Page 1

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation by R. R. Lee

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ISBN: 0884153088

Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books Pub. Date: November 1999

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Acknowledgments

I would Like to express my appreciation to certain people. manufacturers and former co-workers, for support and contributions in the preparation of this book: L. L. Lee, G. Hale. Gulf Coast Oil & Gas Industries; J. M. Smith, J. E. Hard-

wick. C. L. Davis, MIS-U.A.E.; Roger Young, Das Nair. Mohd Razzaq, ARCO Dubai Inc.; Jill Maple, Duracell Inc.; Ed Shreeve. Dick van Gallen Last, Ras Al Khaimah Gas Commission-U.A.E.; W. D. Wilson. Crawford Fitting Co.; H. H. Hittner, Yarway Corp.: K. D. Arndt, Jr., Keystone Valve Co.; Jeffrey A. Merchant, Jaqua-McKce; R. T. Burnstad Jr., The Walworth Company.

I especially want to remember Frank Weirch for the ideas he contributed to this hook.

viii

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Preface

This pocket guide is designed and intended to assist materials personnel in handling project instrumentation equipment and instrument fittings, valves, cable, and many other key components used in industrial plants. The many pictures, charts, tables, and other data serve as convenient references for identifying and describing the materials that are typical of such projects. and which are often the responsibility of various disciplines. It is practically impossible to cover all instrument items

for the varied applications, but this guide provides an overview of most of the components. It describes in detail instrument specialty valves along with the major valves used in process systems, such as gate, globe, cheek, ball, plug. and butterfly valves, in addition to some of the minitypes. In addition, this guide covers various styles of steam traps, tracings, panels, and panel instruments. It illustrates instrument fittings in a cross-referenced chart that covers five major fittings vendors. Gauges, thermowelds, thermo-

tx

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couples, thermometers, and other unique product detectors are also included. This guide should he quite useful to drafters, purchasing agents, clerks, technicians, students, professors and project managers. The material in the book is believed to be technically correct: neither the author nor Gulf Publishing Company warrants its use. Always consult the applicable ven-

dor's catalog or specifications issued by your project manager. R. R. Lee Houston, Texas

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Table of Contents Acknowledgments, Page viii

Preface, Pages ix-x 1- Control Devices, Pages 1-22

2 - Instrument Valves, Pages 23-60

3 - Instrument Fittings and Monitors, Pages 61-95 4 - Storage Batteries and Solar Modules, Pages 96-127 5 - Miscellaneous Electrical and Instrumentation Items, Pages 128-145 6 - Bar Coding Systems, Pages 146-155

Appendix - Abbreviations for Instrumentation Items, Pages 156-157 Index, Pages 158-165

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1

Control Devices

A materials person receiving and issuing project instrumentation materials is deluged with an array of new and varied instrument items, but at the same time, he or she continues to receive items for older process sections of plants that may operate on air or gas. So, careful checking of all parts and instruments is still the prime requirement. TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS

Today's inventory can include unusual instruments such as temperature recorders for low-temperature service inside buildings, refrigerators or ovens; and spring-wound clockdriven circular chart recorders that never require ink or any type of power, but simply are rewound when the chart is

changed (Figure 1-1). And there are many variations of temperature transmitters and recorders, such as temperature

recorders capable of programmable inputs, speeds, and alarms, and some have two alarm settings per pen, both

1

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2

Pocket Guide to Instrwnentation

high and low with digital displays. These circular recorders are capable of recording up to 2,300째C (Figure 1-2).

It is not the job of the materials person to know how these instruments operate, or which one to install. The materials person's job is to control and protect these units from damage during storage at the project warehouse until ordered installed by the engineers or the project manager.

Figure 1-1. Chart-Temp") recorder, key wound. (CCopyright Omega Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of Omega Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907.)

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4

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 1-3 shows an unusual pressure transmitter that operates in 10,000 ft of saltwater, withstands 35,0(X) psi internal failure pressure, and survives and operates on the seafloor for 20 years.

Figure 1-4 is another pressure transmitter built for rugged service and transmits flow levels or pressures of 0-1,000 psid. New instrumentation products continue to appear at job sites. Colored tubing and hose, including conduit, are seen

Figure 1-4. Heavy-duty process transmitter. (ŠCopyright Omega Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of Omega Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907.)

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Control Devices

often at job sites, as are static mixer assemblies for wastewater applications and chemical mixing inside a hose or pipe (Figure 1-5). Large display panel meters with 4 -in.high digits are used. (Figure 1-6). Just as important, and still used in many plants are earlier modes of panel board and digital indicators (Figure 1-7). Intrinsically safe field temperature transmitters (Figure 1-8) are used in Class 1, Division 1, Groups A, B, C, D. Intrinsically safe is defined as "equipment and wiring that are incapable of releasing sufficient electrical energy to cause ignition of a specific hazardous mixture in its most easily ignited concentration." In plain terms, to have a fire

or explosion, a source of ignition must be present. An intrinsically safe system assumes the source is present in the atmosphere, but the system is designed so that electrical or thermal energy of a particular instrument loop can never

be great enough to cause ignition. Sec Figure 1-9 for the causes of combustion.

AV.c-B liNVAZOrpetVIAlleCittirri

fip-vAne-NotAeitoyi/ Hours 1-5. 304SS static mixer assemblies. (CCopyright Omega Engineering, Inc. Ai rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of Omega Engineering, Inc., Sbntford, Cr 06907)

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6

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 1-6. Large display (2-4 in.) digital panel meters. (eCopyright Omega Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of Omega Engineering, inc., Stamford, CT 06907.)

INSTRUMENT INDICATING DEVICES Figure 1-7 illustrates control panel indicating devices by Foxboro. Figure 1-10 shows an electronic temperature indicating transmitter. The probe has a 'A-in. bushing that will screw directly into a thermowell outlet on a vessel or into a

process pipe. There are many variations of temperature indicators and transmitters. This particular transmitter has a range of 450 to 1,000째F. Figure 1-11A illustrates a liquid level controller/transmitter that is top mounted. A DC power supply is required on the Fisher electronic transmitter. It attaches to an opening in a vessel by a flange, gasket, and bolts. The typical level controller/transmitter shown in Figure 1-11B is an external displacement type with top and bottom pipe connections.

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Control Devices

7

Figure 1-7. Control panel indicating devices. (Courtesyof Richardson Engineering Services, Inc.)

Metering toxic fluids such as nitric and sulfuric acids, boiling caustics, wet chlorine at high temperatures and high pressures is performed by straight-through rotameters. The Wallace & Tiernan Varea-meterirm operate by a float mag-

net and a follower magnet on the pointer. At 50% on the scale (see Figure 1-12), unlike poles attract equally so that

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 1-8. Intrinsicolly sole transmitter it:Copright Ornego En9iiverittg, true. All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of Omega Erigineerma, tnc.. Stamford, CT 05907.)

Figure 1-9. Causes for combustion.

ht Omega Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of Omega Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907.

the rotating magnet is parallel to the float magnet. Figure 1-13 shows a Varea- meterTM that is manufactured in carbon

steel, stainless steel, and PVC. For service in hazardous locations, an explosion-dust-ignition-proof thick-walled

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Control Devices

9

Furio 1 -1 O. Temperature indicating transmitter. (Courtesy of Richardson

Engineering Services, Inc.)

aluminum enclosure with a heavy-duty glass is available, as shown in Figure 1-14.

In specific hazardous atmospheres in oil refineries, chemical plants, paint manufacturing plants, metal finishing areas, coal processing locations, and grainaries, thermostats are used to control the line voltage equipment for heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration. Figure 1-15 illustrates a thermostat with Mercoid control. For refrigeration and airconditioning, the switch contacts close on temperature rise,

whereas for heating, they close on temperature fall. A removable knob is used to set the temperature setting. The ambient room temperature is indicated on the front.

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10

Pocket Guide iu instrumentation Process Piping

Instrument Piping

(B)

FLANGED

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Figure 1-11. Level controller/transmitter. (Courtesy of Richardson Engineering Services, inc.)

PNEUMATICALLY OPERATED CONTROLS Many plants use and will continue to use pneumatic controls. therefore it is important to be familiar with pneumatic materials. Figure 1-16 shows a liquid level transmitter {Al,

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Control Device.,

11

Figure 1 - 1 2. Magnetically operated rotameter. (Courtesy of Wallace & Tiernan Div., Pennwalt Corp.)

a pressure regulator (B), a backflow preventer (C), and a temperature regulator (D).

Figure 1-17 shows a pneumatic temperature transmitter (A), a pneumatic indicating pressure transmitter (B), and pneumatic absolute pressure transmitter ic.), and a pneumatic flow transmitter (D).

Figure 1-18 illustrates a pneumatic flow indicator that totals actual flow on a six-digit counter from any flow transmitter (A), an air switch (13), and an indicator receiver gauge (C).

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12

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 1-13. Va reo meter'm for non-hazardous areas. (Courtesy of Wallace & Tiernan Div., Pennwalt Corp.)

INSTRUMENT TUBING

Air or some form of gas is used to activate pneumatic instruments, and instrument tubing transports it. The tubing is manufactured in copper, PVC, stainless steel, etc. Figure 1-19 shows three different types of single-line tubing used

in pneumatic and low-pressure hydraulic installations where flexible connections are needed. They are:

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Control Devices

13

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.,

Figure 1-14. Varea- meterTM for hazardous areas. (Courtesy of Wallace & Tiernan Div Pennwalt Corp.)

1. "P" tubing (polyethylene) tubing, which is used in low-pressure installations. 2. Dekoron速 "N" tubing, which is used where maximum mechanical strength is required for high temperature and pressure. 3. Dekoron速 FR (flame retardant) tubing, which is used where a plastic tubing with a flame retardant characteristic is desired.

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14

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 1-15. Thermostat for iborzfdaus orecs. (Court ety of Crouse-Hinds Co.)

Figure 1-16. Pneumatic controls (Courtesy of Richardson Engineering Services, Inc.)

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Control Devices

15

Figure 1-17. Pneumatic controls. (Courtesy of Richardson Engineering Services, Inc.)

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16

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

78:

Figure 1 - 1 8. Pneumatic ponel-mounted controls. (Courtesy of Richardson Engineering Services, Inc )

Packing of single-line tubing is shown in Figure 1-20. The numerals 1-30 are printed the full length of the tubing. These markings identify each end at a given point. By cutting the lead end at a given number, and marking the reel or carton by the same number, tubes can be easily identified for the proper connection or for materials control purposes in the project warehouse.

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Control Devices

17

"P" Tutting ClUveirnrisne)

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Figure 1-19. Flexible instrument tubing. (Courtesy of Eaton Corp., Industrial Polymer Products Div.)

ARMORED METAL TUBE BUNDLES

Copper or aluminum tubing is packaged, in some cases,

in an armored tubing bundle, suitable for direct burial, designed for tight bends, resistant to chemical attacks, and flame retardant. The individual tubes are number coded, and a 22-gauge communication conductor is included to help coordinate bundle installation. There are many variations of multiple tube bundles. Figure 1-21 shows Dekomn速 Type

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1$

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

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Flexible instrument tubing. (Courtesy of Eaton Corp., Industrial Polymer Products Div.)

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Control Devices

19

Figure 1-21. Armored tubing with inner jacket (Courtesy of Eaton Corp

Industrial Polymer Products Div )

1002 armored metal tubing with inner jacketed multiple tube bundle. and Figure 1-22 shows Type 1003 armored metal tubing with outer jacketed multiple tube bundle. STAINLESS STEEL STICK TUBING

The most common example of poor materials handling practices is damage to the small sizes of stick tubing after it

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20

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 1-22. Armored tubing with outer locket. (Courtesy of Eaton Corp., Industrial Polymer Products Div )

has arrived at the project. The tubing is limber, and will require support during storage or while being handled. Always supervise the handling of stick tubing. Figure 1-23 shows several styles of stainless steel stick tubing and cut nipples that are available. The tubing is shipped in 20-ft

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Control Devices

21

11111111111111111111.111.111111111111111111111111111110110

,,,,,,.

Figure 1-23. Stainless steel stick tubing. (Courtesy of Autoclave Engineers, Inc.)

lengths in cardboard tubes, or bundled along a board. It should be stored on a flat surface, or on a rack with support braces every four feet. Tubing is identified by the outside diameter and by the wall thickness. An example would be for stainless steel tubing, )4 -in. OD by .035-in. wall thickness. If the shipping carton is suitable, leave the tubing in

the carton while in the project warehouse to protect the stainless steel finish. Fittings for stainless steel and other instrument items are shown in Chapter 3.

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Pocket Guide to Instrument...4'4m

MICROPROCESSOR ELECTRONICS

Control rooms for large industrial plants are based on pneumatics or analog electronics, and have a maze of meters and levers spaced across three or four walls. The miles of wire or tubing in a plant are expensive to install and maintain. Behind the control panels are thousands of feet of tubing and wire that connect the gauges to each other and often to a computer. Microprocessor-based electronics is changing that. Com-

puters, televisions, calculators and much of the controls industry now rely on the silicon chip. The tiny integrated circuit has eliminated the need for miles of wiring, making possible smaller and more powerful computers.

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2 hzstrument Valves Uses for Valves Primitive man used a plug in a bamboo pipe as a valve to serve his needs. Modern-day valves are used to control the flow of liquids or gases by on-off service, throttling service, and backflow prevention. According to the Walworth Company, about 50% of the industrial valves used fail in

the on-off category, 40% in the throttling category, and 10% in the backflow prevention category.

Basically, the six major valve types, which have almost innumerable variations, are as follows:

0 Gate 0 Globe 0 Check

0 Ball 0 Plug 0 Butterfly

23

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24

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Gate Valves

Figure 2-1 illustrates a flanged end gate valve and the flow characteristics. Gate valves are used for full on and off service.

'LOIN CMARAC'NtSTICS

t o )4: tairrsom

GATI

MIN PC WM.

Figure 2-1. Flanged end gate valve. (Courtesy of The Wolworth Co.)

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Intrument

25

Globe Valves Figure 2-2 shows a globe valve with flanged ends and screwed ends. It is sometimes referred to as an "S" valve, and is fast closing. Globes are used mostly for throttling service.

wc.,;rS.r,

0.014 cm* Pewrio

Figure 2-2. Flanged and screwed end globe valve (Courtesy of The Wa/worth Co )

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26

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Check Valves

Figure 2-3 illustrates a swing check and a globe check with flanged ends. The three basic types of check valves are the swing, lift, and ball. Check valves are designed to prevent backflow.

