg Zh加α〃/88d∕

TheCorporationRepublicofHwaDzanSociety T:02-27547l78F:02-2754-7262www.amtb’oIg.tw Ⅷα加〃α/b6〃

AmitabhaBuddhistSociety T:662-7l9-5206F:662-7l9-4356


〔/〃加αMα肥$q/別碗e〃cα/I/

AmidaSociety T:626-286-5700F:626-286-7988E:amida@amtb-la·org AmitaBuddhismSociety-Boston

T/F:508-580-4349E:amtbboston@yahoo.com AmitabhaBuddhistAssociationofStateWashington T:425-25l-68Z2F:425-656-9789

AmitabhaBuddhistLibraryinChicago

T:630﹣¢l6﹣9422F:630﹣¢l6-6l75www.amitabhalibrary.org AmitabhaBuddhistLibraryof叭∕ashingtonD.C T:202-257-9533F:30l-g27-g596E:amtbmd@hotmail·com AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofHawaii T/F:808-523-8g0g

AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofHouston T:7l3-339-l864F:7l3-339-2242

AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofMichigan T:73斗-995﹣5l32F:734﹣9g5﹣5l32

AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofNewJersey,Inc. T:856-75l-7966F:856-75l=2269E:mbuddha@comcast.net AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofNYJnc.

T:7l8-96l-7299F:7l8-96l-8039E:amitabha-ny@yahoo.comtw AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofPhiladelphia T:856-424-25l6F:856-489-8528E:amtbphila@hotmailcom


AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofSeattle T:206-624-g378

AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyatUK www.ku.edu/~amtb

AmitabhaBuddhistSocietyofUSA T:408-736-3386F:408-736-3389www.amtb-usa.oIg

AmitabhaEducationalCenter(Hawaii) T:808-262-5279E:amimofbl8l8@gmail.com W:amitabhaeducationalctr路weebly.com

AmitabhaSocietyofLasVegas T:707-252-3042F:707-87l-3542

AtlantaAmitabhaBuddhistSociety T:770-923-8955F:770-g25-06l8Emietoville@bellsouthnet DallasBuddhistAssociation

T:972-234-440lF:972-234-8342www.amtb-dba.org


Awaken to the Buddha Within  

Beginning with Buddha's life, this book explores what he experienced: causality and impermanence, compassion and altruism. Understanding his...

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