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C CENTER ENTER FOR I N TEGRATED BUI L DI N G DE C R A E S E R N G I S E D G N I D L I U B D E T A R G E T N I R collaboratitechnology veresearch TER FOR INTEGRATED BUILDING DESIGN RESE SCHEMA TICS NGISEDGNIDLIUBDETARGETNIROFRE DBIC NGISED RDBIC GNIDLIUB RDBIC RETNEC


CENTER FOR INTEGRATED BUILDING DESIGN RESEARCH


. . . .

2008

This document is a collaboration of the work done by graduate and fourth year students at the School of Architecture, at the University of North Carolina Charlotte. This semester long project is limited by the effective scope of an academic semester, and is therefore subject to further research. It is our goal as architecture students, not only to gain mastery of, but to galvanize the inception of a new perspective on appropriate and responsible design.


. . . .

CIBDR

Academic Contributors: Graduate Students: Lane Allmon, Lindsay Frizzell , Rhonda Lowe, Casey Peura, Bethany Vandetta, and Jon Visser. Fourth-Year Students: Colin Cleland, Kelli Franklin, Emily Hinton, Brandon Johnson, and Megan Jones.

Editorial & Publication: Antonio Martinez, Lindsay Frizzell, and Rhonda Lowe, and Kelli Franklin.

Under the instruction of Professor Dale Brentrup; Director Daylighting + Energy Laboratory UNC Charlotte

CENTER FOR INTEGRATED BUI


LDING DESIGN RESEARCH

A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF A RESEARCH FACILITY ON THE UNCC CAMPUS


OBJECTIVE TO CREATE A RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT THAT IS PREDICATED ON TECHNOLOGIES THAT NOT ONLY INFLUENCE THE CAMPUS, BUT ACT AS A DIRECT LIAISON BETWEEN THE RESEARCHERS OF GREEN BUILDING DESIGN AND THE PUBLIC AND PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY.


Premise Sketch

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Site and Precedents

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Preliminary Concepts

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Design Build

Systems + Analysis

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The Built Environment + Interactivity

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GET IN THE HABIT OF ANALYSIS - ANALYSIS WILL IN TIME ENABLE SYNTHESIS TO BECOME YOUR HABIT OF MIND. - Frank Lloyd Wright


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PREMISE


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This is the building that currently houses the College of Architecture. As it stands, Storrs Hall fails to realize its potential for energy efficiency and interaction with the rest of the campus. The proposed addition to the site will create a new layer of interaction between campus destinations while educating others about energy consumption and conservation. Storrs Building: University of North Carolina Charlotte


SITE ANALYSIS

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,

University of North Carolina at Charlotte: Storrs Building Located in the north eastern part of Charlotte-Mecklenburg County, the college is located within the greater Piedmont region, which consists of rolling hills, a temperate climate, and both coniferous and deciduous trees.


SITE ANALYSIS

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Diagrammatic Site Models

In the early stages of design, diagrams were useful in determining building orientation, hierarchy of spaces, and circulation patterns. They also illustrated the site’s relationship to the existing building.


Temperature

Solar Insolation

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Balance Point Temperature Range

Psychrometric Chart

Analysis of Atmospheric Conditions Isothermal diagrams of temperature and solar insolation were used to provide an understanding of their effects on the existing building as well as the site in general. The balance point temperature for our proposed addition is 22 degrees Fahrenheit, which translates into a very limited requirement for the heating season.


SITE ANALYSIS

CoA Energy 10 Base Case This analysis is a comparison of resource consumption of a building that meets energy code (red) and an energy simulation of a building with maximum allowable glazing (yellow). This comparison was created to serve as benchmarks for further schematic design and parametric energy simulations.

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LIGHTING ANALYSIS

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LIGHTING ANALYSIS

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Stereographic Mapping

The Solometric SunEyeŠ was used to capture images and data from strategic locations on the site. The SunEye is a hand-held electronic device that allowed for the assessment of total potential solar energy while factoring in the shading of trees on the site. By using the solometric fisheye lens to identify the solar exposure early in the process, we were able to conceptualize the photovoltaic system design and improve the efficiency and performance of the building. The graph above represents the total average percentage of solar access across our site throughout the course of one year.