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Figure 2-3. Flanged end check valves (Courtesy of The We/worth Co )

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Instrument Vuliw.s

27

Ball Valves

Figure 2-4 shows three basic styles of ball valves with flanged and screwed ends: full port, reduced port, and the venturi style. Ball valves do not require lubrication and are quick open and quick off.

Figure 2-4. Flanged and screwed end ball valves. )Courtesy of The Waiworth Co.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Plug Valves

This type of valve has evolved from a tapered plug in a bamboo line to modem versions such as the one shown in Figure 2-5. Lubrication not only ensures ease of operation, but acts to ensure tight sealing and resistance to corrosive sol utions.

Lus1SCA11014 GROOM AND SALL WO. DM CONVILICTION IN MODERN Pula

VAIVI

PLUG VALVE FLOW PATTERNS

Figure 2-5. Lubricated plug valve. {Courtesy of The Walworth Co.)

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Insfrument Valttex

29

Butterfly Valves Figure 2-6 depicts two basic body styles of butterfly valves; the wafer style and the full-lug. Butterfly valves are mounted between flanges. It is the most popular throttling device. More detail on butterfly valves follows later in this chapter.

Figure 2-6. Butterfly valves. (Courtesy of The Waiworth Co.)

Stem Variations

Figure 2-7 illustrates the various stem variations. The descriptions of the variations are important as they will appear in standard valve terminology. An example is OS&Y (outside screw and yoke).

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30

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation STEM VARIATIONS

INSIDE WNW. IMUND STEM AND NANDWHal

CUM! SCREW AND YOKE NON-ROTANNG MIND STEM

SUMO STEM QUICK OPENING

Figure 2-7. Valve stem variations. (Courtesy of The Waiworth Co.)

Bonnet Variations

The bonnet seals the packing glands around the valve stem. Figure 2-8 shows several styles of bonnets for valves.

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31

Instrument Valves BONNET VARIATIONS

$01,011 BONNET

IOITEA IONNU

U DOLT

PleSSUIlf SFIL

Figure 2-8. Valve bonnet variations. (Courtesy of The Walworlh Co)

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32

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Discs Used in Valves

The disc, when closed onto the valve seats, forms a seal against the flow. Figure 2-9 illustrates how various discs are used in gate valves.

DISCS (GATE)

Figure 2-9. End connections for valves. (Courtesy of The Watworth Co.)

End Connections for Valves

A few of the more common end connections used on valves are shown in Figure 2-10. There are other variations used by different manufacturers in special applications. VALVE DESCRIPTION Describing valves for entry into the materials accounting system is not difficult, but their description must remain consistent with the project commodity code descriptions

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Instrument Valves

33

ENDS

SOUNII VONT

Figure 2-10. End connections for valves. (Courtesy of The Woiworth Co.)

from the computer bank used for the project. On each valve in one form or another, the manufacturer's nameplate has a valve figure number on it. With this number and the manufacturer's catalog, a good description is available. Basically, the following describe a valve for future use: 1. Size (nominal pipe size).

2. Body stylecast steel, bronze, stainless steel, etc. 3. Stem or ball-11-13.5% chrome, buna-n, viton, etc. 4. Seat materialsreinforced teflon, stellite, 304 stainless steel, metal to metal, etc.

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Pocket Guide w Instrumrmation

34

5. Pressure class-150. 300. 600, 900, 1500, 2500 ANSI, 10,000-lb psi, etc.

6. Type of operationhandwhea lever, worm gear. power operated, chain wheel operator, etc.

Project Tags Project tags, usually called V-numbers, are unique for the one project only. An example would be V-2237 for a 4-

in. Walworth Figure number 5202F cast steel gate valve. The craftsman would simply request from you, a 4-in. V2237. On the next project, V-2237 may refer to a completely different item. Tags for V-numbers vary from round discs and wire to permanent weatherproof tags as shown in Figure 2-11. These permanent tags. also called dense metal weld identification tags, are made from copper plates 'h. x 2 in. long. They are attached by using a fast-acting bonding agent (Loctite 326). which is included with the tags. The cryogenic and high-temperature dense metal weld identification tags referred to as Models 300 and 400 are made from copper or stainless steel, and furnished with banding and snap-clips. These tags are impervious to corrosion and weather, but most important, will withstand the stress of cleaning machines, such as a sand blasting unit.

important Rule When Receiving or Issuing Valves

Never remove project tags from valves, and if a tag is off, request your supervisor to verify a replacement tag as

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Instrument Valves

35

째 D 34455

Figure 2-1 1 . Dense metal weld identification tags. (Courtesy of South Manufacturing Co.)

the correct number. Do not rely on the project tags. As the responsible materials person, verify the valve as correct by

the figure number on the nameplate on each and every valve when either receiving or issuing the valves. Disaster

can result from an incorrect valve being installed in a process line. Do not paint valves prior to issue. Surplus valves that have been painted cannot be returned for credit.

Storing Valves Figure 2-12 shows one method of storing valves on pallets and inside a warehouse under ideal conditions. Valves two inches and smaller, and any valves with threaded outlets, should be stored inside. Valves stored outside must be stored with the stem up, and in such a manner as not to trap

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36

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation Project Valve Tag No.

Stripping

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%NI/ ...."- ar VW- / W.W. -ask W..........er,ir...mr....der NIL-Pallet Number

Figure 2-12. Gate valves stored on pallets.

water or sand. Corrosion will form on the ball or seat, and

render a new valve worthless even before it is installed in

the process line. Use end protectors for a reliable seal against the elements.

Operators for Valves Hand wheels, levers, and throttling levers are the most common types of devices to operate valves. A chain wheel

operator is used to operate hand wheels that are out of reach of the plant personnel (see Figure 2-13). Butterfly valves are used as control valves. Three styles of operators are shown in Figure 2-14:

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37

Instrument Valves

When ordering, give diameter of valve wheel to be fitted and No of feet of chain required.

Diameter

%rat No.

Will Fit Valve Wheels,

Diameter

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0

4

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Figure 2 -13. Chain wheel operator. (Courtesy of The Wohvorth Co.)

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3$

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation (A)

Figure 2-14. KLOKe valve operators. (Courtesy of Keystone International, Inc.)

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Instrument Valves

39

A. K-Lok valve with electric actuator, with manual override. B. K-Lok valve with notch plate handle for manual operation/throttling, C. K-Lok valve with compact pneumatic rotary actuator. (See Figure 2-15 for a cutaway view of the Keystone Figure 790 actuator.)

Figure 2-16 shows three additional types of instrument control valves:

A. 3-way Fisher mixing valve with pneumatic diaphragm actuator.

B. Fisher butterfly control valve, with piston operator, pneumatic positioner for throttling service. C. Fisher control valve, pneumatic diaphragm actuator,

Valves for Instrument Outlets All instrument outlets for pressure measurement, vents, drains, and sampling applications require a valve that will withstand the pressure and strain of the process line. Figure 2-17 illustrates a Vogt Class 800 gate valve with an extended end, which has more strength than the traditional valve and nipple concept. ( A nipple of incorrect rating installed in a process line could pove to be disastrous. ) Applications of

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a

Figure 2-15. Cutaway view of pneumatic valve actuator (Courtesy of Keystone International, Inc )

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Instrument Valves

41

(A)

(B)

Figure 2-16. Instrument control valves. (Courtesy of Richardson Engineering Services, Inc.)

these valves through insulation are shown in Figure 248. Insulation is typical and common in most processing plants.

Substitute Valves Line blinds are used in place of valves to close a line in the process system. There are many variations, and the line

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

initotal 1/4LAle Psrvaded Ferrel* 114

;niers' Maar Sachet 1.4tetd

remile thmadect

mtagral Mst* C.71/1041

Smote Itirraciad

irthronity fleirtforcwi Extr-vastri Length Muir 1;atitylopt

Frnatit Thrsedvi

Figure 2-17. Vogt Class 800 gate valve with extended end. (Courtesy of Henry Vogt Machine Co.)

blinds are manufactured in most steel types, ANSI pressure classes, and buttweld or flanged ends. They provide a tight shut-off. A Stacey line blind is shown in Figure 2-19 with buttweld ends.

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43

Instrument Valves

Insulation Space

Nig Ill Vogt SW.1211 Couplet

Vetoer or Pipe Wall

Vogt ST-2801 Valve

Insulation

ftiligh i`''Insulation

fr

Insulation

li Vessel or Pipe Wall

Vogt Cr 290 Valve

Figure 2-18. Outlet valves through insulation. {Courtesy of Henry Vogt Machine Co. C:0 Morkad Service Co., oil rights reserved)

Relief Valves These valves are often referred to as "PSV" valves, and are available in numerous sizes and designs. Figure 2-20 illustrates a typical relief valve in a cutaway view. The spring

is designed to release the valve seat at a certain pressure. Earlier models used weights on a long extended handle. Most of the relief valves will be preset at the factory and have a car-seal attached showing the set pressure. Do not

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

-7

Figure 2-19. Stacey line blind, (Courtesy of Stacey Fetterolf Corp.)

remove this seal. In addition, each valve will be tagged on the nameplate for a specific location in the process system. Relief valves have an outlet that is usually larger than the

inlet, and are piped to the vent system or vented to the atmosphere. A full-opening valve is installed below the relief valve, and between the valve and the relief valve, a test insert ring with a gate valve, such as those in Figure 2-17, will be installed. The test insert, which resembles a thick washer with a threaded hole for the outlet, requires a gasket on each side of the ring, and this in turn requires

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45

Instrument Valves

Gasket

Cap

Adjusting Bolt

Spindle

Lock Nut

Gasket Spring Washer Spring

Spring Cylinder Lock Nut Plug

Ball

WV NPTF Connection Plug Guide

Valve Body

9116' SlimLine Connection

Seat Gland

STANDARD RELIEF VALVE

Figure 2-20. Relief valve. (Courtesy of Autoclave Engineers, inc.)

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46

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

longer than usual stud bolts. A barstock relief valve for high-pressure service is illustrated in Figure 2-21.

Rupture Discs These are available in a broad range of sizes and types, materials, and rupture pressure ratings. The size is measured

gERIEg gyp REuEF vA um

Figure 2-21. Relief valve for highpressure service. (Courtesy of Autoclave Engineers, Inc.)

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In.virument Valve

47

by the diameter as shown in Figure 2-22. The discs serve as a form of a relief valve, and will be tagged for a specific loca-

tion and rupture pressure. Always leave the discs in their original carton to prevent damage to the bulge and the edges.

Small Instrument Valves There are valves of every type and description used in instrument type service. Only a few of the valves manufactured by the leading valve companies are shown here. The

same rules for identification and storage that apply to

CaivAz_.)

c)0

1......(4.7situnt

vr

tat me) MAK

PLAT SEAT RUPTURE DM

ar ANGULAR SEAT RUPTURE CRSC

Figure 2-22. Rupture disc. (Courtesy of Autoclave Engineers, Inc.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

48

valves with screwed ends (previously mentioned) apply to these small valves.

Vacuum Valves

Any analytical instrument or industrial process that requires the use of vacuum, such as gas analysis, electronic component manufacturing, cosmetics, freeze dried foods and drugs, requires vacuum valves. Shown in Figure 2-23 is a Nupro速 304-24VFBG Bellows sealed butterfly vacuum

Figure 2-23. Bellows sealed butterfly vacuum valve. (Courtesy of Nupros' Co.)

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Instrument Valves

valve. This valve is used in systems with up to ing, and can be air operated.

49

tub-

Plug Valves The compact and quick-acting plug valves are used in applications for chemical and petrochemical plants for bleed and drain valves, test equipment, air lines, sampling, and general instrumentation. The valves are color coded for systems to prevent mixing of materials in the process system. They are available in pipe end and tubing connections. Figure 2-24 illustrates plug valves.

Figure 2-24. Instrument plug valves. (Courtesy of Nupro. Co. Moricod Service Co., dl rights reserved.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Regulating and Shut-off Valves Figure 2-25 illustrates a straight-through plug valve used for regulating, and for gauge installation, sampling, and test

instruments. The cylinder valve with a rupture disc provides a positive method of over-pressure protection for any system or cylinder. The rupture disc provides instantaneous and unrestricted opening to atmosphere at a predetermined pressure. Figure 2-26 shows a variety of valve patterns and end connections of the regulating and shut-off valves.

Ball Valves for Instrument Service Small ball valves are used where quick on-off service is required in acid lines, treated water lines, inert gas lines,

fVM

Figure 2-25. Regulating and shut-off valves. (Courtesy of Whitey Co. Š1972-1978 Markod Service Co., all rights reserved.)

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Instrument Valves

1111115

51

okiosti

itAV41191.1.-gt-

4:011EAsil

14.

loot

k.allfeA A-1V P.46-86-A

SS-1V8X

RAKIKT

S11(003111 FAIT USW

516VM8-FS Figure 2-26. Regulating and shut-off valves. (Courtesy of Whitey Co. ŠMarkod Service Co , oll rights reserved.)

natural gas lines, and gas manifolds. It is used in all types of hydraulic and air lines. Figure 2-27 illustrates a threeway ball valve for switching systems, fluid mixing, sampling and bypass systems (A), a swing-out ball valve that features easy valve maintenance, and offers leak-tight seal(text continued on page 54)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

(A)

1111111:111111:111"1"44'.

(B)

Figure 2-27. Multipart ball valves. (Courtesy of Whitey Co Morkod Service Co , oil rights reserved.)

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53

Figure 2-27. Coied

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

ing at high- and low-pressures (B), a 5-way ball valve used to direct a number of flows or pressures through a single valve (C), and a ball valve for on and off service (D). These ball valves have a directional handle feature. Figure 2-28 shows a group of fine metering valves of angle and straight

111,21RS4 $ni4AfOtif 'PATTERN GWAGELOK COWEECTION9

TrE PACKING

9S-22RS4A

1:3.22RF2

Figure 2-28. Fine metering valves. (Courtesy of Whitey Co. and Nupre Co. Š1973-1978 Markod Service Co., all rights reserved.)

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Instrument vatvey

55

patterns that are used to control gas or liquid flow precisely in critical processes.

Instrument Check, Relief, and Purge Valves

Instrument check valves allow unrestricted flow in one

direction, and no flow in the opposite direction. Relief valves are set to open at a preset pressure to protect the gauges, instruments, and systems from over-pressurization.

