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OUTCROP Newsletter of the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

Volume 68 • No. 9 • September 2019


The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

2019 Summit Sponsors PLATINUM SPONSOR

GOLD SPONSORS

SILVER SPONSORS

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OUTCROP The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

1999 Broadway • Suite 730 • Denver, CO 80202 • 800-970-7624 The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists (RMAG) is a nonprofit organization whose purposes are to promote interest in geology and allied sciences and their practical application, to foster scientific research and to encourage fellowship and cooperation among its members. The Outcrop is a monthly publication of the RMAG.

2019 OFFICERS AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS PRESIDENT

2st VICE PRESIDENT-ELECT

Tom Sperr tsperr@bayless-cos.com

Dan Bassett dbassett@sm-energy.com

PRESIDENT-ELECT

TREASURER

Jane Estes-Jackson janeestesjackson@gmail.com

Eryn Bergin eryn.bergin@aec-denver.com

1st VICE PRESIDENT

TREASURER-ELECT

Heather LaReau heatherthegeologist@gmail.com

Chris Eisinger chris.eisinger@state.co.us

1st VICE PRESIDENT-ELECT

SECRETARY

Ben Burke bburke@hpres.com

Anna Phelps aphelps@sm-energy.com

2nd VICE PRESIDENT

COUNSELOR

Sophie Berglund sberglund@raisaenergy.com

Donna Anderson danderso@rmi.net

RMAG STAFF PROJECTS SPECIALIST

Kathy Mitchell-Garton kmitchellgarton@rmag.org MEMBERSHIP ENGAGEMENT SPECIALIST

Debby Watkins dwatkins@rmag.org CO-EDITORS

Courtney Beck Courtney.Beck@halliburton.com Jesse Melick jesse.melick@bpx.com Wylie Walker wylie.walker@gmail.com DESIGN/LAYOUT

Nate Silva nate@nate-silva.com

ADVERTISING INFORMATION

Rates and sizes can be found on page 35. Advertising rates apply to either black and white or color ads. Submit color ads in RGB color to be compatible with web format. Borders are recommended for advertisements that comprise less than one half page. Digital files must be PC compatible submitted in png, jpg, tif, pdf or eps formats at a minimum of 300 dpi. If you have any questions, please call the RMAG office at 800-970-7624. Ad copy, signed contract and payment must be received before advertising insertion. Contact the RMAG office for details. DEADLINES: Ad submissions are the 1st of every month for the following month’s publication.

WEDNESDAY NOON LUNCHEON RESERVATIONS

RMAG Office: 800-970-7624 Fax: 888-389-4090 staff@rmag.org or www.rmag.org

The Outcrop is a monthly publication of the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

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Outcrop | September 2019 OUTCROP


The final trip of the year! Don't miss it! Register today at www.rmag.org! October 12, 2019 Hygiene Sandstone Trip Trip Leaders: Piret Plink-Bjorklund & Mike Genecov, Colorado School of Mines Location: Boulder, CO Trip Limit: 20 Price: $35 This day trip will visit outcrops of the late Cretaceous Hygiene Sandstone in Boulder County. The Hygiene Sandstone is approximately equivalent to the Shannon Sandstone of the Powder River Basin, and is commonly referred to as Shannon Sandstone in subsurface of the DJ Basin. Historically interpreted as deposits of “offshore bars”, the Hygiene Sandstone is currently interpreted as the easternmost deposits of the Iles Formation (Mesaverde Group) deltaic complex of northwestern Colorado. The apparently isolated sandstone bodies are explained as remnants of deltas deposited during the falling stage or lowstand of a forced regression. Sediment textural and compositional properties, sedimentary structures, and depositional architecture will be analyzed to lead into a discussion of the dominance of tidal processes, deltaic nature and the paleogeographic position of the Hygiene Sandstone. Sedimentary characteristics observed in outcrop will be compared with a core from the DJ Basin.

email: staff@rmag.org

phone: 800.970.7624

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1999 Broadway, Ste. 730, Denver, CO, 80202

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web: www.rmag.org

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Follow: @rmagdenver


OUTCROP Newsletter of the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

CONTENTS FEATURES

DEPARTMENTS

12 Lead Story: Practical Technology Use in the Geoscience Classroom

6 RMAG August 2019 Board of Directors Meeting

28 RMAG On the Rocks: Glacier Gorge Field Trip

ASSOCIATION NEWS 2 RMAG Summit Sponsors 4 RMAG On the Rocks Field Trips 7 RMAG Sporting Clay Tournament 9 RMAG/DWLS Fall Symposium 20 Mudrock Sedimentology And Sequence Stratigraphy Core Workshop

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10 President’s Letter 22 RMAG Luncheon programs: Rich Gibson 26 RMAG Luncheon programs: Matthew Belobraydic 34 Welcome New RMAG Members! 34 Pipeline 35 Outcrop Advertising Rates 37 2019 Outcrop Cover Photo Competition

COVER PHOTO Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Credit: Courtney Beck

38 Advertiser Index 38 Calendar

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RMAG AUGUST 2019 BOARD OF DIRECTORS MEETING By Anna Phelps, Secretary aphelps@sm-energy.com

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are holding strong and that while revenue has been down this year, it is improving. The Continuing Education Committee reported on a very successful August Luncheon with a sellout crown and is working on luncheon speakers and short courses for 2020. The Membership Committee had a successful BBQ to celebrate the Mentorship Program on August 3. The Committee is working on planning talks at local colleges and universities this fall. The Publications Committee welcomed Wylie Walker as a new Outcrop Editor. The Committee also reported that the first focused