PRECEDENT

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Pittsburgh Glass Center 18

The Pittsburgh Glass Center is an addition to an existing building that clearly has its own identity, but maintains logical connections to the pre-existing structure through circulation. The Glass Center houses studios and workshops as well as gathering spaces and conference areas. The kilns and furnaces used in the shops emit thermal excess, which is collected and redirected to heat other portions of the building. Active spaces have minimal duct work , reducing the amount of energy that would be required to move air unnecessarily. This building is constructed mostly of unfinished materials, which reduces the impact caused by VOCs and toxic finishes.


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Daylighting The largely glass facade allows daylight to penetrate the building, while the glazing selection and exterior shading devices regulate the amount of direct sunlight, and therefore solar heat gain. The design distributes indirect light to the glass working studios located deeper within the building. The diagram above also illustrates how the ventilation system is used to regulate the space’s air flow and temperature.


PRECEDENTS

Kailua-Kona, Hawaii

Hawaii Gateway Energy Center by Ferraro Choi + Associates 20

Due to the orientation and fenestration of this laboratory and research facility, the need for electric lighting during the day is eliminated. The images at right show the space frame structure that supports the large photovoltaic array and gives the building a uniquely iconic character. The deeply angled facade acts as a shading device for the large windows. Thick CMU walls and concrete surfaces on the interior are used as thermal mass to regulate temperature swings within the building. The large tubular structural components are characteristic of the space-frame structure, and in this case, are utilized as channels that exhaust hot air from a thermal chimney. Our design intentions emulate the programmatically expressive ideal of an efficient research facility dedicated to energy performance .


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FIELD STUDY

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The Living Machine Š

North Guilford Middle School As part of our design study, several students organized a field study in order to investigate the process of water retention and filtration systems that make up The Living MachineŠ. The process of the Living Machine consists of an overflow effluent from the septic tank into equalization tanks. The tanks, which are located adjacent to the school, are completely submerged, leaving the green lid as shown to the right , as the only indication of their existence. The last tank shown has a carbon filter fan on top to neutralize unpleasant odor.


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Horizontal Wetlands To minimize evaporation, a fabric mat is laid under the system and can hold water from one foot to 18 inches beneath the surface. This forms an anaerobic system, which reduces surface ponding and allows only minimal evaporation, which is responsible for the loss of 1,000 gallons of water per day. The wide open design allows the wetlands to catch supplemental rainwater. For every one inch of rain harvested, the wetlands can offset 25,000 gallons of water per year. A system of gauges allows maintenance to visually monitor the subterranean water levels, while the pumps are monitored by an automated mechanism that communicates with technicians via the internet.


FIELD STUDY

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Carnegie Mellon University

Intelligent Workplace A primary influence on this project has been the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics (CBPD) at Carnegie Mellon University. A visit to the CBPD allowed students to explore new ventilation techniques and observe a variety of technologies utilized to make spaces more habitable and conducive to the educational objectives of the center. All of the building’s systems were designed in a manner that promotes efficiency and were constructed with highly sustainable materials.


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Intelligent Workplace

System Analysis The CBPD incorporates a tile system in which all of the building’s communication, electrical, and HVAC services are distributed underneath the floor. This technique optimized the use of office space by providing a greater ability to configure spaces without the need to re-route electrical outlets. The center was also researching the creation and utilization of biodiesel fuel.


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TO CREATE, ONE MUST FIRST QUESTION EVERYTHING. -Eileen Gray, Irish Furniture Designer and Architect


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SKETCH


CONCEPTUAL DISCUSSION

From the Ground Up

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An intimate relationship to the site was crucial in developing initial design concepts . Because this project was to be an addition to the very building that housed project development team and process; access to the site was readily available and crucial to the design process. Greater site access added depth to the design inquiry by enabling discussion and conceptualization to take place in the surrounding relative environment. Ideas could be born, and quickly and precisely validated on site through models, sketches, and analysis.