Purge valves are used to manually bleed, vent, or drain instruments and systems. Figure 2-29 shows a variety of these valves with cutaway views: in-line check valve, purge valve, and in-line relief valve.

Valves for High-Pressure Service

Severe service conditions of high pressures up to 150,000 psi, hazardous or corrosive fluids, and very high temperatures to 1,200 째F are controlled with valves manufactured by many of the leading valve makers. Figure 2-30 illustrates a valve for service at 45,000 psi at 450째F. These valves, and other makes and patterns, have replaceable port fittings as shown on each side of the illustration. The various fittings can be used to adapt the valves to any tube or piping system.

Valves for extreme pressures are required for various applications such as an offshore oilwell head. A few of such valves are shown in Figure 2-31.

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

(4)

ISZ-4.CA-3

(3)

Figure 2-29. instrument in-line check valve (1); purge valve (2); and in-line relief valve. (Courtesy of Nupro8 Co. CO1973-1978 Morkad Service Co., all rights reserved.)

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Instrument Valvev

57

Figure 2-30. High-pressure valve and port adapters. (Courtesy of Sno-Trik" Co. Š Morkod Service Co., oil rights reserved.)

Materials Control for Valves Valves of all types represent a major part of the cost of a project. Regardless of size or ratings, each valve received at your project warehouse has been assigned to serve in a specific line of the process system. It is your responsibility to

verify that each valve received or issued complies to the

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

60,000 pet

.1.50..N)0 pc1

-150.000 psi

as 1

6o,3rro psi (air ctpecitsci)

Figure 2-31. High-pressure valves. (Courtesy of Autodave Engineers, km)

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Instrument Valves

59

purchase order figure numbers stamped on each valve as the manufacturer's model number, and the same number on your project purchase order. If they do not match and the problem cannot be resolved, notify the project manager as soon as possible. Project schedules are usually very tight, and some valves are long-delivery items.

Needle Valves for Accurate Flow Needle valves are machined from bar stock for reliable performance. These valves are used in oil and gas production, processing plants, or anywhere a flow of fluid must be

carefully regulated. Figure 2-32 shows three patterns of needle valves each with two-prong color-coded handles.

Figure 2-32. Needle valves for accurate flow regulation. (ŠCopyright Omega Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of Omega Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 2-33. Hard seat needle valve for NACE. (G)Copyright Omega Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of Omega Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907.)

Figure 2-33 is a cutaway of a 316 stainless steel needle valve with NACE trim that prevents sulfide cracking per Standard MR-01-75 in offshore and other petroleum environments where sour conditions may be present.

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3 Instrument Fittings and Monitors

OUTLET FITTINGS

Outlets on process lines are required near equipment or utility stations for providing plant air or plant gas. There are many types of fittings that can be used for these outlets such as tees, 0-lets, and reducing tees. Shown in Figure 3-1 are two outlet fittings called weld couplets. These fittings are acceptable as nozzles on vessels, or can be used on large or

small diameter pipe. The threaded couplet is suitable for installing gauges, thermometers, thermocouples, etc.

PIPING FITTINGS Many standard piping fittings are used in the instrument lines en route to the servicc area. Figure 3-2 illustrates the basic type fittings whose d.scriptions remain constant and repetitive. The pressure ratings vary, however, as well as the ends, i.e., screwed. socketweld, combinations, etc. 61

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Pocket Guide to InNtrumentution

MINIMUM INVENTORY REOUIRED 0CPSMIS Fits small diameter pipe . .

Figure 3-1. Weld couplets. (Courtesy of Henry Vogt Machine Co.)

TUBE FITTINGS Table 3-1 is a cross-reference chart for tube fittings. Part

numbers may change without notice. Therefore, it is important to verify the part numbers from the various cata-

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63

Instrument Fittings and Monitors

C.011-1PLAMS

4*-1474*

void4.9,xos 'WELD

C OWLETS

puiEFtrs

Figure 3-2. Basic types of pipe fittings. (Courtesy of Henry Vogt Machine Co.)

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64

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

logs for project use. The fittings displayed in Table 3-1 are Swage lok速. The part numbers under the other brand names

refer to an equal fitting. Regardless of the brand name, tube fittings are made and tested to very high standards to provide service without leaks and other problems. Scratches or other surface defects can lead to gas leaks. Tube fittings should be handled and stored with care to prevent damage. Protect the surface of the fittings by storing them in bin boxes inside their original cartons. (The same rule

applies to tubingnever drag it out of a rack or across a cement floor.) (text continued on page 68)

Table 3-1 Tube Fittings Cross Reference

w

Swage lok

Gyro lok Imperial Parker Tylok

100-C

CP

708-F

FNZ

CAP

P

721-F

PAZ

FPLUG

731-SS

ZHBW

folio"! sr

'too

14.

100-P

"11.-0

Vilatart

or, rtANT 4Acie

vaM r LI

t,

'4

4006-4TS

600.9 -6TSW

:0#.4C1KA-

100-1-1

ZF.BW

CM

768-F

FBZ

MC

BHMP

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Instrument Fittings and Monitors COMMIPCION

Swogelok

Gyrolok imperial Porker Tylok

xA 200.11 -2

BCM

788-F

FH2BZ

IM

769-F

CBZ

ATPM

AM

722-F

T2HF

St. x 'A

100-2-2 C

Mgt.

1x1

16-TA-16

Wu x Ain. 200-3TMT

TMT

771-F

RBZ

TMT

Wi4ci Teti A x A 200.3TTM

MI

772-F

SBZ

TIM

200-7-2

CF

766-F

GBZ

FC

x 200.71 -2

BCF

786-F

GH2BZ BHFP

LP

770-F

DBZ

FE

AF

723-F

T2HG

ATPF

1,4 x A

ripmac0wou4e. .310.41 F.04.11

x

200-8-2

34x

2-TA-7-2RT

(table continued on next page)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Table 3-1 (continued) Swage lok

Gyroiok Imperial Parker Tylok

uxlf 200-37FT

TFT

767-F

11413Z

TFT

200-3TTF

TTF

777-F

OBZ

TTF

200-6

U.

762-F

HBZ

R/

BU

782-F

WBZ

BHU

'Ax

to.,44,

4014011.014 ktr 4.-:, oak,*

Sf

200-61

10.164.06x.,

nag

YA x

500-6-4

RU 756-F

RU

1.1.:

765-F

EBZ

ELU

TIT

764-F

/BZ

TIT

C

752-F

KBZ

CR

UAN

792-F.

XHBZ

wow 400-4

CCX ''; tt 1

XP

..

AxA

800-6-4AN

Go 54

quer mow.: ii

811-PC-416

2PC

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67

Instrument Fittings and Monitors Swage lok

Gyro lok Imperial Porker Ty lok

A x A-in.

400- I -4MPW CW

tM

729-FSS

2118W

x

810-2-8MPW LBW

ICC

72.BW2

1,4

400-1-40R

COM

ZHBFS

COS

T2HOAS

ICC tiu!

its x nturIF-vat 300- 1 -OR

A-in.

44

IGO

761-F

402-1

N

402- I K

1CN

404 -1

FR

760-F

400 -M-4

BA

783-F

BZ

N

BZB

T2H2B7. BHA

(table continued on next page)

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6$

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Table 3-1 (continued) Swagelok

Gyrolok Imperial Parker Tylok

x 200-R-3

R

783-F

TRBZ

AAN

734-F

X6111i7i)

RATT

x

200- A -2ANF

(text continued from page 64)

PARTS DISPLAYS AND MANUALS The various manufacturers of the tube and tube fittings will be happy to supply your project with poster-type illustrations of their fitting with each component part shown in

the illustration. There are manuals for tube fitting and installation that cover topics such as terminology, trouble shooting, types of fittings by number, and other data useful to the craftsmen on the job. Figure 3-3 is an example of the

topics that appear in the manuals and catalogs. Request these manuals through your project manager. HIGH-PRESSURE TUBE FITTINGS Fittings for extreme pressures are shown in Figure 3-4. A

typical use for high-pressure tube fittings and valves is illustrated in Figure 3-5, an oilwell tubing head. The Bour-

don gauge (see inset in Figure 3-5) operates from force effect, and uncurls in response to internal pressure in a pro-

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Instrument Fittings and Monitors

tht. in%) 'the SWAG:' OK aloe fttlnq Mike r.ira that the tubing rests firmly err the :houidor of the fittiny end that the hut is tinge" tight

1 Sterfki

SWAGiO1 nun, 'vibe 2 ac(ote oghterivxj the nut at It* 6 eritKir. pOSitiOr. 12 11

4

Z

3 Now while holding the fitting body steady with a backup wrench, tighten the nut 11/4 turns! Watch the scribe mark, make one complete revolution and continue to the 9 o'clock position

Figure 3-3. Installation instructions for tube fittings. (Courtesy of Crawford Fitting Co.)

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70

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

(C)

Figure 3-4. High-pressure tube fittings: tubing tee (A); tubing elbow (B); and tubing cross (C). (Courtesy of Autoclave Engineers, Inc.)

portional manner. The more sophisticated well heads have shut-down devices, automated flow controls, and are triple completed (or more), within the many strings of pipe. The

wells can be controlled at several stagesthe test separator, the disposal pit or caisson, on-off flow cycles, etc. If a line breaks, the pressure-drop activates a shut-down valve that closes the line immediately, and then sounds an alarm in the control panel. IN-LINE FILTERS

Small in-line filters remove contamination as small as two microns. The filter bodies are not removed from the

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71

Figure 3-5. Typical oilwell head with valve and pressure gauge (Courtesy of Autoclave Engineers, Inc.)

line to change the elements. For sampling, a bypass feature is provided on some of the filters. There are several sizes of elements used depending on the size of the particles to be removed. Figure 3-6A shows the "TF" series of in-line fil-

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

(B)

(C

Figure 3-6. In-line tube filters: TF series (A) and F series (B & C). (Courtesy of Nupro-i- Co.)

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73

Instrument Fittings and Monitors

tern that offers a bypass version and easy in-line removal of

the element; Figure 3-6B shows an "F' series, a compact model where space is limited (the element is also replaceable). Figure 3-6C is also an "F' series. Figure 3-7 illustrates two types of elements, a sintered and strainer. As fluid enters the filter, the stainless steel sintered element or strainer will stop the contamination, and permit the clean fluid to pass.

STEAM TRAPS

Lost energy increases the cost of usable energy. Air escaping from under your door during the air conditioning

REPLACEMENT

SINTERED & STRAINER

Palelteci SINTgRED COPISTRI)CnON

HIRE MESH CONSTPUCT1Oft

$snunroa

3111

elaoletis I. lt ineimat msccon sail 012 090. trap pkthc Act. c,ortamirat.or In the ;oltuova .tario (Mognl'Inc 43iefr,erfs

***let, nur*t sifa.no?

014:meRls 3v,allaDkt :n t13, 233 anC

44C truct3n sir*" ett6ctive'y rortocnro

peffici.

N.la?n,:., I 2rX.:

Figure 3-7. Filter elements. (Courtesy of Nupro' Co. Service Co., oll rights reserved.)

Morkod

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Packet Guide to In.strumenuition

season will ensure a larger electric bill for you. The same applies to plants that lose money through steam leaks in steam tracing traps, line drip traps, and process traps. The primary purposes of steam traps on steam line and branch lines are to drain condensate, purge air and non-condensibles to assure dry steam supply to process equipment, and protect the steam piping system from erosion, corrosion, and water hammer. Steam tracing is used to provide a uniform temperature on process lines and equipment in hostile areas where freezing temperatures prevail. One of the most important services provided by traps is to prevent the accumulation of condensate from forming water slugs in lines. These slugs of water cause water hammer, which. when carried through a line at 100 mph. can cause serious damage to control valves, heating coils, and other compo-

nents. Condensate forming in a line and an example of water hammer are shown in Figure 3-8.

Types of Steam Traps There are three major types of steam traps:

Mechanical steam traps, shown in Figure 3-9, are also known as "bucket traps." They work by the weight of the bucket, together with changing buoyant forces and the pressure differential across the seat, providing onoff discharge of condensate near steam temperature. Another style, which is furnished with a strainer, is the UniBodymt trap shown in Figure 3-9, bottom.

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75

Condnate feemm In alma. Warn

Figure 3-8. Condensate forming in main steam (top) to create water hammer; condensate trap (bottom). (Courtesy of Yorway Cop.)

Thermostatic traps are activated by the temperature of the fluid reaching the trap. The thermostatic diaphragm type trap illustrated in Figure 3-10 is actually a complete condensate drainage station including a full-size Y-type strainer and blow-off valve.

Thermodynamic traps, as shown in Figure 3-11, are used with flash steam, which is caused by a system discharging hot condensate into a lower pressure system, developed during discharge of hot condensate to control the opening and closing of the trap.

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76

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 3-9. Mechanical steam traps. (Courtesy of Yarway Corp.)

Four other traps are shown in Figure 3-12 to increase your ability to recognize the various styles of traps:

A. A dual range trap that has two valvesthe pilot valve, which functions thermostatically, and the main

valve, which stays closed and opens when the pilot valve's load becomes excessive. B. A bimetallic steam trap for instrumentation and winterization tracings. The operating principle is based on two opposing forces.

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Instrument Fittings and Monitors

77

Figure 3-10. Thermostatic diaphragm ype steam trap. (Courtesy of Yorway Corp.)

Figure 3-11. Thermodynamic steam trop. (Courtesy of Yarway Corp.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 3-12. Types of steam traps. (Courtesy of Yarway Corp.)

C. Another bimetallic trap, which has a bimetallic pilot that controls a large diameter discharge valve, and

operates on the principle based on two opposing forces. Used in large reboilers and heat exchangers. D. Also a bimetallic steam trap that operates similar to B and C.

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Instrument Fittings and Monitors

79

(pi

Figure 3-12. Continued.

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80

STEAM TRACING CONTROL VALVE It is obvious that operation costs would soar if steam lines used for tracing instruments and process lines had to

be left open until some plant operator could shut them down, when the temperature is above freeze conditions. Figure 3-13 shows a temperature responsive ambient con-

Figure 3-13. TRACT" yoke. (Courtesy of Yonvoy Corp.)