Salutations rock-loving family. In a blink of an eye, school is back in session and the summer is already waning. This is a wonderful time of year to adventure on the outcrop, while daylight prevails and the hot summer temperatures start to cool. Consider registering for the On the Rocks Hygiene Sandstone Fieldtrip if you need an extra push to get on the outcrop before the adventuring season ends. The August meeting of the RMAG Board of Directors was held on August 21, 2019 at 4:00 PM. All board members were present. Treasurer Eryn Bergin reported the investment

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SC

The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

porting lay

Tournament

10 10 19

Kiowa Creek Sporting Club • Prizes for individual high score and team 1st, 2nd and 3rd flights. • Includes one round of 100 sporting clays, lunch, and door prizes. • Does not include ammunition (please bring enough ammo for 100 clays or you may purchase ammo at Kiowa Creek). • You may also rent a gun for $20 onsite.

Registration and sponsorship open at www.rmag.org! 5 Person Team (member): $425 5 Person Team (non-member): $500

email: staff@rmag.org

web: www.rmag.org

phone: 800.970.7624

1999 Broadway, Ste. 730, Denver, CO, 80202 Vol. 68, No. 9 | www.rmag.org

Individual (member): $85 Individual (non-member): $100

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS MEETING

To keep it light and fun as vacations ends and school starts, this month’s geologic news is about the largest fossil parrot ever discovered. The bird was unearthed in New Zealand and is a new genus and species. Named Heracles inexpectatus, it would have been 15 pounds and stood three feet tall. That’s the size of a toddler! Polly want an entire loaf of bread?!



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edition of the Mountain Geologist will be published this month on Wyoming Geochronology. There are several articles in the pipeline for future Mountain Geologist issues to keep an eye out for. On the Rocks reported that the Rocky Mountain National Park and the McCoy fossil trips were very fun and educational. There are still spots open for the October Hygiene Sandstone trip in Boulder County. As the summer field trip season wraps up, the Committee is starting to work on a schedule and budget for 2020. The Educational Outreach Committee is getting ready for their booth at the Colorado Science Conference on November 8. The Committee continues to see volunteers and is working on making contacts at schools along the Front Range.

SOURCE:

Worthy, T.H., Hand, S.J., Archer, M., Scofield, R.P., De Pietri, V.L. (2019) Evidence for a giant parrot from the Early Miocene of New Zealand. The Royal Society Publishing Biology Letters. DOI: 10.1098/ rsbl.2019.0467.

Proudly developing Colorado’s energy potential through innovation, safety and a commitment to our community l e a r n m o r e at : w w w . c r e s t o n e p e a k r e s o u r c e s . c o m

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RMAG/DWLS

Fall Symposium

October 22, 2019 Sheraton Denver West The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists and the Denver Well Logging Society are teaming up again to present the 2019 Fall Symposium

MULTISCALE IMAGING FOR RESERVOIR OPTIMIZATION Pricing: Members: $225 before October 1, 2019 $250 after October 1, 2019 Non-members: $275

Register at www.rmag.org

Sponsorships and exhibitor spots available! Contact the RMAG for details. email: staff@rmag.org

phone: 800.970.7624

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1999 Broadway, Suite 730, Denver, CO, 80202

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web: www.rmag.org


PRESIDENT’S LETTER By Tom Sperr



As many of you know, since mid-July, we no longer have an executive director working for RMAG. I am acting as an unpaid, interim ED, likely through the end of this year. While we did not make this move to save money, the savings are significant to the organization. And with the apparent pull back of oil and gas activity and employment in the Denver area, perhaps we should consider not filling this position in the future. We currently have two hard working, committed, part time employees in Kathy Mitchell-Garten and Debby Watkins. We also have board that has stepped up to fill in where necessary. I think with continued volunteer help and these two employees, we can provide all the classes and events we have enjoyed over the past years. This model might be more like how we were doing business ten to twenty years ago. We should have a good idea how this will work by the end of the year and will report back then. So

please bear with us, as I am certain there will be a few bumps along this road, but we will get the job done. I also want to note that the Mountain Geologist is always looking for papers. Our editors are open to submissions in nearly any geoscience subject in the area of the Rockies, from West Texas and New Mexico to Northern British Columbia, and the Mid-continent and Great Plains. Digitally published quarterly, it’s a great place to reach not just the RMAG scientific community, but also over 200 libraries and other professional organizations and through the web. Our two editors, Dave Mallon and Bill Drake can be contacted at mgeditor@rmag. org. I need also to add a word of thanks, as we all should, to our editors, past and present. We have some great publications in the Outcrop and Mountain Geologist in which we can all be proud. These wouldn’t happen without a lot of hard work behindthe-scenes by our editors.

Susan Spancers

MCEP, RFC, AACEP, NICEP, CSA Helping You Create Financial “Peace of Mind”

303 766-9599

How to create-protect-distribute your assets Retirement: Will you run out of money? Estate protection: Wills vs Trusts - Probate vs Protection Email: Spancers@Qadas.com Web: www.susanspancers.com Sec and Adv Svs offered through TLG, Inc* and TLG Adv, Inc. 26 West Dry Creek Circle #800, Littleton, CO 80120 303 797-9080 *Member FINRA-SIPC

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LEAD STORY

Practical Technology Use in the Geoscience Classroom By Carla Eichler, Texas Tech University | eichler.carla@gmail.com online learning communities), guided self-assessment (via electronic voting machines), and conceptual development and content presentation (via modeling and mapping software).