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Conceptual Modeling The on-site discussions encouraged the development of a number of schematic design models, which aided in illustrating massing and preliminary structural concepts. This type of physical modeling enabled the team to think conceptually in the third dimension.


Filter. Barrier. Switch.

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When forced to think critically about one’s own design, one is able to separate the needs of the building versus the wants of the designer.

Massing models and 3D diagrams were created often throughout the design process, which allowed students to have a greater understanding of the types of systems that needed to be addressed and implemented. Collectively, the team built a massing of the existing building on the proposed site. The massing was important and effective in producing the results for sun path analysis, while aiding in conceptual design development. The design team then split into subgroups where ideas were merged to form a more refined massing concept.


CONCEPTUAL MODELING

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DIAGRAMMING

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Charlotte, NC : Solar Angles The site is at 35.2 degrees north latitude. To determine the angles of direct sunlight exposure, 10 degrees are added to the latitude in the summer and subtracted in the winter. These diagrams aid in the placement of shading devices, fenestration, and photovoltaic panels.


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University of North Carolina at Charlotte: Storrs Building The School of Architecture is situated at the front edge of campus, locating the new CIBDR along the drive of the UNCC main entrance.The opportunity for the new structure to serve as an emblem of sustainability to the campus community was a conceptual imperative early on in the design process.


Axial Influence

Initial concepts were derived primarily from circulation patterns and program characteristics of the existing Storrs Building and site.

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Transitions: From existing to new It was important to understand all conceptual layers of Storrs in order to appropriately incorporate the connections between the existing building and the new CIBDR project.


CONCEPTUAL

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Digging into the site An early design concept was introduced to excavate the land and create subterranean spaces in order to maximize program while keeping our project at an appropriate scale.


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FOR MANY YEARS, I HAVE LIVED UNCOMFORTABLY WITH THE BELIEF THAT MOST PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN SUFFERS FOR LACK OF REAL AND BASIC PURPOSE. THE ULTIMATE PURPOSE, MUST BE THE IMPROVEMENT OF MANKIND. - James Rouse, American real estate developer


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DESIGN


European Academy Bolzano, Bolzano/IT

Gerhard Hagen, Bamberg/DE

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Careful consideration to vertical glazing type is the foundation of effectively utilizing daylighting within a space. The combination of reduced electric lighting and solar heat gain through daylighting will contribute to a minimizing the structure’s carbon footprint.

Lighting Creating spaces that maximize visual comfort, productivity, and energy efficiency.


INTERIORS

Lighting

Sustainable Commercial Interiors Visual perception is perhaps one of the most profound means in which we interpret our physical surroundings. Considering these implications, the studio design team felt a responsibility to create an environment that went above and beyond basic lighting standards while maintaining a balance between visual comfort and sustainability throughout the building design. The main goals of the project were to maximize the use of daylighting, differentiate between task lighting and ambient lighting, and maximize the use of controls systems. Some of the systems that have been considered include Zumtobel LaTrave™ indirect and direct luminaires, Motorized light redirection louvers, and Interior light-level sensors.

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Flexible Environment

Modular Office Furniture

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Inscape Corporation ™ designs and manufactures various innovative and integrated products for office spaces. These products include modular work stations, movable walls, filing and storage products, desks and ergonomic work tools. It was of considerable interest to the team to choose products for the building that were sustainable, long-lasting, and were made from materials which impact on the natural environment would be slight.


INTERIORS

Comfort

Sustainable Commercial Interiors A careful balance of comfort and efficiency went into the consideration of the center’s interior design . An example of carpet tiles selected for the CIBDR project would be similar to that of Greenfloors Carpet™, which are made entirely of recycled nylon and backing. The types of chairs that may be used could include Rohde & Grahl’s ™ ergonomic swivel and visitor chairs. These chairs have been proven to release the pressure of the back column up to 50% more than standard backrests. The objective is simply to generate fit and healthier users, enabling a more productive workplace.