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Instrument Fittings and Monitors

trot valve. The valve automatically opens and closes at pre-

set actuation points. Warm air causes the thermostat to expand, cold air causes it to close. Figure 3-14 shows the manufacturer's recommended installation plan, and is a good example of how the traps, drains, and tracing operate. SAMPLE CYLINDERS

These are used to safely and reliably contain pressurized fluid samples. They permit the safe handling of fluids during sampling and transporting to the laboratory. The cylin-

PIPE Fla -SAME A S T EAC,"3MlE

ullPPlr

Enhni r.T

(ONDUCt OISCkARGE 5AFE LOCALICA

A FL I

9 4-no

eneEt.,:m rot less I:13n R A C vake er.3. conneeinn 3Fn Sae. only F seeded

0 --est

swah sl drier C valve

E

:

,

wah *earner cap 'o

:he .1 ystem agarst

Figure 3-14. Pipny p.Aun (or steam control. (Courtesy of Ye:sway Corp.)

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82

Pocket Guide to InNtrumentotion

ders are safe for corrosive, toxic, hazardous, or very expensive fluids. They meet applicable D.O.T. Specifications.

Four styles of sample cylinders are illustrated in Figure 3-15. Smaller cylinders are also available and used to divide samples into several smaller samples that may be subjected to a series of analyses.

DETECTORS AND MONITORS

Gas leaks out of the process areas can be detected by several means. One method is to use portable units, as

Figure 3 -15. Sample cylinders. (Courtesy of Whitney Co. 0 Markad Service Co., all rights reserved.) -

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Instrument Fittings and Monitors

$3

shown in Figure 3-16. One unit is equipped with a metal probe, rubber hose, and soft rubber aspirator, which draws a sample from manholes, bar holes, and passes it through the measurement cells. The two-position valve is first set in

Figure 3-16. Combustible gas detectors. (Courtesy of Southern Cross Corp.

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84

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

the high range after purging with air. If the reading is very Iow in this range the valve is switched to the Iow range. No additional adjustment is required when switching from one range to another. The second portable unit is shown in the

case on top of the metered unit. The flame pack. as it is called, is a sensitive, single-purpose gas leak detector. It uses the flame ionization principle and patented circuitry. A

high-capacity, fully automated air sampling unit is also available, which mounts on the front of a vehicle, and will analyze the entire intake sample.

Bar holes made in asphalt, if not plugged, may later enlarge to pot holes, and erode the plant paving area. Figure 3-17 shows how to patch bar holes made during leak detection periods. Figure 3-18 shows a pipe and cable detector (left) and a valve box and manhole locator (right). The Pipe HornTM

(left) can be used to trace wiring in buildings, telephone lines, ground wires, etc., as well as pipe and cables. The detector on the right is used in conjunction with the Pipe HornTM and can detect whether or not the object is directly over the buried pipe or cable. It can also be used to locate cast iron drain lines, conduits, and piping in reinforced concrete slabs or walls. INTERFACE DETECTORS

A device that detects changes in the sound velocity rather than changes in density can detect different liquids in

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Instrument Fitting and Mon:tors

85

whs.

1 Iiii'l A. aregRIP1 0%;

IIIIIIIIIVZ,

siaafwairaffin

Ed IIIMMI

Figure 3-17. Bar hole plugs and sampling device. (Courtesy of Southern Cross Corp.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 3-18. Pipe and cable detectors. (Courtesy of Southern Cross Corp.)

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$7

Instrunsent Fittings and Monitors

a pipeline, even liquids with the same specific gravity such as leaded or unleaded gasoline. Figure 3-19 illustrates the Nusonics1' pipeline interface detector that applies microprocessor-based electronics to produce the sound velocity readings for petroleum products. There are no moving parts in the probe assembly.

FLOW SWITCH MONITORS/LEVEL INTERFACE CONTROLLERS Flow, level, and interface monitors are designed to sense

variations in the heat transfer properties of any liquid or

Figur* 3-19. inwroce perxiucts detector. (Courtesy of Mapco Controls Ca)

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88

Pewket Guide to Instrumentation

gas. In this manner, reduction or stoppage of flow, loss of product, change in phase from wet to dry and dry to wet, or the interface between dissimilar products can be accurately detected. Figure 3-20 shows three flow switch monitors: (A) detects reduction or loss of flow in any liquid or gas; (B) responds to a change in flow rate or liquid level; (C) is extremely sensi-

tive to low-flow rates. Similar devices include relief valve leakage monitors, sample rate verifiers, injection rate monitors, bearing tube oil monitors, bearing seal leak detectors, and low- and high-level pump start and stop alarms.

SPARE PARTS

Most of the items described in this chapter, except the pipe fittings, may have spare parts sent to the project for future use. The spare parts are usually on a separate purchase order and tagged as such. These items should be checked and received. Left in their original cartons, labeled with project or client commodity code numbers, and then entered into the materials accounting system.

ACTUAL SIZES OF PIPE /TUBING

Learning to instantly recognize pipe and tubing sizes may require considerable practice and skill, and at times

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$9

Figure 3-20. Flow switch monitors. (Courtesy of Fluid Components, Inc)

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90

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Actual Sizes Pipe/Tubing 1/16" MYT

yr WI

1/16"

0 i/8" 0 3/16" /4" S/16"

1 /4" MP!

3/8" Figure 3-21. Actual sizes of pipe/tubing. (Courtesy of Crawford Fitting Co.)

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Instrument Fittings and Monitors

91

:/1" AV1

0 314'.

figure 3-21.,Coatinued.

may cause an incorrect size to be entered on the receiving report. Always measure the size of pipe or tubing, or use a template. Figure 3-21 shows the actual sizes for male nomi(text continued on page 95)

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94

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation 2"

Figure 3-21. Continued.

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95

Instrument Fittings and Monitors

0 3mm

0 8mm

0 8mm

00 lOmm

12mm

0 18mm

Figure 3-22. Actual sizes of pipe/tubingmetric. (Courtesy of Crawford Fitting Co.)

(text continued from page 91 )

nal pipe threads and tubing sizes. Figure 3-22 shows the actual sizes of metric tubing through 18mm.

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4 Storage Batteries and Solar Modules

AC AND DC SYSTEMS FOR OFFSHORE APPLICATIONS

When normal electrical power fails on an offshore drilling platform or on a production platform, nickel-cadmium block batteries supply the power for engine and turbine

starting systems (Figure 4-1) and for emergency lighting and communications (Figure 4-2). This type of battery is also mounted on various configurations of racks, and each rack may contain several batteries.

Receiving the Shipment Unpack the batteries completely. Do not throw out small packages that may be in the packing materials. The batteries are shipped either filled and charged or empty and discharged. A plastic film is used as a transport seal on the

96

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97

Figur* 4-1. Nickel cadmium battery for engine and turbine starting systems. (Courtesy of Sob Nile, Inc.)

batteries. Never charge or discharge the batteries until the plastic seal is removed.

Safety Precautions The nickel-cadmium block batteries are an alkaline system with potassium hydroxide as electrolyte. The alkaline

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98

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

0.110!ttrItt111111101111

Figure 4-2. Nickel cadmium battery for emergency lighting and communications. (Courtesy of Sob Nife, Inc

electrolyte is a strong caustic agent, so wear rubber gloves, eye protection and long-sleeved clothing when handling the batteries. Remove rings, watches, and articles of clothing that may come in contact with the battery terminals. The

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99

Figure 4-3. Cutaway view of nickel cadmium battery. (Courtesy of Sob Nife, Inc.)

terminals are illustrated in a partial view of nickel-cadmium battery in Figure 4-3.

Storing Batteries Figure 4-4 illustrates several models of the nickel-cadmium block battery that you may store until project startup. Regardless of what kind of battery you may receive, never

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100

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 4-4. Styles of nickel cadmium batteries. (Courtesy of Sob Nife, Inc.)

store a battery on a metal deck or on a concrete floor. Always store them on a decking of plywood or boards.

The battery storage room should be dry, clean, and preferably cool. Fully discharged and empty batteries can be stored for an unlimited time, provided the cells are hermetically sealed. A battery filled with electrolyte that is to be stored for a maximum of one year should be charged before storing. No charging is needed during the storage period. However, before being put into service, the battery

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Storage Batteries and Solar Modules

10I

should be given a normal charge. The battery storage room should he vented. Battery gas is explosive. PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

Figure 4-5 illustrates how the production of electricity starts as soon as sunlight strikes the photovoltaic module. Solar cells within the module will respond to the light by creating an electrical current that moves through the series

of cells and is then stored in a battery, such as the one shown in Figure 4-6. Many photovoltaic systems are used offshore to produce

current for warning lights and other components of the power system. A more simple example of how it works is

SOLAR CELL to SILICON SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE) PHOTO = SUNLIGHT IN

VOLTAIC =

1 ELECTRICITY OUT

4

Figure 4-5. Solor cell (silicon semiconductor diode). (CARCO Solar, inc., a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Co.)

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102

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

4-6.36;

frx

pipity,o4uk Jam. MARCO

Sax, if37,;. 0 4is aq of Actn.tic R*.Witiar Co)

Figure 4-7. Typical photovoltaic system. (OARCO Solar, Inc., a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Co

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12-VOLT

BATTERY

103

FUSE BOX

12.VOLT

APPLIANCE

FUSE BOX

INVERTER

AC APPLIANCE

Figure 4-8. Typical photovoltaic system. (ŠA.RCO Solar, Inc., a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Co.)

shown in Figures 4-7 and 4-8, which illustrate a typical 12-

volt photovoltaic system. The production of electricity from direct sunlight allows power to be brought to remote

areas for purposes ranging from emergency lighting to pumping water from a well in the desert. The applications of solar power are endless, and will continue to be used to

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104

Pocket Guide to butrutneniation

provide power where other systems would he prohibitively expensive.

Photovoltaic Module Figure 4-9 shows an ARCO Solar" M81 Photovoltaic Module, which employs 33 electrically matched, single-cell

crystal solar cells that directly convert sunlight into electricity. The module is suitable for a wide variety of lowpower applications, such as powering navigation aids, telemetry relay stations, valve control, auxiliary equipment, recreational vehicles, and maintaining the charge on storage batteries.

_,./------a____.12.,.._

_Aillool"

Figure 4-9. ARCO SolarTM photovolfaic module. (0 ARCO Solar, inc., a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Co.)

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105

Figure 4-10. Tilt angle for solar module. (ŠARCO Solar, inc., a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Co.)

Tilt Angles Figure 4-10 illustrates the tilt angle desired to ensure that maximum sunlight strikes the module(s). Consequently, the module must be tilted to be as perpendicular to the sun as possible at all times. Table 4-1 provides a suggested single

position tilt angle for different locations throughout the world. (If your area is not listed, choose the closest city indicated on the chart.) Table 4-1 is presented here as an example only, and does not imply to be 100% accurate. It is

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106

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

based on a nominal yearly average of plus or minus 10% ampere-hours per day. The performance in any given day may be quite different. (text continued on page 113)

Table 4-1

Performance Guide *13.4V represents the charge voltage of a typical lead calcium battery operating ( 90 state -of- charge, 28째C temperature and a 2 amp charge rate. Amp Hrs Generated By One M-61 Module Per Day Tilt Angle

Lat.

Location

27N 30N 34N 25N 23N 30N

Algeria, Aoulef Algeria, Beni-Abbey Algeria, Chottech Cherqui Algeria, Qua llen Algeria, Tamanrasset Arab Rep. Of Egypt, Giza

41S 35S 28S 31S 35S 35S 38S 32S

9.93 10.39

9.43

35S 40S 55S 25S 25S 50S

Argentina, Bariloche Argentina, Buenos Aires Argentina, Corrientes Argentina, Rafaela Australia, Adelaide Australia, Canberra

6.44 7.83 8.13 4.92 8.29 8.63

65N 60N 50N 55N 60N 60N

Australia, Melbourne Australia, Perth

7.02 8.67

60N 55N

9.24 10.40 10.77

49/DARCO Solar, Inc.. a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Co.

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33S 19S 17S

Australia, Sydney Australia, Townsville Austria. Vienna Bolivia, La Paz

20S 59N 45N 54N 62N 46N

Botswana, Maun Canada, Churchill Canada, Dartmouth Canada, Edmonton Canada, Fort Simpson Canada, Montreal

9.65

44N 49N

Canada, Toronto Canada, Vancouver Chad, Ford Lamy Chile. Atacama Chile, Santiago China, Changchun

5.95

48N

12N

23N 34S 44N

38N 31N 5N

107

8.93

45N

9.67 4.34

25N 70S

10.36

25N 20N 80S 70S 70S 85S 70S

6.81 5.71

7.46 5.25 5.73

4.66 9.84 12.77

8.16 7.40

65S 70S 20S 30N 55N 605

7.65 6.76 7.38 6.92 9.83 3.98

55S 55S

4S 14N 63N

China. Chefoo China, Shanghai Colombia, Bogota Congo Republic, Brazzaville El Salvador, San Salvador Finland, Luonet Jarvi

49N 52N 48N 6N 38N

France, Paris Germany. Bochum Germany, Munich Ghana. Accra Greece, Athens

4,87 2.68 5.54

70S 75S 70S 15N 60S

12N

Guinea-Bissau Hong Kong

9.35 7.42

22N

730 7.11

15N

25N 20S 35S

20S 15S

itable continued an next page)

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108

Table 4-1 (Continued) Amp Hrs Generated By One M-61 Module Per Day Tilt Angle

Lat.