1. INTRODUCTION Geoscience education at all levels has evolved dramatically over recent decades primarily due to the shift from passive, instructor-led pedagogy to more active, student-centered instruction. The evolution is also due in part to the demand for development of a scientifically literate populace, which advocates that students learn scientific knowledge, processes, and attitudes through technology in their science curriculum. Since science instructors are the most influential factor in educational reform that impacts student achievement, it is essential for instructors to know how to design technology enhanced courses (Duffee and Aikenhead, 1992). However, many educators feel they lack the time and skills needed to develop instructional methods using technology. Thus, technology is “tacked on” to the traditional course curriculum in the form of a special project or event (Pedersen and Yerrick, 2000). In so doing, the benefits many students see from the regular use of technology are lost. The following sections present examples of teaching techniques and publicly available software that can enhance the knowledge and understanding of geoscience through development of in in-class discourse community (via OUTCROP | September 2019

2. EXAMPLES OF TECHNOLOGY USE IN YOUR CLASS

2.1 Online Learning Communities Online learning communities are virtual collaborative environments in which students can interact with the instructor and/or one another. Studies have shown thoughtfully designed collaborative classroom activities provide several benefits, including bridging gaps in understanding and improving communication (Linn and Hsi, 2000; Rogers and Newton, 2001). For example, activities that promote discussion may expand the views and ideas held by individuals, enhance understanding as the meaning of concepts is debated, organize knowledge through peer provided feedback, and promote reflection on notions which build connections in knowledge (Brown and Campione, 1994). Verbal in-class discussion can result in low levels of student participation and engagement due

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FIGURE 1:

A 3D structural model created with GemPy. Photo from GemPy website.

2.2 Electronic Voting Machines Over the past few decades electronic voting machines (EVM), or “clickers” as they are colloquially known, have seen increased use in large-enrollment classes. EVM is a generic name for in-class polling systems used by students to answer multiple choice questions posed by the instructor during lectures. Studies have shown that EVM can improve class dynamics and provide students with the opportunity

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to test their understanding of the material with immediate feedback from the instructor (Pedersen and Yerrick, 2000; Reay et al., 2005). Often, students are required to purchase a physical EVM as part of the required course materials. However, as an alternative to a physical EVM, instructors may use “Poll Everywhere” or the “Socratives” websites, which allows students to vote via SMS or the website. The results may be presented in real-time with the option for moderation from the instructor on the presentation screen.



in part to intimidation. Moderated backchannel discussion boards and real-time chats take the pressure off by providing a sense of informality and allowing them to see their peers’ opinions. Therefore, online learning environments are ideal for increasing communication and collaboration through online discourse (Hsi, 1997). For example, the instructor may provide quick discussion starters that prompt a response, rather than lengthy instruction. Examples may include “My hypothesis is…”and “I would test this hypothesis by…”. This method also allows for students to interact with one another and give feedback to the instructor on their understanding of the material, thus providing greater inclusion and participation. Backchannel discussion boards may be created at the “Padlet” website. A backchannel chat may be created in “Google Classroom”, a part of the G Suite for Education, as well as the “Backchannel Chat” website.

2.3 Geologic and Geographic Modeling Programs Open-source modeling programs have been effectively used to increase concept development and content presentation in science courses (Kiboss et al., 2004). While modeling software may entail a learning curve, much data and support are available in the form of data libraries and interactive tutorials. An abundance of free, open-source modeling software and resources is available on the Wikipedia website, which has been posted in the appendix. Two examples of such software are discussed below. GemPy is an open-source, Python based 3D structural geological modeling software, which allows for the creation of complex geological models from interface and orientation data (Figure 1). Numerous datasets have been made publicly available, many with

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LEAD STORY which records strike and dip, GPS location, time, and date. The data can then be projected onto a stereonet on the student’s device or later transferred to a computer. The apps FieldMove or FieldMove Clino act as a compass clinometer, digital notebook, stereonet, and drawing surface on which geologic contacts, faults, and outcrop polygons can be mapped over a digital basemap (Figure 2). The digital basemap may be uploaded by the user from a computer prior to the field trip. Alternatively, virtual fieldtrips can be implemented to bring the field to the students in the classroom, allowing for greater participation, inclusion, and ease of access to remote locations across the globe. Virtual field trips may be conducted in multiple ways. To simply visit an outcrop via an image, Outcropedia and various public sites (GigaPan) allow users to upload high-resolution photographs. Students can then search these websites for outcrop photographs (Figure 3). When available, identical or similar hand samples or thin sections to the units examined in the photographs may supplement the traditional hands-on experience of a field trip.



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tutorials to teach the program using the accompanying data. Students may use said data and tutorials to learn complex structural concepts that would be otherwise difficult to explain in a traditional classroom setting. Digital maps and mapping datasets may be created and manipulated on QGIS, an open-source geographic information system program. Students can create, edit, manage, and export vector and raster layers and shapefiles, amongst many other things. The students may manipulate datasets provided to them by the instructor or create their own. Several tutorials are available on the QGIS Tutorials website. 2.4 Field A student’s field experience can be supplemented or even simulated using technology. Many researchers use Electronic Total Stations (ETS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) applications in their field investigations; however, this is rarely encouraged in introductory or lower-division undergraduate courses due to the convention of using the “pen and paper” method to keep costs low. While many students may not have the opportunity to use hand-held technology until their upper-division courses, if ever, the use of technology can be implemented much earlier. To supplement a traditional field trip, handheld technology, such as a smart phone or a rugged, fieldready handheld; like the Nautiz X6 or the XSlate R2, can be used to collect and manipulate data, read additional material, or watch instructional videos on-location. Ideally, the data, spreadsheet, or other supplemental material would be pre-loaded on the device to ensure usability in a scenario where network connectivity is limited or absent. In addition to paperbased notes, spreadsheets may be used to collect and organize data. The instructor may distribute a Google Spreadsheet document, for example, for the students to fill out with their observations or measurements on their devices. Thus, if the students were participating in a collaborative project, the data would be formatted and more easily distributed between the students once uploaded. Geologic mapping can be done in the digital realm. Tablet and smart phone applications may serve as digital basemaps, GPS trackers, and compass clinometers. One example is Lambert, an Apple app,