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TECHNOLOGY

Solar Thermal Collector

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The parabolic solar collectors shown in the three dimensional modeling at right utilize solar radiation to heat water. They are proposed to line the southern edge of the studio bays, and are oriented to the optimum angle to collect radiation year-round at 35 degrees north latitude. In the indirect, closed-loop system, a liquid-filled tube running through the collector connects to a series of tanks along the studio bays. The liquid in the tube is heated as it flows through the collectors and then heats water in the tanks as needed. The tanks store potable water as well as greywater to be used for the absorption chiller and hydronic system.


Hydronic System The heating system shown at left, is an in-floor hydronic system. Heated water from the solar thermal collectors travels through a series of pipes within the floor. The release of heat through and rising from the floors creates an evenly heated space without the necessity for any type of forced air system.

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LIGHTING ANALYSIS

Charlotte, North Carolina

Radiance Analysis

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“Radiance is intended to aid lighting designers and architects by predicting the light levels and appearance of a space prior to construction. The package includes programs for modeling and translating scene geometry, luminaire data and material properties, all of which are needed as input into the simulation. The lighting simulation itself uses ray tracing techniques to compute radiance values, which are typically arranged to form a photographic quality image. The resulting image may be analyzed, displayed, and manipulated within the package, and converted to other popular image file formats for export to other packages, facilitating the production of hard copy output.� -Greg Ward Larson, coauthor of Rendering with Radiance.


LIGHTING ANALYSIS

These images, produced with Radiance, illustrate the presence of a tremendous amount of glare and poor distribution of light in the design. The left group of images represent the plans of the building in false color under a clear sky, while the group on the right represents an overcast sky. Top Floor Second Floor Bottom Floor

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ARTIFICIAL SKY

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Charlotte, North Carolina

Artificial Sky

The artificial sky simulates the typical overcast sky condition for Charlotte, NC. We modeled three typical bays in two different scenarios. One scenario was with 20 percent glazing and the other was with 100 percent glazing. We used these to learn the average illumination in each space and to determine a basis for optimizing these conditions in the final design.


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This analysis informs the need and appropriate placement for light shelves, exterior shading devices, and ceiling configurations to provide even light distribution of around 40 footcandles throughout the entire space.


ARTIFICIAL SKY

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Photo Sensors The graphs to the right represent data collected from grid arrays of calibrated photo sensors. The sensors were placed within a physical model representing one 32’ structural bay of the project’s eastern most phase. This information is a comparative analysis of varied conditions created from changes to the south fenestration and the roof condition above the central atrium. Figures 1-3 show the changes made to the PV integrated screen that shades the exterior from southern exposure. These changes also increase interior illuminance by reflecting northern light into the space. The screen controls the luminance into both floors through a 5’ ceiling aperture.


Figure 1

Figure 2

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Figure 3

Figure 4

Graphing Luminance Screens of various lengths were positioned with an arched shape to diffuse the available luminance. Figure 1 represents an overly bright condition up to 24’ from the window wall on the 2nd floor with negligible gain of first floor luminance. The same condition is illustrated in Figure 2 with a shorter 12’ linear product. While contrast of illuminance values is higher in this iteration, our analysis showed that the balance of luminance can be best controlled by modifiers within the fenestration. Figure 3 shows improvement in the luminance balance across a full 36’ from the window wall on both floors in addition to a marked increase on the first floor space. A 3’ exterior sun shade is attached 4’ from the top of the southern glazing and between the vertical “fins” of each structural bay. Figure 4 shows that the 3’ shading device improves the balance of illuminance and pushes light further into the floor space.


ARTIFICIAL SKY

More on Luminance

Fenestration Testing

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The first iteration of our “informed case” opens the roof by increasing the angle from the intersection of the south facade to the point of intersection with the northern most interior atrium wall. Later, the roof plane was raised 9’ which opened the ceiling condition to an 8’x12’ opening to the north, measuring an overall increase of at least 30 foot candles from our base case luminance studies. In the second iteration, the roof plane was cut at the intersections of both interior atrium walls and raised 5’ while maintaining the same angle. This iteration (the graph on the lower right) proves the benefit of bilateral light across the ceiling condition and below to creating balanced illuminance. This iteration reduces the clipping effect of the higher floor plane and effectively raises the luminance levels beneath an additional 5-15 footcandles up to 10’ beyond the atrium wall without over illuminating the second floor space.