Location

19N

India, Bombay (Mumbai) India, Calcutta India, Madras Indonesia, Jakarta

9.54 8.59 9.66 6.82

15S 15S 20S 15S

9.34 9.29 10.20 5.87 6.28 7.73

20N 50S 50S 65S 70S 25S

35N 38N 34N

Japan, Sapporo Japan, Tokyo Kenya, Nairobi Korea, Pusan Korea. Seoul Lebanon, Ksara

5.39 5.17 8.30 9,20 7.64 9.05

65S 40S 25N 25S 50S 55S

15N 17N 20N 28N 23N 20N

Manana ls., Saipan Mauritania, Nema Mexico, Mexico City Mexico, Nonoava Mexico, Cabo San Lucas Mexico, Tomatlan

9.18 8.70 9.23

25S 20S 15S 30S 35S 255

18N 17N

Mexico. Tuxtla Guiterrex Mexico, Acapulco Morocco, Cabo Juby

23N 13N 6S

4S 32N

32N 41N 46N 3514

43N 36N 1S

28N

Indonesia, West Irian Iraq, Al-Kut Israel, Jerusalem Italy. Napoli Italy, Palianza Japan, Nagoya

10.81

9.04 9.10 7.20 9.09 8.81

15S 20S 35S

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23S 30N 9S

Namibia (SWA). Windhoek Nepal, Saga New Guinea. Merauke

4S

New Guinea, Rabul New Zealand, Nandi New Zealand, Raoul Is. New Zealand. Wellington Niger, Agadez Nigeria, Benin City

18S

29S 41S 17N 714

109

11.34 8.56 7.31

20N

8.11

2014

9.69 8.24 6.48 10.29 5.94

30N 50N 65N 20S 15N

8.14 2.72 8.69

15N 85S

10.52

45S

7.16

15N 20N

15S 311N

12S

Nigeria, Yola Norway, Bergen Pakistan, Karachi Pakistan, Queta Panama, Panama Peru, Huancayo

15N 38N 19N 26N 24N

Philippines. Quezon City Portugal, Lisbon Puerto Rico, San Juan Saudi Arabia, Dhahran Saudi Arabia, Riyadh

9N

20N 63N

Sierra Leone. Longo Singapore Spain Madrid Sudan, El-Fasher Sudan. Port Sudan Sweden, Froson

7.09 6.56 7.33 9.20 9.37 4.41

15N 15N 65S 20S 25S 85S

56N 25N

Sweden, Svalov Taiwan. Taipei

3.86 5.35

80S 50S

9N 60N 25N 30N 9N

IN 41N 14N

11.68

7.03 8.77 10.41

9.74

955

15S

25S 60S 20S 35S 35S

(table continued on next page)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Table 4-1 (Continued) Amp Hrs Generated By One M-61 Module Per Day Tilt Angle

Lot.

Location

23N 24N

Taiwan, Tainan Taiwan, Kwarenko Thailand, Bangkok Uganda, Moroto Republic, So. Africa, Alexander Bay Republic, So. Africa, Durban Republic, So. Africa, Capetown Republic, So. Africa, Pietershurg Republic, So. Africa, Pretoria Republic, So. Africa, Upington United Kingdom, Cambridge

14N

3N 29S 30S 34S 24S 26S 29S 52N

United States of America 32N AL, Montgomery 61N AK, Bethel 65N AK, Fairbanks 62N AK, Matanuska 33N AZ, Phoenix 35N AR, Little Rock 39N 37N 34N 34N

CA, Davis CA, Fresno CA, Los Angeles CA, Riverside

40N CO, Boulder 4014

CO. Granby

8.53 7.08 8.17 10.31 11.26 8.41

15S

45S 20S 15N

9.41

45N 35N 55N

10.52 10.13 10.42 3.87

25N 25N 25N 75S

7.55

55S 60S

6.41

5.19 5.60 10.50 7.29

8.27 8.42 9.57 10.28 8.40 10.27

9US

75S 45S 60S

60S 60S 50S 45S 50S 40S

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111

39N 30N 26N 34N 21N 44N

D.C., Washington FL, Gainsville FL, Miami GA, Atlanta HI, Honolulu ID, Boise

6.74 8.72 9.25 7.80 9.74 8.17

60S 45S 30S 55S 35S 65S

42N 40N 42N 38N 39N 38N

IL, Chicago IN, Indianapolis IA, Ames ICN, Dodge City KN, Manhattan KY, Lexington

4.57 6.46 7.10 8.09

65S 655 655 45S 60S 605

30N 32N 44N 42N 43N 46N

LA. New Orleans LA. Shreveport MP., Portland MA. Boston MI, E. Lansing MN. St. Cloud

6.35 7.32 7.49 5.92 6.29 7.50

55S 555 65S 65S 65S 70S

39N 47N 41N

7.11 7.85

40N 35N

MO, St. Louis MT. Great Falls NM, N. Omaha NV, Las Vegas NJ, Sea Brook NM, Albuquerque

8.09 10.89 6.55 11.64

60S 70S 60S 45S 65S 40S

41N 39N 36N 47N

NY, New York City NC, Ely NC, Greensboro ND, Bismark

6.26 10.81 7.43 8.51

65S 50S 60S 65S

36N

10.27 7.35

(table continued on next page)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Table 4-1 (Continued) Amp His Generated By One M-61 Module Per Day Tilt Angle

Lat.

Location

41N 35N

OH, Cleveland OK, Oklahoma City

6.08

42N 40N

7.20

4I N 33N 44N 36N

OR, Medford PA, Pittsburgh RI, Newport SC, Charleston SD, Rapid City TN, Nashville

32N 33N 41N 38N

TX, Big Spring TX, Fort Worth UT, Salt Lake City VA, Richmond

9.20

9.21

4.76 6.68 7.95 9.39 6.85

8.95 8.24 6.61

47N WA, Seattle 48N WA, Spokane

5.43 7.37

38N WV, Charleston

6.61

43N

WI, Madison

43N WY, Lander 46N USSR, Odessa 43N USSR, Vladivostok 60N 35S 10N

11N 13N

45N

USSR, Leningrad Uruguay, Montevideo Venezuela, Barcelona Venezuela, Maracaibo Yeman, Aden Yugoslavia, Beograd

65S 50S 65S 65S 65S 55S 55S 60S 45S 508 65S 60S 70S 70S

6.88 11.03

60S 65S 45S

5.68 7.86 3.58 8.49 8.75 8.67

70S 35S 85S 60N 20S 20S

9.31

20S 70S

5.64

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Storage Batteries and Solar Mtdales I 2S IN

20S

Zaire, Lubumbash Zaire, Kisangani Zimbabwe. Bulawayo

8.20 7.29 10.16

1 113

15S

15N 15N

item: continued from page 1061

SUMMARY OF SOLAR MODULE SYSTEM

A complete photovoltaic system contains one or more solar modules, a structure to mount the modules, a battery storage system, and a charge control device to prevent the batteries from overcharging. In comparing solar modules, the most important consideration is the ability to charge batteries, not the number of cells. Increasing the number of cells might increase the voltage to the theoretical maximum power point, but past a certain point that voltage is not usable.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN SOLAR APPLICATIONS

AC (alternating current)An electrical current that reverses from a positive to a negative voltage, changing at regular intervals and constantly changing in magnitude. Expressed in cycles per second or hertz, it is the current commonly used in household electricity.

Ampere or AMPThe standard unit for measuring the rate of flow of an electrical current. One ampere will flow when one volt is applied across a resistance of one ohm.

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114

Pocket Guide a, Instrumentation

ArrayMore than one solar module joined together forming a group of modules.

CapacityThe amount of stored electricity in a battery, measured in amp hours.

CurrentThe net transfer of electric charge per unit of time propelled by voltage. Expressed in amperes. Cycle lifeA measure of how many times (cycles) a bat-

tery may be charged or discharged to a given state of charge until the capacity is reduced to 89% of original.

DC (direct current)The direct or constant flow of electrical current in one direction, from the negative to the positive potential. Produced by batteries and by solar modules.

LoadThe appliance consuming electricity generated by the solar system.

ModuleThe lowest denominator of encapsulated solar cells, another name for a single solar panel containing numerous cells.

PhotovoltaicCapable of generating a voltage as a result of exposure to light.

State of chargeA measure in percentage of how much of total capacity is contained in battery storage.

Solar cell The basic unit of measuring electrical pressure that causes electricity to flow.

WattsThe unit of measuring electrical power, equal to the power developed in a circuit by current of one ampere flowing through a potential difference of one volt. (Simply, volts x amps = watts.)

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115

BATTERIES FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES

The performance of an electronic device is only as good as the battery inside it. The service life of high-performance

batteries has been improved significantly in recent years. and it continues to improve. Today's batteries produce a high-energy output, are reliable, have a long shelf life, and are excellent in low-temperature applications. Detailed technical information on all types of batteries is readily available from the various battery manufacturers.

Types of Batteries

Alkaline-manganese dioxide, mercury oxide, silver oxide, zinc air, and lithium/manganese dioxide batteries are compared in Table 4-2, and shown in Figure 4-11. (Refer to the Glossary of Terms Used in Battery Applications.)

Storing Batteries Extra batteries should be stored in a dry place at normal room temperature. Refrigerating batteries is not necessary. Extreme heat or cold reduces battery performance. If batteries must be stored in either hot or cold conditions, alkaline batteries will generally perform better in these conditions than regular carbon batteries. vex: continued on page 118)

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Table 4-2 Battery Characteristic Comparison

C f"

General Characteristics

Principal Chem,cal

(under o

Systems

!NH..

l'In'\1n02)

dire`

(1.1,:r..Liric CPU& t -

11iL)

(n

Cell

ling condions)

,

p 1;LitgatIM: ()Louth:

Nominal

..

1h.itt.i rat:

:

giopirhi 11:11

Voltage 4yhriLir Milt ,n a button

butivn and 2. liitia

L L11,

tr, 1.1,

rtl lurler

It

Ilia

1.5

plication. - Ah.

(.1

3 it shalt 11tt CharaCie.

I

k

,

ii inth

)urLx

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Shelf

Energy Densiiz Weiqht Vo urno

Life

Typical ArA I; 4'.

wh,I6 vvidky WI' /in) WU

v.

4r*

(4,4.

l 'ylu I

.:11'

IINCr O. u.k Hullo,.

1

'1;3

NI

ro.

74 s

*III

I II.

7z

`S

12:1

:4. r.,.1

@ 71.)di

Te'lA110'. -1

___....

I.

4.1

a

,

.1.

4'.':

2

1.41

4 I. Ill

frr+r

LAI:rim+ 1.:c.

i..Nit4f

1 1p i.

i-:::'C''.,

'1...L.Ae2t1'

._Inc %Jr 1:trof ),4

rvt,:.-el

(% iosliv %.

Dulten.

Colt.

t eviindrki: `,11

1 tom

,h),,

1,;(1

SO

,i 11;

14: It

;-.4. FL::

17,

4'1*.

F

1441;

:1) 1:

rr

-41 II:, 1401 cli:11,'Ci

(-1

IIIS 1.z5

81

:tr I

r,

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

118

Zinc Air

;Mit

Lithium

-:.*-

10 Alkaline

Lithium

Mercury

Figure 4-11. Primary battery systems. (Courtesy of Duraceit inc.)

(text continued from page 115)

Safety Tips Keep battery contact surfaces clean by wiping them off with a pencil eraser or rough cloth. Never dispose of batteries in a fire, as the batteries may explode.

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119

Don't carry loose batteries in your pocket or purse, as

the batteries can be shorted by contact with metal objects, and may leak or rupture. Never attempt to recharge a battery unless it is specifically marked "rechargeable." Replace batteries in your equipment with the manufacturer's suggested type and size. Always make sure that the positive and negative terminals on the battery are aligned properly when inserting them into your equipment. Remove batteries from equipment that will not be used for several months or longer. GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED FOR BATTERIES*

Ambient Humidity The average humidity of the surroundings.

Ambient Temperature The average temperature of the surroundings.

Ampere-Hour Capacity The quantity of electricity measured in ampere-hours (Ah) which may be delivered by a cell or battery under specified conditions.

Anode The electrode in an electrochemical cell where oxidation takes place. During discharge, the negative electrode of the cell is the anode. *Courtesy of Duracell. Inc.

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120

Pocket Guide to Inxtrumentution

Battery Two or more electrochemical cells electrically interconnected in an appropriate series /parallel arrangement to pro-

vide the required operating voltage and current levels. Under common usage, the term "battery" is often also applied to a single cell.

Bobbin A cylindrical cell design utilizing an internal cylindrical electrode, and an external electrode arranged as a sleeve inside the cell container.

C Rate (also see Hourly Rate) Discharge or charge current, in amperes, expressed in

multiples of the rated capacity. For example. C/20 discharge current for a battery rated at 5-h discharge rate is: C5

20

(AM = current (A)

As a cell's capacity is not the same at all discharge rates and usually increases with decreasing rate, a discharge at the C5/20 rate will run longer than 20 hours.

Capacity The total number of ampere-hours or watt-hours that can he withdrawn from a fully charged battery under specified conditions of discharge.

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Storage Batteries and Solar Modules-

121

Capacity Retention The fraction of the full capacity available from a battery under specified conditions of discharge after it has been stored for a period of time.

Cathode The electrode in an electrochemical cell where reduction takes place. During discharge, the positive electrode of the cell is the cathode. Cell The bask electrochemical unit used to generate or store electrical energy. Closed-Circuit Voltage tCCV) The potential or voltage of a battery when it is discharging.

Continuous Test A test in which a battery is discharged to a prescribed end-point voltage without interruption.

Coulomb The amount of electricity transported by a current of one ampere flowing for one second. Current Collector An inert member of high electrical conductivity used to conduct current from or to an electrode during discharge or charge.

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Current Density The current per unit active area of the surface of an electrode.

Cutoff Voltage The battery voltage at which the discharge is terminated. The cutoff voltage is specified by the battery manufacturer and is generally a function of discharge rate. Depth of Discharge

The ratio of the quantity of electricity tusually in ampere-hours) removed from a battery to its rated capacity.

Discharge The conversion of the chemical energy of a battery into electrical energy, and the withdraw of the electrical energy. usually in order to operate and electronic device.

Discharge Rate The rate, usually expressed in amperes. at which electrical current is taken from the battery.

Drain The current withdrawn from a battery during discharge.

Dry Cell A cell with immobilized electrolyte. The term "dry cell" is often used to describe the Leclanche cell. Duty Cycle The operating regime of a battery including factors such as charge and discharge rates, depth of discharge, cycle length, and length of time in the standby mode.

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Electrochemical Equivalent Weight of a substance that is deposited at an electrode when the quantity of electricity which is passed is one coulomb.

Electrode

The site, area, or location at which electrochemical processes take place.

Electrolyte The medium which provides the ion transport mechanism between the positive and negative electrodes of a cell.

End Voltage The prescribed voltage at which the discharge (or charge,

if end-of-charge voltage) of a battery may be considered complete (also cutoff voltage).

Energy The output capability of a cell, usually expressed in watthours, which is the ampere-hour capacity multiplied by the average discharge voltage.

Energy Density The ratio of the energy available from a battery to its volume (Wh/L) or weight (Wh/kg). Forced Discharge Discharging a battery, with external battery or power source, below zero volts into voltage reversal.

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Gassing The evolution of gas from one or more of the electrodes in a cell. Gassing commonly results from local action ( self -

discharge) or from the electrolysis of water in the electrolyte during charging.

Hertz The standard unit of frequency. A frequency of one complete cycle per second is a frequency of one hertz. Hourly Rate (also see C RATE)

A discharge rate, in amperes, of a battery which will deliver the specified hours of service to a given end voltage.