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3.0 CONCLUSION

Modern society demands scientifically literate individuals to make intelligent and informed decisions about the environment, resources, and health. In addition to societal gains, companies have embraced the enormous efficiency gains by switching to electronic data collection and processing. Big data is an inevitable outcome of the development of science. Decades of research has resulted in the accumulation of a large amount of data and conventional methods can no longer handle such immense amounts of data. Technology plays a vital role in students gaining and applying scientific knowledge as well as skills that will transfer to the workplace. Geoscience educators at all levels should encourage such learning by incorporating technology into their curriculum. A variety of technological applications can be used to deepen students’ understanding of geoscience concepts, promote student participation, build communities of learning, and expose students to world class outcrops they might never otherwise get

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LEAD STORY

FIGURE 2: Screenshots of the FieldMove application on an iPad.

All data was collected with the application. Photos courtesy of Apple.

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LEAD STORY

A screenshot from the Outcropedia website showing the Laacher See pyroclastic deposits in outcrop and map location. The map is interactive on the website.

FIGURE 3:

multimedia forum kiosk. Kiboss, J., Ndirangu, M., and W. Wekesa, E., 2004, Effectiveness of a Computer-Mediated Simulations Program in School Biology on Pupils’ Learning Outcomes in Cell Theory: Juornal of Science Education and Technology, v. 13, no. 2, p. 207-213. Linn, M. C., and Hsi, S., 2000, Computers, teachers, peers: Science learning partners, Computers, teachers, peers: Science learning partners.: Mahwah, NJ, US, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, p. xxxv, 460-xxxv, 460. Pedersen, J. E., and Yerrick, R. K., 2000, Technology in Science Teacher Education: Survey of Current Uses and Desired Knowledge Among Science Educators: Journal of Science Teacher Education, v. 11, no. 2, p. 131-153. Reay, N. W., Bao, L., Li, P., and Warnakulasooriya, R., 2005, Toward an effective use of voting machines in physics lectures: American Journal of Physics, v. 73, p. 554-558. Rogers, L., and Newton, L., 2001, Integrated Learning Systems - an ‘open’ approach: International Journal of Science Education, v. 23, no. 4, p. 405-422.



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a chance to experience. The above examples serve as jumping-off points and are intended to motivate geoscience educators to incorporate and promote the use of technology in their classrooms. An abundance of free resources is available online, and many are likely available for immediate download at any given educational institution. In an increasingly paperless world, it is vital to engage students with the technology and techniques necessary to succeed in a future career in geoscience.

REFERENCES

Brown, A. L., and Campione, J. C., 1994, Guided discovery in a community of learners, Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice.: Cambridge, MA, US, The MIT Press, p. 229-270. Duffee, L., and Aikenhead, G., 1992, Curriculum change, student evaluation, and teacher practical knowledge: Science Education, v. 76, no. 5, p. 493-506. Hsi, S., 1997, Facilitating knowledge integration in science through electronic discussion: The Vol. 68, No. 9 | www.rmag.org

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»»CONTINUED FROM PAGE 17 APPENDIX: WEBSITES Backchannel Chat: https://backchannelchat.com GemPy: https://github.com/cgre-aachen/gempy GigaPan: http://gigapan.com Google Class: https://class.google.com Lambert: http://www.nileus.de/lambert/ (also available in the Apple App Store) Outcropedia: http://outcropedia.tectask.org/ PollEverywhere: https://polleverywhere.com QGIS: http://qgis.org QGIS Tutorials: https://www.qgistutorials.com/en/ Socrative: https://socrative.com USGS Earthquakes Hazards Program: https:// earthquakes.usgs.gov USGS Volcanoes Hazards Program: https://volcanoes. usgs.gov Wikipedia List of Free/Publicly Available Software: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_free_ geology_software

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Fall PTTC Workshops Hydraulic Fracturing of Horizontal Wells – RMS-AAPG Short Course

Saturday Sept 14 - Sunday Sept 15, 2019, Location: Cheyenne Wyoming, Little America Hotel Fee: $400, includes snacks, class notes, and PDH cert. Instructor: Dr. Jennifer Miskimins, Colorado School of Mines Rmsaapg2019.com Workshop #4

Principles of Hydraulic Fracturing

Monday October 14 – Tuesday October 15, 2019 Location: Durango, CO; Fort Lewis College Fee: $375, includes snacks, class notes, and PDH certificate Instructor: Dr. Jennifer Miskimins, Colorado School of Mines

COURSE OBJECTIVES: This two-day short course is directed at engineering and geoscience professionals involved in hydraulic fracture stimulation of oil and gas wells. The primary focus is stimulation design for tight gas and unconventional reservoirs, but the topics covered apply generally to hydraulic fracture stimulation of all reservoirs. Specific topics include rock mechanics, stresses, modeling, perforating for stimulation, fracture fluid rheology, predicting conductivity, pre-treatment injection tests, proppant transport, and horizontal well stimulation. The main course objective is to review and discuss topics critical for optimizing hydraulic fracturing treatments. WHAT PARTICIPANTS CAN REASONABLY EXPECT TO LEARN: An emphasis is placed on fracturing treatment design and the input data required to optimize such treatments. The course stresses the interrelationships between data and disciplines in fracture design optimization. WHO SHOULD ATTEND? The course is primarily intended to offer an introduction to hydraulic fracture design and optimization. Those new to the industry, new to hydraulic fracturing completions, or just interested in a refresher on hydraulic fracturing concepts will benefit most from the course.