Foot candles

Feet from Window Wall

Final Analysis

With the highest performing scenarios identified from the iterations discussed, the data from each was then combined to form a conventional additive analysis which was consolidated into a spreadsheet format. The results were then transformed into line graphs for a graphic representation. The red lines represent the levels of illuminance received by the overcast sky condition created in the artificial sky and recorded from within the physical bay model. The blue lines represent the minimum and maximum levels of light as prescribed by the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES). In this manner, the footcandle measurements can be easily related and the underlay of the building section conveys the level of light as it is experienced across the space. This analysis was conducted with simplistic conditions other than the predetermined structural “fins” which were maintained for their control of southern exposure and solar heat gain. Based on the findings described, it was determined that the roof aperture should include 5’ shading devices. Also, the addition of 3’ light shelves on the second floor north fenestration as well as transparent openings to the garage doors below was suggested to utilize the northern light most efficiently and to address the inferior levels of light at the lower north floor plate. In addition, a graded ceiling condition was suggested to further improve diffusion of the available luminance toward the center of the space.

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LIGHTING ANALYSIS

Mapping Sun Patterns

A heliodon simulates the appropriate solar motion per specific latitude. It depicts the hourly, seasonal, and yearly input of the sun upon both external elements and internal space. 52

“By allowing adjustment for solar declination (season), the earth’s rotation (time of day), and site location (latitude) a heliodon can simulate sunlight penetration and shading for any combination of site location and time. The result is a useful representation of solar patterns for clear sky conditions. Other techniques are often used in concert with heliodon simulations to account for variations in the strength of the sun (due to weather, angle of incidence, and atmospheric attenuation) and local horizon shading. Heliodons provide an effective tool for the visualization and calculation of solar effects at the window, building, or site scale.” Berkeley

-Building Science Department, U.C.


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Sunrise 7:11 a.m.

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E Q U I N O X

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Sunset 7:22 p.m.

Heliodon Analysis A digital camera, mounted to view the physical model in plan, records the movement of simulated sunlight and corresponding shadows throughout the course of a day. Still images (above and upper right) were extracted from the video sequence to illustrate direct exposure during key moments in the day, beginning with sunrise and ending with sunset. This analysis provides information relevant to passive strategies and energy use by documenting the duration that particular surfaces will be exposed to direct sunlight. It also illustrates the effect of the surrounding objects’ shadows on surfaces, and at what time of day and year these instances occur, which provides necessary information regarding potential solar heat gain and glare. The solstice is the longest day of the year, and the winter solstice is the shortest . Because the days are longer in the summer months, and the sun’s altitude is much lower during winter months, the heliodon simulation is quickly reveals problematic scenarios regionally, as well as seasonally, that may require re-design.

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LIGHTING ANALYSIS

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Sunrise 6:10 a.m.

SUMMER

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Sunrise 7:11 a.m.

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EQUINOX

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Sunrise 7:28 a.m.

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WINTER


FINAL MODEL

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Sunset 8:41 p.m.

SOLSTICE

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Sunset 7:22 p.m.

EQUINOX

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SOLSTICE

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Sunset 5:16 p.m.

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NATURE IS A SELF-MADE MACHINE, MORE PERFECTLY AUTOMATED THAN ANY AUTOMATED MACHINE. TO CREATE SOMETHING IN THE IMAGE OF NATURE IS TO CREATE A MACHINE, AND IT WAS BY LEARNING THE INNER WORKING OF NATURE THAT MAN BECAME A BUILDER OF MACHINES. -Eric Hoffer, American Writer


BUILD

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University of North Carolina Charlotte

Center for Integrated Building Design Research


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The Final Design


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Plan : Lower Level Program : Auditorium


AUDITORIUM

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Plan : Ground Level Program : Circulation Tower, Atrium, Greenhouse, Administrative Functions, Shop Space


SHOP SPACE

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Plan : Lower Level Program : Studio Bays


STUDIO BAY

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Plan : Second Level Program : Administrative Functions, Research Facility


RESEARCH FACILITY

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Plan : Mezzanine Program : Green Roof Terrace, Outdoor Classroom


GREEN ROOF TERRACE

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ELECTRIC LIGHTING

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LED lights were installed into the final model to simulate the building’s aesthetic at night. While the research center uses minimal electric lighting during the day, it would necessitate efficient lighting after the sun drops below the horizon. At night, the center would facilitate research to optimize electric lighting efficiency.