Intermittent Test A test during which a battery is subjected to alternate periods of discharge and rest according to a specified discharge regime.

Internal Impedance The opposition exhibited by a circuit element (cell or battery) to the flow of an alternating current (a.c.) of a particular frequency as a result of resistance, induction and capacitance.

Internal Resistance The opposition exhibited by a circuit element to the flow of direct current (d.c.). In a cell, the internal resistance is the sum of the ionic and electronic resistances of the cell components.

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Limiting Current The maximum current drain under which the particular battery will perform adequately under a continuous drain. The rate is based on whatever drain rate reduces the running voltage to 1.1 volts. Midpoint Voltage

The voltage of a battery midway in the discharge between the fully charged state and the end voltage. Nominal Voltage The characteristic operating voltage or rated voltage of a battery (as distinct from Working Voltage, Midpoint Voltage. etc.)

Open-Circuit Voltage (OCV) The difference in potential between the terminals of a cell or voltage when the circuit is open (no-load condition). Parallel Term used to describe the interconnection of cells or batteries in which all the like terminals are connected together. Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) Device A thermally reactive device which becomes highly resistive at a specific temperature.

Polarization The lowering of the potential of a cell or electrode from its equilibrium value caused by the passage of an electric current.

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Pecker Guide to Instrumentation

Primary Battery A battery which is not intended to be recharged and is discarded when the battery has delivered all its electrical energy.

Pulse Current A periodic current drain of higher than normal drain rates.

Rated Capacity The number of ampere-hours a battery can deliver under specific conditions (rate of discharge, end voltage, temperature); usually the manufacturer's rating.

Reversal The changing of the normal polarity of a battery due to overdischarge.

Safety Vent A venting mechanism designed into a cell which activates under specific conditions of abuse to relieve internal pressure.

Self-Discharge The loss of useful capacity of a battery in storage due to internal chemical action (local action).

Separator An ionic permeable electronically nonconductive spacer which prevents electronic contact between electrodes of opposite polarity in the same cell.

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Series The interconnection of cells in such a manner that the positive terminal of the first is connected to the negative terminal of the second, and so on. Service Life The period of useful life of a primary battery before a predetermined end-point voltage is reached. Shelf Life The duration of storage under specified conditions at the end of which a battery still retains the ability to give a specified performance.

Short-Circuit Current (SCC) The initial value of the current obtained from a battery in a circuit of negligible resistance.

Spiral-Wound An electrode structure of high surface area created by winding the electrodes and separator into a spiral-wound. jelly-roll configuration.

Voltage Delay Time delay for a battery to deliver the required operating voltage after it is placed under load. Working Voltage The typical voltage or range of voltage of a battery during discharge also called operating voltage or running voltage).

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5 Miscellaneous Electrical and Instrumentation Items CABLE AND WIRE TIES

Wires and cables go through a maze of paths in a projectup and down, around and inside of tight corners, and then the same over again. Figure 5-1 shows a few of the types of cable ties used to anchor the wires and cables to each other and to objects in the path.

WIRE AND TERMINAL MARKERS Thousands of self-adhesive strips printed with numbers, letters, symbols, etc. are mounted on dispenser cards. There are many similar type markers for voltage ratings, tape for color coding, safety stripes, and aisle marking. Figure 5-2 depicts some of the types of markers and their use. Wider 128

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(A)

As'TF--

(B)

Iramma*Z.:0,

(D)

(E) Figure 5-1. Cable ties. Ponduit Pan -Tye nylon ties (A); block weather-resistant cable ties (B); PCL clamps (C); lashing ties (D); and push mount ties (E). (Courtesy ofklqua-McKee, Inc)

strips and different methods are available for marking wires, cable, conduit, telephone line, systems, etc.

WIRE CONNECTORS

Figure 5-3 illustrates only a few of the many styles of wire connectors. Crimp type connectors are used for small (text continued on page 132)

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130

SIM TO FIT ALL WINKS

111.1.11.1.1.11.1111111111111.1111M Iv" LI" StaIdard NA:-kr. for ',He,

6' !4

4

V' 0 1) egasifilg

41

3

So." Lon Seardcri ,4aker,

!AV' 0 0

lotiCtoaniairarSicanarbr;aili; 4," tore. kfineatrn ?'a ere it *Pe: up to 'I." O.O.

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00, NNW /

9,141

111 111//..1:;

:; :; 7 : ; ; : 7. /7'. 11./11 11 SIT 11171 et 711'.01, .

"t,

)

Figure 5-2. Wire and terminal markers (Courtesy of Joqua-McKee, Inc.)

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(7) (Z)

:3)

-.1 (5)

,e

Figure 5-3. Wire connectors: crimp type (1); Scotchlok ring tongue terminal (2); spode tongue (3); female quick-slide connector (4); butt connector (5); Scotchlok aluminum one-hole lug (6); two-hole lug (7); Ideal wire-nut connectors (8). (Courtesy of Jaqua-McKee, Inc.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

(text continued from page 129)

wire gauges. Several styles of the connectors are shown in

(l) and enlarged in the other views. The connectors are color coded for size range. and have internal barrel serrations to grasp the wire strands firmly. A crimping tool is

used to apply the connectors. In Figure 5-3, (2) is a Scotchlok ring tongue terminal; (3) is a spade tongue; (4) is a female quick -slide connector; (5) is a butt connector; (6) is a Scotchloe' aluminum one-hole lug; (7) is a two-hole lug; and (8) shows Idcal wire-nut connectors that are simply twisted on the ends of two wires to be joined, and pro-

vide a tight wire grip. The nuts are identified for size by color coding.

SPLICING KITS

Larger cables require more elaborate splicing methods. Figure 5-4A is the 3M 5400 series quick-splice incline splicing kit. The kit contains everything needed to make a splice that consists of a slip-on insulation body, and two end caps. The splice insulates and seals for a water proof connection for direct burial. Figure 5-4B is the Scotchcast

82-Al. 2, 3 splicing kit used for splicing nonshielded cables rated up to 5KV. (Multi-conductor cables rated up to

600 volts.) The kits have a two-piece. transparent snaptogether mold body. The ends are sealed, and then a resin is

poured into the mold until it rises in the funnel. After 30 minutes, the splice is ready. Figure 5-4C shows Scotch brand 5701, 1, 3 K Tape termination kits. These kits con-

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133

ip)

Figure 5-4. Wire splicing kits. (Courtesy of Joquo-McKee, Inc.)

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134

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

tain enough tape to make three terminations, and are designed to terminate cables from 5 to 15 KV. Figure 5-4D is the 3M porcelain termination kit. The kits are designed to terminate single-conductor cables rated from 5 to 25 KV. They contain a wet process porcelain insulator and materials for the termination. THERMOCOUPLES AND ACCESSORIES

The measurement of temperature is one of the most vital functions in the control of manufacturing and processing operations. At the heart of all temperature measurements is the thermocouple. The concept of all thermocouples is the same. Two wires of dissimilar metal are joined together at one end. An increase in temperature creates an electronic force (emf) or voltage, which is transmitted through these wires to a monitoring device that reads this signal and displays it on a previously calibrated meter or digital device. Figure 5-5 shows the thermocouple and some of the accessories used in a system:

A. The thermocouple element with a t.c. head, and thermocouple wire (extension cable).

B. A thermowell. (The thermocouple element screws directly into the thermowell either in a process line or process vessel.)

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$

EXTFIcS10/1 CALF

vOtkirrcs

Le)

(8)

Figure 5-5. Thermocouple and thermowells (Courtesy of Alpha Wire Corp.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

C. Thermocouple head on pipe nipple. (The element is inside the pipe nipple. Base metal thermocouple.) D. Ceramic protection tubes for use in very high temperature areas. Figure 5-6 shows insulators for thermocouple wire used in high temperature areas.

Figure 5-6. Thermocouple insulators for elevated temperatures. (Courtesy of Alpha Wire Corp.)

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E. An alternative to ceramic thermocouple connectors are molded-on ZeniteTm 6130 thermocouple connectors from DuPont. These are color coded to match the thermocouple in the circuit. They sell for $7 to $9 less than

ceramic thermocouple connectors. Figure 5-7 shows thermocouples made from liquid crystal polymer resin.

Figure 5-8 shows more thermocouple items plus connec-

tors and connector blocks. Make sure all small items for thermocouples are tagged with their part number (leave in manufacturer's carton if possible), and your commodity code number. Thermocouple assemblies are made from

Figur* 5-7.

Low-cost, high-temperature ZeniteTM LCP thermocouples.

((Xopyright Omega Engineering, Inc All rights reserved. Reproduced with permission of Omega Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT 06907.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 5-8. Thermocouple sensors and accessories. (Courtesy of Alpha Wire Corp.)

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139

brass, carbon steel, stainless steel, and monel. Thermocouples will be engineered and tagged for a specified project location. GAUGE GLASSES

Level gauges mount on the outside of vessels usually on

a bridle with other instrument items attached as well by pipe nipples and valves. The three liquid level gauges with transparent windows are types IL, TCL, and TM (Figure

5-9). These gauges will be tagged for a specific unit or application.

TL

TM

TLC

Figure 5-9. Gauge glosses. (Courtesy of Richardson Engineering Services, Inc.)

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Pocket Guide to instrumentation

VIBRATION CONTROL Fittings such as those shown in Figure 5-10 are used to control vibration on pumps, motors, and other applications in the process system. Illustrated are: 1. Stainless steel hose and braiding. Carbon steel nipples and braid ferrules are standard in this type of flexible hose connector. 2. A stainless steel braided connector with plate carbon steel flanges. 3. The expansion joint has heavy pipe attached to a stainless steel bellows. 4. The same expansion joint described in (3) but this one has carbon steel plate flanges. THERMOMETERS

Only a few thermometers are shown in Figure 5-11. The types shown are most common and typical for use on vessels. Thermometers are described by their range (i.e., 30 to 2401, size of dial (i.e., 4-in.), and style of connection (i.e.. back connection, adjustable angle, bottom connection, and

flexible extension). Note in Figure 5-11 the element is screwed into the thermowell on the thermometer on the right. (text continued 1,11page 143)

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141

--/:144terie

(3)

Figure 5-10. Flexible pump connectors and expansion joints. (Courtesy of Richardson Engineering Services, Inc.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

142

u0

2t0 710

i30 10

Sack :!artnertion

21G

3f/

Adjustable Angle

40

Bottom Connection

Figure 5-11. Thermometers. (Courtesy of Richardson Engineering Services, Inc )

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143

PRESSURE GAUGES

Figure 5-12 shows only five of the hundreds of styles and types of pressure gauges. Gauges are described by their

pressure range (i.e., 0 to 15,000 psi), the size of the dial (i.e., 4'h in.), the type of case (i.e., brass or black steel), and

the bourdon tube, which is the heart of a gauge, being a

Figure 5-12. Pressure gouges. (Courtesy of Autoclave Engineers, Inc.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

curved tube with a flattened cross section and closed on one end. The crystal may be made of acrylic, glass, laminated safety glass. or other types of clear product. The connection size and the mounting options can be bottom mount, back

mount, etc. Some gauges are equipped with a blow out back for pressure relief in case of bourdon tube failure. Some have a pointer zero adjustment located on the front of

the gauge behind the dial cover. Gauges can be equipped with adjustable low and high electrical contacts to provide pressure control for automatic or remote operation. or for fail-safe points.

Store the gauges in their manufacturer's cartons. Never apply oil or other chemicals to the threads or any other parts of the gauge. The gauges will be engineered for a spe-

cific location in the project, and will be tagged as such. Only the extra gauges for spares will not be tagged to spe-

cific locations. Check the dial face for damage when gauges are received. Never issue a gauge for use in pressures that may exceed the ratings.

EXPENDABLE ITEMS

One of the very first material shipments to arrive at a project when process unit construction has commenced are

the expendable electrical items. The materials, after the receiving formalities have been accomplished, should then be submitted to the craft foreman for his signature and reissued to the electricians. (On large projects, this system

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145

may not be feasible. Request advice from the project manager through your supervisor.) Expendables may consist of various quantities of the following materials: Hex head cap screws, lockwashers, flatwashers, hex nuts Wire terminals, tongue and blade Electrical tape Glyptol and thinner Wire markers Thread cutting oil Insulating tape Scotch loe, types Y and R Chico A3 and Chico Fibre Duxseal Wire pulling compound Ty-rap Cans thread lubricant

Bills of materials may vary from project to project for expendable materials. They are a very important part of any project.

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6 Bar Coding Systems Bar coding systems are widely used throughout the world for accuracy, cost reduction, speed, accounting, time keeping, material control, identification, and tracking, and are very flexible for adding your own applications. For materials control in field warehouses, the bar codes may be prepared along with purchase orders from data stored in a text file and retrieved to print whenever required. Numbering systems or commodity code numbers already existing in the users' archives may already be used in your facility, but if not, you may consider the uniform-universal system for the construction industry worldwide that is suggested later in this chapter. The flexibility in preparing your bar code labeling allows you to have full control of the size, design, and layout of the labels or plates. In addition to the bar code itself, labels can include text, graphics, radio fre-

quencies. and fields merged from data files. You'll find more details about bar coding on the Internet. There are other information sources such as books, trade magazines, trade shows, and even your favorite computer store. 146

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147

Bar Coding Systems

"Bumpy bar codes" have been created by Norcom Electronics Corporation. These codes are ideal for harsh environments, and are virtually indestructible during sandblast-

ing and painting. They stand up to high temperatures. moisture, solvents, and chemical baths, and can last the life of the object as permanent identification. The 3-D bumpy bar codes are scanned by a bar code reader that "reads" the height differences between the bars and spaces rather than

traditional character contrast. Norcom's Endure 1800 Series machine can emboss 15.000 characters per hour onto metal plates of various sizes. Examples of these plates are shown in Figure 6-1.

Imprinter

Stain Plates

IP. Tags

itaant hilt/Retell Cards

Sawed * Taft appliance Tags

[2=> etttatettut eget 0 Urliol

Salim Plebes

I

lhAwisalue Mates

Plata to shown at lea thee actual Att.