Oil and Gas Property Valuation

Tuesday, November 12, 2019, Location: Colorado School of Mines, Student Center Ballroom C Fee: $250, includes snacks, class notes, and PDH certificate Instructors: Nicholas Kernan, US Dept of Interior

The valuation of oil and gas properties has rapidly developed into one of the most important skills within the energy sector. This course aims to introduce individuals to a basic workflow that will allow them to take raw data and develop an opinion of value for oil and gas acreage. The focus will be on-shore U.S. unconventional resources. Valuations will be considered from both the standpoint of operators and royalty owners. Topics to be discussed are: the role of geology in valuations, forecasting production, commodity prices, development plans, defining risk, quantifying uncertainty, and the construction of discounted cash flows. All of these topics could be a course in their own right and this workshop does not aim to make participants experts in any one of the above topics. Rather, it aims to bring all these concepts together in a practical workflow, providing the participant guidance for future investigation. It should also help give technical experts context of how their day-to-day work affects business decisions. This is an introductory class and is not meant for individuals that are already familiar with oil and gas property valuation. The class encourages participants to bring their own computer, as some of the exercises will involve building simple cash flows in Excel.

Class Descriptions and Register Online: www.pttcrockies.org

For more information, Vol. 68, No. 9 | www.rmag.org

contact Mary 303.273.3107, mcarr@mines.edu 19Carr,  OUTCROP | September 2019


Mudrock Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy Core Workshop

Date: Sept 10-11, 2019

Location: USGS Lakewood and Stratum Reservoir, Golden Instructors: Stratigraphix Prerna Singh, Ph.D., Sven Egenhoff, Ph.D Ali Jaffri, Ph.D Abstract: Many factors affect the volumetric and flow capacity of mudrocks including (i) organic content type, maturity, distribution (ii) mineralogic composition - ductile vs. brittle thus affecting the geomechanical properties and (iii) current day stress fields - imperative for decisions including orientation of horizontal wells and completion design. Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy can provide an understanding and explain the systematic variation of the abovementioned factors. This two-day course will use lectures, core, thin-section and well-log data to highlight critical details impacting understanding resource distribution as well as planning landing zones and completions. We will examine four public and three proprietary cores across seven formations (Wolfcamp, Eagle Ford, Mancos, Mowry, Bakken, Niobrara, and Haynesville). High-quality photographs of key features in proprietary cores will be provided as part of course material (photography will be permitted on public cores).

This is RMAG’s only core workshop this year! Don’t miss it! Price: $450 (early bird through 8/30); $500 (after 8/30)

email: staff@rmag.org

phone: 800.970.7624

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About the instructors: Prerna Singh, Ph.D. is a Subject-matter expert in Unconventional Shale and Tight sand plays with deep understanding of key elements including organics, matrix, pore volume, fractures and stress states. She has a doctoral degree in geology focusing on facies and sequence stratigraphic studies of the Barnett Shale. She interconnects geology, rock physics and geophysical data, wherever available, to solve the subsurface puzzle and constructs a coherent picture of the critical components necessary for highest hydrocarbon recovery. Over the years she has worked with majors including Chevron, BP, Schlumberger, in projects involving Business Development, Research, Exploration and Appraisal. She is currently teaching Geology and Geomechanics of Unconventional plays to enable the usage of these subjects as tools for application in well execution decisions including selecting optimal well placement depth, perforation depth and stage spacing. In her course, she emphasizes clarity on fundamentals e.g. organic content, mineralogy and in situ stress state and provides deeper understanding of how these parameters control for example hydraulic fracture geometry and thus well performance. Sven Egenhoff, Ph.D. is a recognized expert in shale sedimentology applied to understanding unconventional reservoir deposition and diagenesis. Sven has nineteen years of experience postdoctorate working worldwide on hydrocarbon-related problems, mostly onshore Sweden, Norway, continental US (Bakken and Woodford), and Bolivia, as well as offshore UK (Kimmeridge Clay) and is a top influencer on industry’s current thinking of shale plays. He is currently a professor at Colorado State University and has trained over 400 undergraduate and graduate students in oilrelated sedimentology and well-logs and has consulted or held research contracts with Hess, Marathon, and Noble Energy, among others. Ali Jaffri, Ph.D. is the founder of Applied Stratigraphix LLC, and has nineteen years of experience in sedimentology and stratigraphy projects. He has worked several onshore US Basins, North Sea, Indus Basins, Barents Sea, Offshore East and West Africa, Taranaki Basin, Offshore Mid-Norway, and Former Soviet Union. He has a doctorate from Colorado State, Masters from Oklahoma State and Bachelors from University of Colorado. Equally proficient in carbonates and clastics, he has trained over 500 oil and gas professionals from thirty-four companies in ten countries.