The Tower In addition to housing the building’s vertical circulation, the tower serves as a ventilation shaft and houses the water tank for storing reclaimed greywater to be used in the hydronic heating and cooling systems.

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STUDIO BAY

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Studio Structure Various renderings aided in conveying the spatial experience of the building. Castellated beams and web joists were not only the primary means of defining space, but were also composed of recycled steel in order to contribute to the overall sustainabilty of the project.

Overcast Sky Condition


Clear Sky Condition

Interior Perspectives Renderings were also composed with the intention of conducting and communicating expeditious luminance assessments of various spaces throughout the project. Strategically angled ceiling panels serve to aid in the increased penetration and optimum distribution of daylight into the subterranean studio bays, which would ultimately decrease the need for electric lighting.

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Physical Model of Center for Integrated Building Design Research At 1/8”= 1’-0” scale, the basswood, chipboard, plastic, and plexiglass model represents the full scope of the design. The model adequately displays the positioning of the building on the site, while the intricate details indicate the overall complexity and extent of the in-depth research at its full fruition.


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North Facade Light shelves aid in the well balanced distribution of daylight throughout the interior space of the north facade.


TECHNOLOGY

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Visibility Allowing for exposed systems and integrating them within the design aesthetic provides an opportunity to promote environmental awareness to the occupant as well as enriching the built environment.


3D Modeling Software

Integrated Technology The images at left and above illustrate the use and integration of multiple appropriate technologies on the roof and side structural system. The design includes solar thermal, photovoltaics, light shelves, external shading devices and a green roof. 3D modeling software allows one to appropriately analyze the structural systems, spatial arrangements, and daylighting exposures.

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University of North Carolina Charlotte College of Architecture


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Center for Integrated Building Design Research


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Modeling

Detailing the final model From beginning to end, the CIBDR underwent many changes as knowledge of varying technologies expanded. The final model became the manifestation of our project goals and architectural ideals. As the team constructed it, the model’s intricate details began revealing the deliberation that had gone into this informed collaborative. The final results pint to the potential for an environmentally conscious, highly efficient research center whose purpose is to inform the future generation of architects about the value of integrated design research and the promise of net zero energy practice. 81


UNCC College of Architecture

Center for Integrated Building Design Research

As students, we understand that one can never walk away with a complete project, for there are always changes that can be made to the final design. 82


Acknowledgements

Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Workplace

www.arc.cmu.edu/cbpd/iw

North Guilford Middle School + the Living Machine www.livingmachines.com

Hawaii Gateway Energy Center www.nelha.org/about/gateway.html

Pittsburg Glass Center

www.pittsburghglasscenter.org

Greenfloors: Carpets and Flooring www.greenfloors.com

Rohde+Grahl Furniture Design www.rohde-grahl.nl/home/

Zumtobel LaTrave Lighting

www.matteothun.com/content/latrave-zumtobel.htm

Inscape Corporation

www.inscapesolutions.com


CENTER DI DESI AESERFOR NGISEIN DTEGRATED GNIDLIUBDEBUI TARLG EN TNGIR OF G collaborativeresearch IC NGISED RDBIC GNIDLIUB RDBIC RETNEC R

T echnol o gy GRATED BUILDING DESIGN RESEARCH GISEDGNIDLIUBDETARGETNIROFRET


SIGETNNRE REECBIC

C


Center for Integrated Building Design Research  

A collaborative project by 4th year and graduate students of the UNC Charlotte School of Architecture. The document is a record of the desig...

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