Figure 6-1. Variety of plate sizes. (Courtesy Norcom Electronics Corp.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

To run a bar codes system on your PC, the latest Windows software will probably suffice. However, it will be wise to consult your dealer about selecting a bar code system for your applications. Software is available to print label bar codes on any laser jet printer for normal use. Bar codes may be printed on any suitable printer for testing and practice. A simple system for entry level tracing, inventory, shipping/receiving, and document control is used as an introduction to bar coding. TimeWand IP offers suitable memory, programmability, and hardware features for demanding applications. This unit is is available in 128K and 320K. The unit is the size of a credit card and weighs 2 ounces

(see Figure 6-2). A fully portable bar code reader, the Videx速 TimeWand速 can be used as a remote system, as shown in Figure 6-3.

../

\

Figure 6-2. Time Wand速 portable bar code reader. (Courtesy

of

Vidext Inc.)

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Bar CM. link, Systems

149

Remote (via Modem) System Single or Multiple Douns looderfRechuger

Cable to Modem (25 pin) V-TWC-003

Figure 6-3. Remote bar code system via modem. (Courtesy of Time Keeping Systems, inc.)

These small bar code readers will fit in a shirt pocket. Each contain an internal clock, and time-stamp each code as it is read. Because the communication is keyless, the scanned information is error free (see Figure 6-4). On a project, different craftsmen could use these types of code readers while performing their varied duties. As bar codes are read with the Time Wand速, a beeper indicates a good or bad read, and whether the Time Wand速 is nearly full or full of data. It can operate up to three days without recharging, and can he recharged overnight in the Down loader/Recharger units, as shown in Figure 6-5. Code data stored in the Time Wand速 is transferred to a PC by means of the Down leader/Recharger unit. For use by various employees in a large fabricating facility, a multiple

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Figure 6-4. Portable Time Wand

bar code reader (Courtesy of

Videx'c, Inc.)

Figure 6-5. Single TimeWand* System. (Courtesy of Time Keeping Systems, Inc.)

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151

Down loader/Recharge unit, consisting of a controller and up to 25 add-ons. can be downloaded via one serial port (see Figure 6-6). After downloading, the TimeWand` can be stored overnight for recharging, and the various reports printed from the PC as required. Bar coding is exciting and has the potential for many different applications in the future, such as for picking and placing parts, keeping medical records, tracking waste dis-

Time Wand

V-TW-016 16k memory Multiple Down loader/Recharger Controller V-TW-002

Cable to PC/XT (25 pin) V- TWC -OOi

-or-

Cable to PC/AT (9 pin) V-TWC-008 -Or-

Cable to Macintosh (25 pin) V-TWC-005

Multiple Down loader/Reeharger Add-On "4%%, N.% V-TWR-003

Figure 6-6. Multiple Time Wand速 System. (Courtesy of Time Keeping Systems, inc.)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

posal, evaluating currency exchange, recording debit cards, and on and on, even to invisible asset marking for moving and tracking property within your complex, or for tracing stolen assets.

Numbering systems can vary to include a numeric and

verbal description on the bar code, to include either description alone, or to include a combination of the two. An industry-wide universal numbering system would contribute to uniformity in the industry. The numbering system could use steel specifications, tag numbers of engineered items, and other miscellaneous numbers. SUGGESTED BAR CODE NUMBERING SYSTEM FOR CONSTRUCTION TRADES To create uniformity, one suggested bar code numbering

system would be to use the first digit or letter of the bar code to identify some type of steel, an item, or a combination of both. The next one or two digits would identify what the item is, such as a valve or a flange. Additional digits or

letters would then show the schedule or thickness, bore size, or pressure rating, as required, and the last digits would indicate the size of the item, such as "12" for something that was 12 in. in diameter. The various systems can also be programmed to show metric equivalents. Bar codes may be made with as many numbers and letters as the user requires, but ten or less is suggested.

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Bar eroding Syvtems

153

As an example. a typical bar code for a 6-inch gate valve, 150-lb RF, having an assigned V-number for a certain project, would he as follows: From Table 64, the first digit for carbon steel is "O." The second digit is the code for a valve, again "0." The next three numbers and letters show the valve's V-number, in this case V58. The last two digits indicate the size of the valve, which in this example is 12

in. Our number, therefore, would be 00V5812 and, if desired, a verbal description could also he embedded in the bar code. Table 6-1 Number Codes for Bar Codes Symbol

Materiel

0

Carbon Steels Special Carbon Steels Alloy Steels tExoties) 304 Stainless Steels 304L Stainless Steels Unassigned Unassigned 316 Stainless Steels 316L Stainless Steels Unassigned Miscellaneous Structural Plates Structural Shapes

1

2 3

3L

4 S 6

6L 7 8

PL SH

(table continued on next page)

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Table 6-1 (Continued) Secondary identification Symbols Material

Symbol

SP ST SX 0 1

2 3

4 5 6 7 8

Structural Pipe Miscellaneous Structural Expanded Metals Valves Pipes Flanges Fittings Bolts Socketweld Fittings Screwed Fittings Gaskets Miscellaneous

Additional Identification Symbols Type

Symbol

80 125 150 160 1500RTJ .500

FP PI239 RF WF

Schedule 80 125 psig 1501b. Schedule 160 1,500-lb. Ring-type Joint .500-inch wall thickness Full Port Pressure Indicator #239 Raised Face Wide Flange

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155

Suggested Size Codes Symbol

Size

21

'A"

31

34i"

41

!6"

51

%,,

61

34"

01 14

1'4'

15

02 75

03

1"

1'A"

2"

-Pe 3"

and continuing

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Appendix Abbreviations for Instrumentation Items Air to close Air to open Analyzer transmitter Analyzer computer Analyzer element Blowdown valve Corrosion coupon Emergency shutdown FC Flow controller FCV Flow control valve FL Flow indicator FIC Flow indicating controller FR Flow recorder FRC Flow recording controller FT Flow transmitter FE Flow element FAH Flow alarm, high

AC AO AT AY AE BVD CC ESD

FSH FG FIT

Flow safety, high Sight glass Flow indicating transmitter FAL Flow alarm low FQY Totalized flow computer Flow switch FS FY Flow rclay FV Flow valve FM Flow meter FQI Flow totalizing indicator HS Head switch HV Hand valve HCV Hand control valve LAL Level alarm, low LAH Level alarm, high Level controller LC LCV Level control valve

156

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Appendix: Abbreviations for Instrumentation Items

LG LI

Level gauge Level indicator LIC Level indicating controller Level switch LS Level transmitter LT PDM Positive displacement meter PAL Pressure alarm, low PAH Pressure alarm, high PC Pressure controller PCV Pressure control valve PDI Differential pressure indicator PDR Differential pressure recorder PI Pressure indicator PR Pressure recorder PS Pressure switch PSE Pressure safety element (rupture disc) PSH Pressure safety, high PSL Pressure safety, low PSV Pressure safety valve PT Pressure transmitter Pressure relay PY QX Event indicator RO Restriction orifice ROV Remote-operated valve

137

SAH High-speed alarm SC Speed controller SD Shutdown SDV Shutdown valve Speed indicator SI SP Specialty item SV Solenoid valve SDY Shutdown relay TAH Temperature alarm, high TAL Temperature alarm, low Temperature controller TC TE Temperature element TI Temperature indicator TIC Temperature indicating controller TR Temperature recorder TT Temperature transmitter TW Thermowell VSH Vibration safety, high (low) WR Wind recorder XI Wind direction indicator XT Wind direction transmitter ZI Position indicator ZS Position switch

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Index

Abbreviations for instrument items, 156-157 AC appliance, 1113

systems offshore, 96, 103 Acid lines. 50 Actual flow, 12 sizes pipe/tubing, 88-95 Actuation points, 76, 78, 80 Adjustable angle, 140, 142 bolt, 45 Air, 16 conditioning, 12 lines, 49.51 operated, 49 sampling unit, 82-84 switch, 12, 15 Aisle marking, 128 Alarms, 68, 70 indicating devices, 6-12 Alkaline system. 97-98 Alternating curnmt, 113 Aluminum enclosures, 16 one-hole lug, 131-132

tubes. 18-19 tubing, 12, 17 Ambient control valve, 813-81

Ambient temperature, 12 Analog electronics, 22 Analytical instrument process, 48 Angle pattern valve, 51 Angular seat rupture disc, 47 ANSI, 13, 34,41, 43 ARCO SolarT, Inc., 101-103 ARCO Solarm, Module, 104 Armored metal tube bundles, 12, 18-19 tubing, 18-19 Array, 113 Aspirator, 82-84 Atlantic Richfield Company, 101-103 Atmosphere, 43, 44, 46 Autoclave Engineers, Inc., 46 Automated flow controls, 68, 70 Ausiliary equipmenl. 104

Back connection, 140, 142 ferrule, 67 flow preventer, 12, 13, 23, 26 mount, 144 Ball, 36, 39, 45 bearing. 28 check, 25 socket disc, 33 valves/instrument service. 23, 27, 36, 39,

51-54 Ballast, 33 Bamboo pipe, 23, 28 Banding clips, 33, 34 Bar holes, 82-85 plugs, 82-85 Bar codes, 146-157 computer equipment needed, 147 numbering system for construction trades, 152-157 portable reading systems, 148-149 remote systems, 148-151

15$

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159

Index Videxa TinieWandrm, 148-151 Barstock relief valves, 43, 44, 40 Base metal thermocouple 134 Basic pipe fittings. 63 Battery block, 96 cells, 101-103 for electronic devices. 115-127 characteristics, 116-117 gas explosive, 101 glossary of terms, 118-127 safety tips, 118-119 storing, 115 rypes, 115 photovoltaic use, 102 rack, 97-98 storage room, 99-103 storage system, 113 terminals, 97-98 Bearing lube nil monitor, 87-88 seal leak detector, 87-88 BEI Technologies, 3 Bellows-scaled, 48 Bin boxes, 62, 64 Bimetallic pilot, 76, 78, 80 steam trap, 76.78, 80 Black steel, 143 Bleed and drain valves,

40-55 Blow-off valve, 75, 77 Blow-out back, 144 Boiling caustics, 7 Bonnet bolted, 31

seals, 30-31 valves, 30-31 variations. 30-31

Bottom connection, 142 mount, 14.3 -144 Bourdon gauge, 68, 70 Bourdon tube, 143-144

Bows, bin, 62,64 Braid ferrules, 140-141 Branch lines. 70, 71, 73, 74 Brass. 139, 143 Bridle, 139 Bucket steam trap, 74, 75 Bulkhead female connector, 66 male connector, 65 reducer, 63 unions, 67 Bundled, 22 Butterfly valve vacuum valves, 48 valve. 23, 29, 36, 39 Buttweld ends, 44 Bypass feature, 70, 71, 73, 74 systems, 54

Cable wire ties, 128-129 Caisson, 68, 70 Calculators, 22 Calibrated meter, 134 Cans thread lubricant, 145 Capacity, 113 Caps, 45, 62-64 Car seal, 43 Carbon steel, 6,139 flanges, 140-141 pipe nipples, 140-141 Cardboard tubes, 22 Care of gauges, 144 Ceramic protection tube, 134 Chain wheel operator, 3,4, 34, 36, 37, 39 (]large controllers. 102, 11.3 Charging batteries, 96

Check valves, 23, 26 Chemical attacks, 14 plants, 49 Chico'''. A, sealing compound, 145 Circular recorders, 1-3 Cleaning machines. 33, 34 Coal processing locations. 144

Color code, 40, 128, 129 Combination ends, 58 Commodity item numbers, 32 Communication conductor, 12, 17 IV Compact filters, 70-74 Computer, 22 bank, 32 bar code creation on, 147-152 Condensate, 74.75 drainage station. 75, 77 trap, 74-75 water slugs. 73-75 Conductor communication, 70. 71. 73, 74 Connector blocks, 137 crimp type, 129. 131 Contamination, 70 Control devices, 68 industry., 22 panel indicating devices, 67 panels. 22, 68 rooms, 22 valves, 36, 39 Copper, 33. 34 tubes, 18-19 tubing, 12, 16-17 Cornssion, 36, 39, 73, 74

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160

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Corrosive fluids, 50 solutions, 28 Cost of usable energy, 73 Couplets, 195-197 Couplings, 195 Crawford Fitting Company. 69 Cross-reference charts,

62-68 Cross-pattern valve, 51 Crosses. 63 Crystal, 144 Current, 114 Cut nipples, 20 Cycle life, 114 Cylinder valve, 50 Damage control, 73, 74 Date code markings, 33 DC, b systems offshore, 96, 103 Dense metal tags, 33-35 Density, 34, 87 Detectors and monitors,

82-88 Diaphragm actuator, 36, 39 Direct burial, 12, 17, 132 current, 128 sunlight, 102 Directional handle feature, 54 Disaster, 35 Disc

double. 33

for valves, 32.33,46 Discharge valve, 78, 80 Dispenser cards, 128 Disposal pit, 68 Dissimilar metal, 134 Drain, 42 condensate, 74, 75 Drugs, 48

Dry steam supply. 73, 74 Dual range trap, 76 Dust-proof enclosure. 8-9 DuxSeal4', 145

Eaton Corporation, 17-20 Elbows, ells, 63 Electric actuator, 36, 39 Electrical bill of materials, 144-145 Electrolyte, 97-98 Electronic component manufacturing, 48 temperature transmitter, transmitter, 9, 10 Elements. 140, 142 Ells, 45째. 63 Emergency commumcanons, 96, 98 lighting, 95, 98, 102 End caps, 132, 133 connections for valves,

32-33 protectors, 36, 39 Energy, cost of usable. 73 Engine starting systems, 96 Equipment stations. 61 Erosion, 73, 74 Expansion joints, 139-140 Expendable items, 144-145 Extended end valve, 41-4A Extension cable, 134, 135 Extreme pressure, 55 pressure fittings, 68, 70 Eye protection, 97-98 Fail-safe points, 298 Female adaptors and connectors, 41-43, 66,

131,132

Figure number, 32,34, 35, 57 Filter bodies, 70, 71, 73,74 Fine metering valves, 55 Fisher, 6 butterfly control valve, 39 mixing valves, 36, 39

Fitliags, 22,68 Five-way ball valve, 54 Flame ionization principal, 82-84 pack, 82-84 retardant, .10 retardant tubing, 17 Flanges, end, 24-27, 33, 44 Flash steam, 75 Flat seal ruptured SC, 47 washers, 145

flexible extension, 140, 142 hose connector, 140 instrument tubing, 16 pump connectors, 142 wedge, 33 Flow characteristics, 24-25 rates, 87-88

switch monitors, 8749 transmitter, 11 Fluorescent lamps, 71-33 Freeze-dried foods, 48 Front ferrule, 67 Full lug, 20 port, 27 Fuse box. 103