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RMAG LUNCHEON PROGRAMS Speaker: Rich Gibson | September 4, 2019

Controls On Petroleum Phase And Water Production In The Wall Creek Resource Play Powder River Basin, WY By Rich Gibson, SM Energy, Denver, CO

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stratigraphic trap in this direction. Variations of petroleum phase and GOR do not conform to a simple depth-dependent relationship. A temperature map at the top of the Wall Creek, generated from DST temperatures, shows contours that do not parallel structural contours due to regional gradient variations. Temperature and vitrinite reflectance data were used to calibrate 1D burial history models by simultaneously solving for basal heat flow and the amount of erosion since ~40Ma. A relationship between present-day temperature and vitrinite reflectance derived from the model results was used to convert the temperature map to maturity. Oil maturity data, early-life GOR values, visual appearance of the oils, and gas isotope values all show clear relationships to this map, with the highest maturity fluids confined to a sub-circular area located generally east of the basin axis. KINEX modeling of the Niobrara source verifies that the observed range of GOR values can be explained by thermal maturity variation between ~1.1 and 1.4 %Ro at the Wall Creek level. Oils are inferred to have migrated downward into the reservoir and



The Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, originally developed by vertical wells along NNW-SSE high phi-k sandstone trends, has been the target of horizontal drilling for the past several years in the deepest part of the Powder River Basin. The basin is asymmetric with a gently dipping east limb and steep west flank that is only locally faulted at Wall Creek level. The sands are continuous from outcrop on the west flank into the productive basin center, but transition into mudstone updip toward the east. Oils within the Wall Creek are derived from the Niobrara, which is 250-700’ above the top of the reservoir. Petroleum properties (phase and GOR) and water production vary within the confines of the play. Vertical wells in the highest quality reservoir trends typically produced with <10% water cut. Horizontal wells drilled into intervening lower quality reservoir areas have water cuts ranging from <10% to >80% that do not vary systematically with calculated pay thickness, PhiH, or SoPhiH. Log calculated water saturations are lowest on the east flank and basin center, but gradually increase westward up the west flank despite the apparent lack of either a structural or

»»CONTINUED ON PAGE 24

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RMAG LUNCHEON PROGRAMS An intermediate domain of flat to gentle eastward dip is characterized by 20-60% water cut, whereas wells on the steeper dipping west flank have water cuts >70%. Although the variation in log calculated Sw values is dominated by reservoir quality, a 20% overall Sw increase in rocks of consistent reservoir quality from east to west is also clearly evident. The observed Sw and production behavior can be understood in terms of a capillary drainage and imbibition curves. Rocks east of the basin axis, which have stayed in closure throughout basin evolution, remain on the drainage curve and produce the most water-free. Rocks west of the basin axis that are no longer in closure have undergone partial leakage and moved down imbibition curves to varying degrees. Since imbibition curves are steep relative to drainage curves, water influx has a relatively small impact on increasing Sw while having a dramatic impact on phase mobility due to partial or complete ‘snap off’ of the non-wetting oil phase in pore throats. As a result, production behavior in the domains west of the basin axis are not well predicted based on log calculated parameters.



»»CONTINUED FROM PAGE 22

continued maturing in-situ so that they match present-day reservoir maturity levels. Sequential flattening of a regional E-W 2D seismic line across the basin shows that the area that is now the deep basin was on the west flank of a low-relief paleo-high in latest Cretaceous to early Tertiary time. Based on the 1D basin models, migration of oil and gas from the Niobrara source occurred in the early Tertiary, coincident with the presence of this paleo-high. These observations suggest that petroleum in the Wall Creek was originally captured in a regional, westward-dipping stratigraphic trap and maintained there through mid-Tertiary deep burial. Subsequent uplift of the west flank allowed petroleum to leak westward, being replaced by imbibed water. Since reservoir quality had already been degraded by diagenesis during deepest burial, the rate of leakage was probably very slow and may be continuing today. Log-calculated Sw values and horizontal well water cuts follow a regional pattern consistent with this model. Wells located east of the present-day basin axis have <20% water cut. RICH GIBSON: • MS and PhD from Virginia Tech structural geology • 21 years at Amoco and BP in research, exploration, and development – worked a

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RMAG LUNCHEON PROGRAMS Speaker: Matthew Belobraydic | October 2, 2019

Geology at the Crossroads of the Future By Matthew Belobraydic locations, targets, and design completion strategies that provide the most economic advantageous way to extract hydrocarbons. Data scientists are creating new ways to make tedious parts of interpretations more automated, leading to a larger amount of data available to incorporate into interpretations.  Correlations and results, however, may not make sense without being “ground-truthed” with real world geologic knowledge. Through integrated teams and the increase in available data and interpretations, geologists are in a unique position to “wiggle” into the role of leading the data science revolution currently underway in the petroleum industry.  Using the Bakken and Three Forks plays in the Williston Basin as an example, the geologic domain as the integration platform for petrophysics, geomechanics, production and stimulation engineering, reservoir engineering, management, and (of course) geology will be demonstrated.