Galvanind steel armor, 18-19 Gas. 16 analysis, 48

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161

Index flow, 55 leak detector, 82-83

leaks, 62,64,82-84,198, 220 manifolds, 51 Gaskets, 43-45 Gasoline. 87-88 Gate valve, 23-24,32-35,

43-46 Gauge, 22,55.61 Bourdon, 68,70,71 glasses. 139 installation, 511

General instmmentation, 49 Globe check valve, 26 valve, 23.25 Glyptol and thinner, 145

Gyroloe, 62-68 Handwheel, 30,35, 56 Hazardous areas, 9-11 atmospheres, 9 fluids, 55, 81-82 locations, 9 Heat

eikehangers, 76,78,80 transfer properties, 87-88 Remy Vogt Machine Company, 62 Hex head cap crews, 145 High -level alarms, 87-88 -pressure service, 43,

44,46 -pressure tubing fittings,

68,70 -pressure valves, 55

57-58,08.71 pressures, 12,17 range, 82-84

temperature, 12,17,33,

34,55,134 Hot condensate, 75,77 Hydraulic installations, 12 lines. 51

Ideal4' wire-nut connectors, 131-132 Identification of materials, 47 Ignition -proof meters, 8 Imperial*, (+2-68 Indicators, 1-11 receiver gauge, 15 Inert gas line, 51 Injection rate monitors, 87-S9 In-line check valve, 55-56 filters, 7t)-74 purge valve, 55-56 relief valve, 55-56 Inner jacket, 18 Inserts, 63 Inside screw, ail Installation plan, 76,78, R0,81 Installing gauges, 61 tube fittings, 69 Instrument bridle, 139

check salve, 55-56 control valves, 36-39 fittings and monitors. 61 lines, 61 piping, 12 plug valves, 49 tubing, 12-22 valve outlets, 42

valves, 23,55

Insulated communication wire, 18-19 Insulation, 41,43 body, 132 tape, 145 Integrated circuit, 22 Interface detectors, 84, R7 Interlocked armor. 18-19 Inverter, 103 Issuing valves, 33-34 Jacketed multiple tube bundle, 18-19

Java-McKee, Inc, 129 Keystone

actuators, 36,38-40 valve operators, 36, 38-40 K-Loll * valve, 34,35 Knurled nut, 67

Laboratory, 79 Laminated safety glass, 144 Large-diameter vessels, 62 Laterals, 45`, 63 Leak detection periods, 82-84 monitor, 87-88 tight sealing, 54 Level gauges, 139 interface controller, 87-88 Levert,. 22, 33, 34,36, Lift cheek valve, 26 Liniiironim fuses, 273 Line blinds, 41.43 drip traps. V, 71, 73, 74 Liquid

flow, 55 level controlled-

transmilter, 612 level gauges, 139

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162

Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

Lend, 114 Locating pipe/conduit,

84-87 Lucite delivery items, 57 sleeved clothing, 97-98 Lock nut, 45 pressure, 12, 17 washers, 145 Low -level alarms, 87-88 -power applications, 104 pressures, 12.17, 54 range, 52-84 Lubricated grooves, 28 Lubricated plug valves, 28, Lug style, 29 Magnetically operated rotameters, 7 Main steam, 74.75 valve, 76, 78, 80 Male adaptors and connectors, 41-43, 05, 88, 90 Manhole, 82-84 Iocater, 86 Manual operation/throttling, 36, 39 Manufacturers catalogs, 12 Mapco Controls Company,

87 -89, 96, 99-100 person, 14, 35 receiving, 33-36, 39, 57 Maximum power point, 113 sunlight. 105 Measurement cells. 82-84 of temperature, 134 Mechanical steam traps.

74-76 Metal tags. 33-35 Metering, 6-12 valves, 54 Meters, 22 Metnc tubing sizes, 88,90, 95 Microprocessor electronics, 22, 87-88 Minimum inventory required, 196 Miscellaneous instrument items, 128-133 Mixer assembly, static, 5 Modem plug valves, 28 Modules, 105, 114 Mold, 132, 133

Mond, t39 Monitors, 61, 82-84, 87-89, 134-135 MPT, 88, 90 MuIticonductor cable, 132 Multprur cable, 132 Mulliport ball valves, 52-54 Multitubc bundles, 12, 17

84,87 Materials accounting system, 32, 57, 61, 89, 91, 144 control, 12, 17. 57, 144 description, 61, 88.90 handling, 19-21, 32, 34 - -39, 57, 62-64,

Nameplate, 34, 35, 3, 44,46 Natural gas lines, 51 Navigation aids, 104 Needle valves. 59-60 Nickel cadmium batteries, 95-103

We'. 97-96

Nitric acid, 7 Nominal micron sizes, 73, 74 pipe sires, 88-95 tubing sizes, 88-95 Non-rising stem. 30 Non-shielded cable, 132 Notch plate handle. 36, 39 Notzles, 61 NPTF connection, 45 Numbering system for bar codes, 152-157 NI,PRO's valves, 48, 49, 54, 50 Nusonics' pipeline detector. 84, 87-88 Nut, 67 Nylon tees, 129 tubing, 13,17

Offshore areas, 35 drilling platform, 96 oilwell head, 55.68,

70, /l 0-lets, 61 Omega Engineering, 2 -S On -off

category, 23 discharge, 74, 75 flow cycles, 68, 7(1

services, 23,24, 51,54 Operators, styles, 36, 30 Original vendor carton, 62,

64.87 -84 058&Y, 29, 3ft

0-Seal* male connector pipe, 67 Outer jacket, 19 Outlet

things, 61

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Index valves through insulation,

41-43 Outside diameter, 22 screw and yoke, 30 Overcharging. 113 Over-pressurization, 55

Packaging. 12. 13, 16, 17 Packing gland, 30 Paint valves, 35 Pallet number, 35

Panduit Pan-Ty, 129 Parker, 62-08 Part displayslmanualc, 68 numbers, 62, 64 PCL clamps, 129

Pertbromnce guide, t06-112 Permanent tags, 33, 34 Photovoltaic, 114 system. 101-104 Pilot valve, 76 Pipe and cable detector.

S246 Pipe fittings, 61, 63, 37-88 nipple, 134, 139 wall, 41, 43 Pipe Horn6', The , 84

Pipeline, 8748 Pipe/tubing. actual sizes. 88 -95 Piping plan/steam control, 81

Piston operator, 39 Plastic tubing, 12. 17 Plate flanges, 140 Plug, 45, 62-64 guide. 45 valve flow patterns, 23 salves, 23, 29.49

Pneumatic controls, 6-15, 22, 36, 39 Pneumatic diaphragm activator, 36, 39 Pneumatic flow indicator, h -12

Polyethylene tuhing, 12, 13, 17 Porcelain insulator_ 132-133 Port adapters, illustrated, 57 connector, 67 fittings. 55, 57 Potassium hydroxide, 97 98 Power system, 102 Preset actuation points, 76, 73. 3ti Pressure class. 33, 34

drop, 26, 68.70 gauges, 3. 143, 144 measurement., 42 range, 143 ratings, 61 seal bonnet, 31 strain, 42 Pressurized fluid samples. 61 Probe assembly, 98 Process piping, 61 Process steam traps, 70, 71, 73, 74 Project manager, 68, l44 number, 57 purchase order, 57 schedule, 57 tag 13 35 valve tag, 15, 57 PSV valves,

163 Purchase order, figure numbers, 57 Purge air. 70, 71, 73.74 valves, 55-56 Push mount ties, 129 PVC, 12 jacket, 18-19 tubing, 16

Quirk off. 27 Quick open, 27.30 Range temperature, 140 Reboilers, 76, 78.80 Receiving materials, 144 procedures, 88, 90, 94. 134-135

ieport, 83.90 shipment, 96, 144 Recorders, 1-4 Reduced port valve, 27 Reducer, 68 Reducing tees, 61

union. 87 Regulating valves. 50-51 Relief valves, 43-46.55 -56,

87-88 Replaceable pun fittings, 55 Returns for crodit, 35 Richardson Engineering Services, Inc-, 139 Rising stein valve, 30 Rotameters, 7 Rotating disc, 33 magnet, 8 Rupture (rise, 43, 44. 46,47, 50

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Pocket Guide to Instrumentation

164 pressure ratings. 43,

44,46 unit body, 50 Safety precautions for batteries,

97-98,118-119 stripes, 128 Sampling, 49,81 applications, 42.54 cylinders, 81-82 iievicc, 71,85 instruments, 50 rate verities. 87-88 systems, 54 Scotchcase splicing kit, 132-133 Scotchlok', ring-tongue terminal, 131-132 Screwed bonnet, 31

ends, 25.27,33 St3I, 30, 45,60 gland, 45

materials, 33,34,60 Self-adhesive SEM:6,128,130 Series RVP relief valve, 181

Service area, 195 Set pressure, 179 Shipping lengths/weights,

13,16,17 Shut-

down devices, 68,70 off valves, 50-51 Single cell crystal, DM Single line tubing, 16-17 Single valves, 54 Sintered construction, 73,74 filter element. 71-74 Sliding stem, 30 Slirnlinew connection, 45

Slip-on insulation body, 132-133 Small diameter pipe, ill diameter valve, 61 instrument valves, 47-58 wire gauges. 129

Snap clips, 33,34,168 Sno-Trik'" Company, 57 Socket weld ends, 33,61 Solar application terms, 113-114

cell, 101-105,114 modules, 96, 102, 1)3 Seidel-joint ends, 33 Solid wedge, 33 Sound alarm, 68,70

velocity, 84,87,88 Southern Cross Corporation. 83 Spade tongue terminal., 131-132 Spare parts, 88 Spindle, 45 Splice kits. 132 -133 non-shielded cable, 132,133 Spring cylinders, 45 Stacey line blind, 44 Stainless steel, 31,34,140 bellows, 140-144 braided connector, 140-141 finish, 22 fittings, 22 hose, 140-144 stick tubing, 19-22

tubing, 16,19-22 Standard relief valve, 45 Start/stop alarms, 87-88

State of charge, 114 Static mixer assembly, 4-5 Steam control. 81

leaks. 70,71,73,74 main. 74,75 piping systems. 73,74 temperature, 75,77 tracing, 73,74 tracing control salve, If%

78,80,81 tracing traps, 7041 traps. 70-81 Stem variations, 29-30 Stick tubing, 19-22 Storage

battery. 96-100,102,115 procedures, 47

valves, 35-36,39 Straight patterns, 55 through-plug valves, 5it through rotaineters, 7 Strainer filter element,

70-74 Street ells, tit Strings of pipe. 68 Stripping, 28 Subsea pressure transmitter, 3 Substitute valves, 41,43 Sumary-module solar system, 113 Sun tilt angle, 105 S-valves, 25 Swing check valve, 28 -out ball valves, 54 Swi:ch systems, 54 Systems, 55 Tapered plug, 28

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165

Index Tee, 61 Telemetry relay stations, 1(4 Television, 22 Temperature, 22 controls, 22 regulator, 6-12 transmitter, 1-12 Templates, 88, 90 Terminal markers, 128. 132 Termination cables, 132-133 Test equipment, 49 insert ring, 43, 44, 46 instruments, 50 separator, 68 Thermocouples, 134-139 Thermodynamic traps, 75, 77 Thermometers, 140, 142 Thermostatic traps, 75, 77 Thermowell, 134-135. 1411 Thread cutting oil, 145 Threaded couplet, 61 Three-way ball valve, 54 mixing valve, 36.39 Throttling category, 23 levers, 34, 35 service, 23, 25, 39 Tight bends, 12, 17 seal, 26-27 shut-off, 44 wire grip, 132 Tilt angle, 105-112 TirneWandT., 146-150 TL, TLC, TM gauge glass, 139 Tortuous matrix, 73, 74 Toxic fluids, 81-82 Trace pipe/cable, 82-84, 8b Transmitters, 3, 4 Treated water lines, 51

Triple completed 68, 70 Trouble shooting, 63 Tube cross-reference chart,

62-68 fittings, 62-68 mincer, 63 socket weld elbow, 65 socket weld union, 62, 04 union, 66 Tubing, 16., 19-21 nut, 67 Turbine starting systems, 96 Twelve-volt appliance. 103 battery, 1112, 103

photovoltaic system, 102, 103 Two-hole lug, 131-132

Twoosition valve, 82-84 Tyloe, 62-68 'fy-rap*, 145 U-bolt bonnet. 31 Unions, 63, 66-67 Usable energy, 73

Vacuum valves. 48 Valveis), 139 body, 45 bonnet variatikKIS, 31

boa locator, 82-84 central, 104 figure number 32 maintenance, 54 Outlet, 50

patterns, 50 seats, 32 stem variations, 30 terminology, 29, 32-34 types, 23 uses for, 23 Vera system, 43,44, 46

Venturi style, 27 Vessel nozzle, 61 Vibration control, 140 -141 Videx`i' TimcWant', 146-152 Vinyl insulating tape, 19 Vmambers, 33, 34

Vogt gate valves, 42-44, * Voltage, 134 not usable, 113 ratings, 128

Wafer style valve, 29 Wallace & Tierman. 7-8 Walseal째 Ends, 33 Walworth CompEtny, 23 Warning lights. 102 Water hammer. 73-75 Wads, 114 Weather-resistant cable ties. 129 Weatherproof connection, 132

Weatherproof tape. 33, 34 Weld couplets, 61 63 identification tags, 13-35 Wet process insulator, 132 Wintenzation tracings, 76, 78, 80 Wire, 19 connectors, 129-132 markers. 145 mesh construction, 73, 74 pulling compound, 145 terminal market's, 178.130 terminals, tongue/ blade, 145 lies, 128-129 "Xmas tree," 69 Yarway Corporation. 74, 75 Y-type strainer, 75, 77

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About the Author

R. R. Lee is the vice-president/owner of Lee's Material Services, Inc. in Houston, Texas, which received the prestigious Presidential "E" Award for excellence in export. Mr.

Lee's 35 years' experience includes serving as material takeoff section leader with McDermott Engineering, purchasing agent, material/inventory control supervisor, and specialist/manager with Brown & Root International, Texaco, and Oasis Oil Company of Libya.

166

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POCKET GUIDE TO INSTRUMENTATION by ELSEVIER  

Oil & Gas control continuing knowledge series. Brought to you courtesy of RMC Process Controls & Filtration, Inc. & www.RegulatorParts.com....

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