“With their four-dimensional minds, and in their interdisciplinary ultra-verbal way, geologists can wiggle out of almost anything.” – John McPhee

As the oil and gas industry moves to more data driven solutions through big data, cloud solutions, and artificial intelligence, geoscientists are poised to step deeper into the lead integrator role. Combining different scales, vintages, and sources of data is a requirement to maximize ROI in oil and gas fields and plays.  Gone are the days of siloed teams.  With cheap data storage and faster model realizations, multiple working hypotheses can be tested utilizing multidomain interpretations that can be integrated back into analyses, creating a positive feedback loop to identify true play and basin drivers, quantify uncertainties, and minimize risk. Cloud computing, artificial intelligence, and new correlation methods are making it easier to find well

MATTHEW BELOBRAYDIC is a reservoir geologist with the SIS Integrated Consulting Group in Denver, Colorado. He graduated with a B.S. in Geology from the University of Idaho and a M.S. in Geology from Ball State University. He has been working for Schlumberger since 2008 focusing on stratigraphy, structural modeling, geostatistics, property modeling, and uncertainty analysis. He is currently working as part an integrated team developing static and dynamic reservoir models, unconventional reservoir characterizations, and client solutions for basins and fields located across the world.

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OUTCROP | September 2019

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RMAG ON THE ROCKS

FIGURE 1: Glacier Gorge hikers pose for a group photo near Alberta Falls on the way back down.

Rocky Mountain National Park Glacier Gorge Field Trip Saturday, July 13, 2019

OUTCROP | September 2019

met at the Glacier Basin Park & Ride in the park at 7:30 am to get an early start. After introductions and a safety briefing, Dr. Safipour (a.k.a. Dr. Rox) led a discussion of the day’s objectives. We started with the Geologic Map of Rocky Mountain National Park (Braddock and Cole, 1990; https://ngmdb.usgs. gov/Prodesc/proddesc_10051.htm) and reviewed the complex Precambrian history of the area and the more recent glacial deposits.



On Saturday July 13, 2019 the RMAG OnThe-Rocks Field Trip program continued with our 6th scheduled trip of the year, this one a hike in Rocky Mountain National Park up Glacier Gorge to the scenic Mills Lake. This trip was led by Dr. Roxana Safipour and had a wonderful mix of geology, hiking, great scenery, and photo opportunities. A group of 6 participants (5 geologists and one middle school science teacher), one leader, and one RMAG OTR representative,

»»CONTINUED ON PAGE 29

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FIGURE 2:

Dr. Safipour leads a discussion on metamorphic features observed in a boulder of Early Proterozoic “biotite schist” at the top of the lateral moraine along the trail to Mills Lake.

Pleistocene glaciation in the upper Platte River drainage basin was discussed based on the work of Madole, VanSistine, and Michael, 1998 (https://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_13123.htm), which documents the maximum extent of Pleistocene glaciation in the park and helps differentiate Pinedale (approximately 10 ka-30 ka) and Bull Lake (approximately 130 ka-300 ka) glacial deposits. After this introductory review, the group got in line for the shuttle bus and rode the park shuttle to the trailhead. The group started hiking at about 9:00am and hiked to Mills Lake, a distance of about 3 miles with an elevation gain of about 800 feet. Frequent stops along the way up allowed us to look at and discuss the Pleistocene glaciations, the lateral and terminal moraines, and the Precambrian geology (well exposed in the glacially transported boulders; Figure 2). Most of the hike climbed along a lateral moraine containing boulders of 1.7 Ga biotite schist and 1.4 Ga Silver Plume Granite. Many boulders and bedrock mapped as “biotite schist” are more felsic

Vol. 68, No. 9 | www.rmag.org

than might be suggested by the name, and a lively discussion ensued about the classification of gneiss versus schist. Participants learned to never take a gneiss rock for granite (Dr. Rox had many great geology puns). Flow during intrusion of the Silver Plume Granite was indicated by the alignment of feldspar crystals, with no indication of shearing. Higher up the trail, we left the glacial moraine deposits behind for bedrock of biotite schist. Just before reaching Mills Lake, several mafic (gabbro) intrusions (1.3 Ga) were observed in the trail (Figure 4). Many of the boulders along the trail are covered in lichens. If you have never looked at a lichen with your hand lens – try it! These are fascinating living organisms with complex features, and different colors indicate different species of lichen. Starting at about mile two we crossed over several exposures of glacially scoured bedrock. Flow direction of the Pleistocene glaciers could be estimated by the orientation of the grooves in the granite. At the spectacular Alberta Falls, a high volume of water



»»CONTINUED FROM PAGE 28

»»CONTINUED ON PAGE 31

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ON-THE-ROCKS FIELD TRIP REPORT

(above) The group heads up the trail towards Mills Lake. Photo by Ron Pritchett.

FIGURE 3:

FIGURE 4: (left) A lively

discussion occurred while standing on a 1.3 Ga gabbro intrusive, smoothed and rounded by glacial erosion.

OUTCROP | September 2019

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ON-THE-ROCKS FIELD TRIP REPORT

»»CONTINUED FROM PAGE 29

cascading over the waterfall led to a discussion of erosion rates since the glaciers retreated from this area approximately 13 ka (Figure 5). The glacially carved U-shaped valley in the lower part of Glacier Gorge is floored by a fluvially eroded V-shaped valley that formed after the glaciers receded (Figure 6). The highest point of the hike was at Mills Lake, at an elevation of 9,972 feet, where we all took in beautiful views of the high peaks, cirques, and aretes of the Colorado high country, including a view of Longs Peak (Figure 7). These high peaks, including Longs Peak, are mapped as the Silver Plume Granite. After stopping for a lunch break, Mills Lake provided a scenic backdrop for a lively discussion of regional plate tectonics and formation of the Front Range Uplift (Figure 8). After lunch, our pace back to the trailhead was much faster as afternoon thunderstorms were building and we wanted to get back to the cars before any serious lightning or precipitation. Driving out of the park we noticed an inch or so of hail on the sides of the road near Moraine Park and the entry station – we were lucky! Those that were able to join were treated to a wonderful barbeque prepared by Barbara Kuzmic at

»»CONTINUED ON PAGE 32

(above) Alberta Falls.

FIGURE 5:

(left) U-shaped glaciallycarved valley in the upper part of Glacier Gorge.

FIGURE 6:

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ON-THE-ROCKS FIELD TRIP REPORT

FIGURE 7:

Mills Lake panorama.

»»CONTINUED FROM PAGE 31

the Mary’s Lake Campground in Estes Park. Fortunately for the participants, the storms had moved off to the east and we had a very pleasant time eating some great food and reliving the day’s hike. Anyone that missed this OTR trip did not miss out completely – Dr. Safipour runs these trips, and others along the Front Range, on a regular basis through her company Trail Gems Adventure Tours. Learn more about this and other trip options at the Trail Gems website https://www. trailgems.com/. Thanks to Dr. Rox for leading us on such a beautiful trip.

REFERENCES

Braddock, W. A., and J.C. Cole, 1990, Geologic map of Rocky Mountain National Park and vicinity, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1973, 1:50,000, 2 plates Madole, R.F., D.P. VanSistine, and J.A. Michael, 1998, Pleistocene glaciation in the upper Platte River drainage basin, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series Map I-2644, 1:309,280, 1 plate. OUTCROP | September 2019

FIGURE 8: Dr. Safipour led a discussion of regional tectonics at the lunch

stop at Mills Lake. 32

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OUTCROP | September 2019


PIPELINE SEPTEMBER 4, 2019

SEPTEMBER 12, 2019

SEPTEMBER 17, 2019

RMAG Luncheon. Speaker Rich Gibson. “‘Controls on Petroleum Phase and Water Production in the Wall Creek Resource Play, Powder River Basin, WY.” Maggiano’s Downtown Denver.

Educational Out Reach Meeting. Speaker: Ryan Zorn. “Messaging Tools and Content for Every Age.” Denver Athletic Club. 7:30 AM- 9:00 AM.

DPC Happy Hour. Lime Pavilions, Denver. Please contact the DPC office at 720926-9196.

SEPTEMBER 13, 2019

RMS-SEPM Luncheon. Speaker: Wylie Walker. Lecture: “Progradational Slope Architecture and Sediment Partitioning in the Outcropping Mixed Siliciclastic- Carbonate Bone Spring Formation, Permian Basin, West Texas.” Wynkoop Brewing Co.

SEPTEMBER 10-11, 2019 RMAG Core Workshop. “Mudrock Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy.” USGS Core Research Center, Lakewood and Stratum Reservoir, Golden, CO.

DIPS Luncheon. Members $20 and Nonmembers $25. For more information or to RSVP via email to kurt.reisser@gmail.com.

SEPTEMBER 24, 2019

SEPTEMBER 14-15, 2019 SEPTEMBER 11-13, 2019 Global Energy Management Course. “ Lifecycle of Oil and Natural Gas.” Contact: Michelle Motley, CU-Denver GEM Program, at 303-315-8066.

PTTC Rockies Short Course. “Hydraulic Fracturing of Horizontal Wells.” Cheyenne, WY.

SEPTEMBER 30, 2019 DPC Golf Tournament. Lakewood Country Club.

WELCOME NEW RMAG MEMBERS!

Cindy Anderson

is President at Shiloh Exploration, LLC in Greenwood Village, CO.

Mitch Anderson

is Director of Subsurface Operations at IHS Markit in Parker, CO.

Phillip Banks

is a student and lives in Arvada, CO.

OUTCROP | September 2019

Keith Buckley

Brett Elliott

is Owner at Water Source Geology and Engineering in Idaho Springs, Colorado.

is an Area Manager at Core Laboratories in Commerce City, Colorado.

is a student and lives in Johnstown, CO.

is a Senior Geologist at BPX Energy in Denver, CO.

Ronnie Clark Tom Duncan

works for High Desert Consultants LLC in Whitney, TX.

34

Evelyn Goebel

Rachael Hirsch

works for EOG Resources in Golden, CO.

»»CONTINUED ON PAGE 36

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OUTCROP | September 2019


WELCOME NEW RMAG MEMBERS!

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»»CONTINUED FROM PAGE 34

Joseph Islas

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Rebecca Johnson

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is a Petrophysicist at BPX in Golden, Colorado.

Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

Matthew Kruse lives in Parker, CO.

Kristen Liebers

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Griffin Mann

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Lin Murphy

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Blake Sullivan

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Vicky Yeap

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Henderson Watkins is a student and lives in Golden, CO.

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CALENDAR – SEPTEMBER 2019 SUNDAY

MONDAY

1

TUESDAY

2

WEDNESDAY

3

THURSDAY

4

FRIDAY

SATURDAY

5

6

12

13

7

RMAG Luncheon.

8

9

10

11

Educational Out Reach Meeting.

RMAG Core Workshop.

DIPS Luncheon.

Global Energy Management Course.

15

16

PTTC Rockies Short Course.

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14 PTTC Rockies Short Course.

18

19

20

21

25

26

27

28

DPC Happy Hour.

22

23

24 RMS-SEPM Luncheon.

29

30 DPC Golf Tournament.

Profile for The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

September 2019 Outcrop  

Monthly newsletter of the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

September 2019 Outcrop  

Monthly newsletter of the